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Krok 1 Stomatology

6.0 Патологічна фізіологія

1

A married couple applied to the genetic consultation in order to consult about their child with

multiple abnormalities (microcephaly, idiocy etc). The woman has had an illnesses during her

pregnancy but she didn't take any teratogens or mutagens. The parents' and the child's

karyotype is normal. Anamnesis study revealed that the family kept a cat. What gravidic disease

caused the child's abnormalities?

A*Toxoplasmosis

BLeishmaniasis

CDysentery

DBalantidiasis

ETrichomoniasis

2

A patient underwent a surgery for excision of a cyst on pancreas. After this he developed

haemorrhagic syndrome with apparent disorder of blood coagulation. Development of this

complication can be explained by:

A*Activation of fibrinolytic system

BInsufficient fibrin production

CReduced number of thrombocytes

DActivation of anticoagulation system

EActivation of Christmas factor

3

ECG of a 44-year-old patient shows signs of hypertrophy of both ventricles and the right atrium.

The patient was diagnosed with the tricuspid valve insufficiency. What pathogenetic variant of

cardiac dysfunction is usually observed in case of such insufficiency?

A*Heart overload by volume

BHeart overload by resistance

CPrimary myocardial insufficiency

DCoronary insufficiency

ECardiac tamponade

4

A patient who takes a blocker of membrane cytoreceptors of efferent conductor synapses of

autonomic nervous system complains about dry mouth. What receptors are blocked?

A*Muscarinic cholinoreceptors

BNicotinic cholinoreceptors

CH2-receptors

Dalpha-adrenoreceptors

Ebeta-adrenoreceptors

5

Examination of a patient revealed enlargement of some body parts (jaw, nose, ears, feet,

hands), but body proportions were conserved. It might be caused by intensified secretion of the

following hormone:

A*Somatotropin

BSomatostatin

CTetraiodothyronine

DTriiodothyronine

ECortisol

6

A patient complains about attacks of laboured breathing, dizziness. He works at a chemical plant

producing hydrocyanic acid. The described symptoms might be associated with dysfunction of

the following enzyme:

A*Cytochrome oxidase

BLactate dehydrogenase

CSuccinate dehydrogenase

DCatalase

EPyruvate dehydrogenase

7

As a result of improper feeding an infant got full-blown diarrhea. One of its main consequences

is excretion of large amount of sodium bicarbonate. What form of acid-base balance

disturbance is it?

A*Excretory acidosis

BMetabolic alkalosis

CRespiratory acidosis

DRespiratory alkalosis

EAcid-base balance won't be disturbed

8

After sprinting untrained people feel muscular pain as a result of lactate accumulation. I may be

connected with intensification of the following biochemical process:

A*Glycolysis

BGlyconeogenesis

CPentose-phosphate cycle

DLipogenesis

EGlycogenesis

9

Blood of patients ill with diabetes mellitus has high content of free fatty acids. It may be caused by:

A*High activity of triglyceride lipase of adipocytes

BAccumulation of palmitoyl-CoA in the cytosol

CActivation of ketone bodies utilization

DActivation of synthesis of apolipoproteins А-1, А-2, А-4

ELow activity of phosphatidylcholine-cholestein-acyltransferase of plasma

10

What vitamin deficiency leads to both disorder of reproductive function and distrophy of skeletal

muscles?

A*Vitamin E

BVitamin A

CVitamin K

DVitamin D

EVitamin B1

11

Toxic pulmonary edema was reproduced on a laboratory rat by means of ammonium chloride

solution. What is the leading pathogenetic factor of this edema?

A*Increased permeability of capillars

BIncrease of venous outflow

CDecrease of colloid osmotic pressure

DDisorder of neural and humoral regulation

EIncrease of lymph outflow

12

An experimental rat got intra-abdominal injection of 10 ml of 40% glucose solution. 60 minutes

later the rat passed into a comatose state as a result of dehydratation. What is the mechanism

of development of this state?

A*Rise of osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid

BRise of oncotic pressure of extracellular fluid

CReduction of vasopressin secretion

DLoss of salts and water

EAcid-base disbalance

13

15 minutes after a car accident examination of a 35 year old man revealed massive injury of

lower extremities without serious external loos of blood. The victim is in excited state. What

component of pathogenesis of traumatic shock is basic and requires urgent correction?

A*Pain

BAcute renal insufficience

CIntoxication

DCardiac function disorder

EInternal loss of plasma

14

A 50-year-old patient has been examined by a dentist and found to have crimson smooth

tongue. Blood analysis revealed a decrease in RBC level and hemoglobin concentration, colour

index of 1,3, symptoms of megaloblastic hematopoiesis, degenerative changes in WBCs. What

blood disorder was found in this patient?

A*B12-folic-acid-deficiency anemia

BIron deficiency anemia

CMyeloid leukemia

DAplastic anemia

EHemolytic anemia

15

A pregnant women developed severe toxemia with exhausting recurrent vomiting throughout a

day. By the end of the day she developed tetanic convulsions and bodily dehydration. The

described changes were caused by the following type of acid-base disbalance:

A*Nongaseous excretory alkalosis

BGaseous alkalosis

CGaseous acidosis

DNongaseous metabolic acidosis

ENongaseous excretory acidosis

16

After a diver had dived to a depth of 60 meters he got the following symptoms of CNS

dysfunction: anxiety, euphoria, lack of attention, professional errors. These symptoms are

associated with neurons being under a toxic effect of:

A*Nitrogen

BOxygen

CCarbon dioxide

DAmmonia

ELactate

17

A patient has disorder of airways patency at the level of small and middle bronchs. What

changes of acid-base balance may take place?

A*Respiratory acidosis

BRespiratory akcalosis

CMetabolic acidosis

DMetabolic alkalosis

EAcid-base balance won't change

18

The body temperature of a patient with an infectious disease rises once in two days up to 39,5-40,5oС and stays so for about an hour and then drops to the initial level. What type of fever is it?

A*Intermittent

BContinued

CRemittent

DHectic

EAtypical

19

A 23 year patient was admitted to the hospital in grave condition with craniocerebral trauma. His

respiration is characterized by a spasmodic long inspiration interrupted by a short expiration.

What respiration type is it typical for?

A*Apneustic

BGasping

CKussmaul's respiration

DCheyne-Stokes respiration

EBiot's respiration

20

Two days after myocardial infarction a patient had a sudden systolic pressure decrease up to

60 mm, tachycardia up to 140/min, dyspnea; the patient lost consciousness. What mechanism

is principal for the shock pathogenesis?

A*Decrease of cardiac volume

BIntoxication

CDecrease of circulating blood volume

DParoxysmal tachycardia

EAnaphylactic reaction

21

After a psychoemotional stress a 48 year old patient had a sudden attack of acute heart pain

with irradiation to the left hand. Nitroglycerine suppressed pain in 10 minutes. What

pathogenetic mechanism is principal for the pain development?

A*Spasm of coronary vessels

BDilatation of peripheral vessels

CCoronary vessel occlusion

DEmbarrassement of coronary vessels

EIncreased need of myocardium in oxygen

22

A 46-year-old patient suffering from the diffuse toxic goiter underwent resection of the thyroid

gland. After the surgery the patient presents with appetite loss, dyspepsia, increased

neuromuscular excitement. The body weight remained unchanged. Body temperature is normal.

Which of the following has caused such a condition in this patient?

A*Reduced production of parathormone

BIncreased production of thyroxin

CIncreased production of calcitonin

DIncreased production of thyroliberin

EReduced production of thyroxin

23

A patient with periodontitis has developed gingival edema. The gums are of dark red colour.

What local circulation disorder prevails in the gums of the patient?

A*Venous hyperemia

BArterial hyperemia

CIschemia

DThrombosis

EEmbolism

24

An 18-year-old patient complains of general weakness, fatigue, low spirits. The patient is of the

asthenic constitution type. Ps- 68/min., AP- 90/60 mm Hg. She has been found to have primary

neurocirculatory hypotension. What is the leading factor of the arterial pressure drop in this patient?

A*Decreased tonus of resistive vessels

BDecreased minute blood volume

CHypovolemia

DDeposition of blood in the veins of the systemic circulation

EDecreased cardiac output

25

A 40 year old man who took part in disaster-management at a nuclear power plant fell sick with

paradontitis. What etiological agent is the most important for the development of this pathology?

A*Emotional stress

BIron deficit

CMalnutrition

DIncreased load of dentoalveolar apparatus

EStreptococcus

26

To prevent the transplant rejection after organ transplantation it is required to administer

hormonotherapy for the purpose of immunosuppression. What hormones are used for this purpose?

A*Glucocorticoids

BMineralocorticoids

CSexual hormones

DCatecholamines

EThyroid

27

A woman after labor lost 20 kg of body weight, her hair and teeth fall out, she has muscle

atrophy (hypophysial cachexia). Synthesis of what hypophysis hormone is disturbed?

A*Somatotropic

BCorticotrophic

CThyreotropic

DGonadotropic

EProlactin

28

Climbing the mountains at a height of 5000 m climbers started complaining of breath shortness,

palpitation, vertigo, ring in the ears. What pathogenetic factor determines the development of

these occurances?

A*Hypoxemia

BHypokalemia

CDecreased oxygen capacity of blood

DLactacidemia

EHypernatremia

29

Damage of one of the reactors at a nuclear power plant resulted in runout of radioactive

products. People who were present in the high-radiation area got approximately 250-300 R.

They were urgently taken to the hospital. What blood changes will be typical for this period?

A*Lymphopenia

BLeukopenia

CAnemia

DThrombocytopenia

ENeutropenia

30

A year after subtotal stomach resection on account of ulcer of lesser curvature the following

blood changes were revealed: anemia, leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia, color index - 1,3,

megaloblasts and megalocytes. What factor deficiency caused the development of thos pathology?

A*Castle's factor

BHydrochloride acid

CMucin

DPepsin

EGastrin

31

A patient with a craniocerebral injury presents with respiration characterized by progressively

deeper respiratory movements followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop

in breathing. What pattern of abnormal respiration are these features typical for?

A*Cheyne-Stokes

BBiot's

CKussmaul's

DGasping

EApneustic

32

A 45 year old patient was taken to the hospital by an emergency team with serious cranial

trauma in shock condition. Objectively: unconscious, skin is pale, body to- 35oС, low muscular tonus, reflexes are absent, pulse is rapid and weak, AP- 50/30 mm Hg. What clinical shock stage is it?

A*Terminal stage

BErectile stage

CExcitement stage

DInhibition stage

ETorpid stage

33

After the traumatic tooth extraction a patient is complaining of acute, dull, poorly-localized pain in

gingiva, body temperature rise up to 37,5oC. The patient has been diagnosed with alveolitis.

Specify the kind of pain in this patient:

A*Protopathic

BEpicritic

CVisceral

DHeterotopic

EPhantom

34

After poisoning with an unknown drug a 37 year old patient has stereotypical face muscle contractions that imitate blinking and squinting. What form of motor function disorder of nervous

system is it?

A*Hyperkinesia

BHypokinesia

CAkinesia

DAtaxy

E-

35

A teenger had his tooth extracted under novocain anaesthesia. 10 minutes later he presented

with skin pallor, dyspnea, hypotension. When this reaction is developed and the allergen

achieves tissue basophils, it reacts with:

A*IgE

BIgА

CIgD

DІgМ

ET-lymphocytes

36

A 12 year old boy came home from school and started complaining of headache, sickness, chill,

periodical muscle pain, appetite loss, flabbiness. What period of illness are these symptoms typical for?

A*Prodromal

BLatent

CIncubative

DHigh point of illness

EEnd of illness

37

Rabbits lived on food with addition of cholesterol. Five months later the atherosclerotic aorta

changes were revealed. Name the main cause of atherogenesis in this case:

A*Exogenous hypercholesterolemia

BOvereating

CHypodynamia

DEndogenous hypercholesterolemia

E-

38

A patient with primary nephrotic syndrome has the following content of whole protein: 40 g/l.

What factor caused hypoproteinemia?

A*Proteinuria

BTransition of protein from vessels to tissues

CReduced protein synthesis in liver

DIncreased proteolysis

EDisturbance of intestinal protein absorption

39

Examination of experimental rats that have been getting only carbohydrate feed for a long time

revealed accumulation of water in tissues. What is the leading pathogenetic mechanism of

edema development?

A*Hypooncotic

BMembranogenic

CDysregulatory

DLymphogenous

EHyperosmolar

40

A man who took part in disaster-management at a nuclear power plant had hemorrhagic

syndrome at the same time with acute radiation sickness. What is the most important thing for

the pathogenesis of this syndrome?

A*Thrombocytopenia

BDestructed structure of vessel walls

CHigh activity of fibrinolysis factors

DHigh activity of anticoagulative blood system

ELow activity of anticoagulative blood system

41

Four months ago a 43 year old patient had a traumatic amputation of his lower extrimity. Now he

complains of sensing the amputated extremity and having constantly grave, sometimes

unbearable pain in it. What type of pain does he have?

A*Phantom

BCausalgia

CNeuralgia

DThalamic

EReflex

42

In crisis period a 14 year old child ill with diphtheria has AP- 70/50 mm Hg accompanied by

abrupt fall in temperature and tachycardia. What form of vascular tone disturbance is it?

A*Acute hypotension

BChronic hypotension

CVegetovascular dystonia

DEssential arterial hypotension

E-

43

After a long-lasting and grave illness the blood pressure of a patient fell up to 60/40 mm; he has

tachicardia, dyspnea, black-out. How can this state be defined?

A*Preagony

BAgony

CShock

DApparent death

E-

44

A patient ill with jaundice has increased content of conjugated bilirubin and bile acids in blood, no

stercobilinogen in urine. What jaundice are these symptomps typical for?

A*Obstructive

BHepatic

CHepatocellular

DHemolytic

ECythemolytic

45

A newborn child ill with pylorostenosis has frequent vomiting accompanied by apathy, weakness,

muscular hypertonia, sometimes convulsions. What form of acid-base balance disorder has

developed?

A*Nongaseous alkalosis

BGaseous alkalosis

CGaseous acidosis

DMetabolic acidosis

EExcretory acidosis

46

A 10-year-old child cut his leg with a piece of glass and was sent to a clinic for an anti-tetanus

serum injection. In order to prevent the development of anaphylactic shock the Besredka

desensitisation method was applied. What mechanism underlies this method?

A*Binding to IgE fixed to mast cells

BInhibited synthesis of mast cells mediators

CStimulation of the immunological antigen tolerance

DStimulation of antigen-specific IgG2 synthesis

EBinding of IgE receptors on mast cells

47

A 19 year old patient was diagnosed with chronic acquired hemolytic anemia. What is the

leading pathogenetic mechanism of this pathology's development?

A*Autoimmune hemolysis

BToxic hemolysis

CIntracellular hemolysis

DHyposmolarity of plasm

EOsmotic hemolysis

48

A 56 year old man was taken to the hospital with complaints of general weakness, pain and

burning in the region of tongue, extremity numbness. In the past he had resection of cardiac part

of ventricle. Blood test: Hb- 80 g/L; RBC- 2,0x1012/L; colour index of blood- 1,2; leukocytes -

3,5x109/L. What type of anemy is it?

A*В12 folic-deficient

BHemolytic

CPosthemorrhagic

DAplastic

EIron-deficient

49

After recovering from epidemic parotiditis a patient began to lose weight, he was permanently

thirsty, drank a lot of water, had frequent urination, voracious appetite. Now he has complaints

of skin itch, weakness, furunculosis. His blood contains: glucose - 16 mmole/L, ketone bodies -

100 mcmole/L; glucosuria. What disease has developed?

A*Insulin-dependent diabetes

BInsulin-independent diabetes

CSteroid diabetes

DDiabetes insipidus

EMalnutrition diabetes

50

A patient dropped into an ice hole, froze in the wind and fell ill. Body temperature rose up to

39,7oC and varied from 39oC to 39,8oC. Name the type of the patient's temperature profile?

A*Febris continua

BFebris recurrens

CFebris hectica

DFebris intermittens

EFebris remittens

51

A patient has the following diagnosis: renal hypertension. What is the initial pathogenetic factor

of arterial hypertension development in this case?

A*Renal ischemia

BHypernatremia

CHyperaldosteronism

DIntensified renin synthesis

EIntensified angiotensin synthesis

52

A diver who has been staying at the depth of 40 m for a long time fell ill with caisson disease as

a result of decompression. The main pathogenetic factor is the following embolism:

A*Gaseous

BAir

CFat

DParadoxical

ETissue

53

A woman with intractable vomiting was admitted to the infectious disease ward.What changes of

water-salt metabolism are likely to be observed?

A*Hypo-osmolar dehydration

BIso-osmolar dehydration

CHyperosmolar dehydration

DHypo-osmolar hyperdehydration

EHyper-osmolar hyperdehydration

54

A 65 year old patient suddenly died. She suffered from thrombophlebitis of deep veins of shin.

Autopsy revealed: trunk and bifurcation of pulmonary artery contain red loose masses with dull

corrugated surface. What pathological process did the morbid anatomist reveal in pulmonary artery?

A*Thromboembolism

BThrombosis

CTissue embolism

DForeign body embolism

EFat embolism

55

ECG of a patient shows such alterations: P-wave is normal, P-Q-interval is short, ventricular

QRST complex is wide, R-wave is double-peak or two-phase. What form of arrhythmia is it?

A*WPW syndrome (Wolff-Parkinson-White)

BFrederick's syndrome (atrial flutter)

CAtrioventricular block

DVentricular fibrillation

ECiliary arrhythmia

56

Skin samples of a patient with bronchial asthma revealed allergen sensitization of poplar fuzz.

What factor of immune system plays the main part in development of this immunopathological state?

A*IgE

BIgD

CIgM

DSensitized Т-lymphocytes

E-

57

A patient with insulin-dependent diabetes had an insulin injection. Some time later he felt

weakness, irritability, excessive sweating. What is the main reason of these disorders?

A*Carbohydrate starvation of brain

BIntensified glycogenolysis

CIntensified ketogenesis

DIntensified lypogenesis

EReduced glyconeogenesis

58

For the purpose of disinfection of nonmetallic surgical instruments the formaldehyde solution

was used. What group does this anticeptic preparation belong to according to its chemical

structure?

A*Aliphatics

BAromatics

CAlcohols

DHalogenated compounds

EDetergents

59

A patient with an acute myocarditis has the clinic presentations of cardiogenic shock. What

pathogenetic mechanism plays the main part in shock development?

A*Disorder of pumping ability of heart

BDepositing of blood in veins

CDecrease of diastolic flow to the heart

DDecrease of vascular tone

EIncrease of vascular tone

60

A patient with inflammation of trigeminal nerve has been having progressive paradontitis for

some years. What factor is the most important for parodontitis development?

A*Neurodistrophic disorders

BLow activity of leukocytic elastase

CPoor formation of immunoglobulins

DIncreased tone of vagus nerve

ELow activity of kallikrein-kinin system

61

A patient with streptococcal infection of gums was prescribed a drug that contained beta-lactam

ring in its structure. Which drug relates to this group?

A*Benzylpenicillin

BRifampicin

CErythromycin

DStreptomycin sulfate

EChloramphenicol

62

During a prophylactic medical examination a 7-year-old boy was diagnosed with daltonism. His

parents are healthy and have normal colour vision, but his grandfather on his mother’s side has

the same abnormality. What is the type of the abnormality inheritance?

A*Recessive, sex-linked

BDominant, sex-linked

CSemidominance

DAutosomal recessive

EAutosomal dominant

63

Potassium cyanide that is a poison came into a patient's organism and caused death a few

minutes after it. The most probable cause of its toxic effect was abnormal activity of:

A*Cytochrome oxidase

BCatalase

CATP-synthetase

DNADP-H-dehydrogenase

EHaemoglobin synthesis

64

A 12-year-old teenager has significantly put off weight within 3 months; glucose concentration

rose up to 50 millimole\\l. He fell into a coma. What is the main mechanism of its development?

A*Hyperosmolar

BHypoglycemic

CKetonemic

DLactacidemic

EHypoxic

65

A patient was stung by a bee. Examination results: his left hand is hot, pink and edematic, there

is a big blister on the spot of the sting. What is the leading mechanism of edema development?

A*Increased vascular permeability

BReduced blood filling of vessels

CVascular damage caused by the sting

DReduction of oncotic pressure of tissue

EReduction of osmotic pressure of tissue

66

A surgeon used novocaine as an anaesthetic during surgical manipulations. 10 minutes after it

the patient became pale, he got dyspnea and hypotension. What type of allergic reaction is it?

A*Anaphylactic

BCytotoxic

CImmune complex

DStimulating

ECell-mediated

67

After the exposure to ionizing radiation a person was found to have a decrease in blood

granulocyte level. What mechanism underlies these changes?

A*Leikopoiesis inhibition

BIncreased passage of granulocytes into the tissues

CAutoimmune process development

DIncreased disintegration of leucocytes

EDisturbed release of mature leukocytes from the bone marrow

68

An unconscious patient had been delivered to a hospital by the ambulance. Objectively: absent

reflexes, occasional convulsions, irregular breathing. After a laboratory examination he was

diagnosed with hepatic coma. What metabolite accumulation is essential for the development of

the central nervous system disorders?

A*Ammonia

BUrea

CGlutamine

DBilirubin

EHistamine

69

A patient was admitted to a hospital with poisoning with unsound food. His stomach was lavaged

with solution of potassium permanganate. What is its mechanism of action?

A*Release of atomic oxygen

BRelease of chlorine

CRelease of iodine

DDisturbance of synthesis of respiratory chain enzymes

EDestruction of bacteria membranes

70

Examination of a patient revealed glycosuria and hyperglycemia. He complains of dry mouth,

itchy skin, frequent urination, thirst. He has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. What is the

cause of polyuria in this patient?

A*Increased urine osmotic pressure

BDecreased plasma oncotic pressure

CIncreased filtration pressure

DDecreased cardiac output

EIncreased plasma oncotic pressure

71

Hydrocyanic acid and cyanides are the most violent poisons. According to the dose the death

follows after a few seconds or minutes. The death is caused by the inhibited activity of the

following enzyme:

A*Cytochrome oxidase

BAcetylcholinesterase

CATP-synthetase

DCatalase

EMethemoglobin reductase

72

Treatment of many diseases involves use of cocarboxylase (thiamine pyrophosphate) for

supplying cells with energy. What metabolic process is activated in this case?

A*Oxidizing decarboxylation of pyruvate

BGlutamate deamination

CAmino acids decarboxylation

DDecarboxylation of biogenic amines

EDetoxication of harmful substances in liver

73

A typical symptom of cholera is great loss of water and sodium ions. What mechanism underlies

development of diarrhea in this case?

A*Activation of adenylate cyclase of enterocytes

BIncreased secretion of renin by the cells of renal arterioles

CAldosterone oxidation in adrenal cortex

DInhibition of vasopressin synthesis in hypothalamus

EIncreased corticotropin synthesis

74

A newborn has signs of dyspepsia after milk feeding. Symptoms of dyspepsia disappear when

milk is substituted for glucose solution. The newborn has low activity of the following enzyme:

A*Lactase

BInvertase

CMaltase

DAmylase

EIsomaltase

75

A patient with enteritis accompanied with intense diarrhea has reduced quantity of water in the

extracellular space and increased quantity of water inside the cells as well as low blood

osmolarity. Name this disorder of water-electrolytic metabolism:

A*Hyposmolar hypohydration

BHyperosmolar hypohydration

COsmolar hypohydration

DHyposmolar hyperhydration

EHyperosmolar hyperhydration

76

For the preparation of the burned skin surface of a patient a certain medication was applied. Its

antiseptic properties are provided by free oxygen released in presence of organic substances.

What medication is it?

A*Potassium permanganate

BFuracillin

CChlorhexidine

DAlcoholic iodine solution

ESodium hydrocarbonate

77

A 30 y.o. patient is diagnosed with amebic dysentery. This diagnosis was bacteriologically

confirmed. Name the preparation for its treatment:

A*Metronidazole

BMebendazole

CItrakonazole

DFuracillin

EAcyclovir

78

It is known that patients with diabetes mellitus are more subject to inflammative processes, they

have low regeneration and slower wound healing. What is the reason for this?

A*Decrease in protheosynthesis

BIncrease in lipolysis

CAccelerated gluconeogenesis

DDecrease in lipolysis

EIntensification of catabolism

79

For infection prevention a patient who underwent appendectomy was prescribed a

cephalosporin antibiotic. Antimicrobial activity of these antibiotics is called forth by the

disturbance of the following process:

A*Microbial wall formation

BNucleic acid synthesis

CRibosomal protein synthesis

DEnergy metabolism

ECholinesterase block

80

It is required to disinfect equipment in a dental room. Choose a preparation without disagreeable

odour and colouring power:

A*Chlorhexidine bigluconate

BCarbolic acid solution

CChloride lime

DEthacrydine lactate

EFormalin

81

A patient was admitted to the infectious diseases department. His skin was dry, with low turgor;

he had rice-water stool. The patient was diagnosed with cholera. This disease is ordinarily

accompanied by the folowing disorder of water-electrolytic balance:

A*Isoosmotic hypohydration

BHyperosmotic hyperhydration

CHypoosmotic hypohydration

DHyperosmotic hypohydration

EHyposmotic hyperhydration

82

Prophylactic examination of a patient revealed hyperglycemia, ketonuria, polyuria, glycosuria.

What form of acid-base balance disorder is the case?

A*Metabolic acidosis

BGaseous acidosis

CNongaseous acidosis

DGaseous alkalosis

EMetabolic alkalosis

83

Injection of an anaesthetic before the tooth extraction resulted in development of anaphylactic

shock accompanied by oliguria. What pathogenetic mechanism caused a decrease in diuresis

in this case?

A*Decrease in hydrostatic pressure in the renal corpuscle capillaries

BIncrease in hydrostatic pressure in the Bowman's capsule

CDamage of glomerular filter

DIncrease in oncotic pressure of blood plasma

EIncrease in vasopressin secretion

84

A patient presents with icteritiousness of skin, scleras and mucous membranes. Blood plasma

the total bilirubin is increased, stercobilin is increased in feces, urobilin is increased in urine.

What type of jaundice is it?

A*Haemolytic

BGilbert's disease

CParenchymatous

DObturational

ECholestatic

85

A group of researchers set an experiment and obtained anucleate mutant cells. In the first place

they will have disturbed synthesis of the following compounds:

A*Ribosomal RNA

BTransfer RNA

CLipids

DMonosaccharides

EPolysaccharides

86

As a result of a trauma a patient has developed traumatic shock that led to the following

disorders: AP is 140/90 mm Hg, Ps is 120 bpm. The patient is fussy, talkative, pale. Such state

relates to the following shock phase:

A*Erectile

BLatent period

CTerminal

DTorpid

E-

87

A patient consulted a dentis about a lesion of his oral mucosa. He was diagnosed with herpetic

stomatitis. Which of the following drugs will have an effect on etiotropic factor?

A*Acyclovir

BDimedrol

CParacetamol

DLevamisole

EFuracilinum

88

A patient consulted a dentist about itching and burning in the oral cavity; high temperature. The

patient was diagnosed with trichomonal gingivostomatitis. What drug should be chosen for his

treatment?

A*Metronidazole

BAmpicillin

CDoxycycline hydrochloride

DGentamicin sulfate

ENystatin

89

A patient is ill with herpetic stomatitis provoked by immunosuppression. What preparation

introduced intravenously, internally and locally can provide antiviral and immunopotentiating effect?

A*Acyclovir

BRemantadinum

CLevamisole

DMethisazonum

EAmoxicillin

90

A patient suffering form stomatitis was prescribed oral rinsing. Which antiseptic from the oxidant

group is the most suitable for this purpose?

A*Potassium permanganate

BBoric acid

CAlcoholic iodine solution

DEthyl alcohol

EChloramine

91

A patient suffers from the haemorrhagic syndrome that shows itself in frequent nasal bleedings,

posttraumatic and spontaneous intracutaneous and intra-articular haemorrhages. After a

laboratory study a patient was diagnosed with the type B haemophilia. This disease is provoked

by the deficit of the following factor of blood coagulation:

A*IX

BVIII

CXI

DV

EVII