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Experiment Hawthorne proves that the atmosphere at work affects the outcome. But it always been so, if reduced a little, there is no condition of each person will be difficult to go to work. but the Main conclusion of sociologists: the raising of the productivity of labour, contrary to the opinion of the Mayo clinic, has influenced not «human relations» (group cohesion and psychological climate), and technical-and-organizational and economic conditions - the great economic crisis of 1929-1933, and by the resulting unemployment, the change in the length of the working w eek and day, the introduction of pauses rest improved lighting. Challenging the correctness of the methodology of experiments, scientists once again have analysed two types of variables-explicit (or controlled) and implicit (uncontrolled). The first are the material conditions of labour - forms of incentives and labour organization (lighting, supervision, pause rest, wages). They are easy to measure and observe the effects on other dependent variables. To the second, it is difficult to qualifying factors, a re in fact «human relations». When Mayo and his Harvard colleagues conducted the interviews, they have found no connection between the fact that the said workers interviewer, and the way they behave in reality. Scientists understood that it is necessary to distinguish between two groups of variables: 1) verbal, or display the content of the answers and 2) latent, implied, that the workers of thinking about himself, but he did not speak. Yes, and the work may be, for reasons of lack of competence or for some other reason, do not always been able to describe exactly what forms of influence his behaviour, physical or moral. Workers could not also a clear answer, there was at their division informal group or not. And so much the more difficult it was to solve, w hat is the sense of attachment to a group, they want or they don't want to reckon with its opinion that such participation or self-esteem. The answers were mostly contradictory. Sometimes the situation was just curious. The house of the husband had quarreled with his wife, and came to work expressed dissatisfaction with the noise and high air temperature, relations with the head, and indeed everyone in the world remained dissatisfied. Another worker was indignant low wages. And all because his wife is in th e hospital and pay for the treatment of nothing. The third endured the master of authoritarian stereotypes, which were peculiar to his father. All this is a sample of variables, hidden behind the verbal content of the answers, and more of the real facts. M ayo and Dixon had to invent sophisticated methods to weed out false information. But they are not always able to avoid the «background noise» and to achieve the required purity of the information. Up to the end not clarified the question remains of how adequate was the theoretical interpretation of data. The conclusion about the existence of small groups, which constitute a kind of social system of the enterprise, scientists led not so much empirical results, how much of the theoretical work of predecessors , first of all Durkheim and Pareto. However, regardless of whether it is proved ultimately influence of the «human relations» or not, there are a lot of doubt on the reliability of their existence. Movement «human relations» marked the beginning of a new st age in the development of foreign sociology of management. This direction or, in the narrow sense of the word, school of research and to this day retains its positions. New concepts and theories that have emerged in the last decade, for example, «enrichment of labour and the quality of working life», originate in the research Elton Mayo.
Independent work №1 questions
1. What is the difference between micro-sociology and macro-sociology?
2. Why does this course focus exclusively on macro-sociology?
3. What is a paradigm?
4. Of what use is social theory?
5. What is positivism? What was Comte’s favored (principal) method of inquiry?
1. Macro-sociology is directed on opening the global laws society,but micro-sociology is directed on study of the behaviour individual in different social condition, motivations their action.
2. 1. Problem solving: Step-by-step approach consisting of (1) identifying and defining a problem, (2) accumulating relevant data, (3) formulating a tentative hypothesis, (4) conducting experiments to test the hypothesis, (5) interpreting the results objectively, and (6) repeating the steps until an acceptable solution is found.
2. Sciences: Rigorous, systematic approach, designed to eliminate bias and other subjective influences in the search, identification, and measurement or validation of facts and cause-effect relationships, and from which scientific laws may be deduced.
3. When one speaks about a topic which is controversial to many, such as parapsychology, it is crucial to understand the concept of a paradigm. A paradigm is an underlying worldview. It can be thought of as a framework of beliefs which are so taken for granted that most folks are not even aware they have made any assumptions. A paradigm helps us to make sense of th e world around us. But perhaps more importantly, in terms of science, it not only determines what is true, but how truth itself can be determined. There is an obvious catch to this. If one does not recognize the underlying assumptions one makes with a para digm, it has the potential to limit our perception of the world, what we can discover, and how we can determine that knowledge. The old paradigm, which many have held since the days of Descartes, states that the subjective and objective worlds are complete ly distinct, with no overlap. Subjective is "here, in the head," and objective is "there, out in the world." The Cartesian paradigm presupposes that there are objective ways to define and measure the fixed external world--which the proponents of this parad igm would say is the only world that matters. The classical paradigm favors experimental research design, which presumes to measure the world in an objective way. Quantum theory triggered a fundamental shift in how we understand the world. Physicists suddenly realized that there is always some indeterminacy in our measurements. This is because the act of measurement itself can define and change that which is being measured. Because of this, the experimenter may always be part of the experiment, and all our "objective" facts are, in fact, potentially flawed (with ESP making it impossible to ever have a truly "blind" experiment). This insight led to the idea of a paradigm based on nonlocality. And while not all physicists agree, the new paradigm that is emergi ng is one in which the universe is a single whole, within which every part is connected on some level to every other part. This new paradigm does not "prove" psi exists. However, it is compatible with the possible existence of psi, and may lead to a better understanding the phenomena. It should be noted that the conflict between these two paradigms is ongoing. Because these belief systems are both widespread and deeply ingrained, topics that touch on these fundamentally different worldviews may give rise to bitter and violent debate, with little or no room for compromise. The lack of common ground between paradigms means that the question cannot be solved by discussion. Ultimately, the answer will have to be determined by which paradigm does the best job of answering the questions raised by research. Understanding the role that paradigms play makes it easier for advocates of competing worldviews to agree to disagree with mutual respect. If you wish to read more about this topic, you may wish to pick up a copy of Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
4. A theory is a statement as to how and why particular facts are related. C. Wright Mills' theory of the sociological imagination related to the sociological perspective is how personal issues could become public issues. When sociologists create or construct theories, two basic questions arise. The first pertains to what the sociologists wants to study (including global issues, issues between genders, etc.), and the second question pertains to how the facts of this study will be connected.
5. Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that in the social as well as natural sciences, data derived from sensory experience, and logical and mathematical treatments of such data, are together th e exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge. Obtaining and verifying data that can be received from the senses is known as empirical evidence. This view holds that society operates according to laws like the physical world. Intro spective and intuitional attempts to gain knowledge are rejected. Though the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of Western thought, the concept was developed in the modern sense in the early 19th century by the philosopher and founding sociologist, Auguste Comte. Comte argued that society operates according to its own laws, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other laws of nature.
5. Auguste Comte (full name Isidore Marie Auguste Franзois Xavier Comte) (January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker known as the "father of sociology." He developed a philosophy he called "Positivism," in which he described human society as having developed through three stages, the third of which he called the "positive" stage, dominated by scientific thought. He was the first to apply the scientific method to the social world, and coined the term sociology to describe the scientific study of human society. It was his hope that through such endeavors, an und erstanding of human society could be achieved that would enable humankind to progress to a higher level, in which the entire human race could function together as one. He also coined the term "altruism," advocating that people should live for the sake of o thers. Although Comte's work appeared to regard the human intellect as the most important in developing the new world order, in his later work, he embraced the concept of love as bringing the solution to all human problems. While Comte's vision of a new wo rld society brought about through a somewhat mystical form of scientific sociology has not come about, his work provided the foundation for great advances in the understanding of how human society functions. Positivism is the philosophy developed by August e Comte that stated that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. Comte is known to have said, "Men are not allowed to think freely a bout chemistry and biology: Why should they be allowed to think freely about political philosophy?"
His view is sometimes referred to as a scientist ideology, and is often shared by technocrats who believe that essential progress occurs through scientific progress. As an approach to the philosophy of science deriving from Enlightenment thinkers like Pierre-Simon Laplace (and many others). Positivism was first systematically theorized by Comte, who saw the scientific method as replacing metaphysics in the h istory of thought. Comte also observed the circular dependence of theory and observation in science. Comte was thus one of the leading thinkers of the social evolutionist thought. Positivism is the most evolved stage of society in anthropological evolution ism, the point where science and rational explanation for scientific phenomena develops. Marxism and predictive dialectics is a highly positivist system of theory.
Comte also said, "The dead govern the living," which is likely a reference to the cumulative nature of positivism and the fact that our current world is shaped by the actions and discoveries of those who came before us.
Comte's positivism should not be confused with Logical positivism, which originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s. Logical positivism is a school of philosophy that combines positivism—which states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge—with a version of apriorism—the notion that some propositional knowledge can be had without, or "prior to," experience.
Comte’s explanation of the Positive philosophy introduced the important relationship between theory, practice, and human understanding of the world. In the 1855 printing of Harriet Martineau’s translation of The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte, he observation that:
If it is true that every theory must be based upon observed facts, it is equally true that facts can not be observed without the guidance of some theory. Without such guidance, our facts would be desultory and fruitless; we could not retain them: for the most part we could not even perceive them.
Method of inquiry
Comte believed social scientists should use the same methods that proved successful in the natural sciences: Observation, experimentation, comparison, and the historical method. Comte believed all observations had to be connected to preliminary theories, otherwise observers would not know what they were looking at. Experimentation is difficult in the social sciences but Comte stated that "experimentation takes place whenever the regular course of the phenomenon is interfered with in any determinate manner." Comte argued that comparisons between human and animal society would reveal useful hints about humanity's true nature. He also extended the idea of comparison to those between human s. These three forms of inquiry all relied on a foundation of history.