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Krok 1 Stomatology

4.0 Нормальна фізіологія

1

In process of the secretory cycle secretion granules come and go in the apical part of

cytoplasm of pancreas cells. These granules relate to the following structure elements:

A*Inclusions

BMicrofilaments

CLysosomes

DExocytic vacuoles

EGranular endoplasmic reticulum

2

A woman has hyperemic ovary, increased permeability of hematofollicular barrier with the

following development of edema, infiltration of follicle wall by segmentonuclear leukocytes. The

follicle volume is large, its wall is thinned. What period of sexual cycle do these presentations

correspond with?

A*Preovulatory stage

BOvulation

CMenstrual period

DPostmenstrual period

EPeriod of relative rest

3

While a 24 year old woman was waiting for tooth extraction, tonus of sympathetic part of

autonomic nervous system rose. What reaction will the patient display?

A*Increased frequency of heartbeat

BHyperperistalsis

CHypersecretion of digestive juices

DBronchus constriction

EMiotic pupils

4

A man has been holding his breath for 60 seconds. After that the respiratory minute volume has

increased up to 12 L. What blood change is the main reason for the increase of respiratory

minute volume?

A*Increase of p СО2

BDecrease of p О2

CIncrease of p О2

DDecrease of p СО2

EIncrease of pH

5

An experimentator wants a dog to develop conditioned salivary reflex. What conditioned

stimulus will be appropriate to use?

A*Moderately loud sound

BZwieback

CMeat

DElectric current

EVery loud sound

6

A man has trauma of greater pectoral muscle. What index' decrease will it cause?

A*Inspiratory reserve volume

BExpiratory reserve volume

CRespiratory volume

DResidual volume

EFunctional residual lung capacity

7

A patient with diminished excretory function of kidneys has bad breath. What substance which is

excessively excreted by salivary glands is the main cause of this occurence?

A*Urea

BAlpha-amylase

CLysozyme

DPhosphatase

EMucin

8

A patient with kidney disease has high blood pressure, espesially the diastolic one.

Hypersecretion of what biologically active substance causes blood pressure rise?

A*Renin

BAdrenaline

CNoradrenaline

DVasopressin

ECatecholamines

9

A lightly dressed man is standing in a room; air temperature is +14oC. Windows and doors are

closed. In what way does he loose heat most of all?

A*Heat radiation

BHeat conduction

CConvection

DEvaporation

EPerspiration

10

ECG of a patient shows that T-waves in the second standard extremity lead are positive, their

amplitude and duration are normal. It would be true that the following pocess is taking its normal

course in the cardiac ventricles:

A*Repolarization

BDepolarization

CExcitement

DContraction

ERelaxation

11

A month after surgical constriction of rabbit's renal artery the considerable increase of

systematic arterial pressure was observed. What of the following regulation mechanisms

caused the animal's pressure change?

A*Angiotensin-II

BVasopressin

CAdrenaline

DNoradrenaline

ESerotonin

12

In course of an experiment chorda tympani of an animal was being stimulated by electric

current, as a result the parotid duct excreted:

A*A lot of fluid saliva

BA small quantity of fluid saliva

CSaliva wasn't excreted

DA small quantity of viscous saliva

EA lot of viscous saliva

13

In the experiment, an animal had its brain stem cut, which caused a rapid increase of extensor

muscle tone (decerebrate rigidity). This condition arose because the muscles were no more

under the control of the following brain structure:

A*Red nucleus

BBlue spot

CBlack substance

DStriatum

EGray tuber

14

A student has dry mouth during exam passing. It is caused by realization of the following reflexes:

A*Sympathetic conditioned

BSympathetic conditioned and unconditioned

CParasympathetic conditioned

DParasympathetic unconditioned

ESympathetic and parasympathetic unconditioned

15

A student has dry mouth during an exam. This is caused by realization of the following reflexes:

A*Conditioned sympathetic

BConditioned and unconditioned sympathetic

CConditioned parasympathetic

DUnconditioned parasympathetic

EUnconditioned sympathetic and parasympathetic

16

ECG of a patient showed that RR interval equaled 1,5 s, heart rate equaled 40 bpm. What is the

cardiac pacemaker?

A*Atrioventricular node

BSinus node

CHis' bundle

DLeft branch of His' bundle

ERight branch of His' bundle

17

A man permanently lives high in the mountains. What changes of blood characteristics can be

found in his organism?

A*Increase of erythrocytes number

BDecrease of hemoglobin content

CErythroblasts in blood

DDecrease of reticulocytes number

EDecrease of colour index of blood

18

A sportsman was examined after an intensive physical activity. The examination revealed

disorder of movement coordination but the force of muscle contractions remained the same. It

can be explained by retarded speed of excitement conduction through:

A*Central synapses

BNeuromuscular synapses

CEfferent nerves

DAfferent nerves

EConduction tracts

19

A patient has a transverse laceration of spinal cord below the VІ thoracal segment. How will it

change the character of breathing?

A*It won't change esentially

BIt will stop

CIt will become more rare

DIt will become more deep

EIt will become more frequent

20

Cerebral hemorrhage caused serious disturbance of taste sensibility. What brain structure is

most likely to be damged?

A*Postcentral gyrus

BHippocampus

CHypothalamus

DSubstantia nigra

EAmygdaloid body

21

A man consumes dry food. What salivary glands secret most of all?

A*Parotides

BBuccal

CSubmandibular

DSublingual

EPalatine

22

During the preparation of a patient for a heart operation the doctors measured blood pressure

in heart chambers. In one of them the pressure was changing from 0 to 120 mm during one

cardiac cycle. Name the heart chamber:

A*Left ventricle

BRight ventricle

CRight atrium

DLeft atrium

E-

23

A man lost consciousness in a car with running engine where he had been waiting for a friend

for a long time. What hemoglobin compaund can be found in the blood of the patient?

A*Carboxyhemoglobin

BDeoxyhemoglobin

CCarbhemoglobin

DMethemoglobin

EOxyhemoglobin

24

After a hemorrhage into the brainstem a patient has lost reflex of myosis as a reaction to

increase of illumination. What structure was damaged?

A*Vegetative nuclei of oculomotor nerve

BLateral reticular nuclei

CMedial reticular nuclei

DRed nuclei

EBlack substance

25

It is required to set an experiment on an isolated excitable cell and to achieve increase of

membrane rest potential (hyperpolarization). What ion channels should be activated to achieve

such a result?

A*Potassium

BSodium

CPotassium and sodium

DCalcium

ESodium and calcium

26

During phonocardiogram registration it was ascertained that the duration of the first heart sound

twice exceeds the norm. It is most likely that patient has the following organ affected:

A*Atrioventricular valves

BSemilunar valves

CCardiomyocytes of heart atriums

DCardiomyocytes of ventricles

ECardiomyocytes of atriums

27

Glucose concentration in a patient's blood is 15 millimole/l (reabsorption threshold is 10millimole/l). What effect can be expected?

A*Glucosuria

BDiuresis reduction

CReduced glucose reabsorption

DReduced vasopressin secretion

EReduced aldosterone secretion

28

In course of an experiment a nerve is being stimulated by electric impulses. As a result of it

sublingual and submaxillary glands discharge some dense viscous saliva. What nerve is being

stimulated?

A*N. sympathicus

BN. glossopharyngeus

CN. facialis

DN. trigeminus

EN. vagus

29

Human body cools in water much more faster than in the air. Due to what way of heat emission

does it happen?

A*Thermal conduction

BConvection

CHeat radiation

DSweat evaporation

E-

30

Tissue is being stimulated by electric cathodic impulse with amplitude of 70% of threshold. What

changes of membrane potential will be observed?

A*Partial depolarization

BHyperpolarization

CAction potential

DNo changes

E-

31

A man's energy consumption is measured on an empty stomach, in lying position, under

conditions of physical psychical rest, at comfortable temperature. At what time will the energy

consuption be the lowest?

A*At 3-4 o'clock a.m.

BAt 7-8 o'clock a.m.

CAt 10-12 o'clock a.m.

DAt 2-4 o'clock p.m.

EAt 5-6 o'clock p.m.

32

Following the estimation of a person's energy expenditures it was established that the

respiratory quotient was equal to 1,0. This means that the compound that is mainly oxidized in

the cells is:

A*Carbohydrates

BProteins

CFats

DProteins and carbohydrates

ECarbohydrates and fats

33

A man has a diosorder of absorption of fat hydrolysates. What components deficit in the cavity

of small intestine may cause this effect?

A*Bile acids

BBile pigments

CLipolytic enzymes

DSodium ions

ELiposoluble vitamins

34

A man left a conditioned premise and went outside. The outside temperature was +40oС, the

air moisture - 60%.What way of heat emission will be mostly involved in this case?

A*Sweat evaporation

BConvection

CRadiation

DConduction

E-

35

In course of an experiment posterior roots of spinal cord of an animal were cut. What changes

will take place in the innervation zone?

A*Loss of sensation

BLoss of motor functions

CDecline of muscle tone

DRaise of muscle tone

ELoss of sensation and motor functions

36

A patient complains of rapid fatigability. Objectively: he staggers and overbalances in the upright

position with closed eyes. Skeleton muscular tonus is decreased. What brain structure is most

likely to be damaged?

A*Cerebellum

BThalamus

CHypothalamus

DPrecentral gyrus of cerebrum cortex

EBasal ganglions

37

In course of an experiment the peripheral segment of vagus nerve of an animal was stimulated.

The following changes of heart activity were obseerved:

A*Reduced heart rate

BIncrease of frequency and force of heartbeat

CIncreased excitability of myocardium

DIncreased conduction of excitement through myocardium

EIcreased force of heartbeat

38

A patient has hypocalcemia. What hormone deficiency may be it's cause?

A*Parathormone

BThyrocalcitonin

CAldosterone

DCorticotropin

ECorticoliberin

39

A patient with disorder of cerebral circulation has problems with deglutition. What part of

cerebrum was damaged?

A*Brainstem

BServical part of spinal cord

CForebrain

DInterbrain

EMidbrain

40

ESR of a patient with pneumonia is 48 mm/h. What caused such changes?

A*Hypergammaglobulinemia

BHyperalbuminemia

CHypogammaglobulinemia

DHypoproteinemia

EErythrocytosis

41

A patient with systemic scleroderma has an intensified collagen destruction. Collagen

destruction will be reflected by intensified urinary excretion of the following amino acid:

A*Oxyproline

BAlanine

CTryptophane

DSerine

EPhenylalanine

42

Poisoning with corrosive sublimate caused acute renal insufficiency. Its progress included four

stages: 1) initial, 2) oligoanuria, 4) recovery. Name the third stage of acute renal insufficiency:

A*Polyuric

BMetabolic

CHemodynamic

DIschemic

EPathochemical

43

After honey consumption a teenager had urticaria accompanied by leukocytosis. What type of

leukocytosis is it in this case?

A*Eosinophilic leukocytosis

BLymphocytosis

CMonocytosis

DBasophylic leukocytosis

ENeutrophilic leukocytosis

44

Introduction of a local anesthetic to a patient resulted in the development of anaphylactic shock.

What is the leading mechanism of blood circulation disturbance?

A*Decrease of vascular tone

BHypervolemia

CPain

DActivation of sympathoadrenal system

EReduction of contractile myocardium function

45

A 48 year old male patient was admitted to the hospital with acute attack of chronic

glomerulonephritis. Examination revealed chronic renal failure. What is the cause of

hyperazotemia by chronic renal failure?

A*Reduction of glomerular filtration

BReduction of tubular reabsorption

CReduction of tubular excreation

DDisorder of protein metabolism

EDisorder of water-electrolytic metabolism

46

A chemical industry worker complains about enamel wear. Objectively: generalized destruction

of dental crowns along with replacing dentin formation. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A*Necrosis of hard tooth tissues

BDental erosion

CWedge-shaped defects

DFluorosis

EMedian caries

47

During morphological examination of pulp floor three zones can be clearly differentiated: the one

of softened dentin, sclerotic dentin, replacing dentin. What stage of caries are these changes

typical for?

A*Median caries

BWhite spot stage

CSuperficial caries

DDeep caries

EChronic caries

48

A 55 year old man had been suffering from chronic glomerulonephritis. He died from chronic

renal failure. Macroscopical examination revealed on the surface of epicardium and pericardium

some greyish-white villous depositions. After their removal dilated and plethoric vessels were

uncovered. What process took place in the pericardium?

A*Fibrinous inflammation

BOrganization

CProliferative inflammation

DHaemorrhagic inflammation

EArterial hyperemia

49

In an excitable cell the ion channells were blocked. It hasn't changed essentially the value of rest

potential, but the cell lost its ability to generate AP (action potential). What channels were

blocked?

A*Natrium

BPotassium

CNatrium and potassium

DChloric

ECalcium

50

In course of an experiment the peripheral fragment of a cut vagus nerve on the dog's neck was

being stimulated. There was the following change of cardiac activity:

A*Decrease of beat frequency

BIncrease of beat frequency and force

CIncrease of myocardium excitability

DIncreased speed of excitement conduction through myocardium

EIncrease of beat force

51

In a healthy adult speed of the excitement conduction through the atrioventricular node is

0,02-0,05 m/sec. Atrioventricular delay enables:

A*Sequence of atrial and ventricular contractions

BSimultaneity of both atria contractions

CSimultaneity of both ventricles contractions

DSufficient force of atrial contractions

ESufficient force of ventricular contractions

52

Lung ventilation in a person is increased as a result of physical activity. Which of the following

indices of the external respiration is much higher than in a state of rest?

A*Respiratory volume

BVital capacity of lungs

CInspiratory reserve volume

DExpiratory reserve volume

ETotal lung capacity

53

As a result of continuous starvation the glomerular filtration rate has increased by 20%. The

most probable cause of the glomerular filtration alteration under the mentioned conditions is:

A*Decrease in the oncotic pressure of blood plasma

BIncrease in the systemic arterial pressure

CIncrease in the permeability of the renal filter

DIncrease of the filtartion quotient

EIncrease of the renal blood flow

54

The total number of leukocytes in patient's blood is 9010^9/l. Leukogram: eosinophils - 0%, basophils - 0%, juvenile - 0%, stab neutrophils - 2%, segmentonuclear cells - 20%, lymphoblasts - 1 %, prolymphocytes - 2%, lymphocytes - 70%, monocytes - 5%, Botkin-Gumprecht cells. Clinical examination revealed enlarged cervical and submandibular lymph nodes. Such clinical presentations are typical for the following pathology:

A*Chronic lympholeukosis

BAcute lympholeukosis

CLymphogranulomatosis

DInfectious mononucleosis

EChronic myeloleukosis

55

A 50 y.o. man abruptly felt palpitation, heart ache, strong weakness, rise of arterial pressure.

His pulse is irregular and deficient. ECG shows no P wave and different R-R intervals. What

cardiac rate abnormality is it?

A*Ciliary arrhythmia

BRespiratory arrhythmia

CParoxysmal tachycardia

DAtrioventricular heart block

ESinus extrasystole

56

Microscopical examination of exudate obtained from a rat with aseptic peritonitis and mixed with

bird's erythrocytes revealed macrophages surrounded by foreign erythrocytes. What stage of

phagocytosis is it?

A*Adherence

BUncomplete phagocytosis

CApproaching

DImmersion

EIntracellular digestion

57

On the 2nd day after myocardium infarction the patient's systolic arterial pressure abruptly

dropped down to 60 mm Hg. This was accompanied by tachycardia up to 140 bpm, dyspnea,

loss of consciousness. What is the leading mechanism in the pathogenesis of this shock?

A*Decrease of stroke volume

BIntoxication by the products of necrotic degeneration

CDecrease of circulating blood volume

DParoxysmal tachycardia

EAnaphylactic reaction to myocardial proteins

58

A 42 y.o. patient complains of pain in the epigastral area, vomiting; vomit masses have the

colour of "coffee-grounds", the patient has also melena. Anamnesis records gastric ulcer. Blood

formula: erythrocytes - 2,8x1012/l, leukocytes – 8x109/l, Hb- 90 g/l. What complication is it?

A*Haemorrhage

BPenetration

CPerforation

DCanceration

EPyloric stenosis

59

A female patient suffering from chronic hepatitis complains about an increased susceptibility to

barbiturates, which previously induced no syptoms of intoxication. This may be explained

through the folllowing liver dysfunction:

A*Metabolic

BCholepoietic

CHemodynamic

DHemopoietic

EPhagocytal

60

After a surgery a 36-year-old woman was given an intravenous injection of concentrated

albumin solution. This has induced intensified water movement in the following direction:

A*From the intercellular fluid to the capillaries

BFrom the intercellular fluid to the cells

CFrom the cells to the intercellular fluid

DFrom the capillaries to the intercellular fluid

ENo changes of water movement will be observed

61

Microscopical examination of coronary artery of a 53 year old dead man revealed luminal

narrowing of the vessel because of fibrous plaque mixed with lipides. The most probable form of

atherosclerosis is:

A*Liposclerosis

BLipoidosis

CAtheromatosis

DUlceration

E-

62

A blood sample of a pregnant woman was typed. Erythrocyte-agglutination reaction was present

with standard sera 0б, в(I), Bб(III), reaction was absent with the serum Aв(II).

The blood under examination relates to the following group:

A*Aв(II)

BBб(III)

C0б, в(I)

DAB(IV)

E-

63

As a result of a trauma apatient has developed traumatic shock. The patient is fussy, talkative,

pale. AP- 140/90 mm Hg, Ps- 120 bpm. This condition is consistent with the following shock

phase:

A*Erectile

BLatent

CTerminal

DTorpid

E-

64

During a neuro-surgical operation the occipital areas of cerebral cortex are stimulated. What

sensations will the patient have?

A*Visual

BTactile

CAuditory

DOlfactory

EGustatory

65

A patient who has been treated for viral hepatitis B developed symptoms of hepatic insufficiency. What changes indicating disorder in protein metabolism are likely to be observed in this case?

A*Absolute hypoalbuminemia

BAbsolute hyperalbuminemia

CAbsolute hyperfibrinogenemia

DProtein rate in blood will stay unchanged

EAbsolute hyperglobulinemia

66

Before an operation a 30-year-old male patient had his blood typed. It turned out to be

Rh-positive. Erythrocytes were not agglutinated by standard sera of 0(I), А(II), В(III) groups.

According to the AB0 blood group system this blood is of the following type:

A*0(I)

BА(II)

CВ(III)

DАВ(IV)

E-

67

A patient consulted a doctor about acute pain in the right subcostal area. During examination the

doctor noticed yellowed sclera of the patient. Laboratory analyses revealed high activity of

alanine-aminotransferase and negative reaction to stercobilin in feces. What disease are these

symptoms typical for?

A*Cholelithiasis

BHaemolytic jaundice

CHepatitis

DChronic colitis

EChronic gastritis

68

Curarelike substances (dithylinum) make it impossible for skeletal muscles to contract because

they block:

A*Neuromuscular synapses

BCentral synapses

CGanglionic synapses

DMembrane conduction of excitement

EProprioceptors

69

It was established that the conduction velocity in the nerve fibers was equal to 120 m/sec.

Specify these fibers:

A*Motoneuron axons

BPreganglionic sympathetic

CPreganglionic parasympathetic

DPostganglionic sympathetic

EPostganglionic parasympathetic

70

A scheme shows an exocrinous gland with an unbranched excretory duct into which only one

terminal part in form of a saccule opens. In compliance with the morphological classification of

exocrinous glands, such gland is called as follows:

A*Simple unbranched alveolar

BComplex branched alveolar

CSimple branched tubular

DComplex unbranched alveolar

EComplex unbranched alveolar-tubular

71

Examination of a patient revealed overgrowth of facial bones and soft tissues, tongue

enlargement, wide interdental spaces in the enlarged dental arch. What changes of the

hormonal secretion are the most likely?

A*Hypersecretion of the somatotropic hormone

BHyposecretion of the somatotropic hormone

CHypersecretion of insulin

DHyposecretion of thyroxin

EHyposecretion of insulin

72

During the preventive examination of a miner a doctor revealed changes in cardiovascular

fitness being evidence of cardiac insuffisiency at a stage of compensation. What is the main

evidence of compensation of cardiac activity?

A*Myocardium hypertrophy

BTachycardia

CRise of arterial pressure

DDyspnea

ECyanosis

73

A 37-year-old patient has has lost 5 kg in weight over the past three months, he complains of

hand tremor, excessive sweating, exophthalmos, tachycardia. These changes might have been

caused by the increased secretion of the following hormone:

A*Thyroxine

BCortisol

CInsulin

DGlucagon

EThyrocalcitonin

74

After a person had drunk 1,5 liters of water, the amount of urine increased significantly, and its

relative density decreased to 1,001. These changes are a result of decreased water

reabsorption in the distal nephron portion due to reduced secretion of:

A*Vasopressin

BAldosterone

CAngiotensin II

DRenin

EProstaglandins

75

A 32-year-old patient consulted a doctor about the absence of lactation after parturition. Such

disorder might be explained by the deficit of the following hormone:

A*Prolactin

BSomatotropin

CVasopressin

DThyrocalcitonin

EGlucagon

76

Examination of a female patient revealed low activity of lipoprotein lipase which hydrolyzes

chylomicron triglycerides on the surface of endothelium of adipose tissue capillaries. What

biochemical disorders should be expected?

A*Type I hyperlipoproteinemia

BType II A hyperlipoproteinemia

CType III hyperlipoproteinemia

DType IV hyperlipoproteinemia

EType II B hyperlipoproteinemia

77

A patient suffering from essential arterial hypertension got hypertensic crisis that caused an

attack of cardiac asthma. What is the leading mechanism of cardiac insufficiency in this case?

A*Cardiac overload due to increased resistance

BCardiac overload due to increased blood volume

CAbsolute coronary insufficiency

DMyocardium damage

EDisturbed blood inflow to the heart

78

A 43 year old female patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of pain in the right

subcostal area, skin itch. Examination revealed hypalgesia and hematolysis, skin

icteritiousness, bradycardia, hypotonia. What is the most probable cause of these symptoms?

A*Cholemia

BIntensification of erythrocyte haemolysis

CDiabetes mellitus

DParenchymatous jaundice

EHepatocellular jaundice

79

Examination of a patient with chronic renal insufficiency revealed an increase in residual

nitrogen concentration in blood up to 35 millimole/l, more than half of which is urea. What type of

hyperazotemia is it?

A*Retentional

BHepatic

CProductional

DResidual

ECombined

80

A patient has been prescribed the salt-free diet. What changes to the salt taste sensitivity

threshold should be expected?

A*Decrease

BNo changes

CLittle change

DIncrease

EIncrease followed by a decrease

81

Blood analysis of a patient suffering from jaundice revealed increase of total bilirubin by its

indirect fraction. Urine and feces have intense colouring. What is the most probable mechanism

of these abnormalities?

A*Increased haemolysis of erythrocytes

BObstruction of bile outflow from the liver

CDamage of liver parenchyma

DImpaired generation of direct bilirubin

EImpaired transformation of urobilinogen in the liver

82

A patient consulted a doctor about loss of taste at the root of tongue. The doctor established

that this was due to a nerve damage. What nerve was damaged?

A*Glossopharyngeal

BVagus

CFacial

DSuperlaryngeal

ETrigeminal

83

A male patient has stenosis of the mitral orifice. What is the leading mechanism of cardiac failure?

A*Resistance-induced overload

BVolume overload

CTension-induced overload

DMyocardial damage

E-

84

A patient consulted a doctor about difficulties with urinary excretion. Examination revealed

hypertrophy of an organ that encloses proximal part of urethra. What organ is it?

A*Prostate

BBulbourethral gland

CBulb of penis

DEpididymis

ESeminal vesicles

85

Examination of a tissue sample of enlarged cervical lymph nodes taken from a young woman

revealed proliferation of lymphocytes, reticular cells, macrophages, big and small Hodgkin's

cells, multinuclear Sternberg-Reed cells. There were also multiple eosinophils, single foci of

caseous necrosis of the node tissue. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A*Lymphogranulomatosis

BTuberculosis

CAcute leukosis

DLymphosarcoma

EMetastasis of lung cancer

86

A 40 year old male patient died from cerebral edema. In anamnesis the face carbuncle was

registered. Autopsy revealed hyperemia and edema of cerebral tissue. White matter of the left

hemisphere had two cavities 6х5,5 and 5х4,5 cm large filled with yellowish-green cream-like

fluid. Walls of the cavities were built up by nerve tissue with irregular rands. What complication

of carbuncle was it?

A*Acute abscesses

BChronic abscesses

CEmpyema

DColliquative necroses

ECysts

87

A patient who had been suffering from a renal disease for many years died from uremia.

Autopsy revealed that the kidneys were abnormally small, dense, fine-grained, light grey. What

are the kidneys with such changes called?

A*Arteriolosclerotic

BContracted

CMottled

DSebaceous

E-

88

Liver puncture biopsy in a patient with hepatocellular insufficiency revealed vacuolar, balooning

degeneration of hepatocytes, necrosis of single cells, Councilman's bodies, infiltartion of portal

and lobular stroma mainly by lymphocytes and macrophages with a small number of

polymorphonuclear leukocytes. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A*Acute viral hepatitis

BChronic persisting hepatitis

CChronic active hepatitis

DAutoimmune hepatitis

EAlcoholic hepatitis

89

In course of an experiment thalamocortical tracts of an experimental animal were cut through.

The animal didn't lose the following sensations:

A*Olfactory

BAuditory

CExteroceptive

DVisual

ENociceptive

90

Examination of a tooth revealed a large cavity in its crown. The floor of this cavity is formed by a

thin layer of softened dentin that separates this cavity from the pulp. What is the most probable

diagnosis?

A*Deep caries

BMedian caries

CSuperficial caries

DPulpitis

EPeriodontitis

91

During an experiment the myotatic reflex has been studied in frogs. After extension in a skeletal

muscle its reflectory contraction was absent. The reason for it might be a dysfunction of the

following receptors:

A*Muscle spindles

BNociceptors

CArticular

DGolgi tendon organs

ETactile

92

Analysis of a dentist's urine obtained at the end of his working day revealed protein concentration at the rate of 0,7 g/l. His morning urine hadn't such changes. What is this phenomenon called?

A*Functional proteinuria

BOrganic proteinuria

CNonselective proteinuria

DExtrarenal proteinuria

EHematuria

93

Microscopical examination of an infiltrate removed from the submandibular skin area of a 30

y.o. man revealed foci of purulent fluxing surrounded by maturing granulations and mature

connective tissue, the pus contains druses consisting of multiple short rod-like elements with

one end attached to the homogenous centre. What disease is it?

A*Actinomycosis

BTuberculosis

CSyphilis

DCandidosis

E-

94

Microscopic examination of periodontium revealed plethoric vessels, edema of connective

tissue along with infiltration by single neutrophils. What type of exudative inflammation in the

periodontium is it?

A*Serous

BPurulent

CPutrid

DFibrinous

ECatarrhal

95

Autopsy of a 35 y.o. woman revealed not only enlargement of many lymph nodes but also enlarged spleen weighting 600,0. Its incision showed that it was heterogeneous, dark red, dense with greyish-yellow necrotic areas up to 1 cm in diameter (porphyritic spleen). What disease can be assumed?

A*Lymphogranulomatosis

BChronic lymphoid leukosis

CChronic myeloid leukosis

DCancer metastases

ELymphosarcoma

96

A 9 y.o. child has been taking antibiotics on account of bronchopneumonia for a long time.

There appeared pain and burning in the area of mucous mebrane of his lips and tongue.

Objectively: mucous membrane of lips and tongue has caseous and grey plaques that can be

easily removed by a spatula leaving hyperemia foci on their spot. Microscopical examination of

the plaques revealed mycelium. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A*Candidous cheilitis

BExfoliative cheilitis

CLeukoplakia

DContactant allergic cheilitis

EManganotti's cheilitis

97

In response to a change in body position from horizontal to vertical blood circulation system

develops reflectory pressor reaction. Which of the following is its compulsory component?

A*Systemic constriction of the venous vessels

BSystemic dilatation of the arterial resistive vessels

CDecrease in the circulating blood volume

DIncrease in the heart rate

EWeakening of the pumbing ability of heart

98

In a hot weather, the microclimate in hot rooms is often normalized by fans. At the same time

heat radiation from the human body increases through:

A*Convection

BHeat conduction

CConduction

DRadiation

EEvaporation

99

After examining the patient the doctor recommended him to eliminate rich meat and vegetable

broth, spices, smoked products from the diet, since the patient was found to have:

A*Increased secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach glands

BReduced secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach glands

CReduced motility of the gastrointestinal tract

DReduced salivation

EBiliary dyskinesia

100

A 60-year-old patient presents with weakened peristaltic activity of the bowels. Which of the

following foodstuffs would stimulate peristalsis most of all?

A*Brown bread

BWhite bread

CMeat

DLard

ETea

101

In the dental practice, the vitality of tooth tissues is estimated by electric pulp test. What

parameter is assessed?

A*Threshold stimulus intensity

BChronaxie

CProductive time

DAccommodation

ELability

102

Before an exam a student complained of acute dental pain which grew less during the exam.

What inhibition caused the pain abatement?

A*External

BProtective

CDeclining

DDifferentiating

EDelayed