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    АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
    ЯЗЫК
    ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ
    РАДИОТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ
    СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ
    ВУЗОВ

    Минск 2006
    Авторы: Е.П.Тарасова, Т.Г.Шелягова, В.П.Киселева, Н.И.Шавель

    Английский язык для студентов радиотехнических специальностей
    А64
    вузов: Е.П.Тарасова, Т.Г.Шелягова, В.П. Киселеваи др. - Мн.:
    БГУИР, 2006.− 213 с.
    Учебное пособие направлено на формирование лексических навыков по
    тематике радиотехнического профиля, а также развитие навыков и умений чтения и
    говорения по специальности. Авторами учебного пособия соблюдены
    преемственность школьного и вузовского курсов, реализовано требование
    профессионально-ориентированного обучения.
    В пособии имеется грамматический справочник, фонетический справочник
    и словарь общенаучной лексики.

    СONTENTS
    Unit One ............................................................................................................5
    2

    Lesson 1 (5). Lesson 2 (8). Lesson 3 (10). Lesson 4 (11).
    Unit Twо .........................................................................................................13
    Lesson 1 (13). Lesson 2 (16). Lesson 3 (18). Lesson 4 (19).
    Unit T h r e e ....................................................................................................21
    Lesson 1 (21). Lesson 2 (25). Lesson 3 (27). Lesson 4 (27).
    Unit Fоur ........................................................................................................29
    Lesson 1 (29). Lesson 2 (32). Lesson 3 (33). Lesson 4 (35).
    Unit Five ........................................................................................................36
    Lesson 1 (37). Lesson 2 (39). Lesson 3 (41). Lesson 4 (42).
    Unit Six ..........................................................................................................43
    Lesson 1 (44). Lesson 2 (47). Lesson 3 (48). Lesson 4 (50).
    Unit S e v e n ................................................................................................52
    Lesson 1 (52). Lesson 2 (54). Lesson 3 (56). Lesson 4 (58).
    Unit E i g h t ...................................................................................................59
    Lesson 1 (59). Lesson 2 (61). Lesson 3 (63). Lesson 4 (65).
    Unit Nine ........................................................................................................67
    Lesson 1 (67). Lesson 2 (69). Lesson 3 (71). Lesson 4 (73).
    Unit Ten ...........................................................................................................74
    Lesson 1 (74). Lesson 2 (76). Lesson 3 (79). Lesson 4 (80).
    Unit E l e v e n ...............................................................................................82
    Lesson 1 (82). Lesson 2 (84). Lesson 3 (86). Lesson 4 (87).
    Unit Twelve ......................................................................................................89
    Lesson 1 (89). Lesson 2 (92). Lesson 3 (94). Lesson 4 (95).
    Unit T h i r t e e n ...........................................................................................97
    Lesson 1 (97). Lesson 2 (100). Lesson 3 (103). Lesson 4 (105).
    Unit F o u r t e e n .......................................................................................107
    Lesson 1 (107). Lesson 2 (109). Lesson 3 (111). Lesson 4 (113).
    Unit F i f t e e n ...............................................................................................115
    Lesson 1 (115). Lesson 2 (119). Lesson 3 (121). Lesson 4 (123).

    Грамматический справочник
    I. Г л а г о л .....................................................................................................126
    3

    §1. Основные формы глагола ...................................................................126
    §2. Система грамматических времен английского языка .....................127
    §3. Страдательный залог .........................................................................129
    §4. Согласование времен .........................................................................131
    §5. Модальные глаголы ...........................................................................132
    §6. Сослагательное наклонение ..............................................................134
    §7. Условные предложения ......................................................................136
    §8. Глагол to be .........................................................................................137
    §9. Глагол to have ......................................................................................138
    §10. Глагол to do ........................................................................................138
    §11. Глагол should ......................................................................................139
    §12. Глагол would........................................................................................139
    II. Неличные ф о р м ы г л а г о л а ...............................................................140
    §13. Инфинитив .........................................................................................140
    §14. Причастие ...........................................................................................142
    §15. Герундий ..............................................................................................144
    Ш.А н а л и з п р е д л о ж е н и я ......................................................................146
    §16. Простое предложение .........................................................................146
    §17. Сложное предложение ....................................................................149
    §18. Усилительные конструкции ..........................................................151
    §19. Определительные сочетания...........................................................151
    IV. М н о г о ф у н к ц и о н а л ь н ы е м е с т о и м е н и я ...........................153
    §20 It .............................................................................................................153
    §21. That-those .............................................................................................153
    §22. These ....................................................................................................154
    §23. One ........................................................................................................155
    §24. Грамматическая омонимичность слов,
    оканчивающихся на -s, -ed, -ing .................................................................155
    Фонетический справочник................................................................................157
    Словарь общенаучной лексики .......................................... .............................160

    READING COURSE
    4

    UNIT ONE
    • Grammar: Simple Sentence (§ 76).
    Indefinite Tenses in the Active and Passive Voice (§2, 1).
    • Word-formation: suffixes -er, -or.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Indefinite Tenses".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    inquiry [In'kwaIqri], physicist ['fizIsIst], discharge [dIs'tSa :G], genius
    [ ' G I : n I q s ] , medium ['mI:dIqm], ether ['i:Tq], circuit ['sE:kIt], to impinge
    [Im'pInG], diaphragm ['dqIqfrxm] , interference [ˏIntq'fiqrqns] , disturbance
    [dis'tE:bqns] , to distinguish [di'stiNwiS], audience ['O:dIqns], to supervise
    ['su:pqvaIz], circumference [sq'kAmfqrqns], convenience [kqn'vI:nIqns].
    II. Make sure if you can read the words correctly and say what Russian words
    help you to guess their meaning:
    gigantic, phenomenon, stress, reality, concept, theory, component, battery,
    apparatus, centre, radius, technique, natural, idea, definition, genius, history,
    diaphragm, experiment, polarization, radio, diffraction, atmosphere, interference,
    system, telegraph, communication, telephone, radiation, limit, mathematics.
    III. Form nouns adding the suffixes -er, -or to the given verbs. Translate the
    nouns and verbs into Russian:
    Example: to design – a designer (конструировать – конструктор)
    to detect – a detector (детектировать – детектор)
    to build, to operate, to contain, to receive, to read, to produce, to transmit, to
    invent, to discover, to drive, to translate, to visit, to convert, to regulate, to
    accumulate, to react, to use, to vibrate, to record.
    IV. Give the initial words of the following derivatives:
    Example: wireless – wire
    transmission – to transmit
    greatly, discharge, lecturer, atmospheric, successful, improvement, inventor,
    radiation, definition, equipment, purely, economic, powerful, development,
    operation, rapidly, information, atomic, magnetic, agreement, regulation, instruction,
    communication, technological, considerable, generation, separately, production,
    industrial, historic, logical, researcher.
    V. State what parts of speech the words in heavy type belong to. Translate the
    sentences into Russian:
    1. The study of this phenomenon is very important. The physicists study the
    structure of matter. 2. Energy can have many forms. What forms the basis of this
    compound? 3. We time our clock by radio. It is high time to go to the Institute. 4.
    5

    The train leaves at six in the evening. Will you go to the Crimea on leave? 5. We
    must set the time for the beginning of the experiment. Give this worker a set of
    tools. 6. Air is a mixture of gases. Air the room, please. 7. The generator charges
    the batteries. The charges of an electron and of a proton are equal in strength. 8. The
    experiment may result in a new scientific concept. The result of the process was the
    release of the energy. 9. Point out a mistake in this translation. Speak to the point.
    10. It is light in the room. Don't light the lamps.
    VI. Define the parts of the following simple sentences. Translate the sentences
    into Russian:
    1. In the first year the students have many general subjects. 2. This article is about
    the story of radio. 3. She began to translate the text yesterday. 4. Every student is
    present at the lecture today. 5. The methods of radio engineering are now used in
    various fields of science and technology. 6. There are thousands of radio amateurs
    different countries. 7. One cannot read such articles without a dictionary. 8. It is
    necessary to help him. 9. We usually take measurements with great accuracy. 10. It
    becomes cold in autumn. 11. There were many explanations of the phenomenon of
    light. 12. In January, it snowed all the time. 13. Several types of microphones are in
    wide use now. 14. Nobody could solve this problem. 15. One may determine the
    wave frequency. 16. Let us take part in the expedition. 17. To read is necessary. 18.
    Energy is the ability to work. 19. By reading English books we increase our
    vocabulary. 20. They offered me some interesting work. 21. There exist various types
    of radio receivers. 22. Every day at 8 o'clock in the morning the students come to the
    Institute.
    VII. Define the tense-forms of the verbs in the following sentences and translate
    them:
    1. Yesterday the students of our group came to help me with mathematics. 2.
    Our scientists will further develop various kinds of computers. 3. Radio waves are
    the longest members of the family of electromagnetic waves. 4. Where did the first
    international conference on radio take place? 5. Modern orbital stations weigh up
    to 20 tons. 6. If you work much, you will get good results. 7. My friend does not
    like sports. 8.
    Will you go to the library tomorrow? 9. When the lectures are
    over, we shall go to the reading hall. 10. We shall meet tomorrow at the same
    place. 11. According to the time-table, the train gets in at half past eight. 12. I left
    school three years ago. 13.1 completely agree with your opinion. 14. She not only
    sings, she plays the guitar as well. 15. You found the lost book, didn't you? 16. He
    spoke to me in a very friendly way. 17. Which part of the concert did you like
    most? 18. It was so warm a day that we decided to go to the river. 19. She speaks
    English well. 20. Electricity cables stretch over the fields. 21. We shall not leave
    home until you come. 22. She never listens to the advice which I give her. 23. If the
    water continues to rise, these fields will be under water.
    VIII. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
    1. He will give you the book when you need it. 2. If we put water into a tube, it
    6

    will take the shape of the tube. 3. I'll solve this equation if you help me. 4. Unless it is
    too late, we shall go there. 5. The circle will become an ellipse after you compress it.
    6. We shall use this substance in the experiment provided it has the necessary
    properties. 7. As soon as you return from the lab, we'll begin our work. 8.1 won't be
    able to explain this phenomenon if I do not analyse all the data. 9. Your experiment
    will not give good results until you change the speed of the reaction. 10. My friend
    will translate the text if you give him your dictionary. 11. I shall do it if it is
    necessary. 12. If he concentrates his attention on his studies, he will pass his exams
    successfully.
    IX. Soy the following sentences in the Past Indefinite Active. Don't forget to make
    the necessary changes:
    Example: He usually has his breakfast at 8 o'clock, (yesterday, at 9 o'clock)
    Yesterday he had his breakfast at 9 o'clock.
    1. John often tells me about his holidays, (yesterday afternoon, his family) 2. The
    postman usually comes at half past seven, (the day before yesterday, at six) 3. We go
    to the seaside for a week every August, (last autumn, into the country) 4. She always
    arrives at the office a few minutes before nine o'clock, (yesterday morning, at nine
    o'clock) 5. They sometimes go to the theatre, (last month, to the circus) 6. She often
    writes to her mother, (last week, two letters) 7. His sister regularly attends evening
    classes at the Institute, (two years ago, an open-air pool) 8. He is always at home on
    Sunday, (last Sunday, at the library). 9. Lessons begin at nine o'clock, (on Monday, at
    half past nine)
    X. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the verbs in the
    Indefinite Passive:
    1. Sounds are produced by the vibration of matter. 2. The translation from one
    language into another will soon be performed by computers. 3. Waves are carried
    in all directions from the vibrating body, 4. The first-year students are not taught
    special subjects. 5. Many problems of great interest are discussed at our seminars. 6.
    A lot of us were invited to the conference. 7. The methods of radio engineering are
    now applied in various fields of science and technology. 8. The agreement was
    signed ten years ago. 9. The research will be carried out over a period of four
    months. 10. Much attention is given to the development of radio engineering. 11.
    Lasers are now used for many scientific, medical and industrial purposes. 12. The
    laboratories of our Institute are equipped with modern devices. 13. The results of
    these experiments will be published in a scientific journal. 14. The importance of
    sport is known to everybody. 15. We were provided with the necessary literature.
    16. The equations were solved by the machine.. 17. The young scientist was invited
    to take part in the conference.
    XI. Say the following sentences in the Indefinite Passive. Use the words in heavy
    type as the subjects of your sentences:
    Example: Scientists use crystals in electronic devices.
    Crystals are used by scientists in electronic devices.
    1. Scientists developed several types of lasers. 2. I shall inform you about the
    7

    new discovery. 3. Solar batteries generate electricity. 4. The researcher carries out
    the experiments at high temperatures. 5. You always make the same mistakes. 6.
    He will bring the book next time. 7. Radio employs electrical energy to transmit
    sounds, images and signals. 8. The lecturer spoke about the latest works in the
    sphere of radioelectronics. 9. He showed me the articles from the latest magazine.
    10. Mendeleyev presented his table in 1869. 11. New data will support the results
    of our research. 12. These devices distribute the electric energy. 13. Heat converts
    ice into water. 14. A.S.Popov invented the first radio receiver. 15. The engineer
    will check the apparatus in the lab. 16. Their laboratory occupies a separate part
    of the building. 19. Radio devices perform various communication tasks. 18. We
    use such devices for amplification of radio signals.
    XII. Make sure if you remember the following verbs. Consult a dictionary:
    to follow, to show, to reduce, to exist, to differ, to correspond, to impinge, to
    suggest, to measure, to confirm, to appear, to inspire, to supervise, to change, to add,
    to draw, to mean, to reason, to create, to call, to hold, to develop, to broadcast, to
    use.
    XIII.
    Match up the words similar in meaning:
    to begin, to call, to reduce, essential, to start, to decide, to receive, definite, to
    name, velocity, to produce, to decrease, to apply, quickly, speed, to operate,
    research, to suggest, to obtain, to propose, investigation, to make, to use, certain,
    rapidly, principal, to work, to solve.
    XIV. Listen to the tape-recorded lexical programme. Try to memorize the words
    and word-groups:
    ■ to take a step forward – сделать шаг вперед ■ to put forward a theory –
    выдвинуть теорию ■ merely – только, всего лишь ■ to make a discovery –
    сделать открытие ■ essential – основной ■ to give rise to – способствовать ■
    loose – свободный, незакрепленный ■ mouthpiece – микрофон ■ to suggest a
    method – предложить метод ■ to turn to –обратиться ■ thereby – посредством
    этого to include – включать в состав, содержать ■ persistent – упорный,
    настойчивый ■ convenience – удобство ■ point – точка.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    The Story of Radio
    1. Without understanding the inquiries of pure science1, we cannot follow the
    story of radio. It begins perhaps with Joseph Henry, an American physicist, who
    discovered in 1842 that electrical discharges were oscillating. A gigantic step forward
    was taken by James Maxwell, a Scottish physicist and one of the great mathematical
    geniuses of the 19-th century. By purely mathematical reasoning2, Maxwell showed
    that all electrical and magnetic phenomena could be reduced to stresses and motions
    in a medium, which he called the ether. Today we know that this "electrical medium"
    8

    does not exist in reality3. Yet the concept of an ether helped greatly, and allowed
    Maxwell to put forward his theory that the velocity of electric waves in air should be
    equal to that of the velocity of light waves, both being the same kind of waves4,
    merely differing in wave length.
    2. In 1878, David Hughes, an American physicist, made another important
    discovery in the pre-history of radio and its essential components. He found that a
    loose contact in a circuit containing a battery and a telephone receiver (invented by
    Bell in 1876) would give rise to sounds in the receiver, which corresponded to those
    that had impinged upon the diaphragm of the mouthpiece.
    3. In 1883, George Fitzgerald, an Irish physicist, suggested a method by which
    electromagnetic waves might be produced by the discharge of a condenser. Next we
    must turn to Heinrich Hertz, the famous German physicist, who was the first to
    create, detect and measure electromagnetic waves, and thereby experimentally
    confirmed Maxwell's theory of "ether" waves. In his experiments he showed that
    these waves were capable of reflection, refraction, polarization, diffraction and
    interference.
    4. A.S.Popov (1859-1906) was in 1895 a lecturer in physics. He set up a receiver
    in 1895, and read a paper about it at the Meeting of the Russian Physico-Chemical
    Society on April 25 (May 7, New Style) 1895. He demonstrated the world's first radio
    receiver, which he called "an apparatus for the detection and registration of electric
    oscillations". By means of this equipment, Popov could1 register electrical
    disturbances, including atmospheric ones. In March 1896 he gave a further
    demonstration before the same society. At that meeting the words "Heinrich Hertz"
    were transmitted by wireless telegraphy in Morse code and similarly received before
    a distinguished scientific audience5. Popov became the inventor of the radio, May 7
    being celebrated each yearas "Radio Day" in many countries.
    5. Marconi invented a system of highly successful wireless telegraphy, and
    inspired and supervised its application.
    6. Such is the story of the many inventors of wireless telegraphy, working with
    each other's equipment, adding new ideas and new improvements to them. It was a
    patient, persistent inquiry into natural laws and it was animated by the love of
    knowledge6.
    7. During the first years of its development, radio communication was called
    "wireless telegraphy and telephone". This name was too long for convenience and
    was later changed to "radio" which comes from the well-known Latin word "radius"
    – a straight line drawn from the centre of a circle to a point on its circumference.
    Wireless transmission was named radio transmission, or simply "radio".
    8. The term "radio" now means the radiation of waves by transmitting stations,
    their propagation through space, and reception by receiving stations. The radio
    technique has become closely associated with many other branches of science and
    engineering and it is now difficult to limit the word "radio" to any simple definition.

    Notes
    9

    1. without understanding the inquiries of pure science – на зная истоков чистой науки
    2. by purely mathematical reasoning – при помощи чисто математических рассуждений
    3. does not exist in reality – на самом деле не существует
    4. both being the same kind of waves – причем обе являются волнами одного типа
    5. distinguished audience – авторитетная аудитория
    6. to be animated by the love of knowledge – быть движимым любовью к знаниям

    II. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. H.Hertz was the first to create electromagnetic waves. 2. A.S.Popov could not
    register atmospheric disturbances. 3. A.S.Popov is the inventor of the radio. 4. The
    words "Heinrich Hertz" were transmitted by wireless telegraphy in Morse code.
    III. Answer the following questions on paragraph I:
    1. Who discovered the oscillation of electrical discharges? 2. Does "the ether"
    exist in reality? 3. What did the concept of an ether help Maxwell in?
    IV.Find the information dealing with the discovery made by David Hughes.
    Relate this information to your partner.
    V. Which paragraph contains the information directly connected with the
    invention of radio. Render this information.
    VI.Translate paragraph 5-6 into Russian.
    VII.Read paragraph 5 and speak about Marconi's contribution to the
    development of radio.
    VIII.Explain the origin of the word "radio".
    IX. Speak about the story of radio using the information from the text.

    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents ,
    facilitating reading Text B:
    to concern – касаться, относиться; to design – конструировать; equipment –
    оборудование; home-made – отечественный; electronic valve – электронная
    лампа; broadcasting station – радиовещательная станция; superpower oscillator
    valve – сверхмощная генераторная лампа; under the guidance – под
    руководством; special-purpose radio station – радиостанция специального
    назначения; amateur designer – радиолюбитель (конструктор); radio-controlled
    models – радиоуправляемые модели; remote control ─ дистанционное
    управление; far-away Galaxies – отдаленные Галактики.

    II.Skim through text В and say in Russian or in English what it is about. You are
    given 3 minutes.
    10

    Text В
    Nowadays local radio stations broadcast their own programmes in addition to
    relaying central radio broadcast programmes. Dozens of thousands1 of various
    special-purpose radio stations are in operation in aeroplanes, trains, ships, etc. There
    are also thousands of radio amateurs who use short-wave radio sets for long-distance
    contacts, "fox-hunters" (a special kind of sport), amateur designers constructing
    radio-controlled models of aeroplanes and ships as well as many other types of
    different purpose radio equipment.
    In the late 1930s and especially after World War II other branches of radio
    engineering developed rapidly: television, remote control of different equipment by
    means of radio (telecontrol), radio-location (radar), radio navigation, etc.
    The methods of radio engineering are now used in various fields of science and
    technology, e.g. in physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, astronomy, mathematics,
    etc. At present there is no branch of science where use is not made of2 some kind of
    radio equipment. Distant areas of the Universe are studied with the help of radio.
    Spacecrafts are guided by radio. Radio devices have made it possible the information
    to be obtained3 about the mysterious and amazing phenomena taking place in faraway Galaxies as well as inside atomic nuclei.
    Notes
    1) dozens of thousands – десятки тысяч
    2) use is not made of – не используется
    3) have made it possible the information to be obtained – дали возможность получить
    информацию

    III. Look through the text again and say:
    a) what branches of radio engineering rapidly developed after World War II;
    b) in what branches of science and technology the methods of radio engineering
    are used now.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents for text
    C:
    unlike – в отличие; to assign – определять; appropriate – соответствующий;
    preliminary – предварительный; to undertake – предпринимать; to exchange –
    обмениваться; to man – комплектовать; to stir – вызывать, возбуждать; to
    originate – брать начало, отправлять; to destine – предназначать; distinction –
    различие; latter – последний (из упомянутых); to accept – принимать; subsequent
    – последующий.
    II. Read text C carefully. While reading look for the answers to the following
    questions:
    1. Do electromagnetic waves know man-made frontiers? 2. What was the reason
    for calling the preliminary international radio conference? 3. What principles became
    11

    the basis for the regulation of radio communication? 4. What principles were
    accepted at the First International Radiotelegraph Conference?
    Text С
    The First International Radiotelegraph Conference
    1. The very nature of radio1 made it international, right from its beginning. Unlike
    the cables of the telephone or the wires of the telegraph, electromagnetic waves know
    no man-made frontiers2; once emitted from their antenna, only their strength decides
    to what distance they travel. Throughout the history of radio it has always been the
    aim to choose and assign appropriate frequencies by international agreement, to lay
    down the rules3 for the operation of radio stations and to approve standards for
    apparatus and their operators.
    2. Preliminary International Conference on Radio took place in Berlin as early as
    19034. A.S.Popov was one of the chief Russian delegates. Nine countries met to
    undertake preliminary studies for the international regulation of radio. Part of the
    reason, if not the major one5, for calling this conference was to stop the attempt of
    Marconi to monopolize radio. In order to establish his monopoly, he had given
    instructions to his operators only to exchange wireless signals with other stations
    also manned by Marconi operators, and it was this action6 by a private company
    which stirred up most opposition.
    3. In the Final Protocol of the Preliminary Berlin Conference it was laid down that
    "Coast stations should receive and transmit telegrams originating from or destined
    for ships at sea without distinction as to the system of radio used by latter". In spite
    of7 the very elementary state of radio in 1903, this principle and the others of the
    Final Protocol became the basis for the regulation of radio communication.
    4. 29 nations came to the First International Radiotelegraph Conference in Berlin,
    1906. It accepted the Radio Convention, Radio Regulations and the fundamental
    structure for all subsequent conferences.
    Notes
    1) the very nature of radio – сама природа радио
    2) man-made frontiers – искусственные преграды
    3) to lay down the rules – установить правила
    4) as early as 1903 – еще в 1903 году
    5) part of the reason, if not the major one – одна из причин, если не самая главная
    6 ) it was this action ... which – именно этот поступок
    7 ) in spite of – несмотря на

    III. Say what made radio international.
    IV. Explain why electromagnetic waves have no man-made frontiers.
    V. Find the information about the necessity of the international agreement on
    appropriate wave frequencies. Say what other points of such an agreement are
    mentioned in this part of the text.

    12

    VI.Unite paragraphs 2 and 3. Propose the most suitable title for this part out of
    the following ones:
    1. Preliminary International Conference on Radio.
    2. Marconi's Monopoly on Radio.
    3. The Decisions of the Preliminary International Conference on
    Radio.
    VII. Give two main reasons for organizing the Preliminary International
    Conference on Radio.
    VIII.Say
    a) how Marconi tried to monopolize radio; b) what the decisions of the
    Preliminary Conference were.
    IX. Which paragraph contains the information directly connected with the title of
    the text? Render this information.
    X. Imagine that you are to make a report. While preparing it use the
    main information of texts А, В and С (Write 10-13 sentences.) The following plan is
    available:
    1. First important discoveries in the field of radio.
    2. A.S.Popov's contribution to the development of radio.
    3. Problems discussed at the first radio conference.
    Key t a L e s s o n 3 The application of radio .
    UNIT TWO
    • Grammar: Continuous Tenses (Active and Passive) (§2.2).
    Functions of the verb to be (§ 8}
    • Word-formation: suffix -ness.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Functions of the verb to be".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    exclamation [ˏeksklə'meɪS(ə)n], acquaintance [ə'kweɪnt(ə)ns], experience
    [ɪks'pɪərɪəns]

    ,

    occurence

    [ə'kʌr(ə)ns],

    bullet

    ['bulɪt],

    microwave

    ['maIkrəweɪv], equipment [I'kwIpmənt], frequency ['fri:kwənsɪ], wavelength
    ['weɪvleNT], intelligence [In'telɪʤ(ə)ns], message ['mesIG], to occur [ə'кə:],
    cancer ['kænsə], nothing ['nATIN], ultraviolet ['ʌltrə'vaɪəlIt] .
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    guide, cycle, spectrum, to register, reason, organization, position, to start, satellite,
    13

    typical, electronics, to characterize, interval, activity, vibration, object, programme,
    hospital, machine, radar, distance, problem, antenna, sport, form, interesting,
    element, progress, result, test.
    III. Give the initial words of the following derivatives:
    different, communication, cooker, technological, invisible, equipment, vibration,
    quickly, responsible, relatively, typical, ceaselessly, probably, magnetic, ultraviolet,
    announcement, occurence, transmitter, receiver, organization, hunter.
    IV. Form nouns adding the suffix -ness to the given adjectives. Translate them
    into Russian:
    Example: complete – completeness
    great, effective, useful, light, bright, ready, soft, black, thick, rough, weightless,
    shapeless, exact, unique, hard, harmful, empty, brief.
    V. State what parts of speech the words in heavy type belong to. Translate the
    sentences:
    1. He works as a teacher. One of Mendeleyev's important works is his book
    "Principles of Chemistry". 2. He thought about his future work. The book contained
    his thoughts about further development of national economy. 3. Charge this battery,
    please. 4. Your answer to the question was not logical. You answer the questions
    really well. 5. These houses are nine stories high. Our laboratory houses various
    kinds of equipment. 6. A centimetre is a measure of length. We measure energy in
    the form of heat. 7. I like music and have many records. The instrument records the
    changes of temperature. 8. If you have no book, you may use mine. What's the use of
    doing it? 9. Use a piece of copper wire to repair the instrument. Wire the day of your
    arrival. 10. How many seconds are there in a minute? The second experiment was
    very interesting for its results. 11. Einstein gave all his life to the increase of human
    knowledge. The discoveries in physics increase our possibilities in other sciences 12.
    Men and women in our country have equal rights. A right angle equals 90°.
    VI. Make sure if you remember the three forms of the following verbs. Translate
    the verbs into Russian:
    be – was/were – been; bear – bore – born; begin – began – begun; buy – bought –
    bought; feed – fed – fed; find – found – found; get – got – got; give – gave – given;
    hold – held – held; hear heard – heard; know– knew – known; lie – lay – lain; make –
    made – made; meet – met – met; run – ran – run; say – said – said; send – sent – sent;
    sit – sat – sat; take – took – taken; understand – understood – understood.
    VII. Define the tense-forms of the verbs in the following sentences. Translate the
    sentences into Russian:
    1. Belarusian people are developing the economy of the country. 2. The output of
    the factory will be growing during the current five-year period. 3. Our scientists are
    using the energy of atom in various spheres of life. 4. The engineers were attaching
    the wires to the devices when I came in. 6. At present they are studying various
    aspects of this problem. 7. When we listen to a radio programme we are using the
    rays that are called radio waves. 8. The scientist was solving a new problem when
    14

    we visited his laboratory last week. 9. What is she doing this week? 10. John was
    reading a book when I came to see him. 11. My friend is writing an article for the
    newspaper. 12. The student was carrying out this experiment for twenty minutes.
    13. The plane was flying over the Ukraine. 14. I'm working too hard this year. 15.
    Molecules in a gas are constantly moving. 16. The electron is circling in an orbit
    around a nucleus.
    VIII. Read the following sentences and say which of them are in the Active and
    which are in the Passive Voice. Translate them into Russian:
    1. While the experiment was being carried out nobody left the laboratory. 2. A
    new type of computing equipment is being produced at our plant. 3. At present
    scientific work is being done mostly by large groups of researchers. 4. The apparatus
    will be working when you come. 5. The scientists who are carrying out research
    into nuclear physics deal with the most difficult problems. 6. For twenty minutes the
    air in the laboratory was being purified by two ventilators. 7. The solar battery is
    converting the energy of sun rays directly into electric energy. 8. This experiment
    was being carried out under low pressure.9.
    For a long time the electronic
    devices were being used for control. 10. An interesting research in the field of
    electronics is being done at our Institute. 11. Prospects of the usage of solar energy
    are already understood by everybody. 12. Now solar energy is being studied by a
    lot of research groups. 13. Our scientists and engineers are developing new types of
    electronic and cybernetic devices. 14. We were looking for a more simple method of
    solution but could not find it. 15. The engineers will discuss the advantages of this
    new system. 16. Our laboratory is housed in an old building.
    IX. Translate the following word-groups. Pay attention to the tense forms of the
    predicates:
    the problem occupied; the century began; they are obtaining; the scientists
    understood; the satellite was on its orbit; the property depended; the program is being
    broadcast; the physicist was searching; a new radio set was demonstrated; the
    elements constituted; the man thought; new results are being obtained; the chemist
    wrote; the discovery established; the particle became; the scientist was applying; the
    point of view differed; the engineer is measuring; the concept explains; the idea was
    supported; the particle will be divided; the phenomenon was explained; astronomy is
    studying; the telescope is built; the power plants were being controlled; the
    observation shows; the energy was converted; the data will be checked.
    X. Analyse the functions of the verb to be. Translate the sentences into Russian:
    The results of the experiment are of great importance for our further work. 2.
    There are no chemical plants in our town. 3. The substance that we are speaking
    about is water. 4. We are to translate technical literature in the second year. 5. It was
    the study of natural phenomena that made it possible to formulate various laws. 6.
    Probably the most important use of electricity in the modern house is producing light.
    7. Technical progress is now impossible without high-quality materials. 8.
    Electronics is being used more and more throughout the industry. 9. The electron is a
    particle. 10. The machine is of five parts. 11. Our task is to finish the test by 7
    15

    o'clock. 12. Radio was invented by a talented Russian scientist A.S.Popov. 13. Words
    in a dictionary are in alphabetical order. 14. Smoking is dangerous. 15. The
    temperature is three degrees above zero. 16. My friends are mostly students. 17. It is
    the only positive solution. 18. The British are very proud of their sense of humour.
    19. This scientific discovery was the result of six years' research. 20. Our aim is to
    accomplish this task as soon as possible. 21. He will be an engineer in two years. 22.
    Their house is in the middle of the village.
    XI. Match up the words which are similar in meaning:
    purpose, in the sphere of, to make, important, aim, proper, common, to work out,
    to vary, time, in the field of, significant, ray, to define, to operate, to develop, to
    differ, to show, method, to function, to demonstrate, technique, device, to determine,
    standard, to produce, suitable, beam, period, instrument.
    XII. Try to memorize the words and word-groups:
    ■ probably – возможно, вероятно ■ exclamation – восклицание ■ to be related
    to – иметь отношение к ■ to have similar experience – иметь подобный опыт ■ to
    have nothing to do with – не иметь ничего общего с ■ to turn out – оказываться ■
    after all – в конечном счете ■ to listen to a radio programme – слушать программу
    по радио ■ to refer to – ссылаться; называть ■ sun-tan lamp – лампа для загара ■
    to guide – направлять, вести ■ bullet – пуля ■ cancer – рак, раковая опухоль ■ to
    resemble – иметь сходство; напоминать ■ complete – полный, законченный.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Read the title of the following text. Can you guess what the text might be about?
    II. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    Seven Rays, One Family
    1. "Isn't it a small world."1 You have probably heard this exclamation many times.
    People often say it when they find that acquaintances they had met at different times
    and places, and whom they never connected with each other, turn out to be related to
    each other. Scientists often have a similar experience with occurrences in nature .
    Things or events that at first seem to have nothing to do with3 each other turn out to
    be related after all. We shall repeat this experience with seven kinds of rays. We find
    them in different places, and use them in different ways, but they are close relatives.
    They are members of one family, the family of electromagnetic waves.
    2. The kind of ray that mankind has known for the longest time is light. It helps us
    see the objects that surround us, when the objects reflect the light into our eyes.
    Because our eyes can detect light, we call it a visible ray. The other rays are invisible.
    3. We find three types of invisible rays in use in our homes. When we listen to a
    radio programme, we are using the rays that are called radio waves. When we cook a
    meal on an electric cooker, we are using hurried rays, sometimes referred to as heat
    rays. When we sit under a suntan lamp, we are using ultraviolet rays. We meet the
    other three types of rays outside the home. Inside the hospital we shall find X-rays,
    produced by X-rays machines, and used for taking pictures of the insides of our
    16

    bodies. At airports everywhere we shall find microwaves used with radar equipment
    to detect planes in the air, or guide them in to land. Also in hospitals we find gamma
    rays used as invisible bullets to kill cancer cells.
    4. These seven types of rays resemble each other in that they are all
    electromagnetic waves. What makes them different from each other is their
    frequency or their wavelength. The distance that the wave moves during the time it
    takes for one complete cycle of vibration is called the wavelength of the wave. The
    frequency is the number of cycles in a second. Notice that radio waves are the
    longest of the electromagnetic waves and have the lowest frequency.
    Notes
    1. Isn't it a small world – Мир тесен.
    2.occurrences in nature – явления в природе
    3.things or events that at first seem to have nothing to do with ... – предметы или события,
    которые, как кажется на первый взгляд, ничего не имеют общего ...

    III. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. These seven types of rays do not differ from each other. 2. Seven kinds of rays
    are close relatives. 3. We find three types of invisible rays in use in our homes. 4. We
    meet three types of rays outside the home. 5. These seven types of rays differ from
    each other in their frequency. 6. The frequency is the number of cycles in a second.
    7. Radio waves have the highest frequency.
    IV. Find the information explaining why we call light a visible ray. Read the
    information to your partner.
    V. 1) Answer the questions on paragraph 3:
    1. What rays do we deal with when we listen to a radio programme? 2. How are
    infrared rays referred to sometimes? 3. What rays do we use when we sit under a suntan lamp? 4. What kind of rays can we find inside the hospital? 5. Are microwaves
    used with radar equipment?
    2) Name the types of invisible rays we find in use: a) in our homes-, b) outside the
    home.
    VI. In paragraph 4 find the English equivalents to the following words:
    луч, тип, частота, расстояние, напоминать, длина волны, период, полный
    (законченный), двигаться, называть, длинный, низкий, количество.
    VII. Speak about the electromagnetic waves using English words from the logical
    diagram.
    VIII. Fill in the boxes of the following logical diagram with English equivalents.
    IX. Say briefly what each paragraph is about.
    17

    ультрафиолетовые

    инфракрасные

    гамма-лучи

    радиоволны

    рентгеновские
    7 типов волн

    световые

    микроволны

    отличаться

    частота

    иметь сходство

    длина волн

    электромагнитные волны

    X. Read paragraph 4 again and say what makes the seven rays different from each
    other.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents for
    better understanding text B:
    subtle – тонкий, неуловимый; to occur – происходить; to convert –
    преобразовывать; receptive – восприимчивый; beyond – за пределами;
    wavelength – длина волны; to range – колебаться в пределах; frequency –
    частота; to approach – приближаться; beam – пучок; луч; to fan out –
    расходиться, распространяться.
    II. Read text В. Find out the main information of the text.
    Text В
    Radio Waves
    During the last few decades, a subtle change has occurred which none of our
    senses1 can register. Radio waves, bearing messages in many tongues2, flow
    ceaselessly around us, through us and above us. We can only hear and see them if we
    convert them to other waves to which our ears and eyes are receptive.
    Radio waves are the longest members of the family of electromagnetic waves. In
    the spectrum, in which the waves are arranged in order of increasing wavelength3,
    they lie beyond the infrared waves. Their wavelengths range from about three
    hundredths of a centimetre to about 300 kilometers. Radio broadcasts today are made
    by two different methods known as AM (amplitude modulation) and FM (frequency
    modulation). The frequencies of the waves used are expressed in kilocycles or
    18

    megacycles. The vibrating current is fed into an antenna from which the radio waves
    are broadcast into space.
    Microwaves are the smallest radio waves. In the spectrum of electromagnetic
    waves they lie between infrared rays and the long radio waves. The shortest
    microwaves have a wavelength of about three hundredths of a centimetre and a
    frequency of one million megacycles. The longest microwaves have a wavelength of
    about three metres and a frequency of one hundred megacycles.
    The first microwaves made by man were the two-foot waves produced by
    Heinrich Hertz. It is interesting that they were the last to be put to a practical use.
    Long waves were easier to produce and send out over long distances. Scientists had
    to return to the use of short waves in order to solve a problem4 that came up during
    World War II. The problem was "How can you detect an approaching enemy plane
    while it is still far away? " A possible answer to the problem was to send a beam of
    radio waves. Long radio waves could not be used for this purpose because they fan
    out too quickly from the broadcasting antenna. Very short waves were necessary to
    make the radar system work. So new transmitters and receivers were designed to
    make and use microwaves.
    NOTES
    1) none of our senses – ни одно из наших чувств
    2) bearing messages in many tongues – несущие сообщения на многих языках
    3) in order of increasing wavelength – в порядке увеличения длины волны
    4) in order to solve a problem – чтобы решить проблему

    III. Find answers to the following questions:
    1. Can we hear and see radio waves? 2. What place do radio waves occupy in the
    spectrum of electromagnetic waves? 3. Who produced the first microwaves? 4. Were
    the microwaves the first to be put to a practical use? 5. What kind of problem came
    up during World War II?
    IV. Speak about the characteristics of radio waves and microwaves.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents:
    activity – деятельность; to support – поддерживать; to administer – управлять;
    responsible – ответственный; announcement – сообщение; to intend –
    намереваться; to remain – оставаться.
    II. Before you read the text study the questions. Then read the text to yourself to
    find out which questions the author answers:
    1. What is the name of the organization responsible for administering radio sport
    in Great Britain? 2. What word is the key one in radio sport? 3. Is radio sport
    supported by the government? 5. Do "foxes" identify themselves every five minutes?
    6. Is the competitive spirit typical of Soviet electronics?
    Text С
    19

    Radio Sport: a Serious Business
    1. In Russian vocabulary the electronics enthusiasts are known as "radio
    sportsmen". Radio sport is a highly organized, serious activity supported and
    administered by the government. The organization responsible for administering
    radio sport is called the Radio Sports Federation. In radio sport, the key word is
    competition. The highest award, one held by a relatively few sportsmen, is "Master of
    Radio Sport". One particularly interesting form of radio competition is called "Fox
    Hunting". This is a contest in which teams of "hunters" (young people carrying
    portable direction finders ) race against time2 to find "foxes" (hidden transmitters).
    The rules call for3 the three "foxes" to take up positions one or two miles apart in a
    large wooded area. At the starting signal, the "foxes" begin identifying themselves by
    voice announcements4 at one-minute intervals, each "fox" therefore being on the air5
    once every five minutes. The announcements, which are very brief, are made on
    amateur bands6 by means of low-powered transmitters, usually homemade. The
    winning "hunter" is the one who first locates all three "foxes" in sequence7. The kind
    of competitive spirit8 that characterizes radio sport is typical of electronics in general.
    Whether it be the technological state of the art, TV via communication satellite, or
    techniques for electronic training, the our people are fully aware of the importance9
    of communications-electronics in the space age, and they intend to remain
    competitive in every possible way.
    Notes
    l) a portable direction finder – переносный радиопеленгатор
    2) race against time – бегут на время
    3) fthe rules call for – правила требуют
    4) identify themselves by voice announcements – дают знать о себе голосом
    5) on the air – в эфире
    6) amateur band – радиолюбительский диапазон частот
    7) in sequence – последовательно, одну за другой
    8) competitive spirit – дух соревнования
    9) are fully aware of the importance – вполне понимают значение

    III.
    Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. In radio sport the key word is competition. 2. One particularly interesting form
    of radio competition is called "Fox Hunting". 3. Each "fox" is on the air once every
    five minutes. 4. The announcements, which are very long, are made on amateur
    bands. 5. The winning "hunter" is the one who last locates all three "foxes" in
    sequence. 6. They are fully aware of the importance of communications-electronics
    in the space age.
    IV. The text contains three main ideas. Divide the text into three logical parts and
    say briefly what each part is about.
    V. Say how radio sport is characterized in the introductory part.
    VI. a) What is the main principle of radio competition called "Fox Hunting"? b)
    Find the information in the text about the rules of "fox hunting" and answer the
    20

    following questions:
    1. What do the "foxes" do at the starting signal? 2. How often do "the foxes"
    identify themselves? 3. What devices do "the foxes" use to make voice
    announcements? 4. The winning "hunter" is the one who first locates all three
    "foxes" in sequence, isn't he?
    VII. Can you say in what way the competitive spirit that characterizes radio sport
    shows itself in the development of electronics.
    VII.Retell briefly the information you have learned from the text.
    IX. Imagine that you are going to take part in a scientific conference. The theme of
    your report is "The Family of Electromagnetic Waves". While preparing the report
    use the information of texts А, В, С and the following plan:
    1. Seven kinds of rays are close relatives.
    2. The use of electromagnetic waves.
    3. Characteristics of radio waves.
    4. Short waves and their application in radio sport.

    UNIT THREE

    • Grammar: Perfect Tenses Active and Passive (§2, 3).
    Perfect Continuous Active (§ 2, 2).
    Functions of the verb to have(§ 9).
    • Word-formation: suffixes -less, -ful.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Functions of the verb to have".

    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    knowledge ['nPlIG], record ['rekɔ:d], manual ['mxnjuəl], conversation
    [ˏkPnvə'seISn], drum [drAm], to shout [ʃaVt], pattern ['pætn], to reverse [rI'vE:s],
    to reproduce [ˏri:prq'dju:s], to wind [waInd], means [mi:nz], to store [stO:(r)],
    stereo ['steriqV], channel ['Cxnl].
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    modern, person, phonograph, code, signal, telegraph, symbol, method, diaphragm,
    21

    experiment, poem, to reproduce, stereo, process, principle, line, microphone,
    original, music, laboratory, energy, apparatus, instrument, diameter, type..
    III. Form adjectives adding the suffix -ful to the given nouns. Translate the nouns
    and adjectives into Russian:
    Example: beauty – beautiful – красота – прекрасный
    harm, power, use, fruit, skill, purpose, wonder, care, success, truth hope, taste,
    respect, meaning, art, change, peace, watch, help.
    IV. Form adjectives adding the suffix -less to the given nouns. Translate the
    nouns and adjectives into Russian:
    Example: hope – hopeless – надежда – безнадежный
    wire, noise, help, motion, friend, aim, shape, branch, cause, character, sense,
    respect, object, ground, harm, change, power, colour, limit, meaning, voice, weight,
    life.
    V. Read the words and say what suffixes they have and what parts of speech they
    belong to:
    use, useful, usefulness; invent, inventor, invention; transmit, transmitter,
    transmission; work, worker; special, speciality, specialist; practice, practical;
    contain, container; lecture, lecturer; create, creative, creation; accelerate,
    acceleration, accelerator; determine, determination; proper, properly, property;
    science, scientific, scientist; discover, discovery, discoverer; important, importance;
    react, reaction, reactor, reactivity; arrange, arrangement; capable, capability; apply,
    application.
    VI. Make sure if you remember the following verbs. Consult a dictionary:
    to send, to cut, to represent, to notice, to sound, to happen, to find out, to consist
    of, to attach, to turn, to shout, to move, to hear, to store, to release, to repeat, to wear
    out, to transmit, to reproduce, to follow, to hit, to convert, to fit, to move, to
    represent, to wind, to claim, to damage, to link.
    VII. Define the tense-forms of the verbs in the following sentences. Translate
    them into Russian:
    1. I have just turned the radio on. 2. Have you listened to the news? 3. He
    understood the text after he had read it again. 4. I have read this book three times.
    5. He has never been to the Carpathians. 6. He has seen this film. 7. Have you ever
    been to St. Petersburg? 8. He had finished his work by 5 o'clock yesterday. 9. The
    technician will have recorded the data before you come. 10. I have not seen him
    since he graduated from the University. 11. We shall have completed our
    experiments by the end of the week. 12. My friend had prepared his report before
    we spoke to you. 13. Electronics has made a rapid progress. 14. He had published
    his article by the end of the month. 15. We've played lots of matches this season,
    but we haven't won many. 16. She has spent a great deal of time in the Far East.
    17. They'll have finished their work by lunchtime. 18. Have you read anything
    interesting lately? 19. They've probably forgotten the time. 20. They have
    22

    accepted the scientist's suggestion. 21. Moscow Radio has been transmitting its
    programmes to other countries since the thirties. 22. We had been conducting this
    experiment for two hours before you came. 23. When she arrived, I had been
    waiting for two and a half hours. 24. It has been raining since two o'clock.
    VIII. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the
    predicates in the Perfect Passive:
    1. This theory has been used for analyzing the experimental data. 2. In my
    opinion this result has not been proved by anybody. 3. The apparatus used in our
    research has been described recently. 4. We must compare our data with those that
    have been obtained by other investigators. 5. Many difficulties had been
    overcome before the researcher succeeded in his work. 6. After the new device had
    been tested it was installed in our laboratory. 7. The construction of this television
    centre will have been completed by the end of the next year. 8. In our country great
    progress has been achieved in developing all branches of science and engineering.
    9. Many different devices have been created in order to improve the performance
    of communications. 10. The information has been based on the data received from
    a computer. 11. Much research has been carried out in order to establish the causes
    of this phenomenon. 12. This question has already been discussed at the
    conference. 13. By the end of the year a large variety of semiconductor devices will
    have been produced. 14. This equipment had been repaired before you came. 15.
    This text has just been translated. 16. Mendeleyev's periodic law has been
    accepted as a universal law of nature.
    IX. Translate the following word-groups into Russian, pay attention to the
    tense-forms of the verbs:
    the scientist has suggested; the motion had been caused; the theory has advanced;
    the methods have been developed; he has been developing; the progress has been
    made; the suggestion has been applied; the observation has shown; the problem has
    been solved; the error will have been determined; the point of view has influenced;
    the chemist has written; the number has exceeded; the energy had been converted;
    the radio has been transmitting.
    X. Compare the use of the Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect in the
    following sentences, translate them into Russian:
    1. I have written several letters today. I wrote several letters yesterday. 2. They
    have made a new experiment this week. They made a new experiment last week. 3.
    She has been to the theatre this month. She went to the theatre last month. 4. Have
    you ever been to London? Yes, I've been there once. I went there in 1998. 5. Have
    you ever seen "Hamlet"? Yes, I've seen "Hamlet" several times. I saw it at our
    theatre three years ago and at Moscow theatres in 1995 and 2000. 6. He has
    graduated from the Moscow University. He graduated from the Moscow University
    in 1988. 7. He has seen this film. He saw this film yesterday. 8. He has improved
    his device; you may use it. He improved his device a week ago. 9. He prepared his
    report ahead of time. Have you prepared your report? 10. The results of this
    research were published long ago. My friend has already published the results of his
    discovery.
    23

    XI. Define the functions of the verb to have in the following sentences. Translate
    them:
    1. They have already passed the examination in electrical engineering. 2.
    Automated systems have a number of advantages. 3. Our district has now been
    transformed into a big construction site. 4. Gamma rays have no electric charge. 5.
    Cosmic television has a great future. 6. He had to work hard to complete his
    investigation in time. 7. The engineer will have to improve the accuracy of this
    machine-tool. 8. A new method has been used in order to investigate this problem.
    9. I have to do this work now. 10. We had to repeat the experiment. 11. Our planet
    has powerful sources of energy. 12. You will have to go to the library to get this
    book. 13. I had to leave early because I didn't feel well. 14. We've got a new
    teacher. 15. She has a lot of character and energy. 16. Yesterday I had a bad
    headache. 17. She will have many new subjects next term. 18. The scientist had to
    stop the experiment. 19. Besides literature, we have to study history and
    philosophy. 20. The electron has almost the same mass as the proton.
    XII. Define the functions of the word since in the following sentences. Translate
    them:
    1. Colour television has been functioning in our country since 1967. 2. More than
    a hundred years have passed since the day when A.S.Popov demonstrated his radio
    receiver. 3. Many expeditions have been here since. 4. I've known her since we
    were children. 5. Since you are here, I may go home. 6. There is no flow of
    electrons since the electric current is broken. 7. We've lived in three different towns
    since last year. 9. Since you weren't at the meeting, we took the decision without
    you. 9. How long is it since you left school? 10. London has been a capital since
    1066. 11. Telescopes are being used since their invention. 12. People wished to
    handle atom since ancient times. 13. It's ages since I saw you last. 14. He left for the
    Crimea and has been living there since. 15. Since your first letter, we haven't heard
    from you. 16. Since you have not got anything to read, let's talk.
    XIII. Match up the words which are opposite in meaning:
    to stop, frequently, high, charge, to start, important, first, part, common, rarely,
    low .complicated, discharge, the whole, quick, transmitter, to heat, unimportant,
    increase, receiver, to cool, light, decrease, simple, heavy, to begin, slow, special,
    last, to finish.
    XIV. Try to memorize the words and word-groups:
    ■ to have a good knowledge of – иметь хорошие знания ■ to play records –
    проигрывать пластинки ■ in order to do this – чтобы сделать это ■ a strip of paper
    – полоска бумаги ■ to send messages – посылать сообщения ■ much more quickly
    – гораздо быстрее
    ■ to be a true scientist – быть настоящим ученым ■ a little more complicated –
    немного более сложный ■ speed – скорость
    ■ to devise – изобретать, придумывать ■ needle – игла; стрелка
    ■ tin – олово ■ foil – фольга ■ certain – определенный ■ to reverse – менять
    24

    (направление) ■ to wind (wound) – вертеть, крутить ■ accident – случайность;
    случай ■ to hit (hit) – ударять.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Before reading the text answer the following questions:
    I. What is the English for "проигрывать"? 2. Do you know that the original
    record-player was called a phonograph? 3. Who invented the phonograph? 4. Do you
    know the history of the invention of the first phonograph?
    II. Find some information about a modern record-player in the text:
    Text A
    The Record-player. How Does It Work?
    1. You may know a lot about music: you may have a good knowledge of modern
    records: but how much do you know about the machine that plays your records?
    How, for example, does it work? It will help you to understand how record-players
    work, if you go back to the person who invented the first phonograph, Thomas
    Edison.
    2. He had been experimenting on ways of sending Morse Code1 signal more
    quickly by telegraph: in order to do this, he built a machine which cut out small
    marks, representing the Morse symbols, into a strip of paper. By running the paper2
    through the transmitting machine at a very fast speed, he could send messages much
    more quickly than by the manual method. He noticed that the machine was making a
    noise which sounded like human voices3 in conversation. Edison was a true scientist:
    if something unusual happened he wanted to find out why: so he decided to fit a
    diaphragm to the machine, to see what this would do.
    After a few experiments, Edison devised a machine which consisted of two
    diaphragms on either side4 of a drum of tinfoil. Each diaphragm was attached to a
    needle, which rested on the foil. Edison turned the drum by hand and shouted a poem
    into one of the diaphragms – the recording unit – which then cut a pattern into the
    tinfoil. This is because the diaphragm vibrations moved the needle in certain
    directions, which were recorded on the foil.
    4. Edison then reversed the process so that the reproducing needle was at the start
    of the newly-cut needle path5 and started winding the drum again. He then heard his
    own voice repeating the poem: the needle, following the path in the foil, vibrated its
    diaphragm which then reproduced the sounds that the other diaphragm had recorded.
    5. This all happened in 1877, more or less by accident. In a hundred years of
    development and experimentation, the phonograph has developed into what we know
    now as the record-player. The principle is still the same, however, sound waves
    hitting a microphone (diaphragm) are then converted onto a record by mechanical or
    electronic means. The sound is then stored, it is released as vibration when the needle
    follows the path that has been cut, and reproduces the original message. Stereo sound
    is a little more complicated. Two microphones, each attached to its own recording
    systems, record the sound that is produced from the loudspeakers. It appears very
    25

    similar to the original sound. Nowadays, by "mixing" the sound, and by changing it
    from one channel to the other, you can make the sound travel from one loudspeaker
    to the next one.
    Notes
    1. Morse Code – алфавит Морзе
    2. by running the paper – посредством пропускания бумаги
    3. like human voices – подобно человеческим голосам
    4. on either side – с обеих сторон
    5. the newly-cut needle path – только что прорезанная дорожка

    III. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Edison had been experimenting on ways of sending Morse Code signals more
    quickly. 2. The machine was making a noise which sounded like human voices in
    conversation. 3. Edison turned the drum by hand but couldn't shout a poem into the
    diaphragm. 4. The diaphragm vibrations moved the needle in certain directions. 5.
    The work of the modern record-player is based on other principles. 6. One can make
    the sound travel from one loudspeaker to the next one.
    IV.Look through paragraph I and say in what connection the name of Edison is
    mentioned in it.
    V. Read paragraph 2 attentively and retell its contents to your partner. You may
    use the following plan:
    1. Edison made experiments on the ways of sending Morse Code signals (how?)
    2. He made a special machine (what was this machine?) for his experiments.
    3. While experimenting on his machine at a very fast speed he noticed some
    strange noise (what was the noise like?).
    4. Edison wanted to find out why the machine was making a noise and ... (what
    did he decide to do?)
    VI. In paragraph 3 find the English equivalents for:
    замечать, создавать шум, звучать, беседа, истинный, голос, выяснять чтото, происходить, решать, человеческий, необычный, поэтому.
    VII.Translate paragraph 4.
    VIII. Describe the construction of the phonograph using the words:
    phonograph to be drum of tinfoil to consist of 2 diaphragms to be attached to 2
    needles to rest on foil.
    IX. Write out of paragraph 6 the words which can be used for describing how
    modern record-players work.
    X. Tell the story of the record-player and the principle of its work.

    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents for
    26

    text B:
    disappointing – вызывающий разочарование; properly – правильно; как
    следует; inwards – внутрь; lead – провод; amplifier – усилитель; feedback –
    обратная
    связь;
    record-deck

    электропроигрыватель;
    stylus

    (воспроизводящая) игла; socket – гнездо, розетка.
    П. Read the following text and entitle it. Compare your title with the title given
    by the author.
    Text В
    Have you or your family got a stereo system? If you have, are you sure that
    you're getting the best from it? Expensive equipment can sound very disappointing if
    it isn't set up properly. Here are some points to check.
    The stereo area is the part of the room in which the listener can hear exactly the right
    sound. Put the two loudspeakers about two metres apart (more in a very large room,
    less in a small one). Turn them slightly inwards. Now imagine a line from the centre
    of each speaker. Where the lines meet is the stereo area and the best place to sit and
    listen.
    There are two important points to remember when you're deciding where to put
    the rest of the system. First the lead between the amplifier and the tape or record
    deck should be as short as possible1. A long lead will give poor sound. The leads
    between the amplifier and the speakers can be as long as you like. Secondly watch
    out for feedback. This is the sound you hear when vibrations from the music (or even
    footsteps) affect the record deck. Feedback can spoil the sound of the record or make
    the stylus jump. The answer is to make sure2 the record deck is on a wall shelf or a
    heavy piece of furniture.
    If the sound of your stereo is still disappointing, perhaps you've mixed up the
    leads. If you've accidentally put a left-hand lead into a right-hand socket, you won't
    get a stereo sound. The quickest way to test your stereo system for this and other
    problems is to buy a test record, which will have all kinds of sound tests on it.
    Notes
    1.as short as possible – по возможности короче
    2.to make sure – убедиться

    III. Name the author's recommendations on making your stereo system sound
    properly.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents:
    to coat – покрывать; digital – цифровой; to claim – утверждать; distortion –
    искажение; background hiss – фоновый шум (шипение); studio master –
    студийный диск; tough – прочный; careful handling – бережное обращение; to
    damage – наносить ущерб, повреждать; to wear out (wore, worn) –
    изнашиваться; conventional – обычный; hi-fi system – high fidelity system –
    27

    система с высокой точностью воспроизведения.
    II. Scan text С and say where compact disks are used.
    Text С
    Compact Disks
    1. You have not only heard about Compact Disks (CD), you’ve been using them
    here and there in your everyday life. The invention of Sony has very quickly become
    popular all over the world.1. A CD consists of a piece of aluminium coated with
    transparent plastic, 12 cms across, for producing sound. It's similar2 to an ordinary
    record, except that it's "read" by a laser beam, and the information recorded on the
    aluminium is digital.
    2. The makers claim that a CD can reproduce the original sound perfectly,
    without any distortion or background hiss. As the system is computerized, there's no
    loss of quality between the studio master and the record you buy. Also, a CD is
    much tougher than a vinyl record, so it doesn't need such careful handling. Dust and
    dirt won't damage it, and as there's no contact between the laser and the disk, it will
    never wear out.
    3. The CD player produces an audio signal which you can amplify through a
    conventional hi-fi system, to produce the best sound possible. The technique
    became a new exciting development in hi-fi, linking sound recording with the
    computer revolution: What has followed it?
    Notes
    1. Sony – Сони {японская фирма no производству радиоаппаратуры)
    2. It's similar to – он похож на

    III.Say what a compact disk looks like.
    IV.Write out of paragraph I two peculiarities of CD disks.
    V. Try to answer the following questions about ordinary disks:
    1. How is an ordinary record "read"?
    2. In the new design the information is digital. What about ordinary disks?
    VI. Look through paragraph 2 again and speak about:
    1) the construction of a compact disk: 2) the peculiarities of it; 3) the advantages
    of it; 4) the principle of operation.
    VII. Count the number of advantages of new records mentioned in paragraph 2
    and name them.
    VIII. Use the information of texts А, В and С for preparing a report on the theme
    "Everything about record-players".
    Key to Lessоп 3: Getting the best from your stereo system.
    UNIT FOUR
    28

    • Grammar: Sequence of Tenses (§ 4).
    Specific Cases of Passive Voice (§3).
    • Word-formation: suffix -ly; prefix un-.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Specific Cases of the Passive Voice".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    to alter ['O:ltq], objective [qb'GektIv], specific [spI'sIfIk], enterprise
    ['entqpraIz], stage [steIG], primarily ['praImqrIlI],whole [hqVl], evident
    ['evId(q)nt], to foresee [fO:'si:], comparison [kqm'pxrIs(q)n], to scatter
    ['skxtq], rivalry ['raIv(q)lrI], controversy [ˏkOntrq'vq:sI], priority [praI'OrItI],
    incentive [In'sentIv], response [rIs'pons].
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    history, technology, television, complex, electricity, telegraphy, photography,
    period, realization, social, material, special, generation, phase, test, phosphor,
    control, operator, patent, disc, logical, lamp, colour, to sort, nature, master, to
    stimulate, pulse, specific, fact.
    III. Give the initial words of the following derivatives:
    primarily, considerable, selective, comparison, investment, separately, mobility,
    industrial, invention, development, actively, transformation, logical, clearly,
    communication, transmission, original, digital, researcher, information.
    IV. Form adverbs adding the suffix -ly to the given adjectives and translate them:
    Example: sure —surely
    separate, objective, quick, primary, active, considerable, complete, evident,
    social, competitive, mechanical, great, general, definite, absolute, different,
    automatic, sure, easy, similar, certain, frequent, constant, direct, main, probable.
    V. Form adjectives adding the prefix -un to the adjectives and translate them:
    Example: natural — unnatural
    important, usual, complicated, completed, conventional, human, interesting,
    stable, economic, able, reliable, happy, available, limited, productive, balanced,
    like, easy, fortunate, original, sophisticated, true, natural, disciplined, discovered
    VI. Read the words and say what parts of speech they belong to:
    produce, product, production; frequent, frequency; physics, physical, physicist;
    29

    act, active, activity; develop, development; nature, natural; measure, measuring,
    measurement; direct, director, directive, direction, directness; operate, operating,
    operation, operative, operator; relative, relatively, relation, relativity; mean,
    meaning, means; technical, technique, technician; system, systematical,
    systematically; electron, electronic, electronics; consider, consideration,
    considerable, considerably.
    VII. Make sure if you remember the following verbs. Consult a dictionary:
    to alter, to depend, to separate, to involve, to seek, to introduce, to create, to
    become, to transform, to pass, to replace, to improve, to apply, to describe, to
    convert, to foresee, to relate.
    VIII. Translate the sentences paying attention to the sequence of tenses:
    1. He wanted to know what powerful radio stations were being built in
    Byelorussia. 2. The students asked how the strength of the radio wave had been
    measured. 3. The engineer said they would carry out an experiment with the new
    transistor device. 4. The reporter asked if the scientific group was working out the
    design of this new installation. 5. They wished to know what these radio-electronic
    systems would ensure. 6. I told him that I should let him know the date of the
    conference. 7. The newspaper wrote that in the modern world people could not
    imagine their life without radio and television. 8. The teacher said we might
    complete our drawings next week. 9. The lecturer said that television played an
    important role in our life. 10. The engineer informed that all the equipment was
    functioning normally. 11. The chief engineer said that the reconstruction of the plant
    would begin next year. 12. I was asked whether I could take part in the research
    work. 13. The students were told that they didn't need to translate the text. 14. We
    asked if we should have a lecture on electronics next week.
    IX. Change the sentences from direct into indirect speech. Mind the rule of
    sequence offenses:
    Example: She said, "I am going to the theatre with my brother."
    She said that she was going to the theatre with her brother.
    I. She said, "I'll be ready in a few minutes." 2. He said to me, "My sister has not
    finished her homework yet." 3. My brother said, "These photographs are not very
    good." 4. Her friend said, "This letter is full of interesting news. It reached me two
    days ago." 5. She asked, "Has it been raining all day? " 6. The librarian asked, "Have
    the books come? 7. She said to me, "I have never been to London." 8. The student
    said, "I'll work at my diploma design next year." 9. He said, "I am studying English
    at the University." 10. The professor said to the students, "The next lecture will be on
    linear motion." 11. My scientific adviser said to me, "You'll go to Moscow to take
    part in the conference." 12. She asked the student, "Can you translate this article?
    "13. The teacher said to us, "Don't look up the words in a dictionary when you
    translate such an easy text." 14. In 1905 Albert Einstein declared, "Matter can be
    converted into energy." 15. I.V.Kurchatov said, "I am happy to be born in Russia."
    X. Say the following sentences in Russian. Take into account the possible ways of
    30

    translating the passive constructions:
    1. The participants of the conference were shown the photographs made in outer
    space. 2. In the previous section you were given some facts to illustrate this
    phenomenon. 3. The new information was much spoken about. 4. The discovery of
    radium was followed by other important inventions. 5. All the machines were looked
    at with great interest. 6. The construction of this generator was paid great attention to.
    7. Einstein's theory of relativity is often referred to by a great number of researchers.
    8. We were informed about the report to be made by our professor. 9. The results of
    this investigation can be relied upon. 10. It is said that his theory produced revolution
    in science. 11. Use is made of electronics everywhere. 12. The engineer of our
    laboratory was offered new research work. 13. His report was followed by a short
    film. 14. Synthetic materials used in space technology are not affected by changes in
    temperature. 15. The electronic computer will be dealt with in the next chapter. 16.
    She was listened to with great attention. 17. Why don't you answer when you are
    spoken to? 18. My letter was answered immediately. 19. Nothing was heard from
    him.
    XI. Translate the sentences. Mind the different meanings of the word for:
    1. One must be very attentive in experimenting, for accuracy is indispensable
    here. 2. He has not been taking English lessons for several months. 3. The problem
    we are dealing with is very important for our laboratory. 4. Colonial countries fight
    for their independence. 5. I.V. Kurchatov was a passionate fighter for peace. 6. He
    brought some papers for me to look them through. 7. It is difficult for him to solve
    this problem by himself. 8. We stayed in London for nine days. 9. I shan't do it for
    the world. 10. My friend left for Moscow yesterday. 11. This room serves me for a
    study. 12. We all hoped for a change of the weather. 13. This young lady has a
    weakness for fine clothes. 14. He will prepare everything for the experiment. 15. I
    went to England for the first time ten years ago. 16. He always answered all
    students' questions for there were no foolish questions for him.
    XII. Match up the words which are similar in meaning:
    to take place, to operate, various, to arrive, to control, nearly, to explore, to
    obtain, actually, ordinary, dimension, to research, complex, to occur, to join, to
    come, to work, to get, type, almost, conventional, to calculate, size, complicated,
    different, really, to regulate, kind, to connect, to compute.

    LESSON TWO
    I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    31

    Text A
    The History of Television as a Technology
    1. It is often said that television has altered our world. The invention of television
    was no single event or series of events. It depended on a complex of inventions and
    developments in electricity, telegraphy, photography and motion pictures1, and radio.
    It can be said to have separated out as a specific technological objective in the period
    of 1875-1890, and then, after a lag, to have developed as a specific technological
    enterprise from 1920 through to the first public television systems of the 1930s. Yet
    in each of these stages it depended on inventions made with other ends in view2.
    2. Television, as an idea, was involved with many of these inventions. It is
    difficult to separate it, in its earliest stages, from phototelegraphy. The means of
    transmitting still pictures and moving pictures were actively .sought and to a
    considerable extent discovered. The list is long even when selective3: Carey's
    electric eye in 1875, Nipkow's scanning system in 1884; Braun's cathode-ray tube in
    1897; Rosing's cathode-ray receiver in 1907.
    3. Through this whole period two facts are evident: that a system of television
    was foreseen, and its means were being actively sought4, but also that, by
    comparison with electrical generation and electrical telegraphy and telephony, there
    was very little social investment to bring the scattered work together5. In 1923
    Zworykin introduced the electronic television camera tube. Through the early 1920s
    Baird and Lenkins, separately and competitively, were working on systems using
    mechanical scanning. There was great rivalry between systems and there is still great
    controversy about contributions and priorities6.
    4. What is interesting throughout is that in a number of complex and related
    fields, these systems of mobility and transfer in production and communication were
    at once incentives and responses within a phase of general transformation. The
    decisive transformation of industrial production and its new forms created new needs
    but also new possibilities, and the communications systems, down to television7,
    were their outcome.
    Notes
    1.motion pictures — кино
    2.with other ends in view — с другими целями
    3. the list is long even when selective — список длинный, даже если он сделан
    выборочно
    4.its means were being actively sought — шли активные поиски средств
    5. to bring the scattered work together — соединить разрозненные работы
    вместе
    6. there is still controversy about contributions and priorities .— все еще идет полемика по
    поводу степени участия и приоритета
    7.down to television — вплоть до телевидения

    П. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. The invention of television was no single event or series of events. 2. In each
    32

    of the stages the development of television depended on inventions made with other
    ends in view. 3. It is not difficult to separate television, in its earliest stages, from
    phototelegraphy. 4. The means of transmitting still pictures and moving pictures
    were discovered. 5. There was great rivalry between systems, but there is no
    controversy about contributions and priorities. 6. The decisive transformation of
    industrial production created new needs and possibilities.
    III. Answer the questions on paragraph 1:
    1. Has television altered our world? 2. What did the invention of television
    depend on? 3. Television has developed as a specific technological enterprise, hasn't
    it?
    IV. Find the information dealing with scientists′ contribution to the development
    of television. Say it to your group-mate
    V.In paragraph 3 find the English equivalents for:
    очевидный, предвидеть, искать, средства, по сравнению с, социальные
    вложения, разрозненный, отдельно, развертка, соперничество, получение,
    полемика, вклад, приоритет, активно, также.
    VI. Translate paragraph 3 into Russian.
    VII. Read paragraph 4 and say what the decisive transformation of industrial
    production and its new forms resulted in.
    VIII. Write out of the text the words and phrases describing the history of
    television.
    IX. Make an outline of the article.
    X.Speak about the history of television.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text B:
    sophisticated – сложный; live transmission – прямая передача; picture scanner
    — анализатор изображения; value — величина, значение; photosensitive cell –
    фоточувствительный элемент; to trace out a line — размечать строку; frame
    frequency — частота кадра; crude — незрелый; scanning speed — скорость
    развертки; to retain an image — сохранять изображение; succession —
    последовательность; uninterrupted flow – непрерывный поток; to glow –
    светиться; to strike (struck) – ударять; allocated dot – нужная точка.
    II. Skim through the text. Try to understand the main contents(you are given 15
    minutes):
    Text В
    Television. How does it work?
    The principles of television aren't as complicated — or as modern — as you
    33

    might think. TV technology has become more sophisticated than ever, but the basic
    method of sending a television picture is quite simple.
    The first live transmission was made by John Logie Baird, the TV pioneer, in 1924. Television had come a long way since 1884, when Paul Nipkow from
    Germany patented a mechanical picture scanner. This system formed the basis for
    Baird's historic, transmissions.
    Nipkow's invention depended on a rotating disc. Light passing through the holes
    on the disc was transformed into electric values by photosensitive cells. The path of
    each hole in the disc was different, and thus traced out a different line, and read the
    entire frame in a logical order. At the receiving end, a lamp was used to send out
    corresponding impulses of light, which then passed through a further rotating disc,
    identical to the one at the transmitting end, and synchronized with it. The light
    passing through the disc was projected onto a screen to recreate the original object1.
    These attempts at televising objects were very crude, because the scanning speed
    was slow. A comparable system is used today except that electronic scanning
    equipment is much faster. Approximately 25 frames per second are scanned. Frame
    frequency is important in allowing television– and films to create moving pictures.
    The eye retains an image for about 1/16-th of a second, so the mind experiences2 this
    succession of pictures as an uninterrupted flow. The large number of lines on modern
    television make clearly defined pictures possible.
    The cathode-ray tube patented in 1897 is used, in its refined form3, in present-day
    television sets. Its importance lies in its capacity to produce pictures. The tube has a
    screen which glows when struck by a stream of electrons from an electron gun inside
    the tube. Each point of the screen emits more or less light according to how long the
    beam is aimed at it4.
    A colour television has three electron guns — one for each of the primary colours,
    red, blue and green. They bombard a screen of phosphor dots, arranged in groups of
    three — one dot for each colour — while a masking device sorts the beams so each
    one falls on its allocated dot. A colour television camera also has three cathode tubes
    and electron guns.
    Notes
    1.to recreate the original object — для воссоздания исходного объекта
    2.the mind experiences — мозг воспринимает
    3.in its refined form — в усовершенствованном виде
    4.how long the beam is aimed at it – как долго луч направлен на нее

    III. Answer the following questions:
    1. Are the principles of television complicated? 2. When was the first live
    transmission made? 3. What did Nipkow's invention depend on? 4. How was light
    transformed into electric values? 5. Was the light projected onto a screen to recreate
    the original object? 6. What does the importance of cathode-ray tube lie in? 7. How
    many electron guns does a colour television have?

    34

    IV. Look through the text again and try to speak about the frame frequency used
    in television.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents. You'11
    need them to understand text С better:
    digital – дискретный, цифровой; to encode – кодировать; error – ошибка;
    audio – звуковой; available – доступный; span – интервал времени,
    долговечность.
    II. Read the text carefully and find the information about the advantages of digital
    television:
    Text С
    New Trend in Television
    1. The so-called analogue systems of television are to be replaced by digital
    systems in the near future. In time all stages of TV broadcasting — from the camera
    to the TV tube – will be digitalized. New systems make it possible to encode and
    compress tremendous flows of visual information. The advantages of digital
    techniques, first of all, improve the quality of the picture. Digital recording is almost
    free of signal errors. This applies fully to both video and audio signals.
    2. Turning an old medium to a digital, ‘interactive’ one seems to be even more difficult than
    introducing completely new technologies. The digitalization of television is a process of
    translation. The ‘script’ attached to television as we know it has to be changed – but this involves
    more than the technical issues of switching from analogue to digital signals and receivers. So
    far, the efforts to translate television have been centered around the figure of,
    'interactivity and the notion of a value-added' television, where digital technique
    allows new interactive features and services added on top of the familiar medium.
    The new interactive uses of television have been envisioned to include, e.g.
    – a wider choice of programme content by selecting channels or programs from
    video-on-demand services
    – simultaneous transactions – electronic shopping or betting related to the programme
    content
    – value-added information services – either relating to the programme or more
    general (citizen information services)
    – cross-media programmes spanning a combination of media channels such as TV,
    Internet, mobile phone
    – poll-type interaction using the return path or telephony
    – interactive programmes and games where the storyline and actions are modified by
    the user in a dynamic or exploratory way.
    It is obvious that the new interactive television services will affect the way we
    watch, use and think of television. Along with the new services, the existing and
    35

    developing television user cultures also have an influence on what kinds of television
    content will succeed and what forms they will take. With the onset of digital
    television, changes in user behavior are to be expected, just like the introduction of
    remote control led to rapid channel changing (the 'zapping' phenomenon). The
    changes in television watching habits can in turn lead to changes in production: the
    zapping phenomenon led to changes in the design and placement of commercials and
    greater segmentation of content within programs. Thus interactive television has been
    mostly addressed as a media technology and as a collection of programmes and
    services.
    III. Which paragraph contains the information directly connected with the title of
    the text? Render this information.
    IV. Explain why analogue systems of television will be replaced by digital
    systems in the near future.
    V. Find the information about how electronics experts have succeeded in better
    organizing the information flows.
    VII.
    Name the advantages of digital television over the analogue one.
    VIII. You have read three texts containing some information about television.
    Summarizing the general ideas developed in texts А, В and C, prepare a report on
    the theme "Television. History and new trends in its development". The following
    plan will help you:
    1. The invention of television — the result of a complex of inventions.
    2. Nipkow’s invention as the basis of the first live transmission.
    3. The mechanical picture scanner and the principle of its work.
    4. Some characteristics of modern TV sets.
    5. The advantages of digital television.
    UNIT FIVE
    • Grammar: Infinitive and its Functions (§ 13).
    Complex Object (§13,4).
    For + Noun (Pronoun) + Infinitive
    construction (§ 13, 5).
    • Word-formation: adjective +en=V; prefix un-.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Infinitive"

    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    36

    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    discovery [dɪs'kʌv(ə)rɪ], investigation [ɪnˌvestɪ'geɪʃ(ə)n], decisive [dɪ'saɪsɪv],
    radar

    ['reɪdə],

    nucleonics

    [ˌnju:klɪˈɔniks],

    unprecedented

    [ʌn'presɪd(ə)ntɪd],

    sensitivity [ˌsensɪ'tɪvɪtɪ], structure ['strʌktʃə], automation [ˌɔ:təˈmeɪʃ(ə)n], adequate
    ['ædɪkwɪt], cybernetics [ˌsaɪbə(:)'netɪks].
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    electron, revolution, physical, cathode, atom, structure, civilization, exploitation,
    diode, microscope, vacuum, radio, diagnosis, energy, industry, industrial, generate,
    instrument, social, combine, base, control.
    III. Give the initial form of the following words:
    followed, developed, electrons, produced, communications, locked, expanding,
    pouring, receivers, combined, enabled, applied, generating, given, offers, leading,
    senses.
    IV. State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
    discovery, investigation, physical, rapidly, directly, receiver, communication,
    decisive, shaping, computer, sensitivity, extension, structure, visible, optical,
    significant, industrial, treatment.
    V. a) Form verbs adding the suffix -en to the given adjectives, translate them:
    Example: fast – крепкий
    to fasten – прикреплять
    bright, dark, sharp, wide, less, broad, deep, short, weak, hard.
    b) Form verbs with an opposite meaning adding the prefix un-. Translate them
    into Russian:
    Example: to cover – покрывать
    to uncover – раскрывать
    to close, to load, to tune, to tie, to fasten, to charge, to balance, to fix, to lock, to
    pack, to bend.
    VI.
    Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult
    a dictionary:
    to follow, to lead, to apply, to develop, to combine, to produce, to represent, to
    give, to examine, to receive, to offer.
    VII.
    Define the functions of the Infinitive in the following sentences.
    Translate them into Russian:
    1. Our task is to study well. 2. The idea to use this substance is not new. 3. He
    described the device to be used in all modern systems. 4. The apparatus to be
    assembled is very complicated. 5. To translate the text without a dictionary is
    difficult. 6. To make the experiment you must improve the device. 7. The engineer
    37

    wanted to be sent to the conference. 8. Lodygin was the first to invent the electric
    lamp. 9. In order to solve these problems, scientists must make many experiments.
    10. To carry out this research work requires special knowledge.
    VIII.
    Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the
    functions of the Infinitive:
    1. We shall consider a very simple example in order to explain this phenomenon.
    2. Computer science is to be regarded as a new discipline. 3. It is quite necessary
    for him to make a great number of calculations to solve the problem. 4. We know
    silver to be the best of conducting materials. 5. Michael Faraday had little chance to
    get an education. 6. An attempt to form a theory of such systems was made by
    Professor W. 7. We expect the article to be published next year. 8. I believe him to
    have changed his plans. 9. Radio and television continue to develop and to find
    wider application in science and industry. 10. I saw the workers repair the machine.
    11. The fastest way to detect an artificial satellite is by radio. 12. We watched the
    robot perform many operations. 13. We are to study the main laws of physics. 14. A
    computer has to be used to make these calculations.
    IX. Change the following complex sentences given below according to the
    example and translate them:
    Example: The process which will be described in this article is known as
    ionization. The process to be described in this article is known as
    ionization.
    1. The method which will be used is reliable. 2. The results which will be
    received will be published next month. 3. The data that are to be obtained will be
    of great interest. 4. The measurements that must be made should be accurate
    enough. 5. The experiments which will be demonstrated are closely related to our
    research. 6. The problem that must be solved is very difficult. 7. The work that
    must be done is of great importance. 8. The method that will be used was
    developed in our laboratory. 9. The equipment that is to be installed is very
    effective. 10. The instrument which will be used must make precise measurements.
    X. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive
    Constructions:
    1. The professor made the students repeat the experiment. 2. We want them to
    receive this information as soon as possible. 3. We know the first atomic power
    station to have been built in the Ukraine. 4. The only thing for you to do is to use a
    microscope. 5. A material which allows electricity to flow through it is called a
    conductor. 6. We did not see them make this experiment. 7. For him to take this
    decision was not easy. 8. We think this work to be completed in a month. 9. Our
    professor wants us to use these data. 10. It was easy for our mechanic to repair this
    device. 11. Electronics enabled scientists to take pictures of the moon. 12. For the
    decision to be correct all facts must be considered.
    XI. Change the following complex sentences according to the example. Translate
    them into Russian:
    38

    Example: Yablochkov was the first who realized the advantages of the
    alternating current.
    Yablochkov was the first to realize the advantages of the alternating current.
    1. Franklin was the first who developed a new theory of electricity. 2.
    Lomonosov and Franklin were the first who made their experiments in the field of
    atmospheric electricity. 3. The engineer was the last who made the report at the
    conference. 4. The famous scientist was the first who proved this theory. 5. Newton
    was one of the first who studied light. 6. Lodygin was the first who invented the
    electric lamp. 7. These metals were the first that were used in industry. 8. This
    scientist was the first who developed the new process. 9. These devices were the first
    that were tested in our laboratory. 10. This radio station was the first that was built
    in our country.
    XII.
    Match up the words which have an opposite meaning:
    a) to cover, directly, old, much, more, rapidly, small, visible, powerful, long,
    before, to take, significant, effective;
    b) to uncover, ineffective, to give, after, powerless, short, large, invisible, slowly,
    less, little, new, indirectly, insignificant.
    XIII.
    Match up the words which have a similar meaning:
    a) investigation, rapidly, valve, shape, immense, to expand, speed, to examine, to
    receive, to apply, significance, efficient;
    b) importance, research, to use, effective, to get, to study, velocity, to extend,
    form, tube, fast, tremendous.
    XIV. Try to memorize the words and word-groups:
    ■ discovery – открытие ■ investigation – (научное) исследование; изыскание,
    изучение ■ pure science – чистая наука ■ vacuum techniques – вакуумная техника
    ■ cathode rays – катодные лучи ■communication – связь, сообщение ■ on a world
    scale – в мировом масштабе ■ a decisive factor – решающий фактор ■ nucleonics
    – нуклеоника (ядерная физика и ядерная техника) ■ store – запас ■ a branch of
    science – отрасль науки ■ significant – значительный, важный ■ advance –
    прогресс, успех ■ treatment – лечение ■ to play the leading role – играть ведущую
    роль.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    The Age of Electronics
    1. The discovery of the electron, and the investigations into its nature which
    followed, led to a revolution in physical science.
    The revolution in pure science rapidly bore fruit1 in many fields of applied
    science and technology, especially in the applied science of electronics. The vacuum
    techniques developed for the study of free electrons and cathode rays led directly to
    the radio valve and the television receiver. The new electronics combined with the
    39

    older techniques of the telegraph and telephone produced a revolution in
    communications on a world scale. If the discovery of the electron had led only to
    radio and television it would still represent a decisive factor in the shaping of our
    civilization – but it led to much more.
    2. Electronics produced radar. It led to nucleonics and hence to the exploitation of
    the immense store of energy locked in the atom. It gave birth2 to the electronic
    computer. By the middle of the twentieth century a rapidly expanding, world-wide
    electronics industry was pouring out millions of parts for radio and television
    receivers and instruments for every branch of science and technology – instruments
    capable of unprecedented speed and sensitivity3.
    3. Electronic devices give immense extension to our senses. We can now examine
    structures too small to be visible in even the most powerful optical microscope and
    receive signals from radio stars which started their long journey through space ages
    before there was any life on our planet. Electronics combined with rocketry has
    enabled scientists to take close-up pictures4 of the moon. Electronics applied to
    medicine has already produced significant advances in diagnosis and treatment.
    4. Electronics plays the leading role in automation which is generating a second
    industrial revolution of wider social significance than the first.
    5. Electronics has also given birth to cybernetics which offers, for the first time in
    history, an effective science of government based on adequate information and
    communication.
    6. It seems very probable that electronics will dominate technology even in the
    distant future.
    Notes
    1. to bear fruit – приносить плоды, давать результаты
    2. to give birth – родить, породить
    3. unprecedented speed and sensitivity – небывалая скорость и чувствительность
    4.to take close-up pictures – делать снимки с близкого расстояния

    II.Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. The revolution in pure science rapidly bore fruit in many fields of applied
    science and technology. 2. The new electronics produced a revolution in
    communications. 3. The discovery of the electron led to a revolution only in physical
    science. 4. Electronics doesn't play the leading role in automation.
    III. Answer the following questions on paragraph 2:
    1. What did electronics produce? 2. What did it lead to? 3. What did it give birth
    to? 4. What was electronics industry pouring out by the middle of the twentieth
    century?
    IV. Translate paragraph 3 into Russian.
    V. Read paragraph 4 and say where electronics plays the leading role.
    VI. In paragraph 2 find the English equivalents of the following words:
    электроника, радар, запас, электронная вычислительная машина, часть,
    прибор, телевизионный приемник, отрасль, чувствительность, технология,
    40

    производить.
    VII. Write out of the text the words and phrases describing general uses of
    electronics.
    VIII. Make an outline of the text.
    IX. Speak about the age of electronics using your outline.

    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents. You will
    need them for better understanding text B:
    radio tube – радиолампа; wire– провод, проволока; layer – слой; junction –
    соединение, сочленение; переход; a solid-state diode – твердотельный диод;
    sound picture – 1. звуковое кино; 2. звуковой кинофильм; long-distance telephone
    call – междугородный телефонный вызов; seek – искать; to adapt –
    приспосабливать; control – управление; регулирование; image – изображение;
    to respond – реагировать; to detect – замечать, обнаруживать.
    П. Skim through text В and choose the best title for it:
    1. Electronics in Industry.
    2. Electronics and the Second Industrial Revolution.
    3. General Uses of Electronics.
    Text B
    Electronics is the science or practice of using electricity in devices similar to
    transistors and radio tubes so as to get results not possible with ordinary electrical
    equipment.
    Most persons know how electric current flows in motors and transformers; here
    the electricity always flows in the copper wire or other metal parts. When electricity
    passes through space as occurs within a tube, such action is called electronic. More
    recently, when layers of semiconductor metals are joined together so that current
    flows through the junction in one direction only, as in a solid-state diode or a
    transistor, such action is also called electronic. If a device passes its stream of
    electrons through internal space, or through the junction where certain different
    metals meet, the device is called electronic.
    Without electronics there might be no radio, television, sound pictures or longdistance telephone calls. Most of these familiar equipments serve to carry or give
    information; so communication early was a main purpose of electronics and still
    holds interest of many workers and students in this field.
    Meanwhile industry seeking faster and more accurate methods of production has
    adapted electronic equipment to its own needs. Gradually during the past fifty years
    industrial plants have installed electronic equipment to give better operation of
    motors along with control of varied operations.
    Some people believe that electronic devices can hear, see, feel, smell or even
    think; this is true only when the sound, image, feeling or thought can be changed into
    41

    electrical signal, to which the transistor or tube-operated device1 can then respond.
    Much of the success of electronics depends on the methods used to obtain an electric
    signal that can be used to stimulate the electronic device into action2. The electronic
    circuit can be made to detect such a signal, increase its strength and put it to useful
    work3.
    Notes
    1.tube-operated device – прибор, управляемый электронной лампой
    2.to stimulate into action – побуждать к действию
    3.to put to useful work – заставить выполнять полезную работу

    III. Answer the following questions:
    1. What is electronics? 2. What device is called electronic? 3. What was a main
    purpose of electronics? 4. What has industry adapted to its own needs?
    IV. Give the main points of text В in 4-5 sentences.
    V.Speak about the use of electronics in industry.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents facilitating
    reading text C:
    solid-state device – твердотельный прибор; vacuum tube– электронная лампа;
    thermionic valve – термоэлектронная лампа; shape – форма; конфигурация;
    evacuate – откачивать; разрежать; to emit – испускать, излучать; to attract –
    притягивать; to charge – заряжать; grid – сетка; high power – высокая мощность;
    amplifier – усилитель; to transistorize – собирать на транзисторах; переводить на
    транзисторы.
    II. Scan text С and find the information about the uses of vacuum tubes.
    Text С
    Vacuum Tubes
    1. The science of electronics now deals almost exclusively with transistors and
    other solid-state devices. However, vacuum tubes were the principal building blocks1
    of electronic circuits until approximately 1955. Briefly, a vacuum tube .consists of
    several metal electrodes of various shapes all packaged inside a glass or metal
    envelope2 which is highly evacuated. Vacuum tubes are often called thermionic
    "valves". A red hot metallic electrode (the filament or cathode) emits electrons
    which are attracted to a positively charged electrode called the plate or anode. The
    electrons pass through the spaces in a metallic grid electrode on their way to the
    plate, and the voltage on the grid controls how many electrons reach the plate. A
    simple thermionic valve is called a diode because it has two electrodes. A triode is a
    valve with three electrodes, an anode, a cathode and a control grid. A tetrode has
    four, and a pentode – five electrodes.
    42

    2. Vacuum tubes are still used in oscilloscopes, television sets, high power high
    frequency radio transmitters, and in some special low noise amplifiers. However,
    every year sees a larger number of applications being transistorized. It is probably
    safe to say that this trend will continue in the future, as there is presently a great deal
    of technological development being put into solid state electronics and rather little
    put into vacuum tube electronics.
    3. As a general rule, vacuum tubes are inferior to modern solid state devices3 in
    many ways. Vacuum tubes are much larger. They require considerably more electric
    power to operate. However, they can handle high voltages and high powers4 at high
    frequencies somewhat more easily than solid state devices. They are also capable of
    withstanding temporary overloads5 in voltage or current which would permanently
    destroy6 a solid state device and then returning to normal operation.
    Notes
    1. principal building blocks – основные стандартные блоки
    2. packaged inside an envelope – заключенный в баллон
    3. inferior to modern solid state devices – уступают современным твердотельным
    приборам
    4. to handle high voltages and high powers – оперировать высоким напряжением и
    высокой мощностью
    5. to withstand temporary overloads – выдерживать временные перегрузки
    6.would permanently destroy – неизменно разрушает

    III. Say what principal blocks electronic circuits were made of before 1955.
    IV.Give reasons for replacing vacuum tubes by transistor devices.
    V. Which paragraph contains the information directly connected with the title of
    the text. Render this information to your partner.
    VI.Imagine that you are to make a report on the theme "The Age of Electronics".
    Use the information of all three texts А, В and С. The following plan will help you:
    1. The discovery of the electron.
    2. The revolution in pure science.
    3. The revolution in technology.
    4. General uses of electronics.
    UNIT SIX
    • Grammar: Participle 1 (§ 14).
    Functions of the verb to do (§ 10).
    • Word-formation: prefix dis-, n + n= n.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Participle I".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    43

    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    current ['kArqnt], alternating [Ll'tE:nqtIN], amplify ['xmplIfaI], rectify
    ['rektIfaI], surface ['sE:fIs], frequency ['frJkwqnsi], substance ['sAbstqns],
    conductor [kqn'dAktq(r)], semiconductor ["semikqn'dAktq(r)], insulator
    ['InsjuleItq(r)], measure ['meZq(r)], delay [dI'leI].
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    transistor, crystal, crystalline, contact, classify, electric, electrode, compact,
    computer, combination, equivalent, acceleration, material, review, triode, evolution,
    hybrid, monolithic.
    III. Give the initial forms of the following words:
    devices, pieces, allowed, known, became, depended, rectifying, crystals, valves,
    reaching, receivers, understood, substances, semiconductors, insulators, invented,
    replacing, advantages.
    IV. State to what parts of speech the words in bold type belong:
    1. A proton has a positive electrical charge. 2. Don't charge this battery. 3. The
    operating range of this device is broad. 4. The capacities of these stations range
    from 600 to 700 kilowatts. 5. The structure of the atom is like the structure of our
    solar system. 6. I like to watch TV evening programmes. 7. The room houses
    electronic devices. 8. The houses of the research institute are nearly in the centre of
    the city.
    V. Translate the following compound nouns:
    air-line, sunlight, airstream, radiosignal, waveform, wave-length, spaceship,
    typewriter, timetable, block-diagram, pipe-line, lifetime, radioreceiver, codeword,
    radiowave.
    VI. Form verbs with an opposite meaning adding the prefix dis– and translate
    them:
    Example: to approve – одобрять
    to disapprove – не одобрять
    to cover, to appear, to place, to continue, to agree, to charge, to connect, to close,
    to arrange, to assemble, to mount, to join.
    VII.
    Make sure if you remember the three forms of the following verbs:
    become – became – become; understand – understood – understood; lead – led –
    led; mean – meant – meant; do – did – done; wear – wore – worn; set – set – set; let
    – let – let; cost – cost – cost; find – found – found; spread – spread – spread.
    VIII. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of the
    verb to do:
    1. He will do the work himself. 2. Where does he study? 3. Semiconductors do
    44

    possess many wonderful properties. 4. Semiconductors let electric current pass
    through them more easily than insulators do. 5. I don't understand the action of this
    device. 6. Perfect science does exist. 7. Don't change the temperature. 8. Energy is
    defined as ability to do work. 9. Do you know this engineer? – Yes, I do. 10. He
    does obtain amplification (усиление) with this device.
    IX. Define the function of Participle I in the following sentences and translate
    them:
    1. The scientist working at this design is well known. 2. Carrying out the
    experiment he made use of some new instruments. 3. These new devices are
    replacing their older equivalents. 4. Speaking about the new method of work the
    engineer told us many interesting details. 5. Radio occupies one of the leading places
    among the greatest achievements of modern engineering. 7. Being cooled water
    turns into ice. 8. The electric current passing through a wire will heat it. 9.
    Transistors contain no moving parts. 10. The scientist is carrying on an important
    research. 11. Developing the new method they achieved good results.
    X. Translate the following sentences:
    1. Having improved this device they could use it for many purposes. 2. When
    making the experiment he made Notes. 3. The vibrations of a voice speaking into the
    microphone of a telephone cause vibrations in an electric current. 4. This varying
    current is carried along a wire to a receiver. 5. Electronics in our country has
    developed into hundreds of research institutes and laboratories employing tens of
    thousands of people. 6. The power engineering in the USA develops much faster than
    that of some other developed countries, including Great Britain. 7. Having been
    discovered many years ago this metal found a wide application in industry only last
    decade. 8. While being checked the motor showed good performance. 9. The
    European Union today is building high-capacity atomic power stations. 10. The man
    introducing this famous scientist is the dean of our faculty. 11. Cybernetics has
    gained a growing importance.
    XI. Change the complex sentences given below according to the examples and
    translate them into Russian:
    Example A: While she was preparing for her physics exam she looked through
    all the Notes of the lectures.
    While preparing for her physics exam she looked through all the Notes of the
    lectures.
    1. When he was translating the article he used a dictionary. 2. While the student
    was working at the problem he made many experiments. 3. When the scientist was
    carrying out research in the field of nuclear physics he came to Dubna to work there.
    4. When the worker was applying the new method of work he got better results. 5.
    While he was experimenting with this substance he was very careful. 6. When the
    engineer was improving the design he made many calculations. 7. While the man
    45

    was describing this phenomenon he illustrated it with numerous examples. 8. When
    these scientists were working in our laboratory they obtained good results.
    Example B: The scientists who are carrying out research into nuclear physics
    deal with most difficult problems.
    The scientists carrying out research into nuclear physics deal with most
    difficult problems.
    1. The scientist who is working at the method is well known. 2. The
    students who are listening to the taped lesson study at the evening faculty. 3. These
    postgraduate students who are watching the experiment work in our laboratory. 4.
    The worker who is repairing the machine is very skilled. 5. The engineer who is
    carrying out these investigations is a well-known inventor. 6. The students who are
    doing the laboratory work are from various faculties. 7. The workers who are
    building this house will soon finish their work.
    XII. Choose the sentences with Participle I from the ones given below, translate
    them:
    1. The falling water has kinetic energy. 2. While testing the motor we take down
    the results. 3. There is no simple explanation of the functioning of transistors. 4.
    Obtaining new data engineers can improve their knowledge. 5. Look at the reading
    of the device. 6. Robots are helping research scientists to answer many difficult
    questions. 7. By the beginning of the 20th century man had learned something of the
    structure of the atom. 8. When applying these automatic devices we shall be able to
    control automatic lines. 9. The applying of lasers enables us to amplify
    electromagnetic waves. 10. A person beginning some experiment should be very
    careful and attentive.
    XIII. Match up the words which have an opposite meaning:
    a) conductor, before, solid, alternating, early, high, receiver, new, important,
    advantage, little, light, possible, reliable;
    b) impossible, disadvantage, insulator, after, unreliable, heavy, much, liquid,
    direct, late, low, transmitter, old, unimportant.
    XIV. Listen to the following tape-recorded lexical programme. Try to memorize
    the words and word-groups:
    ■ alternating current – переменный ток ■ thermionic valve – электронная
    лампа ■ to rectify – выпрямлять, детектировать ■ fine wire – тонкий провод ■
    rectifier – выпрямитель; детектор ■ radar receiver – радиолокационный
    приемник ■ point-contact transistor – точечно-контактный транзистор ■ junction
    – 1. соединение; сочленение; 2. переход; 3. плоскостной ■ junction transistor –
    плоскостной транзистор ■ in many respects – во многих отношениях, density
    packing – плотная упаковка ■ an intricate circuit – сложная схема ■ measuring
    instruments – измерительные приборы ■ recording equipment – регистрирующая
    аппаратура; оборудование записи ■ instrumentation – контрольно46

    измерительные приборы; контрольно-измерительная аппаратура ■ reliability –
    надежность; прочность,
    LESSON TWO
    I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    Transistors and Semiconductor Devices
    1. Devices consisting of solid pieces of crystalline material which allowed
    alternating current to flow more readily in one direction than the other were known
    long before the invention of the thermionic valve. The crystal set1 which became so
    well known in the early days of radio depended on the rectifying action at the point
    of contact between the surface of certain crystals and a fine wire. Crystal valves2,
    using silicon crystals, were found to be more efficient for the very high frequency
    signals reaching radar receivers than any thermionic valves. The action of these
    devices was not understood, but they were all made from materials which we now
    classify as semiconductors: substances which let electric current pass through them
    more easily than insulators do but much less easily than do true conductors. These
    semiconductor devices were used as rectifiers although by 1924 a scientific worker
    at the laboratory headed by Bonch-Bruyevich in Nizhni Novgorod Oleg Losev for
    the first time in the history of electronics had achieved amplification using a
    semiconductor crystal. Unfortunately, Losev's discovery did not receive due
    attention.
    2. In 1948 Bardeen and Brattain invented the point-contact transistor and
    Shockley invented the junction transistor shortly after. The transistor is a
    semiconductor triode possessing characteristics which are similar in many respects to
    those of thermionic triodes. At present transistors are widely used in amplifiers,
    receivers, transmitters, oscillators, TV sets, measuring instruments, pulse circuits,
    computers, and many other types of radio equipment.
    3. The invention of transistors and solid-state devices led to an acceleration in the
    growth of electronics. Why were these new devices so important and why are they
    steadily replacing their older equivalents? A brief review of their advantages
    compared with thermionic devices will provide the answers to these questions.
    Transistors are made from parts which do not wear out. Transistors waste very little
    power. They require no heating to generate their free electrons. This means that
    equipment made with transistors is more efficient, lighter than comparable valve
    equipment.
    4. Since no heating is required there is no delay in transistor equipment waiting
    for things to warm up, as there is with thermionic valves. This is a great advantage
    with 'entertainment' equipment, such as radio and television receivers, and it may be
    vital with some kinds of measuring or recording equipment.
    5. Their very small size and weight, combined with low heat dissipation3, permits
    very high density packing of components and, in combination with their reliability,
    this has made possible the design of the very compact circuits which are essential for
    47

    such applications as
    instrumentation, etc.

    computers,

    portable

    measuring

    instruments,

    satellite

    Notes
    1.crystal set – детекторный приемник
    2.crystal valve – кристаллический прибор
    3.heat dissipation – рассеяние тепла

    II. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Devices consisting of crystalline materials were known long before the
    invention of the thermionic valve. 2. The crystal set became known in the early days
    of radio. 3. Crystal valves were found to be less efficient rectifiers than thermionic
    valves. 4. The action of semiconductor devices was understood well.
    III. Answer the following questions on paragraph 2:
    1. What is a transistor? 2. When was the first transistor invented? 3. Where are
    transistors used?
    IV. In paragraph 3 find the English equivalents of the following words:
    транзистор, твердотельный прибор, ускорение, рост, прибор, заменять,
    неуклонно, краткий, преимущество, сравнивать, давать ответы.
    V. Translate paragraph 4.
    VI.Read paragraph 5 and say where the small size and weight of transistors is
    essential.
    VII. Write out of the text the words and phrases describing the transistor.
    VIII.Divide text A into logical parts and find the topical sentence of each part.
    IX. Tell the story of transistors and semiconductor devices using the topical
    sentences.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text B:
    integrated circuit – интегральная схема; resistor – резистор; capacitor –
    конденсатор, емкость; package, case – корпус; lead – ввод, вывод; infinitesimally
    small terms – бесконечно малые члены выражения; chip (die) – чип, кристаллик;
    to tend – иметь тенденцию; cost – цена, стоимость; common – широко
    распространенный; общепринятый; thin– and thick-film ICs – тонко пленочные
    и толстопленочные интегральные схемы (ИС); simultaneously – 1.
    одновременно; 2. совместно; complete – полный, завершенный; performance –
    1. производительность; эффективность; 2. качество функционирования; digital
    48

    computer – цифровая ЭВМ; design – 1. проект; 2. конструкция; to design –
    проектировать, конструировать, разрабатывать; evaluate – оценивать; to bring
    about – вызывать, быть причиной.
    II. Skim through the text and say what it is about (you are given 10 minutes):
    Text B
    Integrated Circuits
    An integrated circuit (IС) is a collection of interconnected transistors, diodes,
    resistors, and capacitors mounted in one package or case with as many as fourteen
    leads.
    The word "integrated" does not refer to the mathematical process of adding
    together an infinite number of infinitesimally small terms, but rather to the fact that
    all transistors, diodes, and resistors are formed from a single piece of semiconductor
    material called a "chip" or a "die". If only one chip is present in the case, the IС is
    called "monolithic"; if several chips are mounted inside the case the IС is called
    "hybrid". Some integrated circuits contain several thousand transistors and resistors,
    and so extreme miniaturization is possible.
    Because of their extremely small size, integrated circuits tend to be restricted to
    low power applications. Their small size, however, does enable them to operate at
    high frequencies. The cost of an IС is considerably less than the total cost of the
    separate components.
    Monolithic ICs are by far the most common, but there are other kinds. Thin-film
    and thick-film ICs are larger than monolithic ICs but smaller than discrete circuits.
    With a thin– or thick-film IС, the passive components like resistors and capacitors
    are integrated simultaneously on a substrate. Then, discrete active components like
    transistors and diodes are connected to form a complete circuit. Therefore,
    commercially available thin– and thick-film circuits are combinations of integrated
    and discrete components1.
    If only a few components have been integrated to form the complete circuit it is
    an example of small-scale integration (SSI)2. As a guide, SSI refers to ICs with less
    than 12 integrated components.
    Medium-scale integration (MSI)3 refers to ICs that have from 12 to 100 integrated
    components per chip. Large-scale integration (LSI)4 refers to more than a hundred
    components.
    The IС is becoming more important as a component to be used in the design of
    electronic equipment, not only in equipment that must be small and light in weight,
    but where reliability and performance are demanded. In many areas of application
    particularly in digital computers, the IС provides more economical designs.
    A number of important new developments are being evaluated both in the
    laboratory and in limited product usage. Some of these promise to bring about
    significant changes in the way microcircuits are designed and used.
    Notes
    49

    1.discrete component – дискретный компонент
    2.SSI (small-scale integration) – малая интегральная схема
    3.MSI (medium-scale integration) – средняя интегральная схема
    4.LSI (large-scale integration) – большая интегральная схема

    III. Answer the following questions:
    1. What is an integrated circuit? 2. What does the word 'integrated' mean? 3. What
    types of integrated circuits are known to you? 4. What is large scale integration?
    IV. Give the main points of text В in 3-5 sentences.
    V.Speak about integrated circuits.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents. You will
    need them for better understanding text C:
    reduction – уменьшение, сокращение; bulky electronic equipment – громоздкое
    электронное оборудование; printed circuit – печатная схема; trend – общее
    направление, тенденция; to reduce – уменьшать, сокращать; to consume –
    потреблять, расходовать; durable – долговечный, прочный; coating – покрытие;
    lattice – (кристаллическая) решетка; to assemble – собирать, монтировать; to look
    ahead – смотреть вперед, смотреть в будущее; packing density – плотность
    монтажа; плотность упаковки; unit – устройство; узел; блок; прибор; tremendous
    – громадный, огромный; diverse – разный; molecular electronics – молекулярная
    электроника.
    II. Scan text С and find the answers to the following questions:
    1. What is a major trend in modern radio electronics?
    2. What possibilities does molecular electronics open up?
    Text С
    From Radio Valves to Cosmic Communications
    1. The reduction of radio instruments to miniature proportions and even smaller –
    is a major trend in modern radio electronics. The significance of this research has
    grown especially in connection with space research. It is impossible to equip a rocket
    for flights to other worlds without light, small and economical electronic apparatuses.
    The space rockets will carry a large amount of miniature equipment, systems for
    contact with the Earth, radars, computers for calculating flight trajectories, lifesupport systems, etc.
    2. Bulky electronic equipment will have no place in the future. It will be
    unsuitable for automation of production, transport or domestic use.
    3. Semiconductors and printed circuits have helped to reduce the size of apparatus
    considerably. The semiconducting instruments which have replaced electronic valves
    50

    are much smaller and lighter, consume less power, are reliable and more durable.
    The development of micromodules – tiny ceramic plates with a metallized coating
    – has opened up big possibilities for making miniature electronic instruments.
    Semiconductors compressed into this plate are hundreds of times smaller than
    electronic valves. A radio receiver assembled of micromodules does not weigh more
    than 50 grammes.
    4. Molecular electronics opens up new possibilities. The crystalline lattice can be
    changed by tantalum or titanium being added to semiconductors to obtain crystals
    with the required electrical properties.
    At present, a radio-receiving set is assembled of separate, ordinary-size parts. The
    radio sets based on semiconductors or micromodules are also assembled of separate
    parts but tens and hundreds of times as small. The germanium or silicon plates will
    not operate like separate resistors or condensers, but as complete circuits – as
    generators or amplifiers.
    5. All this might sound fantastic, but a scientist is looking still further ahead.
    Present research programmes are taking the development of even more miniature
    parts. We can say that when superminiature elements are developed, it will become
    possible to place approximately 200 million of these "parts" within one cubic
    centimetre. The density is approximately that of the human brain.
    6. Cybernetics machines assembled of these units will memorize tremendous
    volumes of information and will give man invaluable assistance in diverse fields of
    life.
    III. Say where the reduction of radio instruments is especially significant.
    IV.Find the information about semiconductor instruments.
    V. Think of the most suitable title for paragraph 3 out of the given ones:
    1. Miniaturization.
    2. Semiconductor Devices – a Big Step in the Direction of Miniaturization.
    3. Steps of Miniaturization.
    VI. Give reasons for the development of micromodules.
    VII. Say what new possibilities molecular electronics opens up.
    IX. Which paragraph contains the information directly connected with the title of
    the text. Render this information.
    IX. Imagine that you are to make a report on the topic "Evolution of Electronics".
    Use the information of texts А, В and С. The following plan is available:
    1. The demands for reduction in size and weight of electronic equipment and
    components.
    2. Transistors and semiconductor devices.
    3. Printed circuits.
    4. Micromodules.
    51

    5. Integrated circuits.
    UNIT SEVEN




    : Gerund(§ 15J.
    Word-formation: suffixes -age, -ment, -ity.
    Individual Work: Lab Work "Gerund".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises

    I.
    Practise the reading of the following words:
    laser ['leIzə(r)], maser ['meIzə(r)], machine [mə'SI:n], amplification
    ['æmplIfI'keISn], concentrate ['kPnsntreIt], radiation [reIdièISn], emission
    [i'mISn], intense [in'tens], neutron ['nju:trPn], electron [I'lektrPn], proton
    ['prəVtPn], circle [sE:kl], liquid ['likwid].
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    Laser, maser, distance, radiation, stimulate, intensity, neutron, electron, proton,
    energy, material, type, spectroscopy, steel, diamond, operation, holography,
    photograph, hologram, real, engineer, engineering, molecule, atomic, generate,
    revolutionary, telescope, control, isotope.
    III.
    Give the initial forms of the following words:
    making, concentrating, stimulated, made, waves, lasers, increases, excited, given,
    seen, including, liquids, solids, purposes, developed, gives, changes, generated,
    known, allowing, smaller, longer.
    IV.
    State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
    Visible, length, ordinary, different, amplifier, amplification, emission, radiation,
    semiconductor, scientific, industrial, gives, needed, atomic, microwave,
    unbelievable.
    V.Find the roots of the following words:
    amplifier, different, development, industrial, intensity, achievement, atomic,
    revolutionary, building, shorten, achievable, realize.
    VI.
    Form nouns adding the suffixes a)-age, b)-ment and c)-ity to the given
    verbs and adjectives and translate them:
    Example: a) to leak – течь b) to equip – оборудовать
    Leakage – утечкаequipment – оборудование
    с) stable – устойчивый
    stability – устойчивость
    a) to use, to cover, to store, to break, to pass, to carry, to link, to stop, to assemble,
    52

    to short(en);
    b) to develop, to arrange, to achieve, to move, to measure, to improve, to manage,
    to establish, to excite, to require-,
    c) real, active, able, complex, dense, electric, intense, conductive, capable,
    special, flexible.
    VII. Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a
    dictionary:
    to increase, to excite, to give, to include, to fall, to use, to test, to check, to join, to
    mount, to achieve, to exceed, to oscillate, to reach, to jump.
    VIII. Define the functions of the Gerund in the following sentences and translate
    them:
    1. A laser is a machine for making and concentrating light waves into a very
    intense beam. 2. Go on making the experiment. 3. The idea of using lasers came
    from A.Prokhorov and N.Basov. 4. The laser beam is made by exciting the atoms of
    a suitable material. 5. Measuring temperature is necessary in many experiments. 6.
    There can be no progress in science without experimenting. 7. Solving such
    problems helps us greatly. 8. Their wish is mastering the fundamentals of radioengineering. 9. The melting point of aluminium is 657°C. 10. I remember visiting
    this laboratory. 11. They succeeded in obtaining these data.
    IX. Choose the sentences with the Gerund from the ones given below and
    translate them:
    1. Special instruments measuring cosmic radio signals are being installed in the
    observatory. 2. Penetrating into space was very important for mankind. 3. Applying
    the method we get better results. 4. Upon adding heat we can change the state of a
    substance. 5. When measuring the voltage we use a voltmeter. 6. A number of
    materials, including some gases and semiconductors, possess this property. 7. For
    many centuries men were interested in obtaining new sources of energy. 8. The
    engineer insisted on experimenting as the best method to solve this problem. 9. The
    importance of scientific researches and discoveries is growing with every year.
    X. Translate the following sentences. Note the words which help you to define
    whether the word with the suffix -ing is verbal noun, a gerund or a participle:
    1. Our aim is solving this complex problem. 2. They succeeded in obtaining good
    results working with this metal. 3. The building of the house will be finished next
    month. 4. In testing the devices they found some serious faults. 5. The growing
    importance of automatic equipment in industry attracts world-wide attention. 6.
    Russian scientists played a great role in the spreading of the metric system in Russia.
    7. After graduating from Petersburg University A.S.Popov remained there as a postgraduate at the Physics Department. 8. After Hertz had published his experiments
    proving the existence of electromagnetic waves, A.S.Popov thought of a possibility
    of using Hertz waves for transmitting signals over a distance. 9. On March 24, 1896
    he demonstrated the transmission and reception of a radiogram consisting of two
    words: Heinrich Hertz. 10. Using the new method it is possible to increase accuracy
    53

    and speed of spectral analysis. 11. Thousands of scientists, using the most modern
    equipment, are studying the atmosphere.
    XI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of the
    Gerund:
    1. Large-scale application of electronic technique is a trend of technical progress
    capable of revolutionizing many branches of industry. 2. Leningrad physicists have
    developed a method for using optical quantum generators for spectral analysis. 3.
    When atoms or molecules are excited they emit electromagnetic waves. By counting
    the number of waves in a certain period, a very accurate measure of time can be
    defined. 4. The operating speeds of these systems will be measured in nanoseconds.5.Telemetry is the science of seeing some place without being there. 6.
    Electronics is not so much a new subject as a new way of looking at electricity. 7.
    We know of Kondakov's having made the first synthetic rubber in the world. 8.
    Soviet physicists saw in semiconductors the way of solving complicated engineering
    problems. 9. These scientists continue working in this promising field of knowledge.
    10. We know of Yoffe's having contributed much to the research of transistors.
    XII. Match up the words which are opposite in meaning:
    a) high, thin, hot, small, long, visible, possible, increase, known, important,
    include, different;
    b) unimportant, unknown, decrease, impossible, invisible, short, big, cold, thick,
    low, exclude, the same.
    XIII. Listen to the following tape-recorded lexical program. Try to memorize all
    the words and word-groups:
    ■ laser – лазер, оптический квантовый генератор ■ maser – мазер,
    микроволновый квантовый генератор ■ light waves – световые волны ■
    amplifier – усилитель ■ to make up – составлять ■energy level – уровень энергии
    (энергетический уровень) ■ to give off energy (light) – отдавать энергию;
    излучать, испускать (свет), ■to generate – генерировать; вырабатывать,
    производить ■ solid – твердое тело; твердый ■ property – свойство ■ threedimensional image – объемное изображение ■ emission – эмиссия, испускание,
    излучение ■ range – дальность, радиус, сфера (действия); диапазон, пределы ■
    wavelength – длина волны ■ by a factor of 10 – в 10 раз ■ to oscillate – колебаться
    ■ master control – главный орган управления ■ holography – голография
    LESSON TWO
    I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    Lasers and Masers
    1. A laser is a machine for making and concentrating light waves into a very
    intense beam. The letters LASER stand for Light Amplification by Stimulated
    Emission of Radiation. The light made by a laser is much more intense than ordinary
    54

    light. With ordinary light, all the light waves are different lengths. With lasers, all the
    light waves have the same length, and this increases the intensity.
    2. Atoms are made up of neutrons, electrons and protons. The electrons circle
    round the protons and neutrons. In a laser, the electrons are "excited" to a high energy
    level. As the electrons fall back from their "excited" state to their normal state, they
    give off energy. This energy is given off as light which can be seen. A number of
    materials have this property including some gases, liquids, solids and
    semiconductors. Thus a number of different types of lasers have been developed.
    3. Lasers are now used for many scientific, medical and industrial purposes. The
    thin beam of light gives a lot of heat and it is used to join metal when a very small
    joint is needed. The beam can also be used as a drill, to make holes in steel, or even
    in diamonds. Because the beam is so small, it's very important in delicate surgery and
    is used in eye operations.
    4. Lasers are also used in holography. A hologram is a three-dimensional image, a
    bit like1 a photograph. It's different from a photograph because it looks solid. As you
    walk round a hologram, it changes, as if it were real. Now holography is used for
    testing engineering ideas. An engineer can use a hologram to build up and check a
    new building such as a bridge. He can find out all about it before he builds it.
    5. The word MASER is also an acronym – for Microwave Amplification by
    Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The maser is operated on the same principle2 as
    the laser except that the wavelengths generated are much longer and therefore the
    energy jumps involved are smaller. The excited bodies in a maser are molecules
    rather than atomic electrons and the beam generated is a coherent beam of
    microwaves which is not visible to the eye.
    6. Masers have made revolutionary advance possible in a number of different
    fields. They are up to 1.000 times more sensitive3 than any other type of amplifiers.
    Maser amplifiers mounted on radio telescopes can increase even their great range by
    a factor of 10, allowing us to reach out to the bounds of the known universe. Because
    of the very constant frequency with which masers can be made to oscillate they can
    be used as master controls for atomic clocks of unbelievable accuracy: an error not
    exceeding 1 second in 10.000 years has already been achieved.
    7. The idea of using stimulated emission of radiation for amplification of very
    short waves came, from A.Prokhorov and N.Basov of the Lebedev Institute in
    Moscow.
    Notes
    1. a bit like – немного напоминающий
    2. is operated on the same principle – работает на том же принципе
    3.1.000 times more sensitive – в 1000 раз более чувствительный

    II. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. The light made by a laser is much more intense than ordinary light. 2. With
    ordinary light, all the light waves have the same length. 3. With lasers all the light
    waves have different length. 4. A laser concentrates light waves into a very intense
    55

    beam.
    III. Answer the following questions on paragraph 2:
    1. What are atoms made up of? 2. To what level are the electrons excited in a
    laser? 3. When do they give off energy? 4. In what form is this energy given off?
    IV.Find the place in paragraph 3 containing the information of the uses of lasers.
    Render this information to your group-mate.
    V. In paragraph 4 find the English equivalents of the following words:
    голография, голограмма, объемное изображение, выглядеть, испытывать,
    проверять, выяснять.
    VI.
    Translate paragraph 5.
    VII.
    Read paragraph 6 and say where masers are used.
    VIII.
    Write out of the text the words and phrases describing a laser.
    IX.Describe the uses of lasers.
    X. Divide text A into logical parts and find the topical sentences of each part. Put
    them down.
    XI.Speak about lasers using the topical sentences and the logical diagram given
    below.
    lasers

    to be made of

    to be used in

    gases
    industry
    liquids

    holography

    solids

    science
    medicine

    semiconductors

    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents facilitating
    reading text B:
    micro welding – микросварка; resistor trimming – подгонка резисторов;
    isolation – выделение; отделение; power engineering – энергетика; extrapure –
    сверхчистый; resolution – разрешающая способность; to store – запоминать,
    хранить; to process – обрабатывать; archive – архив; to display – отображать
    (данные); выводить (данные); screen – экран; information carrier – носитель
    информации; to come in handy – пригодиться, прийтись кстати; indispensable –
    обязательный, необходимый; to put into effect – осуществлять.
    II.

    Read the following text and entitle it. Compare your title with the one
    56

    given by the author. (See the key on page 106).
    Text В
    Just some decades ago, neither laser installations nor the very word laser were in
    existence. Today, lasers are used in electronics, medicine, engineering,
    communications, the automobile and aircraft industry, agricultural machine building,
    and other fields of the economy and science. But the field of laser applications is
    expanding very rapidly. Let us point out only a few new uses of the laser.
    Lasers have wide-ranging technological uses. In the production of electronic
    components lasers are used in such operations as micro welding, resistor trimming,
    etc., something that can be performed perfectly well today.
    Laser radiation has the property of selective excitation of atoms and molecules,
    enabling laser isolation of isotopes. The first successful experiment in separating
    isotopes by laser was performed at the Institute of Spectroscopy of the USSR
    Academy of Sciences, in 1972. This work is regarded by specialists as highly
    promising for power engineering and production of extrapure materials.
    The use of laser technology has considerably increased the resolution and
    sensitivity of the spectroscopic methods.
    Without the laser beam, there could be no optical electronics which computer
    specialists see as a highly promising direction for making high-performance and
    small-size computers. Optical electronic instruments for recording, storing and
    processing information use a laser beam.
    Lasers can quickly record and read out information, with recording density being
    100 times higher than in the most advanced magnetic system. It is evident that in the
    near future centralized archives will be set up allowing us to display any required
    information on a home TV screen.
    We have succeeded in designing a new information carrier which can be used for
    multiple recording of light signals, similar to the magnetic tape recording.
    Great importance is attached today to the use of lasers in medicine. Lasers have
    been successfully used in eye treatment.
    Thus the laser today comes in handy in solving process and quality control
    problems, in medicine, communications and computer technology. It can do
    hundreds of jobs; the number has been constantly increasing, and before long, the
    laser will become a customary and indispensable assistant in most professions.
    Projects are now being discussed in scientific literature of using high-power
    lasers for long-distance space communications. These projects have not yet been put
    into effect, primarily because of the great technological difficulties and, therefore, of
    the great cost involved. But there is no doubt, that in time, these projects will be
    realized and the laser beam will begin operating in outer space as well.
    III. Answer the following questions:
    1. Where are lasers used today? 2. The field of laser applications is extending
    very rapidly, isn't it? 3. Where do lasers have wide-ranging technological uses? 4. In
    what fields is the use of lasers highly promising? 5. What projects are now being
    discussed in scientific literature?
    57

    IV. Give the main points of text В in 3-5 sentences.
    V.Speak about the new uses of the laser.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents. You will
    need them for better understanding text C:
    thermonuclear fusion – термоядерная реакция, термоядерный синтез; to
    condense – конденсировать; сгущать; evolvement – развитие; создание;
    exploration – исследование; target – мишень, цель; angle reflector – угловой
    отражатель; incident – падающий; reverse – обратный, противоположный; range
    – дальность; geodetic – геодезический; precision – точность.
    II. Read the following text carefully. While you are reading look for the answers
    to the questions:
    1. What idea have specialists of the quantum radiophysics laboratory suggested?
    2. How is the distance to the Moon measured?
    Text С
    Laser at Work
    1. In a department of the Lebedev Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of
    Sciences (FIAN) scientists from the quantum radiophysics laboratory have suggested
    the idea of laser-controlled thermonuclear fusion and obtained priority results in this
    field. Experiments in heating and condensing plasma to receive thermonuclear fusion
    are being conducted at one of the world's biggest laser thermonuclear installations
    "Delfin" (Dolphin).
    2. The Institute carries out research in developing new types of lasers, studying the
    interaction of coherent radiation with matter, in laser thermonuclear fusion and in
    optoelectronics.
    3. The results of this fundamental research find wide application in the
    development of new instruments and technological processes, in the evolvement of
    substances with new properties in medicine, in metrology and in the latest methods of
    information processing.
    4. What's more, lasers are being used for very important and interesting
    explorations, such as measuring the distance to the Moon. Power lasers send very
    short light pulses to-the Moon. There are targets, or angle light reflectors, installed in
    five different places there, able to reflect the incident light in a precisely reverse
    direction. As with radar, the distance to the Moon is being established by measuring
    the time the signal takes to reach the target and return.
    5. FIAN's station in the Crimea has built laser range finding complexes. They
    measure the distance to the Moon with an error of not more than one or two
    centimeters. This precision has allowed the laser measurement of distances to the
    Moon to become a new method for exploring the Earth-Moon system. Compared
    with other methods, laser measurements of many basic geometric and dynamic
    characteristics of the Earth-Moon system offer precision several factors higher and
    enable more delicate geodynamic phenomena to be explored and geodetic
    58

    constructions to be performed with a high degree of precision. It will give us a better
    understanding of the laws governing the movements of the Earth and the Moon.
    III.Say where new types of lasers find wide applications.
    IV. Find the information about laser-controlled thermonuclear fusion.
    V. Unite paragraphs 2 and 3 and choose the most suitable title for this part out of
    the following ones:
    1. New Types of Lasers.
    2. Lasers in Optoelectronics.
    3. New Applications of Lasers.
    VI. Which paragraph contains the information directly connected with the title of
    the text? Render this information to your group-mate.
    VII.Imagine that you are to make a report on the theme "Lasers today and
    tomorrow". Use the information of texts А, В and С and the following plan:
    1. The definition of a laser.
    2. The principle of laser operation.
    3. The application of lasers in industry, electronics, engineering, holography,
    computer technology, communications, medicine, science.
    The key to text B: "New Applications of Lasers".
    UNIT EIGHT
    • Grammar:
    Participle II (§ 14).
    Degrees of Comparison.
    • Word-formation: Prefixes de-, re• Individual Work: Lab Work "Participle II".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I.Practise the reading of the following words:
    device [dɪ'vaɪs], to devise [dI'vaIz], digital ['dɪʤɪtl] , precision [prI'sɪʒn],
    design [dI'zaɪn], equation [I'kweɪZn], mainframe ['meɪnfreɪm], bubble [bʌbl],
    hardware ['ha:dweə(r)], tremendous [trq'mendəs], software ['sPftweq(r)]
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    computer, mathematician, mechanical, algebra, logician, coded, formulating,
    symbolically, differential, analyzer, program, cylindrically, transistor, production,
    electronic, miniaturization, technology, integrated, efficient, magnetic, information,
    packed, scale.
    III. a) Give the initial forms of the following words:
    scientists, invented, calculating, devices, developed, formulating, advances,
    introduced, units, stores, computing, shaped, circuits, names, capacities, devised,
    59

    machines, designing;
    b) Give the initial words of the following derivatives:
    invention, development, mechanical, notable, digital, symbolically, faster,
    production, electronic, researcher, earlier, storage, magnetic, densely, equipment.
    IV.a) Form verbs adding the prefixes a) de– and b) re– to the given verbs and
    translate them:
    Example: a) to code – кодировать
    to decode – декодировать

    b) to colour – красить
    to recolour – перекрашивать

    a ) to compose, to couple, to generate, to activate, to tune, to magnetize, to
    polarize, to energize, to excite, to clutch, to camp, to carbonize, to frost, to control, to
    mount, to form;
    b) to arm, to arrange, to consider, to count, to cover, to model, to construct, to
    name, to equip, to build, to make, to move, to organize, to place, to produce, to
    distribute, to measure, to create, to use.
    V. Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a
    dictionary:
    to calculate, to invent, to continue, to provide, to propose, to result (in), to enable,
    to design, to store, to contain, to undertake, to complete, to need, to prove, to expect.
    VI.
    Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the
    degrees of comparison.
    A. 1. This classroom is larger and lighter than other classrooms. It is the largest
    and the lightest room here. 2. Mathematics is more important for technical students
    than many other subjects. 3. Lesson 3 is much easier than lesson 4. 4. This article is
    much more interesting than that one. 5. Exercise 10 is the most difficult one. 6. This
    instrument is more efficient than the other one. 7. This town is as large as that one. 8.
    These engines are not so powerful as those motors. 9. The speed of our first sputniks
    was as big as 11 kilometres per second.
    B. 1. The nearer the earth, the denser the atmosphere. 2. The higher the voltage,
    the higher is the electron velocity. 3. The bigger the mass, the bigger the weight of
    the body. 4. The higher the temperature, the more rapid is the motion of the
    molecules. 5. The greater the number of free electrons in a substance, the better this
    substance conducts electricity.
    VII. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of
    Participle II:
    1. The discovery mentioned remained unknown to most scientists for a long time.
    2. The equipment tested required further improvement. 3. When passed through a
    motor, electric current can do work. 4. The students have conducted all the
    experiments. 5. These instruments recorded the cosmic rays and the information
    obtained was sent back by the radar to the ground. 6. When heated, a magnet loses
    some of its magnetism. 7. The results received changed with material used. 8. Unless
    repaired, this part cannot be used in the radio set. 9. The substances investigated
    60

    showed quite interesting properties. 10. When developed, the device was used for
    amplification of radio signals. 11. The developed technology enables us to improve
    the quality of articles produced. 12. The first laser was developed in 1960. 13. The
    methods introduced received general recognition. 14. If frozen, water becomes ice.
    15. The device used in our work is up-to-date. 16. The apparatus tested is looked
    upon as an experimental one. 17. When required, these data will be applied in our
    practical work. 18. The investigation analyzed resulted in an interesting discovery.
    VIII.Match up the words which are opposite in meaning:
    a) fast, expensive, early, high, tremendous;
    b)low, late, tiny, cheap, slow.
    IX. Listen to the following tape-recorded lexical programme. Try to memorize all
    word-groups:
    ■ mechanical calculating machine – механическая счетная машина ■ digital
    computer – цифровой компьютер ■ analog computer – аналоговый компьютер
    ■ analytical engine – аналитическая машина ■ sequence of instructions –
    последовательность инструкций (команд) ■ logical statement – логическое
    утверждение ■ in a way similar to – способом, подобным чему-л. ■ differential
    analyzer – дифференциальный анализатор ■ to make an important contribution
    to – внести важный вклад в ■ solid-state device – твердотельное устройство ■
    the continued miniaturization – продолжавшаяся миниатюризация ■ integrated
    circuit – интегральная схема ■ high-speed mainframe – быстродействующая
    (универсальная) вычислительная машина ■ tremendous memory capacities –
    огромные емкости памяти ■ auxiliary storage equipment – вспомогательное
    запоминающее оборудование (устройство) ■ bubble – цилиндрический
    магнитный домен (ЦМД) ■ magnetic bubble unit – устройство на
    цилиндрических магнитных доменах ■ semiconductorlike chip – кристалл
    полупроводникового типа ■ a very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSI) –
    сверхбольшая интегральная схема (СБИС) ■ to devise hardware and software –
    изобретать аппаратные и программные средства (обеспечение).
    LESSON TWO
    I.Before reading text A say what you know about computers.
    II. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary.
    Text A
    The Development of the Computer
    1. The inventions and ideas of many mathematicians and scientists led to the
    development of the computer. The first mechanical calculating machines were
    invented during the 1600's. One of the more notable of these devices was built in
    1642 by the French mathematician and scientist Blaise Pascal.
    2. During the 1830's, an English mathematician named Charles Babbage
    developed the idea of a mechanical digital computer. He tried to construct a machine
    called an analytical engine. The machine contained the basic elements of an
    automatic computer and was designed to perform complicated calculations according
    61

    to a sequence of instructions. However, the technology of Babbage's time was not
    advanced enough to provide the precision parts needed to complete the machine.
    3. Another important contribution to the development of the computer was made
    in the mid-1800's by George Boole, an English logician and mathematician. Boole
    devised a system of formulating logical statements symbolically so that they could be
    written and proved in a way similar to that of ordinary algebra.
    4. In 1930 the first reliable analog computer was built. This machine, called a
    differential analyzer, solved differential equations.
    5. During the 1940's, John Von Neumann, an American mathematician,
    introduced an idea that improved computer design. He proposed that programs could
    be coded as numbers and stored with data in a computer's memory.
    6. The invention of the transistor in 1947 and of related solid-state devices during
    the 1950's and 1960's resulted in the production of faster and more reliable electronic
    computers. The new machines also were smaller and less expensive than earlier
    models.
    7. The continued miniaturization of electronic equipment during the late 1960's
    and 1970's led to further advances in computer technology. The development of the
    integrated circuit enabled engineers to design both minicomputers and high-speed
    mainframes with tremendous memory capacities.
    8. Researchers are seeking ways to improve memories and auxiliary storage
    equipment. They expect to produce an efficient magnetic bubble unit, which is faster
    and cheaper to operate than mechanical tape or disk units. A magnetic bubble unit is
    a semiconductorlike chip that stores data in tiny, cylindrically shaped areas called
    bubbles. Up to a million bits of information can be stored in one bubble unit.
    9. Scientists are also working to increase computing speed by designing circuits
    that are even more densely packed and closer together. One proposed device, called a
    very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSI), contains hundreds of thousands of
    transistors and other parts. Projects also are being undertaken to devise hardware and
    software enabling a computer to understand ordinary speech.
    III. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Charles Babbage developed the idea of an electronic digital computer. 2.
    George Boole devised a system of formulating logical statements symbolically. 3.
    The invention of the transistor in 1947 resulted in the production of faster and more
    reliable electronic computers. 4. Scientists are also working to decrease computing
    speed.
    IV. Answer the following questions on paragraphs 1 and 2:
    1. What did the inventions and ideas of many mathematicians and scientists lead
    to? 2. When were the first mechanical calculating machines invented? 3. Who
    developed the idea of a mechanical digital computer? 4. The technology of
    Babbage's time was not advanced enough, was it?

    62

    V. Find the place in paragraph 3 containing the information about Boole's
    invention. Share this information with your group-mate.
    VI. In paragraphs 5 and 6 find the English equivalents of the following words:
    вводить; улучшать (усовершенствовать); конструкция (проект); предлагать;
    хранить; данные (информация); изобретение; устройство (прибор); кончаться,
    иметь
    (своим)
    результатом;
    производство;
    надежный;
    дорогой
    (дорогостоящий).
    VII. Translate paragraphs 7 and 8 into Russian.
    VIII. Read paragraph 9 and say how scientists are working to increase
    computing speed.
    IX. Write out of the text the words and word combinations for describing
    advances in computer technology.
    X. Fill in the boxes of the logical diagram with the Russian equivalents of the
    following words:
    to be designed
    mechanical calculating
    machine

    electronic computer
    minicomputers and high-speed
    mainframes

    mechanical digital computer
    a system of formulating
    logical statements
    symbolically

    magnetic bubble unit

    a very large – scale integrated
    circuit

    analog computer

    XI. Divide text A into logical parts and find the topical sentences in each part.
    XII. Speak about the development of computers using the topical sentences and
    words from the logical diagram.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents facilitating
    reading text B: to process (to handle) – обрабатывать; customer account – счет
    заказчика; to involve – включать; item – предмет, изделие; aid – средство;
    entertainment – развлечение; computerized games – компьютерные (машинные)
    63

    игры; input device – устройство ввода; keyboard – клавиатура, клавишная
    панель; storage unit – запоминающее устройство; memory – память; control unit –
    устройство управления; to select – выбирать; to direct – управлять;
    arithmetic/logic unit – арифметическое/логическое устройство; output device –
    устройство вывода; meaningful – зд. понятный; to resemble – напоминать.
    II. Skim through the text and say what it is about (you are given 5-10 minutes).
    Text В
    Computer is an electronic device that performs calculations and processes
    information. It can handle vast amounts of facts and figures1 and solve complicated
    problems at high speeds. The fastest computers are able to process millions of pieces
    of information in seconds.
    A computer can process many kinds of information, from book titles and
    customer account numbers to chemical formulas and words from ancient Greek
    texts. It handles all such data in the form of numbers. A computer is able to solve
    problems involving words by changing them into problems dealing with numbers.
    The ability of a computer to do so many tasks2 makes it useful for a wide variety
    of purposes. Industrial plants use computers to control machines that produce
    chemicals, steel products, and numerous other items. Computers are used as a
    navigation aid on airplanes, ships, and spacecraft. They also enable scientists to
    analyze data returned by space probes3. Computers can be used as teaching
    machines. They even provide entertainment in the form of computerized games.
    Although a computer can do many things, it cannot think. A human operator has
    to instruct the computer exactly what to do with the data it receives. Such
    instructions are called a program. Also, the operator must frequently check the
    performance of the computer and in many cases, interpret the results of the
    performance.
    Computers differ greatly in size. The biggest ones have enough equipment to fill
    a large room. The smallest computers can be held in a person's hand. No matter what
    their size, however, all computers have certain basic parts.
    The typical computer has an input device, such as an electronic keyboard, through
    which the operator enters instructions and data. A storage unit, also called a memory,
    receives this information from the input device and holds it until it is needed. A
    control unit selects the instructions from the memory in their proper sequence and
    directs the operations of an arithmetic/logic unit. The arithmetic/logic unit processes
    the data by means of mathematical calculations and operations involving logic. An
    output device then translates the processed data into a form meaningful to the
    operator. Typical output equipment includes automatic typewriters, high-speed
    printers, and visual displays4 that resemble television screens.
    Notes
    1. handle (process) vast amounts of facts and figures – обрабатывать большое количество
    фактов и цифр
    64

    2. to do so many tasks – выполнять так много задач
    3. to analyze data returned by space probes – анализировать данные космических зондов
    4. includes automatic typewriters, high-speed printers and visual displays – включает в себя
    автоматические пишущие машинки, быстродействующие печатающие устройства и
    дисплеи

    III. Answer the following questions on the contents of the text:
    1. What is a computer? 2. What can a computer do? 3. A computer cannot think,
    can it?
    4. What has a human operator to do? 5. Do computers differ in size?
    IV. Speak about the basic parts of a computer.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text C:
    general-purpose computer – вычислительная машина общего назначения;
    special-purpose computer – вычислительная машина специального назначения;
    to restrict – ограничивать; to represent – представлять; to compare – сравнивать;
    binary numeration system – двоичная система счисления; decimal – десятичный;
    switch – переключатель; to correspond – соответствовать; quantity – величина,
    значение.
    II.Read the following text carefully and find the information about classifying
    computers:
    Text С
    Kinds of Computers
    1. Computers are frequently divided into two groups according to the jobs they
    perform. These groups are general-purpose computers and special-purpose
    computers. A general-purpose computer can handle many kinds of jobs and is not
    restricted to any particular user. On the other hand, a special-purpose computer is
    designed to do one specific job for a particular user.
    2. Computers differ in the way they work as well as in what they can do. On this
    basis, they can be classified into three general types: (1) digital computers, (2)
    analog computers, and (3) hybrid computers. Digital computers are by far the most
    common type.
    3. Digital computers solve problems and do other tasks by counting, comparing,
    and rearranging digits in the arithmetic/logic unit. All the data, whether in the form
    of numbers, letters, or symbols, are represented by digits.
    4. Digital computers use the digits of the binary numeration system. Unlike the
    familiar decimal number system, which uses 10 digits, the binary system uses only
    two digits: 0 and 1. These binary digits, called bits, can be easily represented by the
    65

    thousands of tiny electronic circuits of a digital computer. The circuits operate much
    like an ordinary electric switch. When the switch is off, it corresponds to the binary
    digit 0. When the switch is on, it corresponds to the digit 1.
    5. Analog computers work directly with a physical quantity, such as weight,
    voltage, or speed, rather than with digits that represent the quantity. The computers
    solve problems by measuring the quantity in terms of another quantity. In a problem
    involving water pressure and water flow, for example, electrical voltage might serve
    as an analogue (likeness) for the water pressure, and electric current for the water
    flow. Many familiar devices, including speedometers, thermometers, and
    thermostats, operate on the same basic principle as analog computers. For example, a
    thermometer measures temperature in terms of the length of a thin line of liquid in a
    tube. An analog computer presents output data in a continuous form, often as a
    position on a scale. In some cases, the data are displayed as electrical signals on an
    instrument called an oscilloscope.
    6. Hybrid computers combine the features of analog and digital computers. They
    are as fast as analog computers in solving problems involving differential equations
    and as accurate as digital computers.
    III.
    Say:
    a) what numeration system digital computers use; b) in what form an analog
    computer presents output data.
    IV.
    Find the information about general-purpose computers and specialpurpose computers. Render it to your group-mate.
    V. Explain how digital computers solve problems.
    VI. Which paragraph contains the information dealing with analog computers.
    VII. Find the information about hybrid computers in the text.
    VIII. Summarize the general ideas developed in texts А, В and C.
    IX. Imagine that you are to make a report about the development of computers.
    While preparing it use the information of texts А, В and С and the following plan:
    1. The development of computers in the 1600's and the 1800's.
    2. The further development of computers in connection with the invention of the
    transistor, related solid-state devices and the continued miniaturization.
    3. The typical computer and its basic parts.
    4. Digital computers.
    5. Analog and hybrid computers.

    UNIT NINE
    66

    • Grammar: Gerundial Construction (§ 15).
    Functions of that, those (§ 21).
    • Word-formation: Prefixes over-, en-.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Gerundial Construction".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I.

    Practise the reading of the following words:
    increasingly [In'kri:sINli], particularly [pq'tIkjqlqli], adjust [q'GAst],
    executive [ig'zekjqtIv], enormous [inO:mqs], launch [lO:ntS], vehicle ['vi: qkl],
    science ['saIqns], purpose ['pE:pqs], access ['xkses], scholar ['skPlq (r)],
    ancient ['einS(q)nt], guide [gaId], image ['ImIG].
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    control, product, operation, architectural, structure, biological, physical, social,
    model, system, chemist, physicist, laboratory, instrument, astronomer, telescope,
    photographic, process, planet, specialist, music, poem, generate, artist, style,
    literature, civilization.
    III.
    Give the initial forms of the following words:
    increasing, factories, turns, advanced, launching, deals, processed, giving,
    provides, transmitted, fields, purposes.
    IV.
    State to what parts of speech the words in black type belong:
    1. What is the number of the group your friend studies in? 2. We may group these
    substances according to their specific gravity. 3. The results of the experiment will
    be better if he changes the speed of the reaction. 4. Above certain critical
    temperature changes take place in the molecular structure of a metal. 5. Artificial
    satellites travel round the earth like planets. 6. In order to send up a manned
    spaceship it was necessary to solve the problem of the return travel. 7. Scientists
    may send any order to a radio-controlled rocket. 8. After manned spaceships return
    from the Moon, much valuable information will be added to that known about its
    composition and atmosphere. 9. Radio waves are like light waves. 10. We like
    working in our institute labs because we can always get help in case we need it.
    V. a) Form verbs adding the prefixes a) over– and b) en– to the given words and
    translate them:
    Example: a) to load – грузить b) large – большой
    to overload – перегружать
    to enlarge – увеличивать
    a) to heat, to estimate, to charge, to work, to fill, to fulfil, to cool, to grow, to
    balance, to hear, to supply, to simplify, to use, to develop, to value;
    b) rich, sure, due, feeble, noble, close.
    VI. Define the function of that (those) in the following sentences and translate
    67

    them:
    1. Computers are devices that are capable of very rapid and accurate calculations.
    2. The experimental technique was similar to that described previously. 3. You
    know that light waves pass through glass more easily than heat waves. 4. This
    control system is more efficient than that described in that journal. 5. The atoms and
    molecules that make up all the forms of matter are in constant thermal motion. 6. We
    know that automation ensures better working conditions in operation. 7. The masers
    can operate at other frequencies than those used in the microwave region. 8. On that
    day the radiotelegraphy was converted from an abstract theoretical problem into a
    real fact. 9. One positive charge is now called a proton and this charge is equal to
    that of one electron. 10. The first solar battery demonstrated in 1954 operated with
    semiconductor crystals similar to those used in transistors. 11. Since that time
    Maxwell wrote a great number of works which were the results of his experiments
    and calculations. 12. The antenna for the receiver is constructed in the same manner
    as that for the transmitter.
    VII.Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the
    Gerundial Construction:
    1. I've heard of their experiment being successfully completed in the nearest
    future. 2. Mr. Smirnov's taking part in the design of the new data processing system
    was of great help to us. 3. We were told about their having studied a number of
    problems connected with the development of computing machinery. 4. Mankind is
    interested in atomic energy being used only for peaceful purposes. 5. Benjamin
    Franklin's having invented the first lightning conductor is a well established fact. 6.
    We all know of their designing a new type of computer. 7. He mentioned his having
    shown these slides at the conference. 8. Your having worked at the plant helped you
    to master technical subjects. 9. Kurchatov's having devoted all his life to nuclear
    physics is known to everybody. 10. I know of their being shown the new device. 11.
    We remembered having mentioned the works of this scientist. 12. We know of the
    Curies' having discovered some new radioactive elements. 13. We know of
    Rutherford's having investigated the nature of alpha-particles. 14. We insisted on the
    experiment being repeated. 15. There was no hope of their solving this complex
    engineering problem so soon.
    VIII. Match up the words which are similar in meaning:
    a) to turn on, enormous, calculation, a researcher, to work, information;
    b) data, to operate, an investigator, tremendous, to switch on, computation.
    IX. Try to memorize all word-groups:
    ■to play an important role – играть важную роль ■ developed countries –
    развитые страны ■ to adjust – регулировать ■ executive – служащий; сотрудник
    ■ advanced technological problems – передовые технологические проблемы
    (задачи) ■ with relative ease – с относительной легкостью ■ to be of tremendous
    help – оказывать большую помощь ■ information science – информатика ■ in
    various ways – различными способами ■ to solve (tackle) problems – решать
    задачи ■ in the form of mathematical equations – в виде (форме) математических
    68

    уравнений ■ in many scientific fields – во многих научных областях ■
    experimental data – экспериментальные данные ■ an efficient means –
    эффективное средство ■ in either case – в любом случае.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Before reading the text try to answer the following questions:
    1. How do computers help in engineering? 2. What role do they play in the
    sciences? 3. How are computers used in the fine arts?
    II. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary.
    Text A
    Uses of the Computer
    1. Computers play an increasingly important role in society, particularly in
    industrially developed countries.
    Numerous factories use computers to control machines that make products. A
    computer turns the machines on and off and adjust their operations when necessary.
    In most major industries, computers help researchers and executives make important
    decisions.
    2. Without computers, it would be impossible for engineers to perform the
    enormous number of calculations needed to solve many advanced technological
    problems. Computers help in the building of spacecraft, and they assist flight
    engineers in launching, controlling, and tracking the vehicles1. Computers also are
    used to develop equipment for exploring the moon and planets. They enable
    architectural and civil engineers to design complicated bridges and other structures
    with relative ease.
    3. Computers have been of tremendous help to researchers in the biological,
    physical, and social sciences. They also have a major role in the field of information
    science. Information science deals with how information is collected, processed, and
    transmitted. It brings together knowledge from many fields of study2. Researchers'
    using computers helps them to solve problems in the biological and physical
    sciences. One method used for certain problems provides exact solution in the form
    of mathematical equations.
    4. In many scientific fields, researchers use computers to construct mathematical
    models of devices, systems and theories. The models consist of equations that
    describe the possible relations between the parts or processes of a subject.
    5. Chemists and physicists rely on computers3 to control and check sensitive
    laboratory instruments and to analyze experimental data. Astronomers use computers
    to guide telescopes and to process photographic images of planets and other objects
    in space.
    6. Computers provide an efficient means of storing and locating scientific research
    data for reference purposes4. Their storing records of thousands of articles and reports
    gives specialists quick access to the latest development in their field.
    69

    7. Computers can be used to compose music, write poems, and produce drawings
    and paintings. A work generated by a computer may resemble that of a certain artist
    in both style and form, or it may appear abstract or random. In either case, however,
    any creativity in the work is basically that of the person who programmed the
    computer.
    8. Computers are also used in the study of the fine arts, particularly literature.
    They have also been programmed to help scholars identify paintings and sculptures
    from ancient civilizations.
    Notes
    1. computers help in tracking the vehicles – компьютеры помогают следить за полетом ракет
    2. information science brings together – информатика объединяет
    3. rely on computers – используют компьютеры
    4. for reference purposes – для библиографических целей

    III. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Computers play an important role in society. 2. Without computers it would be
    possible to perform the enormous number of calculations. 3. Researchers don't use
    computers to construct mathematical models of devices, systems and theories. 4.
    Computers provide an efficient means of storing and locating scientific research data
    for various purposes.
    IV. Answer the following questions on paragraphs 1 and 2:
    1. What can computers do in most major industries? 2. Computers enable
    engineers to design complicated structures, don't they?
    V. Find the place in paragraph 3 containing the description of information
    science. Say this to your group-mate.
    VI. In paragraphs 1 and 2 find the English equivalents of the following words:
    многочисленный; управлять; включать, (выключать); регулировать; главный
    (основной); исследователь; служащий; решение; выполнять; огромный;
    вычисление; передовой (прогрессивный); помогать; запускать; летательный
    аппарат (ракета); следить; оборудование; исследовать.
    VII. Translate paragraphs 4 and 5.
    VIII. Write out of the text words and word combinations for describing the use of
    computers in engineering and the sciences.
    IX. Find Russian equivalents to the words given in the boxes of the logical
    70

    diagram.

    computers
    to be used

    numerous
    factories

    space
    technology

    architectural and
    civil engineering

    information
    science

    mathematical
    models

    chemistry,
    physics,
    astronomy

    fine arts

    X. Make an outline of the text.

    XI. Speak about the application of the computer using your outline and the words
    from the logical diagram.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents. You '11
    need them for better understanding of text B:
    sequence – последовательность; to deliver – выдавать; to refer to – ссылаться
    на; software – программное обеспечение (средство) ; hardware – аппаратное
    обеспечение (средство); high-level language – язык высокого уровня; low-level
    language – язык низкого уровня; to require – требовать; to suit – подходить; to
    add – прибавлять, складывать; to subtract – вычитать; to represent –
    представлять; sign – знак; assembly language – (входной) язык ассемблера;
    compiler – компилятор, компилирующая программа; assembler – ассемблер,
    компонующая программа.
    II. Skim through the text and try to formulate the main idea (you are given 10
    minutes).
    Text В
    Programming a Digital Computer
    Programming involves the preparation and writing of detailed instructions for a
    computer. These instructions tell a computer exactly what data to use and what
    sequence of operations to perform with the data. Without such programs, a computer
    could not solve problems or deliver any other desired result.
    In most cases, computer scientists and other computer specialists called
    programmers write the instructions. They refer to programs as software because the
    instructions have no physical parts. The term hardware is applied to the computer
    itself, including its electronic circuits and peripheral equipment.
    71

    A programmer writes the instructions for a computer in a programming language.
    Such a language consists of letters, words, and symbols as well as rules for
    combining those elements. Some programming languages closely resemble the
    language of mathematics. Others enable programmers to write instructions in simple,
    everyday expressions, such as "READ", "ADD", and "STOP". Programming
    languages of this kind are called high-level languages.
    The language that a programmer uses depends largely on the job to be done. If a
    task involves processing business data, the programmer would most likely use
    COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language)1. However, preparing a computer
    to solve complicated scientific problems might require the use of ALGOL
    (ALGOrithmic Language)2, which is a mathematically oriented programming
    language.
    Some high-level languages can be used for business, technical, or scientific
    programming. Such languages include FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation)3; APL
    (A Programming Language)4; and PL/1 (Programming Language One)5.
    Another commonly used programming language is BASIC (Beginner's Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction. Code)6. BASIC is well suited for writing relatively
    simple programs for minicomputers and microcomputers.
    Some computer programs may be written in an assembly language. This kind of
    language is harder to use than a high-level language because it involves symbols as
    well as words. For example, an assembly language might use the symbols AD for
    add and S for subtract.
    A computer cannot work directly with a program written in a high-level or
    assembly language. The instructions have to be translated into a machine language
    composed of binary digits that represent operation codes, memory addresses, and
    various symbols, such as plus and minus signs. Machine language is also known as
    low-level language. Special programs called compilers and assemblers translate
    high-level and assembly languages into machine language.
    Notes
    1. COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) – КОБОЛ (язык, ориентированный на
    выполнение общих экономических расчетов)
    2. ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language) – АЛГОЛ (алгоритмический язык)
    3. FORTRAN (FORmuia TRANslation) – ФОРТРАН (перевод формулы)
    4. APL (A Programming Language) – АПЛ (язык программирования)
    5. PL/l (Programming Language One) – ПЛ/1 (язык программирования/1)
    6. BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) – БЭЙСИК (многоцелевой
    язык символических инструкций для начинающих)

    III. Answer the following questions on the contents of the text:
    1. What does programming involve? 2. Who writes the instructions? 3. What does
    a programming language consist of? 4. What programming languages do you know?
    5. What is a machine language composed of?
    IV. Give the main points of text В in some sentences.
    V.Speak about high-level and low-level languages.
    72

    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text C:
    advantage – преимущество; weight – вес; load – груз; pay-load – платный
    груз; to apply – применять; response – ответ, реакция; blind landing – посадка по
    приборам; flight – полет; immediate – немедленный; vehicle – летательный
    аппарат, ракета; reliability – надежность; solid-state device – твердотельное
    устройство; square inch – квадратный дюйм; complicated patterns – сложные
    схемы , human brain – мозг человека; reason – причина; component – элемент;
    dimension – размер; cost – стоимость; to save – экономить.
    II. Scan text C looking for answers to the following questions:
    1. What are the advantages in making computers as small as one can? 2. What is
    the problem of further miniaturization of computers?
    Text С
    Miniaturization
    1. There are several advantages in making computers as small as one can.
    Sometimes weight is particularly important. A modern aircraft, for example, carries
    quite a load of electronic apparatus. If it
    2. is possible to make any of these smaller, and therefore lighter, the aircraft can
    carry a bigger pay-load. This kind of consideration applies to space satellites and to
    all kinds of computers that have to be carried.
    3. But weight is not the only factor. The smaller the computer, the faster it can
    work.
    This increase of operation is a real advantage. There are some applications in
    which computers could be used which require very fast response times. For example,
    automatic blind landing of aircraft requires continuous computer calculations which
    result in control of the aircraft flight. The more immediate the responses are, the
    more stable that control can be.
    3. Another advantage is that less power is required to run the computer. In space
    vehicles and satellites this is an important matter.
    Another advantage is reliability. Mini-computers have been made possible by the
    development of integrated circuits. And now that transistors and other solid-state
    devices are used instead of valves, printed circuits with their solid-state components
    have a very long life1 indeed. A computer can be built up of large numbers of similar
    units of this kind.
    4. All these devices, small as they may be to the eye2 when hundreds of circuits
    can be packed on to one square inch, are still much larger than they need to be. So the
    problem is one of finding ways of making these complicated patterns automatically
    very precisely and yet smaller and smaller. The limit is a long way off yet3. Human
    brains have more than 100 million cells per cubic centimetre but there is no reason to
    think that we cannot pack solid-state devices more densely than this.
    73

    5. Computers could then easily be built up from these microminiaturized
    components to have data stores or memories as large as are needed for any job one
    could imagine. If they are large in information capacity, but small in physical
    dimensions, with present day techniques much time and cost can be saved.
    Notes
    l. have a very long life – являются очень долговечными
    2. small as they may be to the eye – какими бы маленькими они ни казались для глаза
    3. the limit is a long way off yet – однако до предела еще далеко

    III.Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Weight is a very important factor in computers. 2. The increase of operation is
    a real advantage. 3. Another advantage is that more power is required to run the
    computer. 4. Reliability is not particularly important in computers.
    IV. Give the reason for making electronic apparatus smaller in a modern aircraft.
    V.Find the information about mini-computers.
    VI. Explain why transistors and other solid-state devices are used instead of
    valves.
    VII. Which paragraph contains the information about the advantage of computers
    to have large information capacity but small physical dimensions?
    VIII. Summarize the general ideas developed in texts А, В and C. Use the
    following plan:
    1. The use of computers in engineering.
    2. The use of computers in the sciences and fine arts.
    3. Programming a digital computer.
    4. Using programming languages.
    5. The advantage of making computers as small as possible.
    UNIT TEN
    • Grammar: Absolute Participial Construction (§ 14).
    Functions of it (§ 20).
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Absolute Participial Construction".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    generation ["Genq'reISn], branch [brRntS], modern ['mPdn], serve [sE:v],
    superconducting ["sju:pq'kPndAktIN], versatile ['vE:sqtaIl], vital ['vaItl],
    exploration [ˏeksplq'reISn], tiny ['taIni], scholar ['skPlq(r)], circuit ['sE:kIt],
    tackle ['txkl], package ['pxkIG].
    74

    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    dynamic, discrete, economy, industrialized, national, complex, element,
    microprocessor, monitor, miniature, series.
    III. State to what parts of speech the words in black type belong:
    1. By means of electronic computers it is possible to translate from one language
    to another. 2. Electric typewriters and keyboard devices are the common means of
    input. 3. We usually measure volume in cubic centimetres. 4. A kilogram is a unit of
    weight measure in the metric system. 5. Certain types of equipment handle input
    information and also function as output devices. 6. The atmospheric pressure is the
    function of the altitude above the sea level.
    IV. Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a
    dictionary if necessary:
    to appear, to develop, to count, to contain, to serve, to use, to control, to prove,
    to require, to perform, to repeat, to start, to determine, to exist, to represent, to
    transform, to compose, to operate, to process, to bring.
    V. Define the function of it in the following sentences and translate them:
    1. A material which allows electricity to flow through it is called a conductor. 2.
    It took five years to develop the machine. 3. The computer doesn't really remember,
    information is stored in it. 4. It is necessary to protect the human eye when laser
    beams are being used. 5. In Russia it was Lodygin who invented the electric lamp. 6.
    It is hard to overestimate the role of radio-electronics in technical progress. 7.
    Electronics is a young science. It belongs to the twentieth century. 8. I find it
    necessary to continue the experiment. 9. Electronics makes it possible to raise
    industrial automation to a higher level. 10. At present mathematics is the language of
    science and it becomes the stimulator of discoveries. 11. It is the computer that
    makes a machine a robot.
    VI. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the
    Absolute Participial Construction:
    1. The experiments being demonstrated, all the students watched them with great
    attention. 2. There are two diagrams in this figure, one of them showing the relation
    between volume and temperature. 3. A new radio set having been shown to them,
    they began to examine its details. 4. Electrons leaving the surface, the metal becomes
    positively charged. 5. We defined the volume, all the measurements having been
    done with respect to the instruction. 6. The computer performing addition, two
    numbers to be added come from the memory. 7. Atoms consist of three kinds of
    particles — electrons, protons and neutrons, the number of particles determining the
    kind of element. 8. The workers increased the output of measuring instruments, new
    devices having been applied in all the shops of the plant. 9. The experiment having
    been carried out, the students left the lab. 10. I was writing the translation, my friend
    helping me. 11. Part of the energy being changed into heat, not all the chemical
    energy of the battery is transformed into electric energy.
    VII. Choose the sentences with the Absolute Participial Construction from the
    75

    ones given below. Translate them into Russian:
    1. Speaking about the new method of work the engineer told us many interesting
    details. 2. The temperature of a conductor being raised, the motion of the electrons in
    the conductor increases. 3. Special instruments measuring cosmic radio signals are
    being installed in the observatory. 4. Transistors are very sensitive to light, some of
    them reacting even to star-light. 5. The first man-made satellite having been sent up,
    it became possible to investigate various types of radiation. 6. Obtaining new data
    engineers can improve their knowledge. 7. The resistance being very large, the
    current in the circuit was small. 8. When improving the design the constructor made
    many calculations. 9. A great variety of substances are semi-conductors, germanium
    and silicon being the most important of them. 10. A series of attempts having been
    made, Lodygin came to a successful solution of the problem.
    VIII. Match up the words which are opposite in meaning:
    a) young, joint, modern, simple, hardware, conducting;
    b)complex, software, ancient, isolating, old, separate.
    IX. Try to memorize all word-groups:
    ■ modern science and technology – современная наука и техника ■ ingenious –
    оригинальный, искусный, хитроумный ■ obsolete – вышедший из употребления,
    устарелый ■ the magnetic-core memory – запоминающее устройство на
    магнитных сердечниках ■ to retrieve – восстанавливать, извлекать ■ silicon –
    кремний ■ to coin a term – придумать термин ■ to encompass – включать
    LESSON TWO
    I. Read text A attentively. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if
    necessary.
    Text A
    The Generations of Computers
    1. Computer technology is one of the youngest and most dynamic branches of
    modern science and technology. From the 1940s to the present, the technology used
    to build computers has gone through several revolutions. People sometimes speak
    about of different generations of computers.
    2. The First Generation. First-generation computers prevailed in the 1940s and
    for much of the 1950s. They used electronic vacuum tubes for calculation, control,
    and sometimes for memory as well. First-generation machines used several other
    ingenious devices for memory. In one, for instance, information was stored as sound
    waves circulating in a column of mercury¹. All these first-generation memories are
    now obsolete.
    3. The Second Generation. In the late 1950s, the transistor became available to
    replace the vacuum tube. A transistor, which is only slightly larger than a kernel of
    corn2, generates little heat and enjoys long life. At about the same time, the magneticcore memory was introduced. Information could be stored in core memory or
    retrieved from it in about a millionth of a second. Core memory dominated the high76

    speed memory scene for much of the second and third generations.
    4. The Third Generation. The early 1960s saw the introduction of integrated
    circuits, which incorporated hundreds of transistors on a single silicon chip. The chip
    itself was small enough to fit on the end of your finger. With integrated circuits,
    computers could be made even smaller, less expensive, and more reliable. Integrated
    circuits made possible minicomputers and tabletop computers.
    5. The most recent jump in computer technology came with the introduction of
    large-scale integrated circuits3, often referred to simply as chips. Whereas the older
    integrated circuits contained hundreds of transistors, the new ones contain thousands
    or tens of thousands. It is the large-scale integrated circuits that make possible the
    microprocessors and microcomputers. They also make possible compact,
    inexpensive, high-speed, high-capacity integrated-circuit memory. All these recent
    developments have resulted in a microprocessor revolution, which began in the
    middle 1970s and for which there is no end in sight.
    6. The Fourth Generation. In addition to the common applications of digital
    watches, pocket calculators, and personal computers, you can find microprocessors –
    the general-purpose processor-on-a-chip – in virtually every machine in the home or
    business – microwave ovens, cars, copy machines, TV sets, and so on. Computers
    today are hundred times smaller than those of the first generation, and a single chip is
    far more powerful than any computer of the first generation.
    7. The Fifth Generation. The term was coined by the Japanese to describe the powerful,
    intelligent computers they wanted to build by the mid-1990s. Since then it has become an
    umbrella term4, encompassing many research fields in the computer industry. Key areas of
    ongoing research are artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems, and natural language.
    Notes
    1. circulating in a column of mercury – циркулирующих в столбике ртути
    2. a kernel of corn – ядрышко хлебного зерна
    3. large-scale integrated circuits – интегральные схемы с большой степенью интеграции
    4. an umbrella term – всеохватывающий термин

    II. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Computer technology is one of the oldest branches of modern science and
    technology. 2. First-generation machines used not only vacuum tubes for memory. 3.
    All recent developments have resulted in a transistor. 4. Computers of today are
    hundred times smaller than those of the first generation.
    III. Answer the following questions on paragraph 2:
    1. When did the first generation of computers appear? 2. What did they use for
    calculations and control? 3. What were the disadvantages of the first-generation
    computers?
    IV. Find the place in paragraph 3 containing the information about the
    77

    transistor. Share this information with your group-mate.
    V. In paragraphs 4 and 5 find the English equivalents of the following words
    and word-combinations. Use these words for describing large-scale integrated
    circuits:
    схема; кремний; надежный, прочный; содержать, вмещать; иметь
    отношение, относиться; недавний, последний; скачок в компьютерной
    технологии; микропроцессор; память; сделать возможным.
    VI. Translate paragraph 6.
    VIII.Read paragraph 7 and say what key areas of ongoing research are.
    IX. Describe the advances in developing computers.
    X. Find Russian equivalents to the words in boxes of the logical diagram.

    computers
    to be developed

    to use

    first generation
    computers

    electronic vacuum
    tubes

    second generation
    computers

    discrete
    semiconductor
    devices

    third generation
    computers

    integrated circuits

    fourth generation
    computers

    microprocessor

    fifth generation
    computers

    artificial intelligence

    X. Divide text A into logical parts and find the topical sentences in each part.
    XI. Describe the generations of computers using the topical sentences and
    words from the logical diagram.

    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents
    78

    facilitating reading text B:
    assembly – скомпонованный блок, сборка, монтаж; working tool – рабочий
    инструмент; microprocessor unit – блок микропроцессора; proper – подходящий,
    нужный; to alter – изменять, видоизменять; chunks of information – порции
    информации; in an orderly fashion – организованным (правильным) образом; to
    reduce to – сводить к; to increment – прирастить; flexibility – гибкость; stream –
    поток; to fetch – вызывать; to measure – измерять; to transfer – передавать; to
    bring in – вводить, вносить; serial –последовательный.
    II. Skim through the text. Try to understand its main idea (you are given 15
    minutes).
    Text В
    Microprocessor System
    A functioning microprocessor is not simply a tiny piece of silicon which can
    replace a room full of data processing equipment. It requires many other components
    to make it work. The term "microcomputer" refers to the assembly of parts which
    make the microprocessor a useful working tool.
    The microprocessor unit (MPU) is the “brain” of the system and directs all of the
    other parts to perform their function at the proper time.
    An MPU is a complex integrated circuit. It is a highly miniaturized version of
    the minicomputers. A typical MPU will have the equivalent of about 7,000
    transistors, diodes, resistors, etc., on a single piece of silicon less than 1/16 in. square.
    The job of the microprocessor is to move or alter chunks of information in an
    orderly fashion. The chunks of information are reduced to coded form represented as
    binary numbers which the microprocessor can manipulate. The MPU can only do
    extremely elementary actions, such as move a piece of data, add two numbers,
    increment a counter, etc.
    Each one of the elementary operations of an MPU has its own binary code. The
    sequence of codes which makes the processor do its intended function is called a
    program or software. The inherent flexibility of an MPU comes from the fact1 that
    instructions can be combined in limitless variations.
    The MPU can perform only one operation at a time. A clock, which is simply a
    stream of regular pulses, is required to control the proper sequencing. During
    operation the microprocessor fetches an instruction from memory, decodes the
    function, performs the proper activity and fetches the next instruction. It repeats this
    sequence as long as power is on and the clock is running2.
    MPUs are measured by the size of the piece of data which can be transferred to
    and from memory. Most MPUs are 4-bit, 8-bit or 16-bit in size.
    An MPU system also needs a way to get information to the outside world and to
    bring in outside information that has been properly coded. Input/output devices exist
    which perform this function. Generally, they come in two types, parallel and serial.
    Parallel devices can send and receive coded data in one chunk. Serial devices
    transform the coded data into a single stream which must be reconstructed at the
    79

    receiving end.
    The minimum MPU system will be composed of the following: an MPU,
    memory, some form of input/output, a clock and some source of power.
    Notes
    1 the inherent flexibility of an MPU comes from the fact — свойственная
    микропроцессорному блоку гибкость исходит из того
    2 it repeats this sequence as long as power is on and the clock is running — он повторяет эту
    последовательность до тех пор, пока включена энергия и работает синхронизатор

    III. Answer the following questions on the contents of the text:
    1. What is a microprocessor unit? 2. What are the chunks of information reduced
    to? 3. The MPU can perform only one operation at a time, can't it? 4. How are MPUs
    measured? 5. What can parallel and serial devices do?
    IV. Give the main points of the text.
    V. Speak about the job of the microprocessor.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text C:
    indication – указание, показание, знак; groundless – беспричинный,
    беспочвенный, неосновательный; data storage – запоминание (хранение)
    данных; entirely – полностью, совершенно; simultaneously – одновременно;
    consecutively – последовательно; to graduate – постепенно изменяться; to be
    unaware of – не знать, не подозревать; notion – понятие; pinnacle – вершина,
    кульминационный пункт, пик.
    II. Read the text carefully and find the information about the advantages of DNA
    computers.
    Text C
    A Step away from Ideal
    1. All the indications are that the era of traditional silicon computers is coming
    to a close. A discovery made by scientists could turn around the high-tech market.
    2. The researchers built a computer with DNA molecules. According to the
    scientists the computer of one trillion molecules will be able to perform one billion
    operations per second with a 99.8 per cent accuracy.
    3. This claim is not at all groundless. One cubic centimetre of DNA can contain
    more information than a trillion CDs. Moreover, DNA-computers use very little
    energy.
    80

    4. Research in DNA computer technology began when scientists saw a striking
    similarity between the way a DNA works and the way an ideal computing machine –
    the so-called Turing machine¹ – could be organized. In 1994 the test-tube DNA was
    first used to solve a mathematical problem. Already at the time it was clear that it was
    far more convenient to work with the DNA computers than with the usual kind. They
    have capacity to store and work out vast amounts of information. The density of data
    storage on such machines is approximately 100,000 times higher than on a regular
    hard disk.
    5. The DNA computer consists of DNA molecules and molecules of enzymes,
    or DNA analyzing substances. The new computer can work entirely on its own. This
    miniature electronic computing machine does not need a human. Thus far it can only
    process synthesised DNA. But it will soon graduate to read molecules.
    6. An ordinary computer is unable to perform several tasks simultaneously. It
    performs them consecutively – true, very fast, so fast in fact that users are unaware of
    the defect. The DNA computer is free from any such shortfall. DNA molecules work
    as a team, and this is why the new machine is polychromic being able to perform
    several tasks at once.
    7. The DNA computer processed information and stores it in the form of a chain
    of symbols.
    8. So far the DNA computer operates with only two symbols, the way ordinary
    computers operate with the notions of “logical 0” and “logical 1”. Thus far the system
    is too elementary to work out any specific task. But it can serve as a platform for
    DNA computers of the future that will be able to work directly in a human cell
    identifying potential diseases and curing them. It may still be a long way to the
    shining pinnacles of the future. But the first step has already been made.
    Notes
    1. Turing machine – машина Тьюринга (Абстрактная машина, использованная
    Тьюрингом для точного определения понятий алгоритма и вычислимости).

    III. Say:
    a) what the future of traditional silicon computers is; b) what kind of computer
    the researchers built.
    IV. Find the information about the possibilities of DNA computers. Say it to
    your group-mate.
    V. Explain why the new machine is able to perform several tasks at once.
    VI. Which paragraph contains the information dealing with DNA computer of
    the future? Describe it.
    VII. Summarize the general ideas developed in texts A, B and C.
    VIII. Make a report about the computers and microprocessor system. While
    preparing it use the information of units 8, 9, 10. The following plan will help you:
    1.
    The development of the computer.
    2.
    Kinds of modern computers.
    81

    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    8.

    Uses of the computer.
    Programming a digital computer.
    Miniaturization of computers.
    Generations of computers.
    The microprocessor system and its functioning.
    A computer with DNA molecules.
    UNIT ELEVEN
    •Grammar: Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents (§5).
    Modal Verbs with Perfect Infinitive (§5).
    •Word-Formation;
    n+-y = adj
    n +-al = adj
    •Individual Work: Lab Work "Modal Verbs".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises

    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    frequently ['fri:kwqntli], to excite [Ik'saIt], coin ['kOm], to accept [qk'sept],
    nowadays ['naVqdeIz], article ['a:tIrkl], to stamp ['stxmp], dozen ['dAzn], stroke
    ['strqVk], to adjust [q'GAst], to measure ['meZq(r)], feedback ['fi:dbxk],
    controllable [kqn'trqVlqbl], to require [rI'kwaIq(r)], extensive [Ik'stensIv].
    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what Russian words
    help you to guess their meaning:
    automation, expert, material, operator, production, electrical, mechanization,
    information, mechanical, instruction, control, idea.
    III. Give the initial forms of the following words:
    handling, parts, manufactured, engines, completes, accepted, growing, traced,
    watches, fitted, replaced, operates, variables, finished.
    IV. State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
    1. A magnetic needle always points in the direction of the North Pole. 2. Bright
    points on the screen of a radar mark detected aims. 3. Our professor answers all our
    questions. 4. At the age of 76 Einstein still looked for the answers of new secrets of
    time and space. 5. These apparatus control the flight of a rocket. 6. Remote control
    is widely applied in atomic installations.
    V. Form adjectives adding the suffixes a) -al and b) -y to the given nouns.
    Translate them into Russian:
    Example: a) experiment — эксперимент
    b) bulk — большое количество
    experimental — экспериментальный
    bulky — громоздкий, большой
    a) industry, digit, dimension, essence, vision, virgin, nature, sequence,
    82

    electricity, logic, medicine, physics, instrument, proportion;
    b) fault, air, fire, grain, fruit, crag, silver, smoke, wealth, dust, sun, sand, frost,
    chill, cloud, storm, noise, fog, rain, snow.
    VI. Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a
    dictionary if necessary:
    to listen, to invent, to trace, to avoid, to make, to do, to watch, to suppose, to
    examine, to order, to carry, to operate, to get, to sell, to bring, to decrease, to increase,
    to cut, to mean.
    VII. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the modal
    verbs:
    1. Heat is a form of energy and may be measured in the units in which energy is
    measured. 2. We must say that the discovery of atomic energy is as important as the
    discovery of fire. 3. Electronic machines can add, subtract, multiply and divide much
    quicker than man. 4. The origin of automation can be traced back to the early days of
    the first industrial revolution. 5. She may use different methods in her research work.
    6. For a long time scientists could not discover the secret of the atom. 7. This
    equipment can work with high accuracy. 8. You may use these devices in your
    research work. 9. The atom is a great force that must be used for the good of
    mankind. 10. Chemists must create the materials which don't exist in nature. 11.
    Naturally, this circuit can be modified if necessary. 12. This kind of energy must find
    application in transport.
    VIII. Choose the sentences where the verbs to have and to be are used in the
    functions of modal verbs and translate them:
    1. These devices have been used in our experiment. 2. Scientists have to work
    hard to create a new atomic technique. 3. A modern computer has two main parts: a
    memory and a computing unit. 4. As the known resources of coal and oil are limited,
    man has to find new sources of power. 5. Very difficult calculations in mathematics
    and electrical engineering have to be solved by computers. 6. People of good will
    have to struggle for peaceful use of atomic energy. 7. When technique reaches a very
    high stage of development, new methods of work will become possible. 8. We are to
    take into consideration all the advantages and disadvantages of this device for the
    future work. 9. We are to take special steps to reduce the weight of this mechanical
    part. 10. These new data are obtained after our experiment. 11. At present our
    engineers are to develop the most advanced methods of production. 12. Our design
    bureau has to construct a new adding machine. 13. This device has been used in our
    experiment. 14. The experts are to inspect this plant.
    IX. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the use of modal verbs
    and their equivalents:
    1. Without a computer scientists will not be able to solve complicated problems.
    2. Modern computers can multiply two numbers in a microsecond. 3. This machine
    can do the work of hundreds of workers. 3. He has to finish his experiment in time. 4.
    She was allowed to carry out this research as she had taken part in the scientific
    symposium. 5. Every student must know the difference between automation and
    83

    mechanization. 6. With the help of radioactive elements we were able to measure the
    thickness of various materials. 7. Every engineer must improve his technical
    knowledge. 8. Scientists of different countries must cooperate in their research and
    peaceful application of their discoveries. 9. In fact, there is hardly any sphere of life
    where the atom may not find useful application. 10. The computer can perform
    different mathematical operations. 11. Our plant is to increase its output. 12. Every
    plant must fulfil its plan in time. 13. Workers must apply new methods of production.
    X. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to modal
    verbs with Perfect Infinitive:
    1. The engineer might have overlooked something that may turn out to be
    important in carrying out this experiment. 2. All the preparations must have been
    completed long ago. 3. Some day atomic energy might have been used to control the
    weather of the world. 4. He may have got the condenser he needed for his
    experiment. 5. He cannot have broken the tube while making this experiment. 6. You
    should have changed the current strength at all points of the circuit. 7. He may have
    got the article he needed. 8. You should have helped your friend.
    XI. Find the pairs of words which are opposite in meaning:
    a) small, frequently, same, visible, rapid, early, simple, outside, addition,
    multiplication, to destroy, mountain, to sell, peace, known;
    b) seldom, complex, late, slow, invisible, different, big, inside, subtraction,
    division, to construct, plain, to buy, war, unknown.
    XII. Try to memorize the word-groups:
    ■ automatic production — автоматическое производство ■ the origin of
    automation — происхождение автоматизации ■ sensitive and measuring devices
    — чувствительные и измерительные устройства (приборы) ■ a manual control —
    ручное управление ■ feedback information — информация обратной связи ■ to
    operate through a closed loop — работать посредством замкнутого цикла ■ to
    trace back — восходить к ■ extensive mechanization — экстенсивная
    механизация ■ the automatic handling of materials — автоматическая обработка
    материалов ■ an electronic control system — электронная система управления ■ a
    machine-tool — станок ■ a hand-tool — ручной инструмент ■ automatic
    production — автоматическое производство ■ an automatic control —
    автоматическое управление.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Before reading the text try to answer the following questions:
    1. What is automation? 2. What is the relation between automation and
    mechanization?
    II. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    Mechanization and Automation
    84

    1. The word "automation" is heard and seen very frequently nowadays but
    experts differ as to its precise meaning. Historically the word was first coined in 1947
    to describe the automatic handling of materials and parts into and out of the transfer
    machines which thus manufactured car engines without any intervention by machine
    operators. At about the same time the word "automation" was invented to describe
    "an exciting new system of making factory production lines almost completely
    automatic through the use of electronic control systems". The literal meaning of the
    word, which is hybrid from the Greek "automatos" (self-moving) and the Latin suffix
    "ion", is "self-movin gaction ". But the word has become an accepted part of modern
    language because it is popularly used to describe the ideas and techniques which have
    material and visible effects on everyday life and which are growing rapidly in
    importance. These ideas and techniques include everything — hydraulic, pneumatic,
    mechanical, electrical, electronic — which makes automatic production more
    possible.
    2. The origin of automation can be traced back1 to the early days of the first
    industrial revolution with the introduction of mechanization, but one must avoid the
    common mistake2 of saying that automation is simply extensive mechanization.
    3. The relation between automation and mechanization may be illustrated by a
    simple example. Consider the manufacture of metal washers. These articles could be
    made from lumps of metal3 using only hand tools. A better way is to use a machine
    tool which can stamp out dozens of washers at one stroke from sheet metal fed into it.
    That is mechanization. The machine is under the control4 of a machinist who watches
    the product, perhaps with the aid of measuring and sensing devices, and adjust the
    speed of the machine, if the parts do not come out as required.. Now suppose that
    sensing and measuring devices fitted to the machine examine the washers as they are
    produced and feed back information to an automatic control unit which compares
    what is happening with what is ordered by a tape carrying instructions for the
    machine. That is automation. The manual control of the machinist is replaced by the
    automatic control which operates through a closed loop5, as the feedback path is
    called.
    Notes
    1) the origin of automation can be traced back — происхождение (возникновение)
    автоматики восходит к
    2) one must avoid the common mistake — необходимо избежать общей ошибки
    3) lumps of metal — груды (кучи) металла
    4.) the machine is under the control — машиной управляет
    5) a closed loop — замкнутая петля (цикл)

    III. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Historically the word "automation" was first coined in 1950. 2. The machine
    is not under the control of a machinist who watches the product. 3. The word
    "automation" hasn't become an accepted part of modern language. 4. The manual
    control of the machinist is not replaced by the automatic control which operates
    through a closed loop.
    85

    IV. Answer the following questions on paragraph 1:
    1. What did the word "automation" mean when it was used for the first time? 2.
    What is the precise meaning of the word "automation"? 3. What concepts does the
    word "automation" include in modern life?
    V. Translate paragraph 2.
    VI. In paragraph 3 find English equivalents to the following word combinations:
    простой пример, производство, лучший способ, груды металла, дюжины,
    скорость машины, автоматическое управление, ручное управление, замкнутая
    петля (цикл), обратная связь.
    VII. Find the place in paragraph 3 containing the description of mechanization
    and automation. Render this information to your partner.
    VIII. Find English equivalents to the words given in the boxes of the logical
    diagram.
    механизация

    штамповать

    прессовать

    автоматизация

    измерять

    гидравлика

    пневматика

    электроника

    IX. Read the text, concentrate on the elements in black type (the key fragments).
    Rearrange the key fragments so as to make a logical plan of the would-be precis.
    Write the precis of the text. Try to make the number of sentences in your precis equal
    to the number of paragraphs in the original.
    X. Speak about automation using the key fragments and the words from the
    logical diagram (see ex. IX).

    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text B:
    origin — начало, происхождение; despite — несмотря на; area — область,
    сфера; muscle — мускул; nervous — нервный; to govern – управлять,
    регулировать; to carry out — выполнять; supervision — наблюдение, надзор;
    maintenance — обслуживание; trend — общее направление, тенденция;
    comprehensive — всесторонний, глубокий; merely — просто, только; entire —
    полный, совершенный; exclude— исключать; involvement — вовлечение.
    II. Think over the meaning of the title of text В and try to guess what it is about.
    III. Skim through text В and say whether you were right or wrong in your
    answer.
    86

    Text В
    Main Trend of Automation
    The idea of automation is as old as the hills. Its origin may be traced to the
    invention of the hunter's trap1, while its written history goes back to the rock
    paintings of the ice age. But despite its antiquity the idea remains attractive.
    It seems that the dream has now come true2: mankind has entered the age of
    automation, a logical outcome of the modern revolution in science and technology. A
    machine, a robot, a cybernetic system has partially or fully replaced man in many
    areas of production. Not only man's hands and muscles have been substituted for, but
    to a certain extent his brain and nervous system, too. Automatic systems now perform
    the most labour-intensive operations3, and the control of them, where before the only
    operator was the worker. Given a definite programme, one machine can govern the
    operation of another, so that the worker has to carry out only general supervision and
    the technical maintenance of a system..
    Industry has thousands of automatic production lines, units of equipment which
    are programme-controlled4, a great number of production sections, shops and
    technological processes covered by integrated mechanization and automation.
    However, the main trend is towards the development of comprehensively automated
    factories. Specialists consider this to be the main trend in automation — that is,
    developing not merely automatic machines which can take over individual production
    operations5, but entire technological processes and systems whose functioning
    excludes the direct involvement of man.
    Notes
    l) the hunter's trap — ловушка (капкан, западня) охотника
    2) the dream has come true — мечта сбылась
    3) labour-intensive operation — трудоемкая операция
    4) programme-controlled units — устройства, регулируемые с помощью программы
    5) can take over individual production operations — может брать на себя выполнение
    отдельных производственных операций

    IV. Answer the following questions:
    1. What dream of mankind has come true? 2. What operations do automatic
    systems perform? 3. How do you understand the main trend of automation?
    V. Render the information of text В to your partner.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of words facilitating reading text C:
    to lend — придавать; to relieve — облегчать, освобождать; to be engaged in
    — быть занятым; employed in industry — занятый в промышленности; at a faster
    rate — с большей скоростью; hardly — едва; to regard — рассматривать;
    conventional labour — обычный труд; mental work — умственная работа; a
    unique opportunity-единственная возможность; to do away with — покончить ( с
    чём-л.); a heap of metal — гора металла; scope — масштаб, возможность; volume
    87

    of output —• объем продукции.
    II. Read the following text carefully. While reading look for the answers to the
    given questions:
    1. How does automation help a worker in his hard physical labour? 2. What does
    automation offer the society? 3. Is unemployment an inevitable consequence of
    automation?
    Text С
    Humanization of Labour
    1. And what happens to a worker whose place is taken by an automatic
    machine? Specialists believe that automation alters the character of labour, lending it
    a new social status, rather than ousts the worker from the production process1.
    2. First of all, thanks to automation, the worker is relieved of traditionally hard
    physical labour. To keep machinery working properly, a worker needs knowledge
    and an engineering qualification rather than strong hands. The number of such
    workers in industry is increasing. Actually, the number of those engaged in
    operations that are fully mechanized or automated is growing at a faster rate than the
    number of workers employed in industry. What many of them do can hardly be
    regarded as the conventional labour of an industrial worker. For instance, the
    adjusters and operators2 of automatic metal-machining equipment, workers at
    chemical plants, steel smelters and rolling-operators3 spend more than half their time
    doing mental work. The proportion of such work in some branches of industry has
    reached 80 per cent. In terms of social progress, automation offers society a unique
    opportunity to humanize labour. Both hard physical work and monotonous work that
    is bad for one's mental health can be done away with to a large extent or altogether,
    while in other cases their dangerous intensification can be reduced, occupational risks
    brought down to zero.
    3. Having relieved the worker of heavy or monotonous operations the
    automatic machine can add to his productivity and greatly increase man's power over
    nature. But even a fully automatic factory is nothing but a heap of metal. Only the
    worker's hands and brain can set it in motion.
    4. It goes without saying4 that automation in a particular factory or industry
    reduces the amount of labour needed. However, does that mean that unemployment is
    an inevitable consequence of automation? Practice indicates that this is not so.
    Planned management of the economy makes it possible to obtain and maintain an
    optimal balance between the scope of automation, volume of output and labour
    resources.
    Notes
    1) ousts the worker from the production process — вытесняет рабочего из
    производственного процесса
    2) the adjusters and operators — монтеры (сборщики) и операторы
    3) steel smelters and rolling-mill operators — сталелитейщики и операторы прокатного
    стана
    4) it goes without saying — само собой разумеется
    88

    III. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Specialists believe that automation alters the character of labour. 2. Thanks to
    automation the worker is relieved of hard physical labour. 3. Automation doesn't
    offer a unique opportunity to humanize labour. 4. Automation in a particular factory
    or industry reduces the amount of labour needed.
    IV. Find the answers to the following questions:
    1. What does automation alter? 2. How can the worker be relieved of
    traditionally physical labour? 3. Why does a worker need an engineering
    qualification? 4. What can set in motion a fully automatic factory?
    V. Find the main information of paragraph 2 and render it to your group-mate.
    VI. Say what planned management of economy obtains and maintains.
    VII. You are asked to make a report. The subject of your report is
    "Automation". While preparing it you may use the information of texts А, В and
    С. The following plan will help you:
    1. Automation.
    2. Mechanization.
    3. The difference between automation and mechanization.
    4. Automation and the character of labour.
    UNIT TWELVE
    ■ Grammar: Complex Subject (§ 13). Emphatic Construction. It is (was)... that
    (who) (§18). Form-words both ... and, neither ... nor, either ... or.
    • Word Formation: v + – en/-ant= adj
    adj + -ify/-fy = v
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Complex Subject".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    cartoon [kQ: 'tu:n] , to exhibit [Ig'zɪbIt] , image ['ImIG], process ['prqVses], to
    equip [I'kwIp], intelligence [In'telIGqns], substitute ['sAbstItju:t], outskirts
    ['aVtskE:ts], appear [q'pIq], satire ['sxtaIq], determine [ dɪ'tE:mIn], subordinate
    [sq'bO:dInqt], damage ['dxmIdZ], individually [ʽIndI'vIduqli], mechanical [
    mq'kxnIkl], infantile ['InfqntaIl].
    89

    II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what Russian words
    help you to guess their meaning:
    robot, figure, hero, computer, character, function, technology, economic,
    automatic, universal, principle, problem, manufacture, productivity.
    III. Give the initial forms of the following words:
    driven, processes, manufacturing, operated, incorporating, faculties, equipped,
    principles, considered, substitutes, functions, riding, deprived, greater, increasing,
    ranging, became.
    IV. State to what parts of speech the words in black type belong:
    1. This is an electric field. 2. In what field of science do you work? 3. Last Sunday I
    was at home. 4. The lectures usually last about four hours on Saturdays. 5. The
    results of this research are of great importance for our university. 6. Profound
    research work sometimes results in a discovery. 7. The solar energy must light and
    heat our houses. 8. The new building houses a technical library.
    V. Form adjectives adding the suffixes a) -ent/-ant and b) -ify/-fy to the given
    words, translate them:
    Example: a) to differ – различатьb) electric – электрический
    different – различный electrify – электрифицировать
    a) to depend, to attend, to cool, to correspond, to exist, to resist, to result, to consist,
    to provide, to dissolve, to absorb;
    b) specific, identic, humid, acid, pure, solid, intensive, simple, classic, ample,
    magnetic, diverse.
    VI. Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a
    dictionary:
    to range, to incorporate, to develop, to check, to refer to, to substitute, to appear,
    to mean, to deprive, to call, to damage, to ride, to assume, to prevent, to resolve, to
    restrain, to grow.
    VII. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to Complex
    Subject:
    1. These elements are known to have been found two decades ago. 2.
    Semiconductors are shown to be good detectors of radio waves. 3. Metal is known to
    conduct electricity. 4. Electrical charges are known to be positive and negative. 5.
    This engineer appears to have presented some interesting data. 6. The problem of new
    generators is likely to be one of the most essential. 7. This method of switching is
    sure to be cheaper. 8. All the details of the plan are supposed to have been explained
    to you. 9. The chemist is expected to obtain a new substance. 10. They are considered
    to carry out their research in time. 11. The origin of the word 'robot' is said to have
    appeared first in a play of a Czech playwright, Karel Capec. 12. Four atomic power
    stations are assumed to be built for experimental purposes. 13. The improvement of
    the technological processes is supposed to ensure lower cost of power. 14. Long
    transmission lines are known to be necessary for the transfer of electric energy over
    90

    long distances. 15. Some types of reactors are known to produce more nuclear fuel
    during their operation than they consume.
    VIII. Choose the sentences with Complex Subject, translate them into Russian:
    1. The engineers were glad to have obtained such good results. 2. Our task is to
    study well. 3. This system is expected to have wide application. 4. For him to have
    done these experiments is a great success. 5. Heat causes the liquid to evaporate. 6.
    They are certain to achieve good results, if they employ new techniques. 7. The
    engineer made his assistants check the results many times. 8. The apparatus to be
    assembled is very complicated. 9. The idea to use this new substance is not new. 10.
    The application of this device in our experiment is certain to give better results.
    IX. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the
    emphatic construction it is (was)... that (who):
    1 .It is electronics that produced radar. 2. It was Einstein who provided a new
    conception of time, space and gravitation. 3. It was A.S.Popov who invented the
    radio. 4. It was from radio that the subject of electronics was born. 5. It was
    radioelectronics that produced cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics. 6. It
    was in the laboratory that I found him. 7. It was D.I.Mendeleyev who formulated
    the Periodic Law. 8. It was thanks to M.V. Lomonosov that Moscow University was
    founded in 1755. 9. It was in 1868 that D.I.Mendeleyev formulated the Periodic Law
    of Elements. 10. It is automation that improves working conditions. 11. It was in
    1944 that the first relay machine was completed. 12. It is the programme that
    ensures the execution of all operations assigned to the computers. 13. It was in the
    20th century that electronic computers appeared.
    X. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the translation of the
    correlative conjunctions both ... and, neither ... nor, either ...or:
    1. Franklin is respected in our country both as a scientist and a progressive
    political leader. 2. M.V.Lomonosov was an outstanding inventor both in the
    humanities and in exact sciences. 3. This famous scientist is engaged both in
    scientific research and in social activities. 7. As we know there is neither air nor
    water in any part of the Moon. 5. He could cope neither with this task nor that one.
    6. You may take either this book or that one. 7. Reaching the Earth the energy sent
    from the Sun is either absorbed (поглощена) or reflected. 8. Neither my friend nor
    I took part in this scientific conference.
    XI. Match up the words which have similar meanings:
    a) different, hence, to watch, to receive, high, to keep, to allow, to start, to
    suggest, to shut, to wait, to try, to learn, to remain, to finish, to come, broad, to vary;
    b) wide, to change, to arrive, to conclude, to stay, to study, to attempt, to expect,
    to observe, to obtain, tall, to hold, various, thus, to permit, to begin, to offer, to close.
    XII. Try to memorize all the words and word-groups:
    ■ children's cartoons – детские мультипликационные фильмы ■economic and
    social advantages – экономические и социальные преимущества ■ superhuman
    91

    quality – сверхчеловеческое качество a high degree of freedom – высокая степень
    свободы ■ an improvement of productivity – улучшение производительности ■ an
    improvement of product quality – улучшение качества изделия ■ production
    system – система производства ■ to deprive of – лишать (чего-л.) ■ infantile
    intelligence – ограниченный интеллект ■ to damage – портить
    наносить ущерб ■ flexible automation – гибкая автоматизация ■ to enhance –
    увеличивать, повышать ■ to prevent from – предотвращать, мешать (чему-л.) ■
    to set forth – излагать, выдвигать.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary :
    Text A
    Historical Background of Robots
    1. For years robots have been quite familiar figures in our minds in the form of
    mechanical-driven dolls, or the heroes in children's cartoons who exhibit superhuman
    qualities. However, the image of industrial robot used in manufacturing processes is
    far different from such. Among industrial robots, there are different types ranging
    from hand-operated "magic hands" to others equipped with intelligent faculties by
    incorporating micro-computers. Hence, there is no clear-cut definition1 for industrial
    robots. In general, however, the robots which we refer to as such include (1) those
    that display a complex motion with a high degree of freedom just like an arm or a
    hand and (2) those that are equipped with cognitive and such sensory functions, as
    sight, and tactual sense, and are capable of acting independently.
    2. Robots can be considered as substitutes for men, and they must possess the
    functions not only of hands but also legs. At present technological levels, however,
    the industrial robot is unable to have legs as yet and is equipped only with a hand and
    rather infantile intelligence. Hence, it is as yet worth2 half a man. And this robot is
    called an industrial robot. To put it simply an industrial robot is an automatic
    machine having a hand.
    3. The origin of the word 'robot' is said to have appeared first in a play called RUR
    (Rossum's Universal Robots) written by a Czech playwright, Karel Capec. Men
    riding on a fully-packed train in the outskirts of Prague were just like machines
    lacking in individuality3, Capec called such men robots in his play by parodying the
    word 'robota' meaning slave labour. The word 'robot' came into being4 by the bitter
    satire of the condition of man who was deprived of his humanity and became like a
    machine.
    4. The three principles of a robot were set forth, they determined the character of
    robots. These three principles were: (1) a robot must do no damage to man, (2) a
    robot must be subordinate to man, and (3) a robot must protect itself from damage.
    5. Those who work with robots must assume the responsibility both for solving
    the short-range technical problems and for assessing and minimizing the social
    difficulties of mobilization.
    92

    6. In this day of flexible automation, industrial robots are increasingly seen as a
    significant factor in further automating production systems and enhancing economic
    activity. The use of industrial robots has produced a number of economic and social
    advantages. Among them are the improvement in productivity, greater humanization
    of working life, prevention of labour accidents, improvement of product quality and
    the development of new industries.
    Notes
    1. clear-cut definition – четкое определение
    2. it is as yet worth – тем не менее (все же) он заслуживает
    3. lacking in individuality – отсутствие индивидуальности
    4. came into being– вошло в обиход

    II. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. There is no clear-cut definition for industrial robots. 2. Robots can't be
    considered as substitutes for men. 3. The origin of the word "robot" is said to have
    appeared first in a play written by a German playwright. 4. The use of industrial
    robots has produced a number of economic and social advantages.
    III. Answer the following questions on paragraphs 1 and 2:
    1. In what form have robots been familiar in our minds for years? 2. Can you
    give a definition of industrial robots?
    IV. Give Russian equivalents to the word-groups given in the boxes of the logical
    diagram.
    Industrial robots

    Hand-operated robots “magic
    hands”

    Robots with a complex motion

    Robots equipped with
    micro-computers

    Robots with cognitive and
    sensory functions

    V. Describe the types of industrial robots using the logical diagram and the
    information of paragraph 1.
    VI.Translate paragraph 2.
    VII. Find the English equivalents of the following words and word-groups:
    происхождение слова, появляться впервые, окраина, обозначать, отсутствие
    индивидуальности, универсальный робот, быть лишенным чего-либо,
    означать, рабский труд.
    VIII. Now say whom Capec called ”robots” and why.
    93

    IX. Name the three principles which determine the character of robots, using the
    information of paragraph 4.
    X. Describe the economic and social advantages of industrial robots using the
    information of the last paragraph.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text B.
    initial – (перво)начальный; to delight – восхищать(ся); assembly line – линия
    сборки; senseless – бессмысленный; to service-обслуживать; preference –
    предпочтение; to ensure–обеспечивать; growth – рост, увеличение; introduction –
    введение; to yield – производить, давать; creative – творческий, созидательный;
    prestigious – престижный; raise – поднимать, повышать; labour productivity –
    производительность труда; quality – качество; to speed up – ускорять,
    увеличивать (выпуск продукции); currently – в настоящий момент; artificial –
    искусственный, неестественный.
    П. Skim through the text and try to formulate the main idea (you are given 10
    minutes):
    Text В
    People and Robots
    Robots were invented a long time ago. But the initial delight at them everywhere
    in the world gave way to caution1. It is one thing when a robot gives flowers to a
    lady, plays chess, reads a book aloud, and it is quite another when it is used on an
    assembly line.
    Like any new machine, the robot needs skilled servicing2. There are such
    specialists at research institutes but it is a different matter at factories. It seemed
    senseless to use robots at plants where engineers would service them, that is, do
    primitive work by means of sophisticated equipment3. As a result, the development
    of robots continued, but in mass production4 preference was given to traditional
    automation-production lines, sections and shops which ensured a rapid growth in
    production. Then the introduction of robots in industry was sharply accelerated.
    The engineers are still needed to service robots. But if the robots are used in
    groups, only one engineer is needed for each group and this yields good economic
    results. This fact in itself is nothing new – specialists spoke of it in the early 1970s.
    The question, however, was to find areas of industrial production where robots could
    be widely used.
    The introduction of robots at enterprises is one of the many things which make it
    possible to give intellectual and creative content to a person's work. The workers
    who are replaced by robots are retrained without any cuts in their earnings5 and they
    move to the more intellectual levels of production. Robots help to solve the
    personnel problem in those production areas which are not prestigious, raise labour
    94

    productivity, improve the quality of products and speed up the introduction of new
    equipment.
    The demand for manipulators is growing. Specialized enterprises for their mass
    production are currently being built. Industry has begun the production of secondgeneration robots, the so-called adaptive robots which have "technical vision" and
    are capable of performing complicated operations. It is planned to start the
    production of third-generation robots with elements of artificial intellect.
    Notes
    1. gave way to caution – побудило к предосторожности
    2. skilled servicing – квалифицированное обслуживание
    3. sophisticated equipment – сложное оборудование
    4. mass production – крупномасштабное (массовое) производство
    5. without any cuts in their earnings – без снижения их заработной платы

    III. Answer the following questions on the contents of the text:
    1. When were robots invented? 2. Robots need skilled servicing, don't they? 3.
    Why was preference given to traditional automation-production lines some years
    ago? 4. How do robots help people in their work? 5. Are the industrial enterprises
    ready for the introduction of robot complexes?
    IV. Say some words about the role of robots at enterprises.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of words facilitating reading text C:
    adaptive – адаптивный, приспосабливающийся; according to – согласно; to
    tune – настраивать; forge work – кузнечная работа; foundry work – литейная
    работа; loading – погрузка; unloading –разгрузка; tactile – осязательный,
    осязаемый; beam – луч, пучок лучей; to possess – владеть, обладать; means –
    способ, средство; appraise – оценивать; purposeful – целеустремленный,
    преднамеренный; to enable – давать возможность (что-л. сделать); to benefit –
    приносить пользу; experience – опыт; to approach – приближаться, подходить.
    II. Scan text С. While scanning look for answers to the following questions:
    1. What kinds of robots have been widely introduced in industry?
    2. What is the main feature of the second generation of robots?
    Text С
    Three Generations of Robots
    1. The automatically controlled industrial manipulators are divided into three
    generations: programmed, adaptive and intellectual.
    2. Characteristic of the first generation – the programmed robots – is that their
    control system acts according to a rigid oft-repeated programme1 all the time. But
    the programmed robot is easily retuned to various action programmes.
    3. All the industrial robots in stamping, mechanical processing, forge and
    foundry work, and in other auxiliary "manual" operations as well as in loading and
    95

    unloading that have been widely introduced belong to this generation. They will
    continue to be the main type of robot. But adaptive robots, or robots of the second
    generation, are being developed along with them. Where they differ is that they
    possess the most elementary senses in their manipulators – tactile (sense and touch),
    power (reaction to the magnitude of the work effort),2 locating,3 (reaction to the
    distance to the object and the speed of approaching it), and light (reaction to the
    object located within a beam of light), and subsequently micro process the
    information.
    4. The third generation – intellectual robots – possess far richer means for
    sensing (including sight), for appraising the situation, and for processing
    information with a view to adopting a decision and carrying it out using drives and
    organizing the purposeful movement of the manipulator. This enables us to say that
    here the robot possesses a mo dicum4 of "artificial intellect".
    5. However, in these complex problems, man is not yet completely excluded.
    Artificial intellect will be used when it is more effective than human intellect, i.e. in
    the cases when the human organism itself will not be able to react quickly to a large
    bulk of information5 that an artificial intellect can process quickly. But for a long
    time to come, these systems will have an operator, who will solve problems in
    complicated situations, using human experience.
    6. All these objectives figure in the state programme for the development of robot
    technology in future, and will be carried out to benefit the various industries.
    Notes
    1. a rigid oft-repeated programme – фиксированная часто повторяющаяся программа
    2. the magnitude of the work-effort – величина (степень) рабочего усилия
    3. locating – местоположение
    4. modicum – очень малое количество (чуточка)
    5. a large bulk of information – большой объем информации

    III. Say what you have learned about the first generation of robots.
    IV. Find the information about the second generation of manipulators and say it
    to your group-mate.
    V. Which paragraph contains the information about the third generation of
    robots?
    VI. Explain why artificial intellect can't be used now instead of human one and
    say when it will be used.
    VII. Summarize the ideas developed in texts А, В and С. Use this information to
    make a report on the theme "Robots Today and Tomorrow". The following plan will
    help you:
    1. Historical background of robots.
    2. Three generations of robots.
    3. Different types of industrial robots.
    4. The role of robots in industrial production.
    96

    UNIT THIRTEEN
    • Grammar: Complex Sentence (§ 17)..
    Functions of one (§23).
    • Word-formation; adj + n = n
    n + adj = adj.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Complex Sentence".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I.Practise the reading of the following words:
    negotiation [nIˏgquSI'eISn], persuasion [pq'sweIZn], ingredient [In'gri:diqnt],
    source [sO:s], receiver [rI'si:vq], encode [In'kqud], originate [q'riGIneIt],
    misinterpretation [ˏmIsIntWpri'teISn], verbal ['vq:bl].
    II. Check up if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    communication, information, process, symbol, discipline, instruction, model,
    telephone, engineer, nature, factor, position.
    III. State to what parts of speech the words in black type belong:
    1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between
    individuals. 2. The basic ingredients of a communications model include a source,
    encoder, message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback and noise. 3. Telephone,
    radio and television deliver a continuous stream of information. 4. The electric
    telegraph was the beginning of the whole vast telecommunications industry. 5. The
    man who put most effort into developing the telegraph was a successful American
    painter and sculptor Samuel Morse. 6. Modern communication owes its very
    existence to the evolution in digital electronics. 7. A great Russian scientist
    A.S.Popov was the first who produced an apparatus which became the world's
    greatest means of communication. 8. It was the energy and persistence of A.G.Bell
    which made the telephone a practical instrument. 9. Thomas Alva Edison is known
    as one of the greatest inventors of his time. 10. Present-day telephones, television
    sets, satellites and microwave transmitters all rest upon a foundation of computers.
    IV. Find Russian equivalents given below to the English compound words:
    97

    short-circuit, loud-speaker, intervision, hardware, software, hyper-graph,
    microreader, microcopy, hi-fi (high fidelity), lo-fi (low fidelity), high-light, highway,
    shorthand;
    микроинструкция, короткое замыкание, стенография, программное
    (математическое) обеспечение, аппаратура, гиперграф, громкоговоритель,
    уменьшенная копия, аппарат для чтения микрофильмов, аппарат высокого
    класса, аппарат низкого класса, интервидение, световой эффект,
    автомагистраль.
    V. Form nouns adding the suffix -er (-or) to the given verbs, translate them:
    Example: to record — записывать
    recorder — звукозаписывающий аппарат
    to encode, to decode, to receive, to interpret, to process, to transmit, to read, to
    produce, to discover, to inform, to deliver, to design, to elect, to instruct, to supervise.
    VI. Translate the following compound adjectives:
    inch-thick, atom-free, heat-proof, trouble-free, iron-strong, duty-free, note-worthy,
    hammer-proof, dust-free, gas-blue, snow-white, century-old, iron-grey, pencil-thin.
    VII. Check up if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a
    dictionary if necessary:
    to deliver, to decode, to interpret, to select, to transmit, to differentiate, to permit,
    to join, to complete, to invent, to refer to, to appreciate, to convey.
    VIII. Define the functions of the word one in the following sentences. Translate
    them into Russian.
    1. A given problem can have more than one algorithm for its solution. 2. The
    new devices have a number of advantages over the old ones. 3. A "negative ion" is
    one which has gained (получил) an electron. 4. A "positive ion" is one which lost
    an electron. 5. Circuits that can perform this logical operation and similar ones have
    been built and tested. 6. At present robot technology has two major branches, one
    technological and the other scientific. 7. Higher speeds are one of the basic features
    of modern technical progress. 8. One must always be careful when operating this
    machine. 9. Our old laboratory equipment was much worse than the new one. 10.
    The idea of automation is one of the most important ideas for modern industry.
    IX. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the meaning of the
    word one:
    1. The theory of the basic devices in radio engineering – radio transmitting and
    radio receiving ones — was developed by the scientists. 2. To understand what laser
    is one has to understand how light is generated. 3. The input unit to be described
    here is a new one. 4. One can make matter vibrate in different ways. 5. In future
    power stations will use the principle of direct conversion of solar energy into electric
    one. 6. Due to radioactive elements one can measure the thickness of various
    materials. 8. He knew that no one could help him. 9. The history of the exploration
    of the Urals has been a long one. 10. I know only one solution of this problem.
    98

    X. Find in text A sentences with the word one and translate them into Russian.
    XI. Find the sentences with additional clauses among the ones given below.
    Translate these sentences into Russian:
    1. It seems probable that language was fully developed about 25,000 years ago.
    2. Precise recording instruments show that no two native speakers of a language
    pronounce any word or sound of that language exactly the same. 3. We often hear
    that the increasing flood of information will be one of the problems of the 21-st
    century. 4. Some people believe that learning a foreign language is just a matter of
    memorizing words. 5. When Galileo invented the telescope he realized that an
    arrangement of lenses could also be used to magnify objects. 6. At the beginning of
    the 20-th century, astronomers believed that Mars was
    quite similar to our world. 7. Scientific study of society shows that human history
    develops from stage to stage according to definite laws.
    8. Maxwell predicted that waves longer than those of light could exist.
    9. The laboratory is the place where experiments as well as scientific research may
    be carried out. 10. If you want to get the atomic weight of an element, you must add
    together the protons and neutrons. 11. The atomic weight of an element tells us how
    many times it is heavier than hydrogen.
    XII.
    Translate the sentences paying attention to the subordinating
    conjunctions introducing attributive clauses:
    1. Electronics is that branch of science and technology which studies the
    conduction of electricity through gases or in vacuum. 2. There are about thirty radio
    stations in the world that put on Esperanto programmes. 4, Chemistry is the science
    that deals with the structure of matter and its changes. 5. The degree to which
    computers will take over human functions may frighten some people and astonish
    others. 6. Omar Khayam wrote a book on algebra which was the best of its time and
    he also prepared and improved astronomical tables. 7. The device which is expected
    to be available later, looks like a hand-held calculator with a keyboard of letters
    instead of numbers. 8. The laboratory is the place where experiments as well as
    scientific research may be carried out. 9. The liquid takes up the shape of a vessel in
    which it is contained. 10. There are some general guides that you will find helpful for
    your experiment.
    XIII. Choose the sentences with attributive clauses from the ones
    given below. Translate them into Russian:
    1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between
    individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behaviour. 2. Computers
    are machines which are able to solve complex mathematical problems. 3. Atoms and
    electrons are so small that they cannot be seen under the most powerful microscopes.
    4. Radio is a device that transmits and receives signals and programs by
    electromagnetic waves. 5. A transistor is a small electronic device whose function is
    the same as that of an electronic tube 6. The medium or channel through which the
    message is carried may take the form of face-to-face communication. 7. It is often
    99

    said that one should use the language of those to whom one is speaking. 8. Corrosion
    is a very serious problem which worries scientists, technologists and economists.
    XIV. Find in text A complex sentences. Define the types of subordinate clauses
    and translate the sentences into Russian.
    XV. Match up the words which have a similar meaning:
    a) to broadcast, symbol, to understand, discipline, purpose, to include, to speed
    up, to change, quantity, to reduce, medium, for example, to appreciate.
    b) to alter, to radio, for instance, environment, to approve, to realize, to
    accelerate, subject, aim, to embrace, sign, amount, to cut down.
    XVI. Listen to the following tape-recorded lexical programme, memorize all the
    words and word groups:
    ■ to exchange — обменивать (ся), менять (ся) ■ tool — перен. орудие,
    средство; инструмент ■ communications models — модель связи
    (коммуникации) ■ system of spoken symbols — система речевых знаков ■
    theorist — теоретик ■ source — источник я encoder — кодирующее
    устройство; кодировщик ■ message— сообщение, сигнал ■ decoder —
    декодирующее устройство; декодер
    ■ feedback — обратная связь ■ to originate — происходить, брать начало ■ to
    translate — преобразовывать, переводить в другую систему ■ to accomplish —
    выполнять; завершать ■ message fidelity — точность (верность) сообщения ■
    message for transmittal — сообщение для передачи ■ precise meaning — точное
    значение ■ ingredient — составная часть, компонент в negotiations —
    переговоры
    ■ call — телефонный разговор; вызов ■ sound — звук ■ to select — выбирать,
    отбирать, подбирать ■ to convey — выражать; сообщать, передавать.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Read text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    Communications Model
    1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between
    individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviour.
    2. Verbal communication, commonly referred to as1 "talking", is based on a
    system of spoken symbols that are used to relay ideas and emotions. It is a vital and
    powerful tool2 for the passage of information, the delivery of explanations and
    instructions, and the acts of negotiation and persuasion.
    3. To fully understand oral communication3, let's look at the nature
    of the process. Models are useful in the engineering discipline4, as they
    are in our daily job-related5 and personal communications6. A model of
    communication has been developed by several theorists in the field.
    100

    4. The basic ingredients of this model include a source, encoder, message,
    channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise. Communication originates in the
    source, which may be conceived as a member of a project team7 who has some
    information to transmit. This information is translated via an encoding process into a
    set of symbols8 or a language. The purpose or intent of the source is expressed in the
    form of a message. The medium or channel through which the message is carried
    may take the form of face-to-face communication9, for example, or perhaps a
    telephone call. The receiver decodes and interprets the message in light of his own
    frame of reference10 and experience. The feedback, the receiver provides the source,
    informs the message initiator11 whether the communication has been effectively
    accomplished. Noise, in the behavioural sense, includes factors such as conceived
    value judgments, misinterpretations, and misunderstandings which can reduce the
    message fidelity.
    5. The presentation and discussion of the model of communication is intended to
    help the engineer understand why some of the messages sent are not received as
    originally intended. For example, care must be taken12 in encoding a message. The
    words selected by the source must convey precise meaning if the receiver is to
    decode them as they were intended, not in light of one's personal value system13. This
    suggests that when one is sending a message,one should place oneself in the position
    of the receiver and prepare and encode the message accordingly. It is often said that
    one should use the language of those to whom one is speaking. The engineer,
    accordingly, should understand and appreciate the process of decoding as he does the
    encoding of the message for transmittal.
    source

    encoding

    channel

    decoding

    receiver

    message
    feedback

    Notes
    1. commonly referred to as — на которую обычно ссылаются как на
    2. its is a vital and powerful tool — это важное и мощное средство
    3. oral communication — устное общение, коммуникация 4 engineering
    discipline — техническая дисциплина
    5. job-related communication — деловое общение
    6. personal communication — личное (персональное) общение
    7. project team — проектная группа
    8. a set of symbols — набор символов (знаков)
    9.f ace-to-face communication — личное общение
    10. in light of his own frame of reference — согласно его собственной компетенции
    11 the message initiator — отправитель сообщения
    12care must be taken — следует быть осторожным
    13 not in light of one's personal value system – не в собственной интерпретации

    II. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    101

    1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between
    individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or be haviour. 2. Verbal
    communication is not considered to be a vital and powerful tool for the passage of
    information, the delivery of explanations and instructions. 3. The basic ingredients of
    a communications model do not include a source, encoder, message, channel,
    decoder, receiver, feedback and noise. 4. The presentation and discussion of the
    model of communication is intended to help the engineer understand why some of the
    messages sent are not received as originally intended, 5. The engineer should
    understand and appreciate the process of decoding as he does the encoding of the
    message for transmittal.
    III.Find the place in paragraph 2 containing information about verbal
    communication,
    IV. In paragraph 3 find the English equivalents of the following words and word
    combinations:
    техническая дисциплина, модель, деловое общение, разрабатывать,
    теоретик, природа, область, понимать, ежедневно, иллюстрировать.
    V. Answer the following questions on paragraph 4:
    1. What are the basic ingredients of a communications model? 2. Where does
    communication originate? 3. The purpose of the source is expressed in the form of a
    message, isn't it? 4. How does the receiver decode and interpret the message?
    VI. Read paragraph 5 and say:
    a) what the presentation and discussion of the model of communication is
    intended for; b) whether care must be taken in encoding a message; c) how one
    should behave when one is sending a message; d) what language one should use in
    sending a message; e) how the engineer should treat the processes of decoding and
    encoding the message for transmittal.
    VII.Write out of the text words, word combinations for describingthe procedure of
    encoding the message.
    VIII. Describe the basic ingredients of a communications model to your partner.
    IX.Divide text A into logical parts and find the topical sentences
    in each part.
    X. Fill in the boxes of the following logical diagram of the text
    with Russian equivalents:
    basic ingredients of a communications model

    102

    source

    encoder

    member of project team

    message

    channel

    face-to-face
    communication

    decoder

    receiver

    telephone call

    feedback

    conceived value
    judgement

    noise

    misinterpretation

    misunderstanding

    XI. Speak about a communications model using topical sentences and words from
    the scheme.
    XII. Read text A again. Concentrate on key fragments in black type. Rearrange
    the key fragments so as to make a logical plan of a would-be precis. Write the precis
    of the text. Try to make the number of the sentences in your precis equal to the
    number of paragraphs in the original.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text B:
    medium (pi. media) — средство, способ, путь; среда; to evolve -развивать,
    разрабатывать; message — сообщение, послание; to revolutionize —
    революционизировать; information – информация; to remain — оставаться;
    facility — средство; to displace — вытеснять, смещать; mail — почта; to supply
    — поставлять; снабжать; to store – хранить; continuous – непрерывный; to
    exhibit – демонстрировать, показывать; feature – характерная черта,
    особенность.
    II. Read the text and try to find the main information of it:
    Text В
    New Electronic Media
    Over time, a wide range of communications media1 have been evolved to support
    human activities. In the process, new media have often assumed some (or all) of the
    functions of existing media. For example, Letters have been a personal
    communications medium for thousands of years. In the 19th century priority
    messages began to travel by telegraph, and since the end of that century, people have
    been able to talk to each other over the telephone. This development so
    revolutionized personal communications that writing letters is a dying art – the
    information they contain and the functions they perform are now included in a
    telephone call. Telegraph has also undergone change While it may still exist as a
    wire connection carrying low-speed data2 it has also developed into an automatic
    network serving commercial and industrial establishments. Even though the majority
    103

    of message traffic has been diverted to Telephone, the telex network remains a vital
    communications facility in many nations. In other nations, Telegraph is being
    displaced by Data Communications4, and both Telegraph and Telephone are being
    replaced by Electronic Mail5, and other media.
    Communications media may be differentiated on the basis of the functions they
    perform. Thus, Books, Magazines, Newspapers and Letters supply capsules of
    information which are of use over a limited time. For instance: many books will be
    of interest to someone for several years; on the average6, magazines evoke interest7
    over a shorter period of time; and newspapers and letters hold the interest8 of the
    majority of readers for a matter of days, or less. Insofar as9 they all store information
    which can be retrieved10 as many times as the user desires, they can be called record
    media11.
    In contrast, Telephone, Radio and Television deliver a continous stream of
    information12, as it is produced. They can be called real-time media . So can Data
    Communications, the medium which permits the exchange of information between
    machines. As for Telegraph it exhibits both real-time and record features.
    Notes
    l. a wide range of communications media – широкий набор средств связи
    2. a wire connection carrying low speed data – проводная связь, передающая несрочную
    информацию
    3. serving commercial and industrial establishments – обслуживающую торговые и
    промышленные учреждения
    4. data communication — передача данных
    5. electronic mail — электронная почта
    6. on the average — в среднем
    7. evoke interest — вызывают интерес
    8.hold the interest — удерживают интерес
    9. insofar as – поскольку
    10. which can be retrieved — которую можно восстанавливать
    11. record media — записывающие средства
    12. a continuous stream of information – непрерывный поток информации
    13 real-time media – средства передачи данных (или информации) в реальном масштабе
    времени

    III. Answer the following questions to the text:
    1. What kinds of communications media have been evolved over a time? 2. Has
    telephone undergone any change? 3. What is the basis for differentiating
    communications media? 4. What are record– and real-time media?
    IV. Speak about the basis for differentiating communications media.
    V. Give a short summary of text B.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of words facilitating reading text C:
    forerunner — предшественник; ancestor — предок, прародитель; impulse —
    104

    импульс, толчок; to detect — обнаруживать; click -щелканье, щелчок; to coin —
    создавать новые слова; wireless — беспроводной; to succeed in — добиваться
    успеха; particle — частица; amateur — любитель; broadcasting — передача
    радио– и телевизионных программ; service — служба.
    II. Read the following text carefully. While reading it look for the
    answers to the questions:
    1. Who was the discoverer of electric telegraph? 2. Who made the telephone a
    practical instrument? 3. Who laid the foundations of electronics?
    Text С
    The Magnitude of Invention
    1. The electric telegraph was the beginning of the whole vast telecommunications
    industry, the forerunner of the telephone, radio, television, communications
    satellites1 — in fact, a direct ancestor of everything now united under the convenient
    heading of "electronics".
    2. But as with most other great inventions, the idea had been around for a long
    time. As early as 1747 electrical impulses had been transmitted along a wire laid
    across Westminster Bridge2, and detected at the other end by the crude but effective
    method of having someone hold on to the wire.
    3. Strangely enough, the man who put most effort3 into developing the telegraph
    was a successful American painter and sculptor, Samuel Morse. On April 1, 1845,
    the world's first telegraph line between Baltimore and Washington has been opened
    for public use4, and after that the telegraph spread rapidly across Europe and
    America.
    4. Joining the continents proved a much more difficult job5, but in 1856 the
    Atlantic Telegraph Company was organized to attempt the most demanding
    technical feat of the age and, in 1859, the Atlantic cable was completed.
    5. But the inventors were already striving to transmit something more than the
    clicks of a Morse key. Wheatstone had coined the word" telephone in 1821, when he
    was only 19. Many others contributed ideas, but it was the energy and persistence of
    Alexander Graham Bell which made the telephone a practical instrument. Bell first
    realized how a telephone could be made to work in June 1875. After that progress
    was very rapid. The first permanent telephone line was opened in April 1876 in
    Boston.
    6. Twenty years later, the invention of the wireless telegraph was to follow a very
    similar pattern. Guglielmo Marconi was only 21 years old when he succeeded in
    transmitting signals' by radio waves for nearly a mile.
    7. A much more effective way of producing radio waves, and a more sensitive
    means of detecting them, were essential for progress, and were soon discovered. The
    invention of Edison, Fleming, and Lee de Forest were the beginning of electronics,
    exploiting the newly-made discovery that the electric current was actually a stream of
    particles, or electrons. They made wireless telephony8 possible, as distinct from
    telegraphy. By 1919 there were a large number of amateur wireless enthusiasts and
    conditions were ripe for the beginning of broadcasting services.
    105

    Notes
    1. communications satellites – спутники связи
    2. Westminster Bridge – Вестминстерский мост
    3. who put most effort — который внес наибольший вклад
    4. for public use — для общественного пользования
    5. proved a much more difficult job — оказалась намного более трудной задачей
    6.had coined the word — создал (придумал) слово
    7. succeeded in transmitting signals — добился успеха в передаче сигналов
    8. wireless telephony — беспроводная телефонная связь
    9. amateur wireless enthusiasts — радиолюбители

    III. Find answers to the following questions:
    1. When were electrical impulses transmitted? 2. Who put most effort into
    developing telegraph? 3. What did Guglielmo Marconi succceed in?
    IV. Say what the forerunner of the whole telecommunications industry was.
    V. Find the information about the person who contributed greatly into making the
    telephone a practical instrument.
    VI. Say at what age Guglielmo Marconi succeeded in transmitting signals by
    radio waves.
    VII.Which paragraph contains the information that the inventions of Edison,
    Fleming and Lee de Forest were the beginning of electronics.
    VIII.Summarize the general ideas developed in texts А, В and C.
    IX. Imagine that you are to make a report about the means of communication at a
    scientific conference. While preparing the report use the information of texts А, В, С
    and the following plan:
    1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between
    individuals.
    2. Modern means of communication rest upon a foundation laid by such scientists
    as Samuel Morse, Wheatstone, Graham Bell, Edison, Fleming and others.
    3. New electronic media have been evolved to support human activities.
    4. Telephone, radio, television and data communications are realtime media.
    5. Books, magazines, newspapers, letters are record media.

    UNIT FURTEEN
    • Grammar: Noun as an Attribute (§ 19).
    • Word-Formation: adj + n + -ed = adj.
    n + -al = adj.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Conditional Clauses".
    LESSON ONE
    106

    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    efficient [I'fɪʃənt], capacity

    [kə'pæsɪtɪ], fiber ['faɪbə], speed [spi:d],

    digital ['dIGItəl], voice ['vɔɪs], conversation [ˏkɔnvə'seɪʃn].
    II. Check up if you can read the words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    decade, concept, second, system, type, telephone, cable, communication,
    electron, copper, diameter, interference, regeneration, resistance.
    III. State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
    information, install, speed, impressive, digital, television, conversation,
    conventional, protection, carrier, typically, inexpensive, versatility, data, travels,
    signals.
    IV. Find the roots of the following words:
    using, electrical, relatively, pulsing, easily, digital, alternately, conduction,
    construction, addition, equipment, operating, interference, carrier, resistance,
    regenerator.
    V. Give the Russian equivalents of the following English compound adjectives
    with the suffix
    -ed:
    a fair-sized vessel, a great-faced clock, yellow-coloured walls, thick-lensed
    spectacles, high-priced equipment, light-flooded sky, good-humoured sarcasm, an
    ice-coated sign, a narrow-sheeted newspaper, a grey-roofed house, an oval-shaped
    vase, solid-headed lines.
    VI. Form compound adjectives with the suffix -ed, corresponding to the following
    word combinations:
    Example: a building of red brick – a red-bricked building
    a machine-tool of medium size, an alphabet of Greek letters, a cover of soft
    leather, zigzags of a red pencil, mixture of thick oil, a box with thin walls, a house of
    small size, a clock with a dark face, a figure with sharp angles, a person of high
    culture, a man with narrow mind.
    VII. Form adjectives by adding the suffix -al to the following nouns, making
    changes where necessary:
    Example:
    form – форма
    formal – формальный
    optics, theory, electricity, digit, nation, idea, music, conversation, principle,
    structure, practice, notion, logics, vocation, profession.
    VIII.
    Check up if you know the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a
    dictionary if necessary:
    to transmit, to cost, to consider, to abridge, to undermine, to accommodate, to
    handle, to install, to compare, to eliminate, to require, to allow, to encounter, to
    107

    travel, to carry.
    IX. Read and translate the following word combinations paying attention to
    nouns as attributes:
    light pulses, light wave communications system, transmission system,
    telecommunications network, glass fiber, voice signal, data signal, television signal,
    telephone conversation, telecommunications transmission, construction cost,
    underground duct, copper cable, signal regenerator, carrier system, device reliability,
    laser beam, laser beam wave, radio wave, radio wave speed.
    X. Choose the sentences from the text containing word combinations with nouns
    as attributes. Translate these sentences into Russian.
    XI.Match up the words which have a similar meaning:
    a) concept, information, sophisticated, versatile, enormous, speed, to undermine,
    single, inexpensive, conventional, significant, to handle, to require, space.
    b) important, to operate, to demand, room, idea, traditional, data, many-sided,
    cheap, the only, very large, destruct, rate, intricate.
    XII. Try to memorize all the words and word-groups:
    ■ decade – десятилетие ■ light pulse – световой импульс ■ to transmit information
    – передавать информацию ■ lightwave communications system – система связи с
    использованием световых волн ■ hair-thin glass fiber – стекловолокно толщиной
    в человеческий волос ■ voice signal – речевой сигнал ■ capacity – мощность
    ■ contents – содержание ■ high-speed data signal – высокоскоростной сигнал
    данных ■ accommodate – включать, охватывать ■conventional – традиционный,
    обычный ■ copper wire – медная проволока ■ to substitute for – заменять,
    замещать ■ to install – устанавливать ■ electromagnetic interference –
    электромагнитная помеха (интерференция) ■ lightguide cable – световодный
    кабель ■ carrier system – многоканальная система связи ■ signal regenerator –
    регенератор сигнала ■ electrical digital carrier system – система электрической
    многоканальной цифровой связи ■ equipment оборудование ■ protection –
    защита
    LESSON TWO
    I. Read text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    Modern Light-Wave Communications Technology
    1. Some time ago, the concept of using light pulses instead of electrical signals1 to
    transmit information was only that – a concept. Today, lightwave communications
    systems are among the most sophisticated transmission systems in the
    telecommunications network. They are at once efficient, versatile and relatively
    inexpensive to install and maintain.
    2. The efficiency of lightwave systems is perhaps their most renowned quality2.
    They carry enormous amounts of information over long distances at very high
    speeds. Consider, for example, the speed and capacity of the Bell System's long
    108

    distance lightwave system. Light pulsing through a single, hair-thin glass fiber in this
    system can transmit the entire contents of Webster's unabridged dictionary4 – more
    than 2700 pages – over thousands of miles in only six seconds.
    3. No less impressive than this tremendous speed and capacity is the versatility of
    light-wave systems. Because they are digital systems, they can transmit easily any of
    these types of information: voice signals, high-speed data signals, and television
    signals. Without undermining quality or efficiency, a single system can
    accommodate thousands of telephone conversations, and alternately handle data or
    video signals.
    4. Finally, lightwave systems are inexpensive to install and operate compared to
    their wire-and-cable counterparts. Moreover, they allow considerable savings.
    5. The reasons for such savings stem from the technology of lightwave
    communications. Conventional telecommunications transmission is based on the
    conduction of electrons through metal (usually copper wires). Lightwave systems,
    however, substitute protons for electrons and glass fibers for copper. These
    technological differences translate into big savings5, the most significant of which is
    in construction costs. Because lightguide cables are only a fraction of the diameter
    and weight6 of copper cables, they are easy to handle and take up far less space. They
    can be installed in existing underground ducts and rights-of-way7, sometimes right
    next to copper cables.
    6. In addition, lightwave systems eliminate certain equipment and operating
    costs. They are immune to electromagnetic interference8, and therefore require no
    protection from it. Also, light can travel much farther through lightwave cables
    without regeneration than can electrons through copper carrier systems. This is
    because the light encounters little resistance from the very pure glass fibers through
    which it travels. Lightwave systems require significantly fewer signal regenerators
    than do electrical digital carrier systems: typically one every ten miles instead of one
    every mile.
    Notes
    1. the concept of using light pulses instead of electrical signals – идея использования
    световых импульсов вместо электрических сигналов
    2. their most renowned quality – их самое известное свойство
    3. over long distances – на большие расстояния
    4. the entire contents of Webster's unabridged dictionary – полное содержание
    неадаптированного словаря Вебстера
    5. translate into big savings – приводят к большой экономии
    6. only a fraction of the diameter and weight – только частица в диаметре и по весу
    7 right-of-way – полоса отчуждения
    8. are immune to electromagnetic interference – невосприимчивы к электромагнитной
    интерференции

    II. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. The concept of using light pulses instead of electrical signals to transmit
    information is not new. 2. The efficiency of lightwave systems is their most
    renowned quality. 3. Lightwave systems can transmit various types of information:
    109

    voice signals, high-speed data signals, and television signals. 4. Conventional
    telecommunications transmission is not based on the conduction of electrons through
    metal.
    III. Answer the following questions on paragraph 1:
    1. Is the idea of using light pulses instead of electrical signals to transmit
    information new?
    2. Do lightwave communications systems belong to the most sophisticated
    transmission systems?
    3. What are the qualities of lightwave communications systems?
    IV. Find the place in paragraph 2 containing information about the possibility to
    transmit the entire contents of Webster's dictionary over thousands of miles in only
    six seconds.
    V. In paragraphs 3 and 4 find the English equivalents of the following words and
    word combinations:
    огромная скорость, по сравнению с, разносторонность; система дискретной
    (цифровой) связи, речевой сигнал, сигнал данных, видеосигнал, устанавливать,
    качество, эффективность.
    VI. Translate paragraph 5 into Russian.
    VII. Read paragraph 6 and say:
    a) whether lightwave systems eliminate certain equipment and operating costs; b)
    whether they are immune (невосприимчивы) to electromagnetic interference; c)
    whether light can travel much farther through lightguide cables without regeneration
    than electrons; d)whether lightwave systems require significantly fewer signal
    regenerators than electrical digital carrier systems.
    VIII. Write out of the text words, word combinations for describing
    advantages of light wave systems. Use these words for describing these advantages
    to your group-mate.
    IX. Describe
    the
    technological
    differences
    between
    conventional
    telecommunications transmission and lightwave systems.
    X. Divide text A into logical parts and find topical sentences in each part.
    XI. Fill in the boxes of the following logical diagram of text A with Russian
    equivalents:
    transmission system

    lightwave communication system
    conventional
    transmission system
    high speed of transmission

    capacity

    versatility

    low cost of installation
    and operation

    110

    transmission of

    voice signals

    high-speed data signals

    television signals

    XII. Read text A again. Make a list of key fragments picked out from each
    successive paragraph. Rearrange the key fragments, make a plan and then use it to
    write a précis. The number of sentences in your précis should be approximately the
    same as the number of paragraphs in the original.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text B:
    fiber – волокно; strand – прядь, жила, нитка; breakthrough – достижение,
    открытие; transparent – прозрачный; call – телефонный разговор, заказ; вызов;
    immune – устойчивый, невосприимчивый; interference – помеха, вмешательство;
    интерференция; to affect – влиять, воздействовать; to sweep through –
    охватывать; to handle – обращаться, управлять; core – стержень, сердцевина; to
    reflect – отражать; ingredient – компонент, составная часть; to draw (drew, drawn)
    – тянуть, вытягивать; to coat – наносить покрытие; grain – крупица, зерно;
    application – применение.
    П. Read text В and entitle it. Compare your title with the one given by the author
    (see the key on page the author (see the key on page 169)
    Text B
    Optical fibres, hair-thin strands of pure glass carrying information as pulses of
    light1, have been described as "probably the biggest breakthrough in
    telecommunications since the invention of the telephone". All kinds of
    communications can be carried along the same optical fibre cable – speech, text,
    photos, drawings, music, computer data, etc. – at higher speeds than have been
    previously possible.
    The fibres, made from glass so pure that a block of it 20 km thick would
    theoretically be as transparent as a window pane2, have many advantages over metal
    wires. Small, light and easy to handle, they are made from an abundant raw material,
    sand. They can carry the same number of telephone calls as metal cables ten times as
    thick – dozens of fibres, carrying around, 100,000 telephone calls, could all pass
    through the eye of a needle4, at the same time – and they are immune to electrical
    interference which affects the quality of calls. An optical fibre cable the thickness of
    a finger could bring a hundred TV channels to a receiver.
    The tiny strands are playing a key role5 in the digital revolution which is
    sweeping through modern telecommunications. The telecommunications network
    111

    developed for the telephone used a system which turned the air pressure waves
    created by speech into continuous and variable "analogues" of electrical waves and
    turned them back to speech at the receiver. Expensive conversion equipment or
    separate networks were needed to handle text, TV or computer data. In the digital
    world, however, all forms of information are translated into bits6, the standard
    international language of today's computers, and represented as pulses of light.
    Information in this form can be processed easily and sent anywhere in seconds in a
    single multi-purpose network. Optical fibres are ideal for digital working and open
    the door to a host of services not possible on an analogue system.
    Each strand of fibre consists of an inner core7 to channel the light and an outer
    cladding8 to keep it in by reflecting it back along the core. To make the glass for the
    fibres, the ingredients are deposited as gases on the inside of a hollow silica tube9 at
    temperatures of around 2000°C. The tube is collapsed under intense heat to form a
    solid glass rod10 about I cm in diameter which already has the structure of the fibre
    which will be drawn from it. The rod is then loaded into a furnace, drawn into fibre
    and coated with resin to protect it and increase its flexibility. Tiny crystals the size of
    grain of salt are used to produce the light which carries information along the fibres.
    This passes through a lens into the fibre. At the other end a receiver reverses the
    process and turns each light pulse into an electrical sign. Optical fibres will have
    countless applications11 in tomorrow's "information society".
    Notes
    1) carrying information as pulses of light – несущие информацию в виде световых
    импульсов
    2) as transparent as a window pane – прозрачный, как оконное стекло
    3) from an abundant raw material – из имеющегося в большом количестве сырьевого
    материала
    4) the eye of the needle – ушко иголки
    5) are playing a key role – играют ведущую роль
    6) all forms of information are translated into bits – все виды информации переводятся в
    биты (двоичные разряды)
    7) inner core – внутренний стержень, провод
    8) outer cladding – наружное покрытие
    9) a hollow silica tube – полая кремниевая труба
    10) glass rod – стеклянный стержень
    1l) will have countless applications – найдут разностороннее применение

    III. Answer the following questions to the text:
    1. What has been described as "probably the biggest breakthrough in
    telecommunications"? 2. Can glass fibres carry the same number of telephone calls
    as metal cables? 3. Is the digital revolution sweeping through modern
    communications? 4. Will optical fibres have countless applications in "information
    society" of the future?
    IV. Give the main points of text B.
    V. Speak about the horizons of optical fibres application in communication
    112

    systems of the future.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text C:
    interactive – интерактивный; traffic – нагрузка; processing – обработка;
    terminal – конечная станция; carrier – (многоканальная) система передачи
    информации с использованием несущей; to reject – отказываться; unwanted –
    нежелательный, ненужный.
    П. Study the questions below and find out which of them the author answers in
    the text:
    1. Is Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) revolution nearing its end? 2. What will
    one be able to do with intelligent network? 3. Many uses of the telephone will be
    replaced by an electronic in-basket, won't they? 4. Will the postal service undergo
    great changes in the third millennium? 5. To .what extent will the number of
    newspapers and magazines be decreased in the third millennium? 6. Can one give an
    exact date of introducing inexpensive graphics terminals in the home?
    Text С
    Information and Communication in the Third Millennium
    1. By the beginning of the third millennium, the Very Large-Scale Integration
    (VLSI)1 revolution will at last be nearing its end. We will see some of the results
    below – intelligent networks with information as well as data processing2. In fact,
    much of the interactive multiterminal communication traffic will be routed through
    networks with delay and computation at the nodes. As one example of what we mean
    by information as opposed to data processing, one will be able to route a call or
    electronic message to a known person without necessarily having to know the
    equivalent of his "telephone number". One will be able to conduct a dialogue3 over
    the terminal with an intelligent network that will in effect give one the number or
    address.
    2. Commercial video broadcasting4 over the air will be almost entirely replaced
    by scheduled, or even on demand, transmission into homes via fibre optics5.
    3. Many uses of the telephone will be replaced by an electronic in-basket that
    provides message forwarding, editing, retrieval, and redirection services. The Bell
    System will still exist, but will only be one carrier of several, depending on the kind
    of service. In any case, most terminals will be procured separately from the carriers,
    which will be mainly transmission companies or information services, depending on
    what they feel like calling themselves.
    4. Newspapers and magazines, particularly specialized ones, will still exist.
    However, by the beginning of the third millennium, a trend will have been set which
    will lead to their ultimate redefinition as electronic services6 instead of as pieces of
    paper. Inexpensive graphics terminals7 in the home will permit this new kind of
    publication. In some cases, hard copy will be available, although with local disk
    storage this will not be so necessary. The electronic in-basket and electronic
    113

    newspapers will mean the end of the postal service as we wish we knew it. It will be
    restricted to packages. The problem of electronic junk mail can be solved by each
    individual programming his or her own terminal to reject unwanted communications
    as they see fit9.
    Notes
    1) VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integration )– сверхбольшая интегральная схема
    2) data processing – обработка данных
    3) to conduct a dialogue – вести разговор, беседу
    4) video broadcasting– видеопередача
    5) via fibre optics – через волоконную оптику
    6) electronic services – электронные службы
    7) graphics terminal – графический терминал
    8) hard copy – копия на однократно используемом носителе
    9) as they see fit – на их усмотрение

    III. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. Very Large-Scale Integration revolution (VLSI) will be nearing its end by the
    beginning of the third millennium. 2. It will bring great disadvantages for
    communication system. 3. Terminals of the future will give out numbers or addresses
    for conducting dialogues. 4. Fibre optics will find most varied application in future
    intelligent communication network. 5. Application of fibre optics for communication
    will mean complete disappearance of the Bell System as well as the postal service. 6.
    Each individual will have a possibility to program his or her own terminal to reject
    unwanted communications.
    IV. Say how one will be able to conduct a dialogue over the terminal with an
    intelligent network.
    V. Say:
    a) what commercial video broadcasting over the air will be replaced by; b) what
    the electronic in-basket and electronic newspapers will mean in the future.
    VI. Find the main information of paragraph 4.
    VII. Read paragraph 4 again and say:
    a) whether newspapers and magazines will exist in the third millennium; b) how
    newspapers and magazines will be redefined; c) what inexpensive graphics terminals
    will permit; d) whether hard copy will be available; e) whether the problem of
    electronic junk can be solved by individual programming of terminals.
    VIII. Summarize the general ideas developed in texts А, В and С
    IX. Imagine that you are to make a report about the future trends in the system of
    communication at a scientific conference. While preparing it use the information of
    texts А, В and С. Make the report orally.
    Key to L e s s o n 3: The title of the text is "Communicating with Glass and Light".

    UNIT FIFTEEN
    114

    • Grammar: Subjunctive Mood (§ 6).
    Conditional Sentences (§ 7).
    Functions of should and would (§11, 12).
    • Word-formation: n → v; v + -ion = n.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Subjunctive Mood."
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    mirror ['mirq], earth [E:T], neutrino [n(j)u:ˊtri:nqV], beam [bi:m], nucleus
    ['nju:kliqs], convert [kqn'vE:t].
    II. Check up if you can read the words correctly and say what words in the
    Russian language help you to guess their meaning:
    horizon, ocean, relay, region, ionosphere, matter, detect, molecule, combine,
    induce, code, incorporate, civilization.
    III. State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
    to communicate, signals, telegraphy, rich, to reflect, long, solar, to improve,
    unreasonable, better, electrical, hard, subatomic, miles, huge, crust, modulation, to
    incorporate, fields.
    IV. a) Find the roots of the following words:
    longer, massless, communication, amplified, unreasonable, perceptibly, induction,
    producing, complicated, modulation, unnecessary, looking, electrical, subatomic,
    occasionally, charged;
    b) Translate the words formed by conversion:
    air – to air; influence – to influence; end – to end; place – to place; engine – to
    engine; start – to start; finish – to finish; work – to work;
    c) Read the words. Mind the place of the stress and translate the
    words into Russian:
    'progress – to pro'gress; 'increase – to inc'rease; 'export – to ex'port; 'object – to
    ob'ject; 'import – to im'port; 'record – to re'cord; 'project – to pro'ject; 'alloy – to
    a'lloy;
    d) Form nouns adding the suffix -ion(-tion) to the given verbs making changes
    where necessary:
    Example: to reflect – reflection – отражать – отражение
    to communicate, to affect, to direct, to detect, to produce, to complicate, to
    modulate, to incorporate, to induce, to disrupt;
    e) Form adjectives adding the suffix -ic to the given nouns making changes
    where necessary:
    Example: atom – atomic – атом – атомный
    115

    atmosphere, scientist, electromagnet, base, cycle, electron, graph, hero, optimist,
    ionosphere.
    V. Check up if you know the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a dictionary:
    to string, to unite, to travel, to send, to set up, to charge, to take place, to produce,
    to disrupt, to amplify, to seem, to induce.
    VI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the verbs in the
    Subjunctive Mood:
    1. Without radio we should hardly be able to observe artificial satellites and
    receive scientific information from space. 2. The solution of the problem requires
    that all the experimental data obtained be exact. 3. It is required that all
    measurements be done beforehand. 4. It is necessary that these data should be
    processed as soon as possible. 5. It is important that engineers should develop
    automatic control systems. 6. Atomic energy finds such wide and varied application
    in our life that our age might be called the age of atom. 7. It is important that safety
    measures be taken while working with the electric equipment. 8. It is desirable that
    the engine should combine high efficiency and lightness. 9. We suggested that his
    project be discussed in detail. 10. It is essential that he should inform us about the
    results of his research.
    VII. Translate the sentences. Mind the means of expressing the Subjunctive
    Mood:
    1. Provided all of the requirements were met, the efficiency of the apparatus
    would be increased. 2. Without the new instrument this experiment would not have
    been successful. 3. If you classified the data fewer tests would be needed. 4. If you
    had known about semiconductors more, you would have understood the arrangement
    of this device. 5. You could have done this work better. 6. You might have asked me
    about the work of this machine before putting it into operation. 7. They suggest that
    he should begin the test immediately. 8. It is required that those devices be used in
    this case. 9. Had he informed me in time I should have sent this device. 10. Without
    proper care and maintenance this equipment wouldn't operate so well. 11. If the
    machine were repaired, it would be set in motion immediately. 12. If he had been
    able to get all the books on that subject, his report would have been much better. 13.
    Had you taken all the safety measures the machine would not have been broken.
    VIII. Find in text A sentences with the Subjunctive Mood. Translate these
    sentences paying attention to the means of expressing the Subjunctive Mood.
    IX. Define the types of conditional clauses in the following complex sentences.
    Translate them into Russian:
    A. 1. If a solid body or a liquid is heated, it will usually expand. 2. If you want to
    carry out your experiment successfully, you thoroughly prepare all the necessary
    ingredients. 3. The measurements were always correct provided the necessary
    instruments were used. 4. If you want to speak a language, you must hear it spoken.
    5. If a machine is to make usable translations, the machine itself must be able to
    extract some meaning of the text. 6. If we are to believe some forecasts, computers
    116

    may become a common thing of every day used by almost everybody. 7. If the model
    fits well, the observed data will be correct.
    B. 1. If sound could propagate in interplanetary space it would cover this distance
    in 14 years. 2. If the earth were as hot as Venus, the oceans would evaporate. 3. Were
    it not for ionosphere, radio waves would propagate like light waves only within the
    limits of visible horizon. 4. If I were to see your experiment, I should get a clear
    conception of this phenomenon. 5. But for electricity little could be done in a modern
    research laboratory. 6. If a new telephone system were installed on the line we should
    be able to improve the reliability of telephone service. 7. If life existed on the Venus,
    we should know it. 8. It would be better if some experiments were repeated. 9. If the
    Earth did not rotate, it would not take the shape of a ball.
    C. 1. If he had prepared the material beforehand, he might have done the work
    quite easily. 2. If they had completed the research, the results would have been
    discussed at the conference. 3. The manned spaceships might not have been launched
    into the cosmos, unless scientists had studied the information received from the space
    satellites. Could these observations have been proved theoretically they would have
    done much to advance our knowledge in the field of space research. If he had been
    able to get all the books on that subject, his report would have been much better. 6.
    Had he taken into account the properties of the substance under investigation, he
    would have been careful when working with it.
    X. Find in text A sentences with conditional clauses, define the types of the
    clauses and translate the sentences.
    XI. Define the functions of should and would. Translate the sentences:
    A. 1. He thought I should come to the laboratory. 2. We know we should be able
    to overcome all the difficulties in our research. 3. We were sure that we should finish
    our work in time. 4. The director asked whether the materials of our research would
    be typed. 5. He said that he would mention your work in his report. 6. The teacher
    thought that the students of this group would be able to understand the new text. 7.
    Yesterday I found out that the professor would lecture on the latest developments in
    cybernetics.
    B. 1. It is very important that you should take part in the discussion. 2. It is
    necessary that they should come in time. 3. It is important that the current should be
    measured exactly.4. Without radio electronics there would be no cybernetics,
    cosmonautics and nuclear physics. 5. It would be impossible to measure the
    temperature of Venus without a radio-telescope. 6. They suggest that we should
    begin the tests immediately. 7. Don't raise the temperature lest the speed of the
    reaction should be too high. 8. The instruments were packed carefully lest they
    should be broken during transportation.
    С. 1. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at
    the conference. 2. If you had applied your theoretical knowledge to your practical
    work, you would have got a different result. 3. If he had not used this formula, he
    would not have made this mistake. 4. They would finish the work in time, provided
    they had the necessary material. 5. Should one transmitter fail, the other takes over
    its functions. 6. Should the temperature decrease, the velocity of electrons will
    117

    decrease too.
    D. 1. It should be borne in mind that this method fails to give good results. 2. He
    would work on his design for hours. 3. One should keep in mind this property of
    water. 4. The reaction wouldn't proceed until we added some water. 5. This transistor
    would operate at 400°C. 6. The results of the experiments should be checked up very
    carefully. 7. He would prepare for his exams for hours. 8. You should work at your
    English as hard as possible. 9. Last year we would spend much time in the
    laboratory.
    XII. Find in text A sentences with the verbs should and would. Translate them
    into Russian paying attention to the functions of should and would.
    XIII. Match up the words which have a similar meaning:
    a) century, to unite, to move, to set up, to place, to contain, to affect, to take place,
    to seem, speed, matter, to detect, to send, to build, to improve.
    b) to make better, age, to combine, to construct, to go, to transmit, to install, to
    put, to reveal, to keep, to look like, substance, velocity, to happen, to act upon.
    XIV. Try to memorize all the words and word-groups:
    ■ curve – кривая линия, изгиб ■ earth's surface – поверхность земли ■ lightwave signal – световолновой сигнал ■ relay station – ретрансляционная станция
    ■ mirror – зеркало ■ upper atmosphere – верхняя атмосфера ■ charged particle –
    заряженная частица ■ ionosphere – ионосфера ■ to disrupt – прерывать ■ to
    amplify – усиливать ■ communications satellite – спутник связи ■ massless
    subatomic particle – субатомная частица, не имеющая массы ■ neutrino –
    нейтрино ■ at the speed of light – со скоростью света ■ matter – материя ■ atomic
    nucleus – ядро атома ■ to induce – вызывать, индуктировать ■ earth's crust –
    земная кора ■ to convert a signal – преобразовывать сигнал ■ straight line –
    прямая линия ■ electromagnetic field – электромагнитное поле ■ intelligent
    civilization – разумная цивилизация; цивилизованный мир.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Try to understand what text A is about by its title:
    Text A
    Communicating Through the Earth
    1. How do we communicate with people beyond the horizon? What can be
    made to follow the curve of earth's surface?
    2. Of course, we can send electrical signals through wires around any curves. In
    the Nineteenth Century, copper wires were strung across the continents1 and ocean
    floors and the world was united through telegraphy2. That takes a lot of copper,
    though, and a lot of maintenance.
    3. We could send light-wave signals and do away with wires, but light waves
    move in a straight line and won't curve around the earth's bulge. We would have to
    set up relay stations or place mirrors in orbit to make that work.
    118

    4. Radio waves, like light waves but a million times longer, do better. They
    travel in straight lines, too, but the upper atmosphere contains regions rich in charged
    particles (the ionosphere) that tend to reflect3 the radio waves. It is as though there
    were natural mirrors in the sky. That makes it possible to send radio signals long
    distances, and in the Twentieth Century the world was united without wires.
    5. However, the ionosphere is affected by the solar wind. When the sun
    produces flares, an electrical storm can take place that will disrupt radio
    communications.
    6. But short radio waves (microwaves) can go right through the ionosphere4 and
    be amplified and sent on by communications satellites. As communications satellites
    improve, signals will be sent from place to place on earth with so little trouble that it
    would seem unreasonable to ask for anything better.
    7. What can go through the earth itself? Light certainly can't. Radio waves
    can't. We can't even string wires through the earth to carry electrical signals.
    8. One thing that does travel through the body of the earth is an earthquake
    wave, but it takes a very hard blow to set the earth to vibrating perceptibly5.
    9. On the other hand6, certain massless subatomic particles called neutrinos
    travel at the speed of light and go through matter as though it weren't there. A beam
    of neutrinos7 could travel through trillions of miles of solid lead and come out the
    other end just about unaffected. Neutrinos reach us from every direction and almost
    every neutrino that does so passes right through the earth in less than a 20th of a
    second (and through us if we are in their paths).
    10. This doesn't mean that neutrinos can't be detected. Out of many trillions,
    one neutrino may occasionally combine with an atomic nucleus and induce a
    detectable change.
    11. Thus, huge vats of cleaning fluid made up of molecules that include
    chlorine atoms can serve as a "neutrino telescope". Such neutrino telescopes can be
    placed in mines, a couple of miles under the earth's crust. In that case, nothing can
    reach them but neutrinos, and, in this way, neutrino-producing reactions deep in the
    sun's core can be studied.
    12. Scientists can produce neutrino beams without much trouble. Some day it
    might be possible to send them out in Morse code or in more complicated
    modulation. The day may come when improved neutrino telescopes, using water
    rather than cleaning fluid, will be placed all over the earth. Eventually television sets
    might be built that would incorporate the equivalent of neutrino telescopes and
    convert the signals directly into sight and sound.
    13. If this could be done, communications satellites would be unnecessary and
    so would relay stations of any sort. Any two points on earth's surface (or in mines, or
    under the sea) would be connected by a mathematically straight line along which
    neutrinos would move at the speed of light. There is no way of communicating more
    quickly.
    14. For that matter8, neutrinos move in a straight line throughout the universe.
    They are unaffected by the electromagnetic fields and dust clouds that can disrupt or
    block microwaves and light.
    15. In the end9, then, it may be that communications among worlds would be
    119

    carried out through neutrino beams.
    16. Perhaps that is why we aren't detecting signals from other intelligent
    civilizations out there. We're looking for beams of microwaves, but perhaps we
    should be looking for beams of neutrinos.
    Notes
    1. copper wires were strung across the continents – медные провода опоясывали континенты
    2. the world was united through telegraphy – связь в мире осуществлялась по телеграфу
    3. tend to reflect – имеют тенденцию (обыкновение) отражать
    4. can go right through the ionosphere – могут проходить непосредственно через ионосферу
    5. but it takes a very hard blow to set the earth to vibrating perceptibly – но для того, чтобы
    привести землю в состояние сильной вибрации, необходим очень сильный удар
    6. on the other hand – с другой стороны
    7. a beam of neutrinos – луч нейтрино
    8. for that matter – поэтому
    9. in the end – в конце концов

    II. Read the following statements and say whether they are true or false:
    1. In the 19th century copper wires were strung across the continents and the
    world was united through telegraphy. 2. The upper atmosphere does not contain
    regions rich in charged particles that tend to reflect the radio waves. 3. Short radio
    waves can go right through the ionosphere and be amplified and sent on by
    communications satellites. 4. Subatomic particles called neutrinos travel at the speed
    of light and go through the matter as though it weren't there. 5. Neutrinos can't be
    detected. 6. Some day neutrino telescopes will be placed all over the world. 7.
    Communications among worlds will be carried out through neutrino beams.

    III. Answer the following questions on paragraph 4.
    1. How do radio waves travel? 2. What is peculiar about the upper atmosphere of
    the earth? 3. What made it possible to unite the world in the 20th century without
    wires?
    IV. Find the information dealing with the possibility of using communication
    satellites for sending on signals from place to place on earth.
    V. In paragraph 9 find the English equivalents of the following words:
    субатомный, частицы, нейтрино, перемещаться, свет, скорость, материя,
    луч, свинец, направление, земля.
    VI. Translate paragraph 11.
    VII. Read paragraph 12 and speak about the prospects of building television sets
    capable of converting the signals directly into light and sound.
    VIII. Speak about the quickest way of communication using the information of
    paragraphs 12 and 13.
    IX. Describe the properties of neutrinos. Write out of the text words and word
    120

    combinations you need.
    X. Divide text A into logical parts and find topical sentences in each part.
    XI. Speak about communicating through the earth using topical sentences.
    LESSON THREE
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text B:
    picture information – видеоинформация; teletext – телетекст, вещательная
    видеография; videotex – видеотекст, диалоговая видеография; frame – кадр; still
    frame – стоп-кадр; remote data base – удаленная база данных; to augment –
    увеличивать, прибавлять; terminal – оконечная станция, оконечная аппаратура,
    терминал; data signal – сигнал данных; line – строка, линия; magazine – кассета,
    карман, приемник; customer – потребитель; number pad – цифровая клавиатура;
    to refresh – регенерировать, обновлять, восстанавливать (информацию); data
    display – отображение данных или информации; информационный дисплей;
    subtitle – субтитр; подзаголовок; viewdata – данные изображений; transmission
    medium – средство передачи сообщений; database computer – вычислительная
    машина для работы с базами данных; public switched telephone network –
    коммутационная телефонная сеть общего пользования; sophisticated – сложный,
    усложненный; audio band – диапазон звуковых частот.
    II. Skim through text В and say what the main idea of it is. (You are given 10-15
    minutes).
    Text В
    Interactive Picture Information Systems
    Two types of picture information systems, TELETEXT and VIDEOTEX, have
    come into existence1 within the past decade. Both were originally aimed at
    displaying still frames of information from a remote data base on a home TV set.
    The TV is augmented by special terminal memory and logic.
    In TELETEXT, a broadcast television channel with data signals describing
    pictures embedded in lines in the vertical interval is used to send a magazine of
    frames (see Fig. below) The frames are repetitively broadcast. A typical magazine
    might have 100 frames, and 20 seconds are required to cycle through them. A
    customer of the service uses a small number pad to indicate the frame he desires to
    see, and the next time that frame is broadcast, its description is stored in memory in
    the terminal, and the frame is refreshed on the customer's TV. At least one of the
    frames of the magazine is an index to the remaining frames, so a customer will have
    knowledge of what can be selected. Provision is also made2 for mixing data display
    with the normal TV picture to give subtitles or news flashes.
    In VIDEOTEX (originally called VIEWDATA), the transmission medium is the
    switched telephone network. A customer calls up a database computer and requests a
    frame of information to be sent to his terminal for storage and display (see Fig. 13).
    Table of contents frames tell a customer the numbers of frames that he can select,
    121

    including more specialized table of contents frames.
    public switched
    telephone network

    data base

    modem

    modem

    videotex computer

    decoder and storage

    data
    base

    home TV
    data
    base

    The principal difference between Teletext and Videotex is that videotex service
    uses the public switched telephone network to transmit the coded textual
    information. Because of this two-way communications can be used, rather than3 the
    one-way broadcasting of teletext. This means that a dialogue can be set up between
    the user and the videotex center so that sophisticated service requirements of the user
    may be satisfied. Another feature of the interactive type of service is that it may be
    used for data gathering (for which the term "ingathering" has been coined) as well as
    data distribution. There are many exciting new possibilities for ingathering like
    electronic shopping for goods and tickets and some others.
    The digitally coded frames of videotex are transmitted along the telephone line in
    the form of modulated tone that is contained within the audio band passed by long
    distance telephone lines. This means that it is possible to use videotex systems in
    offshore vessels4 over a radio telephone channel which has, in fact, about the same
    bandwidth capability as a long distance telephone line. Thus, mariners would be able
    to receive any of the services of a videotex base, for example, weather forecasts.
    Notes
    1. have come into existence – появились
    2. provision is also made – предусматривается также
    3. rather than – а не
    4. in offshore vessels – на кораблях, находящихся в открытом море

    III. Find in the text answers to the following questions:
    1. What types of picture information systems have come into existence? 2. What
    were they aimed at? 3. What is Teletext? 4. What is the transmission medium in
    Videotex? 5. Can Teletext and Videotex be used for electronic shopping of goods
    and tickets? 6. Where else can interactive picture information systems be used?

    122

    IV. Speak about the difference between Teletext and Videotex. Find the
    information in the text.
    LESSON FOUR
    I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents
    facilitating reading text C:
    profound – глубокий, основательный; commodity – предмет потребления;
    удобство; расе – скорость, темп; electronic interactive system – электронная
    интерактивная система; to disseminate – распространять; dissemination –
    распространение; consumer – потребитель, абонент; terminal – оконечная
    аппаратура; терминал, вход; image – изображение; character – буква, символ; to
    utilize – использовать; common-carrier telephone line – (многоканальная) линия
    ВЧ связи совместного пользования; network – сеть; схема; to retrieve –
    отыскивать; восстанавливать (информацию); database – база данных; augmented
    – увеличенный, расширенный; to access (v) – выбирать (из памяти); (n) –
    доступ; выборка; databank– банк данных, хранилище данных.
    II. Scan text С. Find the information of the possibilities of Videotex as a means of
    communication:
    Text С
    A Perspective on the Development of Videotex
    1. The twentieth century has seen the emergence of the information age1. The
    telephone, radio, motion pictures, television, and the computer all have had profound
    effects upon our life style and all are concerned primarily with the communication or
    storage of information. Information has become a commodity to be produced and
    traded. The pace of technological development is quickening. The cost of
    communications and information storage is rapidly decreasing and the whole
    structure of the information industry is constantly changing. The only thing that can
    be depended upon is that change will occur. To help manage this need for creation
    and dissemination of information a new interactive electronic system, videotex, has
    evolved.
    2. Videotex is a name used internationally to represent a class of home and
    business information services which disseminate information from public
    information suppliers into the home or office. In the domestic situation the home
    television receiver, suitably modified would serve as the consumer's terminal
    equipment. The system essentially makes use of2 the home television set as a picture
    display medium in which the consumer has control over what is displayed. An
    electronics module is added to the home television set to allow us to assemble and
    display an image made up of characters and graphics drawings. By utilizing the
    common-carrier telephone line or other interactive network or broadcast system,
    users of videotex services will be able to retrieve information stored in computercontrolled databases and have it displayed on their augmented TV receivers or video
    business terminals. They will be able to access textual information or graphic images
    123

    from centralized public or private data banks. Individuals with slightly more
    complex terminals will be able to compose their own information to be stored in the
    data banks for access by others. As mass production reduces the cost of producing
    electronic components, individuals will be able to communicate with each other and
    interact by being able to see the same images displayed on their individual television
    screens. These various capabilities, which bring advanced technologies to the home
    user, could have a profound effect on communications and in our society. Such
    systems allow the introduction of many different services for home and business
    applications.
    Notes
    1. has seen the emergence of the information age – явилось свидетелем возникновения века
    информации
    2. makes use of – использует

    III. Say whether the following statements are true or false:
    1. The twentieth century has seen the emergence of the information age. 2. The
    whole structure of the information industry remains unchanged. 3. Videotex is the
    name representing a class of home and business information services which spread
    information from public information suppliers into the home or office. 4. The
    videotex system makes use of the home television set as a picture display medium. 5.
    Complex terminals will not allow users to compose their own information to be
    stored in the data banks for access by others. 6. In the future individuals will be able
    to communicate with each other by seeing the same images displayed on their
    individual television screens.
    IV. Find answers to the following questions:
    1. Is the pace of technological development quickening? 2. What has a new
    interactive electronic system, Videotex, developed for? 3. Does the videotex system
    make use of the home television set as a picture display medium? 4. Will the users of
    the videotex system be able to access textual information from centralized public or
    private data banks? 5. Will the interactive electronic system have a profound effect
    on our life?
    V. Find the information about data banks in the text. Say whether the information
    is new to уоu.
    VI. Divide the text into logical parts and say what each part is about.
    VII. Find the main information of paragraph 2.
    VIII. Read paragraph 2 again and say:
    a) what Videotex is; b) how the home television set might be used in the videotex
    system;
    c) what individuals with complex terminals will be able to do.
    IX. Summarize the general ideas developed in texts А, В, С.
    X. Imagine that you are to make a report at a conference about the possible
    means of communication. While preparing it use the information of texts А, В and C.
    Make the report in written form.
    124

    ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК
    1. ГЛАГОЛ
    В английском языке различаются личные и неличные формы глагола.
    Личные формы глагола согласуются с подлежащим в лице и числе и
    являются в предложении сказуемым. Неличные формы глагола – инфинитив,
    125

    причастие, герундий – не выражают ни лица, ни числа, ни наклонения и не
    могут быть в предложении сказуемым, но могут входить в состав сказуемого.
    К личным формам относятся глаголы во всех временах действительного и
    страдательного залогов.
    §1. Основные формы глагола
    Основными формами глагола в современном английском языке являются: I
    - инфинитив (Infinitive), II – прошедшее неопределенное время (Past
    Indefinite), III - причастие П (Participle II) и IV – причастие I (Participle I).
    Эти формы служат для образования всех остальных глагольных форм.
    I
    Infinitive

    II
    Past
    Indefinite

    III
    Participle II

    IV
    Participle I

    стандартный
    глагол

    to ask
    asked
    спрашиват спрашивал
    ь
    спросил

    asked
    спрашиваемый
    спрошенный

    asking
    спрашивающий
    спрашивая

    нестандартный
    глагол

    to send
    посыпать

    sent
    посылаемый
    посланный

    sending
    посылающий
    посылая

    sent
    посылал
    послал

    1. Infinitive – неопределенная форма глагола. Она является исходной при
    образовании грамматических времен, неличных форм и повелительного
    наклонения. Признаком инфинитива является частица to. На русский язык
    переводится неопределенной формой глагола: to work – работать, to help –
    помогать, to know – знать.
    2. Past Indefinite – прошедшее неопределенное время. Признаком формы
    Past Indefinite стандартных глаголов является суффикс -ed: worked, helped,
    нестандартные глаголы имеют каждый свою форму: knew, brought и т.п.
    3. Past Participle – причастие прошедшего времени. Признаком этой формы
    также является суффикс -ed у стандартных глаголов, нестандартные имеют
    каждый свою форму. В русском языке эта форма глагола соответствует
    причастию страдательного залога с суффиксами -анн, -енн, -янн, -им, -ем, -т:
    изучаемый, загруженный, ранимый и т.п.
    4. Present Participle – причастие настоящего времени. Все глаголы в этой
    форме имеют суффикс -ing, соответствующий в русском языке суффиксам -ащ,
    -ящ, -ущ, -ющ: изучающий, ранящий.
    § 2. Система грамматических времен английского языка
    (English Tenses)
    Личные формы глагола имеют категории лица, числа, времени, наклонения
    и залога и выполняют в предложении функцию сказуемого. В отличие от
    русского языка система английских глагольных времен передает, кроме
    126

    представления о настоящем, прошедшем или будущем времени выполнения
    действия, различные дополнительные характеристики: длительность
    выполнения действия, его завершенность к определенному моменту и т.п.
    1. Времена группы Indefinite
    Если нужно сообщить о действии или состоянии в настоящем, прошедшем
    или будущем, не указывая на характер протекания действия, то употребляют
    Present, Past, Future Indefinite в зависимости от времени действия. Для
    образования вопросительной и отрицательной форм используются
    вспомогательные глаголы do(does) – Present Indefinite, did – Past Indefinite, shall
    (для 1-го лица единственного и множественного числа), will (для остальных
    случаев) – Future Indefinite.
    Если сказуемое выражено глаголом to be, to have или модальными
    глаголами (can, may, must и др.), то отрицательная и вопросительная формы
    образуются ими самостоятельно, без помощи вспомогательных глаголов.
    Спряжение глаголов группы Indefinite
    Форма
    Утвердительная

    Present Indefinite
    I work
    Не (she) works
    We (you, they) work

    Past Indefinite
    I worked
    He (she)worked
    We(you, they)
    worked

    Future Indefinite
    I (we) shall work
    He (she) will work
    You (they) will
    work

    Вопросительная

    Do you work?

    Did you (they, he)
    work?

    Shall I work?

    Does he work?
    Отрицательная

    I do not (don't)
    work
    He does not
    (doesn't) work

    Will you (he)
    work?
    I did not work

    I shall not work
    He will not work

    2. Времена группы Continuous
    Если сообщается о действиях (процессах), которые происходят,
    происходили или будут происходить в какой-то конкретный период времени в
    настоящем, прошедшем или будущем, т.е. указывается на длительность
    выполнения действия, то употребляют Present, Past, Future Continuous в
    зависимости от времени действия.
    Спряжение глаголов группы Continuous
    127

    Форма
    Present Indefinite
    Утвердительная I am working
    He (she) is
    working
    We (you) are
    working.
    They are working.
    Вопросительная Is he working?
    Отрицательная I am not working

    Past Indefinite
    I was working
    He (she) was
    working
    We (you) were
    working.
    They were
    working
    Was he working?
    I was not working

    Future Indefinite
    I shall be working
    He (she) will be
    working
    We shall be working.
    You (they) will be
    working
    Will he be working?
    I shall not be working

    3. Времена группы Perfect
    Если действие совершилось к настоящему моменту, к определенному
    моменту в прошлом или будет завершено к определенному моменту в
    будущем, то употребляются времена группы Perfect. В центре внимания –
    результат действия, а не время его выполнения.
    Спряжение глаголов группы Perfect
    Форма
    Present Indefinite
    Past Indefinite
    Future Indefinite
    Утвердительн I have
    I had investigated . I shall have investigated
    ая
    investigated.
    He (she) had inves- He (she) will have
    He (she) has
    tigated.
    investigated
    We (you, they) had We shall have
    investigated.
    We (you, they)
    investigated
    investigated.
    You (they) will have
    have investigated
    investigated
    Вопросительн Have you
    Had he
    Will you have
    ая
    investigated?
    investigated?
    investigated?
    Отрицательна I have not
    He had not
    We shall not have
    я
    investigated?
    investigated
    investigated
    4. Времена группы Perfect Continuous
    Глаголы этой группы выражают действия, которые: а) начались раньше
    указанного момента в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем и продолжают
    совершаться после этого момента; б) совершались некоторый отрезок времени
    до определенного момента.
    Спряжение глаголов группы Perfect Continuous
    Форма

    Present Indefinite

    Past Indefinite

    Future Indefinite

    128

    Утвердительн I have been working
    He (she) has been
    ая
    working
    We (you, they) have
    been working

    I had been
    working
    He (she ) had
    been working
    We (you, they)
    had been
    working

    Вопросительн
    ая
    Отрицательна
    я

    Had he been
    working?
    They had not
    been working

    Have you been
    working?
    He has not been
    working

    I shall have been
    working
    He (she) will have
    been working
    We shall have been
    working
    You (they) will have
    been working
    Will you have been
    working?
    I shall not have been
    working

    § 3. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)
    Сказуемое, выраженное глаголом в страдательном залоге, указывает на то,
    что действие совершается над лицом или предметом, выраженным
    подлежащим.
    Страдательный залог образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to
    be в соответствующем времени и Participle II смыслового глагола.
    1. Способы перевода глагола-сказуемого
    а) сочетанием глагола "быть" с краткой формой причастия страдательного
    залога. Глагол "быть" в настоящем времени не переводится:
    This book was published last year. Эта книга была опубликована в прошлом году.

    б) глаголом несовершенного вида, оканчивающимся на -ся, -сь:
    The experiments were made last year. Опыты проводились в прошлом году.
    в) неопределенно-личной формой глагола в действительном залоге в третьем
    лице множественного числа (при отсутствии действующего лица):
    Our scientists are given the
    Нашим ученым предоставляют самые широкие
    возможности widest opportunities for research для научно-исследовательской работы.
    work.

    г) личной формой глагола в действительном залоге (при наличии дополнения
    с предлогом by). Дополнение с предлогом by часто переводится на русский язык
    подлежащим:
    The student was helped by the professor.

    Профессор помог студенту.

    В английском языке имеется ряд глаголов, которые требуют прямого
    дополнения, т.е. являются переходными, в то время как соответствующие
    глаголы в русском языке являются непереходными. Такие глаголы переводятся
    глаголами с предлогами.
    to follow — следовать (за)
    to influence — влиять (на)
    to affect — влиять (на)
    to attend — присутствовать (на)
    129

    to address — обращаться (к кому-л.) и др.
    The rate of a reaction is influenced by many factors. - На скорость реакции влияют
    многие факторы.
    2. Способы перевода подлежащего
    Подлежащее английского предложения со сказуемым в страдательном залоге
    на русский язык переводится:
    а) существительным (или местоимением) в именительном или винительном
    падежах (когда после сказуемого стоит косвенное или предложное дополнение):
    The student was sent to the professor.

    Студент был послан к профессору.
    Студента послали к профессору.

    б) существительным (местоимением) в дательном падеже (когда после
    сказуемого стоит прямое дополнение):
    We were sent all the necessary equipment.

    Нам послали все необходимое оборудование.

    в) предлогом, стоящим после глагола в страдательном залоге и не относящимся
    к следующим за ним словам; при переводе на русский язык ставится перед тем
    словом, которое в английском языке является подлежащим:
    The man can be relied upon.
    На этого человека можно положиться.
    СИСТЕМА ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ ВРЕМЕН В ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНОМ
    И СТРАДАТЕЛЬНОМ ЗАЛОГАХ
    (ENGLISH TENSES IN THE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICES)
    Indefinite Tenses
    Active
    Passive
    Infinitive to make
    to be made
    The experiments
    Present
    I make
    are made
    experiments
    regularly.
    regularly.
    Эксперименты
    Я регулярно
    проводятся
    провожу
    эксперименты. регулярно.
    An experiment
    Past
    I made an
    experiment
    was made
    yesterday.
    yesterday. Вчера
    Вчера я провел был проведен
    эксперимент.
    эксперимент.
    Future

    I shall make an
    experiment
    tomorrow.
    Завтра я
    проведу

    An experiment
    will be made
    tomorrow.
    Завтра будет
    проведен

    Continuous Tenses
    Active
    Passive
    to be making
    to be being made
    I am making an
    The experiment
    experiment now.
    is being made
    Сейчас я провожу now.
    эксперимент.
    Сейчас
    проводится
    эксперимент.
    I was making an
    The experiment
    experiment when he was being made
    came in. Когда он
    when he came
    вошел, я проводил in. Эксперимент
    эксперимент.
    проводился,
    когда он вошел.
    I shall be making
    an experiment at 5
    o’clock tomorrow.
    Завтра в 5 часов я
    буду проводить
    130

    эксперимент.

    эксперимент.

    эксперимент.

    Perfect Tenses
    Active
    Passive
    Infinitiv to have made
    to have been made
    e
    I have made an The experiment has
    experimentЯ
    been made by the
    провел
    scientist. Эксперимент
    эксперимент.
    проведен этим
    ученым.
    Past

    I had made an
    experiment. Я
    провел
    эксперимент до
    того, как он
    пришел.

    Future

    I shall have
    made an
    experiment by 6
    o’clock.
    Эксперимент
    будет проведен
    к 6 часам.

    Perfect Continuous Tenses
    Active
    Passive
    ______
    to have been
    making
    I have been
    making an
    experiment for
    two days. Я
    провожу этот
    эксперимент
    уже два дня.
    I had been
    The experiment had
    been made before the making the
    experiment for
    engineer came.
    Эксперимент был уже two days when
    проведен до прихода he came. Когда
    он приехал, я
    инженера.
    проводил
    эксперимент
    (уже) два дня.
    The experiment will
    I shall have
    have been made by 6 been making
    ______
    o’clock.Эксперимент the experiment
    будет проведен к 6
    for a week by
    tomorrow.
    часам.
    Завтра уже
    будет неделя,
    как я провожу
    эксперимент.

    § 4. Согласование времен
    (The Sequence of Tenses)
    В английском языке имеется определенная зависимость времени глагола в
    придаточном предложении от времени глагола в главном предложении.
    Правило согласования времен относится, главным образом, к дополнительным
    придаточным предложениям.
    Главное
    Придаточное предложение
    Перевод
    предложение
    Настоящим временем
    Past
    Past Indefinite, Past
    Indefinite
    Continuous
    Не said
    he studied English.
    Он сказал, что изучает английский
    Не said
    he was studying English at the
    язык.
    131

    Institute
    Не said
    Не said

    Past Perfect
    the engineer had been in the
    laboratory.
    Future-in-the-Past
    the engineer would be in the
    laboratory

    Он сказал, что изучает английский
    язык в институте.
    Прошедшим временем
    Он сказал, что инженер был в
    лаборатории.
    Будущим временем
    Он сказал, что инженер будет в
    лаборатории.

    П р и м е ч а н и е : Правило согласования времен может не соблюдаться, если
    в придаточном предложении выражается общеизвестный факт.
    Alexander Popov proved that radio-waves travel with the velocity
    of light.
    § 5. Модальные глаголы
    (Modal Verbs)
    Модальные глаголы не называют действие или состояние, а выражают лишь
    отношение лица (подлежащего) к действию или состоянию, выраженному
    инфинитивом, т.е. имеют значение возможности, вероятности или
    необходимости совершения этого действия или данного состояния.
    Модальные глаголы отличаются от других глаголов следующими
    особенностями.
    1) у них нет инфинитива, причастия, герундия;
    2) они не изменяются по лицам и числам;
    3) эти глаголы не употребляются в повелительном наклонении.
    4) вопросительную и отрицательную формы они образуют без
    вспомогательных глаголов.
    Наиболее употребительные модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
    to
    be able to глаголы Present
    am (is, are) able to
    Модальные
    He is able to cope
    и их эквиваленты
    with the testing
    can
    can of this
    device.
    может can
    ModernОн
    computers
    (возможность
    справиться
    multiply twoсnumbers
    совершения
    испытанием
    этого
    in one microsecond.
    действия)
    прибора.
    Современные

    must
    (долженствование)

    вычислительные
    машины могут
    умножать два числа в
    must
    течение одной
    The
    atom
    must
    микросекунды.be used
    for the good of
    mankind. Атом

    was (were) able
    Past
    to
    He was
    able to
    could
    cope
    with the
    You could
    use
    testing
    of
    this
    these data in
    device.
    Он мог
    your research
    справиться
    с
    work. Вы могли
    испытанием
    использовать
    этого
    прибора.
    эти данные
    в
    вашей научной
    работе.---

    shall (will) be
    Future
    able to
    He will be able to
    cope with the
    testing of this
    device. Он
    сможет
    справиться с
    испытанием
    этого прибора.
    ---

    132

    должен служить
    человеку.
    to have to
    (необходимость
    выполнения
    действия)

    have (has) to
    The engineer has to
    examine this device.
    Инженер должен
    осмотреть этот
    прибор.

    to be to
    am (is, are) to
    (запланированность We are to begin our
    действия)
    experiment this week.
    Мы должны начать
    эксперимент на этой
    неделе

    may

    may
    The engineers may
    examine this device.
    Инженеры могут
    осмотреть это
    устройство

    had to
    The engineer
    had to examine
    this device.
    Инженер
    должен был
    осмотреть этот
    прибор.
    was (were) to
    We were to
    begin our
    experiment last
    week. Мы
    должны были
    начать
    эксперимент на
    прошлой
    неделе.

    shall (will) have
    to
    The engineer will
    have to examine
    this device.
    Инженер
    должен будет
    осмотреть этот
    прибора.
    ---

    might

    The engineers
    might have
    --examined this
    device.
    Инженеры
    могли
    осмотреть это
    устройство.
    to be allowed to
    shall (will) be
    Am (is, are) allowed
    was (were)
    allowed to
    to
    allowed to
    The engineers
    The engineers are
    The engineers
    allowed to examine
    were allowed to will be allowed to
    examine this
    this device.
    examine this
    device.
    Инженерам
    device.
    Инженерам
    разрешают осмотреть Инженерам
    разрешат
    это устройство
    разрешили
    осмотреть это
    осмотреть это
    устройство.
    устройство.
    В языке научной литературы действие, выраженное перфектным
    (разрешение,
    позволение)

    133

    инфинитивом, обычно относится к прошедшему времени. Глагол must с
    последующим Perfect Infinitive переводится должен был, должно быть, вероятно,
    глагол could — возможно, мог, мог бы, may — возможно, может быть, might —
    мог бы.
    Не must have found out about the Он, вероятно, узнал о конференции из
    conference from the newspaper.
    газеты.
    I could have gone to the conference. But Я мог бы поехать на конференцию. Но я
    I was not invited.
    не был приглашен.
    You might have made the experiment
    Вы могли бы провести эксперимент более
    more carefully.
    тщательно.
    Глаголы cаn и could в отрицательной форме в сочетании с Perfect Infinitive
    выражают сомнение в возможности совершения действия в прошлом и обычно
    переводятся не может быть, чтобы + глагол в прошедшем времени, не мог +
    неопределенная форма глагола.
    Не could not have used this
    He может быть, чтобы он использовал этот
    прибор;
    device, it was out of order.
    он был неисправен
    § 6. Сослагательное наклонение
    (The Subjunctive Mood)
    Сослагательное наклонение выражает действие не реальное, а
    предполагаемое, условное или желаемое. На русский язык переводится
    сочетанием глагола в форме прошедшего времени с частицей "бы".
    Сослагательное наклонение выражается
    1) синтетическими формами: be, were, have, know и т.д.;
    2) аналитическими формами: should, would, could, may, might + Infinitive.
    Обратите внимание на основные случаи употребления сослагательного
    наклонения в английской научно-технической литературе:
    Типы предложений
    Пример и перевод
    I. П р о с т ы е
    There would be no life without water.
    Без воды не было бы жизни.
    II. С л о ж н ы е
    1. В придаточных предложениях – It is necessary that they should apply the
    подлежащих после безличных
    new method. Необходимо, чтобы они
    оборотов типа: it is necessary, it is
    применили этот новый метод.
    important, it is desirable.
    2. В дополнительных придаточных Не insists that the equipment should be
    предложениях после глаголов,
    brought in a week. Он настаивает на
    выражающих приказание, совет,
    том, чтобы оборудование привезли
    желание.
    через неделю.

    134

    3. В придаточных
    обстоятельственных предложениях
    цели после союзов: so that — так
    чтобы, lest — чтобы... не, in
    order that — для того чтобы.
    4. В обстоятельственных
    сравнительных предложениях
    после союзов as if, as though (как
    будто бы, как если бы).

    The students brought the dictionaries so
    that they might use them at the lesson.
    Студенты принесли словари, чтобы
    (могли) пользоваться ими на уроке.
    The man repaired our TV-set as if he were
    an expert in telemechanics. Этот человек
    починил нам телевизор, как будто бы
    он специалист по телемеханике

    5. В условных предложениях II и
    III типа.

    If I were an engineer I should repair this
    device. Если бы я был инженер, я бы
    починил этот прибор.
    If he had used this formula he would not
    have made this mistake. Если бы он
    применил эту формулу, он не сделал
    бы этой ошибки.
    Если после вспомогательного глагола стоит перфектный инфинитив, то это
    означает, что действие относится к прошедшему.
    We should have introduced this
    Мы ввели бы этот метод давно, если бы
    method long ago if it had been
    он был эффективным.
    efficient.

    § 7. Условные предложения
    (The Conditional Clauses)
    Тип предложения
    I тип. Изъявительное
    наклонение
    Реальное условие,
    относящееся к будущему
    времени. (Переводится
    будущим временем)

    Условное придаточное
    предложение
    Present Indefinite

    Главное предложение
    Future Indefinite

    If we receive the necessary
    data,
    Если мы получим
    необходимые данные,

    we shall inform you.
    мы сообщим вам.

    II тип. Сослагательное
    наклонение.

    Past Indefinite в значении
    сослагательного
    наклонения

    Should (would, could,
    might) + Indefinite
    Infinitive

    Нереальное условие (или

    If there were no atmosphere,

    the surface of the Earth
    135

    маловероятное),
    относящееся к
    настоящему или
    будущему времени.
    (Переводится глаголом в
    прошедшем времени с
    частицей "бы")
    III тип. Сослагательное
    наклонение
    Нереальное условие,
    относящееся к
    прошедшему времени.
    (Переводится так же, как
    II тип.)

    Если бы не было
    атмосферы,

    Past Perfect в значении
    сослагательного
    наклонения
    If he had worked hard last
    term,

    would become too hot
    by day and too cold by
    night.
    то поверхность
    земли была бы очень
    горячей днем и
    очень холодной
    ночью.
    Should (would, could,
    might) + Perfect
    Infinitive
    he would have passed
    his exam.

    Если бы он работал усердно он сдал бы экзамен.
    в прошлом семестре,
    he might have done
    If he had more time yesterday, this work.
    Если бы у него вчера было
    больше времени.

    он бы выполнил эту
    работу.

    Бессоюзные условные предложения
    Во всех типах условных придаточных предложений условные союзы if,
    provided (при условии), in case (в случае), on condition (при условии) и т.д. могут
    быть опущены. В бессоюзных условных придаточных предложениях порядок
    слов обратный, т.е. сказуемое или часть сказуемого (вспомогательный глагол)
    выносится на место перед подлежащим.
    Условное придаточное предложение
    Главное предложение
    I тип
    Should any repair be required
    it will be made immediately
    (If any repair is required)...
    Если потребуется ремонт
    он будет произведен
    немедленно
    II тип
    Had we enough time to spare
    we should attend the
    (If we had enough time.,.)
    conference.
    Было бы у нас достаточно времени,
    мы бы пошли на
    конференцию
    we should have had the
    III тип Had we applied this method of work,
    desired
    results
    (If we had applied ...)
    Если бы мы применяли этот метод
    мы имели бы желаемые
    работы, (тогда)
    результаты
    136

    § 8. Глагол to be
    (to be — was, were — been)
    Синтаксическая функция и значение Пример и перевод
    1. Смысловой глагол со значением
    The new tape-recorder is in the laboratory.
    "быть", "находиться" (когда за ним
    Новый магнитофон находится в
    следует существительное с
    лаборатории.
    The new tape-recorder is here. Новый
    предлогом или наречие).
    магнитофон находится здесь
    2. Глагол-связка (в сочетании с
    My friend is a designer. Мой друг —
    предикативом) со значением "быть", конструктор.
    "являться", "состоять",
    His aim was to become a cosmonaut.
    "заключаться".
    Его целью было стать космонавтом
    3. Вспомогательный глагол для
    Engineers are looking for new methods in
    образования форм:
    housing construction. Инженеры ищут
    a)Continuous и Perfect Continuous
    новые методы строительства домов.
    б) страдательного залога
    Radio was invented by A.S.Popov a
    talented Russian scientist. Радио было
    изобретено А.С.Поповым, талантливым
    русским ученым.
    They were to prepare everything for the
    4. Модальный глагол со значением
    experiment. Они должны были
    "должен", когда он стоит перед
    инфинитивом смыслового глагола с приготовить все для эксперимента
    частицей "to".

    § 9. Глагол to have
    (to have — had — had)
    Синтаксическая функция и значение Пример и перевод
    1. Смысловой глагол со значением Now our country has many thousands of
    "иметь", "обладать" (перед именем radio stations. Сейчас d нашей стране
    существительным, числительным, имеется много тысяч радиостанций
    местоимением).
    2. Вспомогательный глагол для Many years have passed since the day when
    образования времен Perfect (перед radio was invented. Прошло много лет с
    причастием прошедшего времени).
    тех пор, как было изобретено радио.
    3. Эквивалент модального глагола в Не had to make a lot of experiments. Ему
    значении долженствования (перед пришлось
    проводить
    много
    инфинитивом смыслового глагола с экспериментов.
    частицей "to").
    § 10. Глагол to do
    (to do — did — done)
    137

    Синтаксическая функция и значение
    1. Смысловой глагол:
    "делать", "проводить", "выполнять",
    "совершать
    2. Вспомогательный глагол:
    а) для образования
    вопросительной и отрицательной
    форм в Present, Past Indefinite
    б) для образования
    отрицательной формы
    повелительного наклонения.
    в) для усиления значения
    глагола-сказуемого

    Пример и перевод
    An electric motor does mechanical work.
    Электрический мотор совершает работу.
    —Do you know how to use this device?
    —Yes, I do. — Вы знаете, как
    пользоваться этим прибором? — Да.
    —Did you see this film yesterday?
    No, I didn't. — Ты видел этот фильм
    вчера? — Нет.
    Don't use this tool, it is broken.
    He пользуйтесь этим резцом, он сломан.

    Only then did he understand his mistake.
    Только тогда он понял свою ошибку.
    We do realize what great importance this
    discovery has for the future work. Мы
    действительно понимаем, какое
    огромное значение имеет это открытие
    для нашей будущей работы
    3. Глагол-заместитель (во избежание The last experiments gave us much better
    повторения смыслового глагола)
    results than did the previous ones.
    Последние эксперименты дали нам
    гораздо лучшие результаты, чем
    предыдущие

    § 11. Глагол should
    Синтаксическая функция и значение
    Пример и перевод
    1. Вспомогательный глагол:
    а)
    для образования формы Future- Не thought I should come to the laboratory.
    in-the-Past
    Он думал, что я приду в лабораторию.
    б) для образования форм
    If he sent us a telegram, we should go to the
    сослагательного наклонения,
    station to meet him. Если бы он послал нам
    обозначая:
    телеграмму, мы бы смогли встретить его
    - нереальное условие, относящееся к на станции.
    настоящему или будущему
    - нереальное условие, относящееся к If he had sent us a telegram yesterday, we
    should have gone to the station to meet
    прошедшему времени
    him. Если бы он прислал нам телеграмму
    вчера, мы бы пошли на станцию
    встретить его.
    138

    — в придаточных предложениях,
    если в главном предложении
    выражается мнение, предположение,
    требование (со всеми лицами)

    2. Модальный глагол
    (необходимость выполнения
    действия)

    It is important that this method should
    be used in your work. Важно, чтобы
    этот метод был применен в вашей
    работе.
    Не demanded that we should take part
    in the discussion. Он потребовал, чтобы
    мы приняли участие в дискуссии.
    You should do this work in time. Вам
    следует сделать эту работу вовремя.
    You should have done this work in time.
    Вам следовало сделать эту работу
    вовремя.

    П р и м е ч а н и е : Should в начале предложения служит признаком
    придаточного предложения
    условия.
    Should the temperature decrease, the velocity of the electrons
    will decrease too.
    Если температура уменьшится, скорость электронов также
    уменьшится.
    § 12. Глагол would
    Синтаксическая функция и значение
    Пример и перевод
    1. Вспомогательный глагол:
    а) для образования формы Future - Не thought he would come to the
    in-the-Past
    laboratory. Он думал, что придет в
    б) для образования форм
    лабораторию.
    сослагательного наклонения
    We wish our dreams would become
    reality. Мы хотим, чтобы наши мечты
    сбылись.
    If they had completed the research, the
    results would have been discussed at the
    conference. Если бы они завершили свое
    исследование, результаты были бы
    обсуждены на конференции.
    2. Модальный глагол:
    The engine would not start. Мотор никак
    а) для выражения упорного
    не заводился.
    сопротивления попытке совершить
    действие (в отрицательных
    Last winter I would work at the laboratory
    предложениях)
    every day. В прошлом году я обычно
    б) для выражения повторного
    работал в лаборатории каждый день.
    действия в прошлом (со всеми
    лицами)
    II. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

    139

    § 13.Инфинитив
    (The Infinitive)
    1. Формы инфинитива
    Active
    to write

    Infinitive
    Indefinite
    Perfect
    Continuous
    Perfect Continuous

    to have written
    (to have + Participle II)
    to be writing
    (to be + Participle I )
    to have been writing
    (to have been +
    Participle I )

    Passive
    to be written
    (to be + Participle II)
    to have been written
    (to have been + Participle II )



    2. Функции инфинитива
    Функция
    Пример и перевод
    1. Подлежащее
    То obtain these data is necessary for our further work.
    Получение этих данных - необходимое условие для
    нашей дальнейшей работы.
    2. Часть составного
    His aim is to obtain these data. Его цель - получить эти
    именного сказуемого данные.
    3.Дополнение
    The professor asked the students to make the experiment.
    Профессор попросил студентов провести эксперимент.
    4. Обстоятельство
    То obtain the reliable data it is necessary to make a lot of
    цели
    experiments. Чтобы получить надежные результаты,
    необходимо провести много экспериментов.
    5. Обстоятельство
    The method is not accurate enough to give reliable results.
    следствия
    Этот метод недостаточно точен, чтобы дать надежные
    результаты.
    6. Определение
    The device to be used has been carefully examined.
    Прибор, который будет использоваться, тщательно
    проверен.
    Не was the first to apply the new method of work. Он
    первым применил новый метод работы.
    3. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот (Complex Subject)
    В конструкции "субъектный инфинитивный оборот" действие,
    совершаемое подлежащим, выражается инфинитивом. Глагол-сказуемое лишь
    указывает на отношение к этому действию. Перевод предложения следует
    начинать со сказуемого (неопределенно-личным оборотом) и, если требуется
    по смыслу, вводится союз что.
    These elements are known to have
    двадцать

    Известно, что эти элементы были открыты

    140

    been found twenty years ago.

    лет назад.

    Между компонентами сложного подлежащего может стоять сказуемое,
    выраженное:
    а) глаголом в форме страдательного залога: to be said, to be reported, to be
    known, to be stated, to be supposed, to be considered, to be seen, to be
    expected, to be believed и др.;
    б) глаголом в форме действительного залога: to seem — казаться, to
    appear, to prove — оказываться, to happen— случайно оказаться;
    в) сочетаниями: to be likely — вероятно, возможно, to be unlikely —
    маловероятно, to be sure — несомненно, to be certain —безусловно.
    The group is believed to complete the research next month.
    This substance seems to possess
    useful properties.
    This is unlikely to be achieved.

    Считают, что группа закончит
    исследование в следующем месяце.
    Кажется, это вещество обладает
    полезными свойствами.
    Маловероятно, что это будет
    достигнуто.

    4. Объектный инфинитивный оборот
    (Complex Object)
    Объектный инфинитивный оборот состоит из существительного в общем
    падеже или личного местоимения в объектном падеже (me, him, her, you, them,
    us) и инфинитива. Этот оборот выполняет функцию сложного дополнения и
    переводится на русский язык дополнительным придаточным предложением,
    вводимым союзами "что", "чтобы".
    Существительное или местоимение, стоящее перед инфинитивом,
    становится в русском языке подлежащим придаточного предложения, а
    инфинитив — сказуемым.
    We know this scientist to
    have made an important
    discovery in electronics.

    Мы знаем, что этот ученый сделал важное
    открытие в электронике.

    После глаголов, выражающих чувственное восприятие: to see, to hear, to
    notice, to watch, to observe и глагола make инфинитив употребляется без
    частицы to.
    The engineer made his assistants check the results many
    times.

    Инженер заставил ассистентов проверить результаты
    несколько раз.

    5. Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом for
    В этом обороте перед инфинитивом стоит существительное в общем падеже
    или местоимение в объектном падеже с предлогом for. На русский язык
    переводится чаще всего придаточным предложением:
    For the decision to be correct, Чтобы решение было правильным, следует
    учесть все факты.
    all facts must be considered.
    141

    § 14. Причастия (The Participles)
    В английском языке имеются причастие I и причастие II (Participle I,
    Participle II). Первое образуется путем добавления к основе суффикса -ing,
    второе — суффикса -ed и, таким образом, имеет внешне сходную форму с
    прошедшим временем Past Indefinite, от которого Participle II отличается по
    функции в предложении. Для образования Participle II нестандартных глаголов
    берется III форма.
    Participle
    Participle I
    Participle II
    Perfect Participle

    1. Формы причастия
    Active Voice
    examining
    ----having examined

    Passive Voice
    being examined
    examined
    having been examined

    Participle I (Present Participle) выражает действие, одновременное с
    действием, выраженным сказуемым:
    Speaking about the new
    method the engineer told us
    many interesting things.

    Говоря о новом методе, инженер рассказал нам
    много интересного.

    Participle II (Past Participle) выражает действие, законченное по
    отношению к действию, выраженному сказуемым:
    The results obtained are very important. Полученные результаты очень важны.
    Perfect Participle выражает действие, предшествующее действию,
    выраженному сказуемым
    Having been made carelessly
    the experiment proved useless.

    Так как опыт был сделан небрежно, он оказался
    бесполезным.

    2. Функции Participle I
    Функция
    Пример и перевод
    Определение
    They were watching the moving particles.
    Они наблюдали за движущимися
    частицами.
    The substance being investigated was
    brought to the laboratory. Исследуемое
    вещество принесли в лабораторию.
    Обстоятельство (времени,
    When carrying out the experiment the
    причины, образа действия —
    scientist encountered many difficulties. При
    часто с союзами when или
    проведении эксперимента (проводя
    while).
    эксперимент) ученый столкнулся со
    многими трудностями.
    Часть простого глагольного
    Не is carrying out the experiment now.
    сказуемого
    142

    Сейчас он проводит эксперимент.
    3. Функции Participle II
    Функция
    Пример и перевод
    Определение
    The results obtained are of great importance
    (левое и правое)
    for the radioengineer. Полученные
    результаты очень важны для
    радиоинженера.
    The designed device was used in
    radioengineering. Сконструированный
    Обстоятельство
    прибор использовался в радиотехнике.
    (часто с союзами when, if, unless) When designed the device was given to the
    laboratory. Когда прибор был
    Часть простого глагольного
    сконструирован, его отдали а
    сказуемого
    лабораторию.
    The device was designed by the engineer.
    Прибор был сконструирован
    инженером.
    4. Независимый причастный оборот
    (Absolute Participial Construction)
    Независимый причастный оборот состоит из существительного в общем
    падеже (или местоимения в именительном падеже) и причастия. Характерным
    признаком независимого причастного оборота является наличие запятой,
    отделяющей оборот от остальной части предложения. Аналогичной
    конструкции в русском языке нет. Оборот переводится на русский язык
    придаточными предложениями, которые вводятся союзами так как,
    поскольку, хотя, после того как, когда, причем, а, если.
    После того как инженеры испытали
    The engineers having tested this
    device, we can use it.
    этот прибор, мы можем его
    использовать.
    New machines were brought to the
    Новые машины были привезены на
    plant, all of them being in good order. завод, причем все они были в
    хорошем состоянии.
    The signal given, the rocket starts
    Когда (как только) дается сигнал,
    immediately.
    ракета сразу взлетает.
    There being many people in the
    conference hall, we could not enter it.

    Так как в зале было много народу, мы
    не могли войти.
    § 15. Герундий (The Gerund)

    Герундий — неличная форма глагола, которая, как и причастие I, образуется
    с помощью суффикса -ing, добавляемого к основе глагола. Герундий обладает
    как свойствами глагола, так и существительного. Аналогичной формы в
    143

    русском языке нет, но по значению герундию близки отглагольные
    существительные типа хождение, чтение и т.п.
    Герундий может иметь перед собой предлог, определение, выраженное
    притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном
    падеже.
    The engineer insisted on experimenting Инженер настаивал на
    as the best method to solve this
    экспериментировании как лучшем
    problem.
    способе решения этого вопроса.
    The method of Kurchatov's
    Метод экспериментирования
    experimenting usually gave excellent
    Курчатова давал хорошие
    results.
    результаты.
    Обладая свойствами глагола, герундий может иметь дополнение и
    определяться наречием.
    Studying the results of the experiment Изучение результатов эксперимента
    заняло у меня неделю.
    took me a week.
    The professor insisted on our
    Профессор настаивал на том, чтобы мы
    designing a new type of
    сконструировали новый тип
    semiconductor radio set.
    полупроводникового радиоприемника.

    Indefinite
    Perfect

    1. Формы герундия
    Active
    examining
    having examined

    Passive
    being examined
    having been examined

    Indefinite Gerund (Active и Passive) обычно выражают действия,
    происходящие одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым в
    предложении в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени.
    In describing the experiment При описании эксперимента, он дает все
    подробности
    he gives every detail of the процесса.
    process.
    Perfect Gerund (Active и Passive) выражает действие, которое
    предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.
    I know of your having described the experiment.-Я знаю, что вы описали
    эксперимент.
    2. Функции герундия в предложении
    Функция
    Подлежащее

    Пример и перевод
    Measuring temperature is necessary in many experiments.
    Измерение температуры необходимо при проведении
    многих экспериментов.
    144

    Прямое дополнение
    Предложное
    дополнение
    Определение (с
    предлогом of)
    Обстоятельство
    (всегда с предлогом)

    Не had to stop experimenting. Он вынужден был
    прекратить экспериментирование.
    Не succeeded in obtaining reliable results. Ему удалось
    получить надежные результаты.
    These devices have the advantage of being cheap. Эти
    приборы имеют то преимущество, что они дешевые.
    The engineer could solve this problem only after
    experimenting. Инженер
    мог решить этот вопрос только после
    экспериментирования.

    3. Герундиальный оборот (Gerundial Construction)
    Сочетание герундия с предшествующим ему притяжательным местоимением
    или существительным в притяжательном или общем падеже образует сложный
    герундиальный оборот, который переводится на русский язык придаточным
    предложением. Такой оборот часто вводится словами то, что, того, что, что,
    чтобы и т.п
    His taking part in the development of To, что он принимал участие в
    the new cooling system was of great
    разработке новой системы
    help to us.
    охлаждения, было для нас большой
    помощью.
    То, что Курчатов посвятил всю свою
    Kurchatov's having devoted
    жизнь ядерной физике, известно
    all his life to nuclear physics
    всем.
    is known to everybody.

    Члены
    предложения
    Подлежащие

    4. Сравнение функций Participle I и Gerund
    Participle I
    Gerund
    Не употребляется

    Дополнение
    (прямое или
    предложное)

    Не употребляется

    Часть простого The engineer is testing this
    сказуемого
    new device now. Инженер
    испытывает этот прибор
    сейчас.

    Testing a new device is a
    difficult task. Испытание нового
    прибора — трудное дело.
    Не likes testing new devices.
    Ему нравится испытывать
    новые приборы. Не thought of
    testing this device later. Он
    думал о том, чтобы испытать
    этот прибор позже
    Не употребляется

    145

    She has been working at this
    plant since 1955. Она
    работает на этом заводе с
    1955 года.
    Часть
    составного
    глагольного
    сказуемого
    Определение

    Не употребляется

    The man testing new devices
    is our engineer. Человек,
    испытывающий новые
    приборы, наш инженер.
    Обстоятельство (While) testing a new device
    the engineer used a new
    method. Испытывая новый
    прибор, инженер применил
    новый метод.

    Не began these parts. Он начал
    обработку этих деталей.
    This method of testing new
    devices is quite good. Этот
    метод испытания новых
    приборов довольно хороший.
    Upon testing a new device the
    engineer put down the data.
    После испытания нового
    прибора инженер записал
    данные.

    III. АНАЛИЗ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
    § 16. Простое предложение (The Simple Sentence)
    1. Признаки строя предложений в английском языке
    Для современного английского языка характерен определенный порядок
    размещения членов предложения, а именно: подлежащее — сказуемое —
    второстепенные члены. Подлежащее, сказуемое и дополнение, обычно следуя
    один за другим, образуют "костяк" предложения (твердый порядок слов).
    Обстоятельства, как правило, стоят до или после "костяка". Определения
    находятся рядом с соответствующим существительным в любом месте
    предложения.
    Схематично вышеуказанный порядок слов можно представить так:
    Обстоятельство

    0

    1
    подлежащее

    2
    сказуемое

    3
    дополнение

    4

    определение

    146

    Следующие предложения иллюстрируют схему.
    1 • 21
    3
    1. Scientists make experiments.
    1
    2
    3
    2. This year the scientists of our institute often make various experiments.
    1
    2
    3. Now the scientists of our research institute often make various
    experiments on investigation of outer space.
    Из примеров очевидно, что, независимо от появления второстепенных
    членов предложения, "костяк" остается прежним: расположение подлежащего,
    сказуемого и дополнения не изменяется по отношению друг к другу.
    2. Группа подлежащего
    Подлежащее — обязательный член любого английского предложения,
    кроме повелительного, где оно подразумевается. В структуре английского
    предложения подлежащее стоит на первом месте, слева от сказуемого.
    Формальным показателем подлежащего является наличие артиклей "а" или
    "the", указательного, притяжательного или неопределенного местоимений.
    Подлежащее может быть выражено именем существительным,
    местоимением, числительным, инфинитивом, герундием, придаточным
    подлежащим предложением:
    1. The output of this factory is continuously growing.
    2. I have read the book about space achievements of our country.
    3. To develop national economy is the main task of the government.
    В свою группу подлежащее может включать определения, выраженные
    различными частями речи:
    1. Our laboratory assistant has constructed this adding machine.
    2. The melting point of aluminium is 675°C.
    3. Entrance examinations are usually held in autumn.
    3. Группа сказуемого
    Сказуемое — второй главный член предложения. Вместе с
    подлежащим сказуемое дает законченное выражение высказываемой мысли.
    Сказуемое обычно занимает второе место в структуре английского
    предложения, следуя непосредственно за подлежащим.
    В группе сказуемого служебным показателем ее начала является глаголсвязка, вспомогательный глагол, модальный глагол или морфологический
    показатель личной формы глагола (суффиксы -s, -es, -ed). Группа сказуемого
    всегда начинается с глагола в личной форме, либо с сочетания
    вспомогательного или модального глагола со смысловым глаголом в
    соответствующей форме:
    1. The laser has wide potential uses.
    2. The laser beam can burn holes and set on fire carbon.
    147

    3. This device will be on trial for a month.
    В группу сказуемого кроме глагольных форм могут входить любые
    части речи: It is necessary to complete the experiment without destroying the
    substance.
    4. Дополнение
    Дополнение — второстепенный член предложения, обозначающий
    предмет или объект, на который направлено это действие. В структуре
    английского предложения дополнение занимает третье по порядку место. Оно
    может быть прямым или косвенным. Прямое дополнение обозначает лицо или
    предмет, на который распространяется действие сказуемого, выраженного
    переходным глаголом в личной форме. Косвенное дополнение обозначает лицо,
    к которому обращено действие или ради которого оно совершается.
    Дополнение неразрывно связано со сказуемым и образует единую с ним
    смысловую группу.
    The University trains specialists for various branches of our national
    economy.
    Прямое дополнение может быть выражено: а) существительным или
    местоимением в объектном падеже — Belarus holds a prominent place in
    developing science; б) инфинитивом —He likes to read books in the original; в)
    герундием — I like translating technical books from English into Russian; г)
    дополнительным придаточным предложением — He asked if I participated in the
    experiment; д) объектным инфинитивным оборотом — We know him to be the
    first inventor of an electrical measuring instrument.
    5. Обстоятельство
    Обстоятельство

    второстепенный
    член
    предложения,
    характеризующий где, когда, почему, каким образом происходит действие.
    Обычно обстоятельство относится к сказуемому, но иногда может относиться и
    к другим членам предложения (тогда оно не выделяется как отдельная
    смысловая группа). Группа обстоятельства занимает в предложении четвертое
    или нулевое место (перед подлежащим) и имеет в начале в качестве служебного
    слова предлог, наречие или союз. Обстоятельство может быть выражено
    группой слов с предлогом, придаточным обстоятельственным предложением,
    причастным, инфинитивным или герундиальным оборотом:
    1. In England there are more than thirty universities.
    2. When radio waves travel away from their point of origin they become
    attenuated or weakened.
    3. Upon testing a new device the engineer put down the data.
    4. While experimenting in their laboratory Pierre and Marie Curie
    discovered a new element — radium.
    6. Определение
    Определение — второстепенный член предложения, не занимающий
    самостоятельного места в структуре предложения. Оно не образует отдельной
    148

    смысловой группы, а входит в группу определяемого члена предложения,
    составляя с ним единое целое.
    Определение может располагаться справа и слева от определяемого
    слова. Обычно определение относится к имени существительному и может
    быть выражено любой частью речи:
    1. Many new minerals have been found in this region.
    2. Quantum electronics gets its name from the packets of energy affecting
    the energy level of the atom.
    3. Fast moving water if forced into a narrow channel, will transmit energy to
    a turbine placed in the channel.
    § 17. Сложное предложение
    (The Composite Sentence)
    Предложение, состоящее из двух или нескольких предложений,
    объединенных общим смыслом, называется сложным предложением.
    Существуют два основных типа сложных предложений: сложносочиненные
    и сложноподчиненные.
    1. Сложносочиненное предложение
    (The Compound Sentence)
    Сложное предложение, состоящее из двух или нескольких простых
    равноправных предложений, называется сложносочиненным.
    Части сложносочиненного предложения соединяются сочинительными
    союзами and и, a, but но, as well as так же, как и, either ... or ... или ... или и
    т.д., перед которыми могут стоять запятые, или без союзов. При бессоюзной
    связи части сложносочиненного предложения разделяются запятой или точкой
    с запятой.
    The freezing point of water on the
    Centigrade thermometer is zero, and the
    boiling point of water is 100 degrees.
    The scale is called absolute; it is used
    almost entirely for gases.

    Точка замерзания воды на термометре
    Цельсия обозначена нулем, а точка
    кипения воды обозначена 100°.
    (Эта) шкала называется абсолютной;
    она применяется почти исключительно
    для газов.

    2. Сложноподчиненное предложение
    (The Complex Sentence)
    Сложноподчиненное предложение состоит из главного и одного или
    нескольких зависимых от главного придаточных предложений. Придаточные
    предложения присоединяются к главному при помощи подчинительных
    союзов, союзных слов или бессоюзной связи.
    Придаточные предложения выполняют те же синтаксические функции, что и
    члены простого предложения. В соответствии с этим они подразделяются на
    следующие типы:
    149

    Типы придаточных предложений
    Придаточные подлежащие. Вводятся
    союзами и союзными словами that,
    whether, if, who, whom, whose, what,
    which, when, where, how, why.
    Придаточные сказуемые. Соединяются
    с главным предложением теми же
    союзами и союзными словами, что и
    придаточные подлежащие, и стоят
    после глаголов-связок to be, to get, to
    become и др.
    Придаточные дополнительные.
    Вводятся союзами и союзными
    словами that, whether, if, when, why,
    how.
    Придаточные
    определительные.
    Вводятся союзами и союзными
    словами who, whom, whose, why,
    which, that, when, where.
    3.Придаточные обстоятельственные
    а) времени
    Присоединяются к главному
    предложению союзами и союзными
    словами when, while, as, as soon as, as
    long as, before, after, until, till.

    Пример и перевод
    Where he works is not important.
    Где он работает — не важно.
    The difficulty is how to solve this
    question. Трудность заключается в
    том, как разрешить этот вопрос.
    We understand that this problem must be
    solved. Мы понимаем, что эту задачу
    надо решить.
    Не went to the conference which will be
    held in Moscow. Он поехал на
    конференцию, которая состоится в
    Москве.
    After Byelorussia had been liberated
    from the German invaders our people
    began to restore their country. После
    того,
    как
    Белоруссия
    была
    освобождена
    от
    немецких
    захватчиков,
    наш
    народ
    начал
    восстанавливать народное хозяйство.

    б)
    причины
    Присоединяются к главному
    предложению союзами as, for, because,
    since.

    Не looked through his notes very
    carefully, for he was going to make a
    report at a conference. Он тщательно
    просмотрел свои записи, так как
    собирался
    делать
    доклад
    на
    конференции.

    в) места
    where, wherever
    г)
    цели
    so that, in order that, lest

    I found the magazine where I had left it.
    Я нашел журнал, где его оставил.
    I shall give you this book so that you
    may read it at home. Я дам вам книгу,
    чтобы вы смогли прочитать ее дома.

    д) условия
    if, provided (that), providing, on
    condition, in case (that), unless

    If the temperature is low the reaction will
    proceed slowly. Если температура
    будет
    низкой,
    реакция
    будет
    проходить медленно.

    150

    § 18. Усилительные конструкции
    (Emphatic Constructions)
    Усилительные конструкции служат для выделения членов предложения в
    тексте и представлены в виде рамочных оборотов it is (was) ... that (who,
    whom). Выделенные слова замыкаются между it is (was) ... that (who).
    Элементы оборота it is ... that ... служат формальными признаками выделения и
    на русский язык не переводятся. При переводе используются усилительные
    слова именно, только и т.п.
    It was the development of radio
    Именно развития радио
    that the article dealt with.
    касалась эта статья.
    При выделении обстоятельства времени обычно употребляется it was not
    until ... that ..., а в русском переводе добавляются слова только, только после,
    только тогда, когда.
    It was not until 1960 that this
    Это открытие было сделано только в 1960
    году.
    discovery was made.
    § 19. Определительные сочетания
    Для английской научно-технической литературы характерно употребление в
    роли определения существительных, образующих цепочку слов. Последнее
    существительное является основным, определяемым словом, а все
    предшествующие — его определениями. В зависимости от количества
    определений сочетание может быть двух-, трех- и многокомпонентным.
    Перевод следует начинать справа налево с последнего существительного:
    weather changes — изменения погоды; weather changes description — система
    описания изменений погоды.
    Существительные-определения можно переводить:
    а) прилагательным: room temperature — комнатная температура; limit
    pressure — предельное давление;
    б) существительным в родительном падеже: a physics teacher —
    преподаватель физики; the lectures time-table — расписание лекций;
    в) существительным с предлогом: the peace movement — движение за мир;
    products price decrease — уменьшение цен на изделия;
    г) группой поясняющих слов: the atomic energy conference — конференция
    по проблемам атомной энергии; analogue computer — аналоговая
    вычислительная машина.
    При переводе многокомпонентных словосочетаний следует учитывать
    смысловые связи между определениями и определяемым словом. Исходя из
    контекста, устанавливается связь между определениями. Перевод начинают
    справа налево. Например, многокомпонентное сочетание electric equipment
    supply system переводится следующим образом: system — система, supply —
    питание, supply system — система питания; equipment — оборудование,
    equipment supply system — система питания оборудования. Слово electric —
    151

    электрический является определением к слову equipment. Все сочетание
    переводится система питания электрооборудования.
    В состав атрибутивной группы слов могут входить прилагательные,
    причастия, числительные:
    direct current system — система постоянного тока; data processing equipment
    — оборудование для обработки данных; a thirty page booklet — брошюра в 30
    страниц; space charge limited current— ток, ограниченный пространственным
    зарядом.
    1. Показатели границ определительного сочетания
    Чтобы правильно перевести определительное сочетание, необходимо уметь
    определить его границы.
    Показателями начала определительного сочетания являются
    а) артикль:
    In order to define the exact location of electrons ...
    б) местоимение (притяжательное, неопределенное, отрицательное,
    указательное):
    Popov constructed his radio receiver... They can construct any
    integrated circuit. The scientists gave us this practical advice.
    в) количественно е числительное:
    There are five modern devices which ...
    Показателями конца определительного сочетания являются следующие за
    ним
    а) артикль:
    The information flow the computer is to process ...
    б) местоимение (личное, притяжательное, неопределенное, указательное):
    The radio network we consider is ...
    The newly accepted theory this scientist developed is ...
    в) предлог:
    The rapid current growth during this process is ...
    г) глагол в личной форме:
    Information theory is...
    д) союз:
    High voltage source that...
    IV. МНОГОФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ
    § 20. It
    Функция и значение
    1. Личное местоимение
    а) в функции подлежащего он, она,
    оно;

    Пример и перевод
    Whenever a thing vibrates it moves very
    rapidly. Всякий раз, когда предмет
    вибрирует, он движется очень
    152

    б) в функции дополнения его, ее

    2. Формальное подлежащее в
    безличных предложениях. Вводит
    подлежащее, выраженное
    инфинитивом или придаточным
    предложением; не переводится.
    3. Формальное дополнение.
    После глаголов find, make, think +
    прилагательное; не переводится.
    4. Вводное слово.
    В предложениях с эмфатической
    конструкцией it is (was) ... that (who).
    В переводе употребляются
    усилительные слова именно, только.
    Указательное местоимение это

    быстро.
    This is a complex problem, but we can
    solve it. Это сложная задача, но мы
    можем ее решить.
    It is necessary to carry out this
    experiment. Необходимо провести
    этот эксперимент.
    It seemed to us that the computer was
    out of order. Нам показалось, что
    вычислительная машина не в
    порядке.
    Radio-electronics has made it possible
    to test various equipment.
    Радиоэлектроника дала возможность
    испытывать различное оборудование
    It is silver that is the best conducting
    metal.
    Именно серебро является наилучшим
    проводящим металлом.
    It is the system known as remote
    control.
    Это та система, которая известна как
    дистанционное управление.

    § 21. That - those
    Функция и значение
    1. Указательные местоимения
    тот, та, то, те, иногда этот - эти

    2. Союз, союзное слово — вводит
    придаточные предложения:
    дополнительные, определительные,
    подлежащие, обстоятельственные

    Пример и перевод
    That new mechanism could control
    many operations. - Этот новый
    механизм мог управлять многими
    операциями.
    Those steps which can be programmed
    in advance offer the best opportunity for
    automation. - Те ступени, которые
    могут быть предварительно
    запрограммированы, лучше всего
    поддаются автоматизации.
    We know that a computer is a complex
    electronic device. - Мы знаем, что
    вычислительная машина является
    сложным электронным устройством.
    There are computers that can do many
    jobs. Существуют ЭВМ, которые
    могут выполнять много работ.
    153

    3. Слово-заместитель для замены
    упомянутого ранее
    существительного. После него часто
    следует предлог of или определение.
    Переводится существительным,
    которое оно заменяет, или совсем не
    переводится.

    That I.V.Kurchatov devoted all his life
    to nuclear physics is well known. - To,
    что И.В.Курчатов посвятил свою
    жизнь ядерной физике, хорошо
    известно.
    The most important feature of this plant
    is that all the shops are equipped with
    automatic machine tools. - Наиболее
    характерная черта этого завода
    состоит в том, что все цеха
    оборудованы автоматическими
    станками.
    The story of the telephone is similar to
    that of
    the telegraph. - История развития
    телефона
    схожа с историей развития телеграфа.
    The first solar battery operated on
    semiconductor crystals similar to those
    used in transistors. - Первая солнечная
    батарея работала на
    полупроводниковых кристаллах,
    подобных кристаллам, используемым
    в транзисторах.

    § 22. These
    Функция и значение
    1. Указательное местоимение
    эти

    2. Заместитель существительного;
    переводится местоимением они

    Пример и перевод
    These systems of the past can be
    compared in simplicity to those of our
    days. - Эти системы прошлого можно
    сравнить по простоте с
    современными системами.
    Composite coatings are very important
    in protection of steel surfaces. These
    may contain more than two components.
    - Сложные покрытия очень важны
    для защиты поверхности стали. Они
    могут содержать более двух
    компонентов.
    § 23. One

    Функция и значение
    1. Числительное один, одна,
    одно.

    Пример и перевод
    I know only one solution of this
    problem. - Я знаю только одно
    154

    решение этой задачи.
    2. Неопределенно-личное
    местоимение в функции
    подлежащего; не переводится.

    3. One-ones; заместитель
    существительного; переводится
    существительным, которое оно
    заменяет, или совсем не переводится.
    Артикль the перед словом
    переводится тот, та, то

    One should pay more attention to the
    use of artificial satellites for
    communication.
    Следует уделять больше внимания
    применению искусственных
    спутников для связи.
    We shall replace the old machines by
    new ones. - Мы заменим старые
    машины новыми.
    This method is the one which is much
    spoken about. - Это (тот) метод, о
    котором много говорят.

    § 24. Грамматическая омонимичность слов,
    оканчивающихся на -s, -ed, -ing
    1. -s (-es). 1) служит показателем множественного числа имен
    существительных: books —книги; boxes — ящики; cities — города.
    Примечание: В словах латинского и греческого происхождения, в названиях
    наук -s может быть показателем единственного числа: series — ряд; nucleus —
    ядро; radius — радиус; physics — физика; electronics — электроника.
    2) может быть показателем глагола в 3-м лице единственного числа
    настоящего времени. Стоит на втором месте в предложении, т.е. после
    подлежащего: Не reads. Он читает. She teaches. Она преподает. The student
    studies English. Студент изучает английский язык.
    3) ‘s является показателем притяжательного падежа имени
    существительного в единственном числе, s' — во множественном: the student's
    book — книга студента; the students' books — книги студентов.
    2. -ed. 1) служит показателем глагола в личной форме прошедшего времени.
    Занимает второе место в предложении после подлежащего. Переводится
    прошедшим временем.
    The engineers tested the equipment. Инженеры проверили оборудование.
    2) может быть показателем причастия II в качестве левого определения;
    обычно стоит между артиклем и существительным; переводится причастием II
    с окончаниями
    -ный, -мый, -тый:
    The described method is widely used.

    Описанный метод широко используется.

    3) слово с окончанием -ed может следовать за подлежащим, но не быть
    сказуемым, а правым определением подлежащего, выраженного причастием II.
    В этом случае сказуемым предложения выступает другое слово, которое может
    стоять в Past Indefinite и иметь также окончание -ed.
    155

    The equipment required arrived in time.
    вовремя.

    Необходимое оборудование прибыло

    4) служит показателем причастия II, которое входит в состав сказуемого.
    Перед ним всегда стоит вспомогательный глагол.
    The electron was discovered more than Электрон был назад. открыт более 60
    60 years ago.
    лет тому назад.
    3. -ing.
    1) служит показателем герундия. В функции подлежащего
    переводится инфинитивом или существительным.
    Testing this device was rather difficult.

    Испытывать этот прибор был трудно.

    2) может быть показателем отглагольного существительного:
    а) если перед ним стоит артикль, другой какой-либо определитель или есть
    окончание -s:
    The readings of this meter are right.

    Показания этого счетчика правильные.

    б) если за ним следует правое определение с предлогом of:
    The installing of this engine was
    planned for the next year.

    Установка этой машины была запланирована
    на следующий год.

    3) служит показателем Participle I:
    а) в функции определения стоит после существительного, переводится на
    русский язык причастием:
    The engineer testing the machine works at our
    plant.

    Инженер, испытывающий эту машину,
    работает на нашем заводе.

    б) в функции обстоятельства стоит чаще всего в начале предложения;
    переводится на русский язык деепричастием:
    Comparing the results of our
    investigations we see that they
    are different.

    Сравнивая результаты наших
    исследований, мы видим, что они
    различны.

    Фонетический справочник
    Четыре типа чтения английских гласных букв
    в ударных слогах
    (сводная таблица)
    Буквы
    Тип
    чтения

    a [eI]

    o [qV]

    e [i:]

    I

    [eI]
    name

    [qV]
    note

    [i:]
    be

    [x]
    flat

    [P]
    not

    [e]
    pen

    II

    i [aI]

    y [waI]
    [aI]

    fine

    my
    [I]

    sit

    myth

    u [ju:]
    [ju:]
    tune
    [A]
    сup
    156

    III
    IV

    [a:]
    large

    [O:]
    fork

    [eq]
    Mary

    [O:]
    more

    [E:]
    term

    firm

    Byrd

    fur

    [aIq]

    [iq]
    here

    fire

    [jVq]
    during

    tyre

    Чтение ударных сочетаний гласных букв
    Буквосочетания
    ai
    ay
    ea
    ee
    ew
    oi
    oy
    oo – k

    Чтение

    Примеры

    [eI]

    Spain
    day
    sea
    meet
    new
    point
    boy
    book

    [i:]
    [ju:]
    [OI]
    [u]

    Буквосочетания
    oo

    Чтение

    ou
    ow
    ai +r
    ee +r
    ou + r
    oo – r

    Примеры

    [u:]

    too

    [aV]

    out
    brown
    chair
    engineer
    our
    door

    [eq]
    [Iq]
    [aVq]
    [O:]

    Согласные буквы, имеющие два чтения
    Буква
    c [si:]
    g [Gi:]
    s [es]

    x [eks]

    Позиция
    1. Перед e, i, y
    2. Перед a, o, u, всеми
    согласными в конце слов
    1. Перед e, i, y
    2. Перед a, o, u, всеми
    согласными в конце слов
    1. В начале слова, перед
    глухими согласными и в
    конце после глухих
    согласных
    2. Между гласными, в конце
    слов после гласных и
    звонких согласных
    1. Перед согласными и в
    конце слов
    2. Перед ударной гласной

    Чтение
    Примеры
    [s]
    cent, pencil, icy
    [k]
    cap, come, cup, black
    [G],
    [g]

    page, gin, gypsy
    good, green, big

    [s]

    sit, student, lists

    [z]

    please, ties, pens

    [ks]

    text, six

    [gz]

    exam

    Чтение сочетаний согласных букв
    157

    Буква
    sh
    ch
    tch
    ck
    th

    Буква
    wh
    qu
    ng
    nk
    wr

    Позиция

    Чтение
    Любая
    [S]
    Любая
    [tS]
    После кратких гласных
    [tS]
    После кратких гласных
    [k]
    1. В начале знаменательных
    [T]
    слов и в конце слова
    2. В начале местоимений,
    [D]
    служебных слов и между
    гласными

    Примеры
    she
    chess
    match
    black
    thick, myth
    this, bathe

    Позиция
    Чтение
    1.Вначале слова перед всеми
    what
    [w]
    гласными, кроме о
    2. Перед буквой о
    who
    [h]
    Перед гласными
    [kw] question
    В конце слова
    long
    [N]
    Любая
    [Nk] thank
    В начале слова перед
    write
    [r]
    гласными

    Примеры

    Чтение сочетаний гласных с согласными
    Буква
    at
    wor
    wa
    igh

    Позиция
    Чтение
    Примеры
    chalk
    1. Перед буквой k в ударном
    [O:]
    слоге
    2. Перед остальными
    [O:l] wall, also
    согласными в ударном слоге
    Перед согласными в
    [wE:] work, word
    ударном слоге
    want
    1.
    Перед
    конечными [wP]
    согласными (кроме r) или
    сочетанием согласных
    2. Перед r
    [wO:] warm
    Любая
    light
    [aI]
    Литература

    1. Бонк Н.А., Котий Г.А., Лукьянова Н.А. Учебник английского языка. В двух
    частях. Часть 1. – Мн. «Вышэйшая школа», 1991.

    158

    СЛОВАРЬ ОБЩЕНАУЧНОЙ ЛЕКСИКИ
    A

    abridge
    absorb
    abundant
    accelerate
    acceleration

    [q'brIdZ]
    [qb'sO:b]
    [q'bAndqnt]
    [qk'selqreIt]

    [qkˏselq'reISn]
    accept
    [qk'sept]
    access
    ['xkses]
    accommodate [q'komqdeIt]
    accomplish
    [q'kAmplIS]
    account
    [q'kaVnt]

    v 1. сокращать; 2.ограничивать; 3. лишать
    v поглощать, впитывать
    a обильный, богатый, изобилующий
    v ускорять (ся)
    n ускорение
    v 1. принимать; 2. допускать, соглашаться, признавать
    n 1. доступ; 2. приход; 3. выборка (из памяти)
    v 1. приспосабливать; 2. снабжать; 3.применять
    v 1. выполнять, завершать; 2. достигать
    n счет, расчет; v 1.считать; 2. рассчитывать; 3.(for)
    объяснять
    159

    accumulate

    [q'kju:mjqleIt]

    accuracy
    accurate
    achieve
    adapt
    add
    addition
    adjust

    ['xkjqrqsI]
    ['xkjqrqt]
    [q' CI:v]
    [q'dxpt]
    [xd]
    [q'dISn]
    [q'GAst]

    admit
    advance

    [q'dmIt]
    [qd'va:ns]

    advantage
    aid
    aim
    aircraft
    allocate

    [qd'va:ntIG]
    [eId]
    [eIm]
    ['eqkra:ft]
    [´xlqkeIt]

    alloy
    altitude
    amount

    [´xlOI]
    [´xltItju:d]
    [q'maVnt]

    amplification

    [ˏxmplIfI'keISn]
    [´xmplIfaIq]
    [´xmplIfaI]

    amplifier
    amplify
    application
    apply
    appraise
    appreciate
    appreciation

    [ˏxplI'keISn]
    [q'plaI]
    [q'preIz]
    [q'prI:SIeIt]

    appropriate
    approve

    [qˏprI:SI'eiSn]
    [q'prqVpriqt]
    [q'pru:v]

    approximate
    arrange

    [q'proksImqt]
    [q'reIndZ]

    artificial

    [ˏa:tI'fISl]
    [q'sembl]

    assemble

    v 1. накапливать; 2. складывать, скопляться;
    3.нарастать
    n 1. точность; 2.правильность
    a 1. точный; 2. правильный;
    v 1. достигать, добиваться; 2. доводить до конца
    v 1. приспосабливать; 2. адаптировать; 3. переделывать
    v 1. прибавлять; складывать
    n 1. прибавление; 2. сложение
    v 1. регулировать, устанавливать; 2. настраивать; 3.
    подгонять (о расчете); 4. выравнивать; 5.
    корректировать, вносить поправки
    v 1. допускать; 2. принимать; 3. признавать
    n 1. продвижение;2. наступление; 3. успех, улучшение,
    прогресс; 4. повышение
    n 1. преимущество, превосходство; 2. выгода, польза
    n помощь, средство
    n 1. цель, намерение; 2. прицел
    n самолет, летательный аппарат
    v 1. распределять, выделять; назначать (to); 2.
    локализировать
    n сплав
    n 1. высота; угол листа, угол возвышения, угол наклона
    n 1. сумма, итог; 2. количество; v 1. доходить; 2. быть
    равным
    n 1. усиление; 2. расширение; 3. распространение
    n усилитель
    v 1. усиливать; 2. расширять (ся); 3. распространять
    (ся)
    n 1. заявление, заявка; 2. применение, использование
    v 1. обращаться с просьбой; 2. применять,
    использовать, употреблять; 3. относиться
    v оценивать, расценивать
    v 1. оценивать; 2. понимать; 3. принимать во внимание
    n 1. оценка; 2. определение; понимание
    a 1. соответствующий, подходящий; 2. свойственный
    v 1. одобрять, считать правильным; 2. одобрять,
    утверждать, санкционировать
    a приблизительный
    v 1. приводить в порядок; 2. уславливаться,
    договариваться, приходить к соглашению
    a искусственный, неестественный
    v 1. монтировать; 2. собирать(ся)
    160

    assembler
    assembly
    assign
    assist
    аssistance
    assume

    [q'semblq]
    [q'sembli]
    [q'saIn]
    [q'sIst]
    [q'sIstqns]
    [q'sju:m]

    assumption
    attach

    [q'sAmpSn]
    [q'txC]

    attempt
    аttitude
    attract
    audio
    augment
    auxiliary
    available
    average
    avoid
    axis

    [q'tempt]
    [´xtItju:d]
    [q'trxkt]
    [´O:diqV]
    [O:g'ment]
    [O:g'zIliqrI]
    [q'veIlqbl]
    [´xvqrIG]
    [q'vOId]
    [´xksIs]

    n ассемблер; компонующая программа сборки
    n 1. компоновочный узел (устройства);
    v 1. назначать; 2. присваивать
    v помогать, содействовать
    n помощь, содействие
    n 1. брать на себя (ответственность); 2. присваивать; 3.
    допускать, предполагать
    n 1. предположение; 2. присвоение
    v 1. прикреплять, присоединять; 2. привязывать,
    привлекать к себе; 3. приписывать, придавать
    (значение)
    v 1. пытаться; 2. стараться; 3. пробовать
    N 1. позиция; 2. отношение (к чему-либо)
    v 1. привлекать; 2. прельщать; 3. притягивать
    a звуковой; n звук
    v увеличивать, прибавлять
    a 1. вспомогательный; 2. добавочный, запасный
    a 1. имеющийся (в распоряжении); 2. доступный
    a средний
    v 1. избегать, сторониться
    n ось
    B

    bachelor
    background

    [´bxtSqlq]
    [´bxkgraVnd]

    background
    hiss
    band

    n бакалавр
    n 1. фон, фоновая работа; 2. предпосылка; 3.
    подготовка
    фоновый шум

    [´bxnd]

    amateur
    bandwidth

    [´xmqtq]
    [´bxndwIdT]

    bank

    [´bxNk]

    n 1. полоса частот; диапазон частот; 2. полоса; 3. зона;
    4. группа дорожек
    band любительский диапазон частот
    n 1. ширина полосы частот; 2. ширина полосы
    пропускания
    n батарея, блок, группа, набор; v группировать,
    объединять
    data bank банк данных, информационный банк
    банк данных; информационный банк
    хранилеще данных
    n 1. база; 2. основание, подложка; 3. базовый электрод
    (транзистора); v 1. базироваться; 2. закладывать
    основание; 3. основывать(ся)
    a основной
    n 1. луч, пучок лучей; v излучать, передавать
    n луч лазера
    v 1. носить; 2. поддерживать; 3. выносить, терпеть

    data bank
    public data bank
    base
    [beIs]
    basic
    [beIsIk]
    beam
    [bi:m]
    laser beam
    bear
    [beq]

    161

    behave
    behaviour

    [bI´heIv]
    [bI´heIvjq]

    believe
    bell
    belong

    [bI´li:v]
    [bel]
    [bI´lPN]

    bend

    [bend]

    benefit

    [´benIfIt]

    bilateral
    binary
    bit
    bitter
    blood
    blow
    blueprint
    body
    bother
    bound
    brain

    [baI´lxtqrql]
    [´baInqri]
    [bIt]
    [´bItq]
    [blAd]
    [blqV]
    [´blu:prInt]
    [´bPdi]
    [´bPD q]
    [baVnd]
    [breIn]

    branch

    [bra:nC]

    break

    [breIk] (broke,
    broken)

    breakthrough ['breIkTru:]
    brick
    [brIk]
    bridge
    [brIG]
    brief
    [´bri:f]
    bright
    [braIt]
    bring
    [brIN]
    bring about
    bring together
    broad
    [brO:d]
    broadcast

    [´brO:dka:st]

    broadcasting

    [´brO:dka:stIN]

    v 1. вести себя, поступать; 2. работать (о машине)
    n 1. поведение, манеры; 2. технический режим
    (работы)
    v 1. верить; 2. доверять; 3. полагать
    n 1. колокол; 2. звонок
    v принадлежать (to); 2. относиться (to); быть
    связанным (to with along)
    v гнуть(ся), сгибать(ся), склонять(ся); 2. изгибать(ся),
    поворачивать (о реке); 3. сосредотачивать
    v извлекать пользу, выгоду; 2. помогать, приносить
    пользу
    a двусторонний
    a двоичный, сдвоенный
    n 1. бит (двоичный) разряд; 2. бит; 3.кусочек, кусок
    a горький
    n 1. кровь; 2. род, происхождение
    n удар
    n 1. синька, светокопия; 2. план, проект, программа
    n 1. тело; 2. корпус; 3. главная часть
    v 1. надоедать, докучать; 2. беспокоить, волновать
    n граница, предел; v граничить, ограничивать
    n 1. головной мозг; 2. электронная вычислительная
    машина; управляющая машина
    n 1. ветвь, ветка; 2. отрасль; 3. филиал, отделение; 4.
    линия; 5. ответвление, (условный) переход
    v 1. ломать, разрушать, взламывать; 2. ломаться,
    разрушаться; 3. нарушать (закон); 4. прерывать; 5.
    объявлять (новость); 6. тех. прерывать, выключать
    n достижение, открытие
    n 1. кирпич; 2. брусок (чего-л)
    n 1. мост(ик); 2. шунт, параллельное соединение
    a 1. короткий, недолгий; 2. лаконичный, краткий
    a 1. яркий; 2. блестящий; 3. сияющий; 4. прозрачный
    v приносить
    v 1. вызывать, быть причиной; 2. приводить,
    привозить; 3. принести
    свести вместе (спорящих, враждующих)
    a 1. широкий; 2. обширный, просторный; 3. широкий,
    свободный, терпимый
    n 1. радиовещание; v 2. телевизионное вещание 1.
    передавать по радио; 2. передавать по телевидению
    n 1. передача радиопрограмм; 2. передача
    телевизионных программ
    162

    bubble

    [bAbl]

    build
    bulk

    [bIld] (built)
    [bulk]

    bullet
    bureau
    buy

    [bVlIt]
    [´bjVqrqV]
    [baI]

    cable

    [´keIbl]

    fibre cable

    [´faIbq´keIbl]

    n 1. цилиндрический магнитный домен (цмд); 2.
    пузырь
    v строить, сооружать
    n 1. объем; вместиость; 2. большая часть чего-л; 3.
    основная масса; большое количество
    n пуля
    n бюро, контора
    v покупать
    C

    lightguide
    [laItgaId´ keIbl]
    cable
    optical fiber cable [´PptIk(q)l
    ´faIbq keIbl]
    calculate
    calculation

    [´kxlkjVˏleIt]

    call

    [ˏkxlkjVleIS(q)n]
    [kLl]

    capacitor

    [ˏkq´pxsItq]

    capacity

    [kq´pxsqti]

    capability

    [ˏkeIpq´bIlqti]

    bandwidth
    capability

    [´bxndwIdTˏkeIpq

    capable

    ´bIlqti]
    [´keIpqbl]

    care

    [keq]

    carefully

    [´keqfVli]

    carrier

    [´kxrIq(r)]

    n 1. кабель; 2. телеграмма, передаваемая по
    подводному кабелю; v передавать телеграмму
    по подводному кабелю
    волоконный кабель
    световодный кабель
    волоконно-оптический кабель
    v 1.вычислять, исчислять, высчитывать, делать
    вычисления; 2. рассчитывать
    n вычисление
    n 1. телефонный разговор; вызов; 2. запрос;
    v 1. вызывать, звонить по телефону; 2.
    запрашивать
    n конденсатор; емкость
    n 1. возможность; способность; 2.
    производительность;
    3. характеристика; 4. мандат (для доступа к
    объекту системы)
    n 1. возможность, способность; 2. мощность,
    производительность
    пропускная способность канала
    a 1. способный; 2. поддающийся (чему-либо),
    допускающий (что-либо); 3. восприимчивый
    n 1. забота, попечение, уход; 2. внимание,
    осторожность
    adv 1. осторожно; 2. тщательно, внимательно
    n 1. несущая; 2. (многоканальная) система
    передачи информации с использованием
    несущей; 3. носитель (заряда или информации)
    163

    carry

    [´kxri]

    case

    [keIs]

    cause

    [kLz]

    cell
    photosensitive
    cell

    [sel]
    [ˏfqVtqV´ sensqtIv
    sel]

    certain

    [´sE:t(q)n]

    certainly

    [´sE:tnli]

    a 1. определенный; 2. некоторый; 3. уверенный;
    4. надежный, несомненный
    adv конечно, непременно, несомненно

    chamber

    [´tSeImbq(r)]

    n 1. палата; 2. камера

    change

    [´tSeInG]

    channel

    [´tSxn(q)l]

    character
    charge

    [´kxrqktq]
    [tSa:G]

    n 1. перемена, изменение; 2. разнообразие;
    v 1. менять, изменять, переделывать
    n 1. канал; тракт; трасса; 2. дорожка (магн.
    ленты)
    n знак; символ; буква; цифра

    cheap
    check

    [tSi:p]
    [tSek]

    chief

    [tSi:f]

    chip
    choice
    сhoose

    [tSIp]
    [tSOIs]
    [tSu:z]

    chunk
    chunk of data

    [tSANk]

    circle
    circuit
    integrated
    circuit
    discrete circuit
    printed circuit
    thick-film
    integrated
    circuit

    n 1. перенос; 2. знак переноса; импульс
    переноса; сигнал переноса; v переносить
    n 1. корпус, кожух; 2. регистр; 3. случай;
    4. обстоятельство
    n 1. причина; 2. основание, мотив, повод; 3. дело
    v 1. быть причиной, служить поводом;
    вызывать, причинять; 2. заставлять, побуждать,
    добиваться
    n ячейка; элемент
    фоточувствительный элемент

    n 1. заряд; 2. нагрузка; v 1. заряжать; 2.
    насыщать
    a дешевый, обесцененный
    n проверка, контроль; v проверять,
    контролировать
    a главный, руководящий, старший; n глава,
    руководитель
    n чип, кристалл
    n 1. выбор, отбор, альтернатива
    v 1. выбирать, отбирать, подбирать; 2.
    предпочитать, решать, считать необходимым
    n кусок программы (на блок-схеме)
    порция данных

    [tSANk Pv ´deItq]
    ['sE:k(q)l]
    n 1. круг; 2. сфера, область; 3. круговорот, цикл
    ['sE:kIt]
    n 1. схема, цепь, контур; 2. канал, линия
    ['IntIgreItId 'sE:kIt] интегральная схема
    [dIsk´ri:t 'sE:kIt]
    ['prIntId 'sE:kIt]
    ['TIk'film
    'IntIgreItId 'sE:kIt]

    дискретная схема
    печатная схема
    толстопленочная интегральная схема

    164

    thin-film
    integrated
    circuit
    very largescale
    integrated
    circuit (VLSI)
    claim

    ['TIn'film
    'IntIgreItId 'sE:kIt]

    тонкопленочная интегральная схема

    ['veri la:G skeIl
    'IntIgreItId 'sE:kIt]

    сверхбольшая интегральная схема (СБИС)

    [kleIm]

    clean

    [kli:n]

    clear
    clearly
    circumference
    clock

    [klIq]
    ['klIqli]
    [sE: 'kAmfqrqns]
    [klPk]

    close

    [klqVz]

    clutch
    coat

    [klAtS]
    [kqut]

    n 1. иск, претензия; v 1. требовать; 2.
    претендовать, заявлять права на; 3. утверждать
    v 1. очищать; 2. чистить, протирать;
    a 1. чистый, опрятный
    a 1. ясный, светлый; 2. прозрачный
    adv 1.ясно, несомненно; 2. конечно, очевидно
    n окружность, периферия
    n 1. часы, часовой механизм; 2. генератор
    тактовых импульсов; задающий генератор;
    3.схема синхронизации; 4. синхронизация,
    тактирование
    v 1. закрывать; 2. заканчивать; a 1. закрытый; 2.
    близкий, тесный
    n сжатие, захват
    v покрывать слоем (чего-л.)

    coating
    code
    coherent
    cohesion
    colour

    ['kqVtIN]
    [kqud]
    [kqV'hIqrqnt]
    [kqV'hi:Z(q)n]
    ['kAlq]

    combination

    [ˏkPmbI'neIS(q)n]

    combine

    [kqm'baIn]

    come

    [kAm]

    commercial
    commercially

    [kq'mE:S(q)l]
    [kq'mE:Sqli]

    coin

    [kOIn]

    n 1. покрытие; 2. обшивка
    n код; v кодировать
    а 1. когерентный; 2. сцепленный
    n 1. сплочённость 2. сцепление, связь
    n 1. цвет, оттенок; 2. краска, колер; 3. колорит;
    4. индивидуальность, яркая личность; v красить,
    окрашивать
    n 1. соединение, сочетание, комбинация; 2.
    союз, объединение, общество; 3.
    хим.соединение
    v 1. объединять(ся); 2. комбинировать, сочетать,
    смешивать
    v 1. приходить, приезжать; 2. делаться,
    становиться;
    3. случаться; 4. происходить (from); 5.
    овладевать, охватывать (over); 6. доходить,
    a 1.промышленный; 2. торговый, коммерческий
    adv с торговой, коммерческой точки зрения; с
    точки зрения выгоды
    v создавать новые слова, выражения

    165

    commodity
    common

    [kq'mPdqti]
    ['kPmqn]

    communicate

    [kq'mju:nIkeIt]

    communicatio
    n
    light-wave
    communicatio
    n
    radio
    communicatio
    n
    space
    communicatio
    n
    two-way
    communicatio
    n
    compact

    [kqˏmju:nI'keISn]
    [laIt weIv
    kqˏmju:nI'keISn]
    ['reIdiqV

    n 1. предмет потребления, товар; 2. удобство
    a 1. общий, совместный; 2. общественный,
    публичный; 3. широкораспространенный,
    общеизвестный
    v 1. устанавливать связь; 2. передавать
    сообщение
    n 1. связь; система связи; 2. передача; система
    передачи
    оптическая связь

    kqˏmju:nI'keISn]

    радиосвязь

    [speIs

    космическая связь

    kqˏmju:nI'keISn]
    [tu: weI
    kqˏmju:nI'keISn]
    [kqm'pxkt]

    compare

    [kqm'peq]

    comparable
    comparsion
    compete
    competition

    ['kPmpqrqb(q)l]
    [kqm'pxrIsn]
    [kqm'pi:t]

    competitive
    complete

    [kqm'petqtIv]
    [kqm'pli :t]

    completely
    complex

    [kqm'pli :tli]
    ['kPmpleks]

    complicate
    complicated
    compiler
    component
    compose

    ['kPmplIˏkeIt]
    ['kPmplIkeItId]
    [kqm'paIlq]
    [kqm'pqVnqnt]
    [kqm'pqVz]

    composition

    [ˏkPmpq´zISn]

    compound

    ['kPmpaVnd]

    [ˏkPmpq'tISn]

    дуплексная (одновременная, двусторонняя) связь
    a 1. компактный, плотный, твердый, сплошной,
    сжатый; v сжимать, уплотнять
    v 1. сравнивать, проводить параллель; 2.
    сравнивать, уподоблять
    a 1. сравнимый; 2. достойный сравнения
    n сравнение
    v 1. состязаться, соревноваться; 2. конкурировать
    n 1. конкуренция; 2. состязание; 3. соревнование;
    4. конкурс
    a соперничающий, конкурирующий
    v 1. заканчивать, завершать; 2.
    укомплектовывать
    adv совершенно, полностью, вполне, всецело
    a 1. сложный, составной, комплексный; 2.
    трудный, запутанный
    v 1. усложнять, 2. осложнять(ся)
    a 1. сложный, запутанный
    n компилятор; компилирующая программа
    n компонент; элемент
    v 1. составлять, компоновать; 2. сочинять,
    создавать
    n 1. составление, построение, соединение; 2.
    состав, структура
    n 1. физ.,хим. соединение, смесь, состав; 2.
    166

    comprehensive

    [ˏkPmprI'hensIv]

    comprise

    [kqm'praIz]

    compute
    computer
    generalpurpose
    computer
    specialpurpose
    computer
    database
    computer

    [kPm'pju:t]
    [kqm'pju:tq]
    [´Genrel'pE:pqs
    kqm'pju:tq]

    лингв. сложное слово
    a 1. всесторонний, всеобъемлющий,
    исчерпывающий
    v 1. включать, содержать, охватывать, заключать
    в себя
    v 1. считать, подсчитывать; 2. вычислять
    n компьютер, вычислительная машина
    вычислительная машина общего назначения

    ['speS(q)l'pE:pqs
    kqm'pju:tq]

    вычислительная машина специального
    назначения

    ['deItqˏbeIs
    kqm'pju: tq]

    вычислительная машина для работы с базами
    данных

    computation

    [ˏkPmpju:
    'teIS(q)n]

    n расчет, вычисление

    computerize

    [kqm'pju:tqˏraIz]

    conceive

    [kqn'si:v]

    concern

    [kqn'sE:n]

    to be
    concerned
    with
    conclude

    [tq bI kqn'sE:nd
    wID]

    v 1. автоматизировать вычисления, применять
    вычислительную технику; 2. ставить задачу на
    вычислительную машину
    v 1. постигать, понимать, представлять себе;
    2. задумываться; 3. почувствовать
    v 1. касаться, относиться, иметь отношение; 2.
    интересовать
    v касаться чего-либо, быть связанным с

    concept

    ['kPnsept]

    condense

    [kqn'dens]

    condenser
    condition

    [kqn'densq]
    [kqn'dISn]

    conditional
    conduct

    [ˏkqn'dISqnl]
    ['kPn'dAkt]
    [kqn'dAkt]

    conductor
    conduction

    [kqn'dAktq]
    [kqn'dAkS(q) n]

    [kqn'klu:d]

    v 1. заключать, заканчиваться; 2. выводить
    заключение, делать вывод; 3. решать
    n понятие, идея, общее представление;
    концепция
    v 1. конденсировать, сгущать; 2. сжать, выражать
    (мысль)
    n 1. конденсатор
    n 1. условие; 2. состояние, положение; 3. pl.
    обстоятельства
    a условный
    n 1. поведение; 2. ведение ( дела); 3. воен.
    управление;
    v 1. вести; 2. руководить; 3. проводить ( тепло и
    т.д.)
    n проводник, проводящий материал
    n 1. проводимость; 2. электропроводимость
    167

    conductive
    confirm
    conjunction
    in conjuction
    with
    connect
    connection
    consequence
    consequently
    consider
    considerable
    consideration
    consist
    constant
    constantly
    constitute
    constituent
    construct
    construction
    constructive
    consult
    consume
    consumer
    contact
    contain
    container
    contest

    a проводящий
    v 1. подтверждать, утверждать; 2. подкреплять,
    поддерживать
    n 1. соединение,связь; 2. конъюнкция
    [kqn'GANkS(q)n]
    [In kqn'GANkS(q)n вместе, сообща
    wID]
    v соединять, связывать
    [kq'nekt]
    [kq'nekS(q)n]
    n 1. связь, соединение; 2. средство связи или
    сообщения
    n 1. (по)следствие; 2. вывод, заключение; 3.
    ['kPnsIkwqns]
    значение, важность
    adv следовательно, поэтому
    ['kPnsIkwqntli]
    [kqn'sIdq]
    v 1. рассматривать, обсуждать, обдумывать,
    размышлять; 2. полагать, считать; 3. принимать
    во внимание; 4. считаться с кем-либо
    [kqn'sIdqrab(q)l] a 1. значительный, значимый, важный; 2.
    большой
    [kqnˏsIdq'reIS(q)n] n 1. рассмотрение, обсуждение; 2. соображение
    v 1. состоять ( of) ; 2. заключаться (in ); 3.
    [kqn'sIst]
    совпадать
    (with)
    a 1. постоянный; 2. твердый, верный,
    ['kPnst(q)nt]
    неизменный;
    n постоянная величина, константа
    adv постоянно
    ['kPnst(q)ntli]
    ['kPnstItju:t]
    v 1. составлять; 2. основывать, утверждать
    ['kqn'stItjuqnt]
    a 1. составляющий часть целого; 2. избирающий
    [kqn'strAkt]
    v 1. строить, сооружать, конструировать; 2.
    создавать
    n 1. строительство; 2. строение, сооружение
    [kqn'strAkS(q)n]
    [kqn'strAktIv]
    a 1. конструктивный, строительный; 2.
    созидательный, творческий
    v 1. советоваться; 2. совещаться; 3. справляться
    [kqn's Alt]
    [kqn'sju:m]
    v 1. потреблять, расходовать; 2. съедать,
    поглощать;
    3. расточать (состояние, время )
    n 1. абонент; 2. потребитель
    [kqn'sju:mq]
    ['kPntxkt]
    n 1. соприкосновение, контакт; 2. связь, контакт;
    3. соприкосновение, столкновение
    v 1. содержать в себе, вмещать
    [kqn'teIn]
    [kqn'teInq]
    n 1. вместилище; 2. контейнер; 3. резервуар,
    приемник
    n 1. соревнование, состязание; 2. спор; 3.
    ['kPntqst]
    [kqn'dAktIv]
    ['kqn'fq:m]

    168

    [kqn'test]
    content(s)

    ['kPntqnt(s)]

    continue

    [kqn'tInju:]

    continuous

    [kqn'tInjVqs]

    contribute

    [kqn'trIbju:t]

    contribution

    [ˏkPntrI'bju:Sn]
    [kqn'trqVl]

    control

    remote control
    controllable
    controversy
    convenience
    conventional

    conversation
    convert
    conversion
    convey
    cool
    cooperate
    cooperation
    copper
    cope (with)
    copy

    конкурс;
    v 1. состязаться; 2. спорить; 3. оспаривать
    n 1. содержание, суть; 2. вместимость, емкость,
    объем
    v 1. продолжать, оставаться; 2. служить
    продолжением
    a 1. непрерывный, сплошной, длительный;
    2. неразрывный; 3. эл. постоянный
    v 1. способствовать; 2. делать вклад; 3.
    жертвовать;
    4. сотрудничать
    n 1. содействие, вклад

    n 1. управление, регулирование; 2. орган
    управления; регулятор; 3. устройство
    управления; 4. контроль, проверка; v управлять,
    регулировать
    [rI'mqVt kqn'trqVl ] дистанционное управление
    a 1. управляемый, регулируемый, подлежащий
    [kqn'trqVlqb(q)l]
    проверке, контролю; 2. поддающийся
    обузданию
    n 1. спор, дискуссия; 2. ссора
    ['kPntrqˏvE:si]
    n удобство
    [kqn'vi:niqns]
    [kqn'venS(q)nl]
    a 1. обычный, привычный, традиционный;
    2. обусловленный, договоренный; 3. тех.
    стандартный, удовлетворяющий техническим
    требованиям
    [ˏkPnvq 'seIS(q)n] n разговор, беседа
    v 1.преобразовывать; 2. конвертировать
    [kqn'vE:t]
    [kqn'vE:S(q)n]
    n 1. превращение,обращение; 2. физ. конверсия
    [kqn'veI]
    v 1. перевозить, переправлять; 2. передавать; 3.
    сообщать
    v 1. студить, охлаждать(ся); 2. спец. поглощать
    [ku:l]
    тепло
    v 1. сотрудничать; 2. содействовать; 3.
    [kqV'PpqreIt]
    кооперировать, объединять
    [kqVˏPpq'reS(q)n] n 1. сотрудничество, совместное действие; 2.
    кооперация

    ['kPpq]
    [kqVp]
    ['kPpi]

    n медь; красная медь
    v справиться, совладать
    n 1. копия; 2. репродукция; 3. рукопись; 4.
    образец;
    v снимать копию, воспроизводить
    169

    correct

    [kq'rekt]

    correctly
    correspond

    [kq'rektli]
    [ˏkPrq'spPnd]

    corresponding

    [ˏkPrq'spPndIN]

    count

    [kaVnt]

    counter
    counterpart
    couple

    ['kaVntq]
    ['kaVntqpa:t]
    ['kAp(q)l]

    course

    [kO:s]

    create

    [kri'eIt]

    creation

    [kri'eISn]

    creative
    crystal

    [kri'eItiv]
    ['krIst(q)l]

    crystalline

    ['krIstqˏlaIn]

    core

    [kO:]

    current

    ['kArqnt]

    alternating
    current
    direct current
    curve
    customer
    customary
    cybernetics

    ['PltqneItIN
    'kArqnt]
    [dI'rekt'kArqnt]
    [kq:v]
    ['kAstqmq]
    ['kAstqmqri]

    cycle
    cycle per
    second
    damage

    a 1. правильный, точный; 2. корректный; v
    исправлять
    adv 1. правильно, верно; 2. корректно, вежливо
    v 1. соответствовать, отвечать; 2.
    переписываться, состоять в переписке
    a 1. соответственный, соответствующий; 2.
    подобный, аналогичный; 3. ведущий переписку
    v 1. считать, подсчитывать; 2. полагать, считать;
    3. рассчитывать на что-л ( on, upon); n счет
    n счетчик
    n 1. копия, дубликат; 2. двойник; 3. партнер
    v 1. соединять; 2. связывать, ассоциировать; n
    пара
    n 1. курс, направление; 2. ход, течение; 3.
    порядок, очередь; 4. курс ( лекций, обучения,
    лечения);
    5. блюдо
    v 1. создавать, творить; 2. производить
    (впечатление)
    n создание, (со)творение, созидание,
    произведение
    a творческий, созидательный
    n 1. кристалл; 2. хрусталь; 3. радиодетекторный
    кристалл
    a 1. кристаллический; 2. прозрачный;
    3. кристаллической структуры
    n 1. сердцевина; ядро; 2. сердечник; 3. стержень;
    4. жила кабеля
    n 1. течение, поток; 2. течение, ход; 3. эл.
    электрический ток
    переменный ток
    постоянный ток
    n 1. кривая (линия); 2. изгиб, поворот; 3. лекало
    n заказчик; клиент; покупатель
    a обычный, привычный
    n кибернетика

    [ˏsaIbq'netIks]
    n цикл; период
    ['saIk(q)l]
    ['saIkl pE:'sekqnd] n герц

    [´dxmIG]

    D
    n 1. вред, повреждение; 2. убыток, ущерб
    170

    data

    [´deItq]

    deal with
    decade

    [di:l]
    [´dekeId; di'keId]

    decide
    decimal
    decisive
    deck

    [dI'saId]
    [´desIml]
    [dI'saIsIv]
    [dek]

    record deck
    declare
    decode
    decoder

    ['rekO:d"dek]
    [dI'kleq(r)]
    ["di:'kqVd]
    ["di:'kqVdq (r)]

    decrease
    dedicate
    defend

    [dI'kri:s]
    [´dedIkeIt]
    [dI'fend]

    define

    [dI'faIn]

    definite
    definition
    degree

    [´defInqt]
    ["defI'nISn]
    [dI'gri:]

    delay
    delete
    delicate

    [dI'leI]
    [dI'li:t]
    [´delIkqt]

    deliver
    demand

    [dI'lIvq(r)]
    [dI'mQ:nd]

    dense
    density

    [dens]
    [´densqti]

    deny
    department
    depend on

    [dI'naI]
    [dI'pQ:tmqnt]
    [dI'pend]

    deposit

    [dI'pPzIt]

    n (pl. – от datum) (исходные) данные; факты;
    информация; сведения
    v 1. иметь дело с; 2. рассматривать, трактовать
    n 1. десятилетие; 2. декада; 3. группа из десяти
    человек
    v решать, принимать решение
    a десятичный
    a решающий, решительный
    n 1. магнитофонная приставка; 2.
    лентопротяжный механизм; 3. пачка, колода;
    комплект, набор
    n электропроигрыватель
    v 1. объявлять; 2. заявлять, провозглашать
    v расшифровать, раскодировать, декодировать
    n 1. декодирующее устройство, декодер;
    2. шифровальщик
    v 1. уменьшать; 2. уменьшаться, убывать
    v 1. посвящать; 2. предназначать
    v 1. защищать, охранять; 2. отстаивать,
    поддерживать
    v 1. определять, давать точное определение;
    2. характеризовать, определять, устанавливать;
    3. очерчивать, устанавливать границы
    a определенный, точный
    n 1. определение; 2. ясность, точность
    n 1. ступень, степень; 2. положение, ранг, звание;
    3. градус
    n задержка; v задерживать
    v вычеркивать, стирать
    a 1. изящный, тонкий; 2. деликатный, учтивый;
    3.чувствительный (о приборе)
    v 1. передавать, вручать, доставлять; 2. выдавать
    n 1. требование, просьба, запрос; 2. потребность,
    спрос;
    v 1. требовать, предъявлять требование,
    настоятельно просить; 2. нуждаться, требовать
    а густой, плотный, компактный
    n 1. плотность, концентрация; 2. напряженность
    (поля)
    v отрицать
    n 1. отдел; 2. область, отрасль
    v 1. зависеть от, обусловливаться; 2. полагаться,
    рассчитывать
    v осаждать, отлагать
    171

    derivative
    describe
    design

    [dI'rIvqtIv]
    [dI'skraIb]
    [dI'zaIn]

    desire
    destroy
    detect
    determine

    [dI'zaIq(r)]
    [dIs'trOI]
    [dI'tekt]
    [dI'tE:mIn]

    develop

    [dI'velqp]

    device
    solid-state
    device
    die
    differ

    [dI'vaIs]
    [daI]
    ['dIfq(r)]

    digit
    digital
    digitalize

    ['dIdZIt]
    ['dIdZItl]
    ['dIdZItqlaIz]

    dimension

    [daI'menSn; dI-]

    direct

    [dq'rekt; dI-; daI-]

    disadvantage

    ["dIsqd'vRntIG]

    disappoint
    discharge
    discover

    ["dIsq'pOInt]
    [dIs'tSRG]
    [dIs'kAvq(r)]

    discrete
    disk
    displace
    display

    [dI`skrJt]
    [dIsk]
    [dIs'pleIs]
    [dI'spleI]

    data display
    disrupt
    disseminate

    [dIs'rApt]
    [dI'semIneIt]

    a производный
    v описывать, изображать
    n 1. проектирование, конструирование; 2. проект,
    разработка, схема; 3. расчет; v проектировать,
    конструировать
    v желать, просить, требовать
    v уничтожать, разрушать
    v открывать, обнаруживать
    v 1. определять, устанавливать, ограничивать;
    2. решать (ся); 3. назначать (дату); 4. кончать (ся)
    v 1. развивать; разрабатывать; 3.
    совершенствовать;
    4. обнаруживать (ся), проявлять(ся)
    n устройство, прибор, приспособление, механизм
    твердотельный прибор
    n (pl. dies) штамп, матрица
    v 1. отличаться, различаться; разниться (from); 2.
    не соглашаться, расходиться (во мнениях и т.п.
    from, with)
    n цифра
    а цифровой
    v 1. переводить на язык цифр, выразить в
    цифрах;
    2. сделать дискретным
    n 1. размер; величина; объем; 2. измерение;
    3. размерность
    v 1. направлять; 2. руководить, управлять,
    контролировать; a прямой, непосредственный
    n 1. невыгодное, неблагоприятное положение;
    2. недостаток
    v разочаровывать
    n разряд
    v 1. открывать, делать открытие; 2. раскрытие,
    обнаружение
    a 1. прерывистый; 2. дискретный
    n 1. диск; круг; 2. (грам.) пластинка
    v перемещать, вытеснять
    n дисплей, экран; v выводить (данные),
    отображать (данные)
    1. информационный дисплей; 2. индикатор
    данных
    v разрывать, прерывать
    v 1. разбрасывать, рассеивать, разносить; 2.
    172

    dissipation
    dissolve

    ["dIsI'peISn]
    [dI'zPlv]

    distant
    distinction
    distinguish
    distortion
    distribute
    disturb

    ['dIstqnt]
    [dI'stINkSqn]
    [dI'stINgwIS]
    [dI'stLSn]
    [dI'strIbjHt;
    'dIstrIbjHt]
    [dI'stE:b]

    diverse

    [daI'vE:s]

    divert
    divide

    [daI'vE:t]
    [dI'vaId]

    division
    dot
    doubt
    no doubt
    dozen
    draw

    [dI'vIZn]
    [dPt]
    [daVt]

    drawing
    dream
    drill
    drive
    drum
    durable
    duration
    dust
    duty

    ['dAzn]
    [drO:] (drew,
    drown)
    ['drO:IN]
    [dri:m]
    [drIl]
    [draIv] (drove,
    driven)
    [drAm]
    ['djVqrqbl]
    [dju'reISn]
    [dAst]
    ['dju:ti]

    вкраплять
    n рассеяние тепла
    v 1. растворять (ся); 2. постепенно исчезать;
    3. расторгать (ся), аннулировать
    a отдаленный, дальний
    n различие
    v 1. различать; 2. отличать
    n искажение
    v распределять, распространять
    v 1. нарушать ход, движение; 2. волновать,
    тревожить, доставлять хлопоты; 3. расстраивать,
    нарушать, срывать
    a 1. различный, отличный, исходный; 2. разный,
    разнообразный
    v направлять в другую сторону
    v 1. делить, отделять; 2. разделять (from),
    разъединять
    n деление, разделение
    n 1. точка; 2. крошечная вещь
    n сомнение; v сомневаться
    несомненно, вне сомнения
    n 1. дюжина, 2. pl. множество
    v 1. тащить, волочить, тянуть; 2. чертить,
    рисовать
    n 1. чертеж; 2. рисунок, набросок, изображение
    v мечтать; n мечта
    v сверлить
    v 1. везти, ехать (в автобусе); 2. управлять
    (автомобилем);
    3. приводить в движение; 4. гнать, преследовать
    n 1. барабан, цилиндр; 2. магнитный барабан
    a прочный, крепкий, надежный
    n продолжительность, длительность
    n пыль
    n 1. долг, обязанность; 2. производительность
    (машины); мощность
    E

    earth
    edit
    efficiency

    ['E: T]
    [edit[
    [I'fiSnsi]

    n земля, земной шар
    v редактировать, подготовлять к печати
    n 1.эффективность, действенность;
    2. производительность, продуктивность
    173

    elective
    eliminate
    embed
    emission
    emit
    employ

    [I'lektiv]
    [I'limineit]
    [Im'bed]
    [i'mISn]
    [i'mit]
    [Im'plOI]

    employee
    emulation
    enable

    [im'plOIi:]
    [emju'leISn]
    [I'neIbl]

    encode

    [In'kqVd]

    encoder

    [In'kqVdq(r)]

    encounter

    [in'kaVntq(r)]

    encourage

    [in'kArIG]

    energize

    ['enqGaiz]

    engaged
    engine
    enhance
    enormous
    ensure
    entitle
    entrust
    equation
    equip
    equipment
    error
    essence
    estimate

    [in'geIGd]
    ['enGIn]
    [in'ha:ns]
    [i'nO:mqs]
    [in'SVq(r)]
    [in'taItl]
    [in'trAst]
    [I'kweIZn]
    [I'kwip]
    [I'kwipmqnt]
    ['erq(r)]
    ['esns]
    ['estimeit]

    ether
    evaluate

    ['i: Tq(r)]
    [I'vxljueIt]

    evaporate
    even

    [I'vxpqreIt]
    ['I:vn]

    evolve

    [i'vPlv]

    adj избирательный, выборный
    v исключать, устранять
    v 1. вделывать, вставлять, врезать; 2. внедрять
    n эмиссия, испускание, излучение
    v испускать, излучать
    v 1. предоставлять работу, нанимать; 2.
    употреблять, использовать, применять
    служащий
    n соревнование, состязание, соперничество
    v 1. давать возможность; 2. делать возможным,
    создавать возможность
    v шифровать, зашифровывать по коду,
    кодировать
    n 1. кодер, кодирующее устройство; 2.
    кодировщик
    v встретиться, сталкиваться, наталкиваться; n
    столкновение, схватка, стычка
    v 1. одобрять; 2. поощрять, поддерживать; 3.
    подстрекать
    v 1. возбуждать, сообщать энергию; 2.
    пропускать ток
    adj занятый
    n двигатель, мотор
    v повышать, увеличивать, усиливать
    adj громадный, огромный
    v обеспечивать, гарантировать
    v 1. давать право; 2. озаглавливать, называть
    v доверить, доверять, поручать
    n уравнение
    v оборудовать, оснащать
    n оборудование, аппаратура
    n ошибка; погрешность
    n сущность, суть
    v 1. оценивать, давать оценку; 2.
    подсчитывать//оценка
    n эфир
    v 1. оценивать, устанавливать стоимость; 2.
    оценивать, давать оценку
    v испаряться, улетучиваться, исчезать
    adj 1. ровный, гладкий; 2. уравновешенный; 3.
    равный, одинаковый; 4. четный (о числах) v 1 .
    равнять, уравнивать. 2. делать ровным; даже
    v 1. развивать, развертывать; 2. испускать,
    174

    exceed

    [Ik'sI:d]

    except
    exclude

    [Ik'sept]
    [Ik'sklu:d]

    extent

    [Ik'stent]

    exhibit

    [Ig'zIbIt]

    existence
    expand

    [Ig'zistqns]
    [Ik'spxnd]

    expect

    [Ik'spekt]

    exploit
    explore
    extend

    [Ik'splOIt]
    [Ik'splO:(r)]
    [ik'stend]

    выделять; 3. раскрывать, выявлять
    v 1. превышать, переходить границы; 2.
    превосходить
    adv исключая, кроме
    v 1. исключать; 2. не допускать (возможности и
    т.п.) (from)
    n 1. протяжение, дальность распространения; 2.
    степень, мера
    v 1. проявлять, показывать; 2. выставлять,
    экспонировать
    n существование
    v 1. расширять; 2. распускать; 3. расширяться; 4.
    распускаться
    v 1. ожидать, полагать; 2. надеяться,
    рассчитывать
    v использовать, эксплуатировать
    v исследовать, изучать
    v 1. расширять; 2. тянуться, простираться
    F

    facilitate
    facility

    [fq'sIlIteIt]
    [fq'sIlqti]

    communicati
    on facilities
    factor

    v облегчать, содействовать, продвигать
    n 1. устройство, установка; 2. рl.
    оборудование; аппаратура; средства; 3. канал
    связи, канал передачи
    средства связи

    ['fxktq]

    false

    ['fO:ls]

    fast

    ['fa:st]

    fasten

    ['fa:sn]

    fault
    feature

    ['fO:lt]
    ['fi:Cq]

    feeble
    feed
    feedback
    feedback
    effect
    fetch

    ['fi:bl]
    [fi:d]
    ['fi:dbxk]

    n 1. фактор; 2. мат. множитель; 3. тех
    коэффициент; 4. запас прочности
    a 1. ложный, неверный, обманчивый,
    ошибочный; 2. поддельный, фальшивый,
    искусственный
    a прочный, скорый, быстрый; adv. скоро,
    быстро, сильно, прочно
    v 1. прикреплять, привязывать, связывать; 2.
    закреплять
    n 1. недостаток; 2. ошибка, промах, дефект
    n особенность, характерная черта, признак,
    свойство; v. изображать, рисовать
    a 1. слабый; 2. незначительный, ничтожный
    v подавать, питать n подача, питание
    n обратная связь
    взаимное влияние, (радио) обратное питание

    [feC]

    n вызов, выборка v вызывать, принести,
    175

    fibre
    ['faIbq]
    glass fibre
    hair-thin glass fibre
    fidelity
    high fidelity
    (hi-fi)
    field

    [fI'delqti]

    figure

    ['fIgq]

    filament
    fill

    ['filqmqnt]
    [fIl]

    find
    find out

    ['faInd] (found)

    finder
    direction
    finder
    fine

    ['faIndq]

    ['fi:ld]

    ['fain]

    fine wire
    finger

    ['fINgq]

    firm
    fit

    ['fE:m]
    ['fIt]

    fix

    ['fiks]

    flare

    ['fleq]

    flash

    ['flxS]

    flexibility [ˏfleksq'bIlqti]
    flexible
    ['fleksqbl]
    flow
    ['flqV]
    fluid
    ['flu:Id]
    foil
    ['fPIl]
    force
    ['fO:s]
    forecast
    ['fO:ka:st]

    достать
    n 1. (оптическое) волокно; 2. фибра
    стекловолокно
    стекловолокно толщиной в человеческий
    волос
    n точность, верность
    n высокая точность воспроизведения
    n 1. поле; 2. сфера, поприще; 3. область
    (знаний, деятельности); a полевой
    n 1. цифра; 2. число; 3. фигура, рисунок,
    чертеж, диаграмма; v изображать,
    представлять себе, фигурировать
    n 1. нить накала; 2. катод
    v 1. наполнять, заполнять, переполнять; 2.
    исполнять, выполнять
    v находить, обнаруживать n находка
    узнать, разузнать, выяснить; понять, открыть,
    разгадать
    n 1. искатель; 2. видоискатель, визир
    радиопеленгатор
    a 1. прекрасный, превосходный; 2. тонкий; 3.
    ясный
    тонкий провод
    n 1. палец (руки); 2. тех.палец, штифт; 3.
    стрелка (часов), указатель
    n фирма a крепкий, твердый
    v 1. соответствовать, годиться, подходить; 2.
    устанавливать, монтировать
    v 1. укреплять, закреплять; 2. внедрять,
    вводить; 3. устанавливать, назначать,
    фиксировать
    n вспышка, блеск v ярко вспыхивать,
    ослеплять блеском
    n вспышка, яркий свет, проблеск
    n 1. гибкость; 2. эластичность, упругость
    a гибкий
    n поток, течение v течь, литься
    a текучий, жидкий n жидкость
    n фольга
    n сила, мощь, действие
    n предсказание, предвидение v предсказывать
    176

    weather
    forecast
    foresee
    forge
    formation

    [fO: 'si:]
    ['fO:G]
    ['fO:'meISn]

    found

    ['faVnd]

    foundry
    fox-hunter

    ['faVndrI]

    fraction
    decimal
    fraction
    proper
    fraction
    frame
    still frame
    freeze
    frequency
    fruitful
    fuel
    fultil
    furnace
    fusion

    прогноз погоды

    ['fPksˏhAntq]
    ['frxkSn]

    v предвидеть
    n 1. (кузнечный) горн; 2. кузница
    n 1. образование, формирование, учреждение;
    2. строение, структура, конструкция
    v основывать, закладывать, учреждать,
    опираться (о доводах)
    n литейная (мастерская), литейный завод
    n 1. охотник на лис; 2. спец. искатель вызова
    n дробь, частица
    десятичная дробь
    правильная дробь

    n 1. кадр; 2. рама, стойка; 3. система отсчета
    стоп кадр
    ['fri:z] (froze, frozen) v замораживать, замерзать, застывать
    ['fri:kwqnsi]
    n частота
    ['fru:tfl]
    a плодотворный, плодовитый
    ['fju:ql]
    n топливо, горючее
    [fVl'fIl]
    v выполнять, осуществлять
    ['fE:nIs]
    n печь, топка
    ['fju:Zn]
    n 1. плавление, таяние; 2. сплавление; 3.
    синтез, слияние
    thermonuclear fusion ['TE:mP(V) 'nju:klIq] n термоядерный синтез, термоядерная
    реакция
    ['freIm]

    G
    gain
    gap

    [geIn]
    [gxp]

    gathering
    general
    generalpurpose
    generate
    generation

    ['gxDqrIN]
    ['Genrql]
    ['Genrql-'pE:pqs]
    ['GenqreIt]
    [ˏGenq'reISn]

    n 1.прибыль, 2. доходы, достижения, прирост
    n 1 глубокое расхождение (во взглядах и т.п.),
    разрыв, 2.
    пробел, пропуск, 3 зазор, 4. брешь
    n 1. сбор (данных, информации) 2. собирание
    a 1.общий, 2.обычный, 3.главный
    a универсальный
    v 1.производить, генерировать, 2.вырабатывать
    n 1.производство, создание, образование,
    воспроизведение, формирование 2.генерация,
    генерирование 3.поколение
    (электронно-вычислительных машин)
    177

    generator
    genius
    German
    germanium
    gigantic
    glass
    glow
    go (went,
    gone)
    go on
    go through
    goal
    goodneighbouring
    govern

    [ˏGenqreItq(r)]
    ['Gi:niqs]
    ['GE:mqn]
    [GE: ' memiqm]
    [GaI'gxntIk]
    ['gla:s]
    [glqV]
    [gqV]

    ['gqVl]
    ['gVd'neIbqrIN]
    ['gAvn]

    government
    graduate

    ['gAvnmqnt]
    ['grxGuqt]

    grain
    grant

    [greIn]
    [gra:nt]

    graph
    grid
    ground

    [grxf]
    [grId]
    [graVnd]

    group

    [gru:p]

    guess
    guide

    [ges]
    [gaId]

    gun

    [gAn]

    n генератор, источник энергии
    n 1.гений 2.характер
    немецкий, германский
    n хим. германий
    a гигантский, громадный
    n 1.стекло, 2.зеркало, 3.телескоп
    v 1.накалять докрасна, 2.светиться, сверкать,
    3.тлеть, 4.гореть
    v 1 идти, ходить, пойти, 2.ехать
    v продолжать
    v испытывать, подвергаться
    n 1.цель, задача
    n 1.добрососедские отношения,
    2.доброжелательность
    v 1.прасить, управлять, 2.руководить,
    регулировать,
    3.определять, обуславливать
    1.правительство, 2.управление
    n 1.имеющий ученую степень, окончивший
    учебное заведение,
    2.мензурка v 1.распологать в
    последовательном порядке, 2.закончить
    учебное заведение
    1.зерно, крупинка
    n 1.дар, официальное представление,
    2.разрешение, согласие,
    3.дотация, субсидия
    график, диаграмма
    n 1.сетка, 2.решетка, 3.сеть
    n 1.земля, 2.обоснование, 3.грунт,
    4.заземление
    n 1.группа, 2.группировать(ся),
    3.классифицировать
    v угадать, отгадать
    1.проводник, гид, экскурсовод, 2.руководящий
    принцип,
    3.ориентир, указатель 4.направлять,
    руководить, вести, управлять
    n 1.электронная пушка, 2.ружье
    H

    half

    ['ha:f]

    n 1.половина, 2.часть чего-либо
    178

    hand

    [hxnd]

    handle

    ['hxndl]

    handing

    ['hxndiN]

    happen
    hard

    ['hxpqn]
    [ha:d]

    hardly
    hardware

    ['ha:dli]
    ['ha:dweq(r)]

    head

    [hed]

    heading
    ['hedIN]
    health
    [helT]
    health service
    heap
    ['hi:p]
    hear
    ['hIq]
    (heard)
    heating
    ['hi:tIN]
    heat
    [hi:t]
    heavy

    ['hevi]

    help
    hence

    [help]
    [hens]

    high

    [haI]

    high-power ['haI'paVq]
    high speed ['haI'spi:d]

    1. рука, 2.власть, распоряжение, 3.рабочий,
    работник
    on the other hand - с другой стороны
    v 1.обходиться, обращаться, 2.управлять,
    регулировать,
    3.трактовать
    n 1.обработка, 2.обхождение, обращение,
    управление,
    выполнение операций подачи и перемещения
    v случаться, происходить
    a 1.твердый, жесткий, 2.трудный, тяжелый,
    3.сильный,
    4.крепкий,тугой
    1.едва (ли), 2. с трудом, 3.резко, сурово
    n 1.аппаратура, аппаратное обеспечение
    (ЭВМ), аппаратные
    средства, оборудование
    v 1.возглавлять, стоять во главе, идти, стоять
    впереди,
    2.направлять
    1.заглавие, надпись, 2.направление,курс
    n здоровье
    n здравоохранение
    n куча, груда
    v 1.слышать, услышать, 2.слушать, внимать,
    3.выслушать
    n 1.нагревание, нагрев, 2.отопление
    v 1.нагревать, подогревать, согревать,
    2.накаливать,
    3.топить, отапливать
    a 1.тяжелый, тяжеловесный, 2.крупный,
    большой, массивный
    help [
    ] 1.помощь,
    2.средство,спасение, 3.помощник, 4.работник,
    прислуга
    1.отсюда, 2.с этих пор, с этого времени,
    3.следовательно,
    поэтому
    a 1.высокий, возвышенный, 2.высший,
    главный, верховный,
    3.сильный
    a мощный, высокой мощности
    a быстродействующий, скоростной
    179

    highly
    hit

    ['haIli]
    [hIt]

    hold (held)

    [hqVld]

    hole

    [hqV]

    hollow

    ['hPlqV]

    holography
    hostel
    hot
    hot
    house

    [hP'lPgrqfI]
    ['hPstl]

    however
    huge
    human
    humanity

    [haV'evq]
    [hju:G]
    [hju:mqn]
    [hju: 'mxnqti]

    hydraulic
    humid

    [haI'drO:lIk]
    ['hju:mId]

    [hPt]
    [haVs]

    identify

    [aIˈdentIfaI]

    idle

    [ˈaIdl]

    illustrate

    [ˈIlqstreIt]

    image

    [ˈImIG]

    imagine

    [IˈmxGIn]

    immediate
    immune

    [IˈmJdiqt]
    [Iˈmju:n]

    весьма, очень, чрезвычайно
    v 1.ударять, поражать, 2.попадать в цель,
    3.двигаться, 4.найти,
    5.уловить сходство, 6.воспламеняться
    v 1.держать, 2.удерживать, останавливать,
    3.владеть,
    иметь, 4.вмещать, содержать в себе,
    5.полагать, считать
    n 1.дыра, отверстие, 2.углубление, яма,
    3.нора,
    4.продырявливать
    a 1.полый, 2.пустой, 3.пустотелый, 4.глухой (о
    звуке)
    holography [
    ]
    1.голография, 2.рукопись
    1. голография, 2. рукопись
    n 1.общежитие, 2.тубаза,
    a 1.горячий, пылкий, 2.горяго, жарко, пылко
    n 1.дом, здание, 2.жилье, жилище,
    3.представлять жилище,
    обеспечивать жильем, 4.жить, размещаться,
    5.вмещать, содержать
    1.как бы ни, 2.какой бы ни
    a огромный, громадный, гигантский
    a человеческий, людской, смертный
    n 1.человечество, человеческий род,
    2.гуманность, доброта
    a гидравлический
    a влажный, сырой
    I, i
    v устанавливать, определять, отождествлять
    adj 1.бесполезный, тщетный; 2.
    неработающий, бездействующий
    v 1.иллюстрировать, снабжать рисунками; 2.
    пояснять
    образ, изображение
    v 1. воображать, представлять себе; 2.
    предполагать, думать, полагать
    adj непосредственный, прямой
    a 1. невосприимчивый; 2. защищенный
    180

    impinge

    [ImˈpInG]

    v сталкиваться, ударяться

    importance

    [ImˈpLtns]

    n важность, большое значение, значимость

    improve

    [imˈprHv]

    v улучшать(ся), совершенствовать(ся),
    поправлять(ся)
    n улучшение, усовершенствование

    improvement [imˈprHvmqnt]
    incentive
    inch
    incident
    include

    [InˈsentIv]
    [IntS]
    [ˈInsIdqnt]
    [InˈklHd]

    incorporate

    [InˈkLpqreIt]

    increase1

    [InˈkrJs]

    increase2
    increment
    indefinite
    independenc
    e
    indicate

    [ˈINkrJs]
    [ˈINkrqmqnt]
    [InˈdefInqt]
    [ˌIndIˈpendqns]
    [ˈIndIkeIt]

    indispensable [ˌIndIˈspensqbl]
    induce

    [InˈdjHs]

    inevitable

    [IˈnevItqbl]

    inexpensive

    [ˌInIkˈspensIv]

    infantile

    [ˈInfqntaIl]

    influence

    [ˈInfluqns]

    n побуждение, побудительный мотив, стимул
    n дюйм
    аdj 1.свойственный, характерный; 2.падающий
    (о лучах)
    v 1.содержать, заключать в себе; 2.иметь в
    своем составе
    v 1.объединять, включать, присоединять;
    2.смешивать, соединять; 3. входить в состав
    v расти, увеличивать(ся)
    n возрастание, рост, увеличение;
    2.прибавление
    n инкремент, бесконечно малое приращение;
    дифференциал
    adj 1.неопределенный, неясный;
    2.неограниченный
    n независимость, самостоятельность
    v 1.указывать, показывать; 2.означать
    adj необходимый, обязательный
    v 1.побуждать, склонять, воздействовать;
    2.вызывать; 3. индуктировать
    adj неизбежный, неминуемый
    adj дешевый, недорогой
    adj 1.младенческий, детский; 2.начальный, в
    начальной стадии
    n 1.влияние, действие, воздействие; 2. лицо
    или фактор, оказывающие влияние;
    3.индукция
    v сообщать, информировать, извещать

    inform

    [InˈfLm]

    information
    information
    science

    [ˌInfqˈmeISn]

    n 1.информация, сведения, данные; 2.знания
    информатика

    infrared

    [ˌInfrqˈred]

    adj инфракрасный

    ingredient
    inherent

    [InˈgrJdiqnt]

    n составная часть, компонент, ингредиент
    adj 1.присущий, свойственный;

    [InˈhIqrqnt]

    181

    2.прирожденный, врожденный
    а (перво)начальный, исходный

    initial

    [IˈnISl]

    inner

    [ˈInq(r)]

    input

    [ˈInpʊt]

    inquiry

    [InˈkwaIqri]

    insist

    [InˈsIst]

    adj внутренний
    n 1.ввод, вход; 2.подача; 3.входное устройство,
    устройство ввода (данных)
    n 1.наведение справок; 2.вопрос, запрос;
    3.исследование, (научное) изыскание
    v настаивать, утверждать

    inspire

    [InˈspaIq(r)]

    v вдохновлять, воодушевлять, стимулировать

    install

    [InˈstLl]

    v устанавливать, монтировать; собирать
    n 1.установка, инсталляция, устройство;
    2.монтаж, сборка

    installation

    [ˌInstqˈleISn]

    instance
    for instance

    [ˈInstqns]

    institution

    [ˌInstIˈtjHSn]

    instruction

    [InˈstrAkSn]

    instrument

    [ˈInstrqmqnt]

    instrumentati [ˌInstrqmenˈteISn]
    on
    insulator

    [ˈInsjuleItq(r)]

    integrate

    [ˈIntIgreIt]

    integrated

    [ˈIntIgreItId]

    integrated circuit (IC)
    thin- and thick film IC
    integration

    [ˌIntIˈgreISn]

    large-scale integration (LSI)
    small-scale integration (SSI)
    medium- scale integration (MSI)
    intelligence
    [InˈtelIdZqns]

    n пример, образец, частный случай
    например
    n 1.установление, введение; 2.общество,
    организация, учреждение
    n 1. инструкция, команда; 2. программа
    действий; 3.обучение
    n прибор; инструментальное средство;
    измерительное средство; измерительное
    устройство, (контрольно)измерительный
    прибор
    n 1. (контрольно-)измерительные приборы 2.
    приборное оснащение, инструментальное
    оснащение
    n 1.изолятор, 2.непроводник, диэлектрик
    v 1. интегрировать; 2. объединять в одно
    целое
    adj 1. интегрированный; 2. объединенный,
    сгруппированный; 3. интегральный
    интегральная схема
    тонко - и толстопленочная интегральная схема
    n 1.объединение; 2.интеграция;
    интегрирование; 3.сборка (модулей
    программы), компоновка
    большая интегральная схема
    малая интегральная схема
    средняя интегральная схема
    n 1.сведения, сообщения, информация
    2.интеллект 3.уровень интеллекта
    (интеллектуальной системы) 4.встроенные
    вычислительные средства
    182

    interactive

    [ˌIntqrˈxktIv]

    interconnect

    [ˌIntqkqˈnekt]

    v 1.намереваться, хотеть, 2.иметь в виду,
    подразумевать
    adj сильный, интенсивный
    n интенсивность, напряженность, сила,
    глубина
    v взаимодействовать; воздействовать, влиять
    друг на друга
    аdj взаимодействующий; воздействующие
    друг на друга; согласованный
    v (взаимо)связывать

    interfere

    [ˌIntqˈfIq(r)]

    v мешать, служить препятствием, вредить

    interference

    [ˌIntqˈfIqrqns]

    interpret

    [InˈtE:prIt]

    intend

    [Inˈtend]

    intense

    [Inˈtens]

    intensity
    interact

    [Inˈtensqti]
    [ˌIntqrˈxkt]

    intricate

    [ˈIntrIkqt]

    n 1. помехи; радиопомехи; 2. интерференция;
    3.вмешательство
    v 1.объяснять, толковать, интерпретировать;
    2.переводить
    v 1.прерывать; 2.нарушать, мешать,
    препятствовать
    adj запутанный, сложный, замысловатый

    introduce

    [ˌIntrqˈdjHs]

    v вводить, внедрять

    introduction

    [ˌIntrqˈdAkSn]

    n 1. введение; 2. представление

    invent

    [Inˈvent]

    invention

    [InˈvenSn]

    v изобретать, создавать
    n изобретение, открытие

    inventor

    [Inˈventq(r)]

    investigate

    [InˈvestIgeIt]

    investigation

    [InˌvestIˈgeISn]

    investment

    [Inˈvestmqnt]

    n изобретатель
    v 1.исследовать, изучать; 2.расследовать,
    тщательно осматривать
    n (научное) исследование, изыскание,
    изучение
    n вклад, капиталовложение, инвестирование

    invisible

    [InˈvIzqbl]

    adj невидимый, незримый

    invite

    [InˈvaIt]

    v приглашать, привлекать

    involve

    [InˈvPlv]

    v включать, вовлекать

    involvement

    [InˈvPlvmqnt]

    n 1. вовлечение; 2. включение

    inwards

    [ˈInwqdz]

    adv внутрь

    iron

    [ˈaIqn]

    n железо, железное изделие

    irrespective

    [ˌIrIˈspektIv]
    [ˌaIsqˈleISn]

    adj не зависимый от, безотносительный
    n изоляция, изолирование, отделение,
    выделение

    [ˈaIsqtqʊp]

    n изотоп

    interrupt

    isolation
    isotope

    [ˌIntqˈrApt]

    183

    issue
    item

    [ˈISH; ˈIsjH]
    [ˈaItqm]

    job

    [GPb]

    join
    joint

    [GOIn]
    [GOInt]

    journal
    judgement
    jump

    [´GE:nl]
    [´GAGmqnt]
    [´GAmp]

    junction

    [´GANkSqn]

    keep

    [ki:p] (kept)

    keep smth. from smb.
    key
    [ki:]
    keyboard

    [´ki:bO:d]

    kill
    [´kIl]
    kilocycle
    [´kIlqVsaIkl]
    kind
    [´kaInd]
    nothing of the kind
    kinetic
    [kaI’netIk]
    know
    [nqV] (knew, known)
    knowledge
    [´nPlIG]
    known
    [nqVn]

    n 1.выпуск, издание 2.исход, результат
    3.вопрос, проблема
    n 1.отдельный предмет, изделие, 2.пункт,
    статья 3.сообщение, новость 4.единица
    информации
    J
    n 1. труд, работа; 2. служба, занятие; 3.
    урок, задание
    v 1. соединять(ся); 2. присоединять(ся)
    n 1. место соединения, соединение, стык,
    сочленение, шов; 3. узел; а совместный,
    единый, общий
    n 1. журнал; 2. газета
    n 1. суждение; 2. мнение, взгляд
    v Прыгать, скакать, перескакивать; n
    прыжок, скачок
    1. соединение, сочетание; 2. р-п переход; 3.
    переход, контакт; 4. разветвление
    (волновода); 5. узел (эл.цепи)
    K
    v 1. держать; 2. сохранять, хранить; 3. держать
    (слово, обещание); 4. соблюдать (закон,
    правило)
    скрывать, утаивать что-л. от кого-л.
    n 1. ключ; 2. ключ, разгадка; 3. ключ, кнопка,
    клавиша; v переключать, работать ключом
    n 1. клавиатура; 2. коммутационная панель; 3.
    коммутатор
    v 1. убивать; 2. разрушать, уничтожать
    n килогерц
    n вид, род
    ничего подобного
    a кинетический
    v знать
    n знание, познание
    a известный
    L

    lack

    [lxk]

    n недостаток, отсутствие (ч-л. –of), нужда
    v испытывать недостаток (в чем-л), нуждаться
    184

    lag
    lamp

    [lxg]
    [lxmp]

    laser

    ['leIzq(r)]

    latter
    lattice
    launch

    ['lxtq(r)]
    ['lxtIs]
    ['lO:nC]

    lead
    leak
    leakage
    legislative
    lend

    [li:d]
    ['li:k]
    ['li:kIG]
    ['leGIslqtiv]
    ['lend] (lent)

    lens

    [lenz]

    level

    ['levl]

    line

    [lain]

    linear
    link

    ['lInIq(r)]
    ['liNk]

    liquid
    ['likwId]
    list
    ['list]
    literal
    ['litqrql]
    long distance telephone line
    load
    [lqVd]
    loading
    ['lqVdIN]
    local

    ['lqVkl]

    locate

    [lqV'keIt]

    lock

    [lPk]

    loose
    loss

    ['lu:s]
    [lPs]

    loudspeaker

    [ˏlaVd 'spi:kq(r)]
    [lqV]

    low

    n задержка, отставание
    n 1. лампа; 2. индикаторная (сигнальная) лампа,
    индикатор
    n лазер, оптический квантовый генератор;
    оптический квантовый усилитель
    adj последний (из двух упомянутых)
    (кристаллическая) решетка,сетка
    v 1. запускать, пускать в ход; 2. начинать; 3.
    предпринимать
    n 1. соединительный провод; 2. ввод; вывод
    v течь, пропускать воду// течь
    n утечка
    adj законодательный
    v 1. давать, сообщать, придавать; 2. одолжить,
    давать взаймы
    n 1. линза; 2. объектив, окуляр, оптическое
    стекло
    n уровень
    n 1. линия; 2. провод; шина; 3. строка; 4.
    спектральная линия
    adj линейный
    n связь, соединение, звено; v соединять,
    связывать
    n жидкость, adj жидкий, текучий
    n, список, вносить в список v, делать список
    adj 1. дословный, буквальный; 2. буквенный
    междугородная линия телефонной связи
    v нагружать
    N погрузка, груз, нагрузка; эл. приложение
    нагрузки
    adj 1. местный; 2. частный, частичный; 3. узкий,
    ограниченный
    v 1. располагать, поселять; 2. обнаруживать,
    определять местонахождение
    v 1. запирать(ся) на замок, 2. сжимать,
    стискивать
    adj свободный, незакрепленный
    n 1. потеря; 2. потери при передаче; 3.
    затухание, ослабление
    громкоговоритель; акустическая система
    adj 1. тихий (о звуке); 2. низкий, невысокий; 3.
    185

    lump

    [lAmp]

    слабый, дешевый
    n ком, кусок, глыба
    М

    machine

    [mq' SI:n]

    machine-tool [mq' SI:ntu:l]
    magazine

    [ˏmægq'zi:n]

    magnetic

    [mxg'netik]

    magnetize
    magnitude

    ['mxgnqtaiz]
    ['mxgnItju:d]

    main
    mail
    maintenance

    [mein]
    [meil]
    ['meIntqnqns]

    mainframe
    majority
    make up
    management
    manager

    ['meInfreim]
    [mq'GPrqti]
    ['meIkAp]
    ['mxnIGmqnt]
    ['mxnIGq(r)]

    manipulate
    manual
    mankind
    man-made

    [mq'nIpjuleIt]
    ['mxnjual]
    [mxn'kaInd]
    [´mxn’meid]
    [´mxnq(r)]

    manufacture ['mxnju'fxktSq(r)]

    mark

    [ma:k]

    maser
    masking

    ['meIzq]
    [ma:skiN]

    master

    ['ma:stq]

    n машина, механизм, станок; v подвергать
    механической обработке, обрабатывать на станке
    n 1. станок, металлорежущий станок; 2. машинаорудие
    n 1. журнал, периодическое издание; 2. кассета,
    карман, приемник
    a 1. магнитный; 2. привлекательный,
    притягательный
    v 1. намагничивать; 2. привлекать
    n 1. величина, размеры; 2. важность,
    значительность
    главный, основной
    почта, почтовая корреспонденция
    n содержание и техническое обслуживание;
    материально-техническое обеспечение; уход,
    ремонт
    универсальная вычислительная машина
    большинство
    составлять, собирать, возмещать, наверстывать
    n управление, руководство
    n 1. управляющая программа; 2. управляющее
    устройство; 3. руководитель; администратор
    v манипулировать, умело обращаться, управлять
    n руководство; наставление; а ручной
    n 1. человечество; 2. род человеческий
    a искусственный, созданный руками человека
    n 1. способ, метод, образ действий; 2. манера,
    поведение
    n 1. производство, изготовление, обработка; 2.
    изделие, продукт v 1. производить, изготовлять,
    выделывать, перерабатывать; 2. делать по
    шаблону, штамповать
    n 1. отметка; метка; 2. метка, маркер; 3. знак; v
    отмечать
    n мазер, микроволновый квантовый генератор
    n маскировка ( увеличение порога слышимости
    при наличии мешающих звуков)
    n оригинал; первый металлический оригинал
    186

    match

    [mxC]

    matter
    mean

    ['mxtq(r)]
    [mJn] (meant)

    meaning
    measure
    mechanical

    ['mJnInN]
    ['meZq(r)]
    [mq'kxnIkl]

    medium (pl.
    media)
    record(ing)
    medium

    [mi:diqm]

    megacycle
    melt

    ['megqˏsaIkl]
    [melt]

    member

    ['membq(r)]

    memory
    mental
    merely
    message
    microcircuit
    microcomput
    er

    ['memqri]
    ['mentl]
    ['mIqli]
    ['mesiG]
    ['maikrqV'sE:kit]

    micromodule
    microprocess
    or
    microwave
    mild
    miniature

    ['maIkrqVˏmPdjV:l]
    ['maIkrqweiv]
    [maIld]
    ['minqCq(r)]

    minor
    mirror

    ['maInq(r)]
    ['mIrq(r)]

    mix
    mixture
    mobility

    [miks]
    ['mIksCq(r)]
    [mqV'bIlqti]

    model

    ['mPdl]

    фонограммы
    v 1. подходить; соответствовать; 2. подгонять,
    выравнивать
    n вещество, материал, материя
    v 1. значить, означать; 2. иметь в виду,
    намереваться;
    средний; среднее (значение), средняя величина
    n значение, смысл
    n мера; v измерять, мерить
    a 1. механический, машинный, автоматический; 2.
    технический
    n 1. среда, носитель; 2. средство, способ
    n носитель записи; среда для записи

    ['maIkrqVkqˏpju:tq(r
    )]
    ['maIkrqVˏprqVsesq]

    мегагерц
    v 1. плавиться, распускаться; 2. таять; 3. плавить,
    распускать
    n 1. член; 2. элемент конструкции, звено системы,
    деталь
    n память, запоминающее устройство
    a умственный
    только, всего, лишь, просто, единственно
    n сообщение, сигнал; посылка
    микросхема
    n микрокомпьютер
    n микромодуль
    n микропроцессор
    n 1. диапазон сверхвысоких частот; 2. микроволна
    a 1. мягкий, умеренный; 2. снисходительный,
    n миниатюра; а миниатюрный; v изображать в
    миниатюре
    меньший, незначительный
    n зеркало; 2. зеркальная поверхность,
    отображение
    v 1. мешать, смешивать; 2. соединять
    n 1. смесь; 2. смешивание, микстура
    n 1. подвижность, мобильность, маневренность; 2.
    изменчивость, непостоянство
    n 1. модель; 2. образец, шаблон; 3. модель, тип,
    187

    modify
    modulation

    ['mPdIfaI]

    modulate
    monitor

    [ˏmPdju'leISn]
    ['mPdju'leIt]
    ['mPnItq(r)]

    motion
    mount
    mouthpiece

    ['mqVSn]
    [maVnt]
    ['maVTpi:s]

    move

    [mu:v]

    movement

    ['mu:vmqnt]

    multinational [ˏmAlti'nxSnql]
    multiple
    multiplicatio
    n
    maltiply

    [ˏmAltIplI'keISn]
    ['mAltIplaI]

    multi-user
    muscle
    mutual
    mysterious

    [ˏmAlti'ju:zq]
    ['mAs]
    ['mju:Cuql]
    [mI'stiqriqs]

    ['mAltIpl]

    марка, конструкция v моделировать, создавать по
    образцу
    видоизменять
    n модуляция
    v модулировать
    1. управляющая программа, (программа)
    супервизор; (программа)-диспетчер; 2. монитор,
    контрольное устройство, датчик; контролировать,
    управлять
    n движение, ход
    v устанавливать, монтировать
    n 1. мундштук; 2. рупор; оратор, выразитель
    (мнения); 3. микрофон
    v 1. двигать; 2. двигаться; 3. взволновать,
    растрогать; 4. побуждать (к какому-л. действию);
    5. вносить предложение; 6. переезжать; n 1. ход;
    2. поступок, шаг; 3. перемена жилища
    n 1. движение; 2. передвижение; 3. переезд
    многонациональный
    a 1. многочисленный; многократный; 2.
    составной; соединенный; 3. мат. кратный // мат.
    кратное число
    n умножение
    v умножать; увеличивать
    n компьютер со многими пользователями
    n мускул, мышца
    a взаимный
    a таинственный, непостижимый

    narrow

    [´nxrqV]

    N
    a узкий

    navigation

    [ˏnxvI´geISn]

    n навигация, плавание, судоходство

    navy

    [´neIvi]

    necessary
    need

    [´nesqsqri]
    [nJd]

    needle

    [nJdl]

    n военно-морской флот
    a необходимый, неизбежный;
    n необходимое
    v 1. нуждаться, иметь потребность в чем-л.;
    2. требоваться, быть необходимым;
    n нужда, потребность
    n иголка, игла
    188

    negotiation [nIˏgqVSi´eISn]

    n переговоры, обсуждение условий

    [´netwE:k]
    network
    multipurpose network
    switched telephone network
    neutrino
    [njH´trJnqV]

    n схема, цепь, сеть
    универсальная сеть
    коммутируемая телефонная сеть
    n нейтрино; a нейтринный

    neutron

    [´njHtrPn]

    n нейтрон

    nexus

    [´neksqs]

    n связь

    nitrogen
    node
    noise
    notebook
    notice

    [´naItrqGqn]
    [nqVd]
    [nOIz]
    [´nqVtIs]

    notion

    [´nqVSn]

    n азот
    n 1. узел; 2. точка пересечения
    n шум
    n блокнот, тетрадь
    n 1. наблюдение, внимание; 2. извещение,
    уведомление, предупреждение; 3. заметка,
    объявление; 4. обозрение, рецензия;
    v замечать, упоминать
    n 1. понятие, представление; 2. мнение, взгляд

    nuclear

    [´njHkliq(r)]

    a 1. ядерный; 2. атомный

    nucleonics

    [ˏnjHkli´PnIks]

    n нуклеоника

    nucleus

    [´njHkliqs]

    n ядро, центр (pl. – lei)

    [´nqVtbVk]

    numeration [ˏnjHmq´reISn]

    n 1. счисление, исчисление, счет; 2. нумерация
    O

    objective

    [qb´GektIv]

    observatory

    [qb´zE:vqtri]

    n 1. цель, стремление; 2. объект; 3. объектив
    a 1. объективный; 2. целевой
    n 1. обсерватория; 2. наблюдательный пункт

    observer

    [qb´zE:vq(r)]

    n 1. наблюдатель; 2. обозреватель (в газете)

    obstacle

    [´Pbstqkl]

    n препятствие, помеха

    occupation

    [ˏPkju´peISn]

    n занятия, род занятий, профессия

    off-line

    [ˏPf´laIn]

    a автономный

    on-line

    [ˏPn´aIn]

    a неавтономный

    operation

    [ˏPpq´reISn]

    n действие, операция; работа

    optics

    [´PptIks]

    n оптика

    orbit

    [´LbIt]

    order

    [´Ldq (r)]

    n орбита; v 1. выводить на орбиту; 2. вращаться
    по орбите
    n 1. порядок, последовательность; 2.
    исправность; v 1. приводить в порядок; 2.
    189

    origin

    [´PrIGIn]

    приказывать
    n 1. источник, начало; происхождение

    oscillate

    [´PsIleIt]

    1. колебаться; 2. вибрировать

    outcome

    [´aVtkAm]

    outline

    [´aVtlaIn]

    output

    [´aVtpVt]

    oven

    [´Avn]

    n 1. результат, последствие, исход; 2. выход,
    выпускное отверстие
    n 1. очертание, контур; 2. набросок; эскиз; 3.
    план, схема
    n 1. продукция, продукт, выпуск, выработка; 2.
    производительность, мощность, отдача
    n печь

    oxidation

    [ˏPksIdeISn]

    n 1. перекрытие; 2. частичное совпадение; v
    частично покрывать, заходить один за другой,
    перекрывать
    n окисление

    oxide

    [´PksaId]

    n окись, окисел

    oxygen

    [´PksIGqn]

    n кислород

    overlap

    [ˏqVvq´lxp]

    pace
    pack
    package

    [´pxkIG]

    P
    n шаг, скорость, темп
    v 1. упаковывать; 2. компоновать
    n 1. блок, модуль; 2. корпус; 3. пакет (программ)

    packing

    [´pxkIN]

    n 1. упаковка; 2. компоновка

    [peIs]
    [pxk]

    dense paking
    pad
    [pxd]
    number pad
    pains
    [peInz]
    painting
    [´peIntIN]
    pair

    [peq(r)]

    pane
    parallel

    [peIn]

    parody

    [´pxrqdi]
    [pQ:t]

    part
    partially

    [´pxrqlel]

    плотная упаковка
    n 1. клавиатура, клавишная панель; 2. контактная
    площадка; v набивать, заполнять (свободные
    места в блоке памяти незначащей информацией)
    цифровая клавиатура
    n старания, усилия
    n 1. живопись; 2. роспись; картина; 3. окраска; 4.
    малярное дело
    n 1. пара v 2.располагать парами; соединять по
    двое
    n оконное стекло
    n 1. параллель, соответствие; 2. параллельная
    линия;
    a 1. параллельный (to); 2. подобный, аналогичный
    n пародия; v пародировать

    [´pQ:Sqli]

    n часть, деталь
    adv частично

    participant

    [pQ:´tIsI pǝnt]

    n участник; a участвующий

    participate

    [pQ:´tIsIpeIt]

    v участвовать (в)
    190

    particle

    n частица

    particularly

    [pq´tIkjqlqli]

    заряженная частица
    субатомная частица
    субатомная частица, не имеющая массы
    a 1. особый, отдельный; специфический; 2.
    индивидуальный, частный, отдельный
    adv очень, чрезвычайно, особенно, в особенности

    partner

    [´pRtnq(r)]

    n участник, партнер

    party

    [´pRti]

    pass

    [pRs]

    passage

    [´pxsIG]

    passionate

    [´pxSqnqt]
    [pRT]

    n 1. отряд, группа, партия; 2. компания; 3.
    сопровождающие лица; 4. участник
    n 1. проход; 2. пропуск; паспорт; 3. сдача
    экзамена без отличия; v проходить, проезжать;
    переходить, пересекать; 2. проводить (время); 3.
    превращаться, переходить; 4. передавать; 5. сдать
    (экзамен)
    n прохождение, проход, проезд, переход; v
    совершать переезд, переехать
    a 1. страстный, пылкий; 2. горячий

    [´pQ:tIkl]
    сharged particle
    subatomiс particle
    massless subatomiс particle
    particular
    [pq´tIkjqlq (r)]

    path
    patient

    [´peISnt]

    pattern

    [´pxtn]

    pay

    [peI] (paid)

    n путь, траектория
    n пациент; a 1. терпеливый; 2. упорный,
    настойчивый
    n 1. диаграмма направленности; 2. изображение,
    рисунок; картина; структура, схема; 3. образ; 4.
    образец, модель, шаблон, трафарет
    v платить

    penetrate

    [´penItreIt]

    percent

    [pq´sent]

    обращать внимание
    n 1. особенность, специфичность; 2. характерная
    черта; отличительное качество, свойство
    v 1. проникать внутрь, проходить сквозь,
    пронизывать; 2. постигать, понимать; 3.
    пропитывать, охватывать
    n процент

    perceptibly

    [pq´septqbli]

    adv ощутимо, заметно

    perfect

    [´pE:fIkt]

    a 1. совершенный, безупречный, прекрасный; 2.
    полный, абсолютный, законченный
    v 1. совершенствовать; 2. завершать
    n 1. совершенство, безупречность; 2.
    законченность; 3. завершение; 4.
    совершенствование
    v выполнять (обещание, приказание); 2. исполнять
    (роль, муз.произведение)
    n 1. (рабочая) характеристика; 2.

    pay attention to
    peculiarity
    [pIˏkjHli´xrqti]

    [pq´fekt]
    perfection

    [pq´fekSn]

    perform

    [pq´fLm]

    performance

    [pq´fLmqns]

    191

    perhaps

    [pq´h xps]

    производительность, эффективность; 3.
    выполнение, исполнение; 4. качество
    функционирования; 5. работа; (рабочий) режим;
    показатели работы
    adv может быть, возможно

    period

    [´pIqrIqd]

    n 1. период, цикл; 2. эпоха, время

    peripheral

    [pq´rIfqrql]

    a периферийный

    permanent

    [´pE:mqnqnt]

    a постоянный

    permit

    [´pE:mIt]

    n 1. пропуск; 2. разрешение
    v позволять, разрешать; допускать

    [pq´mIt]
    persistent

    [pq´sIstqnt]

    personnel

    [ˏpE:sq´nel]

    persuasion

    [pq´sweIZn]
    [feIz]

    phase
    phenomenon

    [fq´nPmInqn]
    (pl. phenomena)

    a 1. упорный, настойчивый; 2. устойчивый,
    постоянный
    n персонал
    n убеждение
    n 1. фаза; 2. стадия; этап; v фазировать
    n явление, феномен

    philology

    [fI´lPlqdZi]

    n филология

    philosophy

    [fq´lPsqfi]
    [fqVn]

    n философия

    phone
    photosensitive [ˏfqVtqV´sensqtiv]
    phrase
    [freIz]
    physics
    [´fIzIks]
    nuclear physics
    solid-state physics
    physicist
    [´fIzIsIst]
    pick out
    [pIk]
    picture
    [´pIktSq(r)]
    piece
    pig
    pipe-line

    motion picture
    [pJs]
    [pIg]
    [´paIplaIn]

    place

    [pleIs]

    plane
    plant
    plasma

    [pleIn]
    [plRnt]
    [´plxzmq]

    v звонить по телефону
    a фоточувствительный
    n фраза, выражение
    n физика
    ядерная физика
    физика твердого тела
    n физик
    v выбирать, отбирать, подбирать
    n 1. картина; изображение; 2. портрет; 3.
    воплощение, олицетворение
    кинофильм
    n 1. кусок, часть; 2. штука, кусок
    n болванка, чушка
    n 1. трубопровод, магистраль; 2.
    коммуникационная линия
    n 1. место; 2. положение, должность;
    v помещать; ставить, класть, располагать
    n самолет
    n 1. установка; оборудование; 2. завод, фабрика
    n физ. плазма
    192

    plastic

    a пластический; n пластмасса

    plate

    [´plxstIk]
    [pleIt]

    play

    [pleI]

    playwright

    [´pleIraIt]

    n 1. пластина, пластинка, плата; 2. анод; 3.
    обкладка
    n 1. игра; 2. пьеса; 3. плеск (воды), переливы
    (красок, света); v 1. играть, забавляться; 2.
    исполнять; 3. поступать, действовать; 4. бить (о
    фонтане), переливаться (о свете)
    n драматург

    pleasure

    [´pleZq(r)]

    n удовольствие

    plenty

    [´plenti]

    n множество

    [plot]

    много
    v вычерчивать график, кривую или диаграмму
    a пневматический

    plenty of
    plot
    pneumatic
    point

    [nju:´ mxtIk]
    [pOInt]

    polarize

    [´pqVlqraIz]

    population

    [ˏpOpju´leISn]

    n 1. точка, положение; 2. пункт, момент, вопрос;
    3. дело, суть; 4. острие, кончик; v 1. указывать,
    показывать;2. нацеливать, наводить
    1. указывать, подчеркивать; 2. указывать (на чтол.);
    3. выделять (какой-л. предмет из группы других)
    v 1. поляризовать; 2. придавать произвольное
    значение или направление
    n население; жители

    portable

    [´pO:tqbl]

    a переносный, портативный, передвижной

    possess

    [pq´zes]

    v 1. владеть, обладать; 2. овладевать, захватывать

    possibility

    [ˏpOsq´bIlqti]

    n возможность, вероятность

    possible

    [´pOsqbl]

    a возможный, вероятный; n возможное

    point out

    postgraduate

    [´pqVst´gr xGuqt] n ~ student аспирант; ~ studies аспирантура
    pour
    v 1. лить(ся); 2. наливать; 3. одаривать, осыпать
    [pO:(r)]
    power
    n 1. мощность; 2. энергия; 3. степень; порядок; 4.
    [´paVq(r)]
    способность; 5. держава; 6. власть; 7.
    производительность
    мощный
    high-power [' haIpaVq]

    practise

    [´prxktIs]

    precede

    [prI´si:d]

    сверхмощный
    n 1. практика, действие, применение; 2.
    упражнение, тренировка; 3. привычка, обычай
    v практиковать(ся), упражнять(ся);
    тренировать(ся); 2. применять, осуществлять
    v предшествовать

    précis

    [´pr eIsi:]

    n краткое изложение, конспект, реферат

    super power [' sHpqpaVq, 'sju:-]
    practice
    [´prxktIs]

    193

    precise

    [prI´saIs]

    a точный, определенный

    precision

    [prI´sIZn]

    n точность, четкость

    predict

    [prI´dikt]

    v предсказывать

    prefer

    [prI´fE:(r)]

    v предпочитать

    prefix

    [´pri:fIks]

    n грам. приставка, префикс

    preliminary

    [ prI´lImInqri]

    a предварительный

    prepare

    [prI´peq(r)]

    present

    [´preznt]

    v 1. подготавливать, готовить; 2. готовиться,
    подготавливаться; 3. делать, составлять; 4.
    оснащать
    a 1. присутствующий, имеющийся налицо; 2.
    настоящий, нынешний, теперешний,
    современный;

    at present
    present
    [ prI´zent]
    presentation

    [ˏprezn´teISn]

    - в настоящее время;
    v– 1. преподносить, дарить; 2. передавать,
    посылать; 3. подавать, вручать
    n представление, презентация (to кому-л.)

    preserve

    [pri´zE:v]

    v сохранять, оберегать

    pressure

    [´preSq(r)]

    prestigious

    [pre´stIGqs]

    n давление, надавливание, сжатие; 2. напряжение;
    3. воздействие
    a престижный

    prevent

    [ prI´vent]

    previous
    pride

    [´prI:viqs]
    [praId]

    primary

    [´praImqri]

    principal

    [´prInsqpl]

    n 1. гордость, 2. чувство собственного
    достоинства
    a 1. первичный; первоначальный; 2. главный;
    важнейший; n что-либо, имеющее
    первостепенное значение
    a 1. главный, основной; 2. ведущий

    principle

    [´prInsqpl]

    n 1. принцип; закон; 2. первопричина; основа

    printer

    [´prIntq(r)]

    n печатное устройство

    priority

    [praI´Prqti]

    private

    [´praIvqt]

    n 1. приоритет, первенство; 2. предшествование;
    порядок очередности; срочность
    a частный, личный

    privilege

    [´prIvqlIG]

    n привилегия, преимущество

    probable

    [´prObqbl]
    [prqVb]

    a возможный, вероятный

    probe
    procedure

    [prq´si:Gq(r)]

    v 1. предотвращать; 2. мешать, препятствовать
    (чему-л. – from)
    a предыдущий, предшествующий

    n 1. зонд; 2. щуп; 3. устройство связи
    n 1. процедура; 2. методика проведения (опыта)
    194

    proceed

    [prq´si:d]

    v 1. продолжать; 2. происходить; развиваться

    process

    [´prqVses]

    processing

    [prq´sesIN]

    n 1. процесс, ход развития; 2. движение, течение;
    3. технологический процесс, метод, прием,
    способ; 4. состояние, стадия; 5. проявление; v
    обрабатывать
    n обработка

    processor

    [´prqVsesq (r)]

    n процессор

    procure

    [prq´kjVq(r)]

    v обеспечивать, доставлять

    produce

    [prq´dju:s]

    v производить; создавать

    product

    [´prPdAkt]

    production

    [prq´dAkSn]

    n 1. продукт; изделие; продукция; 2. результат; 3.
    мат. произведение
    n производство, изготовление, выработка

    productivity

    [ˏprPdAk´tIvqti]

    n продуктивность, производительность

    profound

    [prq´faVnd]

    a 1. глубокий; 2. полный

    programming

    [´prqVgrxmIN]

    progress

    [´prqVgres]

    progress

    [prq´gres]

    project

    [´prPGekt]

    n 1. составление программы; 2.
    программирование
    n 1. продвижение; 2. развитие, прогресс; рост; 3.
    успехи
    v 1. продвигаться вперед; 2. прогрессировать; 3.
    делать успехи
    n проект, план

    [prq´Gekt]

    v 1. проектировать; 2. составлять, обдумывать
    (план); 3. выдаваться
    n обещание; v обещать

    promise

    [´prPmIs]

    promote

    [prq´mqVt]

    propagate

    [´prOpqgeIt]

    v содействовать; способствовать; помогать;
    поддерживать; продвигать
    v распространять(ся); 2. передавать на расстояние

    propagation

    [ˏprOpq´geISn]

    n распространение

    proper

    [´prOpq(r)]

    property

    [´prOpqti]

    proportion

    [prq´pO:Sn]

    propose

    [prq´pqVz]

    a 1. присущий, свойственный; 2. правильный,
    должный, подходящий
    n 1. свойство, качество; 2. способность, характер;
    3. имущество, собственность
    n 1. пропорция, количественное соотношение;
    пропорциональность, соразмерность;
    соотношение; 2. часть, доля
    v 1. предлагать; 2. предполагать, намереваться

    prospect

    [´prPspekt]

    n 1. вид; перспектива; 2. планы, виды на будущее

    protect

    [prq´tekt]

    v 1. защищать, охранять; 2. предохранять; 3.
    покрывать, способствовать
    195

    protocol
    final protocol
    proud
    to be proud of
    prove

    [ˏprqVtq´kPl]
    [praVd]
    [pru:v]

    proverb

    [´prPvE:b]

    provide

    [prq´vaId]

    public

    [´pAblIk]

    publication

    [ˏpAblI´keISn]

    publish

    [ˏpAblIS]
    [pAls]

    pulse
    light pulse
    pulsing

    [´pAlsIN]

    light pulsing
    pure
    purify

    [´pjVqrIfaI]

    purpose

    [´pE:pqs]

    pursue

    [ pq´sju:]

    [pjVq(r)]

    pursue (a) policy
    put
    [ pVt]
    put down
    put into operation

    n протокол; прелиминарные условия договора или
    соглашения
    заключительный протокол
    a гордый
    гордиться (чем-л.)
    v 1. доказывать; удостоверять; 2. испытывать;
    пробовать; 3. оказываться; 4. проверять
    n пословица
    v 1. обеспечивать, снабжать; 2. предоставлять; 3.
    (for) предусматривать
    a 1. общественный, государственный; 2.
    народный;
    n 1. общественность; 2. народ
    n 1. издание (книги и т.п.); 2. издание,
    опубликование
    v 1. публиковать; оглашать; 2. издавать
    n 1. импульс; 2. пульсация; биение
    световой импульс
    n генерирование импульсов; посылка импульсов
    генерирование световых импульсов
    a чистый; беспримесный
    v очищать(ся)
    n 1. цель, намерение, назначение; 2. результат;
    успех
    v 1. искать, добиваться; 2. следовать какому-л.
    курсу; 3. продолжать
    проводить политику
    v класть, положить; (по) ставить
    записывать
    вводить в действие
    Q

    quality

    [´kwPlqti]

    quantity

    [´kwPntqti]

    n 1. качество; 2. свойство, особенность, 3.
    тембр
    n 1. количество; 2. величина

    quantum

    [´kwPntqm]

    n 1. количество, сумма; 2. квант

    quarter

    [´kwLtq(r)]

    n 1. четверть; 2. четверть часа; 3. квартал

    quasiconductor

    [´kwRzikqn´dAktq
    ]

    n полупроводник

    196

    quicken

    [´kwIkqn]

    v 1. оживлять; 2. ускорять(ся)
    R

    radar
    radiate

    [′reıdR(r)]
    [′reıdieıt]

    radiation
    radio
    engineering
    random
    range

    ['rеıdi′eıSn]
    [reıdio(u)ənGı′nıərıŋ
    ]
    [′rændəm]
    [reınG]

    rapid
    rate

    [′ræpıd]
    [reıt]

    raw
    raw
    material
    ray
    reaсh

    [rO:]

    [reı]
    [ri:C]

    reaсt

    [ri:′ækt]

    read

    [ri:d]

    readings
    receiver

    [′ri:dıŋs]
    [rı'si:və(r)]

    recent
    reception
    recognition
    record
    record
    recording
    record
    player
    rectangular
    rectify

    [ri:snt]
    [rı'sepSn]
    [ֽrekəg′nıSn]
    [rı'kO:d]
    ['rekO:d]
    [rı'kO:diŋ]
    [′rekO:dֽpleıə]
    [rek′tæŋgjələ(r)]
    ['rektıfaı]

    n 1. радиолокация; 2. радиолокатор
    v 1. излучать (ся), испускать; 2.
    распространять
    n излучение, радиация
    n радиотехника
    a случайный, произвольный, беспорядочный
    n 1. область, диапазон интервал; v 1.
    находиться, заключаться (в пределах); 2.
    изменяться, колебаться (в пределах)
    a 1. быстрый, скорый; 2. крутой (о склоне)
    n 1. норма, коэффициент; 2. степень; 3.
    скорость;
    4. производительность
    a сырой, необработанный
    n сырье
    n луч
    v 1. протягивать, вытягивать; 2. доставлять;
    3. достигать
    v
    1.реагировать;
    2.воздействовать;
    3.оказывать сопротивление
    v
    1. читать,
    считывать; 2. снимать
    показатели
    n показатели прибора
    n 1. приемник; 2. телефонная слуховая
    трубка, телефон
    a недавний, новый, современный
    n прием
    n распознавание, различение
    v записывать, регистрировать
    n запись, регистрация
    n запись, регистрация
    n проигрыватель
    a прямоугольный
    v 1. исправлять (ошибки); 2. выверять,
    регулировать, настраивать (прибор); 3.
    электр. выпрямлять; 4. радио детектировать
    197

    recuperate

    [rı′ku:pəreıt]

    reduce
    reduction
    reel

    [rı'dju:s]
    [rı′dAkSn]
    [ri:l]

    refer

    [rı′fE:(r)]

    reference

    [′refrəns]

    refine
    refit

    [rı′faın]
    [ֽri:΄fıt]

    reflect
    reflection
    refraction
    refresh

    [rı′flekt]
    [rı′flekSn]
    [rı′frækSn]
    [rı'freS]

    regeneration

    [rıֽGenə′reıSn]

    regenerator
    register

    [rı′Genəreıtə(r)]
    [′reGıstə(r)]

    regular

    [′regjələ(r)]

    regulate

    [′regjuleıt]

    relation

    [rı′leıSn]

    relative

    [′relətıv]

    relativity
    relay

    [ֽrelə′tıvətı]
    [′ri:leı]

    release

    [rı'li:s]

    reliable

    [rı′laıəbl]

    v 1. восстанавливать силы, выздоравливать; 2.
    тех.
    восстанавливать,
    регенерировать,
    рекуперировать
    v уменьшать, сокращать, ослаблять
    n понижение, снижение, уменьшение
    n 1. рулон; 2. катушка; 3. барабан; v 1.
    разматывать;
    2. качаться
    v 1. посылать, отсылать, адресовать; 2.
    обращаться; 3. наводить справку; 4.
    приписывать ч-л., объяснять; 5. относиться к
    ч-л.
    n 1. ссылка; 2. справка; 3. рекомендация,
    отзыв
    v очищать, рафинировать
    n 1. починка, ремонт; 2. снаряжение; v
    ремонтировать
    v отражать
    n отражение
    n рефракция, преломление
    v
    1.
    регенерировать
    (информацию);
    2.обновлять
    (информацию);
    3.
    восстанавливать
    n
    1.
    восстановление;
    2.регенерация;
    3.положительная
    обратная связь
    n регенератор, восстановитель
    v 1. регистрировать; 2. отмечать, показывать,
    регистрировать (о приборе); 3. выражать,
    показывать
    a 1. правильный, нормальный; 2.регулярный,
    систематический
    v
    регулировать,
    упорядочивать,
    контролировать
    n 1. связь, отношение; 2. соотношение; 3.
    зависимость
    a
    1.
    относительный,
    сравнительный;
    2.условный;
    3.
    соответственный
    n относительность
    v 1. сменять, обеспечивать смену; 2.
    передавать, транслировать
    n 1. освобождение; 2. размыкание; 3. отбой;
    v освобождать
    a надежный, заслуживающий доверия
    198

    remarkable

    [rı′mɑ:′kəbl]

    remote
    remote
    control
    removable

    [rı′məVt]

    repair
    repeat
    repeater
    station
    replace
    report
    require
    requirement
    research

    [rı′peə(r)]
    [rı′pi:t]

    resin
    resist
    resistance

    ['rezin]
    [rı′zıst]
    [rı′zıstəns]

    resistor
    resolve

    [rı′zıstə(r)]
    [rı′zPlv]

    resolution

    [ˏrezə′lu: Sn]

    respond
    response

    [rıs'pPnd]
    [rıs'pPns]

    restrict
    retain
    retrieval
    reverse

    [rıs′trıkt]
    [rı′teın]
    [rı′tri:vəl]
    [ rı'vз: s]

    rigid

    [′rıGıd]

    rotate
    round

    [rəV′teıt]
    [raVnd]

    route

    [ru:t]

    [rı′mu:vəbl]

    [rı′pleıs]
    [rı′pO:rt]
    [rı′kwaıə]
    [rı′kwaıəmənt]
    [rı′sE:C]

    a
    замечательный,
    удивительный,
    выдающийся
    a отдаленный, дальний
    n дистанционное управление
    a 1. подвижный, съемный; 2. устранимый,
    сменяемый;
    3. тех. сменный
    v ремонтировать, чинить, исправлять
    v 1. повторять; 2. передавать, рассказывать
    n ретрансляционная станция
    v заменять, замещать
    n доклад, сообщение, отчет
    v требовать
    n 1. требование; 2. потребность
    n 1. исследование, изучение, изыскание;
    2.научно-исследовательская
    работа;
    v
    1.исследовать, изучать; 2.заниматься научноисследовательской работой
    n смола, канифоль, камедь
    v сопротивляться, оказывать сопротивление
    n 1. сопротивление, противодействие; 2. тех.
    сопротивление
    n резистор, катушка сопротивления
    v 1. решать(ся), принимать решение; 2.
    разрешать (сомнения); 3. распадаться
    n 1. разрешение; 2.
    разрешающая
    способность
    v 1. отвечать; 2. реагировать
    n 1. характеристика; 2. чувствительность; 3.
    реакция; 4. ответ, ответное действие
    v ограничивать, заключать в пределы
    v 1. удерживать; 2. сохранять; 3. помнить
    n 1. поиск (информации); 2. восстановление
    v изменять направление на обратное
    a 1. жесткий, негнущийся, твердый; 2.
    строгий (о правиле, режиме);
    v 1. вращать(ся); 2. чередоваться
    a 1. круглый; 2. круговой; 3. сплошной; n 1.
    круг; 2. обход; 3. цикл
    n маршрут ; v направлять
    199

    routine

    [ru:′ti:n]

    row
    rubber
    rule

    [rəV]
    [′rAbə(r)]
    [ru:l]

    ruler
    rupture

    [′ru:lə(r)]
    [′rApCə(r)]

    satellite
    save
    scale

    ['s xtqlaIt]
    [seIv]
    [skeIl]

    scan

    [skxn]

    scanner

    ['skxnq]

    picture scanner
    scanning
    [sk'xnIN]
    scatter

    ['skxtq]

    scope
    screen
    screening
    scrolling
    search

    [skqVp]
    [skri:n]
    ['sk ri:nIN]
    ['skrPlIN]
    [sq:C]

    seek [si:k] (sought, sought)
    semiconduct
    or
    send

    [ˏsemIkqn'dAktq]

    sense
    sensing

    [sens]
    ['sensIN]

    sensitive
    sensor

    ['sensqtIv]
    ['sensq]

    separate

    [sepq'reIt]

    [send] (sent)

    n 1. определенный повседневный режим; 2.
    повседневный уход за оборудованием
    n ряд
    n резина, каучук
    v управлять, властвовать, руководить; n 1.
    правило, норма; 2. правление, господство
    n 1. правитель; 2. линейка
    n 1. перелом; 2. разрыв; 3. эл. пробой
    (изоляции)
    S
    n спутник, ретрансляционная станция
    v 1. спасать 2. хранить, беречь
    n 1. масштаб 2. шкала 3. матем. система
    счисления
    v 1. бегло просматривать 2. развертывать
    3. анализировать изображение
    n 1. устройство сканирования, сканер
    2. анализирующее устройство изображения
    анализатор изображения
    n 1. сканирование 2. развертка 3. анализ
    изображения
    n рассеивание
    рассеивать
    n 1. кругозор, размах 2. сфера действия
    n экран, сетка
    n экранирование
    n прокрутка, просмотр (изображения)
    n 1. поиск 2. исследование, осмотр
    v 1. искать 2. изучать 3. исследовать
    v 1. искать, разыскивать, 2. пытаться,
    добиваться
    полупроводник
    v 1. посылать, отправлять 2.направлять 3.
    передавать (по радио)
    n 1. чувство, ощущение 2. смысл, значение
    n 1. распознавание 2.считывание 3. определение
    (величины, знака, направление)
    a чувствительный
    n 1. датчик 2. преобразователь 3. детектор 4.
    устройство считывания
    v 1. отделять, разъединять 2. разлагать на части
    200

    ['s epqrqt]
    sequence

    ['si:kwqns]

    series
    serve

    ['sIqri:z]
    [sE:v]

    set

    [set]

    set

    [set] v (set, set)

    setting
    shadow
    shape
    share
    sheet
    shield
    shift
    short
    short circuit
    shorten
    shut
    side

    ['setIN]
    ['SxdqV]
    [SeIp]
    [SEq]
    [Si:t]
    [Si:ld]
    [SIft]
    [SO:t]
    ['SO:t(q)n]
    [SAt] (shut, shut)
    [saId]

    sign

    [saIn]

    significance

    [ˏsI g'nIfIkqns]
    ['sIlIkqn]
    ['sImqlq]
    ['sImplIfaI]

    silicon
    similar
    simplify
    simultaneous
    since
    single
    situate
    size
    skill
    skilled

    [ˏsIm(q)l'teInjqs]
    [sIns]
    ['sINgl]
    ['sItjueIt]
    [saIz]
    [skIl]
    ['skIld]

    skim
    socket

    [skIm] (through)
    ['sPkIt]

    a 1. отдельный, обособленный 2. особый,
    специальный
    n 1. последовательность, ряд 2. последствия,
    результат
    n 1. ряд 2. серия, выпуск, комплект
    v 1. служить, работать 2. обслуживать, снабжать,
    обеспечивать 3. быть полезным, содействовать
    4. удовлетворять, гордиться 5. производить
    осмотр и текущий ремонт
    n 1. радио/телевизионный приемник 2. станция,
    устройство, аппарат 3. набор, комплект, партия,
    серия 4. множество, совокупность 5. установка
    1. ставить, помещать, класть 2. приготавливать
    3. устанавливать, определять, назначать
    n установка, регулирование, настройка
    v экранировать
    n форма, очертание, вид
    v делить, разделять, распределять
    n 1. слой 2. диаграмма, график 3. схема, таблица
    n экран (защитный); экранировать
    n сдвиг, смещение; v сдвигаться, смещаться
    a 1. короткий 2. скудный 3. недостаточный
    короткое замыкание
    v 1. укорачивать(ся) 2. уменьшать(ся)
    v 1. закрывать(ся), затворять(ся) 2. перекрывать
    n 1. стена 2. поверхность, сторона 3. часть 4.
    аспект, черта
    n 1. признак 2. знак, символ
    1. отличать 2. подписывать(ся)
    n 1. значение, смысл 2. важность
    n кремний
    a подобный, похожий, сходный
    v упрощать
    a 1. одновременный 2. совместный
    с после; с тех пор как
    a 1. единственный, один 2. цельный, сплошной
    v 1. помещать, располагать 2. создавать условия
    n 1. размер, величина 2. калибр, формат
    n 1. искусство, умение 2. ловкость
    a 1. опытный, умелый 2. квалифицированный
    3. требующий знаний, опыта
    v бегло просматривать
    n гнездо, розетка
    201

    soft
    software

    [sPft]
    ['sPftwFq]

    solder
    solid

    ['sqVldq]
    ['sOlId]

    solid-state
    solve

    ['sOlId steIt]
    [sPlv]

    solvent
    sophisticated

    ['sPlvqnt]
    [sqˏfIstIkeItId]

    sound
    source
    space

    [saVnd]
    [sO :s]
    [speIs]

    spacecraft
    speech
    speaker

    ['s peIskra:ft]
    [spi:C]
    [spi:kq]

    speed
    sphere

    [spi:d]
    ['sfIq]

    splash
    spread

    [splxS]
    [spred] (spread)

    square
    stable
    stage
    state

    [skweq]
    [steIbl]
    [steIG]
    [steIt]

    state of art
    statement

    ['steItmqnt]

    steadily
    step
    stimulate

    ['stedIli]
    [step]
    ['stImjuleIt]

    storage

    ['stO:rIG]

    store

    [stO:]

    a 1. мягкий 2. легкий, неясный
    n программное обеспечение, программные
    средства
    n, v припой; паять
    a 1. твердый 2. прочный, крепкий 3.
    убедительный, веский, основательный
    a твердотельный
    v 1. решать (задачу) 2. разрешать (проблему,
    вопрос)
    n растворитель
    a 1. сложный, усложненный 2. современный
    3. фальсифицированный, с примесью
    n 1. звук 2. звуковой сигнал
    n источник, исток
    n 1. пространство, промежуток 2. космос 3.
    место
    n космический корабль
    n речь, речевой сигнал
    n 1. громкоговоритель, акустическая система
    2.диктор
    n скорость
    n 1. сфера, поле деятельности, область 2. шар,
    глобус
    n всплеск, бум
    v 1. распространять(ся) 2. распределять 3.
    растягивать, расширять
    n квадрат; квадрат числа; возводить в квадрат
    a 1. устойчивый, 2. прочный
    n 1. ступень 2. стадия, этап
    n 1. излагать, формулировать 2. констатировать,
    утверждать 3. устанавливать, состояние,
    положение
    положение дел
    n 1. утверждение, высказывание, формулировка
    2. оператор 3. предложение, предписание
    4. постановка (задачи)
    adv прочно, твердо, устойчиво
    n шаг, ступень
    v 1. возбуждать, стимулировать 2. поощрять
    3. усиливать
    n 1. хранение 2. спец. накопитель 3.
    запоминающие устройство(зу) 4. память (пк)
    v хранить, запоминать, накапливать
    202

    strand
    stream
    strength
    stress

    [strxnd]
    [stri:m]
    [strengT]
    [stres]

    stretch

    [stretS]

    strike
    stripe
    string
    stroke
    structure

    [straIk]
    [straIp]
    [strInN] (strung)
    [strqVk]
    ['strAkCq]

    stylus

    ['staIlqs]

    submit

    [sqb'mIt]

    subordinate
    subsequent
    substance

    [sq'bO:d(I)nqt]
    ['sAbsIkwqnt]
    ['sAbstqns]

    substitule
    substrate

    [ˏsAbstI'tju:t]
    ['sAbstreIt]

    subtle

    ['sAtl]

    subscriber

    [ˏsqbskrQIbq]
    [sqb'trxkt]
    [sqk'sJd]

    subtract
    succeed
    success
    succession
    suggest
    suit
    suitable
    summarize
    superconductin
    g
    supervise
    supervision

    n 1. прядь, жила 2. нитка, нить
    n поток
    n сила, прочность
    n 1. давление, нажим, воздействие 2. напряжение
    3. ударение
    v 1. растягивать, вытягивать, удлинять 2. тянуть,
    натягивать
    n 1. удар 2. ударять(ся) 3. бить (о часах)
    n полоса, полоска, лента
    1. натягивать 2. настаивать
    n 1. удар, приступ 2. ход, прием
    n 1. структура, система, схема 2. конструкция
    3. форма, вид 4. ударение, сооружие
    n 1. пишущий шрифт 2. записывающий резец
    3. (воспроизводящая) игла
    v 1. представлять на рассмотрение, подчиняться,
    покоряться
    a подчиненный, подчиненное лицо
    a последующий, более поздний
    n 1. вещество, материал 2. сущность, содержание
    3. твердость, плотность
    n замена, заменитель; заменять, замещать
    n 1. подложка 2. основание (печатной платы);
    плата
    a 1. тонкий, неуловимый 2. искусный, ловкий
    3. проницательный
    n абонент, подписчик

    v вычитать
    v следовать за кем-либо, чем-либо, сменять
    2. наследовать 3. достигать цели; преуспевать,
    иметь успех, удаваться
    n успех, удача
    [sqk'ses]
    [sqk'seSn]
    n последовательность, род
    [sq'Gest]
    v предлагать, советовать
    [sjHt]
    v 1. быть удобным, устраивать; 2. подходить,
    соответствовать
    a подходящий, пригодный, соответствующий
    ['sjHtqbl]
    ['sAmqraIz]
    v суммировать, резюмировать
    [ˏsHpq'kPndAktIN] a сверхпроводящий
    [ˏsHpq'vQIz]

    v наблюдать, надзирать, смотреть, заведовать

    [ˏsHpq'vIZn]

    n 1. контроль, управление; 2. надзор, наблюдение
    203

    supply

    [sq'plQI]

    support

    [sq'pLt]

    suppose

    [sq'pqVz]

    sure

    [Suq]

    to be sure of
    surface
    ['sE:fIs]
    switch
    [swItS]
    system
    ['sIstqm]
    carrier system
    digital communication system
    interactive system

    1. снабжать; 2. поставлять, обеспечивать, 3.
    подавать, подводить, питать (тех.)
    n поддержка, опора; v поддерживать,
    содействовать, помогать
    v полагать, думать, считать; 2. предполагать,
    допускать; 3. подразумевать
    a 1. уверенный; 2. твердый, верный; 3.
    несомненный
    быть уверенным, убежденным
    n 1. поверхность; 2. внешность, наружность
    n переключатель; переключать
    n система
    система с несущей частотой
    система дискретной связи
    интерактивная система
    T

    table
    time-table

    ['teIbl]

    ['taImˏ teIbl]
    take
    [teIk] (took, taken)
    take into account
    take part in (smth)
    take place
    tape
    [teIp]
    tape-record
    target
    team
    project team
    technique
    telemetry
    telephony

    ['teIprIkO:d]
    ['tRgIt]
    [ti:m]
    [tek'nJk]
    [tq'lemqtri]
    [tq'lefqni]

    wireless telephony
    teletext
    ['telitekst]
    temporary
    ['temprqri]
    tend
    [tend]
    tense
    tension

    [tens]
    ['tenSn]

    term

    [tE:m]

    n 1. стол; 2. доска; 3. плита; 4. таблица; 5. табель
    n 1. расписание; 2. график работы
    v 1. брать, хватать; 2. принимать, считать
    принимать во внимание, учитывать
    принимать участие в чем-либо
    иметь место, происходить
    n 1. лента; 2. магнитная лента;
    v записывать на магнитофонную ленту
    v записывать на пленку
    n 1. мишень; 2. цель; 3. плановое задание
    n бригада, группа
    проектная группа
    n 1. методика, метод, способ, приём; 2. технология
    n телеизмерения, телеметрия
    n 1. телефония; 2. телефонная связь,
    телефонирование
    радиотелефония
    n телетекст, вещательная видеография
    a временный
    v стремиться, иметь тенденцию (к чему-л.),
    клониться, склоняться (к чему-л.)
    a 1. накаленный; 2. напряженный; 3. натянутый
    n 1. растяжение, растягивающее усилие, натяжение
    2. напряжение, напряженное состояние 3.
    давление, упругость 4. электрическое напряжение
    n 1. термин; 2. срок, период, время,
    204

    terminal

    ['tE:mInl]

    video
    terminal
    test

    [test]

    theme

    [TJm]

    thereby

    ["Deq 'baI]

    therefore

    ['DeqfL(r)]

    thermoionic
    ["TE:mqVaI'PnIk]
    thermonucle ["TE:mqV
    ar
    'njHklIq(r)]
    thesis
    (pl. ['TJsIs]
    theses)
    thoroughly
    ['TArqli]
    threedimensional
    through

    ["TrJdaI'menSnl]

    throughout

    [TrH'aVt]

    thus

    [DAs]

    tick
    tie
    time

    [tIk]
    [taI]
    [taIm]

    tinfoil

    ['tInfOIl]

    tiny

    ['taIni]

    ton
    too

    [tAn]
    [tH]

    [TrH]

    продолжительность; 3. семестр, четверть; 4. мат.
    член
    n 1. конечная станция, конечный пункт, оконечная
    аппаратура; 2. (вчт) терминал; 3. зажим, клемма;
    4. ввод, вывод, вход, выход
    терминал с экранным дисплеем
    n 1. испытание, испытания, опробование; 2.
    контроль, проверка;
    v 1. испытывать, опробовать, тестировать; 2.
    контролировать, проверять
    n 1. тема, предмет; 2. основная мысль, характерная
    черта
    adv 1. таким образом, посредством этого; 2. в связи
    с этим
    adv потому, поэтому, следовательно, по этой
    причине, вследствие этого
    a термоионный
    a термоядерный
    n 1. диссертация; 2. тезис, положение
    adv 1. вполне, совершенно, до конца; 2.
    основательно, тщательно, как следует
    a объемный, пространственный, трехмерный
    prep 1. через, сквозь, по; 2. на протяжении,
    посредством, при помощи
    prep 1. в продолжение; 2. во всех отношениях; 3.
    по всему, через
    adv 1. до такой степени; 2. итак; 3. так, таким
    образом
    v 1. отмечать, ставить отметку
    v 1. соединять, связывать, затягивать, завязывать
    n 1. время; 2. период (интервал) времени; 3. раз
    v измерять (определять) время, отмечать время,
    хронометрировать
    n жестяная (оловянная) фольга, станиоль
    v покрывать оловянной фольгой
    a очень маленький, крошечный, малюсенький,
    малогабаритный
    n тонна
    adv 1. слишком, чересчур; 2. также, более того,
    тоже
    205

    topic
    topical

    ['tPpIk]
    ['tPpIkl]

    total
    touch

    ['tqVtl]
    [tAC]

    tough
    towards

    [tAf]
    [tq'wLdz]

    trace

    [treIs]

    track

    [trxk]

    trade

    [treId]

    trade-union
    traffic

    ["treId'jHnIqn]
    ['trxfIk]

    train

    [treIn]

    transfer

    ['trxnsfE:(r)]

    transform

    [trxns'fLm]

    transistor
    junction
    transistor
    transmission

    [trxn'zIstq(r)]

    transmit
    transmitter

    [trxns'mIt]
    [trxnz'mItq(r)]

    transparent

    [trxns'pxrqnt]

    [trxns'mISn]

    n тема, предмет обсуждения
    a 1. актуальный, животрепещущий, жизненный;
    2. тематический; 3. имеющий лишь местное или
    временное значение
    a целое, сумма, итог
    n 1. касание, прикосновение; 2. соприкосновение,
    общение
    a жесткий, прочный, плотный
    prep 1. к, на, по направлению к; 2. по отношению
    к, около
    n 1. траектория, ход, путь 2. след; 3. строка
    развертки
    v следить; прослеживать; отслеживать
    v 1. следить, прослеживать; 2. оставлять следы
    3. прокладывать маршрут, прокладывать трассу
    n торговля, занятие, ремесло, профессия;
    v торговать, менять, обменивать
    n профсоюз
    n 1. транспорт, сообщение, перевозки, движение;
    2. рабочая нагрузка
    v 1. воспитывать, учить, приучать (к чему-либо);
    2. обучать, инструктировать, готовить;
    3. тренировать(ся)
    n 1. передача, перенос, переход; 2. перемещение;
    3. перевозка;
    v 1. передавать, переносить, переходить; 2.
    перемещать; 3. перевозить
    v изменять, трансформировать, преобразовывать,
    превращать
    n транзистор, полупроводниковый триод
    плоскостной транзистор
    n 1. передача, трансмиссия; 2. передаваемая
    программа, передаваемые данные, передаваемый
    сигнал;
    3. прохождение ( сигнала ), распространение (
    волны )
    v сообщать, передавать, посылать, отправлять
    n 1. передатчик, передающее устройство, носитель;
    2. излучатель, источник, радиопередатчик; 3.
    микрофон, разговорная телефонная трубка
    a 1. прозрачный; 2. просвечивающий;
    3. светопроницаемый; 4. сквозной; 5.
    транспарантный
    206

    trap
    treat

    [trxp]
    [trJt]

    tremendous

    [trq'mendqs]

    trend
    trimming

    [trend]
    ['trImIN]

    triode
    ['traIqVd]
    semiconductor triode
    trouble
    ['trAbl]

    trouble-free
    true

    ["trAbl'frJ]
    [trH]

    try

    [traI]

    tube

    [tjHb]

    camera tube
    cathode-ray
    tube
    tune

    [tjHn]

    turn
    turn on
    turn off
    in one’s turn
    tutor

    [tE:n]

    typewriter

    ['taIpraItq(r)]

    typical
    typology

    ['tIpIkl]
    [taI'pPlqGi]

    ['tjHtq(r)]

    n ловушка, западня, капкан
    v 1. обращаться, обходиться, относиться,
    рассматривать; 2. подвергать (технологической)
    обработке, обрабатывать
    a 1. жуткий, страшный, ужасный; 2. огромный,
    гигантский, громадный, потрясающий
    n общее направление развития, тенденция, ход
    n отделка (процесс), выравнивание,
    уравновешивание, подстройка, подгонка
    n триод
    полупроводниковый триод, транзистор
    n 1. нарушение (технологического процесса),
    осложнение (в технологическом процессе);
    2. неисправность, повреждение, авария;
    v 1. тревожить, волновать; 2. беспокоить; 3.
    затруднять, надоедать, нарушать, повреждать
    a бесперебойный
    a 1. верный, правильный; 2. преданный; 3.
    настоящий, подлинный, истинный; 4. точный; 5.
    законный
    v 1. пытаться, стараться; 2. подвергать испытанию,
    пробовать
    n труба, трубка, туннель, (радио) электронная
    лампа
    передающая электронно-лучевая трубка
    электронно-лучевая трубка
    v 1. регулировать; 2. настраивать(ся), звучать; 3.
    подстраивать(ся), приспосабливать (к чему-либо),
    приводить в соответствие (с чем-либо)
    v 1. поворачивать(ся); 2. вращать(ся)
    включать
    выключать
    в свою очередь, по очереди
    n преподаватель, наставник, руководитель группы
    (в университете)
    n 1 пишущая машина, наборно-пишущая машина;
    2 печатающее устройство, принтер
    a типичный, типовой, характерный
    n типология
    U

    ultimate

    ['Alt Imqt]

    a 1. последний, окончательный; предельный,
    207

    ultraviolet
    unable
    unabridged
    uncertain
    unconventio
    nal
    uncover

    [ˏAlt rq'vaIqlqt]
    [An'eIbl]
    [ˏAnq'brIGd]
    [An'sE:rtn]
    [ˏAnkqn'venSqnl]
    [An'kAvq(r)]

    конечный;
    2.
    основной,
    максимальный
    a ультрафиолетовый

    первичный;

    3.

    a недееспособный, полный
    a несокращенный, полный
    a сомнительный, неясный
    a нетрадиционный
    v 1. снимать (крышку, покров), раскрывать; 2.
    обнаруживать, раскрывать
    v 1. подвергаться, претерпевать; 2. испытывать,
    переносить

    undergo

    [ˏAndqr'gqV]
    (underwent,
    undergone)

    undermine

    [ˏAnder'maIn]

    v подрывать, разрушать

    undertake

    [ˏAndq'teIk]

    undivided

    [ˏAndI'vaIdId]

    (undertook, undertaken) v 1. предпринимать (чтол.); 2. брать на себя (функции, обязательства); 3.
    ручаться, гарантировать
    a целый, неразделенный

    unexperience
    d
    uniformity

    [ˏAnIk'spIriqnst]

    a неопытный

    [ˏju:nI'fO:mqti]

    n единообразие

    unimportant

    a неважный, незначительный

    union
    unique

    [ˏAnIm'pO:tnt]
    ['ju:nIqn]
    [ju'ni:k]

    unit

    ['ju:nIt]

    unite
    unless
    unlimited

    [ju'naIt]
    [qn'les]
    [An'lImItId]

    unload
    unprecedente
    d
    unrelated

    [An'lqVd]
    [An'presIdentId]

    n 1. объединение, союз; 2. соединение, слияние
    a 1. уникальный; единственный в своем роде;
    особенный; 2. необыкновенный, удивительный
    n 1. единица; целое; 2. единица измерения; 3.
    устройство; узел; блок; прибор; 4. звено, элемент
    v 1. соединять (ся); 2. объединять (ся)
    cj если не, пока не
    a 1. неограниченный; 2. безграничный,
    беспредельный; 3. чрезмерный
    v 1. выгружать; 2. разгружать; снимать нагрузку
    a беспрецедентный, беспримерный

    [ˏAnrI'leItId]

    a несвязанный, не имеющий отношения

    unwanted

    [ˏAn'wPntId]

    a нежелательный; ненужный, лишний

    up-to-date
    use

    [ju:z]

    usual
    utilize

    ['ju:Zuql]
    ['ju:tqlaIz]

    a современный, новейший
    v 1. употребление, использование, применение; 2.
    цель, назначение; 3. польза
    a обыкновенный, обычный
    v использовать
    208

    utmost

    [ˏAtmqVst]

    a 1. самый
    последний

    отдаленный;

    2.

    предельный,

    V
    vacuum

    ['vxkjuqm]

    value

    ['vxlju:]

    valve

    [vxlv]

    vanguard
    variable
    vary

    ['vxnga:d]
    ['veqriqbl]
    ['veqri]

    various
    vast
    vehicle

    ['veqriqs]
    [va:st]
    ['vi:hIkl]

    velocity
    versatility

    [vq'lPsqti]
    [ˏvE:sq'tIlqti]

    versatile

    ['vE:sqtaIl]

    vessel
    via
    vibrate
    vibration
    virtual
    virtually
    visible
    visibility
    vision

    [vesl]
    ['vaIq]
    [vaI'breIt]
    [vaI'breISn]
    ['vE:Cuql]
    ['vE:Cuqli]
    ['vIzqbl]
    [vIzq'bIlqti]
    ['vIZn]

    visual

    ['vIZuql]

    vital

    ['vaItl]

    vocation
    voltage
    volume

    [vqV'keISn]
    ['vqVltIG]
    ['vPlju:m]

    (pl. vacua) n 1.
    безвоздушное пространство, пустота, вакуум
    n (числовое) значение; величина; ценность, оценка
    // оценивать, ценить
    n 1. (электронная) лампа, электронный прибор; 2.
    тлв. светоклапанная система
    n авангард, передовой отряд
    a изменчивый, n переменная величина
    v 1. изменяться; 2. разниться, расходиться; 3.
    разнообразить
    1. различный, разнообразный; 2. разносторонний
    обширный
    1. автотранспортное средство; 2. летательный
    аппарат, ракета
    скорость
    n 1. многосторонность, разносторонность; 2.
    переменчивость; 3. универсальность
    a 1. разносторонний; 2. изменчивый; 3.
    универсальный
    n сосуд; судно; корабль
    prep через
    v качаться, колебаться, вибрировать, звучать
    n 1. колебание, вибрация; 2. резонанс
    a 1. фактический; 2. виртуальный
    adv 1. фактически, практически; 2. по существу
    a 1. видимый, явный
    n 1. видимость, обзор; 2. различимость
    n 1. зрение; 2. предвидение; проницательность; 3.
    образ, картина; 4. обзор
    a 1. зрительный; 2. наглядный, визуальный; 3.
    оптический
    a 1. жизненный; 2. насущный, существенный,
    очень важный; крайне необходимый
    n призвание, занятие
    n напряжение, разность потенциалов
    n 1. книга, том; 2. объем; количество; масса
    W
    209

    waste

    [weIst]

    wave

    [weIv]

    waveform
    wavelength
    way
    weak
    weigh
    weight
    weld
    welding
    whether

    ['weIvleNT]
    [weI]
    [wi:k]
    [weI]
    [weIt]
    [weld]
    [weDq(r)]

    while

    [waIl]

    whole
    wide

    [heVl]
    [waId]

    widely
    wire
    wireless
    wiring
    wish
    with

    [waIdlI]
    ['waIq(r)]
    ['waIqles]
    ['waIqrIN]
    [wIS]
    [wID:]

    within
    without
    withstand
    word
    processing
    work
    work

    [wI'DIn]
    [wI'DaVt]
    [wID'stxnd]
    ['wE:d]

    workable

    ['wE:kqbl]

    [wE:k]

    working efficiency
    work out
    works

    расточать (энергию); попусту тратить (деньги),
    терять (время)
    n
    1.
    волна;
    графическое
    изображение
    колебательного процесса; радиосигнал; light wave
    световая волна
    форма волны, форма сигнала
    длина волны
    n 1. образ действия; способ, метод; 2. дорога, путь
    a слабый, плохой, недостаточный
    v взвешивать; весить
    n 1. вес; 2. тяжесть; груз; нагрузка; давление
    v сваривать (ся)
    n сварка; microwelding микросварка
    conj 1. вводит косвенный вопрос ли; 2. вводит
    подлежащие, дополнительные, определительные,
    предикативные
    и
    условные
    придаточные
    предложения ли
    conj пока; в то время как; когда; хотя, несмотря на
    то, что
    adj весь; целый; полный
    a 1. широкий; 2. шириной в …; 3. обширный,
    широкий, большой, огромный
    adj 1. широко; 2. далеко; 3. очень сильно
    n 1. прокладывать провод; 2. телеграфировать
    n радио, радиоприемник
    n 1. электропроводка; 2. монтаж (схемы)
    v 1. желать, хотеть; 2. стремиться
    1. выражает совместность – с; 2. у, в; 3. передает
    творительный падеж
    prep.выражает предел – в, внутри, в пределах
    выражает отсутствие – без, кроме
    v 1. выстоять, выдержать; 2. противостоять
    электронная обработка текста
    n 1. работа, труд; 2. дело, деятельность
    1. работать, трудиться; 2. действовать, быть в
    исправности; 3. приводить в движение, двигаться
    a 1. подходящий для работы; 2. выполнимый,
    осуществимый, реальный
    производительность труда
    1. вычислить; 2. разработать, составить (план); 3.
    истощать
    1. работающие части механизма; 2. строительные
    работы
    210

    worth

    [wE:T]

    n 1. ценность, значение; 2. богатство, имущество
    X

    x-ray

    xerocopy

    [ˏziqrqˊkopI]

    n рентгеновские лучи, рентгеновское излучение;
    v просвечивать, исследовать рентгеновскими
    лучами
    n 1. рентгенографическое исследование,
    рентгеноструктурный анализ; 2. рентгеновское
    просвечивание; 3. облучение рентгеновскими
    лучами
    n ксерокопия

    xerograph

    [ˊziqrqgra:f]

    n ксерограф, ксерографический аппарат

    xerography

    [ziqˊrPgrqfI]

    n размножение на ксероксе, ксерографирование

    xerox

    [ˊziqrPks]

    n ксерокс v ксерокопировать

    [ˊeksreI]

    x-raying

    Y
    yard
    yield

    [ja:d]
    [jJld]

    zero

    [ˊzIqrqV]

    zone

    [zqVn]

    n ярд (= 3 футам или 0,9144 м)
    n размер выработки; количество добытого или
    произведенного продукта; выход (продукции); v
    производить, вырабатывать, давать
    Z
    n нуль, нулевая точка; начало отcчета; начало
    координат;
    v устанавливать (прибор и т.д.) на нуль
    n зона, пояс; полоса; район; v опоясывать;
    разделять на зоны

    211

    Министерство образования Республики Беларусь
    Учреждение образования
    «Белорусский государственный университет
    информатики и радиоэлектроники»

    Кафедра иностранных языков №1

    Учебно-методическое пособие
    по развитию навыков и умений устной речи
    на английском языке для студентов
    ФКП, ФТК, ФРЭ и ВФ дневной формы обучения

    English Conversation Practice

    Минск 2008

    Авторы-составители: М. В. Кравченко, Т. Г. Шелягова, Н. Н. Крипец,
    Т. В. Левкович, И. И. Лихтарович, С. И. Лягушевич, И. Г. Маликова,
    Г. Ф. Табакова, Л. Е. Яцевич.
    Методическая разработка по развитию навыков и умений устной речи на
    английском языке для студентов ФКП, ФТК, ФРЭ, ВФ дневн. формы обуч.:
    сост. М.В.Кравченко [и др.]. - Минск: БГУИР, 2008. - 197с.
    В связи с переходом к новым образовательным стандартам в цикле
    социально-гуманитарных дисциплин и изменением объема содержания
    изучаемого материала по дисциплине «иностранный язык» в неязыковых
    вузах количество проблемно-тематических циклов пособия, а также их объем
    были сокращены. Авторы пособия сохранили единый комплекс упражнений
    и заданий репродуктивно-продуктивного и продуктивного характера,
    способствующий развитию навыков и умений устной речи на английском
    языке. Разработка включает применение современных педагогических
    технологий: работа с кейсом, проект, ролевая игра и др., а также сквозной
    пролонгированный проект.
    В пособие вошли проблемно тематические циклы: About Myself, House
    and Home, Meals, University Studies, Around the World (Great Britain, Belarus)
    and Spare Time (Hobbies, Travelling and Holidays, The Arts), Mass Media,
    Global Issues, My Future Profession, Sport, Shopping.

    Коллектив авторов, 2008
    БГУИР, 2008
    2

    UNIT I

    ABOUT MYSELF
    Word List
    Active Vocabulary

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    spirits
    настроение
    /'spIrIts/
    ~ to be in high spirits
    быть в хорошем настроении
    ~ to be in low spirits
    быть в плохом настроении
    argue
    admit
    bear
    resemble
    take after
    anxious
    articulate
    attractive
    average
    cheerful
    crude
    curly
    generous
    hospitable
    impatient
    irritable
    moody
    reserved
    shy
    slim
    self-confident
    smart
    stocky
    stout

    Verbs and Verbal Phrases
    спорить

    /'a:gju:/
    /qd'mIt/
    /beq/
    /rI'zembl/
    /'teIk'a:ftq/

    допускать, принимать, соглашаться
    терпеть, выносить
    походить, иметь сходство
    походить на к-л.

    Adjectives
    озабоченный, обеспокоенный
    /'xNkSqs/
    ясный, отчетливый
    /a: 'tIkjqlqt/
    привлекательный
    /q'trxktIv/
    средний
    /'xvqrIdZ/
    веселый, жизнерадостный
    /'CIqfl/
    грубый
    /kru:d/
    кудрявый
    /'kE:li/
    щедрый
    /'dZenqrqs/
    гостеприимный
    /'hPspItqbl/
    нетерпеливый
    /Im'peISnt/
    раздражительный
    /'IrItqbl/
    угрюмый, невеселый; в плохом
    /'mu:di/
    настроении
    сдержанный; замкнутый,
    /rI'zE:vd/
    необщительный
    застенчивый; робкий, нерешительный
    /SaI/
    тонкий, стройный
    /slIm/
    /'self'kPnfIdqnt/ самоуверенный, самонадеянный
    нарядный, модный
    /sma:t/
    приземистый, коренастый
    /'stPki/
    полный, тучный
    /staVt/

    3

    Passive Vocabulary
    abuse
    lobe
    wrinkle
    arrogant
    jealous
    mean
    offensive
    regrettable
    ridiculous
    trustworthy
    vivacious
    Verbs
    appreciate
    recognize
    restrain
    Adverb
    succinctly

    /q'bju:s/
    /lqVb/
    /'rINkl/

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    оскорбление, плохое обращение
    мочка (уха)
    морщина

    /'xrqgqnt/
    /'Gelqs/
    /mi:n/
    /q'fensIv/
    /rI'gretqbl/
    /rI'dIkjqlqs/
    /'trAstwE:Di/
    /vI'veISqs/

    Adjectives
    высокомерный, надменный
    ревнивый
    скупой, скаредный
    оскорбительный, обидный
    заслуживающий порицания
    смехотворный, смешной, нелепый
    заслуживающий доверия, надежный
    Живой, оживленный

    /q'pri:SieIt/
    /'rekqgnaIz/
    /rI'streIn/

    оценивать, понимать, принимать во внимание
    узнавать
    сдерживать

    /sqk'sINktlI/

    Кратко, сжато

    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the statements and try to outline the problems to be discussed.
    1. Like father, like son.
    2. It’s not necessary to be beautiful to be liked by people.
    3. It takes all kinds to make a world.
    4. Children must be taught to respect their parents.
    2. You’ve got some information about Steve Clark. Describe his appearance and
    character to your partner. Replace the words in bold with synonyms given in the
    box.
    My name is Steve Clark. I was born on August, 25. I am in my teens. I come
    from Manchester, England. I take after my mother. I am of a medium height with
    her regular features and dark hair and build a bit stocky but strong with it. I have a
    straight nose and a wide humorous mouth. They say I’m incredibly handsome.
    I inherited my father’s grey eyes and character. I am quite shy, I look calm, but
    actually I am rather nervy. I think I am kind, but sometimes I am bad-tempered
    like my father.
    I have long, curly hair. It is fashionable at the moment for men to grow their
    hair. It nearly reaches my shoulders. My mother is always telling me to get it cut. I
    4

    don’t take much care for my appearance, so I often look quite untidy – it doesn’t
    matter how much money, time and energy I devote to my appearance.
    My mum is usually well-dressed. She is the sort of a person who always
    looks smart. But I am the exact opposite. I hate having to wear a tie. I like
    comfortable clothes such as T-shirts and jeans. I don’t care what I look like.
    I don’t have many interests and hobbies. I spend much time at my computer.
    In my opinion the computer is the greatest invention in the world. Actually if your
    computer is connected up to the Internet you can get any information you want,
    you can send letters all over the world in no time. I mean the service called e-mail.
    The second thing I’m interested in is tennis. It gives me energy and puts me in
    high spirits. I always spend my spare time on the tennis court. I’ve won a few
    local tournaments and I’d really like to turn professional.
    pay attention amazingly resemble am keen on contrast contests goodlooking thickset in fact quiet wavy in a good mood timid average
    irritable elegant
    3. Look at the words in the box and say what relation is:
    your mother’s sister to you
    your father’s brother to you
    your sister’s son to you
    your brother’s daughter to you
    your aunt’s son to you
    your sister’s husband to you
    your brother’s wife to you
    your parents’ parents to you
    your grandparents’ parents to you
    your husband to your parents
    your brother’s wife to your mother
    your sister’s son to your mother
    your mother’s son from the first marriage to you
    your stepmother’s daughter to you
    grandson aunt cousin uncle daughter-in-law nephew son-in- law niece
    brother-in-law grandparents half brother stepsister great grandparents
    sister-in-law
    4. Tell your partner about uncle Desmond choosing the correct word.
    My uncle Desmond is the kind of person everyone likes. In fact, he is so
    sociable/sociability that neighbors and friends visit him constantly. Luckily, he
    enjoys other peoples’/people’s company.
    Almost everyone finds Desmond charming, and as far as I can tell his charm
    lays/lies in the fact that he always takes a positive view of life. In fact, many
    people find his optimism infection/ infectious. I’ve seen people who are really
    anxious/anxiety suddenly forget all their terribly/terrible worries and become full
    5

    of life. Last week one woman became so careful/carefree that she started dancing
    on the table, which amused Desmond.
    Another thing I like about Desmond is that he is very broad-minded about
    everything from religion through food/meal to nationality. I have rare/rarely met
    anyone with so few prejudices/superstitious and so much enthusiasm/enthusiast
    for life.
    Not surprising/surprisingly, although Desmond lives alone, he always has
    company, so he never feels lonely/alone. On another/the other hand, he doesn’t
    seem to need the help of anyone, although/in spite of being over 80, and lives a
    very independent life.
    5. Interview your group-mates:
    a) Do your relatives take a positive view of life?
    b) Why is it important to be a broad-minded person?
    c) Which of your members of the family has much enthusiasm for life?
    d) Have you ever felt lonely? Why?
    6. These people are all talking about other people’s characters. Match the names
    they mention with the descriptions in the box.
    ‘…Mr. Brown’s really a
    warm-hearted person,
    don’t you think?’

    ‘…Don’t you think David’s
    rather a big-head?’

    ‘…As for Mike, he seems
    frightened of his own
    shadow.’
    ‘…I think Luke
    is the strong,
    silent type.’

    ‘…Diana is really a tower
    of strength, isn’t she?’

    ‘…Sally’s a ball of
    fire…’
    ‘…I’ve found that Tom
    is likely to fly off the
    handle…’

    6

    a someone you can really rely on
    b someone who is very concerned for and generous to others
    c someone with a lot of energy and enthusiasm
    d someone with a very high opinion of himself/herself
    e someone who talks too much
    f someone who is very quiet but seems sure of himself/herself
    g someone who is very timid
    h someone who loses his/her temper quickly
    7. Say what you’ve learnt about Frederick’s occupation. Supply the missing
    replies.
    A: ... ... .
    B: Oh, er, Janet. Janet Parker.
    A: ... ... .
    B: Oh. What do you do, er, Fred?
    A: ... ... .
    B: Oh, yes? Where do you work, then? Are you based in London?
    A: ... ... .
    B: Oh, yes?
    A: ... ... .
    B: Oh, have you?
    A: ... ... .
    B: It must be terribly interesting. All that travelling. All those famous people.
    A: ... ... .
    - Oh, no. I live in Paris. Paris and California. But I travel all over the world.
    - Before that, I was in Venice for the film festival. In a few days, I’ll be in
    Tokyo for a fashion show. It’s a busy life, you know. A busy life.
    - Oh, yes? I’m Frederick Getty Onassis. But my friends call me Fred.
    - Oh, no. Famous people – they’re all the same, really ...
    - Hello, then. What’s your name?
    - I’ve just got back from Washington. I’ve been photographing the President for
    “Time” magazine.
    - Oh, I’m a photographer. I photograph famous people: film stars, pop singers,
    people like that.
    8. Describe Michael’s father-in-law. Restore the dialogue.
    A: The face of that man is familiar to me. I seem to know him.
    B: ... ... .
    A: That tall man of forty-four, perhaps, with coarse features.
    B: ... ... .
    A: No.
    B: ... ... .
    A: Wrong again! Look to the right at the man of your size a in brown suit with
    broad shoulders. He has a very uncommon face.
    7

    B: ... ... .
    A: Just that very man! Don’t you find there’s something about him that makes him
    look sleepy?
    B: ... ... .
    A: Somehow I connect him with Michael. He seems to have recognized us too. He
    is coming towards us.
    B:... ... .
    - Is it the man in uniform with a tooth-brush moustache?
    - How could we possibly forget him. It’s Michael’s father-in-law, Mr. Brown.
    - Do you mean the stout gentleman with a fleshy and pale face touched with
    colour only at the thick hanging lobes of his ears? The one who has just
    broken into laughter?
    - Who exactly?
    - It is his heavy-lidded eyes and the disorder of his scanty (недостаточный,
    скудный) hair.
    - That one who has very red hair with a bald patch (плешь) on the crown?
    9. Say what you have learnt about Damien. In the dialogue B’s responses have
    become mixed up. Indicate their correct position by putting a number in the
    brackets (the first one has been done for you).
    A: So that’s your friend, Damien.
    B: (1) I’ve known him for ages. We used to go to school together.
    A: What’s he like?
    B: ( ) Well ... perhaps I’d better introduce him to you ... .
    A: I thought you said he has a tendency to be aggressive.
    B: ( ) Aristocratic? Damien? Maybe he gives that impression... yes, now you
    mention it, he does have an arrogant streak.
    A: There’s a touch of the aristocratic about him, I find...
    B: ( ) Yes, I think he takes after his father, who was well-known for his bad
    temper.
    A: I don’t mean that exactly. I think there’s something quite distinguished about
    him.
    B: ( ) He’s the quiet type, but he’s not as shy as he seems... I’m quite fond of him.
    A: Oh, yes please!
    10. Work in groups. Characterize the people that are being described. Make use
    of the following words and word combinations from the box.
    Amrita
    I’m an active and a)... person – I b) ... just sitting around doing nothing. It just
    makes me c) ... and restless. But I know what I want, and I think I’ve got what it
    takes to achieve my d) ... . Does that make me sound horribly e) ... and selfish? I
    hope not!
    goals
    impatient
    can’t bear
    ambitious
    energetic
    8

    Kevin
    I’m the kind of person who knows how a)... . I suppose you would call me b) ...,
    but it’s more than that. I actually believe in a calm, cool, c) ... approach to life and
    I can’t bear unnecessary d) … and pressure. I believe in being e) ... and taking life
    as it comes…
    anxiety

    fun-loving

    to have a good time

    sociable

    easy-going

    Larry
    My problem can be summarized in one word: a)... . I just don’t have enough. I’m
    b)... with other people, who must think I’m boring and stupid sometimes. c)... of
    confidence also makes me d)... : I spend days trying to make up my mind what to
    do about quite simple things. I’m told I sometimes look e)..., but in fact I like being
    with other people...
    indecisive
    shy
    self-confidence
    moody
    lack
    Cathy
    How do I see myself? Well, I’m a)... and disorganized – some would say b)...! But
    I’ve got quite a lot of c)..., really, and I’ve got ideas. I’m a hardworker too when
    I’m doing something I’m interested in. I’m not very d) ... when it comes to public
    speaking but I quite enjoy being e)..., and I don’t get in the least bit f) ....
    absent-minded articulate nervous forgetful the centre of attention willpower
    11. Find and read those parts of the text which express the following viewpoints:
    1. When the author heard the Frenchmen insulting the American tourists he
    decided to interfere because they were unfair to them.
    2. The Europeans had a high opinion about American tourists.
    3. The author admits that 70 percent of American tourists are blameworthy.
    4. The author objects to those who says that 100 percent of a certain nationality
    behave in a certain way because it is not true to the fact.
    5. The author seems to suggest that not all people of the same nationality have
    the same ‘national character’.
    The ways of tourists are strange, and one afternoon as I sat in the Plaza
    Mayor, I heard some Frenchmen at the next table tearing Americans apart. To the
    first barrage of criticism, I could not logically protest: Americans were uncultured,
    lacked historical sense, were concerned only with business, had no sensitivity and
    ought to stay at home. The second echelon of abuse I did want to interrupt, because
    I felt that some of it was wide of the mark: Americans were all loud, had no
    manners, no education, no sense of proportion, and were offensively vulgar in
    dress, speech, eating habits and general comportment, but I restrained myself
    because, after all, this was a litany one heard throughout Europe, here expressed
    rather more succinctly than elsewhere.
    9

    Sitting as quietly as my French companions would permit, I tried to discover
    what my true feelings were in this matter of honest description. In my travels, I had
    never met any single Americans as noisy and crude as certain Germans, none so
    downright mean as one or two Frenchmen, none so ridiculous as an occasional
    Englishman, and none so arrogant as some Swedes.
    But in each of the national examples cited I am speaking only of a few
    horrible specimens. If one compares all English tourists with all Americans, I
    would have to admit that taken in the large the American is worse. If some
    European wanted to argue that seventy percent of all American tourists are
    regrettable, I would agree. If he claimed ninety, I suppose I wouldn’t argue too
    much. But when like the Frenchman on my left he states that one hundred percent
    are that way, then I must accuse him of being false to the facts.
    James Michener Iberia 2
    12. Say why Penny experienced culture shock when she was on a visit to Japan?
    Name customs and traditions of Japanese culture.
    Fill in each space with an appropriate word from the list.
    nervous
    formal

    worried enjoyable angry usual
    amusing shy ordinary
    ashamed sympathetic typical afraid
    tiresome
    anxious

    Culture shock
    Penny, a friend of mine, has just got back from a trip to Japan. She had a
    very... (1) time but there were occasions, she says, when the rather ...(2) behaviour
    of her hosts led to moments of cultural confusion, and at times she even felt
    embarrassed by some of the mistakes she made. For example, it is ...(3) for
    Europeans to call each other by their first names, but this is not the ...(4) way of
    addressing people to Japan. Now, because Penny was ...(5) to show everyone how
    friendly she was, she called everyone by their first name. Most people were ...(6)
    because she was obviously a foreigner but some became quite ...(7) and show little
    sympathy.
    At first, Penny found bowing to people quite ...(8) - she is, after all, an
    actress – but after a while it became a bit ...(9) having to bow to everyone you met.
    Penny is not at all ...(10) - she loves meeting new people – but after the first
    few misunderstandings she was ...(11) to open her mouth in case she offended
    someone. I myself am quite an experienced traveller, but I would feel ... (12) about
    putting my foot in it in Japan because there even ...(13) people observe the most
    elaborate rules of social behaviour – silence for example is nothing to be ...(14) of
    in Japanese culture, but in the West we get very ...(15) if there are even short
    periods of silence at social gatherings.

    13. Match these nationalities with the ‘stereotype’ pictures.
    10

    the Germans the French
    the Americans

    the Japanese
    the Spanish

    the Italians
    the Scottish
    the British

    1

    2

    3

    4
    5

    6

    11

    7

    8

    14. Study the national features of people from different countries and match
    them with nationalities.
    Nationality
    The French
    The Spanish
    The Scottish
    The British
    The Americans
    The Germans
    The Japanese
    The Italians

    12

    Character
    a) calm, reserved, open-minded, trustworthy, hidebound,
    insular, superior, excellent sense of humour
    b) the highest proportion of good qualities, tolerant,
    fashionable, square
    c) lazy, untrustworthy, vivacious, charming, hospitable,
    noisy
    d) conservative, withdrawn, chauvinistic, brilliant,
    superficial, hedonistic, not very friendly
    e) outgoing, talkative, less reserved, love chatting, very
    generous, hospitable
    f) hard-working, noisy, democratic, ambitious, friendly,
    open-minded, punctual, church-goers
    g) artistic, hot-tempered, religious, emotional, jealous,
    fun- loving, cheerful
    h) polite, ambitious (for men), hard-working, neat,
    reserved, tolerant, love nature, healthy way of life

    15. Look at the photo and describe the typical characteristics of the Belarusians.

    16. In the following dialogue examine some unfinished pieces of argumentation
    and select among the given arguments the one that can be added in full
    accordance with the speaker’s viewpoints.
    INTERVIEW WITH A 17-YEAR-OLD SON DAVID
    Interviewer: How do you get on with your parents?
    David: I look up to them because (1) ... .
    Interviewer: How strict are your parents?
    David: They can be very strict at times. I told my Dad I wanted a motorbike, but he
    said it was out of the question – (2) ... . My mother is strict about keeping things
    tidy. I can’t get out of doing the washing up and things like that, unless I’m very
    busy.
    Interviewer: How do you get on with your sister?
    David: (3) ... , so we are always arguing. We’ve never been very close, but I get on
    all right with her. I think I’m much closer to my mother.
    1. a) I’m afraid to be punished if I do
    anything wrong.
    b) I know they’ve worked hard to
    bring us properly.
    c) I can’t do what I like.
    2. a) it wasn’t expensive enough
    b) I can’t ride it very fast
    c) it was too dangerous
    3

    a) I’ve always been very kind to her
    13

    b) I never agree with what she says
    c) We always see eye to eye on many
    things
    17. Make a small talk about people’s character and appearance.
    1. You will like him if you get to know him better as he is ...
    2. He is the kind of man you go for at once ... .
    3. He’s got a bunch of bad habits ... .
    4. She/he is everything I (dis)like in a woman(man) ... .
    5. His brother looks a bit stern but ... .
    6. He is not the kind of person you will like at first sight but ... .
    7. When you meet her, the first thing you notice is ... .
    8. The girl is a little unbalanced but ... .
    18. Expand the following dialogues.
    1. A: John, could you do me a favour?
    B: Sure. Go ahead.
    A: I need to send a couple of books to a friend of mine in London. I’ve
    heard you’re going there tomorrow. If you could take the books with you,
    he would meet you at the airport.
    B: No problem. But how can I recognize him?
    A: ... ... .
    2. A: Who is the young man in the picture?
    B: Oh, this is Frank Howard, William’s son?
    A: I don’t think he took after his father.
    B: No, he didn’t. He is a replica of his mother. Have you met her?
    A: ... ... .
    3. A: Bob, what do you think of Mary’s brother?
    B: He has got a good sense of humour. It’s a lot of fun to be with him.
    A: But he is a very ambitious guy.
    B: Do you consider ambition to be a good trait?
    A: … … .
    4. A: It’s not necessary to be beautiful to be liked by people.
    B: That’s true. Look at film stars. Some of them are not good-looking at all,
    but they are so charming that everybody adores them. For example...
    19. Work in groups.
    Do you think that the proverb “Appearances are deceptive” is correct? Ask
    your partner’s opinion. Let him/her explain why he/she thinks so.
    20. Give your own ideas on the following problems.

    14

    1.”The situation of our youth is not mysterious. Children have never been very
    good at listening to their elders, but they have never failed to imitate them. They
    must, they have no other models.” (James Baldwin)
    2. Children should be allowed to make decisions about their lives. If they make
    mistakes, they can learn from them.
    3. Give a child his will and he will turn ill.
    4. Parents should show love and affection towards their children.
    5. Children should always be told why they are being asked to do anything.
    6. “Every generation revolts against its fathers and makes friends with its
    grandfathers.” (Lewis Mumford)
    21. Comment on the following statements:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.

    In any nation, the same variety of character types is represented.
    There’s no such thing as ‘national character’.
    Face is a letter of recommendation.
    A beauty lives an easier life.
    “It is a wise father that knows his own child.” (W.Shakespeare)

    22. Look at the network of the topic and tell your groupmates about yourself and
    your family supplying the necessary information.
    good-looking

    curly

    surfing the Internet
    HAIR
    HOBBIES
    INTERESTS

    stocky

    APPEARANCE
    BUILD

    MY BIOGRAPHY

    OCCUPATION

    NOSE

    MY FAMILY

    BIRTHPLACE

    a student

    CHARACTER
    AGE

    15

    sociable

    impatient

    NATIONALITY
    Belarusian

    to be in one’s teens

    II. Writing Section
    1. Study the application form carefully and fill it in.

    2006-2007 EURASIAN UNDERGRADUATE
    EXCHANGE PROGRAM APPLICATION
    A program of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States
    Department of State

    1. NAME (as written on official documents):
    (Family Name) (First
    2.

    Name)

    (Middle/Patronymic)
    COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP:

    3. COUNTRY OF LEGAL RESIDENCE:
    4. PLACE OF BIRTH:
    (City or Town)

    (Country)

    5. DATE OF BIRTH:
    6. GENDER:

    (Month)
    Male:

    7. MARITAL STATUS:
    SPOUSE (if applicable):

    (Day)
    Female:
    Single

    Married

    CITIZENSHIP OF

    8. CURRENT HOME ADDRESS: Is this a dormitory address?
    Street/Building Number:
    Apartment:
    City:
    16

    Postal Index:

    (Year)

    Yes

    No

    Region or Oblast:
    Telephone: (

    Country:
    )

    Fax: (

    )

    Email:

    Cell phone (if applicable): _(_________)_______________________________
    PERMANENT HOME ADDRESS (IF DIFFERENT):
    Street/Building Number:
    Apartment:
    City:

    Postal Index:

    Region or Oblast:
    Telephone: (

    Country:
    )

    Cell phone (if applicable): (

    Fax: (

    )

    Email:

    )__________________________________

    9. CURRENT ACADEMIC INSTITUTION:
    FACULTY/DEPARTMENT:
    Street:
    City:
    Country:
    Fax: (

    Postal Index:
    Telephone: (

    )

    )

    10. PRESENT COURSE YEAR:
    First
    Second
    students enrolled in 5-year university programs)

    Third* (*only for

    11. EXPECTED GRADUATION DATE (month/year):
    12. CURRENT SPECIALIZATION / MAJOR IN HOME COUNTRY: ____
    13. PROPOSED FIELD OF STUDY IN THE US:
    Please indicate one specialization below, which most closely matches your
    current specialization. Unless otherwise noted, all fields of study are offered for
    first-, second-, and third-year students. If selected as a finalist, applicants may
    not change their field of study during the program.
    17

    Accounting (first-year only)
    Agriculture
    American Studies
    Business
    Computer Science (first-year only)
    Criminal Justice
    Economics (second- and third-year only)
    Education (second- and third-year only)
    Environmental Management
    Hospitality Management (first-year only)
    International Relations (second- and third-year only)
    Journalism and Mass Communications
    Law (first-year only)
    Political Science
    Psychology (first-year only)
    Sociology
    Signature of applicant ______________________________________________
    Date _________
    III. Role play
    You are going to describe or ask for a description of a crime suspect. Divide into
    two groups A and B. Read the cards below and follow the instructions.
    A. Witnesses
    Yesterday you visited a local bank. At the entrance you were nearly knocked
    down by a strange man. At the bank you learnt that a large sum of money had
    been stolen and one of the criminals had managed to escape. The police want
    you to give a description of this person. You have 3 minutes to look at the
    picture (see page 21). Discuss in your group how to describe him.
    Useful words and phrases:
    1. Age: elderly, middle-aged, young, under 30, past 40 ...
    2. Height: tall, short, over 5 feet 6 inches, of middle height ...
    3. Build: slim, stout, broad-shouldered ...
    4. Face: long, round, thin, wrinkled, oval ...
    5. Hair: long, straight, curly, blond, bald-headed...
    6. Eyes: close-set, dark-eyed, small ...
    7. Nose: straight, hooked, ...
    8. Ears: stick out ...
    9. Distinctive marks: freckles, a mole on his right cheek, beard, moustache ...
    B. Police officers
    18

    Yesterday criminals stole a large sum of money from a local bank. One of
    the robbers had managed to escape. You know that he ran into one of the clients
    when he/she was entering the bank. In your group get ready with the questions
    you will ask the witness. Think about his age, height, build, face, hair, eyes,
    nose, ears, distinctive marks.
    C. Witnesses
    Yesterday you visited a local shop. At the entrance you were nearly knocked
    down by a strange man. At the shop you learnt that a large sum of money had
    been stolen and one of the criminals had managed to escape. The police want
    you to give a description of this person. You have 3 minutes to look at the
    picture (see page 21). Discuss in your group how to describe him.
    Useful words and phrases:
    1. Age: elderly, middle-aged, young, under 30, past 40 ...
    2. Height: tall, short, over 5 feet 6 inches, of middle height ...
    3. Build: slim, stout, broad-shouldered ...
    4. Face: long, round, thin, wrinkled, oval ...
    5. Hair: long, straight, curly, blond, bald-headed...
    6. Eyes: close-set, dark-eyed, small ...
    7. Nose: straight, hooked, ...
    8. Ears: stick out ...
    9. Distinctive marks: freckles, a mole on his right cheek, beard, moustache ...
    D. Police officers
    Yesterday criminals stole a large sum of money from a local shop. One of
    the robbers had managed to escape. You know that he ran into one of the
    customers when he/she was entering the shop. In your group get ready with the
    questions you will ask the witness. Think about his age, height, build, face, hair,
    eyes, nose, ears, distinctive marks.
    Work in pairs: one person from group A (a witness) and one person from
    group B (a police officer).
    The police officer should interrogate the witness and make a video image.
    The witness should decide if it is the man he/she had seen at the local
    bank/shop and if necessary correct the video image synthesized by the police
    officer.
    Useful words and phrases:
    Make the face thinner (more round)...
    Try to add bushy eyebrows ...
    He was wearing a cap/eyeglasses/a
    beard
    Comprehensive Prolonged Project
    19

    Three students from the Belarusian State University of Informatics and
    Radioelectronics are the participants of the International Youth Conference on
    Computing Technologies.
    Day 1st:

    Meeting People
    Students from different countries are coming to the Conference.
    Get acquainted with the students from other countries. Introduce
    yourself and learn as much as you can about them.

    20

    UNIT II

    HOUSE AND HOME
    Vocabulary
    Active Vocabulary
    Nouns and Noun Phrases

    accommodation
    appliance

    /q"kPmq'deISn/
    /q'plaIqns/

    closet

    /klPzIt/

    cushion
    detached house
    laundry

    /'kVSn/
    /dI'txCt'haVs/
    /'lO:ndri/

    do the laundry
    dry the laundry
    fold the laundry
    iron( press) the
    laundry ( the
    linen)
    landing
    lounge
    oven
    semi-detached
    house

    /du:/
    /draI/
    /fqVld/
    /'aIqn 'lInIn/

    terraced house

    квартира, комната, жилье
    аппарат, прибор, приспособление,
    устройство
    платяной шкаф; ниша ( для хранения
    белья, одежды и т.д.)
    диванная подушка
    особняк
    1) прачечная 2) а) белье для стирки
    или из стирки б) стирка
    стирать белье
    сушить белье
    складывать белье
    гладить, утюжить белье

    /'lxndIN/
    /laVndZ/
    /'Avn/
    /'semidI'txCt/

    лестничная площадка
    гостиная
    духовой шкаф, духовка
    дом, имеющий общую стену с
    соседним домом

    /terqst'haus/

    дом ленточной застройки ( дом,
    стоящий в ряду одинаковых домов с
    общими стенами

    Verbs and Verb Phrases
    mend
    rent( rent out )

    /mend/
    /rent/

    чинить, ремонтировать
    арендовать, брать в аренду, снимать
    квартиру
    21

    scatter

    /'skxtq(r)/

    share ( smth.
    with smb.)
    soak

    /Seq(r)/

    wipe

    /waIp/

    разбрасывать, раскидывать,
    расшвыривать;
    разделять с кем-л. что-л.; использовать
    совместно
    1) замачивать, пропитывать(ся);
    погружать(ся) в жидкость;
    вытирать, протирать

    /sqVk/

    Adjectives
    cramped

    /krxmpt/

    luxurious
    self-contained

    /lAg'ZVqriqs/
    /selfkqn'teind/

    shabby

    /'Sxbi/

    spacious

    /'speISqs/

    тесный; стиснутый; стесненный (в
    пространстве)
    богатый, пышный, роскошный; дорогой,
    изолированный, отдельный (о доме,
    квартире)
    а) поношенный; потрепанный,
    протертый (об одежде, мебели и т. п.)
    б) убогий, захудалый; бедный,
    запущенный (о жилище)
    обширный, просторный,
    вместительный,

    Passive Vocabulary
    basement
    broom
    bucket
    cellar
    detergent
    embroider
    estate agent
    fee
    mop
    pillow-slip
    rinse
    scour
    sponge
    tile
    wring

    22

    фундамент, подвал; (полу) подвальный этаж;
    цокольный этаж
    /bru:m/
    веник, метла
    ведро
    /'bAkIt/
    подвал; погреб; подвальный этаж
    /'selq(r)/
    очищающее, моющее средство
    /dI'tE:Gqnt/
    /Im'brOIdq(r)/ вышивать, украшать вышивкой
    /I'steIt'eIGqnt/ агент по продаже недвижимости
    /fi:/
    вознаграждение,
    1) швабра 2) мыть, протирать шваброй
    /mPp/
    наволочка
    /'pIlqVslIp/
    /rins/
    промывать, ополаскивать, прополаскивать,
    полоскать
    чистить, отчищать; оттирать, отдраивать
    /'skaVq(r)/
    губка
    /spAnG/
    1) а) черепица б) плитка 2. крыть
    /taIl/
    черепицей/кафелем
    выжимать, жать (тж. wring out)
    /riN/
    /'beIsmqnt/

    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the statements and try to outline the problems to be discussed.
    1. Tastes differ. Different countries have different kinds of accommodation.
    2. Men make houses, women make homes.
    3. Children and husbands learn to do housework.
    4. Renting an apartment is much simpler than buying a house.
    2. You’ve got some information about Pam’s new flat. Describe it. Replace the
    words in bold type by the synonyms given in the box
    Dear John,
    My new flat is really lovely! It’s got four big rooms – a spacious lounge
    with dining area, two bedrooms and a large kitchen which looks out onto the
    garden. There’s another large window in the lounge with a super view of the park
    opposite, which lets in lots of sunshine in the afternoon. It’s fully equipped with
    central heating but so far I haven’t thought of any furniture! There are no carpets
    down yet and all I’ve got is a bed and a table and some chairs. Oh, and I forgot to
    say that it’s on the ground floor and quite near the shops, which is very convenient
    for me because I’ve got a memory like a sieve and I’m always forgetting to buy
    something!
    Do come and visit me! I’m sure you won’t mind sleeping on the floor if I haven’t
    got another bed by the time you come. I can show you the town and we can go into
    the country too while you’re here. I know you’d enjoy it here! Please write soon.
    Love, Pam
    couch; furnishings; living room; like; nice
    suitable; provided; faces; floor covering; scenery;
    3. Tell your friend about the most traditional types of housing in Great Britain
    choosing the right preposition from the brackets.
    In Great Britain, families prefer to live (at, in, into) houses rather than flats.
    There are different types of housing (on, at, in) Britain. Terraced houses are
    attached (with, to, for) each other in a long row. They are usually found in towns
    and cities and many were built in the 19th or early 20th century as houses (for, with,
    without) workmen. Today, Victorian terraced houses are very popular city homes.
    (At, in, on) the 1930’s a large number of semis were built. They share a
    central wall. Typically, a semi has a small garden (to, at, in) front of it and a fence
    divides a larger garden (on, at, in) the back. Semis are still built where land is
    expensive.
    A detached house has land (below, round, above) it. More and more modern
    homes are detached, although (to, towards, in) areas where building land is
    expensive, the houses may be very close (at, with, to) each other.

    23

    Country cottages are often old stone buildings which were part (of, for, on) a
    farm. Today many people who work (in, on, at) the cities buy cottages so that they
    have a place to go (in, on, for) the weekend.
    A bungalow is a house where all the rooms are (in, on, at) the ground floor.
    As there are no stairs, many older people dream (after, of, for) going to live in a
    bungalow when they retire.
    A block of flats. In the 1950s and 1960s local councils cleared a lot of slums
    (in, from, on) the inner city areas and knocked down terraced houses (on, in,
    about) very poor areas. Block of flats or tower blocks can vary (for, with, from)
    3-5 storeys high up to 10-20 storeys high. Each storey contains 5 or 6 flats (of, to,
    for) families. But people don’t like to live (with, in, without) them because there
    are many social problems.
    4. You’ve bought a new flat. Decide with your partner what furniture you would
    need to make it comfortable. Use the words in the box below. Say which room(s)
    each piece of furniture would normally be used in.
    Sitting room

    Bedroom

    Kitchen

    Bathroom

    Entrance Hall

    sideboard
    chest of drawers dressing table shelf
    stool hat-stand dresser mirror carpet .lampshade wall-unit
    cupboard wardrobe armchair cooker sofa desk bookcase
    5. Work in pairs. You friend is telling you about a new flat he has moved to.
    Restore the dialogues. Use the questions from the box given below.
    1) A: …..?
    B: Oh, yes, we have, and we expect you to come to our house-warming party
    next Saturday.
    A: Thank you. I’ll be very glad.
    2) A: …..?
    B: Yes, a very nice one, with all modern conveniences.
    A: …?
    A: It’ a four-storeyed dwelling house built by the City Municipals. It’s a five
    minute walk from an underground station.
    3) A: Ann has no taste at all. Her room is simply awful.
    B: …?
    A: It’s rather small. There is a big table in the middle. There is a long narrow
    bed by the window and there are some old chairs between the bed and the
    table. There are also some awful pictures on the walls.
    24

    4) A: We are lucky to have such a good flat in the centre of the town.
    B: ….?
    A: No, there is little furniture here, only the most necessary things.
    5) A: …?
    B: Five – a living-room, kitchen, bathroom and two bedrooms.
    A: …?
    B: OK. Well, when you enter the flat, you’re in the living-room. The kitchen is
    off the
    living-room to the left. There’s a door at the far end of the living-room that
    leads into the
    hall. The two bedrooms are down the hall on the right, and the bathroom is
    on the left.
    6) A: …?
    B: Oh, I’d love to. What a nice wardrobe, is it walnut?
    A: Yes, it matches the bed and the dressing-table.
    B: …?
    A: No, that’s Mother’s work; she also did the lampshade for the reading lamp
    on the bedside table.
    B: Oh, how pretty they are. I see you’ve got a built-in cabinet here. …?
    A: I keep some pillow slips and sheets, a spare blanket and even a pillow there.
    Are you planning to buy new furniture?
    Is it in a multistoreyed house?
    Did you embroider the bedspread and the
    curtains yourself?
    There’s not much furniture in this room, is
    there?
    What do you keep in it?
    How many rooms does it have?
    Have you already moved into the new
    flat?
    Would you like to see my bedroom?
    What is it like?
    Can you describe the floor plan?
    Is it a two-room flat?
    6. Work in pairs. Describe how different appliances make our life easier. Use the
    following word combinations from the box.
    1) Today’s vacuum cleaners … and … at bay without having to lug heavy
    machines around the house or … outside. Nowadays you can go a step further and
    buy a …that will even … for you.
    25

    2) Washing up once meant hours at the …, and the weekly … was a battle. Now,
    with …, washing clothes and washing up has never been quicker or easier. …
    clothes was another headache. Thankfully, … have taken the work out of the
    process, making drying effortless.
    3) Not surprisingly, … are increasingly popular, load them and start them up, and
    sparkling crockery and cutlery will be the result, also important are the … of a
    dishwasher.
    dishwashers, food processor, beat your rugs, drying,
    microwave, cleaner, wash your carpets, tidying up the
    room,
    keep dust, laundry, tumble-dryers, storing food, iron
    the linen,
    time-saving qualities, clean carpets, microchip
    technology,
    sink, freezer, polishing furniture, air conditioning
    1.
    Complete the chart below by putting the words in the box in one of the
    three categories.
    basement, block of flats, hall, terraced house, cottage, bungalow, mop, attic, tea
    towel, semi-detached, cellar, corkscrew, ground floor, bucket, washing-up liquid,
    study, table, mat, landing, detached house, dustpan, sponge, crockery, cushion,
    ironing board, villa, cutlery, pillow-slip, broom, rug.
    Types of home

    Parts of a house

    Things we find in the
    house

    2. Chore is another word for a job which is regular and unpleasant. It is often
    used for jobs around the house. Read and discuss the story of Mrs Green.
    My day starts at 6.30 a.m. Then I make breakfast for my husband and
    children. I do the dishes, make the beds and take the children to nursery school.
    During the morning I dust the furniture, vacuum the floors, clean the rooms,
    wash three loads of laundry in the washing machine, iron the linen and mend it. I
    take the garbage away and water my plants.
    I do shopping. Sometimes I have to visit everyday service establishments:
    shoemaker’s, drycleaner’s, tailor’s.
    I collect the children and then make lunch. Then comes the evening meal for
    the family and more dishes.
    1) Which of the chores above do you/would you find most unpleasant? Why?
    26

    2) Which of the chores do you do very often? Occasionally?
    3) Which of the chores have you never done? Why not?
    d) Do you think housework is shared fairly among the members of your
    family?
    9. Each noun and each verb in the boxes relates to one or more of the chores in
    the table below. Group them together by listing the words in the most relevant
    column.
    mop rinse dry up
    stir sweep wipe
    scrub beat scour
    soak wring fold
    drain scorch chop press

    sponge broom brush
    bucket ironing board
    cloth detergent dustpan
    chopping board
    bowl tea towel
    Cleaning the Washing up Washing a
    Ironing a
    Making
    floor
    sweater
    blouse
    dinner

    Verbs
    Nouns

    10. Here is a list of domestic jobs/ household chores people hate most:
    1. doing the washing-up
    2. cleaning bathrooms
    3. ironing
    4. scrubbing floors
    5. dusting
    6. vacuuming
    7. cleaning windows
    8. cooking
    Discuss with your group-mates:
    What are three types of housework you most hate doing? Why?
    How much time do you spend every week doing housework?
    Speak about your manner of doing housework.
    11. What should be done to make your mother’s life easier?
    Here’s some of the chores that kids can generally do by certain ages, according to
    Mrs. Clean Jeans’ Housekeeping With Kids. Each list builds on the one that
    precedes it.

    27

    Tasks for kids ages 3
    to 5
    ■ Put away toys and
    games.
    ■ Dust low furniture.
    ■ Return CDs, DVDs and
    videos to their cases.
    ■Water plants. Help fold
    laundry.
    Tasks for kids
    ages 10 to 13
    1. Make lunch
    for school.
    2. Unload
    dishwasher.
    3. Sort, wash
    and fold
    laundry.
    4. Clean
    windows.
    5. Shovel snow

    Tasks for kids
    ages 6 to 9
    Make the bed.
    Feed pets.
    Put away
    groceries.
    Set and clear
    table.
    Tidy bedroom.

    Tasks for kids
    ages 14 to 17
    Clean toilet,
    sinks and tubs.
    Organize
    closet
    Prepare meals.
    ■ Clean the
    shower.

    12. Look through this newspaper article. Agree or disagree with the experts.
    Express your opinion on this problem. Are you keen on doing things about the
    house yourself or do you prefer to get things done? Use standard phrases given
    below.
    Agreeing: Yes, I agree …, I agree entirely…, I agree absolutely with…
    Disagreeing: No, I don’t think …, I can’t agree…
    Saying you partly agree: I agree in principle, but…
    Giving your opinion: I think…, I believe…, In my opinion…, Personally, I
    believe…,
    To my mind.., It seems to me…
    Getting Kids to Clean is a Chore
    Many kids today rarely lift a dust rag. Their rooms often look like a tornado
    hit them, with unmade beds and clothes scattered everywhere.
    We may be raising a nation of slobs if something isn’t done about it, say two
    leading cleaning experts. They are advising parents to pick up their brooms and
    turn them over to their children. “Anybody old enough to mess up is old enough to
    clean up,” says Don Aslett, known as the King of Clean and the author of 40
    28

    books. “ Parents are cleaning up after kids, and I think it’s sad. They are
    reinforcing bad behavior.”
    Kids today seem to be doing a lot less housework and chores. Children have
    less time because they are busy with sports, clubs, after-school activities, jobs and
    homework, says Sampson Lee Blair, associate professor of sociology.
    Plus, parents today consider their kids “emotional assets” to love and take
    care of rather than the “economic assets” they were years ago when they were
    essential for running the family farm, Blair says. Some parents don’t want to be
    strict about making their kids do chores, he adds. But they aren’t doing their kids
    any favors by letting them off the hook, says Aronson, who writes a cleaning
    column for the San Francisco Chronicle.
    Parents who want their kids to help around the house should start giving
    them chores early and be consistent in making sure the jobs are done, experts say.
    Aronson began working on this when her kids were toddlers. From the time her
    youngest could walk, she had him picking up his dirty clothes and putting them in
    the hamper.
    When her oldest son was 10, he stomped out of his room one day and told
    her that she needed to do the laundry because he didn’t have any clean uniforms
    for school. That was the day she taught him to do his own wash.
    And chores like washing windows and mowing the lawn are something the
    family can do together to make their home nicer.
    (By Nanci Hellmich USA TODAY)
    13. Work in pairs. You are busy with housework. Restore the dialogues. Use the
    word combinations below.
    1) A: Hello, come in. Don’t mind the mess. I’m just …….
    B: Oh, what a pity you are busy.
    A: Don’t worry. It never takes me much time …….
    2) A: Let me…..
    B: ……, you may ……..
    A: Don’t you want to ……..? Do you mind if I open the window?
    B: Oh, no. I don’t mind it a bit.
    3) A:Wait a moment. I have to wash up …...
    B: Somebody else can do it, I think.
    A: Certainly, everybody can, but today it’s ….. to do it.
    4) A: ……….? Is it the fridge again?
    B: No It’s not the fridge. …….
    A: Oh? Well, what’s wrong with it?
    B: Well, I think ……. with the temperature control. Everything I try to cook
    gets burnt.
    A: Really? OK, I’ll get someone to look at it right away.
    What can I do for you?
    …water the flowers

    … something’s wrong
    … air the room
    29

    It’s oven this time.
    …help you
    …my turn
    …the dishes


    …doing the room
    … scrubbing brush
    …to tidy up the room
    If you don’t mind…

    14. Some students live in the hostels and some rent rooms or flats with their
    group-mates. Look up and say which of these viewpoints are expressed in the
    text.
    ■a. Living with somebody in one flat has both benefits and drawbacks.
    b. Sharing a flat doesn’t have any advantages.
    c. If you share a flat with somebody you are a lucky person.
    2) a. Sharing a flat with some people is more expensive than living on your
    own.
    b. You pay less if you live in one flat with somebody.
    c. If you share a flat with somebody you pay as much as if you lived by
    yourself.
    7. a. When you live with somebody you share all the housework.
    b. Sharing a flat with somebody means that you have to do twice as much
    housework as living alone.
    c. If you live in one flat with somebody you don’t have any household
    chores.
    8. a. Living apart from your parents is sometimes dangerous for your health.
    b. When you live far from your parents you feel bored and depressed.
    c. It’s both interesting and pleasant to live apart from your parents for the
    first time.
    9. a. An ideal thing is to have your own flat.
    b. To live with your parents is the best way.
    c. Best of all is to live with people of your own age.
    Sharing a flat certainly has some advantages. To begin with, it should be
    cheaper, and if you are sharing with people that you get on well with, it is nice to
    have some company at home rather than being all on your own. Also the household
    chores are shared, and that is very important. Particularly when you are younger,
    and you are living apart from your parents for the first time, it can be very
    enjoyable to live with people of your own age, whose interests and lifestyle you
    share.
    However, sharing a flat does have some distinct disadvantages, and the main
    one is that the flat is not your own. So you cannot do what you want in it. What
    happens if you want to go to bed but your flatmate wants to play music? To a
    certain extent you have to be unselfish. What is more, there can be little privacy.
    I would say that as you get older, it is probably better to live on your own.
    Having had my own flat for a few years, I would not like to have to share again.
    30

    15. Renting a Flat
    A young engineer is talking about how he had to rent a house. Read this
    story and put each of the following words or phrases in its correct position. Talk
    about your experience in renting a flat.
    deposit
    landlord
    agency

    fee flat
    rent block

    advertisements
    references

    self-contained
    accommodation

    a) The first thing I had to do in London was to find somewhere to live, if possible
    a small, one-bedroomed (a)________. I didn’t want to share a kitchen or toilet; I
    wanted to be independent in my own (b)________ place. I decided I could pay a
    (c)________ of ₤50 a week. I couldn’t find what
    I wanted in the newspaper (d)________ so I went to an (e)________. They offered
    me a nice place.
    It was in a modern (f)________ on the third floor. I had to pay the agency a
    (g)________, and
    the (h)________ wanted a big (i)________ and (j)________ from my employer
    and bank manager.
    16. Work in pairs. You are looking for a new flat to rent. Restore the dialogues.
    Use the word combinations and sentences from the box given bellow.
    1) A: Good morning! May I help you?
    B: ……..
    A: And what kind of place are you looking for?
    B: Well, we have two young children, so we’d like a place that’s ……
    A: I see. Well, we have a very nice three-bedroom house that is located in a nice
    area.
    2) A: Then go and see my room. There are all necessary pieces of furniture in it.
    The room overlooks the park.
    B: Your room is really nice and comfortable. But what about bed linen and
    would you allow to use the refrigerator?
    A: Yes…..
    B: It isn’t bad indeed. When can we move in?
    A: . …..The room is ready.
    3) A: I was told that you have an apartment to let.
    B: Yes, I have ….
    A: How many bedrooms are there?
    B: …..
    A: How much is the rent? What are your terms?
    B: 89 dollars a week, ……
    A: What about other services?
    31

    B: They are …..
    A: Do you think I could have a look at the apartment, please?
    B: Yes, sure, but ….
    A: Well, I’d like to see the kitchen then, only to make sure, that it is equipped
    to cook.
    B: This way, please. As you see, it has …
    A: And where is a bathroom?
    B: Here it is………. You can put a washing machine here, there is enough
    room for it.
    Any time you like.
    …a spare apartment for rent
    … including laundry
    I hope so. I’m looking for a place to rent.
    …to be paid monthly
    …it is a mess now, I am afraid
    A bath-tub and a shower.
    That is included in the rent which is quite reasonable.
    …fairly big and pretty quiet
    Two bedrooms entirely furnished.
    … up-to-date equipment, a new sink and a gas stove
    17. a) When people are asked what kind of housing they need or want, the
    question evokes a variety of answers: “four bedrooms”; “lots of storage space”;
    “close to my work”; “low rent”; “a quiet neighbourhood”; “a big yard”; “a
    scenic view”; and so on.
    Continue this list.
    b) Work in groups. Read the information about where some people would like
    to live. Say which variant suits you most of all. Why?
    Paul: “Is it big enough?” is perhaps the first question a family asks when it looks
    at a new house or apartment. I want, for example, a bedroom for me and my
    wife, a separate bedroom for my children , large closets, a kitchen with a
    good-sized eating area, a large living room, a library, a patio, a two-car
    garage, and so on. I would like to have as much space as I can afford.
    Mary: There is a separate dining room in my flat now. But I think a dining area
    adjoining the living room and kitchen would be better for my family. It
    would be the informal center of family life.
    David: In my view, modern homes should have many appliances, a system of hot
    and cold running water, a central heating system suitable to the climate, an
    automatic washer and dryer in the laundry room, central air conditioning, a
    dishwasher.
    32

    Alex: It seems to me that kitchen and bathroom floors should be covered with
    linoleum or tile. The floors of other rooms should be hardwood or covered
    with permanent carpeting.
    Susan: I’m not willing to live in an experimental dwelling. A house should look
    like a house. I’d like to live in a new modern house. Because old houses may
    have roofs that sag or leak, cracked foundations and walls, floors that are not
    level, and doors that do not fit their frames. Work done by a previous
    occupant—do-it-yourself wiring or plumbing, for example—may be
    unattractive or even dangerous. Unfortunately, some of these defects may be
    discovered only after occupancy.
    Nick: Well, I would say, that a vital feature of any dwelling is its accessibility to
    your place of work and to stores, schools, homes of friends and relatives,
    and other frequently visited places. I’d like to live less than an hour's
    commuting time from my job.
    c) Interview your group-mates. Find out what modern conveniences they
    would like to have in their houses or flats. Let them express their opinions using
    the following phrases:
    I’d rather…
    I wish...
    I would prefer...
    It would be better...
    I would like…
    I’d better...
    I wouldn’t mind...
    18. a) Match the types of dwellings with the correct pictures. Where do you think
    each type of dwelling can be found? Which is the most economical and which is
    the most expensive to keep?
    skyscraper
    cottage
    A

    block of flats
    mansion

    semi-detached house
    detached house
    B

    terraced house
    C

    33

    D

    E

    F

    e.g. Skyscrapers are found in large cities. They are rather expensive to maintain
    because they are usually high-class, luxurious buildings.
    b) Which one would you like to live in? Justify your opinion.
    c) Do houses in Britain look different from most frequently built houses in your
    country and city? What do you think? Compare them. Use: but, similarly,
    however, whereas, both, while, etc. and the words in the box.
    Incredibly shabby; poorly designed; unsanitary; cramped;
    noticeable; high class; luxurious; pretty; cosy; grey;
    unattractive; gloomy; old and deteriorated; attractive; modern;
    interesting; unusual; nice; high rise; old-fashioned; ugly;
    usual; ordinary; boring; dull; outmoded; made of
    brick/stone/concrete/wood; bright; well-maintained
    19. Buying a House. Read this story and put each of the following words or
    phrases in its correct position. Why did Tony and Sheila decide to buy a new
    house? Say if you’d like to live in a detached house. Explain why or why not. If
    your parents or grandparents decided to sell their house or flat, what would you
    recommend them to do?
    condition
    detached
    builder
    semi-detached

    estate agent
    terraced
    architect
    surveyor
    cramped

    spacious
    removals

    Tony and Sheila’s first home was a (a)________ house, one of a line of
    houses all connected. But several years later when they had a small child, they
    found it rather (b)________for three people. They wanted something more
    (c)________ and so decided to move. They went to an (d)________ and looked at
    details of the houses he had to offer. They looked at a (e)________ house (one of a
    pair attached to each other), liked it, and asked a (f)________ to inspect it for
    them. He said it was in good (g)________, and they therefore decided to buy it.
    Luckily they sold their house quickly and soon a (h)________ firm was taking all
    their furniture and other possessions to their new home. But already, after a couple
    of years, they are hoping to move again. Tony’s business is doing well and they
    want to get an (i)________ to design a modern, (j)________ house for them, and a
    (k)________ to build it.
    34

    20. Work in pairs. Continue the dialogue between two friends according to the
    logical scheme offered below.
    A: You are not still looking for a flat, are you?
    B: Yes, I’ve been looking for six weeks now. It’s driving me mad, you know.
    A: Offering to do something for someone.
    B: Accepting an offer of help.
    A: Asking about preferences.
    B Saying what you prefer.
    A: Asking about preferences.
    B Saying what you prefer.
    A: Asking about preferences.
    B Saying what you prefer.
    Offering to do something for someone: Shall I…? Can I help? Is there anything I
    can do…?
    Accepting an offer of help: Thank you. That’s very kind of you. Lovely.
    Asking about preferences: Do you prefer … or…? Would you rather … or …?
    Which would you prefer: … or…? Which appeals more: … or…?
    Saying what you prefer: I’d prefer…; I’d rather…; I like …more than…;
    21. a) Advertisers use abbreviations in classified advertisements for houses and
    flats. These are shortened versions of words (hse = house). Read the
    advertisements. Use the words below as a checklist. Then work with another
    student and write out the advertisements in full.
    century living room near or nearest offer British Rail
    garden double large house luxury station
    detached reception overlooking per calendar month
    breakfast room kitchen bathroom central heating
    cloakroom garage bedroom
    b) Now read through the ads below quickly and find the answers to these
    questions.
    1. Which property is likely to be:
    a) the oldest? b) the largest? c) the smallest?
    ■Which two properties are to let?
    ■Which two properties can accommodate two cars?
    A
    LONGBOROUGH HILL
    Det 20s hse, 3 bd, 3 rec,

    B
    CHELM VALLEY
    M9 8km. C17 period hse

    C
    HALCASTER
    Attractive unfurnished 2
    bd
    35

    study, large kit/brkfst,
    clkrm.
    Lge drive. Gge. 30m gdn.
    Close BR stn. For quick
    sale.
    £175,000.

    D
    BARTON HEATH
    Penthouse flat overlkg
    beautiful countryside.
    Central
    situation, 8 min walk BR
    stn,
    6min shops, 10 min M9.
    Entrance hall, 2 dbl bd, lge
    living, kit, bth. £72,500
    o.n.o.

    in
    quiet location nr village. 2
    rec,
    lux fitted kit, 3-4 bds & 2
    bth.
    Stone barn can convert to
    2 bd
    hse, excellent for garaging
    &
    storage. £165,000.

    flat to let in village by
    sea.
    Large kit, bth, living
    overlkg
    golf course. Ideal retired
    single person/couple.
    CH.
    Rent from £371 pcm.

    E
    NR BARTON HEATH
    Outstanding country hse in
    immaculate condition. Lovely
    gdn with view of beautiful
    countryside.
    4 rec, 5 bd, 3 bth, superb kit,
    gges, tennis court. Fully
    furnished.
    Rent £2,800 pcm

    c) Go through the ads more carefully and discuss these points with another
    student. Give reasons for your opinions.
    Which property would be most likely to appeal to:
    ■ a man of 70 who likes playing golf?
    ■ a Hollywood film star and his wife, secretary, manager and servant, making a
    film in Britain?
    ■ a businessman with a teenage son and daughter, who commutes to the city by
    rail?
    ■ a writer who wants to escape from city life, but needs to entertain her family and
    friends from time to time and be within reach of the city by car if necessary?

    36

    22. Examine the network and reproduce the topic “House and home” supplying
    the necessary factual and imaginative details so as to present some ideas to your
    group-mates.
    bedroom
    skyscraper

    semidetached
    types of houses

    block of
    flats

    flat
    renting

    entranc
    e hall

    freezer

    terraced
    House and Home
    country
    cottage
    roof

    kettle
    attic
    for food

    Parts

    electrical household
    goods
    dusting
    household chores

    vacuum
    cleaner

    iron

    for housework
    drying
    ironing

    dryer

    washing

    23. Comment on the following statements and give your own ideas.
    1. Everyone needs housing of some kind. But housing standards vary in different
    countries.
    2. Our home is a place at which we feel comfortable and at ease.
    3. Family roles are changing now.
    4. An ad in the newspaper enables home-seeking families to find flats and houses.
    5. The house is in excellent condition.
    37

    24. Situations to discuss:
    1. You spent last Sunday at your friend’s summer house.
    Tell your mother what you liked and disliked about the house and its
    premises.
    2. Discuss with your friend what house you’d like to buy, what you’d like to
    have around the house, in what area you’d like it to be located, etc.
    3. You are a real estate agent. Help your client to find a house/flat he/she is
    interested in.
    4. You have a room for rent. Show it to a possible tenant and discuss it with
    him/her.
    II. Writing Section.
    1. Designing rooms. You work in television. You design sets. You're going to
    design the set for a new TV drama Different lives - different dreams. Read about
    the main characters. Do you think their homes are similar?
    2. In pairs. Design one of the four living rooms. Talk about these things and
    then write your ideas.
    - What kinds of things do you think are in the living room (furniture, flowers,
    books, CDs, pictures, magazines, things from holidays, etc.)?
    - What does the room look like? Is it modern or traditional? Is it tidy or untidy?
    What colours are there?
    c) In groups of four. Read your descriptions to each other but don't say whose
    room it is. Can the other pair guess?
    Example: It's a very modern room with big windows. The walls are white and
    there's a …
    Different lives - different dreams
    This is a modern psychological drama about the very different lifestyles,
    ambitions and dreams of the members of one family. All of the action takes place
    in the different living rooms of the main characters.
    Cordelia and Henry O'Connell
    Cordelia and Henry are in their late fifties. Cordelia is from a very rich
    family but she and Henry don't have a lot of money any more. They have an old
    house in the country and they've lived there for many years. They used to be
    hippies and they still have a free and easy lifestyle. They've travelled a lot and love
    India and Latin America. Their house is full of things they've bought on their
    travels.
    Bob: (Cordelia and Henry's son)
    Bob is in his late twenties and is an ambitious young businessman. He has
    worked in a bank in London since he left university and he's now very successful.
    He always has beautiful, rich girlfriends. He has a large luxury flat in the city
    centre. His flat is a financial investment and so are the things in it.
    Carol: (Cordelia and Henry's daughter)
    Carol is a fashion designer and her husband, Justin, is an architect. They're
    both in their early thirties. They have a modern house in the city. They're always
    38

    looking for new ideas and hate anything traditional. They want to be different from
    other people. Their friends are designers and artists and they often buy their work.
    They don't have children and they don't want them – children are too untidy!
    Ophelia: (Cordelia's sister)
    Ophelia is in her late fifties, but thinks she's still twenty. She has been
    married seven times. She's single at the moment, but she's looking for husband
    number eight. She loves romance and glamorous parties. She has spent a lot of
    time on the French Riviera. She writes romantic novels and makes a lot of money.
    3. Imagine that you are an estate agent. You sell flats, houses, country houses,
    etc. You are good at making houses sound attractive, even when they are in a
    terrible condition. Write adverts for them.
    III. Case-Study
    One of your group-mates is very untidy. His mother is always complaining
    about him. His untidiness is an object of ridicule. He admits this but he doesn’t
    know what to do. He needs help. Give him some pieces of advice about what to do
    to solve his problem. Use SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL given in the textbook and your own audio and video material to help your group-mate.
    Comprehensive Prolonged Project
    Day 2nd:

    Accommodating in the hostel.
    The room in the hostel is at your disposal. You share it with two
    students from Brazil. Now you are trying to make it cosy.
    Describe what you would do to make it comfortable.

    39

    UNIT III

    MEALS
    Vocabulary
    Active Vocabulary

    appetizer
    course
    the first ~
    the main ~
    meat ~
    a threedinner
    cutlery
    dish

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    что-л.
    возбуждающее
    аппетит,
    /'xpItaIzq(r)/ 1.
    придающее вкус; 2. закуска в начале обеда
    блюдо
    /kO:s/
    первое блюдо
    второе блюдо
    мясное блюдо
    обед из трех блюд
    ~
    /'kAtlqri/
    /dIS/

    food
    /fu:d/
    fast ~
    junk ~
    habit
    /'hxbIt/
    to be in the ~
    of
    helping
    /'helpIN/
    ~ of smth
    meal
    /mJl/
    pickle
    /'pIkl/
    poultry
    /'pqVltri/
    snack
    /snxk/
    to have a ~
    (bite)
    speciality
    /"speSI'xlqti/
    waiter
    /'weItq(r)/
    help
    /help/
    ~ yourself
    ~ oneself to
    smth
    mash
    mashed
    potatoes
    40

    /mxS/

    столовые приборы
    1. блюдо, тарелка, миска; чашка; посуда;
    2. блюдо, кушанье
    пища, питание
    продукты быстрого приготовления
    быстрая и вредная еда
    привычка, обыкновение; обычай
    иметь обыкновение
    порция
    принятие пищи; еда
    рассол; маринад
    птица (домашняя)
    легкая закуска
    закусить, перекусить
    отличительная черта, особенность
    официант

    Verbs and Verb Phrases
    раздавать,
    угощать, передавать
    столом)
    берите,
    пожалуйста
    (сами),
    церемоньтесь;
    предлагать (кому-либо что-либо)
    разминать пюре

    (за
    не

    offer
    pickle
    roast
    serve
    steam
    stew
    ~ed fruit
    treat
    ~ smb to smth

    предлагать
    солить, мариновать
    жарить(ся); печь(ся); греть(ся)
    подавать (на стол)
    варить на пару
    тушить(ся), варить(ся)
    компот
    угощать
    угощать (кого-либо чем-либо)

    /'Pfq(r)/
    /'pIkl/
    /rqVst/
    /sE:v/
    /sti:m/
    /stjH/
    /tri:t/

    Adjectives
    очень вкусный

    delicious
    (syn tasty)
    spicy

    /'spaIsi/

    substantial

    /sqb'stxnSl/

    /dI'lISqs/

    1. пряный, ароматный; 2. пикантный,
    острый
    существенный
    Passive Vocabulary

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    beef
    broth
    crockery
    garnish
    lamb
    liver
    oven
    pork
    savoury
    slice
    steak
    beef - ~
    veal

    /bI:f/
    /brPT/
    /'krPkqri/
    /'gRnIS/
    /lxm/
    /'lIvq(r)/
    /'Avn/
    /pLk/
    /'seIvqri/
    /slaIs/
    /steIk/
    /vi:l/

    говядина
    суп, мясной отвар, бульон
    посуда (глиняная, фаянсовая)
    гарнир
    мясо молодого барашка
    печенка, ливер
    печь
    свинина
    пряное, острое блюдо
    ломтик, ломоть; тонкий слой чего-л.
    кусок мяса или рыбы (для жаренья)
    бифштекс
    телятина

    peel

    /pJl/

    stuff

    /stAf/

    Verbs
    снимать кору, кожицу, шелуху; очищать
    (фрукты, овощи)
    начинять, фаршировать

    /nju'trISqs/
    /'seIvqri/
    /slIm/

    Adjectives
    1. питательный; 2. диетный
    1. вкусный; 2. острый, пикантный
    тонкий, стройный

    nutritious
    savoury
    slim

    41

    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the statements/ proverbs and try to outline the problems to be
    discussed.
    1. Eating is one of the greatest pleasures available. In the modern world we
    tend to eat too quickly and not well enough.
    2. Tastes differ.
    3. Dry bread at home is better than roast meat abroad.
    4. A very popular pastime today is eating out.
    2. You’ve got some information about eating habits of young people. Say why
    some people eat so much junk food nowadays and what junk food is. Replace the
    words in bold type by the synonyms given in the box.
    In today’s fast-moving world, people have less and less time to spend eating, let
    alone cooking. It is probably for this reason that junk food has become so popular,
    and there’s no doubt that it’s here to stay.
    So what exactly is junk food? Basically, it is anything that is high in calories
    but lacking in nutrition. Hamburgers, crisps, chocolate bars and hot dogs fall into
    this category. Pizzas, although they can have vegetables and cheese toppings, are
    also included as they contain a lot of fat.
    Why have our eating habits changed? “It’s lack of time and loss of tradition”,
    says one expert. He explains that people are too busy too cook and eat proper
    meals, so they grab whatever is available – and that is usually junk food. Also,
    the style of life represented on TV, especially in music videos, is fast. Young
    people pick up the idea that speed means excitement, whereas anything traditional
    is slow and boring. As a result, they turn down traditional food and go for junk
    food instead.
    have a bite; make food; have meals; absence; appropriate; have a snack; fast;
    usual; prepare meals; making food
    3. Tell your friend about English eating traditions choosing the right preposition
    from the brackets.
    There are four meals a day (in, on, with) an English home: breakfast, lunch, tea
    and dinner. English breakfast is generally a bigger meal than (at, on, in) the
    Continent, though some English people like a “continental” breakfast (with, for,
    of) rolls and butter and coffee. But the usual English breakfast is porridge or “Corn
    Flakes” (at, with, by) milk or cream and sugar, bacon and eggs, marmalade (with,
    on, upon) buttered toast and tea or coffee. (To, for, on) a change they can have a
    boiled egg, cold ham, or perhaps fish.
    The usual time (on, to, for) lunch is (about, on, with) one o’clock. The midday meal usually consists (with, at, of) two courses – a meat course or poultry
    42

    (with, upon, at) vegetables and then sweet dish, perhaps fruit pudding (to, with,
    for) tea or coffee (on, for, to) finish.
    (From, at, to) four (at, on, to) five they have a very light meal called afternoon
    tea or 5 o’clock tea. You can hardly call it a meal. It’s rather occasion (at, in, by)
    the late afternoon (about, at, upon) which they have a cup (with, of, into) tea and
    a cake or a biscuit.
    Some people have the so-called “high-tea”. It’s a meal taken between five and
    six if dinner is not taken (in, at, on) the evening. Usually it’s a more substantial
    meal than afternoon tea.
    Dinner is the fourth meal (at, of, in) the day. The usual time is (about, on, in) 7
    o’clock. Dinner usually consists (into, of, by) soup, fish or meat (with, on, for)
    vegetables – potatoes, green beans, carrot and cabbage, sweet pudding, fruit salad,
    ice-cream or cheese and biscuits. Then (upon, after, at) a talk they have black or
    white coffee.
    This is the order (about, with, of) meals among English families. But the
    greater part (of, to, about) the people has dinner (at, on, in) the middle (on, of, at)
    the day instead (of, in, at) lunch. They have tea a little later – between 5 and 6
    o’clock, and then (after, in, on) the evening, before going (in, to, on) bed, they
    have supper.
    So the four meals (in, at, of) the day are either breakfast, dinner, tea, supper; or
    breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner.
    4. Work in pairs. Using the table below, say which of these cooking methods you
    would use for the ingredients below.
    Cooking methods:
    steam
    bake
    stuff

    boil
    grill
    pickle

    fry
    barbecue

    roast
    stew

    Ingredients:
    chicken
    meat
    liver
    tomatoes

    potatoes
    carrots
    cabbage
    cucumbers

    rice
    bread
    mushrooms
    sausages

    fish
    eggs
    macaroni
    beef

    I think I’d … it/them.
    You could either … or … that/those.
    It is possible to … them but I’d prefer to … them.
    e.g. I think I’d boil or fry eggs.
    5. Are you a good cook? Can you make an Apple Charlotte? Look at the
    ingredients and instructions below. The instructions are in the wrong order. Can
    43

    you decide what the correct order should be? There is one extra instruction
    which you do not need to use
    Apple Charlotte
    For 4 people
    Ingredients
    500g apples
    150g sugar
    the juice and grated peel of a lemon
    120g butter
    8 large slices of bread
    __________________________________________________________________
    a. Put the cooked apple into the ovenproof dish. Put a slice of bread on the top of
    the apple.
    b. Bake in the oven for 30 minutes.
    c. Set the oven to 200°C.
    d. Hit the rest of the milk in a saucepan.
    e. Put one slice of bread at the bottom of an ovenproof dish and the other slices
    round the sides.
    f. Let it cook for 3 minutes.
    g. Cut the crusts off the bread. Put each slice of bread into the melted butter.
    h. Peel, core and slice the apples.
    i. Put 2 table spoons of sugar over the top of the pudding. Serve hot with custard
    sauce or cream.
    j. Stir the mixture often. At the same time, in a small saucepan, melt the rest of the
    butter.
    k. Cook them in a large saucepan with 150g sugar, the grated lemon peel and a
    teaspoon of butter.
    l. When the apples are soft, add the juice of the lemon and beat the mixture well.
    Now teach your cousin to cook the Apple Charlotte.
    6. Work in groups. There is some information about formal rules of table setting.
    Look at the picture and fill in the gaps in the passage, using the key words in the
    table below. Don’t forget about the articles.
    Knives
    1. fish knife

    Spoons
    4. dessert

    Forks
    6. dessert fork

    2. large table knife

    5. soup spoon

    7. small fork for
    salads
    8. fish fork

    3. small bread
    knife

    9. large fork
    44

    Glasses
    10. champagne
    flute
    11. large wineglass
    for red wine
    12. small
    wineglass for
    white wine
    13. sherry glass

    The basic rule for cutlery, working from the outside in, will usually apply. For a
    meal with five courses in Britain, one would expect to see … on the out side right,
    then … ; next to this is … , then … for meat or poultry, and last of all … . On the
    left would be … , next to this is … , then … for meat or poultry and finally … . To
    avoid having too many pieces of cutlery on the table at the start of the meal, some
    courses may have cutlery brought to special dishes such as snails, crab and lobster.
    Four glasses will normally be arranged at the top right-hand corner of each
    place setting. These are used in the opposite order to the cutlery. Working from the
    inside out, you will find first … (it is served with the soup); next comes … , then
    … and finally … (champagne accompanies the dessert). A large goblet for water
    may be placed behind these glasses.
    7. Using this information and word combinations from the table given below, tell
    how you will set the table at home for dinner.
    to lay the table; to place; to be placed;
    to the right; to the left
    8. Work in pairs. You are at the table. Restore the dialogues.
    a) Use the questions from the box given below.
    1) A: Your fish salad is delicious! …?
    B: Certainly you are welcome.
    2) A: …?
    B: Here you are.
    A: Thank you.
    3) A: …?
    B: No, I’m afraid not.
    4) A: …?
    B: No, thank you I had enough.
    45

    5) A: …?
    B: Oh, it’s no trouble at all. Here it is.
    6) A: … ?
    B: Yes, I’d love one.
    A: … ?
    B: A strong one with three spoons of sugar for me, please.
    May I trouble you for a pepper?
    Could you pass me the bread?
    Would you care for a cup of tea?
    Can I have another helping?
    How do you like it?
    Have another cup of tea?
    Do we have any coffee left?
    b) Use the word combinations from the box given below.
    1. A: These cookies are delicious! Can I have another one?
    B: … .
    2. A: Do we have any mushroom soup left?
    B: Yes, … .
    3) A: Will you have another helping of salad?
    B: Oh, no … .
    4) A: What is there for dinner?
    B: … .
    A: Anything for the dessert?
    B: … .
    5) A: Will you pass me the salt, please?
    B: … .
    A: Thank you.
    6) A: How about a nice cup of tea?
    B: … .
    A: No trouble at all. Do you like it with milk and sugar?
    B: ... .
    to warm up; to be too much; for the
    first course; I’m afraid; not too much
    trouble; orange juice; to help yourself;
    for the second course; here you are
    46

    9. Work in group of three. You are at the table having breakfast. Take the roles
    of Mother, Jane and Peter. Reproduce the dialogue filling the gaps with your
    own words. Use the words/ word combinations after the dialogue.
    M: Now, Jane, Peter, sit down and be quick about it, or … .
    J: And … for breakfast?
    M: … , eggs, bread and butter.
    P: … . I like sausage and eggs.
    J: No eggs for me. … with sausage, please.
    M: … .
    P: … the salt, Jane.
    J: Here you are.
    P: Can I have … ? I like tea with lemon … .
    M: … . Here you are. … . Don’t spill the tea. It’s very hot, … .
    P: No fear. Thank you. Mom.
    J: Can I have cocoa … , Mom?
    M: You are … .
    P: I don’t like cocoa. … !
    J: You don’t understand anything. Oh, Mom, these cookies … ! Can … one?
    M: Of course, … .
    P: … , please.
    M: … .
    P: Thank you.
    instead of tea
    Just a sandwich
    I just hate it!
    I have another
    tea with lemon
    you may scald yourself
    All right.

    help yourself
    That’s fine.
    are delicious
    Here you are
    very much
    you’ll be late
    O.K.

    Pass me
    what is there
    One for me
    welcome
    Be careful
    Sausage, cheese

    10. Work in pairs. Describe your usual meals making use of the following word
    combinations from the box.
    1) The usual meals are breakfast, dinner and supper. Specialists consider breakfast
    … meal of the day, because one is to be energetic during the long hard working
    day. So far … I usually have … For a change I can have … .
    2) Dinner is … meal of the day. As a rule I have dinner … . My … usually begins
    with … : a little salad, or … or perhaps … . The first course of the dinner is … .
    For … I have … , or … , sometimes … . Most of all I like … for dinner. Then
    comes dessert. I prefer … or … . Sometimes I have … or … .

    47

    3. Supper is the last meal of the day. … must be a … , because going to bed with a
    full stomach is harmful for our organism. I usually have … and … for supper. We
    also may have … , … or … . … also very tasty.
    a light meal; fried eggs; vegetables; the second course; an
    omelette; meat soup; the most important; Russian salad; a cup of
    tea; at home; a boiled egg; a piece of herring; buttered toast;
    sandwiches; juice; soup or broth; at the canteen; pickled or
    marinated mushrooms; a cup of coffee; bread and butter;
    lemonade; dinner; macaroni or spaghetti; a starter; porridge;
    tomatoes or cucumbers; roast chicken and mashed potatoes;
    sponge cake; cheese; an appetizer; biscuits; noodles; chops;
    stewed fruit; rolls; stewed meat; fried or boiled potatoes; fresh
    fruit; buns; coffee or tea; sausage; pies with jam or marmalade;
    bacon and eggs; “Corn flakes” with milk; meat pies; pies with
    cabbage and eggs; a sandwich; the most substantial; the biggest;
    chicken soup; roast meat; canned fruit
    11. Look up and say which of these viewpoints are expressed in the text.
    1) a. Eating habits are established early in life.
    b. Food tastes and preferences are established late in life.
    c. Some people are born “sugar freaks”, others salt cravers.
    2) a. You should not eat vegetables at all.
    b. You should eat a lot of fat meat, it is good for your health.
    c. You should eat fruit and vegetables at least once a day.
    3) a. Eating yogurt is better for your heart than eating so-called “junk” foods.
    b. Junk food that is high in sugar and calories is good for your heart.
    c. A diet that is high in animal fat and low in fibre does not provoke any heart
    disease.
    4) a. People who eat much chocolate never put in weight.
    b. People know that if they stick to a low-fat, high fibre intake they will be able
    to eat well without putting on weight.
    c. People who eat only fast food are always slim.
    Do You Eat the Right Food?
    What do we mean by a well-balanced diet? This is a diet that contains daily
    servings from each of the basic food groups: meat, vegetable and fruit, milk, bread
    and cereals. There’s no doubt that food tastes and preferences are established early
    in life. No one is born a “sugar freak” or a salt craver. An incredible statistic is that
    between 30 and 50% of all the calories eaten each day are consumed in the form of
    between-meal snacks. Unfortunately, the usual between-meal foods are low in
    nutritive value and too high in calories and refined sugar. Some excellent snacks
    that should always be available are plain yogurt, carrots, pieces of apple, cheese
    and natural fruit juice. Eating yogurt as a snack food is far healthier and more
    nutritionally sound than eating so-called “junk” foods, which are less nutritious
    48

    and too high in sugar and calories. Salted peanuts seem to be the least popular
    snack today.
    People who diet know that if they stick to a low-fat, high-fibre intake they
    will be able to eat well without putting on weight. Instead of going on crash diets
    they are learning to educate their stomachs by eating sensible food. They can still
    enjoy chocolates and cream cakes once a week or so, but they know they have to
    cut down their intake slightly the next day.
    Research is indicating that “we are what we eat.” Recent work shows that
    Italians, who tend to eat lots of fresh fruit and vegetables that contain vitamins C
    and E, have low levels of heart attacks. The Scots however, tend to have a diet that
    is high in animal fat and low in fibre. Heart disease is a widespread problem in
    Scotland.
    12. In the following dialogue examine some unfinished pieces of argumentation
    and select among of the given arguments the one that can be added in full
    accordance with the speaker’s viewpoint.
    1) A: I’m awfully thirsty.
    B: Would you like a glass of orange juice?
    A: Thanks, I’d love one. I like orange juice very much.
    B: And I prefer apple juice.
    C: Tastes differ. …
    a) You know, but some of juices are very dangerous for people’s life. They can
    provoke heart disease.
    b) All juices are good for health: tomato, apple, apricot and, of course, pine apple
    juice. All of them contain many vitamins.
    c) I don’t drink juices at all. I think they are not useful.
    2) A: What shall we have?
    B: The three-course meal, I suppose.
    A: Well, you choose.
    B: Let’s start with smoked herring.
    A: But I prefer to start with vegetables. …
    a) I’m on a slimming diet. It allows me a little boiled meat or fish, a few hardboiled eggs, some cheese and a lot of vegetables: lettuce, cabbage, tomatoes,
    cucumbers; and a lot of fruits. No cakes, no chocolate and very little salt.
    b) I’m vegetarian. I need a lot of vegetables: lettuce, cabbage, tomatoes and
    cucumbers. Vegetables are an essential part of my diet as they contain a lot of
    nutrients. And then, for the main course I’ll take grilled chicken.
    c) And for the main course I’d like good pork. It contains a lot of fat. It is good for
    my figure.
    3) A: How many meals a day do you usually have?
    B: I have four meals a day: a light breakfast, lunch, dinner – the heaviest meal,
    and supper.
    49

    A: As for me I have only three meals a day: breakfast, just a snack during my
    working day and supper, which is the most substantial meal of my day.
    B: I think it’s not very healthy. …
    a) I think that substantial supper in the late evening means slimming for you.
    b) After heavy supper you always have sweet dreams.
    c) Go to bed with full stomach is harmful for our organism.
    4) A: Have you ever tasted Mexican dishes?
    B: I’ve never been to Mexico. What do you think of spicy food?
    A: I avoid it. …
    a) Spicy food reduces the appetite.
    b) I prefer everything natural. Not every person can stand spicy food.
    c) It is the favourite food of children.
    5) A: Are you vegetarian?
    B: I think none of us is vegetarian. I must confess I like good food, the
    occasional beer, cheerful people, theatres and a lovely music.
    A: Is it your keep-fit programme?
    B: Yes, it is. My motto is …
    a) “Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.”
    b) “After dinner sleep a while, after supper walk a mile.”
    c) “Eat at pleasure, drink with measure and enjoy life as it is.”
    13. The illustrations, names and nationalities for four dishes have been mixed.
    Which name goes with each of those dishes? And which photo illustrates each
    dish? Characterize each of these dishes using the box given below.
    Pizza
    Cheeseburger
    Draniki
    Porridge

    A.

    50

    C.

    B.

    D.

    a. English

    b. Italian

    c. Belarusian

    d. American

    high/ low quality; fat; tasty; (un)healthy; to be high in calories; low in vital
    nutrients; bitter; spicy
    14. Work in pairs. You want to go to the restaurant with your friend tonight. You
    are to book a table at the restaurant. Continue the dialogue between you (A) and
    the restaurant’s manager (M) according to the logical scheme offered below.
    The given table will help you.
    A: Greeting.
    M: Greeting. Offering to do something.
    A: Asking for information.
    M: Regretting.
    A: Asking for new information.
    M: Agreeing. Asking the time.
    A: Replying.
    M: Suggesting.
    A: Agreeing.
    M: Asking the name.
    A: Certainly. My name is … .
    M: And your phone number, please?
    A: The number is … .
    M: I’ve got your order, Mr. … . That’s a table for two for tomorrow, at seven
    o’clock.
    A: Thank you.
    May I help you?
    Can I help … ?
    Could I … ?
    Can I … , please?
    May I … ?
    I’m sorry …
    I think you’ve phoned too late …

    What about …
    I’d like to know, (please) about …
    I suggest …
    I’d like to suggest …
    May I suggest …
    That’s quite right.
    Could you tell me …

    15. Work in pairs. You are at the restaurant. Look through the menu and
    continue the dialogue between you (A) and a waiter (W) according to the logical
    scheme offered below. The given table will help you.

    51

    MENU
    Starters
    Tomato soup
    Chicken broth
    Vegetable soup
    Mushrooms in cheese sauce
    Vegetables
    French fried potatoes
    French beans
    Tomatoes
    Peas
    Mushrooms
    Main Course
    Roast beef
    Grilled chicken
    Roast chicken with
    stuffing
    Veal escalope
    Lamb chop
    Roast lamb

    Desserts
    Apple pie and cream
    Fruit salad
    Cheese and biscuits
    Strawberries and cream
    Ice cream
    Drinks
    Orange juice
    Wine (red, white)
    Coke
    Coffee
    Tea

    special

    W: Good afternoon, sir. Do you have a reservation?
    A: Yes, the name is … . I booked a table by telephone.
    W: Would you like this table by the window?
    A: Thanking.
    W: Offering menu.
    A: Asking for advise.
    W: Offering starters.
    A: Making a choice.
    W: Suggesting the meat course.
    A: Making a choice.
    W: Suggesting vegetables.
    A: Making a choice. Asking for dessert.
    W: Asking about likes.
    A: Expressing likes. Making a choice of drinks.
    W: Approving.
    Fine, thank you.
    Thank you very much.
    Here is … .
    What would you advise?
    What do you recommend?
    52

    Do you think I should …?
    I’d like …
    You could …
    How about … ?
    I propose …
    May I suggest … , then?
    Would you like … ?
    Won’t you have … ?
    Can I offer you … ?
    What about …
    Do you like … ?
    I like …
    That’s fine.
    That’s all right.
    16. Work in groups. Look at the photos. Think of what each place looks like,
    what type and quality of food is served in these restaurants, what kind of service
    you would expect, and what prices they charge. Continue each piece by adding a
    few sentences using the word combinations from the box given below.
    A.
    This is a picture of a fast food
    restaurant. It is called McDonald’s.
    It serves different burgers and
    chips.

    B.

    This picture
    restaurant which
    serve all types
    different types
    vegetables.

    shows an expensive
    is called … . It would
    of food: fish, steak,
    of pasta and fresh

    53

    C.
    This is a traditional Belarusian
    restaurant. Its name is “Belarusian
    bistro”. It serves only national Belarusian
    dishes such as krupnik, babka, draniki.

    to be not very healthy; not to wait for a waiter; to be of very high quality; few/a
    lot of items on the menu; to be popular; to be very quick; to stay and talk with
    friends; friendly and quick service; polite but slow; to dance
    17. Many people have supper at home, but some of them like to go to the
    restaurant or visit their friends. Ask your partner where he/she prefers to have
    supper. Let him/her explain why he/she does so. Use the following formulas
    from the table.
    1. I like to go to the restaurant.
    2. I prefer home-made dishes.
    3. I’m fond of visiting my friends and having supper with them.
    I think; However; In spite of the fact
    that; Moreover; I believe; In my
    opinion; As a matter of fact; As for me
    18. Give your own ideas on any of the following problems.
    1) Fast food is tasty, convenient, rather cheap but very bad for you.
    2) In the world 30 million people die of starvation each year because they have not
    enough food.
    3) Healthy food is expensive.
    4) In developed countries many young women stop eating in order to lose their
    weight and get serious diseases.
    5) Eating disorders are very common in western countries which involve a
    pathological desire not to gain weight.

    54

    19. Comment on the following statements.
    1) You are what you eat.
    2) Do we eat to live or live to eat?
    3) The food you eat can influence your mood, health and attitude to life.
    4) The secret to a longer life is a balanced diet and regular exercises.
    5) To be on a diet is boring.
    20. Examine the network and reproduce the topic “Eating Habits” supplying the
    necessary factual and imaginative details so as to present some ideas to your
    groupmates.
    first course

    unhealthy
    traditional
    food

    to order
    junk food

    menu

    food

    snack
    eating
    habits

    at … o’clock

    Meals
    bite

    canteen
    eating
    out

    lunch

    to serve
    been guest

    at home
    supper
    to cook
    substantial

    for a
    change

    the lightest

    recipe
    to boil

    21. a) You are a reporter from the town’s daily newspaper, Zhdorovje. Your task
    is to interview some passers-by near McDonald’s. Make up some questions you
    may ask people.

    55

    b) You are standing in front of McDonald’s and conducting interviews with: a) a
    student; b) a woman with a child; c) a businessman on advantages and
    disadvantages of McDonald’s food.
    II. Writing Section
    1.. Imagine that a foreign friend asked you for the recipe of a typical national
    dish which is a speciality of your country. Decide on a suitable (fairly simple)
    national dish. Write a letter to your friend. Explain why you have chosen this
    dish and how the dish can be prepared.
    III. Role Play.
    You are expecting guests from Great Britain to come to visit you. You have to
    get ready to make them welcome to your house. Choose one of these roles:
    Mother, Father, Daughter, Son, Grandmother, Grandfather, Guests.
    If you are the members of the family, follow these instructions:
    1) make up the menu;
    2) set the table for dinner;
    3) meet the guests;
    4) keep up the conversation at the table.
    If you are guests follow these instructions:
    1) get acquainted with the family;
    2) keep up the conversation at the table;
    3) give your attitude towards the proposed dishes;
    3) give your impressions of the visit.
    Comprehensive Prolonged Project
    Day 3d:

    Visiting an English Family
    One of the students you have got acquainted is from Manchester
    University. He has invited you for dinner with his family. Speak
    about special features of Belarusian cuisine and ask him about
    traditional British dishes.

    56

    UNIT IV

    UNIVERSITY STUDIES
    Vocabulary
    Active Vocabulary

    attention
    to pay
    attention to
    course
    course of study
    post-graduate
    ~
    doctorate
    courses
    credit
    degree
    department
    disposal
    to be at the
    disposal of smb.
    faculty
    entrance
    ~ examinations
    first-year
    student
    full-time
    students
    part-time
    students
    graduate
    post-graduate
    grant
    lecture
    staff
    teaching staff
    term

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    внимание
    /q'tFnSqn/
    /kO:s/

    курс
    учебный курс
    аспирантура
    докторантура

    /'krFdIt/
    /di'gri:/
    /di'pRtmqnt /
    /dIs'pqVzl /

    зачет
    степень
    отделение; кафедра
    возможность распорядиться чем-либо
    быть в чьем-то распоряжении

    /'fxkltI /
    /'Fntrqns/

    факультет
    вход, прием, поступление
    вступительные экзамены
    первокурсник

    /'grxdjVqt/
    /'grRnt/
    /'lektSq/
    /'stRf /
    /'tE:m /

    студенты, проходящие очный курс
    обучения
    студенты, проходящие заочный курс
    обучения
    выпускник
    аспирант
    стипендия
    лекция
    штат служащих, служебный персонал
    преподавательский состав
    семестр

    Verbs and Verb Phrases
    admit
    принимать
    / qd'mIt /
    acquire
    приобретать, получать, овладевать
    / q'kwaIq /
    be in one’s first (second, …) year быть на первом (втором, …) курсе
    be interested in smth.
    интересоваться чем-либо
    57

    enter
    a /'Fntq/
    university
    get ready for, (syn.) to prepare for
    smth.
    graduate
    /'grxdjVeIt /
    ~ from a
    university
    miss (classes)
    /'mIs/
    pass an exam
    take an exam
    take a course (subject)
    take notes of smth
    work at smth

    поступать в университет
    готовиться к чему-либо
    заканчивать (получать степень)
    заканчивать университет
    пропускать (занятия)
    выдержать (сдать) экзамен
    сдавать экзамен
    изучать курс (предмет)
    делать
    заметки,
    конспектировать
    работать над чем -то

    записывать,

    Adjectives
    compulsory
    обязательный
    /kqm'pAlsqri/
    extra-curricular /Fkstrqkq'rIkjqlq/
    внеаудиторный
    optional
    необязательный, факультативный
    /'PpSqnl/
    Passive Vocabulary
    assignment
    curriculum
    equipment
    experience
    facilities
    speciality
    training
    advance
    (in knowledge)
    enrol(l)
    establish
    involve
    manage (with)
    master
    swot
    advanced
    58

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    задание
    /q'saInmqnt/
    курс обучения, учебный план (школы,
    /kq'rIkjqlqm/
    института, университета )
    оборудование
    /i'kwIpmqnt/
    (жизненный) опыт
    /Iks'pIqrIqns/
    возможности, условия; оборудование
    /fq'sIlItiz/
    специальность
    /"speSI'xlIti/
    подготовка, обучение
    /'treInIN/
    Verbs and Verb Phrases
    углублять знания, делать успехи
    / qd'vRns /
    /In'rqVl/
    /Is'txblIS/
    /In'vOlv/
    /'mxnIdZ/
    /'mRstq /
    /swOt/

    зачислять
    основывать, учреждать, создавать
    включать
    справляться
    изучать, овладевать
    зубрить

    /qd'vRnst/

    Adjectives
    продвинутый, успевающий (о студенте)

    extra-mural
    /'Fkstrq
    (syn.
    'mju:rl/
    correspondence)

    заочный

    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the statements and try to outline the problems to be discussed:
    1. Entering university is a real trial, but where there is a will there is a way.
    2. No pains, no gains. The students should take great pains with their classes to
    gain as much knowledge as possible.
    3. Swotting is not the only way of getting ready for exams.
    4. While planning their everyday activities students never forget the proverb:
    “Business before pleasure.”
    5. If you don’t practise you can’t learn English. Practice makes perfect.
    2. You’ve got some information about Ann’s entering University. Speak of your
    own experience to your group-mates. Replace the underlined words by the
    synonyms given in the box.
    Ann is eighteen. At school she made up her mind to enter the Belarusian
    State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics. She always took an active
    part in social activities and scientific work at school. Ann has always been
    interested in radioengineering. In June she left school and got her school leaving
    certificate. Then she took her entrance examinations in July, passed them well and
    was admitted to the University. Now Ann is a first-year student. She studies fulltime. Ann likes her studies at the University, though it takes much time to get
    ready for classes.
    in her first year

    participated

    decided

    prepare

    was enrolled

    fond of

    3. There is some information about educational system in Great Britain.
    Compare our system of education with that of Great Britain, using the key words
    in the box below.
    terms
    graduate

    academic
    break up

    degree
    lecture

    grant
    fees

    seminar
    tutorial

    The (a)_______ year in Britain begins in September and is divided into three
    (b)_________. Universities (c)________ for the summer holiday in July.
    University courses normally last three years and then students (d)________, which
    means they receive their (e)_________. At university, teaching is by (f)________
    (an individual lesson between a teacher and one or two students), (g)________ (a
    class of students discussing a subject with a teacher), (h)________ (when a teacher
    59

    gives a prepared talk to a number of students) and of course private study. Most
    people who receive a university place are given a (i)________ by the government
    to help pay their (j)________ and living expenses.
    4. Reproduce these pieces of explanation on different kinds of classes choosing
    the right words from the columns. Speak about the kinds of work you do at
    University.
    University offers theoretical and practical work. Theoretical course (a)_________
    lectures. A lecture is a talk given in order to teach people about a (b)___________
    subject. At the lectures you take notes. Those who miss a lecture usually copy up
    the (c)__________ if they wish to be successful at the exam. Practical course
    consists of practicals, seminars, laboratory works and tutorials. A practical is a
    class in which you make things or do experiments rather than (d)_______ write. A
    seminar is a class in which the teacher and a small group of students (e)_________
    a topic. When you have seminars, you spend a lot of time in the reading-hall
    revising the material. A laboratory work means carrying out scientific (f)_______
    and research. A tutorial is a regular meeting for a tutor and a small group of
    students.
    verb
    to include
    to particularize
    to note
    to simplify
    to discuss
    to experiment

    noun
    inclusion
    particularity
    notes
    simpleness
    discussion
    experiment

    adjective
    inclusive
    particular
    notable
    simple
    discussable
    experimental

    adverb
    inclusively
    particularly
    notably
    simply
    discussably
    experimentally

    5. Work in pairs. Restore the dialogue between two first-year students Alex and
    Ben talking about their university studies from the questions below:
    A: - What subjects are studied at the University?
    B: …
    A: -Should we attend all lectures, seminars and practicals?
    B: …
    A: - And what happens if a student misses some?
    B: …
    A: - We are to take examinations twice a year, aren’t we?
    B: …
    A: -What happens if a student fails in a subject?
    B: …

    6. Work in pairs. Restore the dialogue between Alex and Ben from the replies
    below. Now they are talking about their learning English. Use the word
    combinations in brackets.
    60

    A: … (to learn English)?
    B: Yes, but I don’t have enough time for it. I have so many other things to do.
    A: … (to be good at something)?
    B: I am pretty good at reading English but I still find it difficult to speak English
    fluently. And I don’t always understand people when they speak English to me.
    A: … (to watch English programs on TV)?
    B: Certainly. That helps me to understand spoken English but not to speak English.
    A: … (to speak English often)
    B: Unfortunately, not. But I realize it’s the best way to master a language.
    7. Restore the dialogue matching the questions and the replies, given below:
    A: You must be Tim, Jeff’s new
    roommate.
    B: Yeah, I’ve heard a lot about the
    students life. I think I’ll manage with it.
    A: You’ll have to manage with many
    other things: exams, boring seminars
    and labs, unending lectures.
    B: It’s OK. I like it. But I feel a little
    confused as I know nobody around here
    except for Jeff.
    A: Hi, I’m Andy. I’m your neighbour,
    I live in room 204.

    B: Oh, hello Andy! Nice to meet you!
    A: Don’t worry, you’ll get over it soon.
    It’s great to be a student. At first, it’s
    a bit difficult to get up early, to
    hurry to the University and sit 3 or 4
    lectures a day, but you’ll get used
    to. Everyone does.
    B: Exactly.
    A: As far as I know you are a firstyear student. How do you find the
    dorm?
    B: Well, it seems to be difficult but I’ll
    try to do it.

    8. Work in groups. Read the opinions of two experienced teachers of English
    and discuss which pieces of advice are the most useful ones. Find which words
    or phrases mean:
    a) you won’t make much progress……………..?
    b) become angry because you can’t do what you want to do ………………?
    c) see and pay attention to ……………?
    d) often and carefully, and in an organized way ……………?
    e) alone, without help ………………?
    f) do something that makes you seem stupid ……………..?
    What's the secret of successful language learning?
    Alastair Banton is a teacher at a
    private language school in the UK.
    He has also taught English in
    Japan.
    • I think the most important
    thing is that you really have to

    Teresa Pelc is a teacher of English
    in Poland. She has taught English in
    a secondary school for a number of
    years.
    For me, motivation is the most
    important thing. You have to be
    61





    want to learn the language without that, you won't get
    very far. You also have to
    believe that you will do it ...
    imagine yourself using the
    language confidently, and
    think, 'Yes, I can do that'.
    Then there are other things: of
    course you need to work hard,
    but at the same time you need
    to enjoy it and not get
    frustrated when you feel you're
    not making much, progress.
    And you have to be realistic learning a language takes time,
    and you can't expect to know
    and understand everything in a
    few weeks!
    Also, you should try to
    'develop an ear' for the
    language - not only to
    recognise the sounds of the
    language and to understand
    what people are saying, but
    also notice the exact words
    and phrases that people use ...
    and then try to use them
    yourself. Some people can do
    this naturally, but others have
    to learn how to do it - that's
    where having a good teacher is
    important!

    ready to study grammar, read a
    lot, listen to English songs, radio
    and TV, and what's more you
    have to do these things
    systematically.
    It is so easy to forget what you
    have just learnt ... that's why I
    needed a teacher to force me to
    study. Even the most motivated
    students need that extra push
    sometimes. I believe that only a
    very few people can learn a
    language on their own.
    Learning a language can be quite
    stressful, especially for adults ...
    suddenly, we speak like children
    and make fools of ourselves! But
    if you're motivated, you learn to
    overcome this. It all sounds like
    very hard work - and it is. It is
    also very enjoyable - I praise my
    .students for every thing they do
    well, however small it is. Many
    of them are very successful and
    speak English better than me,
    and some of them have even
    become
    English
    teachers
    themselves!

    9. Find and read aloud those parts of the text which are concerned with:
    a) the history of BSUIR,
    b) the faculties and the departments of the
    University,
    c) the teaching staff of the University,
    d) subjects taught at the University.
    OUR UNIVERSITY
    On September 1, 1964 Minsk Radioengineering
    Institute admitted students for the first time. The youngest Institute of the Republic
    was established on the basis of the oldest Polytechnic Institute of the Republic of
    Belarus. It was assigned to meet the demand of the Republic in highly qualified
    specialists for evolving national radioelectronic industry.
    In 1993 Minsk Radioengineering Institute was granted the status of university
    and celebrated its 30th anniversary as the Belarusian State University of
    62

    Informatics and Radioelectronics. Within this period BSUIR has trained thousands
    of engineers, doctors and candidates of science.
    Over 11 thousand students from the country and outside study at its 9
    faculties: the Faculty of Computer-Aided Design, the Faculty of Information
    Technologies and Control, the Faculty of Radioengineering and Electronics, the
    Faculty of Computer Systems and Networks, the Faculty of Telecommunication,
    the Faculty of Engineer Economics, the Faculty of Extramural, Evening and
    Distance Education, the Pre-University Preparation and Occupational Guidance
    Faculty, the Military Faculty.
    Now BSUIR prepares engineering staff on 22 specialities in the field of
    computer facilities, computer science, radio engineering, microelectronics,
    telecommunications automated systems, artificial intelligence, medical electronics,
    and economy.
    The educative process and scientific research are conducted by highly
    competent teaching staff that consists of professors, assistant professors, lecturers
    and teachers. They give lectures, hold seminars and have practicals with the
    students in various subjects: physics, higher mathematics, descriptive geometry,
    technical drawing, etc. Special attention is given to such subjects as computing
    technology, impulse techniques, analogue and digital computers, theoretical
    foundations of electroengineering. Nobody can deny vital importance of mastering
    foreign languages nowadays. English, French, German and Spanish are taught at
    the University. Students also have an opportunity to study a second foreign
    language and to advance in one of the foreign languages and to acquire the
    speciality of a translator.
    The University has all necessary facilities for teaching including up-to-date
    computers and laboratory equipment, robots, closed-circuit TV. A large electronic
    library is at the students’ disposal.
    To sum up, the University provides a good engineering education. The
    graduates of the University work at computer centres, design offices, industrial
    enterprises, research laboratories and institutes, joint ventures and banks.
    Agree or disagree with the following sentences, in your answers use the
    expressions of agreement or disagreement:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.

    On September 1, 1964 Radioengineering Institute admitted students for the
    first time.
    Minsk Radioengineering Institute was established on the basis of the
    Belarusian State University.
    Minsk Radioengineering Institute celebrated its 30th anniversary as the
    Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics.
    Over 7 thousand students study at 6 faculties and 34 departments.
    The educative process is conducted by highly competent teaching staff.
    The students of the University attend classes of physics, technical drawing,
    biology, geography.
    63

    10. In the following dialogue examine some unfinished pieces of argumentation
    and select among the given arguments the one that can be added in full
    accordance with the speaker’s viewpoint.
    Alex’s First Examinations Are Coming
    A: What university do you study at?
    B: The Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics.
    A: You’re doing your first year then, aren’t you?
    B: Yes, that’s right. I entered it last summer and I’m a first-year student of the
    Faculty of Computer-Aided Design. I’m very interested in studying
    radioelectronics but sometimes it’s rather difficult and …
    a) I can do everything in time.
    b) I don’t have much time even for my football
    practice.
    c) it seems easy for me to prepare for classes.
    A: Well, the things are always like that with University studies.
    B: I know you are graduating from the University, aren’t you, Nick?
    A: It’s not actually a university. I am in my last year at Technical College
    and, in addition, I often attend public lectures at the University of London.
    B: Is it true that your lectures in Great Britain are not compulsory?
    A: Well, yes, they are optional.
    B: You know, here to prepare well for the seminars and then for credits …
    a) I should take an active part in extra-curricular
    activities.
    b) I can miss some lectures and then just copy up notes.
    c) I need to attend all the lectures and to take notes of
    everything.
    A: You’ll have your first examinations soon, I guess. I can’t really remember
    how I passed my exams for the first time. But I reckon they were easy.
    B: Maybe they were easy enough for you but they will be much too hard for
    me. I’m dead certain I’ll fail in chemistry and descriptive geometry.
    A: Oh, come on. You’ll probably do better than you think.
    B: No, I’ve already flunked my credit in philosophy …
    a) It wasn’t really my thing.
    b) It was my favourite subject.
    c) I learned everything by heart.
    A: I guess it is difficult for everyone to try to interest oneself in subjects like
    that.
    11. Work in pairs. Start the dialogue between George and Alex discussing their
    preparation for classes. Use the logical scheme offered below.
    A: Greeting.
    B: Greeting.
    A: Asking for information.
    B: Replying. Explaining one’s argument.
    64

    A: Disapproval.
    B: Correcting someone: Well, in fact …
    Actually …
    As far as I know …
    A: Can’t you take the necessary books in the library?
    B: Of course, I can. But it’s better to work with a computer display than to
    read a book. Where do you prefer to do your home assignments?
    A: As for me, I like to get prepared for classes at the town library. Sorry, I
    must be off now. See you, Alex!
    B: See you!
    12. Work in pairs. Continue the dialogue between Millie and Pete according to
    the logical scheme offered below.
    A: You know, I’ve got to get through the A level exams. I’ll worry about
    university if and when I ever get there.
    B: That’s the trouble with you. You always try to do everything at the last
    minute, you are a terrible procrastinator!
    A: And you are too serious; that’s your trouble. You never stop swotting.
    B: Correcting someone.
    A: Contradicting.
    B: Giving advice: If I were you, I’d …
    You’d better …
    Why don’t you …
    A: Refusing
    13. Look through the information about digital learning from “Fast Lines at
    Digital High” by T. Michael Nevens. Think over the pros and cons of digital
    learning.
    Today, with the help of computers and the Internet a lesson could be transformed
    from a one-way flow of information into an interactive process. Digital learning
    integrates technology, connectivity, and digital content into the curriculum. It helps
    students seek and use information in a creative way that gives both them and their
    teachers a new kind of educational experience.
    Although digital tools may never wholly replace the textbook, they could
    supplement and enhance learning in almost all grades and subjects because they
    have certain dynamic characteristics that help students take an active part in
    learning. Students can explore subjects in greater depth. Moreover, because digital
    content is available in various formats, it can be tailored to student’s individual
    learning style. Students who learn visually can rely more on charts and video;
    those who learn analytically can use text and data.
    Notes:
    to integrate – объединять
    creative – творческий
    65

    to supplement – дополнять
    to enhance – улучшать
    to be tailored = to fit
    Answer the following questions:
    1) What helps to transform a lesson into an interactive process?
    2) Do you believe that digital tools may wholly replace the textbook?
    3) Why can digital content be adapted to any student?
    4) Do we use digital learning in our schools and universities?
    14. Continue each piece by adding a few sentences.
    1. Jane is a quick learner. (to have a good memory, to take notes, to enjoy
    practicing smth, to be witty and sociable, etc.)
    2. I think Victor will do well in his exams. (to attend, to do a lot of revision, to
    make a careful study of smth, to improve)
    3. I am sorry to say, Mike is an unsatisfactory student. (to miss classes without a
    good excuse, to be inattentive in class, never to do any preparation)
    4. It isn’t much fun to try and catch up with the group after you’ve missed a lot of
    classes. (to be behind with/in, to feel inadequate, to have to cover a lot of material,
    to study on one’s own)
    15. Work in groups. Many people believe that studying electronics is rather
    boring. Ask your partners if they think the same. Let them explain why they
    think so. Use the following formulas.
    I suppose
    As far as I know
    To my mind
    fact that
    I can confirm

    What I mean is
    I’d like to mention
    No one can deny the
    To sum up

    16. Look through the information about student life at Grinnell College. Then
    look at the pictures below and say what extra-curricular activities BSUIR offers
    to its students?
    Student Life
    Student Life at Grinnell has many aspects, in addition to coursework,
    which will enrich your experience here. We have an extensive Sports
    and Athletics program. We offer fun and enriching classes through our
    Experimental College. Student Affairs offers opportunities for students
    at Grinnell to become involved in the student government on campus.
    We also encourage students to study abroad, and have programs available in many
    66

    countries throughout the world. Grinnell College offers a very rich and rewarding
    student life. Men's Tennis - Grinnell 7, Knox 0
    Grinnell defeated Knox 7-0 on Tuesday.
    Baseball - Grinnell Splits at 16th-ranked Central
    The Pioneer baseball team split a non-conference doubleheader at Central on
    Tuesday.
    Softball - Grinnell 4, Clarke 3
    Grinnell defeated Clarke 4-3 on Tuesday.
    Softball - Grinnell 4, Central 8
    Grinnell fell to Central 8-4 on Tuesday.
    Students Life at BSUIR
    Students Club
    Brass band

    the group of
    national
    Gypsy song

    Vocal group

    Dance group

    Sports Club

    17. Give your own ideas on any of the following statements:

    67

    1) BSUIR is the national leader among educational institutions of the Republic of
    Belarus.
    2) It’s not fair to take exams.
    3) Extra-curricular activities at the University are valuable.
    4) Foreign languages are of great importance for highly qualified specialists.
    18. Examine the network and reproduce the topic “University Studies” supplying
    the necessary factual and imaginative details so as to present some ideas to your
    group-mates.
    -to be founded
    - 10 faculties
    - teaching staff
    - subjects
    - the graduates

    - to enter
    - to be admitted to
    - to study at
    - to graduate from
    University

    BSUIR

    University
    Studies

    our classes

    lectures
    seminars
    practicals
    lab works

    examinations

    to take notes
    to attend
    to miss
    to work at

    - to take
    - to prepare for
    - to pass
    - to fail in
    extra-curricular
    activities
    Sports Club
    Students Club

    II. Writing Section.
    Write a letter to your English friend about your first months at University. Tell
    him/her what you like and dislike most.

    68

    III. Project-work.
    A student comes to his native town for winter vacations. He enjoys his stay at
    home, relishes his Mum’s food, talks to his neighbours and attends the School
    Reunion.
    Roles: first-year student, his father, his mother, his sister/brother, his former
    school teacher, his former classmates, his neighbour, his neighbour’s son who
    is planning to enter the BSUIR.

    Comprehensive Prolonged Project
    Day 4nd:

    Visiting Oxford University.
    The group of Belarusian students is invited to Oxford Student Club
    to share the experience of their university studies and student life.

    69

    UNIT V

    authority
    bill
    border
    constituency
    density
    landscape
    legislature
    plain
    possession
    scenery
    strait
    valley

    GREAT BRITAIN
    Vocabulary
    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    власть, власти
    /O:'TPrqti/
    законопроект, билль
    /bIl/
    граница
    /'bO:dq/
    избиратели
    /kqn'stItjυqnsi/
    плотность
    /dεnsIti/
    пейзаж, ландшафт
    /'lxndskeIp/
    законодательная власть
    /'lεGIslqCq/
    равнина
    /'pleIn/
    владение
    /pq'zεSqn/
    пейзаж, вид, ландшафт
    /'si:nqri/
    узкий пролив
    /streIt/
    долина
    /'vxli/
    Verbs and Verbal Phrases

    acknowledge
    bound
    estimate
    remain
    share

    признавать
    ограничивать
    оценивать
    оставаться
    делить, владеть совместно

    /qk'nPlIG/
    /baυnd/
    /'εstImeIt/
    /rI'meIn/
    /'Sεq/
    Adjectives

    constituent
    executive
    hereditary
    judiciary
    overseа
    populous

    /kqn'stItjυqnt/
    /Ig'zεkjqtIv/
    /hI'rεdItqri/
    /dZu:'dISqri/
    /'qυvqsi:/
    /'pPpjqlqs/

    избирательный
    исполнительный
    наследственный
    судебный, законный
    заморский
    густонаселенный

    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the following quotations and try to outline the problems to be
    discussed.
    1. “When people say England, they sometimes mean Great Britain, sometimes the
    United Kingdom, sometimes the British Isles – but never England”. George Mikes
    (1912-1987)
    2. “When two Englishmen meet, their first talk is of the weather.” Samuel Johnson
    3. “When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that
    life can afford.” Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)
    4. “… every government is the exact symbol of its people, with their wisdom and
    unwisdom…” Thomas Carlyle
    5. “I hope succeeding generations will be able to idle. I hope that nine-tenths of
    their time will be leisure time…” Richard Jefferies
    70

    2. a) Try to complete the following information about Britain. Then read the text
    and check. Speak of the characteristic features to your partner.
    There are various ways to describe the two large islands and several small islands
    that are situated off the coast of France:
    1. The British Isles
    refer to …
    2. The United
    Kingdom refers to …
    3. Great Britain, or
    simply Britain refers
    to …
    The United Kingdom
    of Great Britain and
    Northern Ireland
    (usually shortened to
    the United Kingdom,
    the UK, or Britain) is
    a country and
    sovereign state that
    lies to the northwest
    of Continental Europe
    with the Republic of
    Ireland to the west.
    The United Kingdom is a political union made up of four constituent countries: England,
    Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. It occupies all of the island of Great Britain and the
    northeast part of the island of Ireland, sharing a land border with the Republic of Ireland.
    The United Kingdom is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, and its ancillary bodies of water,
    including the North Sea, the Strait of Dover, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea, and the Irish
    Sea. The United Kingdom is linked to France by the Channel Tunnel, which is located in the
    south-east of England. The United Kingdom also has fourteen overseas territories, including
    Bermuda, Gibraltar, the Pitcairn Island group, British Indian Ocean Territory, the Falkland
    Islands, and British Antarctic Territory among others. The dependencies of the Channel Islands
    and the Isle of Man, formally possessions of the Crown, form a federacy with the United
    Kingdom collectively known as the British Islands.
    The constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II is also the Queen and Head of State of 15
    other Commonwealth Realms such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Jamaica. Despite the
    dissolution of the British Empire and the decline of the UK's influence throughout the world, it
    remains a significant player in world diplomacy and a Great power.
    The United Kingdom is a developed country with the fifth largest economy in the world
    and second largest in Europe, estimated at $2.2 trillion. It is the third most populous state in the
    European Union with a population of 60.2 million and is a founding member of the North
    Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United Nations (UN), where it holds permanent
    membership on the Security Council. The UK is a major military power and is an acknowledged
    nuclear power.
    71

    b) Find the synonyms in the text.
    a) abbreviate; b) compose, constitute; c) frontier; d) disintegration; e) continuing,
    constant; f) recognized
    c) Say in other words.
    a) two or more countries joined together; b) additional to something else; c) the
    state of having or owning something; d) if something becomes smaller, weaker or
    worse; e) one of the countries that has joined an international organization;
    f)country or area which has a lot of people living in it.
    3. Match the words to their definitions.
    1
    2

    constituency
    chamber

    a
    b

    3

    speaker

    c

    4

    bill

    d

    5

    noble

    e

    6
    7

    bench
    legislature

    f
    g

    8
    9

    executive
    judiciary

    h
    i

    10

    law

    j

    a seat where a particular group of politicians sit
    the title of the person whose job is to control the
    discussions in a parliament
    a group of people who have the power to make and
    change laws
    the whole system of rules that everyone in a country or
    society must obey
    the judges of a country or a state, when they are
    considered as a group
    a district that elects its own representative to parliament
    the part of a government responsible for putting laws into
    effect
    a person from a family of high social rank
    a written suggestion for a new law that is presented to a
    country’s parliament so that its members can discuss it
    one of the parts of a parliament

    4. Reproduce these pieces of explanation on the House of Commons choosing
    the right form of the words.
    The House of Commons consists of 659 (popularity /popularly /popular)
    elected members. Each member is elected from a constituency in the United
    Kingdom. Members receive a salary and hold their seats for the (durable
    /duration) of a Parliament. A general election for all members must be (held/hold)
    at least every five years. The House of Commons is the (legislate/legislative
    /legislation) authority in the United Kingdom. Among its powers are the right to
    impose taxes and to vote on spending issues affecting the (vary/ various/ variety)
    public departments and services. The (pass/passage) of legislation, however, is the
    primary function of the chamber.
    The speaker of the House of Commons is elected by the members and acts
    as the president of the House. Members of Parliament are controlled by their party
    whips, who round up members before a vote and (organize/ organizer/
    organizational) debates in the Commons.
    Members of the House of Commons belong to one of the British political
    parties. The party that wins the (majority/major) of parliamentary seats forms a
    72

    government with the party leader as prime minister. Of the remaining parties, the
    one with the (largest/large) number of seats becomes the (official/officially)
    opposition.
    5. Read the text choosing the right words from the columns. Do you agree that
    the House of Commons, the lower chamber of Parliament in practice dominates
    the upper chamber, or House of Lords, in terms of activity and political power?
    The beginnings of the House of Lords can be traced back as far as the 11th
    century. Prior to 1999, this chamber of Parliament included hereditary peers, or
    nobles by inheritance or birth. That year, however, Parliament passed the House of
    Lords Act of 1999, which disqualified all hereditary peers for membership in the
    House, with the a) ... of 92 individuals who had been elected by their fellow peers
    and were allowed b) ... their seats on a temporary basis. The Act provided that
    hereditary peers in the future were welcome to run for c) ... to the chamber. Other
    members of the House include life peers, or individuals with nonhereditary titles
    conferred by the Crown; law lords; and archbishops and senior bishops of the
    Church of England. Peers receive no salary. Although more than 670 individuals
    are qualified to sit in the House of Lords, only a little over half regularly attend
    sessions. In d) ..., the powers of the modern House of Lords are extremely limited.
    Despite this, the chamber plays an important role in Parliament. Among its most e)
    ... functions are the review and revision of bills that the House of Commons has
    not formulated in sufficient detail. In the House of Lords the lord chancellor fulfills
    the same role as does the f) … in the Commons.
    verb
    to retain
    practise
    except
    to use
    speak
    elect

    noun
    retainer
    practice
    exception
    usage
    speaker
    election

    adjective
    retainable
    practical
    exceptional
    useful
    speaking
    elective

    6. What is the difference between the Commons and the Lords? Speak about the
    Houses of Parliament.
    7. Read the text about Britain’s Crown and find out what role the Queen plays in
    the life of modern Britain.
    The Crown, or sovereign, is the supreme power in the legislature, the
    executive, and the judiciary. The sovereign is also the head of the established
    Church of England and is commander in chief of the armed forces. In practice,
    however, the sovereign acts only on the advice of the Crown's ministers and cannot
    reject or ignore their advice. Since 1952, the sovereign of the United Kingdom has
    been Queen Elizabeth II. In effect the United Kingdom is governed by her
    majesty's government in the queen's name.
    The queen still has several significant functions. The Prime Minister and
    Ministers receive their appointments from the Queen at Buckingham Palace. Laws
    are not laws until they have received the Royal Assent. She calls and dissolves
    73

    Parliament, and she opens a new session with a speech from the throne. This
    speech is not written by her, however, but by the government in power, and it
    outlines the government's policy for the forthcoming session of Parliament.
    Similarly, the queen confers honors in the form of peerages, knighthoods, and
    decorations that are given on the advice of the government and that often reward
    people for services to the political party in power. She can award some honors
    herself, however such as the Order of the Garter. She appoints judges, army
    officers, diplomats, and officials of the Church of England also on advice.
    Royal duties include visiting many parts of the UK, paying state visits to
    foreign countries. Although the queen has in fact little authority of her own, she is
    kept informed of events and is sometimes consulted by the government in power.
    In addition to her other functions the queen is head of the Commonwealth,
    which consists of a number of states that formerly belonged to the British Empire.
    The queen and her family members are largely supported by the state. Parliament
    annually approves allowances for members of the royal family.
    Agree or disagree with the following sentences, in your answers use the
    expressions of agreement or disagreement:
    1. As Head of State, the Queen is informed and consulted on every aspect of
    national life. 2. The head of the government is commander in chief of the armed
    forces. 3. The Sovereign formally summons and dissolves Parliament 4. Royal
    duties include choosing the Cabinet. 5. The Queen does not have to explain her
    actions. 6. The Queen visits only the states of the Commonwealth.
    8. Work in pairs. These dialogues are between British students and their colleagues from
    Belarus who are spending their holidays in London. Restore the dialogues. Use the questions
    from the box given below. Act the dialogues out.
    1. A: …?
    B: Well, the National Gallery, to begin with, then comes the National Portrait Gallery, then the
    Tate Gallery.
    A: …?
    B: Oh surely, you ought to go there, but the British Museum is not a museum of Fine Arts. In
    the first place it’s a museum of history, archaeology and ethnography. It’s also one of the largest
    libraries in the world.
    2. A: I think we’ll get off the bus near the Circus…
    B:…
    A: Oh no, I mean Piccadilly Circus, it’s just a square.
    B:…
    A: Well, it isn’t exactly round. As a matter of fact any open space where a number of streets
    meet can be called a ‘circus’. You can come across them all over England. But when a Londoner
    speaks of the circus he means Piccadilly Circus.
    3. A:…
    B: Covent Garden? I’m afraid not. I have only been to Green Park, Regent’s Park and
    Kensington Gardens.
    74

    A:…
    B: I certainly do. It’s the Royal Opera House. I was just pulling your leg.
    4. A: This is Fleet Street.
    B: …
    A: Nothing of the kind. It suggests journalism.
    B: …
    A: Because all the big British daily newspapers are published there.
    5. A: …
    B: Exactly so. Here the Prime Minister of Britain lives.
    A:…?
    B: The London residence of the British kings is Buckingham Palace. When the Queen is in
    residence the Royal Standard is flown at the mast-head.
    6. A:
    7. B: Oh, very much indeed. We could see a great deal within those fifteen days of our visit.
    A: …
    B: London, Stratford-upon-Avon, Leeds, Glasgow and Edinburgh.
    A:
    B: Well, it isn’t easy to describe it in one word.
    1. - I see. Why is it called that? Is it round or what? 2. - Dear me! Don’t you know what Covent
    Garden is? 3. - Does its name suggest a sea voyage? 4. - Why? 5. - And where is the residence of
    the Queen? 6. - What did your programme include? 7. - How did you enjoy your stay in Britain?
    8. - What’s your general impression? 9. - Which are the most notable picture galleries in
    London? 10. - I suppose you’ve been to Covent Garden? 11. - Do you mean to invite me to a
    circus show? I’d love to see it in London 12. - Yes, but what about the British Museum? I’ve
    heard a lot of it. 13. - Is it №10 Downing Street?
    9. Work in pairs. Make up questions to which the following phrases are the answers. Complete
    this dialogue and act it out. (The dialogue is between a student from Belarus who is having a
    holiday in Britain and a British student.
    A:…
    B: I don’t think you’ll be able to see a lot in one or two days. Today London is one of the largest
    cities in the world.
    A:…
    B: Nine million, I believe. I mean the population of Greater London, of course.
    A:…
    B: Well, the main parts of London are: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. If
    you are interested in churches and historical places you should go to Westminster Abbey, the
    Houses of Parliament, St. Paul’s and the Tower.
    A:…
    B: The City is so important because it is the banking and commercial center of the world.
    75

    A:…
    B: Well, you certainly ought to see the British Museum. But if I were you I should leave that for
    some other day. You could spend a whole day there. It’s much too big to be seen in an hour or
    so.
    A:…
    B: In the first place, Whitehall is the name of the street. In the second place, it is the political
    center of Great Britain. All the chief government offices are in the Whitehall, you know.
    10. Work in pairs. Ask your group-mate who has just returned from his (her) trip to London to
    tell you:

    a) what historical places (places of interest, monuments) he saw there; b) what
    attracted his attention; c) about the Tower, Westminster Abbey, St. Paul’s
    Cathedral etc.; d) what else he happened to see; e) what impressed him most.
    Formulas:
    Showing
    interest
    while
    listening
    I see.
    Oh, yes.
    How interesting!
    Has/Does it?
    Indeed?
    Saying you don’t know
    I’m afraid, I don’t know
    anything much about…
    I’m afraid, I’ve no idea….
    I’m afraid, I know very little
    about …

    Asking if someone knows about
    something
    Excuse me, do you know
    anything about…?
    Did you know about…?
    Do you realize…?
    Have you heard about…?
    Saying you are curious
    I wish I knew more about…
    I’d like to know …
    I wonder…?
    I’d be very interested to know …
    I’m rather curious to know
    about…

    Saying you know
    I do know about…
    I hear…
    They say….

    Comparing
    …better (worse) than…
    There’s absolutely no
    comparison between …
    and…

    11. Read the descriptions and match them with the places.
    A. Westminster Abbey
    D. Tower of London.
    G. Piccadilly Circus
    J. The Globe Theater

    B. The Palace of Westminster
    E. Hyde Park .
    H. The British Museum
    K. St. Paul's Cathedral

    C. Buckingham Palace
    F. Trafalgar Square
    I. The National Gallery

    1. It contains both of the Houses of Parliament. The palace covers 8 acres (3.2
    hectares) and has 1,200 rooms and about 3 miles (4.8 kilometers) of passages. The
    well-known Clock Tower rises 320 feet (98 meters) high over the palace. Although
    many people believe that Big Ben is the name of the clock in the tower, it is
    actually the name of the bell inside the clock. This bell weighs 13 tons and is 7 1/2
    feet (2.3 meters) tall.
    2. It is the largest open area in central London. It is joined with Kensington
    Gardens to make one large park.
    3. It is on Trafalgar Square, has a fine collection of classical European painting.
    4. It is a popular plaza containing a monument to the famous British naval officer
    Lord Horatio Nelson.
    76

    5. It is modeled after a theater that was popular in the late 16th and early 17th
    centuries, holds performances of William Shakespeare's plays.
    6. It is an ancient church in London's West End. All of England's kings and queens
    have been crowned there since 1066 AD. Also, some of England's most famous
    people are buried there, including the writers Charles Dickens and Geoffrey
    Chaucer and the scientists Charles Darwin and Sir Isaac Newton.
    7. It is a busy intersection where five roads meet. A memorial fountain stands in
    the middle of the intersection. Famous for its large billboards, there are many
    theaters and restaurants in this area.
    8. It is one of the oldest buildings in London. It was built during the 11th century by
    William the Conqueror. For centuries it was a prison. Several famous prisoners
    were held there, including the explorer Sir Walter Raleigh and King Henry VIII's
    wife Anne Boleyn. It was the Royal Residence until the 17th century. Today,
    visitors can see the famous Crown Jewels of England there.
    9. It is the masterpiece of Sir Christopher Wren, England’s great architect. From
    far away you can see the huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top.
    10. It is the oldest public museum in the world, containing art and artifacts from
    such ancient civilizations as those of the Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians.
    11. This is where the queen of England and some other members of the royal
    family live. It was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham. Victoria was the first
    queen to live there.
    12. Which of these places would you choose to go to on holiday? Why?
    13. Complete the texts selecting among the given arguments the one that can be
    added in full accordance with the contents.
    1. The United Kingdom was at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution of the
    18th and 19th centuries. The society was transformed by the use of new machines
    and the growth of factories. Many important new transportation and
    communication systems were developed during this period. The country's
    manufacturing industries were weakened after World War II. Recovery was slow.
    It took nearly 40 years for the United Kingdom's economy to improve.
    However, …
    a) the United Kingdom once again established itself as one of the top countries for
    economic growth and productivity.
    b) the United Kingdom is traditionally very strong in manufacturing. Heavy
    industries such as iron and steel, coal mining, and ship building declined in the late
    20th century.
    c) heavy industries such as iron and steel, coal mining, and ship building are
    underdeveloped.
    2. The production of fuels dominates the country's mining industry. The United
    Kingdom usually produces enough oil so that it does not need to buy any from
    other nations. The country also has large reserves of natural gas and coal. Coal
    mining was once a huge industry in the United Kingdom. However, …
    77

    a) it has one of the world's largest reserves of potash (potassium salts), which is
    used when making fertilizers.
    b) it is also a world leader in the production of peat. Peat is a vegetable tissue
    formed by the breakup of various plants in water. It is formed into briquettes and
    used as fuel.
    c) coal production dropped greatly as the country began switching to other fuels.
    3. The country's farms are very efficient and use many specialized machines. Less
    than 2 percent of the workforce is employed in agriculture. Farmers raise cattle,
    sheep, and pigs. The British livestock industry was hurt by an outbreak of mad cow
    disease in cattle beginning in the 1980s. …
    a) The chief crops include barley, wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes.
    b) It is the world's largest producer of rice and is among the leading sources of
    wheat, corn, tobacco, soybeans, peanuts, and cotton.
    c) The country leads the world in the production of chickens, and eggs.
    14. The network below shows the most important types of industry in the UK.
    Chemicals

    Coal

    Petroleum
    Metals

    Aircraft

    Paper and paper
    products
    Textiles

    Shipbuilding
    Motor vehicles
    and parts

    Food
    processing
    Clothing

    Types of Industry

    Equipment
    Electronics and
    communication
    equipment

    Electronic power
    equipment
    Automation
    equipment

    78

    Railroad
    equipment

    Machine
    tools

    15. How much do you know about Great Britain’s imports and exports. Examine
    the network and share this information with your groupmates.

    Fuels

    Vehicles

    Machinery

    Chemicals

    Footwear

    Electrical
    goods

    Clothing

    Imports

    Great Britain
    Beverages

    Exports
    Oil

    Food
    Chemicals
    Machinery
    Vehicles

    Aerospace
    products

    Electrical and
    electronic
    equipment

    II. 1. Comment on the following problems and quotations:
    1. The British monarch reigns but does not rule.
    2. “People who want to understand democracy should spend less time in the library
    with Aristotle and more time on the buses and in the subway.” Simeon Strunsky
    3. “It is not the walls that make the city, but the people who live within them. The
    walls of London may be battered, but the spirit of the Londoner stands resolute and
    undismayed”. George VI (1895-1952)
    2. Speak about
    … the differences between the House of Commons and the House of Lords of the
    British parliament. Describe their activities and say what role they play in passing
    the laws which regulate the life of the country.
    3. Make a poster for a tourist information centre in London.
    III. Writing Section
    1. Imagine you visited a place in Great Britain (e.g. the Tower of London, the
    British Museum, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, Hyde Park, etc.) you
    really liked. Describe it using the paragraph plan below.
    Plan
    79

    INTRODUCTION
    1) where the place is and why you went there
    MAIN BODY
    2) further details about the place
    3) what you saw and what you did there
    CONCLUSION
    4) how you feel about the place and whether you recommend it or not.
    2. An international travel magazine has asked its readers to describe a famous
    city. Write your description.
    3. Your teacher has asked you to describe a visit to a place you will always
    remember. Write your composition.
    4. A travel magazine is running a competition for the best description of a
    festival in Great Britain. Write a description for the competition.
    5. Make up a quiz to test the students’ knowledge of Great Britain
    IV. Project
    You have just returned from the Students Scientific Conference in London. Plan
    a sightseeing trip around London for one day for those students who are going to
    take part in the conference next year. Plan to visit no more than four places and
    have a picnic lunch in a park.

    80

    UNIT VI

    THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS
    Vocabulary

    ancestor
    antiquity
    aurochs
    ballot
    bondage
    chamber
    court
    elevation
    grove
    lowland
    prosecutor
    reservation
    suffrage
    supervision
    swamp

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    предок
    /'xnsestq/
    древность
    /xn'tIkwqti/
    зубр
    /'O:rPks/
    голосование
    /'bxlqt/
    рабство, зависимость
    /'bOndIdZ/
    палата
    /'CeImbq/
    суд
    /kO:t/
    возвышенность
    /"elI'veISn/
    роща
    /grqVv/
    низменность
    /'lqVlqnd/
    прокурор
    /'prPsIkju:tq/
    заповедник
    /"rIzq'veISn/
    голос, голосование
    /'sAfrIG/
    надзор, наблюдение
    /"su:pq'vIZn/
    болото
    /"swPmp/
    Verbs and Verbal Phrases

    approve
    attain
    be situated (in)
    border (on)
    head
    rout
    span
    stick (stuck)
    swallow
    total

    / 'qpru:v/
    /q'teIn/
    /'sICueItId/
    /'bO:dq/
    /hed/
    /raVt/
    /spxn/
    /stIk/
    /'swPlqV/
    /'tqVtl/

    одобрять, утверждать
    получить, приобрести
    располагаться
    граничить
    возглавлять
    обратить в бегство, разбить
    простираться
    прикрепляться, закрепляться
    поглощать, подавлять
    насчитывать

    Adjectives

    executive
    immense
    judicial
    legislative
    marshy
    primordial
    representative
    supreme

    /Ig'zekjqtIv/
    /I'mens/
    /Gu'dISl/
    /'leGIslqtIv/
    /'ma:SI/
    /preI'mO:dIql/
    /"reprI'zentqtIv/
    /su:pri:m/

    исполнительный
    огромный
    юридический
    законодательный
    болотистый
    исконный, первобытный
    представитель(-ный)
    высший, верховный

    81

    Practise saying the following words:
    Dregovichi
    Krivichi
    Radimichi
    the Grand Duchy of
    Lithuania

    /'dregOvICI/
    /'krIvICI/
    /'rq'dImICI/
    /'grxn 'dACI
    qv lITju: 'eIniq/

    Дреговичи
    Кривичи
    Радимичи
    Великое Княжество
    Литовское

    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the following quotations and proverbs and try to outline the
    problems to be discussed.
    1. Every man has a lurking wish to appear considerable in his native place.
    2. Home is where the heart is.
    3. A nation is a thing that lives and acts like a man and men are the particulars of
    which it is composed (J. Holland).
    4. The nation’s honor is dearer than the nation’s comfort; yes, than the nation’s life
    itself (W.Wilson).
    2. Check the meaning of the following words. Find all the suitable nouns for
    each of the adjectives or participles.
    Principal, transport, rural, ethnic, economic, feedstock, energy, local, innovative, highway, forest,
    foreign, sovereign, manufacturing, local, constitutional.
    Security, area, peasants, policy, court zone, network, equipment, tradition, reserve, crop, fuel,
    technology, state, center.

    3. Make sure that you know the words. Read the definitions and match the words
    and definitions:
    ancestor, antiquity, invade, annex, remain, rapidly, declare, to last, former, independence,
    primordial, bondage
    to enter a country;
    old times;
    to take control of the country;
    to continue for a particular period of time;
    existing at or from the beginning of the
    world;
    the state of being a slave or prisoner;

    a person in your family who lived long ago;
    to say something officially or publicly;
    still to be present after the other parts have been
    removed, used;
    that used to exist in earlier times;
    done or happening very quickly;
    freedom from somebody’s control.

    4. Read the text. Fill in the gaps with the words from ex. 3. Put some verbs into
    the past form.
    From the History of Belarus
    Belarus is a new, sovereign state the history of which goes back to … . The
    first human being appeared on its territory about 120-140 thousand years ago.
    There are sites on the territory of Belarus dating 2600 years ago. The … of
    Belarusians who settled on the territory of present Belarus between the 6th and 12th
    centuries were Krivichi, Radimichi and Dregovichi. They lived in the basins of the
    82

    Dnieper and the Zapadnaya Dvina rivers. They hunted, fished and farmed. These
    tribes were separate, but they needed in a united state. It was Kievskaya Rus that
    appeared at the beginning of the 9th century.
    In the 13th century the Belarusian territories were swallowed by the Grand
    Duchy of Lithuania. During this time Belarus was largely in peace, but the
    Lithuanian duchy was at war and by the 15the century the Grand Duchy of
    Lithuania spanned from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.
    Later, at the end of the 17th century Belarusian people were placed in … to
    the Polish feudal lords who exploited them cruelly.
    It was also … by the troops of the Swedish King Charles XII. In 1708 the
    Russian troops under the command of Peter the Great routed the Swedish troops
    and by the end of the 18th century Belarus was … by Russia until the 1st of January
    1919 when the Byelorussian Socialist Republic was proclaimed.
    In 1922 it became a member of the … USSR. In 1939 Western Belarus, occupied
    by Poland, joined Byelorussia. During that period new plants and factories were
    built, national arts and literature, science and education developed … .
    But World War II broke out and in 1941 Byelorussia was occupied by Nazi
    Germany. Over one million buildings were destroyed and the human losses totaled
    over two million Belarusians. The occupation … till 1944. In post-war years
    Belarusian people restored ruined cities and towns, rebuilt plants. During that time
    Belarus became a major manufacturing center in the Western region of the USSR.
    Belarus … itself sovereign on the 27th of July 1990 and the former BSSR
    became the Republic of Belarus on the 25th of August 1991, attaining full
    independence.
    5. Work in pairs. Speak of the main steps in the history of our country to your
    partner matching the dates and the events and arranging the facts in the right
    order.
    6th -12th centuries; 13th century; 1708; January 1; 1919; 9th century; the end of the 18th century;
    1922; 1941; July 27; 1990; 1939; 1944; August 25; 1991

    6. Work in pairs. Restore the dialogue between Mike, a student from Belarus and
    Alex, a student from Australia. They are speaking about the history of the name
    “Belarus “.
    Alex: Hello, Mike. You know, people in our country know too little about your
    country. I’m interested in the history of it. Is Belarus the original name of your
    country?
    Mike: No, it isn’t. Once it was called “White Russia” or “Belaya Rus”.
    Alex: …
    Mike: Surely. According to chronicles it was first mentioned in the 12th century.
    And the English “White Russia” was first used in the 16th century.
    Alex: …

    83

    Mike: You know there are different versions of the name. Some researchers
    associate it with the direct meaning of the colour “belyi” or “white”. Of course,
    there are also other versions.
    Alex: …
    Mike: In the 19th century, for example, it was called “Belorussia”. And then the
    official name of the country was “Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic”, when
    the country was the part of the former USSR.
    Alex: …
    Mike: On 27th of July 1990 our declared itself sovereign and became an
    independent state. Now its official name is the Republic of Belarus.
    Alex: …
    … Oh, thank you. I’ve learned interesting facts about your country.
    …And what’s the origin of the name?
    … Has your country been always called “Belaya Rus?”
    … Do you know when the term “Belaya Rus” was first used?
    … When did it become Belarus?

    7. Read the text, pay attention to the underlined words. Make an outline to speak
    about your native land Belarus.
    The Geography of Belarus
    Belarus is our home.
    There is hardly anyone
    who will be able to
    describe the blue of the
    sky or the peculiar flavour
    of the home wind of the
    specific softness of the
    native soil of the unusual
    beauty of the people
    around us.
    Belarus is situated in the
    center of Europe at the
    crossroads from east to
    west, from north to south.
    It borders on Russia to the north and east, on Ukraine to the South, on Poland to
    the west and Lithuania and Latvia to the north-west. The republic covers the area
    of 207,600 square kilometers. The population is about 10 million people.
    To describe our land one needs to be a poet. If you go north, you will see
    land of Braslav lakes with crystal-clear blue waters surrounded by pine groves. If
    you go west, you will find yourself in the Brest province- the land of immense
    fields and meadows. In the south you will be engulfed by infinite forests and
    marshes. Broad plains and marshy lowlands occupy nearly three quarters of the
    territory. They are called Belarusian Polesye. There are also some hills and
    elevations. They can be found in the northern and central parts of the country.
    84

    There are a lot of rivers and streams and more than 10.000 lakes in the
    republic. The largest rivers are the Dnieper, Western Dvina, Pripiat and Neman,
    while the largest lake is Naroch. Forests and bushes cover more than a quarter of
    the area. The most famous is Belavazhskaya Puscha, Rare bisons – aurochses live
    there. The climate is temperately continental with a comparatively mild winter and
    warm summer. This is our Motherland, young and old, beautiful and full of pride, a
    country situated in heart of Europe where all roads meet. People of different
    nationalities live here in good neighborhood and peace because they have common
    history and traditions.
    8. Work in pairs. Reproduce the answers to your partners.
    A
    B
    A
    B
    A
    B
    A
    B
    A
    B
    A
    B
    A
    B
    A

    I wish I knew more about your country. What is the area of Belarus?
    … 207.600 sq km
    It’s quite large, isn’t it?
    Yes … that of Great Britain.
    What’s its population?
    … about 10 mln people.
    Do only Belarusians live here?
    No … in good neighborhood.
    What countries does your country border on?
    … Russia to the north and east, Ukraine … and Latvia and Lithuania …
    Are these any long rivers and big lakes?
    Certainly. … are the Dnieper, Western Dvina, Neman while … is Naroch.
    I’ve heard something about Belavezhskay Puscha. What is it?
    It’s … Rare … live there. And it’s famous for its unique collection of wild
    life.
    Thank you. That was interesting and useful.

    9. Work in groups. Find out from your partners:
    About the influence of the geographical position of Belarus on its history.
    Why Belarus is sometimes called “a blue-eyed country”.
    What they know about the origin of the name “Belaya Rus”.
    What they know about the ancestors of the Belarussians.
    What influences the climate of the country.

    10. Examine the following description of our capital. List five well-known places
    you’d like to visit.
    MINSK
    More than 900 years ago, on the right bank of the river Svisloch, at the place
    where another river, the Nemiga, was flowing into it, on a low hill, there arose the
    town of Minsk. During the long history of its existence the ancient city on the river
    Svisloch was seven times plundered, destroyed and burnt. The last war destroyed
    the city to the ground. But every time, like a fantastic bird Phoenix, it was born out
    of ashes, rebuilt up and expanded again. At present Minsk is a megapolis, the
    population of which is over 1million 700 thousand people. The city is currently a
    85

    large transport center with a well developed transport infrastructure. Its
    motorways, railways and airlines connect Minsk with all the European capitals and
    the main cities of the world.
    Its arterial street – the Nezalezhnasti Avenue of more than 10 kilometers in
    length – is a unique monument of architecture and urban development in post-war
    Europe. More than 600 streets and avenues cross the city, grading it into industrial,
    administrative, and dwelling parts.
    On the right coast of the River Svisloch the Trinity suburb is settled down.
    Walking down the small paved streets you can feel yourself in ancient times,
    enjoying multi-colored houses and tiny shops and caves. A decade ago the work on
    Upper town's reconstruction started - the area of Liberty square and the adjoining
    streets: Bakunin, Gertsen, Internatsionalnaya and Muzykalny lane, where a small
    but stylistically integral area of old Minsk has survived with its lay-out and some
    architectural monuments of the XVI-XVII centuries.
    Near the Trinity suburb there is a pride of Minsk - the Big Opera and Ballet
    Theatre. All visitors coming to the capital, by all means visit this theatre which is
    glorified for the delightful ballet far outside the country.
    Such interesting and solid buildings as the Government office, Academy of
    Sciences, State University, Publishing House, Opera and Ballet Theater became the
    guidelines for creation of new buildings. That is why today there is no
    disagreement between the old and the modern. Recently there were erected The
    Palace of the Republic, the National Library, the Moscovski bus station, the
    Central railway station. They reflect the established tradition.
    Many people, visiting Minsk for the first time, say that their soul has rest
    here. It's an accurate, clean and quiet city. It's a city without bustle and vanities,
    without haste and race. It is slightly sluggish, slightly sleepy, but always fresh and
    romantic.
    11. Work in pairs. At the airport a Westerner and our countryman are talking
    about the most popular sightseeing of Belarus. Take part in this conversation
    and share your opinion with partners.
    So, you’re going to visit Belarus, right?
    That’s right. We arrive there Tuesday morning and we already have the hotel
    “Minsk” booked for Tuesday night.
    You know, Minsk itself is worth looking around – a new National Library,
    and do you recommend anywhere special to see while we’re there?
    I strongly recommend to walk through Trinity surburb, that preserved small streets
    and peaceful houses of the past times……
    That seems the best thing to do. And … where does the city’s name come from?
    Several researchers think the name comes most probably from a small river
    Menka, not existing by now, or from the crossroad of trading ways which Minsk
    was at the time.
    People say that Minsk is most beautiful at night.

    86

    Yeah… the lights bring new image of the city, making the architecture shine secret
    lines and shades that cannot be seen during the day. And how long do you think to
    stay in the capital?
    Two or three days will be probably enough.
    And from there?
    We’d like to go to Zhirovichi…. Is it a pretty place?
    It is a sacred place. The Monastery of Zhirovichi has always been the spiritual
    center of Christian Belarus. There you could touch the icon of Virgin Mary, walk
    around the Monastery.
    ……….
    ……....
    Great! Thank you very much for your help.
    You’re welcome. I hope you have a great trip!
    12. With an English friend of yours visiting our country you are looking through
    the latest literary miscellanies. Read the two verses devoted to the native
    countryside. Try to translate and interpret them to your friend. What do the poets
    feel about their country? Is it a universal human feeling to love one’s native
    place? The words in the box below will help you.
    Край мой.
    Не залаты зусiм, не срэбны,
    Быÿ на табе заÿсёды ÿбор
    Звычайны самы, самы зрэбны:
    Зялёны луг ды сiнi бор.
    Каля дарогi жыта ÿ полi,
    Вярба старая ля ракi,
    Ды ÿ жоÿтым восеньскiм прыполе
    Рабiн даспелых аганькi.
    Ты не сляпiÿ вачэй, быÿ просты
    Ва ÿсе вякi твой родны ÿзор:
    Гаёÿ бялюткая бяроста,
    Густы блакiт лясных азёр.
    I лён, зусiм як неба, сiнi,
    I ÿсе ÿ рамонках берагi…
    Мой беларускi, мой адзiны
    Край ад калыскi дарагi…
    Г. Бураÿкiн

    Радзiма
    Мне люба многае на свеце:
    дзiцячы смех i сэрца рух,
    прыроды радаснае квецце,
    cтварэнне чалавечых рук…
    Але сярод усiх каханняÿ,
    якiя поÿняць сэнс жыцця
    i сэрцу так ласкава дараць
    нягасны промень пачуцця,
    у маiх штодзённасцях i ÿ марах
    святлом надзейным маяка
    на ÿсiх шляхах жыццёвых ззяе
    Радзiма мiлая мая.
    …Аднойчы са сваiх блуканняÿ
    я да яе iзноÿ вярнусь
    i ÿ час шчаслiвага спаткання
    стамлёным сэрцам прытулюсь…
    Iна Санiна.

    Use the words and word combinations from the box:
    a native pattern, daily cares and dreams, forest lakes, one’s meaning of life,
    a green grassland, a birch grove, a land of…, a strong love of…

    13. Work in pairs. Look through the following text and render it to your
    deskmate.
    Ask him/her if this view on our country is typical.

    87

    EYEBALLING BELARUS
    Tim Bryan is a journalist working with the Guardian. He regularly travels
    worldwide to assess popular and lesser known tourist destinations, informing his
    readers of his findings. Recently he decided to pay Belarus a visit – a country
    almost undiscovered by British tourists. In his view, Belarus has some definite
    attractions. He was particularly enchanted by our forests and log cabins; deep in
    the woods, it’s easy to relax – undisturbed by anything or anybody. Escapist
    tourism is becoming quite popular among ecology-minded Westerners.
    Mr. Bryan also praises Minsk’s modern architecture. He asserts that Western
    tourists are fed up with ‘noble ruins’ since castles can be found in abundance
    throughout Europe. Rather than looking at ‘glorious has-beens’, people want to
    experience modern lifestyles. Since Minsk is a living relic of the sunken Soviet
    Atlantis, having been destroyed in WWII and rebuilt purely by Soviet canons, it’s a
    unique destination. Minsk is relatively crime free – unlike many other post-Soviet
    capitals. If British tourists can be persuaded to travel to Belarus for their holidays,
    they’ll bring in very welcome amounts of revenue.
    State system of the Republic of Belarus
    14. Study the information about the state system of the Republic of Belarus.
    Open the brackets, using English words from the box below the text instead of
    Russian ones.
    The Republic of Belarus is a unitary democratic law-governed state.
    In conformity with the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus the only
    source of the state power is the people who exercise it directly and through
    (представительный ) bodies.
    The Constitution (утвердила) the principle of division of power into
    legislative, executive and judicial powers. The supreme and representative body is
    the Parliament, the National Assembly of the Republic. The Parliament consists of
    two (палата): the Chamber of Representatives and the Council of the Republic of
    Belarus. The Chamber of Representatives is formed on the basis of universal, free
    and direct (голосование) by secret ballot. The Council of the Republic is the
    chamber of territorial representation.
    Belarus is a presidential republic. The President of the Republic of Belarus is
    the (глава) of state and of (исполнительный) power. Executive power is exercised
    by the Government (возглавляемый) by the Prime Minister.
    The (юридический) power in the Republic of Belarus belongs to courts. The
    control over the constitutionality of regulatory acts in the state is exercised by the
    Constitutional Court. (Надзор) over precise and uniform execution of laws by all
    bodies of state government is executed by the Prosecutor General of the Republic
    of Belarus.
    verb
    represent
    approve
    chamber
    ----88

    noun
    representation
    approvement
    chamber
    suffrage

    adjective
    representative
    approving
    chamber
    ------

    participle I
    represented
    approved
    -------

    head
    execute
    judge
    supervise

    head
    executer
    judge
    supervision

    heading
    executive
    judicial
    supervisory

    headed
    executed
    ---supervised

    Made in Belarus
    The Republic of Belarus is one of the most economically developed states of
    the Commonwealth of Independent States. Its major industries are machine-tool
    construction, electrotechnical equipment production, motor-car production, tractor
    building, agricultural machine building, synthetic fiber production, mineral
    fertilizers production, pharmaceutics, construction materials production, and light
    and heavy industries. Belarus has a large and sophisticated food processing
    industry and processed foods have accounted for a growing proportion of total
    domestic demand for food in recent decades. The structure of Belarus exports is
    dominated by mineral products, vehicles, mechanical and electrical equipment and
    machinery, chemical products, ferrous metals and textiles.
    15. Work in groups. Belarus has quite a few companies with very high namebrand recognition abroad. The creation of a brand demands great intellectual
    and material input and therefore it should be protected. Examine the following
    table and speak about the Belarusian products characteristic features.
    GEFEST
    Brest

    For almost 50 years now the company has been playing on the
    market of kitchen appliances. Over the years the company has
    drawn up its own strategy for success, which comprises, first of
    all, superior production quality, stylish design and effective
    marketing. The company produces gas, electric and gas-electric
    cookers and building-in kitchen appliances – total of 14 models and
    90 modifications.
    AMKODOR The current range of products includes almost 40 types of machines
    Minsk
    – road building and construction machines and airfield sweepers,
    forestry and farming machinery, etc. The company got the right to
    CE mark its 4-ton loaders which means they are sold in the EU
    market without any restrictions. Belarusian road machinery and
    utility vehicles are exported to 32 countries. One more distinctive
    feature of the plant’s relationship with customers is timely
    implementation of orders.
    RATON
    Raton focuses on making electrotechnical equipment: factoryGomel
    assembled switcher, chamber assembly of one-sided service, high
    voltage linear cells, pole-and mast-mounted transformer substations,
    controllers and many other things. Raton electrotechnical products
    exclude human related malfunctions.
    Elema
    Elema is one of the biggest producers of outer clothing. Its product
    Minsk
    range includes warm light and short coats, jackets, suits, trousers,
    89

    Orsha Flax
    Mill

    skirts, dresses. Modern materials, excellent quality and
    reasonable prices individualize our products allowing the company
    to satisfy most captious demands. The company has gained rich
    experience in working on a give and take basis.
    It is fortuitous that flowers of flax are an element of the National
    Emblem of Belarus since flax has been traditionally cultivated
    throughout the centuries in the country and has remained one of its
    most important agricultural plants. It possesses unique hygienic and
    exploitation qualities. The enterprise manufactures table and bed
    linen, fabrics for suits and shirts, decorative fabrics, ready-made
    garments, technical fabrics, bags and yarn.

    16. Work in pairs. MAZes, tractors Belarus, Horizont and Vityaz TV sets,
    Milavitsa, lingerie are among the Belarusian products recognized on the foreign
    markets far beyond the CIS countries. What characteristic features make our
    products so popular?
    17. Work in groups. Today about three million people live in the rural areasalmost one third of the population of Belarus. Social aspects give agriculture
    greater importance though its share in GDP makes only 9 per cent. For example,
    one man working in agriculture secures employment for eight people in other
    branches of economy. Moreover, village is a spring of ethnic traditions and folk
    art. To preserve and hone this source is also one of the fundamental tasks of the
    Belarusians.
    Speak about the strategy to achieve the target using the following table.
    To make a product desirable it
    All necessary living conditions
    The republic’s enterprises
    Settlements adjacent to the agro-town
    Deepening of specialization in the
    production sphere
    The agricultural production
    The economically insolvent
    organizations
    All agro-towns
    The system of farming and feedstock
    zones
    Agro-industrial institutions, trade and
    credit-financial establishments

    are
    must be
    will be

    connected to gas supply systems;
    able to get consumer services;
    keen to exploit innovative technology;
    ensured;
    located in most favorable geographicaleconomic zones;
    optimized;
    reequipped technically and technologically;
    turned around;
    continued;
    produced at the lowest possible cost, with
    the best quality possible;
    integrated.

    18. Work in pairs. The Belarusian energy branch is being rebuilt to
    accommodate the local environment and untap its potential to ensure energy
    security of our republic. Discuss the problems of our republic energy balance. To
    reach the goals use phrases in the box and the statements that follow.
    According to scientists, …; Some people believe…; On one hand…; On the other
    hand…;…because…; Besides…; But in my opinion…;
    90

    1. Some generally used indicators of energy security remain critical.
    2. The country needs to retool the majority of its energy equipment and to develop
    a system of new mini combined heat and power plants running on local fuels.
    3. Belarus seeks to reduce the share of natural gas in the energy balance from 90%
    to 47% by 2010.
    4. A nuclear power plant, provided it is built and operates in compliance with all
    safety standards, does emit thousands of tons of CO2, water vapor and attributable
    harmful substances.
    5. Phytomass is of a bigger interest as a source of energy.
    6. Therefore, while being promising energy sources, the biomass, solar and wind
    energy, municipal waste and biodiesel fuels require big investment while their
    share in the total energy balances remains insignificant.
    7. Today Belarus is intensifying consumption of natural gas both nation-wide and
    in the energy industry in particular. This strategy is justified by the fact that natural
    gas is the most economically efficient and ecologically friendly fuel.
    8. The more intense we use fire-wood, the sooner we will be left with no forests as
    such.
    9. It makes no economic sense to use hydrogen to generate energy today.
    10. Therewith of natural gas prices will outpace that of oil. Thus, in the long run
    the prices for these fuels against a ton oil equivalent will equalize.
    11. A radical solution for the Belarusian energy balance issue would be to
    construct a nuclear power plant.
    12. Scientists are putting effort into modernization of traditional fuel-fired
    installations (boilers, furnaces, dryers, etc).
    13. Another fuel to challenge the dominance of natural gas is coal which will catch
    up with the natural gas in price and heating value already by 2010.
    14. We are set to launch construction of power generating plants running on coal in
    the near future.
    15. The republic should reckon on its own finances first of all.
    19. Read the article “Education in Belarus”. Characterize the educational
    system of our republic.
    The present day Belarus is the country of a high intellectual potential. The
    rich and specific scientific school of Belarus has creatively absorbed the
    experiences of various schools and countries. In Belarus a lot of original thinkers,
    technical researchers, gifted surgeons and physicians performed their creative
    activity. Our country brought to the world`s area a lot of talented persons of
    science and culture whose names were included in encyclopedias and biographical
    reference books.
    Among the key advantages of Belarus is the excellent education system
    inherited from the Soviet times when a strong focus was consistently made on
    natural sciences and applied research. Education is free and compulsory for
    children between the ages of 6 and 15. Higher education institutions include
    universities, a variety of specialized academies and institutes for studies in
    technical art, agriculture, medicine, electronics, and other fields. Belarus is among
    91

    the few countries in the world whose specialists have been involved in construction
    of space stations, global communication systems, and nuclear development
    projects.
    According to the Human Development Report 2005 of the United Nations
    Development Programme, Belarus remains the leader among CIS states in terms of
    education and takes the lead over a number of developed countries on such
    indicators as public expenditure on education (6 % of GDP), adult literacy (99.6
    %) and youth literacy (99.8 %).
    Minsk is famous for its perfectly functioning educational system. There are
    34 universities and colleges, 28 vocational schools, 258 secondary schools and
    over 500 pre-school institutions. The most important educational establishments
    are the Belarus State University, Belarus State Polytechnic Academy, Belarus State
    Economic University, Belarus State University of Radio Electronics and Minsk
    State Linguistic University. Minsk also hosts the National Academy of Sciences of
    Belarus.
    National universities today act as both educational institutions and large
    research centers especially in the branches which rely on local feedstock and shape
    the country’s economy. Developing and upgrading material and technical basis is
    one of the most important factors promoting the quality of education. The
    universities’ R&D labs are fitted with cutting-edge equipment for research analysis
    allowing to derive information of practical and fundamental significance.
    20. Quiz “Do you know the history of motherland?”
    1. The term “Belaya Rus” was used for the
    first time?
    a) 13th century; b) 12th century; c) 14 century.
    2. The ancestors of the Belarusians lived in the
    Basins of
    a) the Dnieper and the Zapadnaya Dvina rivers
    where they grew rice and fished;
    b) the Dnieper and the Zapadnaya Dvina rivers
    where they hunted, fished and farmed;
    c) the Dnieper and the Bug rivers where they
    grew cotton and hunted.
    3. The Brama that had several functions: a
    chapel, a customs house and city guards, was
    built in
    a) Polotsk;
    b) Slutsk; c) Mir.
    4.The oldest Orthodox Church in the country is
    a) the Sophia Cathedral;
    b) Saint Savior Church, founded by venerable
    Yevfrosiniy of Polotsk;
    c) The Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul in
    Gomel.
    5. Who was born in the Trinity Suburb in
    Minsk?
    a) Yanka Kupala;
    92

    6. What lake is often called “Belarusian Sea”?
    a) Narach Lake, b) Braslave Lakes, c) the Blue
    Lakes.
    7. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
    a) helped to form a new state in the second half
    of the 13th century;
    b) annexed Belarus in the second half of the
    13th century;
    c) annexed Belarus in the second half of the
    12th century.
    8. In 1224 Neswizh was first mentioned in the
    chronicles
    a) as a small settlement;
    b) as a trade center;
    c) as a town with strong fortifications.
    9. This vivid example of gigantomania in the
    architecture was built in 1938. It was
    a) the National Academy of Sciences;
    b) the National Opera and Ballet Theatre;
    c) the Museums of Arts.
    10. The real … repsenting Vitebsk is
    a) the festival of medieval culture;
    b) the All-Belarusian festival of humor:

    b) Maksim Bagdanovish;
    c) Yakub Kolas.

    c) the annual international music festival
    “Slaviansky Bazaar”.

    21. Work in groups. Show your knowledge of Belarusians traditions. Read and
    decide which of the following characteristic features belong to each of the given
    folk feasts. Do these folk feasts have similar traits?
    Write your version of one of these feasts.
    The Ivan Kupala Night

    Kalyady

    By the way, it was at the fairs in the old days when strolling players and
    puppeteers gave their performances. Small puppet theatres called “Batleika” were
    popular in Belarus. They features stories from the Bible about Christ and his birth.
    Our forefathers gave us some essential knowledge that makes us believe that if
    a young man and a girl jump over the highest of all flames hand in hand they will
    live a long and happy life together.
    Each person within the groups of young people in the celebrations has some
    role according to his character and temperament.
    It is the when three ritual suppers (Kuttya) are prepared in every Belarusian
    home. Our forefathers believed that “Kuttya” (a sort of porridge, “kasha made
    from barely) was a symbol of immortality and the eternity of life.
    While girls play with wreaths and tell their fortune, young men start making
    fires.
    During this period, Belarusians like to visit each other, to celebrate weddings,
    to arrange fairs.
    Girls also stick some burning candles into their wreaths and make bets whose
    wreath remains on the surface longer.
    This night is always filled with miracles: you may hear the whisper of herbs and
    see mermaids, watch trees change places and witness the bright light of the
    blossoming fern flower.
    The host and the hostess usually give generous gifts to the guests to thank them
    for the well-wishing, congratulations, and the singing and playing.
    It is a sin to sleep in the shortest night of the year, as there are plenty of other
    things to do: read fortune, jump over the fire….
    Amateur actors wore the masks of Goats, Bears, Storks, Horses, Gypsies, and
    Old Men in performances.
    How did our forefathers start the day?
    One of them bears the star, the others sing songs.
    The feast of fire, water and loved filled me the certainty that life is given to all
    of us for happiness, joy and love.
    Amateur musicians play an accordion or beat a tambourine.
    The main purpose of this folk feast is to get rid of everything that is bad, ill, and
    dirty in one’s life and to begin a new life cycle, living with joy and optimism.

    93

    22. Examine the network, expand it and reproduce the topic “Belarus is my
    Homeland”.
    Anctstor

    Proclamation

    Parliament

    History

    President

    State system
    Industry
    BELARUS

    Education

    Agricultur
    Landscape

    Minsk

    Enengy resourses
    Cultural heritage

    Geography
    Famous people

    Area

    Crossroads

    Music
    Fine arts

    Literature

    II. Comment on the following quotations.
    1. Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your
    country (J. F. Kennedy). 2. A nation is a totality of men united through community
    of fate into a community of character (O. Bauer). 3. A man travels the world over
    in search of what he needs and returns home to find it (G. Moore).
    III. Writing Section.
    1. Imagine you are a journalist and you are asked to write an article about the
    heroic past of your country, starting with the ancient times.
    2. Write what you know about Belarusian people and cultural traditions.
    Comprehensive Prolonged Project
    Day 6th.
    Your English friends are on an exchange visit to Belarus. You’re
    going to guide them around Minsk. Make a plan of the forthcoming excursion. Ask
    them what places they would like to see. Run the planned excursion.

    94

    UNIT VII

    SPARE TIME
    Vocabulary

    audience
    carriage
    cast
    climbing
    coach
    collecting
    cruise
    dress-circle
    entertainment

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    публика, зрители
    /'o:dIqns/
    вагон
    /'kxrIG/
    состав исполнителей
    /ka:st/
    восхождение, лазание
    /klaImIN/
    (туристский) автобус
    /kqVtS/
    коллекционирование
    /kq'lektIN/
    морское путешествие, круиз
    /kru:z/
    бельэтаж
    /dres'sE:kl/
    1) развлечение, 2) представление
    /"entq'teInment/

    fare
    feature film
    fiction
    gambling
    going out
    hiking
    hitch-hiking
    journey
    landscape
    leisure
    lobby
    luggage
    masterpiece
    orchestra
    outing
    package tour
    playwright
    scene designer
    science-fiction
    seascape
    sightseeing
    spectator

    /feq(r)/
    /'fi:Cq(r)fIlm/
    /'fikSqn/
    /'gxmbliN/
    /'gquiN'aVt/
    /'haIkIN/
    /'hIChaIkIN/
    /'GE:ni/
    /'lxndskeIp/
    /'leZq/
    /'lPbi/
    /'lAgIG/
    /'ma:stqpi:s/
    /'o:kIstrq/
    /'autIN/
    /'pxkIGtVq(r)/
    /'pleIraIt/
    /si:ndI'zaInq/
    /'sqiqnsfikSn/
    /'si:skeIp/
    /"saIt'si:IN/
    /spek'teItq(r)/

    плата за проезд
    художественный фильм
    беллетристика
    азартная игра
    прогулка
    прогулка пешком, туризм
    езда автостопом
    путешествие, поездка
    пейзаж
    досуг
    фойе
    багаж
    шедевр
    оркестр
    1) прогулка, 2) экскурсия
    комплексное турне
    драматург
    художник, постановщик
    научная фантастика
    морской пейзаж
    осмотр достопримечательностей
    зритель
    95

    still-life
    train
    treatment
    voyage
    admire
    be crazy (about)
    be impressed
    enjoy
    feel bored
    amateur
    dull
    enjoyable
    fascinating
    favourite
    healthy
    satisfying
    useful
    useless
    valuable
    worthwhile

    натюрморт
    /'stIllaIf/
    поезд
    /treIn/
    обработка
    /'tri:tmqnt/
    путешествие (водой)
    /'vOIIG/
    Verbs and Verbal Phrases
    восхищаться
    /qd'mQIq/
    быть сильно увлеченным
    /'kreIzi/
    быть под впечатлением
    /Im'prest/
    получать удовольствие
    /In'GOI/
    скучать
    /bO:d/
    Adjectives
    любитель(-ский)
    /'xmqtq/
    унылый, печальный
    /dAl/
    приятный
    /In'GOIqbl/
    очаровательный
    /'fxsIneItIN/
    любимый, излюбленный
    /'feIvqrIt/
    здоровый
    /'helTi/
    доставляющий удовольствие
    /'sxtIsfQIN/
    полезный
    /'ju:sfl/
    бесполезный
    /'ju:slqs/
    ценный
    /'vxljuqbl/
    стоящий
    /"wE:T'wQIl/

    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the following sayings and try to comment on the problems to be
    discussed.
    1. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 2. Every man has his
    hobbyhorse. 3. Idle folk have the least leisure.
    2. Read the text, filling in the gaps with the words from the box. Name the most
    characteristic pastimes of the British, compare them with those of the
    Belarusians.
    Entertainment, popular pastime, information source, favourite activity, gardening, outings,
    \ enthusiasm, enjoyment, leisure, spend, personal taste, audience, art gallery, exhibition.

    Since ancient times man has always needed bread and entertainment and ... .
    Nowadays to be able to fill ... intelligently is the last product of civilisation. How
    people ... their free time depends on age, sex, educational background, social class
    and, of course, on their ... . It has been estimated that the average British person
    spends 75 hours every week with television, radio, newspapers and magazines. All
    96

    these sources of information and ... , together with films, video, and
    advertisements, have become a part of daily life. Watching television is a very ... in
    Britain. А typical day’s viewing includes films, plays, current affairs, light
    entertainments, sports and politics.
    Another ... is listening to music on the radio, records, cassettes and CDs.
    This has become increasingly popular in recent years. Enthusiasts of pop music
    spend millions of pounds a year on records and stereo music systems. There is, too,
    a considerable ... for classical music.
    Britain is also famous for its gardens and most people like ... . There are
    more private gardens in Britain than in any other country and they are looked after
    with love and ... . The British are keen gardeners. Almost every village and town
    holds an annual flower show in summer at which local gardens exhibit fruit,
    flowers and vegetables and compete with each other for prizes.
    On holidays, weekends or days off people often go for day “...”. Some may
    not get much further than local parks or private gardens open to the public. Others
    may visit nearby ... and museums, or perhaps special ... . Real enthusiasts go on
    outings in all weathers.
    Try to get answers to the following questions about the text:
    What is an outing? 2. When do the British usually go on outings? 3. What are
    British people’s cultural activities?
    3. Here is the list of some activities different people devote their leisure to. Look
    at the pictures and match the pictures and the activities.

    4

    5

    6

    3

    2
    1

    Drawing
    Dancing
    Taking photos
    Collecting
    Parachuting (sky diving)
    Playing instruments
    Playing cards
    Climbing
    Gambling
    Growing plants
    Doings crosswords
    Walking
    Jogging
    Swimming
    Fishing

    7
    8

    9

    97

    Express your point of view on the advantages of each activity or recreation.
    4. Tell your partner which of the mentioned in EX.3 activities you like and which
    of them you dislike. Why? Use the prompts.
    I’d love to, I’m interested in, I’d prefer, I enjoy, I am keen on, I hate, I am not fond of, I
    am bored by, I can’t stand.

    BECAUSE
    appreciate results, cope with, acquire new skills, make use of, enjoy energetic activities,
    joyful, fascinating, boring, pleasant.

    5. You’re going to read the text. Express your point of view on a variety of
    hobbies. What does the choice depend on? Replace the underlined words by the
    synonyms given in the box.
    Taste, popular, collects, opportunity, leisure, activity, fascinating, includes, amateurs,
    exciting.

    A hobby is a favourite pastime of a person. Hobbies differ like tastes. If your
    have chosen a hobby up to your liking, lucky you are: you have made your life
    more interesting. Numerous hobbies are: doing thing, making things, collecting
    things and learning things.
    The most known of all hobbies is doing things. It consists of a wide variety of
    activities, everything from gardening to travelling and from chess to volleyball.
    Gardening is one the oldest man’s hobbies, especially in some countries. Computer
    games are becoming more and more popular hobby among young people. Almost
    everyone gathers something at some period in his life: stamps, coins, matchboxes,
    books, records, etc. Making things includes drawing, making sculptures, designing
    costumes. Some hobbyists write music.
    No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has the possibility of
    learning from it. Learning things can be the most interesting aspect of a hobby.
    6. Express your points of view on:
    1. The most suitable hobbies for children. 2. The most suitable hobbies for
    young people. 3. The most suitable hobbies for aged people. 4. The most suitable
    hobbies for everybody.
    7. You want to know if your partner takes any hobbies: if ‘yes’- ask ‘why’. Make
    dialogues by analogy. Use the words in the box.
    ……..
    Yes, I’ve chosen hiking.
    ……..
    It’s difficult to answer. It seems healthy.
    Skiing, travelling, knitting, playing, computer games, gardening, interesting, useful,
    practical, entertaining, satisfying, enjoyable, healthy, embroidering.

    98

    8. Match the parts of the dialogues. Act out the dialogues.
    A
    1. Do you often go fishing?
    2. Do you usually catch much?

    B
    a) Fishing. I enjoy it very much.
    b) Well, it depends. Last Sunday, for
    instance, I caught so much that it was
    enough for all of us and our cat
    3. What is your favourite pastime, I say?
    c) Well, yes. I enjoy.
    A
    B
    1. No, I don’t mean that. What’s your a) Oh, very. Actually, I’m crazy about
    favourite pastime?
    dancing. What about going to the disco?
    2. How do you usually spend your b) Oh, a lot of things. There’s always a lot
    evenings, Susan?
    of work to do about the house, washing up,
    doing the rooms.
    3. I see, what about dancing?
    c) Again – nothing special. Sometimes I
    read a little, watch TV.
    4. Yes, I’d like to.

    Try to interview as many people as possible about what they see as their
    pleasures in life.
    II. Problem Solving
    You will read a journal entry written by Roz – a young woman from the USA
    living in the Dominican Republic. As a team you will search for answers to some
    questions about how to resolve a cross-cultural misunderstanding.
    Jogging Alone

    When I first arrived in the Dominican Republic, I began to have a problem
    with my morning jogging routine. I used to jog every day when I was at home in
    the United States, so when I arrived in the Dominican Republic, I set myself a goal
    to continue jogging two miles every morning. I really liked the peaceful feeling of
    jogging alone as the sun came up. But this did not last for long. My neighbors
    simply couldn't understand why someone would want to run alone. Soon people
    began to appear at their doorways offering me a cup of coffee; others would invite
    me to stop in for a visit. Sometimes this would happen four or five times as I tried
    to continue jogging. They even began sending their children to run behind me so I
    wouldn't be lonely. I was faced with a dilemma. I really enjoyed my early morning
    runs. However, I soon realized that it's impolite in Dominican culture not to accept
    99

    a cup of coffee, or stop and chat, when you pass people who are sitting on their
    front steps. I didn't want to give up jogging. But, at the same time, I wanted to be
    polite and to show respect for the customs of my Dominican neighbors – and not to
    be viewed as odd or strange.
    Travelling and Holidays
    I. 1. Look through the proverbs and statements and try to outline the problems to
    be discussed.
    1. Travelling opens the eyes. 2. Every story has two sides. 3. A rolling stone
    catches no moss. 4. The more haste, the less speed. 5. East or West, home is best.
    2. In the box some words are similar in meaning but different in use. See
    whether you can identify this difference and compare your answers with your
    group mates.
    A) Match the words in the box with a suitable definition (a – j)
    an expedition, a flight, a tour, a voyage, a package, a tour, an itinerary, a trip, travel,
    a cruise, a crossing
    A journey by ship for pleasure – … .
    A journey by plane - … .
    The plan of a journey - … .
    An informal word for journey. Sometimes meaning a short journey - … .
    A journey for a scientific or special purpose - … .
    A holiday which includes organized travel and accommodation - … .
    Taking journeys, as a general idea - … .
    A journey by sea - … .
    An organized journey to see the sights of a place - … .
    A journey from one side of the sea to the other - … .

    B) Use a word from A) in each sentence:
    a) The travel agent will send you … for your trip.
    b) My neighbours went on a guided … of Rome.
    c) Last time I went from England to France we had a very rough … .
    d) The first prize in the competition is a luxury Mediterranean … .
    e) When you go on a/an …, you pay one price for everything.
    f) The college organized a/an … to search for the ancient ruins.
    d) Olympic announces the arrival of … OA 269 from Athens.
    h) The Titanic sank on its first … in 1912.
    i) … is one of my main interests.
    j) Mr. Dean is away on a business … at the moment. Can I help you?
    3. You’ve got some information on the problem of travelling. Speak of the
    characteristic features to your deskmate. Replace the underlined parts by the
    synonyms given in the box.
    Travelling is popular with people of different age and lifestyle for different
    reasons. Some want to have a good rest after long months of hard work; others like
    to change a dull scene of everyday existence. There are people who travel on
    100

    business and those who travel for pleasure. Some prefer planes as the quickest
    means of transport; others go by sea, car, train, bus, coach, take walking tours or
    hikes. You should bear in mind that every method of travelling has its pros and
    cons. Some people prefer holidays with the wealth of things to do and places to
    visit. Others like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the country with nothing to do but
    walk and bathe and lie in the sun. Travel agencies offer a wide range of options to
    satisfy all tastes: package holidays, cruises, guided tours, camping, caravan, farm,
    cultural, activity holidays and what not. Choose the one that is good for you and
    that you can afford this time.
    advantages and disadvantages, boat, a lot of sightseeing, remember, peaceful, to relax,
    pleasure voyages, a refreshing change, fastest, choices

    4. In this advertisement some prepositions have been rubbed off while printing.
    Insert them instead of dots.
    EUROLINES
    PUT EUROPE IN YOUR POCKET
    YOU’LL
    BE SURPRISED AT THE CHANGE
    Eurolines, the largest operator …
    scheduled European coach services, gives
    you the freedom to explore the continent
    … fares that won’t hurt your pocket. …
    our European partners, we provide a
    network of services offering … 400
    destinations … Europe and Ireland, all …
    very competitive fares. As well as daily
    services … Amsterdam, Brussels, Lille,
    Antwerp and Rotterdam, Eurolines also
    provide frequent departures … popular
    tourist destinations … the South of
    France, Spain and Italy. … addition, the
    intriguing destinations … the Eastern Europe are easily accessible … Eurolines:
    Prague, Budapest, Bratislava, Warsaw and Krakow are all served regularly … the
    year… .
    Can you guess what information under the following items has been lost from this
    ad: Flexible Ticketing, Unaccompanied Minors, Cross Channel Services, Regular
    Refreshment Halts, Cancelling Your Ticket, Eurolines Insurance, Excellent Group
    Discounts? Discuss your ideas with the rest of your group.
    5. Work in pairs. Complete the following unfinished pieces of argumentation
    using the expressions given below. Which of the speaker sounds more
    convincing in your opinion? Whose point of view do you share?

    101

    Alec: Hello, boys! I’m so happy! My parents have made me a wonderful present
    and I’m going to Disneyland on my holidays.
    Nick: Fantastic! And you’ll go there by plane, I think.
    Alec: Sure. For me there’s nothing like travel by air, it is more comfortable, more
    convenient and of course far quicker than any other method of travelling.
    There is none of the dust or dirt of a railway or car journey. ... Besides,
    flying itself is a thrilling thing. Don’t you agree?
    Nick: I think I should say a word or two for trains. With the train you have speed,
    comfort and pleasure combined. From the comfortable corner seat of a
    railway carriage you have a splendid view of the whole country side … .
    Besides, do you know a more exciting place than a big railway station?
    Ann: I do.
    Alec: And that is?
    Ann: A big sea port. For me there’s no travel so fine as by boat. ...... And when you
    come to a harbour you see cargo-ships, sailing-ships, rowing-boats round
    you. All this is so thrilling!
    Alec: But I suppose that’s all right for those who like it, but not for me as I am
    always seasick when the sea is a little bit rough.
    Robert: Well, if we speak about methods of travelling we mustn’t forget about
    walking tours. … and besides you are saving your railway fare travelling on
    foot. So I say: “A walking tour for me!”
    to feel the deck under one’s feet; to have a meal in the dining-car; the quietness and calm of
    nature; to go in search of beauty; to leave the dull road highway; to have much more
    advantages in comparison with; to feel the fresh wind blowing in the face ; to see a real
    country; to have a wonderful bed in a sleeper; to change from … to … .

    6. Now look through the following text, study the information and render it to
    your friend. Put the linking words on the right in the correct place. They are
    given in the right order. Do you find this method of travelling attractive?
    The advantages and disadvantages of travelling by TRAIN.
    1 Travelling by train has many advantages. There are no stressful
    traffic jams, and trains are fast and comfortable. You can use the time
    in different ways. You can just sit and read, or watch the world go by.
    You can have a meal or a snack in the buffet car.
    2 Travelling by train also has some disadvantages. It is expensive and
    the trains are sometimes crowded and delayed. You have to travel at
    certain times and trains cannot take you from door to door You need a
    bus or a taxi to take you to the railway station.
    3 I prefer travelling by train to travelling by car. I feel more relaxed
    when I reach my destination.

    first of all,
    also,
    for example,
    however,
    for one thing,
    what is more,
    for example
    despite the
    disadvantages,
    because

    7. Make notes about the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by different
    means of transport. Then write a text similar to the one above, giving your own
    opinion.

    102

    Types of transport
    Road, train, sea, air

    advantages

    disadvantages

    8. In these two dialogues find the following information:
    1. Where does Ann live? 2. Where does she want to travel? 3. How long is she
    going to stay there?
    Complete the first dialogue.
    Catching a train
    A
    B
    A
    B
    A
    B
    A

    Good morning. (a)……. the times of trains (b) …….. Newcastle, please?
    Afternoon, evening? When (c) …… ?
    About five o’clock this afternoon.
    About (d) …… . Right. Let’s have a look. There’s a train that (e)…… 4.45, and
    there’s (f) …… at 5.25.
    And (g) …… get in?
    Back at King’s Cross at 7.15 and (h) …….
    Thanks a lot.

    Ann goes to the ticket office. Put the lines of the conversation in the correct order.
    A
    Hello. I’d like a ticket to Newcastle, please.
    A
    I want to come back this evening, so a day return.
    C
    How do you want to pay?
    A
    Return, please.
    C
    Here’s your change and your ticket.
    C
    Single or return?
    A
    Twenty, forty, sixty pounds.
    C
    Day return or period return?
    A
    Cash, please.
    C
    Forty-eight pounds fifty, please.
    A
    Thank you.

    Try to remember the conversations. In pairs, practise saying them.
    103

    9. Work in pairs. Continue the dialogue
    between a travel counsellor and a
    customer at the tour agency according to
    the logical scheme. When you are ready,
    join up with another pair and compare
    your variants.
    -Welcome, sir! Can I be helpful in any
    way?
    -I’d like to go on a tour to … (Great
    Britain, Italy, Egypt etc.) …
    Scheme:
    asking for information-offering something
    regretting and declining an offer of
    something- asking about preferences
    saying what you prefer-advising someone
    saying you are curious
    Formulas:
    Asking for information
    Could you tell me …
    (please)?
    Will you kindly tell me …,
    (please)? Can you help me?
    Do you happen to know …?
    Declining an offer of smth
    Not for me, thanks
    I won’t, thanks
    Not this time, thanks
    I’m not sure I can
    That’s very kind, but I won’t…

    Offering smth
    Would you like…?
    Could (can) I offer you …?
    What would you say to…?
    Won’t you have…?

    Regretting
    It’s a (great) pity …
    I regret …
    I’m sorry but …

    Asking about preferences
    Do you prefer … or …?
    Would you rather … or…?
    Which would you prefer … or…?
    Which seems better to you?
    Do you find … or …more
    enjoyably?

    Advising someone
    I wouldn’t recommend
    (advise) …
    You’d better not …
    I think you should …
    Why don’t you …
    I’d … if I were you, …

    10. Continue each piece by adding a few sentences in full accordance with the
    speakers’ viewpoints.
    Andrew: The best way to spend holidays is travelling. I believe holidays should
    be a change of scene. If you live in a noisy city surrounding you’d prefer quiet and
    peaceful holidays in the country, by the sea, in the hills. On the other hand if you
    are a country-dweller…
    Boris: Many people prefer package holidays .With it you’ll have some of the
    usual holiday problems settled long before your holidays start. A travel company
    will organize it for you beforehand. It will book ticket for the flight, make
    reservations of the hotel, hire a bus or a car to take you to the airport and back.
    Breakfasts will also be included. And they will offer you a package of sightseeings.
    All you have to do is…
    Alice: There are serious grounds to believe that the history books will describe
    the present period of human civilization as the time when people forgot how to use
    their legs. Men and women moved about in cars, buses and trains. There were lifts
    104

    and escalators in all buildings to prevent people from walking. And the most
    surprising thing is that they didn’t use their legs even when they went on
    holidays…
    Irene: Travelling is adventure, and adventure is necessary for all of us. It keeps
    us from growing stale and old, it gives us the movement and change which are
    necessary to our life. One of the aims of travel is to go in search of beauty. Yet
    even more valuable to the traveller is the knowledge which he gets of his fellow
    men by going among people of different characters and ways of life.The proverb
    says: “So many countries, so many customs”. And then there’s for the traveller the
    great joy of coming home again…
    11. Share your ideas on the following problems with the rest of the class. Try to
    be as persuasive as possible.
    A. The only way to travel is on foot. B. A camping holiday is only for the young.
    C. Tourism ruins everything that it touches. D. Every kind of travelling is good in
    its own way. E. Modern means of communication make the world a small place.
    II. Writing Section
    Write a short article on the topic: “The Journey of My Dreams”. What is your
    idea of a wonderful summer or winter holiday? What are its ingredients?
    The Arts
    I. 1. Look through the quotations and try to outline the problems to be discussed.
    1. “All Art is but imitation of nature” (Seneca). 2. “A picture is a poem without
    words” (Horatio). 3. “Reading makes a full man, conference a ready man, writing
    an exact man” (Bacon). 4. “Music is the universal language of mankind”
    (Longfellow).
    People spend their leisure time in a variety of ways. The Arts provide outlets for
    hobbyists with special interest in such performing art forms as theatre, dance,
    cinema, ballet, opera and concerts.
    2. Some people are speaking about their visit to a theatre performance. Look up
    and say which theatre they’ve visited. Why do you think so ? Which theatres
    have you ever visited?
    The Puppet Theatre The Musical Comedy Theatre The Opera House
    The Art Theatre
    The Drama Theatre
    The Philharmonic Society

    Robert Miller: “Even in these days of sophisticated film animation and special
    effects, these theatres still have a special place in many cultures and no doubt
    people will be able to see the traditional characters for many more years. Although
    some of us think of these objects as children’s entertainment, they were – and often
    still are – used to tell serious stories to adult audiences.”
    Mike Smith: “the way they see the dance is based on the classical understanding of
    plasticity mixed with gymnastics, acrobatics, folk choreography, drama
    pantomime….”
    105

    John Norman: “There isn’t a single spare seat in the house and elegant music
    lovers are packed in the hall, listening attentively. As for the Evgeny Kissin piano
    recital, whatever one’s assessment of his sensitivity in Schumann or Beethoven, his
    technique and physical strength at the keyboard are beyond question. ”
    Olga Gromova: “The performance is almost too perfect – resembling a polished
    masterpiece rather than a slice of real life.”
    Martha Herbert: “It was a spectacular hit, a warm wonderful and welcoming show,
    full of great songs. I gasped, laughed and cried.”
    3. These words have been left out of Nick’s theatre visiting story below. Say
    where they go and retell Nick’s impressions to your groupmates.
    actors

    seats audience

    performance reviews sets

    lobby

    cast

    programme stage

    To tell the truth, I had a special liking for the Yanka Kupala Academic
    Theatre. As far as I know it is one of the oldest theatres in your republic. Yesterday
    my friends invited me to see an ambiguous... of Simon-Musician. Leaving our
    coats in the cloakroom, we passed on to the… We bought a… and occupied our…
    The theatre was full. There was hardly any vacant seat. It was grand, magnificent
    and a landmark. The …were realistic and costumes were wonderful. It was a
    good… acting with an absolutely fascinating charm and power. Within seconds,
    the… managed to create a field of energy around lifeless Symon – played by
    Alexander Molchanov. We enjoyed the play greatly. The… kept the actors on
    the… for a long time after the performance. The main actors were presented with
    flowers. The way Nicolay Pinigin had organized the performance was excellent
    and it got rave… in the papers.
    4. Let’s phone to the book-office and try to reserve tickets. The table given above
    will help you.
    Talking About Performances
    Svetlov is a great theatre-goer. So once after the talks he asked Mr. Dunn:
    Svetlov: What is on at London theatres now?
    Dunn: ____1_____. The Covent Garden Theatre is famous for opera and ballet
    performances with the best English singers, ballerinas and ballet-dancers.
    The National Theatre shows the best in the world drama. Some theatres put
    on modern plays and at others you can sometimes enjoy good musicals,
    folk songs concerts or concerts of “pop” music.
    Svetlov: Mr. Dunn. I’ve heard very much about the Royal Shakespeare Theatre.
    It’s in Stratford-on-Avon, isn’t it?
    Dunn:
    Right. But in 1960 the Royal Shakespeare Company also began to
    perform at the Aldwych Theatre in London where they put on both
    classical and new plays.
    Svetlov: Have you seen any performances on the stage of the Stratford Theatre?
    Dunn: Oh yes. As a matter of fact my wife and I were there a couple of months
    ago and saw “Othello”.
    Svetlov: What did you think of it?
    106

    Dunn: It was an excellent performance. The cast was very good, except for the
    actress who played the part of Desdemona. ____2_____.
    Svetlov: What was wrong with her performance?
    Dunn: Well, ____3____. During the interval everyone was saying that.
    Svetlov: How about the actor who played the part of Othello?
    Dunn: Oh, his performance was very convincing and dramatic. There were seven
    or eight curtain calls for him, when the performance was over.
    Svetlov: There was a full house, I believe.
    Dunn: Yes, indeed! ___4____. Anyway, Mr.Svetlov, I recommend you to go and
    see some play at the Aldwych Theatre. ___5____.
    Svetlov: This sounds a good idea.
    1. a) It is an extremely popular theatre. b) This play
    always has a full house. c) The house was rather
    thin.
    2. a) She was rather ordinary.
    b) There was so much emotion in her acting that
    many cried. c) Her sun is set.
    3. a)There is a bit of everything.
    b) Let’s go over to the billboard and see what’s on.
    c) The theatres started the new seasons.

    4. a) You’ll enjoy it. b) It is worth
    seeing. c) The play turned out a
    frost.
    5. a) There was no feeling in it.
    b) She seemed to be talking in her
    sleep. c) Her play was so natural.

    What’s on at the Cinema Today?
    5. What types of movies does the customer like (dislike)? Restore the dialogue
    and you‘ll find the answers.
    Clerk: Let’s see … We have The Secret
    Agent Returns. That’s pretty exciting.
    Customer: Hmm. Maybe a comedy.
    Clerk: Hi. Can I help you?
    Customer: Yeah, but I’ve seen it already.
    Maybe an action movie. Do you have any
    new movies?
    Clerk: Well, Three Clowns is very funny.
    Clerk: Do you know what type of movie you
    want to see? Comedy? Drama? Science
    fiction?
    Customer: Well, I want to rent a video, but I
    don’t know what to watch.

    Customer: Um … What’s that one from
    France that won the award at the film
    festival?
    Clerk: Not really, it’s more of a spy thriller.
    The acting is great, and the plot is very
    clever. I liked it a lot.
    Customer: Is it violent? I don’t like violent
    movies.
    Clerk: We have a few … Anything in
    particular you’re interested in?
    Customer: I don’t know … Well, how about
    foreign films?
    Clerk: Oh, you mean C’est la Vie?
    Clerk: OK. Let me just make sure that …
    Customer: That’s the one! I’ll rent that.

    6. Use these questions to have a conversation with your partner.
    What is your favorite type of movie? Why?
    What’s the worst movie you have seen? Why didn’t you like it?
    Who is your favorite actress (actor)? Why?
    What is the last movie you watched? Did you like it?
    What movie that is currently playing do you want to see? Why?
    107

    7. Work in pairs You’ve managed to see a theatre performance and a new film at
    the cinema with your friends. Share your impressions using:
    Definitely. That’s exactly my own view. I’m not at all, in fact. That’s not the way I see
    the play. You can’t be serious!

    Do you think the play is more laughable than sad?
    I was deeply impressed by the play.
    The main characters were superb.
    They have given the piece a realistic treatment.
    The cast leaves much to be desired.
    It’s a rather poor production.
    I like the open-air scenes with their breath-taking beauty.
    The film is dull in spots.
    It is a masterpiece of French cinema art.
    8. Find and read aloud those parts of the texts which express the viewpoints
    given below.
    A: “In some respects the motion picture is the American art par excellence. For a
    long time Hollywood produces new films with an unbelievable speed. The slogan
    “The Art for art’s sake” is placed by a steady stream of the high quality movie hits.
    Different countries are pervaded with all sort of American-made thrillers,
    westerners, spy-films, horror-films, … the like which have a pernicious influence
    on young people. In the middle of the 20th century some critics argued that the
    American film, precisely because its need to please a mass audience had helped it
    break out of the limiting gentility of the European cinema, had a vitality and a set
    of masters without equal in the world.”
    B: “The British film industry is widely acknowledged to have undergone a revival.
    British films, actors, creative and technical film services have been achieving
    notable successes at international film festivals. The important thing about the
    British film industry is that the industry is promoted by the British film Institute.
    The Institute offers direct financial and technical help to new and experienced
    film-makers who cannot find support elsewhere, insists on having artistic control
    of pictures. In other words, it controls the script, the cast, the shooting and the
    completion of the picture.”
    The film-makers are extremely commercial-minded and regard the properties they
    have as commercial properties.
    Commercial art impede the young talented film writers, actors and producers in
    their effort to produce really good films.
    The British films will be in the international prize-winning category.
    In Britain the local authorities have powers to license cinemas and censor films.
    The American film industry has a motto “The Art for art’s sake”
    9. Work in groups. Arrange your own material about the latest films you think to
    be popular. Make a presentation of the films you have chosen.
    108

    10. Gather material for your article A Theatrical Minsk. Present your material to
    the group.
    11. Find the following information in the text. In some cases you have to write
    more than one number.
    Which of the museums:
    A spans the widest historical period?
    B is an outstanding monument of Russian
    architecture?
    C excites and provokes by its architecture?
    D exhibits coins and medals, ceremonial
    arms and armor?
    E keeps dynastic collections?

    F has 350 exhibition rooms?
    G is known as a “temple of spirit”?
    H concentrates the radical new forms of art?
    I was named in 18th century?
    J received Voltaire’s library?

    1. The Hermitage is a world-famous museum of art and cultural history.
    Within in its walls are close to three million objects. Among them are quite a few
    true masterpieces of art and unique artifacts from many countries and peoples of
    the world, ranging from deepest antiquity to the present day. The Hermitage is also
    a unique architectural complex, an outstanding monument of Russian architecture
    of the 18th and 19th centuries.
    The museum’s activity is in direct contradiction to the literal meaning of its
    name. “Hermitage” comes from the French eremite, which means “empty lot,”
    “hidden corner”. This was the name given in eighteenth-century France to small
    pavilions on palace grounds.
    Along with paintings, the Hermitage received collections of engravings and
    drawings, antique artifacts, Western European sculptures, works of applied art,
    arms, coins, medals, and books (including Voltaire’s library). The museum’s
    exhibits (there are more than 350 exhibition rooms) are at present located in five
    buildings, connected by passages: the Winter Palace, the three hermitages (Small,
    Old, and New), and the Hermitage Theatre, in the foyer of which there are now
    regular exhibitions.
    2. The Kunsthistorisches Museum traces its origins to the art collections
    assembled over centuries by the Habsburg dynasty. Holdings inherited from the
    Medieval rulers were augmented in the 16th century by emperors Maximilian I,
    Ferdinand I, Maximilian II and, in particular, Rudolf II, who was the most
    prominent collector of the early Modern period. These monarchs enriched the
    imperial collections with objects of outstanding artistic importance. The individual
    dynastic collections of the 16th century were kept in imperial residences in Vienna,
    Prague, Graz, and Ambras near Innsbruck. The diverse collections of paintings
    were combined to form the Kunsthistorisches Museum Picture Gallery, which
    comprises works from the 15th through the 18th centuries. Coins and medals from
    antiquity to the most recent times can be found in the Coin Cabinet. Ceremonial
    arms and armor from the 15th through the 17th centuries were amassed in the
    Collection of Arms and Armor. The development of modern conceptions of
    academic disciplines and research led to the “Universal Kunstkammer” splitting
    into the Collection of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Egyptian and Near
    109

    Eastern Collection, leaving the Kunstkammer with a core of works of decorative
    arts and sculpture. The Collection of Ancient Musical Instruments was assembled
    from the holdings of the Kunstkammer and the Este Collection.
    After Connecting Museums, 2002

    12. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions: These words and phrases are sure to
    help you to express your idea.
    - What are the important museums or galleries in your city (or a city you know
    well)?
    - What makes them attractive to tourists? Which would you recommend, and why?
    Manuscripts that were written centuries ago; collections of portraits painted by world known
    artists;
    Belarusian decorations of the time of –; mosaic works; objects in ivory bone; objects in glass and
    pottery; national embroidery of the Belarusian peasantry; clay pots decorated with ornaments;
    stone images of ancient gods; fur, felt and cloth garments, headwear and footwear of the 16
    century.

    13. Match the following genres of painting with their definitions:
    1 a landscape
    2 a portrait
    3 a still life
    4 a fresco
    5 a seascape

    a) a painting of such unanimated subjects as fruit, flowers and other
    decorative things;
    b) a picture on a wall or ceiling where a plaster is still wet or damp;
    c) a picture or representation of the person, especially of a face generally
    drawn from life;
    d) a painting of the sea
    e) a picture representing a tract of country with the various objects it
    contains.

    14. Have you ever seen the world-famous paintings given below? Will you
    describe them?
    “The Last Day of Pompeii” (Bryullov); “The Bogatyrs” (Vasnetsov); “Tenth
    Wave” (Aivasovski); “Demon” (Vrubel); “Golden Autumn” (Levitan)
    For ideas:
    dark clouds, a flash of lightning, truly remarkable, to look very impressive, strength of the heroes, a
    sinister atmosphere, to portray, to be in panic, red flames, range of colours, radiate, to cover the
    sky, to illuminate the scene, emotional storm, to be reflected, despair, sharp psychological
    expressiveness, airiness and lightness, poetic in tone and atmosphere.

    The Sounds of Music
    15. Music can be described in different terms. Put each word into one of these
    categories:
    Musical genres Musical
    (styles):
    rhythms:

    Musical
    instruments

    Music making

    Musical
    equipment

    Polka, to compose, violin, classical music (instrumental, vocal, chamber, symphony), guitar,
    to arrange, amplifier, to improvise, jazz, flute, electronic music, player, to write authentically music,
    blues, rock, equalizer, to make music, background music, cello, tuner, folk, French horn, (loud)
    110

    speaker, pop, to accompany, deck, opera, saxophone, ragtime.

    16. A look through the descriptions of things you can do with music and try to
    guess the meaning of the words in bold type.
    She plays the piano very well, but she doesn’t read music. She’s got a
    good ear. She can pick out any tune on the piano. She doesn’t have to practice
    much at all. She’s a natural. She can play by ear.
    He’s very musical. He wrote an arrangement of (arranged) a Bach
    symphony for the band. You can play a tune on an instrument or you can whistle
    or hum. You can make music in lots of ways. I’ve some new chords on the guitar
    I have to practice my scales, but it’s boring.
    B. Fill in the words in bold type from the text above in the description of
    1. Vanessa started ____ the violin since her very first months, and by the age
    of 3 she could ____ music. She liked ____ her scales.
    2. At seven, never having had a violin lesson, Mozart could ____ any tune
    on the violin. He ____ the first of his symphonies in 1765.
    17. Look at the photos (pictures) and speak about your impressions on visiting a
    theatre (cinema, concert, exhibition). What role does music (theatre, cinema)
    play in your life? For ideas:
    Educates my feelings, help appreciate the beauty, enrich our knowledge, develops my artistic
    taste, widen our outlook, to give anything new, to see the beauty around us, to have a pernicious
    influence, to be an intellectual exercise, to be an emotional experience, to understand human
    souls, cultivates some ideas, entertain, to inspire

    111

    18. Prepare your own questionnaire to interview a pop star. Run your interview
    and get ready to make a report summing up the answers.
    19. Reading: pleasure or work. Go through the interview that follows. Analyze
    it and give comments on what is reading for them and how they feel about the
    world of literature.
    Sheila M: “I like to be constantly in touch with the news. That’s why I prefer
    reading different types of newspapers. The popular papers are less in size, with
    many pictures, big headlines and short articles. The quality papers provide me
    with more serious articles and more detailed information.”
    Mark S: “As for me I like reading novels, adventure stories and other books for
    fun. Recreational reading helps me understand people, takes on journeys to
    unknown parts of the world.”
    Frank T: “As soon as I’ve been reading a book for a bit, I fall asleep. I always
    start off with the best intentions, but after a few pages my eye lids come down and
    I’m snoozing.
    Nick P: “I take a great interest in reading scientific magazines. I try not to miss
    my chance to buy a special limited edition of Engineering Tomorrow. It is printed
    monthly. It gives me factual material about microelectronics, computing and
    electrical engineering.
    20. Speak about your reading habits. These words are sure to help you.
    to form a reading habit early in life; to motivate and encourage reading; to read silently to
    oneself; to read quickly but accurately; to read slowly; to read effortlessly; to read curled
    up in a chair; to read deep into the night; to read oneself to sleep; to read for pleasure/for
    an examination; to be glued to a book for hours; to be/get lost in a book; to choose books
    according to subject/the author's name; to browse through newspapers and periodicals; to scan
    / skim a magazine / article; to dip into/glance, over/pore over /thumb through a book;
    fiction, science fiction, non-fiction, biography, fantasy, instruction booklet, poetry

    21. When we go to the library, we know definitely what we hope to find. We may
    be looking for special information for a scientific report, or we may want a story
    for our own entertainment or for starting a hobby. Read about a new public
    library. Why can it be a pleasant pastime to go to the library?
    The grandest project of the country is a new
    National Library.
    The model is unusual. It reminds a shaped
    diamond, symbolizing the value of the building.
    The first levels look like the support for the stone.
    They host reading halls, exhibitions, conference
    rooms with simultaneous translation equipment,
    stores and cafes.
    The internal design presupposes that any book
    will be delivered through 20 floors and 60 meters
    diameter levels of shelves within 30 minutes.
    The core of the building is the elevator going through all the floors. Another
    112

    elevator, so-called the Panoramic elevator, is placed outside the building, so that
    visitors could appreciate the view from the top 25th floor of the library (72 meters).
    Right at the entrance there is the sculpture of Francisc Skoryna, Belarusian and
    Eastern European publisher. The Western wall will be decorated by an alley that
    will celebrate great cultural leaders of the past, as well as the scientist, politicians
    etc. There is also a plan to found the park of sculptures.
    22. Answer the following questions:
    1. What do generally students go to the library for? 2. Have you ever taken any
    information from the library for a specific purpose? 3. When did you last go to the
    library? 4. What kind of information did you get there?
    23. Examine the network and reproduce the topic “Spare Time” supplying the
    necessary factual and imaginative details so as to present some ideas to your
    group mates.

    Architecture

    Theatre

    Sculpture

    Cinema
    Performing Arts
    Fine Arts

    Painting

    The Arts

    Reading

    Spare Time
    Literature
    Travelling

    Hobbies

    Ways of …
    Places to go

    II. Write an account of a visit to an exhibition, museum, concert or show.
    Explain what you enjoyed about it and why you would recommend it to other
    people.
    III. Have debates between the lovers of classical music and the fans of light
    music, including jazz and blues. The champions of classic say that it is the music
    of high emotions. Their opponents say it is the light music that brings the
    feelings of satisfaction.
    IV. Project Work
    Your group is going to set up a leisure centre where people will enjoy different
    activities.
    Follow the given stages to reach the goal.
    1. Think about the final form of the centre. What activities will be included
    into plan of your centre?
    2. Prepare a questionnaire about leisure activities your group mates prefer.
    113

    3. Run surveys, interviews and students’ activities preferences.
    4. Decide how to organize the preferences for effective presentation.
    5. Present the outcome of your project work as a culmination activity. The
    manner of the presentation will depend on the final form of the product. You may
    use pictures, diagrams, photographs, posters, video or audio recordings.
    Comprehensive Prolonged Project
    Day 7th

    Today is your day off.

    All the students are divided into groups. Your group is offered to visit a firstnight performance and to attend The Wallace Collection and the museum of
    Madame Tusseaut of wax figures, representing famous personalities of politics,
    science and arts. Share your impressions on both visits with other participants of
    the Conference.

    114

    UNIT VIII

    MASS MEDIA
    Vocabulary

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    benefit
    выгода, польза; прибыль, преимущество
    /'benIfIt/
    bias
    пристрастие; необъективность, предвзятость
    /'baIqs/
    disadvantage /"dIsqd'va:ntIdZ/ недостаток, затруднение
    impact
    сильное воздействие, влияние
    /'Impxkt/
    issue
    проблема, спорный вопрос
    /'ISu:/
    source
    источник
    /sO:s/
    viewpoint
    точка зрения
    /'vju:pOInt/
    violence
    насилие
    /'vaIqlqns/
    Verbs and Verbal Phrases
    advertise
    рекламировать
    /'xdvqtaIz/
    concern
    касаться, относиться; затрагивать
    /kqn'sE:n/
    cover
    освещать (события и т.п.) в печати, на
    /'kAvq(r)/
    телевидении, по радио
    distribute v
    /dI'strIbju:t/ распространять
    do harm
    /du:ha:m/
    наносить, причинять вред
    encourage
    ободрять, поощрять, поддерживать в чем-либо
    /In'kArIG/
    enrich
    обогащать
    /In'rIC/
    entertain
    /"entq'teIn/ развлекать
    excite
    побуждать, вызывать (какие-либо чувства),
    /Ik'saIt/
    пробуждать (интерес и т.п.)
    raise v
    поднимать, повышать; побуждать
    /reIz/
    subscribe
    /sqb'skraIb/ подписывать(ся) (на газеты, журналы и т.п.)
    subvert
    низвергать, низлагать, ниспровергать, разрушать
    /sqb'vE:t/
    Adjectives
    accurate
    точный, верный, правильный
    /'xkjqrqt/
    current
    текущий, данный, современный
    /'kArqnt/
    harmful
    /'ha:mfl/
    вредный
    reasonable
    разумный, благоразумный, рациональный,
    'ri:znqbl/
    здравый
    reliable a
    надежный
    /rI'laIqbl/
    topical
    актуальный, животрепещущий, жизненный
    /'tPpIkl/
    vital
    (жизненно)важный, насущный, существенный,
    /'vaItl/
    необходимый
    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the following proverbs, statements and quotations to outline the
    problems to be discussed.
    1. Television is a window on the world. 2. One picture is worth a thousand
    words. 3. The press is a mirror of current events.4. “Explain, simplify, clarify”
    115

    (Alfred Harmsworth, publisher, press baron).
    2. Work in pairs. You’ve got some information about mass media. Tell your
    partner about the role of mass media. Replace the words in bald with the words
    similar in meaning given in the box.
    Mass media play a very important role in reflecting the life of society and
    building opinions. There are different kinds of mass media: press, television, radio,
    posters, advertisements, etc. All of them do much to excite an interest in every
    aspect of the country's life. They draw the public's attention to the most serious
    political, economic, social and ecological problems. They help to develop a
    broader understanding of the present-day world around us, to form our outlook.
    So as mass media actually raise the most vital problems, the effectiveness of their
    influence on the people is great. They keep people informed on all topical issues
    of the day.
    Comprehension, current, in fact, commercial, significant, arouse, essential, pay attention to,
    viewpoints, impact, problems

    3. Match the definitions below with the words in the list.
    1
    2
    3
    4

    celebrity
    circulation
    commercial
    coverage

    a
    b
    c
    d

    5

    current

    e

    6
    7
    8
    9
    10

    documentary
    editor
    editorial
    event
    headline

    f
    g
    h
    i
    j

    11
    12
    13
    14

    opinion
    periodical
    reflect
    review

    k
    l
    m
    n

    15
    16

    soap
    subscribe

    o
    p

    view held as probable
    belonging to the present time; of the present day
    to pay regularly in order to receive a magazine, newspaper, etc.
    a part of a newspaper (supposed to be written by the editor) giving an
    opinion on some question of day (rather than news)
    periodical publication with articles on current events, new books, art,
    etc.
    to express; give an idea of
    the way in which a particular piece of news or event is reported
    an advertisement on television or radio
    the title of a newspaper report printed in large letters
    a continuing story about a group of people that is regularly on
    television
    the number of copies a newspaper sells each day
    a film that gives facts and information about a subject
    a well-known person on television, film or in the press
    a magazine about one topic, that appears once a month, three times a
    year, etc.
    the person who decides what goes in a newspaper or magazine
    thing that happens (usu. important)

    4. Explain to your partner why the press is called a mirror of current events
    choosing the correct word.
    The press is often called a mirror of current/currency events. It includes
    newspapers and magazines. Public life, rich/reach in interesting and important
    events, receives full cover /coverage on the pages of our newspapers. The
    educational role of the press is extremely great. If you are a regular reader of the
    press, you'll be good/well-informed in all questions. There are magazines and
    newspapers for almost every trade, profession, sport, hobby or interest. The editors
    116

    /editorial usually deals with the topical issue of the day: important international
    and domestic news items. Different newspaper columns publish material on many
    different subjects including brief reviews of current events, critical comments on
    social life, interviews given by famous people. Some newspapers and magazines
    carry/bring supplements, which are very helpless/helpful for readers. In our
    country there are dailies, weeklies, monthlies. Many big cities have evening papers
    which give the last/latest news. People can subscribe to as many papers as they
    like. As for me, I subscribe to “Computer News”. It’s a weekly for specialists and
    entrepreneurs/enterprising. In Britain such newspapers are called quality
    newspapers,
    because
    they
    are
    serious
    and
    cover
    news
    thoughtlessness/thoughtfully. In “Computer News” you can find all the necessary
    information on computer world: new discoveries and inventions, network,
    software, hardware, interested/interesting and entertaining facts, advertisements.
    The paper has a supplement, which contains information about the computer
    market: prices, sellers, types of computers and peripherals on sale/sail.
    5. Study the text and say which of these viewpoints it expresses.
    1. A. Quality newspapers tend to make news sensational, avoid serious political and social
    problems or treat them superficially.
    B. Quality newspapers give a full and thorough coverage of national and international events,
    business, sport and other news.
    C. Much of the information presented by quality newspapers concerns the private life of people
    who are in the news.
    2. A. Popular newspapers publish factual news reports and provide political opinions.
    B. Popular papers keep the ruling circles of the country more or less accurately informed of the
    state of affaires in the economic and political spheres.
    C. Popular papers concern themselves with the reports written in an easy to read and exciting
    way, playing on people’s emotions.
    3. A. In Great Britain newspapers are politically independent.
    B. In Great Britain newspapers having considerable freedom of expression are generally inclined
    to be sympathetic to the government or some political parties.
    C. All British newspapers reflect and defend the interests of the Establishment.
    4. A. National papers report mostly local news and are supported by local advertisements.
    B. Sunday national papers give a wider coverage of news than dailies.
    C. The daily papers have Sunday editions which contain brief commentaries of the most
    important events of the week.

    Press in Britain
    Probably in no other country are there such great differences between the
    various national daily newspapers – in the type of news they report and the way
    they report it.
    On the one hand, there are the quality newspapers: The Times, The
    Independent, The Guardian, The Financial Times and The Daily Telegraph.
    Quality newspapers are serious national daily newspapers, appealing mainly to the
    upper and middle classes. They concern themselves mainly with factual reports of
    117

    major national and international events, with the world of politics and business and
    with arts and sport. The Daily Telegraph, for example, contains reports on national
    and international news, gives a full coverage of sports and other topics. The
    Financial Times is read mainly by professional and business people as it contains
    coverage of industry, commerce and public affairs. The Guardian gives a wide
    coverage of news events and reports on social issues, the arts, education, etc. The
    Times is the most famous newspaper. It is not actually the oldest newspaper in
    Britain, but some years ago it celebrated its two hundredth birthday. The Times
    represents the views of the establishment and is well-known for its correspondence
    column.
    On the other hand, there are the populars and tabloids, so-called because of
    their smaller size. The tabloids – the most widely read of which are The Daily
    Mail, The Daily Express, The Daily Mirror, The Sun and The Daily Star –
    concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often featuring sex, violence, the
    Royal family, film and pop stars, and sport. The popular press aims to entertain its
    readers rather than inform them.
    In some countries, newspapers are owned by government or by political
    parties. This is not the case in Britain. Newspapers here are mostly owned by
    individuals or by publishing companies, and the editors of the papers are usually
    allowed considerate freedom of expression. This is not to say that newspapers are
    without political bias. Papers like The Daily Telegraph, The Daily Express and The
    Sun, for example, usually reflect conservative opinions in their comment and
    reporting, while The Daily Mirror and The Guardian have a more left-wing bias.
    In addition to the 12 national daily newspapers there are eleven national
    papers which are published on Sundays. Most of the “Sundays” contain more
    reading matter than daily papers, and several of them also include colour
    supplements – separate colour magazines which contain photographicallyillustrated feature articles. Reading a Sunday paper, like having a big Sunday
    lunch, is an important tradition in many British households. Besides, nearly every
    area in Britain has one or more local newspapers. They give national but mostly
    local news. These are often evening newspapers, which people can buy in the
    afternoon or in the early evening on their way home from work.
    There are magazines for all kinds of groups of people and for every type of
    hobby you can imagine, yet the British have nothing quite like many “news
    magazines”, serious and popular, that are, for example, on the German market.
    Information and articles of the type you would find in these “news magazines”
    appear in Britain in the national daily and Sunday newspapers.
    The British are one of the biggest newspaper-reading nations in the world.
    6. Look at the table and make up two sentences showing the difference between
    the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW).
    The Internet
    "Cross-media"
    118

    has also allowed
    is likely

    – often difficult to determine the authenticity and
    reliability of information contained in web pages;
    – a collection of interconnected documents, linked

    A vast amount of
    information

    is
    means

    The invention of the Internet
    has been made
    The World Wide Web
    The rapid growth of Internet
    It

    by hyper-links and URLs;
    – to change mass media and its relationship to
    society;
    – available through the Internet;
    – the collection of interconnected computer
    networks, linked by copper wires, fiber optic
    cables, wireless connections, etc;
    – the idea of distributing the same message
    through different media channels;
    – breaking news stories to reach around the globe
    within minutes.

    7. Read the text and with the help of the table given above make its resume
    arranging sentences in accordance with the text.
    Internet
    The Internet (also known simply as "the Net") can be briefly understood as
    "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible
    network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet
    switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of
    smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which together
    carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file
    transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide
    Web.
    Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are
    not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks,
    linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, etc.; the Web is a
    collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The
    World Wide Web is accessible via the Internet, along with many other services
    including e-mail, file sharing and others described below.
    The best way to define and distinguish between these terms is to understand
    the Internet Protocol suite. This collection of protocols is organized into layers
    such that each layer provides the foundation and the services required by the layer
    above. In this conception, the term Internet refers to computer networks that all
    communicate with IP (Internet protocol) and TCP (transfer control protocol). Once
    this networking structure is established, then other protocols can run "on top".
    These other protocols are sometimes called services or applications. Hypertext
    transfer protocol, or HTTP, is an application layer protocol that links billions of
    files together into the World Wide Web.
    Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web
    marked the first era in which any individual could have a means of exposure on a
    scale comparable to that of mass media. For the first time, anyone with a web-site
    can address a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is still
    relatively expensive. It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may
    have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a
    vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary (i.e. "content") has been
    made available, it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and reliability of
    119

    information contained in (in many cases, self-published) web pages. The invention
    of the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe
    within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communication
    is often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society. "Crossmedia" means the idea of distributing the same message through different media
    channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as "convergence". Many
    authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish in both print
    and on the web without manual conversion effort. An interesting number of
    wireless devices with mutually incompatible data and screen formats make it even
    more difficult to achieve the objective "create once, publish many".
    8. Look through the text and characterize new kinds of mass media.
    With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet the scope of
    public distributors of news, entertainment and other information has expanded to
    include websites, webcams, podcasting, blogging and the like.
    Some traditional public broadcasters are turning to these new areas to reach
    more people in the quickest way.
    Many existing radio and television broadcasters provide Internet 'feeds' of
    their live and video streams (for example, the BBC). They may also allow timeshift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features.
    These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet 'broadcasters' who
    never had on-air licences. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a
    computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much
    the same way as was previously possible only with a TV or radio receiver.
    Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where - usually audio- material is first
    downloaded in full and then may be played back on a computer or shifted to a
    digital audio player to be listened to on the move. These techniques using simple
    equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast
    audio-visual material on a worldwide basis.
    Webcams can be seen as an even lower-budget extension of this
    phenomenon. While some webcams can give full frame rate video, the picture is
    usually either small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an
    African waterhole, shops in the Panama Canal, the traffic at a local roundabout or
    their own premises, live and real time. Video chat rooms, video conferencing, and
    remote controllable webcams are also popular. Many uses can be found for
    personal webcams in and around the home, with and without two-way sound.
    Many individuals and some companies and groups have adopted the use of
    "Web logs" or blogs, which are largely used as easily-updatable online diaries.
    Some commercial organizations encourage staff to fill them with advice on their
    areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert
    knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the cooperation as a result.
    One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their
    personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work.

    120

    9. Discuss with your partner if television is good or evil. Supply the missing
    questions.
    Olga:

    Olga:
    Mary:
    Olga:
    Mary:
    Olga:
    Mary:

    Olga:
    Mary:

    ... ...?
    Well, I suppose that I watch some television most days. My television watching tends to
    happen late at night for sort of domestic reasons and work resources, so it’s restricted by
    that.
    ... ...?
    Actually I watch a lot of news programmes. I nearly always watch the news, or current
    affairs programmes. I’m quite a sports fan as well, so if there is any sport on I tend to
    watch it: cricket or football, or something like that, if I’ve got nothing better to do.
    ... ...?
    It’s on in the late afternoon and late at night. But I know that in some homes the
    television goes on as a kind of background and people don’t actually watch it in any kind
    of concentrated way.
    Well, I believe some people don’t realize that some TV programmes are a great danger,
    especially to children. . . . . . . ?
    You are right in a way, but I think television can be a great benefit to children too. I think
    there are a lot of good programmes that give them good educational information. And I
    also think television’s good for introducing children to good literature. There are often
    good children’s stories which are dramatized for television.
    Well, I can’t but agree with you that television can be both good and evil. One should
    only be reasonable in the choice of programmes.
    Right you are.

    When is television on in your family? What programmes are your favourite? Do you watch
    news programmes? What’s your opinion? Mary, do you often watch TV?

    10. Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner TV programmes that do harm on
    children. Explain the reasons. Restore the dialogue using the words and wordcombinations from the box given below.
    Julia: What is the most dangerous thing for children on television?
    Anna: In my opinion it is the . . . . Some programmes are a part of big marketing exercise. There is
    a . . . . . . on children to go out and buy so many things advertised in the programmes and I
    think that is a very . . . . . . indeed.
    Julia: Any other danger?
    Anna: The other dangerous thing I think, . . . . . . is if the television is on . . . and the children get
    to see programmes not suitable for them. And I think that is a big . . . . But that’s up to the . . .
    to make sure that that doesn’t happen, . . . . . . .
    Julia: What would be a . . . . . . to watch television?
    Anna: I think the . . . thing is not how much you watch but how . . . . . . .
    Julia: Actually, I’m of . . . . . . . . . .
    Important, danger, the same opinion, commercialism, for children, reasonable time
    tremendous pressure, indiscriminately, parents, dangerous thing, selective you are, I think

    11. Characterize British TV and radio channels using the words and wordcombinations from the box.

    121

    TV and Radio
    Watching television is one of the great British . . . ! Broadcasting in the
    United Kingdom . . . by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the
    Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA). The BBC receives its . . . from the
    government, but the private companies controlled by the IBA earn money from ... .
    National radio is controlled by the BBC, and listeners can . . . between four
    stations. Radio 1 is a pop-music station with news and magazine-style
    programmes. Radio 2 plays light music and reports on sport. Radio 3 . . . classical
    music whilst Radio 4 has news programmes, drama and general interest
    programmes. There are many . . . stations, some private and some run by the BBC.
    Their programmes consist mainly of music and local news.
    The BBC has two TV . . . . BBC 2 has more serious programmes and news
    features. The IBA . . . . . . . . . looking after the regional independent TV
    companies who . . . their own programmes and those they have bought from other
    regions. There is a break for advertisements about every 15-20 minutes. The most
    recent independent channel is called Channel 4 and it has more specialized
    programmes than the . . . channels. All these channels are basically national, with
    just a few regional programmes, for example extra news programmes.
    Breakfast TV (magazine programmes on BBC and ITV, giving news and
    interviews from approximately 6 a. m. to 8.30 a. m.) is very . . . .
    New . . . continue to change the media. Cables and satellites have made it
    possible for viewers to receive more . . . into their homes.
    local main is controlled choose pastimes programmes plays popular
    advertising is responsible for technologies income channels broadcast

    12. Reproduce the following situations by adding sentences that are very close to
    your point of view.
    1. TV is a great force in the world. We get a great amount of information by
    watching documentaries, science programmes, discussions, interviews, news
    commentaries. It gives wonderful possibilities for education. But in spite of this
    obvious potential of TV as an educational medium, this potential is wasted.
    a) There are too many programmes that are not educational at all. Surprisingly,
    but the most popular TV programmes are those where people are not expected to
    think. Take for example comedy shows where the views can't be trusted to laugh
    by themselves but are supposed to laugh when they hear the recorded laughter
    from a TV studio.
    b) Well, we shouldn't forget that it is not so easy to create a good TV
    programme. This creative process takes a lot of time. It may probably explain why
    we have so many TV programmes of poor quality. It's impossible to keep pace
    with the demand and maintain high standards as well.
    c) And yet, TV is one of the most important means of communication by
    pictures and sounds. The visual impact of TV can be enormously helpful in
    encouraging people, especially children, to take an interest in the outside world. It

    122

    is easier, for instance, to show how scientific process work on a TV screen than by
    means of explanations in the book.
    2. Radio is also a very important mass medium. It offers us a wide range of
    programmes that you may choose to your taste. Besides radio is a source of
    pleasure and entertainment but nowadays it is not frequently used anymore because
    of TV and the Internet.
    a) For the most up-to-the-minute, quickest news no medium currently does
    better than radio. Many stations carry news every 30 minutes, most every hour. We
    can’t imagine our life without a radio. It is available practically everywhere, it has
    become almost standard equipment in automobiles as well. A radio station can
    present news almost as it happens.
    b) Today radio news functions best as a headline service, as a first alert for
    recent weather information. You can’t hear detailed information, serious
    commentaries and discussions over the radio because there are not so many good
    radio stations that have news departments and reporters.
    c) Radio today is more a source of entertainment and pleasure than information
    and education. Radio goes into comparatively little detail in comparison with news
    magazines and newspapers providing the most in-depth reporting. But radio is a
    very convenient mass medium because you can listen to the radio doing all kinds
    of household chores simultaneously.
    13. You’ve got the front pages of three newspapers. Study them and say:
    - if they are English or American newspapers. Give proofs supporting your
    opinion:
    - if they are quality newspapers or tabloids.
    While studying these pages remember that quality papers concern
    themselves mainly with factual reports of major national and international events,
    with the world of politics and business and with arts and sport, music and
    education. The tabloids concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often
    featuring violence, the Royal family, film and pop stars, and sport. They often
    publish crosswords, quizzes, skill gaming, etc. Pay attention to titles, sub-titles and
    pictures. They will help you to make your decision (what newspaper it is).
    Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask questions to find out the opinion of
    your partner(s). Use the following formulas to express your opinion: In my
    opinion; to my mind; I think that…; my viewpoint is …; it’s common knowledge;
    it is evident that … . Change the roles as you go. Say what other English and
    American newspapers you know and if you ever happened to read them (or you
    would like to read). Speak of your preferences.

    123

    124

    14. Look at the network of the topic and tell your group mates about different
    kinds of mass media and their role in the society. Supply the necessary
    information.
    monthly
    daily

    magazines

    disadvantages
    advantages

    newspapers
    PRESS

    latest news

    TV
    MASS
    MEDIA

    for all
    interests
    INTERNET
    world-wide
    communication
    making
    friends

    bad
    programmes

    increase
    knowledge

    online
    services

    distant
    learning

    do harm on
    children
    programmes
    educational

    RADIO

    sport

    programmes
    quickest
    news
    entertainment

    selling
    products
    125

    II. Comment on the following quotations:
    1. What the mass media offer is not popular art, but entertainment which is
    intended to be consumed like food, forgotten and replaced by a new dish (W.H.
    Auden). 2. No news is good news. No journalist is even better (Nicolas Bently). 3.
    News is a history shot on the wing (Gene Fowler, Skyline). 4. When a dog bites a
    man that is not news, but when a man bites a dog that is news (Charles Anderson
    Dana). 5. A good newspaper, I suppose, is a nation talking to itself (Arthur Miller).
    6. A free press can, of course, be good or bad, but most certainly, without freedom
    it will never be anything but bad (A.Camus). 7. I hate television. I hate it as much
    as peanuts. But I can’t stop eating peanuts (Orson Welles). 8. It isn’t television that
    wastes time, it’s you (W.H.Auden). 9. Literature is the art of writing something
    that will be read twice; journalism what will be grasped at once (Cyril Connolly).
    III. Writing Section
    1. Write a composition in which you state your opinion on ethical questions in
    Journalism. Do you think the line, must be drawn between the individual’s right
    to privacy and the public’s right to know? Prove your opinion by giving
    scandalous facts of the media covering the private life of celebrities.
    – Start with an introductory paragraph.
    – State different points of view.
    – Use expressions like: Some people believe … and The media argue that…
    – State your point of view. Give your own arguments to support your opinion.
    2. Write an article about 150 words of your favourite pastime (watching TV,
    reading newspapers, books, etc.) Imagine that you are writing this article for
    your local magazine.
    IV. Role play
    You are a newspaper correspondent. The editor-in-chief of your newspaper
    assigned you to interview some people from different walks of society having
    different reading habits and different viewpoints on the Media. This interview is
    important for you because you just start your career in journalism and want to do
    your best to succeed. So work hard on the problem and get ready. Be aware that
    critics complain that journalists are always emphasizing the negative, the
    sensational and the abnormal rather than the normal. You will want to ask different
    questions, so write them down and take them with you. Read the following tips of
    advice and get ready to act out an interview.
    Before the interview
    1. Find out what you can about the people you are going to interview. 2. Inform
    them where and when the interview will take place. 3. Find out how long it will
    take to get there. 4. Make sure you know the theme of your interview perfectly
    well. 5. Get rea-dy audio-visual devices in case you need them.
    At the interview
    126

    1. Do arrive early. 2. Do show interest in the opinion of the people you interview.
    3. Do be polite. 4. Don't look bored or impatient. 5. Don't ask very personal
    questions.
    6. Try hard to be objective and non-biased.
    When interviewing people ask the following questions:
    1. Do you read newspapers or do you prefer to get news from some other sources?
    2. What kind of newspapers do you prefer to read?
    Add some more questions.
    Ask them to give their pros and contras in describing their preferences.
    Here is what the three English people said at the interview about their reading
    habits:
    One:
    I don't read newspapers at all. They are all biased. They've been taken over
    by companies who have political interests. And in Britain most papers are right
    wing. There is one or two that I think are a bit more objective, but I'd rather listen
    to the radio.
    Two:
    Actually, I don't want to know about the details of all the troubles in the
    world - it's all so depressing. I like human-interest stories about people, not wars
    and disasters. So my daily newspaper is a tabloid. The other good thing about a
    tabloid is that you can read in two minutes on the way to work. It is often full of
    the reviews of the week and I find that quite interesting. That's all I want.
    Three
    I get a so-called quality newspaper on Sundays because it gives me a good
    summary of world events, but I also buy tabloids two or three times a week. People
    are critical of the pictures and stories of the royals and the problems that have been
    published in the tabloids, but I don't agree. Why shouldn't we know how they're
    spending our money? They are public figures, and only the tabloids give you the
    details - the other papers are too respectful.
    Now analyze the opinions of the people you have interviewed and write an
    article. Be objective and try not to subvert the information you’ve got. Good luck!

    127

    UNIT IX

    GLOBAL ISSUES
    Vocabulary

    approach
    consequence
    decline
    destruction
    disaster
    disease
    diversity
    exhaust
    fume
    impact
    litter
    poison
    release
    threat
    waste
    affect
    be aware of
    cause
    contaminate
    deplete
    devastate
    dump
    implement
    inhabit
    preserve
    recycle
    entire
    extinct
    harmful
    hazardous
    severe
    sustainable
    urban

    128

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    приближение, подход
    /q'prqVC/
    следствие, последствие
    /'kPnsIkwqns/
    падение, упадок
    /dI'klaIn/
    уничтожение, разрушение
    /dI'strAkSn/
    бедствие
    /dI'za:stq(r)/
    болезнь
    /dI'zi:z/
    различие, разнообразие
    /daI'vE:sqti/
    выхлоп, выпуск
    /Ig'zO:st/
    дым, копоть
    /fju:m/
    столкновение, воздействие
    /'Impxkt/
    сор, отбросы
    /'lItq(r)/
    яд, отрава
    /'pOIzn/
    освобождение, выпуск
    /rI'lI:s/
    угроза
    /Tret/
    отходы, мусор
    /weIst/
    Verbs and Verbal Phrases
    воздействовать, влиять
    /q'fekt/
    сознавать, знать
    /q'weq(r)/
    вызывать
    /kO:z/
    загрязнять
    /kqn'txmIneIt/
    истощать
    /dI'pli:t/
    опустошать
    /'devqsteIt/
    выбрасывать на свалку
    /dAmp/
    выполнять, осуществлять
    /'ImplIment/
    жить, населять
    /In'hxbIt/
    сохранять
    /prI'zE:v/
    перерабатывать
    /"ri:'saIkl/
    Adjectives
    целый, полный, цельный
    /In'taIq(r)/
    потухший, вымерший
    /Ik'stINkt/
    вредный
    /ha:mfl/
    рискованный, опасный
    /'hxzqdqs/
    суровый
    /sI'vIq(r)/
    устойчивый
    /sq'steInqbl/
    городской
    /'E:bqn/

    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the following quotations and proverbs and try to outline the
    problems to be discussed.
    1. We’re not passengers on Spaceship Earth: we’re the crew. We’re not residents;
    we’re citizens. The difference, in both cases, is responsibility. Rusty Schweickart,
    (Apollo astronaut).
    2. Earth provides enough to satisfy everyone's need, but not enough to satisfy
    everyone's greed. Mahatma Gandhi, (pacifist and founding father of modern India,
    1869-1948).
    3. We have a special responsibility to the ecosystem of this planet. In making sure
    that other species survive, we will be ensuring the survival of our own… Wangari
    Maathai, (2004 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and founder of the Kenyan Green Belt
    Movement).
    4. In nature there are neither rewards nor punishment – there are consequences.
    Robert G. Ingersoll.
    5. As a man sows, so shall he reap. It is an ill bird that fouls its own nest.
    2. Work in pairs. You’ve got some information about a number of general
    problems of our society. Speak of them to your partner. Replace the underlined
    words by the synonyms given in the box.
    Once a year, the Earth has its day. Nowadays, the Earth Day is celebrated in
    many countries. The first Earth Day was held on April, 22, 1970 when millions of
    people gathered in parks and paraded down city streets throughout the United
    States. They wanted to emphasize one very important thing: taking care of the
    Earth, preserving its beauty is everybody's business.
    It's true that some very general problems of present society are: different
    ways of destruction of nature as consequences of human development. They affect
    living, economy, working and environment. They are changing cities of all sizes as
    well as rural areas. Recent results from science show that success is only possible
    when an integrated approach is undertaken. For this goal, citizens, companies,
    politicians and governments should work together. Thus, coalitions between
    economy and environmentalists must be very close in order to overcome economic
    and ecological problems.
    The necessity of such approach became evident in the XX century.
    Many species of flora and fauna have been written down into the «Red
    Book» of Nature as they are on the brink of extinction. People's industrial activity
    changed the life to the better but at the expense of the natural resources and nature
    itself.
    Now people are aware of the ecological problems such as the change of
    climate, acid rains, deforestation of the Earth, depletion of the ozone layer and
    many others.
    ruin, common, on the verge, united, influence, looking after, keeping, realize, the union, concern,
    marched, point out
    129

    3. Match the words in the first column with their explanation in the second
    column.
    A

    B

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5

    ecology
    pollution
    protection
    environment
    catastrophe

    a
    b
    c
    d.
    e

    radioactive dust from a nuclear explosion
    extinguished
    serious illness of people, plants, animals
    making dirty
    substance, either natural or man-made which is formed by
    elements
    defense
    disaster
    a branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of
    organisms and their environments
    a reduction in number or quantity so as to endanger the ability
    to function
    surroundings in which you live

    6
    7
    8

    depletion
    extinct
    chemical

    f
    g
    h

    9

    fall out

    i

    10

    disease

    j

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8

    wildlife
    suffer
    water shortage
    damage
    ozone
    sustainability
    consequence
    radioactive

    a
    b
    c
    d
    e
    f
    g
    h

    9
    10

    threat
    eco-system

    i
    j

    harm
    type of oxygen
    ecological system
    the state or condition supported, kept or continued
    be in a difficult situation
    result
    warning that smth. unpleasant will happen or will be done
    of uranium, having atoms that break up and in doing so send
    out rays in the form of electricity
    wild animals, birds, insects, etc., taken collectively
    lack in water

    4. Find all suitable nouns for each of the adjectives or participles.
    vanishing, a renewable, alternative, harmful, radioactive, a sustainable, proper, an
    extensive, a devastating, fundraising, extinct, ecological, natural, a nuclear, a global,
    safety, rural, green, major, traffic
    environment, accident, movement, plants and animals, effect, development, famine,
    problems, resources, dust, measures, events, decisions, catastrophes, impact, network,
    source, forms, wastes, species

    5. Match the words and expressions from column A with a single word
    equivalent from column B.
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    130

    to make a prediction
    unstable
    no longer in existence
    easily broken
    a place where someone or something is usually found
    to treat medically
    to ruin
    that which surrounds
    to remain alive
    a fence formed by bushes or small trees growing close together

    a
    b
    c
    d
    e
    f
    g
    h
    i
    j

    environment
    shortage
    to cure
    prosperous
    to destroy
    to injure
    a hedge
    changeable
    a habitat
    to forecast

    11
    12
    13

    characterized by good fortune; successful
    to do harm to
    any deficiency

    k
    l
    m

    fragile
    to survive
    extinct

    6. Speak about the problems: a) changes to the environment, b) the shortage of
    clean water, c) the greenhouse effect, filling the gaps with the right words from
    the box.
    a)
    a) weather

    c) exhaust

    e) environmental

    g) recycling

    i) on

    b) energy

    d) resources

    f) greenhouse

    h) atmosphere

    j) fuel

    In recent years, the number of ___ (1) problems has increased dangerously.
    One of the most serious problems is changes to the ___ (2), which has led to the
    ___ (3) effect: this is making most climates warmer. It is already affecting several
    areas of the world with unusual ___ (4) causing droughts or heavy storms. Cutting
    down on ___ (5) fumes from vehicles would help solve the problem. Natural ___
    (6) such as oil and coal are not endless, so using other forms of ___ (7) such as
    wind, sun, water, and even sea waves would help preserve our planet. Very soon we
    will be able to drive cars in cities and towns that run ___ (8) electricity - a much
    cleaner ___ (9) than petrol. And we can also help to reserve finite resources by ___
    (10) things made of glass, aluminum, plastic and paper.
    b)
    a) scarce

    d) poisonous

    g) effluent

    j) sake

    m) species

    b) respect

    e) pollution

    h) shortage

    k) pour

    n) supply

    c) precious

    f) destroyed

    i) variety

    l) access

    o) urgent

    One of the most ___ (1) environmental problems in the world today is the ___
    (2) of clean water. ___ (3) to clean drinking water is a basic human need. But
    industrial ___ (4) has made many sources of water undrinkable. Rivers, lakes and
    even seas have become ___ (5). Lake Baikal is one of the world's largest and most
    beautiful lakes. Russians call it the Holy Sea. It contains a rich ___ (6) of animals
    and plants, including 1,300 rare ___ (7) that do not exist anywhere else in the
    world. However, they are being ___ (8) by the massive industrial ___ (9), which
    some factories still ___ (10) into the lake every day. A few years ago, people
    thought that the ___ (11) of clean water was limitless. Now clean water is ___
    (12), and we are beginning to ___ (13) this ___ (14) resource. We must protect the
    clean water that remains for the ___ (15) of our children and grandchildren.
    c)
    a) average
    b) cause

    c) lower
    d) rising

    e) disastrous
    f) fall

    g) melt
    h) caps

    i) hurricanes
    j) lead

    The greenhouse effect is very important; if it didn't occur at all the
    temperature of the planet would be 40 degrees ____ (1) and the oceans would
    freeze. But an increase in the greenhouse effect may ____ (2) to global warming
    with _____ (3) consequences.
    131

    The higher average temperatures produced by global warming could ____
    (4) dramatic changes in the weather. Less rain might ____ (5) over large land
    masses. Central Africa, south Asia and some parts of the United States could risk
    severe drought and famine. More rain might ____ (6) in coastal areas and over the
    oceans; there might be more storms and ____ (7) in the Pacific. A rise in the earth's
    ____ (8) temperature of only one or two degrees would probably ____ (9) the polar
    ice caps and raise sea levels. Sea levels throughout the world are already ____ (10)
    by about two millimeters a year. If the polar ice ___ (11) melt, sea levels could rise
    by more than a meter over a few decades.
    Decide which two of the statements below are wrong according to the text?
    a)
    b)
    c)
    d)

    The greenhouse effect only leads to disastrous consequences,
    Without the greenhouse effect the climate on the Earth would be much colder.
    Because of global warming there could be a risk of drought and famine in parts of Africa and
    Asia.
    If there is a rise in temperature of one or two degrees, the sea level will rise by about two
    millimeters a year

    7. Work in pairs. Using the following table ask your friend as many questions as
    possible.
    Model:
    Why is air pollution paid to a lot of attention in mass-media?
    What professions are dealing with sustainability?
    How
    Why
    What

    is
    do
    can
    does
    are
    did

    governments
    people
    smoking
    recycling
    the ways
    air pollution
    water
    litter
    the relationship

    between litter and diseases in people?
    important in our life?
    interested in the country's sustainable development?
    control of air pollution?
    make breathing difficult?
    be dangerous?
    become polluted?
    affect your health?
    to be healthy, wealthy and wise?

    8. Ask your friend or interlocutor.
    Model 1: if the Chernobyl accident affected lives of many people
    Did the Chernobyl accident affect lives of many people?
    Model 2: what kind of pollution s/he knows
    What kind of pollution do you know?
    if the environmental pollution is a serious problem for many countries
    what «The Red Book» of Nature is
    what the main function of forests and swamps is
    why many species of flora and fauna are on the brink extinction
    what acid rains bring with them
    what the ozone layer is
    why the ozone layer is important for the Earth and living beings
    what the depletion of the ozone layer is caused by
    if transport poisons the environment and how
    132

    if the problem of environment can be solved by one country
    what the Chernobyl accident shows to mankind with what purpose the green
    organizations are set up
    what green organizations your friend knows
    if your friend is a member of any ecological organization
    if your friend knows anything about sustainable development
    if nature is the source of life on the Earth
    if your friend agrees that mankind must be very careful in usage of natural resources
    why many people are concerned about the pure water and air
    why the climate all over the world has changed if most people today are aware that
    the Earth is a delicate thing
    9. Express your attitude to the following statements. Use suggested phrases for
    formulating your opinion.
    1. The development of sustainable energy resources is a topic for
    As I know,
    discussion in European countries. Wind energy is the fastest
    there are
    growing renewable source in the world.
    2. Environmental quality survey of any location includes the Oh, really!
    following features: attractive housing layout and design, building
    care, open space, gardens, car parking, traffic noise and fumes,
    litter vandalism and graffiti, number of burglar alarms.
    3. Negative description of environmental quality survey comes It ‘s a pity,
    down to the poor and low quality housing and design, unattractive
    but
    and poorly maintained, there are no private gardens, car parking is
    done mainly on roads, open space is absent, there is widespread
    damage and mess.
    4. Environmental survey is positively described when the housing
    No doubt
    layout is varied, all buildings are attractive and well-maintained,
    there is plenty of open space. Cars, are mainly on private parking,
    the traffic's quiet and of low pollution, there is no litter and none
    of vandalism, graffiti and burglar alarms.
    5. Sustainable development is defined as «development which
    As I
    meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability understand
    of future generations to meet their own needs» (Brendtland,
    1987).
    6. Most of us are familiar with the great panda emblem of the Unfortunately
    WWF (the World Wide Fund for Nature). The world's last 1.000
    giant pandas are struggling to survive in the wild. They are caught
    in traps for their skins or set for other animals but the most severe
    threat to the panda is the disappearance and fragmentation of the
    mountain forest habitat and dying the bamboo forests off.
    7. Many of us are aware of traffic problems in urban areas. We
    I am
    often consider traffic as an issue when looking at urbanization.
    convinced
    People want to be mobile. But at the same time people are
    that
    increasingly worried about more traffic in country roads. It's a
    133

    real dilemma.
    8. In the second half of the twentieth century rural areas around
    many cities were protected by green belts. A green belt policy is a
    policy which prevents planners and builders from building on the
    land around the outskirts of the city. It prevents the city from
    extending even further into the countryside.
    9. To carry out the sustainability in life it is necessary to establish
    common interests between people, the economy and the
    environment by starting with
    the new economy based on new
    principles and modern ideas.
    10. Sustainability and information based economics and lifestyles
    belong together.

    I should say
    here that

    Naturally

    To tell the
    truth

    10. Insert in the prepositions to complete this text. Entitle it and give its main ideas
    to the rest of the group.
    The idea of issues that are truly global in scale is new ____ us. It emerged late
    _____ the twentieth century, perhaps when humans first saw images of the Earth
    from space - a small blue-green planet devoid of boundaries and arbitrary political
    divisions. The concept is still new enough to be ridiculed or resisted by individuals
    and institutions that see the world _____ the traditional perspective of state
    sovereignty.
    Regardless ___ their novelty, global issues are so important that they may
    literally determine the future of the human species. Global issues impact all social,
    environmental, economic, health, and security concerns. And those concerns are, in
    themselves, global issues.
    At this point, there seems to be only minimal agreement among nations and
    policymakers ______ the scope and scale of global issues. National perceptions
    and interests still drive most analyses of, and responses to, them. There is, in fact,
    no internationally agreed _____ definition of global issues, nor is there a concerted
    plan of action to deal with them.
    We will define global issues as issues that: have significant impacts for large
    numbers of people, are trans-national, are persistent, or long-acting, are
    interconnected.
    Some of the most critical global issues confronting us ____ the beginning of
    the 21st century: population, the rich - poor gap, food and water security,
    environment, health, economy, energy, peace and conflict, governance.
    What is important to remember as we explore there issues is that while they
    may be daunting – and at times even frightening – they also provide us ____ rare
    opportunities. As Israeli statesman Abba Eban said, History teaches us that men
    and nations behave wisely once they have exhausted all other alternatives. As other
    alternatives disappear, and as the impacts of these issues multiply, the imperative
    and the opportunity _____ positive change increases.
    11. You will read a piece of interview with Pr. M. Bartons, but the replies are to
    be matched with appropriate stimuli. So, restore the dialogue and reproduce it
    with your partner.
    134

    - Nowadays people talk much
    about the problem of
    disappearing rain forests,
    stressing the global importance
    of this problem.
    What can you say about it?
    - I have heard, tropical rain
    forests are home to half the
    world's plant and animal
    species. It is something I can
    hardly imagine.

    - Everybody knows that trees
    make the nature more beautiful
    but we often forget to stress the
    fact that they make the air we
    breath cleaner. So, rain forests
    turn to be of great importance
    from this point of view as well.

    - Professor, what are the rain
    forests being cut down for?
    - Thank you very much,
    professor. The bell is ringing.
    Let’s join the other participants
    taking their seats at the
    meeting. I hope we shall hear a
    lot of interesting reports on
    many other environmental
    problems today.

    - It may sound too categorical, but still, I would
    say rainforests are being destroyed because the
    value of rainforest land is perceived as only the
    value of its timber by short-sighted governments,
    multi-national logging companies, and land
    owners.
    - I quite agree with them.. We are losing Earth's
    greatest biological treasures just as we are
    beginning to appreciate their true value.
    Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth's
    land surface; now they cover a mere 6% and
    experts estimate that the last remaining
    rainforests could be consumed in less than 40
    years.
    - Just think. Tropical rain forests give people
    food, new plant types, medicines, and climate
    control. The rain forest is host to 2,500 edible
    fruits (avocados, coconuts, figs, oranges, lemons,
    grapefruit, bananas, guavas, pineapples, mangos
    and tomatoes; vegetables including corn,
    potatoes, rice, spices like black pepper, cayenne,
    chocolate, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, sugar cane,
    turmeric, coffee and vanilla, nuts including
    Brazil nuts and cashews). In fact, 120,000 of the
    planet's 250,000 plant species live in the tropical
    rain forest. The diversity of life forms in a small
    area is greater in the rain forest than anywhere
    else.
    - Yes, you are right. It is high time to take our
    seats.
    - Absolutely right. I shall give you only one
    example. The Amazon Rainforest has been
    described by many ecologists as the “Lungs of
    our Planet” because it provides the essential
    environmental world service of continuously
    recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen. More than
    20 percent of the world oxygen is produced in
    the Amazon Rainforest.

    12. Make a short report on the importance of forests and the necessity of their
    protection.
    13. Give a talk on the topic: What can governments and everybody do to help the
    environment nowadays?

    135

    14. The following text will give you an opinion on life in a large city. Read it,
    then a) contradict to the narrator, speak in favour of living in a large city. Use
    the words given below; b) argue with your friend who keeps to an opposite point
    of you.
    “Only a madman would choose to live in a large city”
    Avoid the rush-hour' must be the slogan of large dries the world over. If it is,
    it's a slogan no one takes the least notice of. Twice a day, with predictable
    regularity, the pot boils over. Wherever you look it's people, people, people. The
    trains which leave or arrive every few minutes are packed: an endless procession of
    human sardine tins. The streets are so crowded there is hardly room to move on the
    pavements. The queues for buses reach staggering proportions. It takes ages for a
    bus to get to you because the traffic on the roads has virtually come to a standstill!
    Even when a bus does at last arrive, it's so full, it can't take any more passengers.
    This whole crazy system of commuting stretches man's resources to the utmost.
    The smallest unforeseen event can bring about conditions of utter chaos. A powercut, for instance, an exceptionally heavy snowfall or a minor derailment must
    always make city-dwellers realize how precarious the balance is. The extraordinary
    thing is not that people put up with these conditions, but that they actually choose
    them in preference to anything else!
    Large modern cities are too big to control. They impose their own living
    conditions the people who inhabit them. City-dwellers are obliged by their
    environment to adopt wholly unnatural way of life. They lose touch with the land
    and rhythm of nature. It is possible to live such an air-conditioned existence in a
    large city that you are barely conscious of the seasons. A few flowers in a public
    park (if you have the time to visit it) may remind you that it is spring or summer. A
    few leaves clinging to the pavement may remind you that it is autumn. Beyond
    that, what is going on in nature seems totally irrelevant. All the simple, good things
    of life like sunshine and fresh air are a premium. Tall buildings blot out the sun.
    Traffic fumes pollute the atmosphere. Even the distinction between day and night
    is lost. The flow of traffic goes on unceasingly and the noise never stops.
    The funny thing about it all is that you pay dearly for the 'privilege' of living in
    a city. The demand for accommodation is so great that it is often impossible for
    ordinary people, to buy a house of their own. Exorbitant rents must be paid for tiny
    fiats which even country hens would disdain to live in. Accommodation apart, the
    cost of living is very high. Just abut everything you buy is likely to be more
    expensive than it would be in the country.
    In addition to all this, city-dwellers live under constant threat. The crime rate in
    most cities is very high. Houses are burgled with alarming frequency. Cities breed
    crime and violence and are full of places you would be afraid to visit at night. If
    you think about it, they are not really fit to live in at all. Can anyone really doubt
    that the country is what man was born for and where he truly belongs?

    136

    Argument: key words
    1. Avoid rush-hour': slogan of every large city; no one does.
    2. Happens twice a day.
    3. Trains packed; streets crowded; bus queues; traffic jams; buses full.
    4. Commuting screeches man's resources.
    5. Unforeseen events (e.g. power-cut, heavy snowfall): chaos.
    6. People actually choose such conditions.
    7. Large modern cities too big to control.
    8. Impose their own living conditions on people.
    9. City-dwellers: unnatural way of life.
    10. Lose touch with land, rhythm of nature
    11. Air-conditioned existence: barely-conscious of seasons: flowers: spring;
    leaves: autumn; nature irrelevant.
    12. Simple good things (e.g. sunlight, fresh air) at a premium.
    13. Distinction day, night is lost; always noise, traffic.
    14. Expensive 'privilege'.
    15. Accommodation: house of your own impossible; rents high.
    16. Cost of living in general high,
    17. Lack of security: cities breed crime and violence; houses often burgled.
    18. Cities not fit to live in; man born for country.
    The counter-argument: key words
    1. If proposition is true, then there are millions of madmen.
    2. Most people love cities: proof: man is fleeting from countryside.
    3. Modern man is too sophisticated for simple country pleasures.
    4. It's enough to visit countryside at week-ends.
    5. Objections to city living are unconvincing:
    6. Commuting does not really affect those who live in cities; a small inconvenience
    only.
    7. Noise, traffic, etc., hardly noticeable; people easily adapt.
    8. Very small minority of city-dwellers ever involved in crime, violence.
    9. Many reasons why city life is preferable:
    10. Good to be near one's friends; never cut off by weather conditions.
    11. Life is never dull; always something to do.
    12. Cities offer high concentration of good things in life: big stores, restaurants,
    theatres, cinemas, galleries, etc.
    13. Services are always better; better schools, more amenities (e.g. swimmingpools, etc.).
    14. More chances of employment; greater range of jobs; more opportunity to
    succeed in life.

    137

    15. You are going to have a conference on the global issues. Study the network
    and choose any issue you would like to make a report on.
    Depletion of
    ozone layer

    Acid
    rains

    Fertilizers

    Pesticides
    Deforestation

    Air

    Soil

    Erosion

    Water
    Pollution

    Environment

    Greenhouse
    Effect

    Wastes

    Global Issues
    Terrorism

    Renewable
    sources

    Non
    renewable
    sources

    Protection

    Energy

    Nuclear
    energy

    Friends of
    the Earth

    Recycling

    Governments

    II. Writing Section
    1. That's what Lena wrote in her project about ecological problems in her
    hometown. Her project is convincing. But there are eight mistakes, correct them.
    There is a lot of factories and plants in the my hometown. They discharge a lot of
    chemicals and dirty into the air. They poison water in the lovely river. Fish can't to
    live in it. Both clean air and clean water are necessary to our health. Our factories,
    plants, cars and buses need in good filters. When they will have them?
    Besides, I'm very concerned about that new roads destroy the countryside.
    I think people should find the right balance between our natural environment,
    industry and building of new roads.
    2. Write a composition: Cars: the pros and cons. The table below will help you.
    Pros
    A comfortable and convenient way of travelling
    Gives freedom and independence
    Saves your time
    Makes your life easier

    138

    Cons
    The biggest single course of air pollution
    Roads destroy countryside
    Sitting in traffic jams is stressful and
    probably causes high blood pressure
    Traffic accidents
    Requires parking space

    UNIT X

    MY FUTURE PROFESSION
    Vocabulary

    Nouns and Noun Phrases
    applicant
    желающий получить место, работу;
    /'xplIkqnt/
    кандидат; претендент
    назначение, определение (на должность)
    appointment
    /q'pOIntmqnt/
    make an ~
    назначить встречу; прийти (не прийти) в
    keep/break an ~
    назначенное время, место
    curriculum
    /kq"rIkjqlqm'vJtaI/ итог, сводка, конспект, краткая
    автобиография;
    vitae (CV) (BrE)
    résumé (AmE)
    резюме
    /'rezjumeI/
    employment
    1) служба, занятие, работа; 2) занятость
    /Im'plOImqnt/
    experience
    1) (жизненный) опыт; 2) опытность
    /Ik'spIqriqns/
    job
    работа, труд, дело
    /GPb/
    occupation
    занятия, род занятий, профессия
    /"Pkju'peISn/
    position
    положение, должность
    /pq'zISn/
    salary
    жалованье, зарплата, оклад
    /'sxlqri/
    skill
    1) мастерство; 2) квалификация; 3) талант
    /skIl/
    trait
    характерная черта
    /treIt/
    Verbs and Verb Phrases
    1) принимать; 2) допускать;
    accept
    /qk'sept/
    соглашаться занять должность
    to ~ a post
    apply
    обращаться (за работой, помощью)
    /q'plaI/
    counsel
    давать совет, рекомендовать
    / 'kaVnsl/
    drop in
    зайти, заглянуть
    /drPp/
    hire
    нанимать
    /'haIq(r)/
    Adjectives
    distinct
    /dI'stINkt/ 1) отдельный; различный, индивидуальный,
    особый; 2) отчетливый, ясный; 3) определенный
    fluent
    беглый (о речи)
    /'flHqnt/
    I. Oral Practice Section
    1. Look through the statements/ proverbs and try to outline the problems to be
    discussed.
    1. Every man to his trade. 2. He works best who knows his trade. 3. You are what
    you choose to be. 4. You cannot climb the ladder of success with your hands in
    your pockets. 5. First impressions are very important.
    2. Work in pairs: Choosing the right profession for every person is one of the
    most important decisions. We can turn to different people for advice or find
    answers to our questions in newspapers and magazines. Read this article and say
    why it is one of the most difficult problems among young people. Replace the
    words in bold type by the words with similar meaning given in the box.
    139

    One of the most difficult problems a young person faces is deciding what to do about a career.
    There are individuals, of course, who from the time they are six years old “know” that they want
    to be doctors or pilots or fire fighters, but the majority of us do not get around to making a
    decision about an occupation or career until somebody forces us to face the problem.
    Choosing an occupation takes time, and there are a lot of things you have to think about as
    you try to decide what you would like to do. You may find that you will have to take special
    courses to qualify for a particular kind of work, or may find out that you will need to get some
    actual work experience to gain enough knowledge to qualify for a particular job.
    Fortunately, there are a lot of people you can turn to for advice and help in making your
    decision. At most schools, there are teachers who are professionally qualified to counsel you
    and to give detailed information about job qualifications. And you can talk over your ideas with
    family members and friends who are always ready to listen and to offer suggestions. But even if
    you get other people involved in helping you make a decision, self evaluation is an important
    part of the decision-making process.
    mass; exact; to recommend; ability; coming to a decision; persons; relatives; recommendations;
    practice; job; to suggest; people; many; proposals; skill; distinct; business; employment; suggestion;
    knowledge; making up one’s mind; profession; to have certain experience; to advice

    3. Match the explanations on the right with the idiomatic expressions on the left.
    1. to go on business
    2. to carry on a business
    3. to float a business
    4. back-door business
    5. Big Business
    6. to go out of business
    7. to know
    business
    8. business like

    a. to start business
    b. a dishonest, dubious kind of business
    c. to stop trading
    d. to be active in running business
    e. to be very competent in one’s work
    f. having or showing the ability to succeed in business and to be
    calm, cool, and collected
    one’s g. the world of large, powerful business organization
    h. to do commercial work

    4. Find all the suitable nouns for each of the adjectives or participles.
    an academic; a qualified; a brilliant; an interesting; an experienced; a modern; a skillful; a
    prestigious; an amazing; a self-discipline; an astonishing
    employee; career; profession; engineer

    5. Look at the following pictures and identify the professions. Then match them
    with the qualities in the box, justifying your choice.

    A
    1) a teacher

    2) a surgeon

    B

    C

    3) a telecommunication engineer

    D
    4) a military man

    Accurate; creative; patient; persuasive; brave; intelligent; polite; fair; friendly; imaginative; fit;
    cheerful; original; hard-working; energetic; modest; punctual; honest; sociable; communicative;
    140

    romantic; helpful.

    e.g. A secretary has to be efficient and careful to do her work quickly and
    accurately.
    6. Explain to your friend what you must do to insure a good career. Use the word
    given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in
    the same line.
    In order to obtain the necessary experience and acquire the desired position,
    you must start early and think ___ about a wide range of career options that suit
    both your academic background and ___, likes and dislikes, strengths and
    weaknesses. You should think about ___ between the work habits you have
    developed at the university and those that will be useful in your future career,
    how they will help or hinder your future ___ life and success.
    To insure a good career, you must take advantage of your vacations and
    other free time to work, which could help you to develop contacts and gain
    necessary skills. If ___ work is not available, you can get involved in extracurricula activities at the university or take an active part in some clubs,
    conferences, or festivals. This will help you to develop confidence in yourself,
    recognize the power you possess to take control of your future, and sculpt it in
    the manner that is best for you. As an ___ person, you are supposed to play an
    important role in the future ___ of our society, to take a responsible position.

    CREATE
    PERSON
    CONNECT
    PROFESSION
    SALARY

    EDUCATE
    DEVELOP

    7. Work in pairs. Speak to your cousin whom you haven’t seen for several years
    about your relatives/friends and their occupations. Make up a dialogue using the
    following variations:
    A.

    1)

    2)
    B.

    1)
    2)
    3)
    4)
    5)
    6)

    – What do you plan to do on leaving school? (when you are seventeen?
    when you are back from the army)
    – I’d like to enter a university. (to join the army(the navy); to go to work; to become
    a geologist)
    – Medicine is Bob’s calling, isn’t it? (Technology; Architecture; Engineering)
    – Oh, yes. No doubt he’ll make a good doctor. ( engineer; designer)
    – What is your profession? (trade? job? occupation?)
    – I am a driver. ( a bookkeeper; a doctor)
    – What can you say of your friend? (your new acquaintance? Mr. Jones?)
    – As far as I know, he is a skilled locksmith. (an experienced teacher; a well-known
    journalist; an excellent architect)
    – Where does your father work? (brother; uncle)
    e – He works at a Research Institute. ( a Ministry; a printing-house; a toy factory)
    – What is (are) your father’s salary? (pay? wages?)
    – He gets 500 dollars a month. ( earns 100 pounds a week; makes quite enough; gets
    not so much)
    – Why is the chief displeased with Jim? (Mr. Jones?)
    – It’s because he cannot manage his work well. ( shirks his job; often comes late; is
    not experienced enough; is an idler (loafer))
    – Why aren’t you at work now? (in your office? at your factory?)
    – You see, I’m on leave.( on vacation; on sick-list)

    8. Your future profession is an engineer. Read the text and explain to your
    friend: a) what engineering is; b) what kind of person an engineer is; c) what
    your future speciality is; d) what your future profession deals with.
    141

    What is Engineering?
    In general, engineering is a science that deals with design, construction and
    operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices. Engineer is a person
    who has received technical education and has a basic knowledge of other
    engineering fields, because most engineering problems are complex and
    interrelated. The term engineering is difficult to translate into Russian because it
    has a lot of meanings. Most often it is translated as: инженерное дело, техника,
    машиностроение, строительство. There exist the following main branches of
    engineering.
    Electrical and Electronics Engineering
    This is the widest field of engineering, concerned with systems and devices that
    use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field are
    electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer
    design, superconductors, solid-state electronics, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer
    electronics, and fiber optics.
    Electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power
    and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.
    Electronic Engineering
    Electronic Engineering deals with the research, design and application of circuits
    and devices used in the transmission and processing information.
    The revolution in electronics is the trend towards integrating electronic devices
    on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. Much of the
    research in electronics is directed towards creating even smaller chips, faster
    switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.
    Communications and Control
    Engineers in this field work on the control systems and communication systems
    that are used widely in aircraft and ships, in power transmission and distribution, in
    automated manufacturing and robotics.
    Major developments in this field are replacement of analogue systems with
    digital systems and copper cables with fibre optics (optical fibres). Digital systems
    lower electrical noise. Fibre optics lowers interference, has large carrying capacity,
    and is extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture.
    Computers Engineering
    Computer engineering is now the most rapidly growing field. Computer
    engineers design and manufacture memory systems, central processing units and
    peripheral devices. Major developments in this field are microminiaturization
    (design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chips) and new computer
    architectures. Using VLSI, engineers try to place greater number of circuit
    elements onto smaller chips. Another trend is towards increasing the speed of
    computer operations through the use of parallel processors and superconducting
    materials.

    142

    Safety Engineering
    This field of engineering has an object the prevention of accidents. Safety
    engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers of hazardous
    occupations. They also assist in designing machinery, factories, ships, and roads,
    suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce accident.
    Notes:
    1. Electrical and electronics engineering – электротехника и электроника
    2. Electronic engineering – электроника
    3. Communications and control – техника средств связи и управление
    4. Computers engineering – компьютерная техника
    5. Safety engineering – техника безопасности
    9. Work in pairs. Pete is speaking about his future career. Take the parts of Pete,
    Tom and Susan and reproduce the dialogue. Use the word combinations from
    the box given below.
    Tom:
    Pete:
    Tom:
    Pete:
    Susan:
    Pete:
    Susan:
    Pete:
    Susan:
    Pete:
    Susan:
    Pete:
    Susan:
    Pete:
    Susan:
    Pete:

    How are you doing, Pete? Fine, I hope?
    Hi, Tom! … , thanks. Glad to see you again … .
    Me, too. Listen, Tom. This is Susan Belmont. We attend … .
    Hallo, Susan. How do you do?
    ... , Pete. Are you a student ?
    Yes, I’m … of the Belarusian State University of Informatics and
    Radioelectronics.
    And what is your future profession?
    I’m going to be … . I’ll deal with … .
    … . What made you choose exactly this sphere?
    I have always been interested … . I consider … .
    Yes, it’s true. I know … is very important. It has paved the way for … . By the
    way, where would you like to work after graduating?
    It would be interesting for me … or to do some sort of research. … of taking a
    post-graduate course.
    … and hear you’ve won the Nobel Prize.
    Hm…, you are kidding, Susan. But why not? Our school … is one of the best in
    the world.
    Sorry, Pete, I must be off. … meeting you. …
    See you later, Susan.

    I’m very well…
    …to work somewhere in a design office…
    …telecommunications engineer.
    It was nice…
    …the design and development of integrated circuits.
    …in radio electronics.
    …in this International Camp.
    How do you do…
    … in telecommunications.
    …the design of radio electronic devices.
    … the same university.
    …the design and maintain of telecommunications systems.
    See you later.
    …this summer.
    143

    …a second-year student…
    I’m seriously thinking…
    …in this branch of engineering…
    …its contribution to the world’s progress…
    …an engineer.
    Oh, how interesting!
    …in microelectronics.
    …this branch to be the most promising.
    …the products that have improved the quality and convenience of our life.
    I hope to wake up one day …
    …an electronics engineer.

    10. What should you do to find a job? Find the logical sequence of the steps you
    should take and render it to your partner.
    get an invitation for an interview
    make an appointment with an employment agency counselor
    read the classified ads
    think what kind of job you want
    analyse your skills, personality traits and accomplishments
    get ready for the interview
    find out employment agency you can use
    h. find out as much as you can about the company

    11. There are two essential steps in the job-hunting process: research and
    planning. Research means examining your skills and finding out where you can
    apply them. Planning means deciding how you will present your skills to a
    prospective employer. You should go through these steps carefully whether you
    are looking for your first job.
    Work in pairs:
    Look at the following examples of skills/responsibilities and personality traits
    and find out the ones that apply to you. Try to explain your choice.
    Skills/Responsibilities
    acting
    analyzing
    assembling
    decorating
    designing
    driving
    filing
    helping people
    interviewing
    listening
    making crafts

    making decisions
    meeting people
    negotiating
    operating machines
    organizing
    persuading people
    repairing machines
    solving problems
    speaking
    sports
    supervising

    Personality Traits
    Use: I am very…
    accurate
    adaptable
    cooperative
    creative
    dependable
    flexible
    organized
    punctual
    responsible

    …is one of my strong
    points
    accuracy
    adaptability
    cooperation
    creativity
    dependability
    flexibility
    organization
    punctuality
    responsibility

    b) You are looking for a job. Analyze your interests and abilities. Here are ten
    basic questions to think about:
    1. What are my abilities? 2. What special talents do I have? 3. What are my special
    interests? 4. What are my physical abilities and limitations? 5. What are my
    144

    attitudes and values? 6. How do I see myself, or what is my self-concept? 7. What
    is my previous experience? 8. What are my educational plans for the future? 9. Am
    I a kind of person who works well in a large group, or do I work better with only
    one or two people? 10. Am I willing to accept change?
    c) Now point out the most important factors in choosing your job. Put them in
    order of importance and explain your choice.
    work which is useful to society;
    good salary or wages;
    opportunities to meet different people;
    opportunities to travel;
    flexible hours;
    interesting and not boring work;
    high security of employment;
    good pension scheme;

    responsibility of your own;
    the chance to promotion;
    good career prospects;
    good working conditions;
    friendly colleagues and considerate
    management;
    long holidays;
    other factors – what?

    12. Work in pairs. Alex Serov wants to find a job with the help of an employment
    agency. He makes an appointment over the telephone with an employment
    counselor. Restore the dialogue. Use the questions from the box given below.
    R:
    A:
    R:
    A:
    R:
    A:
    R:
    A:
    R:
    A:
    R:

    (receptionist) Good morning, Employment agency.
    Hello, my name is Alex Serov. I would like to have some information about your agency.
    …?
    I’ll try. …?
    …?
    Our agency works by appointment only. We place applicants in high-level positions. …?
    Yes, I would, thank you.
    …?
    I have a degree in safety engineering and I have four years of experience in the field.
    Fine. …?
    Yes, that’s perfect. I’ll be there at 10:30. Thank you and have a good day.
    You too, good-bye.

    a) Would you like to make an appointment to see an employment counselor at our agency?
    b) Can you help me?
    c) Can you come on Tuesday at 10:30 AM?
    d) Does your agency work by appointment only or may I drop in any time during the week?
    e) What type of position are you looking for?
    f) What would you like to know?

    13. Work in pairs: respond to the following statements reproduced by your
    partner choosing one of the phrases on the right and adding a sentence or two to
    explain why you think so.
    Career is an important part in everybody’s life.
    All people are to decide at an early age what field interest them,
    and then pursue in with great satisfaction.
    Only fools make permanent decision without knowledge.
    One needn’t have definite qualifications for the job.
    The employment offices place people according to their wishes.
    An engineer should be well educated and he should have good
    knowledge of different sciences such as math, chemistry, etc.
    In today’s “age of speciality”, it is very difficult to transfer from

    That’s what I was thinking.
    I can’t help thinking the same.
    Dead right.
    My own opinion is exactly the
    same.
    Not really.
    I’m not sure, in fact.
    No way!
    You can’t mean that!
    145

    one industry to another.
    Workers under 40 always have the best job opportunities.

    Your guess is good as mine.

    14. Henry Brown wants to change his work. Here is an ad he has found:
    COMPUTER SYSTEM ENGINEER.
    Analyze company requirement and develop new systems. Analyze
    business data to process to electronic processing design systems to
    integrate company department to financial accounting, inventory
    sales etc. Location: New Haven, CT. Respond to: Mr. Juan Diaz,
    Ferry Street Food Corp., 325 Ferry Street, New Haven, CT 06513.

    So he is sending his CV(Curriculum Vitae) and an applying letter. Put the
    addresses and date in the correct position on the page. Then put Henry’s letter in
    the correct order. What information is irrelevant in this letter? Why?
    ………………….
    20thSeptember

    2007

    54 Royal Street
    Cleveland
    NT8 5ST
    325 Ferry Street,
    New Haven
    CT 06513

    ………………….
    ………………….
    ………………….
    ………………….
    Five years of experience as a computer engineer have qualified me
    to work for a company like yours.
    Harry Brown
    I like flower arranging.
    Dear Mr. Juan Diaz,
    I speak and write fluent German and some French.
    Sincerely yours,
    I am writing in reply to your advertisement for a computer system
    engineer.
    I would appreciate your granting me an interview at your
    convenience.
    I am 1.70 meters tall, have dark brown hair and wear glasses.
    I am enclosing my CV that will inform you of my work
    experience.

    15. Work in pairs. Make an appointment over the telephone with the personal
    manager. Let another student act as his secretary. Continue the dialogue
    between you (C) and the secretary (S) according to the logical scheme offered
    below. The given table will help you.
    S: Good morning, “Horizont” enterprise.
    C: Good morning. Can I talk with someone about the job?
    S: Ask what caller is interested in.
    146

    C: Give information about the job you are interested in.
    S: Ask information about qualification.
    C: Reply.
    S: Ask if the caller has any work experience.
    C: Give information about your previous work.
    S: Set up an appointment with the personal manager. Ask to bring the resume.
    C: Repeat and confirm appointment information.
    S: Close the conversation.
    C: Close the conversation.
    - May I help you?
    Can I help … ?
    Are you looking for … ?
    - I’m calling about your ad in … for ….
    I’m looking for a position as …
    I’m interested in finding a job in … .
    - What are your qualifications … ?
    - I have … .
    As a matter of fact, … .
    - Do you have any work experience?
    - Not in this field, but … .
    Of course, … .

    - Can you come on … at …?
    Will … … suit you?
    - Yes, … will be quite convenient.
    Yes, … will be just fine.
    Yes, … will do well.
    - Ok, then I’ll see you on … .
    You are welcome. … .
    Fine, we’ll expect you then. … .
    - Fine, I think I’ll …
    It’s perfect. I’ll be … .

    16. You are lucky to be called for an interview. Do you know how to create a
    good impression at your first interview? Check the answers you think are right
    and then discuss your answers in your group.
    Always

    Sometimes

    Never

    Forget to shake hands with the interviewer.
    Smile all the time.
    Smoke or sit down until you are invited to.
    Look at the interviewer.
    Chew gum if you are nervous.
    Wear a suit and tie (men) or dress (women).
    Keep quiet if you don’t understand a question.
    Show interest in the job and ask questions.
    Ask a lot about money.
    Come on time.
    Give long answers.
    Think about questions before the interview.
    13. Dress neatly.
    14. Speak softly.
    17. Imagine that a friend of yours was the man in this story. The pictures are in
    the wrong order. Work out what happened. Tell your story, beginning: “This is
    what happened to a friend of mine…”

    147

    18. Comment on the following quotations.
    “If you have great talents, industry will improve them: if you have but moderate
    abilities, industry will supply their deficiency.” J. Reynolds.
    “To youth I have but three words counsel – work, work, work.” O. Von Bismark.
    “Work is much more fun than fun.” N. Coward.
    “Work is the grand cure of all the maladies and miseries that ever be set by
    mankind.” Th. Carlyle.
    5. “Work is the meat of life. Pleasure the dessert.” Ch. Forbes.
    19. You are a reporter from the Impuls. Your task is to interview some students
    of the BSUIR. Make up some questions about their future professions and their
    future career. You should find out what their future professions are like, what
    characteristics and applications are needed, whether the interviewee thinks
    he/she is suitable (with reasons), etc.
    You are to interview: - a first-year student,
    - a third-year student,
    - a graduate.

    148

    20. Examine the network and reproduce the topic “My Future Profession”
    supplying the necessary factual and imaginative details so as to present some
    ideas to your groupmates.
    Parents
    Salary

    Applying
    letters

    Engineer

    Making a
    choice
    Professions

    Interview
    Friends
    Job
    hunting

    Making a
    career

    BSUIR

    Scientist
    Personality
    traits

    Accurate
    Creative

    Employment
    Agency
    Faculties
    Telecommunication
    Radioengineering
    and Electronics

    ComputerAided Design

    II. Writin