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    The adjective,numeral


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8. The adjective. In grammar, an adjective is a 'describing' word; the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.Adjectives are one of the traditional eight English parts of speech, though linguists today distinguish adjectives from words such as determiners that were formerly considered to be adjectives. In this pa ragraph, "traditional" is an adjective, and in the preceding paragraph, "main" and "more" are. Most but not all languages have adjectives. Those that do not typically use words of another part of speech, often verbs, to serve the same semantic function; fo r example, such a language might have a verb that means "to be big", and would use as attributive verb construction analogous to "big-being house" to express what English expresses as "big house". Even in languages that do have adjectives, one language's a djective might not be another's; for example, whereas English uses "to be hungry" (hungry being an adjective), Dutch and French use "honger hebben" and "avoir faim," respectively (literally "to have hunger", hunger being a noun), and whereas Hebrew uses th e adjective "жчеч" (zaqыq, roughly "in need of"), English uses the verb "to need".Adjectives form an open class of words in most languages that have them; that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation. A given occurrence of an adjective can generally be classified into one of four kinds of uses:Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify; for example, happy is an attributive adjective in "happy people". In some languag es, attributive adjectives precede their nouns; in others, they follow their nouns; and in yet others, it depends on the adjective, or on the exact relationship of the adjective to the noun. In English, attributive adjectives usually precede their nouns in simple phrases, but often follow their nouns when the adjective is modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb. For example: "I saw three happy kids", and "I saw three kids happy enough to jump up and down with glee." See also Postpositive adjec tive.Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula or other linking mechanism to the noun or pronoun they modify; for example, happy is a predicate adjective in "they are happy" and in "that made me happy." (See also: Predicative expression, Subject compl ement.) Absolute adjectives do not belong to a larger construction (aside from a larger adjective phrase), and typically modify either the subject of a sentence or whatever noun or pronoun they are closest to; for example, happy is an absolute adjective in "The boy, happy with his lollipop, did not look where he was going."

Nominal adjectives act almost as nouns. One way this can happen is if a noun is elided and an attributive adjective is left behind. In the sentence, "I read two books to them; he preferred the sad book, but she preferred the happy", happy is a nominal adjective, short for "happy one" or "happy book". Another way this can happen is in phrases like "out with the old, in with the new", where "the old" means, "that which is old" or "all that is old", and similarly with "the new". In such cases, the adjective functions either as a mass noun (as in the preceding example) or as a plural count noun, as in "The meek shall inherit the Earth", where "the meek" means "those who are meek" or "all who a re meek".Adjectival phrases. Main article: Adjectival phrase

An adjective acts as the head of an adjectival phrase. In the simplest case, an adjectival phrase consists solely of the adjective; more complex adjectival phrases may contain one or more adverbs modifying the adjective ("very strong"), or one or more complements (such as "worth several dollars", "full of toys", or "eager to please"). In English, attributive adjectival phrases that include complements typically follow their subject ("an evildoer d evoid of redeeming qualities").Adjective order

In many languages, attributive adjectives usually occur in a specific order. In general, the adjective order in English is:

quantity or number quality or opinion size age shape color proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material) purpose or qualifier.

9.The numeral is a part of speech which indicates number of or the order of persons and things in a series.Accordingly numerals are divided into cardinals (cardinal numerals) and ordinals (ordinal numerals). Cardinal numerals.

Cardinal numerals indicate exact number, they are used in counting. As to their structure, the cardinal numerals from I to 12 and 100, 1000, 1,000,000 are simple words (one, two, three, etc., hundred, thousand, million); those from 13 to 19 are derivatives with the suffix -teen (thirteen, fourteen, etc.); the cardinal numerals indicating tens are formed by means of the suffix -ty (twenty, thirty, etc.). The numerals from 21 to 29, from 31 to 39, etc. are composite: twenty-two, thirty-five, etc. Such cardinal numerals as hundred, thousand, million may be used with articles (a hundred, a thousand, a million)-, they may be substantivized and used in the plural (hundreds, thousands, millions). When used after other numerals they do not take -s {{two hundred times, thirty thousand years, etc.). The word million may be used with or without -s (two million, two millions).

When the word million is followed by some other cardinal numeral only the first variant is possible: two million five hundred inhabitants. The functions of cardinal numerals in a sentence.

Cardinal numerals are used in the function of subject, predicative, object, adverbial modifier and attribute (apposition).

..the young man opposite had long since disappeared. Now the

other two got out. (Mansfield) (subject)

Earle Fox was only fifty-four, but he felt timeless and ancient. (Wilson) (predicative)

And again she saw them, but not fonr, more like forty laughing, sneering, jeering ... (Mansfield) (Object)

At eight the gong sounded for supper. (Mansfield) (adverbial MODIFIER)

Four men in their shirt-sleeves stood grouped together on the garden path. (Mansfield) (attribute)

And he remembered the holidays they used to have the four of them, with a little girl. Rose, to look after the babies. (Mansfield) (APPOSITION). Cardinals are sometimes used to denote the place of an object in a series. Cardinals are used in reading indications: line 23, page 275, Chapter X, No. 49, etc.

... but from the corner of the street until she came to No. 26 she thought of those four flights of stairs. (Mansfield)

Class nouns modified by a numeral in post-position are used without articles.

All he wanted was to be made to care again, but each night he took up his briefcase and walked home to dinner at II 7th Street and Riverside Drive, apartment 12D. (Wilson) Ordinal numerals.

Ordinal numerals show the order of persons and things in a series.

With the exception of the first three (first, second, third) the ordinal numerals are formed from cardinal numerals by means of the suffix -th.

In ordinal groups only the last member of the group takes the ordinal form: (the) sixty-fifth, (the) twenty-third. Ordinal numerals are generally used with the definite article: (the first, the fifth, the tenth, etc.). Ordinal numerals may be used with the indefinite article when they do not show a definite order of persons and things in a series:

I’ve torn simply miles and miles of the frill/ wailed a third. (Mansfield)

§ 5. The functions of ordinal numerals in a sentence.

As a rule ordinal numerals are used as attributes.

"No, this is my first dance, she said. (Mansfield)

Almost immediately the band started and her second partner seemed to spring from the ceiling. (Mansfield)

But they may also be used as subject, as predicative and as object.

Then, advancing obliquely towards us, came a fifth. (Wells) * (SUBJECT)i

Sooner or later, someone is going to tell you about that damned t river, so I might as well be the first. (Wilson) (predicative);..she noted a scar on his cheek, another that peeped out from under the hair of the forehead, and a third that ran down and disappeared under the starched collar. (London) (object)

In fractional numbers the numerator is a cardinal and the denominator is a substantivized ordinal: two-thirds, three-sixths.

So, in English, adjectives pertaining to size precede adjectives pertaining to age ("little old", not "old little"), which in turn generally precede adjectives pertaining to color ("old white", not "white old"). So, we would say "A nice (opinion) little (size) old (age) white (color) brick (material) house."

This order may be more rigid in some languages than others; in some, like Spanish, it may only be a default (unmarked) word order, with other orders being permissible.

Due partially to borrowings from French, English has some adjectives that follow the noun aspostmodifiers, calledpostpositive adjectives, such astime immemorial. Adjectives may even change meaning depending on whether they precede or follow, as inproper:They live in a proper town(a real town, not a village) vs.They live in the town proper(in the town itself, not in the suburbs). All adjectives can follow nouns in certain constructions, such astell me something new. Comparison of adjectives

Main articles:Comparison (grammar)andComparative

In many languages, adjectives can becompared. In English, for example, we can say that a car isbig, that it isbiggerthan another is, or that it is thebiggestcar of all. Not all adjectives lend themselves to comparison, however; for example, the English adjectiveextinctis not considered comparable, in that it does not make sense to describe one species as "more extinct" than another. However, even most non-comparable English adjectives are stillsometimescompared; for example, one might say that a language about which nothing is known is "more extinct" than a well-documented language with surviving literature but no speakers. This is not a comparison of the degree of intensity of the adjective, but rather the degree to which the object fits the adjective's definition.

Comparable adjectives are also known as "gradable" adjectives, because they tend to allow grading adverbs such asvery,rather, and so on.

Among languages that allow adjectives to be compared in this way, different approaches are used. Indeed, even within English, two different approaches are used: the suffixes-erand-est, and the wordsmoreandmost. (In English, the general tendency is for shorter adjectives and adjectives fromAnglo-Saxonto use-erand-est, and for longer adjectives and adjectives fromFrench,Latin,Greek, and other languages to usemoreandmost.) By either approach, English adjectives therefore havepositiveforms (big),comparativeforms (bigger), andsuperlativeforms (biggest). However, many other languages do not distinguish comparative from superlative forms.