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4.0 Нормальна фізіологія
In process of the secretory cycle secretion granules come and go in the apical part of
cytoplasm of pancreas cells. These granules relate to the following structure elements:
EGranular endoplasmic reticulum
A woman has hyperemic ovary, increased permeability of hematofollicular barrier with the
following development of edema, infiltration of follicle wall by segmentonuclear leukocytes. The
follicle volume is large, its wall is thinned. What period of sexual cycle do these presentations
EPeriod of relative rest
While a 24 year old woman was waiting for tooth extraction, tonus of sympathetic part of
autonomic nervous system rose. What reaction will the patient display?
A*Increased frequency of heartbeat
CHypersecretion of digestive juices
A man has been holding his breath for 60 seconds. After that the respiratory minute volume has
increased up to 12 L. What blood change is the main reason for the increase of respiratory
A*Increase of p СО2
BDecrease of p О2
CIncrease of p О2
DDecrease of p СО2
EIncrease of pH
An experimentator wants a dog to develop conditioned salivary reflex. What conditioned
stimulus will be appropriate to use?
A*Moderately loud sound
EVery loud sound
A man has trauma of greater pectoral muscle. What index' decrease will it cause?
A*Inspiratory reserve volume
BExpiratory reserve volume
EFunctional residual lung capacity
A patient with diminished excretory function of kidneys has bad breath. What substance which is
excessively excreted by salivary glands is the main cause of this occurence?
A patient with kidney disease has high blood pressure, espesially the diastolic one.
Hypersecretion of what biologically active substance causes blood pressure rise?
A lightly dressed man is standing in a room; air temperature is +14oC. Windows and doors are
closed. In what way does he loose heat most of all?
ECG of a patient shows that T-waves in the second standard extremity lead are positive, their
amplitude and duration are normal. It would be true that the following pocess is taking its normal
course in the cardiac ventricles:
A month after surgical constriction of rabbit's renal artery the considerable increase of
systematic arterial pressure was observed. What of the following regulation mechanisms
caused the animal's pressure change?
In course of an experiment chorda tympani of an animal was being stimulated by electric
current, as a result the parotid duct excreted:
A*A lot of fluid saliva
BA small quantity of fluid saliva
CSaliva wasn't excreted
DA small quantity of viscous saliva
EA lot of viscous saliva
In the experiment, an animal had its brain stem cut, which caused a rapid increase of extensor
muscle tone (decerebrate rigidity). This condition arose because the muscles were no more
under the control of the following brain structure:
A student has dry mouth during exam passing. It is caused by realization of the following reflexes:
BSympathetic conditioned and unconditioned
ESympathetic and parasympathetic unconditioned
A student has dry mouth during an exam. This is caused by realization of the following reflexes:
BConditioned and unconditioned sympathetic
EUnconditioned sympathetic and parasympathetic
ECG of a patient showed that RR interval equaled 1,5 s, heart rate equaled 40 bpm. What is the
DLeft branch of His' bundle
ERight branch of His' bundle
A man permanently lives high in the mountains. What changes of blood characteristics can be
found in his organism?
A*Increase of erythrocytes number
BDecrease of hemoglobin content
CErythroblasts in blood
DDecrease of reticulocytes number
EDecrease of colour index of blood
A sportsman was examined after an intensive physical activity. The examination revealed
disorder of movement coordination but the force of muscle contractions remained the same. It
can be explained by retarded speed of excitement conduction through:
A patient has a transverse laceration of spinal cord below the VІ thoracal segment. How will it
change the character of breathing?
A*It won't change esentially
BIt will stop
CIt will become more rare
DIt will become more deep
EIt will become more frequent
Cerebral hemorrhage caused serious disturbance of taste sensibility. What brain structure is
most likely to be damged?
A man consumes dry food. What salivary glands secret most of all?
During the preparation of a patient for a heart operation the doctors measured blood pressure
in heart chambers. In one of them the pressure was changing from 0 to 120 mm during one
cardiac cycle. Name the heart chamber:
A man lost consciousness in a car with running engine where he had been waiting for a friend
for a long time. What hemoglobin compaund can be found in the blood of the patient?
After a hemorrhage into the brainstem a patient has lost reflex of myosis as a reaction to
increase of illumination. What structure was damaged?
A*Vegetative nuclei of oculomotor nerve
BLateral reticular nuclei
CMedial reticular nuclei
It is required to set an experiment on an isolated excitable cell and to achieve increase of
membrane rest potential (hyperpolarization). What ion channels should be activated to achieve
such a result?
CPotassium and sodium
ESodium and calcium
During phonocardiogram registration it was ascertained that the duration of the first heart sound
twice exceeds the norm. It is most likely that patient has the following organ affected:
CCardiomyocytes of heart atriums
DCardiomyocytes of ventricles
ECardiomyocytes of atriums
Glucose concentration in a patient's blood is 15 millimole/l (reabsorption threshold is 10millimole/l). What effect can be expected?
CReduced glucose reabsorption
DReduced vasopressin secretion
EReduced aldosterone secretion
In course of an experiment a nerve is being stimulated by electric impulses. As a result of it
sublingual and submaxillary glands discharge some dense viscous saliva. What nerve is being
Human body cools in water much more faster than in the air. Due to what way of heat emission
does it happen?
Tissue is being stimulated by electric cathodic impulse with amplitude of 70% of threshold. What
changes of membrane potential will be observed?
A man's energy consumption is measured on an empty stomach, in lying position, under
conditions of physical psychical rest, at comfortable temperature. At what time will the energy
consuption be the lowest?
A*At 3-4 o'clock a.m.
BAt 7-8 o'clock a.m.
CAt 10-12 o'clock a.m.
DAt 2-4 o'clock p.m.
EAt 5-6 o'clock p.m.
Following the estimation of a person's energy expenditures it was established that the
respiratory quotient was equal to 1,0. This means that the compound that is mainly oxidized in
the cells is:
DProteins and carbohydrates
ECarbohydrates and fats
A man has a diosorder of absorption of fat hydrolysates. What components deficit in the cavity
of small intestine may cause this effect?
A man left a conditioned premise and went outside. The outside temperature was +40oС, the
air moisture - 60%.What way of heat emission will be mostly involved in this case?
In course of an experiment posterior roots of spinal cord of an animal were cut. What changes
will take place in the innervation zone?
A*Loss of sensation
BLoss of motor functions
CDecline of muscle tone
DRaise of muscle tone
ELoss of sensation and motor functions
A patient complains of rapid fatigability. Objectively: he staggers and overbalances in the upright
position with closed eyes. Skeleton muscular tonus is decreased. What brain structure is most
likely to be damaged?
DPrecentral gyrus of cerebrum cortex
In course of an experiment the peripheral segment of vagus nerve of an animal was stimulated.
The following changes of heart activity were obseerved:
A*Reduced heart rate
BIncrease of frequency and force of heartbeat
CIncreased excitability of myocardium
DIncreased conduction of excitement through myocardium
EIcreased force of heartbeat
A patient has hypocalcemia. What hormone deficiency may be it's cause?
A patient with disorder of cerebral circulation has problems with deglutition. What part of
cerebrum was damaged?
BServical part of spinal cord
ESR of a patient with pneumonia is 48 mm/h. What caused such changes?
A patient with systemic scleroderma has an intensified collagen destruction. Collagen
destruction will be reflected by intensified urinary excretion of the following amino acid:
Poisoning with corrosive sublimate caused acute renal insufficiency. Its progress included four
stages: 1) initial, 2) oligoanuria, 4) recovery. Name the third stage of acute renal insufficiency:
After honey consumption a teenager had urticaria accompanied by leukocytosis. What type of
leukocytosis is it in this case?
Introduction of a local anesthetic to a patient resulted in the development of anaphylactic shock.
What is the leading mechanism of blood circulation disturbance?
A*Decrease of vascular tone
DActivation of sympathoadrenal system
EReduction of contractile myocardium function
A 48 year old male patient was admitted to the hospital with acute attack of chronic
glomerulonephritis. Examination revealed chronic renal failure. What is the cause of
hyperazotemia by chronic renal failure?
A*Reduction of glomerular filtration
BReduction of tubular reabsorption
CReduction of tubular excreation
DDisorder of protein metabolism
EDisorder of water-electrolytic metabolism
A chemical industry worker complains about enamel wear. Objectively: generalized destruction
of dental crowns along with replacing dentin formation. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A*Necrosis of hard tooth tissues
During morphological examination of pulp floor three zones can be clearly differentiated: the one
of softened dentin, sclerotic dentin, replacing dentin. What stage of caries are these changes
BWhite spot stage
A 55 year old man had been suffering from chronic glomerulonephritis. He died from chronic
renal failure. Macroscopical examination revealed on the surface of epicardium and pericardium
some greyish-white villous depositions. After their removal dilated and plethoric vessels were
uncovered. What process took place in the pericardium?
In an excitable cell the ion channells were blocked. It hasn't changed essentially the value of rest
potential, but the cell lost its ability to generate AP (action potential). What channels were
CNatrium and potassium
In course of an experiment the peripheral fragment of a cut vagus nerve on the dog's neck was
being stimulated. There was the following change of cardiac activity:
A*Decrease of beat frequency
BIncrease of beat frequency and force
CIncrease of myocardium excitability
DIncreased speed of excitement conduction through myocardium
EIncrease of beat force
In a healthy adult speed of the excitement conduction through the atrioventricular node is
0,02-0,05 m/sec. Atrioventricular delay enables:
A*Sequence of atrial and ventricular contractions
BSimultaneity of both atria contractions
CSimultaneity of both ventricles contractions
DSufficient force of atrial contractions
ESufficient force of ventricular contractions
Lung ventilation in a person is increased as a result of physical activity. Which of the following
indices of the external respiration is much higher than in a state of rest?
BVital capacity of lungs
CInspiratory reserve volume
DExpiratory reserve volume
ETotal lung capacity
As a result of continuous starvation the glomerular filtration rate has increased by 20%. The
most probable cause of the glomerular filtration alteration under the mentioned conditions is:
A*Decrease in the oncotic pressure of blood plasma
BIncrease in the systemic arterial pressure
CIncrease in the permeability of the renal filter
DIncrease of the filtartion quotient
EIncrease of the renal blood flow
The total number of leukocytes in patient's blood is 9010^9/l. Leukogram: eosinophils - 0%, basophils - 0%, juvenile - 0%, stab neutrophils - 2%, segmentonuclear cells - 20%, lymphoblasts - 1 %, prolymphocytes - 2%, lymphocytes - 70%, monocytes - 5%, Botkin-Gumprecht cells. Clinical examination revealed enlarged cervical and submandibular lymph nodes. Such clinical presentations are typical for the following pathology:
A 50 y.o. man abruptly felt palpitation, heart ache, strong weakness, rise of arterial pressure.
His pulse is irregular and deficient. ECG shows no P wave and different R-R intervals. What
cardiac rate abnormality is it?
DAtrioventricular heart block
Microscopical examination of exudate obtained from a rat with aseptic peritonitis and mixed with
bird's erythrocytes revealed macrophages surrounded by foreign erythrocytes. What stage of
phagocytosis is it?
On the 2nd day after myocardium infarction the patient's systolic arterial pressure abruptly
dropped down to 60 mm Hg. This was accompanied by tachycardia up to 140 bpm, dyspnea,
loss of consciousness. What is the leading mechanism in the pathogenesis of this shock?
A*Decrease of stroke volume
BIntoxication by the products of necrotic degeneration
CDecrease of circulating blood volume
EAnaphylactic reaction to myocardial proteins
A 42 y.o. patient complains of pain in the epigastral area, vomiting; vomit masses have the
colour of "coffee-grounds", the patient has also melena. Anamnesis records gastric ulcer. Blood
formula: erythrocytes - 2,8x1012/l, leukocytes – 8x109/l, Hb- 90 g/l. What complication is it?
A female patient suffering from chronic hepatitis complains about an increased susceptibility to
barbiturates, which previously induced no syptoms of intoxication. This may be explained
through the folllowing liver dysfunction:
After a surgery a 36-year-old woman was given an intravenous injection of concentrated
albumin solution. This has induced intensified water movement in the following direction:
A*From the intercellular fluid to the capillaries
BFrom the intercellular fluid to the cells
CFrom the cells to the intercellular fluid
DFrom the capillaries to the intercellular fluid
ENo changes of water movement will be observed
Microscopical examination of coronary artery of a 53 year old dead man revealed luminal
narrowing of the vessel because of fibrous plaque mixed with lipides. The most probable form of
A blood sample of a pregnant woman was typed. Erythrocyte-agglutination reaction was present
with standard sera 0б, в(I), Bб(III), reaction was absent with the serum Aв(II).
The blood under examination relates to the following group:
As a result of a trauma apatient has developed traumatic shock. The patient is fussy, talkative,
pale. AP- 140/90 mm Hg, Ps- 120 bpm. This condition is consistent with the following shock
During a neuro-surgical operation the occipital areas of cerebral cortex are stimulated. What
sensations will the patient have?
A patient who has been treated for viral hepatitis B developed symptoms of hepatic insufficiency. What changes indicating disorder in protein metabolism are likely to be observed in this case?
DProtein rate in blood will stay unchanged
Before an operation a 30-year-old male patient had his blood typed. It turned out to be
Rh-positive. Erythrocytes were not agglutinated by standard sera of 0(I), А(II), В(III) groups.
According to the AB0 blood group system this blood is of the following type:
A patient consulted a doctor about acute pain in the right subcostal area. During examination the
doctor noticed yellowed sclera of the patient. Laboratory analyses revealed high activity of
alanine-aminotransferase and negative reaction to stercobilin in feces. What disease are these
symptoms typical for?
Curarelike substances (dithylinum) make it impossible for skeletal muscles to contract because
DMembrane conduction of excitement
It was established that the conduction velocity in the nerve fibers was equal to 120 m/sec.
Specify these fibers:
A scheme shows an exocrinous gland with an unbranched excretory duct into which only one
terminal part in form of a saccule opens. In compliance with the morphological classification of
exocrinous glands, such gland is called as follows:
A*Simple unbranched alveolar
BComplex branched alveolar
CSimple branched tubular
DComplex unbranched alveolar
EComplex unbranched alveolar-tubular
Examination of a patient revealed overgrowth of facial bones and soft tissues, tongue
enlargement, wide interdental spaces in the enlarged dental arch. What changes of the
hormonal secretion are the most likely?
A*Hypersecretion of the somatotropic hormone
BHyposecretion of the somatotropic hormone
CHypersecretion of insulin
DHyposecretion of thyroxin
EHyposecretion of insulin
During the preventive examination of a miner a doctor revealed changes in cardiovascular
fitness being evidence of cardiac insuffisiency at a stage of compensation. What is the main
evidence of compensation of cardiac activity?
CRise of arterial pressure
A 37-year-old patient has has lost 5 kg in weight over the past three months, he complains of
hand tremor, excessive sweating, exophthalmos, tachycardia. These changes might have been
caused by the increased secretion of the following hormone:
After a person had drunk 1,5 liters of water, the amount of urine increased significantly, and its
relative density decreased to 1,001. These changes are a result of decreased water
reabsorption in the distal nephron portion due to reduced secretion of:
A 32-year-old patient consulted a doctor about the absence of lactation after parturition. Such
disorder might be explained by the deficit of the following hormone:
Examination of a female patient revealed low activity of lipoprotein lipase which hydrolyzes
chylomicron triglycerides on the surface of endothelium of adipose tissue capillaries. What
biochemical disorders should be expected?
A*Type I hyperlipoproteinemia
BType II A hyperlipoproteinemia
CType III hyperlipoproteinemia
DType IV hyperlipoproteinemia
EType II B hyperlipoproteinemia
A patient suffering from essential arterial hypertension got hypertensic crisis that caused an
attack of cardiac asthma. What is the leading mechanism of cardiac insufficiency in this case?
A*Cardiac overload due to increased resistance
BCardiac overload due to increased blood volume
CAbsolute coronary insufficiency
EDisturbed blood inflow to the heart
A 43 year old female patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of pain in the right
subcostal area, skin itch. Examination revealed hypalgesia and hematolysis, skin
icteritiousness, bradycardia, hypotonia. What is the most probable cause of these symptoms?
BIntensification of erythrocyte haemolysis
Examination of a patient with chronic renal insufficiency revealed an increase in residual
nitrogen concentration in blood up to 35 millimole/l, more than half of which is urea. What type of
hyperazotemia is it?
A patient has been prescribed the salt-free diet. What changes to the salt taste sensitivity
threshold should be expected?
EIncrease followed by a decrease
Blood analysis of a patient suffering from jaundice revealed increase of total bilirubin by its
indirect fraction. Urine and feces have intense colouring. What is the most probable mechanism
of these abnormalities?
A*Increased haemolysis of erythrocytes
BObstruction of bile outflow from the liver
CDamage of liver parenchyma
DImpaired generation of direct bilirubin
EImpaired transformation of urobilinogen in the liver
A patient consulted a doctor about loss of taste at the root of tongue. The doctor established
that this was due to a nerve damage. What nerve was damaged?
A male patient has stenosis of the mitral orifice. What is the leading mechanism of cardiac failure?
A patient consulted a doctor about difficulties with urinary excretion. Examination revealed
hypertrophy of an organ that encloses proximal part of urethra. What organ is it?
CBulb of penis
Examination of a tissue sample of enlarged cervical lymph nodes taken from a young woman
revealed proliferation of lymphocytes, reticular cells, macrophages, big and small Hodgkin's
cells, multinuclear Sternberg-Reed cells. There were also multiple eosinophils, single foci of
caseous necrosis of the node tissue. What is the most probable diagnosis?
EMetastasis of lung cancer
A 40 year old male patient died from cerebral edema. In anamnesis the face carbuncle was
registered. Autopsy revealed hyperemia and edema of cerebral tissue. White matter of the left
hemisphere had two cavities 6х5,5 and 5х4,5 cm large filled with yellowish-green cream-like
fluid. Walls of the cavities were built up by nerve tissue with irregular rands. What complication
of carbuncle was it?
A patient who had been suffering from a renal disease for many years died from uremia.
Autopsy revealed that the kidneys were abnormally small, dense, fine-grained, light grey. What
are the kidneys with such changes called?
Liver puncture biopsy in a patient with hepatocellular insufficiency revealed vacuolar, balooning
degeneration of hepatocytes, necrosis of single cells, Councilman's bodies, infiltartion of portal
and lobular stroma mainly by lymphocytes and macrophages with a small number of
polymorphonuclear leukocytes. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A*Acute viral hepatitis
BChronic persisting hepatitis
CChronic active hepatitis
In course of an experiment thalamocortical tracts of an experimental animal were cut through.
The animal didn't lose the following sensations:
Examination of a tooth revealed a large cavity in its crown. The floor of this cavity is formed by a
thin layer of softened dentin that separates this cavity from the pulp. What is the most probable
During an experiment the myotatic reflex has been studied in frogs. After extension in a skeletal
muscle its reflectory contraction was absent. The reason for it might be a dysfunction of the
DGolgi tendon organs
Analysis of a dentist's urine obtained at the end of his working day revealed protein concentration at the rate of 0,7 g/l. His morning urine hadn't such changes. What is this phenomenon called?
Microscopical examination of an infiltrate removed from the submandibular skin area of a 30
y.o. man revealed foci of purulent fluxing surrounded by maturing granulations and mature
connective tissue, the pus contains druses consisting of multiple short rod-like elements with
one end attached to the homogenous centre. What disease is it?
Microscopic examination of periodontium revealed plethoric vessels, edema of connective
tissue along with infiltration by single neutrophils. What type of exudative inflammation in the
periodontium is it?
Autopsy of a 35 y.o. woman revealed not only enlargement of many lymph nodes but also enlarged spleen weighting 600,0. Its incision showed that it was heterogeneous, dark red, dense with greyish-yellow necrotic areas up to 1 cm in diameter (porphyritic spleen). What disease can be assumed?
BChronic lymphoid leukosis
CChronic myeloid leukosis
A 9 y.o. child has been taking antibiotics on account of bronchopneumonia for a long time.
There appeared pain and burning in the area of mucous mebrane of his lips and tongue.
Objectively: mucous membrane of lips and tongue has caseous and grey plaques that can be
easily removed by a spatula leaving hyperemia foci on their spot. Microscopical examination of
the plaques revealed mycelium. What is the most probable diagnosis?
DContactant allergic cheilitis
In response to a change in body position from horizontal to vertical blood circulation system
develops reflectory pressor reaction. Which of the following is its compulsory component?
A*Systemic constriction of the venous vessels
BSystemic dilatation of the arterial resistive vessels
CDecrease in the circulating blood volume
DIncrease in the heart rate
EWeakening of the pumbing ability of heart
In a hot weather, the microclimate in hot rooms is often normalized by fans. At the same time
heat radiation from the human body increases through:
After examining the patient the doctor recommended him to eliminate rich meat and vegetable
broth, spices, smoked products from the diet, since the patient was found to have:
A*Increased secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach glands
BReduced secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach glands
CReduced motility of the gastrointestinal tract
A 60-year-old patient presents with weakened peristaltic activity of the bowels. Which of the
following foodstuffs would stimulate peristalsis most of all?
In the dental practice, the vitality of tooth tissues is estimated by electric pulp test. What
parameter is assessed?
A*Threshold stimulus intensity
Before an exam a student complained of acute dental pain which grew less during the exam.
What inhibition caused the pain abatement?