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    Cолнечное затмения 29 марта 2006 года и его наб...

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12 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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16 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_


m^Ze_gZ hl ih\_joghklb KhegpZ gZ jZkklhygb_ g_ [he__ h^gh]h jZ^bmkZ dhjhgZ KhegpZ bf__l ijhly`_ggu_ ]jZgbpu
emqb bf_xl kZfmx jZaghh[jZagmx nhjfm K h^bggZ^pZlbe_lgbf pbdehf KhegpZ
f_gy_lky h[sbc \b^ kheg_qghc dhjhgu < wihom fbgbfmfZ dhjhgZ bf__l hdjm]emx
nhjfm hgZ dZd [u ijbq_kZgZ < wihom fZdkbfmfZ dhjhgZevgu_ emqb jZkdbgmlu \h
\k_ klhjhgu
QZklh hkh[_ggh dh]^Z gZ Khegp_ bf_xlky [hevrb_ ]jmiiu iyl_g \
ojhfhkn_j_ \hagbdZxl \kiurdb Hgb ihoh`b gZ h]jhfgu_ \aju\u ^eysb_ky \k_]h
ebrv g_kdhevdh fbgml AZ g_kdhevdh fbgml \ fZe_gvdhc h[eZklb \uk\h[h`^Z_lky
wg_j]by ihjy^dZ 000 fbeebZj^h\ d gZ A_fex \ ]h^ Ijbqbgu \kiur_d ihdZ _s_ iehoh bamq_gu ih-\b^bfhfm hgb
\uau\Zxlky j_adbf baf_g_gb_f fZ]gblgh]h ihey \ ojhfhkn_j_ Wg_j]by \kiurdb
\u^_ey_lky \ \_jrbg_ dhjhgZevghc i_leb aZl_f jZkijhkljZgy_lky \ klhjhgm
nhlhkn_ju \uau\Zy gZ]j_\ b bkiZj_gb_ [he__ oheh^guo keh_\ Ijb wlhf baemq_gb_
j_adh \hajZklZ_l g_ lhevdh \ \b^bfhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ gh b \ mevljZnbhe_l_ b \
j_gl]_gh\kdhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ m\_ebqb\Z_lky ihlhd dhkfbq_kdbo emq_c \uau\Zxl baf_g_gby \ fZ]gblghf ihe_ A_feb b fh]ml ^Z`_ ih\j_^blv kbkl_fu
we_dljhkgZ[`_gby
>jm]bf ijhy\e_gb_f kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb y\ey_lky ihy\e_gb_ ieZaf_gguo
h[jZah\Zgbc \ fZ]gblghf ihe_ kheg_qghc Zlfhkn_ju – \hehdhg ?keb wlb \hehdgZ
\b^gu gZ djZx KhegpZ lh hgb gZ[ex^Zxlky dZd ijhlm[_jZgpu
Ijhlm[_jZgpZfb gZau\Zxlky h]jhfgu_ h[jZah\Zgby \ dhjhg_ KhegpZ
Iehlghklv b l_fi_jZlmjZ ijhlm[_jZgp_\ lZdZy `_ dZd b \_s_kl\Z ojhfhkn_ju gh gZ
nhg_ ]hjyq_c dhjhgu ijhlm[_jZgpu – oheh^gu_ b iehlgu_ h[jZah\Zgby L_fi_jZlmjZ
ijhlm[_jZgp_\ hdheh 000 D G_dhlhju_ ba gbo kms_kl\mxl \ dhjhg_ g_kdhevdh
f_kyp_\ ^jm]b_ ihy\eyxsb_ky jy^hf k iylgZfb [ukljh ^\b`mlky kh kdhjhklyfb
hdheh df k b kms_kl\mxl g_kdhevdh g_^_ev Hl^_evgu_ ijhlm[_jZgpu ^\b`mlky k
_s_ [hevrbfb kdhjhklyfb b \g_aZigh \aju\Zxlky hgb gZau\Zxlky wjmilb\gufb.
JZaf_ju ijhlm[_jZgp_\ fh]ml [ulv jZagufb Lbibqguc ijhlm[_jZg_p bf__l
\ukhlm hdheh 000 df b rbjbgm hdheh
000 df >m]hh[jZagu_ ijhlm[_jZgpu
^hklb]Zxl jZaf_jh\
000 df AZj_]bkljbjh\Zgu b j_dhj^kf_gu kj_^b
ijhlm[_jZgp_\
bo
jZaf_ju
ij_\urZeb
000 000 df
DhjhgZevgu_ i_leb b Zjdb \ukhlhc \ khlgb lukyq dbehf_ljh\ khklhyl ba hl^_evguo
lhgdbo i_l_e_d kdjmq_gguo ^jm] k ^jm]hf dZd gblb \ \_j_\d_ ]em[bgguo keh_\ KhegpZ kh]eZkgh ihke_^gbf bkke_^h\Zgbyf y\eyxlky hkgh\ghc
ijbqbghc jZah]j_\Z kheg_qghc dhjhgu
]h^m Gh b ^h
g_]h Zkljhghfu m`_ gZ[ex^Zeb g_\hhjm`_gguf ]eZahf gZb[he__ djmigu_ ]jmiiu
iyl_g LZd \ Gbdhgh\kdhc e_lhibkb \
b
]h^Zo gZ[ex^Zebkv [uklv
agZf_gb_ \ Khegp_ f_klZ q_jgu ih Khegpm Zdb ]\ha^b
IylgZ gZ Khegp_ – hq_\b^guc ijbagZd _]h Zdlb\ghklb Wlh [he__ oheh^gu_
h[eZklb nhlhkn_ju L_fi_jZlmjZ iyl_g hdheh
D ihwlhfm gZ yjdhf nhg_
nhlhkn_ju k l_fi_jZlmjhc hdheh
D hgb dZ`mlky l_fg__ H[jZah\Zgb_ iyl_g








































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]h^Z 13


Hkgh\ghc bklhqgbd wg_j]bb
– ijhlhg-ijhlhgguc pbde – hq_gv f_^e_ggZy j_Zdpby
9
oZjZdl_jgh_ \j_fy
e_l lZd dZd h[mkeh\e_gZ keZ[uf \aZbfh^_ckl\b_f ?_
kmlv khklhbl \ lhf qlh ba q_luj_o ijhlhgh\ ihemqZ_lky y^jh ]_eby Ijb wlhf
\u^_eyxlky iZjZ ihabljhgh\ b iZjZ g_cljbgh Z lZd`_
Fw< wg_j]bb Dhebq_kl\h
g_cljbgh baemqZ_fh_ Khegp_f aZ k_dmg^m hij_^_ey_lky lhevdh k\_lbfhklvx
KhegpZ Ihkdhevdm ijb \u^_e_gbb
7 Fw< jh`^Z_lky g_cljbgh lh kdhjhklv
38
baemq_gby g_cljbgh
g_cljbgh k
IjyfZy ijh\_jdZ wlhc l_hjbb – gZ[ex^_gb_ kheg_qguo g_cljbgh G_cljbgh
\ukhdbo wg_j]bc [hjgu_ j_]bkljbjmxlky \ oehj-Zj]hgguo wdki_jbf_glZo
wdki_jbf_glu >w\bkZ b mklhcqb\h ihdZau\Zxl g_^hklZlhd g_cljbgh ih kjZ\g_gbx
k l_hj_lbq_kdbf agZq_gb_f ^ey klZg^Zjlghc fh^_eb KhegpZ G_cljbgh gbadbo
wg_j]bc \hagbdZxsb_ g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh \ jj-j_Zdpbb j_]bkljbjmxlky \ ]Zeebc]_jfZgb_\uo wdki_jbf_glZo
\ =jZg KZkkh BlZeby – =_jfZgby b
gZ
;ZdkZg_ Jhkkby – KR: bo lZd`_ g_ o\ZlZ_l
Ih g_dhlhjuf ij_^iheh`_gbyf _keb g_cljbgh bf_xl hlebqgmx hl gmey
fZkkm ihdhy \hafh`gu hkpbeeypbb ij_\jZs_gby jZaebqguo khjlh\ g_cljbgh
wnn_dl Fbo__\Z – Kfbjgh\Z – we_dljhggh_ fxhggh_ b lZmhggh_ g_cljbgh L d ^jm]b_ g_cljbgh bf_xl ]hjZa^h
f_gvrb_ k_q_gby \aZbfh^_ckl\by k \_s_kl\hf q_f we_dljhggh_ gZ[ex^Z_fuc
^_nbpbl fh`_l [ulv h[tykg_g g_ f_gyy klZg^Zjlghc fh^_eb KhegpZ ihkljh_gghc
gZ hkgh\_ \k_c kh\hdmighklb Zkljhghfbq_kdbo ^Zgguo
DZ`^mx k_dmg^m Khegp_ i_j_jZ[Zlu\Z_l hdheh
fbeebhgh\ lhgg
\h^hjh^Z AZiZkh\ y^_jgh]h lhieb\Z o\Zlbl _s_ gZ iylv fbeebZj^h\ e_l ihke_ q_]h
hgh ihkl_i_ggh ij_\jZlblky \ [_euc dZjebd.
P_gljZevgu_ qZklb KhegpZ [m^ml k`bfZlvky jZah]j_\Zykv Z l_ieh
i_j_^Z\Z_fh_ ijb wlhf \g_rg_c h[hehqd_ ijb\_^_l d __ jZkrbj_gbx ^h jZaf_jh\
qm^h\bsguo ih kjZ\g_gbx k kh\j_f_ggufb Khegp_ jZkrbjblky gZklhevdh qlh
ih]ehlbl F_jdmjbc <_g_jm b [m^_l ljZlblv ]hjxq__ \ klh jZa [uklj__ q_f \
gZklhys__ \j_fy Wlh ijb\_^_l d m\_ebq_gbx jZaf_jh\ KhegpZ gZrZ a\_a^Z klZg_l
djZkguf ]b]Zglhf jZaf_ju dhlhjh]h kjZ\gbfu k jZkklhygb_f hl A_feb ^h KhegpZ
@bagv gZ A_fe_ bkq_ag_l beb gZc^_l ijbklZgbs_ gZ \g_rgbo ieZg_lZo
Fu dhg_qgh [m^_f aZjZg__ ihklZ\e_gu \ ba\_klghklv h lZdhf kh[ulbb
ihkdhevdm i_j_oh^ d gh\hc klZ^bb aZcf_l ijbf_jgh –200 fbeebhgh\ e_l Dh]^Z
l_fi_jZlmjZ p_gljZevghc qZklb KhegpZ ^hklb]g_l 000 000 D gZqg_l k]hjZlv b
]_ebc ij_\jZsZykv \ ly`_eu_ we_f_glu b Khegp_ \klmibl \ klZ^bx keh`guo pbdeh\
k`Zlby b jZkrbj_gby GZ ihke_^g_c klZ^bb gZrZ a\_a^Z ihl_jy_l \g_rgxx
h[hehqdm p_gljZevgh_ y^jh [m^_l bf_lv g_\_jhylgh [hevrmx iehlghklv b jZaf_ju
dZd m A_feb Ijhc^_l _s_ g_kdhevdh fbeebZj^h\ e_l b Khegp_ hklug_l
ij_\jZlb\rbkv \ [_euc dZjebd
GZ[ex^Z_fh_ baemq_gb_ KhegpZ \hagbdZ_l \ _]h lhgdhf \g_rg_f keh_


























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dhlhjuc gZau\Z_lky nhlhkn_jhc LhesbgZ wlh]h kehy
R
= 700 df
< nhlhkn_j_ h[jZam_lky \b^bfh_ baemq_gb_ KhegpZ bf_xs__
g_ij_ju\guc
ki_dlj Iehlghklv \_s_kl\Z gZ gb`g_c ]jZgbp_ nhlhkn_ju –7 ] kf3 lh]^Z dZd gZ






































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14 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_


\_jog_c ]jZgbp_ hgZ \ lukyqm jZa f_gvr_ Zlfhkn_jZ A_feb m ih\_joghklb [he__
iehlgZ
gb`_ dhlhjhc hgZ ijZdlbq_kdb g_ijhajZqgZ AZ wlm ih\_joghklv mkeh\gh ijbgbfZxl
mjh\_gv gZ dhlhjhf ijb gZ[ex^_gbb k\_jom hilbq_kdZy lhesbgZ gZ ^ebg_ \hegu
 = 500 gf ^hklb]Z_l _^bgbpu Hg g_]h hlkqblu\Zxl \ukhlm h \ Zlfhkn_j_
_]h b ih]ehsZxl ihwlhfm k ]em[bghc nhlhkn_jZ [ukljh l_jy_l ijhajZqghklv ihq_fm \b^bfuc djZc KhegpZ dZ`_lky gZf hq_gv j_adbf
GZ ih\_joghklb KhegpZ fh`gh jZa]ey^_lv fgh]h ^_lZe_c KhegpZ khklhbl ba k\_leuo a_jgur_d imaujvdh\ Wlb a_jgurdb gZau\Zxlky
]jZgmeZfb JZaf_ju ]jZgme g_\_ebdb
–2000 df hdheh
^m]b jZkklhygb_
f_`^m gbfb – 300–600 df GZ Khegp_ gZ[ex^Z_lky h^gh\j_f_ggh hdheh fbeebhgZ
]jZgme DZ`^Zy ]jZgmeZ kms_kl\m_l g_kdhevdh fbgml =jZgmeu hdjm`_gu l_fgufb
ijhf_`mldZfb dZd [u khlZfb < ]jZgmeZo \_s_kl\h ih^gbfZ_lky Z \hdjm] gbo –
himkdZ_lky =jZgmeypby – ijhy\e_gb_ dhg\_dpbb \ [he__ ]em[hdbo kehyo KhegpZ
=jZgmeu kha^Zxl h[sbc nhg gZ dhlhjhf fh`gh gZ[ex^Zlv g_kjZ\g_ggh
[he__ fZkrlZ[gu_ h[jZah\Zgby lZdb_ dZd ijhlm[_jZgpu nZd_eu kheg_qgu_ iylgZ b
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]h^Z 15


^hklb]Zy \ \_jogbo __ kehyo ^_kyldh\ lukyq ]jZ^mkh\ Jhkl l_fi_jZlmju h[tykgy_lky
\ha^_ckl\b_f fZ]gblguo ihe_c b \heg ijhgbdZxsbo \ ojhfhkn_jm ba ahgu
dhg\_dlb\guo ^\b`_gbc A^_kv gZ]j_\ ijhbkoh^bl dZd \ fbdjh\hegh\hc i_qb
lhevdh ]b]Zglkdbo jZaf_jh\
GZ djZx ojhfhkn_ju gZ[ex^Zxlky \uklmiZxsb_ yauqdb ieZf_gb –
ojhfhkn_jgu_ kibdmeu ij_^klZ\eyxsb_ kh[hx \ulygmlu_ klhe[bdb ba
miehlg_ggh]h ]ZaZ L_fi_jZlmjZ wlbo kljmc \ur_ q_f l_fi_jZlmjZ nhlhkn_ju
dhlhjuc gZau\Z_lky ki_dlj \kiurdb Hg khklhbl ba yjdbo wfbkkbhgguo ebgbc
\h^hjh^Z [Zevf_jh\kdhc k_jbb ]_eby bhgbabjh\Zggh]h dZevpby b ^jm]bo we_f_glh\
dhlhju_ \g_aZigh \kiuob\Zxl \h \j_fy iheghc nZau aZlf_gby






























































































































































































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KZfZy \g_rgyy kZfZy jZaj_`_ggZy b kZfZy ]hjyqZy qZklv kheg_qghc
Zlfhkn_ju – dhjhgZ HgZ ijhke_`b\Z_lky hl kheg_qgh]h ebf[Z ^h jZkklhygbc \
^_kyldb kheg_qguo jZ^bmkh\ G_kfhljy gZ kbevgh_ ]jZ\blZpbhggh_ ihe_ KhegpZ wlh
\hafh`gh [eZ]h^Zjy h]jhfguf kdhjhklyf ^\b`_gby qZklbp khklZ\eyxsbo dhjhgm
DhjhgZ bf__l l_fi_jZlmjm hdheh fbeebhgZ ]jZ^mkh\ b khklhbl ba
\ukhdhbhgbabjh\Zggh]h ]ZaZ y\eyxlky ih\_joghklgu_ \u[jhku kheg_qgh]h \_s_kl\Z \ \b^_ i_l_ev b Zjhd
Fbeebhgu dhehkkZevguo nhglZgh\ i_j_ghkyl \ dhjhgm \_s_kl\h gZ]j_lh_ \
]em[bgguo kehyo KhegpZ
Yjdhklv dhjhgu \ fbeebhgu jZa f_gvr_ q_f nhlhkn_ju ihwlhfm dhjhgm
fh`gh \b^_lv lhevdh \h \j_fy ihegh]h kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby eb[h k ihfhsvx
dhjhgh]jZnZ GZb[he__ yjdmx __ qZklv ijbgylh gZau\Zlv \gmlj_gg_c dhjhghc HgZ




















































 



































 





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Ojhfhkn_jZ KhegpZ \b^gZ lhevdh \ fhf_glu iheguo kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc
EmgZ iheghklvx aZdju\Z_l nhlhkn_jm b ojhfhkn_jZ \kiuob\Z_l dZd g_[hevrh_
dhevph yjdh-djZkgh]h p\_lZ hdjm`_ggh_ `_fqm`gh-[_ehc dhjhghc Ojhfhkn_jZ
ihemqbeZ k\h_ gZa\Zgb_ bf_ggh ba-aZ wlh]h y\e_gby ]j_q hdjZr_ggZy kn_jZ
JZaf_ju ojhfhkn_ju –15 lukyq dbehf_ljh\ Z iehlghklv \_s_kl\Z \ khlgb
lukyq jZa f_gvr_ q_f \ nhlhkn_j_
L_fi_jZlmjZ \ ojhfhkn_j_ [ukljh jZkl_l

































































20 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_


A?FEY B EMG:
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Ih\_joghklv kmrb
\k_c ih\_joghklb A_feb
Ijbf_qZgb_ Hdheh kmrb ihdjulh \_qgufb kg_]Zfb b ev^hf
\k_c ih\_joghklb A_feb
12
H[t_f A_feb
df3 = 1.1*1027 kf3
27
FZkkZ A_feb
]
fZkku CoegpZ beb ljb fbeebhggu_
^heb fZkku KhegpZ
Hdheh
fZkku A_feb khklZ\ey_l \heZ \h \k_o __ nhjfZo
21
FZkkZ Zlfhkn_ju A_feb
]
3
Kj_^gyy iehlghklv A_feb
] kf
Kj_^gyy iehlghklv a_fghc dhju
] kf3
Djblbq_kdZy kdhjhklv kdhjhklv hk\h[h`^_gby m ih\_joghklb
df k
>ebgZ ]_h]jZnbq_kdhc ^he]hlu = 111.321*cos 3 - 0.094 * cos 33 df
>ebgZ ]_h]jZnbq_kdhc rbjhlu
- 0.562 • cos 3 df
JZaghklv Zkljhghfbq_kdhc 3 b ]_hp_gljbq_kdhc 3 rbjhl 3-3
-sin 3 - 1.163"

































 


















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]h^Z 17



 





































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Wd\ZlhjbZevguc jZ^bmk Z
df
Iheyjguc jZ^bmk b
df
Kj_^gbc jZ^bmk
df
JZ^bmk-\_dlhj gZ mjh\g_ fhjy gZ rbjhl_ 3
] Z
cos 23 - 0.00000352 cos 43 + ….)
Kiexkgmlhklv a_fgh]h weebikhb^Z 3 Z - b Z
Wdkp_gljbkbl_l a_fgh]h f_jb^bZgZ










k\yaZgh k fZ]gblguf ihe_f KhegpZ G_[hevrb_ iylgZ bf_xl \ ihi_j_qgbd_
g_kdhevdh lukyq dbehf_ljh\ JZaf_ju djmiguo iyl_g ^hklb]Zxl 000 df lZdb_
iylgZ kms_kl\mxl hdheh f_kypZ
Kheg_qgu_ iylgZ bf_xl \gmlj_ggxx kljmdlmjm [he__ l_fgmx p_gljZevgmx
qZklv – y^jh – b hdjm`Zxsmx __ iheml_gv Kheg_qgu_ iylgZ qZklh h[jZamxl ]jmiiu
dhlhju_ fh]ml aZgbfZlv agZqbl_evgmx iehsZ^v gZ kheg_qghf ^bkd_ LZd
k_gly[jy
]h^Z [ueZ aZj_]bkljbjh\ZgZ ]jmiiZ iyl_g h[sZy iehsZ^v dhlhjhc
jZ\gyeZkv fbeebZj^Zf df2 GZ wlhc l_jjblhjbb ih\_joghklv a_fgh]h rZjZ
ihf_klblky p_euo jZa
MklZgh\e_gh qlh iylgZ – f_klZ \uoh^Z \ Zlfhkn_jm kbevguo fZ]gblguo
ihe_c Ihey mf_gvrZxl ihlhd wg_j]bb bkoh^ysbc ba y^jZ ihwlhfm \ f_kl_ bo
\uoh^Z gZ ih\_joghklv l_fi_jZlmjZ iZ^Z_l IylgZ h[uqgh \hagbdZxl ]jmiiZfb
IylgZ gZ Khegp_ qZklh [u\Zxl hdjm`_gu k\_leufb ahgZfb gZau\Z_fufb
nZd_eZfb Hgb ]hjyq__ Zlfhkn_ju ijbf_jgh gZ
D b bf_xl yq_bklmx kljmdlmjm
\_ebqbgZ dZ`^hc yq_cdb – hdheh lukyq dbehf_ljh\ QZklh \klj_qZxlky
nZd_evgu_ ihey \gmljb dhlhjuo iyl_g g_l
NZd_eu h[jZamxlky \ j_amevlZl_ dhg\_dpbb ba ]em[hdbo keh_\ KhegpZ Hgb
kms_kl\mxl g_^_eb b f_kypu < g_dhlhjuo nZd_evguo iheyo f_`^m ]jZgmeZfb
ihy\ey_lky q_jgZy lhqdZ hgZ gZqbgZ_l [ukljh jZklb b gZ ke_^mxsbc ^_gv
ij_\jZsZ_lky \ iylgh k j_adhc ]jZgbp_c Q_j_a – ^gy \hdjm] iylgZ h[jZam_lky
iheml_gv D ^_kylhfm ^gx iehsZ^v iylgZ ^hklb]Z_l fZdkbfmfZ ihke_ wlh]h hgh
gZqbgZ_l mf_gvrZlvky b gZdhg_p bkq_aZ_l < ]jmii_ iyl_g kgZqZeZ bkq_aZxl kZfu_
f_edb_ iylgZ
G_^Ze_dh hl iyl_g ijhly]b\Zxlky l_fgu_ gblb ^ebghc \iehlv ^h khl_g
lukyq dbehf_ljh\ Hgb ij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc ahgu gme_\h]h fZ]gblgh]h ihey b
hl^_eyxl j_]bhgu k ijhlb\hiheh`ghc iheyjghklvx



























 












- sin 43 + 0,003" * sin 63

M]eh\Zy kdhjhklv \jZs_gby A_feb =
k-1
I_jbh^ \jZs_gby A_feb = q f k
Ebg_cgZy kdhjhklv lhqdb wd\ZlhjZ
fk
Ebg_cgZy kdhjhklv lhqdb a_fghc ih\_joghklb gZ rbjhl_ 3
Kj_^gyy kdhjhklv ^\b`_gby A_feb ih hj[bl_ =
GZb[hevrZy kdhjhklv \ i_jb]_ebb =
df k
GZbf_gvrZy kdhjhklv \ Zn_ebb =
df k








































 













 

 





 













 

 







df k

 

- cos3fk
  

df q




Kheg_qgu_ iylgZ fh`gh m\b^_lv k ihfhsvx g_[hevrh]h l_e_kdhiZ
ijbkihkh[b\ _]h ^ey ihemq_gby ijh_dpby bah[jZ`_gby KhegpZ L_e_kdhi
gZijZ\ey_lky gZ Khegp_ ihke_ q_]h gZijbf_j gZ ebkl_ [mfZ]b jZkiheh`_gghf gZ
jZkklhygbb –20 kf hl hdmeyjZ fh`gh m\b^_lv q_ldh_ bah[jZ`_gb_ kheg_qgh]h
^bkdZ Hkl_j_]Zcl_kv kfhlj_lv g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh \ hdmeyj






 

















































 























:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

18 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



Ihke_ k_fgZ^pZlbe_lgbo gZ[ex^_gbc =_gjbo R\Z[_ mklZgh\be qlh
dhebq_kl\h iyl_g gZ Khegp_ k l_q_gb_f \j_f_gb f_gy_lky < ]h^u fbgbfmfZ iyl_g
gZ ih\_joghklb KhegpZ fh`_l g_ [ulv kh\k_f \ ]h^u fZdkbfmfZ bo qbkeh
baf_jy_lky ^_kyldZfb FZdkbfmfu b fbgbfmfu q_j_^mxlky \ kj_^g_f dZ`^u_
11 e_l hl ^h
e_l ihke_^gbc fZdkbfmf kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb [ue \
]h^m
Hkgh\ghc oZjZdl_jbklbdhc kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb y\ey_lky qbkeh kmff_ h[s_]h dhebq_kl\Z iyl_g f b m^_kyl_j_ggh]h dhebq_kl\Z ]jmii iyl_g
h^bghqgh_ iylgh lZd`_ kqblZ_lky ]jmiihc g: W = f + 10g
< i_jbh^ fbgbfmfZ kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb iylgZ ihy\eyxlky \ kj_^gbo
rbjhlZo \ i_jbh^u fZdkbfmfZ – hdheh wd\ZlhjZ Hdheh ihexkh\ iylgZ ijZdlbq_kdb
g_ gZ[ex^Zxlky < gZqZe_ h^bggZ^pZlbe_lg_]h pbdeZ kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb [hevrZy
qZklv iyl_g jZkiheh`_gZ gZ rbjhlZo hl
^h
aZdhg Ri_j_jZ ?keb
aZ\bkbfhklv rbjhlu iyl_g hl \j_f_gb bah[jZablv gZ ^bZ]jZff_ lh ahgu Zdlb\ghklb
h[jZamxl gZ g_c [Z[hqdm FZmg^_jZ
< gZqZe_ OO \_dZ > O_ce h[gZjm`be qlh fZ]gblgu_ iheyjghklb i_j\uo
\_^msbo iyl_g b o\hklh\uo iyl_g \ k_\_jghf b x`ghf ihemrZjbyo KhegpZ
ijhlb\hiheh`gu b f_gyxlky ihexkZfb \ dZ`^hf gh\hf pbde_ Ihwlhfm iheguc
pbde kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb ijhbkoh^bl \ l_q_gb_ e_l
Pbde Zdlb\ghklb kheg_qguo iyl_g bf__l ijyfh_ hlghr_gb_ d a_fghfm
debfZlm M g_dhlhjuo ^_j_\v_\ lhesbgZ dhe_p bf__l h^bggZ^pZlbe_lgbc pbde <
dhgp_
– gZqZe_
\_dZ dh]^Z iyl_g ijZdlbq_kdb g_ [ueh \ ?\jhi_ klhyeZ
hq_gv oheh^gZy ih]h^Z
< gZqZe_ \_dZ :e_dkZg^j Qb`_\kdbc ihke_ fgh]he_lgbo klZlbklbq_kdbo
bkke_^h\Zgbc ^hdZaZe aZ\bkbfhklv dhebq_kl\Z kh[ulbc \ h[s_kl\_gghc `bagb gZ
A_fe_ hl Zdlb\ghklb KhegpZ Zdlb\ghklb gZ A_fe_ m\_ebqb\Z_lky dhebq_kl\h j_\hexpbc b \hcg mkbeb\Z_lky
iheblbq_kdZy Zdlb\ghklv gZk_e_gby FZdkbfmfu kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb lZd`_
ijh\hpbjmxl jZa\blb_ fgh]bo [he_ag_c \ qZklghklb mkbeb\Z_lky \_jhylghklv
wib^_fbc J_amevlZlu k\h_c jZ[hlu hg h[h[sbe \ dgb]_ Nbabq_kdb_ nZdlhju
bklhjbq_kdh]h ijhp_kkZ




















 

 











































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]h^Z 19





Khegp_ y\ey_lky bklhqgbdhf ihklhyggh]h ihlhdZ qZklbp G_cljbgh we_dljhgu
ijhlhgu ZevnZ-qZklbpu Z lZd`_ [he__ ly`_eu_ Zlhfgu_ y^jZ \k_ \f_kl_ khklZ\eyxl
dhjimkdmeyjgh_ baemq_gb_ KhegpZ AgZqbl_evgZy qZklv wlh]h baemq_gby ij_^klZ\ey_l
kh[hc [he__ beb f_g__ g_ij_ju\gh_ bkl_q_gb_ ieZafu lZd gZau\Z_fuc kheg_qguc
\_l_j y\eyxsbcky ijh^he`_gb_f \g_rgbo keh_\ kheg_qghc Zlfhkn_ju – kheg_qghc
dhjhgu <[ebab A_feb _]h kdhjhklv khklZ\ey_l h[uqgh
–500 df k Ihlhd
aZjy`_gguo qZklbp \u[jZku\Z_lky ba KhegpZ q_j_a dhjhgZevgu_ ^uju – h[eZklb \
Zlfhkn_j_ KhegpZ k hldjuluf \ f_`ieZg_lgh_ ijhkljZgkl\h fZ]gblguf ihe_f
I_j\u_ baf_j_gby kheg_qgh]h \_ljZ ijhba\_^_gu \
]h^m gZ :FK
EmgZ<
]h^m FZjbg_jgZijZ\ey\rbcky d <_g_j_ ijhba\_e
gZ[ex^_gby kheg_qgh]h \_ljZ b ihemqbe ke_^mxsb_ j_amevlZlu kdhjhklv
kheg_qgh]h \_ljZ baf_gyeZkv \ ]jZgbpZo3 hl f k ^h f k kj_^gyy dhgp_gljZpby
kheg_qgh]h \_ljZ
bhgZ gZ kf bhggZy l_fi_jZlmjZ
000 D Kj_^gyy
gZijy`_gghklv fZ]gblgh]h ihey –5 wjkl_^
Fgh]h gh\h]h h kheg_qghf \_lj_ \uykgbeZ f_`^mgZjh^gZy dhkfbq_kdZy
klZgpby
HdZaZehkv qlh hg i_j_ghkbl lZdb_ we_f_glu dZd gbd_ev `_e_ah
dj_fgbc k_jZ dZevpbc ojhf
Khegp_ \jZsZ_lky k i_jbh^hf kmlhd LjZ_dlhjbb ^\b`_gby qZklbp
kheg_qgh]h \_ljZ ^\b`msboky \^hev ebgbc bg^mdpbb fZ]gblgh]h ihey bf_xl
kibjZevgmx kljmdlmjm h[mkeh\e_ggmx \jZs_gb_f KhegpZ < j_amevlZl_ \jZs_gby
KhegpZ ]_hf_ljbq_kdhc nhjfhc ihlhdZ kheg_qgh]h \_ljZ [m^_l Zjobf_^h\Z kibjZev
gZihfbgZxsZy nhjfm kljmb \h^u ba kZ^h\h]h reZg]Z \jZsZxs_]hky \hdjm] hkb
< ^gb kheg_qguo [mjv kheg_qguc \_l_j j_adh mkbeb\Z_lky Hg \uau\Z_l
iheyjgu_ kbygby b fZ]gblgu_ [mjb gZ A_fe_ Z dhkfhgZ\lZf g_ ke_^m_l \ wlh \j_fy
\uoh^blv \ hldjuluc dhkfhk
Ih^ \ha^_ckl\b_f kheg_qgh]h \_ljZ o\hklu dhf_l \k_]^Z gZijZ\e_gu \
klhjhgm hl KhegpZ Dhkfbq_kdbc ZiiZjZl ^Z`_ aZ hj[blhc IemlhgZ NZdlbq_kdb fu `b\_f \ h[jZah\Zgghc kheg_qguf \_ljhf
]b]Zglkdhc ]_ebhkn_j_ ohlv b aZsbs_gu hl g__ fZ]gblguf ihe_f A_feb
Khegp_ – fhsguc bklhqgbd jZ^bhbaemq_gby < f_`ieZg_lgh_ ijhkljZgkl\h
ijhgbdZxl kZglbf_ljh\u_ jZ^bh\hegu dhlhju_ baemqZ_l ojhfhkn_jZ b [he__
^ebggu_ \hegu baemqZ_fu_ dhjhghc
?keb \ \b^bfuo emqZo Khegp_ baemqZ_l kjZ\gbl_evgh klZ[bevgh baf_g_gby
ijhbkoh^yl gZ ^heb ijhp_glZ lh \ jZ^bh^bZiZahg_ baemq_gb_ fh`_l baf_gylvky \
khlgb b ^Z`_ lukyqb jZa JZ^bhbaemq_gb_ KhegpZ bf__l ^\_ khklZ\eyxsb_ –
ihklhyggmx b i_j_f_ggmx IhklhyggZy khklZ\eyxsZy oZjZdl_jbam_l jZ^bhbaemq_gb_
kihdhcgh]h KhegpZ Kheg_qgZy
dhjhgZ baemqZ_l jZ^bh\hegu dZd Z[khexlgh q_jgh_
l_eh k l_fi_jZlmjhc L = 106 D I_j_f_ggZy khklZ\eyxsZy jZ^bhbaemq_gby KhegpZ
ijhy\ey_lky \ \b^_ \kie_kdh\ rmfh\uo [mjv Rmfh\u_ [mjb ^eylky hl g_kdhevdbo
qZkh\ ^h g_kdhevdbo ^g_c Q_j_a fbgml ihke_ kbevghc kheg_qghc \kiurdb
jZ^bhbaemq_gb_ KhegpZ \hajZklZ_l \ lukyqb b ^Z`_ fbeebhgu jZa ih kjZ\g_gbx k
jZ^bhbaemq_gb_f kihdhcgh]h KhegpZ b ^eblky hl g_kdhevdbo fbgml ^h g_kdhevdbo
qZkh\ Wlh jZ^bhbaemq_gb_ bf__l g_l_ieh\mx ijbjh^m
























 














































































































































































 

























































































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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

24 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

Hkgh\gu_ khklZ\eyxsb_ Zlfhkn_ju A_feb – Zahl b dbkehjh^. HklZevgu_
]Zau: \h^yghc iZj, m]e_dbkehlZ, g_hg, f_lZg, \h^hjh^ b ^jm]b_ – khklZ\eyxl hdheh
1 %. >Z\e_gb_ Zlfhkn_ju gZ mjh\g_ fhjy – 1 Zlf = 101325 IZ = 760 ff jl. kl.
KlZg^ZjlgZy Zlfhkn_jZ khhl\_lkl\m_l l_fi_jZlmj_ \ha^moZ 15,0°K,
hlghkbl_evghc \eZ`ghklb f = 0 %, iehlghklb ! = 1,225 d]/f3.
:lfhkn_jZ A_feb khklhbl ba jy^Z keh_\ – ljhihkn_ju, kljZlhkn_ju,
f_ahkn_ju, l_jfhkn_ju, wdahkn_ju:



Mkdhj_gb_ A_feb d Khegpm =
kf k2
Mkdhj_gb_ kbeu ly`_klb gZ A_fe_ klZg^Zjlgh_
Mkdhj_gb_ kbeu ly`_klb gZ rbjhl_
Baemq_gb_ ghqgh]h g_[Z A_feb \ ykgmx ghqv


 





























g0



 



kf k2
Z[khexlgh_
g45 =
dZe kf2 fbg


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]h^Z 21





980 kfk2



>Zggu_ h Emg_
 

Kj_^gbc kmlhqguc iZjZeeZdk Emgu
iZjZeeZdk f_gy_lky \ kj_^g_f hl
^h
Kj_^g__ jZkklhygb_ Emgu hl A_feb
df
Z_
jZ^bmkZ
A_feb jZkklhygb_ f_gy_lky hl
^h
df Ih jZ^bhehdZpbhgguf
^Zgguf
df
GZb[hevrbc \b^bfuc m]eh\hc ^bZf_lj Emgu
GZbf_gvrbc \b^bfuc m]eh\hc ^bZf_lj Emgu
>bZf_lj Emgu
df7 3
wd\
^bZf_ljZ
A_feb
25
3
H[t_f Emgu
df 7= 2.2*10
kf
h[t_fZ A_feb
Ih\_joghklv Emgu
df2
a_fghc
FZkkZ Emgu
fZkku A_feb
fZkku A_feb
fZkku
25
KhegpZ
]
ljbeebhgZ lhgg
Kj_^gyy iehlghklv Emgu
] kf3
kj_^g_c iehlghklb A_feb Mkdhj_gb_
kbeu ly`_klb gZ ih\_joghklb Emgu
f k2
a_fgh]h
a_fgh]h
Djblbq_kdZy kdhjhklv kdhjhklv hk\h[h`^_gby
df k
Kj_^gbc wdkp_gljbkbl_l emgghc hj[blu
ebg_cguc wdkp_gljbkbl_l
df
GZdehg emgghc hj[blu d wdebilbd_
f_gy_lky hl
^h
Kj_^gbc gZdehg emggh]h wd\ZlhjZ d hj[bl_
f_gy_lky hl
^h
GZdehg emggh]h wd\ZlhjZ d wdebilbd_
GZdehg emgghc hj[blu d a_fghfm wd\Zlhjm f_gy_lky hl
^h
Eb[jZpby ih ^he]hl_
Eb[jZpby ih rbjhl_
IZjZeeZdlbq_kdZy eb[jZpby hdheh
G_\b^bfZy k A_feb qZklv ih\_joghklb Emgu khklZ\ey_l
\k_c ih\_joghklb Emgu
\ i_j\uc jZa knhlh]jZnbjh\ZgZ i_j\hc kh\_lkdhc Z\lhfZlbq_kdhc f_`ieZg_lghc
klZgpb_c \ hdly[j_
]
\k_c ih\_joghklb lh \b^bfu lh g_\b^bfu
Kj_^gyy \b^bfZy m]eh\Zy kdhjhklv ^\b`_gby Emgu
\ kmldb beb hdheh
\ qZk ihi_j_qgbd emggh]h ^bkdZ \ qZk






















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Bo jZa^_eyxl ijhf_`mlhqgu_ kehb Zlfhkn_ju – ljhihiZmaZ, kljZlhiZmaZ,
f_ahiZmaZ b l_jfhiZmaZ. < f_ahiZma_, gZ \ukhl_ 85 df, gZoh^blky l_fi_jZlmjguc
fbgbfmf. A^_kv `_ gZ[ex^Zxlky k_j_[jbklu_ h[eZdZ.
Ih mjh\gx bhgbaZpbb, we_dljhijh\h^ghklb b kihkh[ghklb hljZ`Zlv b ih]ehsZlv
jZ^bh\hegu \ Zlfhkn_j_ \u^_eyxl _s_ g_kdhevdh keh_\. Kehc Zlfhkn_ju,
aZdexq_gguc f_`^m \ukhlZfb 100 b 1000 df, gZau\Zxl bhghkn_jhc. Iheh`_gb_ b
bgl_gkb\ghklv keh_\ bhghkn_ju f_gy_lky hlh ^gy d ghqb b \ aZ\bkbfhklb hl
baf_g_gbc kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb.
FZdkbfZevgZy dhgp_gljZpby




















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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

22 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



Kj_^gyy kdhjhklv ^\b`_gby Emgu ih hj[bl_
df k
df q Mkdhj_gb_
2
Emgu \ __ ^\b`_gbb \hdjm] A_feb
kf k
Kb^_jbq_kdbc f_kyp jZ\guc i_jbh^m h[jZs_gby Emgu \hdjm] A_feb
^ q f
k
kj_^gbo kmlhd
q f
Kbgh^bq_kdbc f_kyp
^ q f k
kj_^gbo kmlhd
q f
hldehgy_lky hl kj_^g_]h agZq_gby gZ q \ke_^kl\b_ weebilbqghklb emgghc hj[blu
I_jbh^ \jZs_gby ebgbb maeh\
^
ljhibq_kdh]h ]h^Z
I_jbh^ \jZs_gby ebgbb Zikb^
^
ljhibq_kdh]h ]h^Z Kn_jbq_kdh_
Zev[_^h Emgu \ iheghemgb_
ihegZy
EmgZ k\_lbl \
jZa keZ[__ KhegpZ
IhdZaZl_ev p\_lZ Emgu < - V = +1,2m
Kj_^gyy yjdhklv iheghc Emgu
k[
Hk\_s_gghklv kha^Z\Z_fZy iheghc Emghc \ a_gbl_ gZ A_fe_ gZ ih\_joghklb
i_ji_g^bdmeyjghc d gZijZ\e_gbx iZ^Zxsbo emq_c
exdkZ
L_fi_jZlmjZ \ ih^kheg_qghc lhqd_
K
L_fi_jZlmjZ ghqghc klhjhgu ih\_joghklb Emgu K


 











 









 











 















 





   









  





 



 



 


hljZ`Zxlky b ij_ehfeyxlky gZ ]jZgbpZo f_`^m jZaebqgufb ieZklZfb. Ih
k_ckfh]jZffZf [ueh mklZgh\e_gh kljh_gb_ a_fghc eblhkn_ju.















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A?FEY
GZrZ ieZg_lZ – A_fey – ^\b`_lky \hdjm] KhegpZ ih [ebadhc d djm]h\hc
hj[bl_ (wdkp_gljbkbl_l 0,017), jZ^bmk dhlhjhc – 149,6 feg. df – ijbgyl aZ
1 Zkljhghfbq_kdmx _^bgbpm. I_jbh^ h[jZs_gby ih hj[bl_ khklZ\ey_l
365,256 a_fguo kmlhd beb 1 ]h^. Kj_^gyy kdhjhklv ^\b`_gby ih hj[bl_ – 29,8 df/k.
I_jbh^ \jZs_gby \hdjm] hkb – a\_a^gu_ kmldb – 23h56m4,099s. GZdehg
a_fgh]h wd\ZlhjZ d hj[bl_ khklZ\ey_l 23°27' b h[_ki_qb\Z_l kf_gm \j_f_g ]h^Z.
FZkkZ A_feb jZ\gZ F = 5,974 24 d], kj_^gyy iehlghklv 5,515 ]/kf3.
Â

Wd\ZlhjbZevguc jZ^bmk ieZg_lu khklZ\ey_l R = 6 378 df. A_fey bf__l
]jmr_\b^gmx nhjfm, gZau\Z_fmx ]_hb^hf. K`Zlb_ khklZ\ey_l 0,0034 (iheyjguc
jZ^bmk jZ\_g R = 6 356 df). Kiexkgmlhklv A_feb k ihexkh\ h[tykgy_lky
\jZs_gb_f. Mkdhj_gb_ k\h[h^gh]h iZ^_gby gZ ih\_joghklb khklZ\ey_l, \ kj_^g_f,
g





 









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= 9,78 f/k2: m ihexkh\ [hevr_, gZ wd\Zlhj_ f_gvr_.

Ijyfh_ bkke_^h\Zgb_ a_fguo ]em[bg ihdZ qlh g_\hafh`gh: kZfu_ ]em[hdb_
kd\Z`bgu _^\Z ^hklb]Zxl ^_kylbdbehf_ljh\hc hlf_ldb. H^gZdh k_ckfheh]by ^ZeZ
dexq d \gmlj_gg_fm kljh_gbx A_feb. >_eh \ lhf, qlh kdhjhklv k_ckfbq_kdbo \heg
aZ\bkbl hl iehlghklb b mijm]hklb ]hjguo ihjh^, q_j_a dhlhju_ hgb ijhoh^yl. Hgb

Ba \k_c fZkku A_feb dhjZ khklZ\ey_l f_g__ 1 %, fZglby – hdheh 65 %, y^jh –
<[ebab ih\_joghklb A_feb \hajZklZgb_ l_fi_jZlmju k ]em[bghc khklZ\ey_l
ijbf_jgh 20° gZ3 dZ`^uc dbehf_lj. Iehlghklv ]hjguo ihjh^ a_fghc dhju khklZ\ey_l
hdheh 3000 d]/f . GZ ]em[bg_ hdheh 100 df l_fi_jZlmjZ ijbf_jgh 1800 D. Gb`gyy,
\gmlj_ggyy ]jZgbpZ f_`^m dhjhc b fZglb_c gZau\Z_lky jZa^_ehf Fhohjh\bqbqZ.
Mijm]b_ \hegu \ fZglbb jZkijhkljZgyxlky, dZd \ l\_j^hf l_e_. < fZglbb
kdZqdhh[jZagh m\_ebqb\Z_lky kdhjhklv jZkijhkljZg_gby k_ckfbq_kdbo
\heg, qlh
k\yaZgh k j_adbf ih\ur_gb_f iehlghklb \_s_kl\Z ^h 5600 d]/f3. Ke_^mxs__ ih
bgl_gkb\ghklb hljZ`_gb_ gZ[ex^Z_lky gZ ]em[bg_ 2900 df (ih\_joghklv =ml_g[_j]Z). GZ wlhc ]em[bg_ kbevgh hljZ`Zxlky ijh^hevgu_ b ihi_j_qgu_
k_ckfbq_kdb_ \hegu. Hlkx^Z fh`gh k^_eZlv \u\h^, qlh gb`_ e_`bl `b^dh_ y^jh: \
`b^dhklyo ihi_j_qgu_ \hegu g_ jZkijhkljZgyxlky. Wlhl kehc jZkieZ\e_ggh]h
f_lZeeZ gZau\Zxl \g_rgbf y^jhf
. < p_glj_ A_feb gZoh^blky l\_j^h_ `_e_agh_ y^jh
iehlghklvx hdheh 10 000 d]/f3 (1,7 % fZkku A_feb). =jZgbpZ f_`^m gbfb lhesbghc
hdheh 5 df ijhoh^bl gZ jZkklhygbb ijbf_jgh 1220 df hl p_gljZ.
GZ A_fe_ \ j_amevlZl_ Zdlb\ghc \medZgbq_kdhc ^_yl_evghklb ijhbkoh^bl
\u[jhku eZ\u, iZjZ b ]Zah\ ba \gmlj_ggbo qZkl_c fZglbb ^h kbo ihj nhjfbjm_lky
\_jogyy qZklv A_feb – dhjZ. GZ ieZg_l_ hdheh 800 ^_ckl\mxsbo \medZgh\.
DhjZ b \_jogb_ kehb fZglbb h[jZamxl eblhkn_jm. ?_ ]jZgbpZ jZkiheh`_gZ
gZ ]em[bg_ hdheh 70 df. Eblhkn_jZ jZkdhehlZ gZ ^_kylhd [hevrbo iebl, gZ ]jZgbpZo
f_`^m dhlhjufb ihklhyggh ijhbkoh^yl a_fe_ljyk_gby b ba\_j`_gby \medZgh\.
Eblhkn_jgu_ ieblu «ieZ\Zxl \ jZkiheh`_gghf ih^ gbfb ^h ]em[bgu 250 df keh_
ih\ur_gghc l_dmq_klb, gZau\Z_fhf Zkl_ghkn_jhc.

34 %.

ª

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

28 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

]em[bg_ 1 f l_fi_jZlmjZ ihqlb \k_]^Z ihklhyggZy. G_[h gZ^ Emghc \k_]^Z q_jgh_,
ihkdhevdm ^ey h[jZah\Zgby ]hem[h]h p\_lZ g_[Z g_h[oh^bf \ha^mo, dhlhjuc lZf
hlkmlkl\m_l. G_l lZf b ih]h^u, g_ ^mxl b \_lju. Djhf_ lh]h, gZ Emg_ pZjbl ihegZy
lbrbgZ.
K A_feb gZ[ex^Z_lky lhevdh \b^bfZy qZklv Emgu. Gh wlh g_ 50 %
ih\_joghklb, Z g_kdhevdh [hevr_. EmgZ h[jZsZ_lky \hdjm] A_feb ih weebikm, hdheh
i_jb]_y EmgZ ^\b`_lky [uklj__, Z hdheh Zih]_y – f_^e_gg__. Gh \hdjm] hkb EmgZ
\jZsZ_lky jZ\ghf_jgh. gZb[hevrZy \_ebqbgZ __ khklZ\ey_l 7°54´. ;eZ]h^Zjy eb[jZpbb fu bf__f
\hafh`ghklv gZ[ex^Zlv k A_feb djhf_ \b^bfhc klhjhgu Emgu _s_ b ijbfudZxsb_
d g_c madb_ ihehkdb l_jjblhjbb h[jZlghc __ klhjhgu. < h[s_c keh`ghklb k A_feb
fh`gh m\b^_lv 59 % emgghc ih\_joghklb.
FhsgZy eblhkn_jZ lhesbghc hdheh 1000 df bkdexqZ_l jZaehfu b \uoh^
eZ\u gZ ih\_joghklv. Gh jZgvr_, fbeebZj^u e_l gZaZ^, gZ Emg_ [ueb ba\_j`_gby
\medZgh\.
lZd gZau\Z_fu_ fhjy b fZl_jbdb. jZaf_ju ^h\hevgh \gmrbl_evgu: :i_ggbgu bf_xl fZdkbfZevgmx \ukhlm 6 df,
DZjiZlu – 2 df.
Ijb gZ[ex^_gbb \ l_e_kdhi klZgh\blky ykgh, qlh fhjy b fZl_jbdb mkuiZgu
djZl_jZfb. Hkh[_ggh \u^_eyxlky djZl_j Dhi_jgbd b djZl_j Lboh k jZkoh^ysbfbky
hl g_]h ihqlb ih \k_c ih\_joghklb Emgu [_eufb emqZfb. GZ \b^bfhc klhjhg_ Emgu
dhebq_kl\h djZl_jh\, ^bZf_lj dhlhjuo [hevr_ 1 df, hdheh 300 000. JZaf_ju
djZl_jh\ dhe_[exlky hl khl_g dbehf_ljh\ ^h g_kdhevdbo kZglbf_ljh\. G_dhlhju_ ba
gbo \ p_glj_ bf__l oZjZdl_jgh_ h[jZah\Zgb_ – ]hjdm; m g_dhlhjuo djZl_jh\ gZ
\gmlj_ggbo kl_gdZo bf_xlky l_jjZku. emq_\u_ kbkl_fu – k\_leu_ ihehku, dhlhju_ jZkoh^ylky \h \k_ klhjhgu. Wlb emqb
fh]ml [ulv \lhjbqgufb djZl_jZfb, ihjh`^_ggufb hkdhedZfb f_l_hjblZ, dhlhju_
h[jZah\Zeb \h \j_fy \aju\Z hkgh\ghc djZl_j, gZoh^ysbcky \ p_glj_.
Kh]eZkgh kh\j_f_gguf ij_^klZ\e_gbyf, [hevrbgkl\h djZl_jh\, \ bah[bebb
ihdju\Zxsbo ih\_joghklv Emgu, h[jZah\Zebkv ijb klhedgh\_gbb djmiguo
f_l_hjblh\ b g_[hevrbo Zkl_jhb^h\ k ih\_joghklvx 3,5 fbeebZj^Z e_l gZaZ^.
Wg_j]by, \u^_ey_fZy ijb \aju\_, bkiZjyeZ g_ lhevdh \_s_kl\h f_l_hjblZ, gh b qZklv
ihjh^ \ f_kl_ m^ZjZ. Klhedgh\_gby k hq_gv djmigufb Zkl_jhb^Zfb \ua\Zeb
]b]Zglkdb_ jZaehfu \ emgghc ih\_joghklb, q_j_a dhlhju_ \ul_dZeZ `b^dZy
jZkieZ\e_ggZy eZ\Z. LZd gZ Emg_ ihy\bebkv fhjy b hd_Zgu.
BlZevygkdbc Zkljhghf >`h\Zggb Jbqqheeb \ XVII \_d_ ijbk\hbe
\ha\ur_gghklyf b \iZ^bgZf gZ Emg_ gZa\Zgby: :eviu, :i_ggbgu b DZ\dZa, Hd_Zg
;mjv, fhjy >h`^_c, Oheh^Z b Kihdhckl\by, djZl_ju Lboh, IbnZ]hj, Ilhe_f_c b l.^.
Ih ij_^eh`_gbx kh\_lkdbo Zkljhghfh\ F_`^mgZjh^guc Zkljhghfbq_kdbc khxa
ihf_klbe gZ i_j\mx dZjlm h[jZlghc klhjhgu Emgu 18 gZa\Zgbc \gh\v hldjuluo
h[jZah\Zgbc. LZd ihy\bebkv gZ Emg_ Fhj_ Fhkd\u, djZl_ju =_jp, DmjqZlh\,
Ehfhghkh\, FZdk\_ee, F_g^_e__\, Kdeh^h\kdZy-Dxjb, Pbhedh\kdbc.



k\h[h^guo bhgh\ \ bhghkn_j_ khklZ\ey_l (2–50)
250–400 df hl ih\_joghklb A_feb.



Â



5



fZjlZ



]h^Z 25


kf–3 b ^hklb]Z_lky gZ \ukhlZo

A_fgZy Zlfhkn_jZ g_ ijhimkdZ_l `_kldh_ dhjhldh\hegh\h_ baemq_gb_.
H^gbf ba \Z`g_crbo ]Zah\, ih]ehsZxsbo mevljZnbhe_lh\u_ emqb, y\ey_lky hahg.
Ba-aZ mom^r_gby wdheh]bq_kdhc h[klZgh\db, ij_`^_ \k_]h, ba-aZ \u[jhkZ \
Zlfhkn_jm nj_hgZ b ^jm]bo Zdlb\guo \_s_kl\, _]h dhebq_kl\h j_adh mf_gvrbehkv,
gZ^ :glZjdlb^hc b g_dhlhjufb ^jm]bfb jZchgZfb A_feb h[jZah\Zebkv hahgh\u_
^uju. KijZ\_^eb\hklb jZ^b aZf_lbf, qlh kms_kl\m_l ^jm]h_ fg_gb_, aZdexqZxs__ky
\ lhf, qlh hahgh\u_ ^uju – h^gh ba ijhy\e_gbc kheg_qghc Zdlb\ghklb.
FZ]gblgh_ ihe_ A_feb ihoh`_ gZ ihe_ h^ghjh^ghc gZfZ]gbq_gghc kn_ju k
fZ]gblghc hkvx, gZdehg_gghc gZ 11,5° d hkb \jZs_gby A_feb. X`guc fZ]gblguc
ihexk A_feb, d dhlhjhfm ijbly]b\Z_lky k_\_jguc dhg_p klj_edb dhfiZkZ, g_
kh\iZ^Z_l k K_\_jguf ]_h]jZnbq_kdbf ihexkhf, Z gZoh^blky \ imgdl_ k
dhhj^bgZlZfb ijb[ebabl_evgh 76° k_\_jghc rbjhlu b 101° aZiZ^ghc ^he]hlu.
K_\_jguc fZ]gblguc ihexk A_feb jZkiheh`_g \ :glZjdlb^_. GZijy`_gghklv
fZ]gblgh]h ihey gZ ihexkZo khklZ\ey_l 0,63 W, gZ wd\Zlhj_ – 0,31 W.
Hldjulh_ \ 1905 ]h^m baf_g_gb_ fZ]gblgh]h ihey ijb\_eh d aZdexq_gbx,
qlh hgh aZjh`^Z_lky \ `b^dhf \g_rg_f y^j_ ieZg_lu. KjZ\gbl_evgh [uklju_
^\b`_gby fh]ml ijhbkoh^blv lZf [_a dZlZkljhnbq_kdbo ihke_^kl\bc.
Kbeh\u_ ebgbb fZ]gblgh]h ihey A_feb h[jZamxl k\h_h[jZagu_ eh\mrdb ^ey
^\b`msboky d g_c ihlhdh\ qZklbp kheg_qgh]h \_ljZ. AZ^_j`Zggu_ fZ]gblguf ihe_f
qZklbpu h[jZamxl jZ^bZpbhggu_ ihykZ.
J_adb_ baf_g_gby fZ]gblgh]h ihey A_feb gZau\Zxlky fZ]gblgufb [mjyfb.
FZ]gblgu_ [mjb qZklh gZqbgZxlky q_j_a kmldb beb ^\h_ ihke_ ojhfhkn_jguo
\kiur_d gZ Khegp_; hgb \uau\Zxlky ihlhdZfb qZklbp, ^\b`msboky k [hevrbfb
kdhjhklyfb hl KhegpZ. AZjy`_ggu_ qZklbpu, kdhevay \^hev kbeh\uo fZ]gblguo
ebgbc A_feb, fh]ml ijhgbdgmlv \ Zlfhkn_jm. KlZedb\Zykv k ZlhfZfb Zlfhkn_ju, hgb
\uau\Zxl hkh[h_ k\_q_gb_, gZau\Z_fh_ iheyjguf kbygb_f.
Ih\_joghklv A_feb
L_fi_jZlmjZ gZ ih\_joghklb gZoh^blky \ ij_^_eZo hl –85°C (\gmlj_ggb_
jZchgu :glZjdlb^u) ^h +70°C (AZiZ^gZy KZoZjZ). Kj_^gyy l_fi_jZlmjZ ih\_joghklb
A_feb – +12°C.
;hevrmx qZklv ih\_joghklb A_feb ([he__ 2/3) aZgbfZ_l Fbjh\hc hd_Zg,
hklZ\rZyky lj_lv ijboh^blky gZ kmrm. Mkeh\by gZ ih\_joghklb A_feb aZf_lgh
hlebqZxlky hl ^jm]bo ieZg_l: gb]^_, djhf_ dZd gZ A_fe_, g_l \h^u \ `b^dhf
khklhygbb, g_l Zlfhkn_ju, [h]Zlhc dbkehjh^hf. Bf_ggh [eZ]h^Zjy \h^_ [he__
3,8 fej^. e_l lhfm gZaZ^ gZ A_fe_ kfh]eZ \hagbdgmlv `bagv.
@b^dZy h[hehqdZ A_feb, dhlhjZy aZgbfZ_l 361 feg. df2 beb 70,8 %
ih\_joghklb A_feb, gZau\Z_lky ]b^jhkn_jhc. < hd_ZgZo A_feb khkj_^hlhq_gh 97 %
\k_o aZiZkh\ \h^u (hdheh 1021 d]).
QZklv \h^u gZoh^blky \ \b^_ ev^Z b kg_]Z \


:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

26 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



iheyjguo rZidZo, Z lZd`_ \ Zlfhkn_j_. Kj_^gyy ]em[bgZ Fbjh\h]h hd_ZgZ – 3 900 f,
fZdkbfZevgZy ]em[bgZ – 11 000 f (FZjbZgkdbc `_eh[ \ Lbohf hd_Zg_).
b
lhjby. <235 _kl_kl\_gghc
kf_kb
mjZgZ
kh^_j`blky
99,28 % bahlhiZ mjZgZ 238U,
0,714 % U, 0,006 % 234U. I_jbh^ ihemjZkiZ^Z 238U L1/2 = 4,5 9 e_l. Dhg_qguf
ijh^mdlhf jZkiZ^h\ wlbo we_f_glh\ y\eyxlky bahlhiu k\bgpZ b ]_ebc. Q_f [hevr_
ijh^mdlh\ jZkiZ^Z b q_f f_gvr_ kZfh]h jZ^bhZdlb\gh]h \_s_kl\Z kh^_j`blky \
ihjh^_, l_f [hevr_ \hajZkl bamqZ_fuo ]hjguo ihjh^. BamqZy jZ^bhbahlhiguc khklZ\
dhju A_feb, h[gZjm`beb, qlh \hajZkl a_fghc dhju hdheh 4,55±0,07 fej^. e_l.
Kh]eZkgh kh\j_f_gguf dhkfh]hgbq_kdbf ij_^klZ\e_gbyf, A_fey
h[jZah\ZeZkv 4,5 fbeebZj^Z e_l gZaZ^ iml_f ]jZ\blZpbhgghc dhg^_gkZpbb ba
jZkk_yggh]h \ hdhehkheg_qghf ijhkljZgkl\_ oheh^gh]h ]Zahiue_\h]h \_s_kl\Z,
kh^_j`Z\r_]h \k_ ba\_klgu_ \ ijbjh^_ obfbq_kdb_ we_f_glu.
IZ^_gb_ djmiguo k]mkldh\ \_s_kl\Z \uau\Zeh gZ]j_\ ijhlh-A_feb b __
jZkkeh_gb_. Ly`_eu_ `_e_ahkh^_j`Zsb_ ihjh^u himkdZebkv ]em[`_, aZ g_kdhevdh
khl_g fbeebhgh\ e_l nhjfbjmy y^jh, e_]db_ dZf_gbklu_ ihjh^u h[jZah\u\Zeb dhjm.
=jZ\blZpbhggh_ k`Zlb_ b jZ^bhZdlb\guc jZkiZ^ _s_ [hevr_ jZah]j_\Zeb
\gmlj_ggb_ h[eZklb gZr_c ieZg_lu.
Ba-aZ m[u\Zgby l_fi_jZlmju hl p_gljZ A_feb d ih\_joghklb \hagbdZeb hqZ]b
gZijy`_gghklb gZ ]jZgbp_ k dhjhc. Bo j_amevlZlZfb b ih k_c ^_gv y\eyxlky
a_fe_ljyk_gby b ^j_cn fZl_jbdh\.
:lfhkn_jZ b ]b^jhkn_jZ \u^_ebebkv ba g_^j gZr_c ieZg_lu, ihkdhevdm \h^Z
b ]Zau \oh^beb \ khklZ\ a_fguo ihjh^. Dbkehjh^ ihy\beky \ Zlfhkn_j_ ba \h^u \
j_amevlZl_ nhlh^bkkhpbZpbb, Z \ihke_^kl\bb ba-aZ nhlhkbgl_aZ.
< 1912 ]h^m, kjZ\gb\Zy hq_jlZgby [_j_]h\hc ebgbb :njbdb b X`ghc
:f_jbdb, g_f_pdbc mq_guc :evnj_^ <_]_g_j \u^\bgme ]bihl_am ^j_cnZ
dhglbg_glh\. HgZ [ueZ ih^l\_j`^_gZ bkke_^h\Zgb_f ^gZ hd_ZgZ b fZ]gblguo
k\hckl\ eZ\h\uo ihlhdh\ gZ ih\_joghklb. ;ueb aZj_]bkljbjh\Zgu lZd`_ 16 bg\_jkbc
fZ]gblguo ihexkh\ k k_\_jgh]h gZ x`guc b h[jZlgh aZ ihke_^gb_ ^_kylv fbeebhgh\
e_l.
< 1960 ]h^m Zf_jbdZgkdbc ]_heh] =Zjjb O_kk ij_^iheh`be, qlh ]hjyqZy
fZglby ih^gbfZ_lky ih^ kj_^bggh-hd_Zgbq_kdbfb oj_[lZfb, jZkijhkljZgy_lky \
klhjhgu hl gbo, jZaju\Zy b jZklZedb\Zy eblhkn_jgu_ ieblu. <_s_kl\h fZglbb
aZihegy_l h[jZah\Z\rb_ky lj_sbgu – jbnlu. «Mgbqlh`_gb_ `_ mqZkldh\
ih\_joghklb A_feb ijhbkoh^bl, kdhj__ \k_]h, \[ebab hd_Zgkdbo `_eh[h\.
K_cqZk kqblZ_lky, qlh 300–200 fbeebhgh\ e_l gZaZ^ kms_kl\h\Ze _^bguc
kmi_jfZl_jbd IZg]_y. AZl_f hg jZkiZeky gZ qZklb, dhlhju_ knhjfbjh\Zeb gug_rgb_
fZl_jbdb.
>Zevg_cr__ hklu\Zgb_ A_feb ijb\_^_l d ij_djZs_gbx l_dlhgbq_kdhc
^_yl_evghklb. Wjhaby khlj_l ]hju, b ih\_joghklv A_feb klZg_l iehkdhc b ihdjh_lky
hd_Zghf. Ba-aZ m\_ebq_gby k\_lbfhklb KhegpZ \ ^Ze_dhf [m^ms_f hd_Zg bkiZjblky,
h[gZ`b\ jh\gmx [_a`bag_ggmx imklugx.
Â

ª







fZjlZ



]h^Z 27

EMG:
EmgZ – _^bgkl\_gguc kimlgbd A_feb b _^bgkl\_gguc \g_a_fghc fbj,
dhlhjuc ihk_lbeb ex^b. HgZ \jZsZ_lky \hdjm] A_feb ih hj[bl_, [hevrZy ihemhkv
dhlhjhc jZ\gZ 383 398 df (wdkp_gljbkbl_l 0,055). Iehkdhklv emgghc hj[blu
gZdehg_gZ d iehkdhklb wdebilbdb ih^ m]ehf 5°09´. I_jbh^ h[jZs_gby jZ\_g 27 kml
7 qZk 43 fbg. Wlh a\_a^guc beb kb^_jbq_kdbc i_jbh^. I_jbh^ kbgh^bq_kdbc – i_jbh^
kf_gu emgguo nZa – jZ\_g 29 kml 12 qZk 44 fbg. I_jbh^ \jZs_gby Emgu \hdjm] k\h_c
hkb jZ\_g kb^_jbq_kdhfm i_jbh^m. Ihkdhevdm \j_fy h^gh]h h[hjhlZ Emgu \hdjm]
A_feb \ lhqghklb jZ\gh \j_f_gb h^gh]h h[hjhlZ __ \hdjm] hkb, EmgZ ihklhyggh
ih\_jgmlZ d A_fe_ h^ghc b lhc `_ klhjhghc.
EmgZ – kZfuc yjdbc h[t_dl gZ g_[_ ihke_ KhegpZ. FZdkbfZevgZy a\_a^gZy
\_ebqbgZ jZ\gZ –12,7m.
FZkkZ kimlgbdZ A_feb khklZ\ey_l
7,3476 22 d] (\ 81,3 jZa f_gvr_ fZkku
3
A_feb), kj_^gyy iehlghklv ! = 3,35 ]/kf , wd\ZlhjbZevguc jZ^bmk – 1 737 df. K`Zlb_
k ihexkh\ ijZdlbq_kdb hlkmlkl\m_l.
Mkdhj_gb_ k\h[h^gh]h iZ^_gby gZ ih\_joghklb khklZ\ey_l g = 1,63 f/k2.
Ly]hl_gb_ Emgu g_ kfh]eh m^_j`Zlv __ Zlfhkn_jm, _keb hgZ dh]^Z-lh b [ueZ.
Iehlghklv Emgu kjZ\gbfZ k iehlghklvx a_fghc fZglbb. Ihwlhfm m Emgu
eb[h g_l, eb[h hq_gv g_agZqbl_evgh_ `_e_agh_ y^jh. bamq_gh ih k_ckfbq_kdbf ^Zgguf, i_j_^Zgguf gZ A_fex ijb[hjZfb dhkfbq_kdbo
wdki_^bpbc «:iheehg . LhesbgZ dhju Emgu 60–100 df. LhesbgZ \_jog_c fZglbb
400 df. < g_c k_ckfbq_kdb_ kdhjhklb aZ\bkyl hl ]em[bgu b mf_gvrZxlky \
aZ\bkbfhklb hl jZkklhygby. LhesbgZ kj_^g_c fZglbb hdheh 600 df. < kj_^g_c
fZglbb k_ckfbq_kdb_ kdhjhklb ihklhyggu. Gb`gyy fZglby jZkiheh`_gZ ]em[`_
1100 df. Y^jh Emgu, gZqbgZxs__ky gZ ]em[bg_ 1500 df, \hafh`gh, `b^dh_. Hgh
ihqlb g_ kh^_j`bl `_e_aZ. Ihwlhfm EmgZ bf__l hq_gv keZ[h_ fZ]gblgh_ ihe_, g_
ij_\urZxs__ h^ghc ^_kylblukyqghc ^heb a_fgh]h fZ]gblgh]h ihey.
AZj_]bkljbjh\Zgu f_klgu_ fZ]gblgu_ ZghfZebb.
Bamq_gb_ emgguo ihjh^, ^hklZ\e_gguo gZ A_fex, iha\hebeh hp_gblv \hajZkl
Emgu f_lh^hf jZ^bhZdlb\gh]h jZkiZ^Z. DZfgb gZ Emg_ klZeb l\_j^ufb hdheh
4,4 fej^. e_l gZaZ^. Kh]eZkgh l_hjbb jhkkbckdh]h ZkljhghfZ ?\]_gbb Jmkdhe, EmgZ
knhjfbjh\ZeZkv ba hklZldh\ ijhlhieZg_lgh]h \_s_kl\Z, hdjm`Z\r_]h fheh^mx
A_fex. Bgmx l_hjbx jZajZ[hlZe Zf_jbdZgkdbc Zkljhghf :ebkl_j DZf_jhg: hg
kqblZ_l, qlh A_fey gZ klZ^bb nhjfbjh\Zgby klhedgmeZkv k djmiguf g_[_kguf l_ehf.
Ij_^iheZ]Zxl, qlh \ jZggb_ i_jbh^u k\h_c bklhjbb EmgZ \jZsZeZkv \hdjm]
hkb [uklj__ b, ke_^h\Zl_evgh, ih\hjZqb\ZeZkv d A_fe_ jZagufb qZklyfb k\h_c
ih\_joghklb. Gh ba-aZ [ebahklb fZkkb\ghc A_feb \ l\_j^hf l_e_ Emgu \hagbdZeb
agZqbl_evgu_ ijbeb\gu_ \hegu. Ijhp_kk lhjfh`_gby Emgu ijh^he`Zeky ^h l_o ihj,
ihdZ hgZ g_ hdZaZeZkv ihklhyggh ih\_jgmlhc d gZf lhevdh h^ghc klhjhghc.
:lfhkn_jZ gZ Emg_ ijZdlbq_kdb hlkmlkl\m_l. Wlh h[mkeh\eb\Z_l j_adb_ i_j_iZ^u
l_fi_jZlmj \ g_kdhevdh khl_g ]jZ^mkh\. < ^g_\gh_ \j_fy l_fi_jZlmjZ gZ ih\_joghklb
^hklb]Z_l 130°C, Z ghqvx hgZ himkdZ_lky ^h –170°C.
< lh `_ \j_fy gZ
Â

ª

32 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_


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30 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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36 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

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ijhlb\hiheh`guo lhqdZo gZau\Z_fuo lhqdZfb jZ\gh^_gkl\bc < lhqd_
\_k_gg_]h jZ\gh^_gkl\by gZoh^ys_cky \ kha\_a^bb Ju[ b h[hagZqZ_fhc agZdhf
Khegp_ \_kghc i_j_oh^bl ba x`gh]h
g_[_kgh]h ihemrZjby \ k_\_jgh_ Z \
lhqd_ hk_gg_]h jZ\gh^_gkl\by agZd
jZkiheh`_gghc \ kha\_a^bb >_\u
Khegp_ q_j_a ihe]h^Z \ha\jZsZ_lky \ x`gh_ ihemrZjb_ g_[Z M h[_bo wlbo lhq_d
kdehg_gb_ / = 0°0' Lhqgh ihk_j_^bg_ f_`^m lhqdZfb jZ\gh^_gkl\bc gZ wdebilbd_
jZkiheh`_gu lhqdb khegp_klhygby \ dhlhjuo Khegp_ ^hklb]Z_l gZb[hevr_]h
m^Ze_gby hl g_[_kgh]h wd\ZlhjZ lhqdZ e_lg_]h khegp_klhygby gZoh^blky \ k_\_jghf
ihemrZjbb g_[Z \ kha\_a^bb ;ebag_ph\ b bf__l kdehg_gb_ /
Z ijhlb\hih

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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

34 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



eh`gZy _c lhqdZ abfg_]h khegp_klhygby — \ x`ghf ihemrZjbb g_[Z \ kha\_a^bb
Klj_evpZ b __ kdehg_gb_ / = -23°27'.
hij_^_ey_lky ^\mfy \_ebqbgZfb gZau\Z_fufb g_[_kgufb wd\ZlhjbZevgufb
dhhj^bgZlZfb ZgZeh]bqgufb ]_h]jZnbq_kdbf dhhj^bgZlZf rbjhl_ b ^he]hl_ >ey
wlh]h q_j_a ihexku fbjZ fuke_ggh ijh\h^yl [hevrb_ djm]b koh^gu_ k a_fgufb
f_jb^bZgZfb gh gZau\Zxl bo djm]Zfb kdehg_gby H^gZ wd\ZlhjbZevgZy dhhj^bgZlZ
gZf m`_ ba\_klgZ — wlh kdehg_gb_ / ihdZau\Zxs__ m]eh\h_ jZkklhygb_ k\_lbeZ hl

























































































































 

























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ah^bZdhk — a\_jbguc ihlhfm qlh [hevrbgkl\h ba gbo bf__l gZbf_gh\Zgby
j_Zevguo b fbnbq_kdbo `b\uo kms_kl\ wlh kha\_a^by Ju[ H\pZ L_evpZ
;ebag_ph\ JZdZ Ev\Z >_\u <_kh\ KdhjibhgZ Klj_evpZ Dha_jh]Z b AgZqbl bklbgguc imlv A_feb \ ijhkljZgkl\_ \hdjm] KhegpZ gZau\Z_fuc a_fghc
hj[blhc hl eZlbgkdh]h keh\Z orbita — dhe_y ^hjh]Z e_`bl \ lhc `_ iehkdhklb qlh
b wdebilbdZ b wlZ iehkdhklv h[jZam_l k iehkdhklvx a_fgh]h wd\ZlhjZ m]he \
LZd ba gZ[ex^_gbc \b^bfh]h ]h^h\h]h ^\b`_gby KhegpZ mklZgh\beb gZdehg hkb
\jZs_gby A_feb d iehkdhklb __ hj[blu dhlhjuc l_i_jv ihdZau\Z_lky gZ a_fguo
]eh[mkZo

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mklZgh\be qlh ieZg_lu h[jZsZxlky \hdjm] KhegpZ ih weebilbq_kdbf hj[blZf b q_f
[eb`_ ieZg_lZ d Khegpm l_f [uklj__ hgZ ^\b`_lky A_fey g_ y\ey_lky bkdexq_gb_f
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g_[_kgh]h wd\ZlhjZ >jm]Zy wd\ZlhjbZevgZy dhhj^bgZlZ ZgZeh]bqgZy ]_h]jZnbq_kdhc
^he]hl_ gZau\Z_lky ijyfuf \hkoh`^_gb_f . b hlkqblu\Z_lky hl lhqdb \_k_gg_]h
jZ\gh^_gkl\by ih g_[_kghfm wd\Zlhjm \k_]^Z \ h^gm klhjhgm k aZiZ^Z d \hklhdm ^h
djm]Z kdehg_gby k\_lbeZ Ijyfh_ \hkoh`^_gb_ lh`_ fh`_l [ulv mdZaZgh \ ]jZ^mkZo b
fbgmlZo ^m]b \ ij_^_eZo hl ^h
gh qZs_ \k_]h hgh \ujZ`Z_lky \ _^bgbpZo
\j_f_gb — \ qZkZo q fbgmlZo f b k_dmg^Zo k ba jZkq_lZ qlh q = 360°, 1q = 15°,
4f =1°, 1f
b k
WlZ kbkl_fZ _^bgbp [he__ m^h[gZ ^ey jZkq_lh\ \j_f_gb
gZklmie_gby Zkljhghfbq_kdbo y\e_gbc LZdbf h[jZahf gZ ijhly`_gbb ]h^Z wd\ZlhjbZevgu_ dhhj^bgZlu KhegpZ g_ij_ju\gh baf_gyxlky \ ij_^_eZo ijyfh_
\hkoh`^_gb_ Z hl q ^h q b kdehg_gb_ / hl
^h -23°27'.
Lml `_ ke_^m_l h]h\hjblvky qlh wd\ZlhjbZevgu_ dhhj^bgZlu g_[_kguo
k\_lbe g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh baf_jblv g_evay lZd dZd gb g_[_kguc wd\Zlhj gb lhqdb
wdebilbdb gZ g_[_ gbq_f g_ hlf_q_gu H^gZdh h[_ dhhj^bgZlu e_]dh \uqbkeyxlky
ih fhf_glm \j_f_gb b ih baf_j_gghc \ukhl_ k\_lbeZ dh]^Z hgh i_j_k_dZ_l g_[_kguc
f_jb^bZg Ih wlbf dhhj^bgZlZf iheh`_gby a\_a^ g_[_kgh]h wd\ZlhjZ b wdebilbdb
gZghkylky gZ a\_a^gu_ dZjlu
< Zkljhghfbb ihklhyggh ijboh^blky hlebqZlv \b^bfu_ y\e_gby hl
bklbgguo b ]h^h\h_ ^\b`_gb_ KhegpZ ih wdebilbd_ g_kemqZcgh gZa\Zgh \b^bfuf \
^_ckl\bl_evghklb wlh A_fey h[jZsZ_lky \hdjm] KhegpZ k ]h^bqguf i_jbh^hf q_fm
l_i_jv bf__lky fgh`_kl\h ^hdZaZl_evkl\ GZf `_ g_ hsmsZxsbf ^\b`_gby A_feb
dZ`_lky qlh Khegp_ gZ ijhly`_gbb ]h^Z ihke_^h\Zl_evgh i_j_f_sZ_lky ih
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h[eZ^Zxsbc \ hlebqb_ hl hdjm`ghklb ^\mfy \aZbfgh i_ji_g^bdmeyjgu fb b
jZaebqgufb ih \_ebqbg_ hkyfb — [hevrhc :I Z b fZehc DE
GZ
[hevrhc hkb gZ jZ\guo jZkklhygbyo hl p_gljZ H weebikZ bf_xlky ^\_ lhqdb K b J
gZau\Z_fu_ nhdmkZfb oZjZdl_jgu_ l_f qlh kmffZ jZkklhygbc hl gbo ^h ex[hc
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jZkklhygb_ ieZg_lu J hl g_]h g_ij_ju\gh
f_gy_lky \ hij_^_e_gguo ij_^_eZo hl gZbf_gvr_]h KI ^h gZb[hevr_]h K:
LZd dZd gZ ]j_q_kdhf yaud_ keh\h =_ebhk hagZqZ_l Khegp_ keh\h i_jb — [ebadh
beb hdheh Z keh\h Zih — \^Zeb lh ex[h_ ijhba\hevgh_ jZkklhygb_ hl KhegpZ
gZau\Z_lky ]_ebhp_gljbq_kdbf gZbf_gvr__ jZkklhygb_ q) — i_jb]_ebcguf
jZkklhygb_f Z gZb[hevr__ Q) — Zn_ebcguf jZkklhygb_f ohly ijZ\bevg__ [ueh [u
gZau\Zlv _]h Zih]_evguf Khhl\_lkl\_ggh b dhgp_\u_ lhqdb [hevrhc hkb hj[blu
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40 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_


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hij_^_e_ggh]h agZq_gby Z i_jbh^bq_kdb \ ijZ\bevghc ihke_^h\Zl_evghklb
baf_gy_lky \ hij_^_e_gguo ij_^_eZo Ijb dZ`^hf k\h_f h[hjhl_ EmgZ lh
ijb[eb`Z_lky d A_fe_ lh g_kdhevdh m^Zey_lky hl g__ b k lZdhc `_ ijZ\bevghklvx
\hajZklZ_l b mf_gvrZ_lky kdhjhklv ^\b`_gby Emgu \ ijhkljZgkl\_ Ijhbkoh^bl wlh
ihlhfm qlh EmgZ h[jZsZ_lky \hdjm] A_feb k aZiZ^Z d \hklhdm g_ ih djm]h\hc Z ih
weebilbq_kdhc hj[bl_ \ h^ghf ba nhdmkh\ dhlhjhc jZkiheh`_gZ gZrZ ieZg_lZ
Iehkdhklv emgghc hj[blu \ i_j_k_q_gbb k g_[hf h[jZam_l [hevrhc djm] — emgguc
imlv Z iehkdhklv a_fghc hj[blu dZd gZf m`_ ba\_klgh i_j_k_dZ_lky k g_[hf ih
wdebilbd_ b lZd dZd \ ijhkljZgkl\_ i_j\Zy iehkdhklv h[jZam_l kh \lhjhc m]he \
lh ihwlhfm b emgguc imlv gZdehg_g d wdebilbd_ ih^ lZdbf `_ m]ehf H[h wlb
iehkdhklb i_j_k_dZxlky ^jm] k ^jm]hf ih ijyfhc ebgbb ijhoh^ys_c q_j_a p_glj
A_feb b gZau\Z_fhc ebgb_c maeh\ emgghc hj[blu b dZd jZa iZ wlhc ebgbb e_`Zl
emggu_ maeu \ ^bZf_ljZevgh ijhlb\hiheh`guo gZijZ\e_gbyo hl A_feb l _ gZ
^jm] hl ^jm]Z < ]j_q_kdhf yaud_ A_fey bf_gm_lky keh\hf =_y b hl wlh]h keh\Z
ijhbahreb ke_^mxsb_ gZa\Zgby ]_hp_gljbq_kdh_ jZkklhygb_ — jZkklhygb_ hl
A_feb i_jb]_c I — [eb`ZcrZy d A_fe_ lhqdZ emgghc hj[blu i_jb]_cgh_
jZkklhygb_ q) — jZkklhygb_ i_jb]_y hl A_feb Zih]_c : — gZb[he__ m^Ze_ggZy hl
A_feb lhqdZ emgghc hj[blu Zih]_cgh_ jZkklhygb_
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feg df Z \ kZfhf gZqZe_ bxey — gZb[hevrbf

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feg df hl KhegpZ A_fey gZoh^blky \
GZ kj_^g_f `_ jZkklhygbb 0
gZqZe_ Zij_ey b \ gZqZe_ hdly[jy K\hc ]h^h\hc imlv \hdjm] KhegpZ A_fey ijhoh^bl
aZ ijhf_`mlhd \j_f_gb Lh
kmlhd Z lZd dZd \ dZ`^uo kmldZo kh^_j`blky
k lh L
= = 31,56*106 k Hlkx^Z g_ljm^gh \uqbkeblv kj_^gxx
kdhjhklv ^\b`_gby A_feb ih k\h_c hj[bl_ beb qlh h^gh b lh `_ __ kj_^gxx
hj[blZevgmx kdhjhklv
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l _ ijb[ebabl_evgh fh`gh ijbgbfZlv
df k
Gh ihkdhevdm A_fey h[jZsZ_lky \hdjm] KhegpZ g_ ih hdjm`ghklb Z ih
weebilbq_kdhc hj[bl_ lh b kdhjhklv ^\b`_gby A_feb g_ hklZ_lky ihklhygghc Z
lh`_ g_kdhevdh f_gy_lky \ gZqZe_ yg\Zjy dh]^Z A_fey ijhoh^bl i_jb]_ebc __
kdhjhklv \hajZklZ_l ^h
df k Z \ gZqZe_ bxey ijb ijhoh`^_gbb Zn_eby
mf_gvrZ_lky ^h
df k
LZdbf h[jZahf A_fey ijhoh^bl \ ijhkljZgkl\_ aZ q
k imlv \
df Z aZ kmldb —
df <[ebab `_ i_jb]_eby \ gZqZe_
yg\Zjy qZkh\hc imlv A_feb m\_ebqb\Z_lky ^h
df Z kmlhqguc
imlv — ^h
df aZlh \[ebab Zn_eby \ gZqZe_ bxey __ qZkh\hc imlv
khdjZsZ_lky ^h
df Z kmlhqguc — ^h
df
LZd ba gZ[ex^_gbc \b^bfh]h ]h^h\h]h ^\b`_gby KhegpZ Zkljhghfu
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jZ^bhkb]gZe dhlhjuc hljZab\rbkv hl
emgghc ih\_joghklb \ha\jZsZ_lky d A_fe_ b \hkijbgbfZ_lky ijb_fghc
jZ^bhZiiZjZlmjhc Fhf_glu \j_f_gb hlijZ\e_gby b ijb_fZ jZ^bhkb]gZeZ
hlf_qZxlky k \ukhdhc lhqghklvx ^hklb]Zxs_c h^ghc fbeebhgghc ^heb k_dmg^u
JZaghklv ût wlbo fhf_glh\ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc ijhf_`mlhd \j_f_gb \ l_q_gb_
dhlhjh]h jZ^bhkb]gZe ijhoh^bl m^\h_ggh_ jZkklhygb_ hl A_feb ^h Emgu : lZd dZd
kdhjhklv jZkijhkljZg_gby jZ^bh\heg ba\_klgZ ba nbabdb b jZ\gZ k
df k lh
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hldm^Z wdkp_gljbkbl_l a_fghc hj[blu _
beb ijb[eb`_ggh
Bkihevamy agZq_gb_ wdkp_gljbkbl_lZ a_fghc hj[blu fh`gh ih nhjfmeZf
ijb\_^_gguf gZ k
hij_^_eblv ij_^_eu baf_g_gby ]_ebhp_gljbq_kdh]h
jZkklhygby A_feb ijb __ h[jZs_gbb \hdjm] KhegpZ \ kZfhf gZqZe_ yg\Zjy wlh
jZkklhygb_ [u\Z_l gZbf_gvrbf




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< k\h_f ^\b`_gbb \hdjm] KhegpZ A_fey g_ h^bghdZ __ khijh\h`^Z_l
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M`_ kh \j_f_g \_ebdh]h blZevygkdh]h nbabdZ = =Zebe_y
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kimlgbd A_feb ihoh` gZ g__ b lh`_ y\ey_lky oheh^guf l_fguf rZjhf k l\_j^hc
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38 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_


< gZr_ \j_fy EmgZ ohjhrh bamq_gZ \k_fb ^hklmigufb gZmd_ b l_ogbd_
kj_^kl\Zfb M`_ h[uqgu_ nhlh]jZnbb ihdZau\Zxl h[beb_ gZ __ ih\_joghklb
]hjguo oj_[lh\ b ibdh\ h]jhfgh]h dhebq_kl\Z djmiguo b f_edbo djZl_jh\
h[rbjguo ^hebg aZlygmluo aZl\_j^_\r_c eZ\hc b gZau\Z_fuo fhjyfb b ha_jZfb
ohly gZ Emg_ \h^Z kh\_jr_ggh hlkmlkl\m_l EmgZ ebr_gZ b Zlfhkn_ju ba-aZ q_]h
q_ldh \b^gu g_ lhevdh djZy __ ^bkdZ b j_ev_n __ ih\_joghklb gh b j_adb_ l_gb
hl[jZku\Z_fu_ hk\_s_ggufb Khegp_f emggufb ]hjZfb.
K hk_gb
] gZqZehkv Zdlb\gh_ bamq_gb_ Emgu kgZqZeZ kh\_lkdbfb Z
\ke_^ aZl_f b Zf_jbdZgkdbfb Z\lhfZlbq_kdbfb klZgpbyfb b bkdmkkl\_ggufb
kimlgbdZfb Emgu AZl_f gZklZeZ hq_j_^v bkke_^h\Zgby Emgu kh\_lkdbfb
kZfhoh^gufb ZiiZjZlZfb-emghoh^Zfb
—197
mijZ\ey_fufb k A_feb b
Zf_jbdZgkdbfb wdki_^bpbyfb

>hklZ\e_gguc gZ A_fex Zf_jbdZgkdbfb dhkfhgZ\lZfb b kh\_lkdbfb Z\lhfZlbq_kdbfb klZgpbyfb emgguc ]jmgl bamq_g
\ eZ[hjZlhjbyo b \ ijbgpbi_ g_ hlebqZ_lky hl a_fguo ihjh^
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klhjhg_ g_[Z ihkl_i_ggh ih^gbfZ_lky b kf_sZ_lky \ klhjhgm x`ghc _]h h[eZklb Z
^hklb]gm\ \ g_c gZb[hevr_c \ukhlu f_^e_ggh himkdZ_lky d aZiZ^ghc klhjhg_
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fgh]b_ qblZl_eb aZf_qZeb qlh EmgZ \hkoh^bl b aZoh^bl g_ \ h^gh b lh `_ \j_fy
kmlhd Z _`_kmlhqgh aZiZa^u\Z_l gZ g_[hevrb_ ijhf_`mldb \j_f_gb bgh]^Z
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[uklj__ KhegpZ gZ ijhly`_gbb h^gh]h qZkZ hgZ kf_sZ_lky ijbf_jgh gZ \_ebqbgm
k\h_]h \b^bfh]h m]eh\h]h ^bZf_ljZ jZ\gmx
Z aZ kmldb — ijb[ebabl_evgh gZ
b ihwlhfm kjZ\gbl_evgh [ukljh i_j_oh^bl ba h^gh]h ah^bZdZevgh]h kha\_a^by \
^jm]h_ gb \ h^ghf g_ aZ^_j`b\Zykv [he__ ^\mo-lj_o kmlhd
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ah^bZdZevguo kha\_a^bc ijhbkoh^bl ih [hevrhfm djm]m — emgghfm imlb dhlhjuc
g_ kh\iZ^Z_l k wdebilbdhc Z i_j_k_dZ_lky k g_x ih^ m]ehf \
i_jbh^bq_kdb
baf_gyxsbfbky hl
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hlklhyl ^jm] hl ^jm]Z gZ
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Z aZl_f ijb[eb`Z_lky d wdebilbd_ kgh\Z __ i_j_k_dZ_l \
ijhlb\hiheh`ghf gbkoh^ys_f mae_ b hloh^bl d x]m gZ lh `_ jZkklhygb_ \
ihke_ q_]h hiylv ijb[eb`Z_lky d wdebilbd_ b i_j_k_dZ_l __ \ \hkoh^ys_f emgghf
mae_ LZd g_ij_ju\gh ih\lhjy_lky pbde ^\b`_gby Emgu ih ah^bZdZevguf
kha\_a^byf
< Zkljhghfbb khojZgbebkv fgh]b_ h[hagZq_gby agZdb \\_^_ggu_ _s_ \ ]em[hdhc
^j_\ghklb b \ qZklghklb agZdb ^ey emgguo maeh\ \hkoh^ysbc emgguc ma_e
h[hagZqZ_lky agZdhf
bah[jZ`Zxsbf ^jZdhgZ gZ[jZku\Zxs_]hky gZ Khegp_ b
\uau\Zxs_]h ih ^j_\gbf ih\_jvyf _]h aZlf_gb_ Z gbkoh^ysbc emgguc ma_e —
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K\hc imlv ih g_[m \hdjm] A_feb \ gZijZ\e_gbb k aZiZ^Z d \hklhdm EmgZ
kh\_jrZ_l aZ i_jbh^ \j_f_gb L
kmlhd lhqg__ L
kmlhd k q f k
gZau\Z_fuc a\_a^guf beb kb^_jbq_kdbf f_kyp_f LZdh_ gZa\Zgb_ wlhl i_jbh^
ihemqbe hl eZlbgkdh]h keh\Z siderials — a\_a^guc b hl ]j_q_kdh]h keh\Z f_gbkdhk
— emgguc k_ji lZd dZd ih bkl_q_gbb wlh]h ijhf_`mldZ \j_f_gb EmgZ kgh\Z
ijhoh^bl gZ g_[_ \ ahg_ l_o `_ kZfuo a\_a^ Z _s_ \ ^j_\gb_ \j_f_gZ f_kyp_f
kqblZeky ijhf_`mlhd \j_f_gb f_`^m h^bgZdh\ufb k_jih\b^gufb nZaZfb Emgu B
^h kbo ihj i_jbh^u \j_f_gb k\yaZggu_ k ^\b`_gb_f Emgu gZau\Zxlky f_kypZfb
gh lhevdh dZd fu m\b^bf ^Zevr_ wlb i_jbh^u g_kdhevdh jZaebqZxlky ih
^ebl_evghklb b ihwlhfm ihemqZxl ^hihegbl_evgu_ gZbf_gh\Zgby A^_kv `_ g_h[oh^bfh hlf_lblv qlh a\_a^guc f_kyp ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc i_jbh^ j_Zevgh]h
h[jZs_gby Emgu \hdjm] A_feb \ ijhkljZgkl\_
?keb [u EmgZ i_j_f_sZeZkv jZ\ghf_jgh ih g_[_kghfm wd\Zlhjm dhlhjuc
i_j_k_dZ_lky k ]hjbahglhf \ lhqdZo \hklhdZ b aZiZ^Z lh hgZ \k_]^Z \hkoh^beZ [u b
aZoh^beZ khhl\_lkl\_ggh \ wlbo lhqdZo Z ih^gbfZeZkv gZ^ ]hjbahglhf gZ h^gm b lm
`_ gZb[hevrmx \ukhlm Lh]^Z _`_^g_\gh_ aZiZa^u\Zgb_ \hkoh^Z b aZoh^Z Emgu
khklZ\eyeh [u
fbg l _ jh\gh klhevdh kdhevdh lj_[m_lky A_fe_ qlh[u
ih\_jgmlvky \hdjm] hkb gZ l_
gZ dhlhju_ EmgZ kf_sZ_lky d \hklhdm aZ kmldb
Gh emgguc imlv gZdehg_g d wdebilbd_ gZ m]he \
Z kZfZ wdebilbdZ gZdehg_gZ gZ
d g_[_kghfm wd\Zlhjm b ihwlhfm gZdehg_gb_ emggh]h imlb d g_[_kghfm
wd\Zlhjm \j_f_gZfb ^hklb]Z_l
l _ ihqlb
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh gZ ijhly`_gbb
iheh\bgu a\_a^gh]h f_kypZ kdehg_gb_ Emgu __ m]eh\h_ m^Ze_gb_ hl g_[_kgh]h
wd\ZlhjZ fh`_l baf_gylvky ijbf_jgh hl
^h — l _ [hevr_ q_f m KhegpZ aZ
ihe]h^Z Ijb [hevrhf iheh`bl_evghf kdehg_gbb EmgZ \hkoh^bl gZ k_\_jh-\hklhd_
__ kmlhqguc imlv gZ^ ]hjbahglhf hq_gv \ukhd b ^heh] dZd m KhegpZ \ e_lg__ \j_fy
b aZoh^bl hgZ gZ k_\_jh-aZiZ^_ Dh]^Z `_ EmgZ gZoh^blky \ x`ghf g_[_kghf
ihemrZjbb b __ hljbpZl_evgh_ kdehg_gb_ agZqbl_evgh ih \_ebqbg_ lh hgZ \hkoh^bl
gZ x]h-\hklhd_ b aZoh^bl gZ x]h-aZiZ^_ Z __ imlv gZ^ ]hjbahglhf _s_ gb`_ b dhjhq_
q_f abfgbc ^g_\ghc imlv KhegpZ D lhfm `_ EmgZ ^\b`_lky g_jZ\ghf_jgh
i_jbh^bq_kdb g_kdhevdh mkdhjyy b aZf_^eyy k\h_ ^\b`_gb_ Hlkx^Z b _`_^g_\gh_
aZiZa^u\Zgb_ __ \hkoh^Z b aZoh^Z g_h^bgZdh\h ih ijh^he`bl_evghklb b gZ
ijhly`_gbb f_kypZ fh`_l baf_gylvky hl fbg ^h q qlh \ kj_^g_f khklZ\ey_l
fbg
BlZd g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh ba gZ[ex^_gbc ke_^m_l qlh EmgZ h[jZsZ_lky \hdjm]
A_feb ih [hevrhfm djm]m — emgghfm imlb k i_jbh^hf \
kmlhd ijbq_f wlh __
^\b`_gb_ g_jZ\ghf_jgh_ Gh dZd m`_ mihfbgZehkv \ Zkljhghfbb \k_ \j_fy
ijboh^blky gZ hkgh\_ bamq_gby \b^bfuo y\e_gbc \kdju\Zlv y\e_gby bklbggu_ ^ey
q_]h ijboh^blky fgh]hdjZlgh ijh\h^blv khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ baf_j_gby b lsZl_evgh
bo ZgZebabjh\Zlv
>ey bamq_gby j_Zevgh]h ^\b`_gby Emgu \hdjm] A_feb ijh\_^_gu b ^h kbo
ihj ijh\h^ylky fgh]hqbke_ggu_ baf_j_gby g_ lhevdh \b^bfuo iheh`_gbc Emgu gZ
g_[_ gh b __ jZkklhygby hl A_feb Z ih j_amevlZlZf wlbo baf_j_gbc \uqbke_gZ
kdhjhklv __ ^\b`_gby \ ijhkljZgkl\_






































 













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44 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



\j_fy h[jZsZxlky \hdjm] KhegpZ \ ij_`g_f gZijZ\e_gbb ohly b k i_j_f_gghc
kdhjhklvx
LZdbf h[jZahf \iheg_ \hafh`gh kqblZlv qlh EmgZ ^\b`_lky g_ \hdjm]














































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]h^Z 41





I_jb]_c b Zih]_c e_`Zl gZ [hevrhc hkb emgghc hj[blu Z kj_^gbf
]_hp_gljbq_kdbf jZkklhygb_f Emgu y\ey_lky [hevrZy ihemhkv __ hj[blu






































Ba baf_j_gbc \uykgbehkv qlh kj_^g__ jZkklhygb_ Emgu hl A_feb beb
[hevrZy ihemhkv emgghc hj[blu Z
df i_jb]_cgh_ jZkklhygb_ Emgu q =
df b __ Zih]_cgh_ jZkklhygb_
df Ih wlbf ^Zgguf \uqbke_g
wdkp_gljbkbl_l emgghc hj[blu oZjZdl_jbamxsbc __ \ulygmlhklv Ihkdhevdm
i_jb]_cgh_ jZkklhygb_ k\yaZgh k [hevrhc ihemhkvx Z b wdkp_gljbkbl_lhf _
hj[blu jZ\_gkl\hf










 



















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lh wdkp_gljbkbl_l emgghc hj[blu


A_feb Z \f_kl_ k g_x b ih^h[gh _c
h[jZsZ_lky \hdjm] KhegpZ ih k\h_c ]_ebhp_gljbq_kdhc hj[bl_ g_kdhevdh
hlebqZxs_cky hl a_fghc hj[blu b ihwlhfm ke_^m_l jZkkfZljb\Zlv Emgm g_ lhevdh
dZd kimlgbd A_feb khijh\h`^Zxsbc __ \ klj_fbl_evghf ihe_l_ \hdjm] KhegpZ gh b
dZd iheghijZ\guc qe_g ^\hcghc ieZg_lu A_fey — EmgZ Fu \ijZ\_ kqblZlv
A_fex b Emgm ^\hcghc ieZg_lhc b[h fZkkZ Emgu ebrv \ jZa f_gvr_ a_fghc
fZkku \ lh \j_fy dZd ih^h[gh_ jZaebqb_ fZkk ^jm]bo ieZg_l b fZkk bo kimlgbdh\
khklZ\ey_l hl lukyqb ^h khl_g fbeebZj^h\ jZa
Ij_^klZ\bf k_[_ qlh fu mfqZebkv ^Ze_dh hl A_feb \ klhjhgm KhegpZ b
hllm^Z gZ[ex^Z_f gZrm ieZg_lm k __ kimlgbdhf Lh]^Z gZ nhg_ l_fgh]h a\_a^gh]h
g_[Z fu m\b^bf ^\Z hq_gv [ebadh jZkiheh`_gguo ^jm] d ^jm]m ^\b`msboky
a\_a^hh[jZaguo k\_lbeZ h^gh ba dhlhjuo ]hem[h\Zlh_ b lZdh_ `_ yjdh_ dZd ieZg_lZ
<_g_jZ \ g_[_ A_feb Z ^jm]h_ — `_elh_ b ihqlb \ jZa [he__ keZ[h_ l _ koh^gh_
ih p\_lm b [e_kdm k Ijhpbhghf ]eZkghc a\_a^hc kha\_a^by FZeh]h IkZ Yjdh_
]hem[h\Zlh_ k\_lbeh — wlh A_fey Z [he__ keZ[h_ b `_elh_ — __ kimlgbd EmgZ
Gh gZf g_ m^Z_lky h[gZjm`blv h[jZs_gb_ Emgu \hdjm] A_feb \ [md\Zevghf
kfuke_ wlh]h keh\Z Fu m\b^bf dZd h[Z k\_lbeZ ^\b`mlky ih g_[m \k_]^Z \ h^ghf
gZijZ\e_gbb gh i_jbh^bq_kdb EmgZ mkdhjyy k\h_ ^\b`_gb_ aZoh^bl gZ A_fex
hi_j_`Z_l __ b moh^bl g_fgh]h \i_j_^ aZl_f aZf_^ey_l ^\b`_gb_ b i_j_f_sZykv \
lhf `_ gZijZ\e_gbb i_j_^ A_fe_c ihkl_i_ggh hlklZ_l hl g__ Z \ke_^ aZ l_f keh\Z
^h]hgy_l b aZoh^bl aZ g__ Ke_^h\Zl_evgh fu \ijZ\_ ml\_j`^Zlv qlh EmgZ ih^h[gh
A_fe_ h[jZsZ_lky \hdjm] KhegpZ l _ ^\b`_lky ih ]_ebhp_gljbq_kdhc hj[bl_
dhlhjmx \hafmsZ_l m`_ g_ Khegp_ Z A_fey
=_ebhp_gljbq_kdZy hj[blZ Emgu \k_]^Z gZijZ\e_gZ \h]gmlhklvx d Khegpm
[ebadZ ih jZkiheh`_gbx b nhjf_ d a_fghc hj[bl_ gh \k_ `_ hlebqZ_lky hl
weebilbq_kdhc ba-aZ \hafmsZxs_]h ^_ckl\by A_fey H[jZagh ]h\hjy A_fey k\hbf
ly]hl_gb_f lh jZa]hgy_l Emgm aZklZ\eyy __ h[]hgylv k_[y aZ k\h_c hj[blhc lh
gZh[hjhl lhjfhabl __ ^\b`_gb_ b EmgZ g_kdhevdh mf_gvrZy kdhjhklv kgh\Z
hlklZ_l hl A_feb ijhoh^y m`_ \gmljb










































































































  




















































































































































































 

































































































 











 



















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beb ijb[eb`_ggh _
l _ emggZy hj[blZ agZqbl_evgh [he__ \ulygmlZ g_`_eb
a_fgZy hj[blZ wdkp_gljbkbl_l dhlhjhc _
EmgZ h[jZsZ_lky \hdjm] A_feb ih^ ^_ckl\b_f bo \aZbfgh]h ly]hl_gby
FZkkZ Emgu agZqbl_evgh f_gvr_ fZkku A_feb < ijbjh^_ ^_ckl\m_l g_baf_gguc
aZdhg kh]eZkgh dhlhjhfm l_eZ f_gvr_c fZkku h[jZsZxlky \hdjm] [he__ fZkkb\guo
l_e FZkkm Emgu \ kjZ\g_gbb k fZkkhc A_feb e_]dh hij_^_eblv _keb \hkihevah\Zlvky
aZdhghf ba\_klguf \ Zkljhghfbb ih^ gZa\Zgb_f lj_lv_]h h[h[s_ggh]h aZdhgZ
D_ie_jZ Wlhl aZdhg [ue gZc^_g \_ebdbf Zg]ebckdbf mq_guf BkZZdhf Gvxlhghf


 



  









































 









 





















































































(1643—1727).

Ij_^klZ\bf k_[_ qlh dZdh_-lh g_[_kgh_ l_eh fZkkZ dhlhjh]h 1 h[jZsZ_lky
k i_jbh^hf 1 ih weebilbq_kdhc hj[bl_ k [hevrhc ihemhkvx 1 \hdjm] [he__
fZkkb\gh]h g_[_kgh]h l_eZ bf_xs_]h fZkkm F1 k fZkkhc F2 ^\b`_lky kimlgbd k fZkkhc m2 ih weebilbq_kdhc hj[bl_ k [hevrhc
ihemhkvx a2 b i_jbh^hf h[jZs_gby 2 Lh]^Z kh]eZkgh lj_lv_fm h[h[s_gghfm
aZdhgm D_ie_jZ
T22 F2+ m2) / T12 F1+m1) = a23 / a13
Ijbf_gbf wlhl aZdhg d hij_^_e_gbx fZkku Emgu F2 \ kjZ\g_gbb k fZkkhc
A_feb F1 ^ey q_]h \hkihevam_fky k\_^_gbyfb h ihe_lZo bkdmkkl\_gguo kimlgbdh\
\hdjm] h[hbo wlbo l_e LZd bkdmkkl\_gguc kimlgbd A_feb Fhegby- aZims_gguc
hdly[jy
] h[jZsZeky \hdjm] g__ k i_jbh^hf 1 q f
f ih
weebilbq_kdhc hj[bl_ k [hevrhc ihemhkvx Z1
df bkdmkkl\_gguc kimlgbd
EmgZ\u\_^_gguc hdly[jy
] gZ hdhehemggmx hj[blm k f[hevrhc
.
ihemhkvx Z2
df h[jZsZeky \hdjm] Emgu k i_jbh^hf L2 q f
Ih^klZ\eyy wlb ^Zggu_ \ nhjfmem lj_lv_]h aZdhgZ D_ie_jZ b ihfgy qlh
fZkku bkdmkkl\_gguo kimlgbdh\ gbqlh`gh fZeu \ kjZ\g_gbb k fZkkZfb A_feb b
Emgu l _ fh`gh kqblZlv qlh m1= m2 ihemqbf
F2/ F1(a2/a1)3 * (T1/ T2)2 = (2660/26600)3 * (719/205)2 = 1/81,3
l _ fZkkZ Emgu f_gvr_ fZkku A_feb ijbf_jgh \ jZa




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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

42 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



=_hf_ljbq_kdb_ jZaf_ju Emgu lh`_ f_gvr_ jZaf_jh\ A_feb. m]eh\hc ^bZf_lj Emgu ^bZf_lj emggh]h ^bkdZ [ebahd d
Z [he__ lhqgu_
baf_j_gby ihdZau\Zxl qlh ijb kj_^g_f ]_hp_gljbq_kdhf jZkklhygbb Emgu Z
df ^bZf_lj __ ^bkdZ d
Lh]^Z ih ijZ\beZf ljb]hghf_ljbb e_]dh gZclb
qlh ebg_cguc ^bZf_lj Emgu
D = a sin d = 384 400 df * sin 31',1 = 384 400 df * 0,009043 = 3476 df.
LZd dZd wd\ZlhjbZevguc ^bZf_lj A_feb jZ\_g
df lh ijb[eb`_ggh
fh`gh kqblZlv qlh ebg_cguc ^bZf_lj Emgu f_gvr_ a_fgh]h \ q_luj_ jZaZ lhqg__ \
jZaZ Z __ h[t_f f_gvr_ h[t_fZ A_feb ijbf_jgh \ jZa
EmggZy hj[blZ k [hevrhc ihemhkvx Z
df b wdkp_gljbkbl_lhf _
gZau\Z_lky g_\hafms_gghc hj[blhc HgZ [ueZ [u g_baf_gghc _keb [u gZ
Emgm ^_ckl\h\ZeZ k\hbf ijbly`_gb_f lhevdh rZjhh[jZagZy A_fey Gh gZ Emgm
\ha^_ckl\mxl b ^jm]b_ g_[_kgu_ l_eZ b hkh[_ggh kbevgh — fZkkb\gh_ Khegp_ Hghlh ]eZ\guf h[jZahf b aZklZ\ey_l Emgm i_jbh^bq_kdb g_kdhevdh hldehgylvky hl lhc
weebilbq_kdhc hj[blu ih dhlhjhc hgZ ^he`gZ ^\b]Zlvky ih^ ^_ckl\b_f lhevdh
a_fgh]h ly]hl_gby Wlb hldehg_gby gZau\Zxlky \hafms_gbyfb Z kZfZ
baf_gyxsZyky hj[blZ — \hafms_gghc hj[blhc
Hlf_lbf gZb[he__ agZqbl_evgu_ \hafms_gby \ ^\b`_gbb Emgu DZd m`_
mihfbgZehkv \ g_\hafms_gghc emgghc hj[bl_ i_jb]_cgh_ jZkklhygb_
df Z Zih]_cgh_ jZkklhygb_
df < ^_ckl\bl_evghklb `_ h[Z wlb
jZkklhygby g_ khojZgyxl g_baf_gguo agZq_gbc \ i_jb]__ EmgZ fh`_l ijb[eb`Zlvky
d A_fe_ gZ jZkklhygb_ hl
df ^h
df Z \ Zih]__ m^Zeylvky hl A_feb \
ij_^_eZo hl
df ^h
df < k\yab k wlbf dh]^Z EmgZ ijhoh^bl k\hc
i_jb]_c __ \b^bfuc ^bZf_lj fh`_l [ulv hl
^h
Z ijb ijhoh`^_gbb _x
Zih]_y baf_gylvky hl
^h
Wdkp_gljbkbl_l emgghc hj[blu lh`_ g_kdhevdh
baf_gy_lky \ h[_ klhjhgu hl _]h kj_^g_]h agZq_gby _
dZd \ijhq_f b
[hevrZy ihemhkv hj[blu ^ebgZ dhlhjhc i_jbh^bq_kdb lh m\_ebqb\Z_lky lh
mf_gvrZ_lky ijb[ebabl_evgh gZ
df Ba-aZ wlh]h ^ebl_evghklv kb^_jbq_kdh]h
f_kypZ g_ hklZ_lky kljh]h ihklhygghc Z i_jbh^bq_kdb g_kdhevdh baf_gy_lky.
EmggZy hj[blZ g_ aZgbfZ_l \ k\h_c iehkdhklb g_baf_ggh]h iheh`_gby Z
[ukljh ih\hjZqb\Z_lky \ g_c k aZiZ^Z d \hklhdm \ gZijZ\e_gbb ^\b`_gby Emgu
ihqlb gZ
lhqg__ gZ
aZ ]h^ beb gZ
r_klv \b^bfuo emgguo
ihi_j_qgbdh\ aZ h^bg h[hjhl Emgu Wlh \hafms_gb_ ba\_klgh ih^ gZa\Zgb_f
ih\hjhlZ [hevrhc hkb emgghc hj[blu beb ^\b`_gby i_jb]_y \ ijyfhf gZijZ\e_gbb
Iheguc ih\hjhl gZ
\ k\h_c iehkdhklb emggZy hj[blZ aZ\_jrZ_l aZ i_jbh^
\j_f_gb Li
]h^Z beb aZ
kmlhd < k\hx hq_j_^v iehkdhklv
emgghc hj[blu i_j_k_dZykv k iehkdhklvx a_fghc hj[blu beb qlh h^gh b lh `_ k
iehkdhklvx wdebilbdb i_jbh^bq_kdb ke_]dZ ihdZqb\Z_lky \ ij_^_eZo hl
^h
b \k_ \j_fy kjZ\gbl_evgh [ukljh ih\hjZqb\Z_lky \ ijhkljZgkl\_ \ gZijZ\e_gbb
k \hklhdZ d aZiZ^m Ihwlhfm ebgby maeh\ emgghc hj[blu lh`_ ih\hjZqb\Z_lky \
iehkdhklb wdebilbdb Z emggu_ maeu i_j_f_sZxlky ih wdebilbd_ \ lhf `_
gZijZ\e_gbb l _ gZ\klj_qm ^\b`_gbx Emgu LZdh_ i_j_f_s_gb_ emgguo maeh\ ih
wdebilbd_ \ gZijZ\e_gbb k \hklhdZ d aZiZ^m gZau\Z_lky hlklmie_gb_f emgguo maeh\
GZ[ex^_gby ihdZau\Zxl qlh aZ ]h^ emggu_ maeu hlklmiZxl d aZiZ^m gZ
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kb^_jbq_kdbc f_kyp ijbf_jgh gZ
lhqg__ gZ
l _ ihqlb gZ ljb \b^bfuo
m]eh\uo ^bZf_ljZ Emgu Ba-aZ wlh]h emgguc imlv gZ g_[_ g_ij_ju\gh kf_sZ_lky k
\hklhdZ d aZiZ^m gZ l_ `_
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46 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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52 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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d x]m b kh\hdmighklv f_kl ih dhlhjuf ihke_^h\Zl_evgh ijh[_]Z_l emggZy l_gv
h[jZam_l gZ A_fe_ k\h_h[jZagmx ihehkm gZau\Z_fmx ihehkhc iheghc nZau
ihk_j_^bg_ dhlhjhc ijhoh^bl p_gljZevgZy ebgby aZlf_gby kf dZjlm aZlf_gby K
p_gljZevghc ebgbb aZlf_gby \b^gh kbff_ljbqgh_ ihdjulb_ kheg_qgh]h ^bkdZ
emgguf lZd qlh \ k_j_^bg_ aZlf_gby p_glju h[hbo ^bkdh\ kh\iZ^Zxl bo \aZbfgh_
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aZ\bkbl g_ lhevdh hl ^bZf_ljZ emg ghc l_gb iZ^Zxs_c gZ a_fgmx ih\_joghklv gh b
hl \ukhlu KhegpZ gZ^ ]hjbahglhf dhlhjZy jZaebqgZ \ jZaguo f_klZo ihehku
<_ebqbgZ ^bZf_ljZ emgghc l_gb m a_fghc ih\_joghklb h[mkeh\e_gZ \aZbfgufb
jZkklhygbyfb A_feb Emgu b KhegpZ \h \j_fy aZlf_gby
Ba-aZ i_jbh^bq_kdh]h baf_g_gby wlbo jZkklhygbc dhgmk emgghc l_gb fh`_l
bf_lv ^ebgm hl
^h
df g ihwlhfm ^Z`_ ijb gZbf_gvr_f
]_hp_gljbq_kdhf jZkklhygbb Emgu \
df EmgZ \ i_jb]__ b gZb[hevr_f
^bZf_lj_ __ ^bkdZ
^bZf_lj emgghc l_gb m a_fghc ih\_joghklb g_ ij_\urZ_l
df Ijb wlbo `_ mkeh\byo ^bZf_lj emgghc iheml_gb [ebahd d
df b
ke_^h\Zl_evgh qZklgh_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ \b^gh d x]m b d k_\_jm hl ihehku iheghc
nZau ^h jZkklhygby hdheh
df
df — df
df
Gh m`_ ijb kj_^gbo jZkklhygbyo Emgu hl A_feb
df b A_feb hl
KhegpZ emgguc ^bkd ^bZf_lj
f_gvr_ kheg_qgh]h
Z dhgmk emgghc l_gb
bf__l ^ebgm hdheh
df b g_ ^hoh^bl ^h a_fghc ih\_joghklb ijbf_jgh gZ
df Ihwlhfm EmgZ g_ aZdju\Z_l KhegpZ iheghklvx b \f_klh ihegh]h ijhbkoh^bl
dhevp_h[jZagh_ aZlf_gb_ ijb dhlhjhf \hdjm] l_fgh]h emggh]h ^bkdZ \b^gh madh_



aZ dhlhjuc A_fey i_j_f_klblky \ iheh`_gb_ Z EmgZ — \ iheh`_gb_ E3 b hiylv
[m^_l \b^gZ \ iheghc nZa_ gh m`_ g_ \ kha\_a^bb Ev\Z Z \ kf_`ghf k gbf kha\_a^bb
>_\u LZdbf h[jZahf ijhf_`mlhd \j_f_gb f_`^m khk_^gbfb iheghemgbyfb beb
kbgh^bq_kdbc f_kyp jZ\_g
S L ût
^
^
^
Z lhqg__ S
^ q f k LZdh\Z kj_^gyy ijh^he`bl_evghklv
kbgh^bq_kdh]h f_kypZ bklbggZy ^ebl_evghklv dhlhjh]h ba-aZ g_jZ\ghf_jgh]h
^\b`_gby Emgu b A_feb dhe_[e_lky hl
^ ^h
^
:gZeh]bqguf h[jZahf ih\lhjyxlky \k_ nZau Emgu \ lhf qbke_ b
gh\hemgby b ke_^h\Zl_evgh h^bgZdh\u_ nZau gZklmiZxl \ jZaebqguo lhqdZo emgghc
hj[blu b ihhq_j_^gh \h \k_o ah^bZdZevguo kha\_a^byo Wlbf b h[tykgy_lky ihq_fm
gZ ijhly`_gbb ]h^Z mkeh\by \b^bfhklb Emgu \ h^ghc b lhc `_ nZa_ j_adh jZaebqgu
Abfhc dh]^Z Khegp_ ijhoh^bl ih x`guf ah^bZdZevguf kha\_a^byf b _]h kmlhqguc
imlv gZ^ ]hjbahglhf gbahd b dhjhlhd ihegZy EmgZ i_j_f_sZ_lky ih k_\_jguf
ah^bZdZevguf kha\_a^byf \ukhdh ih^gbfZ_lky b ih^he]m gZoh^blky gZ^ ]hjbahglhf.
E_lhf dZjlbgZ ijhlb\hiheh`gZy ihegZy EmgZ ih\lhjy_l abfgbc kmlhqguc imlv
KhegpZ b \ k_\_jguo kljZgZo bgh]^Z ^Z`_ [u\Z_l g_ \b^gZ kdju\Zykv aZ g_jh\guf
j_ev_nhf f_klghklb
K A_feb \b^gh lhevdh h^gh ihemrZjb_ Emgu \k_]^Z h[jZs_ggh_ d gZr_c
ieZg_l_ Kha^Z_lky \i_qZle_gb_ [m^lh EmgZ \ hlebqb_ hl A_feb g_ \jZsZ_lky
\hdjm] k\h_c hkb Gh wlh \i_qZle_gb_ hrb[hqgh _keb [u EmgZ g_ \jZsZeZkv lh k
A_feb ihhq_j_^gh [ueb [u \b^gu h[Z __ ihemrZjby \ q_f e_]dh m[_^blvky h[\h^y
\hdjm] k_[y g_\jZsZxsbcky rZjh\b^guc ij_^f_l ?keb `_ f_^e_ggh ih\hjZqb\Zlv
wlhl ij_^f_l \hdjm] _]h hkb \ gZijZ\e_gbb h[\h^Z b k l_f `_ i_jbh^hf lh [m^_l
\b^gh lhevdh h^gh _]h ihemrZjb_
Wlb h[tykg_gby fh]ml [ulv e_]dh ijhbeexkljbjh\Zgu GZ jbkmgd_ gb`_
bah[jZ`_gu q_luj_ iheh`_gby Emgu hlghkbl_evgh A_feb \ ij_^iheh`_gbb qlh
\jZs_gb_ Emgu \hdjm] hkb hlkmlkl\m_l < wlhf kemqZ_ emggu_ ihemrZjby
h[hagZq_ggu_ [md\Zfb : b < \k_]^Z h[jZs_gu \ ijhkljZgkl\_ \ g_baf_gguo
gZijZ\e_gbyo b ke_^h\Zl_evgh ihhq_j_^gh h[hajbfu k A_feb Ijb \jZs_gbb `_
Emgu \hdjm] hkb k l_f `_ i_jbh^hf aZ dhlhjuc EmgZ h[oh^bl A_fex h^gh emggh_


Z ijh^he`bl_evghklv iheghc nZau aZ\bkbl hl khhlghr_gby jZ^bmkh\ ^bkdh\ Ijb remg
= rkhe ^Z`_ gZb[hevrZy nZaZ N
b ^eblky h^gh f]gh\_gb_ Ijb kZfuo `_ [eZ]hijbylguo mkeh\byo dh]^Z remg
EmgZ \ i_jb]__ b khe
A_fey \ Zn_ebb
qlh \hafh`gh lhevdh \ kZfhf dhgp_ bxgy b \ gZqZe_ bxey remg / rkhe
gZb[hevrZy nZaZ ihegh]h aZlf_gby Nm
Z kZfh ihegh_ aZlf_gb_ ^eblky g_ [he__
fbg
GZ ]jZgbpZo ihehku iheghc nZau ohjhrh aZf_lgh iZjZeeZdlbq_kdh_
kf_s_gb_ Emgu b ihwlhfm ihdjulb_ _x KhegpZ ijhbkoh^bl Zkbff_ljbqgh k
\gmlj_ggbf dZkZgb_f bo ^bkdh\ ijb dhlhjhf 1 = remg - rkhe ihegh_ aZlf_gb_ ^eblky
h^gh f]gh\_gb_ Z _]h gZb[hevrZy nZaZ



















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50 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



qlh f_^e_ggh \jZsZ_lky \hdjm] hkb \ gZijZ\e_gbb k\h_]h ^\b`_gby \hdjm] A_feb k
aZiZ^Z d \hklhdm k i_jbh^hf jZ\guf a\_a^ghfm beb kb^_jbq_kdhfm f_kypm
>jm]bfb keh\Zfb i_jbh^u \jZs_gby Emgu b __ h[jZs_gby \hdjm] A_feb kljh]h
h^bgZdh\u LZdh_ \jZs_gb_ gZau\Z_lky kbgojhgguf Ba-aZ kh\iZ^_gby i_jbh^h\
\jZs_gby b h[jZs_gby Emgu ijh^he`bl_evghklv __ kheg_qguo kmlhd jZ\gZ kbgh^bq_kdhfm f_kypm lZd qlh gZ Emg_
a_fguo kmlhd ^eblky ^_gv b klhevdh `_ ghqv
G_\b^bfh_ beb h[jZlgh_ emggh_ ihemrZjb_ k_cqZk ohjhrh bamq_gh ih
nhlh]jZnbyf ihemq_gguf kh\_lkdbfb b Zf_jbdZgkdbfb emggufb klZgpbyfb














































 











































 











































































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\_ebqbgZ b \k_]^Z \ujZ`Z_lky ^_kylbqghc ^jh[vx >ey ex[h]h fhf_glZ aZlf_gby _]h
nZaZ fh`_l [ulv \uqbke_gZ ih jZ^bmkZf emggh]h remg b kheg_qgh]h khe ^bkdh\ b
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< k\h_f ^\b`_gbb \f_kl_ k A_fe_c \hdjm] KhegpZ EmgZ qZklh aZkehgy_l
ihdju\Z_l a\_a^u ah^bZdZevguo kha\_a^bc ih dhlhjuf ijhoh^bl emgguc imlv
AgZqbl_evgh j_`_ ijhbkoh^yl ihdjulby Emghc ieZg_l hdZaZ\rboky gZ g_[_ \
g_ihkj_^kl\_gghc [ebahklb d emgghfm imlb I_jbh^bq_kdb EmgZ qZklbqgh beb
iheghklvx aZkehgy_l Khegp_ — ijhbkoh^yl kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby
Kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby \hafh`gu lhevdh ijb gh\hemgbyo dh]^Z EmgZ ijhoh^bl
f_`^m Khegp_f b A_fe_c gh ^Ze_dh g_ ijb \k_o ihkdhevdm EmgZ fh`_l hloh^blv hl
wdebilbdb gZ dhlhjhc gZoh^blky Khegp_ gZ
Z ^bZf_lju kheg_qgh]h b emggh]h
^bkdh\ [ebadb d
b ke_^h\Zl_evgh ihdjulby KhegpZ Emghc g_ \k_]^Z
hkms_kl\bfu Mkeh\by gZklmie_gby kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc fu jZkkfhljbf g_kdhevdh
iha`_ y k_cqZk ihdZ`_f qlh kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby \b^gu hlgx^v g_ ba \k_o
f_klghkl_c ^g_\gh]h ihemrZjby A_feb lZd dZd ba-aZ k\hbo g_[hevrbo jZaf_jh\
EmgZ g_ fh`_l kdjulv KhegpZ hl \k_]h a_fgh]h ihemrZjby Khegp_ ^Zevr_ hl
A_feb q_f EmgZ ijbf_jgh \ jZa gh _]h ebg_cguc ^bZf_lj
df ihqlb
\ jZa ij_\urZ_l ^bZf_lj Emgu
df b ihwlhfm hk\_sZ_fZy Khegp_f EmgZ
hl[jZku\Z_l \ ijhkljZgkl\h koh^ysbcky dhgmk l_gb b hdjm`Zxsbc _]h






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iheml_gb \b^gZ aZdjulhc k_\_jgZy \_jogyy qZklv kheg_qgh]h ^bkdZ Z ba k_\_jghc
ahgu < — x`gZy gb`gyy _]h qZklv LZdbf h[jZahf ba jZaguo f_kl a_fghc
ih\_joghklb EmgZ \b^gZ \ g_kdhevdh jZaebqZxsboky gZijZ\e_gbyo b lZdh_
dZ`ms__ky kf_s_gb_ gZau\Z_lky iZjZeeZdlbq_kdbf hl ]j_q_kdh]h iZjZeeZdkbk —
mdehg_gb_ ?]h e_]dh ijh^_fhgkljbjh\Zlv iZ hiul_ ^ey q_]h ^hklZlhqgh ihkfhlj_lv gZ hq_gv [ebadbc ij_^f_l ohly [u gZ k\hc kh[kl\_gguc iZe_p ihhq_j_^gh
lh ijZ\uf lh e_\uf ]eZahf M Emgu iZjZeeZdlbq_kdh_ kf_s_gb_ fh`_l ^hklb]Zlv
1°.
Kl_i_gv ihdjulby KhegpZ Emghc gZau\Z_lky nZahc kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby b
baf_jy_lky hlghr_gb_f aZdjulhc qZklb d ^bZf_ljZ kheg_qgh]h ^bkdZ dh \k_fm _]h
^bZf_ljm khe l _ nZaZ kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby b _klv


KHEG?QGU? A:LF?GBY B MKEH














jZkklhygbx 1 f_`^m bo p_gljZfb Ihkdhevdm dkhe = 2rkhe, d =
lh remg + rkhe — 1 Z nZaZ kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby




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< ahg_ emgghc iheml_gb ]^_ ijhbkoh^bl qZklgh_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ remg <
rkhe — 1  b ihwlhfm remg + rkhe — 1  rkhe  l_ \k_]^Z nZaZ aZlf_gby N   b

mf_gvrZ_lky \ gZijZ\e_gbb d \g_rg_c ]jZgbpu ahgu aZlf_gby gZ dhlhjhc \b^gh
\g_rg__ dZkZgb_ ^bkdh\ b ke_^h\Zl_evgh 1 = remg + rkhe Z nZaZ N
aZ wlhc
]jZgbp_c aZlf_gb_ \hh[s_ g_ ijhbkoh^bl Ke_^h\Zl_evgh kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby
ijbgZ^e_`Zl d qbklh hilbq_kdbf y\e_gbyf
EmggZy l_gv b iheml_gv gZ a_fghc ih\_joghklb bf_xl \b^ h\Zevguo iyl_g
nhjfZ dhlhjuo aZ\bkbl hl iheh`_gby KhegpZ b Emgu gZ^ ]hjbahglhf q_f f_gvr_
bo \ukhlZ l_f [he__ iheh]h d a_fghc ih\_joghklb gZijZ\e_gZ hkv h[hbo dhgmkh\ b
l_f [he__ \ulygmlu iylgZ l_gb b iheml_gb ?keb `_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ ijhbkoh^bl








jZkoh^ysbcky dhgmk iheml_gb Dh]^Z wlb dhgmku i_j_k_dZxlky k a_fghc ih\_joghklvx lh emggZy l_gv b iheml_gv iZ^Zxl gZ g__ b gZ g_c ijhbkoh^bl kheg_qgh_
aZlf_gb_ Ba f_kl a_fghc ih\_joghklb hdZaZ\rboky \ emgghc l_gb \b^gh ihegh_
kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ Khegp_ iheghklvx aZdjulh Emghc Z \ f_klghklyo ihdjuluo
emgghc iheml_gvx ijhbkoh^bl qZklgh_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ kheg_qguc ^bkd
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56 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_


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h^gh]h ^h lj_o k iheh\bghc qZkh\ b aZ wlhl ijhf_`mlhd \j_f_gb emggZy l_gv
ijh[_]Z_l ih A_fe_ imlv hl
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df Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ gZqbgZ_lky \
aZiZ^guo jZchgZo a_fghc ih\_joghklb ijb \hkoh^_ KhegpZ b aZdZgqb\Z_lky gZ
\hklhd_ ijb _]h aZoh^_ H[sZy ijh^he`bl_evghklv \k_o nZa kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby gZ
A_fe_ fh`_l ^hklb]Zlv r_klb qZkh\
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iZjZeeZdlbq_kdh_ kf_s_gb_ Emgu fh`_l ^hklb]Zlv j
b ihwlhfm ba jy^Z f_kl
a_fghc ih\_joghklb dZkZgb_ ^bkdh\ [m^_l \b^gh ^Z`_ ijb bklbgghf jZkklhygbb
Kn_jbq_kdZy ljb]hghf_ljby ^Z_l nhjfmem iha\heyxsmx \uqbkeblv
m]eh\h_ jZkklhygb_ l KhegpZ hl emggh]h maeZ
sin 1 = tg  * ctg i = tg 1°,5 * ctg 5°,2 = 0,0262* 11,095 = 0,2906,
hldm^Z l = 16°,9 ~ 17°.
LZdb_ `_ ih^kq_lu ^ey gZb[hevrbo b gZbf_gvrbo ^bZf_ljh\ ^bkdh\ h[hbo k\_lbe
^Zxl khhl\_lkl\_ggh
b
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fh]ml ijhbahclb ijb gh\hemgbyo gZklmiZxsbo g_ ^Ze__ hl emgguo maeh\ Z ijb
jZkklhygbyo f_g__ hgb ijhbkoh^yl h[yaZl_evgh
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f_`^m p_gljZfb ^bkdh\ k\_lbe hij_^_ey_lky lhevdh iZjZeeZdkhf Emgu j
lZd
dZd 1
b ihwlhfm ijb gZbf_gvrbo ^bZf_ljZo ^bkdh\ l
Z ijb gZb[hevrbo —
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IhehkZ gZ a_fghc ih\_joghklb ba dhlhjhc \b^gh dhevp_h[jZagh_ aZlf_gb_
gZau\Z_lky ihehkhc dhevp_h[jZaghc nZau ih h[_ klhjhgu dhlhjhc ijhbkoh^bl
qZklgh_ aZlf_gb_ Lml `_ hlf_lbf qlh ihehkZ dhevp_h[jZaghc nZau b ihehkZ iheghc
nZau qZklh bf_gmxlky ihehkhc ]eZ\ghc nZau Z h[Z wlb \b^Z aZlf_gby —
p_gljZevgufb
Ijb gZb[hevr_f m^Ze_gbb Emgu hl A_feb ^h
df EmgZ \ Zih]__
\_jrbgZ dhgmkZ emgghc l_gb g_ ^hoh^bl ^h a_fghc ih\_joghklb gZ
df
rbjbgZ ihehku dhevp_h[jZaghc nZau \hajZklZ_l ^h
df Z ^bZf_lj emgghc
iheml_gb m\_ebqb\Z_lky ^h
df qlh \k_ `_ ^Ze_dh g_^hklZlhqgh ^ey ihdjulby
\k_]h ihemrZjby A_feb
LZdbf h[jZahf ihegu_ kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby fh]ml ijhbkoh^blv ebrv ijb
]_hp_gljbq_kdbo jZkklhygbyo Emgu f_gvr_ kj_^g_]h jZkklhygby dh]^Z emgguc ^bkd
jZ\_g beb [hevr_ kheg_qgh]h Z dhgmk emgghc l_gb gZijZ\e_g d A_fe_ ijbq_f
rbjbgZ ihehku iheghc nZau ijb jZaguo aZlf_gbyo jZaebqgZ Z qZs_ \k_]h [u\Z_l hl
^h df
Dh]^Z gZ A_fex \f_kl_ k emgghc l_gvx \klmiZ_l \ky emggZy iheml_gv lh ih a_fghc
ih\_joghklb ijhoh^yl h[_ ]jZgbpu kheg_qgh]h
aZlf_gby k_\_jgZy b x`gZy hij_^_ey_fu_
ihi_j_qgbdhf iheml_gb Dh]^Z `_ emggZy l_gv iZ^Z_l
gZ A_fex Z iheml_gv qZklbqgh hdZau\Z_lky \g_ A_feb
lh aZlf_gb_ bf__l lhevdh h^gm ]jZgbpm eb[h k_\_jgmx
ihegh_ aZlf_gb_ \ x`ghf ihemrZjbb A_feb eb[h
x`gmx ihegh_ aZlf_gb_ \ k_\_jghf ihemrZjbb
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60 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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ijhoh^bl dZ`^mx ba wlbo ahg _`_f_kyqgh lZd dZd ^jZdhgbq_kdbc f_kyp kh^_j`bl
kmlhd Khegpm `_ ijb _]h _`_kmlhqghf kf_s_gbb ih wdebilbd_ d \hklhdm
ijbf_jgh gZ gZ i_j_f_s_gb_ ih ^m]_ \
f_`^m emggufb maeZfb lj_[m_lky
hdheh ihem]h^Z Gh ba-aZ hlklmie_gby emgguo maeh\ gZ
aZ ]h^
^ Khegp_
\ha\jZsZ_lky d h^ghfm b lhfm `_ maem q_j_a ijhf_`mlhd \j_f_gb L^j
^–
^
kmlhd Z lhqg__ — q_j_a ijhf_`mlhd L^j
kmlhd gZau\Z_fuc
^jZdhgbq_kdbf ]h^hf Ihdbgm\ h^bg emgguc ma_e Khegp_ \klmiZ_l \
ijhlb\hiheh`guc ma_e q_j_a iheh\bgm ^jZdhgbq_kdh]h ]h^Z l _ q_j_a kmlhd Z
r_klv kbgh^bq_kdbo f_kyp_\ khklZ\eyxl
^
kmlhd b EmgZ \ nZa_
gh\hemgby lh`_ h[yaZl_evgh hdZ`_lky \ ahg_ aZlf_gbc Ihwlhfm kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby
ijhbkoh^yl q_j_a dZ`^u_ — kmlhd AZ ihe]h^Z hdheh
kmlhd wihob
aZlf_gbc kf_sZxlky gZ iylv kmlhd \i_j_^ gZ [he__ jZggb_ dZe_g^Zjgu_ ^Zlu b
ihkl_i_ggh i_j_oh^yl gZ jZagu_ k_ahgu ]h^Z k e_lZ b abfu gZ \_kgm b hk_gv kgh\Z
gZ abfm b e_lh b l ^
LZd dZd \ dZ`^hc ahg_ aZlf_gbc h[yaZl_evgh ijhbkoh^bl ih h^ghfm
kheg_qghfm aZlf_gbx ex[h]h \b^Z lh fbgbfZevgh_ qbkeh kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc \
]h^m jZ\gh ^\mf Gh \ dZ`^hc ahg_ fh`_l ijhbahclb ih ^\Z qZklguo kheg_qguo
aZlf_gby k g_[hevrbfb nZaZfb b lh]^Z gZ ijhly`_gbb h^gh]h dZe_g^Zjgh]h ]h^Z
[m^_l q_luj_ aZlf_gby ?keb `_ i_j\Zy iZjZ qZklguo kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc \ h^ghc
ahg_ ijhbahc^_l \ gZqZe_ yg\Zjy b n_\jZey lh ke_^mxsZy iZjZ qZklguo aZlf_gbc \
^jm]hc ahg_ fh`_l gZklmiblv \ kZfhf gZqZe_ bxey b Z\]mklZ Z ba hq_j_^ghc


G:MQGU? A:>:QB G:;EX>?GBC KHEG?QGUO A:LF?GBC















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58 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_


\_jhylghc iZju qZklguo aZlf_gbc \hafh`gh lhevdh h^gh \ kZfhf dhgp_ ^_dZ[jy Z
\lhjh_ ijb^_lky m`_ gZ yg\Zjv ke_^mxs_]h dZe_g^Zjgh]h ]h^Z LZdbf h[jZahf
gZb[hevr__ qbkeh kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc \ h^ghf dZe_g^Zjghf ]h^m g_ ij_\urZ_l
iylb b \k_ hgb h[yaZl_evgh qZklgu_ k g_[hevrbfb nZaZfb
H^gZdh lZdb_ kemqZb qj_a\uqZcgh j_^db Ihke_^gbc jZa iylv kheg_qguo
aZlf_gbc [ueh \
] b ^h
] wlh]h [hevr_ g_ ih\lhjblky Gh q_luj_ qZklguo
aZlf_gby [m^ml \
]
b\
] QZs_ \k_]h _`_]h^gh [u\Z_l ih
2— kheg_qguo aZlf_gby ijbq_f h^gh ba gbo dZd ijZ\beh ihegh_ beb dhevp_h[jZagh_
< jZagu_ ]h^u emggZy l_gv ijh[_]Z_l ih jZaebqguf f_klZf a_fghc
ih\_joghklb b ihwlhfm \ dZ`^hc f_klghklb ihegu_ kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby
^_ckl\bl_evgh ijhbkoh^yl hq_gv j_^dh \ kj_^g_f h^bg jZa aZ — e_l ohly
[u\Zxl b bkdexq_gby LZd gZijbf_j \ Fhkd\_ ihegu_ kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby [ueb
\b^gu Z\]mklZ
] fZjlZ
] l _ q_j_a e_l bxgy
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e_l
n_\jZey
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]
q_j_a e_l Hq_j_^gh_ ihegh_ aZlf_gb_ KhegpZ \ Fhkd\_ ijh^he`bl_evghklvx
hdheh fbg ijhbahc^_l ebrv hdly[jy
] < @^Zgh\_ `_ b ?ckd_ ihegu_
kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby gZ[ex^Zebkv bxgy
] b n_\jZey
] l _ f_g__ q_f
q_j_a e_l
QZklgu_ kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby ijhbkoh^yl \ dZ`^hc f_klghklb _kl_kl\_ggh
qZs_ iheguo aZlf_gbc lZd dZd ^bZf_lj emgghc iheml_gb agZqbl_evgh ij_\urZ_l
ihi_j_qgbd emgghc l_gb LZd gZijbf_j gZ ^hex Fhkd\u aZ e_l k
ih
]
\dexqbl_evgh ijboh^blky qZklguo kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc l _ \ Fhkd\_ hgb
ijhbkoh^yl \ kj_^g_f q_j_a dZ`^u_ — ]h^Z :gZeh]bqgZy dZjlbgZ ijbkmsZ b
fgh]bf ^jm]bf f_klZf a_fghc ih\_joghklb Gh dhev kdhjh ijb qZklguo kheg_qguo
aZlf_gbyo k g_[hevrhc nZahc hkeZ[e_gby kheg_qgh]h k\_lZ g_ aZf_lgh lh gZ gbo
qZklh g_ h[jZsZxl \gbfZgby
Kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby i_jbh^bq_kdb ih\lhjyxlky lZd dZd bo gZklmie_gb_
aZ\bkbl hl lj_o i_jbh^h\ i_jbh^Z kf_gu emgguo nZa beb kbgh^bq_kdh]h f_kypZ S =
29,5306, i_jbh^Z \ha\jZs_gby Emgu d h^ghfm ba emgguo maeh\ beb ^jZdhgbq_kdh]h
f_kypZ ^j
^ b i_jbh^Z \ha\jZs_gby KhegpZ d lhfm `_ emgghfm maem beb
^jZdhgbq_kdh]h ]h^Z L^j
^ E_]dh ih^kqblZlv qlh
223 * S
^
kmlhd
242 * S ^j
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kmlhd
L^j
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kmlhd
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh dZ`^h_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ ih\lhjy_lky q_j_a i_jbh^ \j_f_gb \
kmlhd
e_l
kmlhd beb
kmlhd _keb \ wlhf i_jbh^_ kh^_j`blky
iylv \bkhdhkguo e_l gZa\Zgguc kZjhkhf GZ ijhly`_gbb kZjhkZ \ kj_^g_f
ijhbkoh^bl — kheg_qguo aZlf_gby ba dhlhjuo
iheguo —14
dhevp_h[jZaguo b
qZklguo H^gZdh ih bkl_q_gbb kZjhkZ dZ`^h_ aZlf_gb_
ih\lhjy_lky \ ^jm]bo mkeh\byo lZd dZd kZjhk g_ kh^_j`bl p_eh]h qbkeZ kmlhd Z aZ
ba[ulhd hdheh kmlhd k\_jo
^g_c A_fey ih\_jg_lky \hdjm] hkb ijbf_jgh
gZ
b ihwlhfm emggZy l_gv ijh[_`bl ih a_fghc ih\_joghklb gZ l_ `_


























 







































  



















  





 











  











































































 






 



 











 





 





 














  





 

 









 



















   











 





 

  



















   





































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]h^Z 59


aZiZ^g__ q_f e_l gZaZ^ ^Z b Khegp_ k Emghc [m^ml gZoh^blvky gZ g_kdhevdh
bguo jZkklhygbyo hl emggh]h maeZ
Ij_^klhys__ ihegh_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_
fZjlZ
] y\ey_lky
ih\lhj_gb_f ihegh]h kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby ijhbkoh^b\r_]h fZjlZ
] b
bxey
] Gh ihehkZ iheghc nZau aZlf_gby fZjlZ
]h^Z ijhoh^beZ ih
Bg^hg_abb NbebiibgZf Lbohfm hd_Zgm b :e_mlkdbf hkljh\Zf Hq_j_^gh_ `_
ihegh_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ ih ijhr_kl\bb kZjhkZ ijhbahc^_l Zij_ey
] b
[m^_l \b^gh \ Lbohf hd_Zg_ K_\_jghc :f_jbd_ b :leZglbq_kdhf hd_Zg_
AZdhghf_jghklv ih\lhj_gby kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc [he__ keh`gZ q_f hgZ
ij_^klZ\e_gZ kZjhkhf lZd dZd kbgh^bq_kdbc f_kyp ^jZdhgbq_kdbc f_kyp b
^jZdhgbq_kdbc ]h^ g_khbaf_jbfu f_`^m kh[hc b ih bkl_q_gbb kZjhkZ
kmlhd
EmgZ g_ ^hoh^bl ^h k\h_]h ij_`g_]h iheh`_gby hlghkbl_evgh emggh]h maeZ gZ
GZah\_f k_jb_c beb p_ihqdhc aZlf_gbc bo kh\hdmighklv hl^_e_ggmx
ijhf_`mldhf \ h^bg kZjhk hl ^jm]hc lZdhc `_ kh\hdmighklb ?keb \ dZdhc-lh ^_gv
ihegh_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ wlhc k_jbb ijhbahreh \ kZfhf emgghf mae_ b bf_eh
gZb[hevrmx ijh^he`bl_evghklv lh q_j_a
kmlhd EmgZ g_ ^hc^_l ^h lh]h `_
maeZ Z hdZ`_lky gZ jZkklhygbb hdheh
d aZiZ^m hl i_]h b ihwlhfm ihegh_
kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ ijhbahc^_l gZ lZdhf `_ jZkklhygbb d aZiZ^m hl maeZ b [m^_l
bf_lv g_kdhevdh f_gvrmx ijh^he`bl_evghklv ?s_ q_j_a kZjhk e_l
^gy
lZdhc k^\b] hiylv ih\lhjblky b ihegh_ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_ ijhbahc^_l gZ
jZkklhygbb
d aZiZ^m hl lh]h `_ emggh]h maeZ Z ih bkl_q_gbb hq_j_^gh]h
kZjhkZ— m`_ gZ jZkklhygbb
d aZiZ^m hl maeZ b l ^ Gh ]jZgbpZ ahgu iheguo
kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc hlklhbl hl emggh]h maeZ \ kj_^g_f gZ
b ihwlhfm q_j_a
kZjhkZ ijbf_jgh q_j_a e_l EmgZ hdZ`_lky m`_ \g_ wlhc ahgu b \f_klh ihegh]h
beb dhevp_h[jZagh]h kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby ijhbahc^_l qZklgh_ Ijhc^_l _s_ hdheh
e_l kZjhkh\ b EmgZ m^Zeblky hl k\h_]h maeZ [he__ q_f gZ
l _ \hh[s_
\uc^_l ba ahgu kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc b gZ wlhf ^ZggZy k_jby bo ij_djZlblky Gh
\aZf_g g__ \hagbdg_l gh\Zy k_jby kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc dhlhjZy gZqg_lky \
\hklhqgh_ emggh]h maeZ \ \b^_ qZklgh]h aZlf_gby hq_gv fZehc nZau b ihkl_i_ggh
k^\b]Zykv d aZiZ^m ij_\jZlblky \ p_gljZevgu_ aZlf_gby Z aZl_f \
aZiZ^g__
maeZ aZlf_gby kgh\Z klZgml qZklgufb b gZdhg_p b wlZ k_jby aZlf_gbc hdhgqblky
H^gZ k_jby kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc kms_kl\m_l hl ^h kZjhkh\ \ kj_^g_f
kZjhkh\ beb hl
^h
e_l b khklhbl ba — qZklguo b khhl\_lkl\_ggh
ba — p_gljZevguo aZlf_gbc GZqbgZ_lky hgZ djZldh\j_f_gguf qZklguf
aZlf_gb_f k gbqlh`ghc nZahc \k_]^Z \[ebab h^gh]h ba ihexkh\ A_feb Q_j_a e_l
^g_c emggZy iheml_gv ho\Zlu\Z_l m`_ g_kdhevdh [hevrmx ahgm iheyjghc h[eZklb
A_feb nZaZ qZklgh]h aZlf_gby m\_ebqb\Z_lky b hgh klZgh\blky [he__ ijh^he`bl_evguf GZ ijhly`_gbb hl ^h kZjhkh\ ijb hq_j_^ghf qZklghf aZlf_gbb
emggZy iheml_gv ihkl_i_ggh i_j_oh^bl ba iheyjghc ahgu \ mf_j_ggmx b gZdhg_p \
jZchg lh]h `_ ihexkZ \klmiZ_l emggZy l_gv — gZqbgZ_lky ihke_^h\Zl_evghklv
p_gljZevguo kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc Q_j_a dZ`^uc kZjhk wlb aZlf_gby ijhbkoh^yl \k_
[eb`_ d emgghfm maem b emggZy l_gv k iheml_gvx ihkl_i_ggh ba iheyjghc ahgu
i_j_f_sZ_lky \ mf_j_gguc ihyk a_fghc ih\_joghklb Z dh]^Z aZlf_gby ih^hc^ml d


 















 

































































 

 























 

 







 



















 







 





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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

64 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



Kj_^b h[sbo aZ^Zq gZ[ex^_gbc kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc bf__lky fgh]h lZdbo
dhlhju_ fh]ml [ulv \uiheg_gu ijhkl_crbfb kihkh[Zfb b kj_^kl\Zfb \iheg_
^hklmigufb ex[bl_eyf Zkljhghfbb >ey \uiheg_gby lZdbo gZ[ex^_gbc ijb]h^gu
[bghdeb g_[hevrb_ rdhevgu_ b kZfh^_evgu_ l_e_kdhiu h[uqgu_ nhlhdZf_ju
nhlhwdkihghf_lju Z lZd`_ g_dhlhju_ ^jm]b_ ijhkl_crb_ bgkljmf_glu dhlhju_ [_a
hkh[uo aZljm^g_gbc ^hklmigu ba]hlh\e_gbx kbeZfb ex[bl_e_c Zkljhghfbb l_f
[he__ qlh \ gZklhys__ \j_fy fgh]b_ ba gbo h[eZ^Zxl ^hklZlhqgufb
ijhba\h^kl\_ggh-ljm^h\ufb gZ\udZfb ijbh[j_l_ggufb \ kj_^gbo rdheZo
ijhba\h^kl\_ggh-l_ogbq_kdbo mqbebsZo l_ogbdmfZo b bgklblmlZo M dh]h _klv
\hafh`ghklv dhg_qgh fh]ml bkihevah\Zlv k_jv_agu_ bgkljmf_glu dhlhju_ \ gZr_
\j_fy bf_xlky Z ijh^Z`_ \ [hevrhf dhebq_kl\_
IjbklmiZy d gZ[ex^_gby kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby ij_`^_ \k_]h gm`gh l\_j^h
aZihfgblv qlh \g_ aZlf_gby beb ijb qZklguo nZaZo aZlf_gby kfhlj_lv gZ
Khegp_ [_a aZsblu ]eZa l_fgufb k\_lhnbevljZfb dZl_]hjbq_kdb aZij_s_gh
Wlh ij_^mij_`^_gb_ hkh[h hlghkblky d gZ[ex^_gbyf KhegpZ \ hilbq_kdb_
bgkljmf_glu lZd dZd ij_g_[j_`_gb_ bf \uah\_l f]gh\_ggh_ b g_bae_qbfh_
ih\j_`^_gb_ ]eZa Ihwlhfm i_j_^ h[t_dlb\hf hilbq_kdh]h bgkljmf_glZ gm`gh
h[yaZl_evgh mdj_iblv kheg_qguc nbevlj qlh[u ]eZaZ g_ hsmsZeb jZa^jZ`_gby
kheg_qguf k\_lhf >Z`_ ijb nZa_ kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby jZ\ghc l _ dh]^Z Emghc
aZdjulh
\b^bfh]h ^bZf_ljZ KhegpZ hklZ_lky hldjulhc
h^gZ \hkvfZy
qZklv kheg_qgh]h ^bkdZ b kheg_qguc k\_l hkeZ[e_g \k_]h ebrv \ — jZa qlh _s_
hiZkgh ^ey aj_gby l_f [he__ qlh hldjulZy qZklv bf__l g_hkeZ[e_ggmx
ih\_joghklgmx yjdhklv ;_a aZsblu ]eZa \ lhf qbke_ \ [bghdev b \ l_e_kdhi fh`gh
kfhlj_lv gZ Khegp_ lhevdh \h \j_fy iheghc nZau kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby dh]^Z
Khegp_ kh\k_f aZdjulh Emghc Z g_\hhjm`_gguf ]eZahf — b \ g_ihkj_^kl\_gghc
[ebahklb d wlhc nZa_ dh]^Z g_aZdjulZy qZklv kheg_qgh]h ^bkdZ bf__l \b^ gZklhevdh
madh]h _e_ aZf_lgh]h k_jiZ qlh _]h k\_l m`_ g_ jZa^jZ`Z_l ]eZa
\uiheg_gb_ dhlhjuo h^ghfm gZ[ex^Zl_ex g_ihkbevgh Ihwlhfm emqr_ \k_]h
ijh\h^blv gZ[ex^_gby kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby dhee_dlb\Zfb khklhysbfb ba —15
gZ[ex^Zl_e_c dZ`^uc ba dhlhjuo \uihegy_l h^gm kljh]h hij_^_e_ggmx aZ^Zqm
Dhg_qgh qbke_gghklv dhee_dlb\Z fh`_l [ulv b bghc gh lh]^Z b djm] aZ^Zq ^he`_g
[ulv baf_g_g \ lm beb bgmx klhjhgm ;_amkeh\gh g_ \k_ \b^u gZ[ex^_gbc hdZ`mlky
h^bgZdh\h bgl_j_kgufb ^ey gZ[ex^Zl_e_c gh l_f g_ f_g__ b bo g_h[oh^bfh
ijh\_klb ihfgy qlh gZmdZ lj_[m_l `_jl\
Ijb jZajZ[hld_ ijh]jZffu dhee_dlb\guo gZ[ex^_gbc ij_`^_ \k_]h ke_^m_l
\uykgblv h[klhyl_evkl\Z kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby \ f_klghklb ]^_ [m^ml ijh\h^blvky
gZ[ex^_gby ?keb \ ^Zgghc f_klghklb [m^_l ijhbkoh^blv ihegh_ kheg_qgh_
aZlf_gb_ lh ijh]jZffZ gZ[ex^_gbc fh`_l [ulv \_kvfZ h[rbjghc Ijb qZklghf
kheg_qghf aZlf_gbb ijh]jZffZ gZ[ex^_gbc dhg_qgh g_agZqbl_evgZ
Ijb jZkij_^_e_gbb h[yaZgghkl_c kj_^b gZ[ex^Zl_e_c g_h[oh^bfh ihfgblv
qlh \ ijhp_kk_ gZ[ex^_gbc ihegh]h kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby \ \ukr_c kl_i_gb \Z`gh
hlf_qZlv fhf_glu \j_f_gb ijhbkoh^ysbo y\e_gbc IhdZ kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_
ijhl_dZ_l ijb g_[hevrbo nZaZo hlf_ldb \j_f_gb kZfbfb gZ[ex^Zl_eyfb g_






















 

















 





















































































 





















































































































































































































 
















































































  



































 

































































































































































 

 

















































































 





































































































fZjlZ



]h^Z 61





IjbdZkibckdhc gbaf_gghklb ]^_ ihegh_ aZlf_gb_ ijhbahc^_l \ ihke_h[_^_ggu_
qZku \iehlv ^h X`ghc Kb[bjb gZ l_jjblhjbb dhlhjhc ihegh_ aZlf_gb_ [m^_l
gZ[ex^Zlvky m`_ ih^ \_q_j ih f_klghfm \j_f_gb Wdki_^bpbb gZijZ\ey_fu_ \
ihehkm ihegh]h kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby hkgZsZxlky ki_pbZevgufb Zkljhghfbq_kdbfb
bgkljmf_glZfb ij_^gZagZq_ggufb ^ey \uiheg_gby l_o gZmqguo aZ^Zq dhlhju_
klZ\bl i_j_^ kh[hc lZ beb bgZy wdki_^bpby Wlb bgkljmf_glu ijb bo \ukhdhf
dZq_kl\_ bf_xl kjZ\gbl_evgh g_[hevrb_ jZaf_ju m^h[gu_ ^ey ljZgkihjlbjh\db b
^ey [ukljhc mklZgh\db gZ f_kl_ \u[jZgghf wdki_^bpb_c MklZgh\dZ b ijh\_jdZ
jZ[hlu ^Z`_ kZfh]h keh`gh]h bgkljmf_glZ h[uqgh g_ aZgbfZ_l [he__ — ^g_c
< qbke_ h[hjm^h\Zgby \k_]^Z bf_xlky ojhghf_lju b jZaebqgu_ we_dljhggu_
k_dmg^hf_ju j_]bkljbjmxsb_ \j_fy k lhqghklvx g_ gb`_
k Z lZd`_ mgb\_jkZevgu_ bgkljmf_glu iha\heyxsb_ hij_^_eylv lhqgu_ ]_h]jZnbq_kdb_ dhhj^bgZlu
f_klZ wdki_^bpbb \ lhf qbke_ b kimlgbdh\h_ hij_^_e_gb_ dhhj^bgZl
H^ghc ba ]eZ\guo aZ^Zq gZ[ex^_gbc iheguo kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc y\ey_lky
mlhqg_gb_ l_hjbb ^\b`_gby A_feb b Emgu DZd [u gb [ueZ kh\_jr_ggZ wlZ l_hjby
hgZ \k_ `_ lj_[m_l i_jbh^bq_kdh]h dhgljhey b fh`_l [ulv g_dhlhjuo ohly b
g_[hevrbo ^hiheg_gbc hkgh\hc dhlhjuo kem`Zl lhqgu_ hij_^_e_gby \b^bfuo
iheh`_gbc KhegpZ \f_kl_ k Emghc qlh \hafh`gh lhevdh \h \j_fy kheg_qguo
aZlf_gbc K wlhc p_evx nhlh]jZnbjmxlky qZklgu_ nZau kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby ^h b
ihke_ hdhgqZgby _]h iheghc nZau ijbq_f fhf_glu nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby nbdkbjmxlky
k gZb\ukr_c \hafh`ghc lhqghklvx GZ k_jbb ihke_^h\Zl_evgh ihemq_gguo nhlhkgbfdh\ aZlfb\r__ky Khegp_ \u]ey^bl k_jihh[jZaguf Baf_jyy jZaf_ju b
hjb_glbjh\dm wlbo kheg_qguo k_jih\ fh`gh ihemqblv g_h[oh^bfu_ k\_^_gby h
\aZbfghf jZkiheh`_gbb Emgu b KhegpZ Z ke_^h\Zl_evgh b bamqblv jZg__
g_ba\_klgu_ g_agZqbl_evgu_ hldehg_gby \ ^\b`_gbb Emgu b A_feb _keb dhg_qgh
hgb [m^ml h[gZjm`_gu
>ey nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby kheg_qguo k_jih\ bkihevamxlky nhlhdZf_ju CCDdZf_ju \b^_hdZf_ju k ^ebgghnhdmkgufb h[t_dlb\Zfb qlh[u ^bZf_lju
nhlh]jZnbq_kdbo bah[jZ`_gbc k_jih\ [ueb g_ f_g__
ff Q_f djmig__
ihemqZxlky nhlh]jZnbb kheg_qguo k_jih\ l_f [he__ lhqgh hgb fh]ml [ulv
ijhf_j_gu Ihwlhfm qZklh ^ey bo nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby bkihevamxlky ^ebgghnhdmkgu_
bgkljmf_glu ij_^gZagZq_ggu_ ^ey nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby kheg_qghc dhjhgu b
gZau\Z_fu_ dhjhgh]jZnZfb M dhjhgh]jZnh\ jZaebqguo dhgkljmdpbc nhdmkgh_
jZkklhygb_ h[t_dlb\h\ [u\Z_l hl ^h
f_ljh\ qlh iha\hey_l ihemqZlv
nhlh]jZnbq_kdb_ bah[jZ`_gby KhegpZ b kheg_qguo k_jih\ hl ^h
ff \
^bZf_lj_ LZdhc dhjhgh]jZn ijhqgh mklZgh\e_g gZ dbjibqguo klhe[Zo Z klhys__
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bah[jZ`_gb_ \ h[t_dlb\ dhjhgh]jZnZ H[t_dlb\ lh`_ f_^e_ggh b jZ\ghf_jgh
i_j_f_sZ_lky \ ]hjbahglZevghc iehkdhklb b l_f kZfuf m^_j`b\Z_l bah[jZ`_gb_
KhegpZ gZ nhlhie_gd_ beb nhlhieZklbgd_
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gZqZeZ b hdhgqZgby dZd qZklgh]h lZd b ihegh]h aZlf_gby hkms_kl\ey_lky
aZibku\Zxsbfb mkljhckl\Zfb Z kZfb dhglZdlu nbdkbjmxlky \bamZevgh
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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

62 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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\hafh`gh gZb[he__ \k_klhjhgg__ bamq_gb_ \g_rgbo h[hehq_d KhegpZ _]h
ojhfhkn_ju b dhjhgu Dhg_qgh gZ[ex^_gby ojhfhkn_ju b kheg_qghc dhjhgu
ijh\h^ylky ih\k_^g_\gh \g_ kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc gZ ki_pbZevguo bgkljmf_glZo gh
wlbo gZ[ex^_gbc hdZau\Z_lky g_^hklZlhqgh lZd dZd hgb iha\heyxl bkke_^h\Zlv
ojhfhkn_jm ebrv \ kljh]h hij_^_e_gguo emqZo ki_dljZ Z m dhjhgu ^hklmigZ
bamq_gbx ebrv __ \gmlj_ggyy ahgZ ojhfhkn_jZ b \ky dhjhgZ
Ih nhlh]jZnbyf kheg_qghc dhjhgu ihemq_gguf k jZagufb \u^_j`dZfb hl
^h
k_dmg^ gZ dhjhgh]jZnZo b nhlhdZf_jZo k jZaebqgufb nhdmkgufb
jZkklhygbyfb bf__lky \hafh`ghklv ^_lZevgh bamqblv \k_ ahgu dhjhgu hl kZfuo
\gmlj_ggbo ^h ^Ze_dbo dhjhgZevguo emq_c KjZ\g_gb_ nhlhkgbfdh\ \uiheg_gguo
m^Ze_ggufb ^jm] hl ^jm]Z wdki_^bpbyfb iha\hey_l h[gZjm`blv b \uykgblv ijbqbgm
^\b`_gby \_s_kl\Z \ dhjhg_ Wlhfm kihkh[kl\mxl b \b^_hkt_fdb kheg_qghc
dhjhgu
BamqZ_lky g_ lhevdh kljmdlmjZ kheg_qghc dhjhgu gh b __ nbabq_kdh_
khklhygb_ >ey wlh]h baemqZ_fuc _x k\_l ZgZebabjm_lky jZaebqgufb
Zkljhnbabq_kdbfb ijb[hjZfb Qlh[u bkke_^h\Zlv p\_l emq_c bkimkdZ_fuo
dhjhghc __ nhlh]jZnbjmxl kd\hav jZaghp\_lgu_ k\_lhnbevlju Ijbkmlkl\b_
jZaebqguo obfbq_kdbo we_f_glh\ \ ojhfhkn_j_ b dhjhg_ b bo nbabq_kdh_ khklhygb_
hij_^_ey_lky ih nhlh]jZnbyf bo ki_dljh\ ihemqZ_fuf gZ ki_dljh]jZnZo LZdb_
kgbfdb ^_eZxlky \ kqblZggu_ k_dmg^u i_j_^ hdhgqZgb_f ihegh]h aZlf_gby dh]^Z
EmgZ m`_ ijbhldjueZ ojhfhkn_jm gh _s_ aZdju\Z_l kheg_qguc ^bkd
>ey bamq_gby kheg_qghc dhjhgu ijbf_gyxlky lZd`_ ki_pbZevgu_
iheyjhb^gu_ ieZklbgdb b ie_gdb hgb iha\heyxl hij_^_eblv ij_bfms_kl\_ggh_
gZijZ\e_gb_ we_dljhfZ]gblguo dhe_[Zgbc \ k\_lh\uo emqZo baemqZ_fuo dhjhghc
dhlhjh_ aZ\bkbl hl __ nbabq_kdh]h khklhygby Rbjhdh ijbf_gyxlky b
nhlhwe_dljbq_kdb_ ijb[hju Z lZd`_ g_[hevrb_ e_]dh fhglbjm_fu_
jZ^bhl_e_kdhiu khklhysb_ ba fZeh]Z[Zjblguo Zgl_gg b
qm\kl\bl_evghc jZ^bhijb_fghc ZiiZjZlmju Kheg_qgZy
dhjhgZ h[bevgh baemqZ_l jZ^bh\hegu b ohly hgb
meZ\eb\Zxlky b \g_ aZlf_gbc l_f g_ f_g__ bo
bkke_^h\Zgb_ \h \j_fy ihegh]h kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby
g_h[oh^bfh ihlhfm qlh iha\hey_l hl^_eblv jZ^bhbaemq_gb_ dhjhgu hl jZ^bhbaemq_gby ojhfhkn_ju
?s_ h^ghc bgl_j_kghc aZ^Zq_c gZ[ex^_gbc iheguo
kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc y\ey_lky ijh\_jdZ wnn_dlZ Wcgrl_cgZ
Kha^Zl_ev h[s_c l_hjbb hlghkbl_evghklb \u^Zxsbcky
nbabd :ev[_jl Wcgrl_cg

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qlh k\_lh\u_ emqb ijhoh^ysb_ \ g_ihkj_^kl\_gghc
[ebahklb d hq_gv fZkkb\ghfm l_em ih^h[ghfm Khegpm
^he`gu ke_]dZ hldehgylvky hl ijyfhebg_cgh]h imlb <
qZklghklb ijb ijhoh`^_gbb hdheh djZy KhegpZ k\_lh\u_
emqb ^he`gu hldehgblvky gZ fZeuc m]he \
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fZjlZ



]h^Z 63


wlhl wnn_dl fh`gh lhevdh \h \j_fy iheghc nZau kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby dh]^Z gZ
ihl_fg_\r_f g_[_ jy^hf k aZlfb\rbfky Khegp_f ijhklmiZxl a\_a^u Ijb
hlkmlkl\bb Znn_dlZ k\_lh\hc emq hl a\_a^u ihc^_l d gZ[ex^Zl_ex ih ijyfhc
S: b gZ[ex^Zl_ev ^he`_g \b^_lv a\_a^m gZ g_[_ \ lhqd_
Ijb hldehg_gbb
k\_lh\h]h emqZ _]h imlv bkdjb\blky \ gZijZ\e_gbb b lh]^Z gZ[ex^Zl_ev m\b^bl
a\_a^m \ lhqd_ kf_s_gghc \ klhjhgm hl KhegpZ gZ m]he \
gh m kZfh]h
kheg_qgh]h djZy a\_a^ g_ [u\Z_l \b^gh lZd dZd bo keZ[uc k\_l ih]ehsZ_lky k\_lhf
yjdhc dhjhgu H[uqgh m^Z_lky knhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv a\_a^u hlklhysb_ hl djZy
KhegpZ gZ m]he jZ\guc _]h jZ^bmkm ^ey dhlhjuo kf_s_gb_ _s_ \ ^\Z jZaZ
f_gvr_
< ijbgpbi_ lZdZy ijh\_jdZ dZ`_lky \_kvfZ ijhklhc ^hklZlhqgh
knhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv aZlfb\r__ky Khegp_ k hdjm`Zxsbfb _]h a\_a^Zfb Z aZl_f
q_j_a ihe]h^Z dh]^Z Khegp_ i_j_f_klblky b ijhlb\hiheh`gmx h[eZklv g_[Z kgh\Z
knhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv l_ `_ a\_a^u ghqvx KjZ\g_gb_ f_`^m kh[hc iheh`_gbc
bah[jZ`_gbc a\_a^ gZ h[hbo nhlhg_]Zlb\Zo iha\hebl baf_jblv bo kf_s_gb_
\ua\Zggh_ wnn_dlhf Wcgrl_cgZ
H^gZdh gZ ijZdlbd_ \k_ hdZaZehkv agZqbl_evgh keh`g__ >Ze_dh g_ \k_]^Z
\hdjm] aZlfb\r_]hky KhegpZ [u\Zxl ^hklZlhqgh yjdb_ a\_a^u ^hklmigu_
nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbx aZ l_ — fbgmlu ihdZ ^eblky ihegh_ aZlf_gb_ Qlh[u gZ^_`gh
baf_jblv gZ nhlhie_gd_ m]he f_gvrbc gm`_g bo ih^oh^ysbc fZkrlZ[ dhlhjuc
h[_ki_qb\Z_lky ebrv ^ebgghnhdmkgufb nhlhdZf_jZfb LZd gZijbf_j ^Z`_ ijb
h[t_dlb\_ k nhdmkguf jZkklhygb_f
f
ff kf_s_gb_ \ khhl\_lkl\m_l gZ
nhlhie_gd_ hlj_adm ^ebghc \
ff < ijhp_kk_ nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby ijboh^blky \k_
\j_fy ieZ\gh ih\hjZqb\Zlv nhlhdZf_jm aZ Khegp_f bgZq_ nhlhkgbfhd hdZ`_lky
jZafuluf Z h[_ki_qblv lhqgh_ ^\b`_gb_ ^ebgghnhdmkghc dZf_ju hq_gv keh`gh
Bf__lky _s_ jy^ ijbqbg qbklh Zkljhghfbq_kdh]h b bgkljmf_glZevgh]h oZjZdl_jZ
dhlhju_ aZljm^gyxl ijh\_jdm wnn_dlZ Wcgrl_cgZ
G_kfhljy gZ [hevrb_ aZljm^g_gby gZ[ex^_gby ^ey ijh\_jdb wnn_dlZ
Wcgrl_cgZ \h \j_fy iheguo kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc ijh\h^bebkv g_h^ghdjZlgh \ lhf
qbke_ b ZdZ^_fbdhf : : FboZceh\uf dZ`^uc jZa gZ \k_ [he__ kh\_jr_gkl\m_fuo
bgkljmf_glZo GZ[ex^_gby ^Zeb kf_s_gb_ hq_gv [ebadh_ ij_^kdZaZgghfm
l_hj_lbq_kdb b \ j_Zevghklb dhlhjh]h g_ fh`_l [ulv khfg_gbc
















































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IJHKL?CRB? EX;BL?EVKDB? G:;EX>?GBY KHEG?QGH=H
A:LF?GBY






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>ey gZ[ex^_gbc kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc Zkljhghfu bkihevamxl ohly
kjZ\gbl_evgh g_[hevrb_ ih jZaf_jZf gh qZklh ^hjh]hklhysb_ bgkljmf_glu \_kvfZ
keh`ghc dhgkljmdpbb Ijbf_g_gb_ lZdbo bgkljmf_glh\ \uau\Z_lky g_h[oh^bfhklvx
bkke_^h\Zgby lhgdbo wnn_dlh\ hl dhlhjuo aZ\bkbl ijZ\bevgh_ j_r_gb_
ki_pbZevguo gZmqguo aZ^Zq Gh wlh hlgx^v g_ hagZqZ_l qlh ^ey gZ[ex^_gbc
kheg_qguo aZlf_gbc h[yaZl_evgh lj_[mxlky lhevdh keh`gu_ bgkljmf_glu
































































































:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

68 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



kZfhibkpZfb D ijhkluf gZ[ex^_gbyf hlghkblky b kZfh_ h[uqgh_
nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ ie_ghqguf nhlhZiiZjZlhf eZg^rZnlZ f_klghklb ijb [hevrbo
nZaZo kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby gZqbgZy k nZau ?kl_kl\_ggh qlh ihke_^h\Zl_evgu_
kgbfdb ke_^m_l ijhba\h^blv gZ hl^_evguo dZ^jZo jZkkqblZ\ bo qbkeh lZdbf
h[jZahf qlh[u aZjy`_gghc ie_gdb o\Zlbeh b ^ey nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby ihke_
hdhgqZgby ihegh]h aZlf_gby =eZ\gh_ mkeh\b_ — wlh kh\_jr_ggh h^bgZdh\Zy
ijh^he`bl_evghklv wdkihabpbb \k_o kgbfdh\ gh ijb wlhf dhg_qgh ijb^_lky f_gylv
hl\_jklb_ ^bZnjZ]fu h[t_dlb\Z nbdkbjmy __ agZq_gb_ \ jZaebqgu_ fhf_glu
\j_f_gb Ihwlhfm ih^[hj ^bZnjZ]f g_h[oh^bfh ijh\_klb aZjZg__ aZ g_kdhevdh ^g_c
^h aZlf_gby nhlh]jZnbjmy eZg^rZnl ijb kheg_qghf hk\_s_gbb b \ kmf_jdb
< k_evkdhc f_klghklb bgl_j_kgh ijh\_klb g_[hevrb_ [bheh]bq_kdb_
gZ[ex^_gby aZ ih\_^_gb_f ^hfZrgbo `b\hlguo b ilbp \h \j_fy aZlf_gby ;u\Zeb
kemqZb dh]^Z h[fZgmlu_ \g_aZigh gZklmib\r_c l_fghlhc g_dhlhju_ `b\hlgu_
\iZ^Zeb \ iZgbdm Z ^jm]b_ kihdhcgh gZijZ\eyebkv \ k\hb aZ]hgu gZ ghqe_]
Ihke_^mxsb_ j_dhf_g^m_fu_ gZ[ex^_gby lj_[mxl g_kdhevdh [hevr_ gZ\udh\ b
[he__ lsZl_evghc lj_gbjh\db
GZ[ex^_gby [_]msbo l_g_c < l_q_gb_ g_kdhevdbo ^_kyldh\ k_dmg^ ^h b
ihke_ iheghc nZau aZlf_gby bgh]^Z gZ[ex^Zxlky [_]msb_ l_gb \ \b^_
q_j_^mxsboky \hegbkluo k\_leuo b lhfguo ihehk hkh[_ggh ohjhrh aZf_lguo gZ
[_ehf nhg_ Wlh y\e_gb_ k\yaZgh k g_h^ghjh^ghklyfb b dhe_[Zgbyfb keh_\ \ha^moZ
kd\hav dhlhju_ ijhoh^bl madbc imqhd emq_c hl lhgdh]h kheg_qgh]h k_jiZ >ey
gZ[ex^_gbc [_]msbo l_g_c fh`gh bkihevah\Zlv [_emx kl_gm a^Zgby h[jZs_ggmx d
Khegpm beb jZkkl_e_ggmx gZ a_fe_ [_emx ijhklugx \ g_kdhevdbo f_klZo ijb`Zlmx
dZfgyfb qlh[u \hafh`gu_ ihju\u \_ljZ g_ khj\Zeb __ AZ^Zqb gZ[ex^Zl_e_c
khklhyl \ hij_^_e_gbb gZijZ\e_gby ^\b`_gby [_]msbo l_g_c jZkklhygby f_`^m
l_fgufb ihehkZfb b bo rbjbgu Z lZd`_ kdhjhklb bo ^\b`_gby Ijhs_ \k_]h
ij_^\Zjbl_evgh ba]hlh\blv ^\_ lhgdb_ ^_j_\yggu_ ieZgdb ^ebghx \ f dZ`^Zy beb
\hkihevah\Zlvky ^\mfy rdhevgufb deZkkgufb ebg_cdZfb b \ fhf_gl ihy\e_gby
[_]msbo l_g_c g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh i_j_^ kZfuf iheguf aZlf_gb_f [ukljh iheh`blv
h^gm ba gbo gZ ijhklugx \ gZijZ\e_gbb bo ^\b`_gby jZkiheh`blv ih ^\b`_gbx l_g_c ihke_ hdhgqZgby iheghc nZau aZlf_gby H^bg
gZ[ex^Zl_ev mdeZ^u\Z_l ieZgdb Z ^\Z beb ljb ^jm]bo h[yaZgu khkqblZlv qbkeh
l_fguo b k\_leuo ihehk h^gh\j_f_ggh mdeZ^u\Zxsboky gZ ^ebg_ ieZgdb b
hlf_lblv bgl_j\Ze \j_f_gb aZ dhlhjuc h^gZ l_fgZy ihehkZ ijh[_]Z_l ih ieZgd_ Z
lZd`_ aZihfgblv p\_lh\u_ hll_gdb l_g_c _keb hgb ihy\ylky Fh`gh ihiulZlvky
knhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv [_]msb_ l_gb gZ \ukhdhqm\kl\bl_evgmx nhlhie_gdm k hq_gv
fZehc wdkihabpb_c ohly wlh b g_ \k_]^Z m^Z_lky ba-aZ bo agZqbl_evghc kdhjhklb
;he__ wnn_dlb\ghc [ueZ [u dbghkt_fdZ [_]msbo l_g_c gZ \ukhdhqm\kl\bl_evgmx
dbghie_gdm
Hij_^_e_gb_ ]jZgbp emgghc l_gb Wlb ijhklu_ ih \uiheg_gbx gZ[ex^_gby
bf_xl k_jv_agh_ agZq_gb_ ^ey mlhqg_gby l_hjbb ^\b`_gby Emgu Hgb ijh\h^ylky
g_kdhevdbfb ]jmiiZfb khklhysbfb ba — gZ[ex^Zl_e_c ijbq_f dZ`^Zy ]jmiiZ
ih^jZa^_ey_lky gZ a\_gvy ba — q_eh\_d Imgdlu gZ[ex^_gbc ij_^gZagZq_ggu_
^ey dZ`^h]h a\_gZ jZkiheZ]Zxlky \ f_klghklyo gZoh^ysboky \[ebab ]jZgbpu
ihehku iheghc nZau qlh g_ljm^gh gZf_lblv ih dZjl_ kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby b ih _]h
h[klhyl_evkl\Zf ijb\_^_gguf \ lZ[ebpZo h[klhyl_evkl\ aZlf_gby ?keb bf__lky
\hafh`ghklv lh ihe_agh aZjZg__ mklZgh\blv k\yav f_`^m ]jmiiZfb







































































































































































































































































































































































 





















































































































































 

























































































 
























































































 





























































 



































































































































fZjlZ



]h^Z 65





\uau\Zxl aZljm^g_gbc lZd dZd gZ[ex^_gby ijh\h^ylky q_j_a bgl_j\Zeu \j_f_gb \
g_kdhevdh fbgml Gh \[ebab iheghc nZau aZlf_gby b \ l_q_gb_ g__ gZ[ex^Zl_eb
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66 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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hjb_glbjh\ a^Zgb_ h^bghdh_ ^_j_\h \urdZ b l ^
AZ^ZqZ gZ[ex^Zl_e_c k\h^blky d j_]bkljZpbb \b^Z aZlf_gby l _ [ueh eb
hgh \ imgdl_ gZ[ex^_gbc qZklguf k [hevrhc nZahc beb iheguf Ijb iheghf
aZlf_gbb g_h[oh^bfh aZj_]bkljbjh\Zlv _]h ijh^he`bl_evghklv \ k_dmg^Zo ^ey q_]h
emqr_ \k_]h \hkihevah\Zlvky k_dmg^hf_jhf imklb\ _]h \ oh^ \ fhf_gl gZqZeZ
aZlf_gby b hklZgh\b\ \ fhf_gl _]h hdhgqZgby Ijb hlkmlkl\bb k_dmg^hf_jZ fh`gh
ij_^\Zjbl_evgh gZlj_gbjh\Zlvky \ kq_l_ k_dmg^ ih qZkZf k k_dmg^ghc klj_edhc
Lh]^Z \ fhf_gl gZqZeZ ihegh]h aZlf_gby ke_^m_l ijhbag_klb keh\h ghev Z aZl_f
ihke_^h\Zl_evgh hlkqblu\Zlv k_dmg^u ^h hdhgqZgby iheghc nZau aZlf_gby
;_amkeh\gh q_f [hevr_ [m^_l ijb\e_q_gh gZ[ex^Zl_e_c d wlhfm \b^m
gZ[ex^_gbc l_f lhqg__ ihemqZlky j_amevlZlu b ihwlhfm `_eZl_evgh qlh[u dZ`^h_
a\_gh khklhyeh ba ^\mo g_aZ\bkbfuo gZ[ex^Zl_e_c dZ`^uc ba dhlhjuo \_^_l aZibkb
kZfhklhyl_evgh [_a dhgkmevlZpbc kh k\hbf iZjlg_jhf
GZ[ex^_gby kheg_qghc dhjhgu Ijb iheghc nZa_ aZlf_gby ohjhrh \b^gZ
kheg_qgZy dhjhgZ gh ijb hkh[_ggh ykghf g_[_ hgZ fh`_l ihy\blvky hdheh ijZ\h]h
aZiZ^gh]h djZy KhegpZ aZdjulh]h Emghc aZ — k_dmg^ ^h gZqZeZ iheghc nZau
Gm`gh hlf_lblv fhf_gl ihy\e_gby dhjhgu __ nhjfm p\_l b ijhly`_gghklv
\ujZ`_ggmx \ ^bZf_ljZo kheg_qgh]h beb emggh]h ^bkdZ ?keb m^Zklky lh
`_eZl_evgh nbdkbjh\Zlv fhf_glu \j_f_gb ih \hkijbylbx bo ]jhfdh]h kq_lZ










 

































































































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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

70 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



\u^_e_gguf ^ey wlhc p_eb gZ[ex^Zl_e_f-kq_lqbdhf \ dhlhju_ \b^bfu_ jZaf_ju
ihy\eyxs_cky kheg_qghc dhjhgu [m^ml m\_ebqb\Zlvky \ jZaf_jZo hlf_qZy lZd`_
kZfb jZaf_ju :gZeh]bqgu_ gZ[ex^_gby ke_^m_l ijh\_klb b ih hdhgqZgbb iheghc
nZau aZlf_gby gh m`_ hdheh e_\h]h djZy KhegpZ hlf_qZy fhf_glu ihkl_i_ggh]h
bkq_agh\_gby dhjhgu Ijb iheghf kheg_qghf aZlf_gbb gm`gh hp_iblv ijhly`_gghklv kheg_qghc dhjhgu b ihiulZlvky ko_fZlbq_kdb aZjbkh\Zlv __ h[smx nhjfm
b gZb[he__ yjdb_ b ijhly`_ggu_ emqb h[jZsZy \gbfZgb_ gZ miehlg_gby b k]mkldb \
gbo aZ\bldb b bkdjb\e_gby emq_c >ey wlh]h emqr_ \k_]h aZjZg__ aZ]hlh\blv rZ[ehg
gZ ebkl_ iehlghc [mfZ]b mdj_ie_gghc gZ dZjlhg_ beb nZg_j_ gZjbkh\Zlv q_jguc
^bkd ^bZf_ljhf — kf b dhgp_gljbqgh \hdjm] g_]h _s_ ^\_-ljb ij_ju\bklu_
hdjm`ghklb ihke_^gxx — jZ^bmkhf \ — kf Z lZd`_ bo ^bZf_lju ih^ m]ehf \
^jm] d ^jm]m LZdhc rZ[ehg ihfh`_l [ukljh gZ[jhkZlv hkgh\gu_ dhglmju b emqb
dhjhgu bo gZb[he__ aZf_lgu_ miehlg_gby b hkh[_gghklb HklZevgu_ ih^jh[ghklb
gZghkylky gZ jbkmghd ih iZfylb m`_ ihke_ bkq_agh\_gby dhjhgu G_h[oh^bfh
h[jZlblv \gbfZgb_ gZ p\_l dhjhgu beb __ hl^_evguo qZkl_c b emq_c hibku\Zy _]h
keh\Zfb Wlh kms_kl\_ggh ihlhfm qlh \klj_qZxlky jZaebqgu_ hp_gdb p\_lZ dhjhgu
hl k_j_[jbklh-[_eh]h ^h a_e_gh\Zlh]h
GZ[ex^_gby kheg_qghc dhjhgu \ [bghdev beb g_[hevrhc l_e_kdhi iha\heyxl
aZf_lblv \ g_c lhgdb_ ^_lZeb g_aZf_lgu_ g_\hhjm`_gghfm ]eZam b ijhke_^blv
hl^_evgu_ dhjhgZevgu_ emqb gZ agZqbl_evguo jZkklhygbyo hl KhegpZ Ijb
gZ[ex^_gbyo \ l_e_kdhi gm`gh bkihevah\Zlv hdmeyj k gZbf_gvrbf m\_ebq_gb_f
qlh[u ihe_ aj_gby [ueh ^hklZlhqgh \_ebdh b djhf_ lh]h ihfgblv qlh l_e_kdhi
^Z_l i_j_\_jgmlh_ bah[jZ`_gb_
?keb \ ojhfhkn_j_ KhegpZ \b^gu djZkgh\Zlh-jhah\u_ \uklmiu —
ijhlm[_jZgpu lh bo lh`_ ke_^m_l ihdZaZlv gZ jbkmgd_ ih \hafh`ghklb \ ijbgylhf
fZkrlZ[_ GZ[ex^Zl_eb h[eZ^Zxsb_ om^h`_kl\_ggufb kihkh[ghklyfb fh]ml
\uihegblv jbkmghd kheg_qghc dhjhgu \ djZkdZo gh p\_lZ gm`gh bah[jZablv dZd
fh`gh lhqg__ Ihe_agh gZg_klb gZ jbkmghd b iheh`_gb_ a\_a^ beb ieZg_l \b^bfuo
\[ebab KhegpZ
Gh _keb bf__lky \hafh`ghklv lh `_eZl_evgh knhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv kheg_qgmx
dhjhgm dZd gZ h[uqghc lZd b gZ p\_lghc nhlhie_gd_ beb gZ ieZklbgdZo jZaghc
qm\kl\bl_evghklb k \u^_j`dZfb ijbf_jgh hl ^h k qlh[u ihemqblv g_kdhevdh
nhlh]jZnbc jZaebqguo mqZkldh\ dhjhgu H^ghdjZlgh_ nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ dhjhgu
g_ iha\hey_l bamqblv jZkij_^_e_gb_ yjdhklb \ i_c lZd dZd ijb dhjhldbo wdkihabpbyo \g_rgyy f_g__ yjdZy ahgZ dhjhgu gZ g_]Zlb\_ g_ ijhy\blky Z ijb
^ebl_evguo wdkihabpbyo \gmlj_ggyy [he__ yjdZy ahgZ dhjhgu ihemqblky
i_j_^_j`Zgghc ?kl_kl\_ggh qlh ^ey [he__ qm\kl\bl_evguo nhlhwfmevkbc
lj_[mxlky f_gvrb_ wdkihabpbb q_f ^ey f_g__ qm\kl\bl_evguo
Ke_^m_l kdZaZlv qlh ih^]hlh\dZ d nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbx b kZf ijhp_kk
nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby kheg_qghc dhjhgu lj_[m_l hkh[hc lsZl_evghklb b
ij_^\Zjbl_evghc fgh]hdjZlghc lj_gbjh\db lZd dZd ihegZy nZaZ kheg_qgh]h
aZlf_gby ^eblky hq_gv dhjhldbc bgl_j\Ze \j_f_gb aZ dhlhjuc ^he`gu [ulv
\uiheg_gu \k_ iheZ]Zxsb_ky hi_jZpbb >hklZlhqgh hlf_lblv qlh ihegZy nZaZ
ij_^klhys_]h kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby ^Z`_ gZ _]h p_gljZevghc ebgbb [m^_l
























































 











































































































































































































































  





































 











 









































































































































































































































 























































































 

































 









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fZjlZ



]h^Z 71





ijh^he`Zlvky - fbgmlu Ihwlhfm \k_ ^_ckl\by gZ[ex^Zl_e_c ^he`gu [ulv q_ldh
hljZ[hlZgu b ^h\_^_gu ^h Z\lhfZlbafZ
Ih hdhgqZgbb kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby \k_ wdkihgbjh\Zggu_ nhlhie_gdb
\b^_hfZl_jbZeu beb dZ^ju CCD-dZf_ju ^he`gu [ulv ijhgmf_jh\Zgu \
ihke_^h\Zl_evghklb bo bkihevah\Zgby Ghf_jZ ijhklZ\eyxlky ijhkluf dZjZg^Zrhf
gZ keh_ wfmevkbb \ \_jog_f m]em nhlhie_gdb Khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ ghf_jZ \ghkylky \
`mjgZe gZ[ex^_gbc k mdZaZgb_f fhf_glZ gZqZeZ wdkihabpbb __ ijh^he`bl_evghklb
b khjlZ nhlhwfmevkbb
>ebl_evghklv wdkihabpbc ^he`gZ [ulv h[yaZl_evgh aZjZg__ hij_^_e_gZ gh
nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbx Emgu \ nZa_ [ebadhc d i_j\hc
q_l\_jlb Dhg_qgh nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ Emgu ^he`gh
ijh\h^blvky lhc `_ nhlhdZf_jhc b gZ lhf `_ khjl_
nhlhwfmevkbb dhlhju_ [m^ml bkihevah\Zgu ijb
nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbb kheg_qghc dhjhgu \h \j_fy ihegh]h
aZlf_gby >ebl_evghklv wdkihabpbb ijb dhlhjhc bah[jZ`_gb_ Emgu gZ g_]Zlb\_ ihemqblky ghjfZevguf l _ g_
i_j_^_j`Zgguf b g_ [e_deuf ijbgbfZ_lky aZ bkoh^gmx
Z ijb nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbb kheg_qghc dhjhgu kgZqZeZ
mf_gvrZ_lky gZ k gh aZl_f ijb ihke_^mxsbo wdkihabpbyo ihkl_i_ggh m\_ebqb\Z_lky q_j_a bgl_j\Zeu aZ\bkysb_ hl ijh^he`bl_evghklb iheghc nZau aZlf_gby LZd gZijbf_j _keb ihegZy
nZaZ ^eblky hdheh k Z nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ dhjhgu \_^_lky gZ nhlhie_gd_ \ukhdhc
qm\kl\bl_evghklb lh k mq_lhf \j_f_gb gZ ijhly`dm nhlhie_gdb ^ey kf_gu dZ^jh\
fh`gh ijbf_gblv wdkihabpbb ^ebl_evghklvx \
b k ?keb `_
bkihevamxlky nhlhieZklbgdb jZaghc qm\kl\bl_evghklb lh i_j\u_ kgbfdb fh`gh
k^_eZlv k \u^_j`dZfb \
b k gZ \ukhdhqm\kl\bl_evghc nhlhwfmevkbb Z
ihke_^mxsb_ — k m\_ebq_gb_f \u^_j`db ^h
k gZ nhlhwfmevkbb kj_^g_c
qm\kl\bl_evghklb nhlhdZf_ju Z \hafh`gh_ qbkeh kgbfdh\ — b hl lj_gbjh\db gZ[ex^Zl_ey gZkdhevdh
[ukljh hg kmf__l f_gylv dZ^ju nhlhie_gdb beb dZkk_lu k nhlhieZklbgdZfb
Ijb nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbb kheg_qghc dhjhgu gZ p\_lgmx nhlhie_gdm
g_h[oh^bfh h[_ki_qblv dhgljhev p\_lh\ i_j_^Z\Z_fuo nhlhie_gdhc >ey wlh]h
q_j_a — fbgml ihke_ hdhgqZgby iheghc nZau aZlf_gby gm`gh gZ hl^_evguc
dZ^j lhc `_ nhlhie_gdb aZkgylv [_euc wdjZg ebkl [_ehc q_jl_`ghc [mfZ]b [_eZy
ijhklugy hk\_s_gguc Khegp_f Dhg_qgh ijb wlhf ijb^_lky mf_gvrblv ^bZnjZ]fm nhlhdZf_ju b j_adh khdjZlblv ijh^he`bl_evghklv wdkihabpbb qlh
ex[bl_eyf nhlh]jZnbb ohjhrh ba\_klgh gZ[ex^_gbc
L_ogbdZ nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby kheg_qghc dhjhgu aZ\bkbl hl bf_xs_]hky m
gZ[ex^Zl_e_c khhl\_lkl\mxs_]h h[hjm^h\Zgby Ba\_klgh qlh ebg_cgu_ jZaf_ju
nhlh]jZnbq_kdh]h bah[jZ`_gby g_[_kguo h[t_dlh\ gZ g_]Zlb\_ ijyfh
ijhihjpbhgZevgu nhdmkghfm jZkklhygbx J h[t_dlb\Z nhlhdZf_ju b \ qZklghklb m
bah[jZ`_gbc
KhegpZ
b
Emgu
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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

76 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbb kheg_qghc dhjhgu \deZ^u\Zlv dZkk_lu \ nhlhdZf_jm lhqgh lZd
`_ ih wlbf f_ldZf
?keb bf__lky \hafh`ghklv kha^Zlv g_kdhevdh mklZgh\hd ^ey
nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby kheg_qghc dhjhgu lh ihe_agh ijh\_klb bamq_gb_ ki_dljZevgh]h
khklZ\Z k\_lZ baemqZ_fh]h _x beb dZd ijbgylh ]h\hjblv \ Zkljhghfbb ijh\_klb
— p\_l hdjZkdZ
>ey wlh]h
dhehjbf_ljbx dhjhgu hl eZlbgkdh]h
nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ \_^_lky kd\hav kl_deyggu_ beb ie_ghqgu_ k\_lhnbevlju
ihf_sZ_fu_ dZd ijZ\beh f_`^m h[t_dlb\hf b nhlhieZklbgdhc nhlhie_gdhc
[eb`_ d ihke_^g_c b[h lh]^Z ^_n_dlu fZl_jbZeZ k\_lhnbevljZ hdZ`ml f_gvr__
\ebygb_ gZ bah[jZ`_gb_ dhjhgu \ p_ehf b ebrv \ hl^_evguo f_klZo \uah\ml g_[hevrb_ bkdZ`_gby KlZ\blv k\_lhnbevlj i_j_^ h[t_dlb\hf fh`gh ebrv \ lhf
kemqZ_ _keb hg ba]hlh\e_g ba hq_gv ohjhrh hlrebnh\Zggh]h hilbq_kdh]h kl_deZ
\ukhdh]h dZq_kl\Z Ij_`^_ \k_]h ke_^m_l ijbf_gblv `_eluc b kbgbc k\_lhnbevlju
Z ijb \hafh`ghklb — djZkguc b a_e_guc
Gm`gh ihfgblv qlh ihklZ\e_gguc f_`^m h[t_dlb\hf b nhlhwfmevkb_c
k\_lhnbevlj hl^Zey_l j_adh_ bah[jZ`_gb_ hl h[t_dlb\Z ijbf_jgh iZ
k\h_c
lhesbgu Ijbf_g_gb_ jZaebqguo k\_lhnbevljh\ ijb [hevrhf nhdmkghf jZkklhygbb
h[t_dlb\Z fh`_l ihlj_[h\Zlv jZaebqghc nhdmkbjh\db nhlhdZf_ju hl^_evgh ^ey
dZ`^h]h k\_lhnbevlljZ Ihfbfh wlh]h d dZ`^hfm k\_lhnbevljm lj_[m_lky ih^[hj
nhlhwfmevkbc gZb[he__ qm\kl\bl_evguo d k\_lh\uf emqZf ijhimkdZ_fuf
k\_lhnbevljhf Z lZd`_ ih^[hj ^ebl_evghklb wdkihabpbc mklZgZ\eb\Z_fhc dZd h[
wlhf m`_ [ueh kdZaZgh nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_f Emgu
Nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ kheg_qghc dhjhgu k ^ebl_evgufb wdkihabpbyfb
ijh\h^blky i_ f_g__ q_f lj_fy gZ[ex^Zl_eyfb h^bg ba dhlhjuo ]b^bjm_l \_^_l
bgkljmf_gl \lhjhc f_gy_l dZkk_lu g_ aZ[u\Zy k\h_\j_f_ggh bo hldju\Zlv g
aZdju\Zlv Z lj_lbc hldju\Z_l b aZdju\Z_l djurdhc ieb aZl\hjhf h[t_dlb\
nhlhdZf_ju gZf_q_ggu_ fhf_glu \j_f_gb \hkijbgbfZ_fu_ iZ kemo ih bo ]jhfdhfm kq_lm
dhlhjuc \_^_l ki_pbZevgh gZagZq_gguc gZ[ex^Zl_ev
?keb bf__lky \hafh`ghklv ijbh[j_klb nhlhieZklbgdb gbadhc
qm\kl\bl_evghklb gZijbf_j ^bZihablb\gu_ lh fh`gh j_dhf_g^h\Zlv ihfbfh
kheg_qghc dhjhgu nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ kheg_qguo k_jih\ gZqbgZy fbgml aZ ^h
iheghc nZau aZlf_gby b aZdZgqb\Zy q_j_a fbgml ihke_ __ hdhgqZgby Gh ^ey wlh]h
ke_^m_l aZ^bZnjZ]fbjh\Zlv h[t_dlb\ nhlhdZf_ju b ijbf_gylv djZldh\j_f_ggu_ wdkihabpbb baf_jy_fu_ khlufb ^heyfb k_dmg^u h[t_dlb\hf ih^oh^ysbc g_cljZevguc k\_lhnbevlj ^hklZlhqghc iehlghklb b
\ukhdh]h dZq_kl\Z lh ^ebl_evghklv wdkihabpbb fh`_l [ulv m\_ebq_gZ ^h k HgZ
ih^[bjZ_lky aZjZg__ ih nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbx KhegpZ Bgl_j\Zeu f_`^m wdkihabpbyfb
fh]ml khklZ\eylv — fbg
Nhlhf_ljby kheg_qghc dhjhgu Ijhp_kk bamq_gby jZkij_^_e_gby yjdhklb
\ kheg_qghc dhjhg_ gZau\Z_lky __ nhlhf_ljb_c ?keb gZ[ex^Zl_ev bf__l `_eZgb_
bamqblv jZkij_^_e_gb_ yjdhklb \ kheg_qghc dhjhg_ lh _]h aZ^ZqZ agZqbl_evgh
mkeh`gy_lky Nhlh]jZnbq_kdb_ kgbfdb ij_^gZagZq_ggu_ ^ey nhlhf_ljbq_kdbo
bkke_^h\Zgbc lj_[mxl dZeb[jh\db Wlh agZqbl qlh ihfbfh nhlhkgbfdZ dhjhgu
gm`gh ihemqblv nhlhf_ljbq_kdmx rdZem rdZem yjdhklb dhlhjZy iha\hebl


































































































 













































 







































































































































 





































































































 

















































































































































































































































































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fZjlZ



]h^Z 73





klmi_gqZlhc khklhys_c ba g_kdhevdbo dhevp_\uo a\_gv_\ =eZ\gh_ — wlh h[_ki_qblv
k\_lhg_ijhgbpZ_fhklv i_j_oh^ghc ljm[db qlh[u \ g__ g_ ihiZ^Ze ihklhjhggbc k\_l
I_j_oh^gZy ljm[dZ ba]hlh\ey_lky lZdhc ^ebgu qlh[u nhlhie_gdZ
gZoh^ysZyky \ dZf_j_ hlklhyeZ hl h[t_dlb\Z l_e_kdhiZ gZ __ nhdmkghf jZkklhygbb
Ihke_ mdj_ie_gby nhlhdZf_ju gZ l_e_kdhi_ ijh\h^blky __ nhdmkbjh\dZ ih yjdhc
a\_a^_ i_j\hc Z emqr_ \lhjhc a\_a^ghc \_ebqbgu K ihfhsvx bkdZl_ey l_e_kdhi k
dZf_jhc gZ\h^blky gZ a\_a^m b hklZ\ey_lky g_ih^\b`guf Nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ a\_a^u
ijh\h^blky g_kdhevdh jZa ijb jZaebqguo nbdkbjm_fuo b hlf_qZ_fuo \ `mjgZe_
iheh`_gbyo \u^\b`ghc hdmeyjghc qZklb l_e_kdhiZ k nhlhdZf_jhc Ijh^he`bl_evghklv dZ`^hc wdkihabpbb — hdheh k k i_j_ju\Zfb ih k gh ihke_^gyy
wdkihabpby eb[h m^ebgy_lky ^h
k eb[h ijh\h^blky ijb ke_]dZ k^\bgmlhf
l_e_kdhi_ qlh[u gZ g_]Zlb\_ fh`gh [ueh mklZgh\blv ihke_^h\Zl_evghklv
wdkihabpbc GZ ijhy\e_gghc b hlnbdkbjh\Zgghc nhlhie_gd_ ijhjZ[hlZ_lky
ij_ju\bklZy ebgby a\_gvy dhlhjhc bf_xl jZaebqgmx rbjbgm Ie_gdZ
jZkkfZljb\Z_lky kd\hav emim GZb[he__ madh_ b j_adh_ a\_gh hagZqZ_l gZbemqrmx
nhdmkbjh\dm nhlhdZf_ju Khhl\_lkl\mxs__ wlhc nhdmkbjh\d_ iheh`_gb_
\u^\b`ghc hdmeyjghc qZklb l_e_kdhiZ hlh`^_kl\ey_lky ih hlf_ldZf gZ g_c b ih
aZibkyf \ `mjgZe_ ijh\h^bfuf \ ijhp_kk_ nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgby a\_a^u K wlhc
nhdmkbjh\dhc b ke_^m_l nhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv kheg_qgmx dhjhgm \h \j_fy ihegh]h
kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby
G_h[oh^bfh bf_lv \ \b^m qlh nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ kheg_qghc dhjhgu ijb
g_ih^\b`ghf l_e_kdhi_ \hafh`gh lhevdh k \u^_j`dhc g_ ij_\urZxs_c k Ijb
[he__ ^ebl_evguo wdkihabpbyo g_h[oh^bfh f_^e_ggh b ieZ\gh ih\hjZqb\Zlv lm[mk
l_e_kdhiZ k dZf_jhc aZ kmlhqguf ^\b`_gb_f aZlfb\r_]hky KhegpZ \k_ \j_fy
m^_j`b\Zy _]h bah[jZ`_gb_ \ p_glj_ ihey aj_gby bkdZl_ey LZdhc ijhp_kk ieZ\gh]h
ih\hjhlZ bgkljmf_glZ k h^gh\j_f_gguf ke_`_gb_f aZ k\_lbehf gZau\Z_lky
]b^bjh\Zgb_f GZ\udb \ ]b^bjh\Zgbb \ujZ[Zlu\Zxlky ijb kbkl_fZlbq_kdbo
gZ[ex^_gbyo \ l_e_kdhi a\_a^ b ieZg_l =jm[h_ gZ\_^_gb_ l_e_kdhiZ k dZf_jhc gZ
Khegp_ i_j_^ iheguf aZlf_gb_f \_kvfZ ijhklh hkms_kl\blv ih l_gb l_e_kdhiZ
H^bg gZ[ex^Zl_ev ^_j`bl aZ hdmeyjguf dhgphf l_e_kdhiZ [_euc wdjZg ebkl
dZjlhgZ ihdjuluc [_ehc [mfZ]hc Z \lhjhc ih\hjZqb\Z_l lm[mk l_e_kdhiZ b ke_^bl
aZ _]h l_gvx gZ wdjZg_ Dh]^Z l_e_kdhi [m^_l gZ\_^_g gZ Khegp_ l_gv gZ wdjZg_
klZg_l gZbf_gvr_c b kbff_ljbqghc Ihke_ wlh]h ^ey [he__ lhqgh]h gZ\_^_gby
bkihevam_lky bkdZl_ev ij_^\Zjbl_evgh ijbdjuluc l_fguf k\_lhnbevljhf Ijb
iheghc nZa_ aZlf_gby k\_lhnbevlj k bkdZl_ey kgbfZ_lky
GZb[he__ jZpbhgZevgh nhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv kheg_qgmx dhjhgm nhlhdZf_jhc
h[t_dlb\ dhlhjhc bf__l nhdmkgh_ jZkklhygb_ — kf b ^Z_l \ nhdZevghc
iehkdhklb bah[jZ`_gb_ KhegpZ ^bZf_ljhf \ — ff LZdmx nhlhdZf_jm g_ljm^gh
ba]hlh\blv \ \b^_ ysbdZ ba lheklhc nZg_ju \udjZkb\ __ \gmljb q_jghc fZlh\hc
djZkdhc b hde_b\ kgZjm`b q_jghc [mfZ]hc ^ey h[_ki_q_gby k\_lhg_ijhgbpZ_fhklb <
i_j_^g_c kl_gd_ ysbdZ ijhj_aZ_lky djm]eh_ hl\_jklb_ ^ey ijbdj_iey_fh]h d g_c
h[t_dlb\Z Z gZ aZ^g_c kl_gd_ mklZgZ\eb\Zxlky aZdjZbgu kZeZadb ba lhgdbo
f_lZeebq_kdbo ihehkhd \ dhlhju_ \klZ\ey_lky dZkk_lZ k nhlhieZklbgdhc D dZf_j_















































































































 



























 





































 









































































































 



































 







































































































 



































































































































 































































 

















 











































































































 





























 



















:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

74 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbb kheg_qghc dhjhgu JZaf_ju dZkk_l aZ\bkyl hl ijbf_gy_fuo
nhlhieZklbghd bf_xsboky \ gZebqbb i_j_gmf_jh\u\Zxlky I_j_^ aZlf_gb_f hgb aZjy`Zxlky nhlhieZklbgdZfb b
mdeZ^u\Zxlky klhidhc \ ihjy^d_ ghf_jh\ jy^hf k gZ[ex^Zl_e_f
LZdhc nhlhdZf_jhc g_h[oh^bfh nhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv kheg_qgmx dhjhgm k
jZaebqgufb \u^_j`dZfb hl ^h k Gh ijb \k_o \u^_j`dZo k\ur_ k dZf_jm
gm`gh ih\hjZqb\Zlv \ gZijZ\e_gbb kmlhqgh]h ^\b`_gby KhegpZ < emqr_f kemqZ_
wlh]h fh`gh ^hklbqv mdj_ie_gb_f dZf_ju gZ lm[mk_ l_e_kdhiZ kj_^gbo jZaf_jh\
^bZf_ljhf \ — kf mklZgh\e_gghf gZ iZjZeeZdlbq_kdhc wd\ZlhjbZevghc
fhglbjh\d_ KZf l_e_kdhi [m^_l kem`blv ]b^hf gZ[ex^Zy \ dhlhjuc b ieZ\gh
ih\hjZqb\Zy lm[mk h^gbf \_^msbf dexqhf ke_^m_l m^_j`b\Zlv kheg_qgmx dhjhgm \
p_glj_ ihey aj_gby l_e_kdhiZ qlh hkh[_ggh m^h[gh ijb bkihevah\Zgbb hdmeyjZ k
gZlygmlufb \ g_f lhgdbfb gblyfb Dhg_qgh \j_fy hl \j_f_gb ijboh^blky bgh]^Z
ih^ijZ\eylv ]b^bjh\Zgb_ ^jm]bf dexqhf Ijb lZdhf kihkh[_ ]b^bjh\Zgby
g_h[oh^bfh aZdZgqb\Zlv nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgb_ kheg_qghc dhjhgu g_ f_g__ q_f aZ k ^h
\uqbke_ggh]h fhf_glZ hdhgqZgby iheghc nZau aZlf_gby lZd dZd i_j\uc `_
kheg_qguc emq ihy\b\rbcky ba-aZ djZy Emgu fh`_l ih\j_^blv ]eZaZ
< ijbgpbi_ ]b^bjh\Zlv l_e_kdhi beb nhlhdZf_jm lhqg__ fh`gh ih h^ghc ba
yjdbo ieZg_l gh \h \j_fy wlh]h kheg_qgh]h aZlf_gby ieZg_lu jZkiheh`_gu kebrdhf
^Ze_dh hl KhegpZ qlh aZljm^gy_l bo bkihevah\Zgb_ \eZ^_xsb_ hkgh\Zfb Zkljhf_ljbb fh]ml \uqbkeblv jZaghklv wd\ZlhjbZevguo
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?keb ih^oh^ys_]h l_e_kdhiZ gZ wd\ZlhjbZevghc fhglbjh\d_ g_ bf__lky lh
^ey ]b^bjh\Zgby dZf_ju g_ljm^gh ba]hlh\blv mklZgh\dm bah[jZ`_ggmx gb`_ >hkdZ
: mdj_iey_lky g_ih^\b`gh gZ hihjghc ]hjbahglZevghc ^hkd_ lZd qlh[u hgZ
h[jZah\u\ZeZ k g_x m]he
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[ueZ gZijZ\e_gZ lhqgh gZ lhqdm x]Z mklZgh\dZ \ f_jb^bZg_ Lh]^Z iehkdhklv ^hkdb
[m^_l i_ji_g^bdmeyjghc d hkb fbjZ M]he gZdehgZ h[_ki_qb\Z_lky ^\mfy ijhqgufb
klhcdZfb beb \_jlbdZevghc ^hkdhc ? Z g_ih^\b`ghklv— ]jmahf iheh`_gguf gZ
hihjgmx ]hjbahglZevgmx ^hkdm F GZ gZdehggmx ^hkdm : gZdeZ^u\Z_lky ^hkdZ <
bf_xsZy nhjfm k_dlhjZ djm]Z \ — b kdj_iey_lky k g_c [helhf \hdjm]
dhlhjh]h hgZ fh`_l ih\hjZqb\Zlvky H[_ ^hkdb : b < ^he`gu [ulv qbklh
\ukljm]Zgu Z ^m]m k_dlhjZ < ke_^m_l lsZl_evgh hlrebnh\Zlv gZibevgbdhf b
h[lygmlv j_abghc Ih k_j_^bg_ k_dlhjZ < gZghkblky lhgdZy ijyfZy ebgby dhlhjZy
ijb kj_^g_f iheh`_gbb k_dlhjZ gZijZ\e_gZ gZ x] NhlhdZf_jZ K ijhqgh dj_iblky d
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aZlf_gby l _ m]he \ ’ ijbq_f h[t_dlb\ dZf_ju ijbih^gyl d\_jom gZ wlhl m]he
AZl_f wlZ ^hs_qdZ \f_kl_ k nhlhdZf_jhc gZdeZ^u\Z_lky gZ k_dlhj < b ijb\bgqb\Z_lky d g_fm h^gbf rmjmihf k lZdbf jZkq_lhf qlh[u hgZ fh]eZ ih\hjZqb\Zlvky
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bkdZl_ev g_[hevrmx hilbq_kdmx ljm[dm dZf_ju dhlhjuc mklZgZ\eb\Z_lky gZ
\_jog_c kl_gd_ dZf_ju iZjZee_evgh __ hilbq_kdhc hkb < nhdZevghc iehkdhklb
hdmeyjZ bkdZl_ey ihe_agh gZlygmlv dj_kl ba lhgdbo gbl_c beb \hehkdh\
<_kvfZ kms_kl\_ggh ijZ\bevgh mklZgh\blv nhlhdZf_jm \ gZijZ\e_gbb gZ
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aZgbfZlv jZaebqgh_ iheh`_gb_ hlghkbl_evgh g_[_kgh]h f_jb^bZgZ \ iehkdhklb
dhlhjh]h jZkiheZ]Z_lky mklZgh\dZ k dZf_jhc ijyfZy ebgby gZ k_dlhj_ < gZijZ\e_gZ
gZ x] AZ g_kdhevdh fbgml ^h gZqZeZ ihegh]h aZlf_gby gm`gh gZijZ\blv
nhlhdZf_jm gZ Khegp_ ih\hjZqb\Zy __ \hdjm] dj_iys_]h rmjmiZ b ke_^y \ bkdZl_ev
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80 :kljhD:– Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_






fZjlZ



]h^Z 77





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hlghkbl_evguo _^bgbpZo
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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

78 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

84 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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:kljhD: – Kheg_qgh_ aZlf_gb_

82 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z

 

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86 :kljhD:–Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_fZjlZ]h^Z



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