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1)What functional duties do engineers have to do?
2)What requirements should an engineer meet?
WHAT IS ENGINEERING?
In gener al, engineering is a science that deals with design, construction and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices. An engineer is a person who has higher technical education. An engineer should have a profound knowledge in his branch and a basic knowledge in some other fields as engineering problems are complex and interrelated. The word engineering has a lot of meanings and can be translated into Russian in many ways.
8.6 Match the English and Russian words and word combinations
1.machinery of all typesa)изготавливать продукцию, изделия2.is divided intob)конструирование механизмов3.field nc)станки4.machine-toolsd)отрасль, сфера (исследования, применения)5.machine designe)все типы механизмов6.to make productsf)подразделяется на
8.7 Read the text and answer the questions below
1)What do mechanical engineers do?
2)In what spheres should mechanical engineers have profound knowledge?
Engineers in this field design, build, test and operate machinery of all types. The field is divided into:
1.machine-tools, mechanisms, materials, hydraulics and pneumatics;
2.work and energy, heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
A mechanical engin eer must be trained in mechanics and hydraulics, metallurgy and machine design. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves.
supervise v—руководить, наблюдатьconstruction of ships—строительство судовmeet requirements—отвечать требованиямstability n—Остойчивостьstrength n—прочностьfloatability n—плавучестьreliability n—надежностьdetermine v—определятьshape n—форма, обводы суднаhull structure —конструкция корпусаa ship hull—корпус суднаwelding n—Сваркаintended for them—предназначенную для нихprincipal dimensions—главные измерения
8.8 Study the words and word combinations on the text in 8.9
8.9 Read and translate the text. Answer the questions
1)What do engineers design and supervise?
2)What requirements should newly built ships meet?
3)Why should naval architects have profound knowledge of higher mathematics?
Naval architects are engineers who design and supervise the construct ion of ships and ship repair. Ships must be designed to meet certain requirements such as stability, strength, floatability, reliability and many others in order to perform the type of work intended for them. Naval architects determine the shape and princ i pal dimensions of the ship. They also carry out research work and develop calculating methods of strength and optimal parameters of the ship structure, noise reduction of the ship hull and machinery. Naval architects must be familiar with the variety of t echniques in modern shipbuilding. They develop basic technologies; supervise welding operations and installation of equipment.
8.10 Match the English and Russian words and word combinations
1)supervisea) проводить исследовательскую работу2)to meet requirementsb) основные технологии3)to carry out research workc) отвечать требованиям4)calculating methodsd) наблюдать, контролировать5)optimal parameterse) методы вычислений 6)noise reductionf) уменьшение шума7)Variety of techniquesg) сварочные работы8)basic technologiesh) оптимальные величины9)welding operationsi) установка оборудования10)installation of equipmentj) разнообразие, множество методов, приемов8.11 Study the words and word combinations on the text
ship power plant—судовая силовая установкаsteam turbine—паровая турбинаgas turbine—газовая турбинаdiesel engine—дизельный двигательnuclear power plant—ядерная энергетическая установкаship internal combustion engine—судовой двигатель внутреннего сгоранияsteam generator—парогенераторmounting n—монтаж, сборка, установкаcontrol n—управление, контрольInvestigate v—изучать, исследоватьas well as conj—также, какfuel consumption—расход топлива8.12 Read and translate the text. Write a 3-4 sentence abstract.
Marine engineering is a special branch of mechanica l engineering. Engineers in this field work at designing, mounting and control of ship power plants of all types (steam and gas turbines, diesel engines, nuclear and electrical power plants). They also design and investigate different types of ship engine s and machinery such as ship internal combustion engines, steam generators etc., as well as technological processes of their building, mounting and operation.
Marine engineers work at designing and producing systems of power plant automatics and information measuring complexes. Marine automation is the automatic control of shipboard systems and processes. Automatic control of a ship power plant and engine room equipment has great advantages. It increases safety of a ship power plant, reduces fuel consumptio n and personnel, and achieves high efficiency of the plant operation.
8.13 Match the English and Russian words and word combinations
1.special brancha) информационно-измерительные комплексы2.mounting and controlb) оборудование машинного отделения3.to investigatec) работа судовой силовой установки4.ship engines and machineryd) специальное направление5.information measuring complexese) судовые двигатели и оборудование6.shipboard systemsf) высокая производительность7.engine room equipmentg) установка и управление (контроль)8.great advantagesh) безопасность9.safetyi) изучать, исследовать10.high efficiencyj) бортовые системы11.plant operationk) большие преимущества
8.14 Pay attention to phrasal verbs, guess their meaning from the context of the sentence.
1. We’ll buy a smaller house when the children have grown up and left home. 2. Who’s going to look after the cats when we go away on holiday? 3. The computer isn’t working – it broke down this morning. 4. It was really difficult to wake up this morning after my late night last night. 5. I found out where he lived by checking in the local library. 6. It was no problem: we looked up his number in the telephone book. 7. Everyone had to stand up when the judge arrived.8. My headaches have been much better since I gave up drinking coffee. 9. What’s going on here? What are you doing? 10. He promised to play in the match, but he didn’t come. He left down the whole team. 11. What time does the plane take off?
Read the text and make up your own one about your future profession.
I study at the faculty of Designing Marine Devices. My future profession will be Automation and Control Systems. I am interested in my future profession and I hope I will be a good specialist.
Computer industry is developing fast and comprises almost all spheres of professional life. Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Computer engineers deal with all aspects of electronic commun ication. In designing communication systems, engineers rely on various branches of advanced mathematics. They work on control systems which are used extensively in automated manufacturing and robotics.
One of the main tasks is the creation of artificial in telligence through development of higher level machine languages. The other task is microminiaturization. Engineers continue to work to fit greater and greater number of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. Another trend is increasing the spee d of computer operations through the use of parallel processors and superconducting materials.
Computer engineers have a lot of employment opportunities as each new generation of computers opens up new possibilities for basic and applied research