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History of Kazakhstan I year students
Lecture 24 All departments
Instructor: 2007-2008 academic year
Taichikova K.T. Fall trimester
Development of economics in 50-60-s
The objective of the lecture: To show the aims of the September (1953) and March (1954) Plenums of the CC CPSU about the development of agriculture. The consequences of the development of virgin lands. Failure of the reforms of 1965.
Outline of the lecture:
1.Development of virgin and unused lands in Kazakhstan.
2.Development of economics in 60-70-s.
3.Reforms of 1965 in Kazakhstan.
Development of virgin and unused lands in 50-s. By September 1953, at the time of the Central Committee plenum, Khrushchev had clearly made some fairly concrete decisions about the course of begin. The Central Committee published a r esolution that called for strengthening of agriculture through the development of parts of southeast, Kazakhstan, and western Siberia as major sources of winter wheat. The plenum also demanded the improvement of livestock breeding.
For stimulation of the development of agrarian sector the debts of kolkhozes were liquidated, the taxes were decreased. Prices for meat, milk, wool, potatoes, vegetables were increased.
But First Secretary Shaiakhmetov pointed out that any gains from the introduction of cereal cultivation in Northern Kazakhstan would come at the cost of livestock breeding.
Khrushchev found Shaiakhmetov’s attitude unacceptable. It was thus no surprise when the plenary session convened on February 11,1954, in Alma-Ata, that the first and second secretaries of the Communist Party, Shaiakhmetov and I.I.Afanov, were both dismissed from their posts. The next Central Committee plenary session, in February 1954, named P.K.Ponomorenko and L.I.Brezhnev to succeed them. The local Kazakh leader ship also came under attack, and within the next three months the first secretaries of the six Virgin Land oblasts were all replaced.
On March 28, 1954, in the decree On Increasing Grain Production in 1954-1955 through the Development of Virgin and Idle Lands. This called for the cultivation of 13 million hectares of virgin and idle lands in Kazakhstan, the Ural, the Volga region, and some areas of North Caucasus.
In August 1954 13.4 mln hectares were sowed in the USSR and 6.5 in Kazakhstan. In 1956 28-30 mln hectares of land planned for cultivation.
During the first year of the drive, 300 new state farms were organized in Kazakhstan to plant cereal crops on 3.5 million hectares of former grazing land.
Thousands specialists were sent to Kazakhstan. In 1954 more than 20 th. people came to Akmolinsk oblast. Industrial enterprises sent 1386 specialists for development of virgin lands. During 1953-1958 266.6 th.specialists were sent to agriculture. They had the great privileges. The head of family received the benefit 500-1000 rubles and 150-200 rubles each member of family. 10 th. rubles credit was given for building the house for 10 years. 1500-2000 rubles for buying cattle, food loan, which consist of 150 kg of grain or meal and were rele ased from taxes for 2-5 years. 20 billion rubles were invested for development of virgin lands.
The negative consequences of the development of virgin lands:
1.During two years 1954-1956 650 th. people came to Northern Kazakhstan, while needed 130 th.
2.Ecological balance was violated.
3.Soil subjected to destruction.
4.Pastures were reduced.
5.Thousand hectares were used for building settlements, ways and so on as a result stock-breeding was destroyed and shortage of meat and milk took place.
6.The migration of people from other republics promoted to lowering of the role of national customs and traditions, reducing of national schools, publishing of national literature and press. Language and demographic problems sharpened in Northern Kazakh stan.
Problems of economic development in the 60-s. Economic reforms of 1965. In the 60-s the central government realized that economy needed renewal and in 1965 reform was in all branches of economy and in management.
Management. Before 1965 a territ orial principle of ruling over economy was used through special bodies sovnarkhozes. In 1965 ministries were formed to manage metallurgy, non-ferrous metals, transport, etc. New methods of planning. Plans were given by the central ministries, but the ent erprises
worked on self-support basic and material stimulus for high productivity.
Science-technical revolution. Special plans for new technology stimulated the using of new invention. Production of titanium, magnesium, electromechanical, mechanical en gineering were based on the achievement of scientific-technical revolution. Oil and chemical industry had allunion significance. In 1965 the first oil was produced in Uzen.
Results of the reforms. By 1970 Kazakhstan took the leading position in the USS R for production of lead, copper, titanium intensified economy ties with the other republics Such levers as income, price, bonus and credit began to work. New light and food industries were built: Almaty and Shymkent cotton factories. Semipalatinsk, Zhez kazgan, Aktjubinsk stockinet factories. During 5-years 14 fabrics were built.
In 60-s new towns appeared in Kazakhstan: Rydnyi in Kustanai region, Shevchenko in Mangistau and others. The were similar and didn’t reflect geographical and historical featu res of region. Ecological cleanness, remake and liquidation of wastes, social problems didn’t solve.
Agricultural was also reformed: purchasing prices for agrarian were increade 2 times, 18 sokhozes worked on self-supporting basic.
In the 60-s the struggle in the Soviet society was between two political trends: the reformers demanded democratic changes , the conservative wanted to preserve the old system. The population to improve their life, but the government ignored the social needs – it led to some social conflicts (Temirtau, 1959) which was suppressed.
Wheat пшеница Animal-husbandry животноводческое хозяйствоSow сеятьFertilization удобрениеBenefitпособиеMeal мукаStock-breeding животноводствоIdleзалежныйFertile плодородный, изобилующийLevers рычагWastes отходы
2.Tasks for IWS: Write a report: Political development of Kazakhstan in 50-60-s.
3.Task for IWS under a teacher’s control: Write a short report: Consequences of development of virgin lands in Kazakhstan.
4.Home tasks: Write a short essay: Temirtau events (1959).
5.List of the reference on the theme
1.Асфендияров С.Д. История Казахстана (с древних времен): Уч.Пособие / Под ред. А.С.Такенова. – Алма-Ата, 1993. – 2-е изд.
2.История Казахстана с древнейших времен до наших дней. Очерк. – Алматы: Дэуир, 1993.
3.История Казахстана: Пособие для студентов. – Алматы: Казинтерграф, 1998.
4.Кан Г.В. История Казахстана: Учеб. Пособие. – Алматы: ВШП Эдилет, 2000.
Оразбаева А.И. Курс лекций по истории Казахстана для студентов неисторических факультетов. Часть 1. Древняя и средневековая история Казахстана. – Алматы: Казак университетi, 2001