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    1

    ,

    1

    «

    81.2

    »

    -9

    69
    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,
    :

    .

    .
    .1

    69

    .

    .

    .


    .- 5-

    .,

    I

    V

    .
    .» /

    .
    .-

    )

    ,

    .:

    .

    ,
    , 1998. - 536 .:

    .

    .;
    .

    ISBN 5-691-00030-6
    .

    -

    .
    (

    - 1997 .)

    ,
    .
    81.2

    ©
    ©«

    -9

    , 1996
    », 1997, 1998

    ISBN 5-691-00030-6

    . .

    .

    1903 .
    ,

    -

    ,
    50
    ,

    .
    (111
    -

    700

    )

    .,

    450
    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    100

    ,

    .
    .
    140

    ,

    ,

    1-

    .
    2

    «
    »,

    : «

    »

    », «

    .
    (

    . . .

    ) 1958 .

    1983 .

    ,

    ,
    ,
    .

    ,

    ,
    .

    (

    -

    )
    .

    1
    ,

    .
    .
    ,

    ,
    ,

    1
    : 1.

    (

    1-11); 2.
    .

    ; 4.

    .
    (

    12-20); 3.

    ,
    .
    ,

    .
    ,

    ,

    -

    .
    .
    ,
    ,

    .

    :

    ,
    ,

    .

    (Topical Vocabulary)

    ,
    ,

    ,
    L.Jones. Functions of English. L.,

    1982.
    ,
    .
    1

    .
    ,

    ,
    1

    .
    .
    ),

    -

    .

    ,

    ,
    .

    ,

    .
    .

    .
    8

    (Section)

    .

    .
    .
    .
    .
    3

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    .

    6-7

    ,

    .
    :

    I. 1.
    II. 1.
    III. 1.
    IV. 1.

    .

    . 2.

    . 2.

    . 3.

    . 2.

    (
    (

    2.

    .

    .
    ).

    -

    «

    (

    .

    »).

    .

    ).

    V. 1.

    .

    (

    ). 2.

    .

    .
    VI. 1.

    ,

    .

    . 2.

    .

    .

    .

    .
    :
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    8.

    (

    ).
    .
    ,

    (

    ,

    ).
    .

    .
    .
    .
    .

    9.
    10.

    .
    .
    (
    36-38

    (

    ):

    I.

    .
    ,

    -

    .

    II.

    (
    ).

    III.
    ,

    ,
    .

    IV.

    .
    .

    ,

    .

    V.
    .
    VI.
    VII.

    (

    )

    .
    .

    ,

    ,

    VIII.
    ,
    .
    IX.

    :

    ,

    .

    .

    *.
    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,
    .

    *

    «
    «

    »
    »(

    ,

    ,

    ). .,

    1973.
    1

    .
    .

    .

    «

    : 1.

    ».

    .:

    ., 1974.

    ; 2.
    4

    ; 3.

    ; 4.
    ,

    ;

    .
    ,
    .
    ,

    ,
    (

    ,

    ),

    ,

    ,

    .
    :

    -

    .
    -

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    .

    ,

    .

    ,

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    ,

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    .

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    .

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    ,

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    ,

    ,
    :

    -

    ,

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    .

    .
    .

    : [ ].
    ,

    ,

    ,
    daughter ['d t ]
    44

    .
    ,

    ,

    ,

    . 26
    .

    .
    ,

    .

    ,

    .
    ,
    .

    (
    9).

    .

    .

    .

    .
    -

    ;

    .

    .
    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .
    ,

    :
    ,

    ,
    ,

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    :

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    .
    5

    (

    ),

    .
    ,
    ,

    -

    .
    ,
    .
    .

    ,

    ,

    :

    I-

    ,

    ; II , ;5-

    ,

    ; III -

    ,

    ; IV ;3-

    , ;6:

    ,

    -

    .

    .

    ;1-

    ;2:

    -

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    ,

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    : , ;8.

    .

    , ;4;9-

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,

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    ,

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    ,

    ,

    .
    ,

    .
    ,

    .
    .
    [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ],
    ,

    ,
    ,
    [t], [d], [s], [z];
    [ ], [ ], [ ],

    :

    ,
    ,

    :

    [m], [n], [j].

    :
    I.
    II.
    III. no
    I.

    ,
    ,
    .
    :
    ,

    ,

    .
    , .

    .

    .
    ,
    :

    [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ],

    ,
    ,
    [k], [g], [p], [b].

    ,
    6

    ,

    .

    .
    [n], [ ]

    [ ], [ ], [m],

    .
    .

    ,
    .
    [f], [v], [h].

    [ ], [ ],

    ,

    .
    ],

    ,

    [ ], [l].

    ,
    [ ], [j], [w], [r],

    ,

    ,
    ,

    [ ],

    :

    [1]

    ,

    .
    [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ]
    [ ]

    .
    .

    II.
    :
    1.

    ,
    .

    [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [b], [m], [w].

    2.

    ,
    ,

    [ ], [ ], [f], [v].
    ,
    .

    3.
    ,
    ],

    ,
    ,
    [l], [n], [z], [ ], ,

    ,

    ,
    [ ], [ ].

    ,

    ,

    ,
    : [ ], [ ].

    ,
    ,

    [ ],
    ,
    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,
    : [ ], [ ], [t] [d], [n].

    4.

    ,
    .

    : [ ], [j].
    ,
    : [ ]. [ ], [ ], [k], [g], [ ].

    5.
    ,

    .

    III.
    .
    ,
    ,

    ,
    .

    ,

    ,

    [ ], [ ], [r], [b], [ ]

    ,

    ,

    ,

    : [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [f], [ ].
    .

    ,
    .
    :
    I.
    II.
    I.

    ,
    .
    .
    ,

    ,

    1.

    ,
    [ ], [ ]

    ,
    2.

    :
    ,

    ,

    [i:], [e].

    ,
    : [ ], [ ].
    [ :]

    [ ],

    ,
    7

    .
    3.

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,

    [ ], [ ], [u:], [ ].
    [I].
    ,

    [ ].

    [I]

    .
    [ ]

    .
    ,

    [ ],

    .

    ,

    [ ]-

    ,

    [ ]

    .
    :
    1.

    ,
    : [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [u:], [ ], [ ].

    2.
    :

    ,
    [ ].
    ,

    [ ],

    3.
    : [ ], [ ], [ ].

    .
    II.
    .
    ,
    ,

    [ ]

    [ ],

    ,

    [ ], [u:], [ ], [ ]
    .

    [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ :].
    .

    .
    ,
    ,
    ,

    .
    .

    ,

    : [bi: - bi d- bIt].
    :

    1.

    ,
    .

    :

    2.
    [aI], [

    [ ],

    [ ].

    ,
    ].

    3.

    ,

    ,

    .
    ,

    ,

    ,

    ;

    ,

    [i:], [u:].

    Lesson One

    1. [k], [ ] -

    .
    [k], [ ],

    [ ], [ ],

    ,

    .

    .

    [k]
    [kh].
    [ ]

    ,
    [ ]

    [k].

    []

    .
    8

    2.

    [t],

    [d]

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    [t]

    h

    [ ]
    [d]
    [ ]

    [t ].
    [t].

    [d]

    .

    [ ], [ ]

    ,

    (

    ).

    3. [n] .

    4.

    ,

    [t], [d],

    .
    [ ][z] -

    [s],

    ,

    .
    .
    .

    [s]

    [z]

    [ ].

    [s].

    [z]

    []
    [s], [z]

    .

    [ ], [ ]

    .
    5. [ ] (

    ),

    .

    [I]

    ,

    ,

    ,

    [ ],

    ,

    .
    [ ],
    .

    ,
    [ ]

    ,

    .
    6.

    (palatalization),
    .

    ,
    .

    :

    -

    ,

    -

    ,

    -

    ,

    -

    .
    ,

    .
    ,
    .

    7.

    .

    (

    ,

    )

    .
    ,
    .
    8.

    .

    9.

    (word-stress).
    .
    [']

    .

    ['k t ].
    1

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.

    ,

    :
    [I].
    [t], [d], [n], [s], [z].

    [t], [k]

    .
    9

    4.

    ,
    .

    5.
    6.

    10.

    .
    [I]

    [ ],

    [ð]

    .

    .

    ,
    .

    .
    .
    [ð]

    [ ]

    .

    .

    [ ], [ ]
    .

    ,
    ],

    [ ],

    .

    .

    [ ], [ ]

    .
    2

    .

    ,

    :

    1.
    2.

    [I].
    [ðIs].

    11. [ ], [b] -

    .
    ,

    ,

    .

    [ ]
    ,

    [ ]

    .
    .

    12. [m] ,
    .
    [m].
    13. [ ] -

    [ ]
    [b]

    .

    c

    .
    ,

    [m]

    ,

    ,

    [ ]

    .

    .
    ,
    ,

    [ ]

    [ ]

    .

    .

    ,
    [ ]
    [ ]

    ,

    .
    3

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.

    :

    .
    .
    [ ], [t], [k].
    ,
    .

    1.

    .
    10

    1 : Teacher: What's the girl's name? (Who is standing in the corridor?)
    Student: \Kitty (Minnie, Betty, Nelly)...
    2 : Teacher: I've lost my umbrella.
    Student: \Pity!

    1.
    2.
    3.

    .
    ,

    .

    ,

    :

    *
    *

    ,

    ,

    .

    I.
    II.

    .
    .

    Lesson Two

    1. [1] ,

    .
    .

    ,
    [ ]
    (

    .
    )

    [ ]

    .
    .

    (

    )

    [l]

    [j].

    .

    ,

    [1]

    ,

    [ ]
    (lateral plosion).
    ,
    .
    [l].

    2.

    [ ].
    [l]
    ,
    .
    4

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.

    [t]

    3. [f], [v] -

    -

    :
    [l], [t].

    [l].

    .
    [ ], [ ].

    [f]
    11

    ,
    [f].

    .

    [v]

    [v]

    .
    5

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.

    4.

    :
    [I], [ ].

    [vn],

    .

    [ ] ,

    .
    .
    .
    [ ]

    5.

    [ ]

    [ ].

    .

    (Intonation-group).
    .
    As far as I know he is a teacher.
    .
    .

    ,
    .

    :

    is a teacher
    ,

    ,

    .
    ,
    )

    (

    .

    .
    (Low Fall)

    ,

    .
    ,

    ,

    ,

    .
    .
    .

    (Low Rise)
    ,

    ,

    ,

    .
    .

    :

    ,
    .

    ,

    .

    :

    :

    12

    (descending head),

    2

    (Falling Head).

    :

    :

    (Stepping Head).

    :

    (High Level Head),
    .

    :

    | \ |,
    |

    \

    |,

    |
    |

    |,

    |,

    /

    | ' |,

    |,

    ||.

    (sentence-stress)

    .
    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    -

    ,

    .
    ,

    ,

    .
    .

    6.

    (assimilation).
    .
    [t], [d], [n], [l], [s], [z]

    ,
    [ ], [ð].

    6

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.

    ,

    :
    [I], [e].
    -

    .
    .

    .
    13

    7. [j] -

    .
    ,

    ,

    [ ].

    ,

    .
    .
    .
    7

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.

    :

    [j].
    [t].
    8

    .

    ,
    [z]

    1.
    2.
    3.

    :
    [ð],
    [znt],
    .

    .
    .

    8.

    ,
    , . .

    ,
    tedi iz \ten].

    [

    9

    .

    ,

    :

    1.
    .
    2.

    .

    Nn [en], Mm [em], Ss [es], Ff [ef], LI [el]

    I.

    ,

    :

    :

    14

    II.

    ,
    :

    III.

    .

    10-15

    :

    Mm, Nn, Ss, Ff, LI.
    IV.

    ,

    .

    [ðIs Iz].

    1:

    (Low Fall).

    ð s z \n k

    Dick, Sid, Eddy, Kitty, Benny, Betty, Minnie, Ben, Lily.
    2:

    ðis iz

    \lesn

    sentence, text, desk, pig, city, ticket, egg, kid, pen, pencil.
    V.

    ,
    :

    ,

    . IV.
    , . .

    ,

    .
    .

    1:
    2:
    VI.

    d s z \d k || -» z ð s /d k || \jes ||
    d s z \sent ns ||
    z ð s \sent ns || \jes ||
    :

    : Teacher: Who is reading the text?
    Student: \Nick (Eddy, Sid, Kitty, Dick, Ben, Lily) is.
    VII.

    :
    15

    : Teacher: How old is Lily? (Becky, Tom...)
    Student:
    Lily is e\leven.
    VIII.

    ,

    .

    1 : Teacher: How many books have you read this year?
    Student: \Many.
    Teacher: And more exactly?
    Student: \Ten.
    2 : Teacher: Why can't you come to my place?
    Student: \Busy.
    Teacher: Pity, isn't it?
    Student: It \is.

    1.
    2.
    3.

    .
    ,

    .

    ,

    I. )
    II.
    III.

    , )

    :

    .
    .

    .

    Lesson Three

    1. [i:] .
    ,

    [i:]
    ,

    ,

    .

    ,
    [ ] > [ ].

    [ ]
    .

    [ ],
    [i:].

    ,

    [ ],

    ,

    [ ].

    10

    16

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.

    :

    (

    [i:]
    []

    []

    [ ].

    [i:]

    .

    [i:]

    .
    .
    [i:]

    .

    2. [ :] .

    [ :]

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    [ ],

    ,

    .
    3.

    .
    (nasal plosion).
    [n]
    [m]

    [t], [d]
    .
    [n]

    .

    : ['g dn].
    (loss of plosion).

    4.

    [ ], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g]
    [ ], [
    ,
    ,
    [ð 'da:k \g dn].

    ,
    [k]

    [m]

    [g]

    11

    .

    ,

    [ :]

    .

    5. [ ] .

    [ ]

    ,

    ,
    [ :]

    ,

    .

    [ ]

    [ ]

    [ ]

    .
    ,

    [ ]

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .
    12

    .

    ,

    1.

    :
    -s,

    .

    [s]
    -es

    [z]
    2.
    3.

    ,

    [z]
    [iz]. He

    .
    [ ]

    .
    .

    6. [u:] .
    .

    .

    [u:]
    17

    .

    ,

    .

    [ ]
    [ ]

    .
    ,
    7.

    ,

    ,

    .

    .
    .

    .
    :[

    .

    - a - ].
    ,

    .
    13

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.

    :
    [u:].

    [u:].

    8. [ ] .
    ,
    ,

    ,

    [u:].

    [u:].

    .

    [ ]

    .
    14

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.

    :

    [u:]
    [u:]

    [ ]

    .

    [ ]

    .
    [t]

    [ð].
    .

    9. [ :] ,

    .

    ,

    [ :]

    ,

    ,
    .

    .

    ,
    [ ], [ ]

    [ ]

    ,

    ,
    ,

    .
    15

    .

    ,

    :].

    10. [

    ] -

    .

    - [ ] 18

    ,
    ,

    .
    [ :].

    [ ].

    [ ].
    ,
    (

    ,

    ).

    [ ]

    ,

    ,

    .

    (

    [ ]

    )

    .
    16

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.

    ,

    :
    .
    [l], [n], [t], [d].

    [k].
    17

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.

    :
    [ð s z ð ], [ z ð s ð ].
    [ ].
    .
    .

    ],

    [si:],

    [i:], Dd [di:], Pp [pi:], Bb [bi:], Rr [a], Tt [ti:], Vv [vi:]

    :

    .
    26
    24

    ,

    44

    (20

    ).
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    -

    , . .

    ,

    ,
    4

    ,
    .

    .
    .
    .

    :
    19

    1)
    , . .

    ,
    : me [mi:], no [n

    .

    2)

    ];

    ,

    note [n
    .

    ,

    .

    t], Pete [pi:t],

    ,
    ,

    .

    ,
    ,
    .

    (

    .

    ,

    r).

    .
    ,

    ,

    .
    [ ]

    .

    , or

    I

    II

    [ ].
    [ ]: old, bold.
    ,

    ld
    ,

    [s]
    [z]

    : better, doctor.
    :

    ,

    [s]
    ck

    ,

    : en [en], pen [pen], spend [spend].
    ,

    s
    sit, best, lips.
    s
    noses, beds.

    ,

    , i,

    : music,
    [k]

    : cent, cold.

    [k]: clock.

    1.

    ,
    ,

    ,
    :

    1. Is this a text? 2. Is this a lesson? 3. Is this a sentence? 4. Is this a pen? 5. Is this a park? 6. This text is easy,
    isn't it? 7. The dog is not big, is it? 8. This lesson is not difficult, is it?
    II.

    (

    [z]

    ):

    a lot - lots; a top - tops; a net - nets; a set - sets; a note - notes; fog - fogs; a pet - pets; a nod - nods; a bill bills; a fox - foxes; a kiss - kisses; a bed - beds; a clock -clocks; a kid - kids; a stick - sticks; a theme - themes.
    III.

    .

    ,

    ,

    :

    a bell - bells; a mill - mills; a city - cities; a test - tests; an empty desk - empty desks; a sentence - sentences;
    a lily -lilies; a busy bee - busy bees.
    IV.

    .

    10-15

    :
    20

    Bb, Dd, Pp, Tt, Cc,

    ,

    , Vv, Rr.

    V.

    , , .

    .

    VI.

    :

    best, code, nod, tops, sent, bed, these, cod, sold, spoke, mock, theme, block, then, neck, cone, bold, enter,
    cell, centner, motor, dose, nest, depth, less, self, fold, doctor.
    VII.

    ,

    .

    1 : This is a text.
    a penny, a sentence, a park, a car, a fox, a clock, a cock.
    2 : This is the doctor.
    the garden, the star, the box, the dog, the lesson, the text, the pen, the book, the girl.
    VIII. )

    ,

    .

    : This isn't a box.
    a bed, a city, a pencil, an answer, an oak, a star, a cock, a mill, a penny.
    )

    .
    .

    : This

    isn't a \box, | /is it?

    IX.

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    : This
    This

    is an oak. - Is it?
    isn't an oak. - Isn't it?

    1. This is a garden. 2. This is a mill. 3. This isn't a penny. 4. This isn't a star. 5. This is a cock. 6. This isn't a
    fox. 7. This is a clock. 8. This isn't a dog.
    X. )

    .

    .

    : This is a yellow pencil.
    an old clock, an easy sentence, a yellow fox, a big park, a difficult lesson, a big car, a difficult text.
    )

    .

    : This isn't a yellow pencil.
    XI. )

    ,

    :

    (

    ).

    Is the 'lesson /easy?

    1. Is the park big? 2. Is the clock old? 3. Is the pencil yellow? 4. Is the lesson easy? 5. Is the text difficult? 6.
    Is the book good?
    21

    )

    .

    :

    Is the 'lesson

    /

    easy? The

    XII.

    This is a \star, /isn't it?
    Yes, it \is.

    2:

    This 'isn't a \star, /, \is it?
    No, it \isn't.

    \

    easy, |

    /

    isn't it?

    ,
    .

    .

    l:

    lesson is

    .

    a bee, a fox, a park, a pencil, a car, a clock, a book, a notebook, a cook, a stick, a slip, a bell, a bird, a dog.
    XIII.

    )

    ,
    .

    :

    Tom is \six.
    Is ' m /six?

    )

    .

    :

    Is 'Tom /six?
    Tom's \seven.
    \No, |

    Pete, Bob, Victor, Polly, Lily, Lucy, Arthur, Betsy, Emily, Emma, Philip, Dick, Benny, Sid, Betty, Nick.
    XIV.

    17,
    .

    :

    This is the 'fifth \lesson.
    The /fifth lesson?

    XV.

    ,

    :

    This is an 'old \park.
    Is
    it?
    /
    It \is.

    1.
    2.
    3.

    I.

    :

    .
    ,
    ,

    )

    ,

    .
    :

    )

    .
    II. )

    , )

    .(

    .)
    22

    III.

    .

    Lesson Four

    1. [h] -

    .
    .
    [h]

    .

    [h]

    .

    [ ]

    .
    ,

    [ ]

    .
    18

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.

    : [h '1

    ,
    ], [h 'tel], ['h sp tl].
    ['h sp tl].
    [h].

    :

    .
    ['daunt '

    ].

    2. [ ] .

    [ ]

    .

    ,
    [ ]

    .

    [ ].
    [ ]

    [ ]

    .
    3.
    [k], [t], [p]

    [ , t, k],
    [s].

    [s].
    : [sp t].

    19

    23

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.

    ,

    :

    .
    [ ], [ ], [
    [s]
    [ ]

    ],

    [ - ]

    .
    [b]: [ð s b l].

    .
    .

    [k], [p], [t].
    .

    4. [ ] .
    ,

    [ ]

    ,
    .

    ,
    .

    .

    .
    [ ]

    ,

    (

    [ ],

    [ ]

    )

    ,

    [ ].

    [ ],

    ,

    .

    [ ]

    .
    20

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.

    :
    [ d], [ t].
    [ , , ].

    [

    5. [e ] -

    b g \b g], [

    .

    bl k \k t].

    -

    [ ]
    ,

    ,

    .
    [ ],
    [ ].

    .

    ,

    21

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.

    :
    [e ].

    .
    [k]

    6. [a ] -

    .

    [ð]

    [

    te k ð

    \ke

    k].

    ,
    ,

    (
    [ ].

    ,

    ,

    .
    ,
    ).
    [ ]
    [ ]

    .
    24

    22

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.

    7

    :
    [ ].

    .

    [ ],

    [ ] .

    ,
    .

    ,

    [ ], [ ]

    ].

    [ ]
    [ ], [ ],

    .
    23

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.

    ,

    :
    he, she

    .

    [1]

    [ ].
    [ znt].

    [e ], Ii [a ], Kk [ke ], Xx [eks], Zz [zed]

    :

    i

    I

    II

    ,
    r

    .

    r [ :].
    .

    ,
    , , , i, ,

    III

    25

    r,

    ,
    .
    : marry ['m r ], sorry ['s r ].
    [gz]
    : exam [ig'z m], exhibit [ig'z b t]; [ks]
    : six [s ks], text [tekst], exercise ['eks sa z], expect [iks'pekt].

    ,
    .
    .
    :
    1.

    (
    : stu | dent ['stju:d nt].
    I
    *.

    ,
    ,

    r),
    ,

    ,
    pity, copy, very
    2.

    .

    .
    ,
    r,

    ,

    .
    marry ['m r ].

    II
    ,-

    ,
    : during ['dj

    , . .
    ,
    ,
    : ta|ble ['te |bl].

    ,

    ,
    *

    : dinner ['d n ],
    ,
    b
    .

    l,
    r,

    r

    IV

    ,

    ,
    ),

    ,

    ,

    ,

    (
    : dinner ['d n ], office [' f s].
    : return [r 't :n], begin [b 'g n].

    ,

    II
    , . .
    ,
    : factory ['f kt r ], family ['f m l ], experiment [iks'perim nt].
    [ju:],
    .
    : funeral ['fju:n r l].
    .

    .

    ], Mary ['m r ].

    ,

    ['dem nstre t

    : city,

    ,
    ,

    r,
    I

    ,

    : demonstrate ['dem nstre t], demonstrated ['dem nstre t d], demonstrating
    ].
    -ion
    ,

    ,
    : demonstration [,dem ns'tre n].
    .
    19,
    : thirteen [' :'ti:n],
    : disappear ['dis 'p ], rewrite ['ri:'ra t].
    .

    13
    .

    .

    -

    ,

    26

    1

    2

    1. )

    ,

    : Take the book. Take the map
    . .
    Don't take the book. Don't take the map
    It is five. It is not five . .
    Is it dark? It is not dark . .
    )

    1

    2.

    . .

    ,

    1.
    .

    ,

    .
    II.

    ,

    :

    1. Is she five or six? 2. Is his daughter four or five? 3. Is Pete nine or ten? 4. Is this a park or a garden? 5. Is
    this family big or small? 6. Is this pencil black or yellow? 7. Is the lesson difficult or easy? 8. Is the meat hot or
    cold?
    III.

    .

    1. Tell Father all. 2. Don't go alone. 3. Make tea for him. 4. Take the ball. 5. Don't take the lamp. 6. Take the
    pencil.
    IV.

    .

    :

    ten miles, go home, take the pen, he is late, it is fine, a pale face; I am nineteen; This is a park.
    V.

    :

    sit, lame, back, miss, sack, gave, tip, tide, tap, late, mad, made, nine, fill, cake, thick, bat, pin, pine, hate, act,
    ice, plot, face, hid, fate, stamp, spot, pile, land, mist, mole, mark, gold, cap, nose, fix, harm, merry, horn, start,
    form, exact, examination, exist, sixty, appendix, expend, exotic, except, exile.
    VI.

    .

    10-15

    :
    27

    , Ii, Kk, Xx, Zz.
    VII. )

    5-10

    i

    , )

    i

    5-10

    .

    VIII. )

    ,

    .

    : This is snow.
    meat, milk, ham, pork, leather, velvet.
    )

    .

    : This is snow, isn't it?
    )

    ,

    .

    : This isn't snow.
    )

    .

    : This isn't snow, is it?
    IX.

    .

    1 : It's \hot today.
    It \is.
    2 : It
    isn't \hot today.
    It \isn't.
    1. It's cold in the garden. 2. It's late, I believe. 3. It's light in the hall. 4. It's five o'clock. 5. It's dark in the
    park. 6. It's seven o'clock. 7. It's dark inside. 8. It isn't late, I hope. 9. It isn't six yet.
    X.

    ,

    ,

    .

    : She is in the garden. - Is she?
    She is not in the garden. /Isn't she?
    1. She is cold. 2. He is not hot. 3. He is in the park. 4. Ann is not in the hospital. 5. Nick is at home. 6. Betty
    is not at home. 7. Benny is not in the boat. 8. They are in the garden. 9. He is not in the hall. 10. Mother is not
    in.
    XI. )

    , )
    .

    : The city is small.
    Is the city small?
    Yes, it is.
    1. The lesson is difficult. 2. He is ill. 3. I am cold. 4. The text is easy. 5. This is a small lamp. 6. He is a
    doctor. 7. Father is at home.
    )

    .

    :

    is \late.
    No, he \isn't.

    /Late?

    28

    XII.

    :

    1.

    ?- ,
    15 ( )? - 14. 5.
    . 7.
    ,
    ,
    . 10.
    ,
    ?. 13.
    ),
    ? - . 15.
    ,
    ?. 17.
    ?. 21.
    ,
    ). 23.
    . 25.
    .
    !

    . 2.

    17 (
    ,
    . 8.

    14

    XIII.

    ?. 11 .

    ?-

    ),

    ?. 6.

    ?,

    ,

    ,

    . 3.
    ?,

    ?-

    . 18.
    ?(

    ,
    . 22.
    ,

    , 4.
    ?
    ?-

    ,

    ,

    . 12.
    . 16.

    ? 20.
    (
    ,

    ,

    ?-

    ,
    ?. 14.

    )? -

    ? 19.
    ,

    ,

    . 9.

    ,
    (

    ,

    14,

    ). 24.

    .

    : Is it a /good clock?
    - \Yes.
    - /Is it?
    - Of \course.

    1.
    2.
    3.

    .
    ,

    .

    ,

    I. )

    :

    , )
    .

    II.
    III.
    IV.

    .
    .
    .

    ,

    .
    V.
    VI.

    ,

    .

    .

    Lesson Five

    1. [w] -

    .
    ,

    .

    .
    .

    .

    [ ]
    29

    ,

    .

    [ ]

    .
    Phonetic Exercise 24

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.

    :
    : [w ts ð ].

    [ ].
    .

    2. [ ] -

    .
    ,
    .

    ,
    [n]

    .
    [ ]

    ,
    ,

    .
    Phonetic Exercise 25

    .

    ,

    )

    (b).

    3. [r] -

    .
    [r]

    .
    [
    ),

    ].

    [ ]
    .

    [ ],
    .

    Phonetic Exercise 26

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    ['gre t 'br tn],

    :
    [i:], [ ]
    [r]
    ['br tn].

    [ ].
    [g]

    [b]

    4. [ ] ,
    ,

    .
    ,

    []

    .
    [ ]

    .
    .

    .
    30

    Phonetic Exercise 27

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.

    5. [

    :

    [ ].
    [h z],

    .

    [k], [t].
    .
    .

    ] -

    .
    ,
    .

    ,
    [ ].

    .

    [a ],

    [ ]

    ,
    .

    Phonetic Exercise 28

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.

    ,
    [
    [ ].
    [h],

    :
    ].
    .
    [d]

    Uu [ju:], Yy [wa ], Qq [kju:]

    [ n(d)].

    :

    y

    I

    II

    [ ]: Betty;
    [y]: yes.
    u

    I

    II
    31

    [r], [l], [ ]

    u

    [u:]: rule, flute, June.
    [ ]: long [1 |, sang [s ].

    ng

    ,

    .
    .

    :
    -

    ,

    .
    .

    [ve n], oi - oil [o l].
    -

    ,

    .
    : u -August [' g st], u - loud [la d].
    .
    ; eu - neutral ['nju:tr l] -

    .
    .

    : ei - vein

    : ai - maid [me d] i + , + , u +
    ie, oe, ue

    .
    :
    ,
    ie

    *

    good, wood, stood, foot
    d
    th

    , u,
    *

    ,

    +

    )

    ,

    ,

    ,

    , ea, ay, ey, oy, eu

    [ ].
    : dead, bread, death.

    [ ].

    (

    -ate

    ,

    [i:]: field, believe.

    ai, ei, oi,

    , i, ,

    ,

    I,
    : diet ['da t],* trial ['tra l], duel ['dju: l].

    .
    *

    *
    **

    .
    III

    [ ]: delegate ['dehgit]*.

    [ t]

    ,

    (

    )

    [e t]: to delegate [t 'del ge t].

    [ ]*: pilot ['pa l t], circus ['s :k s], cinema ['s n m ].

    u

    .

    ,
    n

    : read [ri:d], lead [li:d].

    1,

    : institute [' nst tju:t].

    [

    ]: potato [p 'te
    ].
    : final ['fa nl], garden ['g dn],

    lesson ['lesn].
    []

    [ ].

    : hockey
    32

    ['h k ], famous ['fe m s].
    ow

    [

    ]: window ['wind

    ].

    TEXT
    A VISIT
    W: Hello, Betty!
    B: Good afternoon, Mr. White!
    W: Is Doctor Sandford ['s nf d] in?
    B: No, he isn't. Doctor Sandford is still in the hospital.
    W: Is Mrs. Sandford at home?
    B: No, she isn't. Mrs. Sandford is out. She is in the park with Benny, and old Mrs. Sandford is not well.
    W: Oh, that's a pity! What's the matter? It isn't the flu, is it?
    B: Oh, no, it's a bad cold, she's better today.
    W: Is she in bed?
    B: No, she isn't. Come in, Mr. White, and have a talk with Mrs. Sandford. She is always glad to see you.
    W: Perhaps, some other day, Betty!
    B: I'm so sorry Mr. Sandford isn't at home yet.
    W: That's all right. Remember me to Mrs. Sandford.
    B: Yes, Mr. White.
    W: So long then, Betty!
    B: So long, Mr. White. On Saturday Mr. Sandford is at home after four.
    Vocabulary notes
    to be in
    , . g. Is Dr. Sandford in?
    ? Ant. to be out
    , . g.
    Mrs. Sandford is out.
    .
    not to be well = to be unwell; to feel bad
    . . g. Mrs. Sandford is not well. I feel bad
    today.
    That's a pity!
    ! What a pity!
    What's the matter?
    ?
    ? What is it?
    flu n
    It's a bad cold.
    (
    ).
    She is in bed.
    .
    in bed, by bus, to school
    .
    to have a talk
    ;
    : to have a smoke
    : to have a swim
    (
    )
    to be glad
    , . g. She is glad to see you.
    perhaps
    ,
    some other day
    to be sorry
    , . g. I'm sorry, he is out.
    Remember me to Mrs. Sandford.
    .
    Conversational phrases
    Approval: Well, yes. Right! Good, isn't it? Yes, I see. Quite! Nice, isn't it? Yes, very likely. That's right.
    Wonderful! Splendid! Fine! First-rate! Excellent! Magnificent! Fantastic! That's a good idea!
    Disapproval: Pity! That's a pity! What a pity! What a shame! Awful! (What) nonsense! No wonder! How
    very strange!
    Phonetic notes

    1.

    (
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,
    )

    )

    (
    :

    ,
    :
    33

    has [h z - h z - z]
    ,

    .
    [

    2.

    :

    z \ lw z ,gl d t ,si: ju ]

    ,

    ,
    :

    Study the following
    Table No. 1
    The verb to be in the present indefinite tense

    Contracted forms
    Are you a student? - Yes, I am. No, I'm not.
    Is he a pupil? - Yes, he is. No, he isn't.
    Are you doctors? - Yes, we are. No, we aren't.
    Table No. 2
    Degrees of comparison of adjectives
    Comparative

    Superlative

    34

    Table No. 3

    Adjectives which have two forms of comparison

    .
    as ... as.
    not so ... as

    not as ... as; e.g. My flat is as large as

    yours. My flat is not so large as yours. My flat is not as large as yours.

    Table No. 4

    Personal and possessive pronouns

    Spelling rules
    1.

    ,

    ,
    -er, -est

    : big - bigger - biggest.
    2.

    ,
    i; busy -busier - busiest; dry - drier - driest;

    3.
    largest.
    4.
    5.
    6.

    7.
    8.

    9.
    - oxen.

    : gay - gayer - gayest.
    ,
    -er, -est

    -er, -est
    : large - larger -

    ,
    -s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch,
    -es [ z]: bus - buses; glass - glasses; box - boxes; dish - dishes; match - matches.
    -es
    ,
    ; potato - potatoes.
    piano photo
    -s: piano - pianos; photo - photos.
    ,
    ,
    i
    -es: study - studies; family - families.
    ,
    : day - days.
    brother-in-law
    : brothers-in-law.
    ,
    -f
    -fe,
    -s
    -es,
    f
    v: leaf -leaves; wife - wives.
    roof, chief, handkerchief
    -s: roofs, chiefs, handkerchiefs.
    child, ox
    -en: child - children; ox
    35

    10.
    : man - men; woman - women; mouse - mice; tooth - teeth; foot - feet; goose - geese.
    11.
    swine, sheep, deer, fish.

    :

    Exercises
    I. Study Substitution Tables No. 1-4 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. a) Read aloud:

    speed, loaf, loom, reach, rose, fill, coal, aim, cube, weave, faint, steam, tool, freeze, mutton, crystal, tense,
    shoot, trainer, coast, raze, float, beach, least, boot, fee, rein, author, veil;
    a merry song, a big boat, a simple riddle, a little star, a black bag, an old goat, a good cook, a fat cock, a
    good accent, an old oak, a good tool.
    b) Concentrate on the rhythm, sentence stress, weak forms of the pronouns and the low falling tone:

    His
    mother is \ill. Her
    cousin is \right. My
    sister is \in. His
    brother is \out. The
    man is \wrong.
    His
    wife is \out. The
    man is \bad. The
    woman is \good. The
    girl is \clever. His
    daughter is \pretty.
    III. a) Write five words with each of the following digraphs: oo,
    with the digraphs from your book on home reading.

    , ea, oa. b) Copy out in columns the words

    IV. Write the plural form of the following nouns. Transcribe them:

    college, writer, family, wife, child, mouse, parrot, house, bird, man, goose, woman, leaf, roof, day, son-inlaw, turkey, swine, box, dish, sheep.
    V. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    1. [i] - is, in, visit, still, pity;
    [e] - Betty, Benny, well, better, bed, yet, then;
    [ ] - matter, bad, have, glad, Saturday, Sandford;
    [ ] - oh, no, so, old, home, cold;
    [ ] - doctor, hospital, sorry, long.
    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: in the hospital; in the park.
    b) No glottal stop: Is Doctor Sandford in? She is in the park. She
    home yet.
    c) Loss of plosion: bad cold, glad to see you.

    is

    always glad; is not

    at

    VI. a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue "A Visit". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the text for test
    reading. Listen to it very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize the dialogue and
    dramatize it.
    VII. a) Read the following special questions. Concentrate on the intonation. Observe the weak forms of the
    pronouns and the verb to be:

    1.
    When is she \busy? 2.
    Why are you \late? 3.
    When are you \free? 4.
    When are you \busy? 5.
    Why are you \sad? 6. Why is 'Betty in the \park? 7. Why is Mrs. 'Sandford in \bed? 8. Why is he 'still at
    the \hospital? 9.
    When is she at \home? 10. Why is she 'still at \home?
    b) Change the special question into general ones and answer them as in the model. Work in pairs.

    M o d e l : Why is he in bed?
    36

    Is he in bed?
    Yes, he is.
    VIII. Answer the following questions:

    1. Is Doctor Sandford in? 2. Where is he? 3. Is Mrs. Sandford at home? 4. Is Mrs. Sandford in the park with
    Benny? 5. She isn't in the garden, is she? 6. Old Mrs. Sandford isn't ill, is she? 7. Is she in bed? 8. She is better
    today, isn't she? 9. Is Mr. Sandford at home after four on Saturday? 10. Is he at home after four or at half past
    four on Saturday?
    IX. a) Complete the following general questions to make them alternative.

    Model :

    Is he /busy? -

    Is he /busy | or \free?

    1. Are they in the garden ...? 2. Is your sister at the Institute ...? 3. Is Doctor Sandford at the hospital...? 4. Is
    his wife in the park ...? 5. Is the exercise easy ...? 6. Is Betty nineteen ...? 7. Is the hall big...? 8. Are you free on
    Saturday ...? 9. Are these lessons difficult...? 10. Is this sentence long ...?
    b) Change these general questions into disjunctive ones. Mind the intonation.

    M

    d e 1:

    Is he /busy? - He is \busy, | /isn't he?

    X. Give the following sentences in the plural.

    M o d e l : This is a pen. These are pens.
    1. This is a box. 2. This is a spoon. 3. That is a fork. 4. This is a park. 5. That is a garden. 6. This is a desk. 7.
    That is a door. 8. This is my bird. 9. That is his dog. 10. That is her daughter.
    XI. Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and transcribe them:

    short, tall, large, nice, long, big, red, high, dirty, fast, easy, good, bad, few, busy, near, far, old, late, thin,
    thick, comfortable, interesting, difficult, narrow.
    XII. Rewrite the following sentences changing as ... as into not so as or not as ... as:

    1. She is as young as you are. 2. He is as clever as his father is. 3. I am as tired as you are. 4. My mother is as
    old as yours. 5. This book is as interesting as that one. 6. These dictations are as bad as those ones. 7. My father
    is as tall as yours. 8. His daughter is as beautiful as his wife. 9. My room is as light as yours. 10. This new
    house is as big as the old one. 11. This boy is as clever as that one.
    XIII. Rewrite the following sentences changing not so ... as into less ... than:
    1. She is not so tired as I am. 2. The child is not so sleepy as you are. 3. This task is not so important as that
    one. 4. This book is not so interesting as that one. 5. Spanish is not so difficult as Chinese. 6. There is not so
    much ink in my fountain-pen as in yours.
    XIV. a) Respond to the following sentences. Express your surprise or doubt as in the models.
    M o d e l 1 : This is a good car.
    Is it?
    M o d e l 2 : This isn't a good car.
    Isn't it?
    1. This is a light room. 2. This is a big dog. 3. This is a dark garden. 4. This isn't a bad book. 5. This is a nice
    animal. 6. This isn't a good shop. 7. This isn't a big city. 8. This is a long sentence. 9. This isn't a thick exercise37

    book. 10. This is a difficult test. 11. This is an interesting story. 12. This isn't a bad idea. 13. This isn't a clever
    answer. 14. This isn't a small park.
    b) Go on with the exercise until everyone has participated. Work in pairs.
    XV. a) Let the members of the class ask and answer questions as in the model. Give a short answer using
    contracted forms. Add a sentence of your own.

    M o d e l : Is your sister a student?
    No, she isn't. She is still a pupil.
    b) Respond to the negative sentence of your fellow-student as in the model. Use contracted forms. Work in
    pairs.

    M o d e l : His father isn't a doctor.
    No, he isn't. He is an officer.
    XVI. a) Give questions to the following sentences:

    1. On Saturday Mr. Sandford is at home after four. 2. My brother is still at the office. 3. Mr. Smith is a good
    doctor. 4. My mother is glad to see you.
    b) Each sentence describes a certain situation in a concise way. Some points of the situation are already known
    to you. Find out some more details about the situation by asking questions. Work in pairs. Use conversational
    phrases expressing approval and disapproval where possible.

    M o d e l : Mrs. Sandford is in the park.
    Nice, isn't it? Is she alone there?
    No, she isn't.
    With whom is she there?
    With Benny, her son, you know.
    Yes, I see.
    XVII. Let the members of the class ask and answer questions as in the model. Use contracted forms.

    M o d e l 1 : Is she as tall as her friend?
    She's much taller than her friend.
    M o d e l 2 : Is Nina active?
    She's the most active of all.
    XVIII. Translate the following into English:

    1.
    ,

    (

    )? -

    . 2.
    . 4.

    .
    . 6.

    ?-

    . 7.

    ,

    ?-

    . 10.

    ,

    . 3.

    ?-

    . 5.
    ?-

    9.
    . 12.

    ?-

    . 8.

    ?,

    . 11.

    ?
    ,

    .
    Additional phonetic exercises

    1. Read the exercise several times before the mirror.
    2. Record your reading and listen to it, detect your errors.
    3. Listen to your fellow-student reading the exercise. Detect his errors in sounds and intonation and tell him
    what he must do to get rid of them.
    38

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    II. Repeat the general questions and give short answers to them.
    III. Give the sentences in the plural.
    IV. Supply short questions expressing surprise, doubt.
    V. Repeat the alternative questions and change them into disjunctive ones. Observe the intonation.
    VI. Repeat the special questions and change them into general ones. Observe the intonation.
    VII. Transcribe the words given on the tape.
    VIII. These disjunctive questions are not true to fact. Correct them.

    M o d e l 1 : Mr. Sandford is at home, isn't he? - Oh, no (I am afraid, you are mistaken), he is not in.
    M o d e l 2: Mr. Sandford is not a doctor, is he? - But he is.

    Lesson Six

    1.

    [ ],

    [ ]

    , . .

    -

    ,
    [ ]

    -

    [ ].

    [t]
    ,

    .
    ,

    .
    .
    [ ]

    [ ]
    [ ],

    [d],

    .
    ,

    .

    [ ]

    .
    Phonetic Exercise 29

    39

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.

    2. [

    :

    [ ]

    .
    [ ].
    .

    ] ,

    .

    .

    ,

    [ ] [ ].
    [ ]

    [ ].
    ,
    .
    Phonetic Exercise 30

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.

    ,

    :
    [

    [ ]

    ].
    [s].

    .

    3.
    j]

    .
    [r, l, w,
    : [bre k, gla d].
    .
    : [tri:, ple ,

    .

    [r, 1, w, j]
    'twent , tju:n].
    [t, d]
    [r].

    : [tra , dra ].
    [1].

    [1 + j]

    : [/w l ju ].

    Phonetic Exercise 31

    4.

    r.

    ,

    r,

    ,
    r» (linking r).

    ,

    [r],
    r

    ,

    .

    Phonetic Exercise 32

    .

    ,
    .

    to have,

    40

    Gg [ i:], Jj [ e ], Hh [e ], Ww ['d blju:]

    :

    ,
    .

    ,
    -

    ,

    :

    *

    :

    cousin

    [ ],

    ,
    II

    ,

    ,

    group - [u:].

    ow

    ,

    (

    -[

    ,

    , . .[
    ,
    ow

    III

    ].
    ,
    .

    ,
    m, n, v
    [s n], love [l v], mother ['m ð ].
    ,
    ,
    w, qu II III

    ]),

    ,
    .

    th

    [ ]: come [ m], son

    : move, novel, gone, shone, approve, proverb, woman, women, honour.
    ,
    :

    41

    wr
    wh

    : writer ['raits].
    w: white [wa t].
    h: who [hu:], whole [hs l], whose [hu:z].
    e, i,
    [ ]: page [pe ], gin [ n], gymnast [' mn st],

    g
    good, gray.
    ,
    j

    ,

    ,
    [g]:

    : give, girl, get.
    [ ]: just.
    [ ]

    th
    sh
    ch
    gh
    [g

    w

    : thin, Smith.
    [ ]: the, this, that, they, bathe.

    ,

    [ ]: she.
    [ ]: chin.
    (

    ): eight [e t], sigh [sa ],

    ghost

    st].
    i
    i

    gh
    ld
    ph
    ture
    kn
    II

    nd
    [f]: phone.
    [t ].

    [ai]: high [hai].
    [a ]: child, kind.
    : picture ['pikt
    k

    u, u

    ght

    ], lecture ['lekt ].
    : know [n ], knife [na f].
    [ ]: daughter ['d t ], thought [ t].
    TEXT

    Betty smith
    I am Betty Smith. My full name is Elizabeth Louise Smith. I am twenty-two. I am a college graduate. I am
    a writer, just a beginner, you know. I have a lot of friends. Most of them are my former school-mates. My
    best companions are two girl-friends. They are very kind, jolly and well-bred.
    My brother-in-law, Henry Sandford, is married to my elder sister Helen. I am a member of her family. My
    brother-in-law is a doctor. He has a mother, but he has no father. My sister is a house-wife. They have only one
    child, Benny. Benny is my nephew, he is four. Sometimes he is naughty. He is fond of birds and animals. We
    have white mice, a hedgehog and a parrot in the house. Now Benny is eager to have a rabbit. But his mother is
    against it, we have no peace because of all Benny's animals and birds.
    Vocabulary notes
    I am twenty-two.
    22
    . How old are you? I am nineteen (years old).
    a college graduate
    ; I'm a college graduate
    just a beginner
    former
    school-mate
    ,
    ;
    : a fellow-student
    companion
    girl-friend
    ; boy-friend
    ,
    42

    jolly
    ,
    well-bred
    elder
    (
    ); older
    than I. I am two years younger than my sister.
    house-wife
    naughty
    ,
    to be fond of smth; to like
    ,
    to be eager
    to be against
    peace
    ;
    : piece

    .

    : My elder sister is 28. She is two years older

    Topical vocabulary
    Relations by Birth: parents, father, mother, sister, brother, son, daughter, grandfather, grandmother,
    grandson, granddaughter, grandchildren, grandparents, great-grandfather, great-grandmother, greatgrandchildren, uncle, aunt, cousin, nephew, niece
    Relations by Marriage: husband, wife, father-in-law, mother-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, brother-inlaw, sister-in-law, stepmother, stepfather, stepchildren, stepbrother (sister, son, daughter)
    People's Age:
    What's your age? (How old are you?)
    I am seventeen. I am seventeen years old. I am under seventeen.
    I am over seventeen. I am nearly eighteen.
    I am under age yet. = I am not yet eighteen.
    In three month's time I'll come of age.
    She is still in her teens (13-19). She is a teen-ager.
    She is in her (early, mid, late) teens.
    She is in her (early, late) thirties (i. e. between 29 and 40).
    She is a middle-aged person.
    She is an elderly person.
    Animals and birds (domestic): horse, cow, dog, cat, goat, pig, swine, ass, rabbit, hen, cock, goose (geese),
    duck, turkey
    Animals and birds (wild): lion, tiger, wolf (wolves), bear, fox, hare, elephant, mouse (mice), monkey,
    hedgehog, eagle, swan, sparrow, swallow, parrot, pigeon, donkey
    Conversational phrases
    Agreement: Sure. Why, yes of course. By all means. That'd be lovely. I'd be glad to. How nice of you. It
    (certainly) is.
    Disagreement: By no means. Far from it. I'm afraid I don't agree. I think you're mistaken. Just the other way
    round. I'd like to say yes, but... I'm awfully sorry but you see...
    Phonetic notes
    1.

    ,
    ,

    2. You know -

    ,

    .

    .
    43

    :

    3.

    well-bred

    .
    .

    : 'well-'known, 'good-

    'looking, 'kind-'hearted, 'absent-'minded.
    .

    : She is a

    good-

    looking \girl.
    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    Possessive case of nouns

    e. g. My brother's flat is large.
    The girl's lace is pretty.
    These are Byron's poems.
    The students' answers are correct.
    My daughter-in-law's room is small.
    Table No. 2

    The verb to have in the present indefinite tense

    *

    to have

    have got.

    44

    .

    some
    ;
    -

    ; any ; not any

    .

    Prepositions of place
    The book is on the table.
    The pencil is in the box.
    The ball is under the table.
    The boy is at the window.

    Go into the room!
    Take the newspaper out of the bag!
    Go to the blackboard.
    Take the book from the library.
    Go down the stairs.
    Look up.
    Numerals 1-12

    *

    ,

    .

    45

    . 1.

    ,

    2.
    ,
    nine.
    3.

    0

    [

    ].

    -teen,
    : 'thirteen.
    : 'fourteen books,
    'page fourteen.
    5687 - five six eight seven.
    (
    )
    double: 4417 - double four one seven: 3477 - three four double seven.
    ,
    double
    : 7889 - seven eight eight
    1000, 2000 . .
    one thousand, two thousand . .
    ,
    ,
    . .,
    ,
    ,
    .
    ,
    .
    : The meeting will take place in Room Thirty.

    Exercises
    I. Study Substitution Table No. 2, page 72 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Transcribe the following words and explain the reading rules:

    five, tip, bed, pipe, land, fry, rule, ton, tone, pupil, love, cut, shade, brother, shall, bus, snack, blame, poke,
    found, aloud, green, town, toy, farm, yellow, glove, warm, some, won, worse, nothing, mild, world, month,
    worth, company, worship, none, find, wild, ought, above, brought.
    III. Explain the pronunciation of the consonants in bold type in the following words:

    fa e, eight, yet, gate, cage, engine, lock, wrong, write, job, white, gymnastics, Alice, chest, light, cheek,
    fish, sigh, gently, knight, bright, ginger, knock, physics, phlox, Gypsy, whole, whip, whisper.
    IV. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    1. [ ] - companions, married, family, parrot, rabbit;
    [h] - a house-wife, a hedgehog, in the house, to have a rabbit, his mother, we have no peace;
    [ v] - a lot of friends, most of them, a member of her family, is fond of birds, because of all.
    No palatalization: Smith, Elizabeth, beginner, sister.
    46

    2. a) No glottal stop: is Elizabeth, my elder, have only, and animals, is eager, because
    b) Linking [r]: my brother -in-law, a member of, my sister is, his mother is.

    of

    all;

    V. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Betty Smith", Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the text for
    test reading very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    VI. Transcribe the following sentences, mark the stresses and tunes:

    1. My brother-in-law, Mr. Smith, is a writer. 2. Have you a sister? 3. How old is she? 4. What's her name? 5.
    Is Betty a member of his family?
    VII. Answer the following questions:

    1. What's Betty Smith's full name? 2. What is she? 3. Has she got many companions? 4. Are her companions
    kind and jolly? 5. Who is Betty's elder sister Helen married to? 6. Is Betty a member of her sister's family? 7.
    What's her brother-in-law? 9. Has Doctor Sandford parents? 9. Is Helen a doctor? 10. Have they got any
    children? 1. How old is Betty's nephew? 12. Is he a good child? 13. What's he fond of? 14. Is Benny eager to
    have a dog? 15. Have they got any animals and birds in the house?
    VIII. Ask and answer questions. Use contracted forms where possible. Work in pairs.

    M o d e l 1 : What's his name? - (It's) Benny.
    1. What's your name? 2. What's your mother's name? 3. What's her nephew's name? 4. What is her sister's
    name? 5. Is "Benny" a boy's or a girl's name? 6. What's your school-mate's (girl-friend's, boy-friend's) name? 7.
    What's Betty's full name?
    M o d e l 2 : Has your brother a large family? - Yes, (he has). No, (he hasn't).
    1. Has Betty Smith a large family? 2. Have you a large family? 3. Has your cousin a brother (father, mother,
    friend, wife, parents, grandfather)? 4. Has Benny got a hedgehog? 5. Has Benny got a rabbit? 6. Have you got a
    dog in the house? 7. Has Benny friends? 8. Has Benny books (toys, pens, pencils)?
    IX. Change the given groups of words as in the model.

    M o d e l : the room of my sister - my sister's room
    the friends of my sisters - my sisters' friends.
    1. the brother of my mother; 2. the friend of my sister; 3. the husband of his daughter; 4. the house of my
    parents; 5. the table of my father; 6. the work of my mother; 7. the notebook of this student; 8. the books of
    these students; 9. the sister of my friend; 10. the friend of our cousin; 11. the photo of my grandfather; 12. the
    room of Pete; 13. the son of her brother; 14. the daughter of Ann; 15. the sister of my mother.
    X. a) Form questions to which the following statements are the answers. b) Each sentence states a certain fact.
    Find some more details about it by asking questions. Work in pairs. Use conversational phrases of Lessons 5 and 6
    wherever possible.

    1. We are students of the English Faculty. 2. Her brother-in-law is a doctor. 3. Betty Smith is a writer. 4. Mo
    sister-in-law is a house-wife. 5. His family is not large. 6. They have only one child. 7. She has a daughter. 8.
    Their child's name is Benny. 9. Her name is Helen. 10. His nephew is four. 11. He is in the park. 12. She is an
    English student. 13. Betty is the sister of Helen. 14. She has some books on the table. 15. Benny has no
    brothers. 16. Their grandmother is an elderly person. 17. Doctor Sandford is a middle-aged person.
    XI. a) Change the following sentences into interrogative and negative. b) Ask one another questions on
    the following sentences and answer them in the negative. Mind the distribution of sentence-stress in the
    replies.
    47

    M o d e l : They have many English books.
    Have they many English books?
    No, they haven't. They have a lot of \Russian books | and very few \English books.
    1. She has some English books. 2. He has a lot of mistakes in his test. 3. I have a lot of notebooks in my bag.
    4. The boy has three red pencils. 5. Kitty has two cousins. 6. Dr. Sandford has a son. 7. I have relatives in
    Moscow. 8. They have two rooms. 9. I have some newspapers on the desk. 10. We have very many friends.
    XII. Fill in suitable words:

    1. His aunt's son is his .... 2. Your father's father is your ... . 3. My sister's son is my ... . 4. My sister's
    daughter is my ... . 5. My mother's brother is my ... . 6. Your mother's sister is your ... . 7. Your uncle's daughter
    is your ... . 8. Your mother's mother is your ... . 9. Your brother's wife is your ... . 10. Your sister's husband is
    your ....
    XIII. Fill in am, is, are:

    1.I ... an English student. 2. His name ... George Brown. 3. Mr. and Mrs. Brown ... his father and mother. 4.
    My brother's name ... Benny, and my sisters' names ... Betty and Rose. 5. We ... members of one family. 6. ...
    Helen married? 7. ... they mar-ried? 8. Mr. Sandford ... Betty's brother-in-law. 9. How old ... you? - I...
    eighteen. 10. What... you all? -We ... all students. 11. ... your girl-friends students? 12. ... Betty's school-mates
    kind and jolly? 13. His companions ... well-bred. 14. ... Benny eager to have a dog? 15. She ... a naughty child.
    16. I... eager to have a girl-friend. 17. I... two years younger than my cousin. 18. He ... as young as his boyfriend. 19. My niece ... eighteen months old.
    XIV. Fill in prepositions:

    1. Betty's sister is married ... Doctor Sandford. 2. Is Benny ... home? - No, he is still... the park ... his mother.
    3. Look ... the picture (blackboard). 4. Put the notebook ... the drawer. 5. He is not... the room. 6. Come ... the
    room. 7. Go......the room. 8. He has some friends ... Moscow. 9. Don't put the pencils ... the box. 10. Take the
    newspaper ... the table. 11. The letter is ... the book. 12. Go ... Room Four. 13. Come ... the blackboard. 14.
    Take the books and notebooks......your bags! 15. She has a pen ... her hand. 16. Go ... the Institute. 17. Are you
    fond ... cats? 18. Have you got a dog ... the house? 19. Open your books ... page 25. 20. Thousands ... students
    study ... our University. 21. Children begin school... the age ... seven.
    XV. Fill in some, any, no, none, not any, one or the indefinite article a:

    1. Have you got ... relations? - No, I haven't ... . 2. Has she got ... nephews or nieces? - She has ... . 3. She has
    ... sister, she has only ... brother. 4. They have got ... cousins in Minsk. 5. Have you got ... brothers? - No, I
    haven't ... . 6. I have ... good friends. 7. Have you got ... interesting books? - Yes, I have. 8. Have you got ...
    friends in St.Petersburg? 9. He has ... English books in the bookcase. 10. Have you got ... pencils in your bag? Yes, I have ... . 11. Has she ... girls in the family? -No, she has ... . 12. Have we got ... chalk on the blackboard?
    13. She has ... mistakes in her test.
    XVI. Form nouns from the following verbs by adding the suffix – r: write, work, teach, read, paint, sing,
    examine, dance, listen:
    XVII. Write in words the following cardinal numerals:
    3, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 19, 33, 44, 60, 99, 100.
    XVIII. Write in words the following ordinal numerals:

    1st, 3rd, 5th, 9th, 19th, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 20th
    48

    XIX. Write in words.

    M o d e l : 13 + 45 = 58 (Thirteen plus forty-five is fifty-eight).
    50 - 31 = 19 (Fifty minus thirty-one is nineteen).
    15 x 2 = 30 (Fifteen multiplied by two is thirty).
    30 : 2 = 15 (Thirty divided by two is fifteen).

    XX. Use the following verbs in commands and requests:

    take, open, go, come, put, write, read, look, close, speak, prepare.
    XXI. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    -

    .

    . 3.

    . 2.

    ? 4.
    . 6.
    ?-

    ??. 8.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    -

    . 7.
    . 9.

    . 10.

    (

    37. 13.
    . 15.

    . 16.

    ,

    . 17.

    18.

    -

    . 25.

    ,
    ,

    . 20.

    (class-mates). 22.
    217-18-36. 24.
    . 26.

    ,

    .

    .

    . 19.

    . 21.
    ?-

    )

    . 11.

    . 12.
    14. 14.

    23.
    30

    . 5.

    ,
    . 27.
    . 29.
    10. 31.

    9,
    ,

    15.
    ,

    ?. 28.
    . 30.

    . 32.

    . 33.

    .

    XXII. Think of stimulating phrases for your fellow-student to aqree or disagree with you.
    XXIII. Make up a small talk about (a) Mr. Sandford's family; (b) your own family. Try to use conversational
    phrases suggested for dialogues.
    Additional phonetic exercises
    1. Read the exercises several times before the mirror.
    2. Record your reading and listen to it, detect your errors.
    3. Listen to your fellow-student reading the exercises. Detect his errors in sounds and intonation and tell him
    what he must do to get rid of them:

    49

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    II. Transcribe the text. Mark the stresses and tunes.
    III. Answer the questions according to the models.
    IV. Change the given groups of words as in the model.
    V. Translate the sentences into English.
    VI. Spell the words given on the tape.
    VII. These disjunctive questions are not true to fact. Correct them.

    Lesson Seven

    Phonetic Exercise 33

    .
    .

    ,

    ,

    [ :].

    | :]

    [ ].

    1. [ ] -

    .
    ,

    .
    [ ].

    [ a],

    .
    2. [ ] -

    .

    ,

    -

    .
    3. [

    ] -

    .
    ,
    .

    [ ].
    .
    Phonetic Exercise 34

    50

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.

    ,

    :
    [ ], [

    ].

    ,

    .
    [

    [r]

    ].

    .
    Phonetic Exercise 35

    .

    ,

    :

    1.

    ,

    -

    .

    .
    2.

    [ ], [t], [k]

    [s].

    .
    ,

    IV

    ,
    , , ,

    *
    **
    **

    : are [a:].
    : there [ð ], where [w
    : sure [
    ].

    r.

    IV

    ], were [w :]

    A
    th
    [d ns], past [p st], after [' ft ].
    1+
    ,
    : all [ 1], salt [s lt].
    + lk
    11 + m, f, v
    [h f], halves [h vz].

    n, s, f +
    m, f, v,

    [ ].

    : bath [b

    ], dance

    [ ].

    : talk [t k], chalk [ k].
    1
    -

    )

    [ ].

    : calm [k m], half

    TEXT 1
    Doctor sandford's family
    Doctor Sandford's family is not very large. There are five of them. The five members of his family are: his
    mother, his sister-in-law, his son Benny, his wife Helen and himself. Helen has no parents.
    Old Mrs. Sandford is fifty-eight. Helen is twenty-six. Doctor Sandford is thirty. Benny is an only child and
    there are no boys or girls in the family for him to play with.
    51

    TEXT 2
    About benny's cousins
    "Granny, have I any cousins?"
    "Yes Benny! You have two."
    "Whose children are they? How old are they? Are they boys or girls?"
    "Not so many questions at once, please, Benny! Your cousins are: a five-year-old boy, Georgie, and a fouryear-old girl, May. They are your Aunt Emily's children. They are in Canada now with their parents: your Aunt
    Emily, my daughter, and her husband, Mr. Thomas Brown."
    "In Canada? What's Canada, granny? Where is it?"
    "Canada is a far-away country. It is in the North of America."
    "In the North of America? Where is it? Is it as far as London?"
    "Oh, no Benny! It's much farther."
    "But, granny..."
    "Come along, my dearest. It's just the time for your midday milk."
    Vocabulary notes
    an only child
    five-year-old
    far-away
    ,
    in the North of
    as far as
    come along
    it's just the time

    ,

    Topical vocabulary
    What's your occupation? What do you do (for a living)? worker (mechanic, turner, locksmith), farmer,
    engineer, teacher, doctor, surgeon, dentist, soldier, sailor, pilot, officer, salesman, saleswoman (shop-assistant,
    shop-girl), research worker, architect, lawyer, journalist, typist, driver, actor, actress, composer, painter, writer,
    poet, playwright, musician, conductor, chemist, physicist
    Conversational phrases
    Opening remarks: Oh, it's you. Ah, there you are! Well, if it isn't old Jack! I say... Excuse me... Sorry to
    trouble you... Hello!
    Parting remarks: Bye-bye / See you / See you tomorrow (then); Love to... Regards to ...
    Phonetic notes
    1.
    rising tone,

    (the fallingFall-Rise).
    ,

    ,
    .
    .
    :

    2.

    (Direct Address).

    .
    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    :
    52

    ,
    :

    :

    3.

    ,
    .

    (enumeration),
    :

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    there

    53

    Table No. 2

    Numerals

    . 1.

    (

    ,

    )

    and.
    2.

    hundred, thousand, million

    .
    : hundreds of thousands of people.

    .
    3.
    :
    1900 - nineteen hundred,
    1909 - nineteen nine
    nineteen hundred and nine,
    1977 - nineteen seventy-seven
    nineteen hundred and seventy-seven.
    year

    ,

    : in the year nineteen

    twelve.
    ,
    25th January, 1912
    January 25th, 1912
    January 25, 1912.

    :

    the twenty-fifth of January, nineteen-twelve
    January the twenty-fifth, nineteen twelve.

    54

    Prepositions of time
    at, past, to, from, till.
    e. g. Come at five o'clock. Go there at seven. The train arrives at seven thirty-two. It is half past two. It is a
    quarter to three. Leave your place at a quarter to six. He is at home from three till four.
    Exercises
    I. a) Study Substitution Table No. 1 and compose as many sentences as you can. b) Let the members of the class
    ask and answer questions as in the model. Give a short answer and add a sentence of your own with the
    introductory there.

    M o d e l : Is there any clock on your desk?,
    There is. And there is also a lamp on it.
    c) Respond to the negative sentence of your fellow-student as in the model. Use contracted forms in speech.

    M o d e l : There aren't any knives on the table.
    No, there aren't. There are only forks here.
    d) Study Substitution Table No. 2 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    e) Use the same sentences in short situations.
    II. Transcribe the following words and explain the reading rules:

    boot, prepare, ball, book, mere, meat, good, store, bread, care, palm, cure, cold, last, plant, text, exam, rather,
    germ, hurt, hare, grasp, staff, bald, calf, chalk, clasp, a talented dancer, a broken branch, a stone wall, a dull
    day, a wise man, a cheap car, a big ship, a fat sheep, a naughty girl, a lazy boy, a rare plant, a strict lady, a cold
    lake, a birthday present, Bertha's basket, spare time, pure water.
    III. Write the plural form of the following nouns. Transcribe them:

    country, saleswoman, match, boy, sister-in-law, man, tooth, handkerchief, potato, deer, piano, knife, lady,
    suffix, foot.
    IV. Before you start working at the text, practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    1. [ ] - cousin, at once, husband, country, London, much, but, come;
    [ ] - large, aunt, farther, as far as;
    [ ] - daughter, Georgia, four, North.
    2. a) Linking r: your aunt, are in Canada, where is it, faraway, as far as;
    b) No voicing before voiced consonants: Thomas rown, it's just, it's much;
    c) No devoicing before voiceless consonants: Benny's cousins, whose children, Emily's
    d) Loss of plosion: but granny, mid day.

    children;

    V. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Doctor Sandford's Family". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise
    the text for test reading. Listen to the text very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Listen to
    the recording of the dialogue "About Benny's Cousins". Mark the stresses and tunes. d) Practise the dialogue for
    test reading. Listen to the text very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. e) Memorize the dialogue
    and dramatize it.
    VI. Read the following:
    55

    1. Old Mrs. 'Sandford is 'fifty- \eight, | Helen is 'twenty- \six, | Doctor
    Sandford is \thirty. 2. There are a
    lot of /exercise-books, | /pens | and \pencils on the desk. 3. There are not so 'many /parks, | /gardens | and
    squares
    in the town. 4. Show all the /rivers, | /lakes, | and \seas on the map.
    \
    VII. Answer the following questions:

    A. 1. Is this a classroom? 2. Are there many desks in it? How many? 3. Are there any chairs in the room?
    How many? 4. Are there any lamps in the room? 5. Are they on the walls? 6. How many lamps are there in it?
    7. How many windows are there in the room? 8. What colour are the walls? 9. What colour are the desks? 10.
    What colour are the chairs? 11. Is there a blackboard on the wall? 12. What colour is the board? 13. Are there
    any sentences on it? 14. How many books are there on your desk? 15. Are they English or Russian? 16.How
    many exercise-books are there in your bag? 17. Are they thick or thin? 18. Is this book thick or thin? 19. What
    is there on this table? 20. What is there in that box?
    B. 1. Is the box on the desk? 2. Are the pencils in the box? 3. Is the bag on the desk or under it? 4. Is the
    fountain-pen on the bag or in the bag? 5. Is the notebook in my hand or under it? 6. Are the notebooks on the
    desk or under it? 7. Are the letters on the book or under it? 8. Where is the picture? 9. Where is the chair? 10.
    Where are the pens?
    C. 1. Is Dr. Sandford's family large? 2. Has he a wife? 3. What is her name? 4. Has she a sister? 5. Has Dr.
    Sandford a father? 6. Has he a mother? 7. Has Dr. Sandford a daughter? 8. Has he a son? 9. What is his name?
    10. So how many people are there in Dr. Sandford's family? 11. How old is Dr. Sandford? 12. How old is
    Helen? 13. How old is Mrs. Sandford? 14. How many cousins has Benny? 15. Whose children are Georgie
    and May? 16. Where are Benny's cousins?
    VIII. a) Write sentences using there is, there are and the words given below:

    1. bus, street; 2. lamp, room; 3. chalk, blackboard; 4. bread, table; 5. tea, tea-pot; 6. coffee, coffee-pot; 7.
    money, bag; 8. paper, box; 9. soap, shelf; 10. water, jug.
    b) Make up micro-dialogues with the same sentences.
    IX. Fill in prepositions:

    1. Don't be late. Come ... nine o'clock. 2. What time is it now? It is half ... six. 3. We are going to leave ... a
    quarter ... ten. 4. It is twelve o'clock now. Come here in ten minutes, ten minutes ... twelve. 5. Is it a quarter ...
    three? In a quarter of an hour, ... three o'clock we must be ... the University. 6. He must work ... seven ... eleven
    o'clock. 7. They live ... the North ... our country.
    X. a) Rewrite the following in the plural:
    1. There is a sentence on the blackboard. 2. Is there a desk in the room? 3. There is not any book on the
    table. 4. Is there a dictionary on the chair? 5. There is a match in the box. 6. There is a girl in the picture. 7.
    There is no child in their family.
    b) Change the sentences using the construction given in Table No. 2 on page 87.
    XI. a) Write the interrogative and negative forms of the following sentences:
    1. There is a telegram on the table. 2. There is a cinema near our house. 3. There are many mistakes in his
    dictation. 4. There is much paper in his bag. 5. There are two sofas in the room. 6. There are a lot of children in
    the park today.
    b) Express your surprise asking questions as in the model. Note the distribution of sentence stress in the replies.

    M o d e l : There is a dog in the room.
    really a /dog in the room ?
    /Is there ? Is there
    I say there \is.
    56

    c) Respond to the same statement in the negative.
    M o d e l : There is a dog in the room.
    Oh, no. There is \no dog there.
    Are you sure?
    Quite.
    XII. The following statements are not true to fact. Correct them.

    M o d e l : Doctor Sandford's family is large.
    No, that's wrong. It's not large.
    1. Doctor Sandford has two sons and one daughter. 2. There are seven people in Doctor Sandford's family. 3.
    Doctor Sandford is eighty. 4. There are many girls and boys for Benny to play with. 5. Benny has no cousins. 6.
    Benny's cousins are in Africa. 7. Benny's cousins are schoolchildren.
    XIII. Describe Doctor Sandford's family as if you were Doctor Sandford, his wife or Benny.
    XIV. Work in pairs. Ask your fellow-student logical questions on the given statements and answer them.

    M o d e l : There are two tables in the room.
    What's there in the room?
    (There are) some tables.
    How many (tables are there in it)?
    (There are) two.
    1. There is a green notebook on the desk. 2. There is little milk in the bottle. 3. The Browns have a very
    large family. 4. My parents are at home. 5. Benny's cousins are in the North of America.
    XV. a) Make questions beginning with What ... and How many ... and answer them.

    M o d e l 1 : What is there in your street?
    M o d e l 2 : How many high buildings are there in your street ?
    1. There are two tables in the room. 2. There are eight notebooks in her bag. 3. There are ninety-five students
    in the hall. 4. There is a clock on the desk. 5. There are twelve cassette-recorders in the laboratory. 6. There are
    six sentences in this exercise.
    b) Make your own questions on the same models and answer them.
    XVI. a) Make questions beginning with How much ... and answer them.

    M o d e l : How much milk is there in the jug?
    1. There is a lot of coffee in the coffee-pot. 2. There is a little water in the glass. 3. There is too much salt in
    the soup. 4. There is little money in the bag. 5. There is a lot of tea in the tea-pot. 6. There is not much butter on
    the plate.
    b) Make your own questions on the same model and answer them.
    XVII. Translate the following sentences into English:
    A. 1.

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .
    .

    .

    (
    .

    (

    .
    )
    .

    )

    . 3.

    .

    . 2.

    .
    .

    .

    .
    .
    57

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    . 4.

    .
    .

    .
    . 5.
    ,

    B. 1.

    ,

    .

    .

    .
    .

    .

    .

    .
    .

    ?
    ,

    . 7.

    . 5.
    ?-

    ?.

    ,

    .

    .

    (sideboard). 3.

    ?-

    ,
    .

    .
    . 6.

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ?-

    .

    .

    . 6.

    ?

    .

    .

    .

    2.
    .
    . 4.

    .

    .

    .
    ?

    ,
    .

    ,

    .-

    ,

    .-

    XVIII. Write 4 examples on each of the models.

    M o d e l 1 : There is a lot of paper in the box.
    M o d e l 2 : There are a lot of guestions to the text.
    XIX. Translate into English the words given in brackets:

    1. There is (
    ) paper on the desk. 2. There are (
    ) students in the classroom. 3. There is (
    )
    milk in the jug. 4. There are (
    ) newspapers oh the shelf. 5. There is (
    ) time left. 6. There is (
    )
    butter on the plate. 7. There are (
    ) notebooks in the bag. 8. Give me (
    ) water, please. 9. Can
    you give him (
    ) coloured pencils? 10. May I take (
    ) sheets of paper? 11. There are
    ) families in this house. 12.I have not (
    ) money. I cannot buy this coat. 13. There are not (
    )
    sentences in this text. 14. Put (
    ) salt into your soup.
    XX. Make up questions as in the models. Add something using the topical vocabulary to Lesson Six. (People's
    age).

    M o d e l 1 : How old is Jane? - She is twenty.
    M o d e l 2 : How old are these boys? - They are eighteen years old.
    XXI. Translate the following into English using the preposition at:
    1.

    . 2.

    . 3.

    . 4.

    . 7.
    . 12.
    . 16.

    . 11.
    . 20.

    . 5.

    . 8.
    . 13.
    . 17.

    . 6.

    . 9.

    . 10.
    . 14.

    . 15.

    . 18.

    . 19.

    .

    XXII. a) Write down the following numerals in words:

    134, 298, 355, 948, 3526, 9011, 193, 561, 7 506 017, 35 616 234.
    b) Read the following numerals and telephone numbers quickly:

    104, 151, 175, 189, 1012, 1017, 1038, 2568, 4083, 5993, 6410, 10 784, 257 629, 841 403, 2 184 001; 13486-78, 253-64-92, 289-47-30.
    XXIII. Translate the following sentences into English:

    1.

    ?. 3.

    ,

    . 2.

    .

    5.

    .
    . 4.

    . 6.
    . 8.

    ?-

    .

    . 7.
    . 9.

    105

    . 10.

    102

    . 11.
    58

    501

    . 12.
    ,

    9. 13.

    2

    . 16.
    ?,
    ? ,

    . 19.

    . 14.
    ? 17.

    . 20.
    . 22.

    ,
    ,

    . 24.
    338-29-41. 27.

    . 25.
    . 26.

    7

    . 15.
    . 18.

    ,
    15

    .

    .-

    ,
    .

    68

    .

    . 21.
    . 23.
    ,
    .

    .

    XXIV. a) Write a short composition about your family (your friend's family), the family of a well-known person
    you are interested in. b) Make up dialogues using the topical vocabulary and conversational phrases of Lessons
    Five, Six, Seven.
    XXV. a) Bring your family photo in class and get ready to tell your fellow-students of all the members of your
    family. b) Ask and answer questions on the photo. Describe it.

    Additional phonetic exercises
    1. Read the exercises several times before the mirror.
    2. Record your reading and listen to it, detect your errors.
    3. Listen to your fellow-student reading the exercise. Detect his errors in sounds and intonation and tell him
    what he must do to get rid of them:

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Listen to the questions and record your answers in the intervals. d) Listen to the key and correct your
    mistakes.
    II. a) Make the sentences interrogative and negative. Record your sentences.
    b) Check your sentences with the key.
    III. a) Make questions beginning with What ... using the statements. b) Make questions beginning with How
    many ... using the combinations of words. c) Make questions beginning with How much ... using the combinations
    of words.
    IV. Form special questions using the statements. (The questions should be formed to the given word.)

    M o d e l : My sister is at the University. (my sister) Who is at the University?
    V. Listen to the sentences. Supply short questions expressing surprise, doubt.
    VI. Change the sentences as in the model.
    VII. Give sentences opposite in meaning to the given ones.

    M o d e l : There are a lot of pens in the box.
    There are few pens in the box.
    VIII. Listen to the disjunctive questions. They are not true to fact. Correct them.

    59

    Lesson Eight

    [a ,
    ], [

    ] :].

    .
    ,

    -

    .

    :
    [

    ]

    [j]

    [ ]

    .
    [

    ]
    [w].
    Phonetic Exercise 36

    .

    ,

    .
    Phonetic Exercise 37

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.

    ,

    :
    must: can not, can't
    in on
    [hi ], [wi ], [ju ].
    must
    n

    to come in, to switch on,
    [i:], [u:]
    need - needn't

    ), mustn't.
    .

    .
    i

    IV

    60

    1
    2
    ['r

    [r], [1], [ ]
    [ ], [ ], [r]
    r l], plural [' l r l].

    u

    [u:],
    +1

    : rule [ru:l], plume [plu:m], June [ u:n].
    u
    [ ].
    : sure [

    ], jury ['

    r ], rural

    TEXT
    Our english lesson
    T e a c h e r : Good morning, all! Sit down, please! I expect no one is away?
    M o n i t o r : Nobody is. All are present. Oh, sorry, Ann is not here.
    T e a c h e r : What's up? Is she ill?
    M o n i t o r : It's flu with a high temperature.
    T e a c h e r : That's too bad. Well now. Let's begin. We'll check our homework. Mike, will you take your
    exercise-book and come to the board?
    M i k e : Shall I write the words in transcription?
    T e a c h e r : Do. And you, Helen, read Text 7, will you? The others should write down the mistakes if she
    has any. Do you follow me? Will you read a little louder, please. That'll do. Any mistakes noticed?
    J u l i a : I believe there's some palatalization in the nouns "family" and "Benny".
    T e a c h e r : That's it. Please, Helen, pronounce the words. Now it's correct. You must work more.
    Pronunciation is your weak point, I'm afraid.
    H e l e n : Shall I read the text again for the next time?
    T e a c h e r : Yes. Have another try and make your reading more distinct. Now everybody look at the
    board!
    M i k e : Shall I read the exercise?
    T e a c h e r : Of course. (Mike reads). Is everything correct, Pete?
    P e t e : I think it is.
    T e a c h e r : Thank you, Mike. Clean the board, please, and go to your seat. (To the monitor). Have we got
    the headphones ?
    M o n i t o r : Here they are.
    T e a c h e r : Fine. Let's listen to the new text. Open your books at page 81. Will you please switch on the
    cassette-recorder? Thank you.
    Vocabulary notes
    I expect = I believe = I think

    to be present
    What's up?

    (

    ,

    [b]
    . .)

    absent.

    ?
    61

    temperature
    That's too bad.
    .
    to check (go through) the homework
    exercise-book
    transcription
    . Shall I write it in transcription?
    ?
    Shall I...?
    .
    : Shall I begin?
    ? Shall I read?
    window?
    ?

    )
    ,
    ? Shall I open the
    : Read

    Text 7. Write Exercise 3.

    ,
    : Find page 81.
    to follow
    ; .
    Will you read louder?

    ,
    to write (put) down
    louder
    .

    ,

    .
    That'll do.
    .
    noticed
    ,
    palatalization
    ,
    That's it.
    .
    to pronounce
    ; pronunciation
    weak point
    have another try
    (
    )
    distinct
    headphones
    ,
    Here they are.
    !
    to switch on
    ; to switch off
    cassette-recorder (tape-recorder)
    Topical vocabulary
    Classroom Expressions

    62

    Phonetic notes

    1.

    please

    )
    .

    (
    :

    b)
    .

    )

    .
    ),

    ,

    please
    :

    please

    ,

    ,
    :

    63

    2.

    Thank you.
    ,
    :

    .

    ,

    Study the following
    Modal verbs
    Table No. 1

    Can

    e. g. Can you read louder? - Yes, I can.
    No, I can't.
    Note.

    can: cannot.
    Table No. 2

    May

    e. g. May I stay at home? - Do, please. Yes, you may. - I am afraid not. No, you mustn't.
    Note.

    must

    .

    64

    Table No. 3

    Must

    e. g. Must I read this book? - Yes, you must. No, you needn't.
    Note.

    must
    need - needn't,

    .

    Exercises
    I. a) Study Substitution Tables No. 1, 2, 3 and compose as many sentences as you can. Let the members of the
    class ask and answer questions as in the model. Give a short answer using contracted forms and add a sentence of
    your own.

    M o d e l : May I stay at home on Saturday?
    No, you mustn't. You are to go to your classes.
    b) Respond to the negative sentences of your fellow-student as in the model. Use contracted forms in speech.

    M o d e l : I can't write Exercise Three.
    You needn't do it now.
    II. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on the vowel [ae]. b) Let your fellow-student read this exercise aloud for you to detect his possible errors in sounds.
    Tell him what must be done to eliminate them:

    [ ] 1. That's the man who sat on my hat in the tram.
    2. Once there lived a lad who was always very sad.
    For he hadn't any mother and he hadn't any dad.
    3. Where are you going to, my little cat?
    I'm going to town to buy a hat!
    What! ? A hat for a cat? A cat in a hat?
    Who ever saw a cat in a hat?
    III. Write the following words and phrases in transcription and explain the reading rules:

    share, store, here, cure, fur, term, more, firm, spare, sphere, wire, mere, a spare moment, a famous painter, a
    rare ring, the upper teeth, the thick wood, the first letter, the next room, the full moon, the vast territory.
    IV. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    1. [i:] - please, read, believe, weak, clean;
    [ ] - ill, begin, transcription, distinct, listen, switch;
    65

    [e] - lesson, present, temperature, let, exercise, check, text, rest, any, correct;
    [ ] - absent, bad, palatalization, family, thank.
    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: in the nouns, at the board, read the text, clean the board;
    b) Loss of plosion: sit down, read Text 7, write down, next time;
    c) Clear [ ] before [j:]: will you take, will you please switch on the cassette-recorder?
    V. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Our English Lesson". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the text
    for test reading. Listen to the text very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize the text
    and dramatize it.
    VI. Transcribe the following sentences, mark the stresses and tunes. Read the sentences aloud:

    1. Don't go to the cinema tonight. 2. Don't forget. 3. Get us some chalk. 4. Pronounce the sentence. 5. Find
    page twenty-nine. 6. Stand up, please. 7. Good morning, everybody. 8. Sit down, please. 9. Any mistakes
    noticed? 10. Is everything correct, Pete ? 11. What's the pronunciation of this word ? 12. Do you follow me?
    VII. Answer the following questions:

    A. 1. Can you speak English well? 2. Can you speak French well? 3. Can you understand Spanish? 4. Can
    you count the chairs in this room? 5. Can we write without a pen or a pencil? 6. What can we do with a
    fountain-pen? 7. May I take your textbook? 8. May Helen leave the classroom? 9. May we go to the pictures?
    10. Must we speak English now? 11. What must we have if we want to write a letter? 12. What must we have if
    we want to buy something? 13. What must we use if we want to wash our hands? 14. What must you do when
    you have flu? 15. What must you do to make your reading distinct?
    B. 1. Is this your pen or mine? 2. Whose bag is this? 3. Is this watch yours or mine? 4. Is that watch hers or
    his? 5. Is this your room or theirs? 6. Is this box yours or ours? 7. Is this your desk or their desk? 8. Is this
    notebook mine or yours? 9. Is this cassette-recorder ours or theirs?
    C. 1. How many students are there in your group? 2. How many students are absent? 3. How many students
    are present? 4. Who is the monitor in your group? 5. What is the monitor's name? 6. Have you got any bag? 7.
    Where is your bag? 8. Have you got a ball-pen? Is it a good one? What colour is it? 9. Is there much chalk at
    the board? 10. Have you many books at home? 11. Are there Russian or English books in your bag? 12. Have
    you got a watch? Is it right or wrong? 13. Is N's watch fast or slow? 14. Is A's dress black or brown? 15. Is B's
    ball-pen green or yellow?
    VIII. a) Write the interrogative and negative forms of the following sentences:

    1. She can spell the noun correctly. 2. You may take your exercise-book. 3. He can write this in
    transcription. 4. There are some mistakes in her dictation. 5. My sister has got two interesting magazines. 6.
    Doctor Sandford is busy in his study. 7. Spelling is her weak point.
    b) Express your surprise at the given statement as in the model.

    M o d e l : You may take those pencils.
    Oh, may I?
    Of course, you may.
    ) Respond to the same statement in the negative.

    M o d e l : You may take those pencils.
    Oh, no. I'm afraid, I may not take them.
    IX. Work in pairs. Ask your fellow-student logical questions on the given statements and answer them. Use the
    modal verbs:
    66

    1. We have got headphones for the whole group. 2. Everybody must go to the laboratory today. 3. Mary
    can help us with the cassette-recorder.
    X. Fill in the missing modal verbs:

    1. You ... go out today. It's too cold. 2. ... I take your fountain-pen? - Do, please. 3. We ... not carry the
    bookcase upstairs. It is too heavy. 4. When ... you come to see us? - I ... come only tomorrow. 5. Shall I write a
    letter to him? - No, you ..., it is not necessary. 6. Mary ... finish the work at once. 7. ... you cut something
    without a knife? 8. Peter ... return the book to the library. We all want to read it. 9. Why ... not you understand
    it? It is so easy. 10. ... we do the exercise at once? 11.... you pronounce this sound?
    XI. a) Write sentences according to the following models using the words and word combinations given below.

    M o d e l 1 : Let's begin our morning exercises.
    read the text; write on the blackboard; do the exercises; speak to the dean.
    M o d e l 2 : Shall I write it in transcription?
    clean the blackboard; bring some chalk; do my homework; answer your question; spell the noun; press the
    button; pronounce it.
    d e 1 3 : Listen to the new song.
    the teacher; your fellow-students; the radio, the story; the text; the tune; the cassette-recorder; the actor.
    M o d e l 4 : Look at the clock.
    the picture; the house; the blackboard; the bird; the child; the lamp; the cup; the plate.
    b) Give sentences of your own using the same models.
    c) Make up micro-dialogues, as in the following models. Use the above-mentioned words and word
    combinations. Give short answers. Add a sentence or two of your own.

    M o d e l 1 : Let's begin our morning exercises.
    Yes, let's. (I'm afraid I can't.) In half an hour we must have breakfast.
    Model 2:

    Shall I write it in transcription?
    Do, please. (No, you needn't.) We are to discuss it then.

    Model 3:

    Let's listen to the new song.
    I'd love to. I'm fond of folk songs.

    M o d e l 4 : Look at the clock.
    Oh, it's beautiful (lovely, ugly, etc.). I'd like to have one.
    XII. a) Make up sentences on the following model. Make your sentences interrogative and negative.

    M o d e l : We have got skates.
    b) Express your surprise at the given statements as in the model.

    M o d e l : I have got a cassette-recorder.
    Have you really got a new one?
    67

    c) Respond to the same statements in the negative.

    M o d e l : I have got a new cassette-recorder.
    That can't be true. You haven't got any (cassette-recorder) .
    XIII. Make up sentences according to the model.

    M o d e l : This apple is mine.
    XIV. Translate the following into English using classroom expressions:
    1.

    ?-

    .

    .
    . 5.

    15

    ?-

    ,

    ,
    ? -

    ?-

    .

    ,



    . 6.
    ,
    ?-

    .

    . 8.

    ,

    .
    ,

    . 14.
    ). 16.

    ,

    ,

    », «
    ,
    ,

    . 22.
    . 24.
    ?-

    », «
    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ?.

    ,

    . 10.
    (
    ?.
    ). 15.

    ,

    » («
    »)? 19.

    », «

    ?.
    »)? 7.

    .

    .
    .
    . 11.

    .
    «



    ?-

    . 13.
    (

    . 2.
    . 4.

    » («
    ? -

    )? 12.

    .

    .
    ,
    48? -

    .

    . 9.

    -

    ??-

    . 3.

    .
    », «

    ?
    .
    (

    ,

    ?»)? 18.
    . 20.
    ?- ,
    . 26.

    ,

    .

    ,
    . 17.

    «
    ,

    ,
    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    . 23.
    . 25.

    »
    . 21.
    ,
    .

    XV. a) Write the following numerals in words:

    395, 745, 1950, 13 408, 282 867, 345 296, 5 712 133.
    b) Read the following numerals:

    273, 1882, 19 176, 30 016, 55 744, 81 614, 389 107, 6 271 398.
    XVI. a) Ask your fellow-student for permission ...

    to go out; to come in; to open the window; to take the newspaper; to read; to go home; to begin reading; to
    close the door.
    (The person you ask must give any of the following answers: Certainly. You may. Do, please. I'm afraid not.
    You mustn't.)
    M o d e l : May I speak to the dean? - You may.
    May I leave now? - I'm afraid not.
    b) Give your permission to perform the actions given above.

    M o d e l : You may speak to the dean.
    c) Ask your fellow-students to perform the actions given above. Don't forget to be polite.

    M o d e l : Speak to the dean, please. (Will you speak to the dean?)
    d) Ask your fellow-students not to perform the actions given above.
    68

    M o d e l : Please, do not smoke here.
    XVII. Arrange short dialogues using modal verbs.

    M o d e l s : 1. May I take your pencil? - I'm afraid not, I need it.
    Have you got a pen? - Yes, I have. - May I take it? - Certainly. (Of course, you may.)
    2. Can you come to see us tonight? - Sorry, I can't, but I can come tomorrow. - All right.
    3. Shall (must) I read this exercise once more? - No, you needn't. That will do. Your reading is
    quite good.
    XVIII. Write a short description of your classroom using the construction there is, there are.
    XIX. Act as a teacher of English. Ask your pupils:

    1. to clean the blackboard; to use the duster; to bring some chalk; 2. to tell you the date; to write it on the
    board; not to stand in front of the board; 3. to come up to your desk; to read the text; not to go so fast; to go to
    his place; 4. to check homework; to correct the pronunciation or spelling of some word; 5. to collect the
    exercise-books and to hand them in; 6. to switch on the cassette-recorder; to listen to the text; 7. to wind (play)
    it back; to switch off the cassette-recorder; 8. to have another try and read distinctly.
    XX. Stage a dialogue between a teacher and a student using classroom expressions:

    1. beginning a lesson; 2. checking homework; 3. reading the text; 4. writing on the blackboard; 5. listening to
    the cassette-recorder; 6. giving homework.
    Additional phonetic exercises
    1. Read the exercises several times before the mirror.
    2. Record your reading and listen to it, detect your errors.
    3. Listen to your fellow-student reading the exercises. Detect his errors in sounds and intonation and tell him
    what he must do to get rid of them:

    Laboratory work
    I. Repeat the sentences after the tape.
    II. a) Listen to the questions and record your answers in the intervals. b) Listen to the key and correct your
    mistakes.
    III. a) Make the given sentences interrogative and negative. Record your sentences. b) Check your sentences
    with the key.
    IV. a) Make questions beginning with Where ... to the given statements. b) Make questions beginning with When
    ... to the given statements. c) Make questions beginning with Why ... to the given statements. d) Make questions
    beginning with Whom ... or To whom ... to the given statements.
    V. Listen to the sentences. Supply short questions expressing surprise, doubt.
    VI. Listen to the sentences. Change the construction using the absolute form of the possessive pronouns.
    69

    Model: This is her coat. - This coat is hers.
    VII. Compose sentences on the model using have got or has got.
    VIII. Translate the sentences into English.
    IX. Listen to the disjunctive questions. They are not true to fact. Correct them.
    X. Listen to the poem "The Arrow and the Song" by H. W. Longfellow. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read and
    memorize it.

    Lesson Nine

    Phonetic Exercise 38

    .

    ,
    [ ]

    [k]

    [g]

    .
    Phonetic Exercise 39

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.

    ,

    :
    [w] [ :].

    [ ] [ ]
    [w]

    [ :].
    [ :].
    Phonetic Exercise 40

    70

    .

    ,
    [ðz].
    r

    *
    **

    +
    door, floor

    [ :].
    [ ].

    : learn, earth.

    71

    TEXT
    Doctor sandford's house
    Doctor Sandford's house is not large, but it is comfortable and
    well-planned. It is a small two-storeyed cottage.
    In front of the house there is a green lawn and a lot of flowers.
    Behind it there is a little orchard with a few fruit trees in it. On the
    ground floor there is a kitchen, a pantry, a

    72

    dining-room, a cosy sitting-room and Dr. Sandford's study. There are also several rooms upstairs on the
    first floor: the Sand-fords' bedrooms, Grandmother's room, which is also Benny's nursery, Betty's room and
    the bathroom.
    The furniture is modern and quite new. But Doctor Sandford says he must pay a lot of money for the house
    and the furniture. He must pay the money for many years before he can call the house his own.
    Vocabulary notes
    comfortable
    well-planned
    two-storeyed
    cottage
    ,
    in front of
    lawn
    ,
    orchard
    the ground floor
    kitchen
    pantry
    dining-room
    ; living-room
    cosy
    sitting-room
    study
    several
    upstairs
    ,
    bedroom
    nursery
    bathroom
    furniture
    ; built-in furniture
    modern
    ,
    own

    (

    )

    Topical vocabulary
    Articles of furniture: bed, sofa, divan-bed, chair, armchair, dressing stool, table, bookcase, cupboard,
    wardrobe, dressing-table, mirror, lamp, standard-lamp, stool, unit(s), cabinet, bedside cabinet, wall-furniture,
    suite
    73

    Modern conveniences: electricity, gas, running-water, central heating, telephone, toilet, a rubbish chute, tiled
    walls, lift
    Electric and other equipment: lamp, standard-lamp, upper-lights, refrigerator (fridge), gas-stove, electric
    stove, vacuum-cleaner, television-set, radio-set, music-centre
    Phonetic notes
    1.

    ,

    ,
    .

    2.

    :

    ,

    (

    ),

    ,
    .

    Doctor

    ,

    :

    Sandford's 'house is 'not \large | but it is \comfortable.

    .
    Doctor

    Sandford's 'house is 'not /large | but it is \comfortable.

    3.

    ,
    .

    :

    ,

    ,

    :

    /says:

    .
    Doctor

    | "I'm from \Moscow." He \says: | "I'm from \Moscow."

    :
    Sandford 'says he must 'pay a 'lot of \money.

    4.

    ,
    (the Broken Descending Scale).
    .
    must

    :

    pay the 'money for many \years now.

    Study the following
    Table

    No. I

    Statements in indirect speech

    74

    Exercises
    I. Study Substitution Table No. 1 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Read the following words and word combinations and explain the reading rules:

    a) weight, lain, coin, play, neighbour, neutral, grew, pie, pool, took, toy, autumn, how, know, narrow, true,
    group, bread, peace, feel, dare, mere, where, sore, ore, nasty, salt, lure, sure, jerk, jaw, fruit, foe, paw, hair, dear,
    chair, peer, learn, car, moor;
    b) a white bear; a poor fellow; a new dish; a low couch; a big mouth; a narrow path; a broken chair; an old
    gypsy; chilly weather; brown bread; good maize; bitter beer; fresh air; red hair; bad flour; repeat each word;
    correct these mistakes; close the window; take the pill.
    III. The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on the vowel [ ]. Let your fellow-student read this exercise for you to detect his possible errors in sounds:

    ] 1. Oh, no, don't go home alone, nobody knows how lonely the road is.
    2. Soames never boasts of what he knows. But Rose never knows of what she boasts.
    3. As you sow you shall mow.
    4. Little strokes fell great oaks.
    5. If many men knew what many men know,
    If many men went where many men go,
    If many men did what many men do.
    The world would be better - I think so, don't you?
    IV. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    1. [ ] - doctor, not, modern, following, long;
    [ ] - lawn, also, call, before, orchard;
    [ ] - cosy, also, only, own, so;
    [ ] - Sandford, pantry, grandmother;
    [u:] - rooms, two, fruit;
    [a ] - behind, dining-room, quite;
    [ :] - nursery, furniture;
    [e] - Betty, bedroom, every, many;
    75

    [

    ] - house, downstairs.

    2. a) No devoicing before voiceless consonants: Sandford's house, is comfortable, Sandford
    b) Alveolars replaced by dentals: and the rooms, and the bathroom.
    c) Loss of plosion: fruit trees, but Doctor, must pay.
    d) No glottal stop: in front of, there is a green lawn, is also, his own.

    says.

    V. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Doctor Sandford's House". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise
    the text for test reading. Listen to the text carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    VI. Transcribe the following sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes:

    1. Behind Doctor Sandford's house there is a small orchard. 2. He says: "I have a good television-set." 3. The
    house is not large, but it is comfortable.
    VII. Answer the following questions:

    A. 1. Is Doctor Sandford's house large? 2. What is there in front of the house and behind it? 3. What rooms
    are there in the house? 4. What kind of furniture is there in the house? 5. Is it Doctor Sandford's own house?
    B. 1. Is your flat large or small? 2. How many rooms are there in your flat? 3. What do you call a room
    people sleep in? 4. What do you call a room people have meals in? 5. What do you call a room where a person
    studies, reads, writes, etc.? 6. What do you call a room where children sleep, play and have meals? 7. What do
    you call a room where people spend time after dinner or supper (where guests are received)? 8. What do you
    call a room where food is cooked? 9. What do you call a room where food is kept? 10. Is your flat comfortable
    and cosy? 11. There is a green lawn in front of your house, isn't there? 12. Are there any fruit trees in your
    garden? 13. Is your house old or new? 14. What colour are the walls in your flat? 15. What articles of furniture
    are there in your parents' bedroom (the dining-room, your father's study, your own room)? 16. There are many
    new houses in your street, aren't there? 17. Have you got a rubbish chute in you flat to carry rubbish down? 18.
    Have you got built-in furniture in your flat? 19. Has she got a unit in her room?
    C. 1. Can you read English? 2. Gan you speak French? 3. Who can answer my question? 4. Where can I find
    this book? 5. You can transcribe this word, can't you? 6. You can't speak German, can you? 7. May I ask you a
    few questions? 8. May I go out? 9. May I open the window? 10. May I take your book? 11. Must I translate this
    text? 12. Must we learn this poem by heart? 13. Must I put this book into the desk? 14. What must I read now?
    15. (At) What time must I come home? 16. We can't go to the skating-rink at four, can we?
    VIII. Write in words:

    a) 122, 2 489,1 963,1 844; 11 389, 20 856; 119 922.
    b) M d e 1 : 3.15 - It's a quarter past three.
    5.05; 3.25; 6.30; 3.35; 11.40; 10.15; 9.20; 5.10; 4.45; 7.05; 7.55; 8.50.
    IX. a) Chance the following sentences into interrogative and negative:

    1. There are some fruit trees in front of my house. 2. There is a study in our flat. 3. It is a difficult text. 4. I
    have a room of my own. 5. We can go out for a walk now. 6. You may open the window. 7. The students must
    learn this dialogue by heart. 8. Mr. Sandford must pay much money for his house. 9. You must switch off the
    cassette-recorder.
    b) Ask one another questions on the statements above and answer them in the negative. Mind the distribution
    of sentence-stress in the replies.

    M o d e l : The walls of our kitchen are tiled.
    Are the walls of your kitchen tiled?
    No, they varen't tiled.
    76

    X. a) Form all possible questions to which the following sentences are the answers. b) Each sentence states a
    certain fact. Find some more details about it by asking questions. Work in pairs:

    1. There are eight fruit trees in our garden. 2. Mr. Sandford is the head of the family. 3. I can answer this
    question. 4. My brother can speak French. 5. You may ring me up tonight. 6. We may go home now. 7. They
    must prepare this poem for phonetic reading. 8. I must work much at my pronunciation. 9. On the right you can
    see a standard-lamp.
    XI. Fill in the missing words:

    1. There is no ... in my flat. 2. There are many fruit trees in our .... 3. There is a green ... in front of his
    Institute. 4. Where is you father? - He is working in the ... . 5. My sister's room is very .... 6. Is this your ...
    book? 7. The furniture in my brother's room is quite .... 8. The floor is covered with a beautiful thick.... 9. A...
    serves to carry rubbish down.
    XII. a) Ask your fellow-student questions on pictures on p. 114-115. Work in pairs. b) Describe the pictures.
    XIII. Fill in prepositions if necessary:

    1. It is a quarter ... ten (10.15). 2. I must get up ... half past six. 3. He must be back ... half... an hour. 4. May
    I come ... an hour? 5. You needn't work late ... night. 6. May I finish this translation ... the morning? 7. What's
    the time ...your watch? - It is half... nine. - Your watch is slow, I am afraid. You must set it right. It is already a
    quarter ... ten. 8. Picture No. 6 is ... page 20. 9. Where is Ann? - She must be ... home. 10. Which day ... the
    week is Sunday? 11. It's time ... a break, I believe. 12. Open your books ... page 98.
    XIV. Fill in some, no, (not) any, (not) much, little, a little, (not) many, few, a few, a lot of:

    1. I have ... work today. 2. I should like to have ... milk for breakfast. 3. Mary has friends at the Institute. 4.
    There are ... boys in Group Two. 5. Can you give me ... English books? 6. Are there ... fruit trees in your
    orchard? 7. I have ... spare time today. 8. Who can give the boy ... pencils? 9.1 must ask you ... questions about
    your studies. 10. Have I ... mistakes in spelling? 11. Are ... students away from the lesson? 12. I hope, I have ...
    mistakes in my translation.
    XV. Change the following sentences using the given model.

    M o d e l : Can you show me the room of your sister?
    Can you show me your sister's room?
    1. May I see the book of John? 2. Will you come to the birthday party of my daughter? 3. You must read all
    the novels by Dickens. 4. He must check the work of his students. 5. Who can tell me the address of the
    Smiths? 6. There are all modern conveniences in the flat of my mother-in-law. 7. May I have a book from the
    library of your father? 8. Where can I listen to the music of Prokofiev? 9. Is there any built-in furniture in the
    flat of your cousin?
    XVI. Complete the sentences. Observe the low rising tone in adverbial groups:

    1. In the middle of the room ... . 2. On the walls ... . 3. On the left .... 4. To the right of the fridge ... . 5. Next
    to the door ... . 6. In front of the house 7. Next to the writing-table ... . 8. In the bathroom ... . 9. In the kitchen ...
    . 10. Upstairs ....
    XVII. Fill in the missing modal verb:

    1. My sister can read English but she ... not read German. 2. Who ... recite this poem? 3. ... I smoke here? -- I
    am afraid not. 4. ... I pay for these books at once? - No, you needn't. You ... pay for them in a day or two. 5. The
    lesson is over. We ... go home now. 6. ... I take your dictionary? - Do, please. 7. Must we translate this article in
    77

    class? - No, you ..., you'll do it at home. 8. You ... find our dean upstairs. 9. ... I see your father's study? 10.
    What kind of furniture ... you see in the sitting-room? 11. You ... take a cold shower every morning. 12. ... I
    come to see you tomorrow at ten o'clock? 13. ... you do this translation in the morning? 14. I ... be at the
    Institute at eight. 15. It is dark. You ... draw the curtains.
    XVIII. Think of stimulating phrases to which the phrases below are the replies:

    1. Do, please. (Yes, please.) 2. I am afraid not. 3. No, you (he, she, they) mustn't. 4. No, you needn't. 5. Yes,
    I (she, he we, they) can. 6. No, I (she, he, we, they) can't. 7. That's too bad.
    XIX. Supply short replies stimulating further talk. Work in pairs.

    M o d e l : You can go now. - /Can I?
    1. You can stop here. 2. You may rest in the garden. 3. You must telephone him at once. 4. You can turn off
    the gas. 5. You may listen to the radio. 6. You may stay with us. 7. You must go to the lab today. 8. You must
    read the text again. 9. You can go home now.
    XX. Translate the sentences into English:
    1.

    . 2.
    ,

    . 3.

    ? 4.

    ? 5.

    . 6.
    ?-

    ?. 9.

    ,
    ?-

    .
    . 12.

    (to clean)

    . 7.
    ?? . 14.

    .

    . 11.
    . -

    ,
    ? -

    .
    ,

    . 16.

    20? .
    . 26.

    .?.

    ,

    (to ring up)? ?. 21.
    ?-(
    ,

    ,
    ? 17.

    .-

    . 18.
    . 20.
    ?-

    .?-(

    )

    . 22.
    . 23.

    . 24.
    ,

    ,
    ? -

    ,
    . 25.

    ?-

    .

    ,
    . 19.
    ?-

    )

    ,

    . 13.
    .

    . 15.
    :

    )

    . 8.
    . 10.

    ?-

    ..

    .

    XXI. a) Use the following sentences in indirect speech according to the given model. Make all the necessary
    changes.

    M o d e l : Bob says: "I can skate well." - Bob says he can skate well.
    b) Imagine you are telling someone about what is said in the sentences below. Your fellow-student is to express
    agreement as in the model.

    M o d e l : He says he has no earphones. - No, he hasn't.
    1. He says: "This sentence is not difficult." 2. Mary says: "There is only one window in our classroom." 3.
    John says: "There aren't many fruit trees in our Institute garden." 4. Betty says: "Doctor Sandford isn't in." 5.
    Doctor Sandford says: "My family is not large." 6. Helen says: "I have only one son." 7. Mrs. Sandford says:
    "Benny is an only child in the family." 8. Benny says: "Our house is not large." 9. The student says: "I cannot
    speak English well." 10. Betty says: "I must learn many poems by heart." 11. The teacher says: "It is two
    o'clock. Our classes are over." 12. The mother says: "Tom must come home at a quarter to three." 13. The
    father says: "I must work till late at night today." 14. Bob says: "I can come in the morning." 15. Nick says:
    "My sister is married to a sailor."
    78

    XXII. a) Find a picture on the topic "The Flat I Live in" for your discussion in class. Prepare 8-10 questions
    which would help your fellow-students to describe the picture. b). Ask another student or the students of your
    group in turn about the flat they live in. c) Ask your friend what pieces of furniture there are in his sitting-room.
    Ask your fellow-student a few questions about his new flat. d) Suggest a situation for your fellow-students to give it
    in the form of a dialogue.
    XXIII. a) Speak on the topic "The Flat I Live in". b) Make up short dialogues on the topic, c) Describe the
    rooms in the memorial house of some distinguished person (a writer, a composer) you have lately visited. d)
    Describe the flat you live in or your friend lives in.

    Additional phonetic exercises
    1. Read the exercises several times before the mirror.
    2. Record your reading and listen to it, detect your errors.
    3. Listen to your fellow-student reading the exercises. Detect his errors in sounds and intonation and tell him
    what he must do to get rid of them:

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    II. a) Listen to the words, translate them, write them down, transcribe them. b) Check your spelling and
    transcription with the key. Correct your mistakes if you have any.
    III. Listen to the questions. Give full answers (affirmative, negative) in the intervals.
    IV. a) Translate the sentences into English. b) Check your sentences with the key.
    V. Listen to the disjunctive questions. They are not true to fact. Correct them.
    VI. a) Listen to the text "Our Sitting-Room". b) Write down the text, mark the stresses and tunes. Read it. c)
    Pick out words, phrases, sentences, which can be used in the topic "The Flat I Live in". d) Listen to the text again
    and answer the questions in the intervals.

    Lesson Ten

    Phonetic Exercise 41

    79

    .
    1.
    2.
    3.
    3.

    ,
    [k]

    [ ]

    :
    [ ]

    [w]

    .
    [w]

    [v].

    ,

    , [kwa t].

    .
    Phonetic Exercise 42

    .

    ,

    1.
    2.
    3.

    :
    .
    .

    .
    TEXT

    Mr. white comes again
    It is Saturday afternoon. Doctor Sandford is in his study. Betty knocks.
    "Come in, please. What is it, Betty?"
    "Mr. White wants to see you, Henry."
    "Well, yes. Show him in please." (Mr. White enters.)
    "Good afternoon, doctor."
    "Good afternoon, Mr. White."
    "I'm terribly sorry to trouble you."
    "That's all right. Glad to see you. Sit down, please. What can I do for you?"
    "Do you receive the Times'?"
    "Certainly."
    "Would you like to have it for the next year?"
    "Oh, I forget. We never remember such things in time. Must I pay anything right now?"
    "No you needn't. For the present, you can sign this paper. Here you are."
    "Where do I sign?"
    "Here, please. Thank you, doctor."
    "Well, Mr. White. It's five o'clock. You'll have some tea with us, won't you?"
    "Thank you. I'd be glad to."
    "Let's go to the dining-room. This way, please."
    Vocabulary notes
    to knock
    What is it?
    ?
    Show him in.
    What can I do for you?
    to receive

    .
    ?
    80

    to remember
    ,
    in time
    right now
    ,
    for the present
    ,
    to sign
    . Where do I sign?
    ?
    Here you are.
    ,
    ! There are several equivalents for the Russian word «
    ». 1.
    Please is used when we ask for smth. or about smth., e. g. Please give me your fountain-pen. Have some more
    salad, please. 2. Here you are is used in answer to some request. It is said by someone giving smth. he has been
    asked for, e. g. Please give me another cup of coffee. - Here you are. 3. The expression not at all
    ,
    ) is an answer to smb.'s thanks, e. g. Thank you for helping me. - Not at all. That's all right.
    You'll have some tea with us, won't you? He
    ?
    This way, please.
    ,
    .
    Topical vocabulary
    Months: January, February, March, April, May, June, July August, September, October, November,
    December
    The Days of the Week: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday.
    e. g. What's the date today? - Today is Friday, the seventeenth of March (or March the seventeenth) nineteen
    eiqhty-four (Friday, March 17th, 1984).
    What day is it? - It is Monday.
    Conversational phrases
    Asking for Information
    Question Techniques: I wonder if you could help me. I'd like to know (where I could get this book). Could
    you possibly (tell me about it). I wonder if you could tell me (where he lives). Do you happen to know (when
    the train is coming).
    Answering Techniques: Well, let me see; Well now; Oh, let me think for a moment; I'm not sure, I'll just
    have to find out; I'm glad you asked me that; That's a very good question; I'm terribly sorry, I really don't know;
    I've no idea, I'm afraid.
    Phonetic notes
    1.

    well,

    ,
    .

    /Well,

    Mr. White, | it's

    five o'\clock.

    2.

    , (exclamations)
    :

    .

    3.

    ,

    ,
    .

    What can I do for you? [

    :

    :
    w t k n a \du:f

    ju ]
    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    Prepositions of time
    81

    :
    this morning, this afternoon, this evening, tonight;
    yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, yesterday evening, last night;
    tomorrow morning, tomorrow afternoon, tomorrow evening, tomorrow night.
    Table No. 2

    The present indefinite tense

    .

    -(e)s
    3- sees [si:z], builds [b lz]: [s]
    - teaches ['ti: z].

    : [z]
    - wants [w nts]; [ z]

    Contracted forms
    Do you study English? - No, I don't.
    Does he study English? - No, he doesn't.
    Table No. 3

    General questions in indirect speech
    82

    Spelling rules
    ,
    -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -z,
    -es [ z]: I pass - he passes; I teach - he teaches.
    -es
    goes
    [z]: I go - he goes [g z].
    ,
    ,
    ,
    -es: to study - he studies.
    ,
    : to stay - he stays.

    i

    Memory Work:
    Solomon Grundy
    Solomon Grundy
    Born on Monday,
    Christened on Tuesday,
    Married on Wednesday,
    Ill on Thursday,
    Worse on Friday,
    Died on Saturday,
    Buried on Sunday,
    That was the end
    of Solomon Grundy.
    * * *
    Thirty days have September,
    April, June and November,
    All the rest have thirty-one;
    February has twenty-eight alone,
    Excepting leap-year, that's the time
    When February's days are twenty-nine.
    Exercises
    I. Study Substitution Table 2 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Read and transcribe the following words. Explain the reading rules:

    did - deed, had - hard, lick - leak, hip - heap, dear - deer, lad - lard, Mary - marry, hail - hear, sill - seal, bear
    -beer, lip - leap, pit - pat, hill - heal, chair - cheer, bad -bard, fill - feel, marry - merry, ship - sheep, taught - tap tape, pen - pain - pale, fit - foot - fate, dive - dove - dame, daisy - lazy - darling.
    III. Copy the following words and arrange them in columns according to the corresponding type of syllable:
    83

    stamp, write, stir, bench, tulip, Arthur, button, mule, lace, typist, fare, dark, cure, burn, here, muff, fine,
    mere, lace, cube, purse, tires, fade, prepare, mass, system.
    IV. Spell and transcribe the 3rd person singular of the following verbs:

    come, go, play, write, wash, stress, begin, catch, cut, eat, hang, get, relax, hold, know, lead, meet, ring, think,
    understand, work, change, open, push, kiss, study, stay, copy, say, carry, watch.
    V. The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on the sound [ :]. Let your fellow-student read the exercise aloud for you to detect his errors:

    :] 1. A little girl with a pretty curl.
    2. Learn thirteen words of Lesson Thirty.
    3. The first word is a verb and the third word is an adverb.
    4. First come first served.
    5. One good turn deserves another.
    6. As the workman so is the work.
    VI. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    1. [i:] - see, receive, read, needn't, please, tea;
    [ ] - Saturday, Sandford, glad, can, family, thank, have;
    [e] - enter, present, let, anything, pleasure, well;
    [ ] - knock, what, doctor, clock.
    Nasal plosion: needn't, certainly.
    2. a) No devoicing before voiceless consonants: his study, have tea;
    b) No voicing before voiced consonants: let's go, this way;
    c) Loss of plosion: glad to see you, sit down, what can I do, like to have it;
    d) No glottal stop: Saturday afternoon, Sandford is in, come in, what is
    Mr. White enters.

    it, show him

    in,

    VII a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue "Mr. White Comes Again". Mark the stresses and tunes. b)
    Practise the dialogue for test reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same
    way. c) Memorize the dialogue and dramatize it.
    VIII. Read the following exclamations:

    1. You are right! 2. It's excellent! 3. How nice! 4. She is here! 5. They are ready! 6. We can ask him!
    IX. Pronounce the following phrases with the low-rising tone and then with the falling-rising tone:

    84

    X. Transcribe the following sentences, mark the stresses and tunes, picture them on the staves:

    1. Good afternoon, Doctor? 2. What can I do for you? 3. Come in, please. 4. Show him in, Betty. 5. Have tea
    with us. - Thank you. I'd be glad to.
    XI. Answer the following questions:

    A. 1. Where is Mr. Sandford on a Saturday afternoon? 2. Who comes to see Doctor Sandford on a Saturday
    afternoon? 3. What does Mr. White ask Doctor Sandford about? 4. Why does Mr. White call on Doctor
    Sandford? 5. Doctor Sandford signs the paper, doesn't he? 6. What do they do in England at 5 o'clock in the
    afternoon?
    B. 1. Do you like English? 2. You speak English well, don't you? 3. Where do you study English? 4. Does
    your brother go to the Institute every day? 5. Your classes begin in the morning, don't they? 6. Where do you
    prepare your lessons? 7. What does your brother do in the evening? 8. What foreign language does your mother
    speak? 9. What do you write on the blackboard with?
    C. 1. What's the date today? 2. What day is it? 3. What is the first (second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh)
    day of the week? 4. What is the first (second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh,
    twelfth) month of the year? 5. Which month is November? 6. Which month is June? 7. Which month is
    December? 8. When do your studies at the University begin? 9. When do the winter examinations begin? 10.
    When do the summer examinations begin?
    XII. a) Make the following sentences interrogative and negative. b) Ask one another questions on the following
    statements and answer them in the negative. Keep moving this exercise rapidly.

    M o d e l : Mr. White wants to see you.
    Does Mr. White want to see me?
    No, he doesn't.
    1. Mr. White and Betty enter the room. 2. Mr. White wants to see Doctor Sandford. 3. You can sign this
    85

    paper. 4. I know some of these names. 5.I can do something. 6. The walls of my room are light-green.
    XIII. Write questions to the words in bold type and let your fellow-student answer them. Observe the
    distribution of stress in the replies:

    1. There are twelve months in a year. 2. There are thirty days in June. 3. She is twelve. 4. My brother's
    friend can skate well. 5. He is a doctor. 6. We call it a bedroom. 7. I like to read English books. 8. It is the
    first of October. 9. It is Thursday. 10. On the right I can see a bookcase.
    XIV. a) Form all possible questions to which the-following sentences are the answers:

    1. There are some newspapers on the desk. 2. We have tea at five o'clock. 3. I have two English lessons on
    Monday. 4. My parents live in Moscow. 5. My father is a doctor. 6. My father works at a hospital. 7. He is
    forty-five. 8. All the members of my family read this paper. 9. I can come and see you on Friday. 10. You may
    sign this paper tomorrow.
    b) Each sentence states a certain fact. Find some more details about it by asking questions. Work in pairs.
    XV. Write in words and read:

    9/IV 1946; 8/VII 1924; I/IX 1827; 12/X 1955; 4/I 1949; 11/II 1918.
    XVI. Fill in somebody (someone), anybody (anyone), nobody (no one) everybody (everyone), something, anything,
    nothing, everything:
    1. Is there ... on the desk? 2. The door is open. There must be ... at home. 3. There is ... wrong with my fountain-pen. It
    won't write. 4. A blind man cannot see ... . 5. Is there ... in the room? - Yes, there is ... in it. 6. It is too dark here, I cannot
    see ... . 7. If there is ... in the room you may turn off the light. 8. Can ... recite the poem? 9. We must do ... to help her. 10.
    Can I do ... for you? 11. There must be ... interesting in the book you read. 12. It is too dark, I can't see ... on the
    blackboard. May I turn on the light? 13. We can work in Room No. 20. There is ... there. 14. Let's go there at once. I want
    to see ... with my own eyes. 15. May I come to see you tonight? I've got ... to tell you. 16. Bob is one of our best students,
    ... knows him. 17. Must we learn ... by heart? - No, you needn't. You must only prepare the poem for test reading. 18.
    There is ... interesting in this magazine. 19. Is ... away from the lesson?
    XVII. Fill in prepositions if necessary:

    1. He must go to St. Petersburg... spring. 2. We take our written exams ... January. 3. Our studies begin ...
    autumn. 4. What do you do ... Sunday? 5. All the students of our group will take part in the concert... the eighth
    ... May. 6. May I ring you up ... the morning? 7. My elder brother is a doctor. He often comes ... home late ...
    night. 8. Is there anybody... the Dean's office? 9.I must go and see him ... three o'clock ... Friday. 10. Listen ...
    the new text... the laboratory. 11. Look ... the blackboard. Do you see any mistakes ... it? 12. Who is ... duty
    today? 13. Will you go... the blackboard? 14. You may go ... your place. 15. ... the right... the dining-table there
    is a cupboard.
    XVIII. Fill in the definite or indefinite article if necessary:

    1. There are three rooms and ... kitchen in her new flat. 2. My new dress is made of... silk. 3. If you want to
    write something on ... blackboard, you must have ... piece of ... chalk. 4. Are there any students in ... Room No.
    12? 5. I have ... new English book. ... book is very interesting. 6. There is ... garden and ... lawn in front of her
    Institute.... garden is not large, but it is very beautiful. 7. The students of your group must be in ... Room No.
    30. 8. Open ... book at page 29 and start reading. 9. May is ... fifth month of the year. 10. Saturday is ... seventh
    day of the week. 11. Sunday is ... day off.
    XIX. Think of stimulating phrases to which those below could be the replies. Work in pairs:

    1. Here you are. 2. Show her in, please. 3. Thank you, I'd be glad to. 4. Do they? 5. Are you? 6. Do, please.
    7. Certainly. 8. Here, please.
    86

    XX. Think of replies to the following questions and statements. Work in pairs:

    1. Yes, Helen. What is it? 2. Good afternoon, Helen! 3. What can I do for you? 4. Sign this paper, please. 5.
    Let me see this book. 6. Have tea with us. 7. Thank you. 8. May I ring you up tonight?
    XXI. a) Respond to the following sentences as in the model below. Express surprise or doubt in your
    replies and add something to develop a situation.
    M o d e l : I don't like autumn. /Don't you?
    b) Continue the exercise suggesting your own verbal context:

    1. I am very busy. 2. Tom is already ten. 3. You are late. 4. You have no mistakes in pronunciation. 5. I can't
    speak French well. 6. We must stay at home. 7. You may go home. 8. I live in a comfortable flat now. 9. My
    sister wants to study German. 10. They don't make many mistakes in spelling. 11. We have got built-in
    furniture in the kitchen. 12. My girl-friend has got flu, I am afraid.
    XXII. Use the following questions in indirect speech according to the given model. Make all the necessary
    changes.

    M o d e l : The teacher asks: "Do you know any English words?"
    The teacher asks if we know any English words.
    1. Tom asks: "Do you know English well?" 2. She asks: "Do you like to skate?" 3. My friends ask: "Are you
    free on Sunday?" 4. The student asks: "Have you any English books at home?" 5. She asks: "Do you want to
    read this book?" 6. The teacher asks: "Are there any mistakes in spelling on the blackboard?" 7. The student
    asks: "Are there any mistakes in my pronunciation?" 8. The teacher asks me: "Do you know any poem by
    heart?" 9. Mary asks me: "Do you know many English words?" 10. Betty asks Tom: "Must you go to the
    Institute today?" 11. The teacher asks the boy: "Is May a spring month?" 12. The students ask me: "Do you like
    our University?" 13. Mr. White asks Betty: "Is Doctor Sandford in?" 14. The children ask Betty: "Do you play
    the piano?" 15. The teacher asks the boy: "Have you any brothers or sisters?" 16. The teacher asks the girls:
    "Can you spell the word 'white'?" 17. The boy asks his sister: "Do you see anything on the table?"
    XXIII. Make up short dialogues according to the given model. Use the following questions.

    Model:

    A: Do you know Helen?
    B: What do you ask me?
    A: I ask you if you know Helen.
    C: What does A. ask you?
    B: A. asks me if I know Helen.

    1. Are you busy? 2. Are the lessons over? 3. Is he already twenty? 4. Are there any new words in Lesson
    Four? 5. Do you know the pronunciation of all the new words? 6. Is this translation difficult? 7. Do the students
    of your group work much at their English? 8. Who is the monitor of your group? 9. Can you swim? 10. Must
    we finish this work today? 11. Are you fond of animals?
    XXIV. Translate the following into English:
    1.

    . 2.
    ? 5.
    . ? ,

    ,
    ? -

    ,

    ? 8.
    . 9.

    . . 12.
    4? 15.

    . 3.
    . 6.
    ,

    -

    ? ? 13.
    5

    ? 4.
    . 7.
    .

    ? -

    ? 10.
    . 11.
    ? 14.
    . 16.
    87

    . 17.
    ? 19.

    -

    ? 18.
    .-

    .? 22.

    .

    ? 20.

    .-

    ? 21.

    . 23.

    .
    XXV. a) Describe Mr. White's visit. Concentrate on the reported speech. b) Imagine you come to see your
    fellow-student to discuss certain items (points) of your homework. Make up a dialogue. c) Suggest a situation for
    your fellow-students to give it in the form of a dialogue.
    XXVI. Build short conversations. Use the vocabulary of this lesson and conversational phrases.

    Additional phonetic exercises
    1. Read the exercises several times before the mirror.
    2. Record your reading and listen to it, detect your errors.
    3. Listen to your fellow-student reading the exercises. Detect his errors in sounds and intonation and tell him
    what he must do to get rid of them:

    Laboratory work
    I. Repeat the sentences after the tape.
    II. a) Listen to the questions and record your answers in the intervals. b) Listen to the record and correct the
    mistakes if you have any.
    III. a) Make the sentences interrogative and negative. Record the interrogative and negative forms in the
    intervals. b) Check your sentences with the key.
    IV. a) Listen to the sentences. Supply short answers expressing surprise or doubt and record them in the
    intervals. b) Check your sentences with the key.
    V. a) Change the sentences from direct into indirect speech. Record your sentences in the intervals. b) Check
    your sentences with the key.
    VI. a) Translate the sentences into English and record them in the intervals. b) Check your sentences with the
    key.
    VII. a) Listen to the words, translate them, write them down, transcribe them. b) Check your spelling and
    transcription with the key.
    VIII. Listen to the disjunctive questions. They are not true to fact. Correct them.
    IX. a) Listen to the dialogues "Days and Months", "Asking the Time". Translate them. Write them down.
    Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Read the dialogues and learn them by heart.

    Lesson Eleven

    Phonetic Exercise 43

    88

    .

    ,

    1.

    :

    ,
    :

    .

    .

    2.

    [,].

    ,
    [n

    .

    ð ],

    .

    TEXT
    Dialogue
    Alex meets a group of foreign students.

    A l e x : Excuse me, what country are you from?
    i t e k : I am from Poland.
    A l e x : Do you live in Warsaw?
    i t e k : No, I don't. I live in a small town in the North of Poland. Let me introduce you to my friend
    Lucy.
    A l e x : I am ever so glad to meet you.
    i t e k : Lucy is from France, from Paris. She is French. By the way, do you speak French?
    A l e x : I am afraid I don't. I speak only two foreign languages, English and Spanish. And I prefer to
    speak Spanish, as I know it much better than English.
    V o i t e k : Oh, that's fine! Lucy speaks Spanish rather well. Her mother is from South America. As for
    me I can't speak Spanish but I understand nearly everything. Lucy and I are pen-friends.
    A l e x : Would you like to join me and my fellow-students? We can have a good time together.
    V o i t e k : That'd be lovely.
    A l e x : Come on, then.
    Vocabulary notes
    foreign
    ; foreign language
    Ex\ cuse me!
    ! (Apology used before troubling smb.), e. g. Excuse me! May I ask you a question?
    Excuse my back!
    ,
    (
    )
    .
    \Sorry! (I beg your) \Pardon! (Apologies used after doing smth. wrong.), e. g. Sorry, I didn't mean to hurt
    you. Mind: /Sorry! /Pardon! (Asking to repeat smth.), e. g. Sorry! (Pardon!) Which street did you say?
    introduce vt
    , e. g. He introduced a new method of working, to introduce smb. to smb.
    .
    ., e. g. Will you introduce me to your sister? Let me introduce myself. (Note: to
    acquaint smb. with smb. (or smth.)
    .
    .(
    .), e. g. Mr. Hill acquainted Eric with
    his work, to get acquainted with smb.
    . Syn. to meet (col.), e. g. We got acquainted
    last year. This is John Smith, Ann. - Oh, glad to meet you. I've heard so much about you. Meet my sister Helen.
    I am ever so glad to meet you.
    .
    prefer
    as for me
    pen-friends
    to join smb.
    .
    come on
    Topical vocabulary
    89

    Cardinal points: the North, the South, the West, the East.
    Continents: Europe ['j r p], Asia ['e ], Africa, America, Australia [ :s'tre lj ], the Antarctic.
    Oceans: the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean.
    Seas: the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea.
    Rivers: the Volga, the Thames [temz], the Mississippi.
    Islands: Great Britain, Ireland.
    Chains of mountains: the Urals ['ju r lz], the Alps.
    The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) consists of former Soviet Republics.
    They are: Russia (Moscow), Ukraine (Kiev), Belarus (Minsk), Uzbekistan (Tashkent), Kazak(h)stan (AlmaAta), Georgia (Tbilisi), Azerbaidzan (Baku), Moldova (Kishinev), Kirghizia (Bishkek), Tadzhikistan
    (Dushanbe), Armenia (Ereven), Turkmenistan, Turkmenia (Ashghabat or Ashkabad).

    90

    .

    1.

    ,
    .
    .

    :

    ,
    ,

    ,

    .
    -an, -ian,

    ,
    .
    Russian .

    .
    ; the Russians -

    ; several Russians -

    : a Russian book ; that Russian's report -

    ; a

    ,
    ,
    ;
    : She is not English, she is Russian. She is not an English woman, she is a
    Russian.
    ,

    ,

    ,
    (a Japanese)

    -ese

    -

    -ss,
    (the Japanese).

    -s,
    several Japanese ,

    , that Japanese' daughter.
    ,

    -ish

    ,
    ,

    :
    -ch,

    ,
    -s.

    : the English -

    .
    ,
    man, woman, men, women: an Englishman, an
    Englishwoman, two (several) Englishmen.
    2.
    ,
    .
    Caucasus ['k k s s], the Crimea [kra 'm ].

    ,

    ,

    ,
    : the United Slates of America, the

    Phonetic notes
    91

    .
    ,
    I pre
    I pre

    fer to 'speak \Spanish, | as I
    ,
    fer to 'speak \Spanish, | as I

    .
    know it 'much 'b tt

    ,

    ,
    :
    than \English.
    .

    know it 'much 'better than \English.
    ,

    .
    .

    I

    :

    don't 'think he is \right.
    ,
    .
    When it

    gets /dark |

    ,
    :

    ,

    Moscow 'looks es'pecially \beautiful | because of its

    splendid il/lumi\nations.

    Study the following
    Table No. I

    Degrees of comparison of adverbs

    *

    much

    far.

    Spelling rules
    -1 ,

    i: easy

    - easily, happy - happily, gay - gaily.
    Memory Work:
    Roadways
    By John Masefield
    One road leads to London,
    One road runs to Wales,
    My road leads me seawards
    To the white dipping sails.
    One road leads to the river
    92

    As it goes singing slow.
    My road leads to shipping
    Where the bronzed sailors go.
    My road calls me, lures me
    West, east, south and north,
    Most roads lead men homewards
    My road leads me forth.
    Exercises
    I. Study Substitution Table No. 1 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Copy and transcribe the following words. Mark primary and secondary stresses and read the words aloud:

    anniversary, demonstration, revolution, illumination, the Mississippi, nationality, Japanese, explanation,
    celebration, invitation, assimilation, conversation, congratulation, palatalization.
    III. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your
    attention on sounds. b) Let your fellow-student read the exercise aloud for you to detect his possible errors in
    sounds. Tell him what must be done to eliminate them:

    [ ] 1. George was born in August.
    2. I saw more than forty horses.
    3. Her naughty daughter Maud is at fault.
    4. Of all the saws I ever saw, I never saw a saw as that saw saws.
    [ ] 1. Julius was jealous.
    2. Jane, Jim and George Jones.
    3. John, put the orange juice into the frige.
    4. A journalist made a journey over Japan.
    IV. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    l. [e] - November, eleventh, seventh, celebrate, gets, guests, red, let, French, pen-friends, fellow, members;
    [ ] - part, march, dark, park, France, party, mark;
    [ ] - revolution, demonstration, illuminations, English, Spanish;
    [ ] - Warsaw, small, North.
    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: is the eleventh, on the seventh, is the greatest, in he parks, and
    the guests, on his day, in the history, is the birthday.
    b) Loss of plosion: take part, what pountry, good time.
    c) No voicing before voiced consonants: this day, gets dark, much better.
    d) No glottal stop: the anniversary, the illumination, from all, let me introduce you, better than
    English, but I understand, nearly everything, Lucy and I, come on.
    V. a) Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the dialogue for test reading. Listen to it
    very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize and dramatize it.
    VI. Give the degrees of comparison of the following adverbs and transcribe them:

    slowly, fast, hard, badly, much, well, early, far, near, often, late, quietly, easily, little, warmly, seriously,
    comfortably, quickly.
    VII. a) Put the adverbs in brackets in the correct place:

    93

    1. (never) Alex is late for his classes. 2. (usually) He has dinner at two o'clock. 3. (seldom) I go to bed before
    twelve o'clock. 4. (often) I speak Spanish with my mother. 5. (always) He works in the lab after his lessons. 6.
    (still) Do you think that she is ill? 7. (already) I think she is at home. 8. (sometimes) I see him in the library.
    b) Form sentences of your own using the same adverbs.
    VIII. Answer the following questions:

    1. What traditional holidays in our country do you know? 2. How do you usually see in the New Year? 3. Is
    there a New-Year tree at your place at that time? 4. Where can you see the biggest and the most beautiful NewYear tree in Moscow? 5. When do we celebrate Mother's Day? 6. How do you mark this day in your family? 7.
    Is Victory Day a traditional holiday only in our country or is it an international holiday? 8. How do we
    celebrate Victory Day in our country? 9. How do people in other countries mark it? 10. Which is the traditional
    holiday of teachers in our country? 11. When is your birthday? 12. Do you always invite guests to your birthday
    party? 13. There is a tradition in some countries to put candles on the birthday cake so that people can see how
    old you are. How do you like this tradition? 14. Do you put candles on your birthday cake? Why?
    IX. Put the adjectives in brackets in the required degree of comparison:

    1. Asia is (large) than Australia. 2. The Volga is (short) than the Mississippi. 3. Mary is a (good) student than
    Lucy. 4. There are (few) mistakes in my dictation than in yours. 5. This garden is the (beautiful) in our town. 6.
    The Arctic Ocean is (cold) than the Indian Ocean. 7. Chinese is (difficult) than English. 8. Spanish is (easy)
    than German. 9. Let's go to the (far) corner of the park. That is the (quiet) place here.
    X. Some adverbs have the same form as their corresponding adjectives. Make up sentences of your own using
    the words below (first as adjectives, then as adverbs).

    d e 1 : It's a bad mistake. She feels bad today.
    fast, early, late, hard, long, far, low, well, quick.
    XI. The following pairs of adverbs are different in meaning. Make up sentences of your own to show the
    difference:

    hard - hardly, near - nearly, close - closely.
    XII. Speak on your favourite holidays.
    XIII. Fill in prepositions if necessary:

    1. When we go ... foreign countries we see and learn a lot ... things. 2. She says she likes to go ... the
    Caucasus ... winter. 3. Japan is a country ... the western part ... the Pacific Ocean. It consists ... many islands,
    large and small. Some ... them are only a few miles long. 4. The Crimea is ... the South ... our country. 5. My
    sister lives ... the Far East. 6. The Baltic Sea is ... the West. 7. Show us the longest river ... Russia ... the map. 8.
    Slovakia is ... the centre ... Europe. 9. St. Petersburg is ... the north-west ... Moscow. 10. Thousands ... students
    ... all nationalities study ... the institutes ... our country. 11. One ... the students ... our group is ... Rumania. 12.
    What's the capital ... Rumania? 13. What language do they speak ... Bulgaria.
    XIV. Fill in the definite or indefinite article if necessary:

    1. ... Russia occupies ... eastern half of ... Europe and ... northern third ... of Asia. 2. ... climate of ... northern
    part of ... Russia is severe. 3. In ... European part of ... Russia ... summer is warm and sunny. 4. This winter is ...
    true Russian winter with hard frosts. 5. It is warm all ... year round in ... Crimea and ... Caucasus. 6. ...
    Commonwealth of Independent States is one of ... biggest countries of ... whole world. 7. Tbilisi is ... capital of
    ... Georgia. 8. I want to go to ... Alma-Ata some day. 9. ... best way to know and understand ... people of other
    countries is to meet them in their own homes. 10. Is Australia ... island or ... continent? 11. ... Black Sea is in ...
    94

    South. 12. There are six continents in ... world, aren't there? 13. France is to ... northwest of Italy.
    XV. Let the members of the class ask and answer questions as in the models. Give a short answer and add a
    sentence of your own using adverbs in the comparative and the superlative degree.

    M o d e l 1 : Does she speak Spanish more fluently than her friend? Oh yes, she does. Of all the students in
    our group she speaks most fluently.
    M o d e l 2 : He doesn't go to bed later than you, does he? No, he doesn't. He goes to bed earliest of all, (or:
    But he does. He goes to bed latest of all.)
    XVI. Form questions to the following statements:

    1. Russia is a very large country. 2. There are more than 100 nationalities in the CIS. 3. In the North of our
    country winter is very cold. 4. There are a lot of rivers and lakes in the North of Russia.
    XVII. Answer the following questions:

    1. How many oceans can you see on the map? What are they? 2. Is the Pacific the largest ocean in the world?
    3. Which is the largest ocean in the world? 4. Does the Pacific Ocean wash Western Europe? 5. Which ocean
    washes Western Europe? 6. Which ocean washes the northern part of Europe? 7. Which ocean washes Eastern
    Asia? 8. What two American continents do you know? 9. What other continents do you know? 10. Is Australia
    a continent or an island? 11. Is Ireland an island or a continent? 12. The Alps are higher than the Urals, aren't
    they? 13. What are the highest mountains in Europe? 14. The Mississippi is the longest river in the world, isn't
    it? 15. Is the Thames as long as the Mississippi? 16. Which is the longest river in the world? 17. Is the Black
    Sea in the South? 18. Is the Baltic Sea in the South too? Where is it? 19. Is the White Sea in the North or in the
    South? 20. Is the United States in North or in South America? 21. Is Japan in the West or in the East? 22. Is
    Italy in the South or in the North of Europe? 23. What is the capital of Bulgaria (Hungary, Rumania) ? 24. What
    language do the Spaniards (the Japanese) speak?
    XVIII. Look at the map of the world, show and name all the continents, oceans, seas, countries and other
    geographical names you know.
    XIX. Make up short dialogues on the topic: "At the Map of the World". Use conversational phrases.
    XX. Change the following sentences from direct into indirect speech:

    1. The pupil asks: "Is the United States in North America?" 2. The student asks: "Is the Volga longer than
    the Thames?" 3. The pupil asks: "Is the Thames as long as the Volga?" 4. My friend asks me: "Is the Baltic Sea
    cold?" 5. The teacher asks: "Is Budapest in Hungary?" 6. The teacher says: "The Indian Ocean is warmer than
    the Arctic Ocean." 7. Betty says: "My father speaks two foreign languages: German and French." 8. The teacher
    says: "London is the capital of Great Britain." 9. The teacher says: "Betty speaks German better than Mary." 10.
    My friend asks: "Does Mary speak Italian?" 11. My mother asks: "Does Helen know any foreign languages?"
    12. The teacher says: "Japanese is a difficult language." 13. The student asks: "Is Japanese more difficult than
    Russian?" 14. The pupil asks: "Is Prague the capital of Czechia?" 15. The teacher asks me: "Can you spell the
    word 'Mississippi'?"
    XXI. a) Form sentences on the model using the following words and word combinations.

    M o d e l : He wants to take part in this work.
    the game, the play, the football match, demonstration, concert, discussion.
    b) Make the same sentences negative.
    XXII. a) Fill in much better.
    95

    1. He knows French ... than German. 2. He can do it ... than she. 3. He writes dictations ... than his friends.
    b) Give sentences of your own using the same model.
    XXIII. Replace the part of the model in bold type by the following:

    M o d e l 1 : Let me introduce you to my friends.
    my mother, my teacher, my sister, my cousin, my father-in-law.
    M o d e l 2 : I am ever so glad to meet you.
    to see you, to listen to you, to do it for you, to join you.
    M o d e l 3 : Would you join my fellow-students?
    our group, my friends, our company, my family.
    M o d e l 4 : What's his (her, their) nationality?
    He is (a) Russian.
    Greek, Armenian, English, ...
    M o d e l 5 : The Russians live in Russia.
    Poland, England, Spain, France, ...
    M o d e l 6 : What country (republic) are you (she, they) from?
    I come (am) from Estonia.
    Latvia, Spain, France, ...
    XXIV. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    . 2.

    8

    ? 3.

    ? 4.

    . 5.
    . 7.

    . 6.

    ,
    .

    . 8.
    . 10.
    11.

    ,

    ,

    . 12.
    . 14.

    ? 13.
    ,

    ,
    ? 9.

    ? -

    ,

    ,

    .
    .

    -

    ,

    . 16.

    . 15.
    . (My birthplace).

    XXV. Speak on the following:

    1. The map of the world. 2. The country you find interesting. 3. My favourite holiday.
    Additional phonetic exercises
    1. Read the exercises several times before the mirror.
    2. Record your reading and listen to it. Detect your errors.
    3. Listen to your fellow-student reading the exercises. Detect his errors in sounds and intonation and tell him
    what he must do to get rid of them:
    96

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make the sentences interrogative and negative.

    (Don't forget that in the negative sentences as ... as is changed into not so ... as).
    II. Listen to the questions and answer them in the intervals.
    III. a) Change the sentences from direct into indirect speech. b) Check your sentences with the key.
    IV. a) Translate the sentences into English and record them in the intervals. b) Check your sentences with the
    key.
    V. a) Translate the sentences into English and pronounce them in two ways: first the main clause must be
    pronounced with the falling tone, and then with the rising one. b) Check your sentences with the key.

    M o d e l : I prefer to speak \Spanish | as I know it much better than \English.
    I prefer to speak /Spanish | as I know it much better than \English.
    VI. Spell and transcribe the words and word combinations.
    VII. Listen to the disjunctive questions. They are not true to fact. Correct them.

    Lesson Twelve

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    The present continuous tense

    97

    Table No. 2

    Special questions in indirect speech

    Table No. 3

    Imperative sentences in indirect speech

    Spelling rules
    The following spelling rules should be observed in the formation of Participle I:
    1. The mute -e is dropped before adding the suffix -ing: to take - taking.
    2. The final consonant is doubled (before the suffix -ing) if it is preceded by a vowel expressing a short
    stressed sound: to get - getting.
    3. The final -1 is doubled if it is preceded by a vowel expressing a short sound: to travel - travelling.
    4. In the verbs to die, to lie and to tie the letters ie are replaced by before the suffix -ing: to die - dying; to
    lie - lying; to tie - tying.
    5. The final -y is not changed before adding the suffix -ing no matter whether it is preceded by a consonant
    or by a vowel: to say - saying; to dry - drying.
    6. The letter r is doubled if the final syllable is stressed: prefer - preferring; but: 'offer - 'offering.
    Grammar exercises
    I. Study Substitution Table No. I and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Write and transcribe the first participle of the following verbs:
    98

    give, take, begin, buy, pay, say, listen, write, stay, leave, go, come, dine, put, pass, talk, work, get, sit, look,
    forget, hurry, study, travel, have, give, taste, prefer, bring, offer, add.
    III. Give the verb in the following sentences in the Present Continuous:

    1. He (to read) newspapers. 2. I (to work) hard at my English. 3. She (to sit) at the window and (to look) at
    the sea. 4. I (to prepare) my homework. 5. They all (to work) at the laboratory. 6. I (to write) letters to my
    cousins. 7. I (to have) breakfast with my family. 8. We (not to go) to the Institute. 9. He (to come) home. 10.
    Mr. Smith (not to give) a lesson.
    IV. a) Answer the question What are you doing? imagining that you are:

    1. at an English lesson; 2. at a lecture; 3. in the corridor; 4. in the street; 5. in the garden; 6. in the Metro; 7.
    in the forest; 8. in the dining-room; 9. in the water; 10. in the kitchen; 11. in the bathroom.
    b) Answer the same question about your fellow-student.
    V. Look at the pictures on page 157: a) Ask your fellow-students questions, use the Present Continuous Tense.
    b) Describe the pictures.
    VI. Give the following sentences in indirect speech, make the necessary changes:

    1. My father says: "Why don't you read English newspapers?" 2. Maggy says: "Why are you looking at me
    in that way?" 3. My teacher says: "You've got a number of mistakes in your translation." 4. She says: "What are
    you going to be when you leave the Institute?" 5. I say: "I'm sure I am going to be a teacher." 6. He says: "Italy
    is in the South of Europe." 7. My cousin says: "When are you coming to see us?" 8. She says: "I like the poem.
    I am going to learn it by heart." 9. Mother says:"Don't be late for dinner." 10. Our teacher says: "You must
    work more systematically." 11. They say: "Don't stay here any longer. It is getting dark." 12. The girl says: "We
    have a lot of English books at home." 13. The child says: "What are you doing?" 14. The mother says: "Why
    are you crying? Come up to me." 15. The boys say: "We want to help you, father." 16. Mr. Smith says: "Have
    dinner with us." 17. The mother says: "Eat up your porridge, children." 18. The teacher says: "Find the Thames
    on the map, Mike," 19. They say: "Don't make so much noise, John. The baby is asleep."

    99

    TEXT 1
    Meals
    The Smiths are in their dining-room. There are five of them: Mr. Smith, the head of the family, Mrs. Smith,
    his wife, and their children: John, Ann and Kitty. They are having breakfast. Mrs. Smith is putting some
    cornflakes on the boy's plate. The elder daughter is passing the sugar to her father.
    Mrs. S m i t h : Will you have sugar on your cornflakes, John?
    J o h n : Oh, no, Mum, thank you. I'd like some more milk instead.
    Mr. S m i t h : Why aren't you eating anything, Kitty? You are so slow. Look, Ann is already finishing her
    cornflakes.
    K i t t y : I don't like cornflakes. I'm just thirsty. Give me some tea and cakes, Mum.
    Mrs. S m i t h : Now, be a good girl, Kitty. Have some more cornflakes. We're going to have bacon and
    eggs, and then you'll get your tea with toast and marmalade.
    Mr. S m i t h : Could you give me a little more cornflakes, dear?
    Mrs. S m i t h : Just a moment. (Mrs. Smith passes him his plate.) What about bacon and eggs? Will you
    have some?
    Mr. S m i t h : Sure. And then a nice strong cup of tea. I'm afraid I must leave in a quarter of an hour or so.
    100

    The father is already having his cup of tea while the children are still talking over their cornflakes.

    TEXT 2
    In the canteen
    A n n : I think, it's high time to have a bite. I am hungry.
    b : So am I. I see you are ready to go down to the canteen, I am just finishing this article. Will you wait
    a minute, please.
    A n n : Yes, hurry up, then.
    b : I wonder if there is anything to your taste on the menu.
    A n n : Oh, yes, all kinds of things. Let's have some soup, clear soup, perhaps?
    B o b : I don't think I'll have any soup today. I'd like some salad to begin with.
    A n n : Will you have mixed salad, chops and mashed potatoes?
    B o b : Why, yes of course. What do you say to a bottle of beer?
    A n n : No beer, thanks. I prefer a glass of soda-water or just a cup of tea.
    B o b : All right. Tea then. Will you pass me the mustard, please?
    A n n : Here you are. As for me, I never take mustard or pepper.
    B o b : You don't say so!
    A n n : Look! The waitress is already bringing our tea.
    B o b : We want neither ham nor sausage, do we?
    A n n : No, ham as well as sausage is out of the question. I'd like some fruit, apples or oranges.
    B o b : Yes, but I'm afraid you forget about the meeting of our English club. We must leave at once to be in
    time for the beginning of the discussion.
    A n n : Right you are. Let's pay for the dinner and be off.
    Vocabulary notes
    meal n
    ,
    ; to have a meal
    ,
    , e. g. We usually have four meals a day:
    breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper.
    breakfast n
    ; to have breakfast (dinner, supper) (no article!)
    ,
    ,
    , . g.
    101

    Dinner is ready. Have dinner with us.
    cornflakes
    (
    )
    Mum = Mummy
    ; Cf. Dad = Daddy
    I'd (should) like (to do smth.)
    ...
    more, another, still correspond to the Russian «
    ». The pronouns more and another are used with
    nouns. More is used both with countables in the plural and uncountables: more books, more sugar; another is
    used only with countables in the singular: another book, another student. Cf. more tea, but another cup of tea.
    Still is used with verbs. It is often translated into Russian as «
    », . g. It is still raining. He is still at
    home.
    slow adj
    , . g. You are very slow. Slowly adv
    , e. g. You speak very slowly.
    to be going to
    toast n
    ;
    ,
    What about ...?
    ...?
    leave (for) (left, left) vt 1.
    ,
    , . g.
    is leaving Moscow for St.Petersburg. He is leaving for
    St.Petersburg. He is leaving in half an hour. Ant. stay vi
    , . g. The children stay at home as it is
    raining. 2.
    ,
    , . g. Don't leave your exercise-book at home. Cf. Don't forget my address.
    Don't forget to open the window.
    It is high time (to do smth.)
    ...
    to have a bite
    hungry adj
    ; as a hungry dog, a hungry child: to be hungry
    , . g. I am hungry. I am
    going to the canteen. hunger n
    I am hungry. So am I.
    . The word combination So am (do, can...) I is used as a reply to an
    affirmative sentence. Neither am (do, can...) I is used after negative sentences, e. g. I am reading. So am I. I
    prefer a cup of tea. So do I. I can do it. So can I. I am not writing. Neither am I. I don't like this salad. Neither
    does my sister. He can't translate this sentence. Neither can I. The subject is at the end of the phrase and is
    stressed: 'So do \I.
    wait vi
    ; to wait for (smb., smth.), e. g. We are waiting for a taxi. waiter (waitress) n
    ); Syn. to expect
    hurry vi
    , e. g. We are hurrying to the laboratory. Hurry up!
    !
    ! . g. Hurry up, it's
    already 8 o'clock.
    taste n
    , . g. You must know her taste if you want to buy her a present, to one's taste
    .
    Proverb: Tastes differ. (=
    .) taste vt 1.
    , . g. Will you taste my porridge? 2.
    , . g. The pie tastes very sweet. tasty adj
    to begin with
    ,
    ,
    ...
    What do you say to ...
    ...
    You don't say so!
    ?!
    ?!
    neither ... nor
    ... ; In sentences with neither ... nor the verb is used in the affirmative form and agrees
    with the second noun in number and person, e. g. Neither Ivanov nor Petrov knows the answer to my question.
    We have neither bread nor meat in the house. Please go and buy some.
    It is out of the question.
    .
    (
    )
    , . g. Going to
    the forest now is out of the question, it's too dark.
    discussion n
    ,
    ; discuss vt, e. g. They are discussing a book by Mark Twain.
    Topical vocabulary
    Meals
    breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper; first course, second course, dessert; for the first (second) course
    a plate, a glass, a cup, a saucer, a tea-pot, a kettle, a fork, a spoon, a knife
    bread, meat, fish, butter, eggs, cheese, sugar, sausage, bacon, herring
    potatoes, tomatoes, carrots, cabbage, cucumbers, beets, peas
    salt, mustard, pepper
    water, milk, tea, coffee, cocoa, beer, wine, fruit-juice, honey
    soup (clear soup, cabbage soup, pea soup), porridge, macaroni, salad (mixed salad), mashed potatoes, fried
    potatoes, chops, cutlets, beefsteak, chicken, goose
    102

    pudding, cake, sweets, pie, ice-cream, jam, jelly, stewed fruit
    apples, pears, plums, oranges, tangerines, grapes, bananas, berries, cherries, peaches, nuts
    to have (to eat, to drink), to dine, to cook, to fry, to boil, to taste, to prefer
    to lay the table, to sit down to table, to be (to sit) at table, to clear the table (to take away the dirty dishes);
    Help yourself to (smth., some food); Have some more; No more, thank you!
    Phonetic notes
    l.T h e i n t o n a t i o n o f a p a r e n t h e s i s depends on its position in a sentence. A parenthesis at
    the beginning of a sentence is usually stressed. It often forms a separate sense-group.

    A parenthesis in the middle or at the end of a sentence is usually unstressed or half-stressed and it continues
    the melody of the preceding sense-group.

    2. Compound nouns are usually pronounced with the stress on the first element only: a 'dining-room, a
    'blackboard, but 'ice-'cream, cas'sette-re corder.
    Exercises
    I. Transcribe the following words and explain the reading rules:

    a) porridge, salt, already, thirsty, bacon, marmalade, father, meals, dining-room, dinner, passing, butter,
    sweets, spoon, husband, afraid, Smith, moment, about, leave, talking, another;
    b) thin, think, bite, hungry, just, article, canteen, please, kind, chop, glass, mustard, pepper, pass, use,
    sausage, apple, right, discussion, off, mashed.
    II. Copy out of the texts the words: a) with the digraphs
    with the first type of syllable (open syllable).

    ,

    ; b) with the third type of syllable (vowel + r); c)

    III. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your
    attention on sounds. b) Let your fellow-student read the sentences aloud for you to detect his errors in sounds and
    tell him what must be done to get the sounds right;

    [ ] 1. The cook took a good look at the cookery book.
    2. It's good he could go on foot.
    3. A good beginning makes a good ending.
    [w] 1. Everywhere we saw the white snow.
    2. William was not very willing to wait.
    3. Didn't this waiter work in Washington last winter?
    4. No sweet without some sweat.
    5. Where there is a will there is a way.
    103

    [w :] Her work grows worse and worse,
    [w - v] William always wears a very warm woollen vest in winter; Victor, however, will never wear woollen
    underwear, even in the Wild West.
    IV. Before you start working at the texts practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    A. 1. [
    more, so slow, with toast, just a moment;
    [ ] having breakfast, putting some cornflakes.
    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: at he picture, in their dining-room, and their children, just
    thirsty.
    b) Loss of plosion: tea and cake, about bacon and eggs.
    c) Lateral plosion: don' like, must leave, I'd like.
    B. l. [a ]it's high time to have a bite, so am I, I'd likesome;
    [ ] finishing this article, is there anything, is already bringing our tea, for the beginning of the
    discussion;
    [ v]a bottle of beer, a glass of water, a cup of tea, all kinds of things.
    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: in the canteen, on the menu, about the meeting, is here
    anything;
    b) Loss of plosion: a minute please, soup perhaps, soup today, salad to, mashed potatoes,
    mustard please.
    V. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Meals". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the text for test
    reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    VI. a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue "In the Canteen". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the
    dialogue for test reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c)
    Memorize the dialogue and dramatize it.
    VII. a) Read the following sentences, pay attention to the intonation of the word please in them:

    1. Please 'bring me that \newspaper. 2. Please pro'nounce the 'sentence once \more! 3. Please 'tell me
    your \name. 4. Please 'take same \salad for me. 5. Please 'show me the \Caucasus on the map! 6. Will
    you 'please 'come /up to me? 7.
    Will you 'please 'pass me the /book? 8.
    Will you 'please 'turn 'on the
    ca'ssette-re/corder? 9. Will you 'please 'say it a/gain? 10.
    Stand \up, please! 11. Stop \talking, please! 12.
    Step a/side, please! 13.
    Help yourself to some /pie, please.
    b) Address one another with some request using the word please at the beginning, in the middle and at the end
    of the phrase and respond to it.
    VIII. a) Read the following sentences. Pay attention to the intonation of direct address:

    1. Ann, will you please fetch some milk from the kitchen? 2. Shall I put some more sugar on your
    cornflakes, John? 3. No more, Mum. 4. Why aren't you eating anything, Kitty? 5. Give me a little more
    cornflakes, dear.
    b) Address one another using the name of your fellow-student at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of
    the phrase. Work in pairs.
    IX. Read the following sentences, mark the stresses and tunes and picture them on the staves:

    I. You are wrong, I am afraid. 2. As for me, I prefer bananas to tangerines. 3. Well, she says, it's time to have
    a bite. 4. As far as I know, Japanese is more difficult than Spanish. 5. Tastes differ, he says. 6. To tell you the
    truth, I don't like this beefsteak. 7. Besides, I'd like to be in time for the beginning of the party.
    X. a) Read the following compound nouns. Don't stress the second element:
    104

    a dining-room, a looking-glass, a blackboard, a fountain-pen, a bathroom, a bedroom, a reading-hall, a
    smoking-car, a dressmaker.
    b) Give your own examples of compound nouns and compound adjectives. Keep in mind the distribution of
    word stress in them.
    XI. Answer the following questions:

    A. 1. What do you see in the picture? 2. Who is in the dining-room? 3. What are they doing in the room? 4.
    What is Mrs. Smith doing? 5. What is the elder daughter passing to her father? 6. Does John like sugar on his
    cornflakes? 7. What does he prefer on his cornflakes? 8. Who is already finishing his cornflakes? 9. Who
    doesn't like cornflakes? 10. What does Kitty, the little girl, want? 11. What does Mr. Smith ask his wife to give
    him? 12. What does Mrs. Smith ask her elder daughter to do? 13. What are the children doing while their father
    is having his tea?
    B. 1. Where do the two friends go? 2. What do they take for dinner? 3. Why do they go to the canteen? 4. Do
    they always take soup for dinner? 5. Where do the friends hurry? 6. Why must they leave at once?
    . 1. What time do you have breakfast? 2. What do you have for breakfast? 3. Will you describe your
    breakfast? 4. Where do you usually have dinner? 5. Why do you have dinner at home? 6. What do you usually
    have for the first course (for the second course, for dessert)? 7. What time do you usually have dinner? 8. Who
    cooks meals in your family? 9. Can you cook? 10. What time do you have dinner on Sunday? 11. Will you
    describe your Sunday dinner? 12. Do you have supper late? 13. Why don't you have supper late? 14. Do you
    like vegetables? 15. What vegetables do you like? 16. What soup do you like best? 17. What kind of salad do
    you like? 18. What kind of fruit do you buy in summer (in winter) in your city? 19. How do you lay the table?
    XII. Write the interrogative and negative forms of the following sentences:

    A. 1. They are having breakfast. 2. Mrs. Smith is putting some cornflakes on the boy's plate. 3. Ann is
    finishing her cornflakes. 4. Mrs. Smith is passing a plate to her husband. 5. The children are talking over their
    cornflakes. 6. We are having an English lesson. 7. The girl is coming into the room.
    B. 1.I am finishing this article. 2.I prefer a glass of soda-water. 3. The waitress is already bringing in our tea.
    4. The boy is writing a letter to his parents. 5. My cousin is leaving tomorrow.
    XIII. a) Let the members of the class ask and answer questions as in the model. Give a short answer using
    contracted forms and adji a sentence of your own in the Present Continuous.

    M o d e l : Is your teacher writing a letter?
    - No, he isn't. He's speaking English.
    b) Respond to the negative sentence of your fellow-student as in the model. Use contracted forms in speech.
    Work in pairs.

    M o d e l : The pupils aren't playing football.
    - No, they aren't. They're reading a newspaper.
    XIV. a) Write all the possible questions to which the following sentences are the answers, b) Each sentence
    describes a certain situation in a concise way. Some points of the situation are already known to you. Find out
    some more details about the situation by asking questions. Work in pairs. Use conversational phrases:

    A. 1. The elder daughter is passing the salt to her father. 2.I am thirsty now. 3. The father is having his cup
    of tea. 4.I must leave in a quarter of an hour. 5. The children are working in the garden. 6. The students are
    reading the text. 7. The girl is going to write a letter.
    105

    B. 1. I'm ready to go down to the canteen. 2.I am finishing this article. 3.I prefer a glass of soda-water. 4.
    The waitress is already bringing in our tea. 5. You forget about the meeting of our club. We must leave at once
    to be in time for the beginning of the discussion.
    XV. Read and write in words:

    a) 4, 14, 44, 9, 19, 90, 12, 38, 157, 673, 821, 1239. 1955, 2018, 3687, 271, 299, 945, 9212, 322;
    b) 23/I 1964; 7/XI 1945, 22/VI 1941; 5/XII 1982.
    XVI. Choose the right word:

    to leave - to stay
    1. He ... home in summer. 2. He ... at home in summer. 3. We ... in Moscow, while our father is in the North.
    4. He is ... the Urals very soon. 5. They never ... town for the vacation. 6. When will you ...? 7.I don't think I'll
    ... at the Ivanovs' more than a fortnight. 8.I can't... here any longer, the lectures begin at 9 o'clock, I must ... at
    once. 9. Our cousin is ... for Volgograd, he is going to ... and work there. 10. Why are you ...? We are going to
    have a meeting. 11. He is ... with us for another week, isn't he? - No, he is ... tomorrow morning, I am afraid.
    12. When they ... I shall... quite alone in the room.
    to come - to go
    1. He usually ... home in time. 2. Our father ... to his office at a quarter to 9, as a rule. 3. The dean ... to the
    University at a quarter to 9. 4. If they ... to the Crimea in August I shall miss them. 5. Look, daddy is already ...
    home. 6. Where are you ...? I am ... to the University. Our studies begin at 9 o'clock.
    still - more - another
    1. It is already October but it is ... rather warm. 2. Give me ... pencil, this one is too small. 3. Give me ...
    glass of water, I am ... thirsty. 4. Give me some ... water, please. 5. We need ... time for the translation, I am
    afraid. 6. "I don't want to get up," says little Kitty, "it is ... very early." 7. Will you give me some ... milk? 8. He
    asks for ... apple. 9. Let me have some ... pudding, it is very tasty. 10. Help yourself to some ... pie. 11. Help
    yourself to ... piece of pie. 12.I can't eat the porridge, it is ... very hot. 13. It is ... early, you needn't hurry. 14. I
    should like to have some ... salad. 15. Nick is not at home. He is ... at the Institute. 16. It is ... snowing. 17. The
    students need ... practice in these words. 18. She is going to buy some ... milk. 19. Try to get ... books on
    English literature. 20. May I have ... ticket to the Bolshoi Theatre? 21. Will you please give me some ...
    porridge? 22. They are ...talking.
    XVII. Fill in prepositions if necessary:

    A. 1. Pass ... me the salt, please. 2. Pass the salt ... me. 3. Give the bread ... me. 4. Show this text ... the
    teacher. 5. Show... the teacher this book. 6. He is going to come ... half an hour. 7. Look ... the boy. How dirty
    he is! 8. I see a new wall-newspaper ... the corridor. 9. The children are playing... the garden. 10. Are you going
    ... home? - - No, I am going ... the library. 11. They have breakfast... 8 o'clock ... the morning. 12.I dine ... 3
    o'clock ... the afternoon. 13. What do you see ... this picture? 14. Excuse me, may I go ...? 15. Please, come ... .
    We are just beginning our lesson. 16. The bell is ringing, the students are coming ... the room. The teacher is
    entering ... the room. 17. The bell is ringing and the students are leaving ... the room. 18. He is leaving...
    St.Petersburg, you know.
    B. 1. Will you wait ... me, I'll come ... a minute. 2. Are you ready ... the answer? 3. Have some fruit ...
    pleasure. 4. Help yourself ... some fruit, please. 5. I prefer an apple ... ice-cream. 6. The children are ready ...
    breakfast. They are waiting ... their father. 7. Let's have some herring to begin ... . 8. What do you say ... an icecream? 9. As ... me I prefer a piece of cake ... sweets. 10. A waitress is coming ... our table. What shall we
    order? 11. The pudding is ... your taste, I hope. 12. Going to the river is......the guestion, it's too cold to bathe
    today. 13. Father usually comes ... home ... time. 14. We must pay the waitress ... the dinner. 15. I'm fond...
    106

    vegetables and meat.
    XVIII. a) Chance the following sentences into interrogative and negative.

    M o d e l : I have breakfast at 9.
    - Do you have breakfast at 9?
    - I don't have breakfast at 9.
    b) Ask one another questions on the following sentences and answer them in the negative. Mind the distribution
    of sentence-stress in the reply.

    M o d e l : I have breakfast at 9.
    - Do you have breakfast at 7?
    - No, I \don't have breakfast so /early. I have it only at\9.
    1. They have supper at 8. 2. We usually have dinner at home. 3. Father has lunch at his office. 4. My cousin's
    family has dinner at 5 o'clock, as a rule. 5. He has dinner in the canteen. 6. I always have breakfast at home. 7.
    They usually have lunch together. 8. My brother has lunch at the plant. 9.I often have dinner at my aunt's.
    XIX. Replace the part of the model in bold type by the following:

    M o d e l : I am leaving for London.
    a) Kiev, Novosibirsk, Sochi, Tbilisi, Bratsk, Vladivostok, Tula;
    b) the Urals, the Caucasus, the Crimea, Ukraine, the country.
    XX. Respond to the following sentences. Express your wish in the response as in the model.

    M o d e l : I like fruit. I should like some fruit now.
    1. I like cucumbers. 2. I like chops and mashed potatoes. 3. I like sausage. 4. I like jam. 5. I like sugar. 6. I
    like bacon and eggs. 7. I like marmalade. 8. I like coffee. 9. I like icecream. 10.I like chicken. 11.I like bananas.
    XXI. Respond to the following sentences.

    M o d e l 1 : Begin reading.
    - Shall I begin reading?
    1. Speak English. 2. Open the window. 3. Read the exercise. 4. Do it at once. 5. Repeat this poem. 6. Learn it
    by heart. 7. Clear the table. 8. Answer my question. 9. Lay the table. 10. Make tea for us.
    M o d e l 2 : I don't see what's wrong here.
    - Shall I show you?
    1.I don't know this expression. 2.I can't see what is written on the blackboard. 3.I can't swim. 4.I can't hear
    you. 5.I don't remember this word. 6. I don't know Moscow well. 7. I can't find the newspaper. 8.I don't know
    where my ball-pen is.
    XXII. Make rejoinders to the following statements:

    M o d e l : I go to the Institute by bus.
    - So do I.
    I can't translate this sentence.
    - Neither can my friend.
    1. My sister speaks English. 2. The students of Group 102 are working at the laboratory now. 3. My mother
    is a doctor. 4. Her father is a teacher. 5.I prefer apples to bananas. 6.I don't take mustard. 7. He lives in Klin. 8.
    107

    He doesn't live with his parents. 9.I don't know this old man. 10.I can't come at four. 11. Father likes to work in
    the garden. 12. He doesn't work much. 13. My little sister can't swim. 14. We have breakfast at half past eight.
    15. Comrade Petrov is leaving for Kiev tomorrow morning. 16. My aunt is leaving for the Urals. 17. My
    nephew is a naughty child. 18. Those young men are not very well-bred. 19. My school-mate's father is a
    journalist.
    XXIII. a) Change the direct speech in Text 1 into indirect.

    M o d e l : Mr. Smith: "Will you please give me a little more cornflakes, dear?" Mr. Smith asks his wife to
    give him a little more cornflakes.
    b) Retell the text in indirect speech (make use of the picture on page 159). c) Describe the breakfast as if you
    were the mother (the father, Kitty, Ann).
    XXIV. a) Use the following pairs of words in sentences:

    M o d e l : He prefers fruit to ice-cream.
    soda-water - beer; cheese - sausage; meat - fish; English - French; coffee - cocoa: milk - water; tomatoes cucumbers; mashed potatoes - macaroni; porridge - bacon and eggs; clear soup - cabbage soup; apples - plums;
    oranges - tangerines
    b) Give your own examples according to the given model.
    XXV. Respond to the following statements. Express your denial of the both. Work in pairs.

    M o d e l : I like both apples and pears. I like neither apples nor pears.
    1. They have both a son and a daughter. 2. She can do both sing and dance. 3.I use both pepper and mustard.
    4. He speaks both English and French. 5. I like both football and hockey. 6. She knows both my cousin and
    brother. 7.I am going to buy both cabbage and potatoes. 8. I am going to have both coffee and cake. 9. My
    cousin likes both autumn and winter. 10. We need both cucumbers and tomatoes. 11. She knows both physics
    and mathematics. 12. We see both the child and his mother. 13. You've got both grammar and pronunciation
    mistakes. 14. Both my school-mates and my fellow-students are to come to my birthday party.
    XXVI. Compose 10 sentences according to the following model:

    M o d e l : My mother speaks neither German nor Italian, but she reads English.
    XXVII. Complete the following sentences:

    . 1. I should like ... .2. Let me ... . 3. Be a good girl and ... . 4. Why don't you ...? 5. Will you give me ...?
    6.I am afraid ... . 7.I don't think he .... 8. What about...?
    B.I. I think, it's high time to ... . 2. Well, I see you are ready ... . 3. Would you like ...? 4. What do you say to
    ...? 5. Will you pass me ...? 6. As for me ... .7. Let us ....
    XXVIII. Translate the following sentences into English:
    A. 1.

    . 2.

    ? 3.
    .
    ? 7.

    .

    .
    12?-

    ?
    ? 14.

    ,
    . 13.

    !

    ? 4.

    ? 5.
    ?- .
    ? 9.
    . 10.

    ?

    .
    . 8.
    !

    ,
    ,

    . 6.
    ??-

    ?,
    (the English study-room). 12.
    ?
    . 15.
    ,
    ? 16.

    ,
    ? 11.
    ,
    ,
    108

    ? 17.
    ? 19.

    ? 18.

    ?

    ,

    one)? 12.) 22.

    . 20.

    . 21.

    ,

    ?

    .(

    .
    .

    ?
    ,

    . 25.

    ? 26.

    ? 28.
    ? 33.
    (

    (to salt)? 29.
    ,
    ? 36.
    ,
    ). 39.
    ). 41.

    ,
    ,

    . 1.
    . 4.
    .) 5.

    (

    ? 30.
    . 34.
    ? 37.
    (

    ,

    . 3.
    ,

    ? 6.
    -

    (
    .-

    .(

    ,
    8.15.
    .-

    ,

    -

    (

    ). 11.

    ,
    !-

    . 13.

    ). 8.

    (

    ,
    ?
    .6

    . 10.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .-

    .
    ?!
    .

    .

    .
    .,
    . 14.

    .-

    ?
    .-

    .

    .

    ,
    . 7.

    ,

    . 12.
    ?

    ,

    ). 2.

    ?-

    .-

    ,

    .

    )? 9.
    -

    (my little kiddy, my little
    .(
    .
    .) 23.
    ,
    ? 24.
    ? 27.
    ? 31.
    ? 32.
    ? 35.
    ? 38.
    ,
    ). 40.
    .

    ?-

    .-

    ,

    .

    .
    .-

    ,

    !
    XXIX. Fill in prepositions if necessary and retell the text:

    Tom and Nick are going ... the canteen to have dinner. It is only half ... one but there are many people ... the
    canteen already. Some ... them are reading newspapers, others are eating their dinner. The friends always enjoy
    ... their meals there.
    They go ... a small round table ... the window, take a menu-card ... the next table and begin to read it. Tom
    does not want to have any soup today. He is going to take some roast beef and vegetables. Nick takes some
    cabbage soup ... himself, some fried fish and potatoes. He goes over ... the buffet and soon comes back ... some
    tomato and cucumber salad. Then a waitress comes......their table and brings them the soup, meat and fish. She
    also brings some mustard, pepper and salt and puts a knife, fork, spoon ... the table ... front... each person.
    Nick wants to have some ice-cream ... dessert but as it is not ready yet, he takes a piece ... cake and a glass ...
    tea. Tom orders some fruit as he always prefers fruit... cakes and ice-cream.
    The boys are usually satisfied ... their meals ... this canteen. So they finish their dessert and pay the waitress
    ... the dinner. Then they put... their coats and go......the street.
    XXX. Copy out the following joke in transcription, mark the stresses and tunes. Retell the joke in
    indirect speech (in the Present Indefinite Tense). Enlarge the joke and give your own ending to it:

    T e a c h e r : Jimmie, why don't you wash your face? I can see what you had for breakfast this morning.
    L i t t l e b o y : What was it?
    T e a c h e r : Eggs, of course.
    L i t t l e b o y : Wrong, teacher, that was yesterday.
    XXXI. Translate the following into English:
    1.

    ,

    .
    .
    (to have milk). 5.
    . 6.
    .
    . 9.
    ,

    . 2.

    .

    .

    ,

    . 3.

    . 4.

    .

    ,
    .-

    .
    .

    .

    .
    ,

    . 7.
    . 8.

    .
    ,

    .

    .
    .

    . 10.
    . 11.

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    XXXII. Compare the following Russian verbs and phrases to the corresponding English ones. Use them in
    109

    sentences of your own:
    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    XXXIII. Respond using the conversational phrases and add a phrase or two of your own:

    1. Will you bring a piece of chalk, please? 2.I can't tell you anything about the book. I don't remember it. 3.
    Shall I repeat the sentence? 4. Please come another time. 5. You don't remember this extract, do you? 6. May I
    open the window? 7. Shall I have a bite? 8. I can't swim, you know. 9. Will you pass me the sugar, please? 10.
    Shall I wait for you? 11. Will you give me a cigarette? 12. I don't eat ice-cream. 13. Shall I give you more
    porridge? 14. You don't take beer, do you? 15. You help me so much, thank you. 16. You can't speak German
    yet, can you? 17. Shall I pass you the cake? 18. May I bring my younger sister with me? 19. Thank you for your
    warm greetings. 20. He never remembers his duties. 21. Will you play back the tape and repeat the text?
    XXXIV. Find a picture on the topic "Meals" for your discussion in class. Prepare 8-10 questions which would
    help your fellow-students to describe the picture. Get ready to speak on the topic, "Meals". Use pictures, slides for
    illustration.
    XXXV. Read the recipe and guess what we are going to have for dinner today:

    Pour water into a sauce-pan, put some meat into it. While it boils peel and cut beetroot, carrots, parsley and
    onions. Heat 2 spoonfuls of butter in the frying pan. Fry vegetables in it, add sliced tomato or tomato puree and
    cover the lid on. Stir the vegetables, add some water if necessary, let them simmer. Remove them into the
    sauce-pan. After 15-20 minutes add some cut cabbage, salt, vinegar and sugar to your taste. Put potatoes either
    whole or cut up. Boil it until it's quite ready. Serve with sour cream.
    Ingredients:

    XXXVI. a) Watch Film Segment One "Surprise for Dinner" for general content. b) Watch the film segment
    again to find English equivalents to the following:
    ;
    ;

    ;
    (

    ;
    );

    ;
    ;

    ;

    ;
    ;

    ;
    ;

    ;
    ;

    .
    ) Answer your teacher's questions on the content of the film segment. d) Listen to the sound track recording of
    Segment One. Get ready to describe the situation of the segment and to reproduce the dialogue between Mr. and
    Mrs. Brown at table.
    XXXVII. a) Make up a dialogue on the following situation:

    You ask your friend if he is hungry and when he is going to the canteen. You are very busy and you can't
    leave the office earlier than 3 o'clock. You ask him to buy a cake and two apples for you.
    b) Get ready with a situation for your fellow-students to give it in the form of a dialogue.
    XXXVIII. Find English proverbs concerning meals. Provide them with Russian equivalents, ask your fellowstudents to illustrate them.
    XXXIX. Describe: a) your Sunday breakfast; b) your dinner at home; c) the procedure of laying the table for
    dinner.
    110

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    II. Change the sentences into indirect speech. Begin each of them with He asks me ...
    III. Supply short answers according to the model.

    M o d e l : I am hungry. - So am I.
    IV. Translate the sentences into English using the given word combinations.
    V. Listen to the sentences on the tape. They are not true to fact. Correct them.
    VI. a) Listen to the text "The Browns' Dining-Room". Translate it sentence by sentence in the intervals. b) Ask
    each other questions on the text. c) Retell the text. d) Write it down.

    Lesson Thirteen

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    The present perfect tense

    111

    Contracted forms
    We've left. - We haven't left. He's left. - He hasn't left.
    Grammar exercises
    I. Study Substitution Table No. 1 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Spell and transcribe the four forms of the following verbs:

    be, do, have, see, strike, get, open, turn, wash, take, dry, clean, go, dress, put, make, sweep, clear, stay, say,
    hurry, begin, prepare, come, work, press, iron, gather, play, repair, knit, listen, hang, change, want, finish,
    know, help, fire, show.
    III. Answer the following questions:

    1. Have you had dinner yet? 2. Have you had coffee today? 3. Has your brother left for Kiev? 4. Has she
    ever met my elder brother? 5. Has Mary been to the canteen yet? 6. Have you found anything to your taste on
    the menu? 7. Have they paid for the lunch yet? 8. What book have you discussed today? 9. How much have you
    paid for the supper? 10. You have learned this poem by heart, haven't you? 11. You have made few mistakes in
    spelling, haven't you? 12. Where have you found this book? 13. Which lesson have you learned by heart? 14.
    What English books have you read yet?
    IV. Choose the right verb:

    to tell - to say
    1. Mr. Smith ... Mr. Brown it is time to have a break for lunch. 2. Mr. Sandford ... his son he is going to
    London. 3. Mrs. Watson ... her children that they must not go out on such a nasty day. 4. Susan ... her friends
    that she has a lot of work to do. 5. Mrs. Smith ... her sons that she has already made toasts for them. 6. John ...
    his brother is a perfect sportsman. 7. The boy ... he is not going to stay at home on such a fine day. 8. Tom ...
    his friend that he is always up at eight. 9. The mother ... that she has already served breakfast. 10. The teacher ...
    the student that he has made only a few mistakes in pronunciation. 11. The boy ... he has already aired the
    room. 12. The girl... her mother that she doesn't like boiled eggs. 13. The monitor ... we are going to have a
    sitting of our English club tonight. 14. Mike ... his little brother is a very hard-working boy.
    V. Use the following sentences in indirect speech. Make all the necessary changes:

    1. Mary says to me: "I am already finishing this book." 2. The girl says to her mother: "I don't like porridge."
    3. Tom says to his friend: "I am going to the canteen." 4. The boy says to me: "I'm thirsty." 5. The teacher says
    to the students: "You must be ready for the written test tomorrow." 6. Nick says to his mother: "I have already
    had dinner." 7. Boris says to me: "My father is leaving for Kiev." 8. Nick says to me: "I have already paid for
    the lunch." 9. Ida says to her friends: "There is nothing to my taste on the menu." 10. The girl says to her sister:
    "I haven't finished my supper yet." 11. Tom says: "I can speak two foreign languages: English and Spanish."
    112

    12. Mary asks: "Has the bell gone?" 13. Tom asks: "Is Mary staying at home?" 14. Nick says to Ann: "Don't
    forget to air the room." 15. John asks his father: "Has she left?" 16. Tom asks Mary: "What is our next lesson?"
    TEXT 1
    A students day
    1. What is there in this picture? There is a bedroom in it. Is it still dark in the room? No, it is already light.
    What time is it now? The clock has just struck seven. Who(m) do you see in this picture? We see Mary in it. Is
    she still asleep? No, she is not. She is already up, she has opened the window and turned on the radio. She is
    doing her morning exercises to the music. What is she going to do next? She is going to have a wash.

    2. It is a quarter past seven. Mary is in the bathroom. She has just taken a cold shower, dried herself on the
    towel and cleaned her teeth. Now she is doing her hair before the looking-glass. What is she going to do next?
    She is going to dress.
    3. Mary is in the bedroom again. She has already brushed her clothes and shoes. What is she doing now?
    She is dressing. She has just put on her dress. She is putting on her shoes now. Has she made her bed yet? Yes,
    she has.
    4. It is a quarter to eight The family has already had breakfast. While Mary is sweeping the floor with a
    broom her mother is washing up. Is Mary going to stay at home? No, she is not. She is going to the Institute.
    5. It is eight o'clock. Mary is hurrying to the Institute. She is a first-year student of the English faculty. Her
    classes begin at half past eight. Mary is never late for her classes. Does she walk to the Institute? No, she does
    not. She goes to the Institute by Metro. How long does it take her to get to the Institute? It takes her half an
    hour to get there.
    6. It is two o'clock. Has the bell gone? Yes, it has. The classes are over. Mary and her friends are having
    dinner. Are they going home after dinner? No, they are not. Mary is going to the laboratory to have some
    practice in pronunciation. Her friends are going to the reading-room to prepare their homework there.

    113

    7. It is nearly six o'clock in the evening. Mary has just come home after a walk. She is having a short rest
    now. She is reading. Is Mary going to do any work about the house? Yes, she is She is going to iron her father's
    shirts.
    8. It is ten minutes to ten. The working day is over. The family are all together, Mary is playing the piano.
    Her brother David is repairing the TV-set. Their mother is knitting. Their father is going to turn on the radio
    and listen to the news. The family are not going to bed yet.
    TEXT 2
    Dialogue
    E d w a r d : Hello, Mary!
    M a r y : Hello, Eddy. It's so nice to see you. Come in, please. (Edward comes in, takes off his coat and
    hangs it on the hook.)
    E d w a r d : Look here, Mary, there's a concert this evening at the club. You are sure to like it. What about
    going there together?
    M a r y : Oh, I'm sorry I can't. I'm making a new dress. I want to wear it at our party and I haven't finished it
    114

    yet.
    E d w a r d : Oh, dear, we haven't been to the club for ages. Besides, it's a pity to stay at home on such a fine
    day, you know.
    M a r y : All right. Eddy. But will you help me before we go?
    E d w a r d : Oh, yes, why not?
    M a r y : Something has gone wrong with my electric iron. (Mary gives the iron to Edward.) Can you put
    it right?
    E d w a r d : Let me have a look at it. (Edward examines the iron.) Well, there's nothing the matter with
    the iron. I'm sure it's the plug.
    (Edward repairs the plug. Mary goes out to change. Then she comes back to Edward.)
    E d w a r d : Here you are.
    M a r y : How clever of you! Thank you ever so much!
    E d w a r d : Not at all. Are you ready to go now?
    M a r y : Just a moment! I must switch off the light.
    E d w a r d : Hurry up then. We're going to be late, I'm afraid.
    M a r y : I'm ready. Come on. (Mary and Edward hurry out.)
    Vocabulary notes
    to be asleep
    ; Ant. to be awake
    to turn on (off) the light (electricity, water, gas, TV-set, radio, tape-recorder, lamp, tap)
    )
    (
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ); Syn. to switch
    on (off).

    to (the) music
    wash vt
    , to have a wash
    ; to wash one's hair
    ; to wash clothes (linen)
    ,
    ; to wash up
    to take (to have) a bath (shower)
    ,
    to dry (oneself) on (with) a towel
    )
    clean vt
    ,
    ; to clean one's teeth (nails, clothes, shoes)
    (
    ,
    ,
    ); to clean the blackboard
    ; to clean the room (the flat)
    ); to clean the window
    brush vt
    (
    ); to brush one's clothes (shoes, teeth)
    (
    )
    (
    ,
    )
    to put smth. on
    ., . g. Put your coat on. It's cold. Ant. to take smth. off
    ., .
    g. He took his hat off and entered.
    sweep (swept, swept)
    a first-year student
    classes n pl.
    ; in class
    , . g. We have done this exercise in class, after classes, e. g.
    What are you going to do after classes?
    to be late for
    , . g. Don't be late for the lecture.
    go (went, gone) vi
    ; to go by bus (tram, train, Metro)
    (
    ,
    ,
    );
    to go to bed
    It takes her (half an hour) ...
    ..., e. g. It doesn't take him long to prepare his
    homework. How long has it taken you to read this book?
    get (got, got) vt/i
    ; to get to a place
    .; to get up
    Has the bell gone?
    ?
    115

    to be over
    practice n
    iron vt

    , . g. The lesson is over.
    ,
    ; to have practice in smth.
    ,
    ; to iron linen
    ; Syn. to press clothes (not linen)

    )
    to play the piano (the guitar, the violin)
    (
    )
    repair vt
    ; Syn. to put right
    news n (plural in form, but treated as singular)

    (

    ,

    ; practise vt
    ; (electric) iron n

    ), to play chess (tennis)

    , . g. What's the news?

    ? the news

    It is so nice to see you.
    .
    Look here, Mary ...
    ,
    ...
    sure adj; to be (feel) sure of smth.
    ., .g. We are sure of our future. We are sure
    that he will come. You are sure to like it. = You will certainly like it.
    for ages
    Something has gone wrong with ...
    ...
    to have a look at smth.
    There's nothing the matter with the iron.
    .
    How clever of you!
    ! So kind of you!
    !
    Topical vocabulary
    to be short of time = to be pressed for time; spare time; on the way home, on the way to..., in town, out of
    town; to be through with smth; to look through smth. (newspaper, article, text); to look forward to smth. (doing
    smth.); to manage to do smth., to look in; to listen in; to watch a TV programme; to go to the laundry; the
    hairdresser, the barber, the cleaner's; to have one's hair done, one's clothes cleaned, to have a manicure
    Phonetic notes
    Compound verbs have usually two primary stresses:
    e. g. She is putting 'on her \shoes. I must switch 'off the \light.

    Exercises
    I. a) The material below it to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on the vowel [ ] and the consonant [h]. b) Let your fellow-student read the exercise aloud for you to detect his
    errors in sounds and tell him what must be done to eliminate them:

    [ ] 1. "What an odd clock," said Tom.
    2. Lots and lots of clocks and watches have gone wrong.
    3. Molly's got a spot on her frock.
    4. A watched pot never boils.
    5. Honesty is the best policy.
    [h] 1. Helen's husband hates hot tea.
    2. He held her hand in his.
    3. The horn of the hunter was heard on the hill.
    4. Healthful habits make healthy bodies.
    5. He that has ears to hear let him hear.
    6. My heart's in the Highlands.
    My Heart is not here.
    II. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    A. 1. [ ] is going to, is putting on, is sweeping the floor, is washing the dishes.
    116

    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: opened the window, on the radio, in the bathroom, about
    house.
    b) Loss of plosion: what time, and turned, and cleaned, just taken, just come.
    c) No glottal stop: is awake, has opened, turned on.

    the

    B. 1. [ ] such a fine day, nothing the matter.
    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: on the hook, at the club, repairs the plug.
    b) Loss of plosion: about going, haven't been to, want to have, goes out to change.
    c) No glottal stop: takes off, what about, goes out, not at all.
    III. 1. a) Listen to the recording of the text "A Student's Day". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the text
    for test reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    2. a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the dialogue for test
    reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize the
    dialogue and dramatize it.
    IV. Transcribe the following sentences, mark the stresses and tunes and picture them on the staves:

    1. Hello, Mary! 2. Look here, Mary, there is a concert this evening at our club. 3. Well, we haven't been
    there for ages. 4. Let me have a look at it. 5. We're going to be late, I'm afraid.
    V. Answer the following questions:
    1. (At) what time do you get up? 2. Is it light when you get up? 3. You do your morning exercises to music,
    don't you? 4. What do you do in the bathroom? 5. What do you do with a tooth-brush (a towel, a comb)? 6. Do
    you take a shower in the morning or before you go to bed? 7. What do you clean your teeth with? 8. What do
    you dry yourself on? 9. You do your hair before a looking-glass, don't you? 10. At what time do you usually
    have breakfast? 11. What must you do with the dishes after having a meal? 12. What do you usually do before
    you leave the University? 13. What do you clean your flat with? 14. (At) what time do you leave for the
    University? 15. It takes you long to get to the University, doesn't it? 16. How long does it take you to get to the
    University? 17. Do you go to the University by bus? 18. (At) what time do your classes begin? 19. What do you
    do when the classes are over? 20. Where do you usually have dinner? 21. Do you prepare for your English
    lessons at home or do you prefer to work in the University reading-room? 22. How long does it take you to do
    your homework? 23. Do you work at the laboratory every day? 24. When do you usually come home? 25. What
    do you usually do when you come home? 26. In what way do you help your mother about the house? 27. What
    do you do with an iron (a vacuum-cleaner, a broom)? 28. What do you usually do in the evening? 29. Do you
    often go to the theatre or to the cinema? 30. You are fond of skating, aren't you? 31. What do you do when you
    stay at home in the evening? 32. Do your friends often come to see you? 33. How do you spend the time when
    your friends come to see you? 34. You listen to the news every day, don't you? 35. What do you do when you
    are going to listen to the latest news? 36. (At) what time do you usually go to bed? 37. Who does the shopping
    in your family?
    VI. a) Write the interrogative and negative forms of the following sentences. b) Ask and answer questions on
    the following statements as in the model. Use the Present Perfect Tense. Add a sentence or two to develop a
    situation.

    M o d e l : He has already repaired the iron. Has he repaired the cassette-recorder yet? No, he hasn't. But he
    is sure to do it soon.
    1. Mary has already ironed the table-cloth. 2. I have already turned off the light. 3. The girls have already
    done the room. 4. It takes me long to prepare for my English lesson. 5. It has taken Peter five minutes to shave.
    6. We are going to the skating-rink after classes. 7. My sister is very good at sewing. 8. Peter is going to repair
    our TV-set. 9. We are going for a walk after classes. 10. I must do some knitting today.
    VII. a) Write questions to the parts of the sentences in bold type. b) Each sentence describes a situation in a
    117

    concise way. Find out some more details about it by asking questions. Work in pairs:

    1. I have dinner at two. 2. I leave for the Institute at eight o'clock. 3. I go to the Institute by bus. 4. It has
    taken me three hours to do my homework. 5. David has already repaired the radio. 6. It has taken me a
    fortnight to knit this sweater. 7.I am going to have some practice in intonation at the laboratory. 8. I am
    going to the theatre today. 9. Robert is going to press his coat. 10.I do my room with a vacuum-cleaner
    once a week. 11. You needn't switch on the light, it is quite light. 12. Mary has gone to bed. 13. It takes me a
    quarter of an hour to have breakfast. 14.I take a bath every morning. 15.I go to the Institute by Metro. 16.
    We are going to the skating-rink. 17.I do my hair with a comb.
    VIII. Rewrite the sentences in the Present Perfect using the adverbs already, just.
    M o d e l : My brother is going to repair the cassette-recorder. My brother has already repaired the cassetterecorder.
    1.I am going to have some practice at the laboratory. 2.I am going to clean the flat. 3. John is going to shave.
    4. They are going to have a rest in the country. 5. Ann is going to turn off the gas. 6. The boy is going to brush
    his clothes, isn't he? 7.I am going to turn on the light. 8. His family are going to listen to the seven o'clock
    news, aren't they? 9. Who is going to have a bite? 10. What are you' going to do? 11. They are going to stay out
    of town for a fortnight. 12. I'm going to look through his article.
    IX. Make up as many sentences as you can according to the following models. Use the words, word
    combinations and phrases of the lesson.

    M o d e l 1 : I am (not) going to turn on the light. I am (not) turning on the light. I have (already, just)
    turned on the light. (I have not turned on the light yet.)
    M o d e l 2 : Are you going to turn on the light? Are you turning on the light? Have you turned on the light
    (yet) ?
    X. Fill in articles wherever necessary:

    1. Mary has taken ... cold shower and is going to dress. 2. Let me have ... look at your translation. 3.I always
    do ... room with ... vacuum-cleaner. 4. Let's turn on ... cassette-recorder and dance to ... music. 5. What are your
    fellow-students doing? - Mary is playing ... piano. Peter and David are playing ... chess. 6. I don't go to ...
    Institute by ... bus. I prefer to go there by ... Metro. 7. How long does it take you to do ... homework? 8.
    Something has gone wrong with ... vacuum-cleaner. I am sure it's ... plug. 9. It is not pleasant to go by... Metro
    on such ... fine day. Let's go on ... foot. 10. Will you turn on ... radio? I should like to listen to ... seven o'clock
    news. 11. It's ... pity you have never been to ... England. 12. My parents are still in ... town.
    XI. Fill in prepositions or adverbs wherever necessary:

    1. Ann begins to work ... half past eight. At half past twelve she goes ... to lunch. After lunch she comes back
    ... her office and works ... four o'clock. At four o'clock she puts ... her hat and coat and goes ... home. 2. The
    students ... our group are never a minute late ... the classes. 3. It doesn't take me long to get... the Institute. 4.
    When do you usually get...? 5. Will you turn ... the light? The children are going ... bed. 6. We have turned ...
    the cassette-recorder and are going to dance ... the music. 7. When I come ... home I take ... my coat and hang
    it... the hook. Then I go ... the bathroom, turn ... the tap, wash my hands and dry them ... the towel. 8. What do
    you press your clothes ...? 9. Have you cleaned ... the table yet? 10. Let's hurry or we'll be late ... the first
    lesson. 11. What kind of dress are you going to wear ... our party? 12. The button has come ... my coat. – Shall I
    sew it... for you ? 13. Why have you turned ... the radio ? - I am going to listen ... the seven o'clock news. 14.
    Are you going ... bus? 15. Hurry ..., I'm short... time. 16. Are you through ... your housework?
    XII. Fill in the missing words:

    A. 1. Something has gone ... with the cassette-recorder. Can you put it...? 2. She is not up yet; she is still.... 3.
    The classes are over. I am ... to go home. 4. I am ready to have a hot ..., ... my teeth and go to bed. 5. If you
    118

    want to have a ..., let's go for a walk. 6. I have ... my hands and now I am going to ... them on the towel. 7.
    Before putting on my clothes and shoes I always ... them. 8. While the mother serves breakfast Susan and Peter
    ... the flat and ... the beds. 9.I am going to present my brother with a sweater which I have ... myself. 10. In the
    evening we usually have some music or ... to the radio or ... the TV programme. Sometimes we ... to see our
    friends or our friends ... to see us. Once a week we go to the cinema or to the theatre. 11 . Do you usually sit up
    late or do you ... to bed early? 12. Peter is a good sleeper, he......late and often has no time for breakfast. 13. If
    the water feels cold on winter mornings you must rub yourself with the ... . 14. There is a ... this evening at the
    club. 15. Something has gone wrong with the .... Will you have a ... at it? 16. Please, turn on (off) the ...! 17.
    Have you cleaned the ...? 18. I'm ... for time, will you help me?
    B. 1. He is forty. His wife is thirty-five. He is ... than his wife. 2. David is ten. Bob is eight. Bob is ... than
    David. 3. Seventeen is ... than ten. 4. In August the weather is generally ... than in October. 5. In May the days
    are ... than in March. 6. This book is ... interesting than that one. 7.I think this exercise is the ... difficult. 8. How
    are you? - Thank you. I'm ... today. 9.I know German ... than English.
    C. 1. ... your lessons and be off. 2. You look so smart today. Where have you ... your hair? 3. How could you
    possibly ... so many mistakes in your dictation? 4. If you want to make a good sportsman you must... morning
    exercises every day. 5. On her way home mother usually ... some shopping. 6. I'm pressed for time. Will you ...
    the room yourself? 7. Skating will ... a lot of good. 8. I'd like you to ... friends with all the students of your
    group. 9. Isn't it your turn to ... a report today?
    XIII. Form one sentence of the given two using the following model.

    M o d e l : This mistake is gross. That mistake is not so gross. That mistake is not so gross as this one.
    1. These apples are tasty. Those apples are not so tasty. 2. The Volga is long. The Don is not so long. 3. My
    house is tall. Your house is not so tall. 4. Tom's pronunciation is good. Your pronunciation is worse. 5. The
    winter in Moscow is cold. The winter in London is not so cold. 6. Your mother is young. My mother is not so
    young.
    XIV. Form as many sentences as you can using the following tables:

    XV. a) Respond to the following sentences as in the model.

    M o d e l : I have already swept the floor. - Have you?
    I haven't aired the room yet. - Haven't you?
    1. Mary has gone by bus. 2. The bell hasn't gone yet. 3. I've had much practice in English. 4. Something has
    gone wrong with the gas stove. 5. I haven't done my washing yet. 6. She has just come. 7. I've done a lot to help
    119

    him. 8. I haven't been to the club for ages. 9. I've never been late for the lectures. 10. I've already looked
    through the article.
    b) Continue the exercise suggesting your own verbal context.
    XVI. Complete the following sentences and let your fellow-student respond to them:

    1. I am (not) going to ... . 2. Are you going to ...? 3. It has taken me ... . 4. Something has gone wrong with ...
    . 5. David is sure to ... . 6. Are you sure to ...? 7. Look here, Mary ... . 8. I'm afraid ... . 9. I should like to ... . 10.
    It is so nice to ... . 11. What about ...? 12. It doesn't take me long to ... . 13. Has it taken you long to ...? 14. How
    long does it take ...? 15. It's a pity to ... . 16. It's a pity you haven't ... .17. It's a pity he can't ... . 18. How clever
    of you to .... 19. I look forward to .... 20. He can't manage to ... .
    XVII. Think of stimulating phrases to which those below could be replies. Work in pairs:
    1. Thank you ever so much. 2. No more, thank you. 3. I'm afraid, I can't. 4. Certainly! 5. Here you are. 6. Just
    a moment. 7. It is out of the question. 8. I'd love to. 9. That's all right.
    XVIII. a) Respond to the following sentences. Work in pairs. b) Continue the exercise suggesting your own
    verbal context of the same type:

    1. May I come in? 2. What about going to the country together? 3. Will you help me, Nick? 4. I've read
    many English books this month. 5. I should like to see that magazine. 6. Shall I air the room? 7. Will you have
    another cup of tea? 8. Let me have a look at it. 9. Something has gone wrong with my ball-pen.
    XIX. Translate the following sentences into English:
    A. 1.

    ?-

    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    . 3.

    (to air)

    ,
    . 4.

    . 5.

    ? 6.

    ? 7.

    . 8.
    ?-

    . 11.
    ,

    ?,

    . 10.

    ,

    . 9.
    ?-

    ,

    . 13.
    . 15.

    ? -

    ,

    ,

    . 12.

    (to plug in),

    ?-( )

    ,

    . 14.

    . 17.

    !-

    ,

    . 16.
    . 18.

    ( )

    . 19.
    .
    22.

    . 21.
    . 23.

    ,
    . 24.

    ,

    (or)

    28.

    ?. 25.
    . 27.
    . ?-

    . 29.
    ,

    . 31.
    . 33.
    ?-

    .
    ?-

    ? - ( )

    ,
    12? 20.
    .
    . 26.
    .
    ? -( )

    . 30.

    ?-( )
    . 32.
    . 34.

    ?-

    ,
    ,

    .

    . 1.

    .
    .
    .

    ,

    ,

    . 2.
    ? -

    (out-of-doors). 3.
    ,
    ,
    go out)
    ?-

    ,

    .
    ?-

    .

    .

    ..

    .
    (on the programme)
    .,
    . 4.

    .?-

    ,

    ,
    .

    ..
    ?-

    .-

    (to
    .
    .-

    .
    .!

    !-

    .
    120

    XX. Make up short dialogues using the given statements:

    M o d e l : A: I have done a lot of work about the house.
    B: What do you tell me?
    A: I tell you that I have done a lot of work about the house.
    B: What does A tell ?
    D: A tells that she has done a lot of work about the house.
    1. I have never been to London. 2. Mary has already had some practice at the laboratory. 3. We don't like
    this poem. 4. They are leaving for the Crimea tomorrow. 5.I am not going to stay at home. 6. It takes me half an
    hour to get to the skating-rink. 7. My parents always listen to the seven o'clock news. 8. I can sew a button on
    for you. 9. There is a new film on this evening at the club. 10. Nick can repair your cassette-recorder very
    easily.
    XXI. Read and translate the following. Pick out all the words, word combinations and phrases that can be used
    for the topic "Housework" or "The Daily Programme".

    I
    D a v i d : Look, dear, a button has come off my coat.
    M a r y : Have you got the button?
    D a v i d : Yes, I have.
    M a r y : Well, bring me my sewing-basket from the next room.
    D a v i d : Here you are!
    M a r y : Thank you. I must get a needle and some thread.
    D a v i d : Shall I thread the needle for you? It is not an easy thing to get the thread through the eye of the
    needle, is it?
    M a r y : Ah, I've done it. Now take your coat off and I'll sew the button on for you.
    II
    This is my daily programme. I wake at about seven o'clock and then it is time for me to get up. I like a cold
    shower every morning, so I put on my dressing-gown and slippers and go to the bathroom. The water feels very
    cold on winter mornings, but I rub myself hard with the towel and soon I feel quite warm.
    Then I shave, brush my teeth, wash my face and go back to the bedroom to dress. I brush and comb my hair,
    take a clean handkerchief out of the drawer and have breakfast at a quarter past eight. After breakfast I sit and
    read my morning paper. If the weather is fine, I usually walk to my office. At nine o'clock the day's work
    begins. At twelve-thirty I have a break for lunch. I generally finish my work about six o'clock. Then I have a
    cup of tea and a biscuit, and in summer I spend an hour or so out-of-doors, play a few games of tennis or
    volley-ball.
    We have supper about seven-thirty or eight o'clock and then we sit and talk, or listen to the wireless. Often in
    summer we take out the car and go for a run in the country; in winter we go to the cinema or the theatre. But
    that is not often. I have a lot of work to do, and usually after supper I read or write until twelve or one o'clock.
    XXII. a) Watch Film Segment Two "Early in the Morning" for general content. b) Watch the film segment
    again to find English equivalents to the following:
    ?;
    ;

    ;
    ...;
    ;

    ;

    ;
    ;

    !(

    !);

    ;

    ,
    ;

    ,
    ;

    .

    ) Answer your teacher's questions on the content of the film segment. d) Listen to the sound track recording of
    Segment Two and speak on the Browns' activities throughout the day.
    XXIII. a) Make up a dialogue on the following situation:
    121

    You ask your friend when she usually gets up and at what time she leaves her house. You ask her if she does
    any work about the house in the morning and how long it takes her to get to the Institute.
    b) Suggest a situation for your fellow-student to give it in the form of a dialogue.
    XXIV. Make up a conversation using the vocabulary of the lesson and conversational phrases.
    XXV. a) Speak on the topic "Housework". b) Give an account of your own daily programme (your father's).
    XXVI. a) Think of a proverb which could be applied to your daily round. b) Make up a conversation with your
    fellow-student to finish it with this proverb.

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make the sentences interrogative and negative.
    II. a) Listen to the questions, answer them and record your answer in the intervals. b) Listen to the record and
    correct the mistakes if you have any.
    III. Give the Present Perfect in the sentences. Make all the necessary changes.
    IV. Translate the sentences into English using the words and word combinations of the lesson.
    V. Listen to the sentences and change them into indirect speech. Make all the necessary changes.
    VI. Translate the words into English. Spell and transcribe them.
    VII. Spell and transcribe the four forms of the verbs.
    VIII. Listen to the disjunctive questions. They are not true to fact. Correct them.
    IX. Listen to the text and write a dictation.
    X. Listen to the dialogue "Morning and Evening". Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text alter the model.
    Learn it by heart.

    Lesson Fourteen

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    The past indefinite tense

    122

    Table No. 2

    The past continuous tense

    Statements in indirect speech
    1. He said: "I am busy today."
    He said (that) he was busy that day.
    2. He said to me: "I know this young man."
    He told me that he knew that young man.
    Spelling rules
    Regular verbs form the Past Indefinite Tense by adding the suffix -ed to the infinitive. Observe the following
    spelling rules:
    1. The mute -e is dropped before adding the suffix -ed: to taste-tasted.
    2. The final consonant is doubled before the suffix -ed if it is preceded by a vowel letter expressing a short
    stressed vowel sound: to stop - stopped.
    3. The final -1 is doubled if it is preceded by a vowel letter expressing a short vowel sound: to travel travelled.
    4. The final -y is changed into i before adding the suffix -ed if it is preceded by a consonant letter: to try tried.
    5. The letter -r is doubled if the final syllable is stressed: pre'fer - pre'ferred, but 'offer - 'offered.
    Grammar exercises
    I. Study Substitution Tables No. 1, 2 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Spell and transcribe the four forms of the following verbs:

    tell, go, come, walk, give, take, put, say, speak, hear, see, read, write, finish, begin, make, show, enter, teach,
    study, find, get, leave, stay, pay, eat, drink, prefer, ask, answer, pass, stop, prepare, travel, examine, offer, plan,
    carry, occur, quarrel.
    III. Express the idea in the past (change the adverbials if necessary):
    123

    1. My sister works hard at her English this year. 2. They must write many exercises at home. 3. The students
    speak only English at the lesson. 4. Our lessons begin at 12 on Thursday. 5. Our family gets up at 8 o'clock on
    Sunday. 6. I usually prepare my homework in the morning. 7. Before going to bed I can rest for half an hour
    and listen to the news. 8. We often have to work together. 9. We gather at the club every Saturday. 10. The girl
    reads about 20 pages every day. 11. In the morning she takes a cold shower, dries herself on the towel and
    cleans her teeth before she puts on her clothes. 12. We don't understand these words. 13. The boys do morning
    exercises every day. 14. Why don't you turn off the cassette-recorder when you leave the room? 15. How long
    does it take you to get to the theatre? - It takes me half an hour to get there.
    IV. Give the interrogative and negative forms of the following sentences:

    1. Ann got a good mark yesterday. 2. We translated the text two days ago. 3. He was translating the text at
    that time. 4. He came home late last night. 5. She finished her work half an hour ago. 6. They had breakfast at 8.
    7. They were waiting for us then. 8. My friend saw this film last week. 9. He was looking at the people in the
    hall. 10. There was a mistake in his test. 11. Ann was having dinner at six o'clock. 12. They had to take four
    exams.
    V. Answer the following questions:

    1. Have you bought this book? 2. When did you buy it? 3. Have you seen this play? 4. When did you see it?
    5. Have you made this dress yourself? 6. When did you make it? 7. What were you doing at 7 last night? 8.
    Were you knitting at that moment? 9. What were you reading when I entered? 10. What were you singing when
    he came? 11. Why were you laughing when you saw him? 12. Why was the baby crying? 13. What were you
    doing when we rang you up? 14. What were they writing when the teacher entered? 15. What was he listening
    to when you called him? 16. What were you reading when the door-bell rang? 17. Where were you going to
    when I stopped you? 18. Where was the boy running when you saw him?
    VI. Use the following sentences in indirect speech:

    1. He said: "I want to see you today." 2. She said: "I am free tonight. May I come to see you?" 3. Mother said
    to me: "I feel bad today." 4. The students of Group 106 said to us: "We have four exams this spring." 5. The
    pupil said to the teacher: "I can do my homework after dinner." 6. The teacher said: "You work hard, I know.
    You are a good boy." 7. The teacher said to the students: "We have 18 hours of English a week." 8. The dean
    said at the meeting: "The first-year students must work well." 9. The girl asked: "May I wait for my friend
    here?" 10. She said: "Are you going to the club together?" 11. The old man said to her: "You can sing
    perfectly." 12. My sister said to me: "You look very well, I hope you are all right?" 13. The girl said to me: "I
    am going to become a doctor." 14. Some of our students said to him: "You are not right. You don't work hard
    enough." 15. He said to us: "I agree, I don't always work systematically." 16. My uncle said to us: "I buy
    several newspapers every day." 17. "You are an excellent cook. Everything is so tasty," my guest said.
    VII. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense-form:

    1. They (to go) to the Maly Theatre last week. 2. They (to be) to the theatre twice this week. 3. He (to come)
    home, (to have) a short rest, (to read) an article from the latest magazine and (to begin) to prepare his lessons. 4.
    When (to return) your friend from the South? -- She (to return) yesterday. -- You (to go) to the station to meet
    her? - - No, I (can) not. I (to be) too busy. 5. With whom (to discuss) you this question yesterday? 6. I (to see)
    this film this week and I like it very much. 7. When I (to enter) the kitchen, I (to see) that my mother (to stand)
    at the table and (to cut) some cabbage. She (to cook) dinner. 8. As soon as I (to hear) a cry I (to run) out of the
    room and (to see) that the child (to lie) on the ground and (to cry). "What (to happen)? (To hurt) you yourself?"
    9. I (to want) to get tickets to the Bolshoi Theatre. - You (to want) to hear the new opera? (Not to hear) you it
    yet? 10. What (to go) you to do? -- Now I (to go) to have a bite. I (to have) not any dinner today. 11. As soon as
    I (to see) him, I (to understand) that he (to work) hard. He (to think) of something very important for him and
    (not to notice) anything. 12. Your brother (to return) from the North? -Yes, he (to come) two days ago. 13. (To
    be) you to the Crimea? When (to be) you there? - I (to stay) there for two months in 1979. I (to remember) I (to
    124

    like) everything there, and most of all I (to like) the sea.
    VIII. a) Compose sentences of your own using have (had) to in the affirmative, interrogative and negative forms.
    b) Ask one another questions and answer them as in the models.

    M o d e l 1 : Did he have to prepare for his entrance exams? -Yes, he had to take four exams.
    M o d e l 2 : Did he have to wait long? - No, he didn't have to stay there.
    TEXT 1
    Our university
    (A Letter)
    Dear Helen,
    Don't be angry with me for my long silence, but really I was too busy to write.
    As you know, I left school in June and began to prepare for my entrance exams to the University. As both
    my mother and father are teachers I have made up my mind to be a teacher too. I think teaching is a noble
    profession.
    I had to take four exams and passed all of them with excellent marks. So I'm glad to tell you that now I'm a
    first-year student at the Moscow State Teacher Training University.
    I should like to show you the main building of our University. I can't help admiring this fine old building
    with its beautiful columns. The first students entered it more than 120 years ago.
    It goes without saying we, students, are very proud of this fact.
    There are 18 faculties at our University which train teachers in many subjects: Russian, Literature,
    Mathematics, Physics, Geography, Chemistry, Biology, Foreign languages and others. Many well-known
    professors teach at our University.
    We have good libraries and reading-rooms and for those who go in for sports there are good gymnasiums
    and a stadium.
    At present we have quite a lot of work as we have English practice, Grammar and Phonetics, Linguistics,
    History of our native land and other subjects. There is an English speaking club at our faculty. It gives us a
    good opportunity to master the language, but I don't take part in it yet. I'm working hard at my
    pronunciation. There is a good language laboratory at our faculty where we work with cassette-recorders. It
    helps us to find out our mistakes and to get rid of them in the shortest possible time.
    So that's the latest news about myself. Please write to me about your life and studies.
    My best regards to your parents.
    Yours,
    Ann.
    TEXT 2
    A telephone call
    Alex is about to ring up a friend of his. He picks up the receiver, and dials the number. The first time the
    line is engaged but then he gets through.
    A: Bob?
    B: Speaking.
    A: This is Alex. Hello, old chap. Haven't heard from you for ages. How are you?
    B: Oh, hello, Alex. I'm fine, thanks.
    A: Wonderful, I hear you passed all your entrance exams with excellent marks. So you are a student now,
    aren't you?
    : Well yes, and you ?
    A: I wasn't so lucky at the exams, in fact. I only got good marks in the main subjects: physics and maths.
    : I wonder if you find it difficult to study mathematics ?
    A: Rather. I spend a lot of time doing my home assignment. But I'm not at all sorry. You've got to work hard
    125

    to make good progress.
    B: Do you have time to go in for sports?
    A: Yes, of course, I joined the University sports society, as I'm fond of skating, skiing and tennis.
    B: As for me, I'm a member of our English speaking club. I've joined our drama society and the choir. They
    say I'm rather good at both singing and acting.
    A: Good, isn't it? Hope to see you some day. Will you invite me to your club?
    B: Sure.
    A: By the way, I've got a new telephone number. It is now 235...
    B: Just a second. I must have a pen to put it down. Yes?
    A: So I repeat 235-60-57. I'll be expecting your call. Bye-bye.
    B: So long, then.
    Vocabulary notes
    angry adj
    ,
    ,
    ; anger n; to be angry with smb.
    ., . g. She was angry with me because I was late.
    silence n
    ,
    ; silent adj
    ,
    ; Keep silent!
    ! . g.
    Keep silent, I can't hear anything!
    to leave school (no article!)
    ; Cf. to go to school, to go by bus, to go to bed
    entrance n
    ; entrance exams
    ; Ant. exit; enter vt; Syn. come vi; Ant. leave
    vt, e. g. He entered Room 5. Come in!
    mind n
    , ,
    ; vt
    ;
    ;
    ,
    ;
    ,
    .
    ;
    to make up one's mind = to decide; Never mind!
    ,
    . To my mind.
    .
    exam(ination) n
    ; examine vt
    ,
    ; examiner n
    ; to take an
    exam
    ,
    ; to pass one's exam
    ,
    , . g.
    took an exam in
    Geography but he didn't pass it.
    mark n
    ,
    ; to give a mark
    ; mark for an answer
    ;a
    mark in a subject
    , . g. He got a satisfactory mark in Physics. The teacher gave me a five
    for my answer yesterday.
    train vt
    ; to train teachers
    one can't help (doing smth.)
    ...,
    ...,
    ..., . g. I couldn't help
    smiling, the child was so funny.
    admire vt
    ,
    ; admiration n, . g. We all admire your singing. The people looked at
    the actress in admiration.
    It goes without saying.
    , . g. It goes without saying we help those who need our
    help.
    proud adj
    ; pride n; to be proud of smth.
    ., e. g. We are all proud of our country.
    subjects
    )
    ; Literature
    , Mathematics (Maths)
    , Physics
    , Geography
    , Chemistry
    . Biology
    , a Foreign language
    , Linguistics
    professor n
    ,
    ; scientist n
    (
    ); science n
    ; scientific adj
    ; research worker
    to go in for
    ,
    , . g. The students of our group go in for sports.
    opportunity n
    , . g. This is a good opportunity to help them.
    to master the language
    hard adj/adv
    ,
    ;
    ; Cf. hard work, to work hard at smth.; hardworking
    ,
    to get rid of
    ,
    , . g. I can't get rid of my mistakes.
    best regards to ...
    ; Syn. Remember me to ...
    receiver n
    to pick up the receiver
    to hang up
    dial vt
    (
    ); dial n
    the line is engaged (free)
    (
    ); to engage
    . Hold the line, please. He
    126

    .
    to get through
    ; Are you through?
    ?
    ?
    lucky adj
    ,
    , e. g. I know him, he is always lucky.
    .
    spend (spent, spent) vt
    ,
    , e. g.
    spends much money on books. I spend much time
    on my English.
    to make (good) progress
    , . g. We hope to make good progress in English.
    They say ...
    ..., e. g. They say it is going to be cold.
    to be good at smth. (or at doing smth.)
    ,
    ,
    ..., . g. She is very
    good at singing.
    Topical vocabulary
    Telephone Talk: a telephone-booth; a call-box; insert a coin in the slot; buzz, buzzing sound; long-distance
    call; to be disconnected (to be cut off); to get the wrong number; St. Petersburg is on the wire.
    Letter Writing:
    Opening greetings

    Corresponding polite endings

    (on the left-hand side
    of the page)

    (on the right-hand side
    of the page)

    Dear Sir (Dear Madam),
    Dear Mr. Brown,

    Yours truly; Yours faithfully
    Yours very truly; Respectfully
    yours
    Affectionately yours
    Your loving daughter

    My dear sister,
    Dearest Mother
    Phonetic notes

    To make speech more expressive we do not always stress all the notional words in a sentence. Sometimes we
    make one or two words more prominent than the others. The word which is most important in the sentences is
    often marked by logical stress while the words following it remain unstressed or half-stressed as they do not
    introduce anything new, but refer to something already known.
    e. g. There is an English 'speaking \club at our faculty.
    We, 'students, are \proud of this fact.
    Compare:
    I be gan to pre'pare for my tentrance e'xams to the \Uni\versity.
    And later:
    I should like to 'show you the 'main \building of our University.
    Exercises
    I. Transcribe the following words and explain the reading rules:

    angry, exams, mind, mark, Russian, admire, hard, proud, sports, find, tape, lucky, ages, sorry, invite, club,
    certainly, rather.
    II. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on sounds. b) Let your fellow-student read the sentences aloud for you to detect his errors in sounds and tell him
    what must be done to get the sounds right:

    [ , ð] 1. The third Thursday of this month is the sixteenth.
    2. Thirty-three thousand three hundred and thirty-three.
    3. These are three brothers, these are their father and mother, this is their other brother.
    127

    4. Wealth is nothing without health.
    5. First think then speak.
    [ - s] Three things on this side and six things on that side.
    [ð - f] That fish has a fat fin, this fish is a fish that has a thinner fin than that fish.
    III. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    A. 1. [ :] - my mother and father, working hard, my best regards.
    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: at the Institute, that's the latest news.
    b) Loss of plosion: don't be angry, had to take, glad to tell you, old building, don't take part.
    c) Linking [r]: mother and father, four exams, grammar and phonetics, our Institute.
    . 1. [ ] - Oh, hello, good at both, so long.
    2. a) Alveolars replaced by dentals: joined the society, and the choir, but then.
    b) Loss of plosion: difficult to study, at both, hard to make, and tennis, about
    c) Nasal plosion: excellent marks, student now, good marks.

    to ring up.

    IV. 1. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Our University". b) Mark the stresses and tunes. c) Practise the
    text tor test reading. Listen to it very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    2. a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue. b) Mark the stresses and tunes. c) Practise the text for test reading.
    Listen to it very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. d) Memorize the dialogue and dramatize it.
    V. Read the following sentences as answers to the given questions. Change the logical stress in them according
    to the question.

    M o d e l : He works in the Crimea now.
    a) Does he rest in the Crimea now? - No, he \works in the Crimea now.
    b) Where does he work now? - He works in the Cri\mea now.
    1. She spoke to the dean last week. a) When did she speak to the dean? b) Did she see the dean last week? c)
    Whom did she speak to last week? 2. I gave this letter to her. a) Did you give or did you read this letter to her?
    b) What did you give her? c) Whom did you give this letter to? 3. He read the third story to the child. a) What
    did he read to the child? b) Which story did he read to the child? c) Whom did he read the third story to?
    VI. Repeat the following sentences several times. Change the logical stress (and the tune if necessary) according
    to the situations given in brackets.

    Model:
    Don't do it a\lone! (Do it with your brother.)
    \Don't do it alone! (You really shouldn't.)
    1. Did he work in the Caucasus last year? (or did he rest there? or did his wife? or in the Crimea? or 3 years
    ago?) 2. Read Exercise 5 at home! (not in class! not Exercise 6!) 3. Did your father often play chess with you?
    (or seldom? or with your brother? or does your brother play chess with you?)
    VII. Transcribe the following sentences, mark the stresses and tunes and picture them on the staves:

    1. How are things? 2. Don't you find it difficult to study mathematics? 3. Do you have time to go in for
    sports? 4. Hope to see you some day! 5. So you are a student now, aren't you? 6. Will you invite me to your
    party?
    VIII. Make up questions covering the content of Text 1 for your fellow-students to answer them.
    IX. Fill in prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

    1. First-year students work hard to master ... the language. 2. What mark did you get... Literature ... the
    128

    entrance exams? 3. What mark have you got... your report? 4. "Try to get rid ... this gross mistake," said the
    teacher. 5. When did you make a report ... this book? 6. Our nephew is very good ... maths. 7. Why don't you
    take part... our discussion? 8. We decided to join ... the English choir. 9. Where have you been? We haven't
    seen you ... ages. 10. When the monitor entered ... the classroom the students kept silent. 11. Cousin Helen
    sends her best regards ... everybody. 12. The girl has invited her friends ... her birthday party. 13. What kind of
    sports does he go......? – He is good ... tennis and volley-ball. 14. I see you are angry ... me, but I don't
    understand why you do not answer ... my question. 15. Did he often write ... his mother when he was ... the
    South? 16. The students are proud ... their Institute. 17. They are all very fond ... the English speaking club. 18.
    Two of my fellow-students are away... the lessons today.
    X. a) Write questions to the parts of the sentences in bold type. b) Each sentence describes a situation in a
    concise way. Find out some more details about it by asking questions. Work in pairs. Use conversational phrases:

    1.I left school in June. I began to prepare for my entrance exams to the Institute. 2. The first students
    entered the Institute more than 100 years ago. 3. We all gathered at my cousin's place to see the New Year
    in. 4.I was just writing a letter to my brother when the door-bell rang and he himself entered.
    XI. Fill in articles where necessary:

    1. His son left ... school two years ago. 2. Helen passed ... entrance exams to ... Institute with excellent
    marks. 3. My favourite subject at ... school was ... Literature. 4. My brother goes in for ... sports. 5. It was
    decided to finish ... building of ... house in ... shortest possible time. 6. I'm going to join ... sports society. 7. He
    is ... member of ... students' English club. 8. We haven't yet had ... discussion on ... book we are reading now. 9.
    I got ... satisfactory mark for ... test. 10. Read and translate ... text, do ... Exercise 5 orally and ... Exercise 8 in
    ... written form. 11. He turned on ... radio as he was going to listen to ... news. 12. ... Pacific Ocean is seldom
    quiet. 13. I'm afraid he is so short of... time.
    XII. Express a similar idea by using the synonymic expression to make up one's mind.

    M o d e l : We decided to learn to swim. We made up our minds to learn to swim.
    1. I decided to go for a walk as it was a pleasant evening. 2. We decided to answer his question in written
    form. 3. He decided to speak to the assistant-dean about his work. 4. Our cousin decided to go to the country for
    his holiday. 5. He decided to recite his new poem to his friends. 6. He decided to get an excellent mark in
    English. 7. He decided to master two foreign languages.
    XIII. Intensify the idea of liking by using to be fond of.

    M o d e l : I like dancing. I am fond of dancing.
    1. I like Tchaikovsky's music. 2. The girls liked to spend time in the open air. 3. I like swimming. 4. He likes
    Byron's poetry. 5. We all like Russian nature. 6. The old man liked this beautiful park.
    XIV. Intensify the idea by using the construction one can't help doing smth.

    M o d e l : I laughed at the boy. I couldn't help laughing at the boy.
    1. We love Repin's work, he is a great artist. 2. I went to my sister's yesterday, it was my niece's birthday. 3.
    I invited Helen, she is one of my best friends. 4. I entered a teachers' training institute, I love children. 5. I told
    her everything. She wanted to know all about her mother. 6. I smiled while looking at that funny animal.
    XV. Intensify the idea by adding it goes without saying at the beginning of each of the given sentences.

    M o d e l : We are proud of our University. It goes without saving we are proud of our University.
    1. We read a newspaper every day. 2. We must work systematically if we want to know English well. 3. She
    129

    will get an excellent mark. 4. His work is very interesting. 5. Teaching is a noble profession. 6. He is a wellbred person." 7. We are eager to master the English language.
    XVI. Give sentences with the construction to take part using the following words:

    discussion, concert, work, excursion, expedition, picnic.
    XVII. Give sentences with the constructions to go in for and to be good at using the following words. Explain
    their meaning:

    music, sports, poetry, painting, swimming, singing, foreign languages.
    XVIII. a) Let the members of the class ask and answer questions. Give short answers and add a
    sentence of your own in the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous Tenses as in the models.
    M o d e l 1 : When did he take his exam in History? - On Wednesday. He passed it successfully.
    M o d e l 2 : Were they playing chess when he returned? - No, (they weren't). They were having supper.
    b) Respond to the negative sentence of your fellow-student as in the model. Use contracted forms in speech.

    M o d e l 1 : He didn't leave Moscow the other day. - No, (he didn't). He left only yesterday.
    M o d e l 2 : The girls were not playing the piano when he came. - No, (they weren't). They were listening
    to the news.
    XIX. Ask one another questions as in the model. Repeat your question beginning it with I asked if ... . Student B.
    could start answering with Sorry I didn't catch that; I'm afraid 1 missed that, I beg your pardon; Would you mind
    repeating that, please.

    M o d e l : A: Did you take part in the discussion?
    B: I'm afraid I didn't quite hear what you said.
    A: I asked if you took part in the discussion.
    B: I did. The discussion was very interesting.
    XX. Translate the following into English:
    1.

    .
    .

    . 2.

    (
    ,
    . 5.

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ;

    )? 3.
    ). 4.

    ,

    (

    ). 6.

    ».
    .

    . 8.

    (

    ). 9.
    .

    . 10.
    ?-

    .
    .
    «

    ,

    ,
    (
    ?,
    (

    12

    ,
    ). 11.

    ;
    .

    .

    .
    )

    .

    ,

    . 7.

    (their success).
    .
    ,

    (
    ,
    (University) (

    ,
    ,

    .

    )

    ,

    ,
    .

    .
    ,

    .
    XXI. Retell Text 1 in the person of Ann, Helen.
    XXII. Complete the following sentences:

    1.I made up my mind ... .2. Next Wednesday we shall take part in .... 3. Did you take part in ...? 4. It goes
    130

    without saying ... . 5.1 can't get rid of ... . 6. He found out that... . 7. I am fond of .... 8. Do you find it difficult to
    .... 9. My elder sister is very good at... . 10. I can't help ... . 11. We are proud of ... . 12. Did you manage to...?
    XXIII. Think of situations using the following words and word combinations:

    a) to take an exam (exams); to get a mark; to enter an institute; to take part in; not to make mistakes; to be
    lucky;
    b) to get rid of; to be good at; to make a report on; they say.
    XXIV. Make up sentences using the following word combinations:

    to be angry with; to take part in; to give a mark; to get a mark in (a subject); to make progress; to be good at;
    to be lucky; to join smth.; to find out; to make up one's mind; to make mistakes; to do homework (lab work); to
    go in for; to take an exam in (a subject); to pass the exam; to get rid of; to be proud of; one can't help doing
    smth.; to master the language.
    XXV. Think of stimulating phrases to which the following sentences are the replies. Work in pairs:

    1. You are lucky. 2. Certainly. 3. Sure. 4. I hope to: 5. Willingly. 6. Rather. 7. Pardon! 8. All right. 9. It's
    high time to do it. 10. Nothing of the kind. 11. Never mind. 12. I should like to. 13. You don't say so. 14. Sorry.
    15. It's out of the guestion. 16. No more, thank you. 17. Here you are. 18. I'm afraid, I am (was, did, have). 19.
    Just a moment. 20. I believe so. 21. So did (have, was, am) I. 22. Neither did (was, have, am) I. 23. How clever
    you are. 24. No at all.
    XXVI. Respond to the following sentences:

    1. Will you come to our party? 2 Is it late to go downstairs to the laboratory? 3. Have some more coffee, will
    you? 4. I am so thankful to you, you have helped me a lot. 5. It's so cold today. 6. Let's go to the museum
    together. 7. You don't know our new secretary, do you? 8. I've already invited their parents to our party. 9. I
    should like to join our English choir. 10. She is very good at swimming. 11. I find it rather difficult to study a
    foreign language. 12. Will you go to the Caucasus in summer? 13. We are going to have a test in oral practice
    this week. 14. He has passed his exam in Chemistry and got an excellent mark. 15. The girl has failed at her
    exam, you know. 16. Would you like to go to the skating-rink tonight? 17. He is very good at skating. 18. Will
    you put my fountain-pen right? 19. Will you turn off the tap? The bath is full of water. 20. Shall I turn on the
    radio? I should like to listen to the news. 21. I'm so sorry. I can't get this book. 22. It's so stuffy here. You
    should air the room. 23. How could you say such a thing?
    XXVII. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    .
    ,

    .

    .

    1982

    .

    ,

    ,

    . 2.
    . 3.

    ,

    . 4.

    . 5.

    10

    ,

    . 6.

    .
    ?

    ,

    8.

    . 7.

    ,
    . 10.

    ?

    . 9.

    ,
    . 11.

    ,

    ,

    . 12.

    13.

    .

    ,
    3

    ,

    7

    .
    .

    ,

    8

    . 14.

    .

    .

    ,

    . 15.

    . 16.

    ,

    . 17.

    ,

    . 18.

    ?-

    . 19.

    . 20.

    .
    .

    . 21.
    ,

    .
    131

    XXVIII. Retell the following jokes, use indirect speech:

    1.E n g l i s h p r o f e s s o r : What is the difference between an active verb and a passive verb ?
    S t u d e n t : An active verb shows action and a passive verb shows passion.
    2. P r o f e s s o r : Can you tell me anything about the great scientists of the 17th century?
    S t u d e n t : They are all dead, sir.
    3. F r i e n d : And what is your son going to be when he's passed his final exam?
    F a t h e r : An old man.
    4. Two men were talking in a train.
    "Are you going to Milberry's lecture today?" said one.
    "Oh, yes, I am," replied the other.
    "Take my advice and don't. I hear he is a very poor lecturer."
    "I am afraid, I must go," said the other. "I'm Milberry."
    5. During a lecture a well-known lecturer on economics mentioned the fact that in some parts of the world
    the number of men was larger than that of women, and he added humorously:
    "I can therefore recommend the ladies to emigrate to that part of the world."
    A young lady who was sitting in one of the last rows stood up full of anger. She was leaving the room rather
    noisily, when the lecturer remarked.
    "I don't mean that it must be done in such a hurry as that."
    XXIX. a) Read the following text. Explain the usage of tenses in it. b) Render the text in indirect speech. c)
    Make up short bits of conversation on the analogy of those given below:

    The Brown Family at Breakfast
    Part I
    A r t h u r : Has the post come yet, Robert?
    R o b e r t : Yes. There were only two letters, one for you and mother, and one for me.
    E i l e e n : Nothing for me?
    R : Of course not.
    E : Why'of course not'?
    R : Well, you never write to anyone. You've never written a letter in your life.
    E : I have.
    R : You haven't.
    J a n e : Now you two, stop arguing and get on with your breakfast.
    Part II
    A : Who was our letter from, Jane?
    J: Edith. Here it is.
    A : Have you read it?
    J: Yes.
    A: Well just tell me what she says.
    J: Don't you want to read it?
    A: I've left my glasses upstairs. Have they moved yet?
    J: Yes. They moved last Tuesday.
    A: How do they like the new house?
    J: They love it.
    A: Good.
    J: They've bought one or two new pieces of furniture.
    132

    A: Have they got rid of that awful old sofa?
    J: Yes. And they've bought some new chairs for the kitchen.
    Part III
    A: Have they started on the garden?
    J: Oh, yes. They started on that weeks ago, I suppose. They've done the front garden. They haven't touched
    the back at all.
    A: Well, at least they've made a start.
    J: They've been very lucky with their neighbours.
    A: In what way have they been lucky?
    J: Well, they were very kind on the day Anne moved.
    A: What did they do?
    J: Sarah (that's the wife's name) looked after the two boys the whole day...
    A: How nice of her!
    J: And Tom (that's the husband) helped Peter to lay the carpets.
    A: Hm, hm.
    J: He's even offered to help Peter with the garden.
    XXX. Listen to the text carefully. Pick out words and word combinations pertaining to the topic "Your
    Studies". Get ready to ask your fellow-students questions on the text. Retell the text.
    XXXI. a) Watch Film Segment Three "Buying a Textbooks" for general content. b) Watch the film segment
    again to find English equivalents to the following:
    (
    ;

    )?;
    ;

    ;

    ;

    ;

    ;

    .

    ) Answer your teacher's questions on the content of the film segment. d) Listen to the sound track recording of
    Segment Three. Say what happened in the bookshop.
    XXXII. a) Make up a dialogue on the following situation:

    You ask your friend what marks she got at the entrance exams and what subjects she studies at the
    University. You wonder how often she works in the laboratory and whether the work helps her to correct her
    pronunciation. You'd also like to know if she takes part in the work of the English club and what kind of work
    she does there.
    b) Suggest a situation for your fellow-students to make up a dialogue on it.
    XXXIII. Describe situations illustrating the following proverbs:

    1. All is well that ends well.
    2. It is never late to learn.
    3. Out of sight out of mind.
    4. Where there's a will, there's a way.
    XXXIV. Describe the procedure for telephoning.
    XXXV. Imagine you are on the phone talking to a friend (asking for information) about 1) your studies; 2) your
    social activities.
    XXXVI. Write a letter to a friend (to an English pen-friend, to your former English teacher) about your studies.
    Mind the layout of the letter.

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    133

    II. a) Answer the questions in the intervals. b) Listen to your record and correct the mistakes if you have any.
    III. Translate the words and word combinations into English. Spell and transcribe them.
    IV. a) Translate the sentences into English using the given word combinations. b) Check your translation with
    the key.
    V. Use the sentences in indirect speech. Make all the necessary changes.
    VI. Listen to the disjunctive questions. They are not true to fact. Correct them

    Lesson Fifteen

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    The future indefinite tense

    Table No. 2

    The future continuous tense

    134

    Table No. 3

    To be able in the future indefinite tense

    Table No. 4

    To have + infinitive in the future indefinite tense

    Table No. 5

    Adverbial clauses of time and condition

    135

    Grammar exercises
    I. Study Substitution Tables No. 1-5 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Change each of these sentences using the Future Continuous:

    1. At 10 o'clock he was still working at the laboratory. 2. My friend was preparing for her written test when I
    came. 3. Were you waiting for me at the station at 8 o'clock in the morning? 4. Was his friend giving a lesson at
    5 o'clock? 5. My nephew was repairing our vacuum-cleaner at 7. 6. My uncle was listening'to the news when I
    went to bed. 7. My aunt was knitting the whole morning.
    III. Write questions to the parts of the sentences in bold type:

    1. He will begin his lectures next month. 2. My brother will go to India for six months. 3. My sister will go
    to the South because of her child's illness. 4. It will take me 20 minutes to get to her house. 5. I shall be
    waiting for you at the station. 6. It will take two years to build this theatre. 7. It was snowing hard when I got
    up this morning. 8. I shall be able to translate this article next week. 9. He will see her at 9 o'clock
    tomorrow. 10. I shall get up tomorrow at 6 o'clock. 11. He will stay in the country for two months. 12. I shall
    be able to go to the canteen after the lesson. 13. I shall have to repair my aunt's iron tomorrow. 14. I shall be
    having dinner soon.
    IV. Use the correct form of the verb in the adverbial clauses of time and condition:

    1. If you (to translate) this article into Russian, I shall use it in my report. 2. If she (to be) in Moscow now,
    she will meet you. 3. If you don't (to hurry), you will miss the train. 4. If it (to rain), we shan't go to the country.
    5. When my friend (to come) to Moscow we shall go to the Bolshoi Theatre. 6. What will you be doing when
    he (to come) to your place? 7. Don't forget to pay for your dinner before you (to leave) the canteen. 8. I shall be
    able to translate this article if you (to give) me a dictionary. 9. You will have to work hard at the laboratory if
    you (to miss) the lesson. 10. Where will you go when you (to come) to Moscow? 11. You will lay the table as
    soon as Mary (to wash) the dishes. 12. I shan't have dinner before mother (to come) home.
    V. Use the following sentences in indirect speech. Make other necessary changes:

    1. He says: "I am sure she will come in time." 2. She says: "I shall be able to read English newspapers
    without a dictionary in a year." 3. They say: "We shan't go to the Institute on Sunday." 4. Mr. Sandford says: "I
    shall have to pay much money for the house." 5. Peter says: "I'll be waiting for you at the station." 6. Mary says:
    "I'll be back soon." 7. She says: "What are you going to do when you come home?" 8. She says: "I hope I'll
    soon speak English as well as you do." 9. He says: "I am sure it will rain tomorrow." 10. They say: "We'll go
    for a walk if it is hot tomorrow." 11. She says: "I am busy today but I'll be much busier tomorrow." 12. Jane
    says: "I shall come earlier tomorrow." 13. John says: "I shan't be able to meet them tomorrow." 14. He says:
    "I'll come if I am free." 15. She says: "I'll go to the cinema in the evening if I am not very tired." 16. My mother
    says: "You'll be sleepy tomorrow if you don't go to bed at once." 17. My aunt says: "I shan't be thirsty if I have
    some grapes." 18. My mother says: "Don't serve dessert before I clear the table."
    VI. Change the following sentences using the Past and Future Indefinite:

    1. You must practise this text in the laboratory. 2. You must take your exam in English. 3. She can translate
    this article without a dictionary. 4. They can't meet them at the station. 5. The doctor must examine this child. 6.
    He must work systematically if he wants to know French well. 7. This child must spend more time out in the
    open air. 8. I can't recite this poem. 9. You must take part in this work. 10. He can t join the party, he is busy.
    TEXT 1
    Seasons and weather
    When two Englishmen meet, their first words will he "How do you do?" or "How are you?" And after the
    136

    reply "Very well, thank you: how are you?" the next remark is almost certain to be about the weather. "It's a
    lovely morning, isn't it?" or "Isn't it hot today?" and the other person will reply "Yes, it's wonderful weather we
    are having. I hope it will keep fine, it seems almost too good to last."
    Or perhaps the day is dull, it is raining a little, the sky is grey, and everyone is wearing a mackintosh or
    carrying an umbrella. As the cars and buses go along the street, they splash the water and mud on the passersby.
    Gradually it gets darker: a thick fog is spreading over London. The lamps are lit in the streets and in the
    shops and offices; cars and buses put on their lights and can only crawl along. As one friend bumps into
    another, he says, "Isn't it a beastly day?" - "Yes," replies the other, you can hardly see a yard in front of you."
    Then comes winter. There has been a good fall of snow and a hard frost. It is just the day for a good
    country walk; let us have a tramp down the country lanes. The ground is like iron and rings under our feet, the
    frost sparkles on the branches, and icicles hang from the houses.
    It is still freezing hard and the ponds are frozen over. There are crowds of people on them sliding and
    skating, and here is a merry group of schoolboys having a fight with snowballs. It is very pleasant while the
    frost lasts; the unpleasant time comes when the thaw begins.
    A few months have passed and it is a beautiful spring day. The rain fell heavily last night, but now the soft
    white clouds are floating across the blue sky, and the sun is shining brightly. Raindrops and dewdrops shine on
    every small green leaf and every blade of young grass.
    The farmer has ploughed his fields and the new corn is just beginning to appear above the ground. In a few
    months autumn and harvest time will come. When the corn has turned ripe and golden the farmer will reap it
    and put it in his barn.
    (Abridged from "Modern English Course
    for Foreign Students" by Eckerseley)

    TEXT 2
    Dialogue
    Weather talk
    L e o n : Lovely day today, isn't it?
    G e r g e : It is. There's hardly a cloud in the sky in fact.
    L e o n : We'll have a heat wave, I fear. It must be 25 degrees in the shade.
    G e o r g e : It is very close today. Not a leaf is stirring.
    L e o n : There's hardly a breath of air.
    G e o r g e : By the way, I've just read the weather-forecast in my newspaper here.
    L e o n : What does it say?
    G e o r g e : (reading) "Pressure will remain high to the southwest of the British Isles. There will be
    occasional rain or drizzle, but bright weather with a few scattered showers will spread to England and Wales."
    L e o n : I fear a thunderstorm is coming.
    G e o r g e : The sky is overcast and the sun is going in.
    L e o n : It looks like rain. Actually it's beginning to rain. And I have left my umbrella at home. It never
    rains but it pours!
    G e o r g e : Fortunately enough, I've got my folding umbrella with me. Let me put it up.
    L e o n : What a tremendous clap of thunder!
    G e o r g e : And what a flash of lightning!
    L e o n : But the English have a saying about the weather: If you don't like it now, just wait a bit.
    G e o r g e : Look! It's clearing up. The clouds are lifting.
    L e o n : It has stopped raining. Look at this wonderful rainbow!
    G e o r g e : Bright sunshine again. Now I know why English weather is something worth talking about.
    (After "English by Radio")

    Vocabulary notes
    137

    keep (kept, kept) vt/i
    ;
    (
    ); to keep fine, e. g. The weather
    kept fine.
    dull adj
    ; Ant. bright
    splash vt
    ,
    ), . g. The driver splashed mud on the passers-by.
    fog n
    ; a thick fog
    ; foggy adj
    , e. g. It is foggy.
    spread (spread, spread) vt/i
    ,
    , e. g. A green valley spread before us; to spread
    over smth., e. g. The water spread over the floor.
    light (up) (lit, lit/lighted) vt/i
    ),
    , e. g. The lamps are lit in the streets. Our houses are
    lighted by the electricity.
    beastly adj
    ,
    ; Syn. nasty; beast n
    ,
    ;
    . animal
    hardly adv
    ,
    , e. g. I could hardly understand her.
    hard adv
    ; Syn. heavily, e. g. It is raining hard (heavily); hard adj
    , as a hard frost
    frost n
    ; frosty adj
    ; freeze (froze, frozen) vt
    ,
    ; . g. It's
    freezing hard.
    sparkle vi
    ; Syn. shine
    icicle n
    slide (slid, slid) vi/t
    ;
    thaw n
    float vi/t
    (
    ,
    ), . g. A lot of red and green balloons floated in the air.
    harvest n
    ,
    ;
    degree n
    , e. g. We had 25 degrees above (below) zero yesterday.
    close adj
    , . g. Open the window. It's very close here. Syn. stuffy
    breath n
    ; .
    , . g. At last we felt a breath of fresh air; breathe vt/i
    , . g. The
    child was breathing hard.
    weather-forecast n
    remain vi
    , . g. In England the fields and the parks remain green even in winter; Syn. stay
    drizzle n
    ,
    ; drizzle vi, e. g. It's drizzling.
    thunderstorm n
    ; thunder n
    ; a clap of thunder
    overcast adj
    ;
    (
    )
    pour vt/i
    ,
    ;
    , . g. It's pouring.
    . Pour yourself a cup of milk.
    fortunately adv
    ; Ant. unfortunately
    tremendous adj
    ,
    ; Syn. awful, terrible lightning n
    , e. g. A flash of lightning
    lit up the sky.
    worth predic. adj
    ,
    ; to be worth doing smth., e. g. It's not worth thinking about.
    Topical vocabulary
    season, to shine brightly; to be out-of-doors; to be in blossom (to be in bloom); flower-bed; to cycle; to boat;
    to fish; to go cycling (boating, fishing); to bathe, to swim; to lie in the sun; to play with a ball; to play tennis
    (football); to play a game of chess (tennis); to pick flowers, to pick (gather) berries and mushrooms; to travel by
    car; at the seaside; on the beach; on the bank of the river
    to blow; to go skating; skating-rink; to toboggan; flakes of snow; sleet; sledge; slush; to get wet through;
    melt
    Conversational phrases
    Weather remarks: What a marvellous (shocking) day! It seems to be getting more settled (clearing up),
    doesn't it? It's very windy (mild, wet, stormy) today. I'll be glad when the rain's over (the fog's cleared), won't
    you? It's nice (cold, warm, chilly, hot), isn't it?
    Hesitation devices: um, er, well, actually, in fact, you see, you know, the thing is, it's like this, how shall I
    put it, thee (lengthening of the), ayyy (lengthening of a), tooo (lengthening of to), I think..., I believe ..., I
    suppose.
    Memory Work:
    When the weather is wet
    138

    We must not fret, When the weather is cold
    We must not scold.
    When the weather is warm
    We must not storm, But be thankful together
    Whatever the weather.
    Exercises
    I. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on sounds. b) Let your fellow-student read the sentences for you to detect his errors in sounds and tell him what
    must be done to eliminate them:

    [e] 1. Get ten eggs ready for breakfast.
    2. Every day in every way.
    The weather is getting better and better.
    3. East or West home is best.
    4. All is well that ends well.
    5. Better late than never.
    6. Health is above wealth.
    II. Before you start working at the texts practise the sounds in the following word combinations from
    the texts:
    A. 1. [ ] raining a little, wearing a mackintosh, carrying an umbrella, spreading over London, floating across
    the sky, having a flight;
    2. [ :] their first words, almost certain, the other person, turned ripe;
    3. [ - - ] almost, can only crawl along, the ponds are frozen over, a fight with snowballs.
    B. 1. Alveolars replaced by dentals: read the weather-forecast, and the sun, but the English, about the
    weather, look at this.
    2. Nasal plosion: it must be, it never, let me, like it now.
    3. Loss of plosion: must be, what does it, but bright, spread to, it pours.
    III. 1. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Seasons and Weather". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the
    text for test reading. Listen to it carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    2. a) Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the dialogue for test reading. Listen to it
    very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize and dramatize it.
    IV. Copy out of Text 1 all the words with digraphs ai, ei,

    ,

    , on, ow and transcribe them.

    V. Give the four forms of the following verbs:

    come, blow, drive, fall, prefer, freeze, ski, put, sweep, hang, show, sew, awake, sleep, build, stop, sit, read,
    write, play, leave, begin, become.
    VI. Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and transcribe them:

    dark, heavy, hard, large, old, severe, pleasant, bad, good, strong, weak, little, far, near, late, clear, hot, warm,
    beautiful.
    VII. Ask questions covering the contents of Text 1 for your fellow-students to answer them.
    VIII. Look at the picture (p. 224) and answer the following questions:
    139

    1. Which of the four seasons is it? 2. Is the sky overcast with heavy clouds or is it clear and bright? 3. Has
    the sun gone in or is it shining brightly? 4. What is the ground covered with? 5. Are the fruit trees in blossom?
    6. Do you see any flower-beds in the picture? 7. Who do you see in the picture? 8. What are the grown-up
    people doing? 9. What are the children doing? 10. Do people stay at home in spring or do they prefer to go out
    into the garden? 11. How do you like to spend your time in spring?
    IX. Look at the right-hand picture and ask one another questions using the words and word
    combinations given below:
    season; summer; hot, cold; the sun; to shine brightly; on the bank of the river; to bathe, to swim; to boat, to
    fish (to go boating, to go fishing); to lie in the sun (on the sand); to pick flowers; to pick (to gather) berries and
    mushrooms; in the woods; to spend one's vacation (holiday) at the seaside; to travel by car; to go cycling; in a
    rest-home; on the shore.

    X. Describe the picture (p. 225) using the following words and word combinations:

    autumn; weather; nasty; the sky; to be overcast; cold, wind, to blow; low clouds, to drive across the sky; to
    rain heavily (hard); to hurry along the streets; to wear raincoats; to carry an umbrella; to get wet through; cars,
    trolley-buses, buses; to go (run) along the streets; to splash; mud; passers-by.
    XI. Look at the right-hand picture and make up a dialogue. Use the Topical Vocabulary, Conversational
    Phrases and Hesitation Devices.
    XII. a) Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

    1. It is as chilly today as it was yesterday. 2. The frost will be as hard tomorrow as it is today. 3. She is as
    fond of frosty weather as her brother is. 4. It has stopped raining. 5. She will be working when you come. 6.
    Pressure will remain high.

    140

    b) Ask one another questions on the following sentences and answer them in the negative. Add a sentence or
    two to develop a situation. Use conversational phrases:

    1. It's coming on to pour. 2. There was a good fall of snow yesterday. 3. It's still freezing hard. 4. The rain
    fell heavily last night. 5. It was foggy yesterday morning. 6. It's clearing up. 7. The clouds are lifting. 8. I've got
    my folding umbrella with me. 9. A thunderstorm is coming. 10. I've just read the weather-forecast.
    XIII. Put the adjectives and adverbs in brackets in the required degree of comparison:

    1. Today the frost is (severe) than it was yesterday. 2. This book is (interesting) of all I have read this year. 3.
    It snows (hard) this winter than it did last winter. 4. January is (cold) month of the year. 5. My sister speaks
    English (bad) than I do. 6. Which is (hot) month of the year? 7. Which is (beautiful) place in this part of the
    country? 8. This nice-looking girl is (good) student in our group. 9. Does this sportsman run (fast) than you? Oh, yes, he is (fast) in our group. 10. The students of our group'll have (little) spare time this term and I (little)
    of all as I've got (much) work at the scientific society.
    XIV. a) Read the following dialogue and copy out all the adjectives and adverbs used in the comparative and
    the superlative degrees. b) Retell the dialogue in indirect speech:

    "Good evening, Mrs. Martin. Let me take your things. Put your bag on this table."
    "How is Mr. Jones?"
    "Quite well, thank you. He is not in yet. And how is your husband?"
    "He is coming in a moment. He is busier than ever."
    "My husband usually comes home about six. Sometimes a little earlier. But he never comes later than half
    past six."
    "It is only a quarter past."
    "Let us go into the sitting-room. Please, sit down in this armchair. It is the most comfortable."
    "I like your house very much. It is the quietest I know."
    "There is very little traffic in our street."
    "Your garden is so large. It is much larger than ours."
    "But yours is more beautiful. Your trees are older and you have finer flowers."
    XV. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:

    A. 1. Be careful! Don't splash mud ... passers-by. 2. A thick fog is spreading ... the city and though cars and
    buses have put ... their lights they can only crawl ... .3. It is pleasant to look ... the trees when the frost sparkles
    ... the branches. 4. There is a bridge ... the river. 5. The rivers and lakes freeze......winter. 6. I don't like to be
    141

    out-of-doors ... such bad weather. I prefer to stay ... home. 7. Let us have a tramp ... the country lanes. 8. The
    new corn is just beginning to appear ... the ground. 9. The ground is usually covered ... snow ... winter.
    B. 1. The temperature is 25° ... zero ... the shade today. 2. Look ... the sky. There is hardly a cloud ... it. 3. A
    heat wave will spread ... the south-west ... Moscow. 4. It's beginning to rain. Put ... your umbrella. 5. The rain is
    ... and it's clearing ... . 6. The weather is getting worse. The sun is going ... . 7. Look ... picture ... page 25. What
    do you see ... the picture? 8. It's pouring. We shall be wet ... . 9. My aunt will stay ... our place ... two months.
    XVI. Complete the following sentences using the words in brackets:

    1. The sky will be clear if the wind ... (to stop). 2. I shall go to the country if the weather ... (to be fine). 3.
    We shall go to the skating-rink if the frost ... (to be not severe). 4. The snow will melt if the sun ... (to be hot). 5.
    You will feel warm if you (to put on) a warm coat. 6. He will ring you up when he (to come) home. 7. The days
    will be longer when summer (to come). 8. I shall go home if it (to rain). 9. We look forward to the time when
    spring (to come).
    XVII. Choose the right word:

    to stay - to remain
    1. I have done three exercises and two ... . 2. The place was so nice that we decided to ... there all the
    summer. 3. Few leaves ... on the trees and they are not green any longer. 4. He was so tired that he ... in bed all
    day long. 5. The teacher tried to make the boy speak but he ... silent. 6. It was raining so hard that I ... at my
    friend's the whole night.
    such - so
    1. She was ... tired that she couldn't go on working. 2. I never go for ... long walks. 3. I didn't know that it
    was ... an interesting book. 4. The student spoke English ... badly that the teacher couldn't give him even a
    satisfactory mark. 5. The weather was ... nasty yesterday that I stayed at home all day long. 6. It rained ... hard
    yesterday that I got wet through.
    XVIII. a) Respond to the following sentences. Develop them into dialogues. Use conversational phrases and
    hesitation devices:

    1. It looks like rain. 2. It's pouring, what shall we do? 3. What nasty weather we are having today! 4. It's a
    lovely morning, isn't it? 5. Isn't it a hot day? 6. It's wonderful weather we are having. I hope it will keep fine. 7.
    What a tremendous clap of thunder! 8. Look! It's clearing up.
    b) Continue the exercise suggesting your own verbal context.
    XIX. Think of stimulating phrases to which those below could be replies. Work in pairs:

    1. Very well indeed, thank you. 2. I don't know exactly. 3. Sometimes I do. 4. I think so. 5. I've no idea, I'm
    afraid. 6. No, I don't think I'll ... . 7. Yes, I'll have to change my clothes. 8. I think that's a very good idea. 9. I
    don't think so. 10. I've lost my umbrella. 11. Fancy that!
    XX. Complete the following sentences and add something to develop a situation:

    1. I shall go skiing if ... . 2. The pond will be frozen over when ... . 3. The farmers will reap the corn when ...
    . 4. The unpleasant time comes when ... . 5. We shall go for a walk as soon as ... . 6. I'll stay out-of-doors till ... .
    7. She'll be able to help you if she ... . 8. He'll make good progress if ... . 9. I shall put up my umbrella when ... .
    10. Don't go out before ... .
    XXI. Team up with another student and have a friendly talk using words and word combinations of Text 2
    concerning weather.
    142

    XXII. a) Read the following text. Give a title to the story. b) Retell the story using the vocabulary of the lesson:

    The weather in England can change very quickly. One day last week I went for a walk in the country. When
    I started early in the morning the weather was beautiful. The sun was shining, the sky was blue and there were
    no clouds at all. In the middle of the morning a sudden change came. A cool wind started to blow, black clouds
    covered the sun and in a very short time it started to rain heavily. There were no houses in sight and I had no
    coat with me. So I got very wet indeed and very cold too. After about an hour I managed to catch a bus which
    took me home. But when I arrived I was shivering and sneezing and I've had a cold ever since. We sometimes
    say that England is the only country where you can have four seasons in one day.
    XXIII. Translate the following into English:
    A. 1.

    ,
    . 2.

    .

    ,
    ,

    ,

    . 3.
    . 4.

    !

    ,

    .

    .
    . 5.

    ,

    .

    . 6.

    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 8.

    ,

    ,

    (

    )

    .
    . 11.

    .

    . 7.

    .

    ,
    .

    . 12.
    . 13.

    ,

    .

    ,

    . 9.
    . 10.
    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,
    . 15.
    ,

    . 14.
    ,

    . 16.

    .
    .

    . 18.
    . 20.
    !

    . 21.
    22.

    ,

    ,

    . 17.

    !

    .
    .

    ,
    . 1.
    .
    .
    . 5.

    ,
    . 19.

    .
    .

    ,

    . 2.
    . 3.
    . 4.

    ,
    ,

    !

    .

    ,

    .
    .

    XXIV. a) Translate into Russian. b) Give synonyms to the following words:

    silly, ruin, jolly, completely, chuckle, lovely, flimsy, start.
    c) Explain the meaning of the following words and word combinations in English:

    tomfoolishness, occasional, depression, to be plagued, set-fair day, keep on steadily, a thing that is beyond
    me.
    d) Retell the text:

    George got hold of the paper, and read us the weather forecast "rain, cold, wet to fine, occasional local
    thunderstorms, east wind with general depression over the 'Midland Counties'." I do think that, of all the silly,
    irritating tomfoolishness by which we are plagued, this "weather forecast" fraud is about the most aggravating.
    It "forecasts" precisely what happened yesterday or the day before, and precisely the opposite of what is going
    to happen today.
    I remember a holiday of mine being completely ruined one late autumn by our paying attention to the
    weather report of the local newspaper. "Heavy showers, with thunderstorms, may be expected today," it would
    say, and so we would give up our picnic, and stop indoors all day, waiting for the rain. And people would pass
    the house, going off in wagonettes and coaches as jolly and merry as could be, the sun shining out, and not a
    143

    cloud to be seen.
    "Ah," we said, as we stood looking out at them through the window, "won't they come home soaked!"
    And we chuckled to think how wet they were going to get. By twelve o'clock, with the sun pouring into the
    room, the heat became quite oppressive, and we wondered when those heavy showers and occasional
    thunderstorms were going to begin. At one o'clock the landlady would come in to ask if we weren't going out,
    as it seemed such a lovely day.
    "No, no," we replied, with a knowing chuckle, "not we. We don't mean to get wet - no, no." But not a drop
    ever fell, and it finished a grand day, and a lovely night after it.
    The next morning we would read that it was going to be a "warm fine to set-fair day, much heat," and we
    would dress ourselves in flimsy things, and go out, and, half-an-hour after we had started, it would commence
    to rain hard, and a bitterly cold wind would spring up, and both would keep on steadily for the whole day, and
    we could come home with cools and rheumatism all over us, and go to bed.
    The weather is a thing that is beyond me altogether. I never can understand it.
    (Abridged from "Three Men in a Boat"
    by Jerome K. Jerome)
    XXV. Find a picture on the topic "Season and Weather" for your discussion in class. Prepare 8-10 questions
    which would help your fellow-students to describe the picture.
    XXVI. Listen to the text "The Snow Maiden" carefully. Pick out words and word combinations pertaining to
    the topic "Weather". Get ready to ask your fellow-students questions on the text. Retell the text.
    XXVII. a) Watch Film Segment Four "The Sky is Overcast" for general content. b) Watch the film segment
    again to find the English equivalents to the following:
    ,

    ;
    ;

    ;

    -

    ;

    ;

    ;

    ?;

    ;

    ;

    ,

    .
    ) Answer your teacher's questions on the content of the film segment. d) Listen to the sound track recording of
    Segment Four. Get ready to ask and answer questions on the content of Film Segment Four and to reproduce the
    dialogue.
    XXVIII. a) Explain the meaning of the proverb: "It never rains but it pours" and give a situation to illustrate it.
    b) Find English proverbs concerning weather, provide them with Russian equivalents, ask your fellow-students to
    illustrate them.
    XXIX. Describe the weather in England and in your native town.
    XXX. a) Make up a dialogue on the following situation:
    (

    ,
    .

    )

    .

    ,

    ,
    30-35°,

    .
    .

    ,

    .
    ,
    .

    b) Suggest a situation for your fellow-students to give it in the form of a dialogue.

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    II. a) Listen to the questions and record your answers in the intervals. b) Listen to the record and correct the
    mistakes.
    III. Translate into English, spell and transcribe the following words and word combinations.
    144

    IV. Spell and transcribe the four forms of the following verbs.
    V. a) Join the following pairs of sentences using the first one as an adverbial clause of condition. b) Listen to the
    key following the intervals and repeat the key aloud. Pay attention to the intonation.
    VI. a) Translate the following sentences into English as in the models. b) Check your sentences with the key
    following the intervals and repeat the key aloud.
    VII. a) Use the following sentences in indirect speech. Make all the necessary changes. b) Check your sentences
    with the key following the intervals and repeat the key aloud.
    VIII. Listen to the poem "Nothing Will Die" by Alfred Tennyson. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the
    poem. Learn it by heart.

    Lesson Sixteen

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    Sequence of tenses

    Table No. 2

    The future in the past

    Table No. 3

    The past perfect tense
    145

    Grammar exercises
    I. Study Substitution Tables No. 1, 2, 3 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Spell and transcribe the four forms of the following irregular verbs:

    take, do, come, read, feel, say, see, ride, go, know, shine, forget, tell, cut, get, make, run, fly, choose, catch,
    swim, lie.
    III. Write the following sentences in indirect speech using the Future in the Past:

    1. She asked me: "Will you be angry with me?" 2.I said: "I'll be too busy tomorrow." 3. We said: "We'll take
    four exams in summer." 4. He said: "I'll show you the main building of our University. It's very beautiful." 5.
    Ann said: "I'll have a better command of the language, if I read English books." 6. The students said: "We'll
    work hard at our pronunciation. We want to get rid of our mistakes." 7. They asked us: "When will you join our
    choir?" 8. Nelly asked her "Will you invite me to your birthday party?"
    IV. Write the following sentences in indirect speech using the Past Perfect:

    1. Roger said: "My uncle has been here more than once". 2. Alice asked me: "Did you spend much time
    there?" 3. Ben asked me: "When did you join our circle?" 4. She said: "Our group has worked in the lab today."
    5. Bill said: "I remember she was good at singing." 6. The mother asked her son: "Why have you spent so much
    money on sweets?" 7. Fanny asked her friend: "Where did you go during your vacation?"
    V. Find in the book you use for your home reading examples on Sequence of Tenses. Copy them out.
    VI. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    ,

    . 2.
    . 3.

    . 4.

    . 5.
    . 6.
    . 8.

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    .10.
    . 11.

    12.

    . 13.
    ,

    . 16.

    ,

    ,

    ,
    . 14.

    ,

    ,

    ,
    . 7.
    . 9.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,
    . 15.
    .

    ,

    .
    ,

    ,

    TEXT 1
    Under the high trees
    It was six o'clock when Ben Smith, dreadfully tired, arrived home from the school where he was a teacher.
    He had had a lot of work and trouble that day. He dreamed of a quiet evening at home. June, his wife, met him
    at the door smiling radiantly. She asked Ben to be quick with his supper and change after that. She said she had
    146

    got everything arranged and they would go to the theatre.
    Only then did Ben remember it was the very night that had been settled for their going out. So June was
    realizing her dream. He envied his daughter Penny, a sixteen-year old girl, who said she would stay indoors
    and watch television. But suddenly he was sorry for June who got too little entertainment even at week-ends.
    It was already past seven when they started for the theatre. The weather was unusually nasty. Ben's nose
    and feet were cold. After 20 minutes a number 64 bus stopped. They got on, but the seats were full.
    Unfortunately the bus conductor told Ben to get off as only seven people could stand in the bus. Ben did so
    forgetting that his wife had got the tickets.
    It was pouring now. The road was wet and there was a hole in his shoe. Luckily he got on the next number
    64 bus soon enough and found a seat. Ben shut his eyes. When he opened them again, the bus was past the
    theatre. It was still raining as he walked back to it feeling unhappy. Over the doors were the words, "Under the
    High Trees".
    The man at the door said he could not let him in without a ticket. Ben was about to leave when a girl behind
    the ticket-office window said: "Are you Mr. Smith? Your wife left your ticket with me."
    Ben squeezed to his seat in the dark, stepping on people's feet. He asked June what the play was about. She
    whispered she could not understand much as one actor, an old man, spoke very quietly, and the other, a young
    man, spoke very quickly.
    As soon as the play was over, they ran out. There were no buses and it was raining. They waited and waited
    and their clothes got wetter. At last Ben lost his patience and shouted: "Taxi!"
    A passing taxi stopped. Ben pushed his wife in.
    "Two pounds," said the driver when they arrived.
    "What?"
    "After ten o'clock in the evening the fare is higher."
    Unwillingly Ben paid the driver. Besides all the trouble it turned out to be too expensive for them.
    "Did you watch television, Penny?" Ben asked his daughter.
    "Yes," she said. "You can't imagine how brilliant the play was."
    "What was the name of it?" asked Ben as he picked up his cup of coffee.
    "Under the High Trees" was the answer. Ben Smith put his cup of coffee on the kitchen table and went
    slowly upstairs to bed.
    TEXT 2
    At the seaside
    Mrs. H i l t o n : It's much fresher here than in London.
    Mr. H i l t o n : Yes, it was so stuffy in the train with the carriage so crowded, I hate trains and buses.
    Mrs. H i l t o n : It's all over now. Look? Alice and Roger have gone further along. They've chosen a nice
    place.
    Mr. H i l t o n : Yes, there are fewer people there.
    Mrs. H i l t o n : How quick the young people are! They are already in their bathing-suits lying in the sun.
    A l i c e : Isn't the water cold?
    R o g e r : It is, and you are certainly afraid to come into the water, you coward.
    M r s . Hilton: Stop teasing your sister, Roger. I am sick and tired of your quarrels. Let me have a minute's
    rest.
    R o g e r : Sorry, Mum. I'll be as good as gold. Wait for me, Alice, I'm coming too.
    A l i c e : Quick! I'm already in the water.
    R o g e r : I'll catch up with you easily. You splash about too much with your feet.
    A l i c e : I'm not such a strong swimmer as you. Oh, I've got a mouthful cf salt water.
    R o g e r : You shouldn't swim with your mouth open.
    A l i c e : I feel a bit chilly. I'd rather swim ashore and lie on the sand.
    R o g e r : I'll join you in a moment after I dive off that raft.
    Vocabulary notes
    be tired after
    , . g. They were tired after having practice in hearing and pronunciation. If you are
    tired of London, go down to the sea. be tired (of)
    ; be sick and tired
    ; . g. I am
    147

    sick and tired of this noise.
    a lot (of)
    . The following word combinations are all translated into Russian with the word «
    ».
    Mind their usage and the way prepositions are used: a great deal (of), a good deal (of) are used with
    uncountable nouns, e. g. He spends a good (great) deal of time at the language laboratory. She plays the piano a
    good (great) deal, a great number of, a great many are used with countable nouns, e. g. There is a great
    number of old newspapers in the desk. I saw a great many needles in the working-basket, a lot of, plenty of are
    used both with countable and uncountable nouns, e. g. There is a lot (plenty) of fruit in the shop today. There
    are a lot (plenty) of tooth-brushes on the shelf. He knows a lot.
    Mind the way of strengthening the meaning of the given word combinations: He knows a lot more than you
    think. I can tell you a great deal more on the subject.
    get everything arranged
    ,
    , . g. Robert and Tom got everything arranged for their
    excursion.
    very adj
    , . g. At that very moment Mrs. Hilton told them that it was high time for everybody to
    go to bed. He is the very person we want to see.
    settle vt
    ,
    ;
    ,
    , . g. It was not difficult to settle the question. Syn.
    decide vt/i
    , . g. She decided to leave Nick at home.
    realize vt 1.
    ;
    ,
    . Syn. understand (understood, understood) vt, e.
    g. The man was very quiet. He didn't realize the danger. 2.
    ,
    , . g. The plan was
    hard to realize (fulfil). But: It's necessary to understand the rale before doing this exercise. I don't understand
    why he has left.
    indoors adv
    ; out-of-doors
    ; indoor games: chess, draughts, lotto, dominoes, etc.; outdoor
    games: football, golf, cricket, hockey, etc.
    Mind the stresses in the following word combinations: 'indoor 'games, but to 'stay in' doors;' out-of-'
    doors.
    watch television (TV)
    , e. g. The Leonovs bought a TV-set and invited the neighbours
    to watch TV. to see (watch) the TV programme
    , e. g. I'm sorry you
    didn't see the TV programme on Sunday evening. It was really interesting.
    week-end n Sunday, with parts of Saturday and sometimes of Monday, as a period of rest or as a holiday.
    Mind the use of prepositions: to do something at the week-end, to go somewhere for the week-end.
    start (for some place) vt/i 1.
    ,
    , . g. The family started for the railway
    station. 2.
    ., e. g. The machine started working.
    unusually adv
    , e. g. He thought that Jane looked unusually pretty that day. Ant. usually
    ,
    e. g. He usually takes a cold shower at 8 o'clock, as usual
    , . g. He took off his coat and hung it on
    the hook as usual.
    to feel (look) unhappy (happy, bad, chilly, etc.)
    (
    ,
    )
    ),
    (
    )
    ,
    , but to feel (look) well
    (
    )
    , . g.
    always feels happy when he comes to his native town. She felt chilly and
    swam ashore. Ann looked surprisingly beautiful in her black dress. John looked well in spite of his illness.
    to be about to
    ., . g. They were about to leave the house when the telephone bell
    rang.
    besides adv
    ; beside prp
    ,
    , . g. X. is a wonderful singer and a good pianist besides.
    There was a house beside the river.
    expensive adj
    , e. g. The hat is too expensive, I can't buy it. Syn. dear
    .), . g. Isn't the toy
    dear? Ant. cheap
    , e. g. The cheapest things cannot be very good.
    at the seaside
    ,
    Note: shore n
    ,
    ,
    , as the shore of the Black Sea; bank n
    , as the bank
    of the Moskva river; coast n
    , as the coast of France; the Black Sea coast; beach n
    , e. g.
    Robert and his Grandpa sometimes spent their time on the beach.
    as good as gold
    ,
    (
    ,
    )
    to catch up (with smb.)
    , . g. It's easy to catch up with him, he is walking slowly. Mary was
    afraid that she would not be able to catch up with the group after her illness.
    to splash about
    ,
    I'd rather (I would rather)
    ,
    , . g. I'd rather swim ashore.
    Compare: You'd better (You had better)
    , . g. You'd better go now = It would be better for
    you to go now.
    148

    Exercises
    I. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Let your fellow-student
    read this exercise for you to detect his errors in sounds and tell him what must be done to eliminate them:

    [i:] 1. Please believe me. Please leave me in peace.
    2. Extremes meet.
    3. Seeing is believing.
    4. A friend in need is a friend indeed.
    5. A sailor went to sea
    To see what he could see.
    But all he could see
    Was sea, sea, sea.
    6. If all the seas were one sea, what a great sea that would be.
    II. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following word combinations:

    A. 1. [a ] -smiling, realizing, behind, wife, arrived.
    2. Loss of plosion: and trouble, that day, asked Ben, got too little, walked back.
    3. Alveolars replaced by dentals: when they, in the bus, and there, at the door, as the play, said the driver, in
    the evening, that was the end, was the answer.
    B. 1. Loss of aspiration: s top teasing, you s plash.
    2. No glottal stop: all over, swin ashore, dive off.
    III. 1. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Under the High Trees". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise
    the text for test reading. Listen to the text very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    2. a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue "At the Seaside". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the
    dialogue for test reading. Listen to the text very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize
    the dialogue and dramatize it.
    IV. Transcribe the following words and practise their pronunciation:

    dreadfully, radiantly, arranged, week-end, squeeze, enough, quietly, patience, unwillingly, expensive;
    carriage, both, further, bathing-suit, coward, tired, mouthful, ashore, moment, raft.
    V. Transcribe the following sentences; mark the stresses and tunes and picture them on the staves:

    1. "I can speak Japanese," he said. 2. "India is in the South of Asia," the pupil answered. 3. "Does he come
    from South America?" John asked. 4. "Have you come from Bulgaria?" I asked him. 5. Besides, he is a good
    sportsman. 6. To tell you the truth, I dislike him. 7. As far as I know, she is married. 8. The students, of course,
    knew the professor. 9. As a rule, I am free in the evening.
    VI. a) Answer the following questions:

    1. Why was Ben Smith so dreadfully tired when he carne home? 2. Why was June smiling radiantly? 3.
    What kind of dream was June realizing? 4. What was Penny's idea of spending that evening? 5. Why did Ben
    envy his daughter? 6. What do you think of Ben's attitude towards June? 7. What can be said about the weather?
    8. Why did Ben have to get off the bus? 9. How did it happen that Ben went past the theatre? 10. Why didn't the
    man at the door let Ben in? 11. Who saved the situation at that moment? 12. Was it easy for Ben to find his
    seat? Why? 13. Why did Ben and June find it difficult to understand the plot of the play? 14. Why did Ben
    decide to take a taxi on their way back? 15. Why did the journey turn out to be rather expensive? 16. What
    struck Ben when he talked to his daughter about watching TV?
    149

    b) Ask your comrades questions on Text 2. c) Ask your comrades questions on their past week-end.
    VII. Fill in prepositions or adverbs wherever necessary. Retell the text:

    Tom Sawyer got tired ... the medicine which Aunt Polly gave ... him every day. So once he decided to give it
    ...his Aunt's cat Peter. Peter'sprang up ... the air ... once. ... a few minutes Aunt Polly entered ... the room. She
    wanted to know what Tom was laughing ... . She came just ... time to see Peter jumping... ...the window and
    carrying the last flower-pot ... him. Tom lay ... the floor laughing. She looked down and saw the bottle ...
    medicine and a teaspoon ... the bed. Aunt Polly took Tom ... the ear and asked why he had treated ... the poor
    animal like that. Tom said, "I was sorry... him because he had no aunt."
    VIII. Each sentence describes a certain situation in a concise way. Find out some more details about the
    situation by asking questions. Work in pairs. Use conversational phrases:

    1. They are proud of their wonderful language laboratory. 2. Tom asked his father to take him down to the
    seaside. 3. She is turning on the radio. 4. The Greens have breakfast in the open air in summer. 5. Ann does her
    morning exercises to music every day.
    IX. Fill in the right word out of those in brackets (to hear, to listen; to leave, to stay; tall, high; short, low):

    1. She said she did not like the idea of ... the children all by themselves. 2. When Tom ... the old man's words
    he trembled with fear. 3. He said he had spent his childhood far away in ... mountains. 4. When the teacher
    made sure that all his pupils were ... to him he began explaining the new material. 5. Peter the First was an
    unusually ... man. 6. The girl said that she would never ... a moment in the house where nobody liked her. 7. He
    was so ... that his wife was ... than he. 8. Pay attention to that... building.
    X. Replace the part of the model in bold type by the following.

    d e 1 : It is high time for everybody to swim ashore.
    for him to leave, for them to go out of town, for everybody to begin the work, for John to return.
    XI. Form 5 sentences on the model using the following adjectives.

    M o d e l : The girl was tall enough to reach the apples.
    quick, well, clever, energetic, polite, nice, distinct.
    XII. Write 5 sentences of your own on each of the models and add some more sentences for a situation.

    M o d e l : a) It was such a wonderful holiday. We bathed a lot.
    b) She dislikes such selfish young men. They get on her nerves.
    c) Don't go out in such bad weather. You may catch cold.
    XIII. Write exclamatory sentences on the models using the given adjectives.

    M o d e l 1 : a) How quick the boy is! He has already run away!
    b) How quick the young people are! They are already on the other bank!
    d e 1 2 : a) What a quick boy he is! He has already come back!
    b) What quick young people they are! They are already on their way home! strong, weak,
    interesting, beautiful, lovely, tall, high, jolly.
    XIV. Form adjectives of negative meaning with the help of the prefix un- from the following adjectives.
    Translate the derived adjectives into Russian:

    tidy, pleasant, selfish, able, grateful, limited, necessary, married, original.
    150

    XV. Form adjectives of negative meaning with the help of the suffix -less from the following nouns. Translate
    the adjectives into Russian:

    home, speech, care, wood, water, thought, sleep, rest, hair, tooth.
    XVI. a) Translate the following sentences into Russian:

    1. Would you rather have a piece of bread or a cake? 2. I would rather go to the cinema than stay at home. 3.
    We had better leave the house at 5 so as not to be late. 4. Would you like to go to the theatre? - No, thank you, I
    would rather stay at home. 5. You had better eat your breakfast or you'll be hungry before lunch-time. 6. If we
    don't run, we shall miss the bus, so we had better run. 7. Would your brother like to come? -I think he'd rather
    not. 8. The boys would rather play football. 9. I would rather have hot weather than cold weather. 10. Which
    would you rather have: tea or coffee?
    b) Make up sentences using the following tables.

    M o d e l : You'd better (You had better) do it yourself.

    d e 1 : I'd rather (I would rather) do it myself.

    XVII. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    ,

    ?-

    ,

    .

    ?-

    . 2.

    . 3.

    . 4.
    . 5.

    . 6.
    ? 7.
    . 8.

    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 10.
    . 11.

    12.
    14.
    ,

    .

    . 9.
    .

    .

    12. 13.

    ,
    (

    . 15.
    ,
    .

    .
    ,

    .

    )

    .
    .

    ,
    . 16.
    . 17.

    .

    XVIII. a) Retell Text I in the words of the author, Ben Smith, June, Penny, one of the spectators at the theatre.
    b) Think of another way for the Smiths to spend their week-end. c) Sum up the content of the text in a few
    sentences.
    XIX. Fill in the blanks with a great (good) deal (of); a great many, a great number of; plenty of:

    1. It was a very gay party. We laughed .... 2. The boys saw... people on the beach. 3. There were ... most
    beautiful flowers in the mountains. 4. There are ... small boats at the bank. 5. In winter ... skiers practise their
    151

    skill on the Vorobyev Hills. 6. Both of the girls spend ... time on reading books in the original. 7. They used to
    quarrel..., but they made up their quarrels easily. 8. In the morning we settled ... questions and got everything
    arranged for the journey. 9. After her illness she had to study ... to catch up with the group. 10. ... fashionable
    dresses were displayed in the shop-windows. 11. One can see ... fruit and vegetables at the market in autumn.
    12. ... multistoreyed buildings have lately appeared in the suburbs of Moscow. 13. ... trains run from Moscow to
    St. Petersburg every day. 14. The mother and the daughter spent ... money at a ready-made clothes department.
    15. You can't buy ... expensive things with the money you have been given.
    XX. Fill in articles wherever necessary. Retell the stones:

    1. ... young lady entered ... crowded bus with ... pair of ... skates for ... figure skating over her arm. ...
    gentleman stood up to give her his seat. "Thank you very much, sir," ... lady said, "but I've been skating all ...
    afternoon and I'm tired of sitting down." 2. ... young man and his girl-friend once decided to see ... football
    match. It was very difficult to get ... tickets and they had to wait outside for ... long time. ... young people got
    there only thirty minutes after ... beginning of ... first half. "What's the score?" Peter asked ... fan sitting next to
    him. "Nothing to nothing." ... fan replied. "You see," said ... girl with ... smile, "we haven't missed anything."
    XXI. Make up dialogues:

    a) between Ben and June; b) June and Penny; c) Ben and Penny; d) Ben and June, looking out of the
    windows of a taxi; e) Ben and his neighbour after the visit to the theatre; f) two friends who have come to
    Moscow for their vacation; g) two friends going on a visit.
    XXII. Describe situations using the following words and word combinations:

    a) at the seaside: the beach, waves, to be fond of looking at the bright sky, to lie in the sun, to swim, to dive,
    to go boating, children, sea-gulls, to be glad to;
    b) on Sunday, to go on an excursion, it took ..., to go by bus, crowded, to get off, the wonderfully fresh
    country air, the tall pines and birch trees, to enjoy the beauty of the landscape, to look forward to;
    c) at the skating-rink: the frosty air, to go skating, to be fond of, figure skating, to enjoy music, a great many,
    to be tired after;
    d) at the evening party: to gather, to celebrate, gay, smiling, to sing, to recite poems, to dance, to enjoy
    oneself, to be pleased with.
    XXIII. Respond to the following sentences. Work in pairs:

    1. Excuse me, I haven't looked through this paper yet. 2. Oh, it's you! 3. Give me that pencil, please. 4. May I
    take your newspaper? 5. What about going to the country today? 6. How are you? 7. I'm afraid, I'm very short
    of time. 8. Well, if it isn't old Jack!
    XXIV. Think of stimulating phrases to which those below could be replies. Work in pairs:

    1. Here you are. 2. Oh, no, I didn't. 3. I am afraid not. 4. It's nonsense. 5. Really? 6. I think so. 7. Certainly.
    8. Oh, it's too bad. 9. Right you are. 10. Don't worry. 11. See you tomorrow, then.
    XXV. Retell Text 2 in indirect speech, as if you were Alice (Roger, Mr. Hilton, Mrs. Hilton).
    XXVI. a) Make up a dialogue using conversational phrasesr
    .
    ,

    .

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    .
    ,

    .
    .

    ,

    ,

    ,
    .
    .

    152

    b) Get ready with a situation for your fellow-student to give it in the form of a dialogue..
    XXVII. Translate the story into English. Retell it:
    .
    .
    ,-

    ,

    .

    -

    ,

    ,

    .

    .
    ,

    10

    .

    .

    ,

    -

    .

    .
    .
    .

    .

    .
    ,

    .

    .
    .

    ,
    ,

    ,

    .
    .

    ,

    .

    .
    ,

    .
    .

    .
    XXVIII. Arrange short dialogues according to the model. Use the following statements.

    M o d e l : A: I've never seen such a town.
    B: What did you say?
    A: I said I'd never seen such a town.
    1. She can't help admiring St. Petersburg. 2. They haven't got any refrigerator. 3. He won't be able to make a
    report tomorrow. 4. My friend isn't a coward. 5. Mary can shoot well. 6. My brother hasn't had dinner yet. 7.
    We'll clean the windows on Monday. 8. They've gone further along. 9. She's having a bathe. 10. The boy's
    teasing a dog. 11. They're about to dive off that raft.
    XXIX. Render the following in indirect speech:

    Once in Berlin, Remarque, the author of "All Quiet on the Western Front", was talking to an American girl.
    The American, speaking in German, asked Remarque why he had never visited the United States. His
    answer was: "I know only a few sentences in English."
    "What are the sentences?" inquired the girl.
    Remarque said: "How do you do? I love you. Forgive me. Forget me. Ham and eggs, please."
    "Why, with that vocabulary you could tour my country from Maine to California," the girl said.
    XXX. Find a picture on the topic "Rest" for your discussion in class. Write 8-10 questions which would help
    your fellow-students to describe the picture.
    XXXI. a) Translate into Russian. b) Find the key-phrases. Retell the text. Mind the speed limit:

    Let's Have a Picnic
    Picnics are popular with women and children and some men who know how to make a fire. Children are
    fond of picnics chiefly because, as a rule, there are no tables at picnics and consequently no table manners and
    because they have an excellent opportunity to eat things that do not agree with them. Since picnic lunches are
    always just about the same and therefore require little imagination, women do not have to trouble about
    thinking up a meal.
    Much depends, of course, upon the day. Typical picnic weather is of three kinds. Either it is dark and
    threatening with occasional showers in the morning, clearing in the afternoon or it is hot and clear in the
    morning, with thunder showers in the afternoon; or there is a steady drizzle all day long. But as most of the
    lunch is prepared ahead of time, nothing much can be done about it. After all, there is not much choice between
    153

    eating a picnic lunch that has waited a day or two and getting a soaking. Picnic grounds are usually situated on
    a body of water at some high altitude. One of these features is essential, for no picnic can be a success unless
    the children have something to fall into, or fall off. Also, a body of water naturally suggests taking fishing
    tackles along. No fish was ever known to have been caught on a picnic, but fishing serves as an excellent
    excuse for getting out of the way while the heavy work is being done.
    Quite the most important feature of the picnic is the lunch. Fried chicken is always popular ... Then there
    should be hard-boiled eggs. Almost everything else that comes in a can or a paper bag is good for a picnic
    lunch. These containers are very important as, after the contents have been eaten, they are strewn about and
    identify the picnic ground. Ginger ale, too, should be brought along to remind you that you left the bottleopener at home. However, there is always at least one person present who knows how to open a bottle on a
    rock.
    As soon as the food and other equipment have been unpacked it is in order to start a fire. Collecting wood
    provides occupation for people who do not know how to amuse themselves.
    After the lunch has been eaten a picnic is mostly anticlimax. But there is always the possibility of someone
    nearly getting drowned or running into a hornets' nest or twisting an ankle. However, you must remain until
    well into afternoon, or you may not appear to have had a good lime. To make matters worse, someone will
    suggest singing.
    Picnics, whatever may be said against them, have their advantages. At least they reawaken in the hearts of
    many the truth of the old saying that there is no place like home.
    (S. M. G. From "Humour Variety. Stories,
    Jokes, Cartoons", No. 2, London)
    XXXII. Read and translate the following story which is not finished, give a title and your own ending to it:

    The morning we left Liverpool the weather was very fine and we were going to have a very pleasant time.
    The captain told us it would be warm and calm all the way to New York. I still remember some of the
    passengers. There was an old lady who was going to visit her son in Boston. Then there was a man who was
    going to start a new life in Canada. They both went down with the ship. The first and second days were very
    nice. I thought I would soon have a fine suntan. Then, on the second evening the captain told us that the
    weather was going to be a bit worse than expected, but it wouldn't last long.
    It turned very nasty on the third day. None of us had any idea how bad it was going to get. By the time it was
    evening, it was really terrible.
    Everybody stayed in their cabins on the fourth day. The storm was impossible to describe by then. Suddenly
    I felt a jolt.
    (From "English in Situations" by R. O'Neill.
    London Oxford University Press)
    XXXIII. a) Watch Film Segment Five "The Picnic". b) Watch the film segment again to find the English
    equivalents to the following:

    ;
    (

    );

    ;

    (

    );

    ;

    ;

    .

    ) Answer your teacher's questions on the content of the film segment. d) Listen to the sound track recording of
    Segment Five. Make up the dialogue between Mrs. Brown and Margaret on the phone. Get ready to ask and
    answer questions on the content of Segment Five. Write a short account of what happened at the picnic.
    XXXIV. Write a short composition about your week-end.
    XXXV. Arrange a dialogue on the topic "Week-End". Use conversational phrases.

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape, b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    154

    II. Use the sentences in indirect speech. Mind the change in intonation.
    III. Paraphrase the sentences using a great deal and a good deal instead of a lot.
    IV. Paraphrase the sentences using a great number and a great many instead of a lot.
    V. a) Use the adjectives unhappy, bad, awful, nervous, frightened, ill, strange instead of the adjective happy. b)
    Use the nouns taxi, bus, tram, trolley-bus, pony instead of the noun bicycle.
    VI. a) Use the adjectives gay, pretty, clever, kind, dull instead of the adjective quick. b) Compose exclamatory
    sentences beginning with What ... Use the following word combinations: a strong wind, a high mountain, a bright
    student, a kind woman.
    VII. a) Translate the sentences into English using the vocabulary of the lesson. b) Check your translation with
    the key.
    VIII. Listen to the wrong statements. Correct them.
    IX. Listen to the dialogue "Planning a Holiday". Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following the model.
    Learn it by heart.

    Lesson Seventeen

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    The passive voice

    Grammar exercises
    I. Study Substitution Table No. 1 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Change the form of the verbs in the sentences from the active into the passive voice and add something to
    them to develop a situation:

    1. We turn on the light when it's dark. 2. The students finished their translation in time. 3. Helen washed the
    dishes. 4. Betty often took Benny to the park. 5. Mother has made some coffee. 6. Have you ironed your dress
    yet? 7. Nina mispronounced the word. 8. We pronounce the consonant with aspiration. 9. We form the Present
    Perfect Tense with the help of the auxiliary verb 'to have'. 10. They told her the truth. 11. She promised me a
    book. 12. She's cooked the cake very well. 13. One uses chalk for writing on the blackboard. 14. I'll finish my
    work at about seven. 15. Someone has opened the door. 16. The waitress brought in the coffee. 17. One of my
    friends took me to the pictures last week. 18. They'll meet me at the station. 19. We shall finish this work in
    time. 20. They built the house in 1980. 21. They didn't invite me to the birthday party because they didn't know
    I was in Moscow. 22. I didn't leave the windows open. 23. They didn't turn off the light. 24. I have invited some
    155

    friends to tea. 25. She's given me an English book. 26. Have you written the letter yet?
    III. Change the form of the verbs in the sentences from the passive into the active voice. Add something to them
    to develop a situation. Think of new subjects in the sentences:

    1. The light has not been switched off. 2. The boy was punished for something. 3. His work was finished by
    3 o'clock. 4. The dictation was written without mistakes. 5. Who is the article written by? 6. Her dress was
    washed and ironed. 7. I was not invited to the party. 8. The work wasn't finished in time. 9. This house was built
    last year. 10. The letter has just been sent off. 11. This article will be translated. 12. When will this book be
    read? 13. The room was cleaned and aired. 14. Have all these books been read? 15. Who are these letters
    written by? 16. The letter's just been typed. 17. She showed me the article which had been translated by her
    brother. 18. I shan't be allowed to go there. 19. He's been told everything. 20. All the questions must be
    answered. (By you).
    IV. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    . 2.
    . 3.
    . 5.

    ? 4.

    ,

    . 6.
    . 8.

    5
    ,

    . 7.

    ,
    ? -

    . 11.

    . 9.

    . 10.
    . 12.

    . 13.

    . 14.
    . 16.

    ,

    . 15.
    . 17.

    . 18.
    . 20.
    (

    )

    ,
    . 19.

    ,
    . 22.

    ,

    ,
    . 21.

    . 23.

    .

    TEXT 1
    A visit to Moscow
    Last summer Mr. Wilson, his wife and their daughter Mary - tourists from England -- arrived in Moscow. It
    was their first visit to Russia and they wanted to see as much as possible.
    Their guide showed them a lot of places of interest so that they could get a good idea of the Russian
    capital.
    The Wilsons liked Moscow's straight and broad streets and avenues. They admired the centre of the city
    with its theatres, cinemas, museums, monuments, and wonderful multi-storeyed buildings. They were greatly
    impressed by the Moscow Kremlin, Red Square, Lenin Avenue, which is one of the longest and busiest streets
    in Moscow.
    The Wilsons wanted to see Moscow University and the guide suggested their going there by metro. They
    liked the idea and joined a stream of people going downstairs into the metro. It seemed to them that nearly
    everyone in Moscow was in a hurry. Very few were satisfied to stand still and let the magical staircase carry
    them down to the platforms below. Most people went hurrying down on the left side. On and on ran the train
    through the tunnel and at every station people came in and out. The trip gave the Wilsons a good impression of
    Moscow's immense size.
    When they came up into the daylight, they saw the magnificent building of the University which is situated
    on the Vorobyev Hills and from there they enjoyed a most beautiful view of the whole city.
    They went for a ride in the city. The size and the beauty of the capital made a great impression on the family.
    The saw endless streams of buses, trolley-buses and cars in the streets, crowds of people walking along the
    pavements. They crossed the city in different directions but to their great surprise they saw the same thing
    everywhere: well planned streets lined with trees, multi-storeyed houses, big stores, hotels and beautiful
    squares. They saw no contrasts between the central part of the city and its suburbs so typical of big old towns.
    The Wilsons went sightseeing every day of their stay in Moscow. And before their tour came to an end they
    had seen and learned a lot of interesting things about the capital and the country. They liked Moscow and the
    156

    Muscovites who are so hospitable and friendly.
    TEXT 2
    Conversation
    S t r a n g e r : Excuse me.
    R e s i d e n t : Yes?
    S t r . : I... I was wondering if you could help me.
    R.: Well, I'll try.
    S t r . : I need to find out where the... er... town centre is. Now I see there is a sign up there that points to the
    left.
    R.: Ah, well, let me see, ... er... it all depends if you're on foot or going by car.
    S t r . : Ah, no, I'm walking.
    R.: Ah well, you turn to the left and then carry straight on.
    S t r . : Ah, right, thanks! Er... I wonder if you could tell me... um... if there's a good hotel... er... in town that
    I can use.
    R.: Oh, let me think a moment... um... yes, there are two hotels - they're in the High Street... er... one on each
    side of the road.
    S t r . : Right, well, I expect we'll manage to find one of those. Er, I wonder if you could tell me er...
    anything about the... er... castle in town... er... where... where it is.
    R.: Um, well, it's actually further on... er... down the High Street and then you cross over the bridge and it's
    on the other side of the river,
    S t r . : I see, I see. Could you tell me a bit more about it? Is it worth visiting you think?
    R.: I'm not really sure. I've never actually been there myself. I think it's one of the tourist attractions of the
    town.
    S t r . : I see, well, right, thank you, thank you.
    Vocabulary notes
    visit n
    ,
    , as a visit to a friend, a visit to the Crimea: visit vt
    ,
    , . g.
    They visited the Ivanovs on Sunday. Syn. attend vt
    (
    ,
    ), as to attend
    lectures, meetings, classes
    tourist n
    ,
    ; tour n
    ,
    ,
    ; to make a tour of (some
    place)
    ,
    , e. g. We made a tour of the new metro stations.
    arrive vi
    ,
    . Syn. come vi; to arrive in
    ,
    (
    ,
    ), . g. A large group of tourists from England arrived in Russia. We arrived in Moscow in the evening, to
    arrive at
    ,
    (
    ), . g. She arrived at Abramtsevo. We arrived
    at the station to meet our friend, arrival n
    ,
    , . g. I saw him on the day of his arrival.
    place of interest
    so that
    idea n
    ,
    , . g. That's a good idea, let's visit Kiev in winter, to get an idea of smth.
    , e. g. I'd like to get an idea of his character, to give an idea
    , . g. This book gives you a good idea of life in England.
    straight adj
    , as a straight line (street, road, etc.); straight adv
    , as to stand straight; go
    (carry) straight on
    broad adj
    ; Syn. wide, e. g. We need broad roads now that there are so many motor-cars. Ant.
    narrow
    avenue n
    impress vt
    , . g. The book didn't impress me at all. impression n
    ;
    to make an impression on smb.
    ., . g. His speech made a great
    impression on the audience.
    busy adj 1.
    ; to be busy (doing smth.)
    , . g. I was busy getting ready for the
    journey. 2.
    ,
    ,
    , . g. Tverskaya Street is one of the busiest streets in
    Moscow.
    157

    suggest vt
    ,
    ,
    . Syn. offer. The verb to suggest is never followed
    by an infinitive. The direct object following the verb to suggest may be expressed by a noun, a gerund or a
    clause.

    offer vt
    infinitive.

    . The direct object following the verb to offer may be exoressed by a noun or an

    satisfy vt
    ; Ant. dissatisfy, e. g. The teacher was satisfied with the student's answer,
    satisfactory adj
    ; Ant. unsatisfactory, e. g. She got a satisfactory mark at the exam.
    immense adj
    , as immense distance, height; immensely adv
    ,
    , . g. Our
    guests were surprised at the immense size of Moscow. Their trip was immensely interesting.
    magnificent adj
    ,
    ; Syn. splendid, excellent as a magnificent building
    (hotel, house)
    to be situated
    , . g. The village is situated on the bank of the river Volga.
    crowd n
    ; crowded adj
    ,
    ; overcrowded p. p., e. g. The bus was
    overcrowded.
    cross vt
    ,
    (
    ), crossing n
    , e. g. Cross busy streets at crossings,
    (subway n
    ). across prp
    ,
    , . g. There is a bridge across the river, to
    come across smth.
    , . g. I came across a very interesting phrase in the book, to cross
    out
    , e. g. Two of the words were crossed out.
    direction n
    ; in the direction of
    , e. g. I saw her walking in the direction of the
    Institute, direct adj
    , as a direct line, direct speech, direct object
    surprise vt
    ,
    , . g. I was surprised to see the cat playing with the dog. to be surprised at
    smth.
    , e. g. I was surprised at seeing her there, surprise n
    , . g. To my great surprise
    his plan succeeded, in surprise
    , e. g. The girl looked at us in surprise.
    sights n pi
    , as to see the sights of Moscow; Syn. places of interest, e. g. They
    were shown a lot of places of interest during their tour, sightseeing n
    ; to go
    sightseeing
    sign n
    , . g. a traffic sign
    manage vt
    ,
    (
    .), . g. I didn't manage to go to the library today, I had no time.
    castle n
    attraction n
    , . g. The picture gallery is one of the greatest attractions of our town,
    attract vt
    ,
    ; to attract one's attention
    Topical vocabulary
    get on/off (a bus); to put down at...; down/up the street; at the bottom of the street; take bus No. 7. change for
    bus No. 7; it's a five minutes' walk from here; take the first turning to the left/right; what/how much is the fare?;
    full up/packed; traffic regulations/lights; right/left hand traffic: heavy/light traffic; one way traffic; peak/rush
    hours; industrial area; shopping area/centre; outskirts; outstanding; tower
    Exercises
    I. Spell and transcribe the four forms of the following verbs:

    arrive, get, admire, impress, situate, enjoy, ride, cross, learn, show, teach, make, visit, plan, drive, build.
    II. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives:

    new, long, busy, dirty, beautiful, good, large, big, splendid, narrow, interesting, hospitable, straight,
    158

    impressive, broad, crooked.
    III. Write a) the plural and b) the singular of:

    a) avenue, bus, crowd, city, view;
    b) pictures, taxis, squares, theatres, minutes, guides.
    IV. Transcribe the following words and explain the reading rules applied in them:

    broad, crooked, crowded, guide, hotel, museum, narrow, street, stream, square, typical, worker, show,
    friendly, builder, view, straight, country, avenue, between.
    V. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on sounds. b) Let your fellow-student pronounce this exercise for you to detect his errors in the vowel [ :] and tell
    him what must be done to eliminate them:

    [ :] 1. Can't you ask Father or Aunt Margaret?
    2. He laughs best who laughs last.
    3. Half heart is no heart.
    4. The highest art is artlessness.
    VI. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following words and word combinations:

    A. 1. [ v] - a lot of places of interest, the centre of the city, typical of big towns, streams of buses, crowds of
    people.
    2. a) Alveolars before interdentals: admired the centre, its theatres, they crossed the city, suggested
    their going, on the left side.
    b) No devoicing before voiceless consonants: as possible, their guide showed, of people.
    B. 1. [ ] – wondering if you, anything about, going by car, is it worth visiting you think?
    2. Linking [r]: the town centre is, further on, a bit more about it, I wonder if, never actually.
    VII. 1. a) Listen to the recording of the text "A Visit to Moscow". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the
    text for test reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Listen to
    Text 2 carefully. Try to dramatize it following the conversational style of the speakers on the tape.
    VIII. Transcribe the following sentences, mark the stresses and tunes and picture them on the staves:

    1. I say, Mary! Does this bus go to Tverskaya Street? 2. Excuse me, can you tell me where the nearest metro
    station is about here? - Certainly. 3. Is there a bus from here to Red Square? - Yes, any bus'll take you.
    IX. Answer the following questions:

    1. When did the Wilsons arrive in Moscow? 2. Where did they come from? 3. They came to Moscow on a
    visit, didn't they? 4. What do people usually do when they come to a town for the first time? 5. What did they
    want to see in Moscow? They wanted to see as much as possible, didn't they? 6. Who took them sightseeing
    about the city? 7. What places of interest did the guide show them? 8. Did they do much sightseeing? 9. Did the
    Wilsons like the centre of out city? 10. What did they admire most of all? 11. Where is Moscow University
    situated? 12. What did the tourists see from the Vorobyev Hills? 13. Where else can one enjoy a most beautiful
    view of the whole city from? 14. Can you describe the centre of Moscow? 15. In which street do you live? 16.
    How long does it take you to get to the University from your place? 17. Does your friend live in the suburbs of
    Moscow? 18. Can you tell me the way from here to Petrovka Street? 19. How does your father usually get
    home from his office? 20. Is it easy to get a taxi during rush hours ? 21. If one of your friends came here for
    sightseeing what would you advise him to see if he had: one day; two days; a week or a fortnight?
    159

    X. Rewrite as in the models.

    M o d e l 1 : His answer surprised me.
    I was surprised at his answer.
    1. Her voice surprised us all. 2. The results of the exam surprised the teacher. 3. His behaviour surprised
    those who were present. 4. You surprise me. 5. Your written test surprises us. 6. The girl's speech surprised the
    students. 7. The youth's words surprised the old people.
    M o d e l 2 : The teacher was impressed by the student's answer.
    The student's answer made an impression on the teacher.
    1. The listeners were impressed by the speech. 2. The play impresses me each time I see it. 3. The tourist was
    impressed by the places of interest in St. Petersburg. 4. We were greatly impressed by Petrov's speech. 5. My
    companions were impressed by her singing.
    M o d e l 3 : He came to Moscow the other day.
    He arrived in Moscow the other day.
    1. He has come to St. Petersburg to take part in the work of the congress. 2. He came to the meeting in time.
    3. They came to the seaside at the week-end. 4. We came to London on the 16th of March. 5. We all came to
    the station to see our friends off to Minsk. 6 . We came to Pushkino at about 6 o'clock.
    XI. Fill in prepositions if necessary:

    A. 1. A lot ... tourists ... various countries arrive ... Russia. 2. The children enjoyed riding ... the metro and
    going ... escalators which led ... the platforms. 3. We were taken ... the town ... the guide. 4. Mary was most
    interested ... the museums. She was impressed ... the beautiful things she saw there. 5. ... Sunday we went ... the
    Recreation Park, we walked ... the alleys. The leaves ... the trees were turning red, brown and yellow. It was
    like being ... the country, and only the noise ... the streets ... the distance reminded us that we were still ... the
    city. 6. We greatly enjoyed a ride ... the city ... a taxi. 7. The buildings built.... the suburbs are as modern and
    beautiful as those ... the centre ... the town. 8. Most ... the places ... interest are as a rule situated ... the centre ...
    the town. 9. Tourists always admire the Moscow metro, the beauty ... its architecture different ... each station.
    10. There were crowds ... people ... the streets ... the first ... January. 11. ... which direction did he go? – He was
    walking ... the direction ... Red Square. 12. I planned to leave ... Sochi ... the 5th July. 13. These splendid multistoreyed houses are inhabited ... the workers ... the automobile plant. 14. ... all the theatres ... Moscow she
    prefers the Bolshoi (theatre). 15. We went ... sightseeing tours whenever we had time. 16. ... their great surprise
    the picture did not impress me ... all. 17. The dean's speech made a great impression ... the students. 18. They
    were sitting side ... side. 19. We were all greatly impressed ... his knowledge ... so many foreign languages. 20.
    I came ... these old photos when I was looking ... my passport. 21. Can you make room ... another boy ... that
    desk?
    B. A n n : Er, I say, Betty? Do you live ... the hostel ... our Institute?
    B e t t y : Oh, no. I'm a Muscovite and live ... Tverskaya Street. But why?
    A n n : Well. I wanted to call ... a friend ... mine who lives ... the hostel, but I'm not sure I can find the way
    there. Is it a long way ... the Institute?
    B e t t y : Rather. It'll take you 35 minutes or so.
    A n n : Do you happen to know how I can get there ... here?
    B e t t y : Oh, let me think for a moment. Take trolley-bus 14. It'll take you right there. I'm not absolutely
    sure, but I think there's a stop ... the metro station.
    A n n : I wonder if I can get there by metro.
    B e t t y : Why, yes of course. But if you go ... metro you'll have to change ... Revolution Square, that's why
    the best way for you to go is ... trolley-bus.
    A n n : And where do I get...?
    160

    B e t t y : You have to go as far as Yaroslavskaya Street stop, there you get ..., turn ... the corner, walk a
    short distance ... the street and ... less than 5 minutes you'll find yourself... the hostel.
    A n n : It's perfectly clear.
    B e t t y : It is quite easy to get there. But ... case you lose your way, you may ask a militiaman or any
    passer-by ... it. They'll show you the way, only don't forget the address: 18 Yaroslavskaya Street.
    A n n : Thank you very much, Betty. Good-bye.
    XII. Translate the following sentences into English using You'd better, I'd rather.
    1.

    ,
    ,

    . 2.

    . 4.

    .

    ,

    . 6.
    . 8.
    . 10.

    ,

    :

    ?. 11. ,

    . 12.

    . 3. ,
    ,
    . 7.
    ,
    .9.

    . 5.

    ,

    . 13.

    .

    XIII. a) Read the following sentences. Note the constructions in bold type. b) Compose 5 sentences on each of
    the constructions:

    A. 1. The tourists wanted to see as much as possible. 2. Be as careful as possible when you cross the street.
    3. If you don't work as hard as possible, you won't pass your exams. 4. Go to the language laboratory as often
    as possible. 5. Keep as quiet as possible.
    B. 1. I arranged to meet Nina so that we could go to the cinema together. 2. Let us go out earlier so that we
    can catch the train. 3. Draw it larger so that everybody can see it. 4. The little girl stood up so that the old
    woman could sit down. 5. You must speak louder so that I can hear you.
    C. 1. I am busy teaching you. 2. Mother is busy cooking dinner. 3. I was busy writing letters the whole
    morning. 4. He is busy translating the article. 5. She was busy making her dress.
    D. 1. Our new friend took us sightseeing about the town. 2. What about going sightseeing? 3. The tourists
    went sightseeing every day of their stay in the town. 4. On the next day of our arrival in Kiev we went
    sightseeing. 5. What do you say to going sightseeing?
    XIV. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    .
    ,

    . 2.

    . 3.

    -

    . 4.

    .

    .

    .

    . 5.
    . 6.

    . 7.

    ,

    . 8.

    . 9.

    . 10.
    . 12.

    . 11.
    . 13.

    ,

    . 14.

    ,

    . 15.

    ,
    . 17.

    ?(a change)

    31-

    . 20.
    . 22.
    ?-

    ,

    ,
    69. 24.

    .

    ,

    . 16.
    . 18.
    ? -?? 23.

    . 19.
    .

    ,

    . 21.
    ,

    ,
    .

    XV. a) Write all possible questions to which the following sentences are answers. b) Each sentence describes a
    certain situation in a concise way. Find out some more details about it by asking questions. Work in pairs.

    M o d e l : The street in which I live is broad and straight.
    161

    A: What's the street you live in like?
    B: It's broad and straight.
    A: Is it in a new district?
    B: Yes, in Medvedkovo.
    1. My brother lives in one of the new districts in Kiev. 2. Minsk has greatly changed since the war, you will
    hardly recognize it now. 3. There is a new cinema not far from the metro station. 4. In summer we shall visit a
    lot of towns in different parts of Russia and shall see very many places of interest. 5. The guide wanted us to
    have the best possible impression of the city. 6. A lot of new houses are being built in all the towns of Russia. 7.
    Last Sunday our best friend visited us. 8. My girl-friend has just arrived in Moscow from the Crimea.
    XVI. Rewrite these sentences changing the verbs in bold type from the Present Indefinite to the Past and Future
    Indefinite, Present and Past Continuous, Present and Past Perfect. Make other necessary changes, add the
    corresponding adverbs of time:

    1. The tourists are shown many places of interest in our town. 2. Moscow University on the Vorobyev Hills
    is greatly admired by everybody, 3. History and Art Museums are often visited by the students of our group.
    4. New metro stations are built in our town. 5. The poem is recited in our group.
    XVII. a) Change the following sentences into indirect speech using the verbs to suggest or to offer.

    1. "Let us study English together," said Olga. 2. "Why don't you buy the dictionary?" Mary said to me. 3.
    "Let's go to the park by metro," said John. 4. "Take another piece of cake, it's delicious," said our hostess. 5.
    "Let us rest for a while," said my friend. 6. "Will you have another cup of tea?" asked Mother. 7. "Let us visit
    Mary," said one of the students. 8. "Why not arrange some excursions during the winter holidays?" said the
    monitor of the group.
    b) Translate the following sentences into English using one of the following verbs: to offer - to suggest:
    1.

    . 2.

    ? 3.

    . 4.

    . 5.
    ,

    . 6.
    . 7.

    . 8.

    . 9.

    (put off)

    ,

    . 10.

    .
    XVIII. Replace the passive constructions by the corresponding active constructions. Supply the new subject
    yourselves where necessary:

    1. The Tretyakov Gallery is visited by thousands of people every year. 2. They were greatly impressed by
    the Moscow Kremlin. 3. We were pleasantly surprised at his answer at the examination. 4. We were told to wait
    outside. 5. We were shown the nearest way to the Bolshoi theatre by a passer-by. 6. The girl was promised a
    new dress. 7. I was asked to come at 5 o'clock. 8. The child was left at home. 9. We were taken on a ride about
    the city. 10. You are invited to dinner tomorrow.
    XIX. Translate the following into English:
    ,

    ,-

    .
    ,

    8

    .
    .

    100

    (exhibition halls),
    .

    ,

    ,

    .
    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,
    .

    ,

    ,
    1980
    .
    .

    ,

    ,
    ,

    .

    .
    162

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .
    XX. Fill in articles if necessary:

    1. In ... big cities ... streets are broad and straight, there are ... lot of squares and ... beautiful parks. 2. At ...
    each corner you can see .. militiaman regulating .. traffic. 3. Let us walk to ... nearest stop and take ... bus. 4. If
    we don't know where to go we ask ... militiaman to show us ... way. 5. When ... traffic light changed from
    yellow to green, we crossed ... street and entered ... underground station, paid our fares, went down ... escalator,
    got on ... train and rode as far as ... Yugozapadnaya station. 6. There we left ... metro and walked to ... Institute.
    7. Walk ... short distance down ... street till you come to ... multi-storeyed house, then take ... first turning to ...
    right, walk down ... block and you will see ... entrance. 8. We must get out here or we shall miss ... stop. 9. We
    went by metro as far as ... Sokolniki station and then changed for ... trolley-bus. 10. We made ... tour of ... new
    metro stations. 11. Never step off ... pavement into ... road without looking ... both ways to see if anything is
    coming.
    XXI. Develop these dialogues using the topical vocabulary and conversational phrases:

    1. Do you happen to know the way to the Tretjakov Gallery? -Well, let me see ... Go straight on and then
    take the second turning to (or on) the left (right).
    2. Er ... Excuse me, could you tell me if this is the right way to Petrovka Street? - Oh, no, you are quite
    wrong. You'd better go back and then ask again.
    3. Er... I wonder if you could tell me the nearest way to Tverskaya Street. - I'm terribly sorry. I really don't
    know. I'm a stranger here myself. You'd better ask the militiaman over there.
    4. Er... Could you help me, I'm not guite sure where the nearest metro station is? - - Well, let me see. It's
    round the corner.
    5. Excuse me, is there a bus from here to Red Square? - I'm terribly sorry, I've no idea, I'm afraid.
    6. Er... Will you please tell me how far the nearest metro station is? - If you walk, it'll take you about twenty
    minutes to get there. You'd better take a bus.
    XXII. Retell the following jokes using indirect speech:

    1. Little John, in a crowded bus, is sitting on his father's lap. An elderly lady enters the bus, and Johnny at
    once jumps down, politely takes off his hat, and says: "May I offer you my seat?"
    2. A traveller, on arriving at a railway station, asked a local man: "Well, my friend, as this is my first visit to
    your town, could you tell me how many hotels you have here?"
    L o c a l m a n : We have two.
    T r a v e l l e r : Now, which of the two would you recommend?
    L o c a l m a n : Well, frankly speaking, it's like this, sir: whichever one you go to, you'll be sorry you
    didn't go to the other.
    3. A woman hired a taxi. It began to race along, passing trams, cars, policemen, etc. The woman was
    frightened, and said to the taxi-driver:
    "Please, be careful. This is the first time I ever rode in a taxi."
    "It's all right," answered the taxi-driver. "It is the first time I ever rode in a taxi, too."
    4. When Conan Doyle arrived in Boston, he was at once recognized by the cabman whose cab he had
    engaged. When he was about to pay his fare, the cabman said:
    "If you please, sir, I should prefer a ticket to your lecture."
    163

    Conan Doyle laughed. "Tell me," he said, how you knew who I was and I'll give you tickets for your whole
    family."
    "Thank you, sir," was the answer. "On the side of your travelling-bag is your name - Conan Doyle."
    XXIII. a) Retell the text "A Visit to Moscow". b) Describe the Wilsons' visit to Moscow as if you were Mr.
    Wilson himself (his wife, his daughter Mary).
    XXIV. This exercise should be done in pairs. Use your own words to fill in the blanks in the following dialogue.
    Before you begin, study the whole dialogue carefully and decide what you are going to say:

    (A stranger is asking for directions in a town you know well.)
    A: Excuse me. Can you tell me the way to ..., please?
    B: Yes. At the moment you are standing in ... (at..., near ...).
    A: And I want to go to ...
    B: If you turned left..., you'd come to ...
    A: But I don't want to go to ...
    B: No, I know you don't. But if you went straight along this road, you'd come to ...
    A: But I don't want to go to ...
    B: No, you don't, do you? So if you turn right at ..., you'll come to ...
    A: Thank you.
    B: Not at all.
    XXV. a) Watch Film Segment Six "Sightseeing ... at Home" for general content. b) Watch the film segment
    again to find the English equivalents to the following:
    !;
    ;

    ;

    (

    ;
    );

    ;
    (

    ;
    );

    ;

    .

    ) Answer your teacher's questions on the content of the film segment. d) Listen to the sound track recording of
    Segment Six. Get ready to speak as the narrator of Mr. Brown's home movie on London.
    XXVI. Take a plan of Moscow, St.-Petersburg, your native town, etc. Prepare 8-10 questions to help your
    fellow-students discuss it in class.
    XXVII. a) Render the following in the form of a dialogue. b) Get ready with a situation for your fellow-students
    to give it in the form of a dialogue:
    ,

    ,

    .

    ,
    ,
    ,

    .

    .

    .

    ,
    .

    ,

    .
    XXVIII. Find English proverbs concerning travelling, provide them with Russian equivalents, ask your fellowstudents to illustrate them.
    XXIX. Ask your friend to give you as much information as possible about:

    his native town; a place in Britain he knows; one of the capitals of our republics.
    XXX. Get together with one or two other students and have a friendly talk. The situation is this:

    You are friends planning a trip to St.-Petersburg. There are a lot of things that need to be done. Each of you
    is full of imaginative ideas.
    XXXI. Speak on the following:
    164

    1. Your arrival in a big city. 2. Any city you think interesting. 3. A new district of Moscow. 4. Explaining to
    a stranger how to get to the Central Post Office from: Pushkin Square, Petrovka Street, the Vorobyev Hills.
    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    II. Spell and transcribe the given words and word combinations.
    III. Use the sentences with the verb in the passive voice.
    IV. a) Translate the sentences into English. b) Check your sentences with the key.
    V. a) Use the sentences in indirect speech. Make all the necessary changes. b) Check your sentences with the
    key.
    VI. Listen to the wrong statements. Correct them.
    VII. a) Listen to the poem "Evening" by Percy D. Shelley. Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the poem. c)
    Learn it by heart.

    Lesson Eighteen

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    The complex object

    Note 1. A continuous action is expressed by a present participle, e. g. I saw Pete coming towards me.
    Note 2. After the verb make in the Passive Voice the infinitive of the verb following it is used with the particle to, e.
    165

    g. 1 was made to get up early.

    Grammar exercises
    I. Study Substitution Table No. 1 and compose as many sentences as you can.
    II. Spell and transcribe the four forms of the following verbs:

    buy, make, become, show, try, put, wear, fit, cost, get, forget, write, run, go.
    III. a) Write one sentence instead of the given two using complex objects.

    M o d e l : I saw John every day. He often spoke with his comrades. I often saw John speak with his
    comrades (or John speaking).
    1. I watched the sun. It was rising. 2. I heard him. He was singing an English song. 3. We noticed a man. The
    man was cleaning his shoes. 4. He saw two girls. They were dancing on the stage. 5. She watched the children.
    They ran about and played in the garden. 6. I saw her every morning. She arranged her hair carefully. 7. Every
    night we saw our neighbour. He listened to the news. 8. John heard his daughter. She was talking loudly. 9. We
    saw Roger. He was crossing the square. 10. They heard their father. He played the piano every night.
    b) Give your own examples of complex object. c) Use the same sentences with complex objects in short
    situations.
    IV. a) Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    . 3.

    . 4.
    . 7.
    . 9.

    . 10.
    . 14.

    ,
    . 19.

    ,
    ,
    . 17.

    ,

    . 6.

    ,

    ,
    . 12.

    . 16.

    ,

    . 5.
    . 8.
    ,

    . 11.
    . 13.
    . 15 .

    ,
    . 20.

    ,

    . 18.
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,
    ,
    .

    b) Use the translated sentences in situations.
    V. Paraphrase the following sentences as in the model.

    M o d e l : Nelly spoke to the dean yesterday.
    It was Nelly who (that) spoke to the dean yesterday.
    Those boys have brought me the letter.
    It is those boys who (that) have brought me the letter.
    1. The guide showed them many places of interest. 2. Mrs. Hilton told the children to go to bed. 3. Lizzie
    does not want to eat her porridge. 4. Jim is eager to ride a pony. 5. Alice is cutting some sandwiches. 6. James
    says the frost is severe. 7. Alice and Roger swam further along. 8. The conductor told me where to get out. 9.
    The students began a lively talk with an English correspondent. 10. Robert and Nora noticed a nasty-looking
    cloud. 11. My friends helped me to catch up with the group.
    TEXT 1
    Carrie goes to a department store
    The extract is taken from "Sister Carrie" by Th. Dreiser, a well-known American writer (1871-1945). Carrie, a young
    provincial girl, comes to Chicago and is greatly attracted by the pleasures the big city offers. Shopping is one of them.
    Drouet,* her friend, is to meet her at the ready-made clothes department.
    166

    * Drouet [dru:'e ].

    Carrie reached Dearborn Street. Here was the great Fair store with its crowds of shoppers. She thought she
    would go in and see. She would look at the jackets.
    She paused at each article of clothing. How pretty she would look in this, how charming that would make
    her! Carrie stopped at the jewellery department. She saw the ear-rings, the bracelets, the pins, the chains.
    But the jackets were the greatest attraction. When she entered the store, she already had her heart fixed on a
    jacket with large mother-of-pearl buttons. The cut was all the fashion that fall*. She said to herself there was
    nothing she would like better.
    * fall: autumn in the American Variant of English.

    Here she saw Drouet who was coming up to her smiling.
    "Let's go and look at the jackets," he said as if he had read her thoughts.
    When Carrie got the jacket in her hand, it seemed so much nicer. The saleswoman helped her on with it. It
    fitted perfectly. It was just her size, not a bit loose. She looked guite smart.
    Carrie turned before the glass. She could not help feeling pleased as she looked at herself. It was so
    becoming.
    "That's the thing," said Drouet. "Now pay for it."
    "It's nine dollars," said Carrie, after she had asked the saleswoman how much it was. She took out one of
    the bills and gave it to the cashier.
    From there they went to a shoe department where Carrie tried on some shoes. Drouet stood by and when he
    saw how nice they looked, said: "Wear them."
    Then Drouet advised her to buy a purse made of leather, a pair of gloves and Stockings.
    Carrie thought that she would come the next day and buy herself a skirt to match the new jacket.
    (After "Sister Carrie" by Th. Dreiser)

    TEXT 2
    Shopping
    M o t h e r : Pete, we've run out of vegetables and we've hardly any bread in the house. You know, now
    it's your turn to go to the greengrocer's and to the baker's.
    P e t e : Oh, bother? Why do we have to go shopping so often?
    M o t h e r : The day before yesterday it was Nelly who did all the shopping. She went to the grocer's and
    to the butcher's.
    P e t e : Did she? But, Mother, girls are so fond of shopping. Let Nelly do it today as well.
    M o t h e r : Oh, you've been a lazy-bones ever since you were born! It's so difficult to make you go
    anywhere.
    P e t e : D'you want to make me a model boy, Mum?
    M o t h e r : I'd like to. Take that bag and don't grumble. Buy a cabbage, a pound of onions, half a pound of
    carrots and a loaf of bread. Here is the money and don't forget the change.
    P e t e : Did I ever forget it?
    M o t h e r . : I don't say you did. But you are so absent-minded.
    P e t e : (sighing): My teacher says the same.
    M o t h e r : I expect you to be back in half an hour.
    P e t e : All right. I'll do my best.
    Vocabulary notes
    department store n
    ready-made clothes/clothes department
    ; footwear, millinery, knitted goods,
    leather goods, textiles hosiery, haberdashery, cosmetics (departments)
    :
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,
    167

    pretty adj
    ; Syn. good-looking, beautiful; handsome (usually about men]
    cut n
    , . g. The saleswoman assured Eliza that the cut of the coat was fashionable, cut (cut, cut) vt
    ; proverb: Cut your coat according to your cloth.
    fashion n
    ; Syn. style, e. g. Take this coat. It's the latest fashion (style), in fashion
    , . g. Such
    shoes are in fashion now. out of fashion
    , . g. This cut is out of fashion now, fashionable adj e. g.
    Alice has gone shopping and is sure to buy a fashionable hat. old-fashioned adj, e. g. I don't like old-fashioned
    furniture.
    to help smb. on with smth.
    .; to help smb. off with smth.
    .
    become (became, become) vt/i
    ,
    , . g. I don't think it's very becoming. Compare the use of
    the verbs to become (in the meaning «
    »), to fit, to match, to go with, to suit, fit vt
    ,
    ,
    , . g. The dress fits her like a glove. match vt
    no
    ,
    , e. g. She is
    going to buy a hat to match her new coat, go with vi
    (
    ,
    ),
    , e. g.
    That cardigan does not go with a silk skirt, suit vt
    ,
    ,
    (is the most
    general term), e. g. The costume suits her. She looks smart in it.
    size n
    , . g. What size shoe(s) do you wear? What size glove(s) do you wear? What size clothes do
    you wear?
    loose adj
    ,
    ; to be loose on smb., e. g. The frock's a bit loose on me. Ant. tight: to be
    tight on smb., e. g. The coat is tight on him. The shoes are tight on me.
    How much is it? What is the price of...? What does it cost?
    ? The expressions are used
    only in the process of shopping. Compare the use of tenses in the following situation: "I bought a new hat
    yesterday." "Really? How much was it?" ("What was the price?")
    cashier n
    ; cash-desk n
    . Note other English words corresponding to the Russian word «
    »:
    box-office at the theatre; booking-office at a railway station
    to try on smth.
    .
    wear (wore, worn) vt 1.
    ,
    ..., . g.
    always wears a grey hat. Kitty was wearing, a
    lovely pink dress that night. Syn. to be dressed in smth.; to have smth. on, e. g. She was dressed in a light
    summer frock. She had a light summer frock on. 2. vi
    ,
    . .) . g. Does that
    material wear well?
    advise vt
    , e. g. The teacher strongly advised him to work more at the language laboratory,
    advice n
    ; Pay attention to the use of the noun advice which is uncountable, e. g. We got so much good
    advice from him. Compare it with the Russian word «
    » which is countable. The following English
    uncountable nouns also correspond to Russian countable nouns: knowledge, money, weather, hair, work,
    information, news.
    made of ...
    ..., as made of leather, wood, etc.
    to run out of smth.
    , . g. We've run out of sugar.
    .
    to have hardly any, e. g. We've hardly any bread in the house.
    .
    turn n .
    ; in turn
    , . g. Speak in turn, please. I can't understand you when you are
    talking together. Note the translation of the Russian combination «
    » - to stand in
    a queue (line) for something.
    the greengrocer's
    the baker's
    , e. g. I met her at the baker's yesterday, the grocer's
    «
    »; the
    butcher's
    . Note also the names of some other shops: provision shop
    ;
    fishmonger's
    ; fruit-shop
    ; confectionery
    ; dairy
    ; supermarket
    ; shopping centre
    Oh, bother!
    !
    It was ... who (that), e. g. It was Nelly who did all the shopping.
    . The
    word combination it is (was)... who (that) is used to emphasize the subject.
    to do shopping, to go shopping
    , . g. Boys don't like to do shopping. Mary likes to go
    shopping in the morning, when there are fewer people.
    as well adv
    ; Syn. too, also, e. g. Everybody was eager to go sightseeing. Ann wanted to see the town
    as well.
    model adj
    , . g. Tom Sawyer hated the model boy because he was so good, model n
    ,
    , . g. Sentences must be formed according to this model.
    sigh vi
    ; sigh n
    expect vt
    ,
    ,
    ,
    ; . g. I expect a letter any day now. Everybody expects
    168

    he will come tomorrow, Syn. to wait
    . Whom are you Waiting for? I am waiting for a friend of mine.
    Note that wait refers to physical activities (e. g. to sit and wait) while expect denotes supposition, looking
    forward to smth.
    Topical vocabulary
    Kinds of clothes: coat, shirt, blouse, cardigan, sweater, skirt, suit, trousers, shorts, a pull-over, dressinggown, jersey, jeans, corduroy trousers (corduroys).
    Articles of clothing: socks, stockings, scarf, muffler, kerchief, gloves, mittens, tie, handkerchief, tights,
    pyjamas, nightgown, underwear (undies).
    Parts of clothes: collar, sleeve, belt.
    Footwear: slippers, sandals, sport shoes, walking shoes, court shoes, rubber boots, training shoes (trainers).
    Textiles: silk, cotton (print), velvet, woollen cloth.
    Jewellery: ring, bracelet, ear-rings, chain, brooch, necklace.
    Cereals: buckwheat, rice.
    Meat: beef, pork, mutton, chicken, goose, duck, tinned meat.
    Fish: herring, sprats, smoked fish, tinned fish.
    Dairy products: cream, sour cream, cottage cheese.
    Confectionery: biscuits, cakes, chocolate, pastry.
    Vegetables: onions, turnips, melon, water-melon, cauliflower, lettuce, radish, parsley, celery.
    Exercises
    I. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on sounds. b) Let your fellow-student read this exercise aloud for you to detect his errors in sounds and tell him
    what must be done to eliminate them:

    [r] 1. A foreign accent is a very great drawback.
    2. The three will probably drive across the Brooklyn Bridge.
    3. We gathered ripe red raspberries along the river road.
    4. When at Rome do as the Romans do.
    5. Neither rhyme nor reason.
    6. Every cook praises his own broth.
    [

    ] 1. What have you found out about it?
    2. Out of sight out of mind.

    - a ] 3. Snow came in the night
    Without a sound,
    Like a white cloud trembling
    Down to the ground.
    II. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following word combinations:

    A. 1. [ ] becoming; smiling; clothing; feeling pleased; earrings; shopping is one of them; coming up.
    2. Loss of plosion: reached Dearborn Street, looked quite smart, turned before the glass, stood by.
    3. Linking [r]: mother -of-pearl, helped her on with it, a pair of gloves.
    B. 1. [

    - ] - oh, bother, go shopping, so often, fond of shopping, go to the grocer's.
    : - ] - your turn, were born.
    2. a) No voicing before voiced consonants and vowels: half a pound, take that bag.
    b) No, glottal stop: so often, hardly any, did I ever, so absent-minded.

    III. 1. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Carrie Goes to a Department Store". Mark the stresses and tunes.
    b) Practise the text for test reading. Listen to the text very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    169

    2. a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue "Shopping". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the dialogue
    for test reading. Listen to the text very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize the
    dialogue and dramatize it.
    IV. Transcribe the following sentences, mark the stresses and tunes and picture them on the staves:

    1. "What size gloves do you wear?" she asked. 2. I don't think it's becoming. 3. "Will you please show me
    that pale-green one?" she said. 4. That can't be called very cheap.
    V. Make up questions covering the contents or Text 1.
    VI. Write 10 questions on Text 2.
    VII. a) Study the Vocabulary Notes. Write 5 sentences on each of the Substitution Tables on pages 267, 268
    using the new words. b) Use them in short situations.
    VIII. a) Write the interrogative and negative forms of the following sentences:

    1. John saw his brother go to the fruit-shop. 2. Everybody expected you to give this information. 3. They
    want him to take his parents' advice. 4. We saw Peter buy rolls at the baker's. 5. I have made Michael tell the
    news. 6. Helen wants me to wear this cardigan. 7. I want you to clean your shoes.
    b) Express your surprise. Use conversational phrases.
    IX. Each sentence describes a certain situation in a concise way. Some points of the situation are already known
    to you. Find out some more details about the situation by asking questions. Work in pairs:

    1. My wife has spent a lot of money on fashionable furniture. 2. Ann wore a black velvet dress that night. 3.
    Jack wants Pete to give him a piece of good advice. 4. Alice's bag is made of silk. 5. Mrs. Brown will go
    shopping in the morning.
    X. Fill in prepositions or adverbs wherever necessary:

    A. 1. What size ... gloves does your daughter wear? 2. Is your blouse made ... silk or ... nylon? 3. This frock
    suits ... her and she looks so well today. 4. Go ... the fitting-room and try ... the green frock. 5. Go ... the mirror
    and have a look ... yourself. 6. I'm afraid the shirt is a bit loose ... you. 7. You must choose another belt. This
    one does not go ... your light dress. 8. I'm sure they will soon make ... their quarrel. 9. The woman was made to
    believe that such shoes were not ... fashion ... that time.
    B. 1. We've run ...... meat. Let's go and buy some ... the butcher's. 2. Please weigh half ... a pound ... sweets.
    3. Will you give me a quarter ... a pound ... sausage? 4. Whom are you waiting ...? -- I'm waiting ... my friends.
    They are ... the greengrocer's. 5. She paid ... a cabbage and went ... . 6. The salesmen will finish their work ...
    half ... an hour. 7. There is no cottage cheese ... the dairy today. 8. I'm not going to stand ... a queue ... a tin ...
    sprats.
    XI. Change the following direct questions into indirect and answer them. Begin the sentences with the words I
    wonder ... or Tell me ... or I'd like to know.

    1. At what shop did you buy this hat? 2. What colour scarf would you like to buy to match your new coat? 3.
    Are those gloves old or new? 4. How old is your father? 5. Does Ann do shopping every day? 6. When will you
    go to the State Department Store? 7. Were any new films on last week? 8. How much is this material? 9. Has
    anything gone wrong with the iron? 10. Why didn't you come to the dining-hall yesterday? 11. Is it snowing
    hard? 12. Has John given you good advice? 13. Why is it so stuffy in the room? 14. When did they get
    everything arranged? 15. Have you managed to knit a pull-over for your father? 16. When are you going to the
    dairy? 17. When was he made to write that letter?
    170

    XII. Choose the right verb:

    (to expect - to wait)
    1. Don't ... for him. He is going to return very late. 2. Nobody ... such an answer from him. 3. ... a minute.
    Your brother is sure to come soon. 4. Do you ... her to be late? 5. Nobody ... him to repair that broken radio-set.
    6. Let's ... for some other students. They are sure to help us to put the tape-recorder right. 7. Everybody ... him
    to hurry out, but he remained proudly in his seat. 8. Nobody ... the weather to become so nasty. 9. The children
    ... impatiently for the beginning of the performance. 10. They ... the river to freeze over in a few days. 11. We
    ... the box-office to be opened on Sunday.
    XIII. Make up your own sentences with the phrases: How much is it? What is the price? What does it cost? and
    use them in micro-dialogues.
    XIV. Translate the following sentences into English:
    A. 1.

    (

    ,

    )

    .

    ? 2.

    .

    .

    .

    ? 3.

    . 4.

    .

    .

    . 5.

    .

    .

    . 6.
    .

    .

    .
    .

    . 7.

    .

    . 8.
    .

    .

    .
    . 10.

    ,
    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,
    . 4.

    .
    .

    . 5.
    . 6.
    .

    . 9.
    ,

    .

    B. 1.
    ,

    .
    .

    ,

    ). 3.
    .

    .
    .

    ?-

    .
    .

    ,

    XV. Retell Text I on the part of (a) Carrie; (b) Drouet.
    XVI. Think of sentences using the word combinations in bold type. Add a sentence or two to develop a situation
    as in the model.

    M o d e l : I don't know much about this material. So I'm not buying the dress, I'm afraid.
    1. Will you please show me that blue dress? 2. I don't know much about this fruit-shop. 3. We've run out
    of sugar. 4. She looks so smart today. 5. It was Nelly who did all the shopping. 6. Let Nelly go to the
    fishmonger's. 7. He went both to the greengrocer's and to the baker's. 8. This cut is out of fashion now. 9. It's
    your turn to go shopping. 10. It is those boys who are fond of figure skating.
    XVII. Retell the story using indirect speech. Write logical questions to the text. Give a title to it:

    Once a little boy entered a shop and said to the shopman: "How much will I have to pay for ten pounds of
    sugar, two pounds of coffee and three pounds of butter?" The shopman took a piece of paper and a pencil, wrote
    something down and said: "Four dollars and sixty cents."
    Then the boy said: "How much change will you give me if I give you five dollars?"
    "I shall give you forty cents," answered the shopman.
    "Thank you," said the boy, "I don't want to buy anything. It is my homework for tomorrow, and I cannot do
    it myself."
    XVIII. Fill in articles wherever necessary. Retell the text:
    171

    ... train stopped at ... small station. ... passenger looked out of ... window and saw ... woman who was selling
    ... cakes. ... man wanted to buy ... cake. ... woman was standing rather far from ... carriage. ... man called ... boy,
    who was walking on ... platform near ... carriage and asked him:
    "How much does ... cake cost?"
    "Three pence, sir," answered ... boy. ... man gave him ... sixpence and said to him: "Bring me ... cake, and
    with ... other three pence buy one for yourself."
    Some minutes later ... boy returned. He was eating ... cake. He gave ... man threepence change and said:
    "There was only one cake, sir."
    XIX. Translate the following sentences into English:
    A. 1.

    ,
    ,

    ?
    .

    B. 1.
    .-

    . 2.
    . 3.

    . 4.
    ? -

    . 7.
    Store). 8.
    . 9.

    ,
    .
    ,

    ,

    . 5.

    . 6.
    .

    ,

    .

    (the Moscow Central
    (touch)
    .

    ,

    . 10.
    (suede).
    .

    ,

    .-

    ..
    . 5.

    ,
    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 4.
    .

    ,

    . 6.

    . -

    ,

    . 7.

    .
    .
    ? - 820

    !

    . 2.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,
    61/2. -

    ,

    . 3.

    .

    .
    .-

    ? - 80
    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    .
    .
    ?

    ,

    ,
    .-

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .
    .
    (a tin of sprats),

    ,

    ,

    .
    . 8.
    . 9.

    (bun). 10.
    . 11.

    . 12.

    ,

    ,

    .

    XX. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Protecting His Property" for the general content. The following
    words will help you to understand the text:

    to protect; property; closet; pack; tablet; to slip; to faint; poison; stare, half-conscious; thief; to steal; murder;
    the law.
    b) Retell the text according to the following plan:

    1. John Webb and his wife are going to leave their summer cottage.
    2. John discovers that somebody has drunk his wine.
    3. John decides to put some poison into the wine.
    4. John falls down.
    5. His servant gives him the poisoned wine.
    XXI. Describe the pictures on page 281 using the following words and word combinations:

    broad brim; parasol; sandal shoes; bathing-suit; raincoat; rubber boots.
    XXII. Find a picture on the topic "Shopping" for your discussion in class. Prepare 8-10 questions which would
    help your fellow-students to describe the picture.
    XXIII. Use the following story as material for rapid reading. Retell it and give a title to it:
    172

    The other day my friend George came to see me and brought a small book with him. It was a guide to
    English conversation for the use of foreign travellers. George said: "My idea is to go to London early on
    Wednesday morning and spend an hour or two going about and shopping with the help of this book. I want one
    or two little things - a hat and a pair of bedroom slippers."
    On Wednesday we arrived at Waterloo station and went to a small boot shop. Boxes of boots filled the
    shelves. Black and brown boots hung about its doors and windows. The man, when we entered, was opening
    with a hammer a new case full of boots.

    George raised his hat, and said "Good morning."
    The man did not even turn round. He said something which was perhaps "Good morning" and went on with
    his work.
    George said: "I have been recommended to your shop by my friend, Mr. X."
    The answer to this in the book was "Mr. X. is a worthy gentleman; it will give me the greatest pleasure to
    serve a friend of his."
    What the man said was: "Don't know him; never heard of him."
    This was not the answer we expected. The book gave three or four methods of buying boots; George had
    selected the most polite of them centred round "Mr. X." You talked with the shopkeeper about this "Mr. X." and
    173

    then you began to speak about your desire to buy boots, "cheap and good." But it was necessary to come to
    business with brutal directness. George left "Mr. X," and turning back to a previous page, took another
    sentence. It was not a good selection; it was useless to make such a speech to any bootmaker, and especially in
    a boot-shop full of boots.
    George said: "One has told me that you have here boots for sale."
    For the first time the man put down his hammer, and looked at us. He spoke slowly. He said: "What do you
    think I keep boots for - to smell them?"
    He was one of those men that begin guietly and get more angry as they go on.
    "What do you think I am," he continued, "a boot collector? What do you think I'm keeping this shop for - my
    health? Do you think I love the boots, and can't part with a pair? Do you think I hang them about here to look at
    them? Where do you think you are - in an international exhibition of boots? What do you think these boots are a historical collection? Did you ever hear of a man keeping a boot shop and not selling boots? Do you think I
    decorate the shop with them? What do you think I am - a prize idiot?"
    I have always said that these conversation books are practically useless. We could not find the right answer
    in the book from beginning to end. I must say that George chose the best sentence that was there and used it. He
    said: "I shall come again, when, perhaps, you have more boots to show me. Till then, good-bye."
    With that we went out. George wanted to stop at another boot shop and try the experiment once more; he
    said he really wanted a pair of bedroom slippers. But we advised him to buy them another time.
    (After Jerome K. Jerome)
    XXIV. a) Watch Film Segment Seven "Souvenirs from Scotland". b) Watch the film segment again to find the
    English equivalents to the following:
    (
    ;
    ,

    ?);
    ;

    ;
    ;

    ;

    ;
    ;
    ;

    ;

    (

    ;
    );

    -

    ;

    !;

    .

    ) Answer your teacher's questions on the content of the film segment. d) Listen to the sound track recording of
    Segment Seven. Get ready to reproduce the dialogue between Bob and Fred.
    XXV. a) Make up a dialogue on the following situation:

    You ask your friend whether she has bought that nice hat or she has had it made to order. You'd like to buy
    one, but you are not a Muscovite and you don't know the city well enough. You wonder which department store
    in Moscow is the best and how you can get there.
    b) Suggest a situation for your fellow-student to give it in the form of a dialogue.
    XXVI. Write and then reproduce your dialogue on one of the following topics. Use complex objects in them:

    1. At the Moscow Central Store. 2. Going to the market. 3. At the grocer's. 4. At the baker's. 5. At the
    greengrocer's. 6. Choosing a present for a friend. 7. At a ready-made clothes department. 8. Buying shoes.
    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences after the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    II. Replace the proper names in the sentences by corresponding personal pronouns.
    III. Combine each of the pairs of sentences as in the model (use complex object).
    IV. Replace the noun in the sentence by the given noun.
    V. Answer the given questions.
    VI. Change every sentence as in the model.
    174

    M o d e l : Try this frock on. Try on this frock. Try it on.
    VII. Replace the group of the subject as in the models.
    VIII. Replace the word loose in the given sentences by its antonym tight.
    IX. Translate the sentences into English using the given words and word combinations of the text.
    X. Listen to the wrong statements. Correct them.
    XI. a) Listen to the text "Shopping". Write it down, mark the stresses and tunes. Read it following the model, b)
    Learn the text by heart.

    Lesson Nineteen

    Study the following
    Some verbs and word combinations followed by a gerund

    Note. The preposition without may be followed by a gerundial construction: e. g. He left the room without saying a
    word. One can't learn without making mistakes.

    Grammar exercises
    I. Complete the following sentences using a gerund:

    I. Go on... . 2. He stopped ... . 3. He couldn't help ... . 4. We all enjoyed ... . 5. Have you finished ...? 6. I
    don't mind ... . 7. Her cousin is fond of ... . 8. The child is rather good at ... . 9. She goes in for ... . 10. The poem
    is worth ... 11. The boy doesn't read a sentence without ... . 12. You won't go there without ....
    II. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    (
    ;

    ;

    ;

    ;
    ;

    ;

    ;

    ;
    (

    ). 3.
    ). 4.

    ). 2.
    ;

    ,
    )? 5.

    (
    (

    (
    ;
    ;

    ;
    ). 9.
    ). 10.

    ;

    (

    ;

    ;
    ;

    ;

    ;

    ). 6.
    ). 7.
    (

    ). 8.
    ,

    (
    (

    ;
    ,

    ).
    175

    TEXT 1
    Jean's first visit to the theatre
    When I invited Jean to the theatre I was afraid she would refuse my invitation, but she had accepted it. I still
    doubted whether she would come: her religion did not allow to go to a theatre, play cards or love a man of
    other religious views. However, when I met her at the entrance to the theatre I saw she had thrown off her
    religious scruples. She looked eager and her dark eyes sparkled with excitement. Our seats were in the pit.
    They were not expensive, but we could see the stage quite well. I gave her the programme and my opera
    glasses.
    Presently the lights went down; then the curtain rose upon a scene of eighteenth-century Paris at the time of
    the French Revolution. It was a melodrama full of hopeless love and heroic self-sacrifice, a play after Dickens's
    novel "A Tale of Two Cities". When Martin Harvey, a famous actor, who played the leading part of Sydney
    Carton appeared on the stage, Jean's eyes were full of interest and delight. She was greatly impressed by pale,
    dark Carton and delicate, charming Lucie Manette, the girl he loved.
    During the interval Jean said: "Oh, Mr. Shannon, how splendid it is! So different from what I expected! I
    can't tell you what a treat it is for me! I feel so sorry for poor Sydney Carton! He is so much in love with Lucy
    and she ... It must be a frightful thing to be in love and not to be loved!"
    "Quite," I agreed gravely. "At least they are good friends, and friendship is a wonderful thing."
    She consulted her programme to conceal her flush. "The girl who does Lucie is very sweet, she has such
    lovely, blonde hair and is so young!" "Well, in real life she is Martin Harvey's wife, must be about forty-five,
    and that blonde hair is a wig."
    "Please, don't, Mr. Shannon! How can you joke about such things?" she cried in a shocked voice...
    As the last scene was under way Jean's hand, small and hot, touched mine. We sat hand in hand as though to
    support each other while watching Carton with a pale face and carefully arranged hair mount the guillotine
    and meet his death. Jean couldn't keep her tears and they fell upon the back of my hand like raindrops in
    spring.
    When at last the play came to its end there was a storm of applause and many curtain calls for Miss de
    Silva and Martin Harvey. Miss Jean Law, however, was too overcome to join in such a banal applause, her
    feelings were too deep for words. Only when we were in the street she whispered with shining eyes. "Oh,
    Robert, you can't believe me how much I've enjoyed myself!" It was the first time she had used my Christian
    name.
    (After "Shannon's Way" by A. Cronin)

    TEXT 2
    A telephone conversation
    (Nick dials the number. Helen answers the call.)
    H e l e n : Hullo!
    N i c k : Thank God, is that you, Helen?
    H e l e n : Sure, that's me, Nick, darling. You sound a bit annoyed. Is anything the matter?
    N i c k : Well, I've been trying to get connected with you for nearly ten minutes and...
    H e l e n : But what's wrong? The line wasn't engaged, I hope?
    N i c k : Yes, it was. Besides, I got the wrong number several times...
    H e l e n : Oh, Nick, I'm so sorry!
    N i c k : That's all right now. I say, Helen, have you got anything special on tonight?
    H e l e n : No, not really. Why?
    N i c k : I suggest our going to the theatre.
    H e l e n : I'd love to. What are we going to see?
    N i c k : I've got two tickets for "Lady Windermere's Fan" by Oscar Wilde. It's the first night.
    H e l e n : Oh, it's at the Maly Theatre, isn't it?
    N i c k : I have heard the play is worth seeing. It is staged very well. The scenery is simple, but good and
    176

    the acting is splendid.
    H e l e n : And what about the seats? I hope they are not in the balcony or in the gallery?
    N i c k : Oh, dear, no. They are in the dress-circle, box 5.
    H e l e n : Let's hope we'll enjoy ourselves. Will you call for me or shall we meet at the theatre?
    N i c k : I'd rather call for you. I don't like waiting and you take such a long time to get ready.
    H e l e n : So I do. But I love to look smart when I go to the theatre.
    N i c k : All right, then. I'll call for you at 5.30, so we'll have plenty of time to get to the theatre before the
    performance starts.
    H e l e n : That suits me perfectly. I'll be waiting for you. And, oh, Nick! Thank you ever so much for your
    invitation.
    N i c k : That's all right, dear. See you tonight.
    H e l e n : Bye-bye!
    Vocabulary notes
    refuse vt
    ); Ant. accept, e. g. Irene refused Soames several times before she accepted him,
    refusal n
    accept vt
    ; to accept a present (invitation, offer, help, plan) but to receive guests (visitors)
    doubt vt/i
    , . g. We doubted whether he would follow your advice, doubt n; no doubt, e. g.
    There is no doubt he tells the truth.
    excite n
    ,
    , e. g. The performance excited Jean so greatly that she could hardly speak,
    excited p. p.
    ; to be (look, feel) excited; excitement n
    seat n
    ; in the stalls
    ; in the orchestra stalls
    ; in the pit
    stalls
    ; in the pit
    ; in the dress-circle
    ; in the upper circle
    ; Syn. in the balcony
    ; in a box
    ; in the gallery
    stage n
    ; . g. When the singer came onto the stage there was a storm of applause, stage vt, e. g. This
    play was staged by K. S. Stanislavsky.
    program(me) n; to be on the programme
    , . g. My favourite songs were on the programme.
    the lights went down
    rise (rose, risen) vi 1.
    ,
    , . g. He slowly rose to his feet. 2.
    (
    ), . g.
    When the sun rose we started off. Note: raise vt
    : to raise one's head (hat, voice, etc.), e. g. At seeing
    Fleur he raised his hat. Syn. put up, e. g. If you want to ask a question put up your hand.
    scene n
    ,
    ), . g. I like the final (last) scene in that ballet, scenery n (used only in the
    singular)
    , . g. The scenery was beautiful. The scene is laid in Paris.
    act n
    ,
    , . g. I like the second act of "Swan Lake" most of all. actor, actress n
    ,
    ,
    as a great (famous, popular, talented, favourite) actor; act vi
    , . g. He had to act at once. There was
    no time to lose, active adj
    , as an active person (support, part, etc.). Our students take an active part
    in school life. Ant. passive
    to play the part of
    leading adj
    ,
    ; leading article
    ,
    delight n
    charming adj
    , . g. The doctor was a charming young woman, charm vt, n, . g. We were
    all charmed by her manners. His short stories have a charm of style that cannot be found in other writers.
    to be in love with smb.
    ., . g. Fleur was in love with Jon. to fall in love with
    smb. (at first sight)
    .(
    )
    touch vt
    ;
    ;
    , . g.
    r story touched the listeners, touch n
    ;
    touching adj
    , . g. We were excited by this touching scene.
    support vt
    , . g. Michael helped his father to support their family, support n
    , .
    g. I need your friendly support.
    carefully adv
    ,
    ;
    , . g.
    took the baby carefully in his arms, care n
    ,
    , . g. The car needs constant care, to take care of
    ,
    , . g.
    took care of
    the flowers in the garden. Syn. look after, care (for smb.)
    ,
    , . g. I don't care much for
    fish. I don't care!
    , careful adj. 1.
    , . g. I'll be careful with your books, be careful
    not to
    , ..., . g. Be careful not to lose the tickets. 2.
    , as careful work (preparation,
    examination); careless adj 1.
    , as careless person (work, attitude); 2.
    , as careless little
    177

    singing birds
    death n
    ; Ant. life, e. g. After his parents' death little Shannon was brought up by his grandparents,
    die vi, e. g. Her father died when the girl was twelve, dead adj, e. g. When the doctor came the old man was
    already dead.
    applause n
    ; a storm of applause
    , e, g. There was a storm of applause
    when the curtain rose. The scenery was wonderful indeed, applaud vi, e. g. As soon as we saw the famous
    actor we began to applaud to him.
    curtain call
    ticket n
    , as ticket to the theatre (cinema), a ticket for a play (performance, etc.)
    the first night
    the play is worth seeing
    to call for smb.
    ., . g. I'll call for you and we shall go there together, to call on smb.
    ., . g Last night I called on Ann. She's ill as you know.
    That suits me perfectly.
    .
    Topical vocabulary
    opera, drama, comedy, circus, variety show, concert, concert hall, conservatoire, symphony music,
    composer, conductor, cloak-room, refreshment-room, attendant, rehearsal (dress rehearsal), matinee, operaglasses
    Exercises
    I. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on the sounds. b) Let your fellow-student read the exercise aloud for you to detect his errors in sounds and tell him
    what must be done to eliminate them:

    [ ] 1. Six little kittens lost their mittens.
    It's a pity, they were so pretty.
    2. Little Bill, sit still.
    Will you sit still, little Bill?
    If you sit still, little Bill,
    Jimmy Nill will bring you to a big hill.
    [ ] 1. Most French children like cheese.
    2. Why did the teacher ask such a question?
    3. Don't touch those peaches in the kitchen.
    II. Before you start working at the text, practise the following word combinations:

    A. 1. a) [h] - her hand, hand in hand, allow her, I met her, I gave her, her feelings.
    b) Loss of aspiration: the pit stalls, the stage, could speak, in spring, a storm, in the street, expensive.
    2. Alveolars replaced by dentals: at the entrance, in the pit, played the part, in the street.
    B. 1. [ - ð] - anything special, it's the first night, it's worth seeing, get to the theatre.
    2. Loss of plosion: got two tickets, but good, get to the.
    III. Transcribe and intone the following extract:

    "Oh, Mr. Shannon, how splendid it is! So different from what I expected! I can't tell you what a treat it is for
    me!" said Jean.
    IV. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Jean's First Visit to the Theatre". Mark the stresses and tunes. b)
    Practise the text for test reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    V. a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the dialogue for test
    reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize the
    178

    dialogue and dramatize it.
    VI. Find in the text sentences that might be the answers to the questions given below:

    1. What did Jean look like when Robert met her at the theatre? 2. Where were their seats? 3. Upon what
    scene did the curtain rise? 4. What kind of play was it? 5. Who(m) was Jean greatly impressed by? 6. What did
    Robert say about the leading actress? 7. What showed that Jean was deeply touched by what was going on on
    the stage? 8. Why didn't Jean join in applause? 9. What showed that the performance was a success? 10. Jean
    had always used Shannon's Christian name, hadn't she?
    VII. Answer the following questions. Use conversational phrases. Work in pairs and enlarge the dialogue.

    M o d e l : - Could you possibly tell me why Robert invited Jean to the theatre?
    - I 'm not sure but I believe he wanted to give her a treat.
    - Then why on earth did he take her to a melodrama and not to a comedy or something?
    - To my mind he was afraid she would refuse to come if she knew it was a comedy. Don't you
    remember her religious scruples?, etc.
    1. I wonder what made Robert doubt if Jean would come to the theatre? 2. Do you happen to know anything
    about Jean's religion? 3. Could you tell me what made Jean throw off her scruples? 4. Do you happen to know
    anything about Charles Dickens? 5. I'd like to know why Jean was so impressed by the play and the actors? 6.
    My question may be personal but is it really so frightful to love and not be loved in return? 7. Why did Robert
    say gravely that friendship was a wonderful thing? 8. Could you tell me why Robert was ironical when he
    spoke about the leading actress? 9. I wonder if that visit to the theatre was a real treat to Jean? 10. I wonder why
    Jean had used Shannon's Christian name for the first time?
    VIII. Choose the correct word :

    to rise - to raise
    1. He ... his head when he heard a slight noise. 2. When we started the sun had already.... 3. There was a
    storm of applause when he curtain .... 4. He ... his hat to greet us. 5. Ann slowly ... to her feet. 6. It was very
    noisy and the reporter had to ... his voice. 7. The curtain wouldn't... and we had to ... it.
    stage - scene
    1. The ... was so touching that Jean began to cry. 2. Carrie was told to come onto the ... in the second act. 3.
    The play consists of two acts and four .... 4. When the actor appeared on the ... the audience began to applaud.
    5. I don't quite like the final ... in this play. 6. Our seats were in the orchestra stalls and we saw the ...well.
    IX. Fill in the missing words:

    1. Jean looked ... when she came to the theatre (
    ). 2. I ... the invitation with joy
    ). 3. The play consists of three ... and four ... ( ;
    ). 4. He ... our help and said he could do
    everything himself (
    ). 5. When the ... rose and the audience saw the ... everybody began to ...
    ;
    ;
    ). 6. When Alison appeared on the ... she was ... (
    ;
    ).
    7. Our ... were in the ... and we could see the ... very well without the ... (
    ;
    ;
    ;
    ). 8. The
    play made such an ... upon me that I would never forget it (
    ). 9. I never expected that you would ...
    our suggestion (
    ). 10. We made up our minds to ... a party in English (
    ). 11. I don't
    remember the name of the ... who played the ... part in the play (
    ;
    ). 12. Seats in the boxes and in
    the stalls are ... and seats in the gallery are ... (
    ;
    ). 13. She said she was telling the truth, but
    we ... her words (
    ).
    X. Fill in prepositions or adverbs wherever necessary:

    1. We enjoyed ... the performance greatly. 2. He decided to reserve a seat... phone. 3. It's rather easy to get
    179

    tickets ... this theatre, but it is difficult to get tickets ... this play. 4. She refused ... our help. 5. She took care ...
    her little brother. 6. Will you go to the football match tomorrow? - No, I don't care ... football. 7. ... my way ...
    the theatre I met a friend of mine. 8. I don't like seats ... the balcony or ... the gallery, I prefer them ... the stalls
    or ... the dress-circle. 9. The scene is laid ... Verona. 10. This is a play ... Dickens' novel. 11. I'm so sorry ...Ann.
    She has fallen ill. 12. Fleur Forsyte fell ... love ... Jon ... first sight. 13. The attendant will show you ... your
    seats. 14. There is no doubt ... it. 15. When the lights went ... and the curtain rose there was a storm... applause.
    XI. Fill in articles wherever necessary. Retell the text:

    ... theatres are very much ... same in London as anywhere else; ... main theatres, music-halls and cinemas are
    in ... West End. If you are staying in London for ... few days, you will have no difficulty whatever in finding
    somewhere to spend ... evening. You will find ... opera, ... comedy, ... drama, ... variety, ... cinema
    performances start at about eight or ... half past, and finish about eleven,
    ... best seats are those in ... stalls, in ... dress-circle and ... upper circle. Then comes ... pit and ... last of all ...
    gallery. ... boxes, of course, are more expensive. ... most theatres and music-halls have ... good orchestras with
    ... popular conductors.
    The opera house is at Covent Garden. There you get... best of everything: ... first rate orchestra, ... famous
    singers and celebrated conductors. But, of course, if you are not fond of ... music, this won't interest you. At...
    West End theatres you can see ... most of ... famous English actors and actresses. ... plays are staged well.
    Choose ... good play, and you'll enjoy yourself from ... moment ... curtain goes up, to ... end of ... last act. Get
    your seat beforehand either at... box-office of... theatre itself or at one of... agencies.
    (Abridged from ELC)
    XII. Change the following sentences according to the models.

    M o d e l 1 : I like to read plays. - I enjoy reading plays.
    1. We like to play chess. 2. My eldest sister likes to sing folk songs. 3. They like to ski in the forest on a
    sunny frosty day. 4. The children like to bathe and splash the water all around. 5. They also like to lie in the
    sun.
    M o d e l 2 : He is excited. He cannot speak. - He is very excited and can hardly speak.
    1. Our seats were far from the stage. We could not see well what was going on. 2. The scene was touching.
    Jean couldn't hide her tears. 3. It was very noisy in the hall. We didn't hear the speaker well. 4. Her lips
    trembled. She spoke with difficulty. 5. The news is so exciting. I cannot believe it. 6. The child is so active. He
    cannot sit still for a minute. 7. Bill was extremely tired. He rose to his feet with great difficulty. 8. His hand was
    shaking. He couldn't open the door at on . 9. The patient is very weak. He cannot raise his hand.
    XIII. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.

    M o d e l : Neither you nor he is right.
    Neither my girl-friend nor her parents have forgotten you.
    Neither of you is wrong.
    1. Neither Mike nor his sister (to expect) us to return so soon. 2. Neither Helen nor Alice (to be) eager to go
    anywhere that night. 3. Neither of you (to know) the end of that story. 4. Neither my sister nor my brother (to
    go) on excursions very often. 5. Neither of us (to be) mistaken. 6. Neither my brother-in-law nor his
    schoolmates (to be) good at playing chess. 7. Neither my parents nor my grandmother (to travel) by air. 8.
    Neither David nor his fellow-students (to be excited) at the exams. 9. Neither my sister's younger daughter nor
    her son (to be) fond of symphony music. 10. Neither John nor his companion (to be) lazy.
    XIV. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    . 3.
    180

    ,

    104

    . 4.

    ,

    . 11.

    . 5.
    . 7.

    ,
    . 9.
    ,

    ,

    ,

    . 6.
    ,

    . 8.

    ,

    . 10.
    . 12.

    ,

    ,
    ,

    .

    XV. Respond to the following statements. Use conversational phrases. Work in pairs, trying to enlarge the
    dialogue.

    M o d e l : - Jean looked so eager and excited when she came to the theatre.
    - No wonder. It was her first visit to the theatre, wasn't it?
    - Yes, it was, but I think she was so excited because she had had thrown off her religious
    scruples.
    - That's just what I'm thinking, etc.
    1. I hear your friend is fond of opera. 2. The best seats are in the dress-circle. 3. It's rather a problem to get
    tickets to the Bolshoi Theatre. 4. Girls often take such a long time to get ready to go somewhere, especially to
    the theatre. 5. Tikhonoff was very good playing the part of Stirlitz. 6. It's so nice to go to a concert and hear
    some good music! 7. The ballet Romeo and Juliet is worth seeing. 8. Going to a theatre is a real treat.
    XVI. Correct the given not-true-to-fact (false) statements and give your reasons. Use conversational phrases.
    Work in pairs. Enlarge the dialogues.

    M o d e l : - Jean did not like theatre but she didn't refuse Robert's invitation not to hurt him.
    - I'm afraid you've got it all wrong. It was her first visit to the theatre, etc.
    1. Jean wasn't going to accept Robert's invitation to the theatre. 2. She looked quite calm when Robert met
    her at the entrance to the theatre. 3. The tickets were rather expensive. 4. The play was a merry comedy. 5. The
    leading actors produced little impression on Jean. 6. During the intervals Jean spoke with Robert about the play.
    7. Neither Robert nor Jean liked the play. 8. While watching the last scene Jean couldn't help laughing. 9. The
    public didn't like the performance and there was no applause when the curtain fell.
    XVII. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    ,

    . 2.

    . 3.

    ,
    . 4.

    (weekend). 5.

    ,
    . 6.

    ,
    . 9.
    . 10.

    (the stage manager)
    . 8.

    . 7.
    .
    .

    ,

    XVIII. Fill in yet, still, more, another, other, else, which are translated into Russian as «

    »:

    1. Don't hurry. The performance is not over ... . 2. I'd like to read something ... by this author. 3. What ...
    impression did you get there? 4. What ... did Jean say about the performance? 5. I've read two ... books by
    Dickens. 6. You'd better ask somebody ... . 7. It is ... spring, but it is getting rather hot. 8. The theatre is going to
    stage ... play by this playwright. 9. How many ... English books have you got? 10. Fetch ... chair, please. 11.
    What ... have you seen in this ancient town? 12. He hasn't returned from the South. He is ... there. 13. Please
    book two ... tickets for me. 14. Will you call ... time? 15. What ... things did you buy?
    XIX. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    ? 2.

    3.

    . 4.

    .
    ,

    . 5.

    . 6.
    ? 10.

    ,

    . 7.
    ,

    . 9.
    . 11.

    ? 8.
    (
    ?-

    )
    .
    181

    . 12.

    . 13.

    ?
    XX. Pick out words and phrases from Text 1 and Text 2 and group them under the following headings: a)
    theatre; b) appearance. Learn them.
    XXI. Retell Text 2 in indirect speech as if you were Helen (Nick).
    XXII. Render these jokes. Use indirect speech:

    1. The well-known singer Enrico Caruso was once driving not far from New York. It so happened that
    something went wrong with his car and he had to spend some time in the house of a farmer. Soon they became
    friendly and the farmer asked Caruso his name.
    When the farmer heard the name, he rose to his feet. "My, I never thought I should see a man like you in my
    kitchen, sir," he cried out. "Caruso. The great traveller. Robinson Caruso!"
    2. "I say, Dad," said a schoolboy, returning home, "we gave a wonderful performance at school. A lot of
    parents came and although some of them had seen it before they all had a jolly good time."
    "How do you know?" asked his father.
    "Why, they laughed all through the play," the boy replied.
    "And what was the play?" the father asked.
    "Hamlet," said the boy.
    XXIII. Translate the following sentences into English:
    A. 1.

    ,

    . 2.

    . 3.

    . 4.

    ,

    . 6.
    ,

    . 5.
    ?

    . 8.
    ». 10.

    «
    . 11.

    ,
    ,
    ,

    ? 7.

    ,

    . 9.
    ,

    ,

    . 12.
    .

    . 13.
    B. 1.
    »

    ,

    ,
    . 3.

    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    «

    ,
    . 5.

    . 4.
    . 6.

    . 7.

    . 8.

    ,

    . 9.

    ,

    . 10.

    ,

    . 11.

    ?-

    ,

    . 12.

    .
    -

    . 13.

    ,

    .
    ,

    . 14.
    .

    XXIV. Render the following dialogue in indirect speech. Explain the difference between a concert hall and a
    music-hall:

    G i 1 d : I went to a very good concert at the Festival Hall last month. You call that hall "a concert hall",
    don't you?
    M r s . G r e e n : Yes.
    G i l d a : Well, what's "a music-hall"? I've seen that name several times and heard it used in broadcasts, too.
    M r s . G r e e n : A music-hall is something very different from a concert hall! If you want to hear a
    symphony orchestra playing good music, you go to a concert hall. A music-hall is more like a theatre. The seats
    are arranged like those in a theatre. There's a stage with curtains like in the theatre. There's scenery on the stage.
    We often use the name "Variety Theatre".
    G i 1 d a : What would I see and hear if I went to a music-hall?
    M r s . G r e e n : There'd be popular music and singing and dancing. There'd be performances by acrobats
    and jugglers. There might even be performing animals.
    G i 1 d a : To my mind music-halls are not so popular now. People prefer films today, and radio and
    182

    television keep people at home more.
    M r s . G r e e n : I agree with you. The most popular singers and comedians are seen and heard by millions
    of viewers and listeners in their own homes.
    XXV. Listen carefully to the recording of the text "Theatres in London". b) Find English equivalents for:
    ;
    ,

    ;

    ;

    ;
    ;

    ;
    6000

    ;

    ;
    ;

    ;

    .
    b) Answer the following questions:

    1. In what way do most of the London theatres differ from those of Russia? 2. Why are many actors and
    actresses in England always afraid to remain unemployed? 3. What do you know about Covent Garden, the
    famous Royal Opera House? 4. Why can Covent Garden be called the home of international opera and ballet?
    5. Where is the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre situated? 6. Where did Shakespeare stage his plays? 7. When
    was the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre built? 8. What is the London filial of the Shakespeare Memorial
    Theatre? 9. What are the two largest and best concert halls in London? 10. On whose initiative was the Royal
    Albert Hall built? 11. What is the most modern concert hall in London and when was it built?
    XXVI. Let one of the students give a brief impression of his visit to the theatre. Find out some more details
    about the performance by asking questions.

    Model:
    A: Last night I was at one of the best theatres in Moscow. The performance was perfect and I enjoyed every
    minute of it. Though my seat was in the balcony I could see the stage very well and hear each sound perfectly.
    Guess where I was and what I saw.
    B: Were you at the Art Theatre?
    A: No, I wasn't.
    B: But you say you could hear each sound perfectly!
    A: So I could. I meant the music.
    B: Ah, that means you were at the Bolshoi Theatre.
    A: That's right.
    B: Was it an opera or a ballet?
    A: Try to guess.
    B: And who is the composer?
    A: P. I. Tchaikovsky.
    B: Is the scene laid in Russia?
    A: No, it isn't.
    B: Was the scenery beautiful?
    A: Oh, yes, it was so beautiful, that there was a storm of applause when the curtain rose.
    B: It's a fairy-tale, isn't it?
    A: In a way, yes.
    : Then it was either "Swan Lake", or "The Sleeping Beauty"...
    A: No, neither of them. It's not a ballet.
    B: If it is an opera, and the composer is Tchaikovsky, and the scene is not laid in Russia I really can't guess.
    Well, one more guestion: how many acts are there in this opera?
    A: It's a one-act opera in two scenes.
    B: Then it is "Jolanta"!
    A: This time you are right.
    XXVII. a) Watch Film Segment Eight "The Play is Over". b) Watch the film segment again to find the English
    equivalents for :
    ;
    ;

    ,

    ;

    ,
    ;

    ,

    ;
    (

    ;
    );

    (

    )
    ,

    ,
    ;
    183

    (

    );

    ,

    ;

    .

    ) Answer your teacher's questions on the content of the film segment.
    XXVIII. a) Make up a dialogue on the following situation:
    .

    ,

    .
    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,
    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    .(
    ,

    .)

    ,

    .
    .

    ,
    .

    b) Make up a similar situation (a visit to a concert, a variety theatre, a circus, etc.) for your fellow-students to
    present it in the form of a dialogue.
    XXIX. a) Read the text:

    ...Pauline Eraser had a few minutes to herself in her room while waiting for the time she was wanted on the
    stage. Suddenlyn the door flung open and a young girl, wearing a short brown tweed coat and dark green slacks
    darted in. Pauline knew at once she was an actress. She wasn't pretty, but she had a good stage face. "You're
    Pauline Fraser, aren't you?" cried the girl in admiration. Pauline smiled. "Yes, but who are you?" "Oh, you've
    never heard of me. I'm Ann Steward from the Rep* at Wanley. I hear Mr. Cheveril is going to stage his new
    play. I'd be delighted to get a part in it. I'm ready to do anything!" Pauline smiled at her. The girl went on:
    "Miss Fraser, you're great. I saw you in Mr. Cheveril's play 'The Wandering Light' three times. You were
    wonderful! But... er... would you mind if I say this?" Pauline was amused. "Probably. But go ahead!" "Well, at
    the end of the Second Act, when you learn that your lover is back and waiting for you, couldn't it he better to
    drop everything from your hands and then run out into the garden?" Pauline looked at the girl with interest.
    "Why, as a matter of fact I wanted to do it like that, only the producer wouldn't let me. Look here -- you are a
    real actress!" "I know I am," cried the girl, "but I could be a thousand times better if only I get a chance in a
    Cheveril play! Please, Miss Fraser, I don't want to be a nuisance, but I simply must talk with him." "I'm afraid
    he won't speak with you, but I'll try to persuade him. You'd better wait outside, he may come any moment."
    "Oh, Miss Fraser, you're a darling!" said Ann and went out.
    *Rep. - repertory theatre.

    Some minutes later Cheveril entered the room carrying his script. "We've made a little cut and the scene is
    all right now, Pauline. You'll be wanted on the stage in a minute or two."
    "I'm ready, Martin. Oh! I guite forgot! There is a girl here who is eager to see you. She's with a local
    repertory company, and I shouldn't be surprised if she's quite a good actress. You'll see her, won't you?"
    Without turning Martin answered firmly: "No. I'm sorry, Pauline, but I'm fed up with young promising
    actresses." "But... but you must see her!" Pauline was reproachful. At that moment she was called to the stage
    and left the room.
    Cheveril was looking through his script when he heard a young voice behind him: "Mr. Cheveril, I'm that
    young actress... !" "You had no right to come here. Will you please go?" He didn't even look at her. "But... but
    I've acted in lots of your plays - and loved them all!" "I don't care. Please, go out at once." There was a strange
    little pause. "You'll be sorry soon you said that..." The girl spoke with an odd certainty...
    (After J. B. Priestley "A Story of the Theatre")
    b) Determine the main idea of the extract. c) Make up a plan of the extract. d) Choose a suitable headline to the
    story from those suggested:

    1) "Ann Looks for a Job"; 2) "Meeting a Famous Actress"; 3) "He was Fed Up!" 4) "Talent or... Chance?";
    5) "The Crash of Hopes".
    e) Give a short summary of the extract. f) Give your own ending to the story.
    184

    XXX. Say a few words: about your last visit to the theatre.

    Laboratory work
    I. a) Repeat the sentences alter the tape. b) Make them interrogative and negative.
    II. Answer the questions and record your answers in the intervals.
    III. Translate the sentences into English using the active vocabulary.
    IV. Spell and transcribe the words.
    V. Translate the phrases into English.
    VI. Listen to the wrong statements. Correct them.
    VII. a) Listen to the dialogue "At the Theatre". b) Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the
    dialogue following the model. c) Learn it by heart.

    Lesson Twenty

    Study the following
    Table No. 1

    The present perfect continuous tense

    Table No. 2

    Grammar exercises
    I. a) Make up sentences using Substitution Table No. 1. b) Compose your own sentences of the same kind.
    185

    II. Give the interrogative and negative forms of the following sentences:

    1. He has been working at his report since 10 o'clock. 2. They have been writing their test for nearly two
    hours already. 3. She has been waiting long. 4. His daughter has been playing the piano since the morning. 5.
    They have been discussing this problem for rather a long time. 6. The child has been sleeping too long. 7. Ann
    and Roger have been quarrelling for fifteen minutes. 8. She has been dreaming to become an actress all her life.
    9. I have been doing my lessons since 4 o'clock.
    III. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous:

    1. How long you (to wait) for me? 2. I (to know) her since my childhood. 3. He (to think) about it for three
    days. 4. They always (to prefer) theatre to TV. 5. How long she (to study) music? - Oh, she (to study) music
    since her early childhood. 6. Since she was a little girl she (to try) not to take things seriously. 7. The students
    (to write) their test for two hours already. 8. She (to live) in that house round the corner about thirty years. 9.
    You (to play) too long. It's high time to do your lessons. 10. She (to be ill) for more than two weeks. I (to miss)
    her terribly.
    IV. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    . 2.
    . 4.

    . 3.
    . 5.

    . 6.

    .

    . 7.

    . 8.

    . 9.
    ? 11.

    ? 10.

    ?

    . 12.
    .

    .
    . 13.

    .

    .

    .
    . 14.

    ,

    ,
    . 15.

    .

    TEXT 1

    After W. S. Maugham*
    * Maugham [m m].

    The farm, an old-fashioned stone house, was built in 1673, and for three hundred years the people had been
    born and died in it and had farmed the surrounding land.
    George Meadows was a man of fifty and his wife, Mrs. George, was a year or two younger. They were both
    fine people in the prime of life. Their three daughters were lovely and their two sons were handsome and
    strong. They had no notions about being gentlemen and ladies; they knew their place, were happy and deserved
    their happiness, as they were merry, industrious and kindly.
    The master of the house was not George, but his mother, who was twice the man her son was, as they said in
    the village. She was a woman of seventy, tall, upright, with gray hair and a wrinkled face. Her eyes were bright
    and shrewd and she had a sense of humour. Her word was law in the house and on the farm. In short, she was a
    character.
    One day Mrs. George met me in the street and told me that they had received a letter from their Uncle
    George, whom them all thought dead. The letter informed them of his coming. "Just fancy," she said, "he hasn't
    been here for fifty years. And old Mrs. Meadows sits there and smiles to herself! All she says is that he was
    very good-looking, but not so steady as his brother Tom!" Mrs. George invited me to look in and see the old
    man. I accepted the invitation with joy, as I knew the story of Uncle George Meadows and it amused me
    because it was like an old ballad. It was touching to come across such a story in real life. More than fifty years
    ago, when Mrs. Meadows was Emily Green, a young charming girl, George and his younger brother Tom both
    courted her. When Emily married Tom, George had gone to sea. For twenty years he sent them presents now
    and then; then there was no more news of him. After her husband's death Emily wrote George about it, but
    never received an answer. And the previous day, to their greatest surprise they received his letter, in which he
    186

    wrote that he was crippled with rheumatism and feeling he had not much longer to live, wanted to return to the
    house in which he was born.
    When I came the whole family was assembled in the kitchen. I was amused to see that Mrs. Meadows was
    wearing her best silk dress. On the other side of the fireplace sat an old man with a wrinkled yellow face. He
    was very thin and his skin hung on his bones like an old suit too large for him. Captain George, as he had called
    himself, told us that he had been so ill he thought he would never be able to get back, but the look of his old
    home had done him a lot of good. He said good-humouredly: "I feel now better and stronger than I have for
    many years, dear Emily!" No one had called Mrs. Meadows by her Christian name for a generation and it gave
    me a shock, as though the old man were taking a liberty with her. It was strange to look at these two old smiling
    people and to think that nearly half a century ago he had loved her and she had married another.
    When I asked him if he had ever been married he said he knew too much about women for that. Then he
    added looking at Mrs. Meadows: "I said I'd never marry anyone but you, Emily, and I never had." He said it not
    with regret, but with some satisfaction.
    Captain Meadows told us a lot of interesting stories about his adventures and about many things he had seen
    and done.
    "Well, one thing you haven't done. George, and that is to make a fortune!" said Mrs. Meadows with a
    thoughtful smile.
    "Oh, I'm not one to save money. Make it and spend it, that's my motto. But if I had a chance of going
    through my life again I'd take it. There are not many people who'd wish it!"
    I looked at this toothless, crippled, penniless old man with admiration and respect. That was a man who had
    made a success of his life, because he had enjoyed it.
    Next morning I decided to see the old man again. I saw Mrs. Meadows in the garden picking white flowers. I
    asked her if Captain Meadows was well. "Oh, dear, he had always been a harum-scarum fellow! He boasted
    that he was so happy to be back in his old home that he would live for another twenty years. Alas! He died in
    his sleep." Mrs. Meadows smelt the flowers she held in her arms and added thoughtfully: "Well, I'm glad he
    came back. After I married Tom and George went away, I was never sure I had married the right man!"
    TEXT 2
    Dialogue
    A l i c e : Hallo, Mike, have you been waiting long? I'm so sorry I'm late.
    M i k e : Now that you are here it's all right.
    A l i c e : I say, Mike, I've just had a wire from Mary. She is coming by the 5.20 train. And I have a meeting
    at 5. Will you do me a favour and meet her at the station?
    M i k e : Certainly, but I've never seen her. How could I possibly recognize her?
    A l i c e : Oh, it's quite easy. She's just like her mother.
    M i k e : Most helpful I'd say, but the trouble is I've never seen her mother either.
    A l i c e : No, you haven't. And I'm afraid I haven't any photos of her.
    M i k e : At least try to describe her. What does she look like?
    A1i
    : A tall slim girl of 18 with an oval face.
    M i k e : Complexion?
    A l i c e : Rather pale.
    M i k e : Hair?
    A l i c e : Fair and curly. Light grey eyes, a small snub nose, a big mouth with white even teeth and a
    pleasant smile.
    M i k e : I/m sure there'll be at least a dozen girls like that at the station.
    A l i c e : Oh, Mike, we've been discussing it for the better part of an hour and I see no end to it.
    M i k e : But how am I to recognize her in the crowd?
    A l i c e : Oh, I forgot. There's a dimple in her left cheek. She is so lovely, you'll fall in love with her at first
    sight.
    M i k e : That'll help me, to be sure. Go to your meeting. I promise to be on the platform at 5 sharp looking
    for a tall slim fair-haired lovely girl with a dimple in her cheek.
    Vocabulary notes
    187

    lovely adj
    ,
    ,
    ; Syn. beautiful, pretty, good-looking, as a lovely child
    (girl, woman), a lovely day; lovely eyes, hair, e. g. We had a lovely time. What lovely weather! Note the
    adjectives with the same suffix -ly: friendly
    ; lonely
    ; kindly
    handsome adj
    ; Syn. beautiful, e. g. a handsome boy (man), but a beautiful girl (woman); a
    handsome face, handsome appearance
    deserve vt; to deserve attention (punishment, reward, praise, love, etc.)
    ,
    ,
    ,
    . .), . g.
    hasn't deserved that from you. They deserved praise
    for what they had done.
    merry adj
    ; as a merry child (look, game, company, song), a merry face, merry eyes; merrily adv
    industrious adj
    ; Syn. hard-working
    wrinkle n
    , . g. There were merry wrinkles in the corners of his eyes, wrinkled adj
    , . g. Her face was old and wrinkled.
    inform vt/i
    ,
    ,
    ; Syn. Let know, e. g. We must inform them
    immediately, to inform smb. of smth., e. g. You must inform the post-office of the change in your address. to
    inform smb. that ..., e. g. We informed them that there would be a meeting on Thursday, information n (no
    pl.! no indefinite article!)
    ,
    , e. g. I want some information about this town. useful
    (interesting) information; to get (receive) information, to give information
    amuse vt
    ,
    ,
    , . g. The sight of the child amused as. amusing adj
    ,
    as an amusing story (child, incident, play, scene)
    to go (away) to sea
    now and then
    regret vt
    ,
    ..., . g. You will regret your words. to regret doing smth., e. g. He will
    regret telling a lie.
    to make a fortune
    ; fortunately; unfortunately adv
    to save money
    to have the (a) chance of
    ,
    , . g. If you have the chance of listening to this
    singer you'll enjoy it.
    respect n
    ; respect vt; respectable adj, e. g. His life and work deserve everybody's respect. We
    must respect her desires.
    he had made a success of his life
    ; success n
    ; to be a success;
    successful adj, e. g. The actress was a success yesterday.
    boast vt/i
    ,
    ;
    , e. g.
    boasted that he could easily get tickets to any theatre.
    The young actress boasted of her success. The Muscovites boast of the magnificent palaces of the metro.
    Will you do me a favour ... He
    ...
    to be (look) like
    ;
    , . g. She is like her mother. What is the weather like? What
    does he look like? to take after smb.
    (
    ,
    ), . g. Her
    son took after her husband.
    the trouble is ...
    (
    )
    ,
    ...; trouble n, vt/i, e. g. You mustn't trouble about your mother's
    health. She is all right. Proverb: Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.
    at 5 sharp
    Topical vocabulary
    People's Appearance
    Figure: tall, short, middle-sized; stout, thin, slim; straight, stooping
    Face: thin, plump, fat; oval, round, square; beautiful, handsome, good-looking; lovely, pretty, attractive;
    common, plain, ugly
    Complexion: rosy, pale; fresh, dark, fair
    Eyes: blue, brown, hazel, dark, grey; deep-set, close-set, wide-set
    (Eye-)lashes: long, short, curving, straight
    (Eye-)brows: straight, arched, pencilled, bushy
    Forehead: broad, narrow; low, high
    188

    Nose: straight, hooked, turned up, snub (bed)
    Mouth: large, small, tiny, red.
    Lips: thin, full, thick
    Hair: long, short; curly, straight; red, brown, dark, fair, grey, chestnut, golden; thick; to wear one's hair long,
    short; to wear a beard, a moustache
    Arms and legs: long, short; shapely, small
    to gain (lose) weight; to keep fit
    Exercises
    I. a) The material below is to be prepared for reading. Mark the stresses and tunes. Concentrate your attention
    on the sounds. b) Let your fellow-student read the exercise aloud for you to detect his errors in sounds and tell him
    what must be done to eliminate them:

    [ ] 1. To know everything is to know nothing.
    2. A good beginning makes a good ending.
    3. Better die standing than live kneeling.
    4. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
    5. Spades for digging, pens for writing.
    Ears for hearing, teeth for biting.
    Eyes for seeing, legs for walking.
    Tongues for tasting and for talking.
    II. Before you start working at the text practise the sounds in the following word combinations:

    A. 1. [ v] -a sense of humour, the master of the house; a man of fifty; the story of Uncle George.
    2. Loss of aspiration: master, story, steady, strong.
    3. Loss of plosion: silk dress, Emily married Tom, he had gone to sea, wanted to return, I'd

    take

    it.
    B. 1. [ :] - certainly, fair and curly, a dozen girls.
    2. No glottal stop: quite easy, her mother either, an

    oval face, with

    even teeth.

    III. a) Listen to the recording of the text "Home". Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the text for test
    reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    IV. a) Listen to the recording of the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. b) Practise the dialogue for test
    reading. Listen to the recording very carefully until you can say it in exactly the same way. c) Memorize the
    dialogue and dramatize it.
    V. Form adjectives from the following nouns adding the suffixes -less, -ous:

    tooth, hope, care, sleep, cloud, pity, voice, home, thought, rest, harm, penny;
    danger, fame, nerve, courage, industry.
    VI. Find in the text the sentences that are answers to the following questions:

    1. What kind of people were George Meadows, his wife and children? 2. Who was the real master of the
    house? 3. Why did the story of Uncle George amuse the author? 4. What letter had the Meadows received the
    previous day? 5. What did Captain Meadows look like? 6. What stories did he tell? 7. What made the author
    think that Captain Meadows had made a success of his life? 8. What did the old man boast of? 9. What did Mrs.
    Meadows say about him? 10. What did she say made her glad?
    VII. Respond to the questions given below. Use conversational phrases. Work in pairs. Enlarge the dialogues.

    M o d e l : - I wonder if you could explain to me why the Meadows deserved happiness?
    189

    - I believe because they were industrious and merry and knew their place.
    - And what do you mean 'they knew their place' ?
    - Oh, that's like this, I think. They had no notions about being ladies and gentlemen, etc.
    1. I wonder if you could help me to understand who of the two women was Mrs. Meadows. 2. I'd like to
    know why it was Mrs. Meadows who was the real master of the house? 3. Do you really think that Mrs.
    Meadows was a character? 4. I'd like to know what made George go to sea? 5. I hope you don't mind my asking
    but why was it so amusing to see old Mrs. Meadows in her best silk dress? 6. Can you tell me why Captain
    Meadows had never married? 7. I'd like to know what you think about his motto? 8. Is it so important to make a
    fortune as Mrs. Meadows thought? 9. I'd like to know if you too agree that the old man had made a success of
    his life? 10. Could you possibly tell me if Mrs. Meadows had found the answer to her problem whether she had
    married the right man?
    VIII. Respond to the following statements. Use conversational phrases. Give your reasons. Work in pairs and
    enlarge the dialogues.

    M o d e l : - George Meadows and his family deserved their happiness.
    - Oh, yes, I couldn't agree more. They were industrious and merry.
    - Besides, they had no notions about being gentlemen and ladies and knew their place.
    - That's just what I'm thinking, etc.
    1. Mrs. Meadows was twice the man her son was. 2. Mrs. Meadows was a character. 3. Uncle George's story
    amused the narrator. 4. Captain George was no longer a good-looking jolly fellow. 5. The old man had never
    made a fortune. 6. The old man inspired admiration and respect. 7. Captain George really loved Emily Green. 8.
    Old George made a success of his life. 9. Mrs. Meadows was glad that old George had come back.
    IX. Respond to the following statements which are not true to fact. Use conversational phrases. Give your
    reasons. Work in pairs and try to enlarge the dialogues.

    M o d e l : - I think George Meadows was a good master of the house.
    - I'm afraid you've got it wrong, he wasn't.
    - But wasn't he industrious and steady and in the prime of life?
    - Yes, he was. But his mother was twice the man her son was, etc.
    1. The Meadows had great notions about being gentlemen and ladies. 2. George Meadows was a character. 3.
    Emily Green married Tom because he was very good-looking. 4. Uncle George's story was a banal one. 5.
    Captain Meadows returned home to boast of his health, fortune and success. 6. All the household called Mrs.
    Meadows by her Christian name Emily. 7. Captain Meadows was very unhappy in his life. 8. Captain Meadows
    did not deserve admiration and respect. 9. Mrs. Meadows wasn't glad to see Captain Meadows. 10. Mrs.
    Meadows never thought whether she had married the right man.
    X. Pick out words and phrases from Text 1 and Text 2 and group them under the following headings: a)
    appearance; b) character. Learn them.
    XI. a) Retell Text 1 in indirect speech. b) Retell the text as if you were a member of the family.
    XII. Fill in the missing words:

    1. Though she is not very talented she is ... and I think she will make a good musician (
    ). 2.
    The children were very ... and excited and their mother couldn't make them go to bed (
    ). 3. Mr.
    Pickwick was a ...... gentleman (
    ,
    ). 4. The boy did not ... punishment (
    ). 5.
    Though the woman is rather old her face is not ... and her eyes are ..". (
    ,
    ). 6.
    Robert wanted to ... Jean, but her parents were against their ... (
    ;
    ). 7. The girl is ... clever for her
    age (
    ). 8. The appearance of Mr. Dick ... Davy and his funny signs ... him (
    ,
    ). 9. Jean wanted to ... Robert to her parents, so she invited him to their place (
    ). 10.
    I'd like to ... you with the plan of our work (
    ). 11. The teacher was pleased with Mike's work and
    190

    said he ... a prize (
    ). 12. Tom Sawyer ... that he could beat the boy with his little finger
    ). 13. When Jane came her aunt was still ... but soon she ... (
    ;
    ). 14. We couldn't help
    ... the boy's courage (
    ).
    XIII. Choose the right word:

    to introduce - to acquaint - to get acquainted - to meet
    1. I'm glad you have come. I want ... you to my parents. 2. Michael ... himself to Soames as he was eager ...
    with Fleur. 3. He ... me with his latest experiments. 4. George was ... to Helen at our party. 5. She refused to
    talk to him as they were not ... with one another. 6. Will you ... me to your friend? - Oh, aren't you ... yet? 7. He
    was eager ... with the contents of his aunt's letter. 8. I want you to ... my friend, Helen. 9. We had a lovely time
    in the rest-home and ... a lot of interesting people there. 10. I'm so sorry I haven't... you earlier.
    XIV. Fill in prepositions or adverbs wherever necessary:

    1. Soames had courted ... Irene for a long time before she accepted ... him. 2. I'm going to introduce you ...
    my friend. 3. I'd like to get acquainted ... your plan. 4. Who is she married ...? - She is married ... a well-known
    artist. 5. Will you inform me ... your decision? 6. We got some information ... the matter we were interested ... .
    7. We were surprised ... her refusal. 8. George Meadows went ... sea when his brother married ... Emily. 9. I'm
    sure you will regret ... your act. 10. She is going to marry .... one ... our students. 11. ... our surprise we found
    nobody ... home. 12. He likes to boast... his strength. 13. What is she ...? - She is tall and very beautiful. 14. She
    is ... her mother.
    XV. Fill in articles wherever necessary:

    1. We received ... very interesting information about this country. 2. Last summer we had ... lovely time in ...
    South. 3. He went to ... sea hoping to save ... money and make ... fortune. 4. This boy doesn't deserve ... praise.
    5. Will you do me ... favour? 6. She gave me ... good advice how to get rid of my mistakes. 7. It was ... hard
    work and Mike did not like it. 8. She is making ... good progress in English. 9. Where is ... money? – I put it on
    the table. 10. I don't like ... rainy weather. 11. She has ... long, beautiful hair. 12. It was ... unexpected news and
    we were surprised to hear it. 13. ... Bickets were eager to save ... money. 14. The girl had ... snub nose and ...
    fair complexion. 15. My father was of ... dark complexion, with ... very great forehead and ... dark hazel eyes,
    overhung by ... eyebrows which were black though his hair was white. He had ... straight nose and ... full lips.
    XVI. Translate the following sentences into English:
    A. 1.

    ,

    . 2.
    .

    . 4.
    ,

    . 5.

    . 6.
    . 7.
    . 9.

    . 3.

    ,
    ,
    ,
    . 8.

    ,

    ,

    . 10.

    . 11.

    ,

    . 12.

    . 13.
    ,

    ,
    . 15.

    . 14.

    ,

    .

    B. 1.
    . 3.

    . 2.
    . 4.

    ,

    ,

    . 5.

    . 6.

    ,

    . 7.
    . 8.

    ,

    ,
    .
    . 11.

    . 10.

    ,
    . 12.

    ,
    «

    ,

    :

    . 9.
    ,

    ». 13.

    ,
    ,

    . 14.
    .

    . 16.

    . 15.
    ,

    ,
    ,
    191

    ,

    ,

    ,
    .

    ,

    .
    ,
    . 18.

    ,

    . 17.
    .

    XVII. Give a short description of your friend according to the following model:

    She is rather short but so slim and graceful that she seems taller than she is. She has shapely legs and arms
    and her hands are beautiful. Her hair, slightly red, is curly. Her face is oval, her eyes are brown, but when she is
    angry they seem black. Her complexion is fresh, her mouth is full, her lips - red. She is lovely.
    XVIII. Give a ten-line continuation of the following dialogue:

    A: Have you seen Bob's sister?
    B: No, I haven't, have you?
    A: I've met her several times.
    B: If she is like her brother she must be very good-looking. Bob is handsome, isn't he?
    XIX. Let one of the students give a very short description of the appearance (and character) of a person, male
    or female, you all know very well. Try to find out who that person is by asking questions as in the model. All those
    present are to take part in the game.

    M o d e l : A: How old is she?
    B: She's young, tall and slim.
    A: Is her complexion rosy?
    B: No, rather pale, I'd say.
    A: She is blue-eyed, isn't she?
    B: No, her eyes are dark.
    A: And what about her nose?
    B: She has a very nice turned-up nose.
    A: Is her hair (does she wear her hair) long or short?
    B: Her hair is short and straight.
    A: Is she dark-haired?
    B: Red.
    A: It's Ann, isn't it?
    B: No, it's not. You are mistaken. (That's right. You've guessed).
    Note. You are allowed to ask any questions about appearance, disposition, hobbies, habits, interests, but the name and
    occupation.
    XX. a) Make up 10 sentences using the verbs to want, to ask, to expect, to like, to tell, to make, to hear, to see, to
    notice, to watch, to feel + Complex Object. b) Read them out in Russian for your fellow-students to translate them
    into English. Correct their mistakes if any at all.
    XXI. a) Read and translate the text:

    On Thursday evenings the two librarians at the library in Benham, Pamela Cream and Violet Meade were to
    work until nine o'clock. The girls didn't mind staying late; in their small town there was very little for two
    unmarried girls to do anything. That's why when Inspector Ellis of the local police offered to give judo lessons
    to anybody who wanted them, Pamela was the first to enrol. She began learning judo exactly as she did
    everything else, thoroughly and with great interest. She always insisted on doing her best. She was a small
    woman, but in judo that does not matter. She was healthy, strong and brave. If not really beautiful she was
    pleasant to look at and no wonder Inspector Timothy Ellis fell in love with his best pupil. They were to get
    married soon.
    That Thursday Tim was to call for her at nine o'clock to take her out to dinner. It was already eight-thirty and
    Pamela was returning the books to the shelves, while Violet was serving the remaining readers.
    When Pamela was passing the windows near the back door she noticed that the blind was up. She tried to
    192

    pull it down, but it kept rolling to the top of the window, making a very loud noise. At last Pamela managed
    somehow to make it stay down, then went to the next aisle. To her greatest surprise she saw two men there.
    "Oh," she said, "I'm sorry, gentlemen, but readers are not allowed in this section of the library!" "I'm sorry,
    Miss," said the smaller of the two men with an ugly face, who seemed as surprised as Pamela, "we didn't know
    it." The other man, much larger than the one who spoke stood with his back to Pamela, leaning against the
    shelves. The smaller man said: "I'm afraid my friend is feeling rather weak. He wants some fresh air. Could you
    help me take him out, Miss?" "Oh, I'm so sorry," said Pamela and put her arm about the bigger man who was
    quite heavy. The smaller man took his friend by the other arm and the three of them started moving slowly to
    the back door. Suddenly Pamela stopped in horror. She saw blood on the man's coat. Looking at him closely she
    saw he was dead. The truth flashed in her mind. "You ... you killed him... here, in our library!" "Aren't you a
    smart young lady!" hissed the short man angrily, "go on helping me and avoid attracting attention, or you'll get
    what Blackie got." Pamela obeyed. They were in front of the window when suddenly Pamela had an idea. That
    new judo hold that Tim had taught her, maybe it would work! She must take her chance. That murderer was
    very dangerous, one more dead body that could well be her own wouldn't make him lose sleep. Oh, if only the
    hold worked!
    Her hand touched the window blind. It went up with a loud noise. The man, greatly surprised by it, dropped
    Blackies arm and Pamela let go of the other arm. The heavy body fell to the floor. The murderer snatched out a
    knife and rushed at Pamela, who was ready for him...
    When the frightened people from the library came running into the back room they saw two men lying on
    the floor and white-faced Pamela standing over the unconscious murderer...
    (After George P. McCallum's
    "Tales of Mystery and Suspense")
    b) Determine the main idea of the story. c) Make up a plan of the story. d) Choose a suitable headline to the
    story from those suggested below:

    1. "It Worked!"; 2. "A Brave Girl"; 3. "Sport Is Your Saving"; 4. "The Inspector's Girl"; 5. "Murder in the
    Library".
    e) Say what you think of Pamela's character. f) Give a short summary of the story. g) Think of a logical end to
    the story.
    XXII. Explain the meaning of the proverb and use it in a situation of your own:

    Handsome is that handsome does.
    XXIII. Make up short dialogues concerning the appearance of:

    a child, an elderly person, your favourite actor (actress) or fiction character.
    XXIV. Render the following in the form of a dialogue:
    (producer)
    ».
    .
    .

    «
    .
    .

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,
    .

    XXV. a) Read the text "A Lovers' Quarrel" (Part One). Translate it into Russian:

    A Lovers' Quarrel
    Scene: Daphne's house.
    Part One

    193

    The telephone rings

    D a p h n e (picking up the receiver): Hullo! Is that you, James?
    R o b e r t : Hullo! Is that you, Daphne?
    D: Yes, James. I was wondering whether you'd call this evening.
    R: Listen, Daphne. This is Robert, not James. Who the devil is James, anyway?
    D: Oh ! It's you, Robert. I'm sorry. I was expecting a call from somebody else.
    R: I've been trying to get you on the phone since 2 o'clock.
    D: Have you? I've been out. I only came in half an hour ago.
    R: Where have you been?
    D: I've been playing tennis at the club.
    R: You told me you weren't going to play tennis today.
    D: Yes, I know. But Madge asked me to go and make up a four.
    R: Well! That's a bit thick!
    b) Explain the use of tenses:

    1. I was wondering whether you'd call this evening. 2. I was expecting a call.... 3. I've been trying to get you
    ... .4. I've been out. 5. Where have you been? 6. I've been playing tennis... . 7. You told me you weren't going ...
    c) Make up situations in which you can use the tenses mentioned above. Ask other students to explain their use.
    d) Read the text "A Lovers' Quarrel" (Part Two). Translate it into Russian:

    Part Two
    R: What's the matter, Daphne? You seem to have been avoiding me recently.
    D: Avoiding you? Of course I haven't been avoiding you. We went out together on Wednesday, didn't we?
    R: Yes, but that's three days ago, Daphne. I'm longing to see you. Will you come with me tonight?
    D: Oh, not tonight, Robert. I'm feeling a bit tired.
    R: Couldn't we go out just for an hour? I've been looking forward to seeing you all day.
    D: I can see you haven't been playing tennis all day or you ...
    R: I wish I had. I've been helping the old man in the garden.
    D: Then you must be feeling tired too!
    R: Listen, darling! Are you telling me the truth? Or are you going out with this James, whoever he is?
    D: Of course not. He's ...
    R: You're going out with him this evening, aren't you?
    D: No. I've told you. I don't want to go out this evening.
    R: Now I know why. You're going to sit by the phone all evening, waiting for your beloved Jimmy to give
    you a call.
    D: Don't be ridiculous, Robert. He isn't my beloved Jimmy. And anyway ... his name is James. He doesn't
    like to be called Jimmy.
    e) Explain the use of tenses:

    1. You seem to have been avoiding me ... . 2. I'm longing to see you. 3. I'm feeling a bit tired. 4. I've been
    looking forward .... 5. You haven't been playing tennis ... . 6. You've been helping the old man ... . 7. ... you
    must be feeling tired too. 8. Are you telling me the truth?
    f) Make up situations in which you can use the tenses mentioned above. Make other students explain the use. g)
    Read the text "A Lovers' Quarrel" (Part Three). Translate it into Russian:

    Part Three
    R: Oh! He doesn't, does he? Well, if I get my hands on him people will be calling him Scarface Jimmy. I
    suppose you've been seeing this poor fish every day. That's why you haven't been seeing me.
    194

    D: Of course it isn't. Do stop talking nonsense, Robert, and listen...
    R: To your explanation? You needn't bother. I understand everything perfectly. (He imitates her.) Oh, hullo,
    James darling. I was wondering whether you'd call this evening? I'm not a fool, you know.
    D: For the last time ... will you listen?
    R: Go on. I'm all ears.
    D: James is my cousin. He's thirty-four, he's married , and he has 3 children. He's coming to London next
    week from Scotland, and he'll be staying with us. We're expecting a call from him this evening.
    R: Your cousin? Honestly? Married? Why the devil didn't you say so?
    D: You didn't give me the chance.
    R: When can I see you again?
    D: I'll see you in half an hour ... unless you're feeling too ashamed of yourself.
    h) Explain the use of tenses:

    1. If 1 get my hands on him people will be calling him .... 2. You've been seeing this poor fish ... 3. He's
    coming to London ... and he'll be staying with us ....
    i) Make up situations in which you can use the tenses mentioned above. Make other students explain their use.
    j) Reproduce the text "A Lovers' Quarrel" in Indirect Speech.

    Laboratory work
    I. Answer the questions. Record your answers in the intervals.
    II. Translate the sentences into English using the artive vocabulary.
    III. Spell and transcribe the words.
    IV. Translate the phrases into English.
    V. Write the dictation.
    VI. Listen to the wrong statements. Correct them.
    VII. a) Listen to the poem "Twilight" by George G. Byron. b) Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the poem,
    c) Learn it by heart.

    PHONETIC EXERCISES
    Introduction
    Intonation
    I n t o n a t i o n is a complex unity of variations in pitch, stress, tempo and timbre.
    T h e p i t c h c o m p o n e n t of intonation, or melody, is the changes in the pitch of the voice in
    connected speech.
    S e n t e n c e s t r e s s , o r a c c e n t , is the greater prominence of one or more words among other
    words in the same sentence.
    T e m p o is the relative speed with which sentences and intonation-groups are pronounced in connected
    speech.
    S p e e c h t i m b r e is a special colouring of voice which shows the speaker's emotions, i. e. pleasure,
    displeasure, sorrow, etc.
    Intonation serves to form sentences and intonation-groups, to define their communicative type, to express the
    speaker's thoughts, to convey the attitudinal meaning. One and the same grammatical structure and lexical
    composition of the sentence may express different meaning when pronounced with different intonation.
    195

    e, g.

    Isn't it ri/diculous? (general question)
    Isn't it ri\diculous! (exclamation)

    Long sentences, simple extended, compound and complex, are subdivided into i n t o n a t i o n - g r o u p s .
    Intonation-group division depends on the meaning of the sentence, the grammatical structure of the utterance
    and the style of speech. Each intonation-group is characterized by a definite intonation pattern. The number of
    intonation groups in the same sentence may be different.
    e. g. In /June | Ju/ly | and /August | our
    In June, 'July, and /August | our

    children 'don't 'go to \school.
    children 'don't 'go to \school.

    The end of each sentence is characterized by a relatively long pause. The pauses between intonation-groups
    are shorter, they vary in 'length. There may be no pauses between intonation-groups at all.
    Each intonation-group is characterized by a certain intonation pattern, i. e. each syllable of an intonationgroup has a certain pitch and bears a larger or smaller degree of prominence. Consequently pitch levels are
    inseparably connected with stress. Intonation patterns consist of one or more syllables. Intonation patterns
    containing a number of syllables consist of the following parts: the pre-head, the head, the nucleus and the tail.
    T h e p r e - h e a d includes unstressed and half-stressed syllables preceding the first stressed syllable.
    T h e h e a d includes the stressed and unstressed syllables beginning with the first stressed syllable up to
    the last stressed syllable.
    The last stressed syllable is called t h e n u c l e u s .
    The unstressed and half-stressed syllables that follow the nucleus are called t h e t a i l .
    e. g. It was a very 'sunny \day yesterday.
    It was a ... - the pre-head.
    … very 'sunny - the head.
    ... \day ... - the nucleus.
    ... yesterday - the tail.
    The rises and falls that take place in the nucleus or start with it are called n u c l e a r t o n e s .
    T h e n u c l e u s is the most important part of the intonation pattern as it defines the communicative type
    of the sentence, determines the semantic value of the intonation-group, indicates the communicative centre of
    the intonation-group or of the whole sentence.
    T h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e c e n t r e is associated with the most important word or words of the
    intonation-group or of the sentence.
    The nuclear tone of the final intonation-group is determined by the communicative type of the whole
    sentence.
    The communicative types of sentences are differentiated in speech according to the aim of the utterance from
    the point of view of communication, i. e. in order to show if the sentence expresses a statement of fact, a
    question, a command or an exclamation.
    There are four communicative types of sentences:
    1. Statements, e. g. I like music.
    2. Questions, e. g. Can you prove it?
    3. Imperative sentences or commands, e. g. Try it again.
    4. Exclamations, e. g. Right you are!
    The intonation pattern of the non-final intonation-group, mainly its nuclear tone, is determined by the
    semantic value of the intonation-group and by its connection with the following one.
    The falling nuclear tone shows that the non-final intonation-group is complete, important by itself and is not
    so closely connected with the following intonation-group.
    A longer pause after an intonation-group pronounced with the falling tone makes the intonation-group even
    more significant.
    e. g. I'll

    tell him \all | when he \comes.

    The rising nuclear tone shows that the non-final intonation-group is closely connected in meaning with the
    196

    following intonation-group, is not important by itself and implies continuation.
    e. g.

    Generally /speaking, | pre

    fer \tennis.

    The intonation pattern is also modified by the speaker's attitude towards his utterance:
    e. g. \Why? - detached, even unsympathetic.
    /Why? - wondering.
    In English notional words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.) are generally stressed. Form-words and most
    pronouns (personal and possessive mainly) are generally unstressed. But any part of speech may be stressed if it
    is semantically important.
    e. g.

    What is he 'going to \do? - do is the communicative centre.
    What is \he going to do? - he is the communicative centre.
    Method of indicating intonation on the staves

    Unstressed syllables are represented by dots, stressed syllables are marked by dashes or curves.

    The temporal component of intonation can be indicated graphically only as far as pauses are concerned.
    Two vertical bars || denote a long pause, which usually occurs at the end of a sentence.
    A single vertical bar | denotes a short pause inside a sentence.
    Fundamental intonation patterns and their use

    Section One
    Intonation Pattern I
    (Low pre-head +) Low fall (+ tail)

    Stress-and-tone marks in the text: Low Fall: | \ |
    Half-stressed syllables: | |
    Unstressed syllables have no graphic indication in the text.
    The Low Fall in the nucleus starts from the mid-level or lower and usually reaches the lowest level.
    The unstressed syllables which form the tail are pronounced on the lowest level pitch. The unstressed
    197

    syllables forming the pre-head are pronounced either on the low level pitch or rise gradually.
    This intonation pattern is used:
    l. I n s t a t e m e n t s , final, categoric, calm, reserved.
    e. g. Whose book is this? - It's \Mother's.
    2. I n s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s , calm, serious, flat, reserved, very often unsympathetic.
    e. g. One book is missing. -\Which?
    3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , calm, unemotional, serious.
    e. g. I'll send it to him. - \Don't.
    How can I get in touch with Nick? - \Phone him.
    4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , calm, unsurprised, reserved.
    e. g- Would you like an apple? - \Thank you.
    He's just arrived. - \Fine!
    Exercises
    Low fall only

    1. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of
    the replies.
    * Material for exercises marked with one asterisk is borrowed from the book by J. D. O'Connor, G. F. Arnold "Intonation of
    Colloquial English", L., 1956, 1973.

    198

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall as low as possible. c) Listen to the
    verbal context and reply in the interval.

    Low fall + tail

    2. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    199

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall as low as possible. Do not forget to
    blend the words together. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.

    Low pre-head + low fall (+ tail)

    200

    3. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall as low as possible. Do not forget to
    blend the words together. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.
    4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern I in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat all the replies yourself until
    they sound perfectly natural to you. See that your Russian pronunciation habits do not interfere.
    5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    6. Listen to your teacher reading the verbal context below. Reply by using one of the drill sentences. Pronounce
    it with Intonation Pattern I. Say what attitude you mean to render:

    201

    7. Your teacher will suggest a verbal content. You in turn respond by using: a) statements, sounding final,
    categoric, calm, reserved; b) special questions, sounding calm, serious, flat, reserved or unsympathetic; c)
    imperatives, sounding calm, unemotional, serious; d) exclamations, sounding calm, unsurprised, reserved.
    8. Read the following rhythmic groups. Observe quick pronunciation of unstressed syllables:

    a) Write to her. Read to me. Wait for them. Talk to her. Mary can. Answer it. Certainly. Open it. Tell them
    that. Nobody is.
    b) I can answer you. I can wait for you. It was wonderful. It's impossible. You must tell them that. He can
    write to you. I can give it to him. They must keep it for you. You could do it for me.

    Section Two
    Intonation Pattern II
    (Low pre-head +) descending head+ low fall (+ tail)

    202

    (Low pre-head) + high level head + low fall (+ tail)

    Stress-and-tone marks in the text:
    Stressed syllables of the descending head:
    the first stressed syllable [

    ]

    any following stressed syllables of the head [ ' ]
    The first stressed syllable of the descending head is pronounced on the high level pitch. Sometimes it is
    pronounced with a slight rise. The following stressed syllables have level pitch and form a descending sequence
    until the nucleus is reached, unstressed syllables may either carry the pitch down as in Model 1 (the Falling
    Head) or they may he pronounced on the level of the preceding stressed syllable as in Model 2 (the Stepping
    Head). The Low Fall in the nucleus starts somewhat lower than the mid level. If there are any unstressed
    syllables before the first stressed syllable they are said on a rather low pitch.
    This intonation pattern is used:
    1. I n s t a t e m e n t s , final, categoric, considered.
    e. g. How much did you pay
    for it?
    What is the weather like?

    It
    I

    costs over 'two 'hundred pounds.
    think it is 'going to \rain.

    2. I n s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s , serious, responsible, intense, often suggesting irritability or impatience.
    e. g. Will you lend me your
    pen?
    Go and see him tomorrow.

    What do you \want it for?
    What 'place does he \live in?

    3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , firm, serious, pressing.
    e. g. I can't think what to do.
    I'm afraid I've made
    a mistake.

    Leave it en'tirely to \me, then.
    Copy it 'out a\gain, then.

    4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , rather emphatic.
    203

    e. g. The exams are over at last.
    It's my birthday today.
    She refused my help.

    Isn't it \wonderful!
    Many 'happy re\turns!
    What a strange 'thing to \do!

    Exercises
    (Low pre-head) + falling head + low fall (+ tail)

    1. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    204

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce unstressed syllables in the pre-head as low
    as possible. Make the stressed syllables of the head carry the pitch lower. Do not forget to blend the words
    together. Make your voice fall on the last stressed syllable, c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.

    (Low pre-head) + stepping head + low fall (+ tail)

    The stepping head makes the utterance more weighty.
    2. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the reply:

    205

    206

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce unstressed syllables in the pre-head as low
    as possible. Make the stressed syllables of the head carry the pitch lower. Observe the same level of stressed and
    the following unstressed syllables of the head. Do not forget to blend the words together. Then make your voice fall
    on the last stressed syllable. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.

    (Low pre-head) + high level head + low fall (+ tail)

    When the syllables of the head are pronounced on the high level pitch the head is called the High Level.
    3. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    207

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Observe high level tone of the head. Do not forget to
    blend the words together. Make your voice fall on the last stressed syllable. c) Listen to the verbal context and
    reply in the interval.
    4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern II in your mind, ear and speech habits, repeat all the replies yourself until
    they sound perfectly natural to you. See that your Russian pronunciation habits do not interfere.
    5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    6. Listen to your teacher reading the verbal context below. Reply by using one of the drill sentences. Pronounce
    it with Intonation Pattern II. Say what attitude you mean to render:
    208

    209

    7. Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You, in your turn, reply to it using Intonation Pattern II. The drill
    will continue until every student has participated. Keep the exercise moving on rapidly. Keep the attitude in mind.

    Reference material for the teacher:
    1. What's your name? 2. How old are you? 3. When is your birthday? 4. How many brothers have you? 5.
    How many sisters have you? 6. Where do you live? 7. Where do you come from? 8. Where do you study? 9.
    My pronunciation is not good. 10. When can you do it? 11. What do you think of the book? 12. I'd like to see
    you tomorrow. 13. How much have you paid for it? 14. How long have you been there? 15. Where do you
    usually rest? 16. What have you bought for lunch? 17. My cousin is a doctor. 18. I don't know this young man.
    19. I'm afraid I can't do it in time. 20. I'm afraid I don't understand you. 21. Where have you put your bag? 22.
    Why have you bought the French newspaper? 23. What will you wear? 24. My mother is in St.Petersburg now.
    25. She is not in. 26. I don't find it easy. 27. What is there in front of the building?
    8.**1 Listen to the dialogues. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize them:
    1

    Material for exercises marked with two asterisks is borrowed from the book by J. D. O'Connor "A Course of English
    Pronunciation". L., 1954.

    a) "What's your name?"
    "My name's John."
    "How old are you?"
    "I'm thirty-five."
    "When1 s your birthday?"
    "It's on the tenth of December."
    "How many brothers have you ? "
    "I haven't any brothers at all."
    "How many sisters have you ? "
    "Just one."
    b) A: Stand up. What have you done ?
    B: I've stood up.
    A: Pick up you pencil. What have you done?
    B: I've picked up my pencil.
    A: Give it to me. What have you done?
    B: I've given it to you.
    A: Sit down again. What have you done?
    B: I've sat down again.
    c) A: Look at this picture.
    : How beautiful!
    A: Now look at this book.
    B: What a very big one!
    A: Look at the sun.
    B: Isn't it bright!
    A: Look at me.
    B: Oh dear!
    210

    9.** Listen to the following sentences and read them using Intonation Pattern II. Observe quick pronunciation
    of unstressed syllables. Concentrate your attention on rhythm and intonation:

    10. Make up a micro-dialogue using Intonation Patterns I, II.

    Section Three
    Intonation Pattern III
    (Low pre-head +) low rise (+ tail)

    Stress-and-tone marks in the text:
    Low Rise: | / |
    Before the Low Rise the low pre-head is pronounced on the same pitch level as the start of the rise. The rise
    in the nucleus starts from the lowest level and usually reaches the medium level. If the nucleus is followed by a
    tail, it is pronounced on the lowest level and the syllables of the tail rise gradually.
    This intonation pattern is used:
    1. I n s t a t e m e n t s , not categoric, non-final, encouraging further conversation, reserving judgement.
    e.g. Have you heard about Max? - /No.
    Shall we be in time? – I /think so.
    What do you want at the grocer's? - /Tea, /rice, /cheese...
    2. I n q u e s t i o n s :
    a) I n s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s (with the nuclear tone on the interrogative word), wondering, mildly
    puzzled.
    e.g. How must I do it? - /How?
    She's thirty-six. - /How old is she?
    How old are you? - /How old am I?
    b) I n g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , disapproving, sceptical.
    e.g. It's very important. - /Is it?
    We ought to follow his advice - /Must we do as he says?
    211

    3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , calmly warning, soothing.
    e.g. /Careful. /Steady. /Watch. /Don't.
    4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , reserving judgement; encouraging further conversation; expressing calm,
    casual acknowledgment; often heard in greetings.
    e.g. It's half past ten. - /Well. (We're not in a hurry.)
    Here's your change. - /Thank you!
    Good morning. - /Morning!
    Exercises
    Low rise only

    1. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the
    intonation of the replies:

    212

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice rise from the lowest level reaching the
    medium one. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.

    Low rise+ tail

    2. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations Concentrate your attention on the intonation of
    the replies:

    213

    b) Listen to the replies, repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce the stressed syllable on the low level. Unstressed
    or partially stressed syllables in the tail should rise to the medium level or even higher. c) Listen to the verbal
    context and reply in the interval.

    Low pre-head + low rise (+ tail)

    3. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    214

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce unstressed syllables in the pre-head as low
    as possible. Then raise your voice from the low level. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.
    4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern III in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat all the replies yourself until
    they sound perfectly natural to you. See that your Russian pronunciation habits do not interfere.
    5. Listen to your fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    6. Your teacher will ask you or one of the students the question "What would you like?". You answer by using
    one of the replies below. Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern III. You in turn ask someone else the same question.
    And he (or she) will also answer from the replies below. Continue the exercise until everyone has had an
    opportunity to ask the question and have it answered from the replies below. Keep the exercise moving rapidly and
    do not allow the students to take a long time to answer the question.

    M o d e l : What would you like?
    An /apple.
    an orange, some cheese, a bicycle, a book, a carpet, a drink, some mushrooms, a walk, a telephone call, a
    trip, some coffee, potato, porridge.
    7. Listen to the verbal context suggested by your teacher. Reply by using the drill sentences below. Pronounce
    them with Intonation Pattern III. Say what attitude you mean to render:

    215

    8. Pronounce the drill sentences with Intonation Pattern I. Observe the difference in attitude.
    9. Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You in turn respond to it using Intonation Pattern III. The drill
    will continue until every student has participated. Keep the exercise moving rapidly.

    Reference material for the teacher.
    M o d e l : I'm well now.
    216

    /Are

    you?

    1. She is at home. 2. It's already six. 3. I can come at nine. 4. She is leaving tomorrow. 5. Tom is coming on
    Saturday. 6. Jane is at home. 7. I've got "good" in English. 8. I'm going now. 9. I must leave you. 10. I've no
    mistakes. 11. My brother is a doctor. 12. I'm already twenty. 13. I see him very often. 14. She is waiting for
    you. 15. Helen is ill. 16 I don't like this book. 17. She is from the Crimea. 18. I can't help you. 19. You have too
    many mistakes. 20. I can't switch on the cassette-recorder,
    10. Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You in turn respond by using: a) statements, sounding non-final,
    encouraging further conversation or reserving some judgement; b) special questions, sounding wondering or
    mildly puzzled; c) general questions, sounding disapproving or sceptical; d) imperatives, calmly warning, soothing;
    e) exclamations, encouraging further conversations, expressing calm, casual acknowledgement or reserving some
    judgement.
    11. Make up a micro-dialogue. Your fellow-student will suggest a verbal context. Respond by using Intonation
    Patterns I, II, III. Continue the talk.
    12.***1 Listen carefully to the following sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Observe quick
    pronunciation of unstressed syllables:
    1

    Material for exercises marked with three asterisks is borrowed from the book "Lingaphone English Course". L., 1960.

    13.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear the intonation and reproduce it in proper speech
    situations. a) Listen to the dialogue «Days and Months. Asking the Time" sentence by sentence. Write it down.
    Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the dialogue. b) Record your reading, play the recording back immediately
    for your teacher and fellow-students to detect the errors in your pronunciation. Practise the dialogue for test
    reading and memorize it.

    Section Four
    Intonation Pattern IV

    This intonation pattern is used:
    1. I n s t a t e m e n t s , not categoric, non-final, soothing, reassuring, (in echoes) questioning, sometimes
    surprised.
    e. g. I've made a lot of mistakes
    in my dictation, haven't I?
    He's already left.

    It's
    Al

    not so ,bad.
    ready /left.
    217

    2. In questions:
    a) I n s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s ,
    interrogative word, puzzled.

    expressing sympathy, interest; with the nuclear tone on the

    e.g. I'm leaving tomorrow.
    I've just seen him in the
    dean's office.
    I've lost the key, mother.

    What /time are you leaving?
    You've seen him /where?
    How did you 'manage to 'do /that?

    b)I n g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , expressing interest (most common pattern for general questions).
    e. g. I've packed the things.

    Are you 'ready to /leave?

    3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , soothing, encouraging, calmly patronising (often addressed to children).
    e. g. What shall I do?
    I'm leaving.

    Don't /worry.
    Put 'on your 'warm /clothes.

    4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , encouraging, airy, often used in leave-takings and in bright and friendly
    greetings.
    e. g. Here is my translation.
    Anything else?
    Good morning.

    Very 'well /done!
    No, /thank you!
    Good /morning!
    Exercises
    (Low pre-head +) falling head + low rise (+ tail)

    1. a) Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of
    the reply:

    218

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make the stressed and the unstressed syllables of the
    head carry the pitch lower. When pronouncing the nucleus make your voice rise from the lowest level to the
    medium one. Do not forget to blend the words together. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the intervals.

    (Low pre-head +) stepping head + low rise (+ tail)

    2. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the reply:

    219

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make the stressed syllables of the head carry the pitch
    lower. The unstressed syllables should be pronounced on the level of the preceding stressed syllable. c) Listen to
    the verbal context and reply in the intervals.

    (Low pre-head + ) high head + low rise (+ tail)

    3. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the reply:

    220

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. There is only one strongly stressed syllable in Model 3.
    The unstressed syllables should be pronounced on the level of the preceding stressed syllable. Do not forget to
    blend the words together. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the intervals.
    4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern IV in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies yourself until
    they sound perfectly natural to you. See that your Russian pronunciation habits do not interfere.
    5. Listen to your fellow-student reading the replies given above. Tell him what his errors in the intonation are.
    6. Listen to your teacher reading the verbal context below. Reply using one of the drill sentences. Pronounce it
    with Intonation Pattern IV. Say what attitude you mean to render:

    221

    7. Say the same replies with Intonation Pattern II. Observe the difference in attitude.
    8. Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You in turn reply to it using Intonation Pattern IV. The drill will
    continue until every student has participated. Keep the exercise moving on rapidly.

    M o d e l : My sister plays the piano very well.
    222

    Does your 'brother 'play the 'piano too?
    Wait a little. I'll lake my umbrella.
    Is it /raining?
    1. I've bought a new English book. 2. My friend is a student. 3. Something has gone wrong with my pen. 4. I
    am hungry. 5. My brother has a new flat. 6. I'd like to go to the Crimea next summer. 7. My mother is French.
    8. I am fond of tennis. 9. I've just come from St.Petersburg. 10. I can't translate this article alone. 11. I don't
    think I'll finish this work today. 12. I am thirsty. 13. I am going to do the room. 14. I don't think she can speak
    English.
    9. Translate into English. Use Intonation Pattern IV in the replies:
    1.

    .-

    ? 2.

    ? 3.

    . -

    ? 5.

    . -

    .? 4.
    ? 6.

    -

    . . -

    ?
    10. Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You in turn respond by using: a) statements, sounding not
    categoric, soothing, reassuring; b) special questions, expressing sympathy, interest, general questions, expressing
    interest; c) imperatives, soothing, encouraging, calmly patronising; d) exclamations, encouraging, airy, friendly.
    11.** Listen to the dialogue "Guessing Game". Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize it:

    12. Make up your own guessing game.
    13.** Listen to the dialogues. Write them down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize them.
    14. Read the following sentences. Observe correct pronunciation of rhythmic groups:

    1. John came last night. 2. Don't do that here. 3. What nice soft gloves. 4. John's away on business. 5. Thank
    you for the letter. 6. They went for a walk in the Park. 7. At the bottom of Kensington Road. 8. At the bottom of
    Kenton Road. 9. At the bottom of Kent Road. 10. It wasn't so nice as before. 11. It wasn't so nice before. 12. It
    wasn't so nice then. 13. Come and see him off. 14. Don't be so impatient. 15. He always keeps me waiting. 16.
    It's the only time I'm free. 17. Would you mind passing the sugar? 18. Can you be here at eleven? 19. She's
    rather an impetuous woman. 20. Everyone else was on holiday. 21. How on earth can you manage to finish so
    quickly? 22. I sent them a photo of the children. 23. I should think it would be better to wait till tomorrow. 24.
    He realized that the bus wasn't going to stop for him.
    15.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce intonation. a) Listen to the text
    "Our Sitting-Room" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the text. b) Record
    your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher to detect the errors. Practise the text for test
    reading. c) Describe any picture in the same manner.
    16.*** Read the text silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Split up each sentence into intonationgroups if necessary. Underline the communicative centre and the nuclear word in each phrase. Mark the stresses
    and tunes. It is not expected that each student of the class will mark the text in exactly the same way. Your teacher
    will help all the members of the class to correct their variants. Finally practise reading your corrected variant:

    When you enter our sitting-room, the first thing you notice is the large window opposite the door. On the left
    223

    is an armchair with a small table by it. On the table are some books and an electric table-lamp. There are two
    other armchairs in the room and a settee.
    "Aren't there any small chairs?"
    "Only one, which is next to the radio-set, opposite the window. I have also a small cassette-recorder, which I
    keep in my bedroom."
    "Have you many cassettes?"
    "Quite a lot... The mantelpiece is on the right of the window and next to it is a bookcase."
    "Do you read a lot?"
    "Yes, everybody in our family likes reading. There are books in every room."
    "What else is there in the room?" .
    "Nothing else. We don't like a lot of things in our room."

    Section Five
    I. Accidental Rise

    If the speaker wants to make one word of the descending head more prominent than the others he
    pronounces it a little higher than the preceding syllables thus breaking their descending succession. This nonfinal rise is called accidental. It never occurs on the first stressed syllable as this syllable is always the highest
    in the descending head.
    Exercises
    1. Listen carefully to the following sentences. Concentrate your attention on Accidental Rise:

    1. In spring Nature awakens from her long winter sleep. 2. The trees are filled with new life. 3. The earth is
    warmed by the rays of the sun. 4. The weather gets gradually milder. 5. The fields and the meadows are covered
    with fresh green grass. 6. The woods and forests are filled with the songs of the birds. 7. When winter comes,
    we're obliged to spend more time indoors. 8. There's a bus stop just over there. 9. Then he has to take great care
    of the young animals. 10. I should say that football is one of the most popular sports in Great Britain. 11. He sat
    thinking of his own children. 12. The scientist is known all over the world. 13. Mary's umbrella is quite spoilt.
    14. Ann was wearing a charming blue hat.
    2. Listen to the same sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice go up a little on the word you
    want to make more prominent. Follow the intonation line exactly.
    3. In order to fix the intonation of sentences with Accidental Rise in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the
    sentences yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you.
    4. Read the following sentences using Accidental Rise on the words in bold type. Do not forget to blend the
    words together:

    1. I suppose it couldn't possibly happen again. 2. I'm sorry I couldn't quite make out what you were saying.
    3. My husband often does the washing up for me. 4. We went for a day's walk in the forest in spite of the rain.
    5. I'm reading a most interesting book by a new writer just now. 6. You have not given me a satisfactory
    explanation of your strange behaviour. 7. We hope to move into our new house before the month is out. 8.
    George plays football every Saturday afternoon. 9. I have an English lesson every day. 10. I haven't seen her
    for a long time. 11. The doctor says she must stay in bed for two or three days. 12. Tom Brown is the best pupil
    in his class.
    II. Sequence of Tones
    224

    Alternative Questions

    Model:

    Has she a /niece | or a \nephew?

    Alternative questions have the low-rising nuclear tone in the first intonation-group and the low-falling
    nuclear tone in the final intonation-group. The fall and the rise are of narrow range here.
    Exercises
    5. Listen carefully to the alternative questions. Concentrate your attention on the nuclear tones of both
    intonation-groups:

    1. Are the bedrooms on the ground floor or on the first floor? 2. Is the furniture in his house modern or old?
    3. Do the members of Dr. White's family read the Times or The Worker'? 4. Is it a large house or a small one? 5.
    Do you prefer tea or coffee? 6. Is your wife a housewife or does she work? 7. Shall I go on or stop here? 8.
    Does the dress fit you or do you want a larger one? 9. Have you a son or a daughter? 10. Do you study French
    or English?
    6. Listen to the same sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Follow the intonation line of the model exactly.
    7. In order to fix the intonation of alternative questions in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the
    sentences yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you. Listen to your fellow-student reading the alternative
    questions. Tell him what his errors in the intonation are.
    8. Complete the following sentences using the words in brackets:

    1. Do you usually have dinner at home ...? (at the canteen) 2. Do you get up at six ...? (at seven o'clock) 3.
    Will you have clear soup ...? (cabbage soup) 4. How do you like your tea strong ...? (weak) 5. Do you do your
    morning exercises in the room ...? (the garden) 6. Does she study French ...? (English) 7. Do you usually have
    breakfast at eight ...? (nine) 8. Do you usually sit up late ...? (go to bed early) 9. Did it take you half an hour ...?
    (a quarter of an hour to get there) 10. Did you lay the table for 6 ...? (for 12 persons) 11. Did you take your
    exam in English on the 15th ...? (on the 17th of January) 12. Will you have black ...? (white coffee).
    9. Make up alternative questions using the following sentences.

    M o d e l : She is twenty. She is twenty-five.
    Is she /twenty | or 'twenty-\five?
    1. He lives in a new house. He lives in an old house. 2. Your children have milk in the morning. Your
    children have coffee in the morning. 3. He will have black coffee. He will have white coffee. 4. They spend
    Sundays in town. They spend Sundays in the country. 5. It is warm today. It is cold today. 6. She will go to the
    Caucasus next summer. She will go to the Crimea next summer. 7. Your friend speaks English. Your friend
    speaks Spanish. 8. Her nephew lives in Moscow. Her nephew lives in St. Petersburg.
    10. Translate the following sentences:
    1.

    ? 2.
    ? 4.

    ? 3.
    ? 5.

    ? 6.
    ? 8.

    ? 7.
    ? 9.

    ? 10.

    ,
    ,

    ? 12.

    ,

    ? 11.
    ? 13.

    ?
    11. Make up a dialogue using alternative questions. See that your Russian pronunciation habits do not
    interfere.
    225

    Disjunctive questions

    Disjunctive questions consist of two intonation-groups. The sequence of tones in disjunctive questions
    depends on the attitude of the speaker towards the significance of the utterance.
    The first intonation-group has generally the low-falling nuclear tone. The low-rising nuclear tone of the final
    intonation-group, or tag, shows that the speaker is not certain of the facts expressed in the first part of the
    question. An answer is expected.
    e. g. I rang you up yesterday.

    You were

    meeting your \wife, | /weren't you? - Yes, I was.

    The low-falling nuclear tone of the tag shows that the speaker is certain of the facts expressed in the first part
    of the question. No answer is expected.
    e. g. I saw you at the station.
    and happy.

    You were

    meeting your \wife, | \weren't you? She looked so young

    Exercises
    12. a) Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals.
    13. Listen to the verbal context and reply in the intervals.
    14. In order to fix the intonation of disjunctive questions in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies
    yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you.
    15. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    16. Read the drill sentences according to the given models. Observe the difference in meaning.

    M o d e l s : The
    The

    text is \easy, | /isn't it?
    text is \easy, | \isn't it?

    1. She is better today, isn't she? 2. There is a lawn in front of your house, isn't there? 3. There are many new
    houses in your street, aren't there? 4. The New Year is the most favourite holiday in our country, isn't it? 5.
    Great Britain is an island, isn't it? 6. The Alps are higher than the Urals, aren't they? 7. The Mississippi is the
    longest river in the world, isn't it? 8. You don't speak Hungarian, do you? 9. You don't take beer, do you? 10.
    226

    You can't speak German yet, can you? 11. You have learned this poem by heart, haven't you? 12. You are fond
    of skating, aren't you? 13. We must pay right now, mustn't we? 14. They shouldn't be late, should they? 15. She
    can understand nearly everything, can't she? 16. It's my turn, isn't it?
    17. Read the following conversational situations according to the models, suggested for replies. Concentrate
    your attention on the intonation of the replies. Say what meaning is rendered by them.

    227

    18. Complete the following sentences making them disjunctive questions. The speaker is not certain of the fact
    expressed in the first part of the sentence. An answer is expected. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of
    the tag:

    I. You aren't reading this book now, ...? 2. She doesn't like tomatoes, ...? 3. He lives in Kiev, ...? 4. They
    usually have dinner at one o'clock, ...? 5. You like both pears and apples, ...? 6. He never uses pepper, ...? 7. It's
    high time to have a bite, ...? 8. Going out in such weather is out of the question, ...? 9. She is leaving for
    St.Petersburg, ...? 10. She can get rid of her mistakes, ...? 11. You finished school two years ago, ...? 12. You
    have passed your exams, ...? 13. You've got a letter, ...? 14. She hasn't finished school yet, ...?
    19. Complete the same sentences. You are certain of the fact expressed in the first part of the sentence. No
    answer is expected. Observe the difference in the intonation of the tag.
    20. Look through the exercise carefully. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read the tags of the disjunctive questions
    with the intonation suggested by the conversational situation:

    228

    21.** Listen to the following dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize it:
    A: What a lovely day, isn't it?
    B: Yes, it is.
    A: How blue the sky looks, doesn't it?
    B: Yes, it does.
    A: What a lot of people, aren't there?
    B: Yes, there are.
    A: You're on holiday, aren't you?
    B: Yes, I am.
    A: It's a long one, isn't it?
    B: Yes, it is.
    A: You don't talk very much, do you?
    B: No, I don't. You ask a lot of questions, don't you?
    A: Yes, I do.
    22.** Listen to the dialogue. Practise and memorize it.
    23. Make up short dialogues with disjunctive questions.
    24. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to reproduce the text with correct rhythm. Listen to the text.
    Split the text into intonation and rhythmic groups. Observe correct pronunciation of rhythmic groups. Practise the
    exercise:

    The weather in England can change very quickly. One day last week I went for a walk in the country. When
    I started early in the morning the weather was beautiful. The sun was shining, the sky was blue and there were
    no clouds at all. In the middle of the morning a sudden change came. A cool wind started to blow, black clouds
    covered the sun and in a very short time it started to rain heavily. There were no houses in sight and I had no
    coat with me. So I got very wet indeed and very cold too. After about an hour I managed to catch a bus which
    took home. But when I arrived I was shivering and sneezing. Ar I've had a cold ever since. I ought to have
    taken my coat. we sometimes say that England is the only country where you ce have four seasons in one day.

    Section Six
    I. Intonation Pattern V
    (Low pre-head + ) (descending head + ) mid-level (+ tail)

    Stress-and-tone marks in the text: Mid-Level Tone: | > |.
    The mid-level tone in the nucleus is pronounced on the medium level with any following tail syllables on the
    229

    same level.
    This intonation pattern is usually used in non-final intonation-groups expressing non-finality without any
    impression of expectancy.
    Exercises
    1. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the non-final intonation-groups of the reply:

    b) Listen carefully to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce the nucleus and the tail of the nonfinal intonation-group on the same medium level of your voice. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the
    interval.
    2. In order to fix Intonation Pattern V in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies yourself until they
    sound perfectly natural to you.
    3. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    4. Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You in turn respond to it by using mid-level nuclear tone in the
    non-final intonation-groups:

    230

    5. Pronounce the drill sentences with the low-rising tone in the non-final intonation-groups.

    II. Sequence of Tones
    The Simple Sentence. Intonation of Adverbials.

    Simple, sentences with adverbial phrases at the beginning are usually divided into two intonation-groups.
    The non-final intonation-group is usually pronounced with the low-rising or mid-level tone.
    . g. At
    At

    two o'/clock | we shall have \dinner.
    two o' > clock | we shall have \dinner.

    Adverbial phrases at the end of sentences do not form separate intonation-groups, as a rule, and often remain
    unstressed.
    e. g. We are

    going \out tonight.
    Exercises

    6. Listen carefully to the following sentences, repeat them in the intervals. Concentrate your attention on the
    intonation of the adverbials. Observe the sequence of tones. Repeat the sentences in the intervals:

    1. In the dining-room we have our meals. 2. On the sideboard the Browns usually have a bowl of fruit. 3. In
    front of the host there's a carving-knife and a fork. 4. On the left of each person is a table-napkin and a plate
    with a roll on it. 5. Next to the piano is a tall bookcase standing against the window. 6. On the left is a large
    window. 7. Under the window there's a radiator. 8. On the settee there are two cushions. 9. On the ground floor
    there's the dining-room, the lounge or sitting-room, the kitchen and the hall. 10. In the hall we see a stand for
    hats, coats and umbrellas. 11. On this floor there are four bedrooms, a bathroom and a lavatory. 12. On the top
    231

    of the roof there are three chimneys. 13. In front of the house we have a small garden. 14. At the back of the
    house there's a much larger garden with a lawn and some fruit-trees. 15. At the side of the house is a garage
    where I keep my car. 16. On the dressing table, in front of the looking-glass, you'll see a hair-brush and a comb,
    a hand-mirror, a bottle of scent and a powder-box. 17. In the wardrobe I keep my suits and other clothes, which
    I hang on coat hangers. 18. On each side of the fireplace there's an armchair. 19. In the centre of the
    mantelpiece there's a clock and above it an oval mirror. 20. On the right you can see a standard lamp. 21. By the
    table there's a small chair. 22. On the extreme right there's a radio-set. 23. After this there'll be fish, meat or
    poultry with vegetables, then a sweet and perhaps cheese and biscuits to finish with. 24. Once or twice a week
    we go to a theatre or to the pictures. 25. A few minutes later we hear a ring at the door. 26. At night when I feel
    tired and sleepy I go up to my bedroom and switch on the electric light. 27. After a few minutes I fall asleep.
    28. Punctually at seven thirty in the morning, the alarm-clock rings and wakes me up.
    7. Repeat the sentences yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you. Do not let your Russian
    pronunciation habits interfere.
    8. a) Read the sentences according to the given models. Observe the sequence of tones: first Mid-Level + Low
    Fall, then Low Rise + Low Fall. b) Listen to a fellow-student reading the sentences. Tell him what his errors in
    intonation are.

    M o d e l : On > Sunday | we shall be at \home.
    On /Sunday | we shall be at \home.
    1. On Tuesday we have six lessons. 2. On Friday they have grammar. 3. On Saturday we go to the concert. 4.
    On Sunday we have dinner at home. 5. On the 1st of May we have a holiday. 6. On the 26th of October I leave
    for the Urals. 7. On the 18th of November we have a test. 8. On the 9th of May we have no classes. 9. At 4
    o'clock he is at home. 10. At half past 7 I get up. 11. At 11 o'clock I am in bed. 12. At a quarter to 8 I do my
    morning exercises. 13. In front of the window there is a flowerbed. 14. On the ground floor there is a library.
    15. On the first floor there are bedrooms. 16. For the present he is not here. 17. In January we have our exams.
    18. At the club we usually meet our friends. 19. At our faculty there is a good language laboratory. 20. In
    September we begin our studies. 21. At our University there is a good drama circle.
    9. Change the word order in the following sentences according to the model. Pay attention to the intonation of
    the adverbials.

    M o d e l : He is at the \hospital on Monday.
    On /Monday | he is at the \hospital.
    1. We have our meals in the dining-room. 2. The Browns usually have a bowl of fruit on the sideboard. 3.
    There's a carving-knife and fork in front of the host. 4. There is a tall bookcase next to the piano. 5. There is a
    large window on the left. 6. There is a radiator under the window. 7. There are two cushions on the settee. 8.
    We see a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas in the hall. 9. There are three chimneys on the top of the roof. 10.
    There's an armchair on each side of the fireplace. 11. You can see a standard lamp on the right. 12. There's a
    small chair bythe table. 13. There's a radio-set on the extreme right. 14. We go to the theatre or to the pictures
    once or twice a week. 15. We heard a ring at the door a few minutes later. 16. I fell asleep after a few minutes.
    10. Your teacher will suggest an adverbial phrase. You in turn give a complete sentence beginning with the
    adverbial. Use the sequence of tones: Mid-Level + Low Fall, then Low Rise + Low Fall. Keep the exercise moving
    on rapidly.

    Reference material for the teacher:
    On Monday .... On Tuesday .... On Saturday .... On Sunday .... In August.... In September .... In November
    .... On the 9th of May .... On the 1st of September .... In June .... At four o'clock .... At half past seven ... . At a
    quarter to 2 .... In the morning .... In the afternoon .... At night.... Yesterday .... For the present.... Once or twice
    a week .... Punctually at seven .... A few minutes later .... On the ground floor .... Upstairs .... Behind the house
    ... . On the sideboard .... Next to the piano .... Under the window .... On the settee ... . In the hall .... On the
    232

    dressing table ... . In the wardrobe .... On the right ... . By the table .... Opposite the fireplace .... As a rule .... As
    you come into the room.... After a few minutes .... At the club .... At our faculty .... In front of the house .... In
    the dining-room .... In front of the host.... On the left.... On this floor.... On the top of the roof.... At the back of
    the house .... In the chest of drawers .... In the centre of the mantelpiece....
    11. Translate the following sentences:
    1.

    . 2.
    -

    . 5.

    . 3.
    ,

    . 8.

    . 7.

    . 9.
    . 12.

    . 11.
    . 14.

    . 4.

    . 6.
    . 10.
    . 13.
    . 15.

    . 17.
    . 20.

    . 21.
    . 23.
    . 26.

    . 16.
    . 19.

    . 18.
    . 24.
    . 27.

    . 22.
    . 25.
    . 28.

    .

    12. Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize it:

    E 1 s a : Patrick, what do you all do every day?
    P a t r i k : Do you really want to know? Well, on Monday we begin our work for the week. On Tuesday
    Mother usually cleans the kitchen. Then on Wednesday we send our dirty clothes to the laundry; Mother doesn't
    wash them. On Thursday my Father often brings his friends home to dinner. My club holds a meeting once a
    week, usually on Friday. And on Saturday we all go to the cinema.
    13. Make up a micro-dialogue of the same kind. Your fellow-student will suggest a question. Respond using the
    proper sequence of tunes. Continue the talk.
    14.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce intonation. a) Listen to the text
    sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the text. b) Record your reading. Play the recording
    back immediately for your teacher and fellow-students to detect the possible errors. Practise the text for test
    reading.

    The Browns' dining-room
    In the dining-room we have our meals: breakfast in the morning, lunch in the middle of the day, tea in the
    afternoon, and supper or dinner in the evening.
    Here you see Mr. and Mrs. Thompson who've just arrived from abroad and are having dinner with the
    Browns. The host, Mr. Brown, is sitting at the head of the table, and the hostess, Mrs. Brown, is at the other
    end. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson are sitting on either side, facing each other.
    The dining-room table is covered with a white cloth. Mrs. Brown has laid the table in the usual way, and has
    put the right number of knives, forks, spoons and glasses for each person. There's also pepper and salt, oil and
    vinegar, and mustard. On the left of each person is a table-napkin and a plate with a roll on it. In front of the
    host there's a carving-knife and fork.
    On the sideboard the Browns usually have a bowl of fruit: apples, pears, plums, cherries, grapes, oranges or
    bananas, according to the season. The mistress of the house has just served the soup. After this there'll be fish,
    meat or poultry with vegetables, then a sweet, and perhaps cheese and biscuits to finish with.
    15. Mark the stresses and tunes. It is not expected that each member of the group will mark the text in exactly
    the same way. Practise reading your corrected variant:

    The flat is not large but it is comfortable. In it there are two rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom, a lavatory and a
    small hall.
    The sitting-room is through the door on the left. There is a piano in it. There is a picture on the wall over the
    piano. It is a still-life. In the picture there is a silver tea-pot, a silver dish with three oranges in it, and a vase of
    red roses. The picture is by a famous woman artist. The sofa is by the wall opposite the door. It is of a rich red
    colour. There is a small round table in front of the sofa. There are two modern armchairs on both sides of the
    233

    large window. On the window there are curtains of a very pretty colour. There is not a sideboard in this room,
    but there is one in the kitchen.
    The bedroom is not large. It is square. The walls are light pink. There is a silvery grey carpet on the floor.
    The effect is very fine. There are two beds here with bedside tables beside them. In the right-hand corner near
    the window there is a dressing table with a large looking-glass and a round stool in front of it. There are not
    many things in the rooms.
    16.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce intonation in proper speech
    situations. a) Listen to the dialogue sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the dialogue. b)
    Record the dialogue and listen to your recording to detect the possible errors. Memorize the dialogue and
    dramatize it:

    Afternoon tea
    "Good afternoon, Mrs. White, how are you?"
    "Very well indeed, thank you, and how are you ? "
    "Quite well, thank you. Won't you sit down. Excuse me, please. I think that's my niece at the door."
    "Hallo, Betty, dear! I'm so glad to see you. You do look well. I don't think you've met each other before. Let
    me introduce you. This is my niece, Miss Smith. Mrs. White, Mr. White."
    "How do you do."
    "How do you do."
    "And now let's have some tea. How do you like your tea, Mrs. White, strong or weak?"
    "Not too strong, please, and one lump of sugar. I like my tea rather sweet, but my husband prefers his
    without sugar."
    "Well, what's the news, Mr. White? How's business?"
    "Pretty good, thank you. And how are things with you ?"
    "Well, not too good, I'm afraid, and going from bad to worse. In fact, it's the worst year we've had for a long
    time."
    "I'm sorry to hear that. I hope things will soon improve."
    "Yes, let's hope for the best. And how's your nephew Richard getting on?"
    "Oh, he's getting on quite well, thank you. He's staying in the country just now with his Uncle William and
    his cousins."
    "How long is he going to stay there?"
    "I don't know exactly, but he's having a very pleasant time and it's doing him a lot of good, so the longer he
    stays, the better."
    c) Give a conversational context in which the following phrases could be used:

    1. Hello, Betty, dear! I'm so glad to meet you. 2. How do you do. 3. How are you? 4. Quite well, thank you.
    5. Pretty good, thank you. 6. Excuse me, please. 7. I'm so glad to see you. 8. Oh, he's getting on quite well,
    thank you. 9. Not too good, I'm afraid. 10. Well, what's the news, (Tom)? 11. How are things (with you) ? 12.
    No more, thank you. 13. I'm sorry to hear that.
    17.*** Read the dialogues. Mark the stresses and tunes. It is not expected that each member of the group will
    intone the dialogues in exactly the same way. Practise reading your corrected variant:

    "Hello, John, I'm so glad you've come. How are you ?"
    "Quite well, thank you. How are you?"
    "Very well indeed, thank you. Have you met Mr. and Mrs. Black? They are staying with us for the weekend."
    "Oh, yes, we know each other quite well."
    "That's good. And now this is Mary with the tea, I think. Yes, it is. Thank you, Mary. John, you can pass the
    tea round. Do you have sugar in your tea, Mrs. Black?"
    "Just a little, please, but no milk."
    "Any sugar for you, Mr. Black?"
    "Yes, please, I like a lot of sugar."
    234

    "Most of men do, I think. My husband likes his tea very sweet."
    "And what will you have with it, a sandwich, or one of these cakes?"
    "A sandwich, please."
    * * *
    "How is your mother, Mrs. Black? I hear she's not been very well."
    "No, she hasn't, but she's much better now. She's staying with my brother for a few days and then she's
    coming to stay with us."
    "I'm glad to hear she's getting better."
    18. Make up a conversation with the phrases from the dialogue "Afternoon Tea".
    19. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read and narrate a story with proper intonation. a) Listen
    to the joke. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the joke. b) Listen carefully to the
    narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use
    of the temporisers. Retell the joke according to the model you have listened to.
    20. Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the most important sentence in the
    text. Underline the main word in each sentence. Split up each sentence into intonation-groups, mark the stresses
    and tunes. Practise reading the joke. Make your reading expressive. Retell the joke according to the model (see Ex.
    19):

    Two Americans were travelling in Spain. Once they came into a little restaurant for lunch. They didn't know
    Spanish and the waiter didn't know English. In order to make him understand they wanted some milk and
    sandwiches they drew a cow. The waiter looked at it and ran out of the restaurant. Soon he was back and put
    down in front of the two men two tickets for a bullfight.

    Section Seven
    Intonation Pattern VI
    (Low pre-head +) fall rise ( + tail)

    Stress-and-tone marks in the text: Fall-Rise: \/ \ / \ ... /
    e.g. \/Yes. \General/ly. Well\ I don't /think so.
    This intonation pattern is used:
    I n s t a t e m e n t s expressing concern, reproach, contradiction, correction, hurt feelings, sometimes
    soothing.
    The Fall-Rise is also used in non-final intonation-groups or in sentences of different communicative types
    instead of the low-rising nuclear tone to draw particular attention to one of the words for the purpose of contrast
    or to intensify the significance of the communicative centre.
    e. g. I wish we'd left earlier. - That wasn't \my /fault.
    It's so hot in this room. - \I don't /think so.
    You'll be thirty-five soon. - Thirty \/four.
    235

    Is it going to rain? - I \hope /not.
    Do you work every day? - On \week /days | I \work, |
    but on \Sun /days | I \don't.
    Fall-rise spread over two syllables

    The fall of the voice starts from a fairly high or medium pitch and usually ends rather low. The rise begins
    very low and does not go up too high.
    Exercises
    1. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the
    intonation of the replies:

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall as low as possible on the nuclear
    syllable. Start the rise from the lowest pitch and do not go up too high. Do not accent the tail. c) Listen to the
    verbal context and reply in the interval.

    Fall-rise spread over a number of syllables

    In this case the fall is on the stressed syllable and the rise is separated from the fall by one or more syllables.
    The syllables between the fall and the rise are always on a very low level.
    Exercises
    2. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    236

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall as low as possible on the nuclear
    syllable. Start the rise from the lowest pitch and do not go up too high. Do not accent the tail. c) Listen to the
    verbal context and reply in the interval.

    Fall-rise only

    The fall may start with a fairly high or medium tone and generally ends rather low. It occurs on the first part
    of the vowel. The rise begins very low and does not go up too high. It occurs on the second part of the vowel or
    on the following sonorant.
    Exercises
    3. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    237

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall as low as possible and then raise it
    slightly. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval.
    4. In order to fix Intonation Pattern VI in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat all the replies yourself until
    they sound perfectly natural to you.
    5. Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    6. Listen to your teacher reading the verbal context. Reply using one of the drill sentences below. Pronounce it
    with Intonation Pattern VI. Say what attitude you mean to render:

    238

    7. Pronounce the drill sentences with Intonation Patterns I, III. Observe the difference in meaning.
    8. Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You in turn reply by statements expressing contradiction,
    correction, contrast, concern, reproach.
    9. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear the falling-rising tone and reproduce it in proper
    conversational situations. a) Listen to the following dialogues. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize
    them.

    A: My holiday starts tomorrow.
    B: Not tomorrow.
    A: You'll be seeing Tom on Sunday.
    B: On Saturday.
    A: I'm having tea at five o'clock.
    B: At four o'clock, you mean.
    A: I can do it in a few minutes.
    B: A few hours, more likely.
    A: It's your birthday on Monday.
    B: Not this Monday.
    A: You'll be thirty-five then.
    B: Thirty-four.
    A: I think I'll have a rest now.
    B: I shan't.
    239

    A: I feel tired today.
    B: I don't.
    A: It's so hot in this room.
    B: I don't think so.
    A: My head aches when it's hot.
    B: Mine doesn't.
    A: I don't like the heat.
    B: I do.
    A: I'll go for a swim this afternoon.
    B: I shan't.
    A: It'll be cool in the winter.
    B: It won't.
    b) Listen to the dialogue "Is it going to rain?" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes.
    Practise and memorize it. c) One of the students will suggest a verbal context. The other will contradict or correct
    him. Keep the exercise moving rapidly until everyone has participated.
    10. One of the students will suggest the verbal context given below. You answer by Using the reply from the
    model. Continue the exercise until every student has participated. Keep the exercise moving rapidly and do not
    take a long time to give a reply.

    M o d e l 1 : May I come in?
    \Yes, /please. \Do, /please.
    1. May he come into the room? 2. We are going to bed. Shall I switch off the radio? 3. Shall I help you in the
    garden? 4. May I stay here a bit longer? 5. Shall I repeat the word? 6. Shall I lay the table? 7. May I try to put
    the iron right? 8. It's rather cold. Shall I close the windows? 9. It's stuffy in the room. Shall I open the windows
    and air the room? 10. May I switch on the radio and listen to the news?
    M o d e l 2 : Do you find it difficult to study maths?
    \Ra /ther.
    1. Do you find it difficult to translate the sentence? 2. Does she find it difficult to study languages? 3. Do
    you find it easy to do this exercise? 4. Do you find this book interesting? 5. Do you find it warm to set a tent
    here? 6. Do they find it cold to plant the flowers?
    M o d e l 3 : Have some more porridge.
    \No more, /thank you.
    1. Have another cup of tea. Have another ice-cream. Have another lump of sugar. Have another piece of
    cake. Have some more coffee. 2. Will you take another book to read? Will you have some more milk? Will you
    buy some more flowers? Will you take another ticket for the play? Will you take some more apples?
    M o d e l 4 : Do you always get up at the same time?
    \Of/ten.
    (often, sometimes, never, rarely, generally, usually)
    1. Do you regularly go to the laboratory? 2. Does your little brother like to read books? 3. Do you go to the
    theatre every week? 4. Does she always agree with him? 5. Do you rarely go shopping? 6. Can you often go to
    the cinema on week-days? 7. Do you always have dinner at home? 8. Do you ever go to the Institute on
    Sunday? 9. Do you ever miss your friends when they are far away? 10. Can you help your friends with
    phonetics?
    11. Read the sentences according to the models. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the address.
    240

    M o d e l 1 : \Pe/ter, where are you?
    1. Benny, come home. It's getting dark. 2. Kitty, it's high time to get up. 3. Betty, why aren't you listening to
    me? 4. Edward, stop talking. 5. Alec, come here. 6. Minnie, why aren't you writing? 7. Nick, why aren't you
    listening to the text? 8. Billy, you've left your umbrella. 9. Harry, wake up.
    d e 1 2 : I \say, /Mike, I've just had a wire from Mary.
    1. I say, Peter, I've just seen Sid. 2. I say, Nick, something has gone wrong with the tape-recorder. 3. I say,
    Alec, what are you doing tonight? 4. I say, Helen, have you seen the film "War and Peace"? 5. I say, Kitty, I've
    got two tickets to the theatre. 6. I say, Mum, can I have another ice-cream? 7. I say, Dad, can I go bicycling?
    12. Address your fellow-student according to the models above. Make him (or her) reply by using the intonation
    patterns you have studied.
    13. Read the following conversational situations. Use Intonation Pattern VI in them:

    14.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear the intonation and reproduce it in proper speech
    situations. a) Listen to the dialogue "Morning and Evening" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the
    stresses and tunes. Practise the dialogue. b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your
    teacher and fellow-students to detect the possible errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize the
    dialogue and dramatize it:

    Morning and evening
    241

    "What time do you get up as a rule?"
    "Generally about half-past seven."
    "Why so early?"
    "Because I usually catch an early train up to town."
    "When do you get to the office?"
    "Normally, about nine o'clock."
    "Do you stay in town all day?"
    "Sometimes I do, and sometimes I don't."
    "What do you usually do in the evenings?"
    "We generally stay at home. Once or twice a week we go to a theatre or to the pictures. We went to the
    pictures last night and saw a very interesting film. Occasionally we go to a dance."
    "Do you like dancing?"
    "Yes, very much. Do you dance?"
    "I used to when I was younger, but not very often now. I'm getting too old."
    "Too old? Nonsense you don't look more than fifty."
    "As a matter of fact, I'm nearly sixty."
    "Really! You certainly don't look it."
    "I'm glad to hear it. Are you doing anything special tonight? If not, what about coming with me to my club?
    You'd get to know quite a lot of interesting people there."
    "I should love to but today happens to be our wedding anniversary and we're going out tonight to celebrate."
    "Well, my heartiest congratulations."
    "Thank you very much. I could manage to come along tomorrow night, if that would suit you."
    "Yes, excellent. Let's make it round about eight o'clock."
    "Very well. Thanks."
    c) Give conversational situations with the phrases of the following type:

    1. I am glad to hear it. 2. I should love to. 3. Sometimes I do and sometimes I don't. 4. My heartiest
    congratulations. 5. Why so early? 6. Really? 7. Generally...
    15. The teacher or one of your fellow-students will read a question from the exercise. Reply using phrases
    suggested below. Make your fellow-students decide what attitude you are trying to render. Keep the exercise
    moving rapidly:

    1. What time do you get up as a rule? 2. What time do you go to bed? 3. What time do you have breakfast?
    4. What time do you read the newspaper? 5. What time do you go to the University? 6. When do you get to the
    University? 7. What time do you have dinner? 8. When do you get home? 9. What do you usually do in the
    evening? 10. What do you usually do on Sunday? 11. What do you usually do in the country? 12. What do you
    usually do in the garden? 13. Do you like dancing? 14. Do you like fishing? 15. Do you like boating? 16. Do
    you like sports? 17. Do you like singing? 18. Do you like skating? 19. Do you stay at the University all day? 20.
    Are you doing anything special tonight? 21. Are you doing anything special on Sunday? 22. Are you doing
    anything special tomorrow morning? 23. What about going to the theatre tonight? 24. What about going to the
    skating-rink? 25. What about going to the pictures? 26. What about going to the park? 27. When can you come?
    1. Generally.... 2. Normally.... 3. Occasionally... 4. As a matter of fact.... 5. I used to .... 6. I could manage to
    ... if that would suit you.
    16. Make up a conversation with the phrases from the dialogue "Morning and Evening".
    17.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce intonation in reading. Listen to the
    text "My Bedroom" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes: Practise the text for test
    reading.
    18. Read the text "About Myself" silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Split up each sentence
    into intonation-groups if necessary. Underline the communicative centre and the nucleus in each phrase. Mark the
    stresses and tunes. Use Intonation Pattern V in the word-groups in bold type to intensify the meaning of these
    242

    communicative centres. It is not expected that each student of the class will mark the text in exactly the same way.
    Your teacher will help all the members of the class to correct their variants. Finally practise reading your
    corrected variant:

    About myself
    I'm a student of English. I have been a student only two months and a half. I can't speak English well yet. I'm
    just a beginner, you know. I live in a hostel. It is rather a long way from the University. In fact, it is in the
    country and it takes me about an hour and a half to get to the University. But it gives me no trouble at all, as I
    like to get up early. I don't need an alarm-clock to wake me up. I am an early-riser, as they say.
    Though our hostel is out of town it is very comfortable and has all modern conveniences.
    As a rule I get up at 6.30, do morning exercises and have a shower. I don't have a bath in the morning, I have
    a bath before I go to bed.
    For breakfast I have a boiled egg and a cup of coffee. At about 7.30 I am quite ready to go. It is about a five
    minutes' walk from the hostel to the station. I usually take the 7.40 train. I walk to the station as I have plenty of
    time to catch my train.
    I come to the University five minutes before the bell rings. So I can have a chat with my friends. Only four
    students of our group are Muscovites, the others either come from different parts of our country or from other
    countries. We usually have a lot of things to talk about.
    There is a very good language laboratory at our University. It has modern equipment. We spend a lot of time
    in the laboratory listening to the tapes, imitating the sounds and intonation. It helps us to learn the language
    without much difficulty.
    We don't go out to lunch. There is a good canteen at our University. It is on the ground floor. We can go
    downstairs and have lunch in no time at all. As to my dinner I have it in a cafe on my way back to the hostel.
    I come to the hostel from the University about a quarter to five every evening. I live in a single room and
    have nobody to speak English to. I go to the girl next door and we do our lessons together. We are always ready
    to help each other.
    In the evening we sometimes go out. We go to the pictures if there is something new on or to the club if
    there is a dancing party there.
    But we often stay in, watch the TV program in the common room or listen to the radio. Then I read a book
    for half an hour or so and go to sleep. That doesn't take me long, as a rule.
    19. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read and narrate a story with proper intonation. a) Listen
    to the joke. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes, practise reading the joke. b) Listen carefully to the
    narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use
    of temporizers. Retell the joke according to the model you have listened to.
    20. Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the main phrase in the text. Split up
    each sentence into intonation-groups if necessary. Mark the stresses and tunes. Underline the communicative
    centre and the nuclear word of each intonation-group. It is not expected that each student will intone the text in
    the same way. Your teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise reading the joke several times. Retell
    the joke following the model above (see Ex. 19):

    Peggy, aged five, said she had a stomachache.
    "It's because you haven't had lunch yet," said her mother. "You would feel better if you had something in it."
    That afternoon their neighbour called and remarked while speaking to the mother that he had a bad
    headache. "That's because it's empty," said Peggy. "You'd feel better if you had something in it."

    Section Eight
    I. Sequence of Tones. Complex Sentences
    If an adverbial clause precedes the principal one and makes a separate intonation-group, it is usually
    pronounced with the Low Rise or Mid-Level as it implies continuation.
    e. g. If you

    want to have a > rest, |

    go to the \country.
    243

    If you

    want to have a /rest, |

    go to the \country.

    In case the complex sentence begins with the principal clause and contains more than one intonation-group
    both the clauses are usually pronounced with the low-falling nuclear tone.
    e. g.

    Go to the \country | if you

    want to have a \rest.

    If the principal clause implies continuation and makes a separate intonation-group it is pronounced with the
    low-rising or falling-rising nuclear tone.
    e. g. I'll

    tell him at /once | you

    want to \see him.
    Adverbial clauses of condition and time

    Exercises
    1. Listen carefully to the sentences below and, repeat them in the intervals. Concentrate your attention on the
    intonation of the non-final adverbial clauses. Observe the sequence of tones. Repeat the sentences in the intervals:

    a) 1. If you can stay longer, so much the better. 2. If you wish to bathe, you can hire a hut or a tent. 3. If you
    walk, it'll take you ten minutes or a quarter of an hour. 4. If you are staying in London for a few days, you'll
    have no difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. 5. If you're not fond of music
    and singing, opera won't interest you. 6. If you want to have a really quiet and healthy holiday, you must go to
    the country. 7. If you take off your coat, I'll take your measurements. 8. If I were you, I should make up my
    mind beforehand. 9. If you had time and weren't too tired, you could go to the East End and see the Tower of
    London. 10. If I want to know the time, I look at my watch. 11. If you want to post an ordinary letter, you can
    drop it into the nearest pillar-box. 12. If you come with me, I'll show you. 13. If you are interested in churches
    and historical places, you should go to Westminster Abbey.
    b) 1. When winter comes, we're obliged to spend more time indoors. 2. As I was going through the book
    department, I was surprised to meet an old friend of mine. 3. When we stay at my brother-in-law's, we have to
    work very hard, but we don't mind. 4. After I've tried the suit on, the tailor will probably find it necessary to
    make a few alterations. 5. When it is as cold as that, it is really very unpleasant. 6. When Tom died, Mrs.
    Meadows wrote George about it, but they never got an answer. 7. In the afternoon as soon as Mr. Hilton, Roger
    and Alice came home, their preparations began. 8. When I've dried myself with a towel, I get dressed. 9. When
    the suit is ready, I shall pay for it and get a receipt.
    2. Read the sentences above several times until they sound perfectly natural to you. Follow the intonation line
    exactly.
    3. a) Read the sentences according to the model above. Observe the sequence of tones. b) Listen to your fellowstudent reading the sentences. Tell him what his errors in intonation are:

    1. If you go to the country, you'll enjoy yourself thoroughly. 2. If you are busy today, you may come
    tomorrow. 3. If you don't know the way ask the militiaman. 4. If you have to do some shopping, go to the
    Central Department Store. 5. If you take (follow) my advice, you will not regret it. 6. If you want to see a good
    play, you should book tickets beforehand. 7. If it suits you, come by all means. 8. If it is not very frosty
    tomorrow, we shall go skating. 9. If this play is as good as that one, it is worth seeing. 10. If you finish your
    exercise soon, you may go for a walk. 11. If you hire a taxi, it will take you only 10 minutes to get there. 12. If
    you want to see many places of interest, you should go on sightseeing tours whenever you can. 13. If you want
    to buy a pair of shoes, you should try them on. 14. If the weather is fine, we shall go to the country. 15. If it
    244

    rains, take an umbrella. 16. If you walk, it'll take you half an hour to get to the Institute. 17. When you come
    home, ring me up. 18. When you finish your books, you'll have to make reports on them. 19. When you enter
    the theatre, you go to the cloakroom. 20. When the actor appeared on the stage, there was a storm of applause.
    21. When Robert Shannon invited Jean to the theatre, he doubted whether she would come or not. 22. When
    you call for me, I'll introduce my sister to you. 23. When he saw the old man for the first time, he looked at him
    with admiration and respect. 24. When he went to sea, he did not inform anyone of it. 25. When he learnt the
    news, he got angry. 26. When she married Tom, she was never sure that she had married the right man. 27.
    When he arrived in Moscow, the weather was surprisingly wonderful. 28. When he passed his exam with an
    excellent mark, he was eager to inform his parents of it. 29. When you come to Red Square, turn to the left and
    you will see the building you want. 30. When you come back home, you should go to the greengrocer's and to
    the butcher's.
    4. Complete the following sentences in turn. Observe the sequence of tones. Keep the exercise moving on
    rapidly:

    1. If you are going to stay in England for some time.....2. If you can stay longer.....3. If you walk.....4. If you
    are staying in London, .... 5. If you are not fond of music, .... 6. If you are at the cinema.....7. If you want to
    have a really quiet holiday, ... 8. If you take off your coat.....9. If you can do it now.....10. If I were you, ... . 11.
    If you have time and aren't too tired..... 12. If I want to know the time..... 13. If you are going to England, .... 14.
    If you want to post a letter..... 15. If you want to send a telegram, ... . 16. If you want your letter to arrive more
    quickly, ... . 17. If you want to send a parcel, ... . 18. If you want a guide to show you round.....19. If your wife
    is going to be with you.....20. If the weather is fine, ... . 21. If it rains..... 22. If you go to the country, ... . 23. If
    you are busy today..... 24. If you don't know the way, ... . 25. If you have to do some shopping.....26. When we
    were out in the street, ... . 27. When summer comes.....28. When we were children, ... 29. When you are tired of
    London, .... 30. As I was walking, ... . 31. When it is as cold as that.....32. When Robert Shannon invited
    Jean..... 33. When at last the curtain fell,.... 34. While we were watching the last scene, ... . 35. When we were
    out in the street, 36. When I met her at the entrance to the theatre,... . 37. When Tom died, ... . 38. When I came
    to see him the next day, .... 39. And before their tour came to an end, .... 40. When you come home, ... . 41.
    When you enter the theatre, .... 42. When the actor appeared on the stage.....43. When you call for me, ... . 44.
    When he saw the old man for the first time, .... 45. When he went to sea, .... 46. When he learnt the news,.... 47.
    When she married Tom,.... 48. When he arrived in Moscow,....
    5. Translate the following sentences. Use the necessary sequence of tones. Do not let your Russian pronunciation
    habits interfere:
    1.

    ,

    . 2.
    . 4.
    . 6.

    ,
    . 5.

    ,
    . 7.

    ,
    . 8.

    . 9.

    10.

    ,
    ,

    ,

    . 11.
    ,
    ,
    . 15.

    ,
    ,

    . 17.

    ,

    ,

    . 21.

    . 23.

    ,

    ,

    25.

    . 14.
    ,
    ,
    . 18.

    ,

    . 19.

    ,

    .

    ,
    . 12.

    . 13.
    . 16.

    . 3.
    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 28.
    ,

    ,

    . 30.
    . 32.

    ,
    . 33.

    ,
    ,

    . 20.
    ,
    .

    . 22.
    . 24.
    . 26.

    ,
    . 27.
    . 29.
    ,
    . 34.

    ,

    . 35.

    . 31.
    ,
    ,

    .
    6. Listen to the dialogue. Memorize it. Make up your own dialogue of the same type.
    245

    II. Logical stress

    If the nucleus is shifted from the last notional word to some other word of the intonation-group the sentence
    stress is called logical.
    Exercises
    7. The words in bold type are the nucleus of the sentences below. While reading concentrate on the change in
    meaning in sentences with logical stress. Intone the sentences:

    1. Jack lived there alone. Jack lived there alone. 2. We met Mark in our English club. We met Mark in our
    English club. We met Mark in our English club. 3. He's lost his father's book. He's lost his father's book. He's
    lost his father's book. He's lost his father's book. 4. John's sister speaks French perfectly. John's sister speaks
    French perfectly. John's sister speaks French perfectly. John's sister speaks French perfectly. 5. He told them
    not to go there. He told them not to go there. He told them not to go there. He told them not to go there. He
    told them not to go there. He told them not to go there. 6. My brother knows you well. My brother knows you
    well. My brother knows you well. My brother knows you well. My brother knows you well. 7. Her father likes
    them very much. Her father likes them very much. Her father likes them very much. Her father likes them
    very much. 8. His last story was long. His last story was long. His last story was long. His last story was long.
    9. My cousin helps the boy a lot. My cousin helps the boy a lot. My cousin helps the boy a lot. My cousin
    helps the boy a lot. 10. Group 102 will take their exam next week. Group 102 will take their exam next week.
    Group 102 will take their exam next week.
    8. Read the sentences according to the situation suggested in brackets. Use the logical stress to single out the
    elements of contrast. Make your reading expressive:

    1. The students were listening to the text at the laboratory (not in Room 15). 2. The students were listening to
    the text at the laboratory (not to the poem). 3. The students were listening to the text at the laboratory (not
    recording it). 4. The students were listening to the text at the laboratory (not the teachers). 5. The first-year
    students sang a Russian folk song (not an American song). 6. The first-year students sang a Russian folk song
    (not a modern song). 7. The first-year students sang a Russian folk song (not the third-year students). 8. It
    rained hard on Sunday in Pushkino (not yesterday). 9. It rained hard on Sunday in Pushkino (not in Moscow).
    10. It rained hard on Sunday in Pushkino (not just a little as you say). 11. He was taking his exam in Literature
    on Monday (not on Friday). 12. He was taking his exam in Literature on Monday (not in Linguistics). 13. He
    was taking his exam in Literature on Monday (not having a consultation).
    9. Your teacher or fellow-student will read the questions below. While answering them concentrate your
    attention on the distribution of sentence stress:

    1. Are you in the first or in the second course? 2. Is the girl in Group 213 or in Group 313? 3. Does your
    father work at a Medical Institute or at a Teachers' Training Institute? 4. Which season do you like best of all?
    5. Do you like early autumn or late autumn? 6. Are they reciting a poem or reading it? 7. Have they spoken to
    their new neighbour or have they just seen him? 8. Will you go boating or cycling on Saturday? 9. Will you go
    skiing to the forest next week or will you stay at home? 10. Is it my fountain-pen or yours? 11. Is it your coffee
    or mine? 12. Would you like coffee or cocoa for breakfast? 13. Have you had dinner or are you going to have
    it? 14. What street do you live in? 15. What exam are you taking on Friday?
    10. The lines below are taken from books by different authors. How do you think the authors intended them to
    be stressed and why?

    I. "Do you prefer the inside or the outside, John?" I said I generally preferred to sleep inside a bed. 2. She
    246

    said slowly: "If you don't know, nobody does." 3. "It's all very well for you, fellows," he says, "you like it but I
    don't." 4. "I had their promise, their written promise..." 5. M i s s B e e c h . But your mother likes him? J o y . (Sullenly). I don't want her to like him. 6. "I say our chairman. Why do I say our chairman? Because he is
    not my chairman, you know." 7. "Speak out," said Martin, "and speak the truth." "I fear this is the truth." 8.
    "She'll be pretty," he muttered. "I shouldn't wonder." "She is pretty," said Emily; "she ought to make a good
    match." 9. George said that if anything was broken, it was broken, which reflection seemed to comfort him. 10.
    "Oh!" exclaimed George, grasping the idea; "but we can't drink the river, you know!" - "No, but you can drink
    some of it," replied the old fellow. "It's what I've drunk for the last fifteen years."
    11. Look for similar situations in your books for home reading.
    12. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce intonation in proper speech situations.
    a) Listen to the dialogue sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading it. (See p. 219) b)
    Record it. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and fellow-students to detect the possible errors.
    c) Give a conversational context with the following phrases:

    1. Do you think it's ... . 2. Don't speak too soon. 3. Don't worry, (Robert) ... . 4. Never mind. 5. Oh, dear, ....
    13. Make up a conversation with the same phrases.
    14.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear the intonation and to reproduce it in the text. a)
    Listen to the text "Seasons and Weather" sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the text. b)
    Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and fellow-students to detect the
    errors in your pronunciation. c) Practise the text for test reading:

    Seasons and Weather
    The year is divided into four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In spring nature awakens from her
    long winter sleep. The trees are filled with new life, the earth is warmed by the rays of the sun, and the weather
    gets gradually milder. The fields and the medows are covered with fresh green grass. The woods and forests are
    filled with the songs of the birds. The sky is blue and cloudless. At night, millions of stars shine in the darkness.
    When summer comes the weather gets warmer still and sometimes it's very hot. It's the farmer's busy season
    - he works in his fields from morning till night. The grass must be cut and the hay must be made, while the dry
    weather lasts. Sometimes the skies are overcast with heavy clouds. There are storms with thunder, lightning and
    hail.
    Autumn brings with it the harvest-time, when the crops are gathered in and the fruit is picked in the
    orchards. The days get shorter and the nights longer. The woods turn yellow and brown, leaves begin to fall
    from the trees, and the ground is covered with them. The skies are grey, and very often it rains.
    When winter comes, we're obliged to spend more time indoors because out-of-doors it's cold. We may get
    fog, sleet and frost. Ponds, lakes, rivers and streams are frozen, and the roads are sometimes covered with
    slippery ice or deep snow. The trees are bare. Bitter north winds have stripped them of all their leaves.
    15. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read and narrate a story with proper intonation. a) Listen
    to the joke. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the joke. b) Listen carefully to the
    narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use
    of temporizers. Retell the joke according to the model you have listened to.
    16. Read the joke silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the main sentence in the text.
    Underline the main word in every sentence. Split up each sentence into intonation-groups if necessary. Mark the
    stresses and tunes. Practise reading the joke several times. Retell the joke following the model above:

    Rather Late
    It was a dark night. A man was riding a bicycle without a lamp. He came to a crossroad and did not know
    which way to turn. He noticed a pole with something white which looked like a sign. Climbing to the top of the
    pole he lit a match and read: "Wet Paint".
    247

    Section Nine
    Intonation of parentheses

    Parentheses express the speaker's attitude towards the utterance.
    Parentheses at the beginning of the sentence

    When the speaker doesn't attach any importance to the parenthetical words at all they do not form a separate
    intonation-group and are often unstressed and are pronounced very quickly.
    e. g.

    Well, I \do. Well, I \do.

    If the speaker attaches more importance to parentheses, they form an intonation-group. In this case they are
    stressed and are pronounced with any nuclear tone: Low Fall, Low Rise, Mid-Level or Fall-Rise.
    e. g. \Well, | I \do.
    To tell you the /truth, | I don't 'want to \go there.
    > Well, | I \do.
    For my \own /part, | I should \love it.
    Exercises

    1. a) Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of
    the replies:

    248

    b) Listen carefully to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Have no pause after the parentheses. Make
    them stressed or unstressed but pronounce them a bit faster than the main utterance. c) Listen to the verbal
    context and reply in the interval. d) In order to fix intonation in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the
    responses yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you. e) Listen to your fellow-student reading the replies.
    Tell him what his errors in intonation are.

    2. a) Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of
    the replies:

    249

    250

    b) Listen carefully to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Have a short pause after each parentheses.
    Observe the slight difference in tempo, pronounce the parenthetical words or phrases a bit quicker. Make them
    sound more weighty and important than in Model 1. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval. d) In
    order to fix intonation in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the responses yourself until they sound perfectly
    natural to you. e) Listen to your fellow-student reading the responses. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    3. Listen to the verbal context suggested by your teacher. Respond by using the replies. Say what attitude you
    express:

    251

    4. Read the following sentences according to Models 1, 2. Use them in conversational situations:

    1. So, if you come with me, I'll show you. 2. Yet, if you talk to her, you'll see that she is right. 3. Then, don't
    trouble to answer it. 4. Then, I don't know how to help her. 5. So, he is very lucky then, I think. 6. Now, why
    are there so many people here? 7. Still, there are five more days. 8. Of course, their furniture is more modern
    than ours. 9. Perhaps, I'll go there immediately. 10. Of course, I didn't know it. 11. Of course, I have been rather
    silly. 12. Perhaps, she is coming with us too. 13. Perhaps, that gentleman over there will be able to help you. 14.
    Come, don't worry about that. 15. Here, what's the trouble? 16. Here, somebody is knocking at the door. 17.
    Why, I didn't know he was there. 18. As a matter of fact, I like the idea. 19. As a matter of fact, I wanted to
    know what was worrying you. 20. As for me, I never take mustard or pepper. 21. As you know, I finished
    school in June. 22. As for me, I am a member of our English club. 23. As far as I know, you passed all your
    entrance exams with excellent marks. 24. Fortunately for me, it was a translated version. 25. As a rule, the plays
    are magnificently staged. 26. In fact, I would say, the further away the better. 27. I say, how black those clouds
    are getting. 28. For instance, when driving, they keep to the left-hand side of the road in England. 29. On the
    whole, I prefer a black hat. 30. You see, you haven't been married as long as we have. 31. First of all, let's see
    the house. 32. By the way, may I open the window? 33. In any case, before crossing the road, take care to look
    to your right. 34. I say, who's the boy, with whom I've been dancing?
    5. Read the following sentences, according to Model 2. Use them in conversational situations:

    1. Besides, I'm afraid I have a bad pain in my side. 2. Generally, I drink coffee in the morning. 3. Normally,
    252

    we go for a walk in the evening. 4. Occasionally, we go to the South. 5. Besides, it's a pity to stay at home on
    such a fine day. 6. Personally, I've always wanted to be a teacher. 7. Personally, I'm not very keen on opera. 8.
    Besides, we do live nearer now. 9. Anyhow, who says I'm bad-tempered? 10. Anyhow, he'll be well looked
    after at the hospital. 11. However, he is always ten minutes late.
    6. Complete the following sentences. Use them in conversational situations:

    1. Well, you see, ... . 2. You know, ... . 3. Oh.....4. Look here, ... . 5. Come, ... . 6. Why.....7. I say, ... . 8.
    Still..... 9. Now..... 10. Then, ... . 11. Of course..... 12. Perhaps, 13. Luckily, 14. Fortunately, ... . 15.
    Unfortunately.....16. However, ... . 17. Anyhow, ... . 18. Besides, ... . 19. Normally, ... . 20. Finally.....21.
    Personally, ... . 22. Generally.....23. Probably, ... . 24. Possibly.....25. Perhaps, ... . 26. Maybe, ... . 27.
    Surely, ... . 28. No doubt.....29. Upon my word.....30. Not at all, ... . 31. As far as I can see, ... . 32. To my
    regret.....33. I am sorry to say.....34. At any rate, ... . 35. In short..... 36. After all.....37. In any case, ... . 38. At
    least.....39. On the contrary, ... . 40. Above all.....41. Strictly speaking, ... . 42. To tell you the truth, ... . 43. As
    far as ... is concerned, ... . 44. You see, ... . 45. As for me, ... .46. In my opinion.....47. By the by, ... . 48. To
    begin with.....49. First of all.....
    7. Translate from Russian into English. See that your Russian pronunciation habits do not interfere:
    1.

    ,

    ? 2.

    . 4.

    ,
    . 5.
    . 8.

    ,
    ? 7.
    . 10.

    ,
    . 14.

    ,
    ,

    . 22.
    ,

    21.

    ,
    ,
    . 25.

    . 9.
    . 12.

    ,
    . 15.

    . 17.
    ? 19.

    ,
    . 6.

    ,
    . 11.

    ,
    ,

    ,

    . 3.
    ,

    ,

    ,
    -

    . 20.
    . 23.
    ,

    . 13.
    . 16.
    ,

    . 18.
    ,

    . 21.
    ,

    . 26.

    .
    ,

    ?
    Parentheses at the end or in the middle of the sentence.

    In the middle or at the end of the sentence parenthetical words and phrases are generally pronounced as the
    unstressed of half stressed tail of the preceding intonation-group.
    Exercises
    8. a) Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of
    the parentheses at the end of an intonation-group:

    253

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Have no pause before the parentheses. Pronounce them
    as unstressed or partially stressed tails of the preceding intonation-groups. c) Listen to the verbal context and
    reply in the interval. d) In order to fix the intonation of the parentheses at the end of an intonation-group in your
    mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you. e) Listen to your
    fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    9. Read the following sentences according to the model given above. Use them in conversational situations:

    1. A walking holiday depends upon the weather, of course. 2. You were badly ill then, as far as I remember.
    3. A cowardly thing to do, I call it. 4. Tastes differ, you know. 5. They are geologists, as you know. 6. So you
    didn't have any rest, in fact. 7. Had a nice rest in the South, too, I guess? 8. Our time is up, I'm afraid. 9. Jane
    doesn't make up, I am sure. 10. Just the same, so far. 11. I feel bad, indeed.
    10. Make up sentences using the following parenthetical words and phrases at the end of them. Use them in
    conversational situations:

    1. ..., of course. 2.....anyhow. 3. ... , at least. 4. ... , I'm sure. 5...., I hope. 6. ..., I believe. 7..... as far as I know.
    8.....I think. 9.....I presume. 10. ..., you know. 11. ... , I suppose. 12...., I'm afraid. 13...., I guess. 14. ...,sofar.
    15.....in fact.
    11. Give your own examples with parentheses at the end of the sentences.
    12.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear intonation and reproduce it in proper
    conversational situations. a) Listen to the dialogue "Planning a Holiday" sentence by sentence. Write it down.
    Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the dialogue. b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately
    for your teacher and fellow-students to detect the possible errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize
    the dialogue. c) Pick out sentences and intonation-groups containing parentheses. d) Give conversational situations
    with the phrases below:

    1. I say, ... . 2. Well, I don't know. 3. ..., I expect. 4. Oh, yes. 5..... anyhow. 6..... I suppose. 7. ..., as a rule. 8.
    On the whole, ... . 9. However.....10. For my own part, ... . 11. Right, I will.
    e) Make up a conversation with the phrases from the dialogue "Planning a Holiday".
    13. Translate the following sentences into English; read them following the intonation patterns of the dialogue:
    1.

    ?? 3.

    ,
    . 6.

    . 4.
    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    . 5.
    ? 7.

    ,
    ,

    .
    14.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce intonation in reading. a) Listen to
    the text "At the Seaside" sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the text. b) Record your
    reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and fellow-students to detect the possible errors.
    254

    Practise the text for test reading. c) Pick out sentences with subordinate clauses at the beginning. Observe the
    intonation they are pronounced with:

    At the Seaside
    If you're going to stay in England for some time, you ought to spend at least a week at the seaside. If you can
    stay longer, so much the better. You ought to have no difficulty in finding a suitable hotel or boarding-house.
    When we were children, we used to enjoy playing on the beach, making castles and forts and channels in the
    sands. I expect you did the same when you were young, because it's really one of the most delightful holidays
    for children. We used to love playing about on the sand and paddling in the water and getting splashed by the
    waves. Sometimes we'd get our clothes wet, and Nurse would get very cross and tell us we oughtn't to have
    gone so far into the water.
    When you're tired of London, go down to the sea for a week or a fortnight. You can walk up and down the
    front, listen to the band on the pier and do more or less anything you please. If you wish to bathe, you can hire a
    hut or a tentr A swim now and then, or better still, everyday, will do you a lot of good. Take your car with you,
    if you've got one, choose a good hotel, and you're sure to spend a thoroughly enjoyable time.
    15.*** Read the text silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Split up each sentence into intonationgroups if necessary. Mark the stresses and tunes. Find the communicative centre of each sentence. Practise reading
    the text:

    We had a grand holiday last year. My husband and I took the children to the seaside for a month. We have
    five children. John, the eldest, is 12 years old, and little Mary, the baby, is only two and a half.
    John has been to the seaside several times before, but this was the first time the other children had been.
    Naturally, it was a great event for them. For weeks before we were to go they talked of nothing else and were
    very busy getting their things ready. Finally, the day came when our holiday was to begin. John was a great
    help in looking after the other children and so was Betty, who is nearly eleven. It was a fine morning. We were
    up very early as we wanted to leave home soon after breakfast. We made the journey by car, and we took some
    refreshments with us so that we could stop for lunch when we found a pleasant place in the country. We
    reached the seaside town, where we intended to stay in the early afternoon, and as soon as we arrived the
    children were asking if they could go down to the beach and see the sea. After that we spent many hours of
    each day on the beach. The children made sandcastles and bathed. John and Betty, who are quite good
    swimmers, had a swim every morning with their father while I sat with the others. Several times my husband
    and I went to the theatre in the evening and once or twice we went dancing.
    16. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read and narrate a story with proper intonation. a) Listen
    to the joke. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the joke. b) Listen carefully to the
    narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarity in intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of
    temporizers. Retell the joke according to the model you have listened to.
    17. Read and retell the jokes:

    Doctor's Orders
    S e r v a n t : Sir, wake up, wake up!
    M a s t e r : What is the matter?
    S e r v a n t : It's time to take your sleeping tablets.
    Politeness
    M o t h e r : Which apple do you want, Tom?
    T o m : The biggest one.
    M o t h e r : Why, Tom, you should be polite and take the little one.
    T o m : Well, Mamma, should I lie just to be polite?
    His pipe
    255

    L i t t l e g i r l : Grandpa, would you like me to give you a new pipe for your birthday?
    G r a n d p a : That's very nice of you, Mary, but I have got a pipe.
    L i t t l e g i r l : Don't think you have, Grandpa, I've just broken it.
    A good student
    P r o f e s s o r : Can you tell me anything about the great chemists of the 17th century?
    S t u d e n t : Yes, sir, they are all dead, sir.

    Section Ten
    Intonation pattern VII
    (Low pre-head +) falling head + fall-rise

    This intonation pattern is used in statements, commands and other communicative types of sentences to
    express the same attitudes as Intonation Pattern VI. Stressed syllables of the head sometimes glide down.
    e. g. I didn't know you drank coffee. - I

    do \some /times.
    Exercises

    1. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    256

    b) Listen to the replies and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice fall as low as possible. Start the rise
    from the lowest pitch and do not go up too high.
    c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the intervals.
    2. In order to fix Intonation Pattern VII in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the replies yourself until
    they sound perfectly natural to you.
    3. Listen to your fellow-student reading the replies. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.
    4. Listen to the verbal context suggested by your teacher. Reply by using one of the drill sentences below.
    Pronounce it with Intonation Pattern VII. Say what attitude you mean to render:

    5. Read the same replies with Intonation Patterns II or IV. Observe the difference in attitude.
    6. Give a conversational context with the following sentences pronounced with Intonation Patterns VI and VII.
    257

    Your fellow-student will suggest a verbal context. You respond to it using one of the sentences below. Keep the
    exercises moving on rapidly until every student has participated:

    1. On Saturday. 2. It's mine. 3. The style is good. 4. He's coming in a week. 5. I saw him today. 6. It's not
    bad. 7. You needn't do it now. 8. You'll fall. 9. Your chair's slipping. 10. You'll miss your train. 11. Try to be
    there by six. 12. Careful with that glass. You'll drop it. 13. Mind. There's a step here. 14. Be quick. We are
    going to be late. 15. You must call at Helen's.
    7. Your teacher will suggest a verbal context. You in turn reply by using statements, expressing contradiction,
    correction, contrast, concern, reproach, sometimes soothing.
    8. Read the following sentences, containing the opposition. Use Intonation Patterns VI or VII to express the
    opposition:

    1. There was a beautiful vase on the piano and above it there hung a picture. 2. On the dressing table in front
    of the lookingglass you'll see a hair-brush and comb, a hand-mirror, a bottle of scent and a powder-box. In
    the wardrobe I keep my suits and other clothes, which I hang on coat-hangers. 3. Then there's the motor cycle,
    with which you can travel quickly and cheaply, but for long journeys it's rather tiring. With a motor-car one
    can travel comfortably for long distances without getting too tired. 4. I saw members of the crew carrying out
    their duties in various parts of the ship, while the captain watched the operations and gave his orders from the
    bridge. 5. You'll probably want to sit as near to the stage as possible. But if you're at a cinema, you may prefer
    to sit some distance from the screen. 6. She kept the books in the bookcase and the dictionaries stood on the
    shelf above her writing table. 7. The sun was shining brightly but the air was still cold. 8. It takes 45 minutes
    to get there by bus. But if you go there by metro it won't take you half an hour. 9. The lawns were already
    green, but the apple-trees stood still bare. 10. The Smiths enjoyed the view of the whole city from the
    Vorobyev Hills while the Wilsons liked the historical monuments of Moscow. 11. We'd better put the table to
    the wall and the armchairs in the corner of the room. 12. The elder children were tobogganing, skiing, making
    snowmen while the smallest were just watching them. 13. You may have a good time in town, going to the
    museums, theatres and cinemas. But if you want to have a really quiet holiday you'd better go to the country
    at the week-end. 14. It was already summer. The days were hot and stuffy. But the mornings were still fresh.
    9. Read the following sentences. Observe the position of the communicative centre. Use Intonation Patterns VII
    in the clauses of condition and time to make the communicative centre more prominent:

    1. If you are going to stay in England for some time, you ought to spend at least a week at the seaside. 2. But
    if you'r,e at a cinema, you may prefer to sit some distance from the screen. 3. If you can stay only a few days in
    London, you won't have much time for your sightseeing. 4. If you want to send a telegram, you can either take
    it to the nearest post-office or dictate it over the telephone. 5. If you want to send a parcel, you hand it to the
    assistant. 6. If you want a guide to show you round, they'll get you one. 7. If the price of a reel of cotton is
    fourpence, you hand over four pennies for it. 8. If you feel too ill to go to the doctor, you'll have to send for
    him. 9. While we were watching the last scene, her hand small and hot touched mine. 10. When I met her at the
    entrance to the theatre, she looked excited and her eyes sparkled. 11. And before their tour came to an end, they
    had seen and learned a lot of interesting things about our country. 12. When we were children, we used to enjoy
    playing on the beach, making castles and forts and channels in the sand. 13. When you are tired of London, go
    down to the sea for a week or a fortnight. 14. When summer comes, the weather gets warmer still.
    10. Read the sentences according to the situation suggested in brackets. Observe the position of the
    communicative centre:

    1. It was my first visit to London (not the second one). 2. I hope Mary will come soon (not John). 3. She's
    coming on Sunday at four (not on Tuesday). 4. I'd like to have a few English books (not Russian ones). 5. May I
    go and see Tom? (not only ring him up) 6. This house is situated on the left side of the street (not on the right
    one). 7. You'll find the magazine in the desk (not on the desk). 8. I must see him (not his sister). 9. I did it (not
    anyone else). 10. Will you lead the way? (I can't do it myself).
    11. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear the intonation and reproduce it in proper speech
    258

    situations. a) Listen to the Conversation "Asking the Way" (See p. 253) sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses
    and tunes. Practise the dialogue. b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher
    and fellow-students to detect the errors in your pronunciation. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize
    and dramatize it. c) Give conversational situations for the phrases of the following type:

    I. Excuse me ... . 2. Excuse me, (officer) ... . 3. Can you tell me the way to ...? 4. Certainly. 5. Thank you
    very much. 6. How far is it from here? 7. There's sure to be. 8. Yes, (sir), any (bus) will take you. 9. Sorry, (sir)
    ....
    12. Read the following dialogues:

    "Take matches."
    "Where are they?"
    "In the usual place, I expect."
    "I can't see them."

    "What's the time?"
    "Ten to eleven."
    "We shall have to be quick, then."

    "He tells me you've been very good to him."
    "Oh we do what we can for him. He is a nice boy."
    13.*** Make up a conversation with one of your fellow-students using phrases from the Conversation "Asking
    the Way".
    14. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear the intonation and to reproduce it in reading. a) Listen
    to the text "A Street in London" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the
    text. b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and fellow-students to detect
    the errors in your pronunciation. Practise the text for test reading.
    15. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read and narrate a story with proper intonation. a) Listen
    to the joke. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the joke. b) Listen carefully to the
    narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use
    of temporizers. Retell the joke according to the model you have listened to.
    16. Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the main sentence in the text. Split
    up each sentence into intonation-groups if necessary. Mark the stresses and tunes. Underline the communicative
    centre and the nuclear word of each intonation-group. It is not expected that each student will intone the text in
    the same way. Your teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise reading the joke several times. Retell
    the joke according to the model above (see Ex. 15):

    When a group of women got in the car every seat was already occupied. The conductor noticed a man who
    seemed to be asleep, and, fearing he might miss his stop he said to the man: "Wake up."
    "I wasn't asleep," the man protested.
    "But you had your eyes closed."
    "I know. I just hate to look at ladies standing up in a crowded car."
    *

    * *

    A very stout lady said angrily that she wanted to report the conductor of the bus that had just gone.
    "He's been rude," she shrilled.
    "How?" asked the official.
    "Why," went on the lady. "He was telling people the bus was full up and when I got off he said: "Room for
    three inside."

    Section Eleven
    Intonation of direct address

    259

    Direct address at the beginning of the sentence

    Direct address at the beginning of the sentence is stressed. It is pronounced with the low-falling nuclear tone
    in formal serious speech and with the falling-rising tone to attract the listener's attention or in a friendly
    conversation.
    e. g. \Children, | \listen to me.
    come \here.
    \Ma/ry, |
    Exercises

    1. Listen carefully to the following sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Concentrate your attention on
    the intonation of direct address:

    1. Mary, sit down! 2. John, listen to me! 3. Harry, look at the map! 3. Children, look at the blackboard! 5.
    Kitty, it's time to get up! 6. Peter, we've run out of vegetables. 7. Peter, sit here on my left! 8. Tom, who's on
    duty? 9. Nick, hurry up. 10. Boys, don't be so noisy.
    2. Read the following sentences according to Model 1. Follow the intonation line exactly:

    1. Children, stand still at your desks! 2. Ann, stand up straight! 3. Comrades, take your seats! 4. Helen, why
    were you absent yesterday? 5. Kitty, you're late again. 6. Children, stop talking! 7. Ann, come to the board and
    divide it into two parts. 8. Peter, please fetch some chalk! 9. Children, stop making noise! 10. Harry, stand
    aside, so that we all can see the board.

    3. Listen carefully to the following sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Concentrate your attention on
    the intonation of direct address:

    1. Peter, may I use your pencil? 2. Edward, something has gone wrong with my electric iron. 3. Mary, isn't
    this skirt long for me? 4. Porter, will you see to my luggage, please? 5. Helen, darling, don't be angry with me.
    6. Mum, I should like another apple. 7. Ann, may I take your book? 8. Eddy, why didn't you phone me? 9. Tom,
    why don't you wash your hands?
    4. Read the following sentences according to Model 2. Follow the intonation line exactly:

    1. Mother, could I go and play football now? 2. Mother, may I have another cup of milk? 3. Ann, will you
    please give me a little more porridge? 4. Kitty, why aren't you eating anything? 5. Bob, is there anything to your
    taste on the menu? 6. Peter, give me another glass of water, I am thirsty. 7. Mary, will you help me to wash the
    dishes? 8. Ann, at what shop did you buy this hat? 9. Madam, which is the biggest department store in
    Moscow?
    Direct address in the middle or at the end of the sentence
    260

    Direct address in the middle or at the end of the sentence is ordinarily pronounced as the unstressed or halfstressed tail of the preceding intonation-group. After the low-falling nucleus it can also be pronounced with the
    low-rising tone.
    e, g. I \say, Mike, | I've just had a 'wire from \Mary.
    That's all /right, darling.
    Good Nmorning, Mrs. /Wood.
    Exercises
    5. Listen carefully to the following sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Concentrate your attention on
    the intonation of direct address:

    1. Good afternoon, Mrs. White, how are you? 2. Mind you don't miss the train, sir. 3. Certainly, madam. 4.
    What's the salt for, Mum? 5. Right, Dad. 6. Come on, Nora. 7. Hello, Betty, dear! 8. Well, what's the news, Mr.
    White? 9. What do you think of London, Mrs. Thompson? 10. Well, what's the matter with you, Mr. Walker?
    11. Yes, of course, Mrs. Howard. 12. Good-bye, Mrs. Wood. 13. Had a good day, Nora? 14. Do you want me to
    do anything this evening, Nora? 15. Shut the door behind you, Peter. 16. Good afternoon, sir, what can I do for
    you? 17. Good morning, Mrs. Wood. 18. I'll go in and get them, Dad. 19. You'll have to carry this case, Peter.
    20. You know, Harry, there's a dance this evening at the Town Hall. 21. And how do you like your tea, Mrs.
    White, strong or weak? 22. Excuse me, officer, is there a bus from here to Trafalgar Square?
    6. Read the following sentences according to the models given above. Follow the intonation line exactly:

    1. No more, Mum, thank you. 2. Good afternoon, Mrs. White, how are you? 3. I say, Helen, have you got
    anything special on tomorrow night? 4. Good morning, Ann, glad to see you. 5. I say, Peter, will you go to the
    cinema with me? 6. Don't worry, Mary, I'll do that myself. 7. Now, Bobby, how much is two plus four? 8. Now,
    Tom, why don't you wash your hands? 9. I say, Mary, where is my book? 10. You are wrong, Pete, that was
    yesterday. 11. Look, dear, a button has come off my coat. 12. Now, James, you'll catch cold. 13. Can you come
    a little earlier? - Oh, yes, darling, certainly. 14. Don't worry, Mother, I'll come in time. 15. All right, mother, I'll
    come in an hour. 16. And now, my dear fellows, good night to you all. 17. All right, Betty, I'll join you in a
    minute. 18. Thank you, Mother, I don't want any more. 19. I think, dear, you are right. 20. Hello, Robert, do
    you want any help? 21. And now, Nina, repeat all the words you have mispronounced. 22. Well, Ann, have you
    noticed any mistakes? 23. You forget, Mother, that I am getting my stipend very soon. 24. Come on, Jim, we
    shall have to hurry. 25. Look here, Mary, there's a concert this evening at the club. 26. You know, Tom, when
    Bob was your age he was a very good pupil. - Yes, Father, I know that. 27. You are wanted on the phone,
    Roger. 28. Good evening, Mr. White. 29. Which book will you take, Henry? 30. Very well done indeed, Tom!
    31. I like your reading, Ann. 32. Change (turn) the sentence into a question, Jim. 33. Stop talking, Ann. 34.
    What's the date today, Ben? 35. Go to the board, Jimmy. 36. Don't prompt him, Ann. 37. Repeat the word, Ann.
    38. What is the Russian for this word, Pete? 39. Read the first sentence, Mike. 40. Put down (take down) your
    homework, children! 41. You'll help me, wont you, Nina? 42. Now remember what I've said, Peter. 43. How
    are you, Harry? 44. Glad to see you, Arthur. 45. Have some more pudding, Ann? 46. Please read to yourself,
    Mary, and not aloud. 47. Good morning, madam. Can I help you? 48. May I ask you a question, Comrade
    Petrov? 49. Will you have anything to drink, Sir? 50. Isn't it a pretty thing, Mother? 51. D'you want to make me
    a model boy, Mum? 52. What have we got to eat, Mum? 53. Can I have another glass of tea, Mary? 54. May I
    take your pen, Ann? 55. I'm so sorry, Mother. 56. Can I have an apple, Mum? 57. Haven't you finished your
    work yet, John? 58. May I use your pencil, Bob? 59. Give it to me, Ann. 60. Good-bye, Mr. Smith. 61. Give
    your book to Ann, Mary. 62. May I go to the cinema, Mother?
    7. Address your friend placing direct address at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the sentence.
    8.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear the intonation and reproduce it in proper
    conversational situations. a) Listen to the dialogue "Shopping" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the
    stresses and tunes. Practise the dialogue. b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for the
    teacher and your fellow-students to detect the possible errors in your pronunciation. Practise the dialogue for test
    reading, memorize and dramatize it:
    261

    Shopping
    "Er - Excuse me, how do I get to the glove department?"
    "Over there on the left, madam, just past the ribbon counter."
    "Is this the right counter for gloves?"
    "Yes, madam. What sort of gloves do you require? Kid, suede, chamois ...?"
    "Well, let me see some of each."
    "Certainly, madam. What size do you take?"
    "Six and a quarter, I believe, but you'd better measure my hand to make sure."
    "I think a six is your size. How do you like these? I can recommend them, they're very reliable."
    "How much are they?"
    "Nineteen and eleven (19/11), madam."
    "Very well, I'll take them. And now, how do I get to the shoe department?"
    "Come this way, please, and I'll show you ... just over there beyond the millinery department."
    *

    * *

    "What kind of shoe did you want, madam? Calf, glace, suede...?"
    "I want a strong walking shoe with a low heel. Perhaps calf would be best. I like court shoes, but of course
    high heels aren't suitable for country wear ... As you see, I have rather small feet."
    "Here's a pair about your size. Try them on ... How do they feel?"
    "They're fairly comfortable, but they're a bit tight across the toes; I suppose they'll give a little."
    "Yes, they'll stretch with wearing."
    "Very well, then... Now, let's see, what else did I want. Oh yes, some silk stockings, shoe-polish, a pair of
    scissors, and some safety-pins."
    c) Use the phrases below in conversational situations:

    1. Excuse me, how do I get to ...? 2. Is this the right ...? 3. What sort of ...? 4. What size do you take? 5. How
    much ...? 6. This way, please. 7. As you see ....
    d) Make up a dialogue of your own using phrases from the dialogue "Shopping".
    9.** Listen to the dialogue. Write it down. Practise it in pairs until you can say it in exactly the same way.
    10. Read and reproduce the following dialogues. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of direct address:

    "Now, take out your books and open them at Page Thirty. Peter, where did we leave off yesterday?"
    "We left off at the second paragraph on Page Thirty."
    "Thank you! Ann, will you please read the text. Don't prompt her, John. Has she made any mistakes,
    comrades?"
    "Ann didn't pronounce the word 'work' correctly."
    "Say the word, Ann!"
    *

    * *

    "Johnny, why are you late for school every morning?"
    "Every time I come to the corner the sign says: 'School - Go slow'."

    262

    11.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read a text with proper intonation. a) Listen to the text
    "The Big Stores" sentence by sentence. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the text. b) Record your
    reading. Play the recording back immediately for your teacher and fellow-students to detect your possible errors.
    c) Practise the story for test readings:

    The big stores
    I went into one of the big London stores today and enjoyed myself very much, just wandering from one
    department to another, looking at the various articles on the counters. I thought the assistants were very helpful.
    There must have been some hundreds of salesmen and saleswomen and dozens of different departments,
    including china, haberdashery, confectionery, hardware and even provisions. I went from one department to
    another - from umbrellas to gloves, from fancy goods to lace - up and down, in lifts and on escalators. As I was
    going through the book department, I was surprised to meet an old friend of mine, whom I hadn't seen for years.
    We went up to the restaurant and had lunch together.
    We didn't finish lunch until half past two. Then we did some shopping together. I helped her to buy some
    presents for her children. I can't tell you how glad we were to see each other again. We used to be very great
    friends. I hadn't seen her for - let me see - ten or twelve years, at least.
    12. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read and narrate a story with proper intonation. a) Listen
    to the joke. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the joke. b) Listen carefully to the
    263

    narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use
    of temporisers. Retell the joke according to the model you have listened to.
    13. Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence, find the most important phrase in the
    story, underline it, split up every sentence into intonation-groups, mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading the
    jokes several times. Retell the jokes following the model above (See Ex. 12):

    Jack's mistake
    J a c k ' s M o t h e r : There were three pieces of cake in the cupboard, Jack, and now there are only two.
    J a c k : It was so dark there, Mamma, that I didn't see the others.
    A correction
    T e a c h e r : Jimmie, why don't you wash your face? I can see what you had for breakfast this morning.
    L i t t l e b o y : What was it?
    T e a c h e r : Eggs!
    L i t t l e b o y : You are wrong, teacher, that was yesterday.
    Whose mistakes?
    T e a c h e r (looking through Teddy's homework): I wonder how one person could make so many mistakes.
    e d d : It wasn't one person, teacher. Father helped me.
    Father and son
    F a t h e r : You know, Tom, when Lincoln was your age he was a very good pupil. In fact, he was the best
    pupil in his class.
    T o m : Yes. Father, I know that. But when he was your age he was President of the United States.
    At a restaurant
    "Here, waiter, it seems to me that this fish is not so fresh as the fish you served us last Sunday."
    "Pardon, sir, it is the same fish."

    Section Twelve
    I. Intonation of the author's words

    The author's words following direct speech

    The author's words which follow the direct speech are usually pronounced as an unstressed or half-stressed
    tail of the preceding intonation-group.
    e. g. "I'm not \ready," he said.
    "Is this for /me?" he asked with surprise.
    264

    If the tail gets longer, it may form a separate intonation-group. In this case it is stressed and is pronounced
    with the same nuclear tone as the preceding intonation-group but on a lower pitch level.
    e. g. "I'm \sorry," | a gain re peated the \landlord.
    If the author's words form two or more intonation-groups, the first of them doesn't form a separate
    intonation-group. The second and the third are always stressed and pronounced each on a lower pitch level. The
    nuclear tone of the final intonation-group is usually that of the sentences in the direct speech. The non-final
    intonation-groups may be pronounced either with the low-rising tone or with the low-falling tone according to
    their semantic importance.
    e. g. "What a \pity!" was all I said | when he broke a \glass.
    " Do you 'think 'that's /fair?" she asked, | looking at me with sur/prise.
    Exercises

    1. Listen carefully to the following sentences. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the author's
    words following direct speech:

    1. "I don't know," he said quietly. 2. "What's it for?" he inquired in a whisper. 3. "Come here," she ordered in
    a sharp voice. 4. "It isn't mine," he said for the second time. 5. "Give it to me," she said with a smile. 6. "You've
    dropped it on the floor," he complained to her. 7. "You'll have to put a stamp on," he explained in his best
    French. 8. "Come here!" commanded the captain in a loud voice. 9. "Be back in half an hour," she reminded
    him sternly. 10. "You've made the same mistake again," the teacher complained with a frown. 11. "It's nearly
    ten o'clock," she observed glancing at her watch. 12. "What a pity!" was all I said when he broke a glass. 13.
    "Quite right," he added nodding his head. 14. "Pleased to meet you," he said holding out his hand. 15. "I think
    it's going to rain," he remarked, looking up at the black sky. 16. "I must put some coal on the fire," she
    remarked getting up from her chair. 17. "We really must be going now," she said getting up out of her chair. 18.
    "I disagree," said the next speaker rising to his feet. 19. "Stop it!" shouted the little girl to her brother. 20. "It's
    not possible," was the opinion he offered after a moment's thought. 21. "It's rather expensive," she remarked
    looking in the shop window. 22. "You don't mean it, madam," said the girl, and there was pain in her voice.
    2. Listen to the same sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce the author's words on a low pitch
    level.
    3. In order to fix the intonation of the author's words in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the sentences
    yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you.
    4. Listen to a fellow-student reading the sentences. Tell him what his errors in the intonation of the author's
    words are.
    5. Read the following drill sentences according to Model 1. Concentrate your attention on the author's words
    following direct speech:

    1. "What have we got to eat, Mum?" asked Robert. 2. "It's coming on to pour," said Nora. 3. "It's much
    fresher here than in London," said Mrs. Hilton. 4. "My husband is coming in a moment," said Mrs. Martin,
    taking off her hat. 5. "I like your house very much. It's the quietest I know," she said, looking at her friend with
    a smile. 6. "It hasn't rained since Sunday," she said, looking out of the window. 7. "It's dry enough to sit on the
    grass," she said spreading the table-cloth. 8. "Don't be too quick about spreading that table-cloth, Nora. I felt a
    spot of rain," said Harry, looking up at the sky. 9. "Well, I am glad he came back," said Mrs. Meadows with a
    faint smile. 10. "Oh, Robert, you can't believe how much I've enjoyed that wonderful play!" exclaimed Jean as
    265

    they were leaving the theatre.

    6. Listen carefully to the following sentences. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the author's
    words:

    1. "Do you really think so?" she said excitedly. 2. "I hope you don't mind," she remarked apologetically. 3.
    "It's the best you can do," he explained to them. 4. "Did you meet him?" she inquired at once. 5. "Do you think
    it's true?" they kept on asking. 6. "Would you like a cup of tea?" she said with a smile 7. "Will you wait for
    me?" she called from upstairs. 8. "Please, take one," she said invitingly. 9. "Shall we ask him too?" they
    whispered to one another. 10. "It's not so bad," he said at last. 11. "Did you hear?" he repeated with an angry
    frown.
    7. Listen to the same sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Follow the intonation line exactly.
    8. In order to fix the intonation of the author's words in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the sentences
    yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you.
    9. Listen to a fellow-student reading the sentences. Tell him what his errors in the intonation of the author's
    words are.
    10. Read the following drill sentences according to Model 2. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the
    author's words following direct speech:

    1. "Do you think it's too damp to sit on the grass?" asked Nora. 2. "Does this bus go to Trafalgar Square?"
    asked the man. "Can I get there by the metro?" he asked. 3. "Have you ever been married, Captain Meadows?" I
    asked. 4. "Would you like to go to the theatre with me?" asked Nick handing the ticket to his friend. 5. "Have
    you ever been to that museum?" asked the guide, pointing to an old building across the street. 6. "Is there a bus
    from here to Trafalgar Square?" asked the man, standing on the platform.
    11. Read the following according to Models 1 or 2:

    a) "Tickets, please!" called the attendant as they entered the hall.
    "You've got them, haven't you, Emily?" asked Miss Green.
    "Yes, of course!" her friend answered, handing them to the attendant.
    "This way, please," he said going on ahead of them.
    b) "And how are you today?" smiled the doctor, entering the little girl's room.
    "All right, thank you," she answered, looking at him timidly.
    "Open your mouth!" he said, bending over her bed. "Now say Ah!" he added, as he peered down her throat.
    "Do you think she's better, doctor?" asked the mother.
    "She'll be all right in a day or two," the doctor replied with an encouraging smile.
    The author's words preceding direct speech

    The author's words introducing the direct speech form an intonation-group and are usually pronounced with
    the mid-level, low-falling or low-rising nuclear tone.
    266

    Exercises

    12. Listen carefully to the following sentences. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the author's
    words preceding direct speech:

    1. He said: "They were very glad to gefa letter from you." 2. He asked: "What else can I do for you?" 3.
    George said: "Let's go to London early on Wednesday morning." 4. He said: "I want two stalls if you've got
    them." 5. She said: "They'll do very well." 6. He said: "I don't quite like the final scene in the play."
    13. Listen to the same sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce the author's words with the midlevel tone.
    14. In order to fix the intonation of the author's words in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the sentences
    yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you.
    15. Listen to a fellow-student reading the sentences. Tell him what his errors in the intonation of the author's
    words are.
    16. Read the following drill sentences according to Model 1. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the
    author's words preceding direct speech:

    1. He said: "You are wrong." 2. She said: "Don't hurry. The performance is not over." 3. They said: "We
    enjoyed ourselves at the party." 4. He said: "There is no doubt she tells the truth." 5. He said: "She accepted the
    invitation." 6. They say: "Our seats were far from the stage." 7. They said: "The best seats at theatres are those
    in the stalls."

    17. Listen carefully to the following sentences. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the author's
    words preceding direct speech:

    1. He said: "They were very glad to get a letter from you." 2. He asked: "What else can I do for you?" 3.
    George said: "Let's go to London early on Wednesday morning." 4. He said: "I want two stalls if you've got
    them."
    18. Listen to the same sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce the author's words with the lowfalling tone.
    19. In order to fix the intonation of Model 2 in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the sentences yourself
    until they sound perfectly natural to you.
    20. Read the following sentences according to Model 2. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the
    author's words preceding direct speech:

    1. She said: "I haven't laughed so much for a long time." 2. He said: "Show your tickets to the attendant
    inside the theatre." 3. She said: "The play isn't over till half past five." 4. He said: "She'll show you to your
    seats."

    21. Listen carefully to the following sentences. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the author's
    267

    words preceding direct speech:

    1. She said: "They'll do very well." 2. He said: "I don't quite like the final scene in the play." 3. They said:
    "Our seats were in the orchestra stalls and we saw the stage well." 4. She said: "The play is worth seeing."
    22. Listen to the same sentences and repeat them in the intervals. Pronounce the author's words with the lowrising tone.
    23. In order to fix the intonation of the author's words in your mind, ear and speech habits repeat the sentences
    yourself until they sound perfectly natural to you.
    24. Read the following drill sentences according to Model 3. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the
    author's words preceding direct speech:

    1. She said: "I like drama and ballet, but I don't quite like opera." 2. He said: "The attendant showed us to
    our seats and gave us the programme." 3. She said: "Please book two more tickets for me." 4. He said: "Would
    you like to go to the theatre with me?" 5. The attendant said: "Would you like the programme?" 6. She asked:
    "What do you think of the play?" 7. She asked: "Have you got any seats for tomorrow?" 8. She said: "The
    acting was excellent."
    25. Read the following dialogue. Express proper attitudes. Concentrate on the intonation of the author's words:

    "I've come up to talk to you," my mother said, "while you are getting ready. Who's going to be at the party?"
    "I don't know," I said.
    "Will you enjoy it?" my mother asked.
    "I hope so," I said.
    "You've only got fifteen minutes," my mother said.
    "Yes, I know."
    "Can I help you?" my mother asked.
    "No, thanks awfully," I said.
    "Will Betty be there?"
    "No," I said.
    "Why not?"
    "Because the people giving the party don't know her."
    "That's funny," my mother said. "I wonder why they don't. Isn't that funny, their not knowing her?"
    "Why?"
    "Well because it is," my mother said. "Why don't you introduce her to them? They'd like her. I've always
    liked Betty... I like that dress. It suits you. It doesn't make you look old like some of the things you wear. What
    on earth are you doing to your hair?"
    "Putting it on top."
    "Oh, I don't like that," my mother said. "Why are you doing it like that?"
    "I like it."
    "Your father won't like it," my mother said. "Good heavens, your stockings are transparent."
    "Yes."
    "What's the good of wearing transparent stockings if your legs are blue?" my mother asked. "Are you going
    to wear your boots and take your shoes with you in a bag?"
    "No," I said.
    "You've only got five minutes now," my mother said.
    "Yes, I know."
    "Will Sammy be there?" my mother asked.
    "I think so."
    "Oh good," my mother said. "I hope you'll be nice and polite to him. You will, won't you?"
    '"Yes."
    "Yes, try," my mother said. "Would you like him to come to tea?" "No."
    "Oh, all right," my mother said. "But I think you're very silly, that's all. I remember I didn't really like your
    father very much when I first met him, but you won't take any notice of anything I can say. Can you walk in
    268

    these shoes?"
    "Yes."
    "You are going to be late, aren't you?" my mother said.
    "Yes."
    "Oh!" my mother cried. "You're not wearing your cardigan. Why have you taken it off? Why aren't you
    wearing your cardigan?"
    "Because I am not going to," I said.
    "You'll be sorry," my mother said, "when the others are all enjoying themselves and you are sitting near the
    fire with your teeth chattering and a red nose. Sammy won't find that attractive."
    "I'm ready now," I said. "Good-bye."
    "Enjoy yourself, good-bye."
    II. Intonation of enumeration

    If a sentence contains enumeration, all non-final intonation-groups are usually pronounced with the Low
    Rise each being a bit lower than the preceding one. The final intonation-group is pronounced with the Low Fall
    if the choice of enumeration is exhausted.
    26.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to read sentences containing enumeration. Listen to the
    text. Mark the stresses and tunes. Pick out of the text sentences containing enumeration. Observe the intonation
    they are pronounced with. Practise the text:

    Theatres, music-halls and cinemas
    Theatres are much the same in London as anywhere else; the chief theatres, music-halls and cinemas are in
    the West End.
    If you're staying in London for a few days, you'll have no difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend
    an enjoyable evening. You'll find opera, ballet, comedy, drama, review, musical comedy and variety. Films are
    shown in the cinemas during the greater part of the day. The best seats at the theatres are those in the stalls, the
    circle, and the upper circle. Then comes the pit, and last of all the gallery, where the seats are cheapest. Boxes,
    of course, are the most expensive. Most theatres and music-halls have good orchestras with popular conductors.
    You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least once during the season, if you can. There you can get
    the best of everything - an excellent orchestra, famous conductors, celebrated singers and a well-dressed
    audience. But, of course, if you're not fond of music and singing, opera won't interest you. At the West-End
    theatres you can see most of the famous English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are magnificently
    staged - costumes, dresses, scenery, everything being done on the most lavish scale. Choose a good play, and
    you'll enjoy yourself thoroughly from the moment the curtain goes up to the end of the last act. Get your seat
    beforehand, either at the box-office of the theatre itself or at one of the agencies. When you go to a theatre,
    you'll probably want to sit as near to the stage as possible. But if you're at the cinema, you may prefer to sit
    some distance from the screen. In fact, I would say, the further away, the better.
    27. Read the following sentences. Observe the intonation of enumeration:

    1. Presently the maid brings in tea on a trolley: a pot of tea, cups and saucers, hot water, a jug of milk, and
    sugar; also sandwiches, bread and butter, jam, and cakes. 2. Mary has laid the table in the usual way, and has
    put the right number of knives, forks, spoons and glasses for each person. 3. There's also pepper and salt, oil
    and vinegar and mustard. 4. On the sideboard the Browns usually have a bowl of fruit: apples, pears, plums,
    cherries, grapes, oranges or bananas according to the season. 5. I get out of bed, put on my dressing-gown and
    slippers and go into the bathroom. 6. On the dressing table, in front of the looking-glass, you'll see a hair-brush
    and a comb, a hand-mirror, a bottle of scents and a powder-box. 7. In all large towns there are plenty of
    restaurants, cafes, tea-rooms, and inns or public-houses. 8. One of the people in the picture is buying postage269

    stamps, another is registering a letter, the third is writing out a cable.
    28. Read the text:

    My brother and his wife have just gone back to their home in the country after spending a week with us. As
    we live in London, they were glad of the chance to visit as many theatres and music-halls as they could. They
    have a good cinema in the little town where they live, so they didn't want to see any films while they were here,
    but were very keen to see as many plays as possible.
    During the day, my wife and sister-in-law used to visit the shops, and one afternoon they went to a picturegallery. Then in the evenings, we would all meet for dinner and go on to a play.
    We saw several plays, including two new ones, with two very promising young actresses. When I was
    younger, I used to go to the theatre a lot. I used to queue up for a seat in the gallery in those days. I must say I
    enjoy being able to have a good seat in the stalls now, and I like to book the seats beforehand to save trouble.
    We saw a very good review too. The music and costumes were most attractive. The last evening before our
    visitors had to go home, we saw a musical comedy. I am not very fond of these myself, as a rule, but I
    thoroughly enjoyed this one. We were all rather tired, I think, and it made a change from the serious drama that
    we'd seen the night before.
    29.*** This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce intonation in proper speech
    situations. a) Listen to the dialogue "At the Theatre" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and
    tunes. Practise reading each sentence after the cassette-recorder. b) Record your reading. Play the recording back
    immediately for your teacher and fellow-students to detect your possible errors. Practise the dialogue for test
    reading, memorize and dramatize it. c) Give conversational situations with the phrases below:

    1. Have you got (any seats for tomorrow) ? 2. They'll do very well, thank you. 3. May I see your (tickets),
    please? 4. This way, please. 5. Yes, please. 6. The (play) isn't over till (half past five). 7. What did you think of
    (it) ? 8. I thought it was splendid. 9. The whole thing was first-rate from beginning to end. 10. How much (is
    that) ? 11. Shall I (bring you some tea, sir) ? 12. Neither have I.
    30. Make up a conversation with a fellow-student using any phrases from the dialogue "At the Theatre".
    31. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to reproduce the text with correct intonation. a) Listen to the
    joke "The Bell-Boy" sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the joke for test
    reading. b) Listen to the narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation-group division, pitch, stress
    and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Retell the joke according to the model you have listened to.
    32. Read the jokes silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Find the main sentence in the text. Split
    up each sentence intonation-groups if necessary. Mark the stresses and tunes. Underline the communicative centre
    and the nuclear word of each intonation-group. It is not expected that each student will intone the text in the same
    way. Your teacher will help you to correct your variant. Practise reading the jokes several times. Retell the jokes
    following the model above (See Ex. 31):

    A man was at a theatre. He was sitting behind two women whose continuous chatter became more than he
    could bear. Leaning forward he said to one of them: "Pardon me, madam, I can't hear."
    "You are not supposed to - this is a private conversation," she answered.
    Too great a majority
    George Bernard Shaw's gift of ready wit is well illustrated by the story of how he turned the laugh against a
    member of the public who was expressing disapproval of one of his plays.
    It was the first night of "Arms and the Man", a play which had an enthusiastic reception from a crowded
    house. When the curtain fell at the end of the last act there was tremendous applause, accompanied by insistent
    calls for the author to appear. One man in the gallery, however, kept up a string of catcalls and whistling, thus
    expressing his disapproval.
    Shaw appeared before the curtain and waited in silence until the applause had died down. Then, looking up
    at the hostile critic, he said:
    "I quite agree with you, sir, but what can we two do against all these people?"
    270

    Section Thirteen
    Intonation pattern VIII
    (Low pre-head + ) low head + low rise (+ tail)

    Stress-and-tone marks in the text: a stressed syllable of the low head: | |
    In the usual form of the low head, all the syllables contained in it are said on the same, rather low pitch.
    This intonation pattern is used:
    1. I n s t a t e m e n t s , encouraging further conversation; reprovingly critical, guarded, reserving
    judgement, appealing to the listener to change his attitude.
    e. g. I'm just back from seeing my mother. - I trust you found her /well.
    Take no notice of him. - We must do as he /says.
    2. I n q u e s t i o n s :
    a) s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s , calm, but very disapproving.
    e. g. I don't agree. - Why /not?
    b) g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , expressing disapproval, scepticism.
    e. g. I'm sorry, Mummy. - Are you /really sorry?
    3. I n i m p e r a t i v e s , reprovingly critical, resentful.
    e. g. He'll let me have it by Monday. - Don't be too /sure.
    4. I n e x c l a m a t i o n s , calm, reserving judgement, expressing casual acknowledgement.
    e. g. You can have it if you like. - Thanks very /much.
    Exercises
    1. a)* Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation
    of the replies:

    271

    272

    b) Listen to the replies above and repeat them in the intervals. Make your voice follow the intonation line
    exactly. c) Listen to the verbal context and reply in the interval. d) In order to fix Pattern VIII in your mind and
    ear, pronounce each reply several times until it sounds perfectly natural to you. Don't forget to pay attention to the
    verbal context. e) Listen to a fellow-student reading the replies above. Try to detect any failure to reproduce the
    pattern. The errors must be pointed out and eliminated.
    2. Listen to your teacher saying the context sentences below. Pronounce each of the following replies in two
    ways: first with Intonation Pattern VIII, then with Intonation Pattern IV. Be careful with the intonation line,
    observe the difference in attitudes. Make a fellow-student decide what attitude you are trying to render:

    273

    3. Translate the replies above into Russian. Pronounce them trying to express the corresponding attitude in
    your mother tongue. Is the attitude expressed by means of intonation only, as in English, or do we use any
    additional words to render it?
    4. Read the verbal context below silently and translate the replies into English. Pronounce the replies trying to
    render the attitude suggested in brackets. Concentrate your attention on the intonation line. Decide what
    Intonation Pattern you are using in each reply:

    5. Your teacher will ask you the following questions. You in turn respond to them using Intonation Patterns III,
    IV, VIII. Decide what attitude you are trying to express in each response:

    1. Shall we postpone the meeting then? 2. How did you come to lose it? 3. When did you see him? 4. Does
    John always forget? 5. Were there many people there? 6. What made you do such a stupid thing? 7. How many
    274

    pencils do you want? 8. Where does he come from? 9. Can I see him if I come back later? 10. Can't we do
    something about it? 11. Shall I phone you? 12. What's your opinion of his work? 13. Can I come again
    tomorrow? 14. Could you send me another copy? 15. Do you mind waiting a little longer?
    6. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear and reproduce intonation in the dialogue. a) Listen to
    the dialogue carefully sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise reading each
    sentence after the cassette-recorder. b) Record your reading. Play the recording back immediately for your
    teacher and fellow-students to detect your errors. Practise the dialogue for test reading. Memorize and play it with
    a fellow-student:

    H a r r : Do you want me to do anything this evening, Nora?
    r a : I don't think so.
    H a r r y : You're sure there's nobody coming to see us?
    N o r a : No, I don't think there is.
    H a r r y : And there's nothing you want me to listen to on the wireless?
    N o r a : I'm sure there isn't!
    H a r r y : Then will it be all right for me to go round to the club?
    N o r a : Oh yes, I should think so.
    H a r r : It's a long time since I went.
    N o r a : I suppose it is.
    H a r r y : The chaps are wondering what's happened to me.
    N o r a : I suppose they must be.
    H a r r : I'd like a game of billiards with the chaps.
    N o r a : I expect you would.
    H a r r y : I'm fond of billiards.
    N o r a : Yes, I know you are.
    H a r r y : I get out of practice if I stay away too long.
    N o r a : I dare say you do.
    H a r r y : Besides, didn't Bonnet telephone last week and ask me to have a game?
    N o r a : Now you mention it, I believe he did.
    H a r r y : So you won't mind if I go off just for this evening, will you?
    N o r a : Of course I won't.
    H a r r y : I'll go up and change.
    N o r a : Yes, do. Only H a r r y : Only what?
    N o r a : Well, Harry, don't you remember that today's the anniversary of our wedding day?
    H a r r y : Good heavens, so it is!
    N o r a : And you promised we should always keep it.
    H a r r y : So I did!
    N o r a : You know, Harry, there's a dance this evening at the Town Hall.
    H a r r y : So there is?
    r a : So do you still think you'll go round to the club?
    H a r r y : No - somehow I don't think I will.
    ("Meet the Parkers", a Lingaphone Course)
    ) Listen to a fellow-student reading the dialogue above. Try to detect any failure to reproduce the pattern. The
    errors must be pointed out and eliminated. d) Give a conversational context with the following phrases:

    1. I don't think so. 2. No, I don't think you will. 3. I'm sure there isn't. 4. So I did. 5. So there is. 6. Oh yes, I
    should think so. 7. I suppose it is. 8. I expect you would. 9. I think you are. 10. No - somehow I think I don't.
    e) Make up a conversation with phrases from the dialogue.
    7. Listen, to the verbal context suggested by your teacher or a fellow-student. Respond by using Intonation
    Pattern IV or VIII in your reply. Decide if you are going to sound reserved or friendly and encouraging.
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    8. This exercise is intended to develop your ability to use different Intonation Patterns in reading, a) Read the
    dialogues "On the Road" and others silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Underline the
    communicative centre in each phrase. Decide what attitude should -be expressed in it. Mark the stresses and tunes,
    keeping the attitude constantly in mind. Practise reading the dialogues with a fellow-student. Memorize them, b)
    Make up a conversation with a fellow-student using any phrases from the dialogues below. Keep the attitude in
    mind:

    a) J
    k : Are we on the right road?
    J i l l : I think so.
    J a c k : You think so. Aren't you sure?
    J i l l : No, I'm not sure. I've only been along this road once before.
    J a c k : Then we'd better ask someone, hadn't we?
    J i l l : Yes, that's the right thing to do. We don't want to lose our way. Look, there's' a postman. He'll know.
    J a c k : Does this road go to Henfield?
    P o s t m a n : Yes, this is the Henfield road.
    k : Is it very far?
    P o s t m a n : No, not very far. About an hour's walk.
    J a c k : There are no buses to Henfield along this road, are there?
    P o s t m a n : Oh, yes, but the buses don't come very often. Only about four times a day.
    J a c k : Do you know when the next bus comes along?
    P o s t m a n : Not until half past seven. You can be in Henfield long before then if you walk.
    J a c k : Well, thank you. We'd better walk. It's no good waiting an hour and a half for a bus.
    b) "Is Henry likely to play bridge at George's tonight?"
    "I don't think so. He'll probably go to a concert instead."
    "What can Mary be doing now?"
    "Well, she may be having dinner."
    "And I think she must be writing a letter to me."
    "She is more likely to be writing a letter to Henry."
    c) "What are you going to do on New Year's Eve?"
    "I haven't decided yet. What about you?"
    "Mary and I have decided to go to a dance."
    9. This exercise is intended to test your ability to hear and reproduce intonation in reading. a) Listen to the text
    "The Tailor and the Dressmaker" carefully, sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes.
    Practise reading each sentence after the cassette-recorder. b) Record your reading. Play the recording back
    immediately and try to detect your errors. Make a careful note of your errors in each sound and tune and work to
    avoid them. Repetition should be done aloud. Practise the text for test reading.
    10. This exercise is meant to develop your ability to hear intonation and reproduce it in proper speech
    situations. a) Listen to the joke sentence by sentence. Write it down. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the joke
    for test reading. b) Listen to the narration of the joke. Observe the peculiarities in intonation, word-group division,
    pitch, stress and tempo. Note the use of temporizers. Retell the joke according to the model you have listened to.
    11. This exercise is intended to test your ability to analyse material for reading on your own outside the class. a)
    Read the story silently to make sure you understand each sentence. Underline the main sentence in the story. Split
    up each sentence into intonation-groups. Locate the communicative centres of them. Mark the stresses and tunes,
    concentrating your attention on the attitude expressed. It is not expected that each member of the class will mark
    the story in exactly the same way. Discuss your variants in class. Your teacher will help you to choose the best
    variant. Practise your corrected variant for test reading. b) Retell the story following the model above (See Ex. 10):

    The story of narcissus
    Long, long ago, when birds and flowers and trees could talk, a beautiful fountain sprang up in the midst of a
    forest. Little sunbeams crept between the leaves, and, as they fell upon it, made it shine like silver.
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    One day a lad, who had been hunting in the forest, lost sight of his friends. While looking for them, he saw
    the fountain shining in the sunlight through the trees. He at once turned to it, for he was hot and thirsty.
    He stooped down to bathe his burning forehead, and to cool his dry hot lips. But as he bent over the water,
    he saw his own face in it, as in a glass. He thought it-must be some lovely water-fairy, that lived within the
    fountain, and as he looked he forgot to drink. The bright eyes, the curly hair, the round cheeks, and the red lips
    were beautiful to him; and he fell in love with that image of himself, but knew not that it was his own image. It
    smiled when he smiled, and as he spoke, the lips of the face moved as though speaking too, though no sound
    came from them. "I love you with all my heart," said the lad. The image smiled and held out its arms, but still
    was dumb. The lad spoke to it again and again, and getting no answer, he at last began to cry. The tears fell
    upon the water, and ruffled it, so that the face looked wrinkled. Thinking it was going away, he said: "Only
    stay, beautiful being, and let me look at you, even if I may not touch you." He forgot everything but that lovely
    face. Day after day, night after night, he stayed there, till he grew thin and pale, and at last died. Just at the
    water's edge, where the lad had died, there grew one strange little flower, all alone. "He has been changed into a
    flower," his friends said. "Let us call it after our dead friend." So they named the flower Narcissus in memory
    of him and it is called Narcissus to this very day.

    Supplement.
    Texts not introduced in the exercises
    Section Three
    Ex. 13
    Days and months. Asking the time
    "Do you know the days of the Week?"
    "Yes, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday."
    "Now, let's assume that today is Wednesday. What day will tomorrow be?"
    "Thursday."
    "And the day after tomorrow?"
    "Friday."
    "What day was yesterday?"
    "Tuesday."
    "And the day before yesterday?"
    "Monday."
    "As it happens, last Monday was my birthday."
    "Is that so? Well, many happy returns of the day."
    "Thank you. And now, let's have the names of the months."
    "Certainly. January. February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November,
    December."
    "Good... Oh, can you tell me the right time please?"
    "Well, my watch says five past two, but if's no use relying on it, because sometimes it's fast and sometimes
    it's slow."
    Section Four
    Ex. 13
    "Have we time for another coffee?"
    "I think so."
    "Shall I give you some?"
    "Yes, please."
    "Do you take sugar?"
    "No, thank you."
    "Will you have a cigarette?"
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    "In a moment."
    "Have you paid the bill?"
    "Not yet."
    "Shouldn't we be going now?"
    "All right."
    "Oughtn't we to take a taxi?"
    "If you like."
    *

    * *

    "How long will you be out?"
    "Not long."
    "When will you be back?"
    "Soon after ten."
    "What are you going to do?"
    "Nothing very interesting."
    "Where are you going?"
    "Just down the road."
    "Who are you going to see?"
    "Tom."
    "Why are you going to see him?"
    "Just for a little chat."
    "What about?"
    "Nothing in particular."
    Ex. 15
    Our sitting-room
    Let's have a look at this picture of our sitting-room. As you come into the room you notice a piano with a
    low music-stool in front of it. Next to the piano is a tall bookcase standing against the wall. On the left is a large
    window. Under the window there's a radiator, but, you can't see it because it's behind the settee. On the settee
    there are two cushions. The fireplace is at the other end of the room. On each side of the fireplace there's an
    armchair. An old lady is sitting in one of the chairs, but nobody's sitting in the other one: it's empty.
    In the centre of the mantelpiece there's a clock and above it an oval mirror. On the right you can see a
    standard lamp. Opposite the fireplace you can see a small table with an ash-tray and some newspapers on it. By
    the table there's a small chair. On the extreme right there's a radio-set. The floor is covered with a beautiful
    thick carpet. An electric light is hanging from the middle of the ceiling. At night when it gets dark we switch on
    the light and draw the curtains: During the day, the light comes in through the window.
    Section Five
    Ex.22
    A: You're on holiday, aren't you?
    B: No, I'm not.
    A: You're not working, are you?
    B: Yes, I am.
    A: You work in London, don't you?
    B: No, I don't.
    A: It's nearly time for tea, isn't it?
    B: No, it isn't.
    A: You're not hungry, are you?
    B: Yes, I am.
    A: You'll soon be going home, won't you?
    B: No, I shan't.
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    Section Six
    Ex. 19
    Balzac as a handwriting expert
    Balzac, the famous French writer, was a man of great talent. But he himself was proud of his ability to tell a
    person's character by his or her handwriting. He often told his friends that he could tell anybody's character
    exactly by his handwriting.
    One day a woman friend brought him a young boy's exercise book. She said that she wanted to know what
    Balzac thought of the boy's character.
    Balzac studied the handwriting carefully for a few minutes. The woman, however, told him that the boy was
    not her son and that he might tell her the truth.
    "All right," said Balzac. "I shall tell you the truth." And he said that the boy was a bad, lazy fellow.
    "It's very strange," said the woman smiling. "This is a page from your own exercise book, which you used
    when you were a boy."
    Section Seven
    Ex. 9
    A: Is it going to rain?
    B: I hope not.
    A: Ought we to take our coats?
    B: I think so.
    A: Shall we be late?
    B: We might be.
    A: Is the car all right?
    B: I expect so.
    A: Will it break down?
    B: I doubt it.
    A: Have you got enough petrol?
    B: I hope I have.
    Ex. 17
    My bedroom
    At night when I feel tired and sleepy, I go up to my bedroom and switch on the electric light. I take off my
    shoes, undress and put on my pyjamas. Then I get into bed and switch off the light.
    After a few minutes I fall asleep. I sleep the whole night through.
    Punctually at seven-thirty in the morning, the alarm-clock rings and wakes me up. I get out of bed, put on
    my dressing-gown and slippers, and go into the bathroom, where I turn on the hot and cold taps. While the
    water's running into the bath, I wash my face and neck, clean my teeth, and shave. My shaving things are on the
    shelf above the basin. Then I turn off the taps and have my bath. Sometimes I have a shower. When I've dried
    myself with a towel, I get dressed.
    On the dressing-table in front of the looking-glass, you'll see a hairbrush and a comb, a hand-mirror, a bottle
    of scent and a powder-box. These, of course, don't belong to me, but to my wife. In the chest of drawers I keep
    clean linen such as shirts, collars and handkerchiefs, besides things like socks and ties. The dirty linen is put in
    a linen basket and sent to the laundry. In the wardrobe I keep my suits and other clothes, which I hang on coathangers.
    Ex. 19
    279

    The smoking chimney
    One afternoon Professor N. was walking along a country road when he saw a farmer eating his supper alone
    in the road before his house. The professor approached the farmer and asked him:
    "Why are you eating here alone?"
    "Well, sir," answered the farmer after a short pause, "the chimney smokes."
    "That is too bad," said the professor. "You must have it repaired. Let's have a look at it."
    And before the farmer could say a word the professor tried to enter the farmer's house. As soon as he opened
    the door a broom fell on his shoulders and a woman's voice cried:
    "Go away, you old rascal, or I'll kill you ..."
    The professor left the house quickly. The farmer sat in the road looking very unhappy. The professor
    approached him and put his hand on his shoulder.
    "Never mind," said he, "my chimney smokes sometimes too."
    Section Eight
    Ex. 6
    A: When I went out it was dark.
    B: Was it?
    A: Just at first I couldn't see.
    B: Couldn't you?
    A: After a while I got used to it.
    : Did you?
    A: I went to Tom's and he wasn't there.
    B: Wasn't he?
    A: So I walked around and then came back home.
    B: Oh?
    A: And now if you like we'll go to the pictures.
    B: Lovely.
    Ex. 15
    Mark Twain in France
    Mark Twain, the famous American writer, was travelling in France. Once he was going by train to Dijon.
    That afternoon he was very tired and wanted to sleep. He therefore asked the conductor to wake him up when
    they came to Dijon. But first he explained that he was a very heavy sleeper. "I'll probably protest loudly when
    you try to wake me up," he said to the conductor. "But do not take notice, just put me off the train anyway."
    Then Mark Twain went to sleep. Later, when he woke up, it was night-time and the train was in Paris
    already. He realized at once that the conductor had forgotten to wake him up at Dijon. He was very angry. He
    ran up to the conductor and began to shout at him. "I have never been so angry in all my life," Mark Twain said.
    The conductor looked at him calmly. "You are not half so angry as the American whom I put off the train at
    Dijon," he said.
    Section Nine
    Ex. 12
    Planning a holiday
    "I say, what are you and your sister going to do for your holiday this year?"
    "Well, I don't know. I should like to take my sister for a tour to the Baltic Sea, but then she can't very well
    leave her children. What are you doing?"
    "We shall go to the sea, I expect - for part of the time, anyhow. Then my wife and 1 may go off alone for a
    280

    week or so in the car."
    "Leaving the rest of the family behind, I suppose!"
    "Oh yes. They'll be quite safe with their grandmother - and, besides, they're ever so much happier playing
    about on the sands than spending long days in the car."
    "Where do you go, as a rule?"
    "We've tried many seaside-places on the east and south coasts: on the whole, I think we prefer the south.
    However, it really doesn't seem to matter very much, as long as the youngsters get a good sandy beach."
    "What do you do? Take rooms, or stay at a hotel, or what?"
    "We've done both, and this year we're taking a furnished house. Why don't you make up your mind to join
    us? Find a house near by, and make a large party. It'll be great fun."
    "For my own part, I should love it. I'll talk it over with my sister, and see what she thinks about it."
    "Do, and let me know as soon as you can."
    "Right. I will."
    Ex. 16
    The king and the critic
    A king liked to write stories, which he thought were very good. The people to whom he showed them were
    afraid to criticize them. They said that his stories were good.
    One day he showed some of them to a well-known critic, who said that his stories were bad. The king got
    angry with him and sent him to prison.
    After some time the king pardoned the critic and when he returned invited him to his palace to dinner. Again
    he showed him some of his stories and again asked him what he thought of them.
    The critic turned to the guards who were standing behind him and said: "Take me back to prison."
    Section Ten
    Ex. 14
    A street in London
    We're in Oxford Circus, half-way along Oxford Street, one of the busiest streets in the West End of London,
    and that street over there is Regent Street, famous all over the world for its splendid shops. Near one of the
    street corners you can see the entrance to the subway leading to the Underground Railway, or "Tube" as we call
    it.
    On both sides of the street there are shops, banks and restaurants. In the roadway there's a constant stream of
    cars, taxis, buses and lorries. In some parts of London there are trolley-buses and trams as well. The noise is
    deafening, but one soon gets used to it. The pavements are crowded with people, and it's dangerous to attempt
    to cross the road until the traffic is stopped, either by a policeman on point duty or by the red traffic lights. In
    any case, before crossing the road, take care to look to your right, and when you reach the middle of the road,
    look to your left.
    At night, the streets are lit by electricity, or in some districts, by gas. You can see the lamp-posts and
    standards on the pavements, and on the "islands" in the middle of the road. The main streets are flooded with
    light from the brilliant shop-windows and the illuminated signs and advertisements, so that after dark
    everything looks as bright as in broad daylight.
    Ex. 15
    The bullet-proof jacket
    A man once called on a general, and showed him a jacket which he had invented for soldiers, and which, he
    said, was bullet-proof.
    "Oh!" said the general. "Put it on!"
    Then he rang the bell, and said to the servant: "Tell the captain to load his gun and come here."
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    The inventor of the bullet-proof jacket disappeared, and the general never saw him again.
    Section Eleven
    Ex. 9
    W o m a n : Good morning!
    S a l e s m a n : Good morning, madam. Can I help you?
    W.: Yes, you can. I'd like to buy a watch, please.
    S.: Certainly, madam. Is it for yourself?
    W.: Oh no. It's for my small daughter.
    S.: I see. You don't want a very expensive one, I suppose.
    W.: No. Fairly cheap, and fairly strong, too.
    S.: Oh, I understand. Will you have a look at this one, madam?
    W.: I think that looks too small. I'd rather have a bigger one.
    S.: What about this, madam?
    W.: That looks fine. How much is it?
    S.: Let me see. That's five pounds ten.
    W.: Oh dear. I'm afraid that's too much.
    S.: Here's one that's a little cheaper.
    W.: How much is that?
    S.: Four pounds fifteen.
    W.: Yes, I'll take that one.
    S.: Can we send it for you, madam?
    W.: No, thank you. I'll take it with me. Four pounds fifteen.
    S.: Thank you, madam. Good morning.
    W.: Good-bye.
    Ex. 12
    The dumb beggar
    A beggar made up his mind that he would pretend to be dumb. He arrived at a town where he had begged
    before. In one of the streets a gentleman who had given him money, and so remembered his face, met him and
    spoke to him.
    The beggar did not say a word. "Hello!" cried the gentleman, "how long have you been dumb?" "Ever since I
    was a baby," answered the beggar.
    Section Twelve
    Ex.29
    At the theatre
    "Have you got any seats for tomorrow?"
    "Matinee or evening performance?"
    "Matinee, please. I want two stalls, if you've got them."
    "Yes, you can have - er - two in the middle of Row F."
    "They'll do very well, thank you. How much is that?"
    "They're thirteen and six (13/6) each - that makes twenty-seven shillings."
    ………………………………………………………………………………………….
    "Stalls, sir? Stalls on the right. Gentlemen's cloakroom this way; ladies' cloakroom on the first landing."
    "Show your tickets to the attendant inside the theatre; she'll show you to your seats and let you have a
    282

    programme."
    …………………………………………………………………………………………
    "May I see your tickets, please? Row F, 12 and 13 ... This way, please. Would you like a programme?"
    "Yes, please."
    "Shall I bring you some drink, sir? The play isn't over till half-past five."
    "When do you serve tea?"
    "After the second act; there's an interval of fifteen minutes."
    "Then I think we might as well have some."
    ………………………………………………………………………………………….
    "Well, what did you think of the play?"
    "I enjoyed every minute of it. What did you think of it?"
    "I thought it was splendid. I haven't laughed so much for a long time."
    "Neither have I. It was extremely good."
    "Yes, wasn't it? I thought the acting was excellent."
    "So did I. The whole thing was first-rate from beginning to end."
    …………………………………………………………………………………………..
    Ex. 31
    The bell-boy
    A traveller was standing at the desk in the lobby of a Washington hotel. He was in a hurry. He had only ten
    minutes to pay his bill and reach the station. Suddenly he remembered that he had forgotten something.
    He called the bell-boy and said: "Run up to Room 48 and see whether I left a box on the table. Be quick, I
    am in a hurry."
    The boy ran up the stairs. Five minutes passed, and the gentleman was walking up and down impatiently.
    At last the boy came back.
    "Yes, sir," he said, "yes, sir, you left it there. It's on the table."
    Section Thirteen
    Ex. 9
    The tailor and the dressmaker
    This morning I've been to my tailor's to order a new suit: coat, waistcoat and trousers. I should have liked to
    order a new overcoat as well as my old one is nearly worn out, but just now I can't afford it. I shall have to wait
    till next year for that. But I might get a raincoat later on. My tailor always has an excellent stock of materials to
    choose from, and I think I've chosen what'll be the most suitable for my purpose. I've had my measurements
    taken and I'm going again in a fortnight's time for the first fitting. After I've tried the suit on, the tailor will
    probably find it necessary to make a few alterations, and he'll mark the places for pockets, buttons and
    buttonholes. Then he'll ask me to return later on for a final fitting just to make sure that the suit fits really well.
    When the suit's ready, I shall pay for it and get a receipt. My wife has also been buying some new clothes this
    week. She's bought herself a ready-made suit, that's to say, a coat and skirt. She's been trying to find a silk
    blouse to match, so far without success. But when she went to the milliner's, she did succeed in getting just the
    right hat, in the very latest fashion, or so she says. It would seem that the one she bought three weeks ago is
    already out of date.
    Ex. 10
    An English tourist found himself in Norway with only enough money in his pocket to pay his passage back.
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    As he knew that it would take him only two days to get to England, he decided that he could easily do without
    food. So he went on board the steamer and bought a ticket.
    He closed his ears to the sound of the lunch bell. When dinner time came he refused the invitation to
    accompany a fellow-traveller to the saloon, saying that he didn't feel well.
    The next morning he didn't go to breakfast and at lunch time he again stayed in his cabin. At dinner time he
    was so hungry that he could not stand it any longer.
    "I'm going to eat," he said, "even if they throw me overboard afterwards."
    At dinner he ate everything the steward put in front of him and felt ready for the coming row.
    "Bring me the bill," he said to the steward.
    "The bill, sir?" said the man.
    "Yes," answered the traveller.
    "There isn't any bill," was the answer, "on the ship meals are included in the passage money."

    GRAMMAR EXERCISES
    To Lessons 1-3
    1. Point out the main and the secondary parts of the sentence and name them:

    1. James was sitting by the fire. 2. My elder sister has two sons. 3. He slowly opened the door; the room was
    empty. 4. The children ran to the river. 5. We sent them a telegram yesterday. 6. Will you do me another
    favour? 7. I will do it for you with pleasure. 8. We shall write to you in a day or two. 9. I did not find anybody
    there. 10. The boy's mother was a young woman. 11. Half an hour has passed. 12. A lot of students were
    present. 13. Nell is going to the concert tonight. 14. He spoke loudly and distinctly.
    2. Underline verbal predicates with one line and nominal predicates with two lines.
    Note. Remember that the nominal predicate cannot express an action.

    1. It is good. 2. I can do it. 3. His story was true. 4. That is a good idea. 5. I have finished my work. 6. It is
    raining. 7. It is not real coffee. 8. I shall write a postcard to Doctor Wing now. 9. I understand, he is a writer .
    10. "She is a wonderful woman," said the girl softly.
    3. Use an indefinite article with the predicatives where possible:

    1. This is yellow pencil. 2. The text is easy. 3. This is easy text. 4. These are low tables. 5. This table is low.
    6. This is low table. 7. Roses are beautiful flowers. 8. A fox is yellow. 9. This town is big. 10. Moscow and
    Minsk are big cities. 11. Kiev is big city, too. 12. These flowers are very beautiful.
    4. Point out direct, indirect, and prepositional objects and say what they are expressed by.
    Note. Remember that the indirect object cannot be used without the direct object.

    M o d e l s : Give me (indirect) your address (direct).
    I must read it (direct) to you (indirect).
    He came with his friend (prepositional).
    1. Give me a knife and a small spoon, please. 2. It is raining, you must give her your umbrella. 3. Tell us
    your story. 4. Tell it to him, too. 5. I know nothing about it. 6. Show me your room. 7. I want to buy a doll for
    my little sister. 8. I haven't seen the children today. 9. Help me, please. 10. See me tomorrow. 11. You'll forget
    him. 12. She writes letters to her cousins.
    5. Point out the objects and say what kind they are:

    1. Give me a match, please. 2. Put all possible questions to this sentence. 3. Will you pass me the sugar? 4. I
    addressed her twice before she answered me. 5. He handed the letter to his wife. 6. I need a book with pictures
    284

    for my little daughter. 7. Everybody listened to him with interest. 8. Peggotty opened a little door and showed
    me my bedroom. 9. We are sorry for him. 10. He stopped and shook hands with me. 11. She put the kettle on
    the fire. 12. We looked for the boy everywhere.
    6. Point out the attribute and say what it is expressed by.
    Note. An attribute may stand before and after the noun. Remember that an attribute to a pronoun always follows it.

    1. Ansell gave an angry sigh. 2. I hear Mary's voice in the next room. 3. I looked at her smiling face. 4. He is
    a walking grammar book. 5. Toby is a good clever boy. 6. The cover of this book is blue . 7. It was a cold
    winter night. 8. The streets of Moscow are wide. 9.1 like all Moscow theatres. 10. Tell me something
    interesting. 11. I don't see anything difficult in it. 12. Give me a better pencil, please.
    7. Point out adverbial modifiers of time, place, and manner and say what they are expressed by.
    Note. Adverbial modifiers are often expressed by adverbs and nouns with prepositions.

    M o d e l s : Come to see me tomorrow.
    We live in Moscow.
    Don't speak so loudly.
    Jim spoke in a whisper.
    1. Ann can speak English well. 2. Father comes home at four o'clock. 3. You mustn't stay there late. 4. She
    looked at me with a smile. 5. John said it in a low voice. 6. Take these things upstairs. 7. She came into the
    room from the kitchen. 8. I will do it for you with pleasure. 9. Don't allow the children to play in the street. 10.
    We started early in the morning. 11. That day I was busy and didn't go out. 12. We stayed there for an hour.
    8. Put the adverbial modifiers in their proper places.
    Note. With verbs of movement or staying (
    ) the adverbial modifier of place comes
    immediately after the verb. If there are two or more adverbial modifiers, the usual order is "place", "manner", "time".

    M o d e l s : Bill ran home quickly an hour ago.
    They stayed there quietly all day.
    1. He went (at seven o'clock, by taxi, to the theatre). 2. She stood (looking at the road, on the porch). 3. Felix
    lived (for a long time, in France). 4. We went (after dinner, to the village shop). 5. They left (in a hurry, at about
    12 o'clock, for London). 6. We started (after dinner, there, immediately). 7. Don't forget that you must come
    (every morning, regularly, here). 8. I will meet you (tomorrow, at three o'clock, at the college gates). 9. Did you
    come (on your bicycle, to work, this morning) ? 10. I went (by air, last month, to St. Petersburg).
    9. Put the adverbs given in brackets in their proper places.
    Note. The adverbial modifier of indefinite time expressed by such adverbs as: never, usually, often, seldom, yet, just,
    etc. is placed before the main verb or after the auxiliary or modal verb.

    M o d e l s : She seldom comes to see us.
    Do you often go through the park?
    You are always late.
    I can never understand you.
    The book has already been translated.
    1. She has a few mistakes in her composition (always) .2. I can agree to that (never). 3. We have six lessons
    a day (usually). 4. Old Mrs. Pratt is ill (often). 5. You are kind to me (always). 6. I met him there (seldom). 7.
    We are very busy (generally). 8. They will believe it, I'm sure (never). 9. My friend stays long with us (seldom)
    .10. We are going for a walk (just).
    285

    10. Put the adverbs of indefinite time in their proper places.
    Note. In questions the place of adverbs of indefinite time is after the subject.

    M o d e l s : Is he often late?
    Have you ever seen him?
    What time do you generally get up?
    1. Where do you spend the summer (usually) ? 2. Do you prepare your lessons in the afternoon (always) ? 3.
    Did he come so late (often) ? 4. Are you in time (always) ? 5. When do they start working (usually) ? 6. Have
    you seen him (ever) ? 7. Are you going for a walk (just) ? 8. Do the children quarrel with each other (often) ? 9.
    Has your uncle mentioned this fact (ever) ? 10. Must you get up so early (always) ?
    11. Put very much in its proper place.
    Note. "Very much" is an adverbial of degree (
    ). It has the following positions in the sentence:
    1. after the direct object: I like this idea very much. I like coffee very much in the morning.
    2. after the verb "to be" (before the 2nd participle): He was very much surprised to hear that.
    3. before the subordinate clause: I hope very much that you will be able to do it.

    1. Do you like the story? 2. I can't say that I like the idea. 3. Would it matter if we arrive about ten minutes
    later? 4. They were surprised to meet the two sisters there. 5. John regrets that he cannot take part in the
    discussion. 6. I was disappointed to find out that the letter was lost. 7. We enjoyed ourselves at the party. 8. He
    said that he was impressed by her progress. 9. I doubt that they have ever visited Japan. 10. I like a cup of hot
    tea at five 'clock.
    12. Make up sentences using the following words:

    1. Give, paper, a piece, of, me, a pencil, and. 2. Week, Mr. Barnett, new, brings, Mary, and, books,
    magazines, every. 3. Tall, General Henderson, with, hair, a man, white, was. 4. Was putting on, gloves, her, in,
    Nancy, a way, slow. 5. Show, can, I, something, you, interesting. 6. Good, English, some, have, I, books. 7.
    Them, can, I, bring, to, the Institute, you, to. 8. Cold, a night, January, was, it. 9. Long, can't, we, stay, here. 10.
    In, coffee, the morning, I, like.
    13. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    . 2.

    . 3.

    . 4.

    . 6.
    . 9.
    12.

    . 13.

    . 7.
    . .

    ? 10.
    . 14.

    . 5.
    . 8.
    .

    .

    14. Choose an adjective to form a nominal predicate and an adverb to modify a verbal predicate.

    M o d e l s : It is clear.
    I see it clearly.
    1. It is (correct, correctly). 2. Spell the word (correct, correctly). 3. You know it (good, well). 4. Of course it
    is (good, well). 5. It is (cold, coldly) in the room. 6. Don't look so (cold, coldly) at me. 7. It is (easy, easily). 8. I
    can do it (easy, easily). 9. It is (warm, warmly) today. 10. He always greets us (warm, warmly).
    15. Write the plural of the following nouns and read them aloud:

    a story, a fish, a knife, a man, a dress, a tooth, a lamp, a box, a brother, a brother-in-law, a dog, a foot, a
    bench, a hospital, a bed, a sentence, a lady, a toy, an exercise, a child, a woman, a sheep, a niece, a son-in-law,
    a family, a half, a library, a wife, a potato, a sportsman.
    16. Use the personal pronouns given in brackets in the Objective Case:
    286

    1. Do you know ... (he)? 2. Who is there? - - It's ... (I). 3. They invite ... (we) to their party. 4. And do you
    invite ... (they)? 5. Ask ... (she) to come, too.
    17. Name the forms of the personal pronouns and use them in sentences.

    M o d e l s : She is the Nominative Case.
    Her is the Objective Case.
    You is the Nominative Case and the Objective Case.
    The Singular - it, she, him, you, me, her, I, he.
    The Plural - we, them, you, they, us.
    18. Translate into Russian.
    Note. When the plural forms these, those are the subjects of the sentence, they are translated into Russian as «

    M o d e l s : This is a good pencil. These are good pencils. -

    ».

    .
    .

    1. These sentences are not very long, are they? 2. This isn't a box. 3. These are not boxes. 4. This book is
    very interesting. 5. Those were not very interesting books. 6. These are simple sentences. 7. This phoneme is
    easy, those two were more difficult. 8. These are my notebooks. 9. Are these your things? 10. Those were very
    beautiful flowers. 11. Take those flowers, they are very nice. 12. These are my shoes.
    19. Put into the Singular:

    1. These are phonemes. 2. We have English and French books. 3. Roses are beautiful flowers. 4. Houses
    have roofs. 5. Those are little children. 6. Foxes are animals. 7. Watches are small clocks. 8. Classrooms have
    blackboards. 9. These are old oaks. 10. Dogs have tails. 11. Those boys are good friends. 12. Balls are round.
    20. Put general questions to the following statements:

    1. Mrs. Sandford is in bed. 2. These words are easy. 3. She is a good student. 4. They are in the garden. 5.
    Her daughter is a teacher. 6. The children are at school. 7. John is 19 years old. 8. Lesson 9 is difficult. 9. It is
    10 o'clock. 10. The flowers are yellow. 11. You are future teachers.
    To Lessons 4-5
    21. Put disjunctive questions to the following statements:

    1. Your family is not large. 2. The children are in the garden. 3. This man is a doctor. 4. His parents are not
    in Moscow. 5. It is six o'clock now. 6. Benny is not in the nursery. 7. They are old friends. 8. This is a very
    interesting book.
    22. Put general and alternative questions to the following statements:

    1. The girl is small. 2. The children are at school. 3. It is dark in the room. 4. This is a velvet dress. 5. The
    dog is in the yard. 6. They are busy all the time.
    23. Make up imperative sentences.
    Note. Please is introduced before or after the imperative for polite requests.

    Ask your friend: 1. to go to the blackboard; 2. to give you a fountain-pen; 3. to fetch some chalk; 4. to find
    lesson 11; 5. to speak louder; 6. to meet you at 5; 7. to go to the laboratory with you; 8. to write exercise 3 at
    287

    home; 9. to learn this poem by heart; 10. to write down the new words; 11. to repeat the sentence three times;
    12. to look at the blackboard; 13. to listen to the new text; 14. to show you the way to the theatre
    24. Make up negative imperative sentences:

    Tell your friend: 1. not to open the door; 2. not to leave the room; 3. not to take the chalk; 4. not to write this
    exercise; 5. not to make such a noise; 6. not to smoke in the room; 7. not to send a telegram today; 8. not to bite
    the pencil; 9. not to talk so loudly; 10. not to go there alone; 11. not to close the window; 12. not to read text 7;
    13. not to be late next time
    25. Make up questions to which the words in bold type are answers:

    1. She is always at home in the evening. 2. The books are on the shelf. 3. Doctor Sandford's wife is in the
    garden. 4. This is a difficult sentence. 5. His parents are in Kiev. 6. The children are at school at this time. 7.
    My mother is 60 years old.
    26. Complete the following sentences translating what is given in brackets:

    1. I don't like to go out (
    ). 2. Open the window, please (
    ). 3. Switch on the
    light (
    ). 4. Let's wait a little (
    ). 5. The lesson begins at 9 (
    8
    ).
    6. Let's walk there (
    ). 7. Hurry up (
    ). 8. Let's take a bus (
    ). 9. Go to bed (
    11
    ). 10. Wake up (
    ).
    27. Use an indefinite article in the following exclamatory sentences where necessary:

    1. What... difficult phoneme this is! 2. What... deep snow! 3. What ... easy sentences these are! 4. What ...
    hot water! 5. What ... cold evening! 6. What ... clever student she is! 7. What... good ideas you have! 8. What...
    beautiful music he is playing! 9. What ... dark eyes your daughter has! 10. What ... silly mistake you have
    made! 11. What ... fine weather! 12. What ... good advice! 13. What ... pretty girl! 14. What ... talented writer
    he is! 15. What... lovely child your boy is!
    28. Write the plural of the following nouns:

    a country, a wolf, a tomato, a brush, a baby, a watch, a sheep, a postman, a day, a shelf, a sister-in-law, a
    text, a roof, a cassette-recorder, a page, a handkerchief.
    29. Write 10 affirmative and 10 negative imperative sentences using the verbs given below:

    to take, to give, to bring, to tell, to speak, to answer, to go, to read, to write, to come, to repeat, to begin, to
    forget, to switch on, to show, to look, to listen, to wait, to put on, to take off.
    30. Use the infinitive as attribute (take the infinitives from the following list):

    to remember, to learn, to answer, to eat, to come, to worry about, to say, to speak to, to do, to read, to
    apologize.
    M o d e l : Benny hasn't any friends to play with.
    1 .This is a rule.... 2. There is nothing.... 3. These are the letters ... . 4. You are just the man ... . 5. This is a
    poem .... 6. Have you got anything ... ? 7. He is always the first .... 8. I have nothing .... 9. Is there anything ... ?
    10. This is the first thing... 11. It is just the moment....
    31. Form the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives:

    old, bad, cold, yellow, loud, clean, large, cosy, comfortable, green, modern, long, red, dark, good, small,
    interesting, difficult, important, easy.
    288

    32. A. Change the following sentences as shown on the model.

    M o d e l s : 1. Tom is as clever as Jim.
    2. Tom is not as clever as Jim.
    Tom is not so clever as Jim.
    1. The Thames is as long as you say. 2. She is as proud as her sister. 3. My pen is as good as yours. 4. This
    armchair is as comfortable as that one in Father's study. 5. The film is as interesting as the play. 6. My bag is as
    heavy as hers. 7. A tram is as quick as a bus. 8. She is as beautiful as her mother. 9. The furniture in her
    bedroom is as modern as in the sitting-room. 10. My dressing-table is as small as yours.
    B. Change the negative sentences you have written in the following way.

    M o d e l s : 1. Tom is not (as, so) clever as Jim.
    2. Jim is cleverer than Tom.
    To Lessons 6-7
    33. Make up questions to which the words in bold type are answers:

    1. They have got a car of their own. 2. He has a nice, gentle face. 3. We have a lot of relatives in Moscow.
    4. You have got three mistakes in your test. 5. Mr. Smith has a son and a daughter. 6. My friend has a large
    family.
    34. Replace the of phrases by the noun in the Possessive Case:

    1. The wife of Doctor Sandford. 2. The elder sister of Helen. 3. The friend of my brother-in-law. 4. The best
    suit of my husband. 5. The novels of Dickens. 6. The hat of my sister-in-law. 7. The answers of the students. 8.
    The tools of the workers. 9. The dress of the girl. 10. The dresses of the girls.
    35. Replace the of phrases by the noun in the Possessive Case:

    1. The face of the woman is attractive. 2. The faces of these women are attractive. 3. The coat of my fatherin-law is grey. 4. The coats of the passers-by are wet. 5. The voice of the man is too loud. 6. The voices of the
    men sound harsh. 7. The toys of the child are on the floor. 8. The toys of the children are on the floor.
    36. Replace no by not ... any.
    Note. No = not ... any and both are grammatically correct, but in colloquial speech not... any is more common than no.

    M o d e l s : The poor boy has no shoes to wear.
    The poor boy hasn't any shoes to wear.
    There are no apples on the plate.
    There aren't any apples on the plate.
    She gives him no money.
    She doesn't give him any money.
    1. She has got no English books. 2. I have got no friends here. 3. She has no more money. 4. I have got no
    cousins. 5. They have got no children. 6. There are no boys or girls in the house. 7. He has got no toys to play
    with. 8. I see no books on the table. 9. I want no more, thank you.
    37. Translate into English using not ... any:
    1.

    . 2.
    . 5.

    . 3.

    . 4.
    (sweets). 6.

    . 7.
    289

    . 8.

    . 9.

    . 10.

    .
    38. Fill in the blanks with the expressions a lot of, plenty of, a great deal of.
    Note. In spoken English much and many are usually replaced by these expressions in simple affirmative sentences.
    Remember that a great deal of can be used to replace much only.

    M o d e l s : We have a lot of (plenty of) apples this year.
    We have a lot of (plenty of, a great deal of) time.
    1. They've got ... cassette-recorders in the laboratory. 2. Doctor Sandford's wife has ... flowers in her garden.
    3. She has ... trouble with her boy Benny. 4. The doctor has ... patients. 5. A housewife has ... work to do. 6. He
    has got ... English books in his library. 7. We have got ... spare time today. 8. Their family is large. They have
    ... children. 9. I spend ... money on books. 10. She buys ... milk for her grandchildren. 11. I have ... guestions to
    ask. 12. He knows ... interesting stories.
    39. Make up 8 sentences following the models given below.
    Note. Much and many are used in questions and negative sentences, also in affirmative sentences when preceded by
    very, too, so.

    M o d e l s : 1. Have you got many (a lot of) lessons today?
    Yes, we have a lot of lessons today.
    No, we haven't got many lessons today.
    She has too many mistakes in her test.
    2. Have you got much work today?
    Yes, I have a lot of work today.
    No, I haven't much work today.
    She eats so much bread. It isn't good.
    40. Change the following sentences into disjunctive and general questions:

    1. There is a tea-pot on the table. 2. There are some flowers in the vase. 3. There aren't any English books on
    the shelf. 4. There is nobody in the garden. 5. There is a lot of milk in the jug. 6. There aren't any mistakes in
    your test. 7. There isn't any chalk at the board. 8. There are some pictures on the walls of the room. 9. There is
    some coffee in the cup. 10. There are six continents in the world. 11. There are a lot of flowers in the garden.
    12. There is nothing in the box. 13. There aren't any new words in the text. 14. There is a lot of snow in the
    forest.
    41. Fill in the blanks with some, any, not any, mucn, many, not much, not many, very little, a little, very few, a few.

    1. Are there ... college-graduates among your friends? - Yes, there are.... 2. Are there... students in the next
    classroom? -No, there aren't.... 3. I haven't got time, I must hurry. 4. I have ... time and can help you. 5. There
    are ... cups on the table, but there aren't glasses. 6. I have very ... time and can't stay any longer. 7. We know
    very... about it. 8. I have... questions to ask. 9. Very... people know Doctor Sandford. 10. There are... girls in the
    family, are there ? 11. There' s very... chalk at the blackboard, go and fetch ... . 12. There are ... students in the
    hall, are there? 13. There isn't... tea in the tea-pot. 14. There isn't... paper in the box, I need more. 15. There
    aren't ... pencils in the box, don't take .... 16. It's a secret. Very... people know about it. 17. Please add ... more
    tea in my cup.
    42. Use the proper article.
    Note. Pay attention to the use of the article with the noun predicative, the noun object and the noun subject (in
    sentences with the introductory there).
    290

    1. Have you ... grandfather? 2. There is ... garden behind ... house. 3. My brother-in-law is ... writer and his
    wife is ... doctor. 4. These are ... difficult sentences. 5. I have ... father, ... mother and ... little sister. 6. What's ...
    matter with you? 7. We are ... students of ... English faculty. 8. There came ... knock at ... door. 9. Benny is
    already in ... bed. 10. Once there lived ... captain brave. 11. ... Doctor Smith is still at ... hospital. 12. This isn't
    ... snow, this is ... ice. 13. She has ... velvet dress. 14. He is ... good-looking young man of 20. 15. There are ...
    beautiful flowers in ... park. 16. Is she ... college graduate?
    43. Translate into English using not ... much and not ... any.
    Note. Instead of little and few we usually use a negative verb + much and a negative verb + many.

    M o d e l s : I haven't much time (instead of: I have little time).
    I haven't many English books (instead of: I have few English books).
    1.

    . 2.

    . 3.

    . 6.
    . 10.

    . 4.
    . 7.
    . 11.

    . 5.

    . 8.

    . 9.

    . 12.

    .

    44. Fill in the blanks with it is or there is:

    1. ... warm in the room. 2. ... a theatre in our street. 3. ... easy to understand this rule. 4. ... five o'clock in the
    afternoon. 5. ... so nice seeing you again. 6. ... nothing to be done about this. 7. ... often a rainbow after rain. 8.
    ... too late to go there now. 9. ... a lot of snow this year. 10. ... a mistake in your dictation. 11. ... far from my
    house to the Institute. 12. ... difficult to say what's wrong about it. 13. ... very strange that he hasn't come. 14. ...
    still very early and ... nobody to be seen in the street. 15. ... usually a stamp on the envelope. 16. ... so cold outof-doors today. 17. ... electricity in all the houses of the town.
    45. Use the proper article:

    1. Come to ... blackboard and write... Exercise 12. 2. You have ... spelling mistake in ... word "nursery". 3.
    He is ... old friend of mine. 4. There came ... tap at ... door and in another moment we saw ... small girl enter ...
    room. 5. He is ... young artist and, I should say, rather talented. 6. He gave her ... cigarette and lighted it. 7. I
    don't feel ... sympathy towards this man. 8. They are going to build ... new house. 97 Are ... rooms in your flat
    large or small? 10. ... hour is a long time. In ... hour you can read ... newspaper, or write ... letter. 11. What ...
    beautiful music he is playing! 12. In every remark he found ... meaning but not always the true meaning. 13.
    There is ... curiosity in her look. 14. ... Sandfords have ... nice house. ... house isn't large but comfortable.
    46. Translate into English:
    1.

    ?,
    ?-

    18
    . 6.

    ,

    ,

    ,
    19. 3.
    ,
    . 9.

    ,
    . 12.

    14.
    ? 17.
    ,

    . 2.
    . 4.
    ? 7.

    ?-

    19
    . 5.
    . 8.

    ? 10.
    ?-

    ? 15.
    ,
    .

    ,

    ,

    ?-

    ,
    -

    . 11.
    . 13.
    ? 16.
    . 19.

    . 18.

    ,

    ?-

    .
    . 20.

    Lessons 8-9
    47. Form the plural of the following nouns:

    a lawn, a bush, a deer, a pantry, a sitting-room, a study, a sofa, a phoneme, an exercise, a housewife, a sonin-law, a nursery, a child, a woman, a family, a boy, a shelf, a mouse, a penny, a face, a tomato, a mother-inlaw, a toy, a sentence, a leaf, a sheep, a piano, a policeman.
    291

    48. Fill in the blanks with there is or it is:

    1.... a party at our Institute tonight. 2.... a lot of work to do. 3. ... not any coffee left. 4. ... cold today; ... a
    strong wind. 5.... not a single mistake inyour exercise. 6.... dark;... no moon. 7. ... not very far to walk. 8. ... too
    early to leave yet. 9. ... a cassette-recorder in the classroom. 10.... strange that she is absent today. 11. ... a postoffice near the house I live in. 12. ... a pity that you can't come with me. 13.... not true to say that she is my
    friend. 14. ... time to begin our lesson. 15. ... no time to write it down, the lesson is nearly over. 16. ... a fact that
    he is often absent from school.
    49. Arrange the following nouns into two groups: a) countable nouns, b) uncountable nouns. Say which can be
    used with an indefinite article:

    apple, literature, sugar, ball, music, sea, news, dress, tomato, soup, mountain, advice, friendship, foreigner,
    money, class, shop, poetry, corner, ice, artist, sentence, subject, mistake.
    50. Use some where necessary.
    Note. Uncountable nouns and countable nouns in the plural are preceded by some when "a certain quantity or number"
    is implied.

    1. Students write on ... paper and also on the blackboard. 2. I need ... writing-paper to write a letter. 3. I like
    ... sweet apples. 4. Please, buy me ... apples. 5. ... children must drink ... milk every day. 6. ... children do not
    like ... milk. 7. The tea is very hot, I must put... milk in it. 8. What must I buy, ... cheese or ... butter? 9.1 am
    fond of... flowers. 10. Put... butter on the potatoes. 11. I've brought you ... flowers. 12. Give me ... bread. 13.1
    don't like ... tea at this time of the day. 14. I'd like ... hot tea now. 15. Bring ...water, please.
    51. Point out countable nouns by using an indefinite article.
    Note. Remember that uncountable nouns in their general sense never take any article.

    1. He is ... honesty itself. 2. ... iron is ... metal. 3. ... knife is made of... metal. 4. I want... glass of... milk. 5. I
    like ... jam on ... piece of... bread. 6. We can write ... letter in ... ink or with ... pencil. 7. I prefer ... book of ...
    poetry to stories of ... adventure. 8. Can you give me ... piece of... advice? 9. No news is ... good news. 10....
    kindness is ... good quality.
    52. Change the following sentences into the plural where possible:
    1. The house is not large but it is comfortable. 2. A study is a room where we study, read or write. 3. The
    furniture is old-fashioned. 4. There is a pantry in the house. 5. Have you got an exercise to do? 6. There is a
    green lawn behind the house. 7. Is his family large? 8. This television-set costs a lot of money. 9. What is there
    in that box? 10. This cupboard is new and modern. 11. There is no soup in my plate. 12. Is the curtain white or
    yellow? 13. There is a lot of snow in winter. 14. The woman's dress is bright. 15. A city is a big town. 16. The
    child's toy is on the floor.
    53. Choose the correct form of the possessive pronouns in brackets.
    Note. The conjoint form of the possessive pronoun stands before a noun. The absolute form is used instead of a noun
    not to repeat it.

    1. This is (my, mine) bag. 2. This bag is (my, mine). 3. Is (her, hers) family large or small? 4. (Her, hers)
    skates are better than (your, yours). 5. Whose hat is this? - It's (my, mine). 6. Is he a friend of (your, yours)? 7.
    Don't stay at (their, theirs) house; stay at (our, ours). 8. She is in bed in (her, hers) room. 9. (My, mine) pen
    won't write, please give me (your, yours). 10. She's an old friend of (my, mine). 11. Is this dictionary (my,
    mine) or (your, yours)? 12. (Her, hers) is the best composition.
    54. Translate into English using personal and possessive pronouns in the appropriate form:
    292

    1.
    -

    . 5.

    . 2.
    ? 6.

    ?

    .
    ,
    (leg). 13.
    (leaves).

    ,

    . 3.

    ?

    . 4.
    (cover). 7.

    .

    . 8.
    . .

    . 9.
    .
    ,

    . 10.
    ,
    (yellow)

    . 12.
    . 14.

    ;

    55. Choose the proper word from brackets:

    1. (Can, may) you play the piano? 2. (Can, may) Benny watch TV before going to bed? 3. I think I (can,
    may) do the work myself. 4 (Can, may) your friend speak English? 5. (Can, may) I have another cup of tea? 6.
    You (can, may) stay a little longer if you like. 7. I (cannot, may not) hear you. Speak louder, please. 8. You
    (can, may) take the book home. 9. (Can, may) I leave my bag with you? 10. I (cannot, may not) believe that.
    56. Give negative replies to the following questions.
    Note. Mustn't in a reply means ), I'm afraid not -

    (

    ), needn't -

    (

    ), can't -

    .

    1. May I go out and play in the street? - ... . It's dangerous to play in the street. 2. May I open the window? ... . It's cold outside. 3. Must he come here today? - .... He may come tomorrow. 4. May I take your textbook for
    a moment? - - ... . I must finish the exercise. 5. Must I bring the ear-phones? - ... . It is the monitor's task. 6. Can
    I see the Dean? - ... . He is busy. 7. Must we all come to the laboratory at 12? - ... . You may come half an hour
    later. 8. May I write with your pencil? - .... It is broken. 9. May I take it home? - .... The book is not mine. 10.
    Can I speak to the secretary? - .... He is out.
    57. Translate into English using modal verbs:
    1.

    ? .-

    . 2.
    . 4.

    ?-

    . 5.

    . 6.

    7.
    ?10.

    ,
    ?-

    . 12.

    ? - ( )
    .
    ?-

    ,

    .

    ,
    . 9.
    . 11.

    , ( )
    (

    . 3.
    ,
    ,

    ,

    ;
    ?
    . 8.
    .

    )

    .

    Lesson 10
    58. Use the required tense instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. My little sister (to go) to school every day. 2. The sun (to rise) in the East. 3. Bad students never (to work)
    hard. 4. It often (to snow) in winter. 5. He (to wake up) at seven and (to have) breakfast at half past seven. 6.
    The teacher (to point) at the blackboard when he (to want) to explain something. 7. Mother always (to cook) in
    the morning. 8. I (to see) what you mean. 9. She (to say), she (to hear) nothing. 10. There (to be) a girl
    downstairs who (to want) to see you. 11. My friend (to go) there nearly every week.
    59. Write the following sentences in the negative and interrogative:

    1. He takes English lessons. 2. She walks to the Institute. 3. They often go to the laboratory. 4. She writes to
    her mother every day. 5. He comes to see us on Sunday. 6. Tony reads newspapers in the evening, before going
    to bed.
    60. Read quickly in the Singular:*
    * Most of the examples of this exercise have been borrowed from "Living English Structure" by W. Stannard Allen, London,
    1955.

    293

    1. My friends want to study French. 2. They remember everything. 3. Children receive a lot of pleasure from
    this game. 4. Do these girls go to the theatre on Saturday? 5. His friends work in St.Petersburg. 6. The children
    play all the morning and sleep in the afternoon. 7. My friends like meat and do not like fish. 8. They live in
    small houses which have three rooms. 9. His brothers work hard all day, and want to rest in the evening. 10.
    They get new books from the library every week. 11. The postmen bring letters three times a day. 12. They
    want to buy some toys, because their sons have a birthday tomorrow. 13. These girls come to our library every
    Thursday. 14. Their holidays finish in August. 15. The boys wake up at seven. 16. Housewives have to work
    very hard. 17. On Saturday they go to the cinema. 18. They know English well and can answer all my
    questions. 19. Our fathers work in an office and do not come home for lunch. 20. They do not believe her
    stories.
    61. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative:

    1. They receive the Times. 2. Benny knocks at the door of his father's study every morning. 3. They want to
    see this film. 4. There are a few mistakes in your composition. 5. Benny often shows Mr. White his toys. 6. She
    remembers everything. 7. She must sign that paper. 8. The boy has a lot of friends to play with. 9. He can speak
    English well. 10. Our lessons begin at 8.30. 11. He likes to read newspapers after breakfast. 12. My cousin lives
    in St.Petersburg.
    62. Put disjunctive questions to the following statements:

    1. It gets dark very early in winter. 2. We can have a good time together. 3. Victory Day is the greatest
    holiday in our country. 4. It doesn't take you long to get to the University. 5. They have a lot of relatives in
    Moscow. 6. There isn't any chalk at the blackboard. 7. You don't remember the new words. 8. She hasn't got
    any mistakes in her translation. 9. Benny and John are his nephews. 10. Some of our students live in the hostel.
    11. She spends a lot of time in the laboratory.
    63. Use the proper article:

    1. He read ... leading article slowly moving his lips over ... words. 2. ... thought of Nessie faded from his
    mind. 3. I was ... interpreter during ... war. 4. We were shocked by... scene that followed. 5. And then ... lady
    came in, ... tall young lady. 6. We were met by ... handsome young man. ... man was ... guide. 7. ... street was
    empty. But suddenly she noticed ... old woman on ... opposite side of... street. 8. Long ago this park was ... large
    private garden. 9. She changed ... wrapper in which she did the housework for ... black satin blouse and ... skirt.
    10. ... marble clock on ... mantelpiece softly chimed twelve. 11. He had ... wild desire to run away. 12. I want
    you to explain ... incident we had this morning. 13. What ... nice cheerful fellow he is! 14. ... young woman of
    about 30 with ... pleasant face rose to greet them when they entered ... room.
    64. Change the following a) into the negative, b) into the interrogative:

    1. You remember her address. 2. He comes home at 7 o'clock. 3. Directors sign a lot of papers. 4. They
    receive several newspapers. 5. He has breakfast at 8 o'clock. 6. Benny likes fruit. 7. She lives near the metro
    station. 8. The girl plays the piano very well. 9. Men shave every day. 10. He spends all his money on books.
    11. The last train leaves at midnight. 12. They speak English at the lessons. 13. My parents want to buy new
    furniture. 14. The girls help their mother. 15. On Sundays they have dinner at home. 16. The dog usually barks
    at night. 17. Some girls enjoy dances. 18. Mary looks well. 19. He knows the right answer. 20. John loves
    Helen. 21. She cuts her hair every month. 22. The old woman feels very cold.
    65. Make up sentences using the following words:

    1. at once, can, all, we, questions, your, answer. 2. autumn, prefer, I, in, holiday, to have, a. 3. comes, late,
    my, often, elder, home, brother. 4. is, lawn, there, a, house, our, in front of. 5. telegram, her, to, a, send, he,
    must. 6. advice, always, she, very, good, gives, me. 7. they, mistakes, a lot of, make, spelling. 8. pronunciation,
    has, she, got, not, mistakes, any, in. 9. every, day, first-year, must, students, work, laboratory, at, the. 10. our,
    great, is, a, in, country, holiday, May, of, ninth, the.
    294

    66. Translate into English using appropriate pronouns:
    1.

    ,
    ?-

    . 8.

    ? 2.
    . 5.
    !

    ? 6.

    . 4.

    ,

    . 7.
    ? - ! 11.
    ,

    ? 10.

    . 12.
    ?

    .

    ? 9.

    ,
    . 14.

    ? 3.

    ? 15.

    ? 16.

    . 13.
    ?-

    .

    67. Change the following general questions into disjunctive ones:

    1. Is Doctor Sandford still at the hospital? 2. Does your grandmother live in the country? 3. Have you many
    English books at home? 4. Are there any new words in this text? 5. Do you usually have dinner with your
    family? 6. Do you want to see this new film? 7. Can your cousin play the piano? 8. Does he not study German?
    9. Is there a study in your flat? 10. Must we sign this paper at once? 11. Do little children sleep twice a day? 12.
    Are his parents not in Moscow now? 13. Do all the members of your family read the Times'? 14. Do you not
    remember all the new words?
    68. Use the proper article. Pay attention to the use of the article with nouns denoting parts of the day:

    1. Late in ... afternoon they went back to London. 2. It was such ... cold and windy night that we had to look
    for shelter. 3. ...morning was breaking when we started. 4. It happened on ... very day of his arrival. 5. It was ...
    evening when we parted at last. 6. It has been ... wonderful evening for me. 7. It is pleasant to go to the country
    on ... warm summer day. 8. ... night was so wet that no one was about. 9. ... morning was perfect. 10. It is ...
    early morning. 11. ... night was silent. 12. I thought it was ... morning. 13. It was ... late night when he arrived.
    14. ... evening was still and warm. 15. It all happened early in ... morning. 16. What ... exciting day it has been!
    17. It is ... last day that we are together. 18. We arrived there late at ... night. ... next morning we were to begin
    our work. 19. It was ... day to tempt one out-of-doors - cool and bright.
    69. Put the words in bold type into the Singular and make other changes if necessary:

    1. They know the town well and can show you the way to the theatre. 2. My friends live in Kiev, they study
    at the University. 3. Do these boys go to school in the morning or in the afternoon? 4. They want to buy some
    English books which they need for their work. 5. These girls sing well but they cannot play the piano. 6.
    Housewives work very much at home. 7. Two of my friends work at this plant, they are engineers. 8. These
    little girls like when their brothers play with them. 9. Children spend a lot of time out-of-doors. 10. My
    cousins have families of their own. 11. My sisters have breakfast at 8 o'clock and then they go to school. They
    return home only at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 12. They go to the library twice a month. 13. Their teachers tell
    them that they make a lot of mistakes because they are not attentive at the lessons. 14. They go to work by bus
    and return home on foot. 15. Two of my sisters are married, their husbands are workers.
    70. Translate into English paying attention to uncountable nouns:
    1.
    4.

    . 2.

    ! 3.

    ,

    . 5.

    . 7.
    . 10.

    . 8.
    ,
    . 13.

    . 11.

    ,
    . 6.
    . 9.
    ,

    .

    . 12.

    .

    71. Put the adverbs given in brackets in their proper places.

    A. M d e 1 s : He always has a lot of friends.
    You can always do it in time.
    I am always glad to see you.
    1. You must follow the doctor's advice (always). 2. I can remember to do it in time (never). 3. We have six
    lessons a day (always). 4. You may take my books (always). 5. She is late (never). 6. Betty is ill (often). 7. I
    have my breakfast at nine o'clock (seldom). I have it at half past eight (usually). 8. I am glad to join you
    (always). 9. Old Mrs. Sandford goes out (seldom). 10. I know what to speak to him about (never).
    295

    B. M d e 1 s : Can you always do it in time?
    Are you never late?
    Do you always get up at 7?
    1. Is Helen in at this time of the day (rarely)? 2. Is she late (often)? 3. Must you bring the ear-phones for the
    lesson (always)? 4. Does he come home so late (often)? 5. Do you have dinner at six o'clock (usually)? 6. Is she
    glad to see you (always)? 7. Does he smoke in bed (ever)? 8. Does she introduce her friends to her mother
    (always)? 9. Does old Mrs. Sandford stay at home (usually)? 10. Does her son-in-law visit her (often)?
    To Lessons 11-12
    72. Make up questions to which the words in bold type are answers:

    1. In summer a lot of people leave town and go to the country. 2. There are twelve students in our group. 3.
    On Sundays people usually get up late. 4. His parents live in the Far East. 5. Lucy speaks two foreign
    languages. 6. This young man is from Poland. 7. They prefer to speak English at the Institute.
    73. Translate into English.
    Note. Remember that future actions in clauses of time and condition are expressed by the Present Indefinite.

    M o d e l s : We can't start in time if he does not come back from the country on Wednesday (...
    ).
    We can't go till we finish our work (...
    ).
    1.

    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    ,

    . 4.
    ,

    . 5.
    . 6.

    ,
    ,

    . 7.
    ,

    . 9.

    . 10.

    ,

    . 12.

    . 11.
    . 13.

    ,

    . 8.
    ,
    .

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 14.
    . 15.
    . 17.

    . 3.

    ,

    . 16.

    ,
    . 18.

    ,

    .
    74. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the translation of the conjunction if when it introduces object
    clauses:

    1. If you want me to help you, why don't you say so? 2. I don't know if there are any Bulgarians in the
    delegation. 3. Let's meet at nine o'clock if it is convenient for you. 4. Tell me if I may take these books home. 5.
    I don't know if it is so. 6. Why not go now if you want to see the illumination? 7. Ask him if he often comes
    home so late. 8. Would you like to join us if we go to Red Square? 9. I wonder it he likes his job. 10. Ask him if
    he has got any pen-friends in India.
    75. Use the proper article:

    1. ... Elbrus is ... highest peak of ... Caucasus. 2. ... Japan is situated on ... islands. 3.... London is on ...
    Thames. 4.... Poland is to ... west of ... Russia. 5.... USA is in ... North America. 6. In ... north of our country ...
    summer is very short. 7. What is ... capital of... Spain? 8. This expedition has just returned from ... Antarctic.
    9.... Urals separate Europe from ... Asia. 10.... Ireland is ... island, isn't it? 11. ... Mississippi is... longest river in
    ... world. 12.... names of... rivers, seas and oceans are used with ... definite article. 13. Turning to ... East he saw
    that ... sun had risen. 14. I hear he is off to ... Central Africa. 15. ... Severn is ... longest river in ... Great Britain.
    16. ... Great Britain lies in ... eastern part of... Atlantic Ocean.
    296

    76. Compare the objects according to the given model.

    M o d e l : A lemon - an apple (sour).
    A lemon is sourer than an apple.
    An apple is not so sour as a lemon.
    An apple is not as sour as a lemon.
    1. The Black Sea - the White Sea (warm). 2. Oil - water (light). 3. Bulgaria - Russia (small). 4. Butter - milk
    (cheap). 5. Stone - wood (heavy). 6. Carrots - cucumbers (useful). 7. India - Japan (large). 8. Meat - vegetables
    (expensive). 9. Japanese - Spanish (difficult). 10. The Indian Ocean - the Arctic Ocean (warm).
    77. Use the Present Continuous instead of the infinitive in brackets:

    1. He (not to work), he (to watch) the TV programme. 2. Kitty (to finish) her porridge. 3. Look, the sun (to
    rise). 4. John (to polish) his boots and his sister (to press) her dress. 5. It (to rain) ? Yes, it (to rain) very hard. 6.
    The delegation (to leave) Moscow tomorrow. 7. Somebody (to talk) in the next room. 8. Who (to make) such a
    noise? 9. What you (to read) now?. I (to read) stories by Maugham. 10. The weather is fine. The sun (to shine)
    and the birds (to sing). 11. Somebody (to knock) at the door. 12. You (to go) anywhere tonight? 13. Why you
    (to speak) so fast? You (to make) a lot of mistakes. 14. Go and see what the children (to do). 15. Who you (to
    wa; for? I (to wait) for my sister. 16. I can't hear what they (to talk) about.
    78. Use the proper article:

    1. What shall we have for ... dessert today? 2. Let's go to ... canteen and have ... bite. 3.... cucumbers and ...
    tomatoes are ... vegetables. 4. I don't like ... mineral water, I prefer ... cup of ... tea. 5. Pass me ... butter, please.
    6. ... water, ... milk, tea and ... coffee are drinks. 7. Is there anything to your taste on ... menu? 8. Will you bring
    ... knife from ... kitchen? 9. Only after ... second course he felt he was not hungry any longer. 10. Is ... pudding
    to your taste? 11. They sat down to ... table and began eating. 12. It was ... stewed-fruit and ... ice-cream to
    follow. ... icecream was rather melted.
    79. Replace the words in bold type by personal pronouns:

    1. Tom and Bob are always hungry after classes. 2. Tom usually goes to the canteen with his fellowstudents. 3. Mother doesn't like mustard. 4. Give Kitty some tea. 5. Is Kitty thirsty? 6. Mother often asks Ann
    to help little John. 7. Bob doesn't like beer and always prefers a glass of mineral water.
    80. Form all possible questions to the following sentences:

    1. Mr. Smith reads the Times after breakfast. 2. He lives in a small town in the North of Poland. 3. The
    children must stay at home as it is raining. 4. Ann is helping her mother in the kitchen. 5. My elder daughter
    doesn't like porridge.
    81. Use the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. My elder sister (to have) a music lesson. She always (to have) a music lesson on Friday. 2. Who (to sing)
    in the next room? 3. Father (to read) a newspaper. He usually (to read) something before going to bed. 4.
    Mother (to cook) breakfast in the kitchen. She always (to cook) in the mornings. 5. Who you (to wait) for? - I
    (to wait) for Ann, we must leave in ten minutes. 6. It often (to rain) in autumn. 7. Do not go out, it (to rain)
    heavily. 8. You (to understand) the use of the Present Indefinite and the Present Continuous quite well? 9. What
    you (to write) ? You (to make) notes about the two present tenses? 10. Why you (to smile), Kitty? 11. I often
    (to meet) you at the corner of this street. You (to wait) for anybody? 12. You usually (to go) through the park? Not usually, it's only today that I (to go) here. 13. You (to hear) anything? - Yes, somebody (to knock) at the
    door. 14. They still (to discuss) where to go now.
    82. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the use of the Present Continuous to express
    an action in the near future:
    297

    1.

    ,
    ,
    (according to schedule). 5.
    . 6.

    . 2.
    . 4.

    5

    . 3.
    (to arrive by plane)
    . 7.

    ,

    . 8.
    12

    . 9.

    ,
    .

    . 10.

    . 11.

    . 12.

    . 13.
    ,

    . 14.
    .

    83. Copy the following sentences choosing the proper word from brackets:

    1. Please, tell me the (next, nearest) way to the post-office. 2. The exercise is on the (next, nearest) page. 3.
    We must wait for some (farther, further) instructions. 4. Who is that boy in the (farthest, furthest) corner of the
    room? 5. He is the (oldest, eldest) son of my father's friend. 6. This is the (oldest, eldest) edition of the book. 7.
    Lucy is my (oldest, eldest) pen-friend. 8. I am (older, elder) than you. 9. Jim is the (oldest, eldest) son in the
    family. He is two years (older, elder) than Mary. 10. Eleven o'clock is the (last, latest) time when my daughter
    goes to bed.
    84. Translate into English:
    1.

    ,

    3.

    ? 2.
    ? 4.
    ? 7.
    . 10.

    ,
    . 12.

    ,

    . 8.
    ? 11.
    . 14.

    . 13.
    . 16.
    ,
    . 20.

    21.

    . 18.

    ,
    . 5.

    ? 9.
    ,

    . 19.

    ,

    . 15.

    -

    . 17.
    15
    ,
    .

    -

    ?
    . 6.

    . 22.

    .
    6

    .

    85. Pick out countable nouns from the list below and write them in the plural. Give examples with the
    remaining uncountable nouns:

    porridge, daughter, salt, sugar, butter, milk, tea, cake, bacon, toast, marmalade, tea-pot, egg, bread, soup,
    waitress, chop, beer, potato, pleasure, water, mustard, sausage, pepper, fruit, knife, orange, discussion, watch.
    86. Copy the following sentences putting the direct and the indirect objects in their proper place; insert to or for
    wherever necessary:

    1. Can I do (anything) (you)? 2. Pass (it) (your father). 3. Show (us) (the capital of Poland). 4. You must
    explain (it) (him). 5. Fetch today's newspaper and read (it) (me). 6. Please bring (some milk) (Kitty). 7. Send
    (it) (them) at once. 8. Ask the waitress to bring (us) (coffee).
    87. Use the verbs given in brackets in the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous tenses:

    1. Why you (to walk) so fast today? You usually (to walk) quite slowly. - I (to hurry). I am afraid to miss the
    train. 2. Cuckoos (not to build) nests. They (to use) the nests of other birds. 3. I always (to buy) lottery tickets
    but I seldom (to win). 4. You can't have the book now because my brother (to read) it. 5. Some people (to do)
    everything with their left hand. 6. Who (to make) that terrible noise? - It's my son. 7. How you (to feel)? 8.
    Switch on the light. It (to get) dark. 9. You (to understand) the rule? 10. The sun (to set) late in summer. 11.
    What you (to look for) ? - We (to look for) our grandmother's spectacles. 12. I (not to know) what he (to want).
    13. What time she (to come) here as a rule? 14. Look, snow still (to fall). 15. It often (to rain) in October.
    88. Translate into English using the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous:
    1.

    .

    . 2.

    ,

    . 3.
    298

    ? 4.
    . 6.
    !
    . 11.
    . 13.
    4-5

    8.
    12-

    ,

    . 5. 9,

    ? 7.
    . 9.

    ,

    .

    ?,

    . 10.
    . 12.

    . 14.
    . 16.

    ,

    ?. 15.

    .

    89. Use the proper article. Pay attention to the use of the article with the names of meals:

    1. We have ... breakfast at 8. 2. When ... lunch was over they went upstairs to rest a little. 3. We all agreed
    that it was ... very pleasant dinner. 4. It is not good to smoke before ... breakfast. 5. Nobody objected to ... light
    supper. 6. At... dinner we sat far from each other and could not talk. 7. All that made ... excellent breakfast. 8.
    When I came down to ... tea all had already gone. 9. ... dinner was marvellous. 10. She was not sure whether
    she should order ... supper herself. 11. It all happened at... official luncheon. 12. When ... dinner was over she
    decided to talk with him. 13. As for ...supper itself it was ... very tasty one. 14. For ... breakfast was bacon and
    eggs and coffee. 15. We must organize ... little dinner to celebrate the event. 16. If you come half an hour
    before ... supper you will always find him at home. 17. After ... dinner sit a while, after ... supper walk a mile.
    18. That night we had ... lonely little dinner. 19. She came down to ... breakfast. 20. I shall speak to him at...
    dinner.
    90. Translate into English:
    1.

    3

    . 2.

    ,

    ,

    . 5.

    7.
    . 10.

    ,

    . 8.
    . 11.

    . 3.
    ? 6.
    ! 12.

    . 4.
    .
    . 9.
    ,

    .

    91. Fill in the blanks with con or may in the correct form:

    1. ... I visit you one of these days? 2. ... you lift this box? 3. When the fog lifted we ... see where we were. 4.
    She asked me if she ... use my dictionary. 5. The telephone is out of order. I ... not hear anything. 6. ... you help
    me a little? 7. ... I read the letter? 8. You ... think whatever you like. 9. I ... not walk so quickly. I have a weak
    heart. 10. You ... take the textbook. I don't need it any longer.
    92. Fill in the blanks with must not or need not:

    1. You ... ring the bell, I have a key. 2. "You ... play with matches," said Mother. 3. I ... go to the shops
    today. There is plenty of food in the house. 4. You ... strike a match; the room is full of gas. 5. We ... drive fast;
    we have plenty of time. 6. You ... drive fast; there is a speed limit here. 7. You ... turn on the light; I can see
    quite well. 8. You ... ask a woman her age. It's not polite.
    93. Fill in the blanks with there or it:

    1. ... was a lovely morning. 2. ... was absolute silence all over the house. 3. I'm fond of young Toby; ... is a
    great charm about the boy. 4. ... was Lucy who told me his address. 5. ... must be a mistake in what you have
    written. 6. Is ... anything interesting on the TV programme tonight? 7. They say ... is going to be windy
    tomorrow. 8. ... was a dense fog that day. 9. ... was very foggy that day. 10. ... was no necessity to do it
    yesterday. 11. ... was not necessary to do it yesterday. 12. ... was snowing heavily all day. 13. ... was heavy
    snow all day. 14. While ... is life, ... is hope. 15. … is hardly time to do the packing. 16. ... is all very well to say
    so, but is it so really? 17. ... is most unpleasant to have eight lessons a day. 18. ... is not known where he spent
    his early childhood. 19. ... is a time and place for everything. 20. ... was much to be said on both sides. 21. ... is
    not clear who is responsible. 22. ... is a long way from the house to the tram-stop. 23. ... is time to finish the
    translation before we go. 24. ... is a long time since I saw such an interesting film. 25. ... is no place like home.
    94. Paraphrase the sentences using too or enough:

    M o d e l s : It was so cold (that) we couldn't go out.
    299

    It was too cold (for us) to go out.
    She is clever, and can understand everything.
    She is clever enough to understand everything.
    1. She knows English well and can talk to a foreigner. 2. The passage is so difficult that you can't translate it
    without a dictionary. 3. He has grown so fat he can't tie up his own shoes. 4. He was so thirsty he could drink a
    well dry. 5. You're so young that you don't know such things yet. 6. I know him well and I trust him. 7. The
    work is so difficult we can't fulfil it in a fortnight. 8. It's very late, you can't go for a walk. 9. He is not clever,
    and he won't understand your joke. 10. She is so kind, she can't be angry with anybody.
    95. Use the required form of the adjective given in brackets. Insert articles where necessary:

    1. My sister is much (old) than myself. 2. This is (warm) room in the house. 3. Her daughter is a little (tall)
    than I but much (thin). 4. It was (early) than I thought, only six o'clock. 5. Where is (near) shop? 6. He is (old)
    son in the family. 7. What's (late) news? 8. Only when (late) guest left the room she sighed freely. 9. Cardiff is
    (large) town in Wales. 10. She is much (useful) at home than here. 11. She is (beautiful) girl we have ever seen.
    12. He is one of (good) engineers at the plant. 13. Today your answer is (bad) than last week. 14. John is my
    (old) friend in this place. 15. This is (funny) story in the whole collection. 16. I didn't like (late) chapter in this
    book. 17. Your composition must be as (short) as possible. 18. He was not so (talented) as we had expected. 19.
    They always choose (easy) way. 20. Which is (high) mountain in the world? 21. What can be (sweet) than
    honey?
    96. Put the adverbs in brackets in their proper places:

    1. Aren't you ready (yet)? 2. He doesn't understand the rule (still). 3. She's late for her lectures (often). 4. I
    can understand him (never). 5. Do you go through the park (sometimes)? 6. The buses are full in the morning
    (usually). 7. Have you been here (ever, before)? 8. I shall have to see his ugly face again (never). 9. He isn't late
    (generally), but he was late last night (nearly). 10. You must get up early (always). 11. I have to do it myself
    (nearly always). 12. I am going for a walk (just). 13. None of them had been there before (ever) and they
    wanted to go there again (never). 14. He can help you (always). 15. May I come to see you (sometimes) ?
    97. A. Translate into English paying attention to the use of articles:
    ,
    ;

    ,
    ,
    ,

    ,
    ,
    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ;
    ,

    .

    . Make up sentences using the of-phrases.

    To Lessons 13-14
    98. Insert the appropriate form of the possessive pronoun:

    1. This doesn't look like my tooth-brush; it must be ... . 2. Take your bag, I have taken ...; come on! 3. They
    say they have lost ... tickets; perhaps these are ... . 4. John has come to see me; ... father and ... are old friends.
    5. Mary and I have made new dresses to wear at ... party; she says ... is better than ... . 6. Ann is going to help
    little Kitty to clean ... shoes.
    99. Make up sentences according to the model using the following words as predicatives:

    M o d e l s : It is nice to see you.
    It is pleasant to take a shower in the morning.
    pleasant, nice, useful, interesting, difficult, impossible, high time, a great joy, a pity, a good idea.
    300

    100. Write the comparative and the superlative degrees of the following adjectives:

    late, pretty, sad, dear, gay, cheap, expensive, far, simple, clever, happy, sweet, little, hot, quick, heavy,
    pleasant, wonderful, lazy, old, easy.
    101. Put the adverbs of indefinite time in their proper place.
    Note. 1. The usual place of adverbs of indefinite time is a f t e r the auxiliary have. 2. Yet and already may also be
    placed at the end of the sentence.

    M o d e l s : He has already finished his coffee.
    He hasn't finished his coffee yet.
    1. I have seen him (just). 2. Have you spoken to her about it (ever)? 3. I have been to the laboratory
    (already). Nick isn't there. 4. We have been there before (never). 5. They haven't finished breakfast (yet). 6. I
    have done my homework (already). 7. Have you made the beds, Ann (already) ? 8. Mary and Edward have left
    (just). 9. She hasn't finished doing the room (yet). 10. I have finished my translation and now I am free (just).
    11. She has seen the sea (never) and wants to go to the Crimea this summer. 12. When does your train leave?
    Have you packed your bags (yet)? 13. Have you been to England (ever)? 14. The bell has gone (just). 15. I have
    seen him looking so pale (never). 16. If you have seen the film you must remember this scene (ever).
    102. a) Copy the sentences arranging them in the following way: 1. Sentences expressing the completion of
    actions. 2. Sentences expressing durative actions:

    1. Glad to see you! Haven't seen you for ages. 2. I have lived in Moscow since childhood. 3. Have you done
    your morning exercises? 4. Robert has studied English for five years already. 5. Ann has made a new dress. 6.
    The children have just come home from a walk. 7. Has anyone cleaned the blackboard? 8. Why haven't you
    brought your article exercise-book? 9. Kitty has been asleep for two hours, it's time to wake her up. 10.
    Something has gone wrong with the radio-set. 11. I haven't had time to repair the radio since last Monday. 12.
    Have you heard the news? 13. The bell has gone, let's begin our lesson. 14. It's 12 o'clock, so I have been here
    for two hours.
    b) After you have written the sentences translate them into Russian.
    103. Use the proper article. Pay attention to the use of the article with the noun in apposition:

    1. ... girl was alone, ... rather short young woman of twenty-seven. 2. Her companion, ... handsome darkhaired youth, had left. 3. Last night we saw "An Ideal Husband", ... play by Oscar Wilde. 4. She was seventeen
    then - ... beautiful young creature. 5. This is my friend, ... writer. 6. Beside him hung the portrait of his wife, ...
    thin woman in black. 7. Tokyo, ... capital of Japan, is one of the largest cities in the world. 8. Our Institute, ...
    grey four-storeyed building, is not far from the railway. 9. Shakespeare, ... great English playwright, lived in the
    17th century. 10. Mr Bennett, ... man of fifty, resembled my father. 11. I saw hir Speaking to a young man, ...
    Englishman.
    104. Use the Present Indefinite, the Present Continuous or the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in
    brackets:

    1. Will you, please, lend me your pen for a moment? I (to leave) mine at home and now (to have) nothing to
    write with. -I (to be) sorry, but I (to be going) to write myself. Ann (not to write), she can give you her pen. 2.
    You (to read) "The Gadfly" by Voynich? - I (to read) it now, I (not to finish) it yet. It (to be) a very good book,
    I (to like) it very much. 3. We (to go) to the cafe "Cosmos" tonight. You ever (to be) there? 4. Where (to be)
    Ann? - She (to be) in the kitchen. - What she (to do) there? - She (to wash up). - - I already (to help) my mother
    with the housework and (to come) to ask Ann to go to the cinema with me. 5. Don't forget we (to have) a party
    tomorrow, be sure to bring Bob with you if he (to come) back from St.Petersburg. 6. (to be) there anything the
    matter with you? You (to be) so pale. -- Nothing the matter. I just (to finish) my work and I (to be) a little tired.
    7. Who (to play) the piano? Mary still (to have) her music lesson? - No. The lesson (to be) over and the teacher
    already (to go). Mother (to play) for little Kitty. 8. Ring me up when you (to be) free. I (to have) something to
    301

    discuss with you. 9. I (not to hear) the news yet. 10. Hurry up if you (to want) to go out with me. 11. She (to
    send) me a letter that she (to come) in a few days. 12. You (to understand) what they (to talk) about? 13. When
    she (to call) on us she always (to bring) some toys for my little daughter. 14. What you (to look) for? -- I (to
    look) for my dictionary. I just (to see) it somewhere. I (to think) it (to lie) on the bookshelf.
    105. Translate into English using the Present Continuous, the Present Indefinite or the Present Perfect:
    1.

    .

    ,

    . 3.

    . 2.

    .,
    ,

    . 6.
    . 7.

    ,

    .

    ?-

    (cover)
    ,
    ,
    ?,
    .-

    . 9.
    . 10.
    ?-

    .-

    . 12.
    ,

    ,

    . 14.
    .

    ,
    .
    . 16.
    . 18.

    ,

    . 4.
    ?-

    ?-

    . 11.

    ,

    ?-. 5.

    ,

    ?

    ?

    .

    ?. 13.
    ,

    .

    ,
    . 8.
    ,
    .
    ,

    ,
    ?-

    ,

    . 15.
    ,
    ?

    ,
    .,

    . 17.
    ,

    ?-

    .

    106. Use the Present Continuous or the Present Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets.
    Note. The Present Continuous expresses an action going on at the moment of speaking. The Present Perfect
    Continuous expresses an action occupying a period of time still continuing or just finished.

    1. What you (to look) at? - I (to look) at that picture over there. I (to look) at it for almost half an hour and I
    still can't understand what it is. 2. What Mary (to do)? - She (to practise) the piano. She (to play) since 12
    o'clock. I think she must have a rest. 3. Here you are at last! I (to look) for you everywhere. 4. Why you (to
    smile) Robert? - I (to watch) your kitten. What a playful little thing it is! 5. I see you (to write) letters all the
    morning. Is it the last letter you (to write) now? 6. You (to sit) here for a long time. You (to wait) for anybody?
    7. How long you (to study) English? - For three years already. 8. I (to work) at my report since Monday. Now I
    (to write) the conclusion. 9. Mary's mother (to rest) in the garden all day because she is ill. 10. She (to sleep) for
    ten hours! You must wake her! 11. David (to repair) the TV-set. He (to work) at it for an hour or so. 12. David
    (to wash) his hands. He just (to repair) the TV-set. 13. Why you all (to laugh)? Jim (to tell) you his anecdotes?
    14. It's six o'clock. I (to wait) for Ann for half an hour. I must be off now.
    107. Cumment on the use of the Present Perfect Continuous and translate these sentences into Russian:

    1. a) All these days he has been talking about his new plan. He can't speak of anything else. b) Here is Mr.
    Madden who we hav just been speaking about.
    2. a) I have been peeling potatoes for half an hour, but Mother says there isn't enough for everybody. b) Why
    are your nands dirty? - I have been peeling potatoes.
    3. a) Children, you have been swimming half an hour already. Get out of the water, quick! b) I am cold
    because I have been swimming for an hour.
    4. a) They have been working in the garden since 10 o'clock. Tell them it is time to have lunch. b) I am very
    tired; I have been working in the garden.
    5). a) Kitty, you have been watching TV too long, you'll have a headache. b) I have a headache; I have been
    watching TV too long.
    108. Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. You (to pass) your exam in English literature? 2. I (to try) to learn English for years but I (not to make)
    good progress yet. 3. That book (to lie) on the table for weeks. You (not to read) it yet? 4. I (to wait) here for
    her since 7 o'clock and she (not to come) yet. 5. I (to read) "War and Peace" for the last three months. 6. I (to
    think) about you all day. 7. He never (to be) here before. 8. I can't help being angry with you; you (to sit) here
    302

    all the time and doing nothing. 9. There's nothing to be proud of; you (not to get) a single excellent mark as yet.
    10. I (to work) so hard this week that I (not to have) time to go to the cinema. 11. The girls (to talk) about their
    new dresses for half an hour already; it seems they have nothing else to talk about. 12. I just (to talk) to him; he
    agrees to help us. 13. Some of our students (to join) the English club to get a better command of the language.
    14. I (to know) her all my life and we always (to be) good friends.
    109. Combine the two sentences into one using too + adjective + infinitive.

    M o d e l s : I was busy; I couldn't write to you.
    I was too busy to write to you.
    It was very dark. We couldn't see anything.
    It was too dark for us to see anything.
    1. I am very tired; I mustn't work any longer. 2. It's very cold; we can't go out. 3. I was so angry; I couldn't
    speak to him. 4. It's very far; we can't walk. 5. It's very good; it can't be true. 6. This dress is very old; I can't
    wear it any more. 7. The music is very soft; we can't hear it. 8. You are so young; you can't be a teacher.
    110. Read the following sentences a) in the interrogative, b) in the negative:

    1. Bob came home late. 2. She gave them her dictionary. 3. He took a shower. 4. The students went to the
    lab. 5. They got up early. 6. Ann brought me a new magazine. 7. He left for London on Monday. 8. They wrote
    to me every month. 9. He read the letter out loud. 10. You did it all by yourself. 11. She spoke English fluently.
    12. They sat down quietly. 13. Jim saw them together. 14. They all heard the song. 15. He paid the money
    yesterday. 16. Benny found his ball. 17. She remembered every word. 18. Ann made good progress in English.
    19. The boys knew where to go. 20. They celebrated New Year. 21. She got an excellent mark. 22. My parents
    met me at the station. 23. You thought he was right. 24. We discussed it at the meeting, 25. It troubled me very
    much. 26. Robert repaired Ann's iron. 27. They began on time. 28. You told John about it. 29. He spent a lot of
    time on his English. 30. They admired her singing very much.
    111. Use the Past Indefinite or the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. How long you (to know) him? - I (to know) him since 1965. 2. He (to live) in Leningrad for two years and
    then (to go) to Siberia. 3. When he (to arrive)? - He (to arrive) at 2 o'clock. 4. I (to read) this book when I was at
    school. 5. I can't go with you as I (not to finish) my work. 6. The clock is slow. - It isn't slow, it (to stop). 7.
    You (to have dinner) yet? 8. The performance (to begin) at 7 o'clock and (to last) for 3 hours. We all (to enjoy)
    it. 9. The lecture just (to begin). You are a little late. 10. We (to miss) the tram. Now we'll have to walk. 11.
    You (to be) here before? - Yes, I (to spend) my holidays here last year. 12. You (to see) Kitty on Monday? 13.
    Where is Tom? - I (not to know). I (not to see) him today. 14. I (to lose) my pen. You (to see) it anywhere? 15.
    You ever (to try) to give up smoking? 16. Why you (to switch on) the light? It is not dark yet. 17. When it (to
    happen)? 18. He (to leave) for the Far East two years ago and I (not to see) him since. 19. The last post (to
    ome)? 20. When you (to meet) him last? 21. You (to be) to the laboratory this week? 22. Why you (to take)
    my pen while I was out? You (to break) it.
    112. Use the Past Indefinite or the Present Perfect instead or the infinitives in brackets.
    Note. Remember that the definite place usually implies a definite past time.

    1. You (to find) the key which you (to lose) yesterday? -Yes, I (to find) it in the pocket of my other coat. 2. I
    (to see) him in the laboratory today. We (to be) there together. 3. You (to see) him today? He is your friend, as
    far as I know; help me to find him. 4. We never (to meet) him. We don't know what he looks like. 5. She (to
    meet) them in Tverskaya Street this afternoon. 6. I am angry with Ann; she (to keep) me waiting at the Institute
    for a long time this evening. 7. Lend me your rubber. I (to make) a mistake and wish to rub it out. 8. Do you
    know that the English delegation already (to leave) for London? - - Yes, of course, I together with my fellowstudents (to be) at the station to see them off.
    113. Change the following sentences into the negative and interrogative:
    303

    1. Students often have to work at the laboratory after classes. 2. Tony had to take entrance exams in August.
    3. You will have to come here twice a week. 4. She had to spend a lot of money on books. 5. They had to stay
    there for a long time. 6. Ann always has to get up early. 7. He has to work hard at his pronunciation. 8. Lucy
    has to help her little brother and sister to prepare their lessons. 9. You will have to join some sports society. 10.
    She has to clean the flat herself.
    114. Use the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets.
    Note. Remember that when we want to express a period of time in the past, we usually use the Past Indefinite. The
    Past Continuous expresses an action going on at a definite moment in the past.

    M o d e l s : We lived there for 10 years.
    They waited for us for an hour.
    1. We (to walk) in silence for a long time. Nobody (to want) to speak. 2. We (to walk) in silence when he
    suddenly (to ask) me if I (can) help him. 3. He (to wait) there for half an hour, but nobody (to come). 4. I just
    (to have) breakfast when the telephone (to ring). When I (to come) back to my coffee it (to be) almost cold. 5. I
    (to speak) to her several times, but she (to read) and (not to hear) me. 6. Ann (to drop) two cups while she (to
    wash) up last night, but neither of the cups (to break). 7. I (to walk) for a quarter of an hour and (to watch) what
    (to go on) around me: fast cars (to rush) in both directions, and ft (to be) impossible to cross the street. 8. The
    old man who (to sit) on the bench beside me (to keep) silent for some time. Then he (to ask) me if I (to know)
    him. 9. She (to teach) Russian for two years when she (to live) in France. 10. He (to remember) the day when
    he first (to go) to school. 11. We (to talk) about Jim when he (to run) into the room. 12. I (to stand) at the
    window for some time; the sun (to shine), and I (to decide) to go for a walk. 13. For a quarter of an hour or so
    he (to lie) motionless, he (can) not make himself get up. 14. Alison and Cassie (to talk) on the staircase as I
    went down.
    115. Translate the following sentences using the Fast Indefinite or the Past Continuous:
    1.
    ? - 1977

    ,
    . 4.
    ?-

    . 2.

    ,

    . 3.
    . 5.

    ,
    3
    ,

    . 7.
    ,

    6

    . 9.

    . 10.

    ,
    . 12.

    ,
    ,

    . 20.

    ,
    . 8.

    .
    . 11.
    . 13.

    . 6.

    . 14.
    . 16.
    . 18.
    20
    .

    . 15.
    ,
    ,

    . 17.
    . 19.

    116. Change the following sentences into indirect speech:

    1. He asked angrily, "Why are you smiling to yourself and don't answer my questions at once?" 2. The girl
    said, "I am thinking of the summer spent in the Crimea." 3. She said to Nick, "When are you going to visit
    them?" "I have no time," replied Nick. 4. Mary said, "I'm making a new dress, I want to wear it at our party." 5.
    Ann said, "We are thinking of going out." 6. The teacher asked, "Are you listening carefully, John?" 7. She
    asked him, "Is Robert coming tomorrow?" 8. I said, "Is John studying for an examination now?" 9. Father said,
    "Mary is doing her morning exercises, I don't want to disturb her." 10. Mother said, "You are forgetting your
    manners, John."
    117. Use the proper article:

    1. Did you finish ... school ... last year? 2. ... examiner has already come. 3. What was your mark in...
    History? 4. He has made ... great progress since ... beginning of ... term. 5. It is easy for ... child to study ...
    foreign language. 6. Where is ... money? - It is on ... table. 7. ... boy is good at... Mathematics, ... Physics and ...
    Chemistry, but his knowledge of ... Literature and ... English is rather poor. 8. What ... fine weather we are
    304

    having today! 9. At last he found ... very interesting work. 10. ... news he brought yesterday is very important.
    11. What ... clever advice! 12. ... Phonetics is ... branch of ... Linguistics. 13. If you want to speak without ...
    mistakes you must study ... Grammar hard. 14. What is ... news? 15. ... exercise 12 must be done in ... written
    form. 16. Do you often work in ... laboratory? 17. She attends ... course of ... lectures on ... Russian Literature at
    ... University. 18. I am not interested in ... Chemistry. 19. Her subject is ... History of ... Art. 20. It was clear she
    had ... good news. 21. ... advice is good but I cannot follow it.
    118. Comment on the use of tenses in the following examples and translate them into Russian:

    1. Every evening the young fisherman went out upon the sea and threw his nets into the water. 2. Stanley got
    up looking for his stick. "Have you, children, been playing with my stick?" 3. Fleur does what she likes. 4. He
    liked music but the piece she was playing had no melody for him. 5. This is getting interesting. 6. How long
    have you been married? 7. Don't you know that Mrs. Greenfield has left us? She's gone to London. 8. He has
    been studying at the University for 6 years. 9. She looked at it for some time and slowly a little frown crept
    between her brows. 10. I am always telling Jerry that his uncle means more to him than his own parents. 11. I
    am starting again. A new life begins from today. 12. "It's a pity you interrupted us," said Nora. "We were
    having an interesting conversation." 13. At that moment the telephone bell rang. Rosanna took up the receiver
    and listened. 14. I was still thinking of it when I came face to face with Roger.
    119. Use the required tense (Present and Past Indefinite, Present and Past Continuous, Present Perfect and
    Present Perfect Continuous):

    1. She (to go) to Italy five years ago. Since then she (not to speak) Italian, and (to forget) nearly all she (to
    learn) there. 2. When he (to run) after the tram, he (to fall) and (to hurt) his leg. We (to have) to carry him
    home. Now he (to lie) in bed. The doctor just (to leave). The doctor (to say) he must stay in bed for a week. 3.
    He (to look) through my album when I (to enter). "You (to like) my sketches?" I (to ask) him. "They (not to be)
    very good." 4. What you (to look) for? - I (to lose) my pen and (to want) to find it before it (to get) dark. When you (to lose) it? - I (to think) I (to drop) it somewhere here when I (to go) to the Institute this afternoon.
    5. My friend Robert (to learn) French for the last three years, and now he (to study) German, too. 6. You (to
    speak) to Ann yesterday? - No, I (not to see) her for a long time. I (not to remember) when I last (to see) her. 7.
    My brother (to study) modern English literature for two years and then (to give) it up. 8. I (to look) at this
    photograph for five minutes, but I can't see you in it. - I'm afraid you (to look) at the wrong one. 9. You must
    stop reading; you have a headache because you (to read) too long! 10. My elder brother (to join) the army when
    he (to be) eighteen. 11. They (to live) in that town for ten years and then (to move) to the country. 12. We (to
    live) here for the last six months, and just (to decide) to move. 13. He (to write) a new play for the last two
    years, but he (not to finish) it yet.
    To Lesson 15
    120. Insert the missing conjunctions and comment on the use of tenses in the following sentences. (Conjunctions
    to be used: when, till, before, after, as soon as, while, if):

    1. I shall believe it ... I see it. 2. You must wait ... the light changes to green. 3. I shall be ready ... you count
    ten. 4. He will ring up for the taxi ... you finish packing. 5. I shall tell you a secret... my brother goes out. 6. We
    shall be starting immediately ... you finish your dinner. 7. I don't think he will write ... he arrives. 8. I shall
    always remember you ... I live. 9. I shall be preparing breakfast... you are taking a shower. 10. I shall put on my
    raincoat ... it starts to rain. 11. He'll tell you ... you ask him. 12. ... you stay in the reading-hall I'll be working in
    the laboratory. 13. He will stay here ... you come. 14. ... they show me their homework, I will correct it.
    121. Translate what is given in brackets using the Present Indefinite or the Future Indefinite:

    1. You will enjoy yourself if you (
    ). 2. Ask him if he (
    ). 3. We shan't be
    able to go out if (
    ). 4. They say (
    ); the clouds are gathering. 5. I don't
    know when he (
    ); the weather is so nasty. 6. Tell him to wait when he (
    ). I may be late. 7. Tell
    Mother we (
    ), it's much too far away. 8. Tell Mother not to worry if we (
    ); it's much too far away. 9. I'll talk to him about it if I (
    ). 10. I'm not sure if I
    305

    ). 11. She will take the children out for a walk if she (
    ). 12. I don't
    know if she (
    ); she has got a lot to do. 13. The rain won't do him any harm if he
    ). 14. Ask him if he (
    ); it looks like rain.
    122. Complete the following sentences using the Present Indefinite or the Future Indefinite:

    1. If you travel by car to the Crimea .... 2. I should like to accompany you in case ... . 3. If the weather
    remains fine .... 4. We shall wait till ... . 5. I should like to know when ... . 6. Don't go away before .... 7. Tell
    me when ... . 8. The rain will soak us to the skin unless ... . 9. He is clever enough to understand what you want
    if .... 10. If it looks like rain ... . 11. I am not quite sure if .... 12. I understand you are going to stay at home till
    ... . 13. Please, ring me up as soon as ... . 14. We'd better stay at home if ... . 15. You may go skating after .... 16.
    Don't forget to remind him tomorrow in case ... . 17. We'll remain here and wait for you until.... 18. He must
    join us tomorrow; ask him when .... 19. I'm afraid I shan't be able to join you before ... . 20. She promised to
    come tonight. Please try to find out if....
    123. Translate into English using you (we) had better + Infinitive:
    1.

    ;

    . 2.

    . 3.

    . 4.

    ,

    . 6.
    ,

    . 5.
    . 7.

    . 8.

    ,

    ,

    . 9.

    . 10.

    ,

    . 11.

    .
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,
    . 12.

    .

    124. Replace the Future Indefinite by to be going to.
    Note. to be going to+ Infinitive refers an action to the near future; it has the meaning of intention or certainty.

    1. I'll travel by car this summer. 2. We'll have a test on the use of tenses on Monday. 3. The Parkers will
    have a picnic lunch in the country on Sunday. 4. Ann will practise the piano all the morning. 5. There will be a
    storm soon, look at those clouds. 6. They say she'll be married this autumn. 7. I got wet through in yesterday's
    rain, I think I shall have a cold. 8. She'll clean the flat on Saturday. 9. What will you do when you finish school?
    10. We'll see them all in September when they come from the country. 11. Do you like the song? I'll sing it
    again this evening. 12. What will you do after classes today? 13. I'll take my last exam next Monday. 14. The
    article isn't very long; he will translate it tonight. 15. My friend is leaving tomorrow. She says she'll write to me
    every week.
    125. Use the proper article. Pay attention to the use of the article with the names of seasons:

    1.... winter was bitterly cold. 2. It was ... early autumn. 3.... summer is my favourite season. 4. October is ...
    rainy month. 5. There are many wonderful verses about ... winter. 6. In ... spring ... days become longer and ...
    nights grow shorter. 7. ... children have ... long vacations in ... summer and ... short vacations in ... winter and ...
    spring. 8. ... summer is ... good time for sports. 9. It is pleasant to go to ... country on ... hot day in ... summer.
    10. It was ... cold rainy autumn. 11. What is ... weather like in Siberia in ... winter? 12. ... Russian winter is
    famous for its frosts. 13. Look at... sky. It is covered with ... dark clouds. 14. When it is ... winter in one part of
    our country it is already ... summer in another.
    126. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.
    . 4.
    !

    . 2.
    .
    . 7.
    . 9.

    1941

    . 3.

    ,

    . 5,

    -

    . 6.
    . 8.

    ,
    . 10.

    ,

    .
    127. Put the adverbs given in brackets in their proper place:
    306

    1. Does she wear this hat (always)? 2. Have you seen him (today, anywhere)? 3. It rains in this part of the
    country (seldom). 4. Have you seen such a vast forest (before, ever)? 5. Will you be working if I come at four
    (still)? 6. Do you go (there sometimes)? 7. He, as usual, was working (at night, late). 8. She spoke the last
    words (out loud). 9. We are waiting for you. Aren't you ready (still, yet)? 10. He gets up at seven. Has he got up
    (already, usually) ? 11. You can be sure how to behave in her presence (never). 12. You must speak like that to
    your mother (never). 13. Can she do it (easily)? 14. Have you met him (before, here, ever)? 15. Let's go
    together (tonight, there). 16. She keeps us waiting a long time (seldom). 17. She doesn't take sugar in her tea
    (usually). 18. I made spelling mistakes when I was at school (generally) 19. The train arrived (yesterday, late).
    20. The students of our faculty are very busy (generally).
    128. Use the proper article:

    ... boy who had always lived in ... country and who had never heard of ... animals that live in other lands
    came one day to ... town where there was ... wild-beast show. ... elephant attracted his attention, and he was
    particularly struck by ... animal very much like ... cat, but considerably larger, with ... spotted skin and of ...
    guiet and peaceful appearance. Near ... cage, containing this beautiful animal, was another of much less
    attractive appearance with two humps on its back and with ... long ugly neck. "What is ... name of that pretty
    animal which you have placed next to this other ugly one?" asked ... boy of ... attendant. "That animal which
    you admire so much," he replied, "is ... leopard, and is one of... most dangerous of all wild beasts."
    129. Use the Future Continuous where possible.
    Note. The Future Continuous is often used to express an action which is supposed or anticipated in the future (to
    anticipate ,
    ).
    a) Open the brackets:

    1. Will you have a cup of tea? - No, thank you. I (to have) lunch soon. 2. I hope I (to sleep) peacefully
    tonight. 3. My boys (to go) back to college in a week's time, and I (to be) alone again. 4. What tasty little cakes!
    I expect you (to make) some more cakes like these while I stay with you, Auntie! 5. I must be off now. They (to
    wonder) what has happened to me. 6. I'm sure they (to meet) us at the station. I (to be) so glad to see them! 7.
    Will you, please, wait a little? He (to come) home soon. 8. I don't want to disturb you. I know you (to pack). 9.
    It's just the time to see him. He (to work) in his little garden. 10. He is supposed to be very busy then. He (to
    prepare) for his examination. 11. Just a second. You (to see) Cora shortly? 12. What game he (to play)
    tomorrow? 13. I suppose you (to meet) your people? 14. You (to see) him tomorrow by any chance?
    b) Translate into English:
    1.
    . 3.

    ,

    . 2. «
    ,
    . 4.

    -

    ;

    . 5.
    ! 9.

    . 13.

    ,
    . 8.

    ,

    .

    ,
    . 11.
    .

    ,
    .

    ,

    ,

    ,
    . 12.

    .
    ,

    », -

    :
    ,
    . 6.

    .
    . 7.
    ,

    ,
    .

    . 10.

    ,
    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    . 14.

    ?

    130. Translate into English. Pay attention to uncountable nouns:
    1.

    . 2.

    ,

    . 4.

    ! 5.
    . 7.
    .

    . 11.

    ,
    ! 12.

    ? 8.
    . 10.
    ?

    . 3.
    ! 6.
    ? . 13.

    . 9.
    ,
    307

    ,

    . 14.
    . 16.

    ! 15.

    ,

    . 18.
    ,

    ? 20.

    .

    . 17.
    ,

    . 19.
    . 21.

    . 22.

    !

    Lesson 16
    131. Change the following sentences into indirect speech:

    1. He said "I attend the language laboratory almost every day. I am working hard at my pronunciation, and I
    hope I'll make good progress soon." 2. Helen said to Roger, "I'll join you in a moment if you wait for me at the
    entrance door." 3. Robert asked his friend: "Where are you going for the week-end? I hope you won't stay
    indoors all the time?" 4. Helen said: "Don't even ring me up. I'll be working at my translation " 5. Mother said
    to the children: "If Aunt Emily invites us we'll spend the week-end at the seaside." 6. "I'm sure I'll still be
    sleeping when you start. I don't want to get up so early," said Alice. 7. "I recommend you to join our company
    if you want to have a good rest," said Roger, "we are going to the river, I know a nice place for bathing there."
    8. She said: "The tall trees make a green corridor, and their leaves are murmuring above our heads while we
    walk along that wonderful alley." 9. "Are you quarrelling again?" he asked. "Mother will he angry with you."
    10. "If you watch TV for a long time, you'll get tired," said Mother to the boy. 11. He said: "Hurry up! Find
    your hockey stick. I'll be waiting for you outside because it's too hot here" 12. She said: "I'll give him your note
    if you like. I'll be seeing him tomorrow as we work together."
    132. Choose the proper word from brackets and say in which of the sentences look is a link-verb:

    1. She looks (nice, nicely) in her new hat. 2. She looked (pleasant, pleasantly) and made everybody feel at
    ease. 3. She looked (pleasant, pleasantly) at the little boy. 4. Father looked (stern, sternly) at me and I felt
    unhappy. 5. The girl looked (happy, happily) at her father, but the father looked (angry, angrily). 6. The woman
    looked (helpless, helplessly). 7. The woman looked (helpless, helplessly) about. 8. What's the matter with you?
    You look so (sad, sadly). 9. She looked (sad, sadly) at me and turned away. 10. Everything is all right with the
    little girl; she looks (gay, gaily) and (cheerful, cheerfully) again.
    133. Translate into English. Pay attention to the sequence of tenses:
    1.

    ,
    . 3.

    ,

    ,

    .
    . 5.
    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    . 8.

    .
    . 6.

    ,

    ,

    ,
    . 9.

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,

    . 10.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,
    . 12.
    ,

    . 15.

    . 14.
    ,

    . 11.

    ,

    ,
    . 13.

    ,

    ,
    . 4.

    ,
    ,
    . 7.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    , ,

    .

    134. Use the proper article:

    Robert Robinson, my old acquaintance, had worked at ... plant in Detroit. There ... technical school was
    started for advertising reasons. ... newspapers had stressed ... fact that... school would be open to all... workers
    "regardless of colour."
    Robinson's life before he came to that school had been full of ... hardships. His home was in one of ...
    southern states where he had become ... instrument-maker. ... unemployment caught up with him, and he went
    to Detroit where ... newspapers promised ... employment. In Detroit ... new period in his life began: ... endless
    308

    search for ... work. He managed to enter ... technical school. He was ... only coloured student there. ...
    newspapers made the most of it and even featured his photograph at ... work. ... papers, however, did not
    mention ... fact that he was paid less than ... white workers, and they kept quiet about ... animosity that he was
    met with every morning.
    135. Use the Past Indefinite or the Past Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. Margot (to go) to the door and (to lock) it, and (to return) with the key. 2. He sighed again and again, like
    one who (to escape) from danger. 3. Then I (to search) for a piece of paper and a pencil, and I (to write) a
    message for the maid. 4. He (to make) tea and (to eat) the biscuits which Mrs. Aberdeen (to bring) him. 5.
    Ansell (to give) an angry sigh, and at that moment there (to be) a tap on the door. 6. When the cinema (to be)
    over they (to go) for a walk across the dark, damp fields. 7. The door (to open). A tall young woman (to stand)
    framed in the light that (to fall) from the passage. 8. Cassie (to spend) the night at home, and on entering the
    dining-room (to glance) at the space above the fire. 9. He (to walk) about our sitting-room all afternoon,
    murmuring to himself. 10. It (to be) all so sudden that for a moment no one (to know) what (to happen). 11. He
    (to tell) me that they (to be) at the same public school and (to be) friends ever since. 12. At the age of seventyfour he (to be) excited as a boy about his expedition. 13. Near the door he (to see) the man he (to notice) at the
    station. 14. The house (to be) much smaller than he (to think) at first.
    136. Change the following sentences into disjunctive questions:

    1. He is having dinner now. 2. They usually have dinner at six. 3. She has a music lesson every Wednesday.
    4. They had a quarrel yesterday. 5. She is having a music lesson now. 6. He had to take four exams. 7. Next
    week you'll have to prepare for your last exam. 8. She had to wait for a long time. 9. We have to arrange
    everything by tomorrow. 10. He had to pay a lot of money for this TV-set. 11. They will have to start tomorrow
    morning. 12. He has to work a lot at his English.
    137. Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous or the Past Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. Yes, Hatte? What you (to say)? 2. He even (not to count) the money that Lammiter (to hold) out to him. 3.
    I (to look) at her. She (to smile) to herself and (not to answer) my question at once. I (to repeat) it. 4. For some
    time she (not to realize) where she (to be) and what (to happen). 5. Then she (to get) up and (to go) to the
    kitchen and (to open) the fridge. 6. Toby and Michael (to smile) at each other and (to begin) to walk slowly
    towards the lake. 7. The silence in the room (to tell) that the rain (to stop). 8. She (can) not think why she (not
    to think) of this before, she (to say). 9. He (to go) away on the very day I (to arrive). 10. My mother (to make)
    sandwiches in the kitchen and (not to hear) the bell. 11. He (to go) to school for the first time with a bunch of
    flowers in his hand, and it (to seem) to him that everyone (to turn) to look at him. 12. After he (to leave) school
    he (can) not find a job and (to decide) to go to New York. 13. The grass (to be) damp; it (to tell) us that rain (to
    fall) in the night. 14. Now he (to look) at me with wide open eyes. 15. He (can) not help thinking that he (to
    see) that face somewhere before. 16. After he (to read) "The Gadfly" he (to tell) all his friends that he never (to
    read) a better book. 17. Roger (to say) he (to come) back in an hour. 18. She (to turn) half about and (to see)
    that the rain (to stop) and it (to be) a little brighter outside. 19. After the war they (to part) and he (to tell) me
    that he (not to see) her since. 20. She (to go) back to take her gloves and bag which she (to leave) on the hall
    table. 21. The storm (to pass) and the sun (to shine) on the green leaves of the trees. 22. He (to look) through
    the window and (not to seem) to notice me.
    138. Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous or the Past Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitives in
    brackets:

    1. He (to read) his evening paper as usual when a friend of his called him on the telephone. 2. He (to read)
    before the fire for half an hour when the telephone rang. 3. When we went to see them last night, they (to play)
    chess; they said they (to play) since six o'clock. 4. She felt chilly after she (to swim) for an hour. 5. They told
    me that Ben still (to swim). 6. The boys (to play) football and did not hear their mother calling them from the
    window. 7. The boys were tired because they (to play) football. 8. We (to work) in silence for some time when
    John spoke. 9. He (to look) at the fire and (to think) of something. 10. He (to look) three or five minutes at the
    fire and then turned his face to me; it was sad. 11. At last I found the book, which I (to look) for all day. 12. He
    309

    asked me what I (to look) for. 13. When I entered the room Sir George (to talk) in a loud voice. 14. They told
    me Sir George just (to talk) about me. 15. Monty (to tremble) too in fits which shook his body from top to
    bottom. 16. She (to put) aside the book she (to read) and (to stand) up from the table.
    139. Translate into Russian and then change the following sentences into indirect speech:

    1. How long have you been sitting here? 2. It has been raining since morning, and we cannot go out. 3. She
    has been teaching in that school since 1968. 4. He has been working since I came here. 5. Come in! We have
    just been speaking about you. 6. I've just been asking him; he says he knows nothing. 7. They have been
    watching me all the time. I don't like it. 8. She has been waiting in the library for a long time. 9. What have
    you-been doing since I last saw you? 10. Where have you been all the time?
    140. Translate into English using the appropriate tenses:
    1.

    ,
    ? 4.
    . 6.

    . 2.

    ,

    .

    ,

    . 15.
    . 17.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    . 13.
    . 16.

    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 22.

    ,
    .

    . 21.
    ,

    ,
    . 23.
    ,

    ? 11.
    ?
    ,
    ! (to tell tales) 18.
    ,

    .
    . 19.

    ,
    ?--

    ,
    ,

    . 5.
    . 8.
    ;

    ,
    . 20.

    . 3.

    ,
    . 9.

    . 10.
    . 12.

    ,
    14.

    ,
    .
    ? 7.

    ,
    ,

    . 24.
    .

    141. Use the proper article. Pay attention to the with-phrases (attributive and adverbial):

    1. ... driver was ... young fellow with ... large red hands, ... long legs and ... orange hair. 2. They watched
    them go with ... amused look. 3. She always met me with ... smile. 4. He sat down to table with ... great
    pleasure. 5. They have been working with ... enthusiasm all this time. 6. It was ... little house with ... green
    windows and ... brown door. 7. It was ... cold winter with ... sunny weather and ... severe frosts. 8. The child
    looked at us with ... surprise. 9. He was ... young man with ... pleasant open smile. 10. He spoke with ...
    bitterness.
    To Lesson 17
    142. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice:

    a) 1. They often invite me to their parties. 2. People speak English in different parts of the world. 3. One uses
    milk for making butter. 4. We form the Passive Voice with the help of the auxiliary verb "to be". 5. They build
    a lot of new houses in this district every year.
    b) 1. They built this house in 1950. 2. Somebody locked the front door. 3. Someone broke my pen last night.
    4. They punished the boy for that. 5. They finished their work in time.
    c) 1. People will forget it very soon. 2. They will translate this book next year. 3. They will tell you when to
    come. 4. Where will they build a new library? 5. Someone will ask him about it.
    143. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice:

    1. No one has seen him anywhere this week. 2. Somebody has invited her to the party. 3. They have done all
    the exercises in written form. 4. They had done everything before we came. 5. I thought they had already sent
    the letter. 6. Evidently somebody had informed him of the news before they announced it. 7. They are
    constructing some new metro lines now. 8. Wait a little. They are examining the last student there. 9. They are
    310

    discussing this question now. 10. We could not use the cassette-recorder, they were repairing it. 11. When I
    switched on the radio they were broadcasting a very interesting programme. 12. They have not yet told him
    about it. 13. The branches of the tree hid her face. 14. I know her family. Her brother Charles has taken me
    there more than once. 15. I am sure your presents will please them. 16. They informed me that they had seen
    you in Oxford Street.
    144. Use the proper article. Pay attention to the article in adverbial phrases of manner:

    1. She nodded to me with ... smile. 2. I shall do it with ... pleasure. 3. He closed the door with ... bang. 4.
    Everybody looked at her with ... approval. 5. They were talking in ... low voices. 6. Though he said it in ...
    whisper I heard everything. 7. She was pulling her gloves on in ... very slow way. 8. She went up the steps like
    ... bird. 9. I was trembling like ... leaf. 10. She said it in ... matter-of-fact voice. 11. The young man smiled in
    ...amazement. 12. She was weeping like ... child. 13. With ... deep sigh she rang the bell. 14. They were walking
    along ... side by ... side. 15. He worked from ... morning till... night but earned very little. 16. She told me
    everything ... word for ... word. 17. The boys were all dirty from... head to ... foot. 18. I always meet them
    walking ... arm in ... arm.
    145. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice making the indirect object the subject of the passive
    construction.
    Note. It is more usual in English to make the indirect object the subject of the passive construction.

    M o d e l : They showed me the way.
    I was shown the way.
    1. He offered me a chair. 2. We gave him all the money. 3. They have just shown me a new magazine. 4.
    Mother promised the boy a new toy. 5. Nobody has told me the news yet. 6. They sent you the invitation last
    week. 7. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job. 8. They recommended me several articles on that
    problem. 9. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary. 10. They asked us to be there at eight
    o'clock. 11. They have promised me some books on this problem. 12. A passer-by showed us the way to
    Trafalgar Square.
    146. Translate the following sentences into English using the Passive Voice:
    1.

    ? 2.
    ? 4.
    . 7.
    ,

    XVIII

    . 5.
    ,

    , 11.

    . 8.
    . 10.

    ,

    . 12.

    . 13.
    . 15.

    . 14.

    .
    . 17.

    . 16.
    ,

    ,

    . 3.
    . 6.
    ? 9.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    . 18.
    .

    147. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice.

    M o d e l : They laughed at him.
    He was laughed at.
    1. People speak much of him. 2. They will look after the children well. 3. People will laugh at you if you say
    it. 4. They sent for the doctor immediately. 5. Everybody listened to her attentively. 6. They always wait for me
    after the lessons. 7. Nobody took notice of this little boy. 8. Everybody lost sight of the boat in the fog. 9. Why
    are they laughing at her? 10. I wonder whether they will listen to him. 11. Students often refer to these books.
    12. Nobody has ever spoken to me in such a way. 13. If they send for you don't refuse to come. 14. They have
    not referred to that incident since then.
    148. Make up sentences using the given verbs in the Passive Voice:
    311

    to look (at), to listen (to), to wait (for), to think (of), to speak (about), to refer (to), to look (for), to look
    (after), to send (for), to laugh (at), to speak (to), to ask (for).
    149. Translate into English using the Passive Voice:
    1.

    . 2.

    . 3.

    . 4.

    . 5.

    . 6.

    ? 7.

    . 8.
    . 11.

    . 10.
    . 13.

    12.
    . 17.
    ,

    . 15.
    . 18.
    1970
    . 20.

    . 9.
    3
    .
    . 14.

    . 16.
    ,

    . 19.
    ,

    .

    150. Use the proper article:

    knew that now was his chance to give Miss Carter ... letter. He stood up. Miss Carter looked at him, ...
    little surprised.
    searched his pockets for ... letter, which took him ... moment or two. Then he held it forth
    and threw it quickly on to her knee. It fell to ... floor and she picked it up with ... puzzled look. As she did this,
    ... motion caught ... Mor's eye and he looked over ... Miss Carter's head to see that Demoyte was standing at ...
    open door and had seen ... scene. Miss Carter, who had her back to ... door, had not observed him. She put...
    letter quickly into ... handbag, which lay beside her, and looked up again at
    .
    (Alter "The Sandcastle" by Iris Murdoch)
    151. Comment on the formation and meaning of the tenses in the following sentences. Translate them into
    Russian:

    1. The sun rises in the East; now it is setting and night is falling. 2. I haven't seen your brother lately. Has he
    gone away? 3. I am taking the children to the Zoo this afternoon. 4. I felt she did not believe a word I was
    saying. 5. She suddenly realized that she had left her umbrella in the bus. 6. When shall we see you again? - I'll
    call on you as soon as I come back from Canada. 7. He was tired because he had been working too hard. 8.
    They haven't spoken to each other since they quarrelled. 9. We shall be playing in a tennis match on Sunday
    with medical students. 10. I hoped she would soon forget all about it. 11. I have been waiting here nearly half
    an hour. 12. I must have a rest. I have been running round the town all day.
    To Lesson 18
    152. Point out the Complex Object and the verbs after which this construction is used:

    1. She made me do it. 2. I saw him enter the room. 3. We watched the train disappear. 4. You will hear him
    speak. 5. Mother didn't let the boy go to the yard. 6. The teacher made the pupil repeat the rule once more. 7.
    We wanted him to repeat the poem. 8. I should like you to come to our place. 9. Nobody expected him to say
    that. 10. Who wanted you to go there?
    153. Complete the questions using the Complex Object:

    1. Do you want ...? 2. Did you hear ...? 3. Do you expect ...? 4. Has anybody seen ... ? 5. Did anybody make
    ... ? 6. Who has noticed ...? 7. Why doesn't the doctor let ...? 8. Do you often see ...? 9. Would you like ...? 10.
    Did anybody expect …? 11. Can you make ...? 12. Who made ...? 13. Did your parents want ...? 14. Who let...?
    154. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice:

    1. Everybody looked at them with interest. 2. They have finished the work at last. 3. The children surround
    their teacher after the lessons. 4. I lost the key yesterday. 5. He has brought the letter. 6. We shall send for the
    doctor at once. 7. One can rely on this man. 8. They were discussing the examination questions. 9. Have they
    312

    asked you about it? 10. People met the delegation at the station. 11. Suddenly we heard some steps. 12. They
    will tell you everything about it. 13. We can win peace if we fight for it. 14. Nobody has answered my question
    yet. 15. What have people done about it? 16. They are typing the text. You'll have to wait. 17. Students often
    ask for this book. 18. People speak well about her. 19. They spoke to each student. 20. They have just discussed
    this question,
    155. Use the proper article. Pay attention to the of-phrases:

    a) 1. He leaned on ... back of... chair. 2. He saw the boy on ... roof of ... house. 3. ... neck of ... bottle was
    very narrow. 4. It was ... face of... old man. 5. ... cover of... book was very bright.
    b) 1. He gave her ... little bunch of ... flowers. 2. I am looking for ... box of ... matches. 3. She joined ...
    group of ... students standing near by. 4. ... whole pack of ... cigarettes got wet and he couldn't smoke. 5. The
    house was reached by ... flight of ... steps.
    c) 1. She asked for ... glass of ... water. 2. We could see ... drops of... dew on the grass. 3. What do you say to
    ... bottle of... beer? --No beer, thanks, I prefer ... glass of ... mineral water or just ... cup of ... tea. 4. He took ...
    jug of ... milk standing on the kitchen-table and poured himself a little. 5. Here's ... piece of ... chalk for you to
    write with.
    156. Translate into English using the Complex Object with the infinitive:
    1.

    ,

    . 2.
    . 4.

    . 6.

    ,

    . 3.

    ,
    ,

    ,
    . 7.

    . 8.

    ,

    ? 9.
    . 11.

    . 15.

    ,

    . 5.

    . 13.
    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    . 10.
    . 12.

    ,

    . 14.

    ,

    . 16.

    . 17.

    . 18.

    ,

    ,

    . 20.

    ,

    ,

    . 19.

    ,

    ,

    .

    157. Change the following dialogue into indirect speech:

    A n n : Will you join me? I am going to the grocery.
    H e l e n : Come along, I have spare time, and will you go with me to the Department store?
    A n n : Surely. Do you want to buy a new dress, a blouse or a skirt? I know you are very fond of blouses.
    H e l e n : That's right. How do you know?
    A n n : It's quite easy to guess. You have a new blouse nearly every other day.
    H e l e n : You see, this time I want to buy a pair of shoes.
    A n n : Haven't you bought brown shoes recently?
    H e l e n : I bought those for my mother.
    158. Translate into English using the Passive Voice:
    1.

    . 2.

    4.

    ? 5.
    ? 7.

    ?,
    ,

    . 11.

    .
    . 13.
    . 15.

    ,

    . 3.
    ,
    . 8.
    . 10.

    .
    . 6.

    ,
    . 9.
    ,
    . 12.

    ,

    . 14.
    . 16.

    ,
    . 17.

    . 18.
    .

    159. Use the proper article:

    313

    1. ... building Lammiter saw now was ... garage (once it had been ... stable and ... coach-house). 2. ...
    curiosity is ... vivid emotion. 3. He looked like ... man with several problems on his mind. 4. She went to ...
    window for ... air. ... pain about her heart was dreadful. 5. It was not ... answer he had expected. 6. He asked her
    if she could get him ... clothes in which he could pass unnoticed. 7. ... young man in ... photograph seemed
    familiar to me. 8. She stared at him with ... strange look that he could not interpret. 9. On ... evening of St.
    Valentine's day Boldwood sat down to ... supper as usual. 10. Suddenly round ... corner of ... house ... group of
    ... men appeared. 11. "... boy is all right," he said in ... low voice. 12. ... new information about them? Do you
    really have ... new information? 13. When we returned to ... town it was already ... late autumn. 14. Oh, darling,
    it's ... Behrman's masterpiece - he painted it there ... night when ... last leaf fell. 15. My brother has ... little
    cottage ... mile or so from here, and I have been spending ... couple of... days with him.
    160. Translate the following sentences into English paying attention to the use of tenses:
    1.

    ,

    . 2.

    . 3.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    5.

    . 4.

    ? 6.
    . 8.
    ? 10.

    ,
    .
    11.

    ?

    ,

    7
    . 7.

    ,
    ,

    ?
    . 9.

    ,

    ,

    ,
    1976

    ,

    . 12.

    . 13.
    . 15.

    . 14.
    ,

    .
    ,
    ,

    .

    .

    Lesson 19
    161. Use the Future Indefinite, the Future Perfect or the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets.
    Note. Remember that in clauses of time the Present Perfect is used instead of the Future Perfect.

    1. By the end of the year I (to read) five of Shaw's plays. 2. They (to leave) the country before you go to see
    them. 3. I can give you a definite answer only after I (to speak) to my mother. 4. By the end of the term we (to
    learn) a lot of new words. 5. I hope, when you (to do) this exercise, there (not to be) so many mistakes in it. 6. I
    expect you (to grow up) by the time I come back from England. 7. You had better not go bathing until you (to
    get rid) of that cough. 9. I'm sure you (to forget) me by that time. 9. She shan't have any pudding until she (to
    eat) her potatoes. 10. When I (to learn) a thousand English words, shall I be able to read a newspaper? 11. I (to
    write) all my exercises long before you come back. 12. Don't ask for another book before you (to read) this one.
    13. They will not return home until they (to see) Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 14. I hope that by the end of the
    year he (to teach) us to speak English a little. 15. Sit down, and when you (to rest) I'll show you the garden.
    162. Use the appropriate tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets. Translate the sentences into Russian:

    1. Don't leave till we (to discuss) our plan in detail. 2. I hope that by the time I (to be) back with the flowers
    you (to finish) dressing for the theatre. 3. They are very slow in everything, so by the time they (to begin), we
    already (to finish). 4. I can go only after I (to look) through the morning papers. 5. By the 1st of January she (to
    work) 30 years at the library. We are going to congratulate her and to celebrate the event. 6. I (to write) Lucy
    after I (to pass) all my exams. She always asks me about the examination results. 7. She promises to give me
    this novel for a couple of days as soon as she (to read) it. 8. I'm afraid we (to be) late, and they (to sell) all the
    tickets by the time we arrive. 9. If we (not to make) haste, they (to arrange) everything by themselves by the
    time we (to come) and (to reproach) us of being lazy-bones. 10. Don't forget to dust the room when you (to do)
    the beds. 11. Be sure to come before six or he (to go) already. 12. The test must be handed in as soon as you (to
    write) it.
    163. Translate into English paying attention to the sequence of tenses:
    1.

    ,
    . 3.

    ,
    ,

    . 5.

    . 2.
    ,
    ,

    ,
    . 4.
    . 6.
    314

    ,

    6.15,

    . 7.

    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 9.
    ,
    ,

    ,
    . 10.

    . 11.
    ,

    .

    ,

    . 12.

    ,

    ,

    . 8.

    ,

    ,

    .

    164. Translate into English using the gerund:
    1.

    .
    . 3.

    . 2.
    . 4.

    ;

    ,

    ,

    . 5.
    . 6.

    ,
    ,

    . 7.
    ,

    . 8.
    ,

    . 9.

    ,

    . 10.

    . 11.

    ,

    ? 12.
    . 14.

    ,
    ,

    . 13.
    ,

    . 15.

    .
    165. Use the proper article where necessary:

    a) Before ... week had passed,... whole neighbourhood knew that Mr. Dale was going to ... Africa as ...
    mechanic with ... big scientific expedition. ... expedition would have to cross to ... America with all its
    machines on board ... big liner, and from there start for ... Africa. ... expedition would sail to ... Algeria and
    from there it would cross ... African continent to ... Madagascar.
    b) Anyone who has ever travelled on ... New York underground railway during ... rush hours can easily
    understand ... following: ... little man, pushed into ... car, suddenly thought of ... pickpockets and quite suddenly
    remembered that he had some money in his overcoat. He put his hand into his pocket and was somewhat
    shocked upon finding ... fist of... fat fellow-passenger.
    "Aha!" cried ... latter, "I have caught you this time!"
    "Let my hand go," replied ... little man.
    "... Pickpocket," cried ... fat passenger.
    "... Scoundrel," answered ... little one.
    Just then ... tall man, who stood between them, glanced up from ... paper he was reading.
    "I'd like to get off here, if you, ... fellows, don't mind taking your hands out of my pocket."
    166. Translate into English paying attention to the Passive Voice:
    .
    .
    (to distribute parts),

    ,

    .

    .
    (rehearsal).
    .
    ,

    ,

    .
    .
    (invitation cards).

    .
    .
    ?

    (long-expected)
    .


    .

    ,

    .
    .

    : «

    .
    167. Write the passive forms of the following infinitives.

    M o d e l s : to love - to be loved
    to know - to be known
    to touch, to see, to stage, to refuse, to accept, to receive, to support, to invite, to tell, to remember, to send, to
    find.
    315

    168. Use the appropriate forms of the infinitives of the verbs in brackets:

    1. We did not want (to see) him. 2. He did not want (to see). 3. She doesn't allow me (to touch) anything on
    her dressing-table. 4. I knew that the painting was wet and must not (to touch); it could (to spoil). 5. I can (to
    do) the work in two days. 6. The work can (to do) in two days. 7. Mother says his invitation must (to accept). 8.
    The books may (to put) on the upper shelf. 9. She can't (to take) care of the children, she is a child herself. 10.
    The children must (to take) care of. 11. The dress must (to finish) before the evening. 12. Can it (to do) today?
    13. I don't expect it (to do) so soon. 14. I expect you (to start) as soon as possible.
    169. Translate into English using the Passive Infinitive:
    1.

    . 2.
    . 4.

    ,

    . 7.
    . 12.

    . 10.
    ,
    . 14.

    ,

    . 3.
    . 5.
    . 8.

    . 6.
    ,

    . 19.

    . 11.
    ,
    . 13.
    . 16.

    . 15.
    . 17.

    ,

    . 9.
    ,
    ,

    . 18.
    . 20.

    .

    .
    170. Use the proper article:

    1. There was at ... dining-table ... middle-aged man with ... dark eyes and ... sunburnt face, who had attracted
    ... Martin's attention. 2. Aileen knew almost nothing of... literature except ... few authors. 3. I must have slept ...
    long time, for when I got up and went out of... room I didn't know whether it was ... night or ... morning. 4. We
    had ... cold bacon for ... lunch that day. There was not much of it. I took it to be ... bacon we had not eaten for ...
    breakfast. But on ... clean dish it looked rather appetizing. 5. When ... winter came Hans suffered ... good deal
    from ... cold and ... hunger and often had to go to ... bed without any supper but ... few dried peas or some nuts.
    171. Point out the Complex Object and the verbs after which this construction is used. Translate the sentences
    into Russian:

    1. Then they heard the door-bell ring. "Who can that be?" said Mrs. Wainwright irritably. 2. Mrs. Mooney
    sat in a straw armchair and watched Mary remove the breakfast things. 3. There's a conference of teachers of
    history at Leeds. Your father wants to go to it. 4. He saw her eyes glint in the darkness. 5. It was past two
    o'clock when she heard the car return. 6. Tom made the boys go away. 7. He let us take the box. 8. They heard
    her start the car. 9. Would you like me to leave now? 10. I think I know why she makes you come here every
    day. 11. She felt her voice tremble. 12. Make your daughter help you.
    172. Point out the Complex Object and answer the following questions:

    1. When do you expect your friends to arrive? 2. Why did you let the boy touch my things? 3. Would you
    like me to stay or to leave right now? 4. Do you want me to inform them of the news? 5. Which guestion do you
    want me to answer? 6. How did you manage to see him enter the house if it was pitch dark? 7. Has anybody
    heard him say these Words? 8. Who made you act in such a way? 9. Do you feel my hands grow cold? 10. How
    did you make him agree to this proposal? 11. What direction did you notice them drive? 12. What do they
    expect me to do in this situation?
    173. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Complex Object:

    1. I noticed how he nodded to her. 2. The old lady liked when people greeted her politely. 3. I think I hear
    that somebody is moving upstairs. 4. We expect that he will deliver a speech at the conference. 5. I felt that
    somebody touched me on the shoulder. 6. They expected that I should say everything myself. 7. On entering the
    room we saw that they were talking very lively. 8. I felt that she was trembling from head to foot. 9. I heard that
    he was singing in the bathroom. 10. My little daughter likes when I am reading to her.
    316

    174. Point out the Gerunds and translate the sentences into Russian:

    1. He was fond of skiing and skating in winter. 2. I beg your pardon for receiving you like this - do please sit
    down. 3. What I love best in the world is reading. 4. Nothing could be harder than just lying in bed day after
    day. 5. "Why do you keep on smiling?" she said severely. 6. He stopped writing and looked up at me. 7. Do you
    remember returning those books to the library? 8. Do you mind my smoking here? 9. I've given up the idea of
    going to the south in summer; my doctor doesn't allow me. 10. I don't seem to have much time for reading now.
    11. The young officer kept on looking at his watch. 12. Their father doesn't mind going away for the holiday.
    13. The boy looked so funny that they couldn't help laughing. 14. It was long after sunset, but no one thought of
    going to bed.
    175. Make up sentences using the following word combinations with the gerund:

    reading good books, speaking a foreign language, go on talking, keep on glancing, stop informing, begin
    working, manner of speaking, method of teaching, be worth seeing, be busy writing, can't help smiling, give up
    smoking, after coming, before entering.
    Revision exercises on tense and voice
    176. Name the tenses suggested by these points and illustrate them with examples of your own.

    The tense expressing:
    1. an action at some definite time in the past;
    2. a temporary action, going on at the moment of speaking;
    3. an action in the future;
    4. an action in progress simultaneous to some definite moment in the past;
    5. a definite action in the near future;
    6. a prior action connected with the present by its result;
    7. an action which began before and is connected with the present through its duration;
    8. an action occupying a period of time which began in the past and is either still continuing or just finished;
    9. an action expected or anticipated in the near future;
    10. a habitual action in the present;
    11. a succession of actions in the past;
    12. a temporary action in the past taking place for some period of time expressed by the for-phrase;
    13. an action in its progress at a definite moment in the future;
    14. a prior action to some past moment, either resultative or durative;
    15. an action occupying a period of time which began before and continued into some past moment or just
    finished;
    16. a future action viewed from the past;
    17. a definite future action in the near future viewed from the past;
    18. a habitual action in emotional sentences with "always".
    177. Use the Present, Past or Future Indefinite instead of the infinitives in brackets. Use the Passive Voice
    where necessary:

    1. We (to be) all so excited, we (can) hardly wait for tomorrow morning. 2. I (to hope), my friend, that you
    (to come) and (to spend) at least a week with us. 3. No one (to know) when he (to come) tomorrow, or whether
    he (to come) at all. 4. I think he (to make) good progress very soon because he (to work) hard. 5. I will gladly
    do this if I (to be allowed). 6. He (to light) his pipe and (to look) at me for about three minutes. 7. The telegram
    (to bring) yesterday in the morning when I (to be) just about to leave the house for my office. 8. "What you (to
    do) on your last day off? - I (to spend) it in the country with my friends. 9. He (to promise) that everything (to
    arrange) before tomorrow afternoon. 10. If anyone (to want) to see me, tell them I (to be) back by five. 11.
    Yesterday he (to walk) about our sitting-room all afternoon, murmuring to himself. 12. "I (can) not think why I
    always (to drop) things," (to say) Mrs. Oliver. 13. Arthur waited till Gemma (to come) up to him. 14. After
    317

    dinner I (to sleep) for two hours till my sister (to wake) me. 15. With a slight sigh he (to draw) the candle
    towards him, (to take) out a fountain-pen, and (to begin) a letter to his mother. 16. Your answers must (to write)
    on one side of the paper only. 17. He promised to come if he (to have) time. 18. As soon as you (to buy) the
    book, I (to borrow) it from you.
    178. Complete the folio-wing using the Present Indefinite or the Future Indefinite:

    1. He promised to bring some new magazines. I should like to know when .... 2. It goes without saying I will
    accept the invitation if.... 3. Please, tell him the news as soon as .... 4. Let her know where the students have
    gone in case ... . 5. She is going to travel by car this summer, but she is not quite sure if.... 6. Don't forget to put
    down her address for me kefore ... . 7. I can give you my notes on condition ... . 8. If you wish Mary to go
    shopping with you on Monday, ask her if.... 9. I am told that a delegation of English students is coming to our
    University, but I don't know exactly when .... 10. If he wants to go on an excursion to the seaside with us, tell
    him when .... 11. I am afraid to disturb them if... . 12. Please, ring me up if you learn when ... . 13. I'll
    communicate to you as soon as .... 14. Dora expects us to come and see her on Sunday. She wants us to let her
    know if ... . 15. Let's go to a cafe when ... . 16. He will tell you when he .... 17. You must explain it to him
    before .... 18. It will be done by the time ... . 19. I'll help you to look for it until ... . 20. This dress will lose its
    colour when ... . 21. They will praise us if the work.... 22. In spite of his promise to help us I don't think he ....
    179. Use the Past Indefinite or the Future in the Past instead of the infinitives in brackets. Use the Passive Voice
    where necessary:

    1. The girl (to think) that if she (not to sell) the flowers she (not to be) able to buy bread. 2. He (to know) she
    (to feel) quite differently about it in the morning. 3. The old captain (to be) happy to be back and (to boast) he
    (to live) another twenty years. 4. At lunch Mariette (to tell) him with pride that this evening the cinema (to be)
    open. 5. Soon everything (to arrange) for the trip and the family (to start) for the railway station. 6. We (not to
    know) where the new bridge (to build) that summer. 7. Why they (to keep) it from him? - They (to be) afraid he
    (to be) upset if he (to learn) the truth. 8. The old theatre in our native town (to reconstruct) last year. 9. That
    evening, at dinner she (to tell) me that when Roger (to come) we must show him the letter. 10. The dinner (to
    leave) on the table untouched. 11. He (to walk) about three hours and he (to see) a little village lost in snow. 12.
    Peter (to promise) to call on me before he (to leave) Moscow. 13. He (to ask) me to accompany him when he
    (to go) sightseeing. 14. She (to say) they (to be) glad to see Mr. Eliot at any time, and she (to know) her
    husband (to be). 15. When I (to wake) next morning I (to decide) that I (to visit) him as soon as his doctor (to
    allow) me. 16. They (to have) to stay there until Jill (to return) from Paris. 17. Then she came to New York
    where she (to remain) two years. 18. I (to have) no idea when he (to be) able to come. 19. I (to say) I (to try) to
    speak to her if I (to have) a chance. 20. The examiner (to tell) me not to come again until I (to be prepared)
    well.
    180. Translate into English using the Indefinite tenses in the Active or in the Passive Voice:
    1.

    . 2.
    . 3.
    . 4.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    . 6.

    ? 7.

    ,

    ,

    ? 8.
    . 9.

    ,
    ,
    14.

    ,
    ? 13.
    ,

    ,

    ,
    ,

    . 11.

    . 10.
    . 12.
    .

    ,

    ,

    . 16.
    ,
    . 19.

    ,

    ?. 5.

    ,

    . 15.
    ,

    ,
    .

    ,
    . 17.

    . 18.
    ,

    ,
    . 20.

    ,

    .

    181. Retell the following jokes in indirect speech:

    a) B o y o f S i x : Daddy, when I grow up I want to be an Arctic Explorer.
    318

    F a t h e r : That's fine, Bill.
    B o y : But I want to go into training at once.
    F a t h e r : But how?
    B o y : Well, I want a dollar a day for ice-cream, so I'll get used to the cold.
    b) C u s t o m e r : I should like a book, please.
    B o o k s e l l e r : Something light?
    C u s t o m e r : That doesn't matter. I have my car with me.
    c) L a n d l o r d : I must remind you that I will not tolerate children, dogs, cats or parrots. And no piano
    playing. And no radio. Is that clear?
    T e n a n t : Yes, sir, but I think you must know that my fountain-pen scratches a little.

    182. Use the Present Continuous or the Present Indefinite instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. Wait for me, Alice. I (to come) too. 2. I (to be) afraid I (not to understand) you. 3. What you (to think)
    about it? - - I (to think) you (to be) right. 4. What you (to think) about, Jim? -- I (not to think) of anything, I just
    (to have) a rest. 5. Catherine (to be) in the garden. She (to pick) cherries. 6. I (to be) sorry, Jackson, but my
    friend (not to feel) very well, so drive us back, please. 7. Can you hear what he (to say)? 8. The girl you (to
    talk) about (to be) the eldest daughter of my old friend. 9. What you (to see) there? -- I can't see quite well, but
    it (to seem) to me Lucy (to come). 10. What you (to look) at? - I simply (to look) about. 11. You always (to
    smile) when you (to see) him? 12. She always (to smile) when she (to talk) to him? 13. Mother (to say) Aunt
    Julia (to leave) on Thursday and Ann (t,o leave) with her. 14. Appetite (to come) with eating. 15. My sister (to
    practise) the piano; she usually (to practise) it about this time. 16. I (to hear) his voice in the next room. 17.
    What you (to listen) to? - I (to listen) to music. 18. She often (to come) to see you? - Not so often, she (to be) a
    student now and (to be) very busy. 19. Who else (to go) with you to Bulgaria? 20. When he (to go) to Bulgaria
    he always (to take) some presents to his Bulgarian friends.
    183. Use the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets. In some sentences the
    Passive Voice is required:

    1. At lunch the rain still (to pour). 2. After breakfast he (to rise) from the table and (to light) a cigarette. 3.
    Peter (to walk) aimlessly up and down the room for a long time. He (not to know) what to do. 4. On Sunday
    morning the weather (to be) unusually lovely. The sun (to shine) brightly in the cloudless sky. It (to be) such a
    pleasure to be out in the open air. 5. Mrs. Oliver (to have) her breakfast in bed when the telephone (to ring). 6.
    They (to discuss) where to spend the weekend for an hour or two. Finally it (to settle): they all (to go) to
    Brighton. 7. "I (to have) an interesting conversation with Catherine when Paul (to appear) and (to interrupt) us,"
    (to say) Dora. 8. While we (to watch) the last scene, Jean's warm tears (to fall) upon the back of my hand one
    by one, like raindrops in spring. 9. She (to get) into bed, (to lay) her head on the pillow and in two minutes (to
    sleep) like a child. 10. They (to be) all alarmed by the news that he (to return) and (to bring) his wife with him.
    11. He (to make) good progress in French as he (to teach) by an experienced teacher. 12. He (to be) in a hurry
    and (can) not wait till I (to finish) eating. 13. I (to go) guietly into the room. She (to sit) by the window staring
    at something. 14. Their talk (to interrupt) by a loud knock. Ann (to open) the door. A small pale boy (to stand)
    behind it. 15. They (to wander) about the forest for several hours. At last they (to decide) to return.
    184. Comment on the use of the Continuous tenses and translate the sentences into Russian:

    1. I suppose you will be joining him soon. 2. John knew that he was late. Catherine and the children would
    be waiting. 3. I must be back to the hotel. I think they are wondering what has become of me. 4. Of course you
    were ill much worse than I. How are you feeling now? 5. What are you doing this evening? 6. Nobody will ever
    know what he was thinking about at that moment. 7. I hear your son is coming for the holiday. 8. I suppose I
    ought to go back. Ann will be wondering where I am. 9. The news that they were coming backrthe next day
    frightened her. 10. His thoughts switched to Miss Crag, whom he would be meeting at lunch-time. 11. She was
    looking out of the window and did not hear the door open. 12. We are learning the English tenses now.
    319

    185. Translate into English using the Indefinite or the Continuous tenses. Use the Passive Voice where
    necessary:
    1.

    ,
    .

    ,

    ,

    . 4.

    . 5.

    .

    7.

    ?-

    . 2.
    .

    ,

    ,
    ? -

    ,
    . 3.
    . 6.

    ,

    ,
    . 11.

    .
    . 9.

    . 8.
    .

    . 10.
    .

    ,
    .

    . 12.

    ,
    . 13.
    .

    20
    . 16.
    . 18.

    ,

    . 14.
    ? 15.

    ,

    . 17.
    ,

    186. Read the following sentences twice:
    words in brackets:

    .

    (a) in the Present Perfect tense; (b) in the Past Indefinite using the

    1. He (to tell) me about it (a minute ago; just). 2. I (to be introduced) to him (at the Institute; already). 3. He
    (to inform) them about his plans (last time; ever) ? 4. She (to be) here (at six o'clock; since six o'clock). 5. Jim
    (to come) back (last night; yet)? 6. I (to admire) his books (when a boy; since childhood). 7. She (to be) excited
    (all day yesterday; all day). 8. I (not to see) him (last week; since last week). 9. He (to live) in London (in 1968;
    since 1968). 10. She (to know) me (for ten years; at the age of ten). 11. We (not to play) tennis (since last
    Sunday; last Sunday). 12. I (to hear) the news only (last night; today). 13. I (not to meet) him (this month; last
    month). 14. He (to tell) you about it (ever; during the lesson)? 15. They (to leave) Moscow (already; at night).
    187. Use the Present Indefinite, the Future Indefinite or the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in
    brackets:

    He came forward to meet me, smiling.
    I: A nice day?
    H e : Yes, but I wish it had not snowed in the night. As soon as we (to lunch) we (to drive) into the
    country, and you (to be) able to see for yourself what kind of scenery we can show you.
    I: I (to see) it already. What a lovely journey it (to be)! The train passes some of the finest spots I ever (to
    see) in the Caucasus.
    : The worst of it (to be), though, that there (to be) so many tunnels!
    I: Yes, that (to be) annoying, certainly, and the lighting in the carriages (to be) as bad as the heating.
    H e : Still the train never (to go) so fast that you cannot admire the view!
    I: No, that it certainly (do) not!
    188. Translate into English; pay attention to the use of the Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect:
    1.

    ,

    .
    . 3.
    . 5.

    ;
    ,

    .

    . 2.

    ?

    .

    ! 4.

    ?.

    . 7. « , -

    . 6.
    ,

    ,-

    ». 8.
    ;

    . 9.
    .

    . 11.

    . 10.
    .

    ,
    . 14.
    . 16.

    ,

    ,
    . 13.
    ?

    ,

    ,

    ,
    . -

    !
    . 12.

    ? -

    . 15.
    ,

    .
    189. Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets:
    320

    1. She (to paint), of pretending to paint, for about six hours. 2. I (to do) a great deal of work today. 3. I (to
    read) your composition. I think you'll have to polish it up a bit. 4. They (to build) that bridge for several
    months, but they (not to finish) it yet. 5. He (to grow) so old that he spends most of his time sitting in an easychair. 6. "You'll have to speak louder, I'm afraid. I (to become) very deaf," said Randan. 7. What you (to do)
    with yourself, Edward, since I saw you last? 8. I expect you (to have) already a talk with Henry. He looks more
    cheerful. 9. This picture (to hang) here for as long as I can remember. 10. Edward is coming! How nice! I (not
    to see) Edward for years. 11. What you (to do) since Sunday? 12. I want to talk to you, Aileen. I (to want) to
    talk to you for a long time. 13. Well, Bunter? - Everything (to be done) that can be done, my lady. 14. It's no
    use denying, my dear Dick, that you (to think) too much lately. 15. He (to lose) his dictionary. He (to look) for
    it all day, but (not to find) it yet. 16. She (to read) all the plays by Galsworthy. How many you (to read)? 17.
    Jim (not to be) here for three weeks. 18. I can't wait any longer. I (to wait) since five o'clock. 19. I (not to have)
    a good night's sleep since last week. 20. On the porch he looked over his shoulder and noticed a dark figtire
    disappear round the corner of the house. "Somebody (to follow) me again," he thought.
    190. Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, or the Past Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    The next morning, when I (to awake), the sun (to shine) brilliantly. It (to be) late and I (to have) no supper
    the night before, so I (to dress) quickly and (to go) downstairs. I (to be) surprised to find the doors locked and
    the house empty. A dozen times or more I (to call) out my host's name, but the house (to be) as still as the
    grave. What it all (to mean) ? I (to begin) to doubt my wisdom in being so ready to trust a stranger. I ought to
    have gone on to the next village, where I (to know) that friends (to be) awaiting me. Instead, I (to be frightened)
    by a few drops of rain.
    At last, however, I (to hear) footsteps, and soon my host (to appear), looking, I (to think), rather strange. He
    just (to be) out, he (to say), to feed the horses. But I (to notice) the mud (to be) thick and wet upon his shoes and
    I (to wonder) where he (to be), and why he (to want) to deceive me.
    191. Change the following sentences into indirect speech:

    1. My father said: "Oh, I forget, I never remember such things in time." 2. "Don't leave your exercise book at
    home as we'll need it at the lesson," I said to Alice. 3. "As far as I know Jim passed his entrance exams with
    excellent marks," he replied. 4. Nell said: "As far as I know he got a good mark in Physics." 5. "Is it true that in
    England the grass remains green all the year round?" asked the boy. 6. "What are you going to do at the coming
    week-end?" he inquired. 7. "Have you ever been married, Captain Meadows?" I asked him. 8. Michael said to
    me: "Mary is coming with the 5.20 train. Will you do me a favour and meet her at the station?" 9. "We were not
    given any further information about the course of the ship," said the passenger. 10. "I have never seen her. How
    could I possibly recognize her?" said Mike. 11. "I shall be back about tea-time, I expect," she said. "There's no
    one coming for dinner." 12. "Anne will be leaving school next year," she said. 13. "Neither I nor my married
    sister have ever gone farther than Glasgow," she said. 14. He said in an apologetic manner, "I've been lookingfor you, Nancy."
    192. Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect, or the Past Perfect Continuous instead of the
    infinitives in brackets:

    1. After I (to be) introduced to Captain Meadows, I (to ask) him if he ever (to be) married. 2. Antonia (to
    stand) smiling in the doorway. She (to know) that they just (to talk) of her. 3. They (not to go) far when the girl
    suddenly (to cry): "Why, we are in a garden!" Without knowing how, they (to enter) a large garden. 4. Early
    that morning, when we just (to leave) the house we (to meet) the man, that we (to look) for since Monday. 5.
    But still he (to sit) there motionless. He (to be) tired, he (to be) so very tired. It (to seem) to him that he (to be)
    tired for a very long time. 6. I (to find) that I (to be) too late to catch the London train. Hailing the first taxi that
    (to pass), I (to reach) the station at ten minutes to three, only two minutes after the train (to leave) it. 7. Sir
    George, who (to talk) in a loud voice, (to turn) round sharply. 8. Mrs. Meadows (to tell) me that he (to talk)
    about all the things that (to happen) to him in his long life. 9. It (to be) four o'clock when she (to hear) the sound
    she (to wait) for over an hour: the door at the bottom of the stairs (to creak). 10. It (to be) all so sudden that for
    a moment no one (to know) what (to happen). 11. She (to say) to herself all the way up from Oxford that she
    must have somebody to talk it over. 12. When I (to come) to see him the next day I (to learn) that he (to die) in
    321

    his sleep. 13. Tony (not to know) that the man they (to talk) about (to be) Michael's friend. 14. The moon (to
    rise) now and the lake (to be) fully visible.
    193. Use the Present, Past or Future Perfect tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. The news, that he (to leave) the town was a surprise to all of us. 2. Edward is a dear. I always (to be) very
    fond of him. 3. By the time you come we (to do) the greater part of the work. 4. He asked himself if he (to see)
    her before. 5. By the end of the school year we (to learn) a lot of new words. 6. When he (to count) the money
    he put it away. 7. I don't know anything about it. I (not to see) him lately. He (to be) mostly in London all these
    days. 8. When by half past two he (not to arrive) Dora was worried. 9. They say that by the first of January they
    (to live) in this street for ten years. 10. When I (to be) in your country for five years, I shall write a book about
    it. 11. I'll stay until you (to do) your translation. I can help you if you allow me. 12. Those who (to write) the
    test may leave the classroom.
    194. Translate the following sentences into English:
    1.

    ;
    . 3.

    . 2.

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    . 4.

    . 5.

    ,
    .
    ,

    ,

    . 6.

    ,
    . 8.
    . 9.

    .

    . 7.
    ,

    ?-

    ,

    ,

    ,

    . 10.

    ,

    .

    . 11.

    7

    .
    . 12.

    ,
    . 13.

    ,

    ,

    . 14.
    . 15.

    2
    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,
    .

    195. Give the corresponding passive constructions:

    1. Ann brought some more milk from the kitchen. 2. I hear they are building a new cinema not far from the
    park. 3. Mother has made a new dress for Ann. 4. Everybody will laugh at you, Alice, if you say it again. 5. Her
    letter informed me about their arrival. 6. She hasn't opened the box for two years. 7. They spoke to each student
    separately. 8. They looked for the key everywhere but could not find it. 9. We must do all that we can do. 10.
    Everybody speaks well of the girl. 11. The teacher asked if they had done all the exercises on page five. 12.
    One must work for good progress. 13. The guide showed them a lot of places of interest. 14. They crossed the
    city in different directions but could not find the house anywhere. 15. The play impressed Joan greatly, so
    greatly that she cried.
    196. Use the appropriate tenses instead of the infinitives in brackets. Use the Passive Voice where required:

    1. When the doctor (to awake), Miss Reid still (to work). 2. Years (to pass) sfnce we (to begin) this life. 3.
    I'll walk along the beach while you (to bathe). 4. It is twelve o'clock now. So I (to work) for five hours without
    rest. 5. We'll leave the minute you (to be ready). 6. By this time a small crowd (to gather) and people (to ask)
    each other what was the matter. 7. Of course I (to eat) an apple every evening - an apple a day (to keep) the
    doctor away. 8. Leaving a message that he (to return) the next day, he (to go) home. 9. Why you (to switch off)
    the light? It is dark in the room. 10. Some urgent measures were taken while the doctor (to wait) for. 11. I asked
    him if he ever (to be) to London. 12. Can this man (to rely) upon? 13. They (to walk) for many hours before
    they came to the village. 14. We decided to wait till they (to return). 15. Though I (to be) ill for three weeks last
    month I hope I (to pass) my exam successfully. 16. I (to hurry) to the station. My friend (to come). 17. A new
    metro line (to build) in this district lately. 18. Before I (to enter) the Institute I (to work) at the publishing house.
    19. The secretary (to type) all the documents by the time the dean (to come). 20. This work must (to do) very
    carefully. 21. This document (not to sign) yet. 22. When I (to awake) there was nobody in. All (to leave). 23.
    He (to find) the play much more interesting than he (to expect) it to be. 24. Here you (to be) at last! We (to
    wait) for you for half an hour. 25. I was in a hurry as I (to know) that my mother (to worry).
    322

    197. Translate into English using the appropriate tenses:
    1.

    ,

    9

    . 3.

    ,

    ,

    . 5.
    . 9.
    . 11.

    ,

    . 4.
    . 6.

    ,
    . 7.

    ,

    ,

    . 2.

    ,

    ,
    ,

    ,

    . 8.

    ,

    . 10.
    . 12.

    ?
    ?-

    ,

    .

    198. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the Passive Voice:

    1. He was shown at once into a lounge. 2. For that he can be sent to prison. 3. Your husband is well thought
    of, which is very important. 4. Were you quite sure she had never been seen there before? 5. There are two
    things that must be connected. 6. The handwriting has been identified as hers. 7. The papers were set fire to in
    order to get rid of the evidence. 8. She found the room exactly as it had been left the night before. 9. He was
    still there, though all he had to tell had already been heard. 10. Her bed had not been slept in. 11. His tie was
    very badly arranged. 12. When on earth will the telegram be sent off? 13. She is not seen with George any
    longer. 14. It is not allowed to smoke here. 15. Look, what we've been sent.
    199. Use the required tense instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    Once two merchants who (to travel) in the desert by night (to lose) one of their camels. The camel (to be
    loaded) with corn, honey and a bag of gold.
    An old man, who (to spend) all his life in the desert, (to notice) the merchants and (to say): "I see you (to
    lose) a camel."
    "Yes, we ...," they (to answer).
    "He (not to be) blind in his right eye, and lame in his left leg?"
    "He (to be)," (to answer) the merchants.
    "And he (not be loaded) with honey on one side and with corn on the other?"
    "He certainly (to be)" (to exclaim) the merchants. "And as you (to see) him so lately we hope you (to show)
    us where he (to be) now."
    "My friends," (to say) the old man, "I never (to see) your camel."
    "But where (to be) the bag of gold?" (to say) the merchants and they (to take) the man before the judge.
    The old man with great calmness (to address) the judge: "My life in the desert (to teach) me to notice things.
    So when I (to cross) the footprints of a camel I (to know) at once that he (to run) away from his owner, for I (to
    see) no other footprints in the sand. I (to know) that the animal (to be) blind in one eye because he (to bite) the
    grass only on one side of his path. I can tell from the footprints that he (to be) lame. There were a great number
    of flies and some grains of wheat near the place where he (to lie) down, so it (to be) clear to me that his load (to
    consist) of corn and honey."
    The judge (to let) the old man go and (to say) to the merchants: "This (to be) the man who (to help) you to
    find your camel."
    200. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice:

    1. We heat the house by gas. 2. They are pulling down a lot of old houses in this street. 3. People may keep
    books from the library for a fortnight. After that they must return them. 4. Someone has already told him about
    this tour. 5. Everyone expected him to pass his exams well. 6. They have lengthened the runway in this airport.
    7. We shall throw out the mushrooms if they are poisonous. 8. One cannot do it so quickly. 9. Nobody had
    warned me of the danger before the accident happened. 10. They will take her to hospital tonight. 11. If they
    laugh at you, don't get offended. 12. Why weren't you at the party? -They didn't invite me. 13. The girl was
    angry as her mother hadn't allowed her to go to the cinema. 14. No one has ever climbed this mountain. 15.
    Switch on the radio. They are broadcasting a very good concert now. 16. Last night we saw her with George.
    17. When will they send for him? 18. Has anything frightened you? 19. One must pay attention to this fact. 20.
    Why did they laugh at him when he began speaking of his adventures?
    323

    201. Translate into English using the Passive Voice:
    1.

    . 2.
    . 5.

    . 3.

    . 4.
    . 6.
    . 8.

    ,
    ,
    ,
    ,

    ,

    13.
    . 16.
    . 18.

    ,
    . 7.
    ,
    . 10.
    . 12.
    . 14.
    ,

    . 19.
    . 21.

    ,

    . 9.
    . 11.
    .

    ,
    . 15.
    . 17.
    ,

    ? 20.
    ? 22.

    .
    202. Use the required tense instead of the infinitives in brackets:

    1. How's Margaret? I (not to see) her for a week or two. -Oh, she (to recover) very quickly. 2. I say, don't
    you think you must go? It soon (to get) late. 3. He (to get) out of bed and (to go) to the bathroom. After a
    minute or two he (to return), carrying a safety-razor blade. 4. Well, where you (to be) all the evening, James? 5.
    All he knew was that somewhere quite near him a band (to play). 6. The main street, when he (to reach) it, (to
    be) almost deserted. 7. "If Glover (not to want) to make friends with me," he thought, "I (to try) to avoid him."
    8. My doctor (to give) me some awfully strong pills to take. They make me feel rather odd. 9. Mr. Pinfold (to
    know) him for thirty years. He (to be) now the editor of a newspaper. 10. Margaret, darling, what you (to do)
    here at this time of night? 11. Mr. Pinfold (to walk) the decks for an hour. No passengers were about. 12.
    Gilbert tells me you (to land) tomorrow. How do you think to get to Cairo? 13. He stood alone thinking how
    quickly he (to pack) his things. 14. I think something (to leave) for me here about an hour ago. 15. They parted
    four days later at the hotel in Colombo where they (to meet). 16. Goodbye, Ned. I never (to forget) you. I (to
    miss) you more than anyone I ever (to know) in my life. 17. "Mrs. Pinfold (to arrive) an hour ago," the
    concierge (to tell) him. "She (to wait) for you in your room." 18. I couldn't make any plans till I (to know) what
    sort of state I (to find) him in. 19. John invited me to dine with his friends. He (to say) they (to be) delighted
    and (to add) that he himself (to be) glad to have a companion. 20. You (to hear) from Margaret yet?

    ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
    ............................................................................................................................................................... 5
    ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
    Lesson One ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
    Lesson Two ................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
    Lesson Three .............................................................................................................................................................................. 16
    Lesson Four ................................................................................................................................................................................ 23
    Lesson Five................................................................................................................................................................................. 29
    Lesson Six .................................................................................................................................................................................. 39
    Lesson Seven .............................................................................................................................................................................. 50
    Lesson Eight ............................................................................................................................................................................... 60
    Lesson Nine................................................................................................................................................................................ 70
    Lesson Ten ................................................................................................................................................................................. 79
    Lesson Eleven............................................................................................................................................................................. 88
    ....................................................................................................................................................................... 97
    Lesson Twelve ............................................................................................................................................................................ 97
    Lesson Thirteen ........................................................................................................................................................................ 111
    Lesson Fourteen........................................................................................................................................................................ 122
    Lesson Fifteen........................................................................................................................................................................... 134
    Lesson Sixteen .......................................................................................................................................................................... 145
    Lesson Seventeen...................................................................................................................................................................... 155
    Lesson Eighteen........................................................................................................................................................................ 165
    Lesson Nineteen........................................................................................................................................................................ 175
    Lesson Twenty.......................................................................................................................................................................... 185
    PHONETIC EXERCISES............................................................................................................................................................. 195
    Section One .............................................................................................................................................................................. 197
    Section Two.............................................................................................................................................................................. 202
    324

    Section Three............................................................................................................................................................................ 211
    Section Four.............................................................................................................................................................................. 217
    Section Five .............................................................................................................................................................................. 224
    Section Six................................................................................................................................................................................ 229
    Section Seven ........................................................................................................................................................................... 235
    Section Eight ............................................................................................................................................................................ 243
    Section Nine ............................................................................................................................................................................. 248
    Section Ten............................................................................................................................................................................... 256
    Section Eleven .......................................................................................................................................................................... 259
    Section Twelve ......................................................................................................................................................................... 264
    Section Thirteen........................................................................................................................................................................ 271
    Supplement. (Texts not introduced in the exercises)................................................................................................................... 277
    Grammar exercises.................................................................................................................................................................... 284
    ................................................................................................................................................................................. 324

    1
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    064380

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