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Tackling Obesity in the Western World
A. Obesity is a huge problem in many Western countries and one which now attracts
considerable medical interest as researchers take up the challenge to find a 'cure' for the
common con dition of being seriously overweight. However, rather than take
responsib ility for their weight, obese people have often sought solace in the excuse that
they have a slow metabolism, a genetic hiccup which sentences more than half the
Australian population (63% of men and 47% of women) to a life of battling with their
weight. T he argument goes like this: it doesn't matter how little they eat, they gain weight
because their bodies break down food and turn it into energy more slowly than those
with a so -calle d normal metabolic rate.
B. 'This is nonsense,' says Dr Susan Jebb from the Dunn Nutrition Unit at Cambridge
in England. Despite the persistence of this metabolism myth, science has known for
several years that the exact opposite is in fact true. Fat peop le have faster metabolisms
than thin people. 'What is very clear,' says D r Jebb, 'is that overweight people actually
burn off more energy. They have more cells, bigger hearts, bigger lungs and they all
need more energy just to keep going.'
C. It took only one night, spent in a sealed room at the Dunn Unit to disabuse one of
their patients of the beliefs of a lifetime: her metabolism was fast, not slow. By sealing
the room and measuring the exact amount of oxygen she used, researchers were able
to show her that her metabolism was not the culprit. It wasn't the answer she expecte d
and probably not the one she wanted but she took the news philosophically.
D. Although the metabolism myth has been completely disproved, science has far from
discounted our genes as responsible for making us whatever weight we are, fat or thin.
One of the world's leading obesity researchers, geneticist Professor Stephen O'Rahilly,
goes so far as to say we are on the threshold of a complete change in the way we view
not only morbid obesity, but also everyday overweight. Prof. O'Rahilly's groundbreaking
work in Cambridge has proven that obesity can be caused by our genes. 'These people
are not weak - willed, slothful or lazy,' says Prof. O'Rahilly, 'They have a medical
condition due to a genetic defect and that causes them to be obese.'
E. In Australia, th e University of Sydney's Professor Ian Caterson says while major
genetic defects may be rare, many people probably have minor genetic variations that
combine to dictate weight and are responsible for things such as how much we eat, the
amount of exercise w e do and the amount of energy we need. When you add up all
these little variations, the result is that some people are genetically predisposed to
putting on weight. He says while the fast/slow metabolism debate may have been
settled, that doesn't mean some other subtle change in the metabolism gene won't be
found in overweight people. He is confident that science will, eventually, be able to 'cure'
some forms of obesity but the only ef fective way for the vast majority of overweight and
obese people to lose weight is a change of diet and an increase in exercise.
F. Despite the $500 million a year Australians spend trying to lose weight and the $830
million it costs the community in heal th care, obesity is at epidemic proportions here, as
it is in all Western nations. Until recently, research and treatment for obesity had
concentrated on behaviour modification, drugs to decrease appetite and surgery. How
the drugs worked was often not und erstood and many caused severe side effects and
even death in some patien ts. Surgery for obesity has also claimed many lives.

G. It has long been known that a part of the brain called the hypothalamus is
responsible for regulating hunger, among other thin gs. But it wasn't until 1994 that
Professor Jeffery Friedman from Rockerf eller University in the US sent science in a new
direction by studying an obese mouse. Prof. Friedman found that unlike its thin brothers,
the fat mouse did not produce a hitherto unk nown hormone called leptin. Manufactured
by the fat cells, leptin acts as a messenger, sending signals to the hypothalamus to turn
off the appetite. Previously, the fat cells were thought to be responsible simply for storing
fat. Prof. Friedman gave the fa t mouse leptin and it lost 30% of its body weight in two
H. On th e other side of the Atlantic, Prof. O'Rahilly read about this research with great
excitement. For many months two blood samples had lain in the bottom of his freezer,
taken from two e xtremely obese young cousins. He hired a doctor to develop a test for
lep tin in human blood, which eventually resulted in the discovery that neither of the
children's blood contained the hormone. When one cousin was given leptin, she lost a
stone in weight and Prof. O'Rahilly made medical history. Here was the first proof that a
genetic defect could cause obesity in humans. But leptin deficiency turned out to be an
extremely rare condition and there is a lot more research to be done before the 'magic'
cure for obesity is ever found.
Questions 1 -8
The Reading Passage has six par agraphs A-H.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write your answers in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
iObesity in animal s
iiHidden danger s
iiiProof of the trut h
ivNew perspective on the horizo n
vNo known treatmen t
viRodent research leads the wa y
viiExpert explains energy requirements of obese peopl e
vii iA very uncommon complain t
ixNature or nurtur e
xShifting the blam e
xiLifest yle change required despite new finding s
1Paragraph A ......... .
2Paragraph B ......... .

3Paragraph C ......... .
4Paragraph D ......... .
5Paragraph E ......... .
6Paragraph F ......... .
7Paragraph G ......... .
8Paragraph H ......... .
Questions 9 -13
Complete the summary below using ONE WORD ONLY from the box for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
They do this by seeking to blame their (9) for the fact that they are overweight and
erroneously believe that they use (10) energy than thin people to stay alive. However,
recent research has shown that a (11) problem can be responsible for obesity as s ome
people seem programmed to (1 2) more than others. The new research points to a shift
from trying to change people's (13) to seeking an answer to the problem in the
1 x
2 vii
3 iii
4 iv
5 xi
6 ii
7 vi
8 viii
9 metabol ism
10 less
11 genetic
12 c onsume
13 behavio ur

Sea monsters are the stuff of legend - lurking not just in the depths of t he oceans, but
also the darker corners of our minds. What is it that draws us to these creatures?
"This inhuman place makes human monsters," wrote Stephen Ki ng in his novel The
Shining. Many academics agree that monsters lurk in the deepest recesses, they prowl
through our ancestral minds appearing in the half -light, under the bed - or at the bottom o f
the sea.
"They don't really exist, but they play a huge role in our mindscapes, in our dreams,
stories, nightmares, myths and so on," says Matthias Classen, assistant professor of
literature and media at Aarhus University in Denmark, who studies monste rs in literature.
"Monsters say something about human psycho logy, not the world."
One Norse legend talks of the Kraken, a deep sea creature that was the curse of
fishermen. If sailors found a place with many fish, most likely it was the monster that was
driving them to the surface. If it saw the ship it would pluck the hapless sailors from the boat
and drag them to a watery grave.
This terrifying legend occupied the mind and pen of the poet Alfred Lord Tennyson too. In
his short 1830 poem The Kraken he wrote: "Below the thunders of the upper deep, / Far far
beneath in the abysmal sea , / His ancient, dreamless, uninvaded sleep / The Kraken
The deeper we travel into the ocean, the deeper we delve into our own psyche. And when
we can go no furt her - there lurks the Kraken.
Most likely the Kraken is based on a real creature - the giant squid. The huge mollusc
takes pride of place as the personification of the terrors of the deep sea. Sailors would have
encountered it at the surface, dying, and probably thrashing about. It would have made a
weird sight, "about the most alien thing you can imagine," says Edith Widder, CEO at the
Ocean Research and Conservation Association.
"It has eight lashing arms and two slashing tentacles growing straight ou t of its head and
it's got serrated suckers that can latch on to the slimiest of prey and it's got a parrot beak
that can rip flesh. It's got an eye the size of your head, it's got a jet propulsion system and
three hearts that pump blue blood."
The giant squid continued to dominate stories of sea monsters with the famous 1870
novel, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, by Jules Verne. Verne's submarine
fantasy is a classic story of puny man against a gigantic squid.
The monster needed no embellishment - this creature was scary enough, and Verne
incorporated as much fact as possible into the story, says Emily Alder from Edinburgh
Napier University. "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea and another
contemporaneous book, Victor Hugo's Toilers of the Sea, both tried to represent the giant
squid as they might have been actual zoological animals, much more taking the squid as a
biological creature than a mythical creature." It was a g iven that the squid was vicious and
would readily attack humans given the c hance.
That myth wasn't busted until 2012, when Edith Widder and her colleagues were the first
people to successfully film giant squid under water and see first -hand the true character of
the monster of the deep. They realised previous attempts to film squid ha d failed because
the bright lights and noisy thrusters on submersibles had frightened them away.

By quietening down the engines and using bioluminescence to attract it, they managed to
see this most extraordinary animal in its natural habitat. It serenel y glided into view, its body
rippled with metallic colours of bronze and silver. Its huge, intelligent eye watched the
submarine warily as it delicately picked at the bait with its beak. It was balletic and
mesmeric. It could not have been further from the gnashing, human -destroying creature of
myth and literature. In reality this is a gentle giant that is easily scared and pecks at its food.
Another giant squid lies peacefully in the Natural History Museum in London, in the Spirit
Room, where it is preser ved in a huge glass case. In 2004 it was caught in a fishing net off
the Falkland Islands and died at the surface. The crew immediately fro ze its body and it was
sent to be preserved in the museum by the Curator of Molluscs, Jon Ablett. It is called
Archie , an affectionate short version of its Latin name Architeuthis dux. It is the longest
preserved specimen of a giant squid in the world.
"It really has brought science to life for many people," says Ablett. "Sometimes I feel a bit
overshadowed by Archie, most of my work is on slugs and snails but unfortunately most
people don't want to talk about that!"
And so today we can watch Archie's g raceful relative on film and stare Archie herself (she
is a female) eye -to-eye in a museum. But have we finally slain the monster of the deep?
Now we know there is nothing to be afraid of, can the Kraken finally be laid to rest? Probably
not says Classen. "We humans are afraid of the strangest things. They don't need to be
realistic. There's no indication that enlightenm ent and scientific progress has banished the
monsters from the shadows of our imaginations. We will continue to be afraid of very strange
things, including probably sea monsters."
Indeed we are. The Kraken made a fearsome appearance in the blockbuster s eries
Pirates of the Caribbean. It forced Captain Jack Sparrow to face his demons in a terrifying
face -to-face encounter. Pirates needed th e monstrous Kraken, nothing else would do. Or, as
the German film director Werner Herzog put it, "What would an ocean be without a monster
lurking in the dark? It would be like sleep without dreams."
Questions 1 –7
Do the following statements agree with th e information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1 –7 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

1. Matthias Classen is unsure about the possib ility of monster's existence
2. Kraken is probably based on an imaginary animal

3. Previous attempts on filming the squid had failed due to the fact that th e creature
was scared.
4. Giant squid was caught alive in 2004 and brought to the museum
5. Jon Ablett admits that he likes Archie
6. According to Classen, people can be scared both by imaginary and real monsters
7. Werner Herzog suggests that K raken is essential to the ocean
Questions 8 –12
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 8 –12 on your answer sheet.
8. Who wrote a novel about a giant s quid?
A. Emily Alder
B. Stephen King
C. Alfred Lord Tennyson
D. Jules Verne

9. What, of the featuring body parts, moll usc DOESN'T have?
A. two tentacles
B. serrate d suckers
C. beak
D. smooth suckers

10. Which of the following applies to the bookish Kraken?
A. notorious
B. scary
C. weird
D. harmless

11. Wher e can we see a giant squid?
A. at the museum

B. at a seaside
C. on TV
D. in supermarkets

12. The main purpose of the text is to:
A. help us to understand more about both mythical and biological
creatures of the deep
B. illu strate the difference between Kraken and squid
C. shed the light on t he mythical creatures of the ocean
D. compare Kraken to its real relative

Ques tions 13 –16
Complete the sentences below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 13 –16 on your answer sheet.

13. According to the Victor Hugo's novel, the squid would if he had such
14. The real squid appeared to be and .
15. Archie must be the of its kind on Earth.
16. We are able to encounter the Kraken's in a movie franchise.
1. False
2. False
3. True
4. False
5. Not Given
6. True
7. Not Given
8. D
9. D
10. B

11. A
12. A
13. readily attack (humans)
14. balletic, mesmeric
15. longest preserved specimen
16. fearsome appearance

A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently
In the last decade a revolution has occurred in the way that scientists think about the
brain. We now know that the decisions humans make can be traced to the firing patterns
of neurons in specific parts of the brain. These discoveries have led to the field known
as neuroeconomics, which studies the brain's secrets to success in an economic
environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from
competitors. A brain that can do this is an iconoclastic one. Brief ly, an iconoclast is a
person who does something that others say can't be done.
This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more
precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distin ct ways: perception, fear
res ponse, and social intelligence. Each of these three functions utilizes a different circuit
in the brain. Naysayers might suggest that the brain is irrelevant, that thinking in an
original, even revolutionary, way is more a matt er of personality than brain function. But
the field of neuroeconomics was born out of the realization that the physical workings of
the brain place limitations on the way we make decisions. By understanding these
constraints, we begin to understand why so me people march to a differen t drumbeat.
The first thing to realize is that the brain suffers from limited resources. It has a fixed
energy budget, about the same as a 40 watt light bulb, so it has evolved to work as
efficiently as possible. This is where most people are impeded from being an iconoclast.
For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will
interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past
experience and any other source of information, such as what other people say, to make
sense of what it is seeing. This happens all the time. The brain takes shortcuts that work
so well we are hardly ever aware of them. We think our perceptions of the world are real,
but they are only bi ological and electrical rumbl ings. Perception is not simply a product
of what your eyes or ears transmit to your brain. More than the physical reality of
photons or sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.
Perception is central to iconoclasm. Ico noclasts see things different ly to other people.
Their brains do not fall into efficiency pitfalls as much as the average person's brain.
Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found
ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most p eople. Perception is not
something that is hardwired into the brain. It is a learned process, which is both a curse
and an opportunity for change. The brain faces the fundamental problem of interpreting
physical stimuli from th e senses. Everything the brai n sees, hears, or touches has
multiple interpretations. The one that is ultimately chosen is simply the brain's best
theory. In technical terms, these conjectures have their basis in the statistical likelihood
of one interpreta tion over another and are hea vily influenced by past experience and,
importantly for potential iconoclasts, what other people say.
The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things
it has never encountered before. N ovelty releases the perceptua l process from the
chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments. Successful

iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and
different. Observation of iconoclasts shows th at they embrace novelty while most people
avoid things that are different.
The problem with novelty, however, is that it tends to trigger the brain's fear system.
Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person
in his tracks. There are many types of fear, but the two that inhibit iconoclastic thinking
and people generally find difficult to deal with are fear of uncertainty and fear of public
ridicule. These may seem like trivial phobias. But fear of public speaking, wh ich
everyone must do from tim e to time, afflicts one -third of the population. This makes it too
common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human
nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.
Finally, to be successful iconoclasts, in dividuals must sell their ideas to other people.
This is where social intelligence comes in. Social intelligence is the ability to understand
and manage people in a business setting. In the last decade there has been an
explosi on of knowledge about the soc ial brain and how the brain works when groups
coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are
responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness,
and social id entity. These brain regions p lay key roles in whether people convince others
of their ideas. Perception is important in social cognition too. The perception of
someone's enthusiasm, or reputation, can make or break a deal. Understanding how
perception beco mes intertwined with social d ecision making shows why successful
iconoclasts are so rare.
Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology
to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished b y
committees. Rules aren't im portant to them. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but
can also be a major asset to any organization. It is crucial for success in any field to
understand how the iconoclastic mind works.
Questions 1 -5
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D .
1Neuro economics is a field of study which seeks to
Acause a change in how scientists understand brain chemistry .
Bunderstand how good decisions are made in the brain .
Cunderstand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields .
Dtrace the specific firing patterns of neurons in different areas of the brain .
2According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinc tive because
Athey create unusual brain circuits .
Btheir brains function differently .

Ctheir personalities are distinctive .
Dthey make decisions easily .
3According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because
Ait uses the eyes quickly .
Bit interprets data logically .
Cit generates its own energy .
Dit relies on previous events .
4The writer says that perception is
Aa combination of photons and sound waves .
Ba reliable product of what your senses transmit .
Ca result of brain processes .
Da process we are usually conscious of .
5According to the writer, an iconoclastic think er
Acentralises perceptual thinking in one part of the brain .
Bavoids cognitive traps .
Chas a brain that is hardwired for learning .
Dhas more opportunities than the average person .
Questions 6 -11
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage ?
In boxes 6-11 on your answer sheet, write
YE Sif the statement agrees with the writer's claim s
NOif the statement contradicts the writer's claim s
NOT GIVE Nif there is impossible to say what the writer thinks about thi s
6Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently. ......... .
7Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences. ......... .

8Most people are too shy to try different things. ......... .
9If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear. ......... .
10 When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become
irrelevant. ......... .
11 Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness. ......... .
Questions 12 -14
Complete each sentence with the correct ending , A -E, below.
A requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills .
B focuses on how groups decide on an action .
C works in many fields, both artistic and scientific .
D leaves one open to criticism and rejection .
E involves understanding how organisat ions manage people .
12 Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding be cause it ......... .
13 The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it ......... .
14 Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking ........ .
1 C
2 D
3 B
4 C
5 B
9 NO
11 NO
12 A
13 B
14 C

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1 -13, which are based on Reading
Passage 1 on the following pages
Natural Pesticide in India
A A dramatic story ab out cotton farmers in India shows how destructive pesticide s can be for
people and the environment; and why todaVDJULFXOWXUHLVVRGHSHQGHQWRQSHVWLFLGHV7KLV
story also shows that it’s possible to stop using chemical pesticides without losing a crop to
ravaging insects, and it explains how to do it.

B The st ory began about 30 years ago, a handful of families migrated from the Guntur
district of Andhra Pradesh, southeast India, into Punukula, a community of around 900
people farming plots of between tw o and 10 acres. The outsiders from Guntur brought
cotton -cu lture with them. Cotton wooed farmers by promising to bring in more hard cash
than the mixed crops they were already growing to eat and sell: millet, sorghum, groundnuts,
pigeon peas, mung beans, c hilli and rice. But raising cotton meant using pesticides a nd
fertilisers – until then a mystery to the mostly illiterate farmers of the community. When
cotton production started spreading through Andhra Pradesh state. The high value of cotton
made it an e xceptionally attractive crop, but growing cotton required c hemical fertilizers and
pesticides. As most of the farmers were poor, illiterate, and without previous experience
using agricultural chemicals, they were forced to rely on local, small -scale agricu ltural
dealers for advice. The dealers sold them seeds, fer tilizers, and pesticides on credit and also
guaranteed purchase of their crop. The dealers themselves had little technical knowledge
about pesticides. They merely passed on promotional information from multinational
chemical companies that supplied their p roducts.
C At first, cotton yields were high, and expenses for pesticides were low because cotton
pests had not yet moved in. The farmers had never earned so much! But within a few years,
cotton pe sts like bollworms and aphids plagued the fields, and the f armers saw how rapid
insect evolution can be. Repeated spraying killed off the weaker pests, but left the ones most
resistant to pesticides to multiply. As pesticide resistance mounted, the farmers had to apply
more and more of the pesticides to get the sa me results. At the same time, the pesticides
killed off birds, wasps, beetles, spiders, and other predators that had once provided natural
control of pest insects. Without these predators, the pest s could destroy the entire crop if
many as ten different brands and sometimes having to spray their cotton as frequently as
two times a week. They were really hook ed!
D The villagers were hesitant, but one of Punukula’s vi llage elders decided to risk trying the
natural methods instead of pesticides. His son had collapsed with acute pesticide poisoning
and survived but the hospital bill was staggering. SECURE’s staff coached this villager on
how to protect his cotton crop by using a toolkit of natural methods chat India’s Center for
Sustainable Agriculture put together in collaboration with scientists at Andhra Pradesh’s
state universit7KH called the toolkit “Non -Pesticide Management” — or” NPM.”
E The most important reso urce in the NPM toolkit was the neem tree (Azadirachta indica )
which is common throughout much of India. Neem tree is a broad -leaved evergreen tree
related to mahogany. It protects itself against insects by producing a multitude of natural
pesticides that work in a variety of ways: with an arsenal of chemical defenses that repel
egg -laying, interfere with insect growth, and most important, disrupt the ability of crop -eating
insects to sense their f ood.
F In fact, neem has been used traditionally in India t o protect stored grains from insects and
to produce soaps, skin lotions, and other health products. To protect crops from insects,
neem seeds are simply ground into a powder that is soaked overnight in water. The solution
is then sprayed onto the crop. Ano ther preparation, neem cake, can be mixed into the soil to
kill pests and diseases in the soil, and it doubles as an organic fertiliser high in nitrogen.
G The first farmer’s trial with NPM was a complete success! His harvest was as good as the
harvests of farmers that were using pesticides, and he earned much more because he did
not spend a single rupee on pesticides. Inspired by this success, 20 farmers tri ed NPM the

next year. SECURE posted two well -trained staff in Punukula to teach and help everyone in
the village, and the village women put pressure on their husbands to stop using toxic
chemicals. Families that were no longer exposing themselves to pestic ides began to feel
much better, and the rapid improvements in income, health, and general wellbeing quickly
sold everyone on the value of NPM. By 2000, all the farmers in Punukula were using NPM,
not only for cotton, but for their other crops as well.
H Th e suicide epidemic came to an end. And with the cash, health, and energy that returned
when they stopped poisoning themselves with pesticides, the villagers were inspired to start
more community and business projects. The women of Punukula created a new so urce of
income by collecting, grinding, and selling neem seeds for NPM in other villages. The
villagers rescued their indentured children and gave them special six -month “catch -up’
courses to return to school.
I Fighting against pesticides, and winning, in creased village solidarity, self -confidence, and
optimism about the future. When dealers tried to punish NPM users by paying less for NPM
cotton, the farmers united to form a marketing cooperative that found fairer prices elsewhere.
The leadership and coll aboration skills that the citizens of Punukula developed in the NPM
struggle have helped them to take on other challenges, like water purification, building a
cotton gin to add value to the cotton before they sell it, and convincing the state government
to support NPM over the objection of multi -national pesticide corporations.
Questions 1 -4
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In
boxes 1 -4 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the s tatement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
1. Cotton in Andhra Pradesh state could really bring more income to the bcal farmers than
traditional farming.
2. The majority of farmers had used the agricultural pesticides before 30 years ago.
3. The yield of cotton is relatively tower than that of other agricultural crops.
4. The farmers didn’t realize the spread of the pests was so fast.
Questions 5 -11
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer, Write your
answers in boxes 5 -10 on your answer sheet.
The Making of pesticide protecting crops against insects
The broad -leaved neem tree was chosen, it is a fast -growing and 5 .......... ..... tree and
produces amount of 6 ........ ........ for itself that can be effective l ike insects repellent. Firstly,
neem seeds need to be crushed into 7 .................. form, which is left behind 8 ................. in
water. Then we need to spray the solution onto the crop. A special 9 ................... is used
when mix with soil in order to eliminate bugs and bacteria, and its effect 10 ................... when
it adds the level of 11 ......................... in this organic fertilizer meanwhile.

Questions 12 -14
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each
answer . Write your answers in boxes 12 -14 on your answer sheet.
12. In whi ch year did all the farmers use NPM for their crops in Punukula?
13. What gave the women of Punukula a business opportunity to NPMs?
14. Name one project that the citizens of Punukula decide to develope in the NPM.
5 Evergreen
6 Natural pesticides
7 Power
8 Overnight
9 Neem cake
10 Doubles
11 Nitrogen
12 In 2000
13 Neem seeds
14 Water purification