Разговорный_английский_Практический_курс

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УДК 372.881.111.1
ББК 81.2 Англ-2
Д81
Дудорова, Элли Семёновна.
Д81 Разговорный английский. Практический курс / Э. С. Дудо ро ва. —
Санкт-Петер бург : КАРО, 2017. — 384 с.
ISBN 978-5-9925-1171-0.
Учебное пособие адресовано тем, кто желает систематизировать имеющиеся зна-
ния английского языка и совершенствовать навыки речевого общения.
В основу пособия положен тематический принцип. Каждый из 19 разделов содер-
жит текст, словарь, включающий выражения, микродиалоги и развернутые диалоги,
лексические, грамматические, речевые упражнения, а также грамматический справоч-
ник. Каждые три (конечные — четыре) раздела завершаются обзорным тестом на про-
верку усвоения лексического и грамматического материала по данным разделам.
Система упражнений, предназначенных для работы над определенной темой, раз-
работана с учетом коммуникативной направленности пособия. Принцип коммуника-
тивности сохранен и в большинстве грамматических упражнений, что дает возмож-
ность тренировать заданную языковую модель в естественных речевых условиях.
Учебный материал и система упражнений помогут учащимся преодолеть барьер в
речевом общении и повысить уровень владения английским языком.
УДК 372.881.111.1
ББК 81.2 Англ-2
ISBN 978-5-9925-1171-0
© Э. С. Дудорова, 2016
© КАРО, 2016
Все права защищены

3
CONTENTS
Предисловие . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Unit
One
Text About Myself and My Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Grammar The Verb to be (Глагол to be (быть, находиться, являться) . . . . . . . . . 16
Forms of the Verb to be in the Present, Past and Future Simple Tense
(Формы глагола to be в настоящем, прошедшем
и будущем простом времени) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
Personal and Possessive Pronouns
(Личные и притяжательные местоимения) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Two Forms of the Possessive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
The Possessive Case of Nouns
(Притяжательный падеж существительных) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Short Dialogues Greetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Unit
Twо
Text At the English Lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Grammar The Verb to have in the Present, Past and Future Simple Tense
(Глагол to have в настоящем,
прошедшем и будущем простых временах). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Text Diana Rich, Том Atkins and Mike Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Short Dialogues Where Are You From? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Grammar The Plural of the Noun (Множественное число существительных) . . . . 35
Unit
Three
Text My Everyday Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Grammar The Simple Tenses (Простые времена) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
The Present Simple Tense (Настоящее простое время) . . . . . . . . . —
The Past Simple Tense (Прошедшее простое время) . . . . . . . . . . 47
The Future Simple Tense (Будущее простое время) . . . . . . . . . . 48
The Negative and Interrogative Forms of the Present,
Past and Future Simple Tenses
(Отрицательная и вопросительная формы настоящего,
прошедшего и будущего простых времен) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Text A Bad Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Grammar The Adverbs many, much, etc. (Наречия many, much и др.) . . . . . . . . . 55

4
Text The Cat that Caused a Wedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Grammar The Expression used tо do something (Выражение used to do something) . . 58
Short Dialogues Making a Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
REVISION TEST 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Unit
Four
Text The Climate and Seasons in England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Grammar Tag-Questions (Разделительные вопросы) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Short Dialogues Talking about the Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Text Must . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Grammar The Pronoun it (Местоимение it) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Grammar Cardinal Numerals (Количественные числительные) . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Unit
Five
Dialogues Have You Ever …? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Grammar The Perfect Tenses (Совершенные времена) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
The Present Perfect Tense (Настоящее совершенное время) . . . . . —
Short Dialogues Meeting People after a Long Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Grammar The Past and Future Perfect Tenses
(Прошедшее и будущее совершенные времена) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Text Days of the Week. Months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Grammar Ordinal Numerals (Порядковые числительные) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Unit
Six
Text Television in Our Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Text TV Is a Good Thing if You Watch It Properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Short Dialogues At the TV Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Grammar The Modal Verbs can, may, mus t
(Модальные глаголы can, may, must) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
The Meaning of the Modal Verb can (could)
(Значения модального глагола can (could) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
The Meaning of the Modal Verb may (mig ht)
(Значения модального глагола may (might) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
The Meaning of the Modal Verb must
(Значения модального глагола must) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
Equivalents of the Modal Verbs
(Эквиваленты модальных глаголов) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

5
Grammar The Modal Verbs needn’t (нет необходимости),
should, ought (следует) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Различие между модальными глаголами should и ought . . . . . . . . . —
Text The Dog as a Passenger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Grammar Modal Verbs with the Perfect Infi nitive
(Модальные глаголы с перфектным инфинитивом) . . . . . . . . . . . 112
REVISION TEST 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Unit
Seven
Texts 1. At the Seaside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
2. At the Seaside Hotel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Text Protect Your Child in the Sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Dialogues А Holiday in Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Grammar The Continuous Tenses
(Времена, обозначающие действие в процессе) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
The Present Continuous Tense
(Настоящее время в процессе совершения) . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
Short Dialogues Saying Good-Bye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Grammar The Past and Future Continuous Tenses
(Прошедшее и будущее время в процессе совершения) . . . . . . . . . 129
Таблица групп грамматических времен
Simple, Continuous и Perfect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
The Perfect Continuous Tenses
(Совершенно-длительные времена) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
(Настоящее совершенно-длительное время) . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
(Прошедшее совершенно-длительное время) . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Unit
Eight
Text Transport in the Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Carpooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Short Dialogues Asking the Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
On the Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Text Worldwide Taxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Traffi c Rules on the Roads of Great Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Grammar The Indefi nite Pronouns some, any, no
(Неопределенные местоимения some, any, no) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Short Dialogues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Grammar Derivatives from some, any, n o (Производные от some, any, no) . . . . . 167

6
Unit
Nine
Text Meals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Short Dialogues At Lunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Text The English Tea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Short Dialogues Teatime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Text Junk Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Grammar The Pronouns one (ones), that (those) as Substitutes for a Noun
(Местоимения one (ones), that (those) как заместители
существительного) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
The Pronoun one (ones) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
The Pronouns this (these), that (those) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
REVISION TEST 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Unit
Ten
Grammar The Imperative Mood (Повелительное наклонение) . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Text Table Manners (a List of Do’s and Don’t’s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
Short Dialogues In the Pub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Text London’s Restaurants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Short Dialogues At the Restaurant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
With a Friend in the Coffee Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Unit
Eleven
Text Home (Our Flat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Our House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Dialogue There Is a Nice Apartment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Short Dialogues Thanks for Hospitality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Grammar The Structure there be (Структура there be) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Unit
Twelve
Text Travelling by Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Short Dialogues At the Railway Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Grammar Adverbs (Наречие) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
The Formation of Adverbs (Образование наречий) . . . . . . . . . . —
Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
(Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий) . . . . . . . . . . 232

7
Grammar Constructions Used for Comparing Persons or Things
(Сравнительные конструкции) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Text Bob Dylan Isn’t Happy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Grammar The Comparation Construction The sooner … the better
(Сравнительная конструкция The sooner … the better) . . . . . . . 238
REVISION TEST 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Unit
Thirteen
Text Travelling by Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Short Dialogues Booking Airline Tickets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Grammar The Passive Voice (Страдательный залог) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
The Peculiarities of the Passive Voice in English
(Особенности страдательного залога в английском языке) . . . . 253
The Passive Voice with Modal Verbs
(Страдательный залог с модальными глаголами) . . . . . . . . . . 257
Unit
Fourteen
Text At the Customs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
The Smuggler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Dialogue Going Through Customs at the Airport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Grammar The Sequence of Tenses Rule (Правило согласования времен) . . . . . 270
Indirect Speech. Indirect Statements
(Косвенная речь. Косвенные утверждения) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Indirect Questions (Косвенные вопросы) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Indirect Requests, Orders and Short Answers
(Просьбы, приказания и краткие ответы в косвенной речи) . . . . 278
Unit
Fifteen
Text The Telephone Makes Communication Personal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Head Bans Mobile Phones in Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
The Early Days of the Telephone (after Jerome K. Jerome) . . . . . . . . . 288
Short Dialogues Making a Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Long-Distance Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Grammar The Participle (Причастие) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction
(Независимый причастный оборот) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
REVISION TEST 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

Unit
Sixteen
Text At the Hotel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Short Dialogues At the Hotel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Text London Hotels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Grammar The Gerund (Герундий) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Gerundial Constructions (Герундиальные обороты) . . . . . . . . . 318
Unit
Seventeen
Text At the Post Offi ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Short Dialogues At the Post Offi ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Grammar The Infi nitive. The Infi nitive Constructions
(Неопределенная форма глагола.
Конструкции с неопределенной формой глагола) . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Construction for + to Infi nitive (Конструкция for + to Infi nitive) . . . 331
The Objective Infi nitive Construction (The Complex Object)
(Объектная инфинитивная конструкция,
или сложное дополнение) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4
The Subjective Infi nitive Construction
(Субъектная инфинитивная конструкция) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Unit
Eighteen
Text Shopping (at the Department Store) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Dialogues At the Ready-Made Clothes Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
In a Jeweller’s Shop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
In a Toy Shop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Short Dialogues Asking for Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Grammar The Subjunctive Mood (Сослагательное наклонение) . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Unit
Nineteen
Text Shopping (at the Supermarket) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
At the Supermarket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Dialogue A Talk with a Friend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Grammar The Subjunctive Mood in Conditional Sentences
(Сослагательное наклонение в условных предложениях) . . . . . . . 370
Miscellaneous Types of Conditional Sentences
(Смешанные типы условных предложений) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
REVISION TEST 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Приложение Основные формы неправильных глаголов,
встречающихся в учебном пособии . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Использованная литература . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

9
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Учебное пособие адресовано тем, кто желает систематизировать
имеющиеся знания английского языка и совершенствовать навыки
речевого общения.
Курс рассчитан на 180 аудиторных часов.
В основу пособия положен тематический принцип. Каждый из
19 разделов содержит текст, словарь, включающий выражения,
микро диалоги и развернутые диалоги, лексические, грамматиче-
ские, речевые упражнения, а также грамматический справочник.
Каждые три (конечные — четыре) раздела завершаются обзорным
тестом на проверку усвоения лексического и грамматического мате-
риала по данным разделам.
Система упражнений, предназначенных для работы над опре-
деленной темой, разработана с учетом коммуникативной направ-
ленности пособия. Принцип коммуникативности сохранен и в
большин стве грамматических упражнений, что дает возможность
тренировать заданную языковую модель в естественных речевых
условиях.
Бóльшая часть упражнений ориентирована на работу в парах.
При повышенной трудности предпочтителен режим «преподаватель-
студент», который может заменяться режимом «студент-студент»,
если возникнет необходимость повторно выполнить задание.
При разработке системы заданий и упражнений первостепенная
роль в пособии отводится принципу ситуативности, который рас-
сматривается как важный фактор, стимулирующий речевую деятель-
ность студента.
Учебное пособие предусматривает работу по развитию как мо-
нологической, так и диалогической речи; последней отдается пред-
почтение. Обучение монологической речи проводится на микроте-
мах основного и дополнительных текстов раздела и реализуется в
следую щих заданиях: «опишите», «сравните», «назовите», «перечис-
лите» и др. Тематика текстов затрагивает круг повседневных интересов
учащегося, поэтому, усвоив содержащуюся в текстах информацию,
он сможет свободно и спонтанно высказываться на заданную тему.

Для обучения диалогической речи используются прежде всего
серии тематических диалогов. Они сопровождаются заданием
Situational exercises to the short dialogues, направленным на интен-
сивную тренировку речевых оборотов в предлагаемых ситуациях.
В пособие включен грамматический материал. Грамматические
сведения даются небольшими «порциями» с одновременной практи-
ческой отработкой. Большинство упражнений этого раздела состав-
лено также с учетом коммуникативной направленности.
При системном изложении грамматического материала в поле зре-
ния оказываются структуры, которые составляют принадлежность
письменной речи. Их употребление иллюстрируется одним-двумя
примерами. Те грамматические явления из данной системы, которые
представляют интерес для процесса коммуникации, отрабатываются в
упражнениях речевого характера.
В учебном пособии имеется также таблица форм неправильных
глаголов, встречающихся в текстах, диалогах и упражнениях.
Автор надеется, что учебный материал и система упражнений
помогут обучающимся преодолеть барьер в речевом общении и по-
высить уровень владения английским языком.

11
Unit
ONE
Conversation: About Myself and My Family. Greetings
Grammar: The Verb to be. Personal and Possessive Pronouns; the Possessive
Case of Nouns
Te x t
Read the text.
About Myself and My Family
Let me introduce myself. I am John Brown, an Englishman. I am twenty-
fi ve years old. By profession I am a doctor. I work at a large hospital in
London. I am single.
Our family is large. We are six: my father, my mother, my grandmother,
my brother, my sister and me. We all live together. My parents are not old.
My father, George Brown, is fi ft y-fi ve; and my mother, Jane Brown, is fi ft y-
two. My father is a manager of a big plant. My mother does not work, she
is a housewife. My grandmother, Katherine Smith, is a pensioner. She
helps my mother to keep house.
My brother’s name is Michael. He is a young scientist. We are twins.
Mary, our sister, is fi ve years younger than we are. She is twenty and she
studies literature at the University of London at the Faculty of Arts. She is
a third-year student.
My sister is unmarried. My brother Michael is going to get married
this summer. His bride, a nice young woman, is a musician. Her name is
Elizabeth. As to me, I am a confi rmed bachelor.
We live in a two-storeyed cottage in the suburb of London.
Words and Expressions
to introduce [,IntrA´dju:s] somebody to somebody — представить ко го-л.
кому-л., познакомить
large [lC:dZ] — большой
to be single [´sINgl] — быть не замужем, неженатым
We are six. — Нас (в семье) шестеро.

12
a manager [´mBnIdZA] — управляющий, менеджер
a housewife [´haus,waIf] — домашняя хозяйка
Katherine [´kBFArIn] — Катрин
to keep house — вести хозяйство
Michael [´maIkl] — Майкл
a scientist [´saIAntIst] — ученый
twins [twInz] — близнецы
literature [´lItrAtSA] — литература
a Faculty of Arts [´fBkAltIAv´C:ts] — факультет гуманитарных наук
a third-year student [´FQ:d´jQ:´stju:dAnt] — студент(ка) третьего курса
to be going to do something — собираться (что-л. делать)
to get married [´mBrid] — жениться (выходить замуж)
a bride [braId] — невеста
summer [´sEmA] — лето
a musician [mju:´zISAn] — музыкант
Elizabeth [I´lIzAbAF] — Элизабет
as to me — что касается меня
a confi rmed bachelor [´bBtSAlA] — типичный холостяк
two-storeyed [–´stD:rId] — двухэтажный
a suburb [´sEbQ:b] — пригород
Exercises
I. А. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Is the Browns family large or small? How many are they? 2. How old is
the father?
3. How old are the twins? 4. Who is a housewife? 5. What is
George Brown?
6. What is the grandmother’s name? 7. How old is Mary?
Is she married?
8. Who is going to get married? 9. Who is a musician?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Tell mе, please (Скажите мне, пожалуйста).
Помните, что такая форма вопроса не является собственно вопросом, по-
этому обратный порядок слов, свойственный вопросительным предложе-
ниям, преобразуется в этом случае в прямой, как в утвердительных пред-
ложениях. При этом элементом (т. е. союзом или союзным словом), при-
соединяющим косвенный вопрос к фразе Tell me, please, будет то слово,
которое являлось вопросительным словом специального вопроса; преж-

13
ние общие вопросы присоединяются союзом if, который соответствует
русской частице «ли».
Model 1: How old is your sister? → Tell me, please, how old your sister is.
(Скажите, пожалуйста, сколько лет вашей сестре.)
Model 2: Is your family large? → Tell me, please, if your family is large.
(Скажите, пожалуйста, большая ли у вас семья.)
Если вопрос задается к подлежащему (4, 8, 9), то при его переводе в кос-
венный вопрос сохраняется прежний порядок слов, который в этом типе
вопросов не меняется, поскольку изначально он был прямым. Например:
Who is a young scientist? Tell me, please, who is a young scientist. Скажите, по-
жалуйста, кто (из них) молодой ученый.
II. Name all the people of the Browns family. Mention their age and profession. Use the
model given below:
John Brown is twenty-fi ve (years old). He is a doctor. His brother’s name
is…
III. Express your surprise at what you hear.
Model: Т.: John Brown is a doctor.
St.: Indeed? (В самом деле?)
Т.: He is.
1. He is a confi rmed bachelor. 2. His sister is a third-year student. 3. Th ey
are friendly.
4. Michael is going to get married this summer. 5. His bride
is a musician.
6. Mary is only twenty. 7. John Brown’s father is a manager.
8. His mother is a housewife. 9. Th ey are young. 10. Th e brothers are twins.
11. Th eir house is in the suburb of London. 12. It is a two-storeyed
cottage.
IV. Describe the Browns family in detail.
Additional Words
relative [´relAtIv] — родственник
relationship [rI´leISnSIp] — родство
a son [sEn] — сын
a daughter [´dD:tA] — дочь
a cousin [´kEzn] — двоюродный брат (кузен), двоюродная сестра
(кузина)

14
a grandson [´grBn,sEn] — внук
a granddaughter [´grBn,dD:tA] — внучка
grandchildren [´grBn,tSIldrAn] — внуки
a husband [´hEzbAnd] — муж, супруг
a wife [waIf] — жена, супруга
a great-grandfather [´greIt´grBn,fC:GA] — прадед
a niece [ni:s] — племянница
a nephew [´nefju:; ´nevju:] — племянник
a father-in-law […In´lD:] — тесть, свекор
a mother-in-law — теща, свекровь
an aunt [C:nt] — тетя
an uncle [´ENkl] — дядя
a bridegroom (a groom) [´braId,grum] — жених
divorce [dI´vD:s] — развод; разводиться
to be divorced — быть в разводе
V. Name the ties of relationship spoken about using the given models.
Model 1: Т.: Who is your mother’s sister?
St.: My mother’s sister is my aunt.
Who is your…
father’s brother?
aunt’s daughter?
sister’s daughter?
brother’s son?
wife’s (husband’s) mother?
husband’s (wife’s) father?
mother’s daughter?
father’s son?
Model 2: Т.: Who is an aunt?
St.: An aunt is a sister of one’s father (mother).
Who is…
an uncle?
a niece?
a nephew?
a cousin?
a father-in-law?
a mother-in-law?

15
VI. Match the defi nition from the right part to the notion given on the left.
1) a confi rmed bachelor a) a man or woman who is not married
2) single b) the daughter of your stepfather or stepmother
3) a half sister c) a woman who is going to get married
4) a fi ancée d) the process of making a child legally part of
your family
5) adoptive parents e) your brother or sister
6) a stepsister f) the daughter of your husband or wife who is
not your child
7) a sibling g) a man who does not ever intend to get married
8) a stepdaughter h) a female person who has either the same
mother or the same father as you
9) adoption i) the son or daughter of your husband or wife
from a previous relationship
10) a stepchild j) people who have adopted a child
VII. Give the English equivalent for each Russian word.
Падчерица, отчим, теща, единокровная сестра, шурин, приёмные
дети, мачеха, сводный брат, зять, братья и сестры, свекровь, невестка.
VIII. Say it in English.
1. У меня хорошие родственники. 2. Моя сестра не замужем, но она
собирается выйти замуж летом. Ее жених врач, ему 25 лет.
3. Нас в
семье 5 человек. Мы с сестрой близнецы. Наши родители музыканты.
4. Моя бабушка пенсионерка, а дедушка — нет. 5. Мой двоюродный
брат женат. Его жена — преподаватель. Этим летом они собираются
поехать в Лондон.
6. Моя двоюродная сестра — студентка гуманитар-
ного факультета университета.
7. Мою племянницу зовут Мария, ей
15 лет. Она очень хорошая девочка.
8. Моему племяннику всего
3 года. Его зовут Александр.
9. Наша семья большая, и мы все дружны.
REMEMBER how to ask questions about a person’s name, age and profession and how to
answer them.
What is your name? My name is Ann.
Как вас зовут? Меня зовут Анна.
How old are you? I am twenty-fi ve (years old).
Сколько вам лет? Мне двадцать пять (лет).

16 What are you? I am an engineer.
Кто вы по профессии? Я инженер.
Are you married? Yes, I am. (No, I am not.)
Вы женаты (замужем)? Да. (Нет.)
Is your husband a student? No, he is not, he is a programmer.
Ваш муж студент? Нет, он программист.
IX. А. You are going to get married. Tell your relatives about your bride (bridegroom).
B.
Write at least six questions that your parents could ask you about your bride
(bridegroom).
C.
What could your friends ask you about when they learnt that you were getting
married?
X. To get acquainted with one another ask the person next to you his (her) name, age,
profession and learn some other informtion you are interested in.
XI. Tell your partner about your family or your friend’s family.
Grammar
THE VERB TO BE (БЫТЬ, НАХОДИТЬСЯ, ЯВЛЯТЬСЯ)
Forms of the Verb to be in the Present,
Past and Future Simple Tense
(Формы глагола to be в настоящем,
прошедшем и будущем простом времени)
Present Past Future
to be to be to be
I
He, she, it
We, you, they
единственное
число
множественное
число
I, we
остальные лица
am is are was were shall be will be

17
1. Last year
(в прошлом году)2. Now
(теперь, сейчас)3. Next year
(в следующем году)
I was in France.
[frC:ns]I am in England. I shall (will) be in America
1.
He was in France. He is in England. He will be in America.
She was in France. She is in England. She will be in America.
It was in France. It is in England. It will be in America.
We were in France. We are in England. We shall (will) be in
America.
You were in France. You are in England. You will be in America.
They were in France. They are in England. They will be in America.
Exercises
I. Put in the verb to be in the appropriate form. The meaning of the new words is given
below.
1. My sister … twenty-two years old. She … married. 2. My grandparents
… pensioners.
3. Th is woman … a housewife. 4. Yesterday the day … fi ne.
Now it … windy.
5. Tomorrow my husband … at home. 6. We … glad to
meet you here.
7. My school friend … a confi rmed bachelor. 8. His brother
… unmarried, but he … happy.
9. Yesterday everybody … at the conference,
but you … not.
10. Next summer I … in the Crimea, my friends … in the
Caucasus.
11. Now we … at the English lesson and we … ready to speak
English.
yesterday [´jestAdeI] — вчера
fi ne — прекрасный
windy [´wIndi] — ветреный
tomorrow [tA´mOrAU] — завтра
at home — дóма
to be glad — быть довольным
to meet — встречать
here [hIA] — здесь
happy [´hBpi] — счастливый
1 Следует иметь в виду, что в современном английском разговорном языке
вспомогательный глагол shall вытесняется глаголом will, поэтому допускаются
формы I will, we will.

18
everybody [´evri,bOdi] — каждый, все
the Crimea [kraI´mIA] — Крым
the Caucasus [´kD:kAsIs] — Кавказ
a lesson [´lesn] — урок
to be ready [´redi] — быть готовым
to speak [spi:k] — говорить
REMEMBER!
Shan’t [SC:nt] — краткая форма от shall not.
Won’t [wAUnt] — краткая форма от will not.
II. Use the short form of the verbs shall and will in the negative sentences.
1. I shall (will) not be at the University tomorrow. 2. We shall (will) not be
here at 10 o’clock.
3. My wife will not be at home in the evening. 4. Our
friends will not be at the theatre.
5. We shall (will) not be at the conference.
III. Say that the information given below does not concern other people.
Model: Т.: We are at the English lesson now.
(But two students / to be ill)
St.: But two students aren’t at the lesson, they are ill.
1. Yesterday I was at home. (But my parents / at the theatre) 2. My friends
were in the Caucasus. (But I / in the Crimea)
3. My niece is small. (But my
nephew / a schoolboy)
4. He is a scientist. (But his friend / an engineer)
5. She’ll be a good wife for you. (But Jane / for Tom) 6. Th ey were good
students. (But I / to be lazy)
7. Everybody was in time. (But my friend / to
be late)
8. His brother is a musician. (But his sister / a doctor) 9. We’ll be
here at 9 o’clock. (But he / at 12)
10. My sister is married. (But my brother
/ to be going to get married)
IV. Read the following general questions and the answers to them. Pay attention to the
structure of the interrogative sentence.
1. Are you a good student? — Yes, I am. I’m a good student.
2. Were you at the cinema yesterday? — No, I wasn’t. I wasn’t at the
cinema yesterday.
3. Was he at home at 5 o’clock? — Yes, he was. He was at home at
5 o’clock.

19
4. Will you be glad to meet him? — Yes, I shall (will). I’ll be glad to meet
him.
5. Is your friend a good doctor? — Yes, he is. He is a good doctor.
V. Ask an additional question specifying the situation.
Model: Т.: I’ll be at home aft er classes. (late in the evening)
St.: Will you be at home late in the evening?
Т.: I think (думаю), I shall (will).
1. We were late. (he / too) 2. Th e children are at school. (at the English
lesson)
3. Th ey’ll be glad to meet you. (my husband) 4. His brother is a
young doctor. (competent)
5. Th e little girl is nice. (clever) 6. Th e family is
happy. (you)
7. He was a good engineer. (now) 8. I’ll be in the offi ce at
10 o’clock. (at 5 or later)
VI. Ask one another questions and listen to the answers.
1. Поинтересуйтесь: является ли А. хорошим студентом (другом,
спортсменом, врачом, ученым и т. д.); ленив ли он; опаздывает ли
иногда.
2. Узнайте: женат ли он (холост, разведен, собирается ли жениться).
3. Спросите: был ли он вчера на концерте (в кино, в театре, на ста-
дио не, в университете, на уроке английского языка).
4. Поинтересуйтесь: будет ли он завтра утром дома (в университете
в 2 часа дня, на уроке английского языка).
VII. Express your attitude to what is stated using the phrases It’s fi ne, It’s not good, It’s
bad, It’s a pity (жаль).
Model: Т.: Alice is a clever girl.
St.: Is she? It’s fi ne.
1. David is a lazy boy. 2. Th ey are late. 3. We were there. 4. Alex is going to
get married soon.
5. My friend is a confi rmed bachelor. 6. Ja n e i s i l l . 7. Th ey
are good friends.
8. His parents are divorced. 9. Ellen is always busy. 10. My
brother is married but he is unhappy.
VIII. Reconstruct the questions on the basis of the following answers.
1. Yes, she is. She is married. 2. No, he isn’t. He is a confi rmed bachelor.
3. She is twenty-fi ve years old. 4. No, he is not a doctor, he is a programmer.

20
5. No, he is not a programmer. 6. Yes, he is. He is a programmer. 7. No,
I am not. I am not a scientist, I am a teacher.
8. No, she is a fi rst-year
student.
Grammar
PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
(ЛИЧНЫЕ И ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ)
Personal Possessive — чей?
Простая
формаАбсолют-
ная форма
I — я me — меня, мне
мной, мноюmу — мой,
моя, мое,
моиmine
You — ты you — тебя, тебе
тобой, тобоюyour —
твой, твоя,
твое, твоиyours
He — он
She —
онаодушев-
ленныеhim — его, ему,
им
her — ее, ей, еюhis — его
her — ееhis
hers
It — он,
она, ононеодушев-
ленныеit — его, ее its — его, ее –
We — мы us — нас, нам,
намиour — наш,
наша, наше,
нашиours
You — вы you — вас, вам,
вамиyour — ваш,
ваша, ваше,
вашиyours
They — ониthem — их, им, имиtheir — их theirs
Two Forms of the Possessive Pronouns
1. This is your book and that is mine.
2. My room is large, hers is small.

21
my
your
his, her, its
our
their+ существительноеmine
yours
his, hers
ours
theirsбез существительного
(абсолютная форма)
THE POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS
(ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ПАДЕЖ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ)
The name of my friend = My friend’s name — Имя моего друга
The parents of my friends = My friends’ parents — Родители моих друзей
Exercises
IX. Put in the appropriate possessive pronoun.
1. Tom has a sister. … sister is a student. 2. Ann has a brother. … brother
is an economist.
3. I have a grandfather. … grandfather is old. 4. We h a v e
a house in the suburb. … house is warm and light.
5. You have a friend. Is
… friend a doctor?
6. He speaks English. Is … English good? 7. Th is is
a new word. What is … meaning?
8. Th ey have a lot of friends. … friends
are not students.
9. Th is is a nice dog. … colour is unusual. 10. English is
not a diffi cult language. … pronunciation is diffi cult.
X. А. Use the absolute form of the possessive pronoun according to the model.
Model: Т.: Th is is her book.
St.: Pardon me, whose book is this?
Т.: Hers.
1. Th is is her brother. 2. Th ese are my children. 3. His job is interesting.
4. Our friends are clever. 5. Th eir room is small. 6. Your English is good.
7. Her voice is pleasant. 8. His textbook is new.
B. Do the exercise again with your partner.

22
XI. Use the possessive case of the noun instead of the phrase joined with the pre-
position of.
1. Th e wife of his brother works at the hospital. 2. Th e name of this girl is
Jane.
3. Th e family of my friend is large. 4. Th e husband of this woman is
a worker.
5. Th e room of my sons is warm and light. 6. Th e books of the
boys are on the desk.
7. Th e dog of the children is funny.
Conversational Phrases for Everyday Life
How do you do? — Здравствуй(те). (При первой встрече, знаком стве)
Hello (Hallo)! — Здравствуй. Привет!
Hi! [haI] (Am. E.) — Привет!
Good morning (afternoon, evening). — Доброе утро (день, вечер).
Good night. — Спокойной ночи.
How are you (getting on)? — Как поживаете? Как дела?
Fine. — Прекрасно.
Good-bye. (Bye-bye. Bye.) — До свидания.
See you tomorrow (on Sunday, later). — До завтра (до воскресенья, до
скорой встречи).
Thank you. Thanks. — Спасибо.
Thank you very much. Many thanks. — Большое спасибо.
Not at all. — Не за что.
Short Dialogues
GREETINGS
Read the dialogues.
I
A.: Hello, Linda!
B.: Hi, John! How are you?
A: Fine, thank you, and you?
B.: Fine, thanks.
II
A.: Hello, Bob!
B.: Hello!
A.: How are you getting on?
B.: Everything is OK, thank you. And how about you?
A.: So-so, I’d say.

23
III
A.: Hello, Tom! How are things with you?
B.: Not quite well, thank you. But it’s very kind of you to come.
A.: Oh, I’m glad to help you.
B.: Many thanks.
A.: It’s a pleasure.
IV
A.: Mrs Brown, I’d like you to meet my brother Robert.
B.: How do you do?
C.: How do you do? How do you like London?
B.: Oh, it’s a wonderful city.
II. Everything is ОК. — Все хорошо (в порядке).
So-so, I’d say. — Неважно, я бы сказал.
III. How are things with you? — Как дела?
Not quite [kwaIt] well. — He совсем хорошо, не очень.
It’s very kind [kaInd] of you to come. — Очень хорошо с твоей стороны,
что ты пришел.
It is a pleasure [´pleZA]. — Пожалуйста (я с удовольствием это
делаю — в ответ на благодарность).
IV. I’d like you to meet — Мне хотелось бы познакомить вас (предста-
вить вам)
wonderful [´wEndAfl] — удивительный, чудесный
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. You are introduced to somebody. Choose the appropriate phrase from those given below:
1) for greeting:
How do you do? Hello! Hi!
2) to express your personal attitude to the new acquaintance:
It’s very kind of you to come. I’m glad to meet you. How nice of you to
come.
II. The following answers present the reaction to the defi nite questions. Ask the implied
question.
1. I’m fi ne, thanks. Everything is OK, thank you.
2. I’m not quite well. So-so, I’d say.

III. Reconstruct the preceding phrase.
1. Not at all. It’s a pleasure.
2. See you later. Good night.
3. I’m glad to meet you.
IV. Whаt will your answer to the following questions be?
1. How are you getting on?
2. How are things with you?
3. Is everything OK?
4. How nice of you to come!
5. How are you?
V. Reproduce the short diaogues “Greetings” in similar situations.

25
Unit
TWО
Conversation: At the English Lesson. Where Are You from?
Grammar: The Verb to have. The Plural of Nouns
Te x t
Read the text.
At the English Lesson
I am Anthony Briggs, a student. English is one of the general subjects at
our University. We have English classes twice a week. Our group is not
large, we are ten. At the lessons we learn to read, to pronounce, to
understand and to speak English.
For the classes everybody has a textbook, an exercise book, a dictionary,
a ballpoint pen and a pencil. Besides, each student has a DVD-player
with English recordings. We have a modern CD player and a computer
in the classroom, and at home I have a DVD player.
Usually I sit at the fi rst desk in front of the blackboard. On my right
is my friend Andrew. Two girls are behind us. Th e other students sit on
our left . We like English, that is why everybody is always present at the
lesson. Our teacher speaks English fl uently and he has a very good
pronunciation.
I have some diffi culty with pronunciation but I have not much diffi culty
with spelling. Th e computer and CD player are of great help to us. Our
students are never absent from the English classes and the teacher is
pleased with our knowledge.
Words and Expressions
a general subject [´dZenArAl ´sEbdZIkt] — общеобразовательный предмет
a class [klC:s] — занятие, курс обучения
twice a week [´twaIs A´wi:k] — два раза в неделю
a group [Mru:p] — группа
to learn [lQ:n] — учиться, обучаться

26
to pronounce [prA´nauns] — произносить
to understand [,EndA´stBnd] — понимать
a textbook [´tekst,bUk] — учебник
an exercise book [´eksAs,saIzbuk] — тетрадь
a dictionary [´dIkSAn(A)ri] — словарь
a ballpoint pen [´bD:l,pDInt´pen] — шариковая ручка
a pencil [´pensl] — карандаш
besides [bI´saIdz] — кроме того
each [i:tS] — каждый
CD [,si: ´di:] — компакт-диск
a recording [rI´kD:dIN] — запись (на диске)
usually [´ju:ZUAli] — обычно
the fi rst desk [´fQ:st´desk] — первый стол (в аудитории)
in front of the blackboard [In´frEntAvGA´blBk,bD:d] — перед классной
доской
on my right [… raIt] — справа от меня
behind us [bI´haIndEs] — позади нас
other [´EGA] — другой
on our left [… left] — слева от нас
we like [laIk] — нам нравится
that is why [´GBtIz,waI] — вот почему
always [´D:lwAz] — всегда
to be present [´prezAnt] — присутствовать
fl uently [´flu:Antli] — бегло
pronunciation [prA,nEnsI´eISn] — произношение
diffi culty [´dIfIklti] — трудность
spelling [´spelIN] — правописание, орфография
to be of great help to us [´greIt´help] — оказывать большую помощь нам
never [´nevA] — никогда
to be absent from smth [´BbsAnt] — отсутствовать
to be pleased with smth [pli:zd] — быть довольным
knowledge [´nOlIdZ] — знание
Exercises
I. Answer the questions.
1. Is Anthony Briggs a student? Are you a student? (Ask your friend.) 2. Is
English one of the general subjects at Anthony’s University? How many

27 English classes do they have a week? Do you have English classes twice a
week? How oft en?
3. Th ey are ten in the group. And how many are you?
4. What things do they have for the English classes? 5. Do they have a
DVD player in the classroom? And do you have it? Is your DVD player
modern?
6. Anthony Briggs has CDs at home, and you? (Ask one of the
students.)
7. Who is on your right (left ) at the English lesson? Who is in
front of you (behind you)? (Ask somebody.)
8. Is everybody present at
the English lesson today? Who is absent from the class?
9. Has Anthony
Briggs any diffi culty with pronunciation? And you? (Ask another
student.)
10. Is English spelling diffi cult? And Russian? 11. Is the English
teacher pleased with your knowledge? And are you pleased with it? (Ask
another student.)
II. Convert the following ques tions to the text into the indirect ones beginning with the
words Tell mе, please or I wonder (Интересно знать). Don’t forget to change the word
order. The only case when you need not do this is when you have to convert the questions
to the subject (№ 6).
1. Is Anthony Briggs a student of the University? 2. Is English one of the
general subjects at his University?
3. How many classes do they have a
week?
4. How many are they in the group? 5. Have they a computer in the
classroom?
6. Who has a DVD player at home? 7. Has Anthony Briggs any
diffi culty with pronunciation?
III. Say who is next to you in the classroom. Use the following phrases: on your left, in
front of you, behind you, on Peter’s right, on his left, in front of Susan, etc.
Model 1: Т.: Who is on your right?
St.: Tom is.
Model 2: Т.: Is Tom on your right?
St.: No, Tom’s on my left . Steve’s on my right. (Use phrases
from Model 1.)
Model 3: Т.: What’s the name of the student on your left ?
St.: His (Her) name’s Peter (Susan).
IV. Ask one of the students:
1) кто находится справа (слева) от него; перед ним; сзади;
2) как зовут того, кто сидит справа (слева) от него; перед ним;
сзади.

28
V. Ask a question on the basis of the given statement.
Model: St. 1: His spelling is good. (pronunciation)
St. 2: Is his pronunciation good?
1. Th e teacher is pleased with our knowledge. (you) 2. My friend is always
present at the English classes. (the other classes)
3. Th e English spelling
isn’t diffi cult. (pronunciation)
4. My computer is old. (your CD player)
5. English is a general subject. (history) 6. His knowledge of English isn’t
good. (reading)
7. Our CDs are of great help to us. (practice at the lesson)
8. Th ey are never absent from the English classes. (ever — the other classes)
VI. Ask one of the students the following questions and react to their answer with the
phrases: It’s fi ne, It’s (not) good, It’s (not) bad, It’s a pity.
Model: St. 1: Nick, is your DVD player modern?
St. 2: I think it is. (I don’t think it is.)
St. 1: Oh, it’s fi ne. (Oh, it’s a pity.)
1. Is the teacher pleased with your knowledge of English? 2. Is English
spelling diffi cult?
3. Is Tom always present at the English classes? 4. Is John
sometimes absent from the classes?
5. Are you sometimes late for the
lectures?
6. Is the CD player of great help to you in learning English? 7. Is
Ann pleased with her pronunciation?
Grammar
THE VERB TO HAVE IN THE PRESENT,
PAST AND FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
(ГЛАГОЛ TO HAVE В НАСТОЯЩЕМ,
ПРОШЕДШЕМ И БУДУЩЕМ ПРОСТЫХ ВРЕМЕНАХ)
Present Past Future
to have to have to have
I, you, we, they
He, she, it
I, we
остальные лица
have has had shall (will) have will have

29 Exercises
I. Ask an additional question relating to the given information.
Model: St. 1: I have a textbook. (an exercise book)
St. 2: Have you an exercise book?
1. My friend has a nice house. (a car) 2. I have a brother. (a cousin) 3. Student
A. has a good pronunciation. (a good spelling)
4. Th ey have diffi culty with
spelling. (pronunciation)
5. I have an exercise book. (a textbook) 6. My
friend has a big dog. (a cat)
7. I have a sister. (a brother) 8. My parents have
a car. (a house in the suburb)
II. Say that neither you nor anybody else have / has what is asked about.
Model: St. 1: I have a car. (a house in the suburb)
St. 2: Have you a house in the suburb?
St. 1: No, I haven’t. I have no house.
1. He has a sister. (a cousin) 2. I have a grandfather. (a great-grandfather)
3. Th ey have many books at home. (English books) 4. She has an interesting
job. (time for sports)
5. Th e little girl has a dog. (a cat) 6. I have a ballpoint
pen. (a stapler)
7. Th ey have a house in the suburb. (a car) 8. He has
diffi culty with spelling. (with pronunciation)
9. I have a friend in England.
(in France)
10. She has a textbook. (a dictionary) 11. My friend has
a modern personal computer. (a modern printer)
III. Say that now you (or somebody else) have / has (or will have) what you (or another
person) did not have.
Model: St.: I’ve no car, but soon I’ll have it.
1. I had little money, but now … a lot. 2. Th ey have no house in the suburb,
but … next year.
3. Th e girl has no cat, but soon … a black kitten ([´kItn] —
котенок).
4. Th e little boy had no dog, but now … a puppy ([´pEpI] —
щенок).
5. I have no time today, but tomorrow … . 6. He had no dictionary,
but … soon.
7. We have no laptop, but I hope … . 8. I have no printer, but
I think … next year.
9. Th ey have no car, but soon … a Ford.

30
IV. Read the following questions and answers. Memorise the meaning of the interrogative
words italicised.
А.
1. Who is at the English lesson? — We are.
2. Who are you? — We are student A., student B., etc.
3. What are you? — We are fi rst-year students now.
4. How many are you? — We are seven.
5. Why are you here? — We are here because ([bI´kOz] — потому что)
we learn to speak English.
6. Where were you yesterday? — Yesterday we were at the English lesson
too.
7. Will you be at the English lesson tomorrow? — Yes, we shall (will).
8. When ([At] what time) will you be at the English lesson tomorrow? —
At fi ve.
9. How long will you be there? — We’ll be there for two hours.
10. Whose book is this? — Th is is my book. Th e book is mine.
B.
1. Have you got textbooks with you? — Yes, we have.
2. Who has got the textbooks? — Everybody has.
3. How many textbooks have you got? — We have seven.
4. What textbooks have you got? — We have English textbooks.
V. Ask one of the students about the peope оf his (her) family.
Model 1: St. l: Have you a husband?
St. 2: Yes, I have. I have a husband. (No, I haven’t, I’ve no
husband.)
Model 2: St. l: How old is your husband? What’s his job?
St. 2: He’s twenty-eight. He’s an economist.
VI. Ask if your partner has a sibling, cousin, nephew or other relatives. Then ask about
their name, age and profession.
VII. Translate the following sentences into English. In case of problems refer to exercise IV.
А.
1.
Кто в классе? — Мы.
2. Кто вы? — Мы — это студент А., студент В. и т. д.

31
3. Сколько вас? — Нас семь человек.
4. Почему (зачем) вы здесь? — Мы здесь потому, что теперь мы
студенты.
5. Где вы были вчера? — Вчера мы тоже были на занятиях по
английскому языку.
6. Завтра вы тоже будете на занятиях по английскому языку? — Да.
7. Когда (в какое время) вы будете завтра на занятиях по английскому
языку? — В пять.
8. Как долго (сколько времени) вы будете там? — Мы будем там в
течение двух часов.
9. Чья это книга? — Это моя книга.
B.
1. У вас с собой есть учебники? — Да.
2. У кого есть учебники? — У всех.
3. Сколько у вас учебников? — У нас семь (учебников).
4. Какие у вас учебники? — У нас учебники английского языка.
REMEMBER!
Современный английский язык допускает построение вопросительной
и отрицательной формы предложений с глаголом
to have с помощью
вспомогательных глаголов do (does)
— в настоящем времени и did —
в прошедшем времени.
Te x t
Read the short texts, paying attention to the forms of the verb in the negative sentences.
Diana Rich, Том Atkins and Mike Jackson
Hi, dear friends! My name is Diana Rich. I’m a famous actress, a superstar.
I’m from New York.
I have an apartment in New York and a house in Hollywood with
a swimming pool and a tennis court.
I have a new Mercedes and a lot of money in the bank. I have a husband
and three wonderful children in Hollywood. I have everything. Life is great!
Hello! My name is Tom Atkins. I’m from New York too. I’m broke.
I don’t have any money. I don’t have a job or a car. I don’t have a wife and
I don’t have anything. Life is really terrible!

32Look at this man. His name is Mike Jackson. He is not from New York,
he is from Detroit. He is a factory worker. He has a good job. He has a car.
He doesn’t have a big house but he has a nice apartment. He has a wife but
he doesn’t have any children. Life is all right.
(American Streamline Departures.
Oxford University Press)
Words and Expressions
a famous actress [´feImAs´BktrAs] — известная актриса
a superstar [,sju:pA´sta:] — суперзвезда
an apartment [A´pC:tmAnt] (Am. E.) — квартира
a swimming pool [´swImIN,pu:l] — бассейн
a tennis court [´tenIs,kD:t] — теннисный корт
a Mercedes [mA´si:di:z] — «Мерседес»
to be broke [brAUk] — быть разоренным
a job [dZOb] — работа
I don’t have anything […´enIFIN]. — У меня ничего нет.
really [´rIAli] — действительно
terrible [´terAb(A)l] — ужасный
a factory worker [´fBktAri,wQ:kA] — рабочий завода
VIII. Answer the questions.
A.
1.
What is Diana Rich? Is she famous? 2. Where is she from? 3. Where does
she have a house?
4. Is she rich? Why do you think so? 5. Does she have
children? How many?
6. Is she happy?
B.
1.
Where is Tom Atkins from? 2. Is he rich? 3. Does he have a job? 4. Does
he have a car?
5. Is he married? 6. Is he happy?
C.
1.
Where is Mike Jackson from? 2. What is he? Does he have a good job?
3. Does he have a car and a house? 4. Is his apartment nice? 5. Does he
have a wife and children?
6. Is he happy?

33
IX. Express your attitude to the following statements. Agree if they correspond to the
information from the text or express your surprise if the information is wrong.
Model 1: Т.: Mike Jackson is from Detroit.
St.: He is.
Model 2: Т.: He has a son.
St.: Indeed?
A.
1. Diana Rich is a famous actress.
2. She has an apartment in New York.
3. Th e actress has a new Rolls Royce.
4. Th e superstar has a lot of money in the bank.
B.
1. Tom Atkins has much money too.
2. He is a confi rmed bachelor.
3. He has a good job.
4. Soon he is going to get married to Diana Rich. (to marry Diana Rich)
C.
1. Mike Jackson is a factory worker.
2. But now he is out of job.
3. He has a new Mercedes.
4. He has a nice apartment in Detroit.
X. Choose any of the roles from the text for yourself. Introduce yourself saying where you
are from and naming your profession. Give information about other people of your family
and the property you possess. Say what you think about life.
XI. Using the plan above, tell your partner about yourself. Don’t forget to mention what
you think about life.
XII. Draw your genealogical tree (your family tree). Write the most frequent names and
professions that are repeated within different generations of your family.
REMEMBER!
В разговорной речи в значении «иметь» (только для настоящего времени)
употребляется также форма
have got. В американском английском этот
вариант не используется.
I have got much money. — У меня много денег.
Не has got the fl u. — У него грипп.

34 Short Dialogues
WHERE ARE YOU FROM?
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
— Hello!
— Hello! I’m David Clark.
— I’m Linda Worth. Are you a teacher?
— No, I’m not.
— Oh! Are you a student?
— Yes, I am.
— Are you from the United States?
— No, I’m not.
— Where are you from?
— I’m from Canada.
II
— Where are you from?
— I’m from Los Angeles.
— Are you here on business?
— No, I’m not. I’m on vacation.
— Oh, I see.
III
— Excuse me.
— Yes?
— Are you American?
— Pardon me?
— Are you from the United States?
— Yes, we are.
— Oh, I’m American too. Are you here on vacation?
— No, we aren’t. We are here on business.
I. the United States [ju:´naItId´steIts] — Соединенные Штаты

Canada [´kBnAdA] — Канада
II. Los Angeles [´lOs´BndZIli:z] — Лос-Анджелес
Are you here on business [… ´bIznIs]? — Вы здесь в деловой поездке
(командировке)?
I’m on vacation [… vA´keISn]. (Am. E.) — Я на каникулах (в отпуске).
III. Excuse me [Ik´skju:z mi:]. — Извините (Простите).

Pardon me [´pC:dn]? — Простите (Я не расслышал)?

35 Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. You are a member of the foreign delegation. Ask what country your business partner is
from.
Model 1: — Are you American?
— Pardon me?
— Are you from the United States?
— Yes, I am.
Us e : English — England, French — France, Canadian — Canada,
Italian — Italy, Russian — Russia, Spanish — Spain, German —
Germany, Japanese — Japan
Model 2: — Where are you from?
— I’m from Texas.
— Oh, I see.
Use: Manchester, Glasgow, California, Scotland, Los Angeles,
Australia, Canada
II. Reconstruct the previous question.
1. Yes, I’m from England. I’m from Canada. No, I’m on business here.
Yes, I’m on business here.
2. No, I’m not, I’m a student. Yes, I’m a teacher. No, I’m a teacher of
English. Yes, I’m a teacher of Russian.
III. Reproduce the dialogues “Where are you from?” in similar situations.
Grammar
THE PLURAL OF THE NOUN
(МНОЖЕСТВЕННОЕ ЧИСЛО СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ)
1. Форма множественного числа существительных, как правило, образу-
ется добавлением окончания
-s или -es к форме единственного числа:
• a book — books;
• a boy — boys;
• a hero — heroes (но: a piano — pianos);

36
• a box — boxes;
• a brush — brushes;
• a kiss — kisses;
• a church — churches.
При этом происходят некоторые орфографические изменения в основе
слова. Если слово оканчивается на y, которой предшествует согласная
буква, то в форме множественного числа y меняется на i и прибавляется
окончание es:
• a fl y — fl ies;
• a lady — ladies;
• a body — bodies (но: a day — days, a boy — boys, a valley — valleys).
Корневая буква f в сочетании с немым e перед добавлением окончания
множественного числа es меняется на v. Такие же орфографические из-
менения происходят и при отсутствии немого e:
• a wife — wives;
• a knife — knives;
• a shelf — shelves (но: a roof — roofs).
2. Некоторые существительные образуют множественное число не при
помощи окончания -s (-es), а путем изменения гласных и / или согласных в
основе слова:
• a man — men;
• a woman — women [´wImIn];
• a foot — feet;
• a tooth — teeth;
• a mouse — mice;
• a child — children.
3. Множественное число некоторых существительных остается без изме-
нения.
• a sheep — sheep;
• a deer — deer;
• a trout — trout.

37
4. В сложных существительных форму множественного числа принимает
только последняя часть:
• a classroom — classrooms;
• a textbook — textbooks;
• a housewife — housewives.
Исключение составляют те сложные слова, первой частью которых явля-
ются слова man или woman. В этом случае обе части принимают форму
множественного числа:
• a woman-teacher — women-teachers;
• a manservant — menservants.
Если в составе сложного существительного есть предлог, то форму мно-
жественного числа принимает первая часть, которая по своему происхо-
ждению представляет собой ведущую часть, подчиняющую себе осталь-
ные компоненты слова:
• a father-in-law — fathers-in-law;
• a sister-in-law — sisters-in-law;
• a man-of-war — men-of-war.
5. Следующие существительные во множественном числе не употребля-
ются и поэтому согласуются со сказуемым в форме единственного числа:
news, information, advice, knowledge, furniture, luggage: The news is (was)
good.
Чтобы придать им значение исчисляемости, в частности множества, упо-
требляется выражение a piece of, которое допустимо в форме множествен-
ного числа:
• a piece of advice — some pieces of advice;
• a piece of furniture — two pieces of furniture.
6. Некоторые существительные, напротив, не имеют формы единственно-
го числа: goods, clothes, scissors, trousers, jeans. Существительные people и
police, а также ряд других, формально не имеют показателей множествен-
ного числа, однако по своему значению представляют собой множество
и согласуются с глаголом во множественном числе: The police were there.

Exercises
I. Write the plural of the nouns given below. In case of problems refer to the dictionary.
A house, a baby, a cliff , a woman, a mouse, a valley, a thief, a tooth, a potato,
a fl y, a knife, a child, a piano, a boy, a dish, a swine, a photo, a family, a box,
a trout.
II. Write the plural of the following nouns.
A toothbrush, a tablecloth, a matchbox, a housemaid, a woman-teacher, a
workman, a teapot, a manservant, a bookshop, a classroom, a forget-me-
not, an armchair, a brother-in-law.
III. Write the singular of the following nouns.
Heroes, fl ies, feet, teeth, kisses, families, menservants, sisters-in-law.
IV. Choose the appropriate form of the verb.
1. Th e news … interesting. (is, are) 2. Some people … coming today. (is,
are)
3. Jack’s trousers … old. (is, are) 4. Th e furniture in the room … of
a good quality. (was, were)
5. Th e information … not correct. (was, were)
6. Some of the sheep … of the black colour. (was, were) 7. No news …
good news. (is, are)
8. Th e police… the right to arrest a suspect. (has,
have)

39
Unit
THREE
Conversation: My Everyday Life. Making a Date
Grammar: The Simple Tenses. The Adverbs many, much, etc.
Te x t
Read the text.
My Everyday Life
Part 1
On weekdays I get up at seven o’clock. Th e alarm clock wakes me up every
morning. I cannot say that I like its ringing. Th en, though sleepy, I take a
warm shower and in a few minutes I feel bright and cheerful.
Aft er that I am ready for other activities and I start making my
breakfast. I have to do it myself because when I get up, my wife isn’t in: she
has to take our children to the kindergarten. So I have breakfast alone. My
everyday breakfast is the same: some cabbage salad, two soft -boiled eggs
and a cup of strong coff ee with cheese sandwiches. I don’t like coff ee with
milk, so I have it black. It takes me fi ft een minutes to have my breakfast.
At 7.45 I leave home and go to the offi ce. I get to the offi ce by bus
which is always overcrowded. It aff ects my spirits badly. But when I come
to the offi ce and see my colleagues, I feel happy.
All my days in the offi ce do not vary greatly, so to have an idea of my
business life I’ll tell you about my yesterday’s working day.
Part II
As usual, it began at nine o’clock with some formalities typical for every
employment agency. Th at day we had to receive twenty people who were
out of work. Th e unemployed of diff erent ages applied for a job to our
company, and in each case we tried to be helpful. We interviewed them,
off ered them new job vacancies, discussed terms of payment and signed
contracts with some of them.
At one o’clock we had a break for dinner. It lasted forty-fi ve minutes.
During the break we went downstairs to have dinner in the canteen. Th en

40 I discussed the yesterday’s news with my colleagues. When the break
ended, we went on with our work: we answered some telephone calls,
made appointments with other clients, checked up a list of new jobs and
exchanged our opinions on the results of the interviews.
At 5.45 p.m. my working day was over. On my way home I did the
shopping. My wife was glad to see me with my hands full of foodstuff s.
Th at was yesterday.
Part III
But now I am in my offi ce. My working day will be over in half an hour.
What shall I do in the evening?
I’ll come back home at seven о’clock. As usual, I’ll greet my wife and
children; we’ll exchange news and then at about eight o’clock we’ll have
supper together. I’ll help my wife to lay the table. Aft er supper, though I
don’t like it, I’ll wash up. It is my duty. At nine, as always, I am going to
watch the TV news programme. Th en a feature fi lm will be on and my
wife will join me by all means. Besides, I’ll answer some telephone calls
and ring somebody up myself. At half past eleven I’ll go to bed, and the
next morning the alarm clock will wake me up again very early.
Words and Expressions
Part 1
on weekdays — в будние дни
to get up (got) — вставать (с постели)
an alarm clock [A´lC:m,klOk] — будильник
to wake up (woke, woken) — будить; просыпаться
ringing — звон (будильника)
sleepy [´sli:pi] — сонный
to feel bright and cheerful (felt) [… ´braIt…´tSIAfl] — чувствовать себя
бодро
to be ready for smth. [´redi …] — быть готовым к чему-л.
activity [Bk´tIvAtI] — деятельность
to take a shower (took, taken) — принимать душ
to make breakfast (made) — готовить завтрак
to be in — быть дома
a kindergarten [´kIndA,gC:tn] — детский сад
alone [A´lAUn] — один

41
the same [seIm] — одинаковый, тот же самый
cabbage [´kBbIdZ] — капуста
a soft-boiled egg — яйцо всмятку
a cheese sandwich [´tSi:z ´sBndwId Z] — бутерброд с сыром
to leave home (left) — уходить из дома, покидать дом
to get to smth. — добираться до…
overcrowded [,AUvA´kraUdId] — переполненный
to aff ect one’s spirits [A´fekt … ´spIrIts] — действовать (влиять) на
настроение
a colleague [´kOli:g] — сослуживец, коллега
to feel happy — чувствовать себя счастливым
to vary [´veAri] — отличаться разнообразием
to have an idea […aI´dIA] — иметь представление
a business life [´bIznIs,laIf] — деловая жизнь
Part II
as usual […´ju:ZUAl] — как обычно
to begin (began, begun) — начинать(ся)
an employment agency [Im´plDImAnt ´eIdZ(A)nsi] — служба занятости
an employee [,emplDI´i:] — работник, служащий
unemployed [,EnIm´plDId] — безработный
of diff erent ages — различного возраста
to apply for a job — обращаться по поводу работы
in each case — в каждом случае
to try to be helpful — стараться оказывать помощь
to interview [´IntA,vju:] — беседовать (интервьюировать)
an interview — собеседование
a job vacancy [´veIkAnsi] — рабочая вакансия
to discuss terms of payment — обсуждать условия оплаты
to sign a contract [saIn…] — подписывать контракт
a break [breIk] — перерыв
to last [lC:st] — длиться
to have dinner [´dInA] — обедать
to go downstairs (went, gone) [,daUn'steAz] — спускаться вниз, на нижний
этаж
a canteen [kBn´ti:n] — столовая (при заводе, учреждении и т. д.)
to end — заканчиваться

42
to go on — продолжать
to answer a call — отвечать на телефонный звонок
to check up — проверять
a list — список
to make an appointment [A´pDIntmAnt] — назначать встречу
a client [´klaIAnt] — клиент
to exchange opinions [Iks´tSeIndZ A´pInjAnz] — обмениваться мнениями
to be over — заканчиваться
p.m. = (лат.) post meridiem — вторая половина дня
on one’s way home — по пути домой
to do the shopping — делать покупки
full of foodstuff s [´fUl Av ´fu:d,stEfs] — полный продуктов
Part III
half an hour [´hC:f An ´aUA] — полчаса
to come back (came, come) — возвращаться
to greet — приветствовать
together [tA´geGA] — вместе
to lay the table (laid) — накрывать на стол
to have supper [´sEpA] — ужинать
to wash up [´wOS ´Ep] — мыть посуду
a duty ['dju:ti] — обязанность
to watch TV [´wOtS ´ti: ´vi:] — смотреть телепередачу
a feature fi lm [´fi:tSA …] — художественный фильм
to be on — быть на экране
to join smb. [dZDIn] — присоединяться к кому-л.
by all means [baI ´D:l 'mi:nz] — обязательно
to ring up (rang, rung) — звонить (по телефону)
to go to bed — ложиться спать
Exercises
I. А. Answer the questions to the fi rst part of the text.
1. What time does the storyteller get up on weekdays? Does he wake up
himself ?
2. Does he take a warm or a cold shower? 3. Why does he have
his breakfast alone?
4. What does he usually have for his breakfast? 5. Does

43 he like black coff ee or coff ee with milk?
6. When does he leave home?
7. How does he get to his offi ce? 8. Does he feel happy when he sees his
colleagues?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask inderect questions beginning with the
words Tell mе, please or I wonder. Pay attention to the way of converting alternative
questions into indirect ones: they are introduced with the help of the composite conjunction
whether… or (или).
Model: Т.: Does he take tea or coff ee for breakfast?
St.: Tell me, please, (I wonder) whether he takes tea or coff ee
for breakfast.
II. А. Describe your everyday morning saying what you have or don’t have to do during
this time of the day. Use the model:
I also get up early in the morning. But I don’t take a warm shower.
B. If you don’t have to do something or other, explain the reason.
Model: I don’t take children to the kindergarten as I don’t have any.
III. Answer the questions to the second part of the text.
А. 1. How many jobless people did the employees of the offi ce receive that
day?
2. How did the company help the unemployed? 3. People of what
age applied to the company?
4. Did they have a break for dinner in the
offi ce? When? For how long?
5. When was their working day over?
6. Did the storyteller go home right away (сразу же)?
B. 1. When do you begin your working day? 2. When do you have a break
for dinner?
3. Where do you have dinner? 4. How long does your break
last?
5. When is your working day over?
IV. А. Answer the questions to the third part of the text.
1. When will the storyteller return home? 2. What time will he have supper?
3. Will he have supper alone? 4. Will he help his wife? 5. What will he have
to do aft er supper?
6. What TV programmes will he watch in the evening?
7. When will he go to bed?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Tell mе, please or I wonder.

44
V. Say what you have (or don’t have) to do in the evening.
Model: I have a rest in the evening. I don’t oft en go to the cinema.
Use: to go shopping aft er the work, to lay the table for supper, to
wash up aft er supper, to watch TV news programmes, to call
smb., to answer the telephone calls, to walk before going to
bed, to visit smb.
Memorise the following expressions:
to be going to do something — намереваться, собираться что-либо сделать
have to do something — приходится что-то делать
VI. Fill in the blanks with the expression to be going paying attention to the form of the
verb to be in the present tense.
1. I … to get up early. 2. My wife … to lay the table. 3. His parents … to buy
a country house.
4. Th eir friends … to do the shopping. 5. Her husband …
to discuss the terms of payment.
6. Th e children … to have breakfast.
7. Th eir chief … to interview a visitor. 8. Our colleagues … to come back
late.
VII. Using the following phrases, say what you have to do every day or often.
To make one’s bed — убирать постель
to do one’s fl at — убирать квартиру
to cook dinner — готовить обед
to clean the fl oor — мыть пол
to look aft er the children — присматривать за детьми
to do the washing — стирать
to repair a TV set (electric devices) — ремонтировать телевизор (элек-
тро приборы)
to redecorate a fl at — ремонтировать квартиру
VIII. Say it in English.
A. 1. Я собираюсь обедать. 2. Он собирается посмотреть новый
фильм.
3. Мои друзья собираются быть дома в 4 часа. 4. Вы
собираетесь вставать?
5. Когда вы собираетесь завтракать? 6. Как
вы собираетесь встретить его?
7. Я не собиралась говорить ему
об этом.
8. Она не собирается идти за покупками. 9. Я собиралась
позвонить вам.
10. Они собирались навестить меня.

45
B. 1. Мне приходится вставать в 7 часов. 2. Ему приходится накры-
вать на стол.
3. Моей жене пришлось отвести детей в детский сад.
4. Ей приходится возвращаться домой поздно. 5. Нам пришлось
помочь им.
6. Детям придется быть утром дома. 7. Вам придется
встретить его.
8. Мне пришлось сказать ему об этом.
IX. Say what you usually do during your break for lunch at your workplace. Use the
expressions given below.
To have a break for dinner at … o’clock, to look through newspapers, to
last for an hour, to have a short rest, to go to the canteen, to call smb., to
go downstairs (upstairs), to go shopping, to have a smoke, to exchange
news, to go on with the work.
Grammar
THE SIMPLE TENSES
(ПРОСТЫЕ ВРЕМЕНА)
The Present Simple Tense
(Настоящее простое время)
I
You
We
They⎫





⎭work in the offi ce,
go to the offi ce by bus.He
She⎫





⎭works in the offi ce.
goes to the offi ce by bus.
Правило I Глагол в настоящем времени (present simple) представ-
лен I формой (неопределенной) без частицы to (кроме
глагола to be), если это не случай, упомянутый в Прави-
ле II
Правило II Окончание английского
глагола в III л. ед. числаОкончание русского
глагола в III л. ед. числа
-s, -es
works, goes-ет(ет), -ит
работает, ездит
кроме глаголов to be, to have

46 Exercises
I. Say that you (or somebody else) also regularly do the same things.
Model: Т.: I take exercise regularly.
St.: My little brother takes exercise regularly (too).
1. I get up early in the morning. 2. We live in the suburb. 3. I take my
children to the kindergarten.
4. You cook dinner for your family. 5. We do
our fl at every day.
6. In the morning I make my breakfast. 7. I usually
make a report aft er research.
8. Th ey go to the offi ce on foot. 9. I return
home late in the evening.
10. We discuss our plan every week.
II. Memorise the following phrases and describe your day off. The questions given below
can help you.
A. a day off — выходной день
to have a rest — отдыхать
to go to the country for a weekend — ездить за город на выходные
to have a good time — хорошо проводить время
to enjoy the fresh air, the beautiful landscape — наслаждаться свежим
воздухом, прекрасной природой
to walk in the forest — гулять в лесу
to feel rested — чувствовать себя отдохнувшим
to return to town on the late train — возвращаться в город поздним
поездом
B.
1.
When do you have your day off , on Saturday or on Sunday?
2. Do you have a good rest?
3. Do you go to the country for a weekend or not?
4. Do you always have a good time in the country?
5. What do you do in the country?
6. Do you feel rested aft er the day off ?
7. When do you return to town?

47 Grammar
The Past Simple Tense
(Прошедшее простое время)
Для образования прошедшего времени (past simple) используется
II форма глагола
правильные
неправильные
work + ed went
REMEMBER!
1. Неправильные глаголы — в основном односложные.
2. Правильные глаголы — в основном двух- и трехсложные.
3. Все интернациональные глаголы — правильные.
Exercises
III. Read the following regular verbs and pay attention to the pronunciation of the suffi x
-ed. Say what causes this difference.
[-d] [-d] [-t] [-Id]
studied prolonged helped skated
skied informed worked waited
freed phoned watched generated
played revised stopped proceeded
stayed organised produced preceded
IV. Read and translate the sentences into Russian and memorise the adverbial modifi ers
of time.
1. Yesterday my friends and I went to the country. 2. Last week I took part
in the conference.
3. I wrote a letter to him some days ago. 4. He phoned
me the day before yesterday.
5. I graduated from the University last year.
6. Last Wednesday we conducted a test in the laboratory. 7. During the
break we went downstairs and had our dinner.

48
yesterday — вчера
the day before yesterday — позавчера
… ago [A´gAU] — тому назад
last week — на прошлой неделе
last year (month, etc.) — в прошлом году (месяце и т. д.)
last Wednesday [´lC:st ´wenzdeI] — в прошлую среду
during the break [´djUArIN GA ´breIk] — во время перерыва
V. Retell the fi rst part of the text “My Everyday Life” in the past simple tense beginning
the story with the words Yes terday I got up at seven о’clock. Change or drop the words that
do not correspond to the given time period; the forms of the irregular verbs are given in the
table on p.p. 378–381.
Grammar
The Future Simple Tense
(Будущее простое время)
Изучая глаголы to be и to have, вы уже познакомились с образованием бу-
дущего времени этих глаголов:
вспомогательный глаголshall
или
will⎫

⎬ +

⎭неопределенная форма основ-
ного глагола без частицы to
(т. е. be или have)
shall — для первого лица единственного и множественного числа
will — для всех остальных лиц
По такой же модели образуется будущее время от любого другого гла-
гола.
Следует помнить, что в разговорном английском языке форма
shall вы-
тесняется глаголом
will.
ЗАПОМНИТЕ обстоятельства времени, употребляющиеся для выражения
действия в будущем:
tomorrow [tA'mOrAU] — завтра
the day after tomorrow — послезавтра
next week (month, year, Sunday, etc.) — на следующей неделе (в следую-
щем месяце, году, в следующее воскресенье)
in two days — через два дня

49 Exercises
VI. Read the following sentences and pay attention to the situations with the future
simple tense.
1. My friend travels a lot. Today he is in Paris. Tomorrow he will be in
Rome. Next week he will arrive in New York.
2. Th ey will probably visit
their grandparents next Sunday.
3. I am not sure, but I think Tom will go
to the celebration party.
4. Don’t worry, she will inform you about her
arrival.
5. I don’t think it will rain next weekend. 6. Today is the 29th of
December. In two days the New Year will begin.
7. Don’t drink coff ee
before you go to bed. You will sleep badly.
Grammar
Однако форма будущего времени не употребляется, если речь идет о за-
планированном или заранее намеченном (решенном) действии. В этом
случае используется конструкция to be going с инфинитивом:
1. We are going to visit our friends next week.
2. Are you going to work tomorrow?
Напротив, если выражается предположение или некоторая неуверен-
ность в отношении предстоящих действий, то уместными оказываются
формы будущего времени:
1. I think John will pass the exam.
2. Proba bly it will rain tomorrow.
Exercises
VII. А. Imagine that you will have to take part in the following events whose character is
defi ned by the meaning of the given expressions. Describe what you will have to do,
beginning with the words I th ink, I believe, I ho pe, etc.
1) to take part in the conference — принимать участие в конфе-
ренции
to take place in Moscow next month — проходить в Москве в сле-
дующем месяце
to last for about a week — длиться около недели
to make a report on some ecological problems — делать доклад
о некоторых экологических проблемах
to speak about the latest research — говорить о новейших иссле-
дованиях

50
2) to celebrate somebody’s birthday — праздновать чей-то день
рождения
to take part in the celebration — принимать участие в праздно-
вании
not to be late for the party — не опаздывать на вечер (мероприятие)
to congratulate smb. on the birthday — поздравлять кого-либо с
днем рождения
to present smb. with a gift and fl owers — преподносить кому-либо
подарок и цветы
B. Ask one of the students if he (she) will celebrate somebody’s birthday in the near future.
If he (she) says “yes”, ask additional questions according to the given models.
Will you celebrate …?
Whose birthday
When
How





will you celebrate …?
VIII. Retell the third part of the text “My Everyday Life“ in the third person singular,
beginning the story with the words His working day will be over at 5.4 5 p.m. He’ll come back
home… Introduce some changes if necessary.
IX. А. Say in detail what you are going to do tomorrow morning, afternoon, evening.
B. Describe how you are going to spend the next weekend. Use the words and expressions
given in exercise II, A. on page 46.
Grammar
The Negative and Interrogative Forms of the Present,
Past and Future Simple Tenses
(Отрицательная и вопросительная формы настоящего,
прошедшего и будущего простых времен)
REMEMBER!
1. Для образования отрицательной и вопросительной формы глаголов
(кроме to be и, в некоторых случаях, to have) необходим вспомогательный
глагол.
2. У каждого времени (present, past и future simple) свой вспомогательный
глагол.
3. Вспомогательный глагол
• для настоящего времени — do (does
— вариант для III л. ед. ч.);
• для прошедшего —
did;
• для будущего — shall или will.

51
4. Из трех времен группы simple будущее время — единственное, в соста-
ве которого имеется вспомогательный глагол (shall, will) уже в утверди-
тельной форме.
Exercises
X. Read and memorise the structure of the negative and interrogative sentences.
A. 1. I do not (don’t) get up early on Sundays. 2. Th ey do not do 1 their fl at
every day.
3. My son does not (doesn’t) take a cold shower in the
morning.
4. Th e small girl does not like to dress herself. 5. I did not
(didn’t) go to the country last Sunday.
6. We did not conduct a test in our
laboratory yesterday.
7. He did not tell me the news. 8. I shall / will not
(shan’t / won’t) come to see you off , I am sorry.
9. Th ey will not (won’t)
take part in the conference.
10. My chief probably will not go on business
to Moscow (to go on business — ездить в команди ровку).
B. 1. Do you know English well? 2. What time do you usually return
home?
3. Does your son like sport? 4. Did he learn German at school?
5. When did you go to the theatre? 6. Whom did you tell the news?
7. Will you phone me tomorrow? 8. Why won’t you take part in the
test?
9. When shall (will) we begin the experiment?
XI. Tell your partner that:
A.
1) вы знаете английский язык немного; не знаете немецкого; ваш
друг тоже (either [´aIGA]) не знает немецкого;
2) в школе вы знали английский язык плохо; не знали грамматику;
делали много ошибок (to make a lot of mistakes);
3) теперь вы будете знать английский хорошо; будете упорно (hard)
изучать грамматику; не будете делать ошибок.
B.
1)
Вы не принимаете участия в конференциях; не участвуете в испы-
таниях; ваши коллеги не принимают участия в дискуссиях;
2) вы не принимали участия в этой работе; приняли участие в экспе-
рименте; сделали доклад по результатам испытания;
3) вы примете участие в испытаниях; ваши друзья будут участвовать
в конференции; они не будут принимать участия в исследо ва ниях.
1 В сказуемом do not do глагол do имеет разные функции: do (I) — вспо-
могательный глагол, do (II) — основной в значении «делать».

52
XII. Ask one of the students:
• знает ли он английский язык (немецкий, французский);
• хорошо ли он знает английский;
• почему он изучает английский;
• будет ли он применять знания английского на практике;
• занимается ли он английским упорно;
• сколько часов в день он занимается английским; сколько он вчера
занимался английским;
• во сколько лег спать;
• смотрел ли он вчера по ТВ программу «Новости»;
• ходил ли он за покупками позавчера.
REMEMBER!
It takes me … minutes to do something.
Мне требуется … минут, чтобы сделать что-то.
XIII. А. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. It takes me half an hour to cook dinner. 2. It took him long to translate
this text.
3. How long will it take you to do this job? 4. It takes me an hour
and a half to do our fl at.
5. It took me twenty minutes to get to the place.
6. It will take us some hours to prepare everything for the test. 7. It takes
me forty-fi ve minutes to get to my offi ce by bus.
B. Answer the questions using the model given above.
How long
How much
time ⎫



⎭ does it
take youto jog in the morning?
to make breakfast?
to have breakfast (dinner, supper)?
to get to your offi ce (plant, University, etc.)?
to do your English homework?
to cook dinner?
to wash up?
to do the fl at?
to do the shopping?
to speak on the telephone with your
friends?

53
C. Ask one of the students the same questions with reference to the past or future. Use the
following models of the interrogative sentence:
for the past — Did it take you long …? How long did it take you …?
for the future — Will it take you long …? How long will it take you …?
Grammar
REMEMBER!
Следующие выражения с глаголом
to have образуют отрицательную и
вопросительную формы по общему правилу, т. е. с участием вспомога-
тельных глаголов, так как в составе этих словосочетаний глагол to
have не имеет значения принадлежности, и вся фраза приравнивается
к глаголу: to have breakfast = to breakfast, to have dinner = to dine, to have
a smoke = to smoke и т. д.:
to have breakfast
— завтракать
to have lunch
— иметь второй завтрак (ленч)
to have dinner
— обедать
to have supper
— ужинать
to have a snack
— перекусить (быстро поесть)
to have a smoke
— покурить
to have a rest, etc.
— отдыхать и др.
1. Do you have breakfast every morning?
2. I do not have dinner in the canteen.
XIV. А. Agree that the following actions take place in the indicated place but not in any
other one.
Model: Т.: Не usually has tea in the kitchen. (in his study)
St.: He does. I know that he
does not have tea in his study.
1. He has dinner in the canteen. (in the café) 2. During the break they have a
smoke downstairs. (upstairs)
3. We had a snack before the conference. (during
the break)
4. He will have supper at home. (in the canteen) 5. Usually I have
breakfast in the kitchen. (in the room)
6. Th ey had supper in the café. (at home)
7.
My friends had their rest out of town. (in town)

54
B. Ask a particular question referring to the information presented. Use the prompt in
brackets.
Model: Т.: Th ey have supper very late. (always)
St.: Do they always have supper very late?
1. I have breakfast with my family. (dinner) 2. My sister has strong coff ee in the
morning. (in the evening)
3. My friend had his rest in the country. (with his
family)
4. Th ey will have their dinner in the café. (Why?) 5. We usually have a
snack during the break. (Where?)
6. I usually have a smoke for fi ve minutes.
(alone or with your friends)
7. Yesterday we had a long break. (Why?)
8. Englishmen have their lunch at about one o’clock. (Where?)
Te x t
Read the poem. Tell your partner if you have ever had an unlucky day.
A Bad Day
I overslept and missed my train,
Slipped on the sidewalk in the pouring rain,
Sprained my ankle and skinned my knees,
Broke my glasses, lost my keys,
Got stuck in the elevator, it didn’t go,
Kicked it twice and stubbed my toe,
Bought a pen that didn’t write,
Took it back and had a fi ght,
Went home angry, locked the door,
Crawled into bed — couldn’t take any more.
Words and Expressions
to oversleep — проспать
to miss a train — опоздать (не успеть) на поезд
to slip on the sidewalk […´saId,wD:k] — поскользнуться на тротуаре
in the pouring rain […´pD:rIN…] — в проливной дождь
to sprain the ankle […´BNkl] — получить растяжение ноги (в области
лодыжки)
to skin the knee […´ni:] — ободрать колено
to break the glasses — разбить очки
to lose a key [´lu:z A ´ki:] — потерять ключ
to get stuck in the elevator — застрять в лифте
to kick twice — стукнуть два раза ногой
to stub a toe […tAU] — ударить палец (ноги)
to have a fi ght [… faIt] — разругаться

55
angry [´BNgri] — сердитый, раздраженный
to lock the door […dD:] — закрыть дверь на замок
to crawl [krD:l] — залезать
couldn’t take any more — большего не мог вынести
XV. Write out of the poem all irregular verbs in their three forms. Learn these forms.
XVI. Write down the fi rst form of the verbs: missed, skinned, stubbed, slipped.
XVII. Name which of the accidents mentioned in the poem have ever happened to you.
XVIII. Learn the poem by heart.
Grammar
THE ADVERBS MANY, MUCH, etc.
(НАРЕЧИЯ MANY, MUCH и др.)
Исчисляемые существительные Неисчисляемые существительные
many — много much — много
few [fju:] — мало little — мало
a few — несколько a little — немного
a lot of, lots of, plenty of — много
Примечание. Наречия a lot of, lots of, plenty of употребляются только
в утвердительных предложениях. В отрицательных и вопросительных
предложениях вместо них используются many и much.
1. I have many (a lot of, lots of) friends, much (a lot of) money but little
time.
2. I met him a few days ago.
Exercises
XIX. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate quantitative adverbs. Give two variants if
possible.
1. Yesterday we received … guests. 2. How … sugar did you buy? 3. London
is a city of … architectural monuments.
4. In winter there is … snow on

56 the ground.
5. … tourists come to our city every year. 6. I can’t see you off ,
I have … work to do.
7. Th ere are only a … cigarettes in the box. 8. It is
better to have … time but … money.
9. Don’t eat … sugar and bread, eat
… vegetables.
10. Jane gave me a … help with my work.
XX. To learn who you are by nature, “a lark” or “an owl” give short answers to the
following questions.
A.
1. Do you get up early in the morning?
2. Do you like morning hours?
3. Do you feel bright and cheerful in the morning?
4. Do you do much work before aft ernoon?
5. Do you feel tired in the evening?
6. Do you go to bed before 12 p.m.?
If all your answers are “yes”, you are “a lark” by nature, if the answers
are “no”, you are “an owl”.
B.
1. Do you like to get up late in the morning?
2. Do you wake up reluctantly ([rI´lEktAntli] — неохотно) in the
morning?
3. Do you hate alarm clock’s ringing?
4. Do you feel sleepy in the morning?
5. Do you like to keep late hours?
6. Does your brain (мозг) work intensively aft er midnight?
7. Do you go to bed very late?
If all your answers are “yes”, you are “an owl” by nature, if the answers
are “no”, you are “a lark”.
XXI. Ask your partner the same questions and defi ne his (her) type of nature.
XXII. Topics for discussion.
1. In the morning at home (before your working day begins).
2. In the offi ce. (At the plant. At the University.)
3. In the evening at home (aft er your working day is over).
4. Your last weekend.
5. Your plans for the next weekend.

57 Te x t
Read the text and pay attention to the irregular verbs in the past simple tense.
The Cat that Caused a Wedding
I went to the wedding of my old friend Tom Bailey and Miss Helen Jones
last week. I enjoyed it very much. It was a good wedding with lots to eat
and drink and there were some bright people there. Tom is a lucky fellow.
His wife is a very pretty girl, young and gay and interesting, and clever too.
Oh yes, he is a lucky man. And it all happened because of a cat. It sounds
funny, but it is true.
Helen lived in the next house to Tom’s, and Tom was soon head over
heels in love
1 with Helen. He used to look at her over the garden wall; he
talked to her one day for a short time; he walked to the station with her
once or twice; and one evening, one great evening in his life, he went to
a Christmas party and danced with her.
But Tom isn’t much of a talker, and when he was with Helen he seemed
to have nothing to say
2. He wanted to say a lot, but the words just dried up
and he could never say anything.
Th en one day he walked out into the garden and saw Helen on the
other side of the wall. She looked very unhappy and worried. Tom said,
“What is the matter?” And she pointed to the big tree in her garden.
Tom looked up there. He saw Helen’s cat high up in the tree. It couldn’t
get down and looked as unhappy as Helen did. Tom went over the garden
wall and climbed up the tree and carried the cat down safely.
Helen was so pleased to get her cat again that she put her arms
round Tom’s neck
3 and gave him a kiss. Th is pleased Tom very much. He
wanted the cat to climb up the tree every day
4. So that night he waited until
it was dark and then he climbed up the tree. He carried a hammer and nails
and a fi sh in his hand. He knew that cats liked fi sh so he nailed the fi sh
to the tree.
Th e end of the story is: every day Tom saved the cat and got kisses
from Helen for it. Soon they got married.
(С. E. Eckersley. Essential English for Foreign Students. Book One. P. 177–178, 183)
¹ head over heels in love — влюблен по уши
² he seemed to have nothing to say — казалось, ему нечего сказать
³ she put her arms round Tom’s neck — она обняла Тома
4 He wanted the cat to climb up the tree every day. — Ему захотелось, чтобы кош-
ка влезала на дерево каждый день.

58
Words and Expressions
to cause [kD:z] — быть причиной
a wedding [´wedIN] — свадьба
bright [braIt] — зд.: видный, известный
a lucky fellow [´lEki ´felAU] — счастливчик
pretty [´prIti] — хорошенькая
gay [geI] — веселый
to happen [´hBpAn] — случаться
because of [bI´kOz Av] — из-за
to sound funny [´saUnd ´fEni] — звучать смешно
true [tru:] — верный, правдивый
a Christmas party [´krIsmAs ´pC:ti] — вечеринка по случаю Рождества
to dry up [´draI ´Ep] — зд.: застрять в горле
a wall [wD:l] — ограждение, стена, высокий забор
unhappy [En´hBpi] — несчастный
worried [´wErid] — взволнованный
to point [pDInt] — указывать
high up [´haI ´Ep] — высоко
to climb [klaIm] — карабкаться, влезать
to carry down safely — благополучно спустить
to give a kiss — поцеловать
to wait [weIt] — ждать
a hammer [´hBmA] — молоток
a nail [neIl] — гвоздь
to nail — забивать гвоздь, прибивать
a fi sh — рыба
to save — спасать
Grammar
THE EXPRESSION USED TО DO SOMETHING
(ВЫРАЖЕНИЕ USED TO DO SOMETHING)
Выражение used to do something («обычно что-то делал») употребляется
для описания повторяющегося действия в прошлом; при этом имеется в
виду, что в настоящем этого уже не происходит.
1. She used to speak English well (but she doesn’t now).
2. He used to have dinner at that hotel (but he doesn’t now).

59 Exercises
XXIII. А. Describe Helen using the following words to characterise her: pretty, gay, young,
clever, interes ting, practical, ingenious ([In´dZi:njAs] — изобретательный).
Model: Helen is pretty, or Helen is a pretty girl.
B. Describe Tom using the following words to characterise him: a lucky fellow, not to be
much of a talker, shy ([SaI] — робкий, застенчивый), to be head over heels in love with smb.
XXIV. Express your attitude to what is stated about Helen and Tom. Agree with the
statement or express your surprise at it.
Model 1: T .: Helen is a pretty girl.
St.: She is.
Model 2: Т.: She doesn’t love Tom as much as he does.
St.: Doesn’t she? (Indeed?)
1. Helen is young and gay. 2. Th ough she is young, the girl is clever. 3. She
has a talent to get what she wants.
4. Th e girl is rather ingenious. 5. Helen
used her cat as a bait (наживка).
6. She really wanted to marry Tom.
7. Tom isn’t much of a talker. 8. But he is a brave young man. 9. He was
head over heels in love with Helen.
10. Th ey will be happy together.
XXV. Speak about the relations between Tom and Helen before they got married. The
following expressions will help you.
To live next door to Helen, a Christmas party, used to look at her, to dance,
to talk for a short time, not to be much of a talker, to walk once or twice,
could never say anything.
XXVI. Speak about their life in the present tense. Use the expressions from exercise XXV
but don’t forget to change or drop some element that indicate the past tense.
XXVII. Speak how the cat helped the wedding. Use the following words and expressions.
To look unhappy and worried, to point to the big tree, high up in the tree,
to climb up the tree, to carry down safely, to put arms round somebody’s
neck, to give a kiss, to be happy, to carry a hammer and nails, to nail a fi sh,
to save the cat, to marry somebody.

60 Short Dialogues
MAKING A DATE
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
He: I’m going out for a walk on Sunday. Would you like to join me?
She: Oh dear! I’m afraid I can’t. I’m busy on Sunday.
He: Perhaps some other time then?
She: Of course. Th anks for inviting me though.
II
He: Could you come to my place tonight for a sherry party?
She: Tonight’s hardly possible. Perhaps tomorrow evening?
He: Oh, I don’t think I can. What about the day aft er tomorrow?
She: Th at’s fi ne. I’ll come with peasure.
I. to make a date (Am. E.) — назначать свидание
Would you like? — He хочешь ли? (He хотелось бы тебе?)
perhaps [pA´hBps] — может быть
though [GAU] — однако, хотя
II. to come to one’s place — зайти к кому-л.
tonight [tA´naIt] — сегодня вечером
a sherry party [´Seri ´pC:ti] — прием с коктейлями во второй
половине дня
Phrases for Invitation ([,InvI ´teISn] — приглашение)
1.
I’m going out to the theatre with some friends. Would you like to join
us?
2. Are you going to be busy tonight? Could you go to the theatre with
me?
3. Are you doing anything this evening by any chance? Would you like to
go to the concert with me?
Phrases for Ye s
1.
Yes, that’d be lovely! (Так в основном реагируют женщины.)
2. I’d love to! (Мужчины выбирают более нейтральные слова.)
3. How nice of you! Th anks very much.
4. Mm! Th at’s a great idea!

61
Phrases for No
1.
Oh dear! I’m afraid I’m busy tonight.
2. Tonight’s diffi cult. Perhaps tomorrow evening?
3. I’m sorry, I’m expecting some visitors this evening.
4. Th is evening is a bit of a problem. What about tomorrow?
by any chance — случайно
That’s a great idea! — Это хорошая мысль.
I’m expecting — я ожидаю
a bit of a problem — довольно проблематично
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Make up short dialogues using the given models.
А. Your invitation is accepted.
Model: St. 1: Could you come to my place for a birthday party
tomorrow
?
St.
2: How nice of you! Th anks, I’ll come by all means. (Any phrase
for “yes”)
Use: 1) a Christmas party — the day aft er tomorrow; 2) a sherry
party — tonight;
3) a New Year party — tomorrow evening;
4) a birthday party — at the weekend; 5) a tea party —
on Sunday;
6) a wedding celebration — next Saturday;
7) a dinner party — on Monday; 8) an evening party — this
Sunday;
9) a home concert — tomorrow at 7 o’clock;
10) St. Valentine’s Day celebration — on the 14th of February.
B. Your invitation is n ot accepted.
Model: St. 1 : I’m going to the cinema tomorrow. Would you like to
join me?
St. 2:
I’m sorry, tomorrow is a bit of a problem, I’m busy. (Any
phrase for “no”)

Use: 1) to the country — on Sunday; 2) to the museum — tomorrow
morning;
3) to the theatre — tonight; 4) to the concert —
tomorrow evening;
5) to a sherry party — on Saturday; 6) to the
lunch party — at the weekend;
7) to my friend’s birthday party —
next Sunday;
8) to the musical show — the day aft er
tomorrow;
9) to my relatives’ — next week; 10) to the cinema for
a new fi lm — now;
11) to the pop music concert — on Friday.

63
Revision Test 1
I. Choose the right variant a, b or c to complete each sentence.
1. Th e father’s new wife in a second or later marriage is a … for his
child.
a) mother-in-law b) grandmather c) stepmother
2. It is diffi cult for me to learn to write English words correctly because
I am not good at … .
a) pronunciation b) spelling c) listening
3. Th e … is a holiday that two people take aft er they get married.
a) wedding anniversary b) honeymoon c) silver wedding
4. What is your mother … profession? — She is an economist.
a) in b) on c) by
5. Your husband’s brother is your … .
a) brother-in-law b) half brother c) stepbrother
6. When a person applies for a job to a certain company, he or she has a
(an) … with the chief of the company.
a) interview b) meeting c) talk
7. Th e … are people who are out of work for some time for one or another
reason.
a) jobless b) unemployed c) retired
8. Can I make a (an) … with Doctor Brown for Monday at ten o’clock?
a) arrangement b) meeting c) appointment
9. Paula’s parents … when she was fourteen. Now they decided to
reunite.
a) married b) divorced c) said good-bye to each other
10. I am not a shopaholic so I don’t like to … .
a) go shopping b) do the shopping c) spend money on trifl es

64
II. Choose the proper grammatical form out of the given variants.
1. John overslept and … not to be late for the classes.
a) didn’t have
breakfast b) hadn’t any break-
fast c) had no breakfast
2. Whose books are these? — Th ese are … .
a) our b) ours c) our book
3. Th e police … there in time and managed to arrest the suspect.
a) was b) were c) are
4. Don’t worry. No news … good news.
a) is b) were c) are
5. You must have as … sugar as possible.
a) a lot of b) little c) few
6. Save your money but don’t put … in the bank.
a) them b) they c) it
7. Who can tell me where …?
a) my umbrella is b) is my umbrella c) was my umbrella
8. If it … next Sunday, we will stay in town.
a) rains b) will rain c) rain
9. Do … people take care of their health properly?
a) lots of b) a lot of c) many
10. Th e fi lm … at six o’clock. Try not to be late.
a) will begin b) will not begin c) begins
III. Read the text.
The Ant and the Grasshopper
(An extract)
I suppose every family has a black sheep. Tom had been a sore trial to
his brother for twenty years. He had begun life decently enough: he
went into business, married, and had two children. Th e Ramsays were

perfectly respectable people and there was every reason to suppose that
Tom Ramsay would have a useful and honourable career. But one day,
without warning, he announced that he didn’t like work and that he
wasn’t suited for marriage. He wanted to enjoy himself. He would listen
to no expostulations. He left his wife and his offi ce. He had little money
and he spent two happy years in the various capitals of Europe. Rumours
of his doing reached his relations from time to time and they were
profoundly shocked. He certainly had a very good time. Th ey shook
their heads and asked what would happen when his money was spent.
Th ey soon found out: he borrowed. He was charming and unscrupulous.
I have never met anyone to whom it was more diffi cult to refuse a loan.
He made a steady income from his friends and he made friends easily.
But he always said that the money you spent on necessities was boring;
the money that was amusing to spend was the money you spent on
luxuries.
(By S. Maugham)
A. Answer the questions.
1. Were the Ramsays respectable and hard-working people?
2. What does it mean that Tom was a black sheep in the family? What
Russian proverb corresponds to this expression?
3. How did Tom begin his life?
4. Did he follow his family’s tradition?
5. How did he change his life all of a sudden?
6. How did Tom enjoy himself aft er he had left his business and family?
7. Where did he get money?
8. Did he make friends easily?
B. Ask your partner:
1) if he / she makes friends easily;
2) if he / she sometimes borrows money from his / her friends;
3) what he / she spends money on;
4) if he / she likes to spend money on luxuries;
5) if he / she wants to make a successful business career in future;
6) what is more important for him / her — the family or the career.

66
Unit
FOUR
Conversation: Time. Weather. Seasons
Grammar: Tag-questions. The pronoun it. Cardinal Numerals
Te x t
Read the text.
The Climate and Seasons in England
Th e warm current of the Gulf Stream brings a temperate climate to the
British Isles. So the weather in England is mild in all seasons. Th e
temperature seldom reaches extremes of heat or cold. It averages about
40 degrees Fahrenheit in January and 60 degrees in August. During the
day the changes in temperature are not very great, that is why weather
forecasts do not give the temperature of the air.
Th e best seasons in England are spring and summer. In summer the
sun shines brightly but it is not hot. Green grass covers the fi elds and
meadows.
Here and there beautiful fl owers are growing. It is pleasant to walk in
the woods and forests, to breathe fresh air and listen to the songs of the
birds. Th e days in summer are long and the nights are short so you have
much time to enjoy the wonderful landscape.
Autumn is a rainy season and the weather is mostly dull. But there
may be a spell of sunny weather in late September, which they call Indian
summer, when the sky seems high, the sun shines and the earth is covered
1
with fallen leaves.
Th e most typical feature of the climate in England is the thick fog that
they oft en have in autumn and in winter. It comes oft en and stays for
weeks.
In winter the sky is pale, grey and has low clouds. Th e sun shines rarely,
its rays are pale; it sets early and rises late. Th e winter air is frosty and the
1 is covered — покрыта

67 weather is windy. Th ey have all sorts of weather in winter. Sometimes it
rains and sometimes it snows heavily, and they also have fog and frost. But
it rains more oft en than it snows. Th at is why English people do not wear
heavy overcoats, but only warm raincoats.
Towards the end of the winter the snow begins to melt, the sky becomes
blue, the fi rst grass and fl owers appear, birds come back from the warm
lands. Spring comes.
Words and Expressions
a climate [´klaImAt] — климат
a season [´si:zn] — время года, сезон
a current [´kErAnt] — течение
the Gulf Stream [,gElf ´stri:m] — Гольфстрим
temperate [´tempArAt] — умеренный
the British Isles [´brItIS ´aIlz] — Британские острова
weather [´weGA] — погода
mild [maIld] — мягкий, умеренный
seldom [´seldAm] — редко
to reach [ri:tS] — достигать
an extreme [Ik´stri:m] — крайняя степень
heat [hi:t] — жара
to average [´BvIrIdZ] — достигать в среднем
a degree [dI´gri:] — градус
Fahrenheit [´fBrAnhaIt] — шкала термометра Фаренгейта
January [´dZBnjuAri] — январь
August [´D:gAst] — август
a change [tSeIndZ] — изменение
a forecast [´fD:kC:st] — прогноз
air [eA] — воздух
spring [sprIN] — весна
the sun [sEn] — солнце
to shine brightly (shone) [´SaIn ´braItli] — светить ярко
hot [hOt] — жаркий
green grass [´gri:n ´gra:s] — зеленая трава
a fi eld [fi:ld] — поле
a meadow [´medAU] — луг
a beautiful fl ower [´bju:tAfl ´flaUA] — красивый цветок

68
to grow (grew, grown) [grAU] — произрастать
woods [wUdz] — роща
a forest [´fOrIst] — лес
to listen to the songs of the birds [´lIsn tA GA ´sONz Av GA ´bQ:dz] — слушать
пение птиц
long [lON] — длинный
short [SD:t] — короткий
autumn [´D:tAm] — осень
rainy [´reIni] — дождливый
mostly dull [´mAUstli ´dEl] — по большей части пасмурный
a spell [spel] — короткий промежуток времени
late September [´leIt sep´tembA] — конец сентября
to call [kD:1] — называть
Indian summer [´IndIAn …] — бабье лето
the sky [skaI] — небо
to seem [si:m] — казаться
earth [Q:F] — земля
fallen leaves [´fD:lAn ´li:vz] — опавшие листья
the most typical feature […´tIpIkAl ´fi:tSA] — самая отличительная черта
a thick fog [´FIk ´fOg] — густой туман
winter [´wIntA] — зима
to stay [steI] — зд.: держаться, не проходить
pale [peIl] — неяркий
grey [greI] — серый, пасмурный
low clouds [´lAU ´klaUdz] — низкие облака
rarely [´reAli] — редко
a ray [reI] — луч
to set early [´set ´Q:li] — рано садиться (о солнце)
to rise late [´raIz ´leIt] — поздно всходить (о солнце)
frosty [´frOsti] — морозный
frost [frOst] — мороз
windy [´wIndi] — ветреный
it rains [… reInz] — идет дождь
it snows heavily […´snAUz ´hevIli] — идет сильный снег
to wear heavy overcoats [´weA ´hevi ´AUvAkAUts] — носить теплое пальто
a raincoat [´reIn ,kAUt] — плащ
towards the end [tA´wD:dz GA ´end] — к концу

69
to melt [melt] — таять
to appear [A´pIA] — появляться
a land [lBnd] — страна, земля
Exercises
I. A. Answer the questions.
1. What is the climate like in England? 2. Why don’t weather forecasts give
the temperature of the air?
3. What are the best seasons in England?
4. What is the weather like in winter? 5. What is Indian summer? 6. Why
do English people wear only warm raincoats in winter?
7. What are the
fi rst signs of spring?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Tell me, please and I wonder.
II. Form adjectives from the nouns according to the model and translate them into
Russian.
Model: frost — frosty (морозный)
A cloud, wind, rain, the sun, snow, fog, ice, a storm.
REMEMBER!
При образовании прилагательного при помощи суффикса у от однослож-
ного существительного, оканчивающегося на согласную, конечная со-
гласная удваивается: sun — sunny.
При образовании прилагательного при помощи суффикса у от однослож-
ного существительного, оканчивающегося на немое е, последнее выпа-
дает: ice — icy.
III. Complete the statements characterising the weather.
Model: Т.: When the wind is blowing, we say … .
St.: It is windy.
1. When the clouds cover the sky, we say … . 2. When the rain begins, we
say … .
3. When the sun is shining, we say … . 4. When the snow covers
the fi eld, we say … .
5. When the fog appears, we say … . 6. When
the storm begins, we say … .
7. When the earth is covered with ice, we
say … .

70
IV. Agree with the statement and express your attitude to it, using the phrases It’s fi ne,
It’s (not) good, It’s (not) bad, It’s a pity.
Model: Т.: Th e days became longer.
St.: Th ey did. It’s fi ne.
1. Th e weather is sunny, though windy. 2. It oft en rains in autumn. 3. Th e nights
became shorter.
4. Th e sky is dark and cloudy. 5. Th e days grew longer. 6. Th e air
is frosty and wet.
7. Th e “white nights” are coming. 8. It was late to go there.
9. Autumn is a rainy season and the weather is oft en dull. 10. Th e landscape in
summer is wonderful.
V. This is how to ask and answer the questions about the temperature:
1. What is the temperature today?
— It is fi ft een degrees above zero Celsius (Centigrade).
2. What was the temperature yesterday?
— It was ten degrees above zero Celsius (Centigrade).
3. What was the average temperature last winter?
— It was twenty degrees below zero Celsius (Centigrade).
above zero [A´bEv ´zIArAU] — выше нуля
Celsius [´selsiAs] — Цельсий
Centigrade [´sentI,greId] — стоградусный (стоградусная температур-
ная шкала)
below zero [bI´lAU …] — ниже нуля
average [´Bv(A)rIdZ] — средний
Th ere is also a Fahrenheit scale. Th e formula for converting a Celsius
temperature to Fahrenheit is
=°+°9
32
5 FC
If it is necessary to convert a Fahrenheit temperature to Celsius, you should
use the formula
() °= °− °5
32
9 CF

71
VI. Using the formula given a bove convert the Celsius temperat ure to the Fahrenheit one
and vice versa.
+15 °C, –20 °C, 0 °C, –4 °C, 34 °F, 100 °F, 88 °F.
VII. A. Show your surprise at what you hear about the temperature using the words
Indeed? or Really?
Model: Т.: Th e temperature was very low in May.
St.: Indeed? (Really?)
Т.: It was.
1. In the North Pole (Северный полюс) the temperature reaches –50 °C
in winter.
2. Th e last summer was very hot. 3. Th e temperature 100°F is
about +38 °C.
4. Th e temperature is very low for the season. 5. Th e
temperature today is only +5 °C.
6. Last summer the temperature in our
city reached +30 °C.
B. Do the exercise in pairs each time exchanging the roles.
VIII. Think of some sentences characterising seasons in your city (town).
Model: Winter in our city is usually mild, but sometimes it is frosty.
Th e temperature reaches –25 °C. Everybody likes snow.
Speak about:summer spring
autumn the last winter
early autumn
IX. You are having a rest in the Crimea. The weather is fi ne. Write a letter to your friend
describing the weather.
X. It is autumn. The weather is nasty ([´nC:sti] — отвратительный). Phone your friend
and complain about this.
XI. Describe every season in England (on the basis of the text).
XII. Topics for discussion.
1. Your favourite season.
2. Indian summer.
3. Th e typical winter in your town.
4. Th e summer which you cannot forget.
5. Spring as a symbol of the new life and hope for the better changes.
6. Late autumn.

72 Grammar
TAG-QUESTIONS
(РАЗДЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ)
It is cold, isn’t it? — Холодно, не правда ли?
It is not raining, is it? — Дождь не идет, не так ли?
It doesn’t often rain in spring, does it? — Весной не часто идут дожди,
не так ли?
В таких предложениях собственно вопросительной является вторая часть.
Обратите внимание, что отрицание not содержится либо в первой, либо
во второй части (но не в обеих). Если первая часть утвердительная, то от-
рицание появляется непосредственно в вопросе, и наоборот, если первая
часть отрицательная, то в вопросе отрицание отсутствует. Вспомогатель-
ный глагол в собственно вопросе зависит от того, в каком грамматиче-
ском времени дается основной глагол в первой части.
Exercices
I. Put in tag-questions.
1. It is snowing, …? 2. Th e climate in England is mild, … ? 3. It isn’t warm
today, … ?
4. It was windy yesterday, … ? 5. It looks like rain, …? 6. In
winter it oft en snows heavily, … ?
7. It wasn’t dull in the morning, …?
8. You don’t like winter, … ? 9. You didn’t go to the country last weekend,
… ?
10. He lives there, …? 11. You won’t do this, … ? 12. You like early
spring, … ?
13. It snowed much last winter, …?
II. Ask one another questions about the weather, personal interests, and something else.
Use the models:
Th e weather is …, isn’t it?
You don’t like …, do you?
You dislike (питать отвращение) …, don’t you?

73 Short Dialogues
TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A:
Fairly warm for the time of year.
B: Yes. Quite diff erent from the weather forecast.
A: Th ey say we’re in for rain.
B: Let’s hope it keeps fi ne for some more time.
II
A:
Nice and sunny this morning!
B: Much better than yesterday.
A: Th e wind’ll probably get up later.
B: As long as it doesn’t rain.
I. fairly [´feAli] — довольно
we’re in for rain — ожидается дождь
II. much better — много лучше

as long as — пока что
Exercices
I. A. Respond to the statements with the phrase Yes. Quite different from the forecast.
1. Fairly mild for the time of year. 2. Fairly warm for the season. 3. A rather
rainy day.
4. Rather cold for the season. 5. Nice and bright this morning.
6. Windy and cold this aft ernoon!
B.
1. Use the adjectives fi ne, hot, nice, bright, wonderful in statements
1 and 2.
2. Use the adjectives windy, cold, cool, dark, foggy, wet in statements
3 and 4.

74
3. Use the adjectives sunny and dry, fi ne and still, bright and warm, foggy
and cool, wet and cloudy in statements 5 and 6.
II. Respond to the statements with the phrase Much better (wor se) than yes terday.
A. T. — St.
1. What a fi ne weather today! 2. What a wonderful morning! 3. Rainy and
windy this morning.
4. It’s cold today, isn’t it? 5. What a nice day! 6. Foggy
and cool this aft ernoon.
B. St. 1 — St. 2
Use some other adjectives in the statements given above. (For adjectives see ex. I.B.)
III. Say as many phrases about the weather as possible, the phrases to which the response
is the following: Let’s hope it keeps fi ne for the weekend.
IV. Read the following weather forecasts for the next day and say which of them will be
favourable for your trip to the suburb.
1. Th ere will be fog in the mountains early tomorrow morning,
disappearing by noon, and it will be sunny but cold for most of the
day. Snow is expected tomorrow night.
2. It will be another dull, wet day tomorrow. Storms are expected in the
aft ernoon and there will be heavy rain in all areas.
3. For most of the day tomorrow the weather will be clear and warm.
However, by late aft ernoon it is expected to become increasingly
cloudy, with the possibility of showers in the evening.
4. It will be another hot day tomorrow. People are, however, advised to
stay indoors, as strong winds are expected in the aft ernoon with the
likelihood of sandstorms. Temperatures are expected to drop tomorrow
night and it will become quite chilly.
(Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Teacher’s Book.
Enterprise 4. Intermediate. P. 21. Express Publishing, 1998)
V. Find in the short texts given above words relating to the topiс Weather and write them
down in three columns.
Nouns Adjectives Verbs

75
VI. Match the adjectives listed in the left column to the nouns from the right column.
1) cloudy a) air
2) dull b) clouds
3) frosty c) day
4) heavy d) rain
5) strong e) sky
6) sunny f) snow
7) warm g) storm
8) wet h) weather
9) windy i) wind
VII. The following phrases will be useful for making a forecast.
Fog is expected. — Ожидается (возможен) туман.
Showers are expected. — Ожидаются (возможны) ливни.
Say the following in English.
1. Утром ожидаются ливни. 2. К вечеру ожидается дождь со снегом.
3. Временами возможен сильный ветер. 4. В выходные ожидаются
теплые, солнечные дни.
5. Прогноз погоды на завтра вполне
благоприятный.
6. Утром ожидается прохладная погода.
VIII. Reproduce the short dialogues “Talking about the Weather“ in similar situations.
Te x t
Read the poem and take the advice into consideration.
Must
When the weather is wet,
We must not fret.
When the weather is cold,
We must not scold.
When the weather is warm,
We must not storm.
But be thankful together
Whatever the weather.
to fret — раздражаться
to scold [skAUld] — браниться
to storm [stD:m] — горячиться, кричать
whatever [wOt´evA] — какой бы ни, любой

76
IX. You are a TV announcer. You are informing the TV viewers about the weather forecast
for the next weekend. What will your information be?
1. It is late September.
2. It is the very beginning of January.
3. It is early spring.
4. It is August.
Grammar
THE PRONOUN IT
(МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ IT)
Местоимение it имеет несколько значений. В зависимости от своего зна-
чения it может переводиться или не переводиться на русский язык.
1. It — личное местоимение. В русском языке соответствует местоимениям
«он», «она», «оно» (во всех падежах), указывающим на неодушевленный
предмет:
Take some milk. It is in the fridge. (Оно в холодильнике.)
Where is the bread? — It is on the table. (Oн на столе.)
Where is the book? — It is on the shelf. (Она на полке.)
2. It — указательное местоимение, на русский язык переводится местои-
мением «это»:
It is a large room. — Это большая комната.
It is a comfortable chair. — Это удобный стул.
It is a nice garden. — Это красивый сад.
3. It употребляется как формальное подлежащее в предложениях, описы-
вающих явления природы, а также при сообщении времени, времени дня,
дней недели и др. На русский язык такое местоимение не переводится:
a)
It is hot. — Жарко.
It
is frosty. — Морозно.
It
is snowing. — Идет снег.
It
is raining. — Идет дождь.
It
is spring. — Весна.

77
b) It is twelve o’clock. — Двенадцать часов.
It
is morning. — Утро.
It
is Sunday today. — Сегодня воскресенье.
4. It — формальное подлежащее, вводящее смысловое подлежащее. На
русский язык не переводится:
It is pleasant to walk in the forest. — Приятно гулять в лесу.
It is necessary to call him. — Необходимо позвонить ему.
5. It — эмфатическое, усилительное слово. Употребляется для подчерки-
вания значения одного из членов предложения. На русский язык не пере-
водится:
It is in the evening that I like to work. — Именно (Как раз) вечером я и
люблю работать.
It is Tom who knows the place. — Именно (Как раз) Том и знает это место.
Exercises
I. Read the following sentences taken from the story “Mr. Know-All” by S. Maugham.
Defi ne the type of the pronoun it and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. But when I was told the name of my companion my heart sank.
It suggested the closed portholes and the night air rigidly excluded. It was
bad enough to share a cabin for fourteen days with anyone (I was going
from San Francisco to Yokohama), but I should have looked upon it with
less dismay if my fellow passenger’s name had been Smith or Brown.
2. When I went on board I found Mr. Kelada’s luggage already below.
I did not like the look of it; there were too many labels on the suitcases,
and the wardrobe trunk was too big.
3. “I am Mr. Kelada,” he added, with a smile that showed a row of fl ashing
teeth, and sat down.
“Oh, yes, we are sharing a cabin, I think.”
“Bit of luck, I call it. You never know who you’re going to be put on
with…”
4. “Are you English?” I asked, perhaps tactlessly.
“Rather. You don’t think I look like an American, do you? British to
the backbone, that’s what I am.” To prove it, Mr. Kelada took out of his
pocket a passport and airily waved it under my nose.

78
5. From each of his hip pockets he fi shed a fl ask and laid it on the table
before me.
6. It was impossible to snub him. It never occurred to him that he was
not wanted.
7. We call him Mr. Know-All, even to his face. He took it as a compliment.
But it was at mealtimes that he was not intolerable.
8. You could not look at her without being struck by her modesty. It
shone in her like a fl ower on a coat.
9. “Th at’s a pretty chain of Mrs. Ramsay’s, isn’t it?”
“I noticed it at once,” answered Mr. Kelada. “Gee, I said to myself, those
are pearls all right.”
“I didn’t buy it myself, of course. I’d be interested to know how much
you think it cost.”
10. “Let me look at the chain, and if it’s imitation I’ll tell you quickly
enough. I can aff ord to lose a hundred dollars,” said Mr. Kelada.
“Take it off , dear. Let the gentleman look at it as much as he wants”. Mrs.
Ramsay hesitated a moment. She put her hands to the clasp. “I can’t
undo it,” she said. “Mr. Kelada will just have to take my word for it.”
11. Suddenly he caught sight of Mrs. Ramsay’s face. It was so white that
she looked as though she were about to faint. She was staring at him
with wide and terrifi ed eyes. … it was so clear that I wondered why her
husband did not see it.
12. “I was mistaken,” he said, “It’s a very good imitation, but of course as
soon as I looked through my glass I saw that it wasn’t real.”
13. He took out his pocketbook and from it a hundred-dollar bill. He
handed it to Ramsay without a word.
14. It was a fi ne joke that Mr. Know-All had been caught out.
15. I picked up the letter and noticed that it was addressed to Mr. Kelada.
Th e name was written in block letters. I handed it to him.
II. Answer the questions.
1. Is it cold today? 2. Is it stuff y in the room? 3. Is it Sunday today? 4. Wa s
it Saturday yesterday?
5. What day of the week will it be tomorrow? 6. Is it
necessary to learn English?
7. Is it diffi cult to understand English? 8. Is it
interesting for you to see French fi lms? And American ones?
9. Is it hard
for you to fi nd the time for English classes?
10. Was it pleasant for you to
meet your friends aft er the holidays?

79
III. Translate into English.
1. Холодно. 2. Сейчас осень. 3. Осенью идут дожди. 4. Вчера был
дождь.
5. В комнате душно. 6. Вчера было воскресенье. 7. Было
солнечно.
8. Вчера не было прохладно. 9. Темно. 10. Будет холодно.
11. Летом жарко. 12. Сейчас холодно? 13. Сейчас идет дождь?
Time
Read and memorise.
What’s the time? — Который час (сейчас)?
What time is it now? — Сколько времени?
What time is it by your watch? — Сколько времени на ваших часах?
It is six (o’clock). —
Сейчас шесть (часов).
It is ten (minutes) past nine. — Сейчас десять минут десятого.
It is ten (minutes) to nine. — Сейчас без десяти (минут) девять.
It is half [hC:f] past twelve. — Сейчас половина первого.
It is a quarter [
´kwD:tA] to fi ve. — Сейчас без четверти пять.
It is twelve (o’clock) sharp. — Сейчас ровно двенадцать (часов).
My watch is fi ve minutes fast (slow). — Мои часы спешат (отстают) на пять
минут.
at eight (o’clock) — в восемь часов
at eight p.m.
1 — в восемь часов вечера
at eight a.m.
2 — в восемь часов утра
in the morning — утром
early in the morning — рано утром
in the evening — вечером
late in the evening — поздно вечером
in the aft ernoon — в полдень
in the daytime — днем, в дневное время
tonight — сегодня вечером (реже — ночью)
at night — ночью
1 p.m. is short for Latin “post meridiem” — после полудня2 a.m. is short for Latin “ante meridiem” — до полудня

80 Exercises
IV. Answer the questions.
1. What is the time now? 2. Is your watch correct? 3. How many minutes is
your watch fast (slow)?
4. What time do your English classes begin?
5. When are the classes over? 6. What time did you go to bed yesterday?
7. When is the TV programme “News” on?
V. Ask student В:
what time it is now.
if his (her) watch is fast or slow.
how much it is fast (slow).
when he (she) has a break for dinner.
what time he (she) revises for the English classes.
when he (she) returns home in the evening.
what time he (she) gets up at weekends.
VI. Say it in English.
1. Сейчас два часа. 2. Сейчас половина третьего. 3. Который час? — Без
пятнадцати четыре.
4. Было ровно восемь часов. 5. Это было в девять
часов вечера.
6. Сейчас без двух минут два. 7. В какое время это
было? — Это было в шесть утра.
8. Сейчас без четверти одиннадцать.
Grammar
CARDINAL NUMERALS
(КОЛИЧЕСТВЕННЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ)
1)
one eleven –
two twelve twenty
three thirteen thirty
four fourteen forty
fi ve fi fteen fi fty
six sixteen sixty
seven seventeen seventy
eight eighteen eighty
nine nineteen ninety
ten – –

2)
a hundred [´hEndrAd]сто
a thousand [´FaUzAnd]тысяча
a million [´mIljAn]миллион
REMEMBER!
two hundred; three thousand; four million.
Exercise
VII. Tell the time in English.
8.45; 3.50; 20.08; 10.18; 19.02; 12.00; 22.30; 1.15; 13.40; 5.17; 6.27; 7.30;
18.20; 16.15; 14.58

82
Unit
FIVE
Conversation: Days of the Week. Months. Meeting People after a Long Time
Grammar: The Perfect Tenses. Ordinal Numerals
Read the following dialogues and see how the present perfect tense is formed and used. Pay
attention to the tense change: fi rst the present perfect is used, then the situation is described
in the past simple.
Read the dialogues.
Have You Ever …?
1.
— Have you ever learnt a foreign language before?
— Yes, I have.
— Oh! Which one did you learn?
— I learnt French in High School.
2. — Have you ever been to any Eastern country?
— Yes, I have.
— What country was it?
— It was Japan.
3. — Have you ever seen one of the “Seven Wonders of the World”?
— Ah, yes, I have. I saw the Egyptian Pyramids.
— When did you see them?
— I saw the pyramids when I visited Egypt in 2014.
4. — Have you ever drunk too much?
— Yes, I have.
— When did you drink too much?
— I drank too much at my brother’s wedding.
5. — Have you ever eaten out at a Chinese restaurant?
— Yes, I have.
— When did you eat there?
— My friends and I ate there on the eve of the New Year by the Eastern
calendar.

83
6. — Have you ever had the fl u?
— Yes, I have.
— When did you have it?
— I had it last September when I bathed in the cold water.
7. — Have you ever broken a bone?
— Yes, I have. Not once.
— What did you break?
— I broke my leg and two years later I broke my arm.
Words and Expressions
a language [´lBNgwIdZ] — язык (родной или иностранный)
Eastern — восточный
Seven Wonders of the World — семь чудес света
to drink (drank, drunk) — пить
to eat out [i:t] (ate [et], eaten [´i:tn]) — есть, кушать (в гостях или ресто-
ране)
a Chinese restaurant […´restArOnt] — китайский ресторан
to have the fl u [flu:] — болеть гриппом
to break [break] (broke [brAUk], broken [´brAUkAn]) — ломать
a bone [bAUn] — кость
a leg — нога (от бедра до ступни)
Exercise
I. With your partner make up the similar dialogues slightly changing the situation.
1) to take a driving course, to go in for windsurfi ng;
2) to be present at a rock musicians’ concert, to be a witness of a traffi c
accident;
3) to see a horror fi lm, to tell a lie;
4) to receive an expensive present, to be late for a date with your
beloved;
5) to eat an exotic fruit, to drink a Chile wine;
6) to have bronchitis or pneumonia, to be treated by a homeopath;
7) to lose a game, to win a prize.

84 Grammar
THE PERFECT TENSES
(СОВЕРШЕННЫЕ ВРЕМЕНА)
to have + III form of the notional verb
Present
Pas t
Future
Правильные
Нерпавильные
have
hashad shall
will ⎫
⎬ have
⎭ -ed written
(См. в таблице
на стр. 378–381)
The Present Perfect Tense
(Настоящее совершенное время)
вспомогательный
глагол
основной глагол
have
has+ III форма
Необходимо отличать ситуации, в которых употребляется настоящее
совершенное время (present perfect), от тех, в которых встречается
прошедшее простое (past simple).
1. Настоящее совершенное время употребляется для выражения за-
конченного действия, имеющего ситуативную связь с настоящим, при-
чем время не указано, так как для высказывания оно не имеет значе-
ния. В таких ситуациях важен сам факт совершения действия, его от-
ношение к настоящему. При указании времени (когда проходило дей-
ствие) связь с настоящим прерывается, и это исключает возможность
для употребления настоящего совершенного времени. В этом случае
действие передается глаголом в прошедшем простом времени. Имен-
но поэтому в ситуациях с настоящим совершенным не допускается по-
становка вопроса со словом
when.

85
1

Have you seen this fi lm?
— Yes, I have .
— When did you see it?
— I saw it last Sunday .
2
— Has
he written a letter?
— Yes, he wrote it in the morning .
2. Настоящее совершенное время употребляется обычно с наречиями
неопределенного времени
just (только что), already (уже), not yet (еще
не),
ever (когда-либо), never (никогда), recently (недавно) для выраже-
ния действия, которое только что закончилось.
Nick has just come to the lesson.
— Ник только что пришел на за-
нятия.
I have already
fi nished my breakfast. — Я уже позавтракал.
We have not
translated this text yet. — Мы еще не перевели этот
текст.
3. Настоящее совершенное время употребляется также для выраже-
ния действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается в настоя-
щем, если такое действие выражено глаголами, не допускающими
форм continuous:
She has been a teacher of English for а year now (and she is still a
teacher). —
Она преподает английский язык уже в течение года.
I have known him since we were children (and we are still friends). —
Я знаю его с детства.
Если действие не продолжается в настоящем, а было закончено в про-
шлом, употребляется прошедшее простое время.
She was a teacher of English at that time (and now she doesn’t work).
I knew
him some years ago (but now we don’t meet).
Обратите внимание на то, что время present perfect (являясь
настоя-
щим
совершенным временем) на русский язык преимущественно пере-
водится глаголом
прошедшего времени совершенного вида. Перевод
настоящим временем касается случаев, упомянутых в п.
3. (Подробно
об этом см. грамматический материал раздела 7.)

86 Exercises
II. A. Просмотрите диалоги на с. 82-83 и прочитайте реплики, в которых употребле-
но настоящее совершенное время.
B. Сравните их с репликами, в которых встречается прошедшее простое, и объясните,
чем в данных диалогах определяется различие в употреблении двух времен.
C. Выпишите все неправильные глаголы и выучите их формы.
III. Ask student В:
if he (she) has ever been to London (Paris, abroad [A´brD:d] — за гра ницей).
when he (she) was there.
if he (she) has ever eaten asparagus (спаржа).
when he (she) ate this.
if he (she) has ever lost the key to the fl at.
when he (she) lost it.
if he (she) has ever bathed in the Black Sea.
when he (she) bathed there last time.
if he (she) has ever seen a horror fi lm ([´hOrA] — фильм ужасов).
what fi lm he (she) saw.
Как было отмечено ранее, грамматическое время present perfect употре-
бляется для обозначения действия, которое произошло недавно. Но
если мы продолжаем далее говорить об этом событии, задавая вопросы
или развивая предыдущую информацию, то план грамматического вре-
мени меняется, и дальнейшее событие передается временем
past simple.
IV. You’d like to know something in particular ([pA´tIkjUlA] — в частности). Ask.
Model: Т.: Th ey’ve given their friend a nice present. (What present?)
St.: What present did they give?
Т.: Oh, French perfume.
1. We’ve seen a new American fi lm. (What fi lm?) 2. My friend has visited
many Siberian towns. (What towns? When?)
3. I’ve lost a large sum of
money. (How much? When?)
4. I’ve bought a new book by Hector Munro.
(What book?)
5. My brother has got married recently. (Who? When?)
6. I’ve just read a very interesting book. (What book?) 7. My friends have
bought a new car. (What make of car? When?)
8. He has sent her nice
fl owers. (Why? When? What fl owers?)

87
V. Practise in using the following conversational phrases. Don’t forget to change your
roles.
Т.: Have you ever been to A?
St.:No, I haven’t.
Yes, I have.
Yes, several (many) times.
T. :Would you like to go there? (Хотелось бы вам …?)
When were you there?
When were you there last?
St.:Rather. ([´rC:GA] — Да. Конечно. Охотно.)
In October. (Any phrase B)
A: Moscow, Sochi, etc., the sea, the Caucasus, the Bolshoi Th eatre, the
Hermitage, the mountains, the Zoo, the Far North.
B: any year or month (любой год или месяц), e.g. 2013, in January, last
November, during my summer holidays.
VI. A. Answer the questions.
1. What have you done for today’s lesson? 2. Have you done the homework
well?
3. Have you seen the new fi lm …? When did you see it? 4. What TV
programmes have you watched recently?
5. Have you read a paper today?
What paper did you read?
6. Have you ever been to England (France,
Japan, etc.)?
7. How long have you lived in your town? 8. Have you
improved your knowledge of English (to improve [im´pru:v] — улуч-
шать)?
9. What job have you done about the house today? 10. Have you
bought anything today? What did you buy?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Tell me, please and I wonder.
VII. Translate into English.
1. Вы когда-нибудь были на Кавказе? — Да, несколько раз. — Когда
вы были там последний раз? — Дайте подумать (Let me see). Послед-
ний раз я был там два года назад.
2. Ты уже видел этот фильм? — Нет
еще. Я собираюсь посмотреть его завтра вечером.
3. Садитесь, я уже
приготовила обед. — А когда вы начали готовить?
4. Я сказала ему
об этом вчера, и он очень расстроился.
5. Я знаю их с детства. Мы
вместе учились в школе.
6. Где господин Браун? — Он уже ушел. —
Но я только что его видела. Когда он ушел? — Он ушел минут десять
тому назад.
7. Завтра мы идем в театр. Я достал два билета. 8. Что ты
купила? — Ничего особенного (Nothing in particular), но истратила

88 много денег.
9. Ты уже убрала квартиру? — Да. Я это сделала час тому
назад.
10. Я не видел вас целую вечность (for ages). Где вы были?
Short Dialogues
MEETING PEOPLE AFTER A LONG TIME
Read the dialogues.
I
A: We haven’t seen you for ages. Have you been away?
B: Yes, I’ve been up north for a month.
A: Where exactly?
B: Aberdeen. I came back two days ago.
II
A: How nice to see you again. Where have you been? Abroad?
B: No, I’ve been at my cousins’.
A: Whereabouts?
В: I went to Bristol. My relatives rent a house there.
III
A: Come in and make yourself comfortable. We haven’t seen much of you
lately.
B: Oh, I’ve been away on holiday.
A: Where exactly?
B: Liverpool. I’ve got a friend there.
I. to be away — быть в отъезде
to be up north [nD:F] — быть на севере
Aberdeen — Абердин
II. abroad — за границей

whereabouts [´weArA,baUts] — где приблизительно? (в каких
краях?)

Bristol — Бристоль

III. We haven’t seen much of you lately. — Тебя что-то совсем не видно в
последнее время.

exactly [Ig´zBktli] — точно

Liverpool — Ливерпуль

89 Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1 (the fi rst lines of the dialogues), then В 1. A 2
and В 2.
II. You’ve met a friend of yours. You haven’t seen him (her) for a long time. Ask where he
(she) has been.
Model: Hello! I haven’t seen you for a month. Where have you been?
(See phrases A 1.)
III. Make up short dialogues according to the model:
— Where have you been?
— Oh, I’ve been at
my relations’ .
— Where exactly?

In Paris .
Use the followihg phrases:
at my friends’ — in the country; in the north — in Norilsk; at my cousin’s —
in the Crimea; in the south — in Rome; at my grandparents’ — in Bristol;
in the Far East — in Vladivostok.
IV. Reproduce the short dialogues “Meeting People after a Long Time” in similar
situations.
Grammar
THE PAST AND FUTURE PERFECT TENSES
(ПРОШЕДШЕЕ И БУДУЩЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННЫЕ ВРЕМЕНА)
Чтобы сопоставить прошедшее и будущее совершенное время (past perfect
и future perfect) с прошедшим и будущим грамматическим временем в рус-
ском языке, мы будем пользоваться названиями «предпрошедшее время»
(для past perfect) и «предбудущее время» (для future perfect). Значение
этих терминов передает суть изучаемых явлений.
В разговорном языке данные формы не находят широкого применения,
поэтому мы ограничиваемся практическим материалом, дающим общее
представление об этих временах.

90
Прошедшее и будущее совершенные времена образуются по следующей
модели:
to have +
III форма основного глагола
Pas t
Future
had shall
will⎫

⎭have
Past Perfect Future Perfect
Обозначает действие, которое за-
вершилось до другого действия
(или момента) в прошлом.Обозначает действие, которое за-
вершится до начала другого дей-
ствия (или момента) в будущем.
1. Peter had learned English before
he went to England. (Сначала Петр
изучил английский — had learnt
(предпрошедшее), а затем поехал
в Англию — went.) 1. Peter will have learnt English
before he goes
1 to England. (Снача-
ла Петр выучит английский — will
have learnt (предбудущее), а по-
том по едет в Англию.)
2. I had fi nished my work by the
evening. (by the evening = before
the evening came) 2. I shall (will) have fi nished my work
by the evening. (by the evening =
before the evening comes)
Я закончил работу к вечеру (до
того, как вечер наступил).Я закончу работу к вечеру (до
того, как вечер наступит).
1
Exercises
I. Combine these two sentences and use the past perfect in one part.
1. Tom studied French. He went to Paris. 2. We got to the cinema long
before. Th e fi lm began.
3. John ate all the cakes. Alice arrived home. 4. Th e
students gathered. Th e teacher came into the classroom.
5. I returned
home. It was evening.
6. We did the homework. It was fi ve o’clock. 7. My
sister made coff ee. She told us about it.
8. My friends were at the theatre.
I knew it.
1 Форма goes в придаточном предложении времени передает значение буду-
щего времени.

91
II. Put the verbs into the future perfect and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. By half past seven we (to have) supper. 2. By the end of the year I (to
learn) English.
3. I (to fi nish) this work before you leave. 4. By this time
next week you (to pass) your examination.
5. When we see you next week
we (to buy) a new car.
6. Before I see you again I (to go) to Paris. 7. I hope
you (not to forget) all about the future perfect tense by the next lesson.
III. Translate into English.
1. Я был вчера за городом и встретил там друзей. Они сказали, что
только что вернулись из Москвы.
2. К двум часам все уже знали об
этой новости.
3. К концу следующей недели мы встретимся. 4. Я по-
еду на Кавказ на следующей неделе.
5. Мама сказала, что приготови-
ла обед.
6. Я прочитал эту статью до того, как ты пришла. 7. Когда вы
сделали эту работу? — Я закончил ее к девяти часам.
8. Я позвоню
вам до вашего ухода (до того, как вы уйдете).
9. Я с удовольствием
(with pleasure) прочитал эту книгу. Вот она (Here it is).
10. Посмотри,
я купила новое платье. Тебе нравится оно? — Да. А когда ты его ку-
пила? —
Я приобрела его до того, как съездила в Москву.
Days of the Week
Sunday [´sEndeI] — воскресенье
Monday [´mEndeI] — понедельник
Tuesday [´tju:zdeI] — вторник
Wednesday [´wenzdeI] — среда
Th ursday [´FA:zdeI] — четверг
Friday [´fraIdeI] — пятница
Saturday [´sBtAdeI] — суббота
Phrases
on Sunday (Monday, etc.) — в воскресенье (понедельник и т. д.)
on weekdays — в будни
at the weekend — в выходные (в ближайшие выходные)
for the weekend — на выходные
at weekends — по выходным
Months
January [´dZBnjuAri] — январь

92 February [´februAri] — февраль
March [mC:tS] — март
April [´eIprAl] — апрель
May [meI] — май
June [d
Zu:n] — июнь
July [d
Zu:´laI] — июль
August [´D:gAst] — август
September [sep´tembA] — сентябрь
October [Ok´tAUbA] — октябрь
November [nAU´vembA] — ноябрь
December [dI´sembA] — декабрь
Te x t
Read the text.
Days of the Week. Months
Th ere are seven days in a week. Th ey are Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday,
Th ursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Th e fi rst fi ve are weekdays. Saturday
and Sunday are not weekdays, they are a weekend.
How many days a week do you work?
What day of the week is it today?
What day of the week was it yesterday?
What day of the week will it be tomorrow?
Do you go to the country for weekends?
Do you sometimes stay in town at weekends?
Th ere are twelve months in the year. Th e names of the months are
January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September,
October, November, December
1.
Seasons in our country as well as (так же как) in England are spring
(March, April, May), summer (June, July, August), autumn (September,
October, November), winter (December, January, February).
What season is it now?
What is your favourite season?
When do you usually have your holiday?
When is your birthday ([´bQ:FdeI] — день рождения)?
1 May, June, July всегда пишутся полностью. Другие месяцы иногда сокраща-
ются: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.

Grammar
ORDINAL NUMERALS
(ПОРЯДКОВЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ)
Порядковые числительные, кроме fi rst, second, third, образуются при
помощи суффикса
-th, добавляемого к соответствующему количе-
ственному числительному. При этом в написании некоторых числи-
тельных происходят изменения:
fi ve — fi fth, eight — eighth, nine — ninth, fi fty — fi ftieth.
Употребляются порядковые числительные, как правило, с артиклем
the:
one
— the fi rs t
four
— the fourth
six
— the sixth
twenty
— the twentieth
twenty-seven
— the twenty-seventh
a hundred
— the hundredth
a thousand
— the thousandth

94
Unit
SIX
Conversation: Television
Grammar: Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents
Te x t
Read the text.
Television in Our Life
No doubt, television is one of the greatest achievements of the twentieth
century. It is diffi cult to estimate its role in modern life. It has done much
for education, for bringing culture to very distant places. Th e variety of
programmes makes television popular with people of diff erent walks of
life. You can choose a programme to your taste. If you like classical music,
you can listen to it on a special channel.
Sports events are broadcast almost every day for those who are interested
in sports. With a TV set at home you need not go to the cinema — you can
see most of the feature fi lms on TV. And it is television that is considered to
be one of the main factors
1 responsible for the decline in cinema-going.
But nevertheless it is a great thing. With the help of television you can
reach every corner of the world and see things that take place thousands
of kilometres from your home. You will really enjoy exotic landscapes
of other continents with a colour TV set because it makes a view more
impressive.
Intervision gives you a chance to witness world festivals and Olympic
Games and other interesting events.
For those who are interested in politics there are many political
programmes including news, debates, interviews with famous public
fi gures.
TV serials gather millions of viewers in front of the screen. Th e cinema
can hardly give you an opportunity like this. Some serials are written
1 it is television that is considered to be one of the main factors — именно теле-
видение и считается одним из главных факторов

95 specially for television and continue for several years in daily, weekly or
twice-weekly instalments. Th ey oft en depict the everyday life of a particular
group of people (a family, people living in the same street, colleagues,
etc.), and their attraction seems to lie not so much in the events as
1 in the
familiarity of the character to the viewers. Th ese serials are not planned as
a complete whole but simply developed by the scriptwriter according to
the audience reaction and the actors available. No instalment is complete
in itself. Th e viewer is left wondering
2 what will happen next, how the
situation will develop.
In addition, educational programmes are very popular with young
people. Television helps them learn foreign languages, improve knowledge
in some subjects, get information about new discoveries. It is likely that
television will continue to play an important role in education. Well-made
programmes can give us a broader view of the world and can teach us
about things which are outside our everyday experience. So, we cannot
imagine our life without television.
Words and Expressions
no doubt [… daUt] — несомненно
an achievement [A´tSi:vmAnt] — достижение
a century [´sentSAri] — век
to estimate [´estI,meIt] — оценивать
education [,edjU ´keISn ] — образование, воспитание
a variety [vA ´raIAti] — разнообразие
a walk of life — общественное положение, занятие
to choose (chose, chosen) [tju:z] — выбирать
to one’s taste [… teIst] — на чей-л. вкус
to listen to smth. [´lIsn …] — слушать что-л.
a channel [´tSBnl] — канал (телевидения)
a sport event [´spD:t I´vent] — соревнование no определенному виду
спорта
to be broadcast [´brD:d,kC:st] — транслироваться, передаваться по
телевидению
to be interested in smth. [´IntrAstId …] — интересоваться чем-л.
1 their attraction seems to lie not so much in the events as — их привлекатель-
ность, как оказывается, заключается не столько в содержании, сколько
2 Th e viewer is left wondering — Зрителю предоставляется возможность самому
подумать

96
а decline [dI´klaIn] — спад, снижение
cinema-going [´sInAmA,gAUIN] — посещение кинотеатров
nevertheless [,nevAGA´les] — тем не менее, однако
every corner of the world […´kD:nAr Av GA ´wQ:ld] — любой уголок мира
a view [vju:] — вид, пейзаж
impressive [im´presIv] — впечатляющий, выразительный
intervision [,IntA´vIZn] — интервидение
to give a chance [… tSC:ns] — давать возможность
to witness smth. [´wItnAs …] — быть свидетелем чего-л.
politics [´pOlAtIks] — политика
including [In´klu:dIN] — включая, в том числе
a debate [dI´beIt] — дискуссия, дебаты
an interview [´intA,vju:] — интервью
a public fi gure [´pEblIk ,fIgA] — общественный деятель
a serial [´sIArIal] — фильм в нескольких сериях, сериал
to gather [´gBGA] — собирать
a viewer [´vju:A] — телезритель
a screen [skri:n] — экран
hardly [´hC:dli] — едва
to give an opportunity [… ,OpA´tju:nAti] — давать возможность
to continue [kAn´tInju:] — продолжать
daily [´deIli] — ежедневный
weekly [´wi:kli] — еженедельный
twice-weekly [´twaIs´wi:kli] — повторяющийся два раза в неделю
an instalment [In'stD:lmAnt] — серия (фильма)
to depict [dI´pIkt] — изображать
a particular group [pA´tIkjUlA ´gru:p] — отдельная группа
familiarity [fA,mIlI´BrAtI] — близость
a character [´kBrIktA] — герой
a complete whole [kAm´pli:t ´hAUl] — законченное целое
to develop [dI´velAp] — развивать, разрабатывать
a scriptwriter [´skrIpt,raItA] — сценарист
according to smth. [A´kD:dIN…] — в соответствии с чем-л.
audience [´D:diAns] — зрители
available [A´veIlAbl] — имеющийся в распоряжении
to happen [´hBpAn] — случаться
a situation [,sItSu´eISn] — ситуация, зд.: действие

97
in addition […A´dISn] — в дополнение, кроме того
educational [,edjU´keISnl] — образовательный, обучающий
a discovery [dIs´kEvAri] — открытие
a broader view — более широкий взгляд
to imagine — представлять, воображать
Exercises
I. A. Answer the questions.
1. Do you agree that television is one of the greatest achievements in the
world? If so, give your reasons.
2. What TV programmes can viewers
generally watch?
3. What TV channels do you and your family prefer?
4. What are your favourite programmes? 5. What TV programmes are the
most popular with young people?
6. Why do many viewers like to watch
serials? Do you sometimes watch them?
7. What programmes can be
broadcast on Intervision?
8. What do educational programmes contribute
to?
9. What changes have taken place in the Russian television lately?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Can (Could) you tell me … ?.
II. Enumerate the advantages of television which are mentioned in the text. Use the
following model:
Viewers can watch (see) …
listen to …
choose …
enjoy …
witness …
III. Say what TV programmes are popular with one or another group of people.
Programmes Groups of people
Educational programmes Children
News reports Teenagers
TV serials Young people
Quiz programmes (Викторины) Middle-aged people

98
Horror fi lms Pensioners
Feature fi lms Women
Animated cartoons Men
Sports programmes Businessmen
Wild life programmes (О жизни животных) Students
Advertisements (Реклама) Teachers
Talk shows Politicians
Model:
I think (a programme) is popular with (a group of people).
IV. Using information from the text say why TV serials are popular with a certain group
of people. What do you think of these serials?
V. What changes in Russian television enumerated below can be referred to as positive
and which of them are negative? Mark them with a plus (+) or a minus (–).
1. Many new programmes appeared, for example television games,
political interviews, musical clips.
2. Some new channels began broadcasting.
3. Advertisements are inserted in the programmes.
4. Th ere appeared night television.
5. Viewers have a chance to watch political debates and interviews.
6. A lot of live broadcasts can be watched.
7. TV serials are on practically every day, morning, evening, and night.
8. Viewers can phone the TV studio and ask questions while the
programme is on.
9. Horror fi lms are oft en on.
10. Journalists and announcers can speak freely and behave indepen-
dently.
11. President, the Prime Minister and the famous political fi gures oft en
appear on the screen addressing the TV viewers.
12. Many foreign fi lms with simultaneous translation are shown regularly.
VI. Speak on:
1) the advantages and disadvantages of television;
2) the popularity of TV serials.

99
Additional Words and Expressions
What is on today? — Что сегодня в программе?
to speak on television — выступать по телевидению
an announcer [A´naUnsA] — диктор
Turn on / off (switch on / off ) the TV set, please. — Включите (выключите)
телевизор, пожалуйста.
Make it louder […´laUdA] — Сделайте погромче.
Make it quieter […´kwaIAtA]. — Сделайте потише.
a documentary [,dOkjU´ment(A)ri] — документальный фильм
a western [´westAn] — ковбойский фильм, вестерн
transmission [trBnz´mIS(A)n] by television — телепередача
VII. Ask each other what’s on TV today.
For questions use:
1. What’s on today? 2. Do you know what’s on aft er the news? 3. Do you
happen to know what comes on next?
4. Is there anything worth watching?
For answers use:
1. I think (believe) it’s a feature fi lm (a concert, an information programme,
a ballet, a documentary).
2. I believe there is a western. 3. I’ve got a feeling
there’s nothing interesting on tonight.
4. I don’t know, let me look in the
programme fi rst.
Do you happen to know …? — Вы случайно не знаете …?
worth [wQ:F] — стóящий
I’ve got a feeling […´fi:lIN] — мне кажется, по-моему
Model: St. 1: What’s on television today at 7 o’clock?
St. 2: I think it’s part two of the serial.
VIII. Discuss the TV programmes of the channels for today.
Model: Channel 1 starts its transmission at … . Th e TV programme
begins with … . Th en follows … . From … till … o’clock is the
break. Th e evening programme begins at … with the news.
Th en … is on. I am going to see the programme … .
IX. Topics for discussion.
1. Your favourite TV programme.
2. One of the information programmes.
3. Entertainment programmes on TV.

100 Te x t
Read the text.
TV Is a Good Thing if You Watch It Properly
People oft en ask about harmful emission the TV set generates. Specialists
reply the TV set does not create any harmful electromagnetic fi eld since it
is not an emitting apparatus; it is a device that converts emission into a
visible image. Its electromagnetic fi eld practically does not diff er from the
power line fi eld in the room.
Th ough the TV set’s kinescope is electrostatically charged, its intensity
drops practically to zero at a half-a-metre distance from the screen. And
hardly anyone watches the TV that close. “Watch TV from the distance
not less than three metres,” specialists recommend.
Some people leave the lights on while they see a TV programme,
others, on the contrary, switch them off . Who is right? It is preferable to
watch TV with the light on, but there is no need to use many lamps.
Th e period of time for which one may stay before the TV set is also
important. You must have a break aft er you watched a programme for an
hour and a half. Just change the position, stretch your legs and relax.
Words and Expressions
properly [´prOpAli] — должным образом, правильно
harmful emission [´hC:mfl I´mISn] — вредное излучение
to generate [´dZenA,reIt] — вырабатывать
to reply [rI´plaI] — отвечать
to create [kri´eIt] — создавать
since [sIns] — так как
an emitting apparatus [I´mItIN ,BpA´reItAs] — излучающий прибор
a device [dI´vaIs] — прибор
a visible image [´vIzAbl ´ImIdZ] — видимое (визуальное) изображение
to diff er from smth. [´dIfA …] — отличаться от чего-л.
a power line fi eld — электрическое поле
a kinescope [´kInAskAUp] — кинескоп
to be electrostatically charged [… tSC:dZd] — с электростатическим
зарядом
to drop — падать

101
not less [… les] — не менее
light on [laIt …] — зажженный свет
on the contrary […´kOntrAri] — наоборот
preferable [´pref(A)rAbl] — предпочтительный
to change the position [´tSeIndZ GA pA´zISn] — изменять положение
to stretch one’s legs [stretS …] — вытягивать ноги
to relax [rI´lBks] — расслаблять(ся)
X. Answer the questions.
1. Does a TV set create any harmful electromagnetic fi eld? 2. How far from
the screen should you sit? From what distance do you usually watch TV?
3. How do specialists recommend watching TV, with the lights on or off ?
How do you watch?
4. How long can you stay before the TV screen? Do
you have a break?
XI. Give your friend some advice how to watch TV.
Model: You mustn’t sit close to the screen.
You should switch the TV set off from time to time.
Use the phrases:
to sit at a three-metre distance, to have a break aft er you have watched
a programme for an hour and a half, to stay before the TV set with the
lights on (off ), to sit close to the screen, to stretch your legs and relax, to
watch late programmes.
Short Dialogues
AT THE TV SET
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Is there anything worth watching on the other channel?
В: I think it’s an action fi lm.
A: Do you mind if we switch over?
B: Well, I rather wanted to see the sports events.

102
II
A: Do you happen to know what’s on aft er the football match?
B: I’ve got a feeling it’s a news programme.
A: Does anybody mind if I watch it?
B: Don’t you want to see the talk show on the other channel?
III
A: Do you know what comes on next?
В: I believe there’s a variety show on.
A: We mustn’t miss that.
B: Let me look in the “TV Programme” fi rst.
IV
A: What’s on BBC 2 at fi ve o’clock aft er the serial?
B: As far as I can remember there’s a quiz programme.
A: Would you mind if I watched it?
B: No, I’ve been looking forward to it all evening.
I. Do you mind …? [… maInd] — Ты не возражаешь …?
to switch over — переключать
III. what comes on next — что будет дальше
a variety show [vA´raIAtI ´SAU] — эстрадное представление
to miss — пропускать (не смотреть)
IV. as far as — насколько
a quiz programme — викторина
to look forward to smth. […´fD:wAd …] — с нетерпением ждать
чего-л.
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1., then В 1. etc.
II. You’d like to know what’s on TV today. Ask.
Model 1. Do you happen to know what’s on at 6 o’clock?
Us e : aft er the news, on the second channel, late in the evening,
before the concert, aft er the football match.

103 Model 2. Do you remember what comes on next?
Us e : aft er the feature fi lm, aft er the documentary, aft er the variety
show, aft er the quiz programme, aft er the western, aft er the
hockey match.
III. You don’t want to watch the programme.
1. Ask permission ([pA´mISn]) to switch over.
Model: St. 1: What’s on next?
St. 2: I think it’s a football match.
St. 1: Do you mind if I switch over?
Us e : a documentary, a hockey match, the six o’clock news, an
information programme, a horror fi lm.
2. Say that you’d like to see another programme.
Model: St. 1: Do you want to see the six o’clock news?
St. 2: Well, I rather wanted to see the concert.
Us e : the football match — the feature fi lm; the documentary — the
variety show; the quiz programme — part three of the serial.
IV. Reproduce the short dialogues “At the TV set” in similar situations.
Grammar
THE MODAL VERBS CAN, MAY, MUST
(МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ CAN, MAY, MUS T)
Present Past Future Equivalents
can — мочь, уметь could – to be able to
may — иметь возможность might – to be allowed to
must — быть должным – – to have to
Модальные глаголы can, may, mus t имеют ряд особенностей.
1. Следующий за ними инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.
I can help him. — Я могу помочь ему.

104
2. В III лице единственного числа настоящего времени они не имеют окон-
чания -s.
Не can speak French. — Он умеет говорить по-французски.
3. В вопросительной и отрицательной форме они занимают позиции вспо-
могательных глаголов.
Can he speak Spanish? — Он умеет говорить по-испански?
Не can’t speak Spanish. — Он не умеет говорить по-испански.
4. Не имеют форм будущего времени. Глагол must не имеет и формы про-
шедшего времени.
The Meaning of the Modal Verb can (could)
(Значения модального глагола can (could)
1. Физическая или умственная способность; реальная возможность,
обусловленная ситуацией:
Ann can play tennis. — Анна умеет (может) играть в теннис.
Sid can’t read Italian. — Сид не умеет читать по-итальянски.
При передаче этих же значений в прошлом используется форма could:
Tom could play tennis very well when he was a boy, now he can’t. — Том хо-
рошо умел играть в теннис в детстве, сейчас он разучился (не умеет).
2. Просьба (в вопросительном предложении) и разрешение / запреще-
ние (при ответе на вопрос), связанные с определенными обстоятель-
ствами объективного характера:
В ситуациях, когда мы просим кого-либо сделать что-нибудь для нас,
мы употребляем вопросительную форму предложения с начальными
фразами Can you … ? (нейтральная) или Could you … ? (более вежливая):
Can (could) you answer the telephone call? — He могли бы вы ответить
на телефонный звонок?
В ситуациях, когда мы предлагаем сделать что-нибудь для других,
ис поль зу ет ся вопросительное предложение, начинающееся словами
Can I … ?
Can I offer you a cup of coffee? — Можно (мне) предложить вам чашку
кофе?
В обоих случаях при ответе используется глагол can, не could:
— Yes, I can. Yes, you can.

105 The Meaning of the Modal Verb may (might)
(Значения модального глагола may (might)
1. Просьба (в вопросительном предложении) и разрешение / запреще-
ние (при ответе на вопрос), связанные с волеизъявлением говорящего:
May I take your umbrella? — Можно (мне) взять ваш зонтик?
Yes, you may. (Do, please.) — Да, можно.
No, you may n ot. — Нет, нельзя.
Различие между may и can в значении разрешения (или запрещения) за-
ключается в следующем: употребление may при разрешении (запреще-
нии) диктуется волеизъявлением того, к кому обращена просьба, в то
время как использование can в том же значении детерминируется об-
стоятельствами, которые позволяют или не позволяют сделать что-то.
2. Допущение возможности, предположение с оттенком неуверенности:
Не may be at home. (Perhaps he is at home.) — Он, может быть,
(вероятно) дома.
He feels bad and may n ot go to the party. (… and perhaps he will not
go to the party.) — Он чувствует себя плохо и, вероятно,
не пойдет на вечер.
В этом случае значения may и might совпадают, и они взаимозаменяемы:
It may (mig ht) rain tomorrow. — Завтра, вероятно, будет дождь.
The Meaning of the Modal Verb must
(Значения модального глагола must)
1. Долженствование, необходимость в совершении действия:
It’s ten o’clock. I must go home. — Десять часов. Я должен идти до-
мой.
Must I help him? — Я должен ему помочь?
Yes, you must. — Да.
No, you needn’t. — Нет (нет необходимости).
Must not выражает запрещение:
May I do it? — Можно мне сделать это?
No, you mustn’t. — Нет, нельзя.

106
2. Уверенность в истинности чего-либо:
Не must be hungry (I am sure he is hungry), he has not eaten since early
morning. — Он, должно быть, голоден, он не ел с раннего утра.
Следует отметить, что эквиваленты модальных глаголов can (could),
may (might), must могут заменять их только в их первом значении, ко-
торое считается основным.
Exercises
I. A. Using the phrases given below say what you can and what you can’t do.
Model: I can play tennis well, but I can’t skate.
to read English well, to speak English a little, to play tennis (chess, draughts
[drC:fts] — шашки, basketball, hockey, handball, volleyball), to ski, to
skate, to swim, to cook dinner, to do the fl at, to repair a TV set, to drive
a car.
В. Ask somebody if he (she) can do the same.
Model: St. 1: Can you play tennis well?
St. 2: I think I can. (I’m sorry, I can’t.)
II. Use Can you … ?, Could you … ?, Can I…? in these situations.
Model: Т.: We are having dinner. You want me to pass the salt.
St.: Can (could) you pass me the salt, please?
Т.: Yes, I can. (Of course, I can.) Here you are.
1. You want me to switch the TV set on.
2. You are in a hurry, I am driving a car. Ask me to give you a lift .
3. You want me to turn off the radio.
4. You want to buy a new laser printer, but you are short of money. I can
lend you some money. Ask for it.
5. You don’t know how to write the word “instalment”. Ask me.
6. I am carrying a heavy bag. Help me. What will you say?
7. You want to borrow my textbook. Ask for it.

107
III. Express the same idea using may or might.
Model: Т.: Perhaps I will go to the cinema with my friends.
St.: I may (might) go to the cinema with my friend.
1. Perhaps it will snow at the weekend. 2. Jack is going to London next
week. Perhaps he will go there by plane.
3. Barbara hopes that Tom will
call her soon. Perhaps he will ring her up today.
4. Ann knows about his
birthday. Perhaps she will send him a postcard.
5. Perhaps they will visit
us aft er the holiday.
6. Perhaps I will take part in the conference.
IV. Using the phrases say what you must or mustn’t do. Begin speaking with You must or
You mustn’t.
To cross the street under the red light — переходить улицу при красном
свете
to smoke in the room — курить в помещении
to be polite ([pA´laIt] — вежливый) to everybody — быть вежливым со
всеми
to cross the street under the green light — переходить улицу при зеленом
свете
to help old people — помогать старым людям
to tell the truth [tru:F] — говорить правду
to tell a lie [laI] — лгать, говорить неправду
to be nervous [´nQ:vAs] — волноваться, нервничать
to think a lot before doing something — подумать перед тем, как что-
нибудь сделать
to speak English at the lessons — говорить на уроках по-английски
to work hard at one’s English — упорно работать над своим англий-
ским
to look aft er small children — присматривать за маленькими детьми
Grammar
Equivalents of the Modal Verbs
(Эквиваленты модальных глаголов)
Эквиваленты модальных глаголов can, may, must в их основном значении
используются не только вместо недостающих форм модальных глаголов,
но также вместо существующих:

108
1. I shall (will) be able to help you. — Я смогу помочь вам.
I am able to help you. — Я могу помочь вам.
2. You were allowed to come later. — Вам можно было (разрешили)
прийти позже.
You will be allowed to come later. — Вам можно будет (разрешат)
прийти позже.
3. I have to get up early. — Мне приходится (я должен) вставать рано.
I had to get up early. — Мне пришлось (я должен был) встать рано.
REMEMBER!
1. После эквивалентов модальных глаголов инфинитив употребляется
с частицей to.
2. Значение эквивалента have to характеризуется меньшей степенью обя-
зательности, чем модальный глагол must:
I must meet him. — Я должен (обязан) встречать его.
I have to meet him. — Мне приходится встречать его.
3. Вопросительная и отрицательная форма эквивалента have to образует-
ся с помощью вспомогательных глаголов:
Do (did) you have to get up early? — Вам надо (надо было) вставать
рано?
I don’t (didn’t) have to get up early? — Мне не надо (не надо было)
вставать рано.
Exercises
V. Substitute the equivalents for the modal verbs. Translate into Russian.
1. You may come later in the evening. 2. He can’t do this work. 3. Th ey could
give you good advice.
4. You may take the book. 5. Can you speak with him?
6. We must do it aft er the lesson. 7. You may have a short rest now.
VI. The information provokes another question. Ask it.
Model 1: Т.: I had to leave the party early. (Why?)
St.: Why did you have to leave the party early?
Т.: I couldn’t stay longer.
1. He had to wait for her long. (How long?) 2. I had to tell them the news.
(When?)
3. We had to take a taxi to the theatre. (Why?) 4. I had to spend

109 much money. (What … on?)
5. He had to make a report at the conference.
(At what conference?)
6. She had to send them a telegram. (Why?) 7. I had
to give up smoking. (Why?)
Model 2: Т.: I have to do a lot of work about the house. (to take a walk
with a dog)
St.: Do you have to take a walk with your dog?
Т.: Of course, I do.
1. We have to help them regularly. (to come to see them oft en) 2. She has
to visit her grandparents every weekend. (to stay there for Sunday)
3. He
has to help his wife about the house. (to wash up, to cook dinner)
4. I have
to go to the country every Saturday. (to go by car)
5. Our chief has to take
part in the conference every year. (to make a report)
6. I have to keep late
hours very oft en. (to get up early)
7. Sometimes I have to read this magazine.
(to borrow from the library — брать в библиотеке)
The Modal Verbs needn’t (нет необходимости),
should, ought (следует)
VII. Translate into Russian.
1. Th e girl lives near her school. She needn’t take a bus. 2. Th e boy has a
good memory. He needn’t read the text twice.
3. It is Sunday. You needn’t
get up early.
4. Your friend knows English badly. You should help him.
5. You should know English grammar better not to make so many mistakes.
6. You shouldn’t forget it. 7. You ought to remember your duties. 8. Children
ought to help old people.
9. Parents ought to look aft er their small
children.
Grammar
Различие между модальными глаголами
should и ought
Should в значении «следует что-то сделать» выражает совет. Ought в та-
ком же переводе выражает моральный долг. После модального глагола
ought инфинитив употребляется с частицей to.

110 Exercises
VIII. Give one of the students a piece of good advice followed by some reason. Use the
expressions given below.
Model: You should have a short rest; you look tired.
You shouldn’t trouble him; he is busy.
Use: to see the new fi lm; to phone smb.; to follow the traffi c rules;
not to be in a hurry; to give up smoking; to come to see smb.;
to get in touch with the colleagues; not to tell smb. the news;
not to break the traffi c rules; to rely on smb. (полагаться на
кого-либо); not to rely on one’s words; to be polite to smb.
IX. Choose mustn’t or needn’t while answering the questions. Give your reasons.
Model: St. 1: Must I do this work now?
St. 2: No, you needn’t, you may do it later.
1. Must we do the exercise in writing? 2. Can one cross the street under the
yellow lights?
3. He is leaving on Sunday. Must we see him off to the
airport?
4. We mustn’t miss English classes, must we? 5. Th ey mustn’t
speak Russian at the English classes, must they?
6. Must I phone him to
inform him about the party?
7. Must we learn the poem by heart? 8. Can I
take a bus to get there?
Te x t
Read the story.
The Dog as a Passenger
I was on my way home on the bus one wet day, and a woman with a dog
got on the bus. It was a big dog — about as big as a young horse — and its
feet were very dirty. Th e woman said, “Oh! conductor, if I pay for my dog,
can he have a seat like the other passengers?” Th e conductor looked at the
dog and then he said, “Certainly, madam. He can have a seat like all the
other passengers, but, like the other passengers, he must not put his feet
on it. Besides, he must buy a ticket.”
Words and Expressions
a passenger [´pBsIndZA ] — пассажир
to be on one’s way home — ехать домой
a horse [hD:s] — лошадь

111
a conductor [kAn´dEktA] — кондуктор
to pay (paid) for smth. — платить за что-л.
to have a seat — иметь (занять) место
certainly [´sQ:tnli] — конечно, непременно
to buy (bought) a ticket — покупать билет
Exercises
X. Answer the questions.
A. 1. Who got on the bus? 2. Was the day fi ne? 3. What did the dog look
like?
4. What did the woman ask? 5. What was the answer?
B.
1. Can you have a dog with you on the bus in your town? And what
about England?
2. Must you pay for a dog on the bus? On the train? 3. How
much do you have to pay for it?
XI. Just imagine.
1. What do you think about the breed of the dog on the bus? Choose the most possible breed
among those given below.
A mongrel, a St. Bernard, sheepdog, a spitz-dog, a poodle, a pug, a bulldog,
a Newfoundland, a Great Dane, a toy terrier, a coach dog
Model: It must not have been a pug because a pug is very small.
I think it was a … because … .
2. What can the woman with the dog look like? Imagine her appearance, character and
age.
Jokes
1.
I know a poet (not a very good poet) who said to a friend of his, “Do
you think I should put more fi re into my poems?” His friend said, “No,
I really think you should put more of your poems in the fi re”.
2. One day I heard Aunt Aggie talking to a workman. She said, “When I
use a hammer I always hurt my thumb with it. What should I do to
prevent that?” He said, “Th e only thing that I think of, madam, is that
you should hold the hammer with both hands”.
3. “Ma,” said the little girl, “Willie wants the biggest piece of cake, and I
think I ought to have it, because he had been eating two years before I
was born”.

112
to hear [hIA] (heard) — слышать
a workman — работник
to hurt (hurt) [hQ:t] — повреждать, зд.: ударять
a thumb [FEm] — большой палец (руки)
to prevent [prI ´vent] — предотвращать
both [bAUF] — оба
a piece of cake [´pi:s Av ´keIk] — куcoк торта
Grammar
Modal Verbs with the Perfect Infi nitive
(Модальные глаголы с перфектным инфинитивом)
Как видно из предшествующего грамматического материала, модальные
глаголы can (could), may (might), must имеют основное значение (обозна-
ченное в пункте 1)
и дополнительное. Перечисленные модальные глаголы,
употребленные в своем основном значении, сочетаются только с одной
формой инфинитива — simple infi nitive. Другие формы инфинитива, в част-
ности перфектный инфинитив (perfect infi nitive), встречаются исключитель-
но с модальными глаголами в их дополнительных смысловых значениях.
1. She cannot have said so — she is well-bred enough. — He может быть,
чтобы она так сказала — она достаточно воспитанная.
2. The саr was going too fast. They couldn’t have seen us. — Машина
двигалась очень быстро. Они не могли нас видеть.
3. His handwriting is illegible. He may have written it in a hurry. — Его
почерк неразборчив. Вероятно, он написал это второпях.
4. Не didn’t call me, though he promised. He must have forgotten. — Он
не звонил мне, хотя обещал. Должно быть, он забыл.
Как показывают приведенные выше примеры, перфектный инфинитив
(что следует из значения этой формы) в сочетании с модальными глагола-
ми обозначает действие, относящееся к прошлому. Однако употребление
такого инфинитива может создавать дополнительные смысловые значе-
ния, как в примерах 1 и 2, где одновременно реализуется значение удив-
ления. Глагол could (без отрицания) с перфектным инфинитивом передает
ситуацию, в которой была возможность что-то сделать, но эта возмож-
ность, иногда к счастью, не осуществилась (утраченная возможность):
1. We didn’t go out last night. We could have gone to the cinema but we
decided to stay at home. — Мы никуда не выходили вчера вечером.
Мы могли бы пойти в кино, но решили остаться дома.

2. Не was lucky when he fell off the ladder. He could have broken a bone. —
Он удачно упал с лестницы. У него мог бы быть перелом.
Модальные глаголы should, ought и needn’t также могут употребляться
с перфектным инфинитивом.
Exercises
XII. Answer the questions.
Model: Т.: Did you go to the party on Sunday?
St.: No, I didn’t. I could have gone to the party but I decided
not to go.
1. Did John buy a new car? 2. Did you stay in a hotel when you arrived
there?
3. Did you go to the concert last night? 4. Did you apply for a new
job?
5. Did Tom take part in the conference? 6. Did you borrow money
from him?
XIII. In these situations use either the perfect or simple infi nitive.
1. She knew everything about our plans. She (must / overhear) our talk.
2. Your English is not very good. You (should / work) hard at your grammar
and spelling.
3. Tom didn’t pass his examination. He (should / not miss)
classes and lectures.
4. When I woke up this morning, the light was on.
I (must / forget) to turn it off .
5. What are you going to do tonight? —
I (may / go) to the concert.
6. You have done many things about the house.
Only you didn’t need to cook dinner. I (could / do) it myself.
7. I wonder
where my umbrella is. — You (must / leave) it in the shop.
8. Shall we learn
the poem by heart? — No, you (needn’t / do) it. You just (may / read and
translate) it.
9. I don’t understand how the accident happened. Th e driver
(can’t / see) the red light.
10. Do you think Ann will come to the party? —
She (might / not come), she is busy this evening.

114
Revision Test 2
I. Choose the right variant a, b or c to complete each sentence.
1. I haven’t seen you for ages. Where have you been? — I was in Manchester
… .
a) at my cousin b) in my cousin’s c) at my cousin’s
2. Television was one of the greatest scientifi c and technological … of the
twentieth century.
a) discoveries b) concepts c) inventions
3. Saturday and Sunday are … .
a) weekends b) a weekend c) weekdays
4. We had to stay at home because of the … rain.
a) strong b) cats and dogs c) heavy
5. Because of the warm current of the Gulf Steam the climate in Great
Britain is … .
a) temperate b) average c) moderate
6. TV serials are very popular with viewers of diff erent ages. Th ey are
shown for many months in daily or weekly … .
a) series b) groups c) instalments
7. A spell of sunny weather in late September is known as … .
a) Women’s Summer b) Indian Summer c) the last Flash of
Summer
8. Th e … fog comes oft en and stays for weeks.
a) thick b) thin c) transparent
9. Specialists recommend the viewers to watch TV with … from the
distance not less than three metres.
a) a lot of bright
lamps b) the light off c) the light on
10. Th e weather … prevented us from the trip to the seaside.
a) forecasts b) predictions c) announcements

115
II. Choose the proper grammatical form out of the given variants.
1. Th e TV set does not generate any harmful emission, …?
a) is it b) does it c) doesn’t it
2. I am right about my supposition relating to his promotion, …?
a) amn’t I b) isn’t it c) ain’t I
3. Hercule Poirot sat down. He read the letter slowly and carefully. It was
not the kind of case he wanted, it was not the kind of case he had
promised himself. It was not in any sense an important case, it was
supremely unimportant. (Agatha Christi. Th e Nemean Lion)
What does the pronoun it refer to:
a) the letter b) the situation described in the letter c) a suitcase
4. We refused to rent the house as its price appeared to be much higher
than we … .
a) would expect b) expected c) had expected
5. He tried to put the thought away from him; he tried to destroy
the postcard as he had the others. But something in him wanted to
preserve … .
a) it b) her c) its
6. — Nice to see you again. Where have you been all this time?
— Oh, I was in the South at my relations’.
— How long … you … there?
— Two months.
a) have … stayed b) did … stay c) had … to stay
7. By the time the rain starts we … the place of destination.
a) reach b) will reach c) will have reached
8. George did not come to the Christmas party. He never misses these
occasions; he … busy with something important.
a) must be b) may have been c) must have been
9. Th e money they … was not enough for buying a two-roomed fl at.
a) had collected b) were collecting c) collected
10. You … on him. Don’t you know that he never keeps his promise?
a) should’t rely b) could not rely c) cannot rely

III. Read the text and answer the questions given below.
Friendship
What is a true friend? In reality there are very few about. Th ere is no
shortage of acquaintances who you may meet at some function or who are
friends of friends and with whom you have a superfi cial relationship. You
may have taken an occasional coff ee with an acquaintance and discussed
the weather or the latest sport results, but basically their life is a closed
book to you.
A friend, on the other hand, is someone who shares your life — the
good time and the bad. A friend can bare his inner feelings to you, and
will support you unconditionally through thick and thin. A friend looks
out for you and guides you away from the dangers of the paths you think
are clear and bright. And you can rely on a friend to tell you the truth,
even if it’s not always pleasant. Th ere is no envy and there are no hidden
agendas between friends. True friends are hard to fi nd, and are worth to
hold on to. Th ey are worth more than gold.
(Virginia Evans, Linda Edwards. Upstream Advanced.
Student’s Book. — Express Publishing, 2003. P. 66)
1.
Can you feel the diff erence between a friend and an acquaintance?
2. Whose status presupposes a great number, that of a friend or an
acquaintance?
3. Do you have a close friend? What qualities or maybe circumstances
help you keep friendly relationships?
4. Can friends be connected by superfi cial relationships?
5. Enumerate some traits that speak for a true friend, according to the
author of the text. Can you add anything else from your own
practice?
6. How can you interpret the message of the text “True friends are worth
more than gold”?

117
Unit
SEVEN
Conversation: Summer Holidays. Saying Good-bye
Grammar: The Continuous Tenses
Te x t s
Read the text.
1. At the Seaside
If you are going to stay in England for some time you ought to spend at
least a week at the seaside. If you can stay longer, so much the better. You
will have no diffi culty in fi nding a suitable hotel or a boarding house.
Let us go to the English seaside and watch the holidaymakers who are
enjoying their rest there. You can see a lot of people in the swimsuits. Th ey
are sunbathing or swimming. Some of them look rather sunburnt. People
like swimming because a swim an hour a day will do a lot of good. If you
bathe every day you’ll be very healthy and strong.
Th e children are also enjoying their holidays at the seaside. Th ey are
playing on the beach, making castles and channels in the sand. Young
people are sailing and we can see some yachts far away. Th ere are some
windsurfers who are enjoying this extreme kind of sport.
Holidays at the seaside are useful and wonderful. When you are tired
of the city life, go down to the sea for a week or a fortnight. Take your car
with you, choose a good hotel and you are sure to spend an enjoyable
time.
Words and Expressions
to stay — останавливаться, пребывать (в отеле)
at least [li:st] — пo крайней мере
a seaside [´si:,saId] — морское побережье
so much the better — еще лучше, тем лучше
in fi nding [´faIndIN] — в том, чтобы найти
а hotel [hAU´tel] — отель, гостиница
a boarding house [´bD:dIN…] — пансионат

118
a holidaymaker [´hOlIdI,meIkA] — отдыхающий
a swimsuit [´swIm,sju:t] — купальный костюм
to sunbathe [´sEn,beIG] — загорать
to swim (swam, swum) — плавать
sunburnt [´sEn,bQ:nt] — загорелый
to do a lot of good — приносить большую пользу
to bathe [beIG] — купаться
healthy [´helFi] — здоровый
a beach [bi:tS] — пляж
a castle [´kC:sl] — замок
to sail [seIl] — плыть под парусом
a yacht [jOt] — яхта
far away [,fa:rA´weI] — вдали
a windsurfer [´wInd,sQ:fA] — cпортсмен, занимающийся виндсерфин-
гом
useful [,ju:sfl] — полезный
a fortnight [´fD:tnaIt] — две недели
enjoyable [In´dZDIAbl] — приятный, доставляющий удовольствие

119
Read the text.
2. At the Seaside Hotel
Th is is a hotel in England, at the seaside. Th e people in the picture are
staying in the hotel. Th ere are some waiters in the picture. Th e waiters are
standing. Th e men and women are sitting at the tables.
It is a fi ne day. It isn’t raining. Th e sun is shining. One woman is eating
an ice.
Th ere are some cups and saucers on the tables. Some of the men are
drinking coff ee. One of the women is drinking a cup of tea. One of the
men is smoking a cigarette. He is not drinking tea or coff ee.
Is that man eating an ice? No, he isn’t.
Is that woman smoking a cigarette? No, she isn’t.
Are the waiters smoking cigarettes? No, they aren’t.
Are the waiters drinking tea or coff ee? No, they aren’t.
One of the boys is walking to the sands. One of the women is speaking
to the waiter. One of the men is reading a newspaper.
Th e children are playing on the yellow sand.
A dog is under the table. Is it eating or drinking? No, it isn’t eating or
drinking. What is it doing? It is sleeping.
What are the children doing? Th ey are playing on the sands.
Some birds are fl ying over the sea.
(C. E. Eckersley. Essential English for Foreign Students. Book I, P. 55–56)
Words and Expressions
a waiter [´weItA] — официант
an ice [aIs] — мороженое (порция)
a saucer [´sD:sA] — блюдце
yellow [´jelAU] — желтый
to sleep (slept) — спать
to fl y (fl ew, fl own) — летать
Exercises
I. Look through text 1 and say how the holidaymakers are spending their time at
the seaside.
Model: A lot of people are sunbathing.

120 Use: children — to bathe in the sea; small children — to play on
the beach; boys — to make castles and channels in the sand;
a lot of holidaymakers — to swim; young people — to windsurf;
everybody — to have an enjoyable time.
II. Say what you like (don’t like) to do at the seaside.
Model: I like to swim but I don’t like to sunbathe.
Us e : to run along the beach; to play volleyball or tennis; to swim
far away; to windsurf; to dive; to sail a yacht; to watch other
holidaymakers; to do nothing; to think about my future life;
to eat an ice; to sit under the tent; to listen to the music.
III. Give your friend a piece of good advice and motivate it.
Model: St. 1: Alex, you should have a short rest.
St. 2: But why?
St. 1: It’ll do you a lot of good.
Us e : to go down to the sea; not to bathe in cold water; to swim
early in the morning; not to smoke much; to sunbathe early in
the morning; to swim at least an hour a day; not to dive in an
unknown place; to spend the summer holidays at the seaside;
to go to England for a fortnight; to take your car with you and
go to the South.
IV. А. Imagine you are at the seaside in England now. Describe how holidaymakers are
enjoying their rest.
B. Say what you usually do when you have your holiday at the seaside.
C. Look at the picture on page 118 and describe what is taking place at the seaside hotel.
Th ese questions will help you.
1. Th is is an ordinary (обычный) seaside hotel in England, isn’t it?
2. How many visitors are sitting at the seaside restaurant?
3. Are any children having lunch there?

121
4. What is the man at the table on the right doing? Has he had coff ee yet?
And what is the woman in front of him doing? What are they
wearing?
5. Look at the table on the left . Th e young woman is eating an ice, isn’t
she? And how about the man? Whose dog is this, under the table? Can
you take a dog to the restaurant with you in your country?
6. And over there two visitors are sitting, a woman and a young girl. Are
they making an order (делают заказ)? Is the waiter taking their order?
7. Is the sun shining brightly?
8. Th e people are enjoying their time at the seaside, aren’t they?
V. Before reading the text “Protect Your Child in the Sun”, answer the questions.
Do you like sitting in the sun? Why (not)? Is it good for you? Do the sun
rays aff ect people badly? Can they cause any diseases?
VI. Guess the meaning of the following words that either sound similar and have the
same meaning in Russian or their English variants can be understandable for Russian-
speaking people.
Total, lifetime, risk, cancer, protection, to protect, label, to formulate, to
contain, chemical ingredients, delicate (skin), waterproof, to form.
Te x t
Protect Your Child in the Sun
It is estimated that about half our total lifetime’s sun exposure happens
during childhood. Long summer holidays and lots of outdoor activities
mean that children are at far greater risk of overexposure than adults.
Children’s skin is very sensitive to sunburn. Not only is this painful and
damaging to the skin, but just one case of severe sunburn during childhood
doubles the risk of developing skin cancer in later life.
Follow these pieces of advice:
Don’t let children play outside in the midday sun without some form
of protection. It may be easier to slip on a lightweight shirt and hat than to
apply sunscreen.
Look for sunscreens that have the highest SPF numbers. Don’t use less
than SPF 15 on young vulnerable skins.

122Sunscreens for toddlers should say on the labels that they have been
especially formulated for children. Th ese products contain fewer chemical
ingredients and so are less likely to irritate children’s delicate skin.
Th e sun’s rays pass through water, so always use the waterproof
sunscreens while swimming and make sure children reapply them
frequently.
Babies under six months should never be exposed to strong sunshine.
Th is is because their skin hasn’t fully formed the melanin-producing cells
that protect the skin. Protect older babies with sun hats and pram
parasols.
Words and Expressions
exposure [Ik´spAUZA] — подвергание воздействию (солнца)
childhood [´tSaIld,hUd] — детство
outdoor activities — игры, отдых и т. д. на свежем воздухе
to mean — означать
an adult — взрослый
skin — кожа
sensitive [´sensAtIv] — чувствительный
painful — болезненный
to damage [´dBmIdZ] — причинять ущерб
a case — случай
severe — сильный, резкий
to slip on — надевать одежду (особенно легкую)
a lightweight shirt [´laIt,weIt] — легкая рубашка
to apply — применять
a sunscreen [´sEn,skri:n] — крем от ожогов
SPF (Sun Protection Factor) number — цифровое указание на то,
насколько эффективен солнцезащитный крем
vulnerable [´vEln(A)rAbl] — уязвимый
a toddler — ребенок, начинающий ходить
to irritate [´IrI,teIt] — раздражать (кожу)
a ray — луч
to be exposed […Ik´spAUzd] — подвергаться
melanin [´melAnIn] — меланин, химическое вещество, содержащееся
в коже и способствующее загару
a pram parasol [´prBm ´pBrA,sOl] — солнцезащитный верх (зонтик,
тент) на дет ской коляске

123
VII. Give some pieces of advice to adults how to avoid overexposing their children to the
sun’s rays. Begin with: You should let your ch ildren sunbathe early in the morning be fore
midday. What else?
Dialogues
Read the dialogues.
А Holiday in Egypt
I
Mr. Warner: I looked through this brochure last night and found the hotel
accommodation attractive. I’d like to book the summer holiday in
Egypt.
Travel Agent: Yes, sir … the Hotel Cleopatra? It is one of the most popular
with the tourists.
Mr. Warner: Th at’s right … how far is it from the hotel to the beach?
Travel Agent: About a two-minute walk.
Mr. Warner: Good. How hot is it in Egypt in June?
Travel Agent: About 28 °C.
II
Guide: … and that’s the Great Pyramid, Mr. Warner.
Mr. Warner: Oh, yes … it looks high!
Guide: It’s about 137 metres high and looks majestic.
Mr. Warner: How long are the sides?
Guide: Th ey’re 230 metres long.
Mr. Warner: It’s incredible! How old is it?
Guide: It’s nearly four and a half thousand years old.
III
Guide: Hello there, Mr. Warner. Are you coming on the excursion to
Cairo today?
Mr. Warner: Oh, yes! How far is it?
Guide: It’s about 150 kilometres.
Mr. Warner: Good. How long will it take to get there?
Guide: Only three hours.

124
Words and Expressions
Egypt [´i:dZIpt] — Египет
a brochure [´brAUSA] — брошюра, справочник
accommodation — место проживания (удобства) в отеле
to book a holiday — забронировать место на время отпуска
а travel agent [´trBvl ´eIdZAnt] — агент бюро путешествий
а two-minute walk — в двух минутах ходьбы
а guide [gaId] — гид, экскурсовод
majestic — величественный
а side [saId] — сторона (у основания)
incredible [in´kredAbl] — невероятный
nearly [´nIAli] — почти
to come on the excursion [… Ik´skQ:Sn] — идти (ехать) на экскурсию
VIII. Маке up short dialogues according to the models.
1. St. l: I’d like to book the summer holiday in Egypt.
St. 2: What month?
St. l: June.
Us e : Spain — August; Florida — July; Greece — September;
Rome — May; Bermuda [bA:´mju:dA] — October; Hawaii —
November; France — April; Moscow — January.
2. St. 1: How far is it from the hotel to the beach?
St. 2: Oh, it’s a fi ve-minute (ten-minute) walk.
Us e : the house — the school; the offi ce — the restaurant; here —
the bank; the airport — the hotel; the station — the centre of
the city; the University — the museum; the house — the
shop.
3. St. 1: How hot is it in Spain in June?
St. 2: About 30 °C.
Us e : Moscow — September; Athens — May; London — July;
Paris — August; Madrid — June.
IX. Act out the dialogues “A Holiday in Egypt” changing the roles.

125 Grammar
THE CONTINUOUS TENSES
(ВРЕМЕНА, ОБОЗНАЧАЮЩИЕ ДЕЙСТВИЕ В ПРОЦЕССЕ)
The Present Continuous Tense
(Настоящее время в процессе совершения)
to be+ основной глагол с окончанием -ing
am is are
Настоящее продолжающееся грамматическое время (the present continu-
ous tense) обозначает действие, которое происходит сейчас, в момент
речи. Оно отличается от действия, совершающегося регулярно, действия,
происходящего вообще, о котором говорится как о факте (the present
simple). В русском языке эти оттенки передаются разными глаголами,
имеющими одинаковое значение: «ходить» (вообще) и «идти» (сейчас):
I go to the offi ce every day. (the present simple) — Я хожу на работу
каждый день.
I am going to the offi ce now. (the present continuous) — Я иду на работу
сейчас.
Отрицательная форма настоящего продолжающегося времени образует-
ся при помощи отрицания not, которое ставится между вспомогательным
и основным глаголом:
It is late evening, but John is not sleeping, he is revising for his exam.
В вопросительной форме, характеризующейся обратным порядком слов,
кроме вопросов к подлежащему или определению к подлежащему, вспо-
могательный глагол to be употребляется перед подлежащим:
Is John revising for his exam? — Yes, he is.
What are you doing here at such an early hour? — I am waiting for my
friend.
Форма настоящего продолжающегося грамматического времени может
употребляться в значении будущего, если действие заранее оговорено

126
или запланировано. При незапланированности, спонтанности действия в
будущем употребляется форма будущего простого грамматического вре-
мени (the future simple tense):
I am leaving for London tomorrow morning. This is my fi rst visit to the
city.
There is something wrong with my TV set. Can you repair it? — Yes. But I
will do it tomorrow.
Exercises
I. Say that the action takes place regularly using the corresponding adverbial modifi ers of
time. In some cases you need to omit unnecessary words.
Model: Т.: It is raining now.
St.: It rains very oft en in autumn.
1. Th e sun is shining brightly. 2. It is not raining now. 3. Have a look! He is
smoking and drinking coff ee.
4. Our students are having an English lesson
now.
5. Th e teacher is explaining a new grammar rule (to explain a rule —
объяснять правило) to us.
6. Th e family is having dinner in the kitchen.
7. Th ey are answering the questions now. 8. My friend is sitting at the fi rst
desk now.
9. Th e woman is eating an ice. 10. Th ey are watching a TV
programme in the next room.
II. Say what you are doing now and what you have to do regularly.
Model: We are listening to a recording of the talk between two native
speakers now.
We o ft en listen to new recordings at the English lessons.
Us e : to have an English lesson, to sit in the classroom at the front
(back) desk, to study a new grammar rule, to answer the
teacher’s questions, to translate sentences ([´sentAnsIz] —
предложения) into English, to write down some sentences,
to listen to the teacher attentively (внимательно), to look
through the text, to have a talk in English.

127
III. Ask your friend:
if it is raining now; if the students are having an English or maths lesson
now; what he (she) is thinking about; if he (she) smokes; why student B is
sitting at the front (back) desk; how he (she) is listening to the teacher; if
he (she) speaks English well; what other language he (she) knows; if he
(she) always answers the teacher’s questions well.
Short Dialogues
SAYING GOOD-BYE
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: I’ve come to say good-bye.
B: When are you off ?
1
A: I’m fl ying home on Sunday.
B: Good-bye then, and all the very best.
A: Th ank you. Say good-bye to the rest of the family for me, won’t you?
II
А: I’d like to say good-bye to you all.
B: What time does your train leave?
A: It leaves at 7 p.m.
B: Good-bye, and have a good journey.
A: Good-bye. Remember to look me up if ever you’re in Madrid.
III
A: I’m calling to say good-bye.
B: When are you setting off ?
A: I’m catching the 12.45 boat.
B: Bye and don’t forget to keep in touch.
A: Good-bye. Th anks for everything.
1 When are you off ? I’m fl ying home on Sunday. Здесь и далее формы настоящего
простого и настоящего продолжающегося грамматического времени употребля-
ются в значении будущего времени.

128
IV
A: I’ve just called in to say good-bye.
B: When are you leaving?
A: I’m going to try to get away by ten.
B: Good-bye. Remember me to your relatives.
A: Good-bye. See you next year.
I. to be off — отправляться

all the very best — всего хорошего
the rest — остальные
II. a journey [´dZQ:nI] — поездка

to look me up — навестить меня
III. to set off — уезжать, отправляться

I’m catching the 11.35 boat. — Я отправляюсь теплоходом в 11.35.

to keep in touch [tEtS] — зд.: сообщить о себе (досл.: держать связь)
IV. to call in — заходить, забегать

to try to get away — пытаться уехать

Remember me to your relatives. — Передай привет своим родным.
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A I, then В I, etc.
II. Reproduce the dialogues in the following way.
T.: I’d like to say good-bye to you all.
St.: (Any В 1 phrase)
T.: I’m leaving home on Sunday.
St.: (Any В 2 phrase)
Т.: Good-bye. Th anks for everything.
III. You are on holiday and you are leaving soon.
1. Say good-bye to your friends.
Model:I’d like
to say good-bye to you. I’ve come
I’ve just called in
I’m ringing

129
2. Say when and where you are going.
Model: I’m leaving home tomorrow.
Use: for the South — on Sunday; for the country — the day aft er
tomorrow; for Moscow — tonight; for England — in two days;
for the Far East — early in the morning.
IV. Your friend is on holiday and he is leaving tomorrow.
A. Ask him about the time of leaving.
Model: When are you … ?
What time does (do) … leave?
B. Say good-bye and:
1) wish him something pleasant.
Model: Have a good journey!
Use: a nice trip; a pleasant journey; a happy holiday; a lovely time.
2) tell him to remember you to somebody:
Use: to his parents; to his sister; to his brother; to his relatives; to
his cousin; to his chief.
Model: Remember me to…
V. Reproduce the short dialogues “Saying Good-bye” in similar situations.
Grammar
THE PAST AND FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSES
(ПРОШЕДШЕЕ И БУДУЩЕЕ ВРЕМЯ В ПРОЦЕССЕ СОВЕРШЕНИЯ)
to be + основной глагол c окончанием -ing
Pas t
Future
was
wereshall
will⎫

⎭be

130
Past Continuous Future Continuous
Обозначает действие, которое со-
вершалось (продолжалось) в опре-
деленный момент в прошлом.Обозначает действие, которое бу-
дет совершаться (продолжаться)
в определенный момент в будущем.
1. We were having a lesson when the
rain began.
У нас шел урок, когда начался
дождь. 1. I shall (will) be cooking dinner when
you come
1 home.
Я буду готовить обед, когда ты
придешь домой.
2. That time yesterday we were
conducting a test in the laboratory.
В это время вчера мы проводили
испытание в лаборатории. 2. That time tomorrow we shall
(will) be conducting a test in the
labora tory.
В это время завтра мы будем прово-
дить испытание в лаборатории.
Exercises
I. Make up sentences paying attention to the way of expressing a defi nite moment in the
past:
1. At two o’clock yesterday I was writing a letter.
Th at time we were having dinner.
When you phoned me my sister was taking a dog for a walk.
When they called in my wife was cooking dinner.
they were watching a TV programme.
it was raining.
the sun was shining brightly.
2. Th ey were not reading at three o’clock.
She was not discussing the
problemwhen the telephone
rang.
Th e children
Wewere not having dinner
were not listening to the
newswhen they (we) came.
1 В придаточных предложениях времени (а также условия) не употребляется
будущее время. Вместо него употребляется настоящее, которое на русский язык
переводится будущим временем.

131
My colleagues were not telling one
another the newsat that time in the
morning.
Th e scientists were not conducting an
experiment.
3. When I came
into the offi cethe chief was phoning Moscow.
the secretary was looking through the papers.
some engineers were discussing a new design
([dI´zaIn] — проект).
my friend was looking through a newspaper.
some people were smoking in the hall.
4. What was
wereyour son
your children
your wife
your parents
your husband
your guests
your dogdoing
listening to
reading
discussing
watching
talking about
eatingwhen you
came home?
5. While I was
reading a bookmy wife was listening to the news on the radio.
my son was doing his homework.
my daughter was talking with her friend.
my mother-in-law was watching a hockey match
on TV.
my dog was sleeping.
II. Complete the situations.
1. Last summer I spent my holidays in the Crimea. I went to the beach
every day. Once when I arrived there I saw a lot of holidaymakers. Some
of them …
Us e : to sunbathe; to bathe; to swim; to play volleyball; to eat an ice;
to sit in the tent; to windsurf; to sail.

132
2. Yesterday I called my friend Irene but she couldn’t speak with me long
as she was busy. She had a lot of things to do. Th at moment she
…. Her
husband
…. Her child ….
Use: to cook dinner; to wash up; to lie on the sofa; to read
a newspaper; to drink hot milk and to watch a TV fi lm at the
same time.
3. Tomorrow when I come to see my friend I know that:
а) ее ребенок будет гулять во дворе;
б) ее муж будет сидеть в кресле и читать газету;
в) она будет накрывать на стол;
г) ее мама будет гладить белье (to iron [´aIAn]).
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы прошедшего и будущего времен
группы continuous образуются по аналогии с настоящим продолжающим-
ся временем:
He arrived at the place at the appointed time, but found that his business
partner was not waiting for him there yet.
What was he doing when you came to see him? — He was lying on the
sofa thinking about what happiness was.
Для образования вопросительного и отрицательного предложения во
всех временных формах необходимо: для отрицательной формы поста-
вить отрицание not между вспомогательным и основным глаголом, для
вопросительной — поменять местами вспомогательный глагол и подле-
жащее (обратный порядок слов), если это не вопрос к подлежащему или
определению к нему. Если вспомогательный глагол состоит из двух или
более элементов (shall be, will be, shall have, will have, has been, had been, will
have been),
то все вышеуказанные действия производятся относительно
первого элемента, т. е. shall, will, has, had.
В образовании вопросительной и отрицательной формы глаголов в present
и past simple участвует вспомогательный глагол do (does) — для present
simple и did — для past simple. При этом происходят изменения в форме
основного глагола, который при появлении вспомогательного глагола
переходит в I форму.

133
Таблица групп грамматических времен Simple, Continuous и Perfect
Simple Tenses
Past • Present • Future •

cooked dinner
I yesterday.
wrote a letter
cook dinner
I every day.
write letters

cooks dinner
She every day.
writes letters
cook dinner
I shall (will) tomorrow.
write letters

cook dinner
She will tomorrow.
write letters
Continuous Tenses
to be (вспомогат. глагол) + ing-форма (основной глагол)
cooking
I (he, she) was dinner
We (you, they) were writing
a letter
at three o’clock yesterday.I am cooking
dinner
He (she) is now.
writing
We (you, they) are
a letter cooking
I (we) shall dinner
be writing
He (she, you, they) will a letter
at three o’clock tomorrow. Perfeci Tenses
to have (вспомогат. глагол) + III форма (основной глагол)
|
|
|
had cooked dinner
I
had written a letter
Before you came.I (you, we, they) cooked
have dinner.
just written
He (she) has a letter.I (we) shall cooked
have dinner
You (she, he, will written
they) a letter
before you come.
Условные обозначения:
• — факт совершения действия и упоминание о нем относительно прошлого, настоящего и будущего;
— процесс протекания действия в определенный момент в прошлом, настоящем или будущем;
| — за-
вершенность (законченность) действия к определенному моменту в прошлом, настоящем или будущем.⎫



⎭⎫





⎭⎫





⎭⎫





⎭⎫












⎭⎫





⎭⎫





⎭⎫





⎭ ⎫























































134 Grammar
THE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES
(СОВЕРШЕННО-ДЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ВРЕМЕНА)
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
(Настоящее совершенно-длительное время)
В английском языке есть еще одна группа времен — perfect continuous. Это
грамматическое время образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола
to be в перфектном времени и основного глагола с окончанием -ing.
В разговорной речи широко употребляется только present perfect contin u-
ous — have (has) been doing.
The past perfect continuous (had been doing) встречается в основном в пись-
менной речи и ограниченно — в устной.
The future perfect continuous — shall (will) have been doing — практически не
используется.
Существует две разновидности настоящего совершенного длительного
времени (present perfect continuous): включающее настоящий момент
(inclusive) и исключающее настоящий момент (exclusive). Разница между
этими двумя видами отчетливо показана на графиках, представленных
ниже.
1. The present perfect continuous inclusive (т. e. включающее настоящий пе-
риод):
— What are you doing?
— I am writing a business letter.
A В now С
— How long have you been writing it?
— I have been writing it for half an hour (since one o’clock). And I am still
writing.
2. The present perfect continuous exclusive (т. e. исключающее настоящий
период):


























135
A В now С
— Why do you look so tired?
— I have been working hard at my report. (That is why I am tired.) But I
am not doing it now.
Настоящее совершенное длительное время, включающее настоящий
момент (inclusive), переводится на русский язык глаголом в настоящем
времени именно потому, что оно, начавшись в прошлом, продолжается
в настоящий период:
The girl has been playing the piano for a hour. (And she is still playing.) —
Девочка играет на пианино уже в течение часа.
Настоящее совершенное длительное время, исключающее настоящий
момент (exclusive), показывает, что действие длилось до настоящего
момен та, но больше не продолжается, и в настоящем остались только
«следы» совершения этого действия, его результат. Поэтому такое время
переводится на русский язык глаголом в прошедшем времени.
Why are your eyes red? — Because I have been crying. (But now I am not
crying.)
Почему у тебя глаза покраснели? — Потому что я плакала.
Некоторые глаголы английского языка не употребляются в форме грам-
матического длительного времени (continuous и perfect continuous). Такие
ограничения вызываются семантическими особенностями этих глаголов.
К ним относятся глаголы умственного и физического восприятия и ряда
других смысловых групп: to know, to think (в значении «считать, пола-
гать»), to believe, to understand, to suppose, to see, to hear, to remember, to
forget, to be и др.
При наличии условий, требующих использования временной формы
present perfect continuous, с такими глаголами допустима форма present
perfect.
I have known him since I was a child. — Я знаю его с детства.
Bill is unemployed. He has been unemployed for a month. — Билл безработ-
ный. Он уже не работает месяц.















136
Обратите внимание, что данная форма настоящего совершенного време-
ни (present perfect) на русский язык переводится глаголом настоящего
времени, в отличие от большинства глаголов этой группы времен. (См.
Грамматический материал раздела 5.) Это обусловлено тем, что такая фор-
ма сказуемого фактически является усеченной формой present perfect
continuous (inclusive), которая описывает действие (процесс), продолжаю-
щееся в течение длительного времени и включающее настоящий момент.
Exercises
III. Compare these pairs of sentences and see the difference.
1. I am waiting for you. I have been waiting for you since
2 o’clock.
2. She is speaking on the
telephone.She has been speaking on the
telephone for 20 minutes.
3. My sister is writing a letter. She has been writing it since the
morning.
4. My mother is cooking dinner. She has been cooking for two hours.
5. Th ey are smoking downstairs. Th ey have been smoking for half an
hour.
IV. Say how long you (or somebody else) have been doing this.
Model: to study English — I’ve been studying English for fi ve years
(since 2012).
Us e : to work in the offi ce; to live in the city; to read the text;
to write the exercise; to listen to the recording; to answer the
questions; to drive a car; to watch the TV programme.
V. Say what you (or somebody else) are (is) doing and how long.
Model: St. l: I’m reading a book.
St. 2:
How long have you been reading it?
St. l: I’ve been reading it since the morning.
Us e : to type a letter; to look through the newspapers; to do the fl at;
to cook dinner; to wash up; to do the homework; to wait for
one’s friend; to do the washing.

137
VI. Ask for additional information.
Model: St. 1: I’ve been learning the new words for half an hour.
St.
2: Oh, how many words have you learnt?
St.
1: Not many.
1. I’ve been saving money for 2 years. (How much?) 2. He’s been reading the
book since yesterday. (How many pages?)
3. Th e secretary’s been typing the
letters for an hour. (How many letters?)
4. Th ey’ve been translating the text
since the lesson began. (How much?)
5. Th e boy’s been learning the poem
by heart for an hour and a half. (How many lines?)
6. He’s been learning
languages since he was a schoolboy. (How many languages?)
7. He’s been
smoking for half an hour. (How many cigarettes?)
VII. Complete the following situations.
1. Oh, your basket is full of berries! — Я собирала ягоды в лесу целое
утро.
2. Why are you silent? — Потому что я много говорила до этого.
3. You look rather sunburnt. — Да, я лежала на солнце полдня.
4. You are late for the lecture again. — Ho я очень спешил и бежал всю
дорогу.
5. Your lips are black.Why? — Я ела чернику.
Grammar
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
(Прошедшее совершенно-длительное время)
Прошедшее совершенно-длительное время образуется при помощи вспо-
могательного глагола to be в форме прошедшего совершенного времени
(past perfect) и основного глагола с окончанием -ing: had been doing.
Это грамматическое время, так же как и прошедшее совершенное (past
perfect), является предпрошедшим (но длительным) по отношению к дру-
гому действию в прошлом. Следовательно, наличие или отсутствие в пред-
ложении показателей прошедшего времени (глагольных форм или вре-
менных обстоятельств), с которыми соотносится совершенно-дли тельное
время, может служить надежным критерием для выбора в первом случае
прошедшего, а во втором настоящего совершенно-длительного времени.

138
Сравните:
1. Why do you look so tired? — Oh, I have been working hard all day.
Почему у тебя такой усталый вид? — О, я много работал весь день.
2. When John arrived home, he looked very tired. He had been working
hard all day.
Когда Джон пришел домой, он выглядел очень усталым. Он весь день
много работал.
В предложении 1 ситуация развивается в настоящем; то, что человек вы-
глядит усталым, является результатом его длительной и упорной работы в
течение целого дня. Это длительное действие передается формой насто-
ящего совершенно-длительного времени (have been working), так как оно
соотносится с настоящим моментом, который на грамматическом уровне
выражен формой present simple do … look).
Во втором примере ситуация относится к прошедшему времени. На это
указывают формы past simple: arrived и looked. И хотя характер действия
остается прежним (совершенно-длительное действие), оно рассматрива-
ется в отношении к прошлому как предпрошедшее. Это и дает основание
употребить форму had been working.
Следует иметь в виду, что в русском языке нет адекватных глагольных
форм, передающих эту разницу, — в примерах 1 и 2 перевод будет одина-
ков; «много работал весь день».
Для английского языка в первом случае уместно говорить о преднастоя-
щем, а во втором — о предпрошедшем совершенно-длительном времени.
Длительное действие, рассматриваемое относительно другого действия
в прошлом, может быть не предпрошедшим, а функционировать как пост-
прошедшее. В последнем случае оно выражается формой глагола в present
perfect continuous.
He has been travelling much since he got into the University. — Oн много
путешествует с тех пор, как поступил в университет.
Exercises
VIII. In these situations use either the past or present perfect continuous tense.
1. I entered the room, it was empty. But there was a smell of cigarettes.
Somebody (to smoke) in the room.
2. Do you smoke? — Yes, I do. I (to

smoke) since I started working in the offi ce. 3. Th e ground is wet. It (to
rain) for two hours.
4. Th e boys ran into the house. Th ey were excited.
Th ey (to play) football in the yard.
5. How long you (to wait) before the
bus fi nally came?
6. Ann is looking for a job. She began looking for it in
September. So she (to look) for a job for half a year.
7. Yesterday morning
I got up and looked out of the window. Th e sun was shining but the ground
was wet. It (to rain) the whole night.
8. How long you (to learn) English?
9. It is 8 p.m. You (to watch) television since 5 o’clock. You should have a
short rest.
10. Th e football teams (to play) for half an hour when a terrible
storm began.
11. When the boys ran into the house, their clothes were
dirty and one had a black eye. Everybody understood that they (to fi ght).
12. My friend graduated from the University some years ago. She is
a teacher now. She (to teach) English for fi ve years.

140
Unit
EIGHT
Conversation: Getting about Town. Asking the Way
Grammar: The Indefi nite Pronouns some, any, no. Derivatives from some,
any, no
Te x t
Read and translate the text using a dictionary. Do the task that follows the text.
Transport in the Past
Before the motorcar became a practical way to travel, people depended
mainly on horses to get from one place to another. Th ey not only used
horses to ride on, but to pull various types of vehicles as well. Th e simplest
of these was the cart, an uncovered vehicle with two or four wheels which
was used for carrying goods. For short trips a light, two-wheeled vehicle
called a trap was oft en used, while for longer journeys a closed four-
wheeled vehicle called a carriage was preferred. Private carriages could be
very luxurious, with fur rugs and even vases of fl owers. For those without
a private carriage, a coach could be used.
Th is was a public means of transport which followed regular routes
throughout the country, stopping at inns to change horses and allow
people to rest and have something to eat. With the invention of the train
in Britain in the 1820s, long journeys in horse-drawn vehicles became less
and less common, and in the early 1900s the motorcar began to replace
horses altogether.
Over the last two hundred years, means of transport have changed and
developed a great deal. Th e fi rst successful development was in air travel
when in 1783, the French Montgolfi er brothers launched the hot-air
balloon. Twenty years later, in England, the steamboat and steam train

141 made their fi rst successful trips. Nearly 40 years later the fi rst version of
the modern bicycle was introduced, and in 1903 the fi rst successful
aeroplane fl ight was made by the Wright brothers of Ohio, USA.
I. Write out all types of vehicles that you fi nd in the text.
II. Match the words and expressions from the text (on the left) to their meaning (on the
right).
1) a cart a) a light two-wheeled vehicle pulled by a horse
that was used for short trips
2) a carriage b) an uncovered two- or four-wheeled vehicle
pulled by a horse that was used for carrying
goods
3) a coach c) a closed four-wheeled vehicle pulled by a horse
that was used for longer journeys
4) a motorcar d) a common carriage, not private, for carrying a
large number of passengers, especially for longer
journeys, that was pulled by a horse
5) a trap e) a road vehicle driven by an engine for one driver
and a few passengers
6) a train f ) a group of railway vehicles that are connected
and pulled by an engine
7) a hot-air balloon g) a machine or mechanism that you travel in or
on, especially one with an engine that travels on
roads, for example a car, bus, van, truck, bicycle
8) a vehicle h) a two-wheeled vehicle that you ride by pushing
pedals with your feet
9) a bicycle i) a large river, sea or ocean vessel that moves by
steam power
10) an aeroplane j) a train that moves by an engine which gets its
power from steam
11) a steam train k) an extremely large bag full of hot air with a
basket attached that people can ride through the
air in
12) a steamboat l) an aircraft with wings and at least one engine

142
III. Match the English words and expressions to their Russian equivalents.
1) a carriage a) рессорная двуколка
2) a motorcar b) карета, экипаж
3) a train c) автомобиль
4) a hot-air balloon d) велосипед
5) a steam train e) телега
6) an aeroplane f ) паровоз
7) a cart g) простая карета, предназначенная для не-
сколь ких пассажиров
8) a trap h) поезд
9) a vehicle i) транспортное средство
10) a bicycle j) пароход
11) a steamboat k) самолет
12) a coach l) воздушный шар для путешествия в воздухе
IV. Can you extend the list of means of transport that have appeared not long ago?
REMEMBER!
С названиями транспортных средств употребляются следующие предло-
ги: by, on и in. Их употребление в случае с by, с одной стороны, и on / in — с
другой, основывается на значении, которое выражается этими предлога-
ми, а дифференцирование on и in определяется названием самого транс-
портного средства. Предлог by употребляется, когда речь идет о способе
передвижения, что соответствует русскому значению, передаваемому
творительным падежом: автобусом, трамваем, поездом, самолетом и т. д.
При этом у существительного с предлогом by отсутствуют другие опреде-
лители — артикли и притяжательные местоимения: by train, by car, by bus,
by plane, by taxi, by bicycle, by helicopter, а также by land, by sea, by air (но
on foot). Предлог on употребляется, когда мы говорим о нахождении в
каком-либо транспортном средстве. В этом случае, наряду с предлогом,
должен использоваться артикль или притяжательное местоимение: on
the train, on a bus, on a plane, on my bicycle, on his horse, on the boat и т. д.
Предлог in употребляется аналогично предлогу on, но только примени-
тельно к словам car и taxi: in his car, in the taxi.

143 Exercises
V. Put in the gap one of the prepositions: by, on or in . Can you explain the rule for
choosing the preposition?
1. I like to travel … train even if the journey lasts for many days. 2. I have
never been … an intercity train.
3. I usually go to work … car, but today
I’ll have to commute by … bus as my car needs repairing.
4. If you are in
a hurry, I can give you a lift … my car.
5. When you are … a taxi, remember
to fasten your seat belt to avoid being injured during a traffi c accident.
6. We had to go to the theatre … taxi not to be late for the performance.
VI. Put in the proper preposition in each sentence.
1. Th e fastest way from London to Glasgow is … air. 2. We went to the
USA … a jumbo jet.
3. He goes to school … his bike. 4. Th e cheapest way
from London to Glasgow is… coach.
5. I’d love to go … a Mediterranean
cruise.
6. Travelling … train is more expensive than going… your car.
7. We decided not to fl y … Ireland but to take the car … the ferry. 8. About
sixty people can go … the coach. Th e rest will have to go … train.
9. If you
go to the airport … underground, you arrive … terminal three, but if you
go … car, you have to fi nd the way … the car park … the terminal … foot.
10. Th e best way to reach the Scilly Isles is … helicopter … Penzance, but
once there you should travel … the main islands … boat. (Th e Scilly Isles
are a group of small islands of the South West coast of England.)
VII. Before doing the task given below make sure that you know the meaning of the
following words and expressions. Match the lexical units to their defi nitions.
1) to commute a) to leave a bus to get on another bus or
another means of transport
2) to change a bus to
another bus or another
means of transportb) to travel regularly to and from work
3) a rush hour c) someone who travels regularly to and
from work
4) a commuter d) the money you pay for a journey on a bus
(tram, in a taxi, etc.)
5) a fare on a bus (tram, in
a taxi, etc.)e) the time of day when there are a lot of
cars on the road because most people are
travelling to and from work

144
Say:
1) how you usually get to your school (University, work); 2) if you have to
change to any other means of transport at some place;
3) what the fare on a
tram (bus, metro) is in your city;
4) whether you travel by public transport
or by car;
5) how easy it is to commute in your city; 6) what time is considered
to be the rush hour in your city;
7) if the public transport is reliable.
Te x t
Read the text.
Carpooling
People who have to commute regularly experience certain diffi culties with
getting to and from work. Th ey either risk their lives on the overcrowded
motorways or waste precious time on the ineff ective public transport
system. It is quite evident that there might be an alternative to the existing
way of commuting. And in Great Britain they have found it. Th is is
carpooling, a relatively new, convenient way of getting to work.
Carpooling is a way of commuting when a group of car owners agree
to travel together to work, college, University, etc. so that only one car is
used every time. Th e commuters in this case are called carpoolers. Th is
way of commuting is less stressful than taking a bus or train, besides you
save time and money.
Carpooling is eff ective when used with some colleagues from work.
Each of them has their own car and they arrange to share one private car to
get to work or college. On the exact day of the week one of the co-workers
of the group is supposed to give a lift in his car to the other colleagues who
left their cars at home, and so they become passengers. Th en, the next day
one of the former passengers works as a driver using his (or her) own car.
Carpooling contributes much to solving environmental problems.
Firstly, with this way of commuting the number of cars on the roads
decreases. Th is results favourably in the entire traffi c situation including
congestion and the risk of accidents and the environment which becomes
less polluted.
Words and Expressions
a motorway — шоссе
to waste precious [´preSAs ] time — терять драгоценное время
evident [´evId(A)nt ] — очевидный

145
carpooling (a carpool) — договоренность автовладельцев о совместной
эксплуатации машины
to carpool [´kC:,pu:l ] — договариваться с другими автовладельцами о
совместной эксплуатации машины
a carpooler — один из автовладельцев из группы, договорившихся о
совместной эксплуатации машины
a car owner [´AUnA] — автовладелец
less stressful — более спокойный (менее напряженный)
to arrange [A´reIndZ] — устраивать, улаживать
to share [SeA] — делить между кем-л.
private [´praIvAt] — личный
exact [Ig´zBkt] — точный
a co-worker [,kAU´wQ:kA] — сотрудник
to give a lift — «подбросить», подвезти (на машине)
former — бывший
to contribute to smth. — способствовать чему-л.
to solve environmental […In,vaIrAn´mentl] problems — решать проблемы
окружающей среды
to decrease [di:´kri:s] — уменьшаться
to result in smth. — сказываться на чем-л.
favourably [´feIv(A)rAbli] благоприятно
entire [In´taIA] — весь, целый
congestion [kAn´dZestS(A)n] — затор уличного движения, «пробки»
accident [´BksId(A)nt] — дорожное происшествие
environment [In´vaIrAn,ment] — окружающая среда
to pollute [pA´lu:t] — загрязнять окружающую среду
VIII. 1. Is the system of commuting like that used in your country (city)? 2. Would you
like trying it as an experiment?
3. Do you think it will facilitate some traffi c problems?
IX. Topics for discussion.
1. Carpooling as a way of commuting.
2. Th e advantages of this way of commuting.
X. Ask somebody who can drive a car the following questions. Pay attention to the words
and expressions in bold. Let your partner answer the questions.
1. Are you an experienced driver? How long have you driven a car? Where
did you learn driving?
2. Do you always drive carefully? 3. Did you ever

146 have to exceed the speed limit? When? Why?
4. Do you always follow
the traffi c signs? Have you ever started driving at the yellow light?
5. Have
you ever broken the traffi c rules? Have you been fi ned? What was the
fi ne sum?
6. Why do drivers sometimes overtake other vehicles? Do you
oft en have to overtake any front-moving cars?
7. Are you oft en stuck in
a traffi c jam? What do you feel? What do you do in this case?
8. Where
can a driver park his car in your city? Where do you park your car?
9. How
oft en do you have your car served in the garage?
10. What kind of traffi c
do we have in our country, right-hand or left -hand? What does it mean?
Directions
XI. Joanne is new to London and has been invited to visit Derek in h is fl at in Walthamstow.
She arrives at Walthamstow Station and can’t fi nd the way. She phones Derek.
Read their phone conversation and draw the route on the map.
Derek: Hallo, 394621.
Joanne: Hi, it’s Joanne.
D: Oh, hello. What’s the problem? We are expecting you any moment.
J: It’s OK, I’m coming. It’s just that I’ve come out without my map.
Could you give me directions from the station?

147 D: Sure, no problem. Hang on, let me see now. Which station are you
at?
J: Walthamstow Station.
D: Well, there is more than one, I’m afraid. We are closest to Blackhorse
Road Station.
J: Oh, no, I’m at Walthamstow Central.
D: Th at’s right. You can walk from there. Just a minute, let me get my
map … here we are. Right, do you want to write this down?
J: Yes, I’ve got a pen; I’ll put it in my diary. OK, ready.
D: Right. Come out of the station and you’ll see a place where all the
buses turn round.
J: Yes, that’s where I’m phoning from.
D: Good. Turn right as you come out of the station and go up a little
hill and you’ll soon come to a main road at the top.
J: Oh, yeah, I can see the main road.
D: Th at’s called Hoe Street. H-O-E. Turn left along Hoe Street and
walk as far as the High Street, that’s the next crossroads. Turn left into the
High Street. Th ere are a lot of shops down there and the library on your
left . Keep walking down the High Street as far as Erskine Road.
J: Is that a crossroads?
D: No, not really. Erskine Road will be on your right; it’s the third
turning on the right off the High Street.
J: OK. Th en what?
D: Walk along Erskine Road and then take the forth turning on the left .
J: Th e fourth?
D: Yeah, that’s called Elmsdale Road.
J: OK. Is it much further?
D: No, go down Elmsdale Road and at the bottom you come to
Palmerston Road. Go across Palmerston Road into Northcote Road,
which is opposite.
J: Opposite what?
D: Opposite Elmsdale Road.
J: OK. I see. So I don’t turn into Palmerston Road?
D: No, you just cross it.
J: OK.
D: And then as soon as you are in Northcote Road turn right
immediately into Warner Road.

148J: Warner Road. Isn’t that where you live?
D: Th at’s it. You will fi nd my house on the left , OK?
J: Right, well, I just hope I can follow this! You should see me in a few
minutes. If you don’t, you will know it’s not my fault. OK? Th anks, see you.
D: Bye.
(Kenny Nick. First Certifi cate Pass Key. Teacher’s Book. P. 111. Oxford, 1998)
XII. Describe the way Joanne followed to get to Derek’s house. She came out of
Walthamstow Station, turned right and went up a little hill and then came to the main road
at the top. That was Hoe Street. Then she …
XIII. Translate the sentences into English using the words and phrases from the
dialogue.
1. Я не знаю, где отель. Не могли бы вы сказать мне, как туда добраться?
2. Поверните налево и идите до перекрестка, затем сверните направо.
3. Это недалеко, третий поворот направо; на углу напротив вы увидите
серое здание — это и есть почта.
4. Дойдите до угла, сверните на Даунинг-
стрит и идите прямо до площади.
5. Как только перейдете мост, слева
увидите памятник, а за ним будет автобусная станция.
6. Когда выйдете
из автобусной станции, сверните сразу же направо и идите вдоль парка.
7. Сначала сверните налево, потом направо и дойдите до перекрестка, а
там еще раз спросите.
8. Когда дойдете до почты, напротив увидите
здание банка, а справа от него находится библиотека.
XIV. Put one preposition in each space if it is necessary.
1. Turn … right … the crossroads. 2. Keep walking … the road … the
library.
3. Turn … left immediately … Elmsdale Road. 4. Th e shop is …
the bus station.
5. Th eir house is … Palmerston Road. 6. It’s the fourth
turning … the left .
7. As soon as you get to the market, turn … right.
8. Take the second turning … the left and go straight … .
Asking the Way (Telling the Way)
Additional Words and Expressions
1)
a way [weI] — путь, дорога
on one’s way — no дороге
to ask one’s way — спросить дорогу
to fi nd one’s way (found) — найти дорогу

149
to lose one’s way (lost) — заблудиться (потерять дорогу)
to show somebody the way — показать кому-л. дорогу
Which way? — Куда идти (в какую сторону)?
Th is way, please. — Сюда (в этом направлении), пожалуйста.
2) It’s а good way from here. — Это довольно далеко отсюда.
It’s only two blocks away. — Это всего в двух кварталах отсюда.
It’s quite near here. — Это совсем рядом (близко).
It’s round the corner. — Это за углом.
3) on the right (left ) — справа (слева) — где?
to the right (left ) — направо (налево) — куда?
Turn to the right and you’ll see… — Поверните направо и вы
увидите…
On the right you can see… — Справа вы можете видеть…
4) to cross a street (avenue, square) — переходить улицу (проспект,
площадь)
to go straight on — идти прямо
as far as the corner — до угла
round the corner — за углом
to walk one short block straight ahead — пройти один небольшой
квартал вперед
Short Dialogues
ASKING THE WAY
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Excuse me, can you tell me where Baker Street is, please?
B: Take the second turning on the left and then go straight on.
A: Is it far?
B: No, it’s only a fi ve-minute walk.
A: Th ank you very much.
B: Not at all.
II
A: Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the Bank, please?
B: Turn round the corner, cross the Road and turn left at the traffi c
lights.

150 A: Will it take me long to get there?
B: No, you can walk there in 5–6 minutes.
A: Many thanks.
B: Th at’s OK.
III
A: Excuse me, but I’m trying to fi nd the National Gallery.
B: Cross the bridge and go as far as the square.
A: Is it too far to walk?
B: No, it’s quite near.
A: Th anks a lot.
B: Th at’s quite all right.
IV
A: Excuse me, please. Could you tell me how to get to the nearest
supermarket?
B: First right, second left and then go straight on. You can’t miss it.
A: Should I take a bus?
B: No, it’s only a couple of hundred yards
1.
A: Th ank you very much.
B: It’s a pleasure.
I. Take the second turning on the left. — Второй поворот налево.
II. Turn round the corner. — Поверните за угол.
III. I’m trying to fi nd … . — Я пытаюсь найти … .
IV. You can’t miss it. — Вы не пройдете мимо. (Вы обязательно увидите.)
a couple [´kEpl] — пара (два)
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A I, then A 2, A 3 and then B 1, etc.
II. Reproduce the dialogues in the following way.
St.: (Any A 1 phrase)
Т.: First right, second left , then ask again.
1 а yard = 914,4 мм или 3 футам

151 St.: (Any A 2 phrase)
Т.: No, it’s no distance at all.
St.: (Any A 3 phrase)
Т.: Th at’s OK.
III. You are looking for:
the department store; the post offi ce; the book store; the cinema; the art
gallery; the railway station; the hotel; the market.
1. Ask somebody where it is, beginning with “Excuse me…”.
2. Ask if it is far to walk there; how far it is; if you should take a bus.
IV. A passerby has stopped you and asked where the place he needs is. Tell him in
English.
1. Идите прямо до угла, затем поверните налево. 2. Сначала поверните
налево, затем направо.
3. Перейдите улицу и идите налево. 4. Повер-
ни те направо, дойдите до угла и еще раз спросите.
5. Идите прямо,
вы обязательно увидите.
V. The place somebody is looking for is near. What will you say? (2–3 phrases)
VI. Reproduce the short dialogues “Asking the Way” in similar situations.
Assignments (on the basis of the dialogues)
1.
You are at the central square of your city. Ask somebody how to get to
the shopping centre.
2. You are near the Railway Station. Ask a passerby where the Central
Supermarket is.
3. You are at the Hotel. You are trying to fi nd the way to the Railway
Station. Ask a passerby the way to the place.
4. You are at the General Post Offi ce. Ask somebody how to get to the
nearest hotel.
5. You are a stranger (житель другого города) in the city. You’ve come
to visit your friend. Tonight you are going to the Drama Th eatre for a
performance. Ask your friend how to get to the theatre.

152 Short dialogues
ON THE BUS
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Does this bus go to the Central Park?
B: No, you’ll have to get off at the museum and take a 192.
A: Can you tell me where to get off ?
B: It’s the next stop but one.
II
A: Am I OK for Piccadilly Circus?
B: No, we only go as far as the park, but you can walk from there.
A: Where can I get off ?
B: It’s quite a way yet, but I’ll tell you in good time.
III
A: Do we go to the Opera and Ballet House?
B: No, you are going the wrong way. You want a 143
from the park.
A: Have we got much further to go?
B: It’s the next stop.
IV
A: Is this the right bus for the City Market?
B: No, you should have caught a 12.
Jump out at the bridge and get one
there.
A: Could you tell me when we get there?
B: It’s three stops aft er this one.
I. the next stop but one — через одну остановку
II. Am I OK for…? — Я правильно еду к …? (Я могу доехать до … ?)
It’s quite a way yet. — Еще довольно далеко.
I’ll tell you in good time. — Я скажу вам, когда надо (когда придет
время).
III. You are going the wrong way. — Вы едете не туда (неправильно).
IV. Is this the right bus for…? — Этот автобус довезет меня до ..?
Jump out at the bridge. — Выходите (досл.: выпрыгивайте) у моста.

153 Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A I, then В I, etc.
II. Reproduce the dialogues in the following way.
Т.: Is this the right bus for the University?
St.: (Any В 1 phrase)
Т.: How much further is it?
St.: (Any В 2 phrase)
III. You are on the bus.
1. Ask if this bus goes to the place you need.
Model: Does this bus go to the museum?
Us e : the market; the city centre; the railway station; the art gallery;
the airport; the theatre.
2. You don’t know where to get off. Ask. (Any A 2 phrase)
IV. A passenger is asking you where he should get off. Tell him (her).
Model: — I want (need) the Opera and Ballet House. Could you
tell me when to get off ?
— It’s the next stop.
Us e : the museum — the next stop but one; the supermarket —
three stops aft er this one; the airport — the last stop; the
University — the last stop but one; the hotel — the next stop.
V. Reproduce the short dialogues “On the Bus” in similar situations.
VI. Say:
1) how you usually get to the offi ce (University, college, school, etc.);
2) how you got to the University (school or some other place) today.
VII. Ask each other how you get to some place.
Model: St. 1: How do you get to the offi ce?
St. 2: Oh, by bus.
St. 1: Which number?
St. 2: A two bus. It’s always crowded.

154 Use: the University — by tram — half empty
the railway station — by street car — crowded
the market — by trolleybus — overcrowded
the museum — by bus — crowded
VIII. Explain the following.
What is
1) a subway? 4) a coach?
2) a streetcar? 5) change (money)?
3) a fare? 6) a tip?
IX. Discuss the following items concerning the metro in your town:
1) the fare on the metro;
2) the number of underground stations and lines;
3) the stations where you can change to another underground line;
4) the busiest underground lines;
5) whether the metro is fast, reliable and clean;
6) your favourite line;
7) the line you have to use very oft en;
8) two or three rules you must observe in the metro.
X. Think of possible answers to the questions.
1. Where is the bus stop? 2. Where do you want to go? 3. What is the fare
on the bus?
4. Shall I have to change? 5. Will you please let me know when
we’ll get to the theatre?
6. How can I get to the market? 7. Can you change
a twenty-dollar bill for me?
XI. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Can you tell me… and I wonder… .
XII. Let’s talk about the fare on a bus, tram, etc. in your town.
Say: whether it is the same or diff erent.
if it has changed for the last few years.
if there is a conductor in the buses.
if you buy tickets or cards for buses, trams, etc.
if the bus (tram, trolleybus, metro) service is reliable.

155
Words and Expressions
traffi c [´trBfik] — уличное движение
right-hand traffi c — правостороннее движение
left-hand traffi c — левостороннее движение
heavy traffi c [´hevi…] — интенсивное уличное движение
tо follow (to observe) the traffi c rules — соблюдать правила уличного
движения
to break the traffi c rules — нарушать правила уличного движения
traffi c lights — светофор
The green (yellow, red) light is on. — Горит зеленый (желтый, красный)
свет.
a traffi c sign [… saIn] — дорожный знак
tо fi ne — штрафовать
to pay а fi ne (paid) — платить штраф
tо have а driving licence […´laIsns] — иметь водительские права
a pedestrian [pA´destriAn] — пешеход
tо keep to the right (left) — придерживаться правой (левой) стороны
the metro, underground — метро
the Tube [tju:b] — метро (в Англии)
the Subway [´sEbweI] — метро (в Америке)
Exercises
XIII. Remember the traffi c rules and follow them.
1. In Russia the traffi c is right-hand while in England they have left -hand
traffi c.
2. With the right- (left -) hand traffi c pedestrians and drivers must keep
to the right (left ).
3. In Russia while crossing the street you must fi rst look to the left , then
in the middle of the road to the right.
4. You must cross the street under the green light.
5. You mustn’t cross the street under the red or yellow lights.
6. You must be especially careful in the street during rush hours.
XIV. Answer the questions.
1. What is the main diff erence between the traffi c in England and in our
country?
2. Do you always follow the traffi c rules? 3. Do our people in
general follow or break the traffi c rules?
4. Did you have to pay a fi ne in the

156 street? What for? How much did you have to pay?
5. Do you have intensive
traffi c in your town?
6. Can you drive a car? 7. Do you have a driving
licence?
8. Are the traffi c signs in our cities and towns international?
XV. 1. Recollect the expression.
How long does it take smb. to get (go) to … ? — Сколько времени кому-
либо требуется, чтобы добраться (доехать) до … ?
It takes smb. … minutes to get there. — Кому-либо требуется … минут,
чтобы добраться туда.
2. Ask somebody and let him (her) answer in accordance with the model. Use the words
given below.
bus?
the metro?
— How long does it take you to go to A from B by car?
— It takes me C. tram?
train?
on foot?
________________
A — to the theatre, cinema, market, department store, museum,
central park, nearest suburb, hotel.
В — from the office, University, metro, central avenue, central
square.
С — 20 minutes, an hour and a half, half an hour, about a quarter
of an hour, not more than 15 minutes.
XVI. When you leave home, you become a pedestrian and you have to follow the traffi c
rules. Enumerate all the rules for the right hand traffi c which everybody must observe in the
street.
XVII. Your friend is going to England. Tell him (her) what kind of traffi c they have and
give some recommendations how to avoid accidents in the street.
Te x t
Read the text.
Worldwide Taxis
London, U. K.
Th e drivers of London’s black cabs learn their trade the hard way. In order
to get their famous green badge, the drivers have to complete “Th e










157 Knowledge”. Getting this qualifi cation involves getting on a moped and
memorising every street within six miles of Charing Cross
1. Taxi drivers
are regulated by the Metropolitan Police, and discipline is very important.
Exams are conducted with military formality and “cabbies” are oft en
extremely nervous beforehand. Nevertheless, it’s worth it. Although the
minimum fare is only £1.50, the driver’s weekly wage can be up to
£800, making London’s cabbies possibly the best-paid in the world.
Mexico City, Mexico
In Mexico, the quality of your taxi depends on fi nancial status. If you’ve
got plenty of money, you can ride in a big air-conditioned saloon. If not,
you have to take the cheaper option — a Mexican-made Volkswagen
Beetle. Beetle cabs are not necessarily cheerful, despite their bright yellow
paint (all other Beetles there are dirty brown). Th e fares are cheap, starting
at sixty pence, but the drivers regard cheating customers as quite normal,
so you may end up paying quite a bit. Because prices in Mexico go up so
quickly, the cab’s meter is worthless as soon as it is installed, so cabbies do
their own mental calculations to work out the “correct” price. On average
they earn about £70 a week.
Hong Kong
Hong Kong rickshaw “boys” — who are usually around the age of
60 — are a dying breed. Th is is because the city has decided to stop using
rickshaws. Th e last licence was issued in 1975. Nowadays, £4 is the
minimum fare for a rickshaw ride. In 1950 there were 8,000 rickshaw
boys, but now there are only 20, so it is not surprising that they consider
themselves an endangered species. Th ey pay no attention to traffi c laws.
Red lights are always ignored, they oft en go the wrong way down one-way
streets and even pull their embarrassed passengers down pedestrian
subway — all this for £280 per week! Th ese days rickshaws are used chiefl y
by tourists.
Venice, Italy
Gondolas have been a feature of Venetian life since the 16th century
and working as a gondolier used to be a profession that you couldn’t get
into unless you knew somebody who was already a gondolier — a relative,
for example. Two years ago everything changed and now it’s much more
democratic. Training is diffi cult, since gondoliers are tested not only on
1 Charing Cross [´tSC:rIN ,krOs], Чаринг Кросс, is a street in central London run-
ning immediately north of St. Martin-in-the-Fields to St. Giles Circus.

158 skill but also on their knowledge of Venetian history, geography and
culture. Of course with a weekly wage of about £450, it’s worth studying
a bit. A journey in a gondola will cost you at least £28, so be prepared
to pay.
(Evans Virginia, Dooley Jenny. Enterprise 4. Coursebook. Intermediate.
Express Publishing, 1998. P. 145)
XVIII. Match the word and expression in the left-hand column to their defi nition in the
right-hand column. Give their Russian equivalent.
1) a moped a) a closed car with a front and back seat for
passengers and a boot for carrying things such
as suitcases. Am. E. Sedan
2) a one-way street b) a tunnel that people can walk through to go
under a street
3) a cabbie (cabby) c) a type of motorcycle with an engine that is
not powerful and pedals like a bicycle
4) a rickshaw d) a street with cars travelling in one direction
only
5) a cab’s meter e) calculations that you do in your mind without
writing them down
6) a saloon f ) a taxi driver
7) quite a bit g) a piece of equipment used in the car for
measuring how much of something you have
used
8) a pedestrian subway h) a small vehicle with two wheels used for
carrying passengers and pulled by someone
riding a bicycle or walking
9) to be a feature of
somethingi) a lot
10) mental calculations j) to be an important part or aspect of some -
t hing
XIX. Guess the meaning of the following words.
Qualifi cation, to regulate, to be extremely nervous, a cab, an option, a
fi nancial status, a gondola, a gondolier, training, to memorise, air-
conditioned, to ignore.

159
Words and Expressions
a trade [treId] — профессия, ремесло
a badge [bBdZ] — значок
to complete [kAm´pli:t] — завершать, заканчивать
to conduct an exam [kAn´dEkt An Ig´zBm] — проводить экзамен
beforehand [bI´fD:hBnd] — заранее
It is worth smth. [wQ:F] — стоит (достойно) чего-л.
worthless [´wQ:FlAs] — нестоящий, бесполезный
a weekly wage [,wi:kli ´weIdZ] — недельный заработок
best-paid [´best,peId] — самый высокооплачиваемый
to depend on smth. [dI´pend] — зависеть от чего-л.
cheap [tSi:p] — дешёвый
cheerful [´tSIAfl] — яркий, светлый (о цвете)
despite smth. [dI´spaIt] — несмотря на что-л.
paint [peInt] — краска
to regard [rI´gC:d] — считать, полагать
cheating [´tSi:tIN] — обман
a customer [´kEstAmA] — клиент
to install [In´stD:l] — устанавливать, монтировать
on average [´Bv(A)rIdZ] — в среднем
to earn [Q:n] — зарабатывать
a dying breed [´daIN ,bri:d] — вымирающая порода
to issue [´Isju:; ´ISu:] — выпускать, выдавать (лицензию)
an endangered species [In,deIndZAd ´spi:Si:z] — умирающая про фессия
a traffi c law […lD:] — дорожные правила
embarrassed [Im´bBrAst] — озадаченный
chiefl y [´tSi:fli] — главным образом
XX. Complete the sentences using the information from the text.
1. London’s cab drivers can be recognised by … . 2. Th e best-paid taxi
drivers in the world are … .
3. Th e number of rickshaws in Hong Kong is
dramatically decreasing nowadays, that is why rickshaw “drivers” consider
themselves … .
4. To become a taxi driver a London cabby must take … .
5. Th e … of Venetian life is gondolas that have been used since the 16th
century.
6. For Mexican drivers … is rather normal, so passengers have to
pay quite a bit for their journey.
7. Rickshaw “drivers” in Hong Kong always
ignore … .
8. Prices in Mexico tend to increase very rapidly, so cabbies do

160 their own … to declare the “correct” price for trip.
9. Venetian gondoliers
are tested not only on skill but also on their knowledge of … .
10. Hong
Kong is gradually stopping to use rickshaws; the last licence … in the
second part of the 20th century.
XXI. Say what you know about taxi drivers in your city.
1. Do they have to wear a special uniform and badge? 2. Are taxi cabs
diff erent from other cars in their colour, size and other signs?
3. What
does their fare depend on?
4. Do taxi drivers have to learn their trade the
hard way?
5. What is necessary to get a driver’s qualifi cation? 6. Do they
need an International driving licence?
7. Do passengers pay tips to taxi
drivers?
8. In what cases do people in your city take or call a taxi? 9. Is it
necessary for taxi drivers to learn the history, geography and culture of
the city?
10. Is a driver’s trade honourable in your city?
XXII. Write a short paragraph about the driver’s profession in your city adding some
information to the worldwide taxis topic.
Before reading the text “Traffi c Rules on the Roads of Great Britain” do vocabulary exercises
XXIII and XXIV.
XXIII. Match the words and expressions in the left-hand column to their defi nitions in
the right-hand column.
1) to overtake a) a road that you use to drive onto or off a
motor way
2) a hard shoulder b) the lane (= area) of motorway where vehicles
can pass other vehicles and travel fastest
3) a lay-by c) an area at the side of a motorway where drivers
can stop if they have problems
4) hazard lights d) cameras that monitor driving along the
motorway, fi xing such an off ence as speeding
5) a slip road e) an area provided by the side of a road where
vehicles can stop for a short period of time
6) a dual carriageway f ) the lights on a car that fl ash on and off to warn
other drivers that there may be danger
7) a heavy fi ne g) a road with two or more lanes (= lines) of
traffi c going in each direction, separated by a
piece of land in the middle

161
8) a considerate driv er h) a penalty for breaking some traffi c rule when
the driver has to pay a large sum of money
9) speed cameras i) the driver who is thinking about the feelings
and needs of other people
10) an outside lane j) to go past another vehicle that is travelling in
the same direction
XXIV. Find the Russian equivalent for the English words and expressions.
1) to overtake a) полоса, предназначенная для обгона дру-
гого транспортного средства
2) a hard shoulder b) фары, с помощью которых водители по-
дают сигнал об опасности впереди транс-
портным средствам, движущимся позади;
аварийные огни
3) a lay-by c) «солидный» штраф за нарушение правил
дорожного движения
4) hazard lights d) дорога для въезда на основную магистраль
и съезда с неё; въезд / съезд
5) a slip road e) камеры, фиксирующие превышение ско-
рости на дороге; камеры наблюдения
6) a dual carriageway f ) тактичный водитель, внимательный по от-
ношению к другим
7) a heavy fi ne g) место сбоку от основной магистрали, где
водитель может остановиться, если возник-
ли проблемы с транспортным средством;
обочина
8) a considerate driver h) автомагистраль с двумя или более полоса-
ми для двустороннего движения, разделён-
ная посередине искусственным или есте-
ственным барьером
9) speed cameras i) место вдоль края дороги, предназначенное
для остановки транспортного средства на
короткое время
10) an outside lane j) обгонять идущее впереди транспортное
средство

162 Te x t
Traffic Rules on the Roads of Great Britain
In Great Britain you should use the outside lane of a motorway when you
want to overtake. You can only overtake on the right of the slower vehicle,
using the middle or outside lane. If you do use the outside lane to overtake,
you must leave it and return to the middle lane as soon as your manoeuvre
is complete.
In the event that you need to stop on the hard shoulder or at a lay-by,
you need to let other drivers know by using your hazard lights. Hazard
lights should also be used when you see any kind of trouble ahead of
you — a traffi c jam or the scene of an accident. In this way you give
warning to the people driving behind you about the need to slow down.
When leaving a motorway you should indicate your intentions well in
advance and exit using the slip road. As soon as you are on the slip road,
take your foot off the accelerator and reduce speed immediately; some of
them suddenly become quite narrow and windy — they can give you
a nasty surprise if you are still going at motorway speed.
Whenever you change lanes, regardless of whether you are overtaking
the other vehicle or exiting a motorway, always remember to signal. Switch
on the indicator and let it fl ash three times before you make your move, so
you can be sure that everyone behind you is aware of your intentions.
Th e speed limit on British motorways and dual carriageways is 70 mph,
which equates to about 120 kph. If you are ever in a “born to be wild” kind
of mood, just bear in mind that, if you are caught speeding, the least you
can expect is a heavy fi ne. And don’t assume that you can drive as fast as
you want just because you don’t see any police cars; there are thousands of
speed cameras scattered along British motorways, so if you don’t want to
fi nd a note from the police in your mail, always drive at 70 mph or
slower.
A fi nal note: a good driver is not an arrogant driver; a good driver is a
polite, considerate and careful driver. Whenever possible, give way to other
drivers. And, most importantly, never assume other drivers are as good or
as careful as you are; expect the unexpected, and drive defensively.
Words and Expressions
manoeuvre [mA ´nu:vA ] — манёвр, зд.: объезд
in the event — в случае если

163
to slow down — снижать скорость
intention — намерение
in advance — заблаговременно, заранее
to exit [´eksIt ] — съезжать с автомагистрали
an accelerator [Ak ´selA,reItA ] — ускоритель, акселератор
to reduce — снижать, уменьшать
narrow and windy [´nBrAU…´wIndi ] — узкий и извилистый
to give a nasty surprise [,nC:sti sA ´praIz ] — сталкиваться с неприятными
неожиданностями
regardless of smth. [rI ´gC:dlAs ] — безотносительно к чему-л., независимо
от чего-л.
to fl ash — подавать световой сигнал
mph = miles per hour — миль в час
a “born to be wild” kind of mood — настроение, когда все нипочем, «море
по колено»
to assume [A´sju:m ] — полагать
scattered — зд.: установленные вдоль
arrogant [´BrAgAnt ] — самонадеянный
defensively [dI ´fensIvlI ] — зд.: осмотрительно, осторожно
XXV. Answer the questions.
1. What driver is thought to be a considerate driver? Are you this kind of
driver?
2. How does the driver signal the danger to the vehicles travelling
behind?
3. What devices are used on the motorways to prevent speeding?
4. In what cases can the road police impose a heavy fi ne on a driver?
5. What is the advantage of the dual carriageway over the undivided road?
6. Where can you stop if you have found a technical problem with your
car while driving?
XXVI. With your partner act out a dialogue between the instructor and the student who
is doing his driving test for getting a driving licence. Use the information given above and
something additional that you know from your personal experience.
Model: Instructor: Tell me the rules of overtaking a vehicle on the
roads of Great Britain.
Student: Well, the driver must overtake a vehicle from the
right going along the outside lane.

164 Grammar
THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS SOME, ANY, NO
(НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ SOME, ANY, NO)
1. Местоимение some выражает неопределенное количество чего-либо,
a any в том же значении употребляется в соответствующих отрицатель-
ных и вопросительных предложениях со смысловым оттенком «вообще».
При отсутствии такого смысла в вопросительном предложении использу-
ется местоимение some. Употребляясь с исчисляемыми существительны-
ми, местоимение some в этом значении переводится на русский язык как
«несколько», «некоторое количество». С неисчисляемыми существитель-
ными это местоимение обычно не переводится.
No употребляется для выражения отрицательного смысла в предложе-
ниях, сказуемое которых имеет утвердительную форму.
I need some money. — Mне нужны деньги (немного, неопределенное
количество).
I don’t need any money. I need no money. — Мне не нужны деньги (во-
обще).
Do you have some money? — У вас не будет немного (сколько-нибудь)
денег?
Do you have any money? — У вас вообще есть какие-нибудь деньги?
I have some envelo pes. — У меня есть несколько конвертов.
I don’t have any envelo pes. I have no envelo pes. —У меня нет конвертов
вообще.
Do you have some envelo pes? — У вас не найдется сколько-нибудь (не-
много) конвертов?
Do you have any envelo pes? — У вас есть конверты вообще (хоть
один)?
2. Другие значения местоимений some, any
Some — какой-нибудь, некоторый. Any — любой.
Give me some magazine, please. — Дайте мне какой-нибудь журнал,
пожалуйста.
You can take any magazine. — Вы можете взять любой журнал.
some of the books — некоторые (какая-нибудь) из книг
any of the books — любая из книг

165
REMEMBER!
Местоимение some, а не any, употребляется также в следующих вопроси-
тельных предложениях:
1. Когда мы предлагаем что-нибудь: Would you like some tea? — Yes,
please.
2. Когда мы просим что-либо: Can you lend me some money? — Sure. How
much do you need?
Short Dialogues
Read the dialogues and see how the pronouns some, any, no are used.
I
— Will you have some coff ee?
— No, thank you, I don’t want any. I’ve already had enough. Perhaps some
tea?
— Yes, please.
II
— Do you have any new stamps?
— Oh, yes, I have some. I bought them a few days ago.
— Could you give me one?
— Yes, you may take any.
III
— I’ve looked through the newspaper, but found no article which interests
me.
— Have you read any ads there?
— Yes, some of them.
а stamp — марка
an article [´C:tIkl] — статья
an ad (advertisement) — объявление, реклама
Exercises
I. Put in some or any.
1. We don’t have … apples, I am going to buy … . 2. I am thirsty. Can I have
… juice?
3. When we were on holiday, we visited … very interesting places.
4. I am short of money. Could you lend me … ? 5. Do you know … good

166 hotels in this city?
6. Let me pay for you now, I’ve got … extra money.
7. We didn’t make … mistakes in the fi nal test. 8. I am going to the post
offi ce to get … envelopes and cards.
9. Have you got … relatives there?
10. I don’t have … picture of London but my friend has … .
II. Listen and ask for additional information.
Model: Т.: I’ve some English books at home. (German)
St.: Do you have any German books?
1. I’ve bought some vegetables in the supermarket. (fruit) 2. I’ll send you
some books by post. (magazines)
3. My friend knows some foreign
languages. (a Slav language [slC:v])
4. Th ey have some friends in France.
(in England or in the USA)
5. I’ve read some novels by Pelevin. (Z. Prilepin)
6. I need some political information about the country. (economic
information)
7. He can give you some poems by A. Akhmatova. (by
B. Pasternak)
III. Say what you have and what you don’t have.
Model: I’ve some English books but I don’t have any English magazines
(but I’ve no English magazines).
Give some information about the following:
1) vegetables and fruit in your fridge;
2) English tea, Indian tea;
3) books by Russian and foreign writers;
4) friends in other cities and abroad;
5) money in the country bank and in the foreign bank;
6) instant coff ee and coff ee beans;
7) cheese and caviar.
IV. Translate into English.
1. Мне нужна какая-нибудь рыба. — Очень жаль, но у нас сегодня
нет никакой рыбы. Возьмите мясо.
2. Молоко есть? — Нет, молока
сегодня нет.
3. Вы можете взять любую книгу. 4. Некоторые студенты
не сделали вообще ошибок в контрольной работе (in the test).
5. Возьмите еще сыра. Сыр очень хороший. 6. У вас есть какие-нибудь

167 вопросы?
7. Где молоко? — На кухне. — Я хочу дать молока кошке.
8. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, какой-нибудь карандаш. — Вы можете
взять любой.
9. Можно я возьму немного печенья? — Да, пожалуйста.
Я испекла его сама.
10. Мне хочется купить одну дорогую вещь, но
у меня не хватает денег. Можно мне одолжить у вас немного?
Grammar
Derivatives from some, any, no
(Производные от some, any, no)
1. Someone (some one) somebody — кто-то, кто-нибудь
something — что-то, что-нибудь
anyone (any one) anybody — любой; кто-то, кто-нибудь (в вопроси-
тельных предложениях)
anything — никто (в отрицательных предложениях); что угодно, всё;
что-то, что-нибудь (в вопросительных предложениях); ничто (в отри-
цательных предложениях)
nо one, nobody — никто
nothing [´nEFIN] — ничто
Употребление производных от some, any, no в утвердительных, вопроси-
тельных и отрицательных предложениях подчиняется тем же закономер-
ностям, что и слова, от которых они образованы.
Somebody phoned you. — Кто-то вам звонил.
Did you meet anybody on your way home? — Вы встретили кого-нибудь
по пути домой?
I couldn’t see anybody in the park. I could see nobody in the park. — Я ни-
кого не видел в парке.
2. Some, any, no могут соединяться с вопросительными местоимениями и
наречиями:
somewhat — что-то, кое-что
somehow — как-то, почему-то
somewhere — где-то, куда-то
anyhow — каким бы то ни было образом
anywhere — где-нибудь, куда-нибудь (в вопросительном предложении)
nowhere — нигде, никуда (в отрицательном предложении)

Exercises
V. Read and translate in writing.
1. Nobody asked you to do this. 2. I could see nothing in the room. 3. He
has gone somewhere.
4. I know nobody here. 5. Nothing has happened to
him.
6. Did anybody tell you this news? 7. I could not see them anywhere.
8. He knows nothing about this. 9. She is speaking to somebody on the
phone.
10. Anyhow you must inform him about this.
VI. Use your Russian translation of the sentences (ex. V) for back translation.
VII. Respond to the question with the negative reply. Give two variants if possible.
Model: Т.: What has happened to him?
St.: Nothing has happened to him.
1. What’s wrong with her? 2. Who told you this news? 3. Who can you see
there?
4. What could you see there? 5. Who did you meet in the park?
6. Where have you been? 7. Where did he go last summer?

169
Unit
NINE
Conversation: Meals
Grammar: The Pronouns one (ones), this (these), that (those)
Te x t
Read the text.
Meals
Th e usual meals in England are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner; or
breakfast, dinner, tea and supper.
Breakfast is generally a heavy meal, not just rolls and coff ee. Many people
like to begin it with porridge. English people eat porridge with milk or
cream and sugar, but no good Scotsman — and Scotland is the home of
porridge — would ever put sugar into his porridge. Th en comes bacon and
eggs, marmalade (made of oranges or lemons) with buttered toast, tea or
coff ee. If you prefer it you can have eggs boiled soft or hard or scrambled,
and sometimes fi sh, for example herring, haddock, or kipper is served.
Lunch is served between half-past twelve and half-past one. Th e business
man in London has no time to get home for lunch and takes it in a café or
restaurant. Th ose who are at home generally take cold meat, for example
beef, mutton, veal, ham, with boiled or fried potatoes, another vegetable or
salad, and pickles. With the lunch they prefer to drink water or light beer.
Aft ernoon tea follows between four and fi ve o’clock. Traditionally this
procedure is called a fi ve-o’clock tea. It is not generally a formal meal.
Instead of sitting round the table you have tea brought to you, and you
balance a cup on your knее or in your hand as you take thin buttered
bread, pastries, cakes or biscuits.
For dinner you may go to a café or restaurant and have the real old
English food — roast beef. In London there are hotels to suit every taste
and every purse.

170
Words and Expressions
а meal [mi:l] — еда, прием пищи
a heavy meal [´hevi…] — основательный прием пищи
not just — не просто
a roll [rAUl] — булочка
cream [kri:m] — сливки
bacon and eggs [´beIkAn And ´egz] — яичница с беконом
marmalade [´mC:mA,leId] — мармелад
an orange [´OrIndZ] — апельсин
buttered toast [´bEtAd ´tAUst] — ломтик хлеба, подрумяненный на огне,
с маслом; гренок
to prefer [prI´fQ:] — предпочитать
а soft-boiled egg — яйцо всмятку
а hard-boiled egg — яйцо вкрутую
scrambled eggs [´skrBmbld …] — яичница-болтунья
herring [´herIN] —сельдь
haddock [´hBdAk] — пикша
kipper [´kIpA] — копченая рыба
to be served [… sQ:vd] — подаваться на стол
meat [mi:t] — мясо
beef [bi:f] — говядина
mutton [´mEtn] — баранина
veal [vi:l] — телятина
ham — ветчина
boiled or fried potatoes [… pA´teItAUz] — вареный или жареный карто-
фель (обыкн. pl.)
pickles [´pIklz] — соленые или маринованные огурцы; пикули
light beer [´laIt ´bIA] — светлое пиво
instead of [In´sted Av] — вместо того
a pastry [´peIstri] — кондитерское изделие, пирожное
a biscuit [´bIskIt] — печенье (сухое)
roast beef [´rAUst ,bi:f] — ростбиф
to suit every taste [teIst] and every purse [pQ:s] — удовлетворять любой
вкус и быть no карману (на любой вкус и кошелек)
Exercises
I. A. Answer the questions.
1. What are the usual meals in England? And in your country? 2. When is
lunch served?
3. What is the traditional English food? 4. What do English

171 people generally have for breakfast?
5. Do you have a heavy meal in the
morning? What do you usually have for breakfast?
6. What is a fi ve-o’clock
tea in England?
7. Do you sometimes have your dinner at a restaurant?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Can (could) you tell me… and I wonder.
II. Memorise the models Breakfast is served at … o’clock and For breakfast something is
served. Using these structures give information about breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner, and
supper in England.
III. Say what food and drink among those given below you prefer.
Model: As for me I prefer … .
1) soft -boiled, hard-boiled, well-boiled (в мешочек), scrambled eggs,
fried eggs (яичница-глазунья)
2) boiled, fried, mashed potatoes (пюре)
3) beef, mutton, veal, ham
4) strong tea, black coff ee, green tea, light beer
5) beefsteak [´bi:f ,steIk], roast beef, chicken (цыпленок)
6) a pastry, a cake, a biscuit, a roll
7) herring, kipper, haddock, cod (треска), salmon ([´sBmAn] — семга,
лосось)
8) milk, cream, yoghurt
IV. Describe your everyday breakfast; yesterday’s dinner; the last holiday supper.
Additional Words
an appetiser [´BpI,taIzA] — закуска
a tomato [tA´mC:tAU] — помидор
a cucumber [´kju:,kEmbA] — огурец
broth [brOF] — бульон
caviar [´kBvi,C:] — икра
a fi rst (second, third) course [kD:s] — первое (второе, третье) блюдо
dessert [dI´zQ:t] — десерт, сладкое блюдо
а helping — порция
soup [su:p] — суп
sour cream [,saUA ´kri:m] — сметана
at table — во время еды, за столом

172
V. Speak about your visit to a restaurant or a café. These questions will help you.
1. What café or restaurant did you visit? 2. When was it? 3. What dishes
did you order (заказывать)?
4. Was the food delicious ([dI´lISAs] —
вкусный)?
5. How were you served, quickly, politely or in some other
way?
6. What did you have for an appetiser? 7. Did you order any strong
drinks? What drinks?
8. How much did it cost you?
Learn the conversational phrases “At Ta ble”.
A.
Host or Hostess — хозяин или хозяйка Guest — гость
1. Do you take tea or coff ee? Will you have
tea or coff ee? 1. Tea, please.
2. How much sugar, one or two lumps? 2. One, please.
3. Can I give you a little more bacon? 3. Yes, please.
No, thank you.
4. Would you like a second helping of
pudding? 4. No, I’d rather not, thank
you.
5. Will you have a little more fruit salad? 5. Well, just a very little,
please.
6. Help yourself to the caviar.
Угощайтесь икрой (Пожалуйста,
попробуйте икру). 6. Th ank you.
B.
Pass the salt ([sD:lt]), please. — Передайте, пожалуйста, соль.
Would you mind passing the salt, please? — Вы не передадите соль,
будьте любезны?
May I trouble you for the mustard ([´mEstAd]), please? — Можно мне вас
побеспокоить и попросить передать горчицу?
VI. A. Offer something to your guest:
some more fi sh, caviar, a second helping of broth, a cup of strong tea, a
little more bacon, some fruit salad, steak with chips, pickles.
B. Ask somebody to pass you something:
the butter, the salt, a piece of bread, the ham, the sugar, the salmon, the
mustard, the cheese.

173
VII. Offer your guest some meat dishes.
Model: — Would you like some beef?
— Yes, please. It looks nice and it smells (пахнет) delicious.
Us e : roast beef with chips, chicken with peas, rump steak with
mashed potatoes, mutton with rice, veal with boiled potatoes,
bacon and eggs.
Short Dialogues
AT LUNCH
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Wouldn’t you like to fi nish up the fruit salad?
B: No, thank you. I really couldn’t eat any more.
A: Come on now. Surely you can manage it.
B: No, thank you, really, I am full up.
II
A: Help yourself to another piece of cheese omelette.
B: No, thanks really. I’m on a diet.
A: Please do. You’ve hardly eaten anything.
B: It’s nice, but I don’t think I ought to.
III
A: Do have the rest of the mushroom salad.
B: No, thank you. I’ve had too much already, besides I’d like to try the
apple pie.
A: Just take it to please me.
B: OK, but only a small piece or I shan’t have room for anything else.
IV
A: You must have some more veal.
B: No, thanks. I’m supposed to be slimming.
A: Can’t I tempt you?
B: Well, maybe a very small piece.

174
I. come on — давай (ешь)
surely [´SUAli] — конечно
you can manage it — ты вполне осилишь это (справишься)
to be full up — съесть слишком много
II. а piece of smth. — кусочек чего-либо
to be on a diet […´daIAt] — быть па диете
hardly [´hC:dli] — едва ли
III. to please [pli:z] — угождать
room — место
IV. I’m supposed to be slimming. — Мне нужно худеть.
to tempt — искушать, соблазнять
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A I, then В I, etc.
II. Reproduce the dialogues in the following way.
T.: Another piece of apple pie? (meat pie; cake; ham; cabbage pie)
St.: (Any В 1 phrase)
Т.: Please do. You’ve hardly eaten anything.
St.: (Any В 2 phrase)
III. Ask your guest to fi nish up some dish.
Model: Wouldn’t you like to fi nish up the pudding?
Do have the rest of the ham.
Use: the fruit salad; the chicken; the fi sh with chips; the tomatoes;
the caviar; the meat pie.
IV. The hostess offers you something. Refuse it.
Model: — You must have some more salad.
— No, thank you. I’ve had too much already.
(See В 1 phrases.)
Us e : one more helping of omelette; another piece of apple pie; some
more bananas; some more tomatoes; some veal; some more
cucumbers.
V. Reproduce the short dialogues “At Lunch” in similar situations.

175 Te x t
Read the text.
The English Tea
Once a gentleman was having breakfast in an English hotel. He took a
drink from his cup and then said to the waiter, “Waiter, is this tea or
coff ee?”
Th e waiter said, “Can’t you tell the diff erence, sir, by the taste?”
“No,” the man said, “I can’t”.
“Well,” answered the waiter, “if you can’t tell the diff erence, what does
it matter which it is?”
Th is is a joke. But really the English know how to make tea and what it
does for you. Seven cups of it will wake you up in the morning; nine cups
will put you to sleep at night. If you are hot, tea will cool you off , and if you
are cold, it will warm you up.
If you take it in the middle of the morning, it will stimulate you for
further work; if you drink it in the aft ernoon, it will relax you for
further thought. Th en, of course, you should drink lots of it in off hours
1.
Th e test of good tea is simple. If a spoon stands up in it, then it is
strong enough; if the spoon starts to wobble, it is weak.
Words and Expressions
to take a drink — сделать глоток
diff erence [´dIfrAns] — разница
to matter — иметь значение
to cool off — охлаждать
thought [FD:t] — размышление
to wobble [´wObl] — покачиваться
weak [wi:k] — слабый
Exercises
VI. Speak on:
1) the use of tea;
2) how the English know that the tea is strong.
1 in off hours — в свободные часы

176
VII. Answer the questions.
1. What do you like better, tea or coff ee? 2. How do you like to have your
tea, strong or weak?
3. How oft en do you have tea in the daytime? 4. How
much sugar do you have with your tea?
5. What blend (сорт) of tea do you
like best of all?
6. Can you make tea properly?
VIII. Describe the procedure of making tea. These words and expressions will help you:
а kettle — чайник для кипячения воды
а teapot — чайник для заварки
to pour the boiling water [pD: …] — обдавать кипятком
to brew [bru:] — заваривать чай
to draw (drew, drawn) [drD:] — настаивать(ся) (о чае)
to stir the tea [stQ: …] — размешивать чай
China tea [´tSaInA] — китайский чай
Ceylon tea [sI´lOn] — цейлонский чай
to give a tea party — устраивать чаепитие
a fi ve o’clock tea — послеобеденный чай
a tea cosy [´ti: ,kAUzI] — покрытие для заварочного чайника для того,
чтобы чай не охлаждался
Short Dialogues
TEATIME
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Would you care for a cup of strong tea?
B: Only if you’re having one.
A: Do you take milk and sugar?
B: A dash of milk and two lumps, please.

177
II
A: I expect you could do with a cup of tea, couldn’t you?
B: I’d rather have a cup of coff ee, if you don’t mind.
A: Sugar and lemon?
B: A slice of lemon but without sugar, please.
III
A: How about a nice cup of tea before you go?
B: Yes, I’d love one.
A: How do you like it?
B: A strong one with a bit of honey for me, please.
IV
A: Would you like a cup of tea?
B: Only if it’s not too much trouble.
A: How do you like it, with milk and sugar?
B: Not too much milk and just half a spoonful, please.
I. Would you care for …? — He желаете ли вы …?
a dash — чуть-чуть, немного
a lump — кусочек (сахара)
II. to expect [Iks´pekt] — полагать, думать
you could do with… — вы не будете против…, выпьете еще…
а slice of lemon — лимон (досл. тоненький ломтик)
III. а bit of honey [´hEnI] — немного мёда
IV. trouble [´trEbl] — беспокойство, хлопоты
Half а spoonful — пол-ложки (сахара)
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
IX. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1, then В 1, etc.
X. Reproduce the dialogues according to the model:
T.: Would you care for a cup of tea?
St.: (Any В 1 phrase)
Т.: How about milk and sugar?
St.: (Any В 2 phrase)

178
XI. Offer your visitor a cup of tea. Ask how he (she) would like to have it.
Us e : with / without milk; strong / not too strong; hot / not too hot;
with sweets or sugar; with one or two lumps of sugar.
Model: Please, have a cup of tea with me. How would you like to have
it, with milk?
XII. You are going to have a cup of tea with your friend. Tell him (her) what tea you
prefer:
Us e : strong / weak; hot / not too hot; with / without milk; with
sugar / sweets, with lemon / marmalade.
Model: I’d like to have strong tea with (without)… .
XIII. Reproduce the short dialogues “Teatime” in similar situations.
XIV. Match the words and expressions that you will fi nd in the text below to their
defi nition.
1) junk food a) a substance in food that people (plants or
animals) need to live and grow
2) fast food b) food that is not healthy because it contains a
lot of fat, salt and sugar
3) a couch potato
[´kaUtS pA´teItAU]c) thin fl at rounds of potato that have been
cooked in fat and are eaten cold
4) a nutrient
[´nju:triAnt]d) a substance in food such as meat, milk, and
eggs that people need in order to grow and
be healthy
5) a side eff ect e) an eff ect of a medicine that is not intended
and could be unpleasant; any additional
result that you did not expect or want
6) protein [´prAUti:n]f) food that is made and served very quickly,
especially food such as burger that you can
take away with you
7) saturated fat
[´sBtSA,reItId ,fBt]g) a layer of food put on top of other food, for
example on a cake, ice cream or pizza
8) crisps h) a particular style of cooking food, especially
the style of a particular country or region

179
9) topping i) a person who is not fi t enough; he does not
like to take exercise and prefers to sit
comfortably on the sofa watching TV and
eating junk food
10) cuisine [kwI´zi:n]j) fat from food such as meat or milk products
that is diffi cult for the body to process and is
therefore considered to be bad for your
health
11) a hot dog k) a food made by pressing small pieces of beef
into a fl at round shape and cooking it in oil.
Hamburgers are usually eaten in a bread roll
and are oft en called beefb urgers or simply
burgers.
12) a hamburger
[´hBm,bQ:gA]l) a sandwich that consists of two narrow pieces
of bread with a sausage inside
XV. Give the Russian equivalents for the words and expressions 1–12.
Te x t
Read the text.
Junk Food
In today’s fast-moving world the time factor becomes essential. Being very
busy, people refuse spending too much time on having meals to say
nothing about cooking. It is probably for that reason that junk food has
become so popular, and it is quite evident that people will not get away
from it in the near future. Some experts consider the phenomenon as a
move to a new era of couch potato lifestyle.
What exactly is junk food? In fact it is any food that is high in calories
and lacking in nutrients. Hamburgers, crisps, chocolate bars and hot dogs
fall into this category. Pizzas, although they can have vegetables and cheese
toppings, are also included in this list as they contain a lot of saturated fat.
Th is type of fat according to the Journal of the National Cancer Institute
is associated with a greater risk of cancer, and heart or liver disease.
Apart from this, consuming junk food causes another side eff ect —
junk food eaters are prone to gaining weight because they tend to eat more
as junk food is lower in vital nutrients than healthier food.

180Th e best advice for those who cannot live without hamburgers and
chocolate bars is to limit the amount of junk food they eat. A little now
and then will probably do no harm.
Why have our eating habits changed? Experts say it is because of lack
of time and loss of traditions. People are too busy to cook and eat proper
meals, so they grab whatever is available — and that is usually junk food. In
addition, the style of life represented on TV, especially in music video, is
fast, scenes change very rapidly. So young viewers pick up the idea that speed
means excitement, whereas anything traditional is slow and boring. As a
result, they turn down traditional food and go for junk food instead. Moreover,
junk food is cheap and convenient, which is what people want today.
Cooking and eating healthy food is more time-consuming (takes a
long time to do), but this is worth it. Firstly, the food is healthy as it is not
rich in calories and contains little saturated fat. Fruit and vegetables are
healthy because they are high in vitamins; meat and fi sh containing protein
are also healthy. Secondly, healthy food has many positive eff ects. First of
all it can reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease. In addition, it can
help people gain a slim fi gure, glowing skin and an all-round feeling of
good health. However, despite the fact that the majority of people are
aware of danger of junk food, they continue to eat it and can hardly realise
that by returning to traditional eating habits they will not only feel
healthier, but will also be better equipped for the stressful life.
Words and Expressions
fast-moving — быстродвижущийся (зд. быстро меняющийся)
a phenomenon [fA ´nOmInAn ] — явление
an era [´IArA ] — эра
a lifestyle — образ жизни
to lack — недоставать, не хватать
lack — недостаток
a chocolate bar [´tSOklAt ,bC: ] — плитка шоколада
to be associated with smth. — быть связанным с чем-л.
cancer — онкологическое заболевание, рак
a heart disease [´hC:t dI´zi:z ] — болезнь сердца
a liver disease [´lIvA… ] — болезнь печени
to consume — потреблять
to be prone to smth. — быть склонным к чему-л.

181
to gain weight [´geIn ´weIt ] — набирать вес, поправляться
vital [´vaItl ] — жизненно важный, существенный
to limit the amount — ограничить количество
now and then — время от времени
to do no harm — не приносить вреда
an eating habit — обычай, связанный с приемом пищи; предпочтения
в еде
loss — утрата
proper — должный, надлежащий
to grab — хватать
to pick up an idea — подхватывать идею
whereas [weA ´rBz ] — в то время как
slim — стройный, изящный
glowing skin — румянец на щеках
an all-round feeling — общее ощущение
a danger [´deIndZA ] — опасность
to be equipped [I´kwIpt ] — зд. приспосабливаться
a stressful life — напряженная жизнь
Exercises
XVI. Answer the questions.
1. Do you sometimes eat junk food? 2. Do you consume it because you like
it or because it is convenient?
3. What do you usually take if you drop in a
fast food café? Do you sometimes take any food away?
4. Do you believe
that junk food is unhealthy? Why?
5. What food do you think to be
healthy?
6. What advice would you give to your relative or friend who
oft en eats junk food?
XVII. Answer the following questions about eating habits with yes or no. Then check
your score to fi nd out what kind of diet you have.
1. Do you eat at a fast food restaurant more than once a week?
2. Do you oft en eat fresh fruit?
3. Do you eat red meat more than once a week?
4. Do you usually eat a large meal before you go to bed?
5. Do you eat salted snacks (crisps, nuts, etc.) at least once a day?

182
6. Do you have fresh vegetables with your meals less than three times a
day?
7. Do you drink fi zzy beverages more than once a day?
8. Would you rather eat out instead of at home?
9. Do you always add salt to your food at table?
10. Do you prefer butter to olive oil?
Score
8–10
yes — very unhealthy diet: be careful
5–7 yes — fairly healthy diet
3–4 yes — quite healthy diet
1–2 yes — very healthy diet
XVIII. Speak about some national cuisine.
1. Say what is typical for the Russian cuisine.
2. Describe some foreign cuisine that you like.
XIX. Read the English phraseological units containing a food name and memorise their
meaning, then substitute one of them for the fragment in bold.
A piece of cake — something that is very easy to do.
Pie in the sky — a plan, hope, idea or suggestion that will never
happen.
To have a fi nger in every pie — to be involved in a lot of diff erent
things.
It’s bread and butter — something that is very important and essential.
It’s a hot potato — an unpleasant problem that you don’t want to deal
with or a duty you want to get rid of.
Full of beans — very lively and full of energy.
It’s my cup of tea — it suits me, I like it.
As cool as a cucumber — very calm and relaxed especially in diffi cult
situations.
It’s a bad egg — a failure, something that does not meet your expectation.
Something is selling like a cake — something that is in great demand.
To cry over spilt milk — to waste time being sorry about smth. which
cannot now be changed.
To eat one’s words — to admit you were wrong about something.

183
1. You needn’t ask for anybody’s help; you can do it yourself — it’s an
easy task.
2. She has worked for the company for about ten years taking diff erent
positions, but being a secretary annoys her very much.
3. Jack always looks enthusiastic, whatever the circumstances are.
4. She is very patient and helpful. She could be a good nurse: this job is
just for her.
5. In all situations, even very diffi cult and sometimes dangerous, he tries
to look calm and cool, as if nothing has happened.
6. I beg your pardon! I never meant to hurt you. It isn’t easy for me to
admit that I was wrong insisting on that.
7. When you see that something unpredictable has happened, don’t
lose your temper — your calmness will help you fi nd the way out.
8. George is making great eff orts to get promotion. It is awfully important
for him to be at the head of the company.
9. At fi rst his theories were dismissed as ideas that would never realise.
10. She is very fussy. She always interferes in everything telling people
what to do.
11. John is resilient. He never regrets anything and his motto is “take
everything for granted”.
12. Th e writer is very popular. His books are in great demand.
Grammar
THE PRONOUNS ONE (ONES), THAT (THOSE)
AS SUBSTITUTES FOR A NOUN
(МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ ONE (ONES), THAT (THOSE)
КАК ЗАМЕСТИТЕЛИ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОГО)
The Pronoun one (ones)
1. Чтобы избежать повторения исчисляемого существительного, в ан-
глийском языке вместо него употребляются слова one (для единственного
числа) или ones (для множественного числа).
I like the blue bag better than the black one.
I have a thick exercise book and two thin ones.

184
2. Ones не употребляется сразу после числительных, а также после слов
some, а few и некоторых других.
3. Употребление артиклей перед one / ones определяется теми же правила-
ми, что и употребление артиклей с замещаемыми ими существительными.
4. Вместо неисчисляемого существительного в качестве его заместителя
употребляется some.
Would you care for tea? — Yes, I’d love some.
The Pronouns this (these), that (those)
Указательные местоимения this (этот), that (тот) имеют форму множе-
ственного числа: these [Gi:z] и those [GAUz] соответственно.
This is a nice picture. — These are nice pictures.
That is a large room. — Those are large rooms.
Местоимение that (those) может также употребляться как заместитель су-
ществительного. Чтобы не путать его в этой функции со словами-
заместителями one (ones), о которых говорилось выше, необходимо пом-
нить, что that (those) заменяет первое существительное в предложной
группе. Это означает, что после слов-заместителей that и those обычно
стоит существительное с предлогом (в отличие от one/ones).
The territory of Russia is larger than that of the Ukraine.
The days in summer are longer than those in winter.
Exercises
I. Read the sentences and mark the word the pronouns one, ones, some stand for.
1. What pencils do you have? — I have a red one and two blue ones.
2. I don’t like this bag. Can you show me another one? 3. Th is book is more
interesting than the one you gave me last time.
4. Don’t buy postcards; we
have some nice ones at home.
5. Th ese are light rooms and those are dark
ones.
6. Would you like coff ee? — Yes, I’d have some.

II. Write these sentences in the plural.
1. Th is is a book. 2. Th at is a large window. 3. Is this a good cigarette?
4. Th is isn’t a high mountain. 5. Th at door is open. 6. Th is is a nice fl ower.
7. Th at egg is bad. 8. Th is car is new. 9. Th is student doesn’t know French.
10. Does this man work in your offi ce? 11. Th is child does not sleep well.
12. Th is joke hasn’t told me anything. 13. Th at woman was my colleague.
III. Fill in the blanks with one (ones), that (those).
1. I like this story by Agatha Christie better than the other … . 2. Th is pencil
has broken, give me another … .
3. Have you got any umbrellas? Please,
show me the brown … .
4. Th e territory of the Ukraine is larger than … of
Moldova.
5. Th e rivers in the western part of our country are not as long
as … in the eastern part.
6. Th is exercise is more diffi cult than … on page
eighty.
7. Th is textbook is thicker than that … . 8. Th is fi lm is more
interesting than the … we saw last time.
9. Th ere are many diff erent kinds
of computers to choose from, but fi nding the … that is right for you and
fi ts your budget can be diffi cult.

186
Revision Test 3
I. Choose the right variant a, b or c to complete each sentence.
1. My favourite dish is spaghetti Bolognese, because I like Italian …
a lot.
a) meal b) kitchen c) cuisine
2. Over the last two hundred years, … of transport have changed and
developed a lot.
a) ways b) means c) vehicles
3. Th ese days, holiday companies off er an … service in every main resort
around the Mediterranean.
a) all-paid b) all-inclusive c) all-catered for
4. Could you tell me the way to the Central Square? — Go as far as the
corner, turn left and walk one short … ahead.
a) block b) quarter c) route
5. Fizzy drinks are very … and can be bad for your teeth.
a) spicy b) salty c) sugary
6. All drivers and … must follow the road signs to avoid traffi c
accidents.
a) passersby b) passengers c) pedestrians
7. If you eat sensibly, you are not likely to … weight.
a) win b) gain c) put
8. I had to take a diff erent … to work this morning due to roadworks.
a) route b) trip c) journey
9. Long Term Hotels in this part of London are fairly cheap as the … is
very basic: a bed and a washbasin in the rooms, with a shared
bathroom.
a) accommodation b) room service c) convenience

187
10. Passengers would be happy to pay higher … for a more reliable service
rather than pay less for a poor service.
a) prices b) fares c) fees
II. Choose the proper grammatical form out of the given variants.
1. Never promise … if you are not sure in the result.
a) something b) anything c) nothing
2. As a boy I always wanted a moped, but never had the money for … .
a) a one b) that one c) one
3. It … raining since early morning, and the rain does not seem to ever
stop.
a) has been b) is c) was
4. It took … courage to speak out against her employer, but she had to do
this.
a) some b) any c) no
5. Mr. Linden’s experiences with his son are … that are shared by some
other parents.
a) one b) ones c) the ones
6. He is never pleased with anything, that is why he always … about a
bad service at cafés and restaurants.
a) complains b) is … complaining c) complain
7. I don’t know how old Sam is. — I suppose he must be twenty-… .
a) something b) somewhat c) somehow
8. I am going to keep these boxes. … I want to get rid of are in the garage.
a) Ones b) Th e ones c) Th at one
9. Th ey … from Rome to Madrid about three hours.
a) were fl ying b) fl ew c) will be fl ying
10. Th e rivers in Siberia are much longer than … in Europe.
a) these b) ones c) those

188
III. Read the text and answer the questions given after it.
Biking Down Under
Th e Jacob’s Creek Tour Down Under, a six-day cycling race based in and
around Adelaide, was held for the fi rst time less than seven months aft er
the end of the 1998 Tour de France. Since then it has gained grass roots
support of the kind many European race organisers could only dream of.
Th is January, as the 96-strong group pounded along dusty summer roads
through fl ourishing vineyards and over hills dotted with gum trees, offi cial
estimates suggested that crowd numbers would be more than 4,000,000
for
the whole event.
Th ere is no denying that, in South Australia at least, the popularity
of the sport is increasing. Th is year for example, the group of cyclists rode
past everything on 733
km route from stuff ed two metre high toy kangaroos
on bikes to bungalow-sized banners featuring two-wheeled sharks.
Combined with the more typical balloons and kites, not to mention
“sausage sizzlers” for the hungry, it all made a very colourful and
imaginative spectacle.
Th e best story this year was that Australian rider Michael Rogers had
come close to quitting aft er colliding with a race marshal’s motorbike.
By sheer coincidence, an amateur cyclist was standing nearby and
he generously gave Rogers the loan of his own bike. Remarkably, it
turned out to be exactly the same model and size of bike Rogers needed,
and he completed the course — and won the race — on a borrowed
bike!
(Evans Virginia, Dooley Jenny. Upstream.
Profi ciency C2. Students Book. P. 77)
Words and Expressions
Down Under (разг.) — Австралия
Adelaide [´BdAleId ] — Аделаида, столица и самый большой город
штата Южная Австралия
the grass roots — обычные, простые люди
96-strong — “strong” указывает на большое количество
to pound — с трудом продвигаться
fl ourishing vineyards [´flErISIN ´vInjAdz ] — разросшиеся виноградники

dotted with gum trees (Am. E.) — на которых росли многочисленные
эвка липты
to deny [dI ´naI ] — отрицать
a stuff ed toy — мягкая игрушка
a bungalow-sized banner — огромное знамя
a two-wheeled shark — двухколёсные акулы
sausage sizzlers — звуки, имитирующие процесс поджаривания
сосисок в масле на раскаленной сковородке
to quit [kwIt] — сходить с дистанции
to collide [kA´laId] — сталкиваться
by sheer coincidence […kAU´InsId(A)ns] — совершенно случайно
amateur [´BmAtA /´BmAtSUA] — любитель, непрофессионал
generously [´dZenArAsli] — великодушно
to give a loan [… lAUn] — одалживать
1. Do you know anything about the traditions of the Jacob’s Creek Tour
Down Under?
2. How long did the Tour of 1999 last? 3. How many
cyclists joined the tour at the very beginning?
4. What crowd numbers
were predicted by offi cial estimates?
5. What happened to one of
the participants of the tour? What was the result of his participation?
6. Do you know any other tours of this kind? 7. Is any sport event
arranged in our country?

190
Unit
TEN
Conversation: Table Manners. At the Restaurant
Grammar: The Imperative Mood
Grammar
THE IMPERATIVE MOOD
(ПОВЕЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ)
Для выражения совета, просьбы, приказания употребляется форма глаго-
ла в повелительном наклонении, которая образуется из неопределенной
формы без частицы to.
Give me the sugar, please. — Дай(те) мне, пожалуйста, сахар.
Wait for me, please. — Подожди(те) меня, пожалуйста.
Для выражения запрещения употребляется отрицательная форма пове-
лительного наклонения, которая образуется путем прибавления don’t
к неопределенной форме глагола.
Don’t wait for me, please. — He жди(те) меня, пожалуйста.
Te x t
Read the text.
Table Manners (a List of Do’s and Don’t’s)
Never stretch over the table for something you want, ask your neighbour
to pass it.
Take a slice of bread from the plate by hand, don’t harpoon your bread
with a fork.
Chicken requires special handling. First cut as much as you can, and
when you can’t use a knife and fork any longer, use your fi ngers.
Don’t use a knife for fi sh, cutlets or omelettes.
Never read while eating (at least in company).

191 When you are being served, don’t pick. One piece is as good as the next.
When refusing a dish say, “No, thank you.”
Don’t say, “I don’t eat that stuff ,”
1 don’t make faces or noises to show
that you don’t like it.
Don’t lick your spoon. If you really feel that way about it, ask for a
second helping.
Aft er stirring your tea remove the spoon, and place it on the saucer.
Vegetables, potatoes, spaghetti are placed on your fork with the help
of your knife.
Try to make as little noise as possible when eating. Don’t sip your soup
as though you wanted the whole house to hear.
Don’t talk with your mouth full. First chew and then swallow.
Don’t put your elbows on the table.
And, fi nally, don’t forget to say “thank you” for every favour or
kindness.
Words and Expression
a manner [´mBnA] — манера
manners — обычаи
to stretch [stretS] — тянуться
a fork [fD:k] — вилка
a knife [naIf] — нож
to harpoon [hC: ´pu:n] — зд.: подцеплять
to require [rI´kwaIA] — требовать
special handling — особое обращение
to cut (cut) — резать
a fi nger [´fINgA] — палец (руки)
a cutlet [´kEtlAt] — котлета (отбивная)
at least [li:st] — no крайней мере
to pick — выбирать
to make a face — делать гримасу
to make a noise […´nDIz] — создавать шум
to lick — облизывать
to remove the spoon [rI´mu:v] — вынимать ложку (из чашки)
to sip — прихлебывать
to chew [tSu:] — жевать
to swallow [´swOlAU] — глотать
1 I don’t eat that stuff . — Я такое не ем.

192
an elbow [´elbAU] — локоть
a favour [´feIvA] — одолжение, любезность
kindness [´kaIndnAs] — доброта
Exercises
I. So you have learnt 14 table manners. Say which of them you always follow, which
don’t.
Model: I always follow the table manners: … .
or
I sometimes break (don’t follow) the table manners: …
II. Answer the questions.
1. Is it diffi cult to follow good manners at table? 2. What manners are the
most diffi cult for you to follow?
3. Do you use a knife for fi sh, cutlets or
omelettes? And for chicken?
4. If you want to have something which isn’t
near you, what phrases do you use to ask for it?
5. If you want your guest
to have some food on the table, what would you say?
III. Name 5 or 6 table manners which you think important.
Short Dialogues
IN THE PUB
Read the dialogues in pairs
I
Waiter: What would you like to drink?
Visitor : Bring me a half of bitter, please.
W. : Are you sure you won’t have a Scotch?
V. : No, thank you very much, but I’m driving.
II
W. : Anything else?
V. : Th e same again, please.
W. : Won’t you make it a pint this time?
V. : I’d better not, thank you, all the same.

193
III
W. : What can I get you?
V. : I’d like a lager, please.
W. : Wouldn’t you care for something a little stronger?
V. : No, I think I’d better stick to halves, thanks.
IV
A: What are you going to drink?
B: Just a light ale for me, please.
A: Won’t you have a gin and tonic with me?
B: Th anks, but I don’t think I will.
I. a bitter [´bItA ] — порция горького пива
I’m driving — я за рулём
II. a pint [paInt] — пинта, мера емкости: в Англии — 0,57 л, в США —
0,47
л
III. а lager [´lC:gA] — порция легкого немецкого пива
I’d better stick to halves. — Мне лучше что-нибудь пополам (смесь
двух напитков).
IV. а light ale [´laIt ´eIl] — порция светлого пива
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
IV. Silent reading. First, read all phrases W1 and A 1, then V 1 and В 1, etc.
V. You are a waiter (waitress) in a pub.
1. What are the fi rst words you tell a customer?
Model: Good morning! What can I do for you?
(See phrases W 1 and A 1.)
2. The visitor is asking you to bring him some light ale. Offer him something stronger.
Model: Do you care for something stronger?
(See phrases W 2 and A 2.)

194
VI. You are a customer in the pub.
1. Order some beer.
Model: I’d like a bitter, please.
Use: a lager; a light beer; a pint of dark beer.
2. Refuse a stronger drink.
Model: Th anks, I don’t think I can, I’m driving.
(See phrases V 2 and В 2.)
VII. Reproduce the short dialogues “In the Pub” in similar situations.
Te x t
Read the text.
London’s Restaurants
In all large English towns there are plenty of restaurants, cafés, tea rooms,
or pubs where visitors can have a snack or dinner. Besides, restaurants can
be found in many well-known hotels. Regular customers do not consider
that British restaurants are famous for their good national food — very
oft en visitors can be off ered only sausages and chips or fi sh and chips. But
British cooking has its wonderful surprise — delicious cakes and desserts
that people really enjoy.
London that is visited by a lot of tourists all the year round has a great
choice of restaurants, large and small to every taste. If you want real
old English food you should go to the Strand. Th e Strand is a street of the
City of Westminster in London, which is over three-quarters mile long.
Th e most popular restaurants located there are the Strand Carvery
Restaurant and the legendary Simpson’s in the Strand. Th e fi rst is one of
London’s original carvery restaurants where roast beef cooked at open
roasting fi re is wheeled to your table and carved before your eyes. Th e
second off ers a very refi ned and very British nice dining experience in
London.
If you want to fi nd cheap places, it is very interesting to explore the
little French or Italian restaurants of Soho. Soho is the name of a small

195 district of the West End. It is not an abbreviation; some linguists suppose
that the name may be derived from an archaic hunting cry. In the heart of
London’s West End the Soho Kitchen and Bar serves modern French-
American food and late night drinks, with a DJ at weekends. Spanish
visitors who are feeling homesick can, within a hundred yards of Piccadilly,
fi nd the Spanish Restaurant and imagine they have gone back to Spain, for
the decoration, the salads, the cooking, the wines, the waiters and most of
the diners are Spanish. In the same way there are Indian, Chinese,
Hungarian, or Jewish restaurants.
In London there is a remarkable pub that is famous for its traditions.
It is the Old Cheshire Cheese in Fleet Street. Th e pub got its name aft er a
sort of dense and crumbly cheese. It is one of a number of pubs in London
that was rebuilt shortly aft er the Great Fire in 1666
and which was the
place where famous writers used to go. Th e literary fi gures Charles
Dickens, Arthur Conan Doyle, Mark Twain, G. K. Chesterton, P. G. Wode-
house are all said to have been regular customers of it.
Th e traditional dish here is rump steak, kidney, and oyster pudding.
A plate of this with a pint of bitter beer in a long glass, followed by the
pancake or the toasted cheese and special “punch” in a china bowl, is a
meal you don’t easily forget.
At the restaurant you may either reserve a table beforehand by
telephone or occupy any table disengaged at the moment you come. Th ere
is a menu which contains the names of all dishes available for the fi rst,
second and third courses. It off ers a choice of appetisers, drinks, meat or
fi sh dishes as well as various kinds of soup and broth. Th e most popular
meat dishes are beefsteak, rump steak, roast beef, chicken with mashed or
fried potatoes, spaghetti or noodles.
For dessert you may order ice cream, coff ee, tea or juice. Aft er you have
chosen the dishes the waiter or waitress takes your order and gives you a bill
which usually includes a tip. Some minutes later the dinner is served.
Words and Expressions
to have a snack — перекусить
a regular customer — постоянный посетитель
sausages [´sOsIdZAz] — сосиски
all the year round — круглый год

196
a choice [tSDIs] — выбор
a carvery [´kC:vAri] — ресторан, где мясо нарезается для вас прямо за
столом
roast beef — ростбиф
roasting fi re — жаровня
to wheel [wi:l] — подкатывать, подвозить
to carve [kC:v] — разрезать
refi ned — изысканный, утончённый
to explore — обследовать
an abbreviation — аббревиатура
to derive from smth. — происходить от чего-то (иметь корни)
archaic [C:´keIIk] — архаичный, устарелый
a hunting cry — возглас во время охоты
to feel homesick […´hAUmsIk] — тосковать no дому, родине
a diner — обедающий (посетитель ресторана)
a dish — блюдо (кушанье и посуда)
rump steak [´rEmpsteIk] — ромштекс
kidney [´kIdni] — почки
an oyster [´DIstA] — устрица
a glass [glC:s] — стакан
a pancake [´pBn,keIk] — блин, оладья
punch [pEntS] — пунш
a china bowl [´tSaInA ,bAUl] — фарфоровая чаша (для пунша)
easily [´i:zIli] — легко
either… or [´aIGA…´D:] — либо … , либо
tо reserve а table [rI´zQ:v …] — заказывать стол (в ресторане)
to occupy [´OkjUpaI] — занимать
disengaged [,dIsIn´geIdZd] — незанятый, свободный
a menu [´menju:] — меню
to contain [kAn´teIn] — содержать
as well as — так же, как
noodles [´nu:dlz] — лапша
juice [dZu:s] — сок
a bill — счет

197
Обратите внимание на разницу в значении и употреблении слов: а meal,
food, а dish, а course.
А meal — еда, прием пищи. Meals are breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper,
a fi ve-o’clock tea.
Food — пища, еда, съестные припасы; «кухня» как способ приготовления
пищи, характерный для той или иной страны. Food is meat, vegetables,
fruit, bread, milk, etc. Russian (Italian, Greek, etc.) food.
A dish — 1) блюдо, кушанье; 2) блюдо, тарелка, миска
dishes — посуда
А fi sh dish is а dish cooked of fi sh.
A course — блюдо, т. e. последовательные приемы пищи; первое, вто-
рое, третье и т. д. The dinner consisted of three courses: cabbage soup for
the fi rst course, beefsteak for the second course and apple juice for the
third course.
Exercises
VIII. Insert the words food, dish, meal or course.
1. Th e second … was veal with mashed potatoes. 2. She put apples and
oranges on the china … .
3. Th e usual … in England are breakfast, lunch,
tea and dinner.
4. What is your favourite … ? — Mine is roast chicken.
5. Beefsteak, chop, roast beef, rump steak are meat … . 6. Many people like
to have a heavy … in the morning.
7. What is the … time for lunch in
England?
8. Who usually washes the … aft er dinner? 9. In the evening a
light … is recommended.
10. А dish is а particular kind of … . 11. What
would you like for the fi rst … ?
12. Th ere were no vegetable … on the
menu.
IX. Using the model We call this (these)… answer the questions.
What do we call ([kD:l] … ? — Как мы называем … ?
1) a slice of bread browned on each side by heat especially at the fi re;
2) two slices of buttered bread with a piece of meat, cheese, etc.
between;

198
3) drinks like juice, lemonade, tonic;
4) fresh eggs broken and poured on the frying pan (сковорода);
5) drinks like beer, gin, wine, sherry;
6) a meal served between half past twelve and half past one;
7) a vegetable or meat salad, slices of cold meat, herring served at the
very beginning of the meal;
8) raw ([rD:] — сырой) potatoes fried crisp (хрустящий)
X. Name fi ve various kinds of:
1) fi sh dishes;
2) vegetable dishes;
3) meat dishes.
XI. Look through the text “London’s Restaurants” once more.
A. Answer the following questions.
1. In all large towns you can have a snack or dinner at a restaurant. What
other places for having a snack can you name? Which is the cheapest
(the most expensive)?
2. In London there are some international restaurants. Why were they
opened? Do you have restaurants like these in your town? Did you
have to visit one of them? Do you like foreign food? Which is your
favourite? What is the real English food? What are the most popular
meat dishes in England?
B. Describe the restaurant in Fleet Street which was popular with the famous writers. This
plan will help you.
1. Th e name of the restaurant.
2. Th e traditional dishes.
3. Th e tradition of having beer and special punch.
C. Describe the procedure of visiting restaurants. These questions will help you.
1. What is the way of reserving a table at a restaurant?
2. How can you know of the dishes off ered at the restaurant?

199
3. What other information can be found on the menu?
4. What follows the procedure when the visitor has chosen dishes?
5. Do you usually leave a tip for the waiter? Is a tip included in the bill?
XII. Say what you can order at a restaurant or саfé:
1) for an appetiser;
2) for the second course;
3) for dessert.
XIII. Write out the menu for:
1) a dinner party at home;
2) a luncheon (официальный завтрак) at the restaurant;
3) a Sunday supper at home.
Say how you would set the dinner table for ten visitors.
XIV. Topics for discussion.
1. Traditional English meals.
2. Traditional Russian meals.
3. How tea is served in England.
4. Your last visit to a restaurant or café.
Jokes
Visitor : Waiter, I’d like some tea without milk.
Waiter: I’m sorry, sir, we haven’t got any milk. What about tea without
cream?
Visitor : Waiter, how long will my sausages be?
Waiter: About eight inches, sir.
Visitor : Waiter, I want to complain about this horrible food. Please, may I
see the Chef ?
Waiter: I’m afraid not, sir, he’s just gone out to lunch.
an inch [IntS] — дюйм (2,5 см)
to complain [kAm´pleIn] — жаловаться
the Chef [Sef] — шеф-повар
horrible [´hOrAbl] — ужасный, отвратительный

200 Short Dialogues
AT THE RESTAURANT
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
Waiter: Can I take your order, sir?
Visitor : Yes, I’d like to try the roast beef with mashed potatoes, please.
Waiter: And to follow?
Visitor : Orange juice, please.
II
Waiter: Have you chosen something, sir?
Visitor : Yes, haddock and chips for me, please.
Waiter: How about some juice or ice cream?
Visitor : No sweet, thanks. Just coff ee.
III
Waiter: Have you decided on something, sir?
Visitor : Yes, I think I’ll have the curry, please.
Waiter: What would you like aft erwards?
Visitor : I’d like some strawberry ice cream if you have any.
IV
Waiter: May I take your order, sir?
Visitor : I’ll just take a small mushroom salad, please.
Waiter: Do you want anything sweet?
Visitor : Cherry pie and custard would be nice
.
I. And to follow? — A потом?
II. haddock and chips — пикша с жареным картофелем
III. to decide on something — остановиться на чем-то (решиться)
curry [´kErI] — блюдо индийской кухни из мяса или овощей, при-
правленное карри (приправа из куркумового корня, чеснока и
раз ных пряностей)
afterwards [´C:ftAwAdz] — дальше, затем
IV. custard [´kEstAd] — сладкая приправа желтоватого цвета, при-
готовленная из яиц, молока, сахара и ароматизирующих
добавок

201 Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
XV. Silent reading. First, read all phrases W 1, then V 1, etc.
XVI. You are a waiter (waitress) at a restaurant.
1. Address the customer for an order.
Model: Can I take your order, sir (madam)? (See W 1 phrases.)
2. Ask what the customer is going to have for dessert.
Model: Do you want anything sweet? (See W 2 phrases.)
XVII. You have come to the restaurant. Make an order.
Model 1: I’d like to try the meat dish, please.
You’d like to have: some fried fi sh; bacon and eggs; chicken; roast beef
with vegetables; haddock and chips; rump steak.
Model 2:
Could you bring me some fruit?
For dessert you’d like to have: ice cream, mineral water, orange juice; black
coff ee with cream; some fruit salad; some exotic fruit.
XVIII. Reproduce the short dialogues “At the Restaurant“ in similar situations.
Short Dialogues
WITH A FRIEND IN THE COFFEE BAR
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: What would you like to drink?
B: A black coff ee with lemon for me, please.
A: How about something to eat?
B: Yes, I’d love a portion of pizza.

202
II
A: What can I get you to drink?
B: An iced Coke would go down well.
A: Would you like to have some cake or biscuits?
B: Yes, I think I’ll have a slice of chocolate sponge.
III
A: What are you going to have to drink?
B: Something cool for me, please.
A: Would you care for some cake?
B: Yes, I’ll try a piece of raspberry cake.
IV
A: What do you want to drink?
B: I feel like a cup of tea.
A: Do you fancy something to eat?
B: Yes, I’d rather like some of that fruit cake.
I. a portion [´pD:SAn] — часть
II. an iced Coke — кока-кола со льдом
to go down well — быть вполне приемлемым
a chocolate sponge [´tSOklAt ,spEndZ] — шоколадный бисквит
III. raspberry [´rC:zb(A)ri] — малина
IV. I feel like — Мне хотелось бы
Do you fancy something to eat? — Ты не против что-нибудь съесть?
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
XIX. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1, then В 1, etc.
XX. You are in the coffee bar with your friend. Ask him (her):
1) what he (she) is going to drink.
Model: What would you like to drink? (See phrases A 1.)
2) if he (she) wants to have something with coff ee.
Model: Would you care for some sandwich?

Us e : some cake; pastry; chocolate sponge; a piece of apple pie;
biscuit; some strawberry tart.
XXI. Your friend has invited you to the coffee bar. Tell h im (her) what you’d like to
drink.
Model: I feel like a cup of strong tea with some fruit cake. (See phrases
В 1.)
XXII. Reproduce the short dialogues “With a Friend in the Coffee Bar” in similar
situations.

204
Unit
ELEVEN
Conversation: Home. Our Flat. Thanks for Hospitality
Grammar: The Structure there be
Te x t
Read the text.
Home (Our Flat)
Th e house we live in is our home, or in more formal speech, our residence
or dwelling. Some people live in individual houses. Th e town building
may be fi ve- or nine-storeyed. Th ere are multi-storeyed buildings too.
Our fi rst fl oor is usually called the ground fl oor in England, and the
second fl oor corresponds to the English fi rst fl oor. Americans call the
fl oors the same as we do: fi rst, second, and so on.
Let us visit one of the modern fl ats of the block of fl ats in a big town.
Th e fl at is in a multi-storeyed building on the sixth fl oor. Th e family has
recently moved into it. It is a four-roomed fl at with all modern conveniences.
Th e rooms are a living room, two bedrooms and a study.
Th e living room is large. Th ere are two windows in it. Th e windows
face the park. In the evening all the family gathers in the living room to
watch a TV programme, read newspapers or magazines or to entertain
guests. Th e room is well-furnished. In the middle there stands a large
square table with six chairs round it. On the table there is a vase with
fl owers. Th ere are some armchairs and a sofa near the wall. Opposite the
sofa there is a TV set.
You can see a piano near the window. At the wall stands a sideboard.
Crystal bowls, wine glasses, goblets, china dishes and special tea sets stand
on its shelves.
Th e walls in the living room are papered blue and the curtains over the
window match them. On the walls there hang some pictures. A thick
carpet covers the fl oor.

205 Th e bedrooms (one of them is for the parents and the other is for the
children) are also cosy rooms. Th ere is only one window with dark curtains
over it in each room. Th e windows face the yard. Th e bedrooms are
furnished with the necessary pieces of furniture: a bed, a dressing table
with a mirror, a wardrobe and some armchairs.
Th e small room is a study. Here the children do their homework. It is
a simply furnished room. In the corner near the window there is a small
writing desk with a computer on it. A comfortable armchair stands near
it. On the wall you can see shelves full of books, magazines, journals and
DVDs.
Besides these four rooms, the fl at has a kitchen, a hall, a bathroom and
a toilet. Th e kitchen is not so small. Th e built-in furniture and all modern
conveniences make housekeeping easy.
Th e bathroom has a built-in bathtub with a shower and a sink. Th ere
is a glass shelf over the sink. You can see some sponges, bottles of liquid
soap, shampoos, special glasses with toothbrushes, and some tubes of
toothpaste. You can take a shower or a bath any time.
Next to the bathroom there is a toilet. In the hall you can see a hallstand
for coats, hats and umbrellas. Besides, there is a small table for the
telephone.
So you can see the fl at is comfortable enough. Next week the family is
going to arrange a housewarming party.
Words and Expressions
residence [´rezIdAns] — местожительство
dwelling [´dwelIN] — жилище, дом
multi-storeyed — многоэтажный
a storey [´stD:ri] — этаж (c внешней стороны дома)
а fl oor [flD:] — этаж (внутри дома, на лестнице); пол
a ground fl oor — нижний, цокольный этаж
to correspond [,kOrIs´pOnd] — соответствовать
а fl at — квартира
a bock of fl ats — многоквартирный дом
to move into smth. — переехать куда-л., вселяться
а four-roomed fl at — четырехкомнатная квартира
а living room — общая комната
а bedroom — спальня

206
а study [´stEdi] — кабинет
to face smth. — выходить куда-л. (об окнах),
to entertain guests — принимать гостей
to be furnished […´fQ:nISt] — быть меблированной
square [skweA] — квадратный
a vase [vC:z] — ваза
an armchair [´C:m ,tSeA] — кресло
a sideboard [´saId,bD:d] — буфет (как предмет мебели)
crystal [´krIstl] — хрустальный
a bowl [bAUl] — чаша, вазочка
a wine glass [´waIn,glC:s] — бокал для вина
a goblet [´gOblAt] — бокал
a tea set — чайный сервиз
to be papered blue [´peIpAd ,blu:] — быть оклеенными обоями голубого
цвета
a curtain [´kQ:tn] — занавес(ка)
to match smth. — подходить (no цвету), гармонировать с чем-л.
a wall — стена
to hang (hung) — висеть
a thick carpet [´FIk ´kC:pIt] — толстый ковер
cosy [´kAUzi] — уютный
dark [dC:k] — темный
furniture [´fQ:nItSA] — мебель
a dressing table [´dresIN,teIbl] — туалетный столик
a mirror [´mIrA] — зеркало
a wardrobe [´wD:drAUb] — платяной шкаф, гардероб
a writing desk — письменный стол
comfortable [´kEmftAbl] — удобный, комфортабельный
to make housekeeping easy — облегчать ведение домашнего хозяйства
besides [bI´saIdz] — кроме того
a hall [hD:l] — холл, коридор
a bathroom [´bC:F,ru:m] — ванная
built-in [´bIlt´In] — встроенный, вделанный
a bathtub [´bC:F,tEb] — ванна
a sink — раковина для умывания
a liquid soap [´lIkwId ´sAUp] — жидкое мыло
a toothbrush [´tu:F,brES] — зубная щетка

207
a tube of toothpaste [´tju:b Av ´tu:F,peIst] — тюбик зубной пасты
a hallstand [´hD:l,stBnd] — вешалка
a hat — шляпа
an umbrella [Em´brelA] — зонтик
to arrange a housewarming party [´haUs,wD:mIN] — праздновать ново-
селье
Exercises
I. What do we call… ?
Model: We call this (these) … .
1) a building consisting of many fl ats; 2) a building of many storeys; 3) a fl at
of two rooms;
4) the place, i.e. 1 town, street and apartment house where
you offi cially live;
5) diff erent levels on which some fl ats are located;
6) a room which is at the same time a sitting room and a dining room;
7) a table on which toilet things stand; 8) a piece of furniture for keeping
dishes, bowls, cups, etc.;
9) a piece of furniture for keeping clothes;
10) celebration on the occasion of 2 moving into a new fl at
II. Using the phrases from exercise I say what … is.
1) a sideboard; 2) a living room; 3) a housewarming party; 4) a wardrobe;
5) a block of fl ats; 6) a multi-storeyed building; 7) residence; 8) a dressing
table
III. Use the appropriate word.
a) fl oor — storey
Note: A fl oor is inside the building, a storey is outside.
1. He lives on the fi ft h … of the multi-…ed building. 2. All the windows of
the upper … were open.
3. On the ground … there is a coff ee bar and
a restaurant.
4. A dog was barking (to bark — лаять) from the balcony on
the sixth … .
1 i.e. — лат. id est = то есть2 celebration on the occasion of — празднование no случаю

208
b) comfortable — convenient (удобный, т. e. подходящий, пригодный)
Note: Something comfortable gives comfort (opposite — uncomfortable).
Something convenient suits one’s time and needs (opposite — incon-
venient).
1. It is very … to have TU-154 passenger jet planes (реактивный самолет).
Th ey save you much time, and besides they are clean and … .
2. It is ver y
… to have a microwave oven in the kitchen.
3. If shoes fi t (быть впору)
you, they are … .
4. Evening is a … time for doing homework. 5. His new
fl at is well-furnished and … enough.
6. Th e kitchen is very … for
housekeeping.
7. Let’s meet at three. — Good. Th e time is … for me. 8. I
always sit in this armchair, it’s very … .
c) uncomfortable — inconvenient
1. It is … to live far from the workplace. 2. It is … to travel with heavy
luggage ([´lEgIdZ] — багаж).
3. It is … to lie on wet grass. 4. It is … to eat
a big apple without a knife.
5. Is your fridge of the latest model? — No, it
is not. Th at is why it is … for keeping vegetables and fruit.
6. You have got
nice shoes. — Oh, yes, they are nice but … .
7. Th e room is very small and
there is much furniture in it. So it is … for receiving guests.
8. I cannot
meet you at three o’clock. Th e time is … for me because I’ll be busy till
fi ve.
IV. Name fi ve pieces of furniture belonging to:
1) a dining room; 2) a study; 3) a living room; 4) a bedroom; 5) a kitchen.
V. A. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Do we call fl oors of the multi-storeyed building in the same way as they
call them in England and America?
2. Where is the fl at we visited located?
3. Is the fl at large or small? How many rooms are there in it? 4. What is the
largest room? What is the smallest one?
5. Th e rooms are comfortable and
cosy, aren’t they?
6. What pieces of furniture stand in the living room? Is it
well-furnished?
7. What do the windows of the room face? 8. What room
is simply furnished?
9. Does the family have many books? Where do they
keep books, magazines and journals?
10. Th e kitchen is very convenient

209 for housekeeping, isn’t it?
11. What things do they keep on a glass shelf in
the bathroom?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Can you tell me and I wonder.
VI. Describe the furniture of each room mentioned in the text.
Model: Th ere is a piano in the living room. It is (stands) near the
window.
VII. Describe the prevailing (преобладающий) colour of the rooms and the furniture.
If you don’t know it, imagine the colour.
Model: Th e curtains are blue. Th ey match the walls.
VIII. Say what in your opinion is:
1) a well-furnished room or fl at;
2) a simply furnished room or fl at;
3) a badly furnished room or fl at.
IX. Describe your fl at, mentioning:
the fl oor on which it is located; the number of rooms; the size of the rooms
(e.g. 20
square metres); the number of the windows and what they face; all
modern conveniences in your fl at; the furniture in each room.
X. Describe one of your rooms in detail.
XI. Read the dialogue.
— Hello, Nick! I know you’ve got a new fl at.
— Yes, we’re lucky. Th e fl at is large and comfortable.
— How many rooms do you have?
— Th ree: a living room, a bedroom, a room for children, and a large
kitchen with built-in furniture.
— How do you like the new district?
— Oh, it’s a green place and miles away from industrial enterprises.
Our windows face the park.
— Please, tell me your telephone number.

210— Write down, 517-89-47. Call me and come to see us. Next Saturday
we are arranging a housewarming party.
— OK, I’ll be glad to come.
we’re lucky […´lEki] — нам повезло
a district [´dIstrIkt] — район
an industrial enterprise […´entA,praIz] — промышленное предприятие
XII. Describe the fl at which Nick’s family got.
XIII. Reproduce the dialogue exchanging the roles.
XIV. Make up a short dialogue “An Invitation to the Housewarming Party”. Use some
more phrases:
to buy (rent) a new fl at — купить (снять) новую квартиру
hospitality [,hOspI´tBlIti] — гостеприимство, радушие
to invite guests — приглашать гостей
Try not to be late for the party. — Постарайся не опаздывать на
вечеринку.
XV. Say how the table was set for the housewarming party, what dishes were cooked
and served.
XVI. Read the text paying attention to the type of the house in which British people live.
Write down all types of houses mentioned. Describe each of them.
Th e British who are city residents usually live in a block of fl ats, that is in a
large building with a lot of diff erent levels, called fl oors. Th is may be a four-
or fi ve- or a multi-storeyed building, which generally has a resident porter
(an attendant who also lives in the block) and a private underground garage.
It is a British tradition to accentuate the number of bedrooms in the fl at to
say how big it is, for example, a one-, a two- or a three-bedroomed fl at.
In the centre of the town we can also fi nd terraced houses. Th e name
refers to a house in a row of similar houses joined together on both sides.
Very rich families live in a mansion, a large, expensive, luxurious building
mostly of a remarkable architectural style.
More and more people nowadays prefer living in the country far away
from the stressful city life. For large families a detached house consisting
of some bedrooms would be ideal. It is usually surrounded by a garden
which guarantees complete privacy.

211 For a young couple a semi-detached house will be quite enough. Th is
type of house consists of two parts joined together by one wall that they
share, and it has two separate entrances. Usually a semi-detached house is
owned or rented by two families who live absolutely independently.
Students for their summer rest may rent a suburban bungalow, a house
that is all on one level. It may have a medium-sized garden and a garage.
If you want to escape from the noisy, polluted city, this can seem a paradise
to you.
Do you have houses like those in your city or on the outskirts?
Say in what house you would like to live and why.
Te x t
Read the text. Say if you would like to have a house like this.
Our House
Many families in London live in fl ats but most people live in their own
houses in the suburbs. We too have a house in the London suburb. I bought
it about fi ft een years ago when I got married. Like most of the London
suburban houses it consists of only two fl oors: the ground fl oor and the
fi rst fl oor.
On the ground fl oor there is a dining room, a lounge or a sitting room,
a kitchen and a hall. In the hall we see a stand for hats, coats and
umbrellas.
A staircase leads from the hall to the landing on the fi rst fl oor. On this
fl oor there are four bedrooms, a bathroom and a toilet. On top of the roof
there are three chimneys. Th e fi replace warms our house.
In front of the house we have a small garden in which we grow fl owers:
roses, tulips and daff odils. At the back of the house there is a much larger
garden with a lawn and some fruit trees. Th ere is also a vegetable garden
where we grow all kinds of vegetables such as potatoes, cabbages,
caulifl owers, onions and tomatoes.
At the side of the house there is a double garage where we keep our
cars. Th e garden is enclosed by a fence with a gate in it.
Words and Expressions
own [AUn] — собственный
suburb [ґsEbQ:b] — пригород, предместье
tо consist of smth. [kAn´sIst] — состоять из чего-л.

212
a lounge [laUndZ] — комната отдыха, гостиная
a staircase [´steA,keIs] — лестница
to lead (led) [li:d] — вести
a landing [´lBndIN] — лестничная площадка
on top of the roof [´tOp Av GA ´ru:f] — на крыше, на самом верху
a chimney [´tSImni] — труба
a fi replace [´faIA,pleIs] — камин
to grow (grew, grown) [grAU] — выращивать
a tulip [´tju:lIp] — тюльпан
a daff odil [´dBfAdIl] — бледно-жёлтый нарцисс
a lawn [lD:n] — лужайка, газон
a vegetable garden — огород
caulifl ower [´kOli,flaUA] — цветная капуста
onion [´EnjAn] — лук
to be enclosed by a fence [In´klAUzd baI A fens] — быть обнесенным
оградой
a gate — ворота
XVII. A chain of questions and answers.
1. When did the storyteller buy the house?
Can you buy a suburban house?
Ask your partner.
2. What does the house look like?
It is a typical English house, isn’t it?
Would you like to have a house like this? Ask somebody else.
3. What is on the ground fl oor / on the fi rst fl oor?
Do you have a fi replace in your suburban house?
Ask your friend if he (she) would like to have a fi replace in his (her)
summer cottage.
4. What do they grow in the small garden / in the larger garden / in the
vegetable garden?
What fruit trees do you grow in your garden?
Ask your friend what he (she) grows in his (her) vegetable garden.
XVIII. A. Describe your own (or somebody else’s) suburban house mentioning:
1) the place where it is located; 2) what it looks like; 3) the number of
rooms;
4) the fruit and vegetable gardens.

213
B. Say:
1) if this house is as comfortable as the mentioned above; 2) how you warm
the house (with a fi replace or a stove);
3) if there is a garage; 4) what make
of car you have.
XIX. Make up a dialogue. The situation is:
Your friend is going to buy a suburban house.
Ask: where; what kind of house; how many rooms; about the fruit
and vegetable gardens and the price of the house.
Dialogue
Read the dialogue.
There Is a Nice Apartment
— Hello!
— Hello!
— Is there an empty apartment in this building? We are looking for
something not very expensive.
— Yes, there is. Th ere’s a nice apartment on the third fl oor.
— Are there two bedrooms?
— No, there aren’t. Th ere is a living room, a small kitchen and a very
small bathroom.
— And the bedroom?
— Oh, there’s a very large bedroom.
— Is there a balcony?
— No, there’s no balcony.
— Where’s the kitchen?
— Here it is.
— Oh, it’s very small.
— Yes, but there’s a stall for refrigerator, and space for a dishwasher.
Th ere are some cabinets and there’s a shelf under the sink.
— Are there any windows in the bathroom?
— No, there aren’t. But there are two large ones in the bedroom. Th ey
overlook a quiet place.
— Good. It’s a very nice apartment.

214 Note: an apartment (Am. E.) = a fl at (Br. E.)
empty [´empti] — пустой, незанятый
stall [stD:l] (Am. E.) = a cubicle [´kjubIkl] (Br. E.) — место, отгороженное
для габаритных предметов
dishwasher [´diS,wOSA] — посудомоечная машина
a cabinet [´kBbInAt] — шкаф с выдвижными ящиками
to overlook a quiet place — выходить (об окнах) на тихое место
Exercises
XX. Answer the questions.
1. On which fl oor is this apartment? 2. Is it large? How many rooms are
there? What are they?
3. Is there a balcony? 4. Is the kitchen large or small?
Is it convenient for housekeeping? What conveniences are there?
5. Is this
a comfortable apartment?
6. Would you like to have an apartment like
this?
XXI. Imagine your friends are looking for an empty apartment. Advise them to see this
apartment. Describe it.
XXII. You don’t like the apartment. Give your reasons why you refuse to buy it.
XXIII. Read the following English proverbs and sayings. Suggest the Russian variants for
the given situations.
An Englishman’s home is his castle.
East or West, home is best.
Th ere is no place more delightful than home.
Make yourself at home.
Short Dialogues
THANKS FOR HOSPITALITY
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: It’s time we were off .
B: So soon? Please, stay a little longer?
A: I wish I could, but I’m late already.

215 B: What a shame!
A: Th ank you for a wonderful meal.
B: I’m glad you enjoyed it.
II
A: I really must be going now.
B: But you’ve only just come. Wouldn’t you like to stay for tea?
A: Th at’s very kind of you, but I mustn’t be too late.
B: What a pity!
A: Th anks very much for the party.
B: I was pleased to have you here.
III
A: I think it’s about time we made a move.
B: What, already? Won’t you have another coff ee?
A: I’d love to, but I have to get up early morning.
B: Oh dear! What a shame!
A: Th ank you for a most wonderful evening.
B: Not at all. Hope you can come again.
IV
А: I am awfully sorry, I really should be off now.
B: Not yet surely. Have another drink at least.
A: No, thank you all the same.
B: Oh dear! What a pity!
A: Th ank you very much indeed for the delicious meal.
B: Th ank you for visiting.
I. It’s time — пора
I wish I could. — Сожалею, что не могу.
What а shame! — Какая досада!
II. What а pity! […´pIti] — Как жаль!
III. it’s about time — время подходит (пора)
to make а move — уходить (т. е. двинуться отсюда)
IV. awfully [´D:f(A)lI] — ужасно
Not yet surely. — Только не сейчас.
all the same — все равно
indeed [in´di:d] — в самом деле

216 Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1, then В 1, etc.
II. You are at your friend’s place. It’s time for you to leave.
1. Tell your friend about it.
Model: I’m sorry but I should be off now. (See phrases A I.)
2. Thank him (her) for the party.
Model: Th anks very much for the party. (See phrases A 3.)
III. You are a hostess (host).
1. Ask your friend to stay a little longer.
Model: So soon? Have another drink at least. (See phrases В 1.)
2. Thank your guest for his (her) visit.
Model: Th anks for coming. (See phrases В 3.)
IV. Reproduce the short dialogues “Thanks for Hospitality” in similar situations.
Grammar
THE STRUCTURE THERE BE
(СТРУКТУРА THERE BE)
Конструкция There be употребляется в ситуациях, описывающих, гдé что-
то (или кто-то) находится или отсутствует.
There is а round table in the room. In the room there is a round table. — В ком-
нате есть (имеется, находится, стоит) круглый стол.
There are a lot of museums in our city. In our city there are a lot of museums. —
В нашем городе (есть, имеется) много музеев.
Употребление обстоятельства места (в данных примерах in the room и in
our city) в начале или в конце предложения определяется контекстом.

217
Перевод таких предложений на русский язык начинается с обстоятель-
ства места, которое в английском предложении занимает определенное,
но не всегда одно и то же положение по отношению к основной структуре
“there be + существительное”. Обстоятельство места занимает позицию
либо перед этой структурой, либо после нее.
Обратите внимание на различие в значении следующих двух типов пред-
ложений.
1. There is а book on the table. — Ha столе книга.
2. The book is on the table. — Книга на столе.
Предложение со структурой 1 является ответом на вопрос What is on the
table? в то время как в значении 2-й структуры содержится ответ на во-
прос Where is the book? Эти различия подчеркиваются также употребле-
нием разных артиклей перед существительным book — неопределенным а
в первом случае и определенным the — во втором.
Exercises
I. Read and memorise the order of words.
1. Th ere is a small picture on
the wall. 1. On the wall there is a small
picture.
2. Th ere is a nice vase on the
table. 2. On the table there is a nice vase.
3. Th ere is cold water in the
glass. 3. In the glass there is cold water.
4. Th ere is some bread on the
plate. 4. On the plate there is some bread.
5. Th ere is fresh milk in the
bottle. 5. In the bottle there is fresh milk.
6. Th ere are a lot of trees in our
street. 6. In our street there are a lot of
trees.
7. Th ere are beautiful parks in
our city. 7. In our city there are beautiful
parks.
8. Th ere was a blue car in the
yard. 8. In the yard there was a blue car.
9. Th ere were some children at
the concert. 9. At the concert there were some
children.
10. Th ere will be a lecture in the
club tomorrow. 10. Tomorrow in the club there will be
a lecture.

218
II. Ask for additional information.
Model: St. 1: Th ere are a lot of tourists in our city in summer (foreign
tourists).
St.
2: Are there any foreign tourists?
St.
1: Of course there are.
1. Th ere is a concert hall, some museums and two theatres in our town.
(a circus [´sQ:kAs] — цирк)
2. Th ere were so many fl owers at the fl orist’s,
I couldn’t decide what to buy. (red roses)
3. Th ere were many famous
people at the party. (common people)
4. Th ere will be a festival in summer
there. (foreigners)
5. Th ere are a lot of monuments in our city. (a monument
to Pushkin)
6. Th ere is some fresh water in the jar (кувшин). (boiled
water)
7. Th ere were a lot of interesting books on the shelves. (books on
history)
III. Listen and ask about something in particular.
Model: St. 1: Th ere are all modern conveniences in our fl at. (air con-
ditioning)
St. 2:
And how about air conditioning?
St. 1:
Oh, there’s no air conditioning, I’m sorry.
1. Th ere was a lot of various fruit on the table. (pineapples) 2. Th ere are
some new exhibitions in our city. (an exhibition of modern art)
3. Th ere
are a lot of fl owers in our garden in summer. (peonies [´pi:Aniz] — пионы)
4. Th ere are some original pictures on the walls of my fl at. (pictures by
modernistic artists)
5. Th ere are some interesting lectures in the club next
week. (a lecture on astrology)
6. Th ere are some strong drinks on the
menu. (some juice)
IV. Respond to the question with the negative reply.
Model 1: St. 1: Is there much milk in the jar? (enough)
St. 2:
Not much, but there’s enough.
Model 2: St. 1:
Are there many books in your library? (a few rare)
St. 2:
Not many, but there are a few rare books.
1. Are there many rooms in his fl at? (two bedrooms) 2. Is there much
furniture in your room? (enough)
3. Were there many visitors at the
exhibition? (a few famous artists)
4. Are there many theatres in your city?

219 (two concert halls)
5. Is there much fruit in the fridge? (a lot of vegetables)
6. Was there much information about this event in the newspaper? (one
very important article)
V. Translate these sentences into English.
1. В холодильнике много овощей. 2. Яблоки находятся в холодильнике.
3. В холодильнике также молочные продукты. 4. Где моя книга? —
Она на полке. Там также твои тетради.
5. На столе не было учебника,
там были только тетради.
6. На улице много машин. 7. Его машина
в гараже.
8. На полках было много книг на английском языке. 9. У нее
на столе не было учебника.
10. Там никого не было. Здесь тоже (either)
никого не будет.
11. В нашем городе находится Эрмитаж (the
Hermitage).
12. Эрмитаж находится на набережной Невы (on the Neva
embankment).
VI. Read the poem and memorise the succession (последовательность) of the last
words in each line.
Once there was a kingdom;
In that kingdom there was a town;
In that town there was a street;
In that street there was a lane;
In that lane there was a yard;
In that yard there was a house;
In that house there was a room;
In that room there was a table;
On that table there was a basket;
In that basket there were some fl owers.
Words and Expressions
kingdom [´kINdAm] — королевство
a lane — узкая дорога, переулок
a basket [´bC:skIt] — корзина
VII. Reproduce the poem according to the model.
St. 1: Once there was a kingdom.
Т.: What was in that kingdom?
St. 2:
In that kingdom there was a town, etc.

220
VIII. Write short stories to illustrate the use of the following proverbs and sayings.
1. Th ere is no rule without an exception.
2. Th ere is no rose without thorns.
3. Th ere is no smoke without fi re.
4. Where there is a will, there is a way.
an exception [ik´sepSn] — исключение
a thorn [FD:n] — шип
a will — воля
a way — выход
IX. Learn the words.
A refrigerator (fridge) [rI´frIdZA,reItA] — холодильник
an electric stove [… ´stAUv] — электрическая плита
a rubbish bin [´rEbIS ,bIn] — мусорный ящик
a microwave oven [´maIkrA,weIv ´Evn] — микроволновая печь

X. Look at the picture and answer the questions.
1. Th e kitchen is nice, isn’t it? 2. Is there much furniture in the kitchen?
3. Where is the table? What things are on it? 4. How many mugs are there
on the sink table?
5. Is there a fridge (refrigerator)? Where is it? Is it
convenient?
6. What is on the electric stove? 7. Where is the sink? 8. Is there
a rubbish bin? Where is it?
9. Are there any shelves? 10. Let us look into
the fridge. What is inside it?
XI. Describe the kitchen.
XII. Does your kitchen look the same? Describe it.

222
Unit
TWELVE
Conversation: The Railway Station
Grammar: Adverbs. Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
Exercises
I. Before reading the text check whether you know the meaning of the words and
expressions given in the left-hand column. Match them to their defi nition in the right-hand
column.
1) a through train /
ticketa) a room where possessions that people have
accidently left in a public place are kept
until the owner comes to get them
2) a left luggage offi ce b) a place where someone is going by train
3) a compartment c) a section of a train where passengers are
allowed to smoke
4) a place of destination d) a place at a railway station where you can
pay to leave your bags for a short time
5) a smoker e) one of the separate spaces into which a
railway carriage is divided
6) a sleeper (a sleeping
car)f ) one you can use to travel all the way to a
place, without changing trains or buying
another ticket
7) a non-smoker g) a section of a train where passengers are
not allowed to smoke
8) a lost property offi ce h) a train or a railway carriage that has beds in
it for passengers to sleep in
II. Match the words and expressions in the left-hand column to their Russian equivalents
in the right-hand column.
1) a through train a) поезд дальнего следования
2) a lost property offi ce b) пассажирский поезд (со многими оста-
нов ками)

223
3) a left luggage offi ce c) вагон-ресторан
4) a compartment d) камера хранения
5) a sleeper (a sleeping car) e) купе
6) a dining car f ) билет в одно направление («туда»)
7) a long-distance train g) прямой (беспересадочный) поезд
8) a stopping train h) билет в оба направления («обратный»,
«туда и обратно»)
9) a single ticket i) бюро находок
10) a return ticket j) спальный вагон
Te x t
Read the text.
Travelling by Train
Great changes have taken place in our life for the last two decades. Nowadays
people travel more than in the past. Not only do they go across their own
country but they also visit foreign countries either on business or for
pleasure. For that they choose the most convenient ways of travelling: by
plane, by ship, by train, by car, by bus, by bicycle or on foot if they prefer
hiking. Travelling by train is one of the most popular and democratic ways,
because with a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined.
A big railway station is an exciting place. Let us watch the busy life of
it. Trains arrive and depart every ten minutes according to the timetable.
Th eir arrival and departure are regularly announced by the local radio.
When the train stops, crowds of people get off it and fl ood the platform.
Th e porters are very busy carrying luggage to the train or pushing it on
their trucks. Besides those arriving or leaving, there are a lot of people
who come to meet or to see somebody off . If passengers have to change to
another train, they may spend the time in the waiting room or they can
have a snack in a café or restaurant. Other services are also available at the
railway station such as the inquiry offi ce (information bureau), the left
luggage offi ce, the hairdressing salon and the others.
Th ere are very many people who prefer travelling by train, the way
which is cheaper, more interesting and rather popular. Once you have
decided on a trip, take care of the tickets because if it is the summertime,
it is preferable to reserve tickets for your journey in advance. You can do

224 it either at the booking offi ce or by the Internet. To be on the safe side it is
better to book return tickets. Th e price of the ticket largely depends on the
distance and the type of train by which you go.
You may choose a convenient train and time: an express or stopping
train, a night or a daytime travel. If you cannot get to the place of
destination by a through train, you will have to change to another one.
Very long journeys are sometimes tiring, but if you are on the train for
two or three days, you will feel relaxed and will be able to enjoy wonderful
landscapes, new towns and unusual views looking through the window
from the comfortable corner seat of the railway carriage. Besides, you
can meet very interesting people among those who travel with you on
the train.
Usually carriages of a long-distance train are divided into some
compartments, each of which is intended for four passengers. In a
compartment there are four berths, two lower and two upper ones.
Passengers who have to travel on the train at night have to take the bedding
from the conductor paying a certain price for it. In case you are hungry,
you can have a meal in the dining car or the conductor will serve you tea
or coff ee.
With a good company, a considerate conductor and the hope for the
better the time passes quickly and very soon you will get to the place of
destination promising new impressions to you.
Words and Expressions
a decade [´dekeId] — десятилетие
hiking —турпоход
a railway station — железнодорожный вокзал
an exciting place [Ik´saItIN…] — зд. оживленное место
to arrive at / in — прибывать
arrival — прибытие
to depart — отправляться
departure [dI´pC:tSA] — отправление
to fl ood [flEd] — наводнять, заполнять
а porter [´pD:tA] — носильщик
to carry luggage — нести (везти) багаж
to push а truck [´puS A ´trEk] — толкать багажную тележку
to see off — провожать

225
a waiting room — зал ожидания
an inquiry offi ce [In´kwaIri…], an information bureau […´bjUArAU] —
справочное бюро
а hairdressing salon — парикмахерская
to reserve tickets — бронировать (заказывать) билеты
a trip — поездка, путешествие
а journey [´dZQ:ni] — поездка
a booking offi ce — билетная касса
to be on the safe side — для предупреждения чего-либо, на всякий
случай
tiring [´taIrIN] — утомительный
a landscape [´lBnd,skeIp] — пейзаж
to be intended for smth., smb. — быть предназначенным для чего-л.,
кого-л.
a berth [bQ:F] — полка, место (в вагоне)
the bedding — постельные принадлежности
a conductor — проводник
to pass quickly — проходить незаметно
to promise [´prOmIs] — обещать
Exercises
III. What do we call… ?
1) а place where passengers can wait for the train’s arrival
2) a place where passengers can leave their luggage
3) a place where we buy railway tickets
4) a place where we can have a snack
5) a train that stops at all stations
6) a train that stops only at larger stations
7) a train that takes us to the place of destination and we needn’t change it
8) a person who helps us with our luggage
9) a person who travels on a train
10) a ticket which is valid (действителен) only for one direction
11) a ticket which is valid for both directions
For your answer use the model: We call this (him, her) …

226
IV. Using the phrases from exercise III say what we call:
1) • a porter
• a passenger
• a conductor
2) • a booking offi ce
• a waiting room
• an express
• a through train
• a stopping train
• a single ticket
• a return ticket
• a left luggage offi ce
V. Listen to the dialogue between a passenger and a booking clerk.
Man: Can I have a ticket to Manchester, second class?
Booking clerk: Single or return?
Man: Return, please.
Booking clerk: Second return, Manchester. Two pounds and fi ft y, p l e a s e .
Man: Here you are. (Th e man gives him three pounds.)
Booking clerk: Here is your ticket and fi ft y pence change, thank you.
Man: Could you tell me what time the next train goes?
Booking clerk: 11.50, platform 8. If you hurry, you’ll just catch it.
Man: Th ank you very much.
VI. With your partner make up your own dialogue buying tickets to some suburban place.
Additional Words and Expressions
to travel light — путешествовать налегке
light (hand) luggage — ручной багаж
heavy luggage — тяжелый багаж
a piece of luggage — место (о багаже)
to run on time (schedule [´Sedju:l]) — идти no расписанию
a suburban train [sA´bQ:bAn…] — пригородный поезд
a seat facing the engine — место лицом по ходу движения поезда
a seat back to the engine — место спиной по ходу движения поезда
to miss the train — не успеть (опоздать) на поезд
to make inquiries about smth. [… In´kwaIriz] — наводить справки о чем-л.

227
VII. Let us imagine we are at the railway station in London.
1. Describe all the services available at the station.
Model: Th ere is a booking offi ce where passengers can buy tickets for
the journey.
Speak of: a left luggage offi ce; a snack bar; a waiting room; a bookstall;
a lost property offi ce; an inquiry offi ce.
2. Name all kinds of trains you know.
Model: Th ere is an express (train). It is a train which stops only at
large stations.
Speak of: a stopping train; a long-distance train; a through train;
a suburban train.
3. Name all kinds of carriages.
Model: Th ere is a sleeper. It is a carriage in which passengers can sleep
during their journey.
Speak of: a dining car, a carriage; a sleeper.
4. Describe the porter’s duty. These phrases will help you.
To help passengers with heavy luggage; to push the luggage on the truck;
to help the passengers to fi nd the platform and the carriage they need.
VIII. You are going to travel by train. Ask a booking clerk for a ticket you need.
Model: I want a single ticket to Liverpool. I’d like a lower berth.
You need:
1. Bristol, return, third class, an upper berth
2. London, single, second class, a lower berth
3. Edinburgh, return, fi rst class
IX. A. Answer the questions.
1. Do you like travelling? 2. Have you ever travelled light? 3. How many pieces
of luggage do you usually have with you?
4. When travelling on a long-distance
train, what berth do you prefer, lower or upper?
5. Have you ever missed the
train? Was it a suburban or a long-distance train?
6. What information can

228 you get in the inquiry offi ce at the railway station?
7. What is the most popular
suburban line in your town?
8. What tickets do you usually book, single or
return?
9. Is it easy to book a ticket for a long-distance train?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Tell me, please or I wonder.
X. Speak about your last trip to the country. This plan will help you.
1. Th e railway station.
2. Buying tickets (single, return, the fare).
3. Th e place of destination.
4. Th e train and service in the carriage.
5. Th e time the train went out and came in.
XI. Speak about your last trip to another city (town) or abroad. This plan will help you.
1. Th e place of destination.
2. Buying tickets.
3. Th e kind of train you travelled on.
4. Th e carriage and service in it.
5. Th e seat, the berth.
6. Th e conductor and his duties.
7. Th e dining car.
8. Th e stops.
Short Dialogues
AT THE RAILWAY STATION
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: When does the Manchester train leave, please?
B: 10.45. Platform 2.
A: What time does it arrive there?
B: You should be there at 12.30, but you may be a bit later.
A: Do I have to change?
B: Yes. You change at Coventry.

229
II
A: Which train do I take for Victoria, please?
B: 8.15. Th is end of platform 7.
A: When does it reach Victoria?
B: It gets there at 10.24.
A: Must I change?
B: No, it’s a through train.
III
A: Which train is for Leeds, please?
B: 12.30 from platform 1.
A: What time does it arrive?
B: It takes roughly two hours, so you’ll get in just before 14.30.
A: Is it necessary to change?
B: No, you don’t have to change.
IV
A: What time’s the next train to Victoria, please?
B: 11.17. Platform 5. Right up at the front.
A: When do we get there?
B: It’s due in at 14.25 but they are running late today.
A: Need I change trains?
B: Yes. Change at East Croydon.
I. to be a bit later — немного запаздывать

II. to reach smth. [ri:tS] — прибывать к месту назначения (досл.
достигать чего-л.)

III. roughly [´rEflI] — грубо, т. е. приблизительно, примерно

IV. right up — сразу, как раз

to be due in [dju:] — должен прибыть
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1, then В 1, etc.
II. You are at a railway station. Ask the clerk:
1) about the train leaving for the city.
Model: Which train do I take for London, please?
(See phrases A 1.)
Your place of destination is:
Glasgow; Leeds; Bristol; Sheffi eld; Manchester; Edinburgh.

230
2) when the train arrives there.
Model: What time does it reach London?
(See phrases A 2.)
3) if you should change trains.
Model: Do I have to change?
(See phrases A 3.)
III. You are a railway station clerk. Give information of:
1) the train’s departure.
Model: Th e London train leaves at… o’clock from platform … .
Us e : the train to Glasgow — to start; the next train to Leeds —
to go out; the Bristol train — to leave.
2) the train’s arrival.
Model: It arrives in London at … o’clock.
Us e : to reach Manchester; to get in Leeds; to be due in Edinburgh;
to arrive in Bristol.
3) whether it is necessary to change or not.
Model: Th ere’s no need to change. It’s a through train.
(See phrases В 3.)
IV. Reproduce the short dialogues “At the Railway Station” in similar situations.
V. Assignments.
1. You are at the city Terminal Station (Railway Station). Make inquiries
about the train leaving for some place in the country (the time of going
out and reaching the place, the fare).
2. You are going to the country for the weekend. Now you are at the
booking offi ce of the city Terminal Station buying tickets. What would
you say?
3. You are going to meet your friend returning from the South. Phone
the inquiry offi ce for the information.

231
VI. Translate into English.
1. Мне нужен один билет на поезд прямого сообщения до Иркутска
на 2
июня. Пожалуйста, купе, нижняя полка. 2. Я не люблю сидеть
спиной по ходу движения поезда; я чувствую дискомфорт.
3. У них
пересадка на поезд в Неаполе, а на следующий день утром они
прибывают в Рим. Обычно поезд не опаздывает и приходит точно
по расписанию.
4. Стоимость постельных принадлежностей не
входит в стоимость билета.
5. Когда поезд отошёл, было уже
достаточно поздно, и пассажиры попросили проводника принести
им постельное бельё, а кое-кто отправился в вагон-ресторан.
6. Экс-
пресс «Стрела», курсирующий из Петербурга в Москву, находится
в пути всего пять часов.
7. До места назначения мы ехали более двух
суток, так как поезд был пассажирский, и остановки он делал на
всех маленьких станциях.
8. Пересадка у нас была в Новосибирске.
Когда мы прибыли туда, мы сдали багаж в камеру хранения
и отправились осматривать город.
9. Я не люблю провожать друзей,
я больше люблю встречать на вокзале.
Grammar
ADVERBS (НАРЕЧИЕ)
The Formation of Adverbs (Образование наречий)
Большинство наречий в английском языке образуется от прилагательных
при помощи суффикса -ly [lI]:
bad + ly = badly (плохо)
free + ly = freely (свободно)
При этом происходят некоторые орфографические изменения. Так, если
прилагательное оканчивается на -у, которой предшествует согласная, то
перед прибавлением суффикса -ly буква у меняется на i:
easy + ly = easily
heavy + ly = heavily
Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -le, при образовании наречия меня-
ют конечное немое е на y:
simple + ly = simply
horrible + ly = horribly

232
possible + ly = possibly
Некоторые наречия совпадают по форме с соответствующим прилага-
тельным:
fast — быстрый, быстро
early — ранний, рано
slow — медленный, медленно
Следует помнить, что в английских предложениях, соответствующих рус-
ским Холодно, Приятно, Это плохо и т. п., употребляются прилагатель-
ные, а не наречия:
It is cold. It is pleasant. This is bad.
Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
(Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий)
Сравнительная и превосходная степени имеются только у качественных
прилагательных и у наречий, образованных от них.
Так же, как и в русском языке, степени сравнения прилагательных и на-
речий в английском языке образуются по одному из трех способов:
1) при помощи суффиксов (синтетический способ);
2) при помощи наречий more и most без изменения самой формы прилага-
тельного или наречия (аналитический способ);
3) путем изменения корня самого прилагательного или наречия (суппле-
тивный способ).
1. Односложные прилагательные и наречия и некоторые двухсложные
прилагательные образуют степени сравнения синтетическим способом:
Положительная
степеньСравнительная
степеньПревосходная
степень
– + er + est
dark (adj.) — темный darker — темнее the darkest — темнейший
(самый темный)
soon (adv.) — скоро,
вскореsooner — скорее soonest — скорее всего
fast (adj., adv.) — бы-
стрый (быстро)faster — быстрее (the) fastest — самый бы-
стрый, быстрее всего

233
При помощи суффиксов сравнительная и превосходная степень образует-
ся также от двухсложных прилагательных, оканчивающихся на следую-
щие буквы:
-у happy — happier — the happiest
-er clever — cleverer — the cleverest
-ow narrow — narrower — the narrowest
немое esimple — simpler — the simplest
При этом перед прибавлением суффиксов -er и -est происходят следую-
щие орфографические изменения:
a) немое е опускается:
large — larger — the largest
б) конечная согласная удваивается, если ей предшествует ударный крат-
кий гласный:
thin — thinner — the thinnest
(но: clean — cleaner — the cleanest)
в) конечная буква у меняется на i, если ей предшествует согласная:
early — earlier — the earliest
(но: gay — gayer — the gayest)
2. Многосложные и двухсложные прилагательные (не упомянутые в пун-
кте 1), а также наречия, оканчивающиеся на -lу, образуют степени сравне-
ния аналитическим путем:
Положительная
степеньСравнительная
степеньПревосходная
степень
– more + 1 степень most + 1 степень
diffi cult — труд-
ныйmore diffi cult — более
трудный, труднееthe most diffi cult — самый
трудный, труднейший
modern — совре-
менныйmore modern — более
современный, совре-
меннееthe most modern — самый
современный, современ-
нейший
easily — легко more easily — более
легко, легчеmost easily — легче всего

234
3. Особые формы сравнительной и превосходной степеней. Обратите
внимание, что в обоих языках (английском и русском) особые формы сте-
пеней сравнения имеются у одинаковых по значению и структуре прила-
гательных и наречий. Если слово функционирует как прилагательное,
то перед формой превосходной степени употребляется артикль the
как показатель следующего за таким прилагательным существительного.
Артикль сохраняется и при отсутствии существительного. Если же сло-
во является наречием, то в превосходной степени артикль отсутству-
ет, поскольку наречие с таким значением не сочетается с существитель-
ным. Именно поэтому в данной ниже таблице артикль the заключен
в скобки.
Положительная
степеньСравнительная
степеньПревосходная
степень
good — хороший
well — хорошоbetter — лучше
(the)
bestсамый хороший,
лучший
лучше всего
bad — плохой
badly — плохоworse — хуже
[wQ:s](the)
worstсамый плохой,
худший
хуже всего
little маленький
малоless — меньше (the)
least
[li:st]наименьший,
самый маленький
меньше всего
many многие
much многоmore — больше
[mD:](the)
most
[mAUst]самый большой,
наибольший
больше всего
far далекий
далекоfarther более
[´fC:GA] далекий
дальше
further дальнейший
[´fQ:GA] далее(the) самый
farthest далекий
[´fC:GIst] дальше всего
(the) furthest = farthest
[´fA:GIst]
old — старый
старшийolder — старее
elder — старше
(в семье) the oldest — самый старый,
старейший
the eldest — самый
старший
(в семье)













235 Exercises
I. Write degrees of comparison.
hot badly bitter much narrow
little easy far thin old
diffi cult fi ne big
II. Put the adjectives and adverbs in the comparative or superlative degree.
1. St. Petersburg is one of (large) and (beautiful) cities of our country.
2. Th e days in summer are (long) than in winter. 3. Th is text is (interesting)
of all.
4. My friend knows English (badly) than me. 5. I have (little) free
time than you have.
6. He is (good) student in our group. 7. English is
(diffi cult) than German.
8. Today the weather is (bad) than it was yesterday.
9. Her house is not (far) from the University than mine. 10. I have (much)
free time than my sister has.
III. Say:
1) who knows English best of all in your group; 2) who is the tallest student;
3) who is the most active; 4) who is the most diligent ([´dIlIdZAnt] —
усердный, старательный);
5) who is the most enthusiastic; 6) who is the
most optimistic (pessimistic);
7) who is the best sportsman.
Grammar
Constructions Used for Comparing Persons or Things
(Сравнительные конструкции)
A. Простая сравнительная консструкция
as … as — такой же (так же) … как
not as (so) … as — не такой (не так) … как
IV. Read and translate.
1. Today the weather is as fi ne as it was yesterday. 2. Th is fl at is as nice as
that.
3. His car is as fast as mine. 4. He was as lazy as his brother. 5. Mary
types as carefully as Diana.
6. David drives as carelessly as Rob. 7. Th is
problem is as important as that.
8. Th is fi lm isn’t as (so) interesting as that.
9. She isn’t as beautiful as her sister. 10. Th is text isn’t as diffi cult as that.
11. Th is restaurant isn’t as expensive as the central one. 12. John drives not
as carefully as George.
13. He knows the town not as badly as his wife.

236
V. Compare two objects using the construction as … as or not as (so) … as.
1. Moscow and St. Petersburg (big). 2. Th e Neva and the Volga (long). 3. Th e
Black Sea and the Caspian Sea (large).
4. A street and an avenue (wide).
5. French fi lms and Italian fi lms (interesting). 6. English and German (diffi cult).
7. Winter in the central part of Europe and winter in the North (cold).
8. Summer in the South and summer in the North (hot). 9. Th e football teams
“Zenith” and “Spartak” (popular).
10. Silver and gold (expensive).
B. Сравнительная конструкция с усилением
much (far) better — много (гораздо) лучше
much (far) more interesting — много (гораздо) интереснее
VI. Read and translate.
1. Не speaks English much more fl uently than his friend. 2. You know it
much better than me.
3. He works much more than he ought to. 4. His
novels are far more interesting than his stories.
5. Rob’s wife is much more
beautiful than David’s.
6. Th e weather is much colder today than it was
yesterday.
7. Th is poem is much longer than that. 8. Th is way is much
shorter than that.
VII. Use the Russian variant of exercise VI for back translation.
VIII. Do exercise V again using the comparative construction B.
Te x t
Read the text. Pick up some information for comparison of the two persons concerning (от-
носительно) their popularity, houses, cars, satisfaction (удовлетворенность) with life.
Bob Dylan Isn’t Happy
Look at this man. He is Bob Dylan. He is a rock star. He is very rich and
famous.
Look at his house. It’s large and expensive and there’s a swimming pool
in the back yard. Th ere are ten bedrooms in the house.
Bob’s car is a 2013 Lincoln Continental. It’s fast and comfortable. In his
car there’s a radio, a CD player, a bar, a cigarette lighter and automatic
windows. But Bob isn’t happy. He’d like a Rolls Royce.
Look at this man. He is Jack Stevenson. He is an English teacher. He is
very poor and he is not famous.

237 Look at his house. It’s small and cheap and there’s no back yard. Th ere
are only two small bedrooms in the house.
Jack’s car is a 1999 Ford. It’s slow and uncomfortable. Th ere’s no radio
or cassette player in his car. Th ere is an engine, a steering wheel and there
are four wheels and two doors. Jack isn’t happy.
He’d like a new Ford, a new job and a new life.
Exercises
IX. Answer the questions about the characters of the story and the similar questions
about yourself. Ask your partner about the same.
1. What does Bob Dylan do? What is Jack Stevenson’s job? What would
you like better, to be a rock star or a teacher? Would you like to be rich
and famous? Ask your friend about it.
2. Whose house is larger and more expensive? How many bedrooms are
there in Bob’s house? And in Jack’s? How many bedrooms do you have?
Ask your friend about the number of his bedrooms.
3. Whose car is slow and uncomfortable? What makes of car do Bob and
Jack have? Ask your friend if he has a car. Bob’s car is much more
modern than Jack’s, isn’t it? What conveniences does Bob have in his
car? What about Jack’s car? What make of car do you have? Would you
like to have a Rolls Royce or Ford? Ask your friend about his car.
4. Bob and Jack aren’t happy, are they? Why? Are you happy? Ask your
friend if he is happy.
X. Compare the two persons and say who is in your opinion happier. Give your reason.
Model: I think Bob is happier because he is famous and popular.
I’d like to be popular.
XI. Comparing Bob and Jack, their houses and cars use the models:
1) not as (so) … as:
Jack Stevenson isn’t as rich as Bob Dylan.
2) as … as:
Bob is as unhappy as Jack.
3. much (far) more … than:
Bob’s car is much more expensive than Jack’s.
Words to be used: famous, modern, popular, large, rich, fast, poor,
slow, expensive, well-equipped ([I´kwIpt] —
хорошо оборудованный), cheap, busy, comfor-
table, unhappy, uncomfortable, pessimistic.

Grammar
The Comparation Construction The sooner … the better
(Сравнительная конструкция The sooner … the better)
Обе части такой конструкции содержат пару либо прилагательных, либо
наречий в сравнительной степени, однако случаи с наречием наиболее
частотны. По своей структуре такие предложения могут быть как полны-
ми, так и неполными. Отличительной чертой таких конструкций является
наличие определенного артикля перед сравнительной формой и прилага-
тельного, и наречия:
The better the health, the easier the life. — Чем лучше здоровье, тем
легче жизнь
The more you know, the more confi dent you are. — Чем больше вы знае-
те, тем увереннее себя чувствуете.
Exercises
XII. Read the following lines and say whether you agree with this opinion or not.
Th e more we study, the more we know.
Th e more we know, the more we forget.
Th e more we forget, the less we know.
Th e less we know, the less we forget.
Th e less we forget, the more we know.
Why study?
(Palmer. Grammar Be Hanged!)
XIII. Translate into English using the comparative construction.
1. Чем раньше вы придете, тем лучше. 2. Чем больше овощей и фрук-
тов вы едите, тем вы здоровее.
3. Чем больше я думал об этом предло-
же нии, тем больше я сомневался.
4. Когда мне нужно приехать
туда? — Чем скорее, тем лучше.
5. Чем меньше знаешь, тем лучше
спишь.
6. Чем сложнее программа, тем интереснее её изучать. 7. Чем
дальше мы шли, тем больше грибов находили.
8. Чем меньше
женщину мы любим, тем легче нравимся мы ей. (А. С. Пушкин)

239
Revision Test 4
I. Choose the right variant a, b or c to complete each sentence.
1. If a tip is … in the bill, customers do not need to pay extra money for
the service at the restaurant.
a) concluded b) excluded c) included
2. “My home is my … .”, the Englishmen say.
a) niche b) castle c) fortress
3. In some cafés and restaurants it is advisable to … a table in advance.
a) order b) hire c) book
4. If you go on a long-distance train for more than one day, you will have
to buy the … from the conductor.
a) bedding b) bed belongings c) sleeping things
5. Th ere are a lot of foreign restaurants in our city, and they specialise in
a certain national … .
a) kitchen b) meal c) cuisine
6. A … house is an ideal choice as it can guarantee privacy for you and
your family .
a) detached b) semi-detached c) bungalow
7. When I buy tickets for a suburban train, I always ask for a seat … to
avoid discomfort during the journey.
a) in the direction b) back to the engine c) facing the engine
of the train
8. Many fi rst-year students usually rent a fl at to … it with their friend.
a) share b) divide c) separate
9. We could not get to the place of … on time; the delay was caused by an
awful accident that had happened the day before.
a) arrival b) departure c) destination

240
10. Th e fl at is … the fi ft h fl oor of a multi-storeyed building.
a) at b) on c) in
II. Choose the proper grammatical form out of the given variants.
1. When we arrived home, we felt it smelt … : Mum was cooking
something delicious.
a) nice b) nicely c) more nicely
2. … much to be said both in favour and against our politicians’
activity.
a) It is b) Th ere are c) Th ere is
3. In that period of our life the circumstances were changing for the … .
a) good b) better c) best
4. We enjoyed our rest at the seaside. … was no rainy day during the
whole period.
a) It b) Because c) Th ere
5. Th ere is only one thing in the world … than being talked about, and
that is not being talked about. (Oscar Wilde)
a) bad b) worse c) worst
6. When we were stuck in the traffi c jam, we saw that … an accident.
a) there has been b) there had been c) there was
7. Tea is the only … pleasure left to us. (Oscar Wilde)
a) simple b) simpler c) simplest
8. … is always nice to be expected and not to arrive. (Oscar Wilde)
a) It b) Th ere c) What
9. … one wakes up, the more things are left undone.
a) Th e more early b) Th e earlier c) Th e earliest
10. A house in London costs twice … the similar one in Liverpool.
a) not so much as b) as much as c) as more as

241
III. Read the text and do the task given below.
The Luncheon
(An extract)
by S. Maugham
(To understand the fragment that describes the scene you should learn some previous
events. Th e background was as follows: a young, ambitious writer received a letter from
one of his readers, a woman. In the letter she informed him that soon she would be in
Paris and would like to have a chat with him. She asked him to give her a little luncheon
at Foyot’s, one of the most expensive restaurants in Paris. Th e young writer was fl attered
and so he agreed. On the appointed day they met there.)
I was startled when a bill of fare was brought, for the prices were a great
deal higher than I had anticipated. But she reassured me. “I never eat
anything for luncheon,” she said. “Oh, don’t say that!” I answered
generously. “I never eat more than one thing. I think people eat far too
much nowadays. A little fi sh, perhaps. I wonder if they have any salmon.”
Well, it was early in the year for salmon and it was not on the bill of
fare, but I asked the waiter if there was any. Yes, a beautiful salmon had
just come in, it was the fi rst they had had. I ordered it for my guest. Th e
waiter asked her if she would have something while it was being cooked.
“No,” she answered, “I never eat more than one thing. Unless you had
a little caviar. I never mind caviar.” My heart sank a little. I knew I could
not aff ord caviar, but I could not very well tell her that. I told the waiter by
all means to bring caviar. For myself I chose the cheapest dish on the menu
and that was a mutton chop.
“I think you are unwise to eat meat,” she said. “I don’t know how you
can expect to work aft er eating heavy things like chops. I don’t believe in
overloading my stomach.
Th en came a question of drink.
“I never drink anything for luncheon”.
“Neither do I,” I answered promptly.
“Except white wine,” she proceeded as though I had not spoken. “Th ese
French wines are so light. Th ey’re wonderful for the digestion,”
“What would you like?” I asked, hospitable still, but not exactly eff usive.
She gave me a bright and amicable fl ash of her white teeth.
“My doctor won’t let me drink anything but champagne.”
I fancy I turned a trifl e pale. I ordered half a bottle. I mentioned
casually that my doctor had absolutely forbidden me to drink champagne.

“What are you going to drink, then?”
“Water.”
She ate the caviar and she ate the salmon. She talked gaily of art and
literature and music. But I wondered what the bill would come to. When
my mutton chop arrived she took me quite seriously to task.
“I see that you’re in the habit of eating a heavy luncheon. I’m sure it’s a
mistake. Why don’t you follow my example and just eat one thing? I’m
sure you’d feel ever so much better for it.”
“I am only going to eat one thing,” I said, as the waiter came again with
the bill of fare.
1. Write down all the names of food and drinks that you have found in the text.
2. Say if you have ever been to a very expensive restaurant in your city or elsewhere. What
dishes were on the menu?
3. If you were in a situation like this, would you behave in the same way as the author
did?

243
Unit
THIRTEEN
Conversation: Travelling by Air
Grammar: The Passive Voice
Te x t
Read the text.
Travelling by Air
Travelling by air is more convenient than by train because it saves you
time considerably though it does not save money. Distances more than
2,000
km can now be covered by modern passenger planes on nonstop
fl ights without landing to refuel. Statistics shows that travelling by air is as
safe as travelling by train.
Last time I travelled by air two years ago when I was on holiday in
Siberia. I booked a ticket fi ft een days in advance. On the appointed day
aft er packing my luggage, I proceeded to the аirport by bus.
In the hall of the airport there were a lot of people waiting for boarding
the plane. Before the fl ight passengers must register at the airport. When
registering the passenger is required to have his luggage weighed aft er
which the attendant attaches a special tag to it. Each passenger is allowed
twenty kilograms of luggage free of charge. Th ere is no need to worry
about your suitcase, it will be looked aft er.
Th e registration stopped half an hour before the time of take-off . Soon
we heard the voice of the announcer calling the plane going to Irkutsk
1:
“Boarding the plane Flight 217
begins. Passengers are invited to take their
seats.” I said good-bye to my friends who came to see me off and with the
other passengers went to a special bus which took us to the plane on the
runway.
On board the plane the stewardess helped everyone sit comfortably in
the reclining seats adjustable to some positions. I sat back and relaxed.
1 heard the voice of the announcer calling the plane going to Irkutsk — услышали
no радио объявление о начале посадки на самолет, отлетающий в Иркутск

244 Very soon the plane took off . At that moment we saw a notice “No smoking.
Fasten your seat belts.” In a few minutes we were above the clouds.
During the fl ight we got information of the altitude, speed, the weather
and the distance covered. Th e stewardess served us mineral water, juice,
tea, sweets and sandwiches. Besides, newspapers and magazines were
off ered to the passengers. Everybody felt comfortable and nobody was
airsick.
Th e plane landed exactly on time.
Words and Expressions
travelling by air [´trBvlIN baI ´eA ] — путешествие самолетом
to save time (money) — экономить время (деньги)
considerably [kAn ´sIdArAbli] — значительно
a non-stop fl ight [… flaIt] — беспосадочный полет
to land — приземляться
landing — посадка, приземление
to refuel [ri: ´fju:Al] — дозаправляться горючим
on the appointed day [… A ´pDIntId …] — в назначенный день
to pack one’s luggage — упаковывать вещи
to proceed to the airport [prA ´si:d …] — отправляться в аэропорт
to board the plane [bD:d …] — садиться в самолет
boarding the plane — посадка в самолет
on board the plane — на борту самолета
to weigh [weI] — взвешивать
an attendant [A´tendAnt] — обслуживающее лицо
to attach [A´tBtS] — прикреплять
a tag — бирка
free of charge [´fri: Av ´tSC:dZ] — бесплатный
take-off — вылет (самолета), вылетать
а runway [´rEnweI] — взлетно-посадочная полоса
а reclining seat [rI ´klaInIN …] — откидывающееся назад сиденье
adjustable to some positions [A´dZEstAbl …] — регулируемый на не-
сколько положений
а notice [´nAUtIs] — табло
to fasten а seat belt [´fC:sn A ´si:t ,belt] — пристегивать ремень (y сиденья)
an altitude [´BltItju:d] — высота полета
to be airsick [´eA,sIk] — страдать воздушной болезнью

245 Exercises
I. Substitute the words of the opposite meaning for the words in bold.
1. Th e jet plane took off exactly on time.
2. I have come to the airport to meet my friends returning from
Moscow.
3. Before the plane took off the stewardess asked the passengers to fasten
the belts.
4. One by one the passengers were alighting out of the plane.
5. Our seats were in the rear part of the plane.
6. Th e landing was perfect.
7. We got tickets for the fl ight on the day of departure.
II. Express the same idea with the passive structure.
Model: Т.: Th e attendant weighed our luggage.
St.: Our luggage was weighed by the attendant.
1. We booked tickets in advance. 2. At the gangway (трап) passengers
show their passports.
3. During the fl ight the stewardess off ered newspapers
and magazines to the passengers. (2)
4. On the appointed day we packed
our luggage.
5. Th e stewardess served mineral water and juice to the
passengers. (2)
6. Soon we heard over the radio that they cancelled (to
cancel — отменять) the fl ight.
7. Th ey have just announced boarding the
plane.
8. When the plane took off , they switched on the notice “No smoking.
Fasten the belts.”
9. Th e plane will cover the distance over 1,000 km.
III. Say what is not allowed to do (to have) on board the plane.
Model: Passengers are not allowed to make a noise on board the
plane.
Us e : to have heavy luggage; to smoke; to unfasten belts when the
plane is taking off or landing; to speak with the pilot; to have
a weapon ([
´wepAn] — оружие); to take strong drinks; to
enter the cockpit ([
´kOkpIt] — кабина в самолете); to use
a mobile phone.
IV. Describe services available on board the plane.
Model: Passengers can have (be given) mineral water on board the
plane.

246 Use: to have a snack; to ask for a juice or any other soft drink; to
off er newspapers; to give information about the speed, altitude
and the distance covered; to send a telegram from board the
plane; to see video fi lms during the fl ight; to ask a stewardess
for a medicine.
V. Answer the questions.
1. Do you think that travelling by air is more convenient than by train?
Why?
2. Have you ever travelled by air? When was it? 3. When did the
storyteller travel by plane last time?
4. Why must passengers be at the
airport more than an hour in advance?
5. Are passengers allowed to have
some luggage with them on board the plane?
6. Did the storyteller arrive
at the airport on time?
7. Where did his plane go? 8. What notice did the
passengers see when the plane took off ?
9. What information did they get
during the fl ight?
10. Did the stewardess serve the travellers well? 11. Wa s
the plane late?
VI. Ask one another questions about travelling by plane according to the models.
Model 1: St. 1: Did you have to travel much?
St. 2:
Yes, I did. I travelled a lot. (No, I didn’t. I didn’t travel
much.)
St. l: So did I. (Neither did I.)
Model 2: St. 1:
Did you have to travel much?
St. 2:
Yes, I did. (No, I didn’t.)
St. l: But I didn’t. (But I did.)
This is what you want to know:
1) if your friend likes travelling by plane; 2) if he (she) has travelled by air
much;
3) where he (she) prefers to have a seat, in the rear or in the front
part of the saloon;
4) if he (she) had to travel light; 5) if he (she) usually
books a single or return ticket;
6) if he (she) feels airsick.
VII. Speak on the process of registration at the airport before the fl ight. Consult the text.
VIII. Think of some phrases with which the stewardess addresses the passengers:
1) when the plane is taking off ;
2) when the plane is landing.

247
IX. Speak on the trip by air described in the text.
X. Describe your last trip by air.
Short Dialogues
BOOKING AIRLINE TICKETS
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: I want to fl y to Bern on or about the fi rst.
B: I’ll just see what there is.
A: I’d like to go economy, and I’d prefer the aft ernoon.
B: Luft hansa Flight LH 203
leaves at 12.40.
A: What time do I have to be there?
B: Th e coach leaves for the airport at 11.35.
II
А: I’d like to book a fl ight to Munich for Friday the tenth.
B: I’ll have a look in the timetable.
A: I’ll need an economy class open return.
B: KLM have got a DC-9 leaving at 9.25.
A: What else should I know?
B: Th e latest time of checking is 8.35
at the airport.
III
A: What fl ights are there from Glasgow to Vienna the day aft er tomorrow?
B: If you’d like to take a seat, I’ll fi nd out for you.
A: I’d like to travel fi rst class, please.
B: BEA Flight BE 502
takes off at 9.15 and fl ies direct.
A: What time should I get there?
B: You’ll have to be at the airport by 8.10
as the latest.
IV
A: Are there any planes to Zurich at a weekend?
B: If you excuse me for a second, I’ll check.
A: By the way, I want a morning fl ight.
B: Th ere is a Swissair Trident out of London at 8.45.
A: When am I supposed to check in?
B: If you are going to the airport, you must be there before 7.50.

248
I. to fl y [flaI] (fl ew, fl own) — лететь
I’d like to go economy. — Мне хотелось бы лететь экономическим
классом.
а coach [kAUtS] — автобус
II. to book а fl ight — заказывать билет на рейс
Munich [´mju:nIk] — Мюнхен
open return — с открытой датой возвращения
checking — регистрация
III. Vienna [vI´enA] — Вена
to fi nd out — выяснять
to fl y direct — лететь прямо, без промежуточных посадок
IV. Zurich [´zjuArIk] — Цюрих
by the way — между прочим, кстати
a Swissair Trident [´swIs ,eA ´traIdAnt] — самолет швейцарской
авиакомпании
When am I supposed to check in? — Когда я должен заре ги стри ро-
ваться?
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1, then В 1, etc.
II. You want to fl y to another city.
1. Ask about the fl ight.
Model: Is there any fl ight to Los Angeles on Sunday?
Th e place of destination is: Vienna, London, Paris, Rome,
Moscow, New York.
2. Say what fl ight you prefer.
Model: I need an economy class and I prefer a morning fl ight.
You want: a fi rst class — a night fl ight; a business class — a morning
fl ight; an economy class — an evening fl ight; a fi rst class, open
return — an aft ernoon fl ight; a tourist class — a morning
fl ight.

249
III. The clerk is giving you information about tickets. Thank him and say that it is just
what you want.
Model: Th ere are two tickets for the morning fl ight, Luft hansa
Company. — Oh, thank you. Th at’s just what I need (want).
Us e : a ticket for the fi rst class KLM fl ight; a ticket for the morning
fl ight BEA; three tickets for the business class Aerofl ot; two
tickets for the economy class, the morning fl ight Luft hansa.
IV. Reproduce the short dialogues “Booking Airline Tickets” in similar situations.
Grammar
THE PASSIVE VOICE
(СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ)
Сказуемое предложения может употребляться либо в действительном
(active voice), либо в страдательном залоге (passive voice). Все глагольные
формы в различных группах времен, рассмотренных ранее, давались в
действительном залоге.
Форма страдательного залога в английском языке аналогична одной из
форм страдательного залога в русском языке:
вспомогательный глагол to be + основной глагол в III форме
to be written — быть написанным
to be asked — быть спрошенным
В этой модели первый элемент (to be) формально является переменной
величиной, а второй — постоянной, т. е. это всегда III форма конкретного
глагола. Глагол to be изменяется в зависимости от:
1. Группы времен:
• simple (to be);
• continuous (to be being);
• perfect (to have been).
2. Времени совершения действия, лица, числа.

250
to be (simple)
Present
Pas t
Future
am
is
arewas
wereshall
willbe
to be being (continuous)
Present
Pas t
Future
am
is
are
being
was
were
being
shall
will
be being


⎭⎫

⎭ ⎫

⎭⎫


to have been (perfect)
Present
Pas t
Future
have
has
been had beenshall
will
have been
Итак, все сведения об образовании и употреблении той или иной группы
времен, полученные ранее, пригодятся для постановки глагола to be в со-
ставе страдательного залога в нужную форму. Следует отметить, что в
разговорной практике страдательный залог используется преимуще-
ственно во временах группы простого времени и в настоящем перфект-
ном. Остальные формы встречаются в письменной речи с большей или
меньшей степенью частотности. Необходимо также помнить, что в совре-
менном английском языке в будущем времени всех временных групп вспо-
могательный глагол will вытесняет глагол shall и может употребляться со
всеми лицами.


⎭⎫



251
Active Voice (simple) Passive Voice (simple)
1. Peter the First founded our city in
1703. — Петр I основал наш город
в 1703
году.
1. Our city was founded by Peter the
First in 1703. — Наш город был
основан Петром I в 1703 году.
2. А lot of students study foreign
languages at the University. — Мно-
гие студенты изучают иностран-
ные языки в университете. 2. Foreign languages are studied by a
lot of students at the University. —
Иностранные языки изучаются
многими студентами универси-
тета.
3. I’ll post the letter immediately. —
Я отправлю письмо немедленно. 3. The letter will be posted im-
mediately. — Письмо будет от-
правлено немедленно.
Exercises
I. Read and translate the following lines paying attention to the passive voice.
About Books
First, books are written by writers. Th en they are printed by printers. Aft er
that books are sold by booksellers, bought by people and they are read by
thousands of readers.
II. Describe the following processes as it has been done in exercise I:
1. Films
to make (by fi lm-makers)
to shoot (shot) (by cameramen) — снимать фильм
to show (showed, shown) at the cinemas
to see (by audience [´D:dIAns] — зрителями)
to criticise [´krItIsaIz] (by critics)
2. Houses
to construct (by builders)
to accept (by commission) — принимать
to tenant [´tenAnt] — заселять
to live in
3. Vegetables
to plant [plC:nt] (by farmers) — сажать

252to grow (grew, grown)
to pick up — собирать
to deliver [dI´lIvA] to the shops — доставлять в магазины
to sell (sold)
to buy (bought)
III. Match the beginning of each sentence in the left-hand column to the end of the
sentence to make a complete s tatement a bout inventions and discoveries.
1. Th e telephone a) was opened in Pasadena in 1948
2. Th e fi rst fl ight b) was devised by Sony in 1978
3. Th e fi rst radio message c) was made by Wright in 1903
4. Th e laws of pendulum d) was produced by Penguin in 1935
5. Th e value of pi —
(π) (3.1416)e) was discovered by Columbus in 1492
6. Th e Walkman f ) was transmitted by Marconi in 1895
7. Th e fi rst heart transplant g) were established by Galileo in 1591
8. Th e fi rst paperback book h) was performed by Barnard in 1967
9. Th e American continent i) was calculated by Archimedes in the 3rd
century B.C.
10. Th e fi rst MacDonald’s j) was invented by Bell in 1876
Do you remember any other inventions and discoveries? With what names
are they connected?
IV. Change the sentences according to the model. Pay attention to the tense of the
predicate.
Model: Т.: Yuri Dolgoruky founded Moscow in 1147.
St.: Moscow was founded in 1147
by Yuri Dolgoruky.
1. In autumn farmers pick up vegetables and fruit. 2. Next year pupils will
study some new subjects at school.
3. I earned the money and spent it at
once.
4. Th e plant produces modern machinery. 5. Th e meeting has just
begun. Th ey are discussing an important problem.
6. Our country launched
the fi rst sputnik into space in 1957
. 7. А lot of tourists visit St.- Petersburg
in summer.
8. We’ll send this letter immediately. 9. He told me that he had
bought the book two days before.
10. Our laboratory will have fi nished the
test by the end of the next week.
11. When we came there, Professor B was
making a report.
12. Th e students have just translated this text.

253
V. Answer the questions according to the model.
Т.: Novels are written by writers. And poems?
St.: Poems are written by poets.
1. Literature and languages are taught at the University, and what about
medicine? (at the Medical University)
2. Our city was founded in 1703. And
Moscow? (in 1147)
3. Th e fi rst sputnik was launched into space in
1957. And what about the fi rst manned spaceship? (in 1961)
4. Th e
exercise has been already translated. And what about the text? (not yet)
5. Th e telegram must be sent today. And the letter? (later) 6. Tea is served
in all long-distance trains. And coff ee? (not)
VI. Translate into English paying attention to the tense of the predicate in the passive
voice.
1. Каждый год в нашем городе строится много новых жилых домов.
2. Этот дом был построен в прошлом году. 3. В следующем году в
нашем районе будет построено несколько новых домов.
4. Посмотри,
какой высокий дом строится в конце улицы.
5. Этот дом строился,
когда мы сюда приехали.
6. Тот новый многоэтажный дом только что
построили.
7. К тому времени, когда мы сюда приехали, этот дом был
уже построен.
8. Их дом будет построен к концу следующего года.
Grammar
The Peculiarities of the Passive Voice in English
(Особенности страдательного залога в английском языке)
В английском языке страдательный залог (пассив) имеет более широкую
сферу применения в сравнении с русским. Главным образом это связано с
тем, что в русском языке пассив образуется только от переходных глаго-
лов, в то время как в английском — и от переходных, и от непереходных.
К тому же, понятие переходности не всегда трактуется одинаково в двух
языках. Это не означает, что залоговые отношения в обоих зыках не могут
совпадать. Как показывают примеры, приводимые выше, английским
предложениям со сказуемым в страдательном залоге могут соответство-
вать аналогичные предложения в русском языке. Однако, ввиду опреде-
лённых языковых различий, достаточно частотны случаи, когда англий-
ские предложения со сказуемым в страдательном залоге переводятся на
русский язык неопределенно-личными предложениями со сказуемым

254
в действительном залоге. Примеры, данные ниже, демонстрируют эту за-
кономерность.
1. Форма страдательного залога распространена в английском языке со
следующими переходными глаголами: to ask, to send, to answer, to help, to
tell (велеть), to show, to give, to offer, to take, to present и др.
В соответствующем русском предложении такие отношения передаются
сказуемым в действительном залоге в составе неопределенно-личного
предложения:
He is often asked to help with the job. — Его часто просят помочь в ра-
боте.
I was told to inform him about it. — Мне велели сообщить ему об этом.
Запомните, что в таких предложениях местоимения I, he, she и т. д. пере-
водятся на русский язык как «меня, мне», «его, ему», «ее, ей» и т. д.

2. Такая же закономерность наблюдается в предложениях, в которых ска-
зуемое выражено непереходным глаголом, требующим предложного до-
полнения: to speak about smb., smth., to send for smb., smth., to live in, to
look at smb., smth., to laugh at smb., smth., to insist on (upon) smth. (настаи-
вать на чем-либо), to rely on (upon) smb., smth. (полагаться на кого-либо,
что-либо) и некоторыми другими глаголами:
The house is not lived in. — В этом доме не живут.
The doctor has been sent for. — За доктором послали.
3. Залоговые несоответствия наблюдаются и при переводе на русский
язык английских предложений со сказуемым, выраженным переходным
глаголом, который в русском языке является непереходным, а потому не
образует форму пассива. Это следующие глаголы: to follow smb., smth.
(следовать за кем-л., чем-л.), to infl uence smb., smth. (влиять на кого-л.,
что-л.), to affect smb., smth. (воздействовать на кого-л., что-л.), to need
smb., smth. (нуждаться в чём-л., ком-л.), to answer smb., smth. (отвечать
кому-л., на что-л.) и некоторые другие глаголы, требующие, в отличие от
русского языка, беспредложного управления:
Не was infl uenced by his friend. — Ha него оказал влияние его друг.
He is always followed by a group of teenagers. — За ним всегда идет
(следует) группа подростков.

255
Предложения, содержащие глаголы этой группы в страдательном залоге,
на русский язык переводятся личными предложениями (в отличие от
неопределённо-личных предложений, иллюстрирующих употребление
глаголов, упомянутых в пунктах 1 и 2) с инвертированным порядком слов,
при котором подлежащее помещается после сказуемого.
Следует также обратить внимание на то, что предложения с глаголами в
страдательном залоге, упомянутыми в пунктах 2 и 3, в русском варианте
начинаются с предложного дополнения.
Exercises
VII. Translate into Russian.
1. I was given a very interesting book to read. 2. We were told to translate
the text and to learn the new words.
3. Th is problem will be insisted on.
4. Films of this fi lm-maker are much spoken about. 5. Th ese people cannot
be relied on.
6. Poor girl! She is oft en laughed at by everybody. 7. Th is
picture is always looked at with great interest.
8. Today we have been given
much homework.
9. Th e lecture was followed by a new documentary fi lm.
10. He said that he had been sent on business to the Far East. 11. Th e
question was not answered.
VIII. Choose the right Russian variant.
1. Th e results of the experiment were infl uenced by the previous data.
а. Результаты эксперимента повлияли на предыдущие данные.
б. На результаты эксперимента повлияли предыдущие данные.
в. Предыдущие данные повлияли на результаты эксперимента.
2. His business trip has been insisted on by the chief.
а. Ha его командировке настоял шеф.
б. Он настоял на командировке шефа.
в. Шеф настоял на его командировке.
3. Th e report was followed by a lot of questions.
а. Много вопросов последовало за докладом.
б. За докладом последовало много вопросов.
в. За докладом следует много вопросов.
4. Th is scientist is oft en referred to by the authors of scientifi c papers.
а. Авторы научных статей часто ссылаются на этого ученого.
б. На этого ученого часто ссылаются авторы научных статей.
в. На этого ученого часто ссылались авторы научных статей.

256
IX. А. Answer the questions using the predicate in the passive voice.
1. How much money are you paid every month? 2. Are you given a bonus?
How oft en?
3. What presents were you given for your last birthday? 4. Who
was invited to your birthday party?
5. When is Christmas celebrated in
our country?
6. Are you oft en sent on business to other towns (cities)?
When were you sent on business last time?
7. What homework have you
been given for today’s English lesson?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words Can (Could) you tell me or I wonder.
X. Study the models and answer the following questions.
1. Т.: What follows winter? — Что следует за зимой?
St.: Spring follows winter. — Весна следует за зимой.
2. Т.: What is followed by winter? — Зa чем следует зима? (Что
сопровождается зимой?)
St.: Autumn is followed by winter. — Зa осенью следует зима. (Осень
сопровождается зимой.)
3. Т.: What is winter followed by? — Что следует за зимой? (Чем
сопровождается зима?)
St.: Winter is followed by spring. — За зимой следует весна. (Зима
сопровождается весной.)
1. What follows April? 2. What is January followed by? 3. What followed
the discovery of atom? (the use of atom for military purposes)
4. What
follows night?
5. What is followed by night? 6. What is summer followed
by?
7. What will follow the fi lm? (discussion)
XI. Translate into English using the predicate of the sentence in the passive voice.
1. Лекцию посетило много студентов. 2. Им не сразу сообщили об
этом событии.
3. В этом доме не живут зимой. 4. На письмо необ-
ходимо ответить немедленно.
5. За лекцией последовал новый доку-
мен тальный фильм.
6. На этих условиях (terms) будут настаивать.
7. Вас просили сделать это. 8. Об этом романе много говорят. 9. На ее
госпитализации настаивали врачи.
10. Господин Смит — известный
ученый, на его научные работы часто ссылаются.
11. На телефонный
звонок никто не ответил.
12. Дверь открылась, и все увидели госпо-

257 дина Брауна, за которым следовала его жена.
13. На улице к нам об-
ратился какой-то прохожий.
14. Он обратился за работой в одну
фирму, но ему отказали.
Grammar
The Passive Voice with Modal Verbs
(Страдательный залог с модальными глаголами)
Модальные глаголы, относящиеся к классу недостаточных глаголов, на-
ряду с некоторыми другими формами, не имеют форм страдального за-
лога. Противопоставление действительный / страдательный залог в
этом случае выражается изменением залоговых характеристик инфини-
тива:
to offer — to be offered;
to have offered — to have been offered.
We cann ot rely on his words. — Мы не можем положиться на его слова.
His words cannot be relied on. — Ha его слова нельзя положиться.
Exercises
XII. Translate into Russian.
1. Tr a ffi c signs must be followed by all people, pedestrians or drivers.
2. Tr a ffi c rules must not be broken, otherwise you will not avoid collision.
3. Crimes must be investigated and punished. 4. Spelling and grammar
rules should be followed by those who learn foreign languages.
5. Changeable weather cannot be relied on. 6. Remember that promises
must be kept.
7. Who may be admitted to the University according to the
local rules?
8. Th is job cannot be done for the short period; you need at
least three more days.
XIII. Practise in the use of the passive voice with modal verbs.
1. What people among those given below can or cannot be relied on?
Men of their word; pessimists; real friends; lazy students; honest people;
liars; political fi gures; dishonest people; optimists.
Can you continue the list?

2. What factors among those enumerated below must be or must not be taken into account
when applicants (абитуриенты) are admitted to the University?
A sex; education; a nationality; scientifi c interests; bad habits; a place of
residence; a race; the property possessed; a talent; features of character; a
marital status.
Can you continue the list?
3. What measures should be taken for raising the living standard of the population? While
answering use the basic model:
Something should be done for that.
Th e living standard of the population should be raised.
Us e : to increase salaries and wages; to reduce prices for consumer
goods; to provide people with worthy accommodation; to
increase pensions; to raise labour productivity; to bring down
infl ation; to develop market economy; to introduce changes
into the sphere of education and medicine; to settle the
transport problems; to lower the level of unemployment.
And what else?
XIV. Translate into English using modal verbs with the passive infi nitive.
1. Люди, на которых нельзя положиться, называются ненадежными.
2. Все правила уличного движения необходимо строго соблюдать.
3. Нельзя работать бесплатно; любая работа должна оплачиваться
своевременно.
4. За маленькими детьми нужно присматривать, а за
старыми людьми — ухаживать.
5. На этот метод не следует ссылать-
ся — он устарел.
6. Этот дом летний, поэтому в нем нельзя жить зи-
мой.
7. Литература и иностранные языки как общеобразовательные
предметы должны быть включены в программу университета.
8. Деньги, взятые в долг, должны быть возвращены вовремя. 9. Этого
ученого с докладом о его последнем открытии следует пригласить на
конференцию.
10. Этот текст нельзя перевести без словаря — он
слишком труден.
11. На его поездке за границу нужно настаивать.
12. Фильм был настолько интересный, что его нельзя забыть.

259
Unit
FOURTEEN
Conversation: At the Customs
Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses Rule. Indirect Speech
Te x t
Read the text.
At the Customs
Every day many people travel throughout the world either on business or
for pleasure. Th ose who cross the frontier of the state have to go through
customs.
Th e customs service is designed for carrying out customs control to
regulate import and export of goods and currency. Th e place where
customs or duties are paid is called a customs house.
Every country has its own customs legislation, and if you are going
abroad you are supposed to learn the rules of leaving and entering the
foreign state. To be on the safe side, you should know what is allowed or
prohibited to be brought into or taken out. Before packing your luggage
consult the prohibited articles list which is available at the customs.
Among the articles that are prohibited for taking out of the country in
accordance with customs legislation of all states you will fi nd works of art,
diff erent types of prints, manuscripts, valuable musical instruments,
cancelled securities, numismatics, stamps and other articles of artistic,
historical and cultural value.
Th ough strict prohibition applies to antiques, you may be allowed to
take some original painting or drawing out provided you got a special
licence for it and paid duties.
Th e list of prohibited commodities both for bringing into and taking
out also includes arms, explosives, military equipment and drugs.
Everybody leaving for a foreign country ought to know that there
can be articles liable to duty and duty free. As a rule, personal belongings,
gift s and souvenirs (the cost of the latter must not exceed a certain limit

260 stipulated by the customs regulation) are duty free. Money not declared
and therefore concealed from the customs control is liable to confi scation
as smuggling. Prohibited or restricted articles though declared are
usually detained, and the traveller can collect them on his way back.
When the passenger enters or leaves the country, he must fi ll in an
entry or exit declaration which is to be produced to the customs offi cer.
Th e passenger is to fi ll in his name, citizenship, country of residence,
permanent address, purpose and duration of his visit in block letters. He
must also declare all dutiable articles.
To make a trip to most countries every traveller must have a visa,
single, multiple or transit, which is issued by the Foreign Embassy or
Consulate. Th e visa may be prolonged in case of necessity, but the time for
which it is valid must not expire, otherwise the traveller will not be allowed
to leave the country. Th e overseas passport is also necessary. All the
documents are carefully studied by the customs offi cer.
To go through customs means to have your luggage inspected by
customs men. Th e traveller puts his bags and suitcases on the moving
conveyor belt for checking. To prevent smuggling, modern methods and
techniques have been developed which help customs offi cers examine
the inside of the luggage. TV cameras and monitors are installed
everywhere at the customs house. When the passenger puts his hand
luggage on the conveyor belt, special monitors are scanning the enclosure.
Th ey are able to detect every thing, even if it has been concealed in the
very secret corner. Customs men know from experience the exact places
of concealment of goods. It may be a double bottom or cover of the
suitcase, a hollowed book, an inside pocket, a toothpaste tube, a stick;
even toys and dolls can be used for that. Customs offi cers are trained to
recognise travellers who are carrying something illegally and they can
prevent smuggling. Th e smuggling of drugs has increased a great deal in
the recent years and has become a world problem. Customs men in
diff erent countries supply one another with helpful information.
In the United Kingdom there is a system of red and green symbols in
operation at big airports. If you have nothing more than the allowances
and no prohibited or restricted goods or goods for commercial purpose,
go straight through the channel indicated by the green symbol unless the
offi cer on duty asks you to stop.

261 If you have more than the allowances or if you carry prohibited or
restricted goods or goods for commercial purpose, go to the channel
indicated by the red symbol.
So, if you follow the customs instructions and if you do not break any
law, you will enjoy your trip abroad.
Words and Expressions
at the customs […´kEstAmz] — на таможне
a frontier [´frEntIA / frEn´tIA] — граница (между государствами)
to go through customs — проходить таможенный досмотр
to be designed for smth. [… dI´zaInd …] — быть предназначенным для
чего-л.
to carry out [´kBri] — осуществлять
goods — товары
currency [´kErAnsi] — валюта
to pay customs (duties) — платить таможенную пошлину
a customs house — таможня
legislation [,ledZI´sleISn] — законодательство
to prohibit [prA´hIbIt] — запрещать
an article [´C:tIkl] — предмет (для ввоза или вывоза)
а print [prInt] — гравюра, эстамп
а manuscript [´mBnjU,skrIpt] — рукопись
valuable [´vBljUbl] — ценный
cancelled securities [´kBnsAld sI´kjUArAtiz] — аннулированные ценные
бумаги
numismatics [,nju:mIzmBtIks] — нумизматика (употребляется как ед.
число)
artistic [C:´tIstIk] — художественный
value [´vBlju:] — ценность
strict prohibition [… ,prAUI´bISn] — строгий запрет
to apply to smth. [A´plaI …] — зд.: распространяется на что-л.
an antique [Bn´ti:k] — антикварная вещь
an original painting [A´rIdZnAl ´peIntIN] — подлинник живописного
полотна
a drawing [´drD:IN] — рисунок
provided [prA´vaIdId] — при условии
a commodity [kA´mOdIti] — товар

262
arms [C:mz] — оружие
an explosive [Ik´splAUsIv] — взрывчатое вещество
military equipment [´mIlIt(A)ri I´kwIpmAnt] — военное оборудование
drugs — наркотики
liable to duty [´laIAbl …] — подлежащий обложению таможенной
пошлиной
duty free [´dju:ti ´fri:] — не облагаемый таможенной пошлиной
personal belongings [´pQ:sAnl bI´lONINz] — личные вещи
a gift — подарок
tо stipulate [´stIpjU,leIt] — обусловливать, оговаривать
tо declare smth. [dI´kleA] — вносить что-л. в декларацию
tо conceal [kAn´si:l] — скрывать, утаивать
restricted articles [rI´strIktId…] — предметы, вывоз которых разрешен в
ограниченных количествах
to detain [dI´teIn] — задерживать
to collect [kA´lekt] — забирать
an entry declaration [´entri ,deklA´reISn] — декларация при въезде (в
страну)
an exit declaration [´eksIt …] — декларация при выезде (из страны)
a customs offi cer […´OfIsA] — работник таможни
citizenship [´sItIznSIp] — гражданство
the purpose and duration of the visit [´pQ:pAs … djU´reISn] — цель и
продолжительность визита
in block letters [blOk …] — печатными буквами
dutiable [´dju:tjAbl] — подлежащий обложению таможенной
пошлиной
a single visa [´sINgl ´vi:zA] — однократная виза
a multiple visa [´mEltIpl …] — многократная виза
а transit visa [´trBnsIt …] — транзитная виза
to issue a visa [´Isju: …] — выдавать визу
an Embassy [´embAsi] — посольство
a Consulate [´kOnsjUlAt] — консульство
to prolong a visa [prA´lON …] — продлевать визу
in case of necessity [… nA´sesAti] — в случае необходимости
to be valid for […´vBlId…] — быть действительным, иметь силу до …
to expire [Ik´spaIA] — истекать (о сроке)
an overseas passport [´oUvA´si:z ´pC:spD:t] — заграничный паспорт

263
to prevent smuggling [prI´vent ´smEglIN] — предотвращать контра-
банду
to scan the enclosure [´skBn … In´klAUZA] — просматривать вложение
concealment [kAn´si:lmAnt] — сокрытие
a double bottom [´dEbl ´bOtAm] — двойное дно
a hollowed book [´hOlAUd …] — книга с вырезанными страницами
а stick [stIk] — трость
а doll [dOl] — кукла
to train [treIn] — обучать
to recognise [´rekAg,naIz] — узнавать
illegally [I´li:gAli] — незаконно, нелегально
an allowance [A´laUAns] — то, что разрешено к вывозу
а law [lD:] — правило, закон
Exercises
I. Answer the questions.
1. In what case does a traveller have to go through customs? 2. Why are
customs houses set up on the frontiers?
3. What are the functions of a
customs offi cer?
4. What goods are prohibited for bringing into and taking
out by all countries?
5. What articles must not be taken out in accordance
with the Russian customs legislation?
6. What things can be brought into
and taken out duty free? Which are liable to duty?
7. What articles can be
confi scated or detained at the customs house?
8. Is smuggling through the
customs possible? What is invented to prevent it?
9. What must be declared
in the declaration form?
II. Go on with enumerating.
1. Articles that are duty free are personal belongings, … . 2. Th e following
papers are needed for going through customs: a visa, … .
3. A visa can be
issued as single, … .
4. In the prohibited articles list one can fi nd antiques,
… .
5. Among the articles liable to duty passengers can fi nd some original
paintings, … .
6. In the declaration form a traveller must write down the
country visited, … .
7. A conveyor belt, … are installed at the customs
house to search the tourist’s luggage.
8. Customs men know the exact
places of concealment of goods. It may be an inside pocket, … .

264
III. Enumerate some customs regulations concerning the things brought into or taken
out (at least four of them).
IV. Speak about fi lling in the declaration form. These questions will help you.
1. What items are included in the declaration form? 2. Why are two kinds
of declaration used: entry and exit?
3. How ought the declaration form to
be fi lled in, in handwriting or typewriting?
4. What things must be
declared? And how about currency?
5. What other documents or papers
besides the declaration form does a traveller need?
V. Describe the procedure of searching the traveller’s luggage. Name all devices and
instruments designed for examining suitcases and bags.
VI. Speak about the system of red and green symbols at the customs house at big airports
of the United Kingdom.
VII. Say what measures contribute to preventing smuggling through the customs.
VIII. Say what the customs offi cer would like to know.
Model 1: Can I see your declaration, Mr. Tompson? — Th e customs
offi cer is asking Mr. Tompson to show him his declaration.
1. Can I see your cash, please? 2. Could you produce your overseas
passport?
3. Will you, please, open your suitcase, Mr. Green? 4. Can I see
your transit visa, please?
5. Could you show me your exit declaration, Mrs.
O’Hara?
6. Can I see your camera, Mr. Robertson?
Model 2: Have you fi lled in your exit declaration? — Th e customs offi cer
is asking the traveller if (whether) he has fi lled in his exit
declaration.
1. Have you got any things liable to duty? 2. Have you declared all your
money, Mr. Brown?
3. Is this your suitcase, Mrs. Priestly? 4. Are you taking
out any spirits and cigarettes?
5. Have you got a transit visa? 6. Are you
bringing into any commercial goods?
IX. The traveller would like to know something from the customs offi cer. Say what he
wants to know beginning with the introductory phrase The traveller (touris t, passenger) is
asking the customs offi cer.
1. Where can I fi nd out the customs regulation? 2. What things can be
taken along duty free?
3. Must I pay extra duty for this? 4. Where will the

265 customs procedure take place?
5. Am I permitted to have 20 cigarettes?
6. Where can I get a customs declaration form?
X. This is a talk between the customs offi cer and the traveller.
— You declare here that you haven’t got weapons. Do you confi rm your
written statement?
— I fully confi rm my statement.
With your partner make up similar dialogues.
Th e customs offi cer is asking about: drugs, icons, antiques, military
equipment, prohibited or restricted articles, manuscripts, numismatics.
Te x t
Read the text.
The Smuggler
Sam Lewis was a customs offi cer. He used to work in a small border town.
It was not a busy town and there was not much work. Th e road was usually
very quiet and there were not many travellers. It was not a very interesting
job, but Sam liked an easy life. About once a week, he used to meet an old
man. His name was Draper. He always used to arrive at the border early in
the morning in a big truck. Th e truck was always empty. Aft er a while Sam
became suspicious. He oft en used to search the truck, but never found
anything. One day he asked Draper about his job. Draper laughed and
said, “I am a smuggler.”
Last year Sam retired. He spent his savings on an expensive holiday.
He fl ew to Bermuda, and stayed in a luxury hotel. One day he was sitting
by the pool and opposite him he saw Draper drinking champagne. Sam
walked over to him.
Sam: Hello, there!
Draper: Hi!
Sam: Do you remember me?
Draper: Yes … of course I do. You’re a customs offi cer.
Sam: I used to be, but I’m not any more. I retired last month. I oft en
used to search your truck …
Draper: … but you never found anything!
Sam: No, I didn’t. Can I ask you something?

266Draper: Of course you can.
Sam: Were you a smuggler?
Draper: Of course I was.
Sam: But … the truck was always empty. What were you smuggling?
Draper: Trucks.
(B. Hartley and P. Viney. Streamline English.
Connections. — Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. P. 95)
Words and Expressions
а border [´bD:dA] — граница
quiet [kwaIAt] — тихий
a truck [trEk] — грузовик
to become suspicious [… sA´spISAs] — начать подозревать что-то
to search [sQ:tS] — обыскивать
a smuggler [´smEglA] — контрабандист
to retire [rI´taIA] — выходить в отставку
Bermuda [bQ:´mju:dA] — Бермудские острова
XI. Answer the questions.
1. What was the place where Sam Lewis worked as a customs offi cer?
2. Th ere wasn’t much work there, was there? 3. Who regularly arrived at
the border?
4. Did the customs offi cer search the truck carefully? 5. Sam
tried to prevent smuggling, didn’t he? Did he manage to do it?
6. Where
did Sam Lewis go aft er he had retired?
7. Who did he meet there? 8. What
did he learn about Draper?
9. Sam Lewis and Draper both liked an easy
life and luxury, didn’t they? Do you like an easy life?
XII. Say why Sam Lewis was not a professional customs offi cer. What personal features
did he lack? The fi rst is that he was indifferent to his job. Name the others.
XIII. Mark with a tick the following qualities that in your opinion a professional customs
offi cer should have.
1. A real customs offi cer must be:
• patient
• sly
• kind
• strict
• absent-minded
• concentrated

267 • evil
• polite
• shy
• clever
• physically strong
• just
• talkative
2. А customs offi cer must have:
• perspicacity ([,pQ:spI´kBsItI] — проницательность)
• intuition
• an attractive appearance
• knowledge in man’s psychology
• higher education
• strong muscles
XIV. Think of at least fi ve measures which can be taken to prevent the smuggling of
articles of original art.
Dialogue
Read the dialogue.
Going Through Customs at the Airport
Daniela: Hello!
John: Hi!
Daniela: Do you know which channel to go through?
John: No. Let’s ask a customs offi cer.
Daniela: Excuse me. Could you tell me which channel to go through?
Offi cer: If you’ve got anything to declare you go through the red
channel. If you haven’t got anything to declare you go through the green
channel.
Daniela: How do I know if I have anything to declare?
Offi cer: Are you staying in Britain for more than six months?
Daniela: No.
Offi cer: Well, the amount of goods you can bring in without paying
duty depends on where you bought them. You can have two hundred
cigarettes, one litre of spirits, two litres of wine and presents worth twenty-
eight pounds if you bought them in a country not in the EEC
1. If you
1 EEC — European Economic Community (the Common Market), the old name for
the European Union (the EU)

268 bought them in an EEC country, you can have three hundred cigarettes,
one and a half litres of spirits, four litres of wine and presents worth a
hundred and twenty pounds.
John: Right. I have one and a half litres of brandy and three litres of
wine that I bought in Italy. I don’t have any presents. Th at means I don’t
have anything to declare.
Offi cer: Th at’s right. You can go through the green channel.
Daniela: I’ve only got two hundred cigarettes and a litre of whisky that
I bought on the plane, but I’ve got a camera that I bought in Italy that cost
two hundred pounds. It’s a present for a friend of my father’s.
Offi cer: Th en you must go through the red channel.
Daniela: Th ank you. (to John) Shall we meet at the airport shop?
John: Sure.
(Daniela goes to the red channel.)
Offi cer: Have you got any spirits, wine or tobacco in excess of the duty
free allowance?
Daniela: No, I’ve got this bottle of whisky and these cigarettes.
Offi cer: Th at’s all right. Have you got any presents that you intend to
leave in Britain?
Daniela: Yes, I’ve got this camera — it cost two hundred pounds.
I bought it in Italy.
Offi cer: Have you got a receipt for the camera?
Daniela: Yes. Here it is.
Offi cer: Th ank you. If you wait a minute, I’ll tell you how much duty
you have to pay on it.
Daniela: Th ank you.
(What to Say.
BBC Radio and Television Course. London, 1987.)
Exercises
XV. Answer the questions.
1. In what case does the tourist have to go through the red channel at the English
airport?
2. Who is the green channel intended for? 3. Is there a limit to a number
of articles the tourist intend to bring in?
4. What is more advantageous for a
tourist visiting Great Britain, to buy goods in the EU countries or in the
countries of other communities?
5. Why didn’t John have to declare anything
at the airport?
6. Why did Daniela have to declare a camera?

269
XVI. Go on with enumerating the factors that infl uence whether you have to declare
things brought into Great Britain or not.
It depends on:
1) if you intend to stay in the country for more than six months.
2) where you … .
3) the amount of goods … .
4) the price of the present … .
XVII. А. According to the British customs legislation, if you bring in goods, bought not
in the EU country, the amount or the price is the following:
for cigarettes —
for spirits —
for wine —
for presents —
B. If you bring in goods bought in one of the EU countries, the amount or the price is
different:
for cigarettes —
for spirits —
for wine —
for presents —
XVIII. Translate into English.
1. В таможне британского аэропорта турист должен проходить либо
через зеленый, либо через красный «коридор» в зависимости от коли-
чества и стоимости ввозимых товаров.
2. Через зеленый «коридор»
идут те, кому ничего не нужно заносить в декларацию.
3. Таможенный
служащий должен знать, куплены ли ввозимые товары в странах Ев-
ропейского Союза или в других странах.
4. Для товаров, приобретен-
ных в одной из стран Европейского Союза, существуют льготы.
5. Если
стоимость подарков превышает определенный лимит, турист должен
платить пошлину за них.
6. Если количество алкоголя и табачных из-
делий не превышает норму, они не подлежат обложению таможенной
пошлиной.
XIX. Reproduce the dialogue ‘‘Going Through Customs at the Airport”.

270 Grammar
THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES RULE
(ПРАВИЛО СОГЛАСОВАНИЯ ВРЕМЕН)
Согласование (или последовательность) времен — это определенная
грамматическая зависимость времени глагола придаточного предложе-
ния от времени глагола главного предложения. Такая последователь-
ность времен соблюдается в сложноподчиненных предложениях с при-
даточным дополнительным.
Правило согласования времен гласит: если глагол главного предложения
употребляется в прошедшем времени, то в придаточном может быть упо-
треблено только одно из прошедших времен (past simple, past continuous,
past perfect, past perfect continuous или future in the past). Формы настоя-
щего и будущего времени недопустимы. Отсюда следует, что, если глагол
главного предложения представлен формами настоящего и будущего
времени, то в придаточном предложении может быть употреблено любое
время, требующееся по смыслу.
Для смысла предложения не безразлично, какое из прошедших времен
английского языка будет употреблено в придаточном предложении. Этот
выбор зависит от временного взаимодействия двух глаголов — главного
и придаточного предложения:
1. Если действие (процесс, состояние), передаваемое глаголом придаточ-
ного предложения, происходит одновременно с действием (процессом,
состоянием), обозначенным глаголом главного предложения, то в прида-
точном предложении используется либо прошедшее простое (past simple),
либо прошедшее длительное (past continuous), либо прошедшее совер-
шен но-длительное (past perfect continuous).
1. I thought (that) you knew about my arrival. — Я думал, что ты знаешь
о моем приезде.
2. The little boy said (that) his mother was washing the dishes while his
father was lying on the sofa. — Маленький мальчик сказал, что его
мама моет посуду, а папа лежит на диване.
3. I didn’t know (that) you had been waiting for me so long. — Я не знал,
что вы ждете меня так долго.
2. Если действие (процесс, состояние), выраженное глаголом в придаточ-
ном предложении, предшествует действию (процессу, состоянию), обо-

271
значенному глаголом главного предложения, то в придаточном предло-
жении употребляется прошедшее совершенное (pas t perfect) или прошед-
шее совершенно-длительное (past perfect continuous), поскольку именно
грамматическое время past perfect и передает действие, которое может
квалифицироваться как предпрошедшее (т. е. предшествующее другому
прошедшему).
1. Не declared (that) he had already been there. — Он заявил, что уже
побывал там.
2. The scientist stated (that) he had been investigating the problem for
a decade. — Ученый сообщил, что он занимается этой проблемой
в течение десяти лет.
3. Если действие (процесс, состояние), выраженное глаголом в прида-
точном предложении, следует за действием (процессом, состоянием),
обозначенным глаголом главного предложения, то в придаточном пред-
ложении употребляется так называемое будущее в прошедшем, которое
образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов should и would и ин-
финитива смыслового глагола без частицы to. Следует помнить, что в
I лице единственного и множественного числа может употребляться
глагол would:
write (future simple in the past)
should
wouldbe writing (future continuous in the past)
have written (future perfect in the past)
1.
He said (that) he would be waiting for me at the appointed time. — Он
сказал, что будет ждать меня в назначенное время.
Exercises
I. Transform the following sentences into subordinate clauses of object introducing
them with the phrases I knew, I thought, He said. Change the tense of the verb in the
clause according to the sequence of tenses rule. Change pronouns where necessary.
1. My friend was born in Moscow, and since that time he has been living
there.
2. If the weather is fi ne on Sunday, they will go to the country.
3. Everybody is going to attend the scientifi c conference which is held in
our city in May.
4. Th e goods that have been exported from Sweden are of

272 high quality.
5. His knowledge of English is quite satisfactory though he
makes some grammar mistakes.
6. Th e TV programme does not seem
interesting and viewers cannot expect any positive changes in it.
7. Th e
books you need are in great demand everywhere.
8. I have to do a lot of
work about the house: washing up, doing the fl at, cooking are my duties.
9. He does not have to take a bus — he lives near the University. 10. Th e
letter of congratulation was sent in advance, and they certainly have
received it.
11. Last month my colleague went abroad where he intended to
stay for two weeks.
II. Translate into English.
1. Он сказал, что вернется поздно. 2. Я знал, что он не прав, но
надеялся, что он поймет это сам.
3. Мы не предполагали, что это
займет у нас так много времени.
4. По радио сообщили, что погода
будет меняться.
5. Они сказали, что уже провели эксперимент и
довольны результатами.
6. Я не понимаю, о чем ты спрашиваешь.
7. Мы наконец поняли, что вам нужно. 8. Я не знаю, что находится в
этом здании сейчас.
9. Она сказала, что по дороге домой всегда
заходит в магазин.
10. Я не знал, что он принимал участие в конфе-
ренции и делал доклад.
III. Do the exercise in accordance with the model. Don’t forget to make the necessary
changes.
Model: She has lived abroad for fi ve years. — I didn’t know (that) she
had lived abroad for fi ve years.
1. Th e fi lm festival completed its work a week ago. 2. My colleague has
gone to England on business.
3. Commercial goods have always been
liable to duty.
4. She has been waiting for you since two o’clock. 5. He has
lost his job, and now he is unemployed.
6. He has been living in this city
since he was a child.
7. You can prolong your visa in case of necessity.
8. My foreign friends are going to send me an invitation for visiting Paris.
9. It is better for you to have a multiple visa if you go abroad on business
very oft en.
10. When making a trip abroad a tourist can hold both foreign
currency and travelling cheques.

273 Grammar
Indirect Speech. Indirect Statements
(Косвенная речь. Косвенные утверждения)
Правило согласования времен действует при передаче чужого высказы-
вания или мысли в косвенной речи, если последняя вводится глаголом в
прошедшем времени: said, told somebody, thought, knew и т. д. При этом
временная форма глагола прямой речи трансформируется в косвенной
речи не просто в одну из форм прошедшего времени, а именно в ту, которая
является аналогом данной формы. Суть этого явления в том, что граммати-
ческое время как бы опускается на одну ступень ниже. В большинстве слу-
чаев изменения происходят в пределах одной временно´й группы: simple,
continuous, perfect или perfect continuous — с переводом формы настоящего
(или будущего) времени в форму прошедшего. Однако иногда наблюдает-
ся сдвиг временны´ х групп. В соответствии с правилом согласования времен
изменение глагольных форм происходит следующим образом:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
1) present simple
present continuous
present perfect
present perfect continuous past simple
past continuous
past perfect
past perfect continuous
2) past simple
past continuous
past perfect
past perfect continuouspast perfect
past perfect continuous или остается
без изменения
не изменяется
не изменяется
3) future simple
future continuous
future perfect
future perfect continuousfuture simple in the past
future continuous in the past
future perfect in the past
future perfect continuous in the past
Как видно из приведенной выше таблицы, в пунктах 1 и 3 временная
группа сохраняется, а изменения касаются только самого плана времени,
т. е. план настоящего (пункт 1) или план будущего (пункт 3)
передвигает-
ся в план прошедшего.
Что касается пункта 2, то временной план и временна´
я группа глаголов
либо остаются без изменения (past perfect и past perfect continuous), так
как в языковом выражении они составляют предельную степень передачи
прошлых событий, либо прошедшее простое переходит в прошедшее со-
вершенное, так как последнее передает события предпрошедшего плана.

274
В некоторых случаях правило согласования времен не действует. Это от-
носится к придаточным дополнительным предложениям, в которых сооб-
щается общеизвестная истина или факт:
The little boy did not know that an hour is divided into sixty minutes.
При наличии более чем одного придаточного предложения, даже если
последующие предложения не являются дополнительными (они могут
быть, например, определительными или обстоятельственными), правило
согласования времен применяется ко всем частям предложения:
Не was sure that they would fi nd the man who was so much spoken
about. — Oн был уверен, что они найдут человека, о котором так
много говорят.
Следует иметь в виду, что при переводе прямой речи в косвенную кроме
глагольных форм изменениям подвергаются и другие компоненты предло-
жения. Так, личные местоимения I лица единственного и множественного
числа заменяются местоимениями III лица; местоимения II лица — местои-
мениями I или III лица единственного и множественного числа. Слова (ука-
зательные местоимения, наречия времени и места), в лексическом значении
которых содержится указание на временну´ю или локальную близость по
отношению к говорящему, в косвенной речи заменяются соответствующи-
ми формами со значением удаленности:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
this that
these those
now then, (at) that time
here there
ago before
today that day
tomorrow the next day
yesterday the day before, on the previous day
last morning (night) the previous morning (night)
Необходимо иметь в виду еще одно обстоятельство при переводе прямой
речи в косвенную. Речь идет о семантически близких глаголах, употре-
бление которых мотивируется определенными причинами. Прежде всего,
они по-разному сочетаются с дополнением. Глагол to tell в прошедшем
времени (told) всегда требует дополнения — беспредложного; Smb. told
smb., а глагол to say (said) встречается и с дополнением, и без него. В пер-
вом случае дополнение — предложное: Smb. said to smb.

275
Во-вторых, употребление фразы said to smb. возможно только в словах
автора, предваряющих прямую речь. В косвенной речи в этом случае ис-
пользуется глагол said без дополнения, а при необходимости назвать
адресата — told smb.:
1. Не said to me, “The inves tigation will take much time”. — He said (that)
the inves tigation would take much time.
2. The teacher said to the students, “The timetable has changed”. — The
teacher told the students (that) the timetable had changed.
Exercise
IV. Convert the s tatements given in direct speech into indirect speech.
1. Th e conductor said to the passenger, “You can get off at the next stop and
change to a tram”.
2. “I have never known this man, I have seen him for the
fi rst time”, he declared.
3. “Yesterday it rained the whole morning, that is why
I had to stay at home”, my friend said when 1 asked him how he had spent his
free time.
4. “In the fi rst year you will be mostly taught general subjects”, the
dean answered when he was asked about the courses of lectures and practical
classes.
5. “I like visiting new towns when I travel by train”, my sister wrote in
her fi rst letter to me.
6. My companion said, “When we were children, we
spent much time together, we played a lot, discussed books and fi lms and
enjoyed sports.”
7. “I am cooking dinner and can’t join you. I have been
cooking it since the morning”, my friend complained when I called her.
8. Th e journalist wrote, “Th e news spread very quickly and soon the whole
town was full of rumours”.
9. He s aid, “I wake up ver y late, have late bre akfast,
look through newspapers and journals and make some phone calls”.
10. “I
will ring you up when I need you”, the boss said to his secretary.
Grammar
Indirect Questions
(Косвенные вопросы)
Применение правила согласования времен в косвенных вопросах сопря-
жено с трудностями, связанными, во-первых, с изменением порядка слов,
а во-вторых, с необходимостью учитывать то, какой вопрос, общий или
специальный, содержался в вопросительном предложении. Поскольку
косвенные вопросы не являются собственно вопросами (об этом свиде-

276
тельствует, в частности, отсутствие вопросительного знака), то сказуемое
в таких предложениях занимает место справа от подлежащего (прямой
порядок слов), как в утвердительном и отрицательном предложении. Кос-
венные вопросы предваряются интродуктивными фразами (на граммати-
ческом уровне они выполняют роль главного предложения): Somebody
asked (inquired, wanted to know, wondered и т. п.).
Если в прямой речи содержится специальный вопрос, то вопросительное
слово, с которого начинается последний (who, what, when, why и т. д.),
трансформируется в союз или союзное слово при переводе в косвенную
речь. При этом изменяется порядок слов, если это не вопрос к подлежа-
щему или к определению к подлежащему:
Не asked me, “When did this event happen?”
He asked me when that event had happened.
При переводе прямой речи, в которой содержится вопрос к подлежаще-
му, в косвенную порядок слов остается прежним, так как предложение со
специальным вопросом к подлежащему — это единственное вопроситель-
ное предложение с прямым порядком слов, где функцию подлежащего
выполняет само вопросительное местоимение who (what):
The teacher asked the s t ud ents, “Who is the inventor of radio?”
The teacher asked the s t ud ents who was the inventor of radio.
Следует различать внешне похожие вопросы к подлежащему (с прямым
порядком слов) и к именной части составного сказуемого (с обратным по-
рядком слов). При переводе первых в косвенную речь глагол-связка to be
помещается после союзного слова who, выполняющего роль подлежащего,
в то время как во втором случае этот глагол занимает конечную позицию.
Му friend asked me, “Who is this man?”
My friend asked me who that man was.
Чтобы подчеркнуть различие между этими двумя структурами в коммуни-
кативном плане (что отражается в соответствующем грамматическом
оформлении), сравним ответы, которые могли бы быть даны на два по-
следних вопроса:
1. Who is the inventor of radio? (Вопрос к подлежащему) — Po pov is
(the inventor of radio). (Ho не “The inventor of radio is Po pov”, что было
бы возможно при других тема-рематических отношениях.) The
teacher asked, who was the the inventor of radio.

277
2. Who is this man? (Вопрос к именной части составного сказуемо-
го) — This man is my colleague. (My colleague.) (Ho не “My colleague is
(this man)” для данного случая.)
My neighbour asked, who that man was.
При передаче в косвенной речи общих или альтернативных вопросов,
ввиду отсутствия у них вопросительных слов, функцию соединительных
союзов выполняют слова if (для общих вопросов) и whether … or (if) (для
альтернативных):
1. I addressed a passerby with the question, “Can you tell me the way to
the museum?” — I addressed a passerby with the question if he could tell
me the way to the museum.
2. He asked me, “Is Moscow your native town or do you spend your
holidays there?” — He asked me whether Moscow was my native town or
if I spent my holidays there.
Bсe косвенные вопросы независимо от союза, которым они присоединя-
ются к главному предложению, функционируют как придаточные допол-
нительные предложения. Лексические изменения при переводе из прямой
речи в косвенную, указанные в разделе “Indirect Statements”, остаются
в силе и в этом случае.
Exercise
V. Convert the direct ques tions into indirect ones.
1. Th e passenger inquired of the booking offi ce clerk, “When does the
train leave for London?”
2. “Do you know who discovered X-rays?” asked
me a schoolboy.
3. “Why do you look so upset? Has anything happened?”
the mother asked her little son when he returned from school.
4. Th e
passerby addressed a man with the question, “Is it too far to walk to the
nearest hotel?”
5. I addressed the postman, “How many times a day do
you deliver letters?”
6. I asked my friend, “Will you celebrate your birthday
on Saturday or on Sunday?”
7. “Where did you spend your summer
holidays?” my friend asked me when we met.
8. “Are you tired?” my
grandmother asked and off ered me a cup of strong tea.
9. “Who discovered
the Law of Gravity?” the teacher inquired of the pupils.
10. “How old are
these pyramids?” a tourist asked the guide.

278 Grammar
Indirect Requests, Orders and Short Answers
(Просьбы, приказания и краткие ответы в косвенной речи)
Прямая речь, содержащая просьбу (request) или приказание (order), пере-
водится в косвенную речь с помощью инфинитива.
The secretary said to the man, “Please, don’t smoke in the room.”
The secretary asked the man not to smoke in the room.
Выбор глагола, предваряющего просьбу, зависит от характера самой
просьбы, от намерения говорящего, а также от стиля речи. Наряду со сти-
листически нейтральным глаголом to ask, используются глаголы to request
(для более официального стиля со скрытым значением приказа) и to beg
(передает более вежливые отношения с эмоциональным оттенком).
The child said to his mother, “Buy me an ice cream, please!” — The child
begged his mother to buy him an ice cream.
The customs offi cer said to the tourist, “Show me your visa and
declaration form”.
The customs offi cer requested the tourist to show him his visa and
declaration form.
Косвенные приказания передаются глаголами to tell («сказать, чтобы»
или «велеть»), to order и to command.
The policeman said to the man, “Stop and don’t move!” — The policeman
ordered the man to stop and not to move.
Краткие отрицательные и утвердительные ответы в косвенной речи вы-
ражаются следующим образом:
She hesitated and answered, “No” (“Yes”).
She hesitated and answered in the negative (in the affi rmative).
Exercises
VI. Say the following in indirect speech.
1. “Please, call me aft er fi ve o’clock, I’ll be at home that time”, he said to his
friend.
2. “Don’t behave in this way, it is impolite”, he said to the little boy

when everybody left the room. 3. She paused a little and then said, “No.
I can’t do this.”
4. “Mummy, please, take me with you! I want to go there
too”, the child said to his mother.
5. Th e offi cer said to the soldiers, “Stand
still and don’t talk!”
6. Th e teacher thought for some seconds and then
said, “Yes. Come here a little later”.
7. “Come back”, said the warning voice
of her mother, “and don’t let him see you off ”.
8. “Would you mind closing
the window?” the girl said to the boy who was sitting next to her.
9. Th e
policeman addressed the man who had been arrested two days before,
and said to him, “Sign this document!”
10. “Never cross the street under
the red light,” said the policeman to the pedestrian.

280
Unit
FIFTEEN
Conversation: Telephoning
Grammar: The Participle
Te x t
Read the text.
The Telephone Makes Communication Personal
A lot of technological changes have taken place in the world in recent
years. Some of them are for the better, and some for the worse. Among all
technological achievements computers and mobile phones have the
greatest impact on our life. People can hardly do without them.
Th e telephone, a device for long-distance communication, was invented
about 150 years ago. Th e fi rst person to have patented the invention of
telephone in 1876 was Alexander Graham Bell. Th e 20th century was the
era of phone development and modernisation.
Now home and offi ce telephones have been radically modifi ed. Th ey
changed their design, form and colour. It is very convenient to fi t your
telephone with an answering machine: if you do not want to miss any
business or private talk when you are out, a message of the caller will be
recorded on the tape. A lot of people nowadays prefer equipping their
telephones with a device that can automatically identify the number from
which a person is making a call. What is more, rotary telephones (with a
dial) have been replaced by touch-tone phones and other sophisticated
functions.
No doubt, the telephone is a great convenience. It saves you time and
gives a chance to be connected with the most remote parts of the world.
A long-distance call can be made to another city or town in your country
as well as abroad. For these calls you need to know the area code in the
former case or the country and area code in the latter case. Th ey are
available either in the Internet or in the telephone directory. Here are the

281 area codes for some Russian cities: Moscow — 495, St. Petersburg —
812, Vladivostok — 423, Krasnoyarsk — 391, Murmansk — 815. Memorise
the codes for some countries: France — 30 (the country code), Paris —
1 (the city code); Great Britain — 44 (the country code), London — 20 (the
city code); the USA — 1 (the country code), New York — 212 (the city
code), Latvia — 371 (the country code), Riga — 2 (the city code); Israel —
972 (the country code), Jerusalem — 2 (the city code).
Modern phones are presented mostly by mobiles, which support IP
telephony and Wi-Fi. It is almost impossible to fi nd a person nowadays
who does not have a personal mobile phone which is rather compact,
handy and easy to carry around. Mobile phones combine in themselves a
lot of options; they are multifunctional. Th eir users can make not only
instant calls, but also send text messages, take photos, check an e-mail,
listen to music, play games and so on. People are so accustomed to mobiles
that they feel quite helpless when they leave them at home.
However we cannot deny that mobiles provoke a number of problems,
not only psychological. Communication has become quite impersonal:
pressing buttons, touching the screen, sending text messages — every
action without making eye contact. But the greatest disadvantage of
mobile phones is their harmful eff ect on people’s health. Doctors claim
that this device can damage our eyesight and immune system.
Nevertheless mobiles have become an integral part of our life and we
cannot stop it. Th e only solution is to restrict using the mobile.
Words and Expressions
an impact — влияние
to do without smth. — обходиться без чего-л.
to make а (phone) call — звонить (делать звонок по телефону)
a device — устройство
long-distance communication — международный (междугородный)
звонок по телефону
to invent — изобретать
an invention — изобретение
an era [´IArA] — эра
to modify [´mOdIfaI] — модифицировать, изменять
to fi t with smth. — оснащать чем-л.
an answering machine — автоответчик

282
to miss a talk — не поговорить (досл. пропустить разговор)
а caller [´kD:lA] — лицо, которое звонит по телефону
to record on the tape [rI´kD:d …] — записывать на пленку
to equip with smth. [I´kwIp …] — оборудовать чем-л.
a rotary telephone [´rAUtAri] — телефон с диском для набора номера
a touch-tone phone — телефон с кнопками и цифрами на них, которые
издают звук при наборе номера
sophisticated [sA´fIstI,keItId] — сложный, усовершенствованный
remote [rI´mAUt] — удаленный
in the former (latter) case — в первом (последнем) случае
a telephone directory […dA´rekt(A)ri / daI´rekt(A)ri] — справочник
телефонов
handy [´hBndi] — удобный для пользования и всегда под рукой
multifunctional [,mElti´fENkSnAl] — многофункциональный
instant [´InstAnt] — мгновенный
a text message [´mesIdZ] — текстовое сообщение
to take a photo — делать снимок
to check an e-mail — проверять электронную почту
to be accustomed to smth. […A´kEstAmd] — привыкать к чему-л.
helpless — беспомощный
however [haU´evA] — однако
to deny [dI´naI] — отрицать
to provoke [prA´vAUk] — провоцировать, вызывать
psychological [,saIkA´lOdZIkl] — психологический
impersonal [Im´pQ:sn(A)l] — обезличенный
to press a button […´bEtn] — нажимать кнопку
to touch a screen [´tEtSA ´skri:n] — прикасаться к экрану
without making eye contact […´aI ´kOntBkt] — не глядя в глаза друг
другу
a harmful eff ect [´hC:mfl I´fekt] — вредное воздействие
health [helF] — здоровье
to claim [kleIm] — заявлять, констатировать
to damage [´dBmIdZ] — портить
eyesight [´aIsaIt] — зрение
an immune system [I´mju:n ,sIstAm] — иммунная система
nevertheless [,nevAGA´les] — тем не менее
an integral part [´IntIgrAl / In´tegrAl] — неотъемлемая часть
solution [sA´lu:Sn] — решение

283 Exercises
I. Match the phrases in the left-hand column to their equivalent in the right-hand
colum.
1. Th e line is free. a. Вас просят к телефону.
2. You have dialled the wrong
number.b. Не вешайте трубку.
3. Hello, it’s A speaking. c. Повесьте трубку.
4. Th e line is engaged (busy). d. Вы набрали неправильный номер.
5. You are wanted on the
phone.e. Телефон занят.
6. Hold the line (Hold on). f. Номер свободен.
7. Sorry for troubling, can I
speak to Mr. A?g. Простите за беспокойство, можно
мне господина А?
8. Hello, speaking. h. Алло, это говорит А.
9. Could you tell me the code
for London?i. Алло, слушаю.
10. Replace (Put down) the
receiver.j. Не могли бы вы мне сказать код
Лондона?
II. What will you say:
1) if you’ve got the wrong number?
2) if somebody has dialled your number by mistake?
3) to a person who answers your call?
4) if a person making a call wants to speak to somebody else, not to
you?
5) if somebody is interested to know who you are?
A. Use the model:
In this case (в этом случае) I’ll say … .
B. Give answers repeating the situation.
If I’ve got the wrong number I’ll say … .
III. Make up short dialogues according to the models.
1. — Hello, can I speak to Mr. Black?
— Mr. Black, you are wanted on the phone.

284
2. — Hello, my name is Steve Johnson. Can I speak to Miss Maxwell?
— Sorry, Miss Maxwell isn’t available. She won’t be back till 3 o’clock.
3. — Is this 890165?
— No, you’ve got the wrong number.
— Sorry for troubling you (to have troubled you).
You are making a call to:
your chief; the bank manager; your wife; the post offi ce; your husband; the
railway booking offi ce; your friend; the роliсе; any number.
IV. A. Say what number you should dial:
1) in case of the fi re;
2) in case of the gas leakage;
3) in case of the traffi c accident;
4) if you want to know the time;
5) if you need a taxi.
B. Do you know the telephone numbers of the following services?
1. Lost property offi ce
2. Weather forecast service
3. Railway inquiry
4. Airline inquiry
5. Hotline
Have you ever used one of these phone numbers? What was the situation?
V. Read the following dialogues presenting a local call.
1. A: Hello. I’d like to speak to Mr. Pullman, please.
B: Who’s calling, please?
A: It’s Andrew Brown speaking.
B: Hold on, I am putting you through now. I’m sorry but the line’s
engaged.
A: Oh! Can I leave a message, please?
B: Of course.
A: Could you tell him that Andrew Brown rang and that he can reach
me aft er four o’clock this aft ernoon on 473 1652.
B: Fine. I’ll tell him.
A: Th anks a lot. Bye!

285
Was it a personal call? Prove it. Was this Mr. Pullman’s direct number? Why couldn’t
Andrew Brown speak to Mr. Pullman? Did Andrew Brown agree to wait for the telephone
connection? What message did he leave?
2. A: Eastern Electronics. Can I help you?
B: Could I speak to the sales manager, please?
A: Hold the line, please.
C: Sales department.
B: Am I speaking to the sales manager?
C: Yes, speaking.
B: Could you speak a bit louder, please? Th is is a bad line.
C: True. Why don’t you try again in two minutes? My direct number is
248 9317.
Was it a personal or a formal call? Prove it. Did the caller make a phone call directly to the
sales manager? Could he speak to the sales manager? Why? What way out did the sales
manager suggest?
VI. Read the following dialogues showing how to make a long-distance call.
1. A: Directory Enquiries. Which town, please?
B: London.
A: What name?
B: Richman.
A: Do you have a street name, please?
B: Yes. Th at’s Baker Street.
A: Just a minute … I’ve got a Charles Richman and a Mary Richman.
B: Th e number for Mary Richman, please.
A: Th e area code is …, and the number is 472 5309.
B: Th ank you. Good-bye.
Does the person want to make a long-distance call through the telephone operator or
directly? What is necessary to know to make a call like that?
2. A: Hello. I’d like to make a long-distance call to New York, please.
B: What’s the phone number, please?
A: It’s New York 656 0805.
B: And what’s your number, please?
A: It’s 534 4769.
B: Good. I’ll call you back in fi ve minutes.
The person is making a call through the telephone operator, isn’t he? Prove it. How do you
usually make long-distance calls? Where to?

286 Te x t
Read the text.
Head Bans Mobile Phones in Classroom
When a 15-year-old boy answered his mobile phone in class, head teacher
Peter Hudson knew he had to stop the invasion of this great necessity of
modern life. A price war has caused the cost of mobile phones to fall. Th is
has started a fashion which has swept through the school in north London.
“I decided enough was enough when two 15-year-old boys started ringing
each other from diff erent classrooms,” said Mr. Hudson. “It’s a sign of the
time we live in, I suppose, but it tries my patience.”
“I have now banned students from taking their mobiles into class.
I can see there are good reasons for people giving them to their children.
Th ey are a good security device if youngsters want a lift home in the dark
and because some of them have free calls in the evening, it’s a good way of
freeing up the family telephone,” Mr. Hudson has now written to parents.
He has explained that students are allowed to take their phones into school
but warned that they will be confi scated if they are used in class.
Matthew Johnson, 15,
caused a disturbance in his maths class when
his phone went off . “It was a present to myself before Christmas. Only a
couple of people knew I had it, but when it started ringing, everyone knew.
You could say the teacher was a bit annoyed, she took it straight of me and
confi scated it.”
Matthew paid £70 for his phone and pays the monthly bills of about
£20 with earnings from his job at a local restaurant. He does not always
take it to school but says he could not do without it. “People from work
can contact me and friends can get in touch when I’m out. It’s changed my
life.” Matthew estimates that about 20 of the 300 students in his year now
have their own phones. However other pupils said dozens of 15-year-olds
had them.
Mustafa Hassan, 16, took a mobile out of his bag. He said: “I got it as a
birthday present from my parents — it cost £300 and the bills are about
£40 a month because I use it a lot to call my friends.” He works for his dad
at weekends and pays the bill himself.
He admitted that he had used his phone in class and once received a call
during a geography lesson. His phone even rang in an English exam. “It

287 went off in my pocket and the whole place just turned around. I switched it
off quickly before the teacher realised where the ringing had come from.”
Kyri Demetriou, 15, also has a mobile phone. “Loads of people got
them for Christmas, everyone wanted them,” she said. “It’s a fashion really,
people like posing with them.”
Words and Expressions
to ban — запрещать
invasion [In´veIZn] — вторжение
necessity [nA´sesAti] — необходимость
a price war [´praIs ,wD:] — конкуренция цен (досл. война цен)
to start a fashion […´fBSn] — положить начало моде на что-л.
to sweep through (swept) [swi:p] — захлестнуть
to try one’s patience [´peISns] — испытывать терпение
a youngster [´jENstA] — юноша
to cause a disturbance [´kD:z dI´stQ:bAns] — нарушать тишину (порядок)
to go off — зазвонить (о телефоне)
to be a bit annoyed […A´nDId] — рассердиться не на шутку
to take smth. straight off smb. — отнять что-л. у кого-л.
a monthly bill — ежемесячный счет (за пользование мобильным теле-
фоном)
earnings [´Q:nINz] — заработок
to get in touch […tEtS] — связываться (с кем-л.)
to estimate [´estI,meIt] — зд. по подсчетам (по оценкам)
to switch off [´swItS ´Of] — выключать
loads of people [lAUdz…] — (разг.) многие
Exercises
VII. Answer the questions:
1. Why did the head teacher ban students from taking their mobiles into
classes? Is it allowed at your school (college, University)?
2. What situations
approve of using mobiles, according to Mr. Hudson? In what other cases
are they useful?
3. Do the students in Mr. Hudson’s school buy mobiles
themselves? How much do they cost? How much did you pay for your
mobile?
4. What does the amount of a monthly bill depend on? How oft en
do you use your mobile? What for?

288
VIII. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. Please call me on my mobile. I won’t be at home at the weekend. 2. Yo u
can also leave a message on my mailbox.
3. Th e number you have called is
not available at the moment.
4. Th ere is no Net at present. 5. If you send
me a message, I will get right back to you.
6. Most mobile phones have a
lot of extra utilities.
7. Th ere is a quick access menu to make use of the
options you need the most.
8. Th e SMS 1 provides an easy and inexpensive
way to quickly notify someone about something.
9. Please read the manual
carefully before using your mobile for the fi rst time.
IX. Translate into English.
1. Телефон звонит. Будьте любезны, подойдите к телефону. 2. Сколько
раз в день вы звоните по телефону?
3. Никто не ответил на звонок.
4. Могу я заказать междугородный разговор отсюда? 5. Вас просят к
телефону.
6. Не вешайте трубку, я сейчас наведу справки. 7. Те л е ф о н
занят. Позвоните ему на мобильник.
8. К сожалению, управляющего
нет на месте. Вы хотите что-нибудь передать ему?
9. Если господина
Брауна нет дома, передайте сообщение на автоответчик.
10. Связь с
городом была очень плохая, и мы не могли долго разговаривать.
Te x t
Read the text.
The Early Days of the Telephone
(after Jerome K. Jerome)
I think the telephone is really a good thing. All people say it is. But perhaps
I don’t know how to use it. I once lived in a room with a telephone and I
must say it was a very hard life for me.
Suppose you want to see a man who lives near your house. You can put
on your hat and go over to his house. But you look at the telephone. You
think it is better to phone him before you go. You ring up many times, but
you get no answer. You get very angry and sit down to write a letter to the
Company. You want to ask why their girls don’t answer you. But then you
ring up once more and this time you get an answer. You shout:
“Why don’t you answer? I have rung twenty times in the last half hour.”
(It is not quite so. You have rung only six times but you are very angry.) “I
1 SMS — short message service: a method of sending a text message to a mobile
phone.

289 shall write to the Company, I cannot get an answer when I ring.” You have
fi nished. Now you wait for the answer. In some minutes it comes from
very, very far away.
“What — what do you say? I can’t hear what you say.”
“I say I have rung twenty times and I cannot get any answer. I shall
write about it to the Company.”
“You want what? What number?”
“I don’t ask any number. I say, ‘Why don’t you answer when I ring?’
“Eight hundred and what?”
You cannot repeat your questions once more, so you say you want
number four-fi ve-seven-six. “Four-nine-seven-six?” says the girl.
“No, four-fi ve-seven-six.”
“Did you say seven-six or six-seven?”
“Six-seven — no. I say seven-six, no — wait a minute I don’t know
what I want now…”
“Well, you must know,” says the young lady. “I cannot wait here all the
morning.”
So you fi nd the number in the book again, repeat it, and then she tells
you that you are in connection. Th en you stand waiting for some time.
“Are you there?” you cry many times, and then — oh, how glad you
are — you hear:
“Yes; what is it?”
“Oh, are you four-fi ve-seven-six?”
“What? Who are you?”
“Eight-one-nine, Jones.”
“Bones?”
“No, Jones. Are you four-fi ve-seven-six?”
“Yes, what is it?”
“Is Mr. Williamson at home?”
“Will I what — who are you?”
“Jones! Is Mr. Williamson at home? Will-i-am-son!”
“You are the son of what? I can’t hear what you say”.
When he understands that you wish to know if Williamson is at home
he says — or so you think — “will be at home all the morning.”
So you take your hat and go to his house. “I’ve come to see Mr. William-
son,” you say.
“Very sorry, sir,” is the answer, “but he is not at home.”
“Not at home? But you’ve just said to me over the telephone, ‘He will
be at home all the morning’.”

290“No, it was ‘He will not be at home all the morning’.”
You go back to your room, sit down before the telephone and look at
it. What can you do? Nothing.
Words and Expressions
to go over — переходить на другую сторону
to get angry […´BNgri] — рассердиться
to shout [Saut] — кричать
Exercises
X. Answer the questions.
1. Did the storyteller think the telephone was a good thing or did he think
it made life harder?
2. What was it the storyteller wanted to write to the
Company about?
3. Why did he have to look for the number in the book
again?
4. What did the person at Williamson’s house hear when the
storyteller said on the phone “Jones” and later “Williamson”?
5. How did
it happen that Jones went to Williamson’s house and didn’t fi nd him at
home?
6. Do you think the telephone in its early days was a convenience?
7. Is it a convenience nowadays?
XI. Do you remember any events from your life when you regretted that you had a private
telephone? Are these situations funny or sad?
Short Dialogues
MAKING A CALL
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Eastbourne 546 8255.
B: Hello. Albert here. Can I speak to Elisabeth, please?
A: Hold the line, please!
B: OK.
A: Sorry, but she’s out.
B: Would you tell her I rang?
A: I’d be glad to.

291
II
А: 648 8942.
В: Hello. Edgar Brighton speaking. May I have a word with Eleanor?
A: I’ll just see if she’s in.
B: Right you are.
A: I’m afraid she isn’t here.
B: Could you take a message?
A: Yes, of course.
III
A: Blackpool 149 5921.
B: Hello. Th is is Chris here. Is Jessica there, please?
A: Hold on a moment!
B: All right.
A: I think she’s gone shopping.
B: Would you ask her to call back?
A: Certainly.
IV
A: 653 9220.
B: Hello. My name’s Harry Williams. Could I talk to Ruth, please?
A: I’ll fi nd out if she’s at home.
B: Right.
A: Sorry, but she won’t be back till Friday.
B: Can you tell her to call me when she comes back?
A: With pleasure.
I. to be out — не быть дома, отсутствовать
II. to have a word with smb. — поговорить с кем-л.
to be in — быть дома
III. to call back — позвонить тому, кто звонил (доcл. позвонить назад),
перезвонить
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases В 1, then A 2, etc.
II. You are making a call.
1. Name yourself.
Model: Hello, this is George speaking. (See phrases В 1.)

292
2. Ask about the person you want to speak to.
Model: Can I talk to Ann, please? (See phrases В 1.)
3. Th e person you need is out. What will you say?
Model: Could you tell him (her) I rang? (See phrases В 3.)
III. You are answering the call. The person who is wanted isn’t in. What will you say?
Model: Sorry, but Mary is out (See phrases A 3.)
IV. Reproduce the short dialogues “Making a Call“ in similar situations.
Short dialogues
LONG-DISTANCE CALLS
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Number, please.
B: I’d like to make a reverse charge call to 01-486-2435, please.
A: What’s the name of the person you wish to speak to?
B: Miss Mabel Frost.
A: What is your number, please?
B: Brighton 22753.
II
A: Number, please.
В: Eastbourne 74655 personal with A.D.C., please.
A: Who do you want to speak to?
B: Extension 418.
A: What number are you calling from?
B: Aberdeen 401.
III
A: Number, please.
B: Could you get me Luton 35918? Make it personal, please.
A: Th e name of the person you are calling, please?
B: Th e Export Manager.
A: Where are you calling from?
B: Belfast 34791.

293
IV
A: Number, please.
B: Can I have a personal call to Bedford 645932, please?
A: Who are you calling?
B: I’m not sure of the name, but it’s room 211.
A: Your exchange and number, please?
B: Swansea 70728.
I. a reverse charge call — телефонный звонок за счет вызываемого
лица
II. an A.D.C. (advise duration and charge) call — телефонный вызов с
уведомлением о продолжительности и стоимости разговора
extension — добавочный номер
IV. exchange — коммутатор
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
V. Silent reading. First, read all phrases В 1, then A 2, etc.
VI. You are booking a long-distance call. Tell the telephone operator what call you want
to make.
Model: Hello. I’d like to book an A.D.C. call to Chicago 348120. Make
it personal, please.
You want to make a call to:
London 283140 — an A.D.C. personal call
Belfast 74520 — a reverse charge call, personal
Washington 667852 — a personal call with A.D.C.
VII. You need the code for the city. Ask.
Model: Could you tell me the code for London?
You need the code for:
Chicago; Liverpool; San Francisco; Edinburgh; Oxford; New
Yo r k .
VIII. Reproduce the short dialogues “Long-distance calls” in similar situations.

294 Grammar
THE PARTICIPLE
(ПРИЧАСТИЕ)
Как и в русском языке, в английском причастия бывают двух видов: дей-
ствительные (participle I) и страдательные (participle II). Participle II пред-
ставлено всего одной формой — III формой глагола:
bought — покупаемый, купленный
studied — изучаемый, изученный
Participle I реализуется в нескольких формах, в каждой из которых имеет-
ся основной показатель такого причастия — окончание -ing. Простейшая
форма participle I — buying, studying. Этой форме в русском языке соот-
ветствует не только действительное причастие покупающий, изучающий,
но и деепричастие покупая, изучая, для которого в английском языке нет
специальной формы. Итак, формы participle I следующие:
buying — покупающий, покупая
being bought — будучи покупаемым
having bought — купив
having been bought — будучи купленным
Как видно из приведенных примеров, характерный признак participle I —
окончание -ing — имеется во всех формах (в первом элементе каждой
формы).
Общая таблица причастий
Participle I
Active Voice Passive Voice
non-perfect
selling продающий
продаваяbeing sold — будучи продаваемым
performing выполняющий
выполняяbeing performed — будучи выпол-
няемым
Perfect
having sold — продав having been sold — будучи продан-
ным
having performed — выпол-
нивhaving been performed — будучи вы-
полненным
Participile
II
sold — продаваемый, проданный
performed — выполняемый, выполненный

295
Следует иметь в виду, что в живой, разговорной речи причастия встреча-
ются крайне ограниченно. Они составляют принадлежность письменной
речи и приобретают статус книжных форм.
Exercises
I. Translate into Russian paying attention to the forms of participles.
1. Th e falling snow makes the landscape picturesque. 2. Not knowing what
to do I made up my mind to consult a lawyer.
3. My question remained
unanswered.
4. Reading the book I learned much that was new to me.
5. While studying biology at the University, I got interested in physics.
6. Laying the table don’t forget to put forks and knives properly. 7. Having
left Moscow and lived in the North for a year, I felt homesick.
8. Being
asked in French I could not understand what I was asked.
9. Having
booked a ticket I began packing my luggage.
10. Th e moon hidden behind
the clouds was hardly seen.
II. Pay attention to the position of single participle II and its translation into Russian.
Translate the sentences.
Model: Th e work done was of great importance.
Проделанная работа представляла большую важность.
1. Th e problem discussed aroused interest. 2. Th e test conducted gave good
results.
3. Th e lecture delivered caused discussion. 4. Th e letter posted was
not delivered to the addressee.
5. Th e distance covered amounted to
2,000
km. 6. Th e method employed gave good results. 7. Th e data reported
were used in the experiment.
8. Many of the books reviewed are available
from stock.
9. Th e new fi lm made was met by the audience with enthusiasm.
10. Th e participants of the scientifi c conference adopted all the items of
the agenda proposed.
11. Th e paper reviewed dealt with the new
achievements in computer technology.
III. Use the appropriate participle form.
1. During the experiment the scientists used the latest methods (to
recommend).
2. Journalists (to take part) in the press conference are
admitted by a special pass.
3. Th e paper described a series of carefully (to
control) experiments.
4. Th ere is a (to grow) demand for the kind of

296 information (to give) in the advertisement.
5. (To pass) the examinations
successfully students enjoyed their summer holidays.
6. People (to study)
foreign languages can acquire good knowledge if they have regular
conversational practice.
7. Th ey carried out their investigation (to use) the
best modern devices.
8. (To send) on business to London my friend hoped
to improve his language.
9. (Not to know) about their arrival I could not
meet them at the railway station.
10. Telegrams (to send) at the night time
must be paid for with a reduced charge.
11. (To ask) a particular personal
question he felt confused.
12. Th ough (to retain) an interest in theoretical
physics the young scientist began investigating the problem of practical
application of some laws of physics.
IV. Using the given phrases, say it in English.
1) to conduct a test: проводя испытание; ученые, проводящие
испытание; испытание, проведенное… ; проведя испытание
2) tо borrow books from the library: читатели, берущие книги из
библиотеки; беря книги из библиотеки; взяв книги из библиотеки;
книги, взятые из библиотеки
3) tо study а foreign language: изучая иностранный язык; студенты,
изучающие иностранные языки; иностранные языки, изучаемые
студентами; изучив иностранный язык
4) tо cook dinner: готовя обед; приготовив обед; обед, приготов-
ленный моей женой; домашняя хозяйка, готовящая обед
5) tо buy vegetables at the market: купив овощи на рынке; овощи,
купленные на рынке; люди, покупающие овощи на рынке; поку-
пая овощи на рынке
6) tо book а ticket in advance: билеты, приобретенные заблаго-
временно; приобретая билеты заблаговременно; пассажи ры,
приобретающие билеты заблаговременно; приобретя билеты
заблаговременно
REMEMBER!
Конструкция to have (to get) something done (каузативная конструкция)
употребляется, чтобы показать, что действие, выраженное причастием II,
совершается не лицом, обозначенным подлежащим, а кем-то другим (как
правило, специалистом).

297
I have my watch repaired at the watchmaker’s. — Я починил (мне почини-
ли) часы в мастерской (досл.: Я имею часы починенными в мастерской).
Но: I have repaired my watch. — Я починил часы (т. е. сам).
В каузативной конструкции глагол to have может иметь различные вре-
менные формы:
I have my newspaper delivered every day.
I have already had my newspaper delivered.
Yesterday I did not have my newspaper delivered in time.
Exercises
V. Translate into Russian. See the difference.
1. I have my hair cut at the hairdresser’s once in two weeks. 2. She has cut
her son’s hair quite well.
3. My brother has repaired the TV set and now we
can watch any TV programme.
4. Last year he had his TV set repaired in
the workshop.
5. My friend has had a new dress made at the dressmaker’s.
6. Where can I have my umbrella repaired? 7. My brother got his photo
taken at the photographer’s yesterday.
8. My husband has had his suit
made at the tailor’s.
9. He has his hair cut at the barber’s every month.
VI. Translate into English using the model I want to have smth. done.
Я хочу:
• починить зонтик (сумку, обувь) в мастерской.
• постричься в парикмахерской.
• сшить костюм (платье, пальто, юбку, брюки) в ателье.
• отремонтировать часы (наручные, настенные, будильник).
• сфотографироваться.
• отремонтировать телевизор (компьютер, принтер, мобильный
телефон).
VII. Put the verb to have in the causative construction in the appropriate tense.
1. I (to have) my car serviced at the garage last week. 2. She (to have) her
hair coloured green at the hairdresser’s.
3. I (to have) my house thoroughly
cleaned at the moment.
4. I (to have) one of my back teeth fi lled by the
dentist.
5. She always (to have) her clothes made by a famous designer.
6. I (to have) my vacuum cleaner mended only the day aft er tomorrow.

298 Grammar
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction
(Независимый причастный оборот)
В русском языке причастные (а также деепричастные) обороты существуют
только как зависимые языковые структуры. Причастные обороты подчи-
нены именным членам предложения (подлежащему, дополнению, обстоя-
тельству), деепричастные — сказуемому. Зависимые причастные и дее-
причастные конструкции русского языка могут быть переведены на ан-
глийский язык аналогичными причастными конструкциями. Напомним,
что деепричастия как формы, отличной от причастия, в английском языке
нет. Русское действительное причастие и деепричастие соответствуют
одной английской форме — причастию I.
Независимый причастный оборот — это специфика английского языка.
В русском языке до начала XX века такие формы (только деепричастные)
тоже существовали и считались нормативными. Вот примеры из русской
классической литературы:
1. Согласитесь, что, имея право выбирать, жизнь его была в моих ру-
ках. (А. С. Пушкин)
2. Подъезжая к сией станцыи и глядя на природу в окно, у меня слете-
ла шляпа. (А. П. Чехов)
3. Haкуpившиcь, начался бой. (Л. Н. Толстой)
Независимость, или самостоятельность, выделенных деепричастных обо-
ротов в приведенных примерах выражается в том, что они по смыслу не
связаны с подлежащим предложения (в 1 предложении подлежащее —
«жизнь», во 2 — «шляпа», в 3 — «бой»). Они относятся к лицу (лицам), не
выраженному формально, а только имплицируемому: в 1 предложении
подразумевается некто мужского пола (рассказчик), у которого было пра-
во выбора; во 2 — кто-то, у кого слетела с головы шляпа, когда он подъ-
езжал к станции; в 3 — солдаты, которые после перекура ринулись в бой.
Для современного русского языка такие структуры не являются норма-
тивными.
Английские независимые причастные конструкции представляют собой
явление, во многом сходное с этими языковыми структурами. В таких кон-
струкциях употребляется как причастие I, так и причастие II.
Формальные признаки независимого причастного оборота в английском
языке следующие.

299
1. Перед ним стоит существительное в общем падеже или местоимение в
именительном падеже, которые не совпадают с подлежащим предложе-
ния и им не являются.
2. Такой оборот всегда отделяется от главной части предложения запя-
той (в отличие от зависимого, который не всегда выделяется запятыми,
как это имеет место в русском языке).
3. Независимый причастный оборот может стоять в начале или в конце
предложения, либо в начале или в конце его структурной части, если речь
идет о сложном предложении.
Независимый причастный оборот, как правило, переводится на русский
язык отдельным предложением, в котором существительное (или место-
имение), стоящее перед причастием, трансформируется в подлежащее, а
само причастие — в сказуемое, т. е. в личную форму глагола. Однако та-
кое предложение не будет полностью независимым — в смысловом отно-
шении оно подчинено главному и функционирует либо как придаточное
предложение, либо как часть сложносочиненного.
Типы придаточных предложений (а следовательно, и выбор союзов при
переводе) определяются местом независимого причастного оборота в
предложении. Независимый причастный оборот, стоящий в начале пред-
ложения (или его части), связан с главной частью временны̕ми, причинны-
ми, уступительными или условными отношениями. Эти отношения пере-
даются на русский язык соответствующими типами придаточных предло-
жений с союзами «когда», «после того как», «так как», «поскольку»,
«хотя», «несмотря на», «если» и др.
1. Other liquids being too light, a barometer uses mercury. — Так как (по-
скольку) прочие жидкости слишком легкие, в барометре использует-
ся ртуть.
2. Radioactivity discovered, great progress was made in atomic physics. —
Когда (после того как) была открыта радиоактивность, был сделан
большой прогресс в атомной физике.
Независимый причастный оборот, стоящий в конце предложения (или ча-
сти сложного предложения), как правило, употребляется в синтаксиче-
ской функции сопутствующего обстоятельства и переводится на русский
язык придаточным присоединительным или частью сложносочиненного
предложения с союзами «и», «а», «причем» и др.

The car started moving along the highway, its speed gradually
accelerating. — Автомобиль начал двигаться по шоссе, и (при этом)
скорость его постепенно увеличивалась.
Следует иметь в виду, что сфера употребления независимого причастно-
го оборота ограничивается письменной речью и языком научной литера-
туры. Для устной речи эта конструкция не характерна.
Exercise
VIII. Find the nominative absolute participial construction and translate the sentences
into Russian.
1. Silver being very expensive, other metals are used as a conductor. 2. Th e
atmosphere always contains some moisture, the amount varying not only
from day to day, but from hour to hour.
3. Th e leaves being taken off , the
plant stops growing.
4. Th e wind having dropped, they set out to walk.
5. It was at dawn, the stars far away in the sky growing pale. 6. Th ey
continued their way, the boy sobbing quietly, the man ashamed.
7. Th e
speed of light being extremely great, it is impossible to measure it by
ordinary methods.
8. Th e electricity is carried exclusively by the electrons,
the atomic nuclei remaining stationary.
9. Other conditions being equal,
the acceleration will be the same.
10. Acids react with oxides of all the
metals, a salt and water being formed.
11. She sat staring into the fi re, the
book forgotten open beside her.
12. Th e weather being calm, all the
passengers left their cabins and were walking on deck.

301
Revision Test 5
I. Choose the right variant a, b or c to complete each sentence.
1. Hello. I’d like to make a … call to New York. Could you tell me what
time the cheap rate starts?
a) remote b) long-distance c) international
2. To make a trip to most countries every traveller must have a visa:
single, … or transit.
a) prolonged b) multifunctional c) multiple
3. If you have more than the allowances, you should pay a customs … .
a) tax b) duty c) fi ne
4. Th e fl ight was delayed because of the … circumstances.
a) unforeseen b) unpredictable c) unheard-of
5. Prohibited or restricted articles, though declared, are … at the
customs.
a) retained b) confi scated c) detained
6. If you hear short buzzing, this means that the phone line is … .
a) free b) disengaged c) engaged
7. Before boarding the plane passengers must … .
a) have their luggage b) weigh their c) put their luggage on
weighed luggage the scales
8. … shops are very popular with the visitors to foreign countries,
because the goods there are much cheaper as you do not pay any tax
on them.
a) Tax-free b) Free c) Duty-free
9. Th e phone number is not … now. Please call later.
a) available b) accessible c) busy
10. Before the plane took off , the stewardess asked the passengers to …
the seatbelts.
a) loosen b) unfasten c) fasten

302
II. Choose the proper grammatical form out of the given variants.
1. Th e minerals in hard water … with soap to form scum.
a) are combined b) will be combined c) combine
2. He said that they … the tickets in advance and were preparing for
departure.
a) had booked b) have booked c) booked
3. … the door on him, the inspector returned to his visitor in the drawing
room.
a) Closing b) Being closed c) Having closed
4. He was knocked down … a fl ower pot that fell out of a seven-fl oor
window.
a) with b) by c) because of
5. How oft en … you … ?
a) do … have your b) have … tested c) have … your eyes
eyes tested your eyes tested
6. It was pleasant to walk together along the alleys of the old park covered
with … leaves.
a) fading b) having faded c) faded
7. Th e police saw everybody but they (the police offi cers) … by nobody.
a) were seen b) were not seen c) have been seen
8. … by surprise, the boys looked frightened and ashamed.
a) Ta k i n g b) Having been taken c) Being taken
9. Do you know why … to help them?
a) he refused b) did he refuse c) he had refused
10. Having answered numerous questions he added that it was hard to
break a habit to which one … accustomed.
a) grew b) has grown c) had grown

III. Read the text and answer the questions given below.
Valentine’s Day
Many countries celebrate Valentine’s Day on February 14th. Th is modern-
day holiday is a celebration of love which gets its name from a Roman
priest, Valentine, who secretly performed wedding ceremonies for
Christian couples in the 3rd century.
Weeks before the fourteenth of February, shop windows are decorated
with red paper hearts, red streamers and boxes of chocolates. Heart-
shaped cakes and sweets are baked and gift s such as perfume and jewellery
are promoted by department stores. Red roses are ordered from fl orists,
dinner reservations are made and presents are bought in preparation for
Valentine’s Day. Even cards and small gift s are made by young children at
school.
On Valentine’s Day, many people wear something red, since it is
considered to be the colour of love. Gift s, wrapped in shiny paper and red
ribbons, are exchanged, women receive bouquets of fl owers and people
express their feelings to their loved ones. In the evening, many couples
choose to dine at romantic restaurants while others enjoy spending time
together at home.
Valentine’s Day is a time to let people know how much you love and
appreciate them. It is a day that makes everyone feel romantic and happy.
(Evans Virginia, Dooley Jenny. Enterprise 4. Coursebook.
Intermediate — Express Publishing, 1998. P. 66)
1.
Why was the holiday given the name of Valentine?
2. What are the symbols of Valentine’s Day?
3. What preparations are made on the eve of the holiday?
4. How do people celebrate Valentine’s Day?
5. Do you celebrate the holiday in your country?

304
Unit
SIXTEEN
Conversation: At the Hotel
Grammar: The Gerund
Te x t
Read the text.
At the Hotel
When you visit a foreign country as a tourist, it is convenient to stay in a
hotel. Th e best way is to reserve a room in advance by phone or by telegram.
Nowadays it has become possible to book a room by the Internet. Th ose
who travel much know that sometimes tourists experience certain
diffi culties with booking a room at a suitable hotel. At the height of the
season a sign “No vacancies” can be oft en seen at the reception desk.
But if you are lucky with booking a room you will enjoy your rest. In
this case you must fi rst go through some formalities. Th e receptionist will
hand you an arrival’s card which all guests are required to fi ll in. Th e
following information is required:
1. Th e name (in full) — surname, (fi rst) name, patronymic.
2. Place of permanent residence.
3. Passport No.
Aft er having fi lled in the arrival’s card you must pay for all
accommodation. Th e price depends on the duration of your staying in the
hotel and the number of rooms booked. When all the formalities are over,
the receptionist hands you the key and you may go upstairs to occupy the
room. At the hotel you will fi nd rooms with or without bath, single rooms,
double rooms and complete suites consisting of two or more rooms.
Once you decide to stay in the hotel, you are referred to as a “guest”.
You will fi nd notices everywhere reminding guests to leave their keys at
the desk when going out. All the keys are hung on a special board at the
reception desk. In the foyer you will usually fi nd a newspaper stall and

305 stalls where cigarettes and souvenirs are sold. You can also fi nd a special
corner or room to write letters. Guests are given a telephone service as
well: you may book a long-distance call or reserve railway and airline
tickets from your room telephone.
Most hotels have snack bars and restaurants. Besides there is a coff ee
bar downstairs.
Th e receptionist will answer all your questions and give you any
information you need. All hotels run a special laundry service for their
guests. You can have your laundry done and your clothes ironed. Th e maid
does your room every morning so you need not even make your bed. At
the entrance of the hotel there stands a doorman whose duty is opening
the door for those who enter or leave the hotel, hailing taxicabs, calling a
porter and so on.
Guests are required to notify the receptionist in advance about leaving
so that he could have the bill ready for them in time.
If you arrive in London, you will fi nd some best hotels in the centre of
the city. Remember their names: the Soho Hotel, the Savoy Hotel, the
Trafalgar Hotel, the Royal Horseguards Hotel, the Milestone Hotel, the
Dorchester Hotel, the Beaumont Hotel and many others. Th ese are luxury
fi ve- or four-star hotels.
In New York, luxury hotels are also located in the center. Here are
some names: the Manhattan Times Square Hotel, the Park Lane Hotel, the
Paramount Hotel, the City Club Hotel, the Greenwich Hotel, the World
Center Hotel, the Viceroy New York Hotel.
Words and Expressions
a way — способ
to reserve (book) a room [rI´zQ:v…] — заказывать (резервировать)
номер
to experience [Iks´pIAriAns…] certain diffi culties — испытывать
определенные трудности
at the height of the season [haIt …] — в разгар сезона
no vacancies [´veIkAnsiz] — свободных мест нет
a receptionist [rI´sepSnIst] — дежурный администратор
to hand — вручать, давать
an arrival’s card [A´raIvlz ,kC:d] — листок прибытия
to be referred to as [rI´fQ:d] — называться (досл. ссылаться как)
a guest [gest] — человек, останавливающийся в гостинице, гость

306
а surname [´sQ:,neIm] — фамилия
а patronymic [,pBtrA´nImIk] — отчество
permanent [´pQ:mAnAnt] — постоянный
accommodation [A,kOmA´deISn] — помещение с удобствами
а single room [´sINgl…] — номер на одного
а double room [´dEbl…] — номер на двоих
а complete suite of rooms [kAm´pli:t ´swi:t] — апартаменты «люкс»
to remind [rI´maInd] — напоминать
to leave at the desk — оставлять у портье
a foyer [´fDIeI] — фойе, вестибюль
a newspaper stall — газетный киоск
to run a laundry service […´lD:ndri …] — осуществлять услуги пo стирке
белья
to iron clothes [´aIAn ´klAUGz] — гладить одежду
a maid [meId] — горничная
a doorman [´dD:mAn] — швейцар
to hail a taxicab [´heIl A´tBksI,kBb] — ловить (вызывать) такси
to notify [´nAUtI,faI] — предупреждать, уведомлять
a luxury hotel [´lEkSAri…] — очень дорогой отель, с высоким уровнем
обслуживания
Exercises
I. Say the same in some other words.
1. If you have a chance to put up at a hotel at the height of the season, you
are lucky.
2. We’d like a room for two with bath for a fortnight. 3. If you
want to stay in a hotel while visiting a foreign country, it is better to reserve
a room in advance.
4. At the newsstand one can buy newspapers, cigarettes
and souvenirs.
5. When staying in the hotel we had our breakfast in the
refreshment room downstairs.
6. Guests must tell the clerk about leaving
in advance.
7. Sometimes at our hotels tourists can see the notice “A l l
reserved”.
II. Complete the sentences, using the information in Russian.
1. Th e best way is to reserve a room (no телефону, Интернету или теле-
граммой заблаговременно).
2. When you stay in the hotel you (должны

307 заполнить листок прибытия).
3. At the hotel guests will fi nd (номера
на одного, на двоих, а также «люкс» с двумя или более комнатами).
4. When going out guests (должны оставлять ключи у портье). 5. (В фойе
у газетного киоска) you саn fi nd а lot of guests buying newspapers,
cigarettes and souvenirs.
6. At the hotel the following services are available:
(стирка и утюжка белья, уборка номеров, заказ железнодорожных и
авиабилетов, междугородные телефонные переговоры).
7. Th e duties
of the receptionist are (регистрировать посетителей, предоставлять
им номер, вручать ключи от номера).
8. Th e following information
about the guest is required: (полное имя, место постоянного прожи ва-
ния, номер паспорта).
III. А. Answer the following questions.
1. Why do travellers usually reserve rooms at the hotel in advance? 2. Is it
easy to reserve a room at a hotel in your city?
3. What are the duties of a
receptionist?
4. What services do hotels usually run? 5. What information
is required for fi lling in the arrival’s card?
6. What accommodation is
available at hotels?
7. What is usually located downstairs at hotels? 8. What
are the duties of a doorman?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words He asked, He wanted to know. Don’t forget to follow the sequence of tenses rule.
IV. Translate into English.
1. Я заказал в вашей гостинице номер на одного с ванной. Могу я его
занять?
2. Сколько дней вы предполагаете пробыть в нашей гости-
ни це?
3. Заполните листок прибытия, предъявите паспорт и уплатите
за пять дней вперед.
4. Все номера на двоих находятся на пятом
этаже. Вот ваш ключ.
5. Мне нужен номер на одного с ванной. Я со-
бираюсь пробыть здесь неделю.
6. Могу я заказать междугородный
разговор из своего номера?
7. Вы можете получить любую информа-
цию у администратора гостиницы.
V. Speak about:
1) the formalities when reserving a room at a hotel;
2) the duties of the receptionist;
3) special services which all hotels run.

308Th e following phrases will help you:
1) to go through some formalities, to take an arrival’s card from the
receptionist, to fi ll in the arrival’s card, to pay for all accommodation;
2) to hand an arrival’s card to the guest, to give the key to the room, to
answer the questions and give all information one needs, to book tickets
for the theatre or concert, to reserve railway and airline tickets;
3) to run a laundry service, to iron clothes, to call a porter, to do the
room, to help with a taxicab.
VI. When you intend to stay in a hotel, this is what you may ask or say. Memorise the
phrases.
Could you recommend us a good
/ cheap hotel?Не могли бы вы порекомендовать
нам какой-нибудь хороший / недо-
рогой отель?
Are there any vacancies in your
hotel?В вашем отеле есть свободные но-
ме ра?
I would like to reserve a single /
double room from Monday until
Friday.Я хотел бы забронировать номер
на одного / двоих с понедельника
по пятницу.
We’d like a single / double room
with shower / bath.Нам бы хотелось одноместный /
двухместный номер с душем /
ванной.
Do you have a twin room? У вас есть номер с двуспальной
постелью?
Do you have a cot there? Там (в номере) есть детская кро-
вать?
How much does it cost per
night?Сколько стоит пребывание в тече-
ние суток (в этом номере)?
Which meals are included in the
price?Какой прием пищи включается в
стоимость?
Is breakfast included? Завтрак входит в стоимость но-
мера?
Is service included or excluded? Обслуживание входит или не
входит в стоимость номера?
We’d prefer a room which isn’t
too noisy.Мы бы предпочли номер, в котором
было бы не слишком шумно.

309 We’d like a room which doesn’t
look out onto the main street.Нам бы хотелось номер с окнами
не на главную магистраль.
We’ll be leaving / checking out on
the 1st of August.Мы уезжаем / освобождаем номер
в отеле 1 августа.
Could we have a wake-up call at
7.30?Не могли бы вы разбудить нас в
7.30
утра?
VII. This is what you can hear from the receptionist at the reception desk of the hotel.
Memorise the phrases.
Sorry, we don’t have any vacancies.
We’re fully booked.К сожалению, у нас нет свободных
мест. Все занято.
When will you be arriving? Когда вы прибываете?
Would you mind fi lling out the
registration form?Заполните, пожалуйста, форму.
Would you mind signing here,
please?Поставьте, пожалуйста, подпись
здесь.
Would you like some help with
your bags / luggage?Вам помочь отнести сумки / ба-
гаж?
How many nights will you be
staying? Сколько суток вы намереваетесь
пробыть в отеле?
Do you have any identifi cation
with you?У вас есть удостоверение лич-
ности?
Room service is available. Обслуживание номера обеспе че но.
Your room number is 304. Номер ваших апартаментов — 304.
Your room is on the third fl oor. Ваш номер на третьем этаже.
Here is the key to your room. Вот ключ от вашего номера.
Th e porter will help you with
your bags.Вещи вам поможет отнести но-
сильщик.
If you need anything, the number
of room service is 25. Если вам что-нибудь понадобится,
звоните по телефону 25, по кото-
рому принимаются все заявки на
обслуживание номера.
Enjoy your rest! Желаю вам хорошего отдыха.

310
VIII. You are staying in the hotel.
1. Ask the fl oor manager ([´mBnIdZA] — дежурный no этажу):
to call a taxi for you; to wake you up at 7 o’clock; to give you your room
key; to book a ticket for a concert.
Model: Please, do this, madam.
2. Ask the maid:
to wash and iron your shirt; to bring you another blanket ([´blaNkIt] —
одеяло); to change the sheets ([Si:ts] — простыни) and towels; to make
the bed and clean the room; to bring you a cup of coff ee.
Model: Could you do this, madam?
3. Ask the porter:
to take your luggage upstairs; to see to (присмотреть) your suitcase; to
take your trunk downstairs; to take your suitcases to the taxi.
Model: Porter, will you do this?
4. Complain to the fl oor manager about something that is out of order.
Model 1. Excuse me, madam, but there’s no cold water in my room.
Us e : air conditioning; heat; hot water; fridge.
Model 2. Excuse me, madam, but the TV set in my room is out of
order.
Us e : the fridge; the telephone; the radio; the shower.
IX. Topics for discussion.
1. How you once stayed in a hotel.
2. One of the hotels of your city.
Short Dialogues
AT THE HOTEL
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Do you have any vacancies for tonight?
B: Yes, I can off er you room 132
on the fi rst fl oor.

311 A: How much is it?
B: £69 a night excluding service.
A: Can I see the room, please?
B: Certainly. Would you take a seat for a moment?
II
A: I wonder if you have a single room for a fortnight.
B: Yes, but only on the top fl oor.
A: What does it cost?
B: £62
with service and TV.
A: Fair enough. Can you show me the room, please?
B: Of course. Would you like to follow me?
III
A: Can I book a double room from now until Friday?
B: You can have room 435
overlooking the sea.
A: What’s the price?
B: £85,
service excluded.
A: Can I look at it, please?
B: Yes, of course. Come this way.
IV
A: Have you got a twin-bedded room for two nights?
B: Yes. I can off er you a room at the back.
A: What does it cost?
B: With private bath £67,
service included.
A: Can you show me something a little cheaper?
B: Yes, of course. I’ll just fi nd out.
I. How much is it? — Сколько она стоит?
II. Fair enough. [´feArI´nEf] — Прекрасно.
III. overlooking the sea — с видом на море
Come this way. — Пройдите сюда.
IV. a twin-bedded room — двухместный номер (досл. с двуспальной
кроватью)
а private bath [´praIvAt …] — отдельная (личная, своя) ванна

312 Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1, then В 1, etc.
II. You are going to have a reservation at the hotel.
1. Ask what you want and for how long.
Model: Can I book a room for a week?
You need: a single room — for three nights
a double room — from now until Monday
a twin-bedded room — for the weekend
two double rooms — for a week
a single room — for tonight
2. Ask about the price of the room.
Model: How much is the room? or What does the room cost? — Forty
nine pounds a night excluding service.
Th e price for the room is: 54 pounds a night with service and TV; 48 pounds
a night without service; 45 pounds a night excluding service and TV;
50 pounds a night including service.
III. You want to have a room with special conveniences. Ask for the room.
Model: I’d like to have a room with private bath.
Th e conveniences you are asking for: a double room overlooking the sea;
a single room with air conditioning; a twin-bedded room with a shower;
two double rooms not on the top fl oor; a single room with private bath; a
double room with air conditioning and TV.
IV. You work as a receptionist at the hotel.
1. Offer a room to the guest.
Model: I can let you have a double room on the second fl oor.
Th e rooms are: a twin-bedded room — on the top fl oor; a single room —
at the back; room number 412 — near the lift ; two double rooms — on the
third fl oor; a single room — overlooking the park.

313
2. Show the guest in his (her) room.
Model: Would you like to follow me? (See phrases В 3.)
V. You have been given a room that does not suit you. Phone the manager of the hotel
and ask h im to change the room telling h im why it is n ot convenient to you.
Th e possible reasons are:
A pianist occupies the room next door.
A rock star is staying in front of your room.
Th e windows of your room face a very busy street with heavy traffi c.
Th e neighbour snores at night and his snoring can be heard through the
very thin walls.
Th ink of some other reasons.
VI. Say that you also do or don’t do either, what is being stated below.
Model 1: I am not sure he is wrong. — Neither am I. (But I am.)
Model 2: When I travel, I usually stay in the best hotels. — So do I. (But
I don’t.)
1. Visitors usually don’t like to have rooms near the staircase. 2. I always
follow all the rules for guests when staying in a hotel.
3. I have never
occupied a suite of rooms at the hotel.
4. When travelling I prefer to stay
in a fi ve-star hotel.
5. We cannot book a room without all necessary
conveniences.
6. When something is wrong with my room, I complain to
the fl oor manager about this.
7. Sometimes I book long-distance calls
from my room telephone.
8. When I stay in the hotel more than a week,
I always feel homesick.
9. I never pay tips to the waiters at restaurants.
10. I have never lost the key to the door of my room because I always leave
it at the reception desk when going out.
VII. Reproduce the short dialogues “At the Hotel” in similar situations.
VIII. Before reading the text “London Hotels” match the words and expressions in the
left-hand column to their defi nitions in the right-hand column. Think of the Russian
equivalents for the items from the left-hand part.
1) a globetrotter a) a building where people living away from home
can stay and get meals at low prices

314
2) the jet set b) a group of hotel businesses that all belong to
the same person or company
3) a hub c) someone who travels a lot and visits a lot of
diff erent countries
4) a hot spot d) the service of providing a room for the night
and a meal next morning
5) attraction e) the most important place where a particular
activity takes place
6) a sister property f ) with a good reputation
7) a hotel chain g) the property of an organisation or group that
has close connections with another similar
organi sa tion or group
8) a hostel h) a place that is fashionable, popular and lively
9) bed and breakfast i) somewhere or something you can visit that is
interesting or enjoyable
10) of great repute j) rich people who travel to a lot of diff erent parts
of the world and have exciting lives
Te x t
London Hotels
London, the capital of England, is one of the popular tourist and business
destinations for holidaymakers, globetrotters, and jet set corporate
executives. Th e city is a commercial hub of leading business fi nancial and
cultural centres making it one of the most globe cities.
Some of the famous places, attractions and tourist hot spots of London
include: Westminster Abbey, the Tower of London, the Tower Bridge,
Buckingham Palace, Kensington Gardens, Trafalgar Square, St. Paul’s
Cathedral, Piccadilly Circus, Royal Opera House and many others.
Th ere are hundreds of diff erent London hotels, many of which are sister
properties of various hotel chains. Hotels in London range from luxury
ones to cheap hotels, hostels, and bed and breakfast places. London hotels
off er numerous high quality accommodation for tourists and business
travellers, although accommodation in London can be quite expensive.
Remember, London is a very large city so when you book a hotel, make
sure that public transportation is within walking distance of it. Besides,
book your London hotel as early as you can, as hotels can be almost booked
out at busy times especially for major events like the London Marathon or
the Chelsea Flower Show.

315 Th e famous luxury London hotels include the glamorous Ritz Hotel
which is perfectly located in landmark position on Piccadilly in the heart
of London’s West End. A luxury Mayfair hotel of great repute is the
Dorchester Hotel, which for over half a century has remained the pinnacle
of luxury. Also set in the heart of Mayfair, Browns Hotel is one of the most
historic hotels in London. Within a short walk from exclusive Bond Street
shopping, there are West End theatres and St. James’s.
Some of the other corporate and luxury London hotels are Grosvenor
House, the InterContinental Hotel, 51 Buckingham Gate, the Mayfair
Hotel and the Mandarin Oriental Hotel.
If you need accommodation at a London airport hotel, then the Sofi tel
London Heathrow is located only a few minutes from the airport. Another
great airport hotel just half a mile from Heathrow Airport and well
connected to London via the Heathrow Express is the London Heathrow
Marriott Hotel.
Finding the perfect London hotel to make the dream of visiting
London even better is as simple as doing a little investigation on
LondonHotel.co.za
(www.londonhotel.co.za)
Words and Expressions
an executive [Ig´zekjUtIv] — исполнительный директор
to range [reIndZ] — колебаться (о ценах)
glamorous [´glBmArAs] — необычайно привлекательный и интерес-
ный, приковывающий всеобщее внимание
landmark [´lBnd,mC:k] — важный, значительный
a pinnacle of luxury [´pInAkl…] — вершина роскоши
an investigation [In,vestI´geISn] — зд.: просмотр сайта
Exercises
IX. Answer the questions.
1. What people is the majority of luxury hotels of London intended for?
2. What are the popular attractions of London that are visited by foreign
tourists?
3. Are there any places in London where not very rich people
could stay? What are they called?
4. What recommendations can be given
to those who have decided to stay in one of the London’s hotels?
5. Where
can one fi nd detailed information about London hotels?

316
X. These are two ads advertising the luxury London hotels. Which of them would you
choose and why?
1. Th e Savoy, London. Aft er a £200 million, the world-famous Savoy
Hotel returns with incredible Art Deco interiors and a Gordon Ramsay
restaurant. Its stunning rooms feature elegant, marble bathrooms.
Contact Details
Th e Savoy
Strand
London
WC2R OEU
Cost
Prices range from 237 GBP to 3,114 GBP per night.
2. Th e Goring, London. Just 0.5 miles from Buckingham Palace. Th e
Goring off ers elegant rooms and gourmet cuisine. Guests have free
fi tness-club access, and many rooms overlook the large hotel garden.
Boutique shops in Sloane Square are a fi ve-minute taxi ride.
Contact Details
Th e Goring
15 Beeston Place
London
SW1W OJW
Cost
Prices range from 244 GBP to 672 GBP per night.
Grammar
THE GERUND
(ГЕРУНДИЙ)
Герундий, так же как и причастие, является неличной формой глагола.
Аналогом простейшей формы герундия в русском языке может служить
отглагольное существительное:
reading — чтение
explaining — объяснение
Сложные формы герундия и герундиальные обороты (см. дальше) не име-
ют прямого соответствия в русском языке, и способы их перевода неоди-
наковы.

317
По форме герундий совпадает с причастием I, а различие в содержании
выявляется только в предложении.
Формы герундия
non-perfectActive Voice Passive Voice
making being made
perfect having made having been made
Следует отметить, что в разговорном языке встречаются только простые
формы герундия. Сложные формы — это специфика научного языка и пись-
менной речи.
Перед герундием может употребляться предлог, существительное (в об-
щем или притяжательном падеже) или притяжательное местоимение —
компоненты, являющиеся определителями существительного. Это, а так-
же синтаксические функции, и отличают герундий от сходного с ним по
форме причастия.
На русский язык герундий может переводиться существительным, нео-
пределенной формой глагола, деепричастием (но никогда — причастием)
и глаголом в личной форме в составе придаточного предложения.
1. Skating is very popular in our country. — Катание (кататься)
на коньках очень популярный вид спорта в нашей стране.
2. Upon returning home I wrote a letter to him. — Возвратившись
(no возвращении) домой, я написал ему письмо.
3. I knew of his having taken part in the experiment. — Я знал о том,
что он принял участие в этом эксперименте.

REMEMBER!
После глаголов to begin, to start, to continue, to go on, to keep, to stop,
to fi nish наряду с неопределенной формой глагола употребляется ге-
рундий.
1. Begin reading the text. — Начинайте читать текст.
2. Stop laughing at him. — Перестаньте смеяться над ним.

318 Exercises
I. Read and translate. Use your Russian variant for back translation.
Th e teacher began writing the questions on the blackboard. Th e students
started reading them. Steve stopped whispering to John. Tom continued
talking to his friend. Helen fi nished copying the questions. All students
kept on working. Everybody likes learning languages.
II. Translate the sentences into English using a gerund.
1. Перестаньте, пожалуйста, разговаривать. 2. Прекратите шуметь.
3. Они только что начали проводить испытание. 4. Моя сестра
продолжает говорить по телефону.
5. Они уже закончили переводить
текст.
6. Я люблю играть в теннис, но не люблю играть в волейбол.
7. Продолжайте отвечать на вопросы. 8. Она начала готовить обед в
два часа.
III. Say what you like and what you don’t like to do.
Model: I like swimming (but) I don’t like sunbathing.
Use: travelling — staying in town for holiday; driving fast — driving
very far; walking much — sitting at home; keeping late
hours — getting up early; cooking dinner — washing the
dishes; taking the dog for a walk — training it (to train —
дрес сировать).
IV. Make up short dialogues according to the model.
I’m fond of reading science fi ction. (Я увлекаюсь чтением научной
фантастики.) — So am I. or: But I’m not.
Us e : driving fast; windsurfi ng; collecting stamps; going in for
sports; reading fantasy; learning foreign languages.
Grammar
Gerundial Constructions
(Герундиальные обороты)
Герундиальный оборот — это герундий с зависимыми словами, стоящи-
ми слева (предлог, существительное, притяжательное местоимение).
Хотя зависимые слова, стоящие справа от герундия, тоже входят в со-

319
став герундиального оборота, они не затрудняют перевода. Трудности
перевода связаны с зависимыми компонентами, предшествующими ге-
рундию. Герундиальные обороты, как правило, переводятся на рус-
ский язык придаточным предложением, в котором подлежащим являет-
ся существительное или личное местоимение, соответствующее форме
употребленного перед герундием притяжательного местоимения, а ска-
зуемым — глагол в личной форме, от инфинитива которого образован
герун дий.
1. I like her singing. — Мне нравится, как она поет.
2. I was surprised at their visiting us very often. — Я был удивлен, что они
посещают нас очень часто.
Использование герундиальных оборотов допустимо в основном в пись-
менной и официальной речи.
Exercises
V. Find the gerundial constructions and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Before going to bed I usually take a walk. 2. He insisted on our doing it
at once.
3. I avoid crossing the street under the red light. 4. We enjoyed
resting this aft ernoon as we had a busy morning.
5. You cannot present
your paper to the conference without checking it carefully.
6. Upon
arriving in our city for his scientifi c work he received his Doctor’s Degree
and was appointed Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at the University.
7. We repeated the experiment upon changing the experimental condition.
8. I know of his taking an interest in biology. 9. Her going in for sports
regularly helps her feel better.
10. Aft er their informing us of the news we
changed our plans.
11. Th eir knowing this news surprised us. 12. Would
you mind my opening the window?
ЗАПОМНИТЕ разговорные конструкции с герундием;
1. I couldn’t (can’t) help doing it. — Я не мог (не могу) не сделать этого.
2. I don’t feel like doing it. — Я не хочу (мне не хочется) этого делать.
3. I feel like eating ice cream. — Мне хочется съесть мороженое.

Exercises
VI. Answer the questions according to the model. Give your reasons.
Т.: Have you bought the book?
St.: Yes, I have. I couldn’t (can’t) help buying it: it’s a bestseller.
1. Did you meet them at the railway station? 2. When did you phone him?
3. Are you going to come to see her? 4. Do you want this book for some
more days?
5. Who informed her about the event? 6. You also took part in
the experiment, didn’t you?
7. Did you send them an e-mail? 8. Do you
always congratulate him on his birthday?
9. Have you read the novel?
10. Why have you changed your plan?
VII. Respond to the suggestion or request using the model. Give your reasons.
Т.: Let us phone him.
St.: I’m sorry (Oh), I don’t feel like phoning him (doing it): I’m
terribly tired.
1. Will you go to the country with us? 2. Try to inform him about this. 3. Let’s
write a letter to her.
4. Do you want to see the TV programme with me?
5. Come in and have coff ee with me. 6. Why can’t you send him a message?
7. Tell him that we’ll come. 8. Can’t you help her? 9. She’ll be waiting for you.
Come and see her.
10. Let’s buy some food on our way home.
VIII. How do you feel about:
• meeting people?
• making mistakes?
• losing things?
• doing nothing?
• working hard?
• washing up?
• learning foreign languages?
• spending money on trifl es?
Use the models: I like …
I don’t like …
I don’t mind …
I dislike …
I hate …+ a gerund

321
Unit
SEVENTEEN
Conversation: At the Post Offi ce
Grammar: The Infi nitive. The Infi nitive Constructions
Te x t
Read the text.
At the Post Office
Th ere is a post offi ce in every town and nearly every village in the country;
the large towns, of course, have more than one. Th e post offi ce runs some
services. You can buy stamps, postcards, and envelopes there, send a
telegram or post a letter from it, and cash a money order.
At the post offi ce there is generally a special counter, or window, for
each service; one for money orders, one for stamps, one for telegrams, one
for letters to be called for, one for registered letters, and so on.
If you want to buy, to send, or to receive something you must go to the
right counter; if you go to the wrong one you will only waste your time.
Let us call in one of the post offi ces and watch the busy atmosphere
there. On one side of the counter, you can see several customers, on the
other side — the clerks. Customers are standing at various windows
buying stamps, envelopes, postcards, registering letters. Some are sending
money orders, others are cashing theirs; one is collecting the mail from
his P.O. box
1, a number of people are getting letters to be called for. You
can also see people sending books, albums and the like by book post and
parcels by parcel post. In case of necessity you can send parcels insured.
But remember that not everything is allowed to be enclosed in the parcel.
For that you should see a list of restrictions. If you want to buy only
postcards or envelopes you need not stand in the queue. Th ere are some
vending machines and you can get the things from them.
Usually people send letters by ordinary mail but sometimes it is
necessary that the correspondence should be insured. In this case other
1 a P.O. box is short for a post offi ce box

322 ways of sending letters are applied, for instance, mail can be registered
and recorded. Registered mail allows the location and in particular the
correct delivery of a letter to be tracked. It is usually considerably more
expensive than regular mail, and is typically used for valuable items.
Recorded mail is handled just like ordinary mail with the exception that
you pay for a record of the fact that you have sent it. Th is is useful for legal
documents where proof of sending and delivery is required.
Besides, at the post offi ce you may subscribe to diff erent journals and
magazines. In some post offi ces there is also a special window were you can
pay for special services, such as phone, gas, electricity bills. Th is makes our
life easier: you need not go to another place — everything is within reach.
Unfortunately, the tradition of writing letters and sending postcards is
dying out nowadays. Communication is becoming less personal because
more and more people prefer contacting by e-mails and text messages. It
saves time considerably but adds a lot to impersonal communication that
excludes feelings and emotions. Th e Internet has made the process of
sending letter-like messages nearly instantaneous, and in many cases
correspondents use electronic mail where previously they would have
used letters. Th is resulted in the decline in the volume of paper mail sent
through US Postal Service that has decreased by 15 % since its peak at
213 billion pieces per year in 2006.
And now a few words about telegrams. Th ere are three types of
telegram service: ordinary, urgent, express. You can also send photo-
telegrams and reply-paid telegrams. Th e services diff er from country to
country. In the United States, for instance, you will fi nd Night Letter and
Day Letter telegraph messages. Th e Night Letter is a telegram sent when
the telegraph is least busy. Th ere is a reduced charge for this form of
service. Th e Day Letter is sent off almost immediately and must be
delivered the same day it is sent.
As you pay for the word it is advisable to use a special telegraph
language which is known as telegraphy: prepositions and articles are
omitted.
One should follow a certain standard form in writing out the address.
Th e address on the envelope naturally includes the name of the addressee
which is written fi rst. A man must be addressed Mr. or Esq.
1 (not both).
1 Esq. is short for Esquire [Is´kwaIA] — эсквайр (Am. E. вежливая форма обра-
щения к какому-либо выдающемуся гражданину штата, преимущественно к ми-
ровому судье)

323 A lady is addressed Mrs. before the name of a married woman and Miss
before the name of an unmarried woman. Th e house number and the
name of the street are written in the second line of the address on the
envelope. Th e name of the town with the post index follows the street. Th e
last item of the address is the name of the country. In letters to the USA
the name of the state must follow the name of the town.
Words and Expressions
a post offi ce [´pAUst ,OfIs] — почтовое отделение
a village [´vIlIdZ] — деревня
to post a letter — отправлять письмо по почте, опускать в почтовый
ящик
to cash а money order […´D:dA] — получать деньги по переводу
a counter [´kaUntA] — прилавок
а letter to be called for — (Am. E.) письмо до востребования
а registered letter — заказное письмо
to collect the mail [meIl] — вынимать (корреспонденцию)
the like — тому подобное
by book post — пересылка бандеролью
a parcel [´pC:sl] — посылка
insured [In´SUAd] — с объявленной ценностью
to enclose [In´klAUz] — вкладывать
a queue [kju:] — очередь
a vending machine [´vendIN mA,Si:n] — автомат по продаже штучных
товаров
to apply [A´plaI] — применять, использовать
recorded mail [rI´kD:dId ,meIl] — почтовое отправление c вручением
квитанции, подтверждающей факт отправки письма
location [lAU´keISn] — местонахождение (корреспонденции)
to be tracked [trBkt] — быть прослеженным
a valuable item [´vBljUbl ,aItAm] — ценное вложение
to handle [´hBndl] — зд. осуществляться
a legal document [´li:gl ´dOkjU,ment] — юридический документ
proof of delivery [´pru:f Av dI´lIv(A)i] — подтверждение доставки
to subscribe to smth. [sAb´skraIb] — подписываться на что-л.
to be within reach [wIG´In ´ri:tS] — быть в пределах досягаемости
to die out [´daI ´aUt] — сходить на нет (досл. умирать)

324
instantaneous [,InstAn´teIniAs] — моментальный
previously [´pri:viAsli] — раньше, в предыдущие годы
a decline [dI´klaIn] — спад
a volume [´vOlju:m] — объем
to decrease [di: ´kri:s] — уменьшаться
ordinary [´D:dn(A)ri] — простая (телеграмма)
urgent [´Q:dZ(A)nt] — срочная (телеграмма)
express [Ik´spres] — телеграмма-молния
a reply-paid telegram [rI´plaI ´peId …] — телеграмма с оплаченным
ответом
to diff er — различаться
a reduced charge [rI´dju:st ,tSC:dZ] — скидка в оплате
to deliver [dI´lIvA] — доставлять
it is advisable [Ad´vaIzAbl] — желательно
telegraphy [tA´legrAfi] — телеграфный стиль
a preposition [,prepA´zISn] — предлог
an article [´C:tIkl] — артикль
to omit [AU´mIt] — пропускать, не включать
an addressee [,Bdre´si:] — адресат
the last item […´aItAm] — последний пункт
Exercises
I. 1. Name as many things as possible that are necessary to write and send a letter. Use
the introductory phrase:
To write and send a letter it is necessary to have …
2. Name all kinds of telegrams. Begin speaking with the phrase:
Telegrams may be …
3. Enumerate special counters at the post offi ce. Begin speaking with the words:
At the post offi ce one can fi nd several counters, or windows …
4. Say what one can do at the post offi ce. Use the introductory phrase:
At the post offi ce we can cash a postal order, etc.

325
II. А. Answer the questions.
1. How oft en do you go to the post offi ce? Is it near your block of fl ats?
2. Where is the General Post Offi ce located in your town? 3. Do you oft en
get letters? What letters, ordinary or registered? From whom?
4. Do you
get foreign letters? From what country?
5. On what occasions do you get
or send telegrams?
6. What is the price per word of an ordinary (urgent)
telegram?
7. What can you send by parcel post and by book post? 8. Have
you ever cashed a money order? When was it? What was the sum of money
you got?
9. What happens if a letter is wrongly addressed? 10. How oft en
do you write electronic messages and on what occasion?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words He asked, He wanted to know. Don’t forget to use the sequence of tenses rule.
Additional Words and Expressions
to sign the name at the bottom — подписываться внизу
a postage [´pAUstIdZ] — почтовая оплата, почтовые расходы
airmail [,eA´meIl] — авиапочта
a receipt [rI´si:t] — квитанция
a recipient [rI´sIpiAnt] — получатель
a payee [peI´i:] — получатель (денег)
a postman — почтальон
a post box — почтовый ящик
to stick a stamp — наклеивать марку
a letter of attorney [… A´tQ:ni] — доверенность
collection of letters — выемка почты
subscription [sAb´skrIpSn] — подписка
c/o = care of — (письмо) для кого-то через такого-то; Mr. X с/о Mr. Y —
господину Y для господина X (досл. господину X через госпо-
дина Y)
III. Translate into English using the words given above.
1. Отправляя письмо, не забудьте наклеить на конверт марку, иначе
письмо не дойдет до адресата.
2. За границу удобнее всего посылать
письмо авиапочтой.
3. Выемка почты из уличных почтовых ящиков
производится несколько раз в день.
4. Почтовые расходы зависят от
веса посылки и от расстояния, на которое она посылается.
5. Человек,

326 который получает деньги по почтовому переводу, должен правильно
заполнить бланк и поставить внизу подпись.
6. Когда вы отправляете
посылку или бандероль, почтовый служащий дает вам китанцию.
7. Получить деньги по переводу за другого человека можно только
по доверенности.
8. Вложение в конверт с письмом не должно пре-
вышать определенный вес.
9. Подписка на газеты и журналы произ-
во дится на любом почтовом отделении.
10. Доставка корреспонден-
ции осуществляется не менее двух раз в день.
IV. А. State the difference between:
a letterbox — а post bох; an addressee — a payee; by book post — by
parcel post; to carry — to deliver; a message — a letter; post — mail; a
stamp — postage.
B. Choose the proper word.
1. A … is a person who cashes a money order. A person that a letter is
addressed to is called … . (an addressee, a payee)
2. I want to send these
albums by … . What will it cost? If you are going to send an expensive
present to somebody it is better to send it by … insured. (book post, parcel
post)
3. … to be called for are kept at the post offi ce not more than a month.
Your friend called on you this morning and did not get you at home; here
is … he left for you. (letters, a message)
4. In the streets of our towns one
can see …; they are painted blue. Postmen drop letters and newspapers in
the … that are installed for every fl at in the multi-storeyed building.
(letterboxes, pillar boxes)
5. It is not an easy thing for a postman … a heavy
bag full of letters, newspapers and magazines. In our city newspapers and
letters are … three times a day. ( delivered, to carry)
6. What is the … on a
registered letter to England? When you register a letter at the counter of the
post offi ce the clerk puts a special … on it. (stamp, postage)
V. Describe your local post offi ce. These questions will help you.
1. Where is your local post offi ce situated? Is it miles away or near your
house?
2. How many counters (windows) are there? What are they? 3. Is
there a parcel department?
4. Can you make a long-distance call from
your post offi ce?
5. Do you subscribe to any periodicals there? 6. Are there
always many people at your post offi ce?
7. How oft en do you go there?
8. What other services are available at your post offi ce?

327
VI. Speak about:
1) the duties of a postman;
2) how you subscribed to the papers and magazines;
3) the delivery of post (mail).
VII. Describe the procedure of:
1) posting a letter;
2) sending a telegram;
3) registering a letter;
4) sending and cashing a money order;
5) posting a parcel;
6) sending books by book post;
7) collecting a letter to be called for.
VIII. This is what you can ask or say at the post offi ce. Memorise the phrases.
Is there a post offi ce near here? Есть ли где-нибудь поблизости
почта?
I’d like to send these letters to
England, please.Я бы хотел отправить письма в
Англию.
How much does it cost to send a
letter / parcel to France?Сколько стоит отправить письмо /
посылку во Францию?
I’d like to register this letter. Мне бы хотелось отправить заказное
письмо.
I’d like to send this letter
express.Мне бы хотелось отправить письмо
экспресс-почтой.
Where can I cash the money
order, please?Где я могу получить деньги по
переводу?
Can I send this by book post? Могу я отправить это бандеролью?
What is (not) allowed to send
by parcel?Что можно / нельзя отправлять по-
сылкой?
What is the postage on a letter /
parcel by airmail to the USA?Сколько стоит (каковы почтовые
расходы) отправить письмо / по-
сылку авиапочтой в США?
I’d like two 40-pence stamps,
please.Мне нужно две марки по сорок
пенсов.
Where can I have the parcel
weighed?Где можно взвесить посылку?

328
Read the dialogue “Sending a Parcel to Huston”.
A. What does a parcel to Huston cost?
B. It depends. Airmail or surface mail?
A. Airmail, please.
B. I’ll have to weigh it fi rst. Th at will be £5.50, please. And you will have to
fi ll out this customs form.
A. And I’d like three 50-pence stamps, too, please.
B. Here you are. Th at’s £7 exactly.
A. How long does a parcel to Huston take?
B. About a week.
A. And how much is this registered letter to Sweden, please?
B. I’ll check … that’s £2.50 Anything else?
A. Yes, please. Half a dozen airmail labels and a book of stamps.
B. Th at’s £9.75, please.
IX. Answer the questions.
1. Have you ever sent a parcel abroad? To what country? 2. What was the
enclosure?
3. Did you send it airmail or surface mail? 4. What does the
postage on a parcel depend on?
5. Why is it sometimes necessary to send
a parcel insured?
X. Describe the procedure of sending a parcel given in the dialogue above.
Short dialogues
AT THE POST OFFICE
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
Customer: Excuse me. Where can I cash this money order?
Clerk: Right here, madam. Please, sign your name at the bottom. Here is
the money.
Customer: Th ank you very much.
Clerk: Th ank you.
II
Customer: Could you tell me what the postage on a registered letter is,
please?

329 Clerk: Is it an inland one?
Customer: No, it’s for the Continent.
Clerk: Let me have it weighed. It will come to 3.5 d.
1
Customer: And what’s the postage on ordinary inland letters?
Clerk: Two pence — halfpenny
2.
Customer: And on postcards?
Clerk: Th ree halfpenny.
Customer: And if I want to send them by airmail?
Clerk: It’s 6 d. for letters and 4 d. for postcards.
III
Customer: I’d like to send a telegram, where can I get a form?
Clerk: Yo u ’ l l fi nd telegram forms over there; fi ll one up and hand it in at
the next counter.
Customer: How much will it be to send this telegram to France?
Clerk: Let me see, how many words … ten words at 8 d. a word. Th at’ll be
80
d., please.
Customer: And I want the telegram to reach the addressee by tonight.
Clerk: It will, don’t worry. Here is a receipt. Th ank you.
IV
Customer: I want to send a money order. Could you tell me when the
payee will get it if I send it right away?
Clerk: Tomorrow, by morning delivery, about 11 o’clock.
Customer: Will he be able to cash it the same day?
Clerk: Certainly, he’ll.
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. You don’t know at what counter of the post offi ce you can do one or another thing. Ask.
Model: Excuse me, where can I get a form for a money order?
You want: to send a parcel; to send a telegram; to register a letter; to buy
stamps; to get a letter to be called for; to subscribe to
newspapers; to cash a money order; to make a long-distance
call.
1 3.5 d. = 3,5 пенса2 halfpenny [´heIpnI; ,hC:f´penI] — полпенни

330
II. You are going to send something. Ask what the postage is.
Model: I’d like to send a letter to England by airmail. What’s the
postage on it, please?
You are sending: a registered letter to France; two albums by book post to
London; a parcel insured to Japan; an ordinary letter to New York.
III. You are looking for something. Ask where it is.
Model: Where is the General Post Offi ce, please?
You need: the letter box; the parcel department; the public telephone;
the delivery department; the telegraph department; the
currency exchange offi ce.
IV. Reproduce the dialogues “At the Post Offi ce” in similar situations.
Grammar
THE INFINITIVE. THE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
(НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННАЯ ФОРМА ГЛАГОЛА.
КОНСТРУКЦИИ С НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЙ ФОРМОЙ ГЛАГОЛА)
С формами инфинитива вы уже имели дело при изучении различных вре-
менных групп — simple, continuous, perfect и perfect continuous. Рассматри-
вая модель образования глагольной формы каждой группы времен, вы,
в сущности, и знакомились с той или иной неопределенной формой, кото-
рая лежит в основе данного грамматического времени:
simple infi nitive — to read (читать вообще)
continuous infi nitive — to be reading (читать в данный момент)
perfect infi nitive — to have read (прочитать)
perfect continuous infi nitive — to have been reading (читать в течение
какого-либо времени, включая или исключая настоящий момент)
Это формы инфинитива в действительном залоге (active voice).
С параллельными формами инфинитива в страдательном залоге вы также
познакомились в соответствующем разделе “Passive Voice”.

331
Формы инфинитива
Active Voice Passive Voice
Simpleto study — изучать (вообще) to be studied — быть изучае-
мым (вообще)
Continuousto be studying — изучать
(в данный момент)to be being studied — быть
изучаемым (в данный мо-
мент)
Perfectto have studied — изучить to have been studied — быть
изученным
Некоторых особенностей употребления инфинитива (в частности опуще-
ния частицы to) мы коснулись в разделе о модальных глаголах. Своеобра-
зие употребления неопределенной формы глагола наблюдается в инфи-
нитивных конструкциях, т. е. в таких оборотах речи, которые являются
спецификой английского языка и не имеют (или почти не имеют) анало-
гии в русском языке.
Construction for + to Infi nitive
(Конструкция for + to Infi nitive)
1. It is necessary for him to consult a doctor. — Ему необходимо посове-
товаться с врачом.
2. There is no need for her to worry. — Ей нет необходимости беспоко-
иться.
3. Here is a job for you to do. — Вот работа, которую вам нужно сде-
лать.
Exercises
I. Translate into Russian paying attention to the construction for + to infi nitive.
1. It is necessary for us to come there in time. 2. It is very important for the
students to have a good practice in English.
3. Is it diffi cult for you to
answer the question?
4. Do you think this text will be diffi cult for you to
translate without a dictionary?
5. It was not easy for the scientists to prove
their theory.
6. She opened the window for the night because it was hot for

332 them to sleep in the room.
7. It is only two o’clock. Th ere is no need for you
to hurry.
8. Here is a book for him to read during his trip. 9. Th e only thing
for her to do was to put up with the circumstances.
10. Th ere is no hope
for me to meet him soon.
II. Complete the sentences.
1. When we fi nished packing it was time for … to … . 2. He took a taxi as
it was necessary for … to … .
3. Th ey took a porter because the luggage
was too heavy for … to … .
4. If you wish to pass your exams successfully,
it is necessary for … to … .
5. Tell him the news, it will be interesting for
… to … .
6. She is leaving tomorrow. Can you come to see her off ? It will
be pleasant for … to …
7. Would you mind closing the window? It is cold
for … to … .
8. Th e conference will be held on Sunday. It is interesting for
… to … .
9. Th ere was no hope for … to … . 10. I cannot see any possibility
for … to … .
III. Respond to the questions or statements given below with phrases A or B.
А. It is
was
will bediffi cult
important
necessary
pleasant
interesting
desirable
easyfor smb. to do smth.
B. Th ere is
was
will beno need
chance
possibility
sense (смысл)(for smb.) to do smth.
Model 1: Т.: Have you read this novel?
St.: Yes, I have. It was interesting for me to read it.
A. 1. Have you sent her a registered letter? 2. I think you have received my
letter of congratulation.
3. Is she going to consult a doctor? 4. When did
you hear the news?
5. Why does your friend learn English? 6. Oh, I’ll ring
her up tomorrow.
7. You’ve visited the new exhibition, haven’t you?
8. Where are you going this summer? 9. Have you read the story?

333 Model 2: Т.: Did you phone him yesterday?
St.: No, I didn’t. Th ere was no need (for me) to do it.
B. 1. Shall we translate this text in writing? 2. Why didn’t you come to see
her off ?
3. You’ve phoned them certainly! 4. You have certainly informed
him about this.
5. Come and see her tomorrow! 6. Can they fi nish the test
in two days?
7. Let us ask her to help us. 8. You are going to send a money
order to her, aren’t you?
IV. Answer the questions. Give the reasons for your choice.
1. What is more desirable for you, to have a good fl at or a loving husband
(wife)?
2. What is necessary for you at the present moment, to have good
knowledge of English or to get a driving licence?
3. What is more important
for you, to fi nd a well-paid job or to be happy in the family?
4. What is
more interesting for you, to study foreign languages or to travel much?
5. What is easier for you, to strictly follow the traffi c rules or to pay a fi ne
to the policeman for breaking the rule?
6. What is more pleasant for you,
to have a rest at the seaside or to climb a mountain?
V. Which of the following chances may come true in your future life?
Is there any hope for you
• to fi nd a well-paid job?
• to buy a Mercedes?
• to get promotion in your offi ce?
• to fi nd a good wife (husband)?
• to buy a cottage on Palm Beach?
• to become a manager of a big company?
VI. Translate into English using the for + to infi nitive construction.
1. Вам необходимо помочь ей. 2. Вам трудно переводить этот текст?
3. Ей приятно получать от вас письма. 4. Моим коллегам было очень
трудно начать эксперимент.
5. Мне будет интересно знать, что она
думает об этом.
6. Для нее будет сюрпризом встретить вас там. 7. Ему
было приятно сообщить вам об этом.
8. Нам необходимо знать об их
приезде заблаговременно.
9. Вам нет необходимости идти туда так
рано.
10. У вас нет возможности встретить их там.

334 Grammar
The Objective Infi nitive Construction
(The Complex Object)
(Объектная инфинитивная конструкция,
или сложное дополнение)
Объектная инфинитивная конструкция (cложное дополнение) состоит из
двух частей — существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объ-
ектном падеже и неопределенной формы глагола. Но в функции сложно-
го дополнения такое словосочетание выступает только в определенных
условиях, а именно — если этот комплекс стоит после сказуемого, выра-
женного глаголами со значением:
1) желания — to want, to wish, to desire, I (he, she, etc.) would like;
2) умственной деятельности — to think, to believe, to consider,
to suppose, to expect, to know, to regard и др.;
3) физического восприятия — to see, to notice, to watch, to hear,
to feel;
4) разрешения, побуждения — to let, to make, to allow, to force.
Необходимо запомнить, что инфинитив в составе сложного дополнения
после глагола-сказуемого со значением физического восприятия, а также
после глаголов to let и to make, употребляется без частицы to.
Ввиду отсутствия аналогичного комплекса в русском языке сложное до-
полнение переводится придаточным дополнительным предложением
(кроме предложений, относящихся к пункту 4).
1. I want you to see me off. — Я хочу, чтобы вы меня проводили.
2. We expected the plan to be discussed at the conference. — Мы ожида-
ли, что план будет обсуждаться на конференции.
3. Did you see the boys get off the bus? — Вы видели, как мальчики вы-
ходили из автобуса?
4. They let him take part in the conference. — Ему позволили принять
участие в конференции.
В предложении 3 (т. е. после глаголов со значением физического воспри-
ятия) вместо инфинитива get off возможно причастие getting off. Разница
заключается в следующем: инфинитив просто называет действие, в то
время как причастием подчеркивается, что действие находится (находи-

335
лось) в процессе совершения, развития. В некоторых случаях при перево-
де на русский язык это различие подчеркивается употреблением разных
видовых форм глагола.
I saw them enter the house. — Я видел, как они вошли в дом.
I saw them entering the house. — Я видел, как они входили в дом.
Что касается употребления сложного дополнения после глаголов to let,
to make и некоторых других, то в этом случае при переводе на русский
язык не возникает трудностей, так как перевод осуществляется в той
же последовательности слов с заменой на эквивалентные русские ком-
поненты.
1. I cannot let you do this job: it is dangerous. — Я не могу позволить
вам делать эту работу: это опасно.
2. Circumstances made me come to another decision. — Обстоятельства
заставили меня принять другое решение.
Exercises
VII. Translate into Russian paying attention to the complex object.
1. I watched them disappear down the street. 2. I know your friend to
have taken part in the international conference.
3. We expect the guests
to come in time.
4. I heard her say so. 5. I want you to understand me.
6. Th ey did not expect him to come back so soon. 7. We expected the
delegation to arrive in the morning.
8. He wishes the paper to be published
as soon as possible.
9. Do you want me to see you off ? 10. Did you hear
them talk and laugh in the next room?
11. Th e doctor made his patient
follow the prescription.
12. Parents do not let their children keep late
hours.
VIII. Complete the sentences using the complex object construction.
1. Th ey wanted us to … . 2. I didn’t expect him to … . 3. We don’t want our
friends to … .
4. We know her to … . 5. I didn’t expect you to … . 6. Th ey
believed the experiment to … .
7. I’d like my brother to … . 8. Do you want
me to … ?
9. Did you see the child … ? 10. We watched them … . 11. I cannot
let you … .
12. Who made them … ?

336
IX. Answer the questions. Give full answers.
1. Do you want to see the new fi lm? 2. Do you want me to see the new fi lm?
3. Do you know our new professor? 4. Do you know our professor to
deliver a lecture on Monday?
5. When do you expect your friend? 6. When
do you expect your friend to return from England?
7. Have you seen him?
8. Have you seen him enter the hall? 9. What language do you believe to
be more diffi cult, English or German?
10. Where do you expect your
friends to go on Sunday?
X. Translate into English using the complex object construction.
1. Oн хочет, чтобы вы позвонили ему сегодня. 2. Я хочу, чтобы вы
подождали меня здесь.
3. Я не слышал, как он говорит по-английски.
4. Я знаю, что он лучший студент в группе. 5. Все ожидали, что он
прочтет хорошую лекцию.
6. Мы видели, как они закончили играть
в шахматы.
7. Я хотел бы, чтобы они приняли участие в этом
эксперименте.
8. Я полагаю, что он знает об этом. 9. Преподаватель
заставил студентов посещать лекции регулярно.
10. Я не могу
позволить вам приходить так поздно.
XI. Answer the following questions keeping in mind the use of an infi nitive after the verbs
to let and to make. Give full answers to the general questions.
1. Do your parents let you
• return home late?
• miss classes at the University?
• eat much ice cream?
• keep late hours?
• do nothing?
• smoke in the room?
2. What else do (don’t) they let you do?
3. Do your parents make you
• do any work about the house?
• have hot milk when you are ill?
• go in for sports?
• wash your hands before meals?
• stay at home when the weather is rainy?
• earn money?
4. What else do (don’t) they make you do?

337
XII. Translate into English using the objective infi nitive construction after the verbs to let
and to make.
1. Позвольте мне сделать эту работу. 2. Преподаватель разрешил сту-
дентам пользоваться словарем.
3. Я не позволю вам так себя вести.
4. Вы позволите мне прийти пораньше? 5. Родители не должны по-
зволять детям возвращаться домой поздно.
6. Я могу позволить вам
опоздать немного.
7. Преподаватель заставляет студентов посещать
занятия регулярно.
8. Декан может заставить студентов не опазды-
вать на лекции.
9. Родители заставляют детей заниматься спортом.
10. Почему вы заставляете меня делать это?
XIII. Give your friend а piece of good advice.
Model 1: St. 1: I’m bored.
St. 2: Well, do something interesting.
St. 1: What do you want me to do?
St. 2: Go to the cinema for example.
Advise the following: to study a foreign language; to visit a museum; to go
abroad; to read a novel; to surf the Internet; to join a club; to go to the
country; to make a call to somebody; to go in for sports.
Model 2: St. 1: I’d like you to help me. (Why?)
St. 2: Why would you like me to help you?
Use the following: to go somewhere — where; to see a new feature fi lm —
what fi lm; to meet him at the station — when; to buy a present for her —
what; to begin a new life — why; to invite somebody — who; to fi nd
another job — what job.
Dialogue
Read the dialogue.
Lord Worth: Ah, Charles!
Charles: Yes, sir.
Lord Worth: I want an early lunch today, Charles.
Charles: Yes, sir … What time?
Lord Worth: Twelve o’clock … Oh, and I want you to reserve a table at the
Savoy … for seven o’clock.
Charles: Yes, sir.
Lord Worth: … and I want Mary to prepare the guest room for Sir Th omas. I
want her to make a special eff ort
1. Sir Th omas is a very important guest.
1 to make a special eff ort [´speSl ´efAt] — приложить особые усилия, постараться

338 Charles: Yes, sir … anything else, sir?
Lord Worth: No, Charles, that’s all.
Exercises
XIV. Act out the dialogue exchanging the roles.
XV. Use the expression Somebody wanted me to be something in your questions and
answers.
1. When I was young, my father wanted me to be a doctor. He wanted me
to work hard.
Ask your friend the same questions using the model below.
What did your father
mother
grandparents
teacherswant you to be …?
to do?
…? …?
2. My father didn’t want me to smoke.
My mother didn’t want me to spend a lot of money on trifl es.
My grandmother didn’t want me to marry a foreigner.
My teachers didn’t want me to be a teacher.
What about your father (mother, grandparents, teachers)? Ask each other.
3. What do you want your children (wife, husband, friend, parents) to
do? Ask each other.
Grammar
The Subjective Infi nitive Construction
(Субъектная инфинитивная конструкция)
Субъектная инфинитивная конструкция также представляет собой ком-
плекс, в состав которого входит инфинитив. Такой инфинитив относится к
существительному в общем падеже или местоимению в именительном па-

339
деже (в отличие от объектного при сложном дополнении, в составе кото-
рого местоимение употребляется в объектном падеже), но эти два компо-
нента комплекса разъединены спрягаемой частью сказуемого. Последняя
может быть представлена глаголами определенных семантических групп:
1) глаголами умственной деятельности в страдательном залоге: to be
kn own, to be thoug ht, to be consid ered, to be expected, to be believed, to be
regarded и т. д.
2) глаголами в действительном залоге: to seem, to appear, to happen, to
prove, to turn out (все эти глаголы приобретают значение «оказываться»)
3) выражениями: to be sure (конечно), to be certain (определенно), to be (un)
likely ([не]вероятно)
1. He is known to be the best poet. — Известно, что он лучший поэт.
Он, как известно, лучший поэт.
2. The weather does not seem to be changing. — Погода, кажется,
не будет меняться.
3. They are unlikely to have done it. — Не может быть, чтобы они это
сделали.
Exercises
XVI. Translate into Russian paying attention to the subjective infi nitive construction.
1. St. Petersburg is known to have been founded in 1703 on the banks of
the Neva.
2. Moscow is believed to have been founded in 1147. 3. Th e
climate in England is mild; spring seems to be the best season in the
country.
4. Th e weather doesn’t seem to be changing. 5. My friend is
considered to know English best of all in the group.
6. Th e foreign
delegation is expected to arrive next month.
7. He is unlikely to have done
it.
8. Th ey happened to have started the test two days before. 9. He is
known to speak fi ve foreign languages.
10. Th ese historic events were
regarded to have taken place as far back as the ancient times.
XVII. Change the sentences according to the model:
Т.: It is known (that) one inch is equal to 2.54 centimetres.
St.: One inch is known to be equal to 2.54 centimetres.
1. It is known that Newton had formulated the laws of gravity and motion.
2. It is believed that the discovery greatly infl uenced the development of

340 science.
3. It is considered that Russian contribution to space science is
enormous ([I´nD:mAs] — огромный).
4. It seems that the weather is
changing.
5. It so happened that I was ill that time. 6. It is likely that he will
leave for Moscow tomorrow.
7. It is unlikely they have met him. 8. It was
known he had arrived fi ve days before the event.
9. It was supposed that
pedestrians followed the traffi c signs.
10. It is certain he won’t return till
they fi nish the investigation.
XVIII. Respond to the statements in the following way.
Model: St. 1: He is a singer. (to consider — the best)
St. 2:
Yes, I know. He is considered (to be) the best singer.
1. She is a pianist. (to believe — talented) 2. Th ey are sportsmen. (to
consider — fi rst class)
3. Th e fi lm isn’t interesting. (to think — the most
boring in the season)
4. He is a rock star. (to believe — the most popular
singer)
5. Her father is a scientist. (to know — a great researcher) 6. Th is
book is popular with the readers. (to consider — a bestseller)
7. А Rolls
Royce is a very expensive car. (to suppose — the fastest car)
8. Th e tea is
very delicious. (to consider — the best brand)
9. Th e boy is very clever. (to
regard — intelligent)
10. Th e north landscape is wonderful. (to believe —
impressive)
XIX. Say that the following isn’t somebody’s duty.
Model: St. 1: Shall I have to do the cooking?
St. 2:
No, you aren’t supposed to do it. (Нет, это не входит
в ваши обязанности.)
1. Will she have to look aft er the small children? 2. Will you have to do the
washing?
3. Will he have to take a walk with the dog? 4. Shall I have to feed
the baby?
5. Will she have to cook breakfast? 6. Shall I have to wash the
dishes?
7. Will she have to go shopping? 8. Shall I have to serve lunch
every day?
9. Will she have to type a lot? 10. Shall I have to answer the
phone calls?
XX. Say the following in English according to the model.
Приготовление пищи (не) входит в ее обязанности. — She is(n’t)
supposed to do the cooking.

1. Кормить ребенка — не его обязанность. 2. Выгуливать собаку не
входит в мои обязанности.
3. Мыть посуду по утрам — не ее обязан-
ность.
4. Я не обязана устраивать стирку каждый день. 5. Присма-
тривать за малолетними детьми — ее обязанность.
6. Покупать про-
дукты входит в их обязанность.
7. Гладить белье входит в твои обя-
занности.
8. Убирать дом не входит в мои обязанности.
XXI. Answer the following questions using the subjective infi nitive construction.
1. What Russian city is considered to be built aft er the European archi tec-
tural pattern?
2. What country is regarded to be the fi rst in space exploring?
3. What literature is known to be the most popular with young people?
4. Who is known to speak English fl uently in your group? 5. Why was the
Liverpool group of four recognised as one of the most popular in the
world?
6. What Russian philosophers are thought to be the most famous
and readable?
7. Are Latin America serials considered to be popular only
with housewives and pensioners?

342
Unit
EIGHTEEN
Conversation: Shopping
Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood
Te x t
Read the text.
Shopping (at the Department Store)
Th ere is a wide network of shopping centres, department stores and
specialised shops in every town and city. Customers can buy consumer
goods either for cash or on credit.
People need many things for their everyday life. Some of these things
serve them for a long time (they are called durable), others are intended
for a short period (they are called non-durable). Th e former are expensive,
while the latter are much cheaper.
Let us watch the busy life of one of the department stores and see what
is for sale there. On the fi rst fl oor you will fi nd various departments:
a haberdas hery department, a hosiery department, a footwear department,
and a textile and drapery department. At the very end there is a department
where you can buy all kinds of kitchen utensils: cutlery, pans, crockery,
pots, tea sets and so on. On the left side of the fi rst fl oor you will see
a perfumery and a gift and souvenir department. Th e goods that can be
found at these sections are in great demand with the customers, that is
why there are always crowds of people there.
Th e perfumery department is very popular both with women and
men. Th ere they buy things either for their personal use or for presents.
You can fi nd the following things on the counter: various kinds of perfume,
shampoos, soap, and cream. Each woman can buy there a suitable lipstick,
powder, nail polish, mascara, rouge, and eye shadows.
If you visit a haberdashery department, you will be surprised by a great
choice of gloves, scarves, bags, hairbrushes and combs, socks and tights.
Th e price of some goods is quite reasonable, of others — rather high.

343 On the second fl oor of the department store you can buy everything in
the way of clothes: knitwear, underwear, ready-made clothes, and also
furs and hats. Th e ready-made clothes department off ers articles of home
and foreign production. Clothes in diff erent styles, colours and sizes can
be found here.
At this department women can buy dresses, skirts, blouses, coats,
jackets, and jeans. Th e shop assistant is always ready to serve the customer
politely and will help everybody to choose the thing which will fi t the
person well.
For men the ready-made clothes department off ers suits, shirts,
trousers, jeans, T-shirts. If you like something that you intend to buy, you
may try it on in the fi tting room.
In the knitwear section the following articles of clothes are for sale:
sweaters, pullovers, jackets, cardigans, and two-piece suits.
Don’t forget to look into the department on the ground fl oor. It is
mostly visited by those who need things for housekeeping. Here you see
electric appliances, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, washing machines,
dishwashers, and other devices that can be useful in household.
Remember that the department store runs a special service: a customer
can have the purchase wrapped up and nicely packed for a low price.
Words and Expressions
shopping [´SOpIN] — посещение магазина с целью покупки
а department store [dI´pC:tmAnt ´stD:] — универмаг
a wide network [´waId ´netwQ:k] — широкая сеть
a customer [´kEstAmA] — покупатель
consumer goods [kAn´sju:mA ,gUdz] — потребительские товары
to buy smth. for cash [… kBS] — покупать что-л. за наличные деньги
to buy smth. on credit […´kredIt] — покупать что-л. в кредит, в рас-
срочку
durable [´djUArAbl] — длительного пользования
to be for sale [… seIl] — быть в продаже
haberdashery [´hBbA,dBSAri] — галантерея
hosiery [´hAUziAri] — чулочные изделия
footwear [´futweA] — обувь
drapery [´dreIpAri] — декоративные ткани

344
kitchen utensils [… ju:'tenslz] — кухонная посуда
cutlery [´kEtlAri] — ножевые изделия
а pan [pBn] — кастрюля
crockery [´krOkAri] — посуда (глиняная, фаянсовая)
а pot [pOt] — горшок, котелок
to be in great demand [… dI´mC:nd] — пользоваться большим спросом
soap [sAUp] — мыло
cream [kri:m] — крем
a lipstick [´lIp,stIk] — губная помада
powder [´paUdA] — пудра
nail polish [´neIl ,pOlIS] — лак для ногтей
mascara [mB´skC:rA] — тушь для ресниц
rouge [ru:Z] — румяна
eye shadows [´aI ,SBdAUz] — тени для ресниц
а glove [glEv] — перчатка
а scarf [skC:f] — шарф
а hairbrush [´heA,brES] — щетка для волос
а comb [kAUm] — расческа, гребень
а sock [sOk] — носок
tights [taIts] — колготки
knitwear [´nIt,weA] — трикотаж
underwear [´EndA,weA] — нижнее белье
ready-made clothes [´redi,meId ´klAUGz] — готовая одежда
furs [fQ:z] — меховые изделия
a skirt [skQ:t] — юбка
a blouse [blaUz] — блузка
a shop assistant [´SOp A,sIstAnt] — продавец
to fi t well [fIt …] — быть впору, хорошо сидеть
а suit [su:t] — мужской костюм
а shirt — мужская рубашка
trousers [´traUzAz] — брюки
a T-shirt [´ti:,SQ:t] — футболка
to try on [´traI ´On] — примерять
a fi tting room [´fItIN,ru:m] — примерочная
a sweater [´swetA] — свитер
a pullover [´pUlAUA] — пуловер
a cardigan [´kC:dIgAn] — кардиган, длинный шерстяной джемпер
а two-piece suit — женский костюм

345
аn electric appliance [… A´plaIAns] — бытовой электроприбор
а vacuum-cleaner [´vBkjUAm,kli:nA] — пылесос
а washing machine [… mA´Si:n] — стиральная машина
а dishwasher [´dIS,wOSA] — посудомоечная машина
household [´haUs,hAUld] — домашнее хозяйство
а purchase [´pQ:tSAs] — покупка
to wrap up [´rBp ´Ep] — завертывать, заворачивать, упаковывать
Exercises
I. Name as many things as possible that you can buy:
at the haberdashery; at the perfumery department; at the ready-made
clothes department; at the footwear department; at the gift and souvenir
department.
Use the models: At the … one can fi nd … .
Th e following goods can be bought at the … .
II. Say to what section of the department store you go if you want to buy these things.
Model: If I need … , I go to the … .
Us e : a skirt and a blouse; fashionable shoes; a souvenir; tights;
a toothbrush and a bar of soap; jeans and sport shirts; gloves
and an umbrella; a ring or earrings; eye shadows and
mascara.
III. А. Answer the questions.
1. Do you like to go shopping? 2. Where do you usually buy consumer
goods, in specialised shops or in department stores?
3. What sections of
the department store do you have to visit oft en?
4. When were you at the
department store last time and on what occasion?
5. Do you always try
articles of clothes on when doing the shopping? May a customer try all
things on?
6. What goods can be purchased on credit? Have you ever
bought anything on credit?
7. What presents do you usually buy for your
friends’ birthday? Do you prefer to present them with expensive gift s?
8. How oft en do you change a coat or a raincoat to a new one? Do you like
new things?
9. Do you feel upset if you cannot aff ord to buy an expensive

346 article of clothes?
10. Whose production of shoes do you prefer, home or
foreign?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words He asked, He wanted to know. Don’t forget to use the sequence of tenses rule.
Dialogues
Read the dialogues.
At the Ready-Made Clothes Department
I
Shop assistant: What can I do for you?
Customer: I’m looking for a jacket. I’d like something in green.
Shop assistant: What size are you?
Customer: I’m not sure but I think … 12.
Shop assistant: Here is an excellent jacket in green wool. Will you try
it on?
Customer: Yes. Where is the fi tting room?
Shop assistant: Come this way.
(Some minutes later)
Customer: How does it look?
Shop assistant: It looks great. It’s exactly your size.
Customer: How much is it?
Shop assistant: It’s only 35 dollars.
Customer: All right. I’ll take it. Th ank you.
Shop assistant: Th ank you. Come again.
II
Shop assistant: Can I help you?
Customer: I’m looking for an evening dress.
Shop assistant: Did you have anything particular in mind?
Customer: Yes, I like this style here.
Shop assistant: Th at’s fashionable and very popular at the moment. Would
you like to try it on? Th e fi tting rooms are over there.
Customer: Yes, thank you. Where is a mirror?
Shop assistant: Here it is, madam.
Customer: Hmm, maybe I need a smaller size.
Shop assistant: I’m afraid we haven’t any left in that colour in a smaller
size. Would you like to try on another colour?

347 Customer: No, I think I’ll take this one aft er all. Do you take credit cards?
Shop assistant: Yes, of course.
Exercises
IV. Make up short dialogues.
Model: — I’m looking for a blouse.
— What colour do you want?
— Something in yellow.
— What size are you?
— 14.
— Here’s an excellent blouse, not very expensive.
— Can I try it on?
You want to buy: a suit — brown — 16; a coat — light-green — 14; leather
gloves — black — 8; a two-piece suit — blue — 18; a pullover — grey —
14; trousers — white — 16; jeans — light-blue — 12.
V. Act out the dialogues “At the Ready-made Clothes Department“.
Dialogues
Read the dialogues.
In a Jeweller’s Shop
Customer: I’m trying to fi nd a birthday present for my wife.
Shop assistant: Yes, sir. What exactly are you looking for?
Customer: I’m not sure, really. Perhaps you can help me.
Shop assistant: Right … I’ll show you some pendants.
Customer: No, I bought a pendant for our wedding anniversary.
Shop assistant: Maybe a ring, then. Th ese rings are made of gold.
Customer: Yes … I like that one. What’s the stone?
Shop assistant: It’s a diamond, sir … and it’s only £2000!
Customer: Ah … well, perhaps you could show me some earrings, then.
а jeweller’s shop [´dZUAlAz …] — ювелирный магазин
a pendant [´pendAnt] — кулон
an anniversary [,BnI´vQ:s(A)ri ] — годовщина, юбилей
a diamond [´daIAmAnd] — бриллиант

348
In a Toy Shop
Customer: Good aft ernoon. Perhaps you can give me some advice …
Shop assistant: Yes, madam.
Customer: I’m looking for a toy … for my grandson.
Shop assistant: Oh, yes … how old is he?
Customer: He’ll be ten years old in a week.
Shop assistant: Skateboards are still very popular.
Customer: Hmm, I don’t want him to hurt himself.
Shop assistant: What about a drum set?
Customer: I don’t think so. His father will be angry if I buy him one of
those. Have you got anything educational? You see, he’s a very intelligent
boy.
Shop assistant: I’ve got the perfect thing! A do-it-yourself computer kit.

a toy shop [tDI…] — магазин игрушек
a skateboard [´skeIt,bD:d] — скейтборд
to hurt oneself (hurt) [hQ:t] — разбиться, ушибиться
a drum set — барабанная установка (комплект барабанов)
intelligent [In ´telIdZ(A)nt] — умный, смышленый
а do-it-yourself computer kit — компьютерная игра «Сделай сам»
Additional Words and Expressions
How much is it? What’s the price of … ? What does it cost? — Сколько
это стоит?
It suits me perfectly. — Это меня вполне устраивает.
It isn’t quite what I want. — Это не совсем то, что я хочу.
Have you anything а little cheaper? — У вас есть что-нибудь поде-
шевле?
You are hard to please. — Вам трудно угодить.
Exercises
VI. Make up dialogues.
1. In a jeweller’s shop. The situation is:
You are looking for a birthday present for your mother (sister, wife,
daughter). You want to buy a necklace ([
´neklAs] — ожерелье). Th e shop-

349 assistant is showing one made of gold. It is very expensive. Refuse the idea
of buying it. Ask her to show you some beads ([bi:dz] — бусы). Th ere is a
great choice of beads made of garnet [
´gC:nIt] (гранат), pearl
[pQ:1]
(жемчуг), emerald [ ´em(A)rAld ] (изумруд).
Choose something.
2. In a toy shop. The situation is:
You want to buy a birthday present for your daughter. She’s only four.
Th ere are a lot of toys for sale: dolls (куклы), balls, teddy bears ([
´tedi
,beAz] — игрушечные медведи).
Choose something.
3. In a clothes department. The situation is:
You are going to buy a pair of jeans (trousers, a skirt, a blouse, a dress,
a coat, a suit). Tell the shop assistant what size and colour you need. Ask
about the price and if you can try it (them) on.
VII. Translate into English.
1. Я хочу приобрести японский телевизор в кредит. 2. Мне нужно
зайти в сувенирный отдел и купить подарок на день рождения брату.
3. По дороге домой не забудь купить мыло, шампунь и зубную пасту.
4. Я советую вам взять этот костюм: он модный и хорошо на вас
сидит.
5. Давай зайдем в галантерею и посмотрим, какие есть в про-
даже сумки.
6. Очень удобно делать покупки в универмаге: там
большой выбор товаров широкого потребления.
7. Товары бывают
длительного пользования и недолгосрочные; первые стоят дорого,
последние — значительно дешевле.
8. Изделия, которые продаются
в том или ином
магазине, обычно выставляются в витрине. 9. Если
вы хотите купить дорогую вещь, вы можете приоб рести ее в кредит.
10. Парфюмерия из Франции пользуется большим спросом у наших
покупателей.

350
VIII. This is what you can ask or say at the department store or in the shop. Memorise
the phrases.
Where is the clothes department? Где отдел готового платья?
Could you tell me where the
clothes department is, please?Не скажете, где отдел готового
платья?
No, thank you. I’m just having a
look around.Нет, спасибо. Я просто смотрю.
Where can I try it (them) on? Где я могу это примерить?
It doesn’t go with my hair. Это не гармонирует с цветом моих
волос.
It’s a bit too tight / loose. Он (она, оно) слишком обтягивает
(узко) / свободно.
Do you have it in a smaller / larger
size?У вас есть такое же меньшего /
большего размера?
Do you have it in another colour? У вас есть другой цвет (то же, но
другого цвета)?
Do you have trousers to match this
jacket?У вас есть брюки под цвет этого
жакета?
How should I wash it? Как это нужно стирать?
Th e colour doesn’t suit me. Цвет меня не устраивает.
I’d like to try it / them on. Я бы хотел примерить.
Can I try it / them on in a smaller
size? Могу я примерить такое же мень-
шего размера?
I think I’ll take it. Думаю, я это возьму.
Are these the only ones you have? Это все, что у вас есть?
Can I pay by check? Можно оплатить по чековой
книжке?
Do you take (accept) credit cards? Вы принимаете кредитные карты?
Th ank you. You’ve been very
helpful.Спасибо. Вы мне очень помогли.
IX. This is what you can hear at the department store or in the shop. Memorise the
prases.
May I help you? Могу я вам помочь?
What size do you take? Какой у вас размер?

351 Th is will probably fi t you. Это, вероятно, подойдет вам.
It fi ts perfectly. Он (она, оно) сидит превосходно.
It suits you. Вам очень подходит.
Th is skirt is a real bargain. Юбка — очень удачная по купка.
You can machine-wash it. Его (ее) можно стирать в машине.
Sale begins this week. Распродажа начинается на этой
неделе.
Th e clearance sale begins on …
and ends … .Тотальная распродажа в связи с
закрытием магазина начинается
… и заканчивается … .
Th ere is a 20 %
discount on all our
goods at the moment.Сейчас на все товары
20 % скидка.
Th at’s a very popular style. Это очень модный стиль.
I’m afraid we don’t have this colour
in size 14. Боюсь, что такого цвета 14 размера
нет.
Th is one fi ts much better. Это сидит гораздо лучше.
Would you like to try it on in
another style / colour / size?Не хотели бы вы примерить это
другого стиля / цвета / размера?
I’m afraid we haven’t any green
blouses left .Боюсь, что у нас не осталось
зелёных блузок.
X. Before reading the text match the words and expressions in the left-hand column to
their defi nition in the right-hand column.
1) a hypermarket [´haIpA,mC:kIt]a) a market where people sell things
they do not want from the back
of their car
2) a supermarket [´su:pA,mC:kIt]b) a shop selling art and objects that
are made by hand
3) an upmarket boutique
[Ep´mC:kIt bu:´ti:k]c) a very large shop that sells food
and other products for the home.
You go around the shop pushing
a trolley and putting things in it,
then you pay for your goods at
the checkout

352
4) an arts and craft s shop
[C:ts… krC:fts…]d) a small fashionable shop,
designed for people with a lot of
money, especially one that sells
clothes
5) a millinery shop
[´mIlIn(A)ri…]e) a very large supermarket, usually
built outside a town, that sells a
wide range of goods
6) a car boot sale f ) a large container with wheels that
you push and use for carrying
things in a supermarket
7) a garage sale
[´gBrC:Z/´gBrIdZ…]g) something you buy that costs
much less than normal
8) a bargain [´bC:gIn]h) a shop selling hats
9) a DIY superstore
[,di: aI ´waI ´su:pA,stD:]i) the place in a supermarket or
other large shop where you pay
for the goods chosen
10) a trolley [´trOli]j) a do-it-yourself shop; a place
where you can buy something
for making or repairing things
for your home instead of paying
someone to do them for you
11) a checkout [´tSekaUt]k) an occasion when people sell
furniture, clothes, books, toys,
etc. that they do not want any
more from their garage
A Great Choice of Shopping Places
Hypermarkets and supermarkets are very popular with customers from
all walks of life because a wide choice of goods, both foodstuff s and
consumer goods, can be found there. However it is convenient to go there
if you need to buy a lot of items or some bulky things which can be loaded
into your car. One of the attractions of these shopping centres is the system
of discounts that makes it possible to buy products much cheaper. Choice
of supermarket depends on several factors, such as prices, choice of goods,
opening hours and for a large number of middle-aged middle-class
customers on the size of a car park.

353 Alongside these shopping centres there exist a number of specialised
shops designed both for wealthy people and middle-class representatives.
Th ese are upmarket boutiques, arts and craft s shops, millinery shops,
second-hand shops, street markets. Street markets off er good value for
money and a wide range of trendy teenage wear. And it is always nice for
teenagers to be outside aft er being cooped up in school all week. Some
people fi nd it rather amusing visiting the local car boot or garage sales
where they can really fi nd some bargains if they look hard enough. If
somebody in your family does home repairs, it is very convenient and
profi table to buy necessary things at the DIY superstore.
Shopping habits generally depend on age group and fi nancial situation,
more than on any other factors.
XI. Answer the questions.
1. Are you a shopaholic? 2. Do you usually shop at the supermarket or do
you prefer to use your local shop?
3. Can discount cards stimulate your
visiting certain shops?
4. Where do you usually buy trendy articles of
clothes? Have you ever bought a thing that you consider to be a bargain?
5. Do you sometimes visit second-hand shops or street markets?
XII. Topics for discussion.
1. My last visit to the hypermarket or supermarket.
2. Buying a present for somebody’s birthday.
3. A bargain.
Short Dialogues
ASKING FOR CHANGE
Read the dialogues in pairs.
I
A: Excuse me. Could you oblige me with some change?
B: I’ll see what I’ve got. What’s it for?
A: I need some cigarettes from this vending machine.
B: I can let you have some tens, if that’s any good.

354
II
A: Sorry to trouble you, but have you change for a 50?
B: I’ll have a look. What do you want it for?
A: I have to get a book of stamps.
B: In that case you need silver.
III
A: Excuse me, but could I trouble you for some change?
B: Let me see. Do you want coppers or silvers?
A: I want to make a long-distance call.
B: You’d better have silver then.
IV
A: Excuse me. I wonder if you could change 50 pounds.
B: Let’s see. Copper or silver?
A: It’s for a long-distance call.
B: Will tens do?
I. Could you oblige me with some change? — He могли бы вы разменять
мне деньги?
if that’s any good — если это вас устроит
III. а copper — медь (медная или бронзовая монета)
а silver — серебро (серебряная монета)
Situational Exercises to the Short Dialogues
I. Silent reading. First, read all phrases A 1, then В 1, etc.
II. You want to buy some things but you don’t have any change.
1. Ask somebody to change your money.
Model: Excuse me, could you change a 10, please? (See phrases A 1.)
2. Say what you need the change for.
Model: I want to make a phone call. (See phrases A 2.)
III. Somebody is asking you for some change.
1. Respond to the request like this.
I’ll have a look. What do you want it for? (See phrases В 1.)

355
2. Offer some change.
I can let you have some tens, if that’s any good (See phrases В 2.)
IV. Reproduce the short dialogues ‘‘Asking for Change” in similar situations.
Grammar
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
(СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ)
Сослагательное наклонение выражает предположительное или жела-
тельное действие и переводится на русский язык глаголом в форме, со-
впадающей с прошедшим временем, с частицей «бы»: пошел бы, сделал
бы, узнал бы и т. д.
Наиболее употребительная форма сослагательного наклонения в
разговор ном английском языке — аналитическая форма should (would) +
инфинитив. Should употребляется с первым лицом единственного и
множествен ного числа, would — во всех остальных случаях. Следует от-
метить, что в современном английском разговорном языке форма
would употребляется и с первым лицом единственного и множественно-
го числа:
1. I would help you with pleasure. — Я бы помог вам с удовольствием.
2. Не would tell me the news. — Oн бы рассказал мне эту новость.
Exercises
I. Translate the Russian verbs given in brackets.
1. I (прочитал бы) this novel too, but I can’t get it. 2. We (поехали бы) to
the country with you.
3. Our students (примут участие) in the forthcoming
conference.
4. I think he (посетил бы) this exhibition. 5. Th e delegation
(прибудет) tomorrow.
6. We know this fi lm (имел бы успех — to be a
success) abroad.
7. Th e scientists (будут проводить испытание) together
with the representatives of the plant.
8. I (связался бы с ним — to get in
touch with him), but I am not sure if he has come back.

356
II. Say that you would do this too, but something prevents you from doing it.
St. 1: I want to see this fi lm.
St. 2:
I would see this fi lm too, but I’ll be busy the whole week.
1. He reads this journal in English. 2. My friend will take part in the
conference in Moscow.
3. He will meet them at the airport. 4. Th ey phone
him very oft en.
5. He learns English successfully. 6. I regularly go in for
sports.
7. She cooks breakfast every morning. 8. I have bought a new car.
9. She will go abroad for a month. 10. My friend works hard at his
English.
Форма сослагательного наклонения should (would) + simple infi nitive упо-
требляется для выражения предполагаемого действия, относящегося к
настоящему или будущему. Для передачи действия, относящегося к про-
шлому, в этой модели употребляется перфектный инфинитив:
I should (would) have gone to the country with you but I fell ill. — Я бы
поехал с тобой за город, но я заболел.
Сравните предложения:
I should (would) come to see him. — Я бы навестил его. (Имеется в
виду: если он пригласит или если будет время.)
I should (would) have come to see him. — Я бы навестил его. (Имеется в
виду: если бы он пригласил. Но он не пригласил (или не было време-
ни), и я не навестил его.)
Exercises
III. Answer the questions using the model:
Т.: Imagine it is summer now. Where would you go for your rest?
St.: In this case I should (would) go (I’d go) to Spain.
A. Imagine you are at home now.
What would you do? Use the following expressions:
to watch a TV programme; to cook dinner; to do the fl at; to receive friends;
to surf the Internet; to have a rest; to play chess.

357
B. Imagine you have been invited to your friend’s birthday party.
What present would you buy for him (her)? Use the following expressions.
to give something expensive; to buy a watch of the latest model; to present
him (her) with some perfume; to buy red roses; to give a book on art as a
present; to buy an article of clothes.
C. Imagine you have just left school.
1. What University would you get into? 2. Would you study English hard?
3. How would you spend your free time? 4. Would you take any course?
What course?
D. Imagine that yesterday your friend returned from Moscow but you did not know about
his (her) arrival.
1. Would you have met him (her) at the railway station if you had known
about his (her) arrival?
2. How would you have gone, by taxi or by bus?
3. Would you have helped him (her) with the heavy luggage?
Другой аналитической формой сослагательного наклонения является
форма, состоящая из вспомогательного глагола should (для всех лиц един-
ственного и множественного числа) и инфинитива. Этот вид сослагатель-
ного наклонения используется в следующих типах придаточных предло-
жений:
1) в придаточном подлежащном предложении после главного, оформлен-
ного по типу It is necessary:
It is d esira ble that they should not be late for classes. —
Желательно, чтобы они не опаздывали на занятия.
2) в придаточном дополнительном после сказуемого в главном предло-
жении, выраженного глаголами to suggest, to demand, to order и некоторы-
ми другими:
The doctor demanded that the patient should stay in bed for some more
days. — Врач потребовал, чтобы больной соблюдал постельный ре-
жим еще в течение нескольких дней.
3) в придаточном предложении обстоятельства цели после союза lest
(чтобы не):
We had to take a taxi lest we should be late for the performance. —
Мы взяли такси, чтобы не опоздать на спектакль.

358
IV. Read, translate and memorise.
A. 1. It is (was) necessary that we should do it at once. 2. It is (was) desirable
that he should come.
3. It is (was) important that he should make a report.
4. It is (was) unusual that they should have forgotten to post the letter.
B.1. Th e teacher demands (demanded) that we should translate the text
without a dictionary.
2. Th e father orders (ordered) that Peter should stay at
home.
3. Tom insists (insisted) that we should go there together. 4. Th e chief
suggests (suggested) that they should start the experiment immediately.
REMEMBER!
После глагола to suggest употребляется придаточное предложение со ска-
зуемым в сослагательном наклонении. Использование инфинитива в этом
случае (в отличие от аналогичного русского предложения) недопустимо.
Предложение «Он предлагает посмотреть новый спектакль» соответству-
ет английскому Не suggests that we should see the new performance.
В американском варианте английского языка, а также в официальном сти-
ле после глаголов to suggest, to demand и т. д. мы находим другую форму
сослагательного наклонения — синтетическую, совпадающую с настоя-
щим простым временем за исключением того, что в III лице единственного
числа отсутствует окончание -s (-es), а глагол to be и to have во всех лицах
имеет форму be и have соответственно. Эта форма сослагательного на-
клонения называется present subjunctive.
They insisted that he make a report a bout the results of h is inves tigation.
V. Say that it is important (necessary, desirable) for somebody to do something.
Model: It is necessary that he should do this at once.
Use the following prompts in your situations: you — to come there early;
they — to begin studying a foreign language; she — to consult a doctor;
we — not to be late for the party; he — to be more careful; I — to know it
in advance; you — to send him a message; he — to book a ticket for
Monday; we — to update our computer programme.
VI. Tell your friend about someone’s proposal.
Model: Let’s go to a restaurant. (he) — He suggests (suggested) that
we should go to a restaurant.

359
1. Come to see him tonight. (she) 2. Will you go to the country with
me? (he)
3. Could you come to my place for a sherry party? (my friend)
4. Let’s see this fi lm together. (they) 5. We can stay in the hotel. (he) 6. What
do you think of visiting the exhibition? (she)
7. Let’s spend the summer
at the seaside. (my parents)
8. How about going to the park on Sunday?
(he)
VII. Translate into English.
1. Необходимо, чтобы вопрос был улажен немедленно. 2. Офицер
приказал, чтобы солдаты остановились.
3. Мне предложили принять
участие в конференции.
4. Руководитель настаивает, чтобы все было
готово к трем часам.
5. Желательно было, чтобы она вышла замуж за
серьезного, богатого человека.
6. Очень важно, чтобы вы встретились
с ней заранее.
7. Надо было, чтобы об этом событии узнали все.
8. Люди требуют, чтобы законы соблюдались. 9. Родители предложили
сыну остаться дома и присмотреть за маленькой сестрой.
10. Ре ко-
мендуется, чтобы каждый послушал эту лекцию.
VIII. Complete the sentences using the proper form of the subjunctive mood.
1. Put down my address lest (to forget). 2. Make haste lest (to miss the
train).
3. Don’t sit in the draught lest (to catch a cold). 4. I’ll give you my
alarm clock lest (to oversleep).
5. She did not buy expensive things lest (to
spend much money).
6. He pretended to be ill lest (to participate in the
conference).
IX. Translate into English.
1. Она вышла из дома рано, чтобы не опоздать на поезд. 2. Наденьте
что-нибудь потеплее, чтобы не простудиться.
3. Им пришлось взять
такси, чтобы не опоздать в аэропорт.
4. Она промолчала, чтобы не
обидеть их.
5. Он включил радио, чтобы утром не проспать. 6. При-
нимай это лекарство три раза в день, чтобы не заболеть гриппом.
7. Она старалась не вспоминать об этом, чтобы не расстраиваться.
8. Приходите туда пораньше, чтобы не остаться без места. 9. Мы
закрыли окно, чтобы в комнате не было холодно.
10. Положи деньги
в кошелек, чтобы не потерять их.

360
Помимо аналитических форм сослагательного наклонения в английском
языке есть три синтетических формы, которые называются по-английски
(ввиду отсутствия соответствующих русских терминов) present subjunctive,
past subjunctive и perfect subjunctive.
Первая форма (present subjunctive), о которой речь шла выше, редко ис-
пользуется в современном английском языке. Сфера ее употребления —
поэзия, высокопарная проза и научный язык.
Past и perfect subjunctive употребляются в придаточных предложениях
одних и тех же типов, но различаются соотнесенностью с действием глав-
ного предложения. Past subjunctive обозначает действие, одновремeнное
с действием глагола главного предложения, в то время как perfect
subjunctive передаёт значение предшествования. Как вытекает из самих
названий, глагол в past subjunctive совпадает по форме с прошедшим про-
стым временем (past simple), за исключением того, что глагол to be имеет
форму were во всех лицах единственного и множественного числа. Глагол
в perfect subjunctive совпадает по форме с прошедшим совершенным вре-
менем (past perfect).
Обе формы сослагательного наклонения широко используются в совре-
менном английском языке и встречаются как в литературных текстах, так
и в разговорной речи.
Они используются в следующих типах придаточных предложений:
1) в придаточном предложении сравнительном, вводимом союзами as if
и as though (как будто, словно):
1. Не speaks English as if he were a real Englishman. (Одновременное
действие) — Oн говорит по-английски так, как будто он настоящий
англичанин.
2. Не speaks English as if he had lived in England all his life. (Предшеству-
ющее действие) — Oн говорит по-английски так, словно он прожил в
Англии всю свою жизнь.
2) в придаточном предложении предикативном, вводимом союзами as if
и as though, при глагольных связках to be, to feel, to look, to seem в главном
предложении:
1. I feel as if I were a winner. (Одновременное действие) — У меня такое
чувство, словно я победитель.
2. Не looks as if he had known it be fore. (Предшествующее действие) —
У него такой вид, как будто он знал об этом раньше.

3) в придаточном предложении дополнительном, употребленном после
главного предложения со сказуемым, выраженным глаголом to wish:
1. I wish I were you. — Я хотел бы быть на твоем месте.
(Одновременное действие) (Я жалею, что я не на твоем месте.)
2. Не wished he had not said these words. (Предшествующее дей-
ствие) — Oн жалел, что сказал это. (Он желал бы не произносить
этих слов.)
Exercises
X. Complete the sentences using the proper form of the subjunctive mood.
1. We were going to the country and we wished the weather (to be fi ne).
2. I wish I (to understand) everything and everybody. 3. He behaved as if
he (not to be familiar) with good manners.
4. I wish I (to know) this news
in advance.
5. He feels as if he (to overeat). 6. He wished he (can make) a
fresh start aft er that.
7. My friend speaks English so fl uently and with such
a nice accent as though he (to learn) the language at Oxford University.
8. She wished she (to join) her friends who had gone on excursion to that
picturesque place.
9. I feel as if I (to be) ten years younger. 10. She behaves
as if she (to know) all famous people.
XI. Translate into English.
1. Она взяла книгу и начала читать, как будто ничего не случилось.
2. Он выглядит так, как будто серьезно болен. 3. Эта женщина вела
себя так, словно она была хозяйкой дома и словно прожила здесь
всю жизнь.
4. Мне очень жаль, что я не знала об их приезде заранее.
5. Мне хотелось бы, чтобы погода изменилась. 6. Он говорит так, как
будто знаком с ней много лет.
7. Жаль, что вы не посетили такую
интересную лекцию.
8. Она чувствует себя, как будто она виновата в
том, что произошло.
9. Она рассуждает так, как будто она одна
сделала всю работу, а остальные сидели сложа руки.
10. Я жалею, что
мы не виделись с вами до этого.

362
Unit
NINETEEN
Conversation: Shopping (At the Supermarket)
Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood in Conditional Sentences
Te x t
Read the text.
Shopping (at the Supermarket)
People buy foodstuff s at the food stores, at the markets and at the
supermarkets or hypermarkets. It is more convenient to do the shopping
at the supermarket or hypermarket: you can fi nd there everything you
need. More and more people nowadays prefer to provide themselves with
foodstuff s for a long period. As they buy in quantity, which is cheaper,
they go to the supermarket by car and aft er having done the shopping they
load their bags and packets into the car boot.
Let us visit one of the supermarkets in the city. It is a one-storeyed
building, spacious and light, with large shop windows. Inside we can see
some signs: Dairy produce, Dry groceries, Vegetables and Fruit, Meat and
Fowl, Fish, Bakery Goods, Confectionery and Pastry, Wine.
Th e dairy products counter is well stocked with fresh milk foodstuff s.
What can be found there? Butter, cheese, curd, cream, sour cream, milk,
fruit yoghurt, eggs, margarine, mayonnaise.
Everything is sold ready-packed. Next to this is the bakery counter
where everybody can choose whatever they like — white and brown bread,
buns, rolls, rings, rusks, pies, cheese cakes and so on.
In the dry groceries counter there is also a great choice of products.
You can buy fl our, groats, spices, tea, sugar (lump, cube, granulated) there.
Besides, customers can found there various packets fi lled with dry soup,
noodles or chips. Th ey are easy to cook within three minutes, that is why
they are called instant.
Th e meat and fowl counter looks very attractive too. Chicken, ham,
pork, bacon, beef, veal and mutton are at your disposal there. You will fi nd

363 a variety of sausages in this section too. A special counter handles frozen
and fresh fi sh; smoked and dry fi sh is also off ered to the customers.
Besides, the counter is full of sea products, quite exotic and unseen before.
Th ere are crabs, shrimps, crawfi sh, lobsters, oysters. A large space is
occupied with tinned fi sh.
Th e section where fruit and vegetables are sold is called a greengrocery.
It always attracts a lot of customers because irrespective of the season the
counters are full of fresh fruit and vegetables grown in Russia or brought
from other countries. Apples and pears, oranges, lemons and tangerines,
apricots and peaches, bananas and grapes are available practically all the
year round. For those who like berries there are strawberries, raspberries,
cherries, cranberries and red bilberries nicely packed in small baskets. If
you want to buy vegetables, you will fi nd everything you need: potatoes,
carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, beetroot, onion, garlic.
When doing the shopping at the supermarket don’t forget to look at
the expiry date printed on the packet. You are recommended to use the
foodstuff before this date.
Choosing products customers put them into a special basket or a
trolley and go to the checkout. Th e cashier calls the price and gives them
a receipt.
Visiting a supermarket you save your time considerably.
Words and Expressions
a food store [… stD:] — продуктовый магазин
to provide oneself with smth. [prA´vaId …] — обеспечивать себя чем-л.
in quantity […´kwOntAti] — в большом количестве
spacious [´speISAs] — просторный
a shop window — витрина
dairy products [´deAri ´prOdEkts] — молочная продукция
a grocery [´grAUsAri] — бакалея
fowl [faUl] — дичь
bakery goods [´beIkAri…] — хлебобулочные изделия
a confectionery [kAn´fekSnAri] — кондитерский отдел
to be well stocked with smth. [… stOkt …] — иметь в продаже широкий
ассортимент
curd [kQ:d] — творог
sour cream [,saUA ´kri:m] — сметана

364
yogurt (yoghurt) [´jOgAt] — йогурт
margarine [ ,mC:dZA´ri:n] — маргарин
mayonnaise [ ,meIA´neIz] — майонез
a ring [rIN] — бублик, баранка
a rusk [rEsk] — сухарь
fl our [´flaUA] — мука
groats [grAUts] — крупа
a spice [spaIs] — специя, пряность
granulated sugar [´grBnjUleItId ´SUgA] — сахарный песок
instant [´InstAnt] — моментальный, зд.: быстрого приготовления
to be at one’s disposal [… dI´spAUzAl] — быть в чьем-л. распоря же нии
frozen fi sh [´frAUzn ´fIS] — замороженная рыба
smoked fi sh [smAUkt …] — копченая рыба
a shrimp [SrImp] — креветка
a crawfi sh [´krD:fIS] — рак (речной, морской)
a lobster [´lObstA] — омар
an oyster [´DIstA] — устрица
tinned fi sh [tInd …] — рыбные консервы
a greengrocery [´gri:n,grAUsAri] — овощной отдел
irrespective of smth. [,IrI´spektIv] — независимо от чего-л.
a pear [peA] — груша
a tangerine [,tBndZA´ri:n] — мандарин
an apricot [´eIprI,kOt] — абрикос
a peach [pi:tS] — персик
grapes (обыкн. мн. число) [greIps] — виноград
a berry [´beri] — ягода
a strawberry [´strD:b(A)ri] — клубника
a raspberry [´rC:zb(A)ri] — малина
a cherry [´tSeri] — вишня
a cranberry [´krBnb(A)ri] — клюква
a red bilberry […´bIlbAri] — брусника
a carrot [´kBrAt] — морковь
a cucumber [´kju:,kEmbA] — огурец
cabbage [´kBbIdZ] — капуста
beetroot [´bi:tru:t] — свекла
onion [´EnjAn] — лук
garlic [´gC:lIk] — чеснок
an expiry date [Ik´spaIAri ,deIt] — дата истечения срока (хранения)

365
a cashier [kB´SIA] — кассир
a receipt [rI´si:t] — чек
Exercises
I. A. Answer the questions.
1. What is the most popular supermarket or hypermarket in your district?
What counters look attractive there?
2. How oft en do you visit the
supermarket? Do you buy in quantity? Do you go there by car?
3. Do you
always look at the expiry date when buying dairy or meat foodstuff s?
4. What products do you buy if you want to cook a holiday dinner? 5. Do
you like exotic foodstuff s? Which of them did you have to buy?
6. Is the
price of foodstuff s at the supermarket higher than that in small shops or
in the markets?
7. How much do you spend on foodstuff s a week? Can you
aff ord to buy foodstuff s in quantity?
B. On the basis of the questions given above ask indirect questions beginning with the
words He asked, He wanted to know. Don’t forget to use the sequence of tenses rule.
REMEMBER!
We buy:
bread at a bakery (at a baker’s)
vegetables and fruit at a greengrocery (at a greengrocer’s)
fl our and sugar at a grocery (at a grocer’s)
meat at a butcher’s
fi sh at a fi shmonger’s
butter and milk at a dairy.
II. Name as many things as possible that you can buy:
at the dairy
at the bakery (at the baker’s)
at the fi shmonger’s
at the grocery (at the grocer’s)
at the greengrocery (at the greengrocer’s)
at the butcher’s
Use the model: At the … one can buy … .
Th e following products can be bought at the … .

366
III. Say to what counter of the supermarket you go if you want to buy:
granulated sugar, tea and spices
cheese, sour cream and butter
chicken, turkey and frankfurters
trout, shrimps and caviar
a pastry, a bun and a cake
a bottle of brandy, a tin of beer and a bottle of champagne
veal, ham and beef
eggs, margarine and mayonnaise
herring, tinned fi sh and cod
Use the model: If I need … , I go to the… .
REMEMBER!
We buy foodstuffs:
in packets
in jars
in tins
in bottles
or
customers may have products weighed.
Te x t
Read the dialogue.
At the Supermarket
— Let’s go to the meat counter.
— OK. I think we need some veal, ham and a chicken.
— … and a turkey. Don’t forget about the Christmas holiday.
— We also need half a pound of butter, a packet of sour cream and a
dozen eggs. Dairy products are in aisle 3.
— How about fruit and vegetables? Th ere are no apples in our fridge
and not many vegetables. Let’s fi nd this counter.
— Oh, fruit is in aisle 8,
and vegetables are next to this.
— I wonder what apples and tangerines cost now.
— Th ey are cheap now, I suppose.
— We’ll take three pounds of apples and two pounds of tangerines.
And I want to buy half a pound of berries … strawberries or bilberries.
I’m going to make a pie.

367 — Th at’s all right. And now let’s go to the wine counter and choose
good drinks. Oh, look here, we need two bottles of champagne, a bottle of
brandy and martini … and orange juice for the children… and maybe
some tins of beer?
— OK. Our trolley is full. Let’s go to the checkout.

а turkey [´tQ:ki] — индейка
a dozen [´dEzn] — дюжина
an aisle [aIl] — проход, ряд (в универсаме)
Exercises
IV. Enumerate all foodstuffs that the two customers intend to buy at the supermarket
and in what quantity.
V. Act out the dialogue.
VI. Make up dialogues according to the model:
Shop assistant: What can I do for you?
Customer : I want a cheese cake, a loaf of brown bread, a box of biscu-
its …
Shop assistant: Anything else?
Customer: No, thank you. How much is it?
Shop assistant: One hundred and ten roubles.
Customer: Here you are.
Shop assistant: Here is your change. Th ank you.
You are buying:
• pears, a kilo and a haft of cucumbers, half a kilo of plums;
• a packet of frankfurters, a chicken, half a kilo of ham;
• a tin of soft caviar, half a kilo of salmon, two tins of salted sprats;
• some spices and seasoning;
• a jar of horse radish, a packet of pepper, a bottle of vinegar.
Dialogue
Read the dialogue.
A Talk with a Friend
A: Do you do all your shopping at the supermarket?
B: No, I prefer to buy my vegetables and fruit at the greengrocer’s and
meat at the butcher’s.

368 A: So do I. Th e vegetables and fruit are much better there than at the
supermarket and the butcher’s meat is always very fresh.
B: And I always buy my bread at the little bakery in the High Street.
A: Do you know any good wine seller around? I need some good wine to
celebrate my parents wedding anniversary.
B: I know one good store that sells French wines. It is at the end of Downing
Street. A fi ne claret, my favourite wine, is always available there and it
is reasonably priced.
B: Th ank you for your advice, I’ll drop in the store tomorrow.
VII. Say whether you always ask for somebody’s advice when you want to buy something
special.
VIII. This is what you can ask or say when doing the shopping. Memorise the phrases.
Could you tell me where the nearest
fl orist’s is please?Не скажете, где ближайший цве-
точный магазин?
Is there a bakery near here? Есть ли поблизости булочная?
Could I have a loaf of white / brown
bread, please?Можно мне буханку белого /
черного хлеба?
Do you sell sliced bread? У вас продается хлеб в нарезке?
I’d like three rolls, please. Мне нужно три булочки.
Could you please give me a bottle
of milk and half a kilo of sour
cream?Дайте мне, пожалуйста, бутылку
молока и полкило сметаны.
And I also need a packet of unsalted
butter.И мне нужно еще пачку несоле-
ного масла.
I can’t seem to fi nd any French
cheeses on the shelf.Я не могу найти на полке фран-
цузского сыра.
How much is that altogether? Сколько это все стоит?
I’m sorry, but I think you’ve short-
changed me.Простите, но, по-моему, вы мне
неправильно дали сдачу.
IX. This is what you can hear when doing the shopping. Memorise the phrases.
Th e greengrocer’s round the corner
is very good / quite cheap.Овощной магазин за углом очень
хороший / довольно дешёвый.

369 Don’t go to the store. Th e food isn’t
fresh there, and it is very
overpriced.Не ходи в этот магазин. Продукты
там несвежие, а цены завышены.
Th e baking ingredients are in the
second aisle.Всё необходимое для выпечки вы
найдёте во втором ряду (про-
ходе).
Th e vegetables here are much
better than at the supermarket.Овощи здесь намного лучше, чем
в супермаркете.
Th is is the best bakery around
here. Это лучшая булочная из тех, какие
можно найти поблизости.
You can choose and weigh the
vegetables and fruit yourself.Вы можете выбирать и взвешивать
овощи и фрукты самостоятельно.
We are sold out of watermelons. Мы распродали все арбузы.
What else would you like? Что ещё вы хотите?
Anything else? Ещё что-нибудь?
Th e wine is delicious but reasonably
priced.Вино изысканное, но цена при-
емлемая.
Th is will cost you 350 roubles. С вас 350 рублей. (досл. Это будет
стоить вам… .)
X. You are going to make a cake for the tea party. Enumerate all food ingredients and the
quantity of each that are necessary to do this.
XI. Write a recipe of your favourite fruit or vegetable salad.
XII. Translate into English.
1. Мне нужно полкило сухарей. Сколько это стоит? 2. Я куплю бара-
нину, если она не очень жирная, немного ветчины и сосисок.
3. В рыб-
ном отделе можно купить свежую и замороженную рыбу; там также
продается икра и рыбные консервы.
4. Где можно купить специи? —
В том же отделе, где продается мука.
5. У вас есть в про даже смета-
на и творог? Когда истекает их срок хранения?
6. Цены на овощи в
этом магазине вполне приемлемые, а вот фрукты стоят дорого.
7. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, полкило копченой рыбы, килограмм све-
жей трески и баночку красной икры.
8. По дороге домой мне нуж-
но зайти в универсам и купить пачку индийского чая, раствори-

370 мый кофе и буханку белого и черного хлеба.
9. В этом магазине
большой выбор сухих вин из Чили и Франции.
10. В этом супермар-
кете продаются экзотические фрукты и овощи. Вы найдете их в ше-
стом ряду.
XIII. Topics for discussion.
1. Shopping for foodstuff s.
2. Your local supermarket.
3. Buying foodstuff s for a birthday party.
Grammar
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
(СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ В УСЛОВНЫХ
ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯХ)
В сложноподчиненных предложениях с придаточным условным сослага-
тельное наклонение используется для выражения предположительного,
или нереального, условия в придаточном предложении и нереального
следствия в главном предложении. Здесь присутствуют обе формы сосла-
гательного наклонения: аналитическая — в главной части и синтетиче-
ская — в зависимой части сложноподчинённого предложения.
Нереальное условие и следствие могут относиться к настоящему и буду-
щему или к прошедшему времени. В первом случае употребляются непер-
фектные формы глагола, во втором — перфектные. Временной план может
быть обозначен соответствующим обстоятельством времени либо опре-
деляться ситуацией, позволяющей вполне однозначно трактовать время.
Если условие и следствие относятся к настоящему или будущему време-
ни, то в главном предложении употребляется аналитическая форма со-
слагательного наклонения, состоящая из вспомогательного глагола should
/ would и неперфектного инфинитива смыслового глагола, а в придаточ-
ном синтетическая форма past subjunctive. Следует помнить о тенденции
замены глагола should в I лице единственного и множественного числа
глаголом would.
If every pedestrian and driver followed the traffi c signs, there wouldn’t be
so many street accidents. (Perhaps they will follow the traffi c signs …) —

371
Если бы каждый пешеход и водитель обращали внимание на дорож-
ные знаки, то не было бы так много уличных происшествий. (Возмож-
но, они когда-нибудь будут обращать внимание на уличные знаки…)
Если условие и следствие относятся к прошедшему времени, то в главном
предложении употребляется аналитическая форма, состоящая из вспомо-
гательного глагола should / would и перфектного инфинитива смыслового
глагола, а в придаточном — синтетическая форма perfect subjunctive.
If I had known about your arrival in advance, I should (would) have met you
at the railway station. (But I did not know, that is why I could not meet
you.) — Если бы я знал о твоем приезде заранее, я бы встретил тебя
на вокзале. (Но я не знал и поэтому не встретил.)
Формы сослагательного наклонения в условном предложении
Главное предложениеПридаточное
предложение условия
Настоящее
или будущее
время
(should)
+ неперфектный
would инфинитивВсе глаголы во II форме. Гла-
гол to be в форме were во
всех лицах единственного и
множественного числа
Прошедшее
время(should)
+ перфектный
would инфинитивФорма всех глаголов совпа-
дает с формой прошедшего
совершенного времени (past
perfect)
Exercises
I. Do the exercise in accordance with the model. Memorise the expression If I were you
(Если бы я был на вашем месте).
Model: St. 1: I don’t take exercise.
St. 2:
If I were you, I would take (I’d take) exercise regularly.
1. I couldn’t see this fi lm. 2. Sometimes I don’t follow the traffi c rules.
3. I am not going to take part in this experiment. 4. I can’t tell him this
news.
5. I have little time and can’t consult a doctor. 6. I can’t decide what
to buy, a new car or a country house.
7. I missed lectures and couldn’t pass







372 the exam.
8. I forgot to inform him about this. 9. I get up very late in the
morning and go to sleep very late too.
10. Yesterday I bought a very
expensive suit to wear in the offi ce of the company for which I work.
II. Complete the sentences using the Russian variant.
If I were you …
1) я бы занимался английским языком более усердно.
2) я бы не тратил деньги на пустяки.
3) я бы поискал другую работу.
4) я бы ездил на выходные за город.
5) я бы бросил курить.
6) я бы купил себе «Вольво».
7) я бы не отказался от его помощи.
III. Read and analyse the forms of the subjunctive mood in conditional sentences.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. He would have participated in the conference if he had not fallen ill. 2. If
I fi nished school this year, I would get into the physics department of the
University.
3. He would translate this paper without any diffi culty if you
gave him a dictionary.
4. She would be glad if you called her tomorrow.
5. If I had not been busy, I would have visited the exhibition. 6. I would
have called you as I promised to do, if I had not lost your visiting card with
your telephone number.
7. If he had a lot of money, he would buy a
Mercedes.
8. If I had much money, I would move into a larger fl at. 9. If you
had not been late for the lecture, you would have heard this information.
10. If the weather were fi ne, they would go to the forest for mushrooms
next weekend.
IV. Put the verbs in brackets in the proper form of the subjunctive mood.
1. If I (to be) you, I (to listen) to some good advice. 2. I (to read) the book
long ago if I (to borrow) it from the library, but the book was not available.
3. If the weather (to be) fi ne, she (to join) us and (to go) to the country
next Sunday.
4. Why didn’t you come to the railway station to see him
off ? — I did not know about his leaving for Moscow. If I (to know), I (to
come).
5. Th e experiment (to give) good results if we (not to use) the old
method of testing. Next time, let us carry out it again under diff erent
conditions.
6. I (to come) to the party if I (to be informed) about it in
advance. But nobody told me about it.
7. David is overweight. If he (not to

373 eat) too much for his supper, he (not to gain) his weight.
8. I cannot call
him so oft en. If I (to be acquainted) with him, I (not to feel) awkward
about doing it.
9. He (to have a rest) in Florida if he (to buy) a cottage on
Miami Beach. We’ll live and see, maybe he will buy a house there.
10. If I
(to have) a car, I (to drive) it carefully.
Grammar
Miscellaneous Types of Conditional Sentences
(Смешанные типы условных предложений)
Существуют два смешанных типа предложений с нереальным условием.
В первом случае условие относится к прошлому, а следствие — к настояще-
му или будущему. Во втором случае зависимость обратная. Это получает
отражение в соответствующих формах сослагательного наклонения.
1. You would be well now if you had taken the medicine yesterday.
2. If she were not so lazy, she would not have failed in the exam.
Exercises
V. David is going to marry Margaret, but there is something that prevents him from doing
it. Write in what cases he would marry Margaret.
Model: Т.: Margaret likes money and spends it on trifl es.
St.: If Margaret did not like money and spend it on trifl es,
David would marry her.
1. Margaret cannot cook and do the washing. 2. She is not thrift y and
cannot be a good housewife.
3. Margaret never washes the dishes aft er the
meals.
4. Margaret thinks of herself only. 5. She is accustomed to luxury.
6. She is rather talkative and speaks on the telephone for hours. 7. She does
not want to get higher education.
8. Margaret never keeps her promises.
9. She sometimes tells lies. 10. Margaret does not love David.
VI. The driver met with an accident. Write in what cases he would have avoided the
accident.
Model: Т.: Th e driver did not follow the traffi c signs.
St.: Th e driver (he) wouldn’t have met with an accident if he
had followed the traffi c signs.

1. Th e driver did not drive carefully. 2. He did not notice the traffi c lights.
3. He broke the traffi c rule. 4. Th e driver overtook the front-moving car.
5. He tried to cross the street under the yellow light. 6. A pedestrian
appeared in front of the car quite unexpectedly.
7. Th e road was slippery
and the driver could not brake instantly.
8. He fell asleep for a moment
when driving.
9. Th e traffi c lights were off . 10. Th e driver drank too much
beer before this trip.
VII. Translate into English.
1. Если бы вы не тратили так много денег на пустяки, вы бы уже дав-
но купили себе машину.
2. Если бы эта женщина согласилась выйти
за тебя замуж, я думаю, она была бы хорошей женой.
3. В прошлое
воскресенье профессор В. читал очень интересную лекцию о новей-
ших компьютерных технологиях. Если бы мне сказали об этом, я бы
непременно посетил лекцию.
4. У ребенка болит горло. Если бы он
не съел так много мороженого, он бы не заболел.
5. Ты бы чувствова-
ла себя лучше и не выглядела бы такой усталой, если бы не засижи-
валась допоздна за письменным столом.
6. Если бы я был на вашем
месте, я бы уделял больше внимания своему образованию.
7. Если
бы я водил машину, я бы никогда не нарушал дорожные правила.
8. Ты бы значительно уменьшил свой вес, если бы ходил на работу
пешком, не пил бы так много пива и не ел бы перед сном.
9. Если бы
не твоя помощь, я бы не сделал работу вовремя и вряд ли бы поехал
с вами за город.
10. Многие люди не чувствовали бы себя такими
несчаст ными, если бы постоянно не сравнивали себя с другими.

375
Revision Test 6
I. Choose the right variant a, b or c to complete each sentence.
1. Experts believe that most … are seriously in debt, and the condition
has led to depression, family breakups, and in some cases to
homelessness.
a) customers b) shoppers c) shopaholics
2. I’d like to send a parcel to Paris. What’s the … on it?
a) stamp b) postage c) post
3. Th e windows of our hotel room overlook … the main city square.
a) — b) to c) on
4. Th ere are very many stores that sell foodstuff s around here: a bakery,
a grocery, a greengrocery and a … .
a) meat shop b) butchery c) butcher’s
5. Staying in a hotel every visitor has to fi ll in an … form.
a) arrival’s … b) application c) offi cial
6. My sister is having a wedding ceremony next Saturday. It will be a
huge white wedding where everybody is supposed to wear white
clothes. So my Mother and I are off to the dressmaker’s and the … to
choose our outfi ts.
a) millinery shop b) hat store c) bonnet shop
7. A plastic card that allows customers to buy goods or services at a
reduced price is called a … card.
a) reduced charge b) discount c) lower price
8. If you want your letter or parcel to be delivered safely you should sent
it … paying a small insurance charge.
a) ordered b) recorded c) registered
9. Aft er Joe has chosen a pair of jeans, he went into the … to try them on.
a) fi tting room b) trying booth c) suiting room

376
10. If you have decided to stay in a hotel, you have to reserve a room … to
avoid no vacancies situation.
a) before the time b) in advance c) forward
II. Choose the proper grammatical form out of the given variants.
1. If I … that you were coming to London, I would have picked you at the
airport.
a) knew b) had known c) would know
2. Th ey spoke quietly lest they … the children.
a) should wake up b) shouldn’t wake up c) would wake up
3. Anna practised playing the piano daily, but she seemed … little
progress.
a) make b) making c) to make
4. He tried to recall but could not remember … her before.
a) meeting b) to meet c) to have met
5. Th ey hardly expect him … consciousness; it was a terrible knock.
a) to recover b) recover c) recovering
6. If he … less impulsive and more patient, he wouldn’t have spoken to
his supervisor like that.
a) had been b) was c) were
7. I wonder if you remembered … the fi nal report to our foreign
partners.
a) to have faxed b) faxing c) to fax
8. He wished he … younger and could make a fresh start.
a) had been b) was c) were
9. He felt lonesome the minute he left Bert and heard the door … behind
him.
a) slam b) to slam c) to have slammed
10. Th ey both seemed … there with an extraordinary innocence as though
a series of pure accidents had driven them together.
a) have arrived b) having arrived c) to have arrived

III. Read the text and answer the questions given below.
Groceries on the Web
Shopping for a family can be a nightmare. Going to the supermarket with
a small child is a race against the clock; you have to be quick, before he
gets bored and throws a tantrum. Th en, when you have all the shopping
you will need for the next week, you are confronted with several queues to
choose from — and believe me, you will make the wrong choice. And the
grief does not stop there; the miserable checkout staff , the struggle home
with cheap bags and swollen fi ngers — the list goes on and on.
Shopping on line, however, can be a lifesaver. You choose all your
groceries online, and the store picks them out for you and delivers them
to your door. Some supermarkets off er a selection of delivery dates and a
choice of two-hour periods on certain dates. Another plus point is that,
when shopping online, you tend to stick to a list, and so avoid those
superfl uous items that you convince yourself you absolutely have to have
when you are there in person. Not being able to see what you are buying
is a disadvantage, unless the descriptions are good, and aft er a million
trips you know what everything looks like anyway.
1. What disadvantages of buying products at the supermarket are
enumerated in the text? Can you add any other minuses?
2. Have you ever bought food and other goods for home online? Was
your purchase successful?
3. Could you describe the procedure?
4. What is the advantage of online shopping over ordinary shopping?

378
Приложение
Основные формы неправильных глаголов,
встречающихся в учебном пособии
ИнфинитивПрошедшее
простое времяПричастие II Перевод инфинитива
be was / were been быть, находиться
beat beat beat / beaten бить, ударять
become became become становиться
begin began begun начинать(ся)
break broke broken ломать(ся)
bring brought brought приносить
buy bought bought покупать
catch caught caught ловить, поймать
choose chose chosen выбирать
come came come приходить, приезжать
cost cost cost стоить
cut cut cut резать, стричь
do did done делать
drink drank drunk пить
drive drove driven управлять (машиной)
eat ate eaten есть, кушать
fall fell fallen падать
feel felt felt чувствовать
fi nd found found находить
fl yfl ew fl own летать

379
ИнфинитивПрошедшее
простое времяПричастие II Перевод инфинитива
forget forgot forgotten забывать
get got got получать, доставать
give gave given давать
go went gone ходить, ездить
grow grew grown расти, выращивать
hang hung hung висеть, вешать
have had had иметь
hear heard heard слышать
hide hid hidden прятать(ся),
скрывать(ся)
hold held held держать
hurt hurt hurt причинять боль
keep kept kept держать(ся), хранить
know knew known знать
lay laid laid класть, положить
lead led led вести, руководить
learn learnt
learnedlearnt
learnedучить(ся), узнавать
leave left left покидать, оставлять
let let let позволять
lie lay lain лежать
lose lost lost терять
make made made делать; заставлять
meet met met встречать
pay paid paid платить
put put put класть, ставить
read read read читать

380
ИнфинитивПрошедшее
простое времяПричастие II Перевод инфинитива
ring rang rung звонить
rise rose risen подниматься, вставать
run ran run бежать
say said said говорить, сказать
see saw seen видеть
sell sold sold продавать
send sent sent посылать
set set set садиться, заходить
(о солнце, луне и т. д.)
shine shone shone светить, сиять
show showed shown показывать
sit sat sat сидеть
sleep slept slept спать
speak spoke spoken говорить, разговаривать
spend spent spent тратить, проводить (вре-
мя)
stand stood stood стоять
stick stuck stuck приклеивать (марку)
strike struck struck ударять, производить
впечатление
swim swam swum плавать
take took taken брать
teach taught taught учить, преподавать
tell told told говорить, сказать
think thought thought думать
throw threw thrown бросать
understand understood understood понимать

ИнфинитивПрошедшее
простое времяПричастие II Перевод инфинитива
wake woke woken просыпаться, будить
wear wore worn носить (одежду)
write wrote written писать

Использованная
литература
1. Christie, A. Th e Nemean Lion // Making It All Right. Modern English
Short Stories. — Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1978. P. 109.
2. Eckersley, C. E. Essential English for Foreign Students. Book 2. —
Sofi a: Foreign Language Press, 1967.
3. Evans, V., Dooley, J. Enterprise 4. Intermediate. Course Book. —
Express Publishing, 1998.
4. Evans, V., Edwards, L. Upstream Advanced. — Express Publishing,
2003.
5. Evans, V., Dooley, J. Upstream Profi ciency C2. Student’s Book. —
Express Publishing, 2002.
6. Kenny, N. First Certifi cate Pass Key. — Oxford: Heinemann, 1998.
7. Macmillan English Dictionary (For Advanced Learners). — Malaysia,
2006.
8. Maugham, S. Th e Ant and the Grasshopper. — http://bibl.tikva.ru/
base/B1148/B1148Part41-206.php
9. Maugham, S. Th e Luncheon // Modern English and American Short
Stories. — Moscow: Internat. Relations Institute Publishing House,
1961. P. 199.
10. McKeegan, D. First Certifi cate Pass Key. Grammar Practice. — Oxford:
Heinemann Elt, 1998.
11. Wilde, O. Epigrams. — Mount Vernon; New York: Th e Peter Pauper
Press.
12. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mail
13. engtopic.ru/English-language/w-s-maugham-the-ant-and-the-
grasshopper
14. lingualeo.com/ru/jungle/restaurants-in-london-359021#/page/1
15. www.alleng.ru/engl-top/124.htm
16. www.londonhotel.co.za
17. www.memorysecrets.ru/teksty-na-anliiskom-iazyke/v-restorane-in-
a-restaurant.html
18. www.tourinaday.com/london/best-hotels-london.html

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Элли Семёновна Дудорова
РАЗГОВОРНЫЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
Практический курс
Ответственный редактор Д. Г. Сигал
Технические редакторы М. Г. Столярова, А. Б. Иванов
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Дудорова Э. С.
ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА.
ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ И ТЕСТЫ
Предлагаемое учебное пособие содержит
теоретический и практический матери-
ал по основным разделам грамматики
(морфологии) английского языка. Каж-
дый из 19 разделов пособия включает в
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и тесты, а также оригинальные тексты
научно-популярного, публицистического и
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Теоретические положения, предваряющие
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ленных речевых ситуациях. Может быть ис-
пользован при подготовке к ЕГЭ.
Книга рассчитана на учащихся старших
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