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    АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
    ЯЗЫК
    ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ
    РАДИОТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ
    СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ
    ВУЗОВ

    Минск 2006
    Авторы: Е.П.Тарасова, Т.Г.Шелягова, В.П.Киселева, Н.И.Шавель

    Английский язык для студентов радиотехнических специальностей
    А64
    вузов: Е.П.Тарасова, Т.Г.Шелягова, В.П. Киселеваи др. - Мн.:
    БГУИР, 2006.− 213 с.
    Учебное пособие направлено на формирование лексических навыков по
    тематике радиотехнического профиля, а также развитие навыков и умений чтения и
    говорения по специальности. Авторами учебного пособия соблюдены
    преемственность школьного и вузовского курсов, реализовано требование
    профессионально-ориентированного обучения.
    В пособии имеется грамматический справочник, фонетический справочник
    и словарь общенаучной лексики.

    СONTENTS
    Unit One ............................................................................................................5
    2

    Lesson 1 (5). Lesson 2 (8). Lesson 3 (10). Lesson 4 (11).
    Unit Twо .........................................................................................................13
    Lesson 1 (13). Lesson 2 (16). Lesson 3 (18). Lesson 4 (19).
    Unit T h r e e ....................................................................................................21
    Lesson 1 (21). Lesson 2 (25). Lesson 3 (27). Lesson 4 (27).
    Unit Fоur ........................................................................................................29
    Lesson 1 (29). Lesson 2 (32). Lesson 3 (33). Lesson 4 (35).
    Unit Five ........................................................................................................36
    Lesson 1 (37). Lesson 2 (39). Lesson 3 (41). Lesson 4 (42).
    Unit Six ..........................................................................................................43
    Lesson 1 (44). Lesson 2 (47). Lesson 3 (48). Lesson 4 (50).
    Unit S e v e n ................................................................................................52
    Lesson 1 (52). Lesson 2 (54). Lesson 3 (56). Lesson 4 (58).
    Unit E i g h t ...................................................................................................59
    Lesson 1 (59). Lesson 2 (61). Lesson 3 (63). Lesson 4 (65).
    Unit Nine ........................................................................................................67
    Lesson 1 (67). Lesson 2 (69). Lesson 3 (71). Lesson 4 (73).
    Unit Ten ...........................................................................................................74
    Lesson 1 (74). Lesson 2 (76). Lesson 3 (79). Lesson 4 (80).
    Unit E l e v e n ...............................................................................................82
    Lesson 1 (82). Lesson 2 (84). Lesson 3 (86). Lesson 4 (87).
    Unit Twelve ......................................................................................................89
    Lesson 1 (89). Lesson 2 (92). Lesson 3 (94). Lesson 4 (95).
    Unit T h i r t e e n ...........................................................................................97
    Lesson 1 (97). Lesson 2 (100). Lesson 3 (103). Lesson 4 (105).
    Unit F o u r t e e n .......................................................................................107
    Lesson 1 (107). Lesson 2 (109). Lesson 3 (111). Lesson 4 (113).
    Unit F i f t e e n ...............................................................................................115
    Lesson 1 (115). Lesson 2 (119). Lesson 3 (121). Lesson 4 (123).

    Грамматический справочник
    I. Г л а г о л .....................................................................................................126
    3

    §1. Основные формы глагола ...................................................................126
    §2. Система грамматических времен английского языка .....................127
    §3. Страдательный залог .........................................................................129
    §4. Согласование времен .........................................................................131
    §5. Модальные глаголы ...........................................................................132
    §6. Сослагательное наклонение ..............................................................134
    §7. Условные предложения ......................................................................136
    §8. Глагол to be .........................................................................................137
    §9. Глагол to have ......................................................................................138
    §10. Глагол to do ........................................................................................138
    §11. Глагол should ......................................................................................139
    §12. Глагол would........................................................................................139
    II. Неличные ф о р м ы г л а г о л а ...............................................................140
    §13. Инфинитив .........................................................................................140
    §14. Причастие ...........................................................................................142
    §15. Герундий ..............................................................................................144
    Ш.А н а л и з п р е д л о ж е н и я ......................................................................146
    §16. Простое предложение .........................................................................146
    §17. Сложное предложение ....................................................................149
    §18. Усилительные конструкции ..........................................................151
    §19. Определительные сочетания...........................................................151
    IV. М н о г о ф у н к ц и о н а л ь н ы е м е с т о и м е н и я ...........................153
    §20 It .............................................................................................................153
    §21. That-those .............................................................................................153
    §22. These ....................................................................................................154
    §23. One ........................................................................................................155
    §24. Грамматическая омонимичность слов,
    оканчивающихся на -s, -ed, -ing .................................................................155
    Фонетический справочник................................................................................157
    Словарь общенаучной лексики .......................................... .............................160

    READING COURSE
    4

    UNIT ONE
    • Grammar: Simple Sentence (§ 76).
    Indefinite Tenses in the Active and Passive Voice (§2, 1).
    • Word-formation: suffixes -er, -or.
    • Individual Work: Lab Work "Indefinite Tenses".
    LESSON ONE
    Pre-text Exercises
    I. Practise the reading of the following words:
    inquiry [In'kwaIqri], physicist ['fizIsIst], discharge [dIs'tSa :G], genius
    [ ' G I : n I q s ] , medium ['mI:dIqm], ether ['i:Tq], circuit ['sE:kIt], to impinge
    [Im'pInG], diaphragm ['dqIqfrxm] , interference [ˏIntq'fiqrqns] , disturbance
    [dis'tE:bqns] , to distinguish [di'stiNwiS], audience ['O:dIqns], to supervise
    ['su:pqvaIz], circumference [sq'kAmfqrqns], convenience [kqn'vI:nIqns].
    II. Make sure if you can read the words correctly and say what Russian words
    help you to guess their meaning:
    gigantic, phenomenon, stress, reality, concept, theory, component, battery,
    apparatus, centre, radius, technique, natural, idea, definition, genius, history,
    diaphragm, experiment, polarization, radio, diffraction, atmosphere, interference,
    system, telegraph, communication, telephone, radiation, limit, mathematics.
    III. Form nouns adding the suffixes -er, -or to the given verbs. Translate the
    nouns and verbs into Russian:
    Example: to design – a designer (конструировать – конструктор)
    to detect – a detector (детектировать – детектор)
    to build, to operate, to contain, to receive, to read, to produce, to transmit, to
    invent, to discover, to drive, to translate, to visit, to convert, to regulate, to
    accumulate, to react, to use, to vibrate, to record.
    IV. Give the initial words of the following derivatives:
    Example: wireless – wire
    transmission – to transmit
    greatly, discharge, lecturer, atmospheric, successful, improvement, inventor,
    radiation, definition, equipment, purely, economic, powerful, development,
    operation, rapidly, information, atomic, magnetic, agreement, regulation, instruction,
    communication, technological, considerable, generation, separately, production,
    industrial, historic, logical, researcher.
    V. State what parts of speech the words in heavy type belong to. Translate the
    sentences into Russian:
    1. The study of this phenomenon is very important. The physicists study the
    structure of matter. 2. Energy can have many forms. What forms the basis of this
    compound? 3. We time our clock by radio. It is high time to go to the Institute. 4.
    5

    The train leaves at six in the evening. Will you go to the Crimea on leave? 5. We
    must set the time for the beginning of the experiment. Give this worker a set of
    tools. 6. Air is a mixture of gases. Air the room, please. 7. The generator charges
    the batteries. The charges of an electron and of a proton are equal in strength. 8. The
    experiment may result in a new scientific concept. The result of the process was the
    release of the energy. 9. Point out a mistake in this translation. Speak to the point.
    10. It is light in the room. Don't light the lamps.
    VI. Define the parts of the following simple sentences. Translate the sentences
    into Russian:
    1. In the first year the students have many general subjects. 2. This article is about
    the story of radio. 3. She began to translate the text yesterday. 4. Every student is
    present at the lecture today. 5. The methods of radio engineering are now used in
    various fields of science and technology. 6. There are thousands of radio amateurs
    different countries. 7. One cannot read such articles without a dictionary. 8. It is
    necessary to help him. 9. We usually take measurements with great accuracy. 10. It
    becomes cold in autumn. 11. There were many explanations of the phenomenon of
    light. 12. In January, it snowed all the time. 13. Several types of microphones are in
    wide use now. 14. Nobody could solve this problem. 15. One may determine the
    wave frequency. 16. Let us take part in the expedition. 17. To read is necessary. 18.
    Energy is the ability to work. 19. By reading English books we increase our
    vocabulary. 20. They offered me some interesting work. 21. There exist various types
    of radio receivers. 22. Every day at 8 o'clock in the morning the students come to the
    Institute.
    VII. Define the tense-forms of the verbs in the following sentences and translate
    them:
    1. Yesterday the students of our group came to help me with mathematics. 2.
    Our scientists will further develop various kinds of computers. 3. Radio waves are
    the longest members of the family of electromagnetic waves. 4. Where did the first
    international conference on radio take place? 5. Modern orbital stations weigh up
    to 20 tons. 6. If you work much, you will get good results. 7. My friend does not
    like sports. 8.
    Will you go to the library tomorrow? 9. When the lectures are
    over, we shall go to the reading hall. 10. We shall meet tomorrow at the same
    place. 11. According to the time-table, the train gets in at half past eight. 12. I left
    school three years ago. 13.1 completely agree with your opinion. 14. She not only
    sings, she plays the guitar as well. 15. You found the lost book, didn't you? 16. He
    spoke to me in a very friendly way. 17. Which part of the concert did you like
    most? 18. It was so warm a day that we decided to go to the river. 19. She speaks
    English well. 20. Electricity cables stretch over the fields. 21. We shall not leave
    home until you come. 22. She never listens to the advice which I give her. 23. If the
    water continues to rise, these fields will be under water.
    VIII. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
    1. He will give you the book when you need it. 2. If we put water into a tube, it
    6

    will take the shape of the tube. 3. I'll solve this equation if you help me. 4. Unless it is
    too late, we shall go there. 5. The circle will become an ellipse after you compress it.
    6. We shall use this substance in the experiment provided it has the necessary
    properties. 7. As soon as you return from the lab, we'll begin our work. 8.1 won't be
    able to explain this phenomenon if I do not analyse all the data. 9. Your experiment
    will not give good results until you change the speed of the reaction. 10. My friend
    will translate the text if you give him your dictionary. 11. I shall do it if it is
    necessary. 12. If he concentrates his attention on his studies, he will pass his exams
    successfully.
    IX. Soy the following sentences in the Past Indefinite Active. Don't forget to make
    the necessary changes:
    Example: He usually has his breakfast at 8 o'clock, (yesterday, at 9 o'clock)
    Yesterday he had his breakfast at 9 o'clock.
    1. John often tells me about his holidays, (yesterday afternoon, his family) 2. The
    postman usually comes at half past seven, (the day before yesterday, at six) 3. We go
    to the seaside for a week every August, (last autumn, into the country) 4. She always
    arrives at the office a few minutes before nine o'clock, (yesterday morning, at nine
    o'clock) 5. They sometimes go to the theatre, (last month, to the circus) 6. She often
    writes to her mother, (last week, two letters) 7. His sister regularly attends evening
    classes at the Institute, (two years ago, an open-air pool) 8. He is always at home on
    Sunday, (last Sunday, at the library). 9. Lessons begin at nine o'clock, (on Monday, at
    half past nine)
    X. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the verbs in the
    Indefinite Passive:
    1. Sounds are produced by the vibration of matter. 2. The translation from one
    language into another will soon be performed by computers. 3. Waves are carried
    in all directions from the vibrating body, 4. The first-year students are not taught
    special subjects. 5. Many problems of great interest are discussed at our seminars. 6.
    A lot of us were invited to the conference. 7. The methods of radio engineering are
    now applied in various fields of science and technology. 8. The agreement was
    signed ten years ago. 9. The research will be carried out over a period of four
    months. 10. Much attention is given to the development of radio engineering. 11.
    Lasers are now used for many scientific, medical and industrial purposes. 12. The
    laboratories of our Institute are equipped with modern devices. 13. The results of
    these experiments will be published in a scientific journal. 14. The importance of
    sport is known to everybody. 15. We were provided with the necessary literature.
    16. The equations were solved by the machine.. 17. The young scientist was invited
    to take part in the conference.
    XI. Say the following sentences in the Indefinite Passive. Use the words in heavy
    type as the subjects of your sentences:
    Example: Scientists use crystals in electronic devices.
    Crystals are used by scientists in electronic devices.
    1. Scientists developed several types of lasers. 2. I shall inform you about the
    7

    new discovery. 3. Solar batteries generate electricity. 4. The researcher carries out
    the experiments at high temperatures. 5. You always make the same mistakes. 6.
    He will bring the book next time. 7. Radio employs electrical energy to transmit
    sounds, images and signals. 8. The lecturer spoke about the latest works in the
    sphere of radioelectronics. 9. He showed me the articles from the latest magazine.
    10. Mendeleyev presented his table in 1869. 11. New data will support the results
    of our research. 12. These devices distribute the electric energy. 13. Heat converts
    ice into water. 14. A.S.Popov invented the first radio receiver. 15. The engineer
    will check the apparatus in the lab. 16. Their laboratory occupies a separate part
    of the building. 19. Radio devices perform various communication tasks. 18. We
    use such devices for amplification of radio signals.
    XII. Make sure if you remember the following verbs. Consult a dictionary:
    to follow, to show, to reduce, to exist, to differ, to correspond, to impinge, to
    suggest, to measure, to confirm, to appear, to inspire, to supervise, to change, to add,
    to draw, to mean, to reason, to create, to call, to hold, to develop, to broadcast, to
    use.
    XIII.
    Match up the words similar in meaning:
    to begin, to call, to reduce, essential, to start, to decide, to receive, definite, to
    name, velocity, to produce, to decrease, to apply, quickly, speed, to operate,
    research, to suggest, to obtain, to propose, investigation, to make, to use, certain,
    rapidly, principal, to work, to solve.
    XIV. Listen to the tape-recorded lexical programme. Try to memorize the words
    and word-groups:
    ■ to take a step forward – сделать шаг вперед ■ to put forward a theory –
    выдвинуть теорию ■ merely – только, всего лишь ■ to make a discovery –
    сделать открытие ■ essential – основной ■ to give rise to – способствовать ■
    loose – свободный, незакрепленный ■ mouthpiece – микрофон ■ to suggest a
    method – предложить метод ■ to turn to –обратиться ■ thereby – посредством
    этого to include – включать в состав, содержать ■ persistent – упорный,
    настойчивый ■ convenience – удобство ■ point – точка.
    LESSON TWO
    I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
    Text A
    The Story of Radio
    1. Without understanding the inquiries of pure science1, we cannot follow the
    story of radio. It begins perhaps with Joseph Henry, an American physicist, who
    discovered in 1842 that electrical discharges were oscillating. A gigantic step forward
    was taken by James Maxwell, a Scottish physicist and one of the great mathematical
    geniuses of the 19-th century. By purely mathematical reasoning2, Maxwell showed
    that all electrical and magnetic phenomena could be reduced to stresses and motions
    in a medium, which he called the ether. Today we know that this "electrical medium"
    8

    does not exist in reality3. Yet the concept of an ether helped greatly, and allowed
    Maxwell to put forward his theory that the velocity of electric waves in air should be
    equal to that of the velocity of light waves, both being the same kind