JOLO - 40 Days to IELTS Writing 8.0 - Task 1 - JOLO English

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40 bài mu Band 9 chn lc
t www.ielts-simon.com
Tng hp t vng cn thit
cho IELTS Writing Task 1
IELTS
WRITING SUCCESS
TASK 1
40 NGÀY CHINH PHC
WRITING
IELTS
8.0

LIÊN H
H THNG TRUNG TÂM ANH NG GLN - JOLOHà Ni
S 27 Trn i Ngha, Bách Khoa, Hai Bà Trng - T: 024 3869 2711
S 4, Ngõ 54 Nguyn Th nh, P. Trung Hoà - Q. Cu Giy - T: 024 3555 8271
Bit th B8, ngõ 128 Thy Khuê, Q. Tây H - T: 024 66526 525
GLN Tng 1 & 12, Tòa nhà Handico Phm Hùng, M Trì, T Liêm - T: 0989 606 366
GLN Tng 1 & 8, Tòa nhà Coalimex 33 Tràng Thi, Hoàn Kim - T: 0989 606 366
TP. H Chí Minh
S 7, ng s 2, C Xá ô Thành, Q.3 - T: 028 38327098
S 02, tng 1, tòa C2, Vinhomes Central Park, phng 22, Q. Bình Thnh - T: 028 73015555
0989.606.366
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https://www.facebook.com/joloenglish/ https://www.facebook.com/joloenglish/ https://luyen-thi-ielts.jolo.edu.vn/ https://luyen-thi-ielts.jolo.edu.vn/
cs@jolo.edu.vn

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01 Contents
CONTENTS

02
40 days to
Task 1
Tng hp bài mu Task 1dng LINE GRAPH

03Essay #01
The rst chart below gives information about the money spent by Briti
sh parents on their children’s sports between 2008 and
2014. The second chart shows the number of children who participated in
three sports in Britain over the same time period.
The line graphs show the average monthly amount that parents in Britain
spent on their children’s sporting activities and the number
of British children who took part in three diferent sports from 2008
to 2014.
It is clear that parents spent more money each year on their children’s participation in sports over the six-year period. In terms of the
number of children taking part, football was signicantly more popula
r than athletics and swimming.
In 2008, British parents spent an average of around £20 per month on
their children’s sporting activities. Parents’ spending on
children’s sports increased gradually over the following six years, and by 2014 t
he average monthly amount had risen to just over £30.
Looking at participation numbers, in 2008 approximately 8 million British children played football, while only 2 millio
n children were
enrolled in swimming clubs and less than 1 million practised athletics.
The gures for football participation remained relatively stable
over the following 6 years. By contrast, participation in swimming almost doubled, to nearly 4 million children, and there was a near
vefold increase in the number of children doing athletics.

Essay #02
The graph below shows the amounts of waste produced
by three companies over a period of 15 years.The line graph compares three companies in terms of their waste
output between the years 2000 and 2015.
It is clear that there were signicant changes in the amounts of wast
e
produced by all three companies shown on the graph. While
companies A and B saw waste output fall over the 15-year period, the
amount of waste produced by company C increased considerably.
In 2000, company A produced 12 tonnes of waste, while companies
B and C produced around 8 tonnes and 4 tonnes of waste material
respectively. Over the following 5 years, the waste output of
companies B and C rose by around 2 tonnes, but the gure for
company A fell by approximately 1 tonne.
From 2005 to 2015, company A cut waste production by roughly 3
tonnes, and company B reduced its waste by around 7 tonnes. By
contrast, company C saw an increase in waste production of
approximately 4 tonnes over the same 10-year period. By 2015,
company C’s waste output had risen to 10 tonnes, while the
respective amounts of waste from companies A and B had dropped
to 8 tonnes and only 3 tonnes.
04

Essay #03
The line graph compares the percentage of people in three countries who
used the Internet between 1999 and 2009.
It is clear that the proportion of the population who used the Internet increased in each country over the period shown.
Overall, a much larger percentage of Canadians and Americans had access
to the Internet in comparison with
Mexicans, and Canada experienced the fastest growth in Internet usage.
In 1999, the proportion of people using the Internet in the USA was about 20%. The gures for Canada and Mexico
were lower, at about 10% and 5% respectively. In 2005, Internet usage in both the USA and Canada rose to around 70%
of the population, while the gure for Mexico reached just over 25%.
By 2009, the percentage of Internet users was highest in Canada. Almost 100% of
Canadians used the Internet,
compared to about 80% of Americans and only 40% of Mexicans.
05

Essay #04
The graph below shows the proportion of the popula-tion aged 65 and over between 1940 and 2040 in three diferent countries.
The line graph compares the percentage of people aged 65
or more in three countries over a period of 100 years.
It is clear that the proportion of elderly people increases in
each country between 1940 and 2040. Japan is expected to
see the most dramatic changes in its elderly population.
In 1940, around 9% of Americans were aged 65 or over,
compared to about 7% of Swedish people and 5% of
Japanese people. The proportions of elderly people in the
USA and Sweden rose gradually over the next 50 years,
reaching just under 15% in 1990. By contrast, the gures for
Japan remained below 5% until the early 2000s.
Looking into the future, a sudden increase in the percentage
of elderly people is predicted for Japan, with a jump of over
15% in just 10 years from 2030 to 2040. By 2040, it is thought
that around 27% of the Japanese population will be 65 years
old or more, while the gures for Sweden and the USA will
be slightly lower, at about 25% and 23% respectively.
06

Essay #05
The line graph compares gures for daily travel by
workers in the UK using three diferent forms of
transport over a period of 60 years.
It is clear that the car is by far the most popular means
of transport for UK commuters throughout the period
shown. Also, while the numbers of people who use the
car and train increase gradually, the number of bus
users falls steadily.
In 1970, around 5 million UK commuters travelled by car
on a daily basis, while the bus and train were used by
about 4 million and 2 million people respectively. In the
year 2000, the number of those driving to work rose to
7 million and the number of commuting rail passengers
reached 3 million. However, there was a small drop of
approximately 0.5 million in the number of bus users.
By 2030, the number of people who commute by car is
expected to reach almost 9 million, and the number of
train users is also predicted to rise, to nearly 5 million.
By contrast, buses are predicted to become a less
popular choice, with only 3 million daily users.
The graph below shows the average number of UK commuters
travelling each day by car, bus or train between 1970 and 2030.
07

Essay #06
The line graph compares average yearly spending by Americans on mobile a
nd landline phone services from 2001 to 2010.
It is clear that spending on landline phones fell steadily over the 10-year period, while mobile phone expenditure rose quickly. The
year 2006 marks the point at which expenditure on mobile services overto
ok that for residential phone services.
In 2001, US consumers spent an average of nearly $700 on residential pho
ne services, compared to only around $200 on cell
phone services. Over the following ve years, average yearly spending on landlines dropped by nearly $200. By contrast,
expenditure on mobiles rose by approximately $300.
In the year 2006, the average American paid out the same amount of money
on both types of phone service, spending just over
$500 on each. By 2010, expenditure on mobile phones had reached around $750, while the gure for spending on residential
services had fallen to just over half this amount.
08

Essay #07
The graph below shows trends in US meat and poultry consumption.
The line graph shows changes in the per capita
consumption of beef, pork, broilers and turkey in the
United States between 1955 and 2012.
It is noticeable that beef was by far the most popular of the
four types of meat for the majority of the 57-year period.
However, a considerable rise can be seen in the
consumption of broilers, with gures eventually
surpassing those for beef.
Between 1955 and 1976, US beef consumption rose from
around 60 to a peak of 90 pounds per person per year.
During the same period, consumption of broilers also
rose, to nearly 30 pounds per person, while the gures for
pork uctuated between 50 and 40 pounds per person.
Turkey was by far the least popular meat, with gures
below 10 pounds per capita each year.
By 2012, the amount of beef consumed by the average
American had plummeted to around 50 pounds, but the
consumption of broilers had doubled since the 1970s, to
approximately 55 pounds per capita. By contrast, there
were no signicant changes in the trends for pork and
turkey consumption over the period as a whole.
09

10
40 days to
Task 1
Tng hp bài mu Task 1dng BAR CHART

11
The three bar charts show average years of schooling, numbers
of scientists and technicians, and research and development
spending in developing and developed countries. Figures are
given for 1980 and 1990.
It is clear from the charts that the gures for developed
countries are much higher than those for developing nations.
Also, the charts show an overall increase in participation in
education and science from 1980 to 1990.
People in developing nations attended school for an average of
around 3 years, with only a slight increase in years of schooling
from 1980 to 1990. On the other hand, the gure for
industrialised countries rose from nearly 9 years of schooling in
1980 to nearly 11 years in 1990.
From 1980 to 1990, the number of scientists and technicians in
industrialised countries almost doubled to about 70 per 1000
people. Spending on research and development also saw rapid
growth in these countries, reaching $350 billion in 1990. By
contrast, the number of science workers in developing
countries remained below 20 per 1000 people, and research
spending fell from about $50 billion to only $25 billion.
The charts below show the levels of participation in education and
science in developing and industrialised countries in 1980 and 1990.
Essay #08

Essay #09
The chart below shows the amount of time that 10 to
15-year-olds spend chatting on the Internet and playing on
games consoles on an average school day in the UK.
The bar chart compares the time spent by 10 to 15-year-olds
in the UK on two activities, namely chatting online and
playing computer games.
Overall, we can see that playing computer games is
marginally more popular than chatting on the Internet.
However, completely diferent trends can be seen if we look
at the specic gures for boys and girls.
Boys aged between 10 and 15 clearly favour playing on
games consoles over chatting online. According to the
chart, while 85% of boys play computer games every day,
only 55% chat online daily. Furthermore, the majority of boys
play on their consoles for more than one hour each day, and
10% do this activity for four hours or more.
By contrast, girls prefer chatting online. Close to 70% of 10 to
15-yearold girls engage in online conversation each day,
compared to about 50% of this cohort who play computer
games. Of the girls who do play on console, most of them
play for less than an hour, whereas most girls who chat
online do so for more than one hour, and nearly 10% chat for
four hours or more.
12

The charts below show the main reasons for study among students of diferent age groups and the
amount of support they received from employers.
The bar charts compare students of diferent ages in terms of why they

are studying and whether they are supported by an employer.
It is clear that the proportion of students who study for career purpose
s
is far higher among the younger age groups, while the oldest students
are more likely to study for interest. Employer support is more
commonly given to younger students.
Around 80% of students aged under 26 study to further their careers,
whereas only 10% study purely out of interest. The gap between these
two proportions narrows as students get older, and the gures for those
in their forties are the same, at about 40%. Students aged over 49
overwhelmingly study for interest (70%) rather than for professional
reasons (less than 20%).
Just over 60% of students aged under 26 are supported by their
employers. By contrast, the 30-39 age group is the most self-sufcient
,
with only 30% being given time of and help with fees. The gures r
ise
slightly for students in their forties and for those aged 50 or more.
Essay #10
13

Essay #11
The bar chart compares consumer spending on six diferent items
in Germany, Italy, France and Britain.
It is clear that British people spent signicantly more money than
people in the other three countries on all six goods. Of the six
items, consumers spent the most money on photographic lm.
People in Britain spent just over £170,000 on photographic lm,
which is the highest gure shown on the chart. By contrast,
Germans were the lowest overall spenders, with roughly the same
gures ( just under £150,000) for each of the six products.
The gures for spending on toys were the same in both France
and Italy, at nearly £160,000. However, while French people spent
more than Italians on photographic lm and CDs, Italians paid out
more for personal stereos, tennis racquets and perfumes. The
amount spent by French people on tennis racquets, around
£145,000, is the lowest gure shown on the chart.
14

Essay #12
The chart below shows numbers of incidents and injuries per
100 million passenger miles travelled (PMT) by transportation type in 2002. The bar chart compares the number of incidents and injuries
for every 100 million passenger miles travelled on ve
diferent types of public transport in 2002.
It is clear that the most incidents and injuries took place on
demand-response vehicles. By contrast, commuter rail
services recorded by far the lowest gures.
A total of 225 incidents and 173 injuries, per 100 million
passenger miles travelled, took place on demand-response
transport services. These gures were nearly three times as
high as those for the second highest category, bus services.
There were 76 incidents and 66 people were injured on
buses.
Rail services experienced fewer problems. The number of
incidents on light rail trains equalled the gure recorded for
buses, but there were signicantly fewer injuries, at only 39.
Heavy rail services saw lower numbers of such events than
light rail services, but commuter rail passengers were even
less likely to experience problems. In fact, only 20 incidents
and 17 injuries occurred on commuter trains.
15

Essay #13
The bar chart compares the turnover in dollars from sales of video games for four diferent platforms, namely mobile phones,
online, consoles and handheld devices, from 2000 to 2006.
It is clear that sales of games for three out of the four platforms rose each year, leading to a signicant rise in total global turnover
over the 7-year period. Sales gures for handheld games were at least
twice as high as those for any other platform in almost every
year.
In 2000, worldwide sales of handheld games stood at around $11 billion, while console games earned just under $6 billion. No
gures are given for mobile or online games in that year. Over the next 3 years, sales of handheld video games rose by about $4
billion, but the gure for consoles decreased by $2 billion. Mobile p
hone and online games started to become popular, with sales
reaching around $3 billion in 2003.
In 2006, sales of handheld, online and mobile games reached peaks of 17, 9 and 7 billion dollars respectively. By contrast, turnover
from console games dropped to its lowest point, at around $2.5 billion.
The bar graph shows the global sales (in billions
of dollars) of diferent types of digital games
between 2000 and 2006.
16

Essay #14
The charts below compare the age structure of the populations of France and India in 1984.
The two charts compare the populations of France and
India in terms of age distribution by gender in the year
1984.
It is clear that the population of India was younger than
that of France in 1984, with a noticeably larger proportion
of people aged under 20. France, on the other hand, had
a signicantly larger percentage of elderly inhabitants.
In India, close to 14% of people were aged 5 or under,
and each ve-year age bracket above this contained an
increasingly smaller proportion of the population.
France’s population, by contrast, was more evenly
distributed across the age ranges, with similar gures
(around 7% to 8% of all people) for each ve-year cohort
between the ages of 0 and 40. Somewhere between 10%
and 15% of all French people were aged 70 or older, but
the equivalent gure for India was only 2%.
Looking more closely at gender, there was a noticeably
higher proportion of French women than men in every
cohort from age 50 upwards. For example, almost 3% of
French 70- to 75-year-olds were women, while just under
2% were men. No signicant gender diferences can be
seen on the Indian population chart.
17

Essay #15
The chart gives information about UK immigration,
emigration and net migration between 1999 and 2008.
Both immigration and emigration rates rose over the period
shown, but the gures for immigration were signicantly
higher. Net migration peaked in 2004 and 2007.
In 1999, over 450,000 people came to live in the UK, while
the number of people who emigrated stood at just under
300,000. The gure for net migration was around 160,000,
and it remained at a similar level until 2003. From 1999 to
2004, the immigration rate rose by nearly 150,000 people,
but there was a much smaller rise in emigration. Net
migration peaked at almost 250,000 people in 2004.
After 2004, the rate of immigration remained high, but the
number of people emigrating uctuated. Emigration fell
suddenly in 2007, before peaking at about 420,000 people
in 2008. As a result, the net migration gure rose to around
240,000 in 2007, but fell back to around 160,000 in 2008.
18

40 days to
Task 1
Tng hp bài mu Task 1dng PROCESS
19

The diagram below shows the life cycle of a salmon, from egg to adult sh.
The diagram illustrates the stages in the life of the salmon, from birth
to
maturity.
It is clear that there are six* main stages as the salmon develops from
egg to
mature adult. We can also see that salmon spend time in three distinct
locations during the cycle, moving from river to estuary to ocean and then
back upstream.
Salmon begin their lives in rivers where the adult sh lay and incuba
te their
eggs. After emerging from eggs, the young salmon spend the next stage of
their lives being reared in freshwater areas. Then, at some point in the
ir
development, the sh swim downstream to river estuaries where
rearing continues.
Following the estuary rearing period, the maturing salmon migrate to the

ocean, where they eventually become fully grown adults. Finally, the adult sh
travel back upstream to spawning areas of rivers; here they reproduce an
d lay
their eggs, and the life cycle begins anew.
20

Essay #17
The diagrams show how house designs difer according to climate.
The most noticeable diference between houses designed for cool and wa
rm climates is in the shape of the roof. The
designs also difer with regard to the windows and the use of insulati
on.
We can see that the cool climate house has a high-angled roof, which allows sunlight to enter through the window. By
contrast, the roof of the warm climate house has a peak in the middle and roof overhangs to shade the windows. Insulation
and thermal building materials are used in cool climates to reduce heat
loss, whereas insulation and reective materials
are used to keep the heat out in warm climates.
Finally, the cool climate house has one window which faces the direction of the sun, while the warm climate house has
windows on two sides which are shaded from the sun. By opening the two w
indows at night, the house designed for warm
climates can be ventilated.
The diagrams below show some principles of house design for cool and for
warm climates.
21

Essay #18
The picture illustrates the way in which water passes from ocean to air
to land during the natural process known as the water cycle.
Three main stages are shown on the diagram. Ocean water evaporates, fall
s as rain, and eventually runs back into the oceans again.
Beginning at the evaporation stage, we can see that 80% of water vapour in the air comes from the oceans.
Heat from the sun causes
water to evaporate, and water vapour condenses to form clouds. At the second stage, labelled ‘precipitation’ on the diagram, water
falls as rain or snow.
At the third stage in the cycle, rainwater may take various paths. Some of it may fall into lakes or return to the oceans via ‘surface
runof ’. Otherwise, rainwater may lter through the ground, reaching the impervious layer of the earth. Salt water intrusion is shown
to take place just before groundwater passes into the oceans to complete the c
ycle.
The diagram below shows the water cycle, which
is the continuous movement of water on, above
and below the surface of the Earth.
22

Essay #19
The diagram below shows how the Australian Bureau of
Meteorology collects up-to-the-minute information on the weather in order to produce reliable forecasts.
The gure illustrates the process used by the Australian
Bureau of Meteorology to forecast the weather.
There are four stages in the process, beginning with the
collection of information about the weather. This
information is then analysed, prepared for presentation,
and nally broadcast to the public.
Looking at the rst and second stages of the process, there
are three ways of collecting weather data and three ways
of analysing it. Firstly, incoming information can be
received by satellite and presented for analysis as a
satellite photo. The same data can also be passed to a
radar station and presented on a radar screen or synoptic
chart. Secondly, incoming information may be collected
directly by radar and analysed on a radar screen or
synoptic chart. Finally, drifting buoys also receive data
which can be shown on a synoptic chart.
At the third stage of the process, the weather broadcast is
prepared on computers. Finally, it is delivered to the public
on television, on the radio, or as a recorded telephone
announcement.
23

Essay #20
The diagrams below show how houses can be protected in areas which are p
rone to ooding.
The diagrams compare two diferent methods of defence for homes which
are at risk of being ooded.
The key diference between the diagrams is that they show ood protection with and without a stopbank. In either case,
the at-risk home is raised on stilts above ground level.
The rst diagram shows how a stopbank acts as a ood barrier to st
op river water from ooding homes. The stopbank
is a small mound of land next to the river that is higher than the 100-year ood level, and prevents the river from bursting
its banks. Nearby houses can be built on stilts to prevent ooding fr
om rainwater, and a oodgate beneath the stopbank
can be opened to allow this ‘ponding’ to drain of into the rive
r.
When there is no stopbank, as shown in the second diagram, there will be
nothing to stop the river from ooding. In this
case, the solution is to put buildings on stilts. The height of the stilts i
s measured so that the oor of the house is 300mm
above the 100-year ood level. This measurement is called the ‘fre
eboard’.
24

Essay #21
The diagram shows the life cycle of the honey bee.
The diagram illustrates the various stages in the life of a
honey bee. We can see that the complete life cycle lasts
between 34 and 36 days. It is also noticeable that there
are ve main stages in the development of the honey
bee, from egg to mature adult insect.
The life cycle of the honey bee begins when the female
adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two
eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each
egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph,
appears.
During the third stage of the life cycle, the nymph grows
in size and sheds its skin three times. This moulting rst
takes place 5 days after the egg hatches, then 7 days
later, and again another 9 days later. After a total of 30 to
31 days from the start of the cycle, the young adult honey
bee emerges from its nal moulting stage, and in the
space of only 4 days it reaches full maturity.
25

Essay #22
The chart below shows the process of waste paper recycling.
The ow chart shows how waste paper is recycled. It is clear that there are six distinct stages in this process, from the
initial collection of waste paper to the eventual production of usable p
aper.
At the rst stage in the paper recycling process, waste paper is collected either from paper banks, where members of
the public leave their used paper, or directly from businesses. This paper is then sorted by hand and sep
arated
according to its grade, with any paper that is not suitable for recycling being removed. Next,
the graded paper is
transported to a paper mill.
Stages four and ve of the process both involve cleaning. The paper is cleaned and pulped, and foreign objects such
as staples are taken out. Following this, all remnants of ink and glue are removed from th
e paper at the de-inking
stage. Finally, the pulp can be processed in a paper making machine, which makes the end product: usable paper.
26

40 days to
Task 1
Tng hp bài mu Task 1dng PIE CHART
27

Essay #23
28
The pie charts compare the expenditure of a school in the
UK in three diferent years over a 20-year period.
It is clear that teachers’ salaries made up the largest
proportion of the school’s spending in all three years (1981,
1991 and 2001). By contrast, insurance was the smallest cost
in each year.
In 1981, 40% of the school’s budget went on teachers’
salaries. This gure rose to 50% in 1991, but fell again by 5%
in 2001. The proportion of spending on other workers’
wages fell steadily over the 20-year period, from 28% of the
budget in 1981 to only 15% in 2001.
Expenditure on insurance stood at only 2% of the total in
1981, but reached 8% in 2001. Finally, the percentages for
resources and furniture/equipment uctuated. The gure
for resources was highest in 1991, at 20%, and the
proportion of spending on furniture and equipment
reached its peak in 2001, at 23%.

Essay #24
29
Distribution of visitors diferent types of tourist attractions in Bri
tain, 1999
The pie chart compares gures for visitors to four categories of tour
ist attraction and to ve diferent theme parks in Britain in 1999.
It is clear that theme parks and museums / galleries were the two most p
opular types of tourist attraction in that year. Blackpool
Pleasure Beach received by far the highest proportion of visitors in the
theme park sector.
Looking at the information in more detail, we can see that 38% of the sur
veyed visitors went to a theme park, and 37% of them went
to a museum or gallery. By contrast, historic houses and monuments were visited by only 16% of
the sample, while wildlife parks and
zoos were the least popular of the four types of tourist attraction, wit
h only 9% of visitors.
In the theme park sector, almost half of the people surveyed (47%) had been to Blackpool Pleasure Beach. Alton Towers was the
second most popular amusement park, with 17% of the sample, followed by Pleasureland in Southport, with 16%. Finally, Chessington
World of Adventures and Legoland Windsor had each welcomed 10% of the survayed visitors.
Wildlife Parks & Zoos
9%
Historic Houses& Monuments 16%
ThemeParks38%
Museums & Galleries 37%
Blackpool Pleasure Beach (47%)
Alton Towers (17%)
Pleasureland, Southport (16%)
Chessington World of Advantures (10%)
Legoland, Windsor (10%)

Essay #25
The charts below show the results of a questionnaire that asked visitors to the Parkway Hotel how they rated the hotel's customer service. The same questionnaire was given to 100 guests in the years 2005 and 2
010.
The pie charts compare visitors’ responses to a survey about customer service at the Parkway Hotel in 2005 and in 2010.
It is clear that overall customer satisfaction increased considerably fr
om 2005 to 2010. While most hotel guests rated
customer service as satisfactory or poor in 2005, a clear majority descr
ibed the hotel’s service as good or excellent in 2010.
Looking at the positive responses rst, in 2005 only 5% of the hotel’
s visitors rated its customer service as excellent, but
this gure rose to 28% in 2010. Furthermore, while only 14% of guests described customer service in the hotel as go
od in
2005, almost three times as many people gave this rating ve years la
ter.
With regard to negative feedback, the proportion of guests who considered the hotel’s customer service to be poor fell from
21% in 2005 to only 12% in 2010. Similarly, the proportion of people who thought customer service was very poor dr
opped
from 15% to only 4% over the 5-year period. Finally, a fall in the number of ‘satisfactory’ ratings in 2010 reects the fact that
more people gave positive responses to the survey in that year.
30

Essay #26
The pie charts below compare water usage in San Diego, California and the rest of the world.
The pie charts give information about the water used for residential, in
dustrial and agricultural purposes in San Diego
County, California, and the world as a whole.
It is noticeable that more water is consumed by homes than by industry or agriculture in the two American regions. By
contrast, agriculture accounts for the vast majority of water used world
wide.
In San Diego County and California State, residential water consumption accounts for 60% and 39% of total water
usage.
By contrast, a mere 8% of the water used globally goes to homes. The opp
osite trend can be seen when we look at water
consumption for agriculture. This accounts for a massive 69% of global water use, but only 17% and 28% of water usage in
San Diego and California respectively.
Such dramatic diferences are not seen when we compare the gures f
or industrial water use. The same proportion of water
(23%) is used by industry in San Diego and worldwide, while the gure for California is 10% higher, at 33%.
31

40 days to
Task 1
Tng hp bài mu Task 1dng TABLES
32

Essay #27
33
The table shows data about the underground rail networks in six major ci
ties.
The table compares the six networks in terms of their age, size and the number of people who use them each year. It is clear
that the three oldest underground systems are larger and serve signi
cantly more passengers than the newer systems.
The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863. It is als
o the largest system, with 394 kilometres of
route. The second largest system, in Paris, is only about half the size of the London underground, with 199 kilometres of
route. However, it serves more people per year. While only third in terms of size, the Tokyo system is easily the most used,
with 1927 million passengers per year.
Of the three newer networks, the Washington DC underground is the most extensive, with 126 kilometres of route, compared
to only 11 kilometres and 28 kilometres for the Kyoto and Los Angeles systems. The Los Angeles network is the newest,
having opened in 2001, while the Kyoto network is the smallest and serves only 45 million passengers per y
ear. The table below gives information about the underground railway systems
in six cities.

40 ngàWKWKFK,(/76:ULWLQJ0Essay #28
The tables show the amount of money spent on Fairtrade cofee
and bananas in two separate years in the UK, Switzerland, Denmark,
Belgium and Sweden.
It is clear that sales of Fairtrade cofee rose in all ve European

countries from 1999 to 2004, but sales of Fairtrade bananas only
went up in three out of the ve countries. Overall, the UK saw by far

the highest levels of spending on the two products.
In 1999, Switzerland had the highest sales of Fairtrade cofee, at €3
million, while revenue from Fairtrade bananas was highest in the
UK, at €15 million. By 2004, however, sales of Fairtrade cofee in the
UK had risen to €20 million, and this was over three times higher
than Switzerland’s sales gure for Fairtrade cofee in that year. The
year 2004 also saw dramatic increases in the money spent on
Fairtrade bananas in the UK and Switzerland, with revenues rising
by €32 million and €4.5 million respectively.
Sales of the two Fairtrade products were far lower in Denmark,
Belgium and Sweden. Small increases in sales of Fairtrade cofee
can be seen, but revenue remained at €2 million or below in all
three countries in both years. Finally, it is noticeable that the money
spent on Fairtrade bananas actually fell in Belgium and Sweden.
The tables below give information about sales of Fair-
trade*-labelled cofee and bananas in 1999 and 2004
in ve European countries.
*Fairtrade: a category of products for which farmers from
developing countries have been paid an ofcially agreed fair price.

Essay #29
The table below gives information on consumer spending on diferent it
ems in ve diferent countries in 2002.
Percentage of national consumer expenditure by category - 2002
The table shows percentages of consumer expenditure for three categories
of products and services in ve countries in 2002.
It is clear that the largest proportion of consumer spending in each cou
ntry went on food, drinks and tobacco. On the other
hand, the leisure/education category has the lowest percentages in the t
able.
Out of the ve countries, consumer spending on food, drinks and tobacco was noticeably higher in Turkey, at 32.14%, and
Ireland, at nearly 29%. The proportion of spending on leisure and educat
ion was also highest in Turkey, at 4.35%, while
expenditure on clothing and footwear was signicantly higher in Italy
, at 9%, than in any of the other countries.
It can be seen that Sweden had the lowest percentages of national consumer expenditure for fo
od/drinks/tobacco and for
clothing/footwear, at nearly 16% and just over 5% respectively. Spain had slightly higher gures for these categories, but the
lowest gure for leisure/education, at only 1.98%.
35

Essay #30
The table below shows the proportion of diferent categories of famili
es living in poverty in Australia in 1999.
The table gives information about poverty rates among six types of house
hold in Australia in the year 1999.
It is noticeable that levels of poverty were higher for single people th
an for couples, and people with children were
more likely to be poor than those without. Poverty rates were considerably lower among elderly people.
Overall, 11% of Australians, or 1,837,000 people, were living in poverty in 1999. Aged people were the least likely to be
poor, with poverty levels of 6% and 4% for single aged people and aged coupl
es respectively.
Just over one fth of single parents were living in poverty, whereas only 12% of parents living with a partner were
classed as poor. The same pattern can be seen for people with no children: while 19% of
single people in this group
were living below the poverty line, the gure for couples was much lower, at only 7%.
36

Essay #31
The table compares the percentages of people using diferent functions
of their mobile phones between 2006 and 2010.
Throughout the period shown, the main reason why people used their mobil
e phones was to make calls. However, there
was a marked increase in the popularity of other mobile phone features, particular
ly the Internet search feature.
In 2006, 100% of mobile phone owners used their phones to make calls, while the next most popular functions were text
messaging (73%) and taking photos (66%). By contrast, less than 20% of owners played games or music on their phones,
and there were no gures for users doing Internet searches or recordi
ng video.
Over the following 4 years, there was relatively little change in the
gures for the top three mobile phone features.
However, the percentage of people using their phones to access the Internet jum
ped to 41% in 2008 and then to 73% in
2010. There was also a signicant rise in the use of mobiles to play game
s and to record video, with gures reaching 41%
and 35% respectively in 2010.
37

Essay #32
The table below shows the amount of waste production (in millions of
tonnes) in six diferent countries over a twenty-year period.
The chart compares the amounts of waste that were produced in six countr
ies in the years 1980, 1990 and 2000.
In each of these years, the US produced more waste than Ireland, Japan,
Korea, Poland and Portugal combined. It is also noticeable that
Korea was the only country that managed to reduce its waste output by the
year 2000.
Between 1980 and 2000, waste production in the US rose from 131 to 192 million tonnes, and ri
sing trends were also seen in Japan, Poland
and Portugal. Japan’s waste output increased from 28 to 53 million tonnes, while Poland and Portugal saw waste totals increase from 4
to 6.6 and from 2 to 5 million tonnes respectively.
The trends for Ireland and Korea were noticeably diferent from those described above. In Ireland, waste production increased more than
eightfold, from only 0.6 million tonnes in 1980 to 5 million tonnes in 2000. Korea, by contrast, cut its waste output by 12 million tonnes
between 1990 and 2000.
38

40 days to
Task 1
Tng hp bài mu Task 1dng MAPS
39

Essay #33
The two maps below show an island, before and after the
construction of some tourist facilities.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main
features, and make comparisons where relevantThe diagrams illustrate some changes to a small island
which has been developed for tourism.
It is clear that the island has changed considerably with
the introduction of tourism, and six new features can be
seen in the second diagram. The main developments are
that the island is accessible and visitors have somewhere
to stay.
Looking at the maps in more detail, we can see that small
huts have been built to accommodate visitors to the
island. The other physical structures that have been
added are a reception building, in the middle of the
island, and a restaurant to the north of the reception.
Before these developments, the island was completely
bare apart from a few trees.
As well as the buildings mentioned above, the new
facilities on the island include a pier, where boats can
dock. There is also a short road linking the pier with the
reception and restaurant, and footpaths connect the
huts. Finally, there is a designated swimming area for
tourists of a beach on the western tip of the island.
40

Essay #34
Village of Chorleywood showing development between 1860 and 1994The map shows the growth of a village called
Chorleywood between 1868 and 1994.
It is clear that the village grew as the transport
infrastructure was improved. Four periods of
development are shown on the map, and each of
the populated areas is near to the main roads, the
railway or the motorway.
From 1868 to 1883, Chorleywood covered a small
area next to one of the main roads. Chorleywood
Park and Golf Course is now located next to this
original village area. The village grew along the
main road to the south between 1883 and 1922,
and in 1909 a railway line was built crossing this
area from west to east. Chorleywood station is in
this part of the village.
The expansion of Chorleywood continued to the
east and west alongside the railway line until 1970.
At that time, a motorway was built to the east of the
village, and from 1970 to 1994, further
development of the village took place around
motorway intersections with the railway and one of
the main roads.
41

Essay #35
The two pictures compare the layout of a school as it was in the year 2004 with
a proposed site design for the year 2024.
It is clear that the main change for 2024 involves the addition of a new school
building. The school will then be able to accommodate a considerably larger
number of students.
In 2004, there were 600 pupils attending the school, and the two school
buildings were separated by a path running from the main entrance to the

sports eld. By 2024, it is expected that there will be 1000 pupils,
and a third
building will have been constructed. Furthermore, the plan is to join the two
original buildings together, creating a shorter path that links the buildings only.
As the third building and a second car park will be built on the site of
the
original sports eld, a new, smaller sports eld will need to be laid. A new road
will also be built from the main entrance to the second car park. Finall
y, no
changes will be made to the main entrance and original car park.
The diagrams below show the site of a
school in 2004 and the plan for changes to
the school site in 2024.
42

Essay #36
The rst picture shows the layout of an art gallery, and
the second shows some proposed changes to the
gallery space.
It is clear that signicant changes will be made in terms
of the use of oor space in the gallery. There will be a
completely new entrance and more space for
exhibitions.
At present, visitors enter the gallery through doors
which lead into a lobby. However, the plan is to move
the entrance to the Parkinson Court side of the building,
and visitors will walk straight into the exhibition area. In
place of the lobby and ofce areas, which are shown on
the existing plan, the new gallery plan shows an
education area and a small storage area.
The permanent exhibition space in the redeveloped
gallery will be about twice as large as it is now because
it will occupy the area that is now used for temporary
exhibitions. There will also be a new room for special
exhibitions. This room is shown in red on the existing
plan and is not currently part of the gallery.
The diagrams below are existing and proposed oor plans for the
redevelopment of an art gallery.
43

Essay #37
The map below is of the town of Garlsdon. A new
supermarket (S) is planned for the town. The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket.
The map shows two potential locations (S1 and S2) for a
new supermarket in a town called Garlsdon.
The main diference between the two sites is that S1 is
outside the town, whereas S2 is in the town centre. The
sites can also be compared in terms of access by road or
rail, and their positions relative to three smaller towns.
Looking at the information in more detail, S1 is in the
countryside to the north west of Garlsdon, but it is close to
the residential area of the town. S2 is also close to the
housing area, which surrounds the town centre.
There are main roads from Hindon, Bransdon and
Cransdon to Garlsdon town centre, but this is a no trafc
zone, so there would be no access to S2 by car. By
contrast, S1 lies on the main road to Hindon, but it would
be more difcult to reach from Bransdon and Cransdon.
Both supermarket sites are close to the railway that runs
through Garlsdon from Hindon to Cransdon.
44

45
40 days to
Task 1
Tng hp bài mu Task 1
dng MULTIPLE GRAPHS

Essay #38
46
The graph and table below give information about water use
worldwide and water consumption in two diferent countries.
The charts compare the amount of water used for
agriculture, industry and homes around the world, and
water use in Brazil and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
It is clear that global water needs rose signicantly
between 1900 and 2000, and that agriculture accounted
for the largest proportion of water used. We can also see
that water consumption was considerably higher in Brazil
than in the Congo.
In 1900, around 500km³ of water was used by the
agriculture sector worldwide. The gures for industrial and
domestic water consumption stood at around one fth of
that amount. By 2000, global water use for agriculture had
increased to around 3000km³, industrial water use had
risen to just under half that amount, and domestic
consumption had reached approximately 500km³.
In the year 2000, the populations of Brazil and the Congo
were 176 million and 5.2 million respectively. Water
consumption per person in Brazil, at 359m³, was much
higher than that in the Congo, at only 8m³, and this could
be explained by the fact that Brazil had 265 times more
irrigated land.

Essay #39
The chart compares average gures for temperature and
precipitation over the course of a calendar year in Kolkata.
It is noticeable that monthly gures for precipitation in Kolkata
vary considerably, whereas monthly temperatures remain
relatively stable. Rainfall is highest from July to August, while
temperatures are highest in April and May.
Between the months of January and May, average
temperatures in Kolkata rise from their lowest point at around
20°C to a peak of just over 30°C. Average rainfall in the city also
rises over the same period, from approximately 20mm of rain in
January to 100mm in May.
While temperatures stay roughly the same for the next four
months, the amount of rainfall more than doubles between May
and June. Figures for precipitation remain above 250mm from
June to September, peaking at around 330mm in July. The nal
three months of the year see a dramatic fall in precipitation, to a
low of about 10mm in December, and a steady drop in
temperatures back to the January average.
The climograph below shows average monthly tempera-
tures and rainfall in the city of Kolkata.
47

Essay #40
The chart below shows the total number of Olympic medals won by twelve diferent countries.
The bar chart compares twelve countries in terms of the overall number o
f medals that they have won at the Olympic Games.
It is clear that the USA is by far the most successful Olympic medal winning nation. It is also
noticeable that the gures for
gold, silver and bronze medals won by any particular country tend to be
fairly similar.
The USA has won a total of around 2,300 Olympic medals, including approximately 900 gold medals, 750 silver and 650
bronze. In second place on the all-time medals chart is the Soviet Union, with just over 1,000 medals. Again, the number of
gold medals won by this country is slightly higher than the number of si
lver or bronze medals.
Only four other countries - the UK, France, Germany and Italy - have won more than 500 Olympic medals, all with si
milar
proportions of each medal colour. Apart from the USA and the Soviet Union, China is the only other country with a noticeabl
y
higher proportion of gold medals (about 200) compared to silver and br
onze (about 100 each).
48

49
40 days to
Task 1
Tng hp t vng cn bit
cho IELTS WRITING TASK 1

Lexical Resource là mt trong bn tiêu chí chm im trong Writing. Chính vì vy, bài vit IELTS Writing Task 1 yêu cu bn phi có mt lng
t vng nht nh miêu t, so sánh các d liu cho sn trong biu , bng s liu hay bn . Vic s dng t ng phù hp, din gii các
thông tin theo mt logic, rõ ràng chc chn s giúp bn s t im cao trong phn thi này.
Bài vit di ây tng hp s tng hp tt c t vng cn thit bn có th tham kho cho bài vit Task 1 ca mình.
t im cao trong tiêu chí Lexical Resource bn cn:• S dng các synonyms chính xác
• S dng a dng t vng, tránh li lp t (tr mt s t không th thay th c)
• T ránh s dng các t ng ph bin (in hình là các t very + adj)
• S dng t ng phù hp vi ng cnh
Ví d v mt s synonym ph bin trong Task 1: Lexical Resource là mt trong bn tiêu chí chm im trong Writing. Chính vì vy, bài vit IELTS Writing Task 1 yêu cu bn phi có mt lng
t vng nht nh miêu t, so sánh các d liu cho sn trong biu , bng s liu hay bn . Vic s dng t ng phù hp, din gii các
thông tin theo mt logic, rõ ràng chc chn s giúp bn s t im cao trong phn thi này.
Bài vit di ây tng hp s tng hp tt c t vng cn thit bn có th tham kho cho bài vit Task 1 ca mình.
t im cao trong tiêu chí Lexical Resource bn cn: • S dng các synonyms chính xác
• S dng a dng t vng, tránh li lp t (tr mt s t không th thay th c)
• T ránh s dng các t ng ph bin (in hình là các t very + adj)
• S dng t ng phù hp vi ng cnh
Ví d v mt s synonym ph bin trong Task 1:
Vocabulary
50

Nhìn chung, tt c các bài vit IELTS Writing Task 1 u tuân theo mt b cc chung:1. Introduction
2. O verview
3. Body Paragraph 1
4. Body Paragraph 2
T vng cho phn Introduction
Mi on vn trong bài IELTS Writing Task 1 s có mt cu trúc riêng, vì vy vic trang b lng t vng s giúp bài vit tt hn và tit kim
thi gian làm bài hn. Nhìn chung, tt c các bài vit IELTS Writing Task 1 u tuân theo mt b cc chung: 1. Introduction
2. O verview
3. Body Paragraph 1
4. Body Paragraph 2
T vng cho phn Introduction
Mi on vn trong bài IELTS Writing Task 1 s có mt cu trúc riêng, vì vy vic trang b lng t vng s giúp bài vit tt hn và tit kim
thi gian làm bài hn.
Vocabulary 51

Vocabulary
Ví d:• The diagram shows employment rates among adults in four European co
untries from 1925 to 1985.
• The given pie charts represent the proportion of male and female employees in 6 broad categories, dividing into manual and non-manual
occupations in Australia, between 2010 and 2015.
• The chart gives information about consumer expenditures on six prod
ucts in four countries namely Germany, Italy, Britain and France.
• The supplied bar graph compares the number of male and female gradu
ates in three developing countries while the table data presents
the overall literacy rate in these countries.
• The bar graph and the table data depict the water consumption in di
ferent sectors in ve regions.
• The bar graph enumerates the money spent on diferent research projects while the column graph demonstrates the fund sources over
a decade, commencing from 1981.
• The line graph delineates the proportion of male and female employe
es in three diferent sectors in Australia between 2010 and 2015.
Mt s lu ý khi vit Introduction: • Nu bài có 1 biu thì ng t có “s”. VD: gives data on, shows, presents, v.v. Còn bài cho nhiu biu thì phi lu ý không có
“s” sau ng t.
• Bn phi paraphrase bài. Nu s dng y nguyên các t bài cho sn thì phn Introduction ca bn s không c tính vào word
count (s t ca bài vit) và bn s b tr im (tr mt s t c bit, không có t thay th).
• Nu bài cho nhiu biu khác nhau thì bn có th gii thiu mi biu th hin iu gì, và s dng “while” ni gia 2 v. Ví d:
The given bar graph shows the amount spent on fast food items in 2009 in
the UK, while the pie chart presents a comparison of people’s
ages who spent more on fast food.
• Phn Introduction to ra n tng ban u cho giám kho v kh nng vit ca bn. Nu bn vit Introduction không tt thì dù phn Body
Paragraph có hay, ngi chm cng ã có nh kin v bn. Do ó, mt câu m u tt chc chn s giúp bn t im cao hn.
• Vi dng cho nhiu biu , bn có th câu Introduction gp chung gia chúng thay vì gii thiu tng biu (khi s dng cách vit
này, bn cn chc chn rng mình có kh nng vit câu phc chun ng pháp). Ví d: The two pie charts and the column graph in
combination depicts a picture of the crime in Australia from 2005 to 2015 and the percentages of young ofenders duri
ng this period."
• Phn Introduction cn cp n 3 yu t: What + Where + When. Ví d: The diagram presents information on the percentages of
teachers who have expressed their views about the diferent problems they face when dealing with children in three Australian schools
from 2001 to 2005.
What = the percentages of teachers ...
Where = three Australian schools ...
When = from 2001 to 2005 ...
Ví d:
• The diagram shows employment rates among adults in four European co
untries from 1925 to 1985.
• The given pie charts represent the proportion of male and female employees in 6 broad categories, dividing into manual and non-manual
occupations in Australia, between 2010 and 2015.
• The chart gives information about consumer expenditures on six prod
ucts in four countries namely Germany, Italy, Britain and France.
• The supplied bar graph compares the number of male and female gradu
ates in three developing countries while the table data presents
the overall literacy rate in these countries.
• The bar graph and the table data depict the water consumption in di
ferent sectors in ve regions.
• The bar graph enumerates the money spent on diferent research projects while the column graph demonstrates the fund sources over
a decade, commencing from 1981.
• The line graph delineates the proportion of male and female employe
es in three diferent sectors in Australia between 2010 and 2015.
Mt s lu ý khi vit Introduction: • Nu bài có 1 biu thì ng t có “s”. VD: gives data on, shows, presents, v.v. Còn bài cho nhiu biu thì phi lu ý không có
“s” sau ng t.
• Bn phi paraphrase bài. Nu s dng y nguyên các t bài cho sn thì phn Introduction ca bn s không c tính vào word
count (s t ca bài vit) và bn s b tr im (tr mt s t c bit, không có t thay th).
• Nu bài cho nhiu biu khác nhau thì bn có th gii thiu mi biu th hin iu gì, và s dng “while” ni gia 2 v. Ví d:
The given bar graph shows the amount spent on fast food items in 2009 in
the UK, while the pie chart presents a comparison of people’s
ages who spent more on fast food.
• Phn Introduction to ra n tng ban u cho giám kho v kh nng vit ca bn. Nu bn vit Introduction không tt thì dù phn Body
Paragraph có hay, ngi chm cng ã có nh kin v bn. Do ó, mt câu m u tt chc chn s giúp bn t im cao hn.
• Vi dng cho nhiu biu , bn có th câu Introduction gp chung gia chúng thay vì gii thiu tng biu (khi s dng cách vit
này, bn cn chc chn rng mình có kh nng vit câu phc chun ng pháp). Ví d: The two pie charts and the column graph in
combination depicts a picture of the crime in Australia from 2005 to 2015 and the percentages of young ofenders duri
ng this period."
• Phn Introduction cn cp n 3 yu t: What + Where + When. Ví d: The diagram presents information on the percentages of
teachers who have expressed their views about the diferent problems they face when dealing with children in three Australian schools
from 2001 to 2005.
What = the percentages of teachers ...
Where = three Australian schools ...
When = from 2001 to 2005 ...
52

Mt s lu ý khi vit Overview:
Bn lu ý không a các s liu chi tit vào Overview, mà ch cp n nhng c im hoc xu hng ni bt nht ca biu .
Ví d:• Không nên: A glance at the graphs reveals that 70% male were employed in 2001 while
40 thousand women in this year had jobs.
• Nên: A glance at the graphs reveals that more men were employed than their fe
male counterpart in 2001 and almost two-third females
were jobless in the same year.
T vng cho phn Overview:

Ví d: • In general, the employment opportunities increased till 1970 and th
en declined throughout the next decade.
• As is observed, the gures for imprisonment in the ve mentio
ned countries show no overall pattern, rather shows the considerable
uctuations from country to country.
• Generally speaking, citizens in the USA had a far better life standard than that of remaining countries.
• As can be seen, the highest number of passengers used the London Underground station at 8:00 in the morning and at 6:00 in the
evening.
• Generally speaking, more men were engaged in managerial positions i
n 1987 than that of women in New York this year.
• As an overall trend, the number of crimes reported increased fairly
rapidly until the mid-seventies, remained constant for ve years and
nally, dropped to 20 cases a week after 1982.
• At a rst glance, it is clear that more percentages of native university pupils violated
regulations and rules than the foreign students did
during this period.
• At the onset, it is clear that drinking in public and drink driving
were the most common reasons for US citizens to be arrested in 2014.
Overall, the leisure hours enjoyed by males, regardless of their employm
ent status, was much higher than that of women.
Mt s lu ý khi vit Overview:
Bn lu ý không a các s liu chi tit vào Overview, mà ch cp n nhng c im hoc xu hng ni bt nht ca biu .
Ví d:
• Không nên: A glance at the graphs reveals that 70% male were employed in 2001 while
40 thousand women in this year had jobs.
• Nên: A glance at the graphs reveals that more men were employed than their fe
male counterpart in 2001 and almost two-third females
were jobless in the same year.
T vng cho phn Overview:

Ví d: • In general, the employment opportunities increased till 1970 and th
en declined throughout the next decade.
• As is observed, the gures for imprisonment in the ve mentio
ned countries show no overall pattern, rather shows the considerable
uctuations from country to country.
• Generally speaking, citizens in the USA had a far better life standard than that of remaining countries.
• As can be seen, the highest number of passengers used the London Underground station at 8:00 in the morning and at 6:00 in the
evening.
• Generally speaking, more men were engaged in managerial positions i
n 1987 than that of women in New York this year.
• As an overall trend, the number of crimes reported increased fairly
rapidly until the mid-seventies, remained constant for ve years and
nally, dropped to 20 cases a week after 1982.
• At a rst glance, it is clear that more percentages of native university pupils violated
regulations and rules than the foreign students did
during this period.
• At the onset, it is clear that drinking in public and drink driving
were the most common reasons for US citizens to be arrested in 2014.
Overall, the leisure hours enjoyed by males, regardless of their employm
ent status, was much higher than that of women.
Vocabulary
In general, In common, Generally speaking, Overall, It is obvious, As is observed, As a general trend, As can be seen, As an overall trend,
As is presented, It can be clearly seen that, At the rst glance, it is clear, At the onset, it is clear that, A glance at the graphs reveals that, v.v.
53

Vocabulary
T vng cho phn Body Paragraph
Sau khi vit câu Introduction và Overview, bn có th bt u vit phn Body Paragraph mô t chi tit biu .
Sau ây là mt s gi m u mt on Body Paragraph:
As is presented in the diagram(s)/ graph(s)/ pie chart(s)/ table...
As (is) shown in the illustration…
As can be seen in the…
As the diagrams suggest…
According to the…
Categorically speaking…
Getting back to the details…
Now, turning to the details…
The table data clearly shows that…
The diagram reveals that…
The data suggest that..
The graph gives the gure...
It is interesting to note that…
It is apparently seen that...
It is conspicuous that...
It is explicitly observed that..
It is obvious...
It is clear from the data....
It is worth noticing that...
It is crystal clear/ lucid that..
It can be clearly observed that...
It could be plainly seen that...
It could be noticed that...
We can see that
T vng cho phn Body Paragraph
Sau khi vit câu Introduction và Overview, bn có th bt u vit phn Body Paragraph mô t chi tit biu .
Sau ây là mt s gi m u mt on Body Paragraph:As is presented in the diagram(s)/ graph(s)/ pie chart(s)/ table...
As (is) shown in the illustration…
As can be seen in the…
As the diagrams suggest…
According to the…
Categorically speaking…
Getting back to the details…
Now, turning to the details…
The table data clearly shows that…
The diagram reveals that…
The data suggest that..
The graph gives the gure...
It is interesting to note that…
It is apparently seen that...
It is conspicuous that...
It is explicitly observed that..
It is obvious...
It is clear from the data....
It is worth noticing that...
It is crystal clear/ lucid that..
It can be clearly observed that...
It could be plainly seen that...
It could be noticed that...
We can see that
54

Vocabulary
T vng th hin s thay i trong biu
T vng th hin s thay i trong biu
55

Vocabulary
Mt s tips s dng t vng: • S dng “improve/”an improvement” miêu t các tình hình, ví d nh tình trng kinh t hay iu kin công n vic làm. biu hin
các con s bn có th s dng các ng t hoc danh t nh “increase”.
• Không s dng cùng mt t/cm t nhiu ln
• Bn cn s dng a dng t vng cng nh mu câu t c s im cao
Mt s tips s dng t vng:
• S dng “improve/”an improvement” miêu t các tình hình, ví d nh tình trng kinh t hay iu kin công n vic làm. biu hin
các con s bn có th s dng các ng t hoc danh t nh “increase”.
• Không s dng cùng mt t/cm t nhiu ln
• Bn cn s dng a dng t vng cng nh mu câu t c s im cao
56

T vng din t mc thay i trong th:
Ví d: • The economic ination of the country increased sharply by 20% in 2008.There was a sharp drop in the industrial production in the year
2009.
• The demand for new houses dramatically increased in 2002.
• The population of the country dramatically increased in the last de
cade.
• The price of the oil moderately increased during the last quarter b
ut as a consequence, the price of daily necessity rapidly went up.
T vng din t mc thay i trong th:
Ví d:
• The economic ination of the country increased sharply by 20% in 2008.There was a sharp drop in the industrial production in the year
2009.
• The demand for new houses dramatically increased in 2002.
• The population of the country dramatically increased in the last de
cade.
• The price of the oil moderately increased during the last quarter b
ut as a consequence, the price of daily necessity rapidly went up.
Vocabulary
57

T vng din t s dao ng thng xuyên
Ví d: • The price of the goods uctuated during the rst three months in 2017.
• The graph shows the oscillations of the price from 1998 to 2002.
• The passenger number in this station oscillates throughout the day and in early morning and evening, it remains busy.
• The changes of car production in Japan shows a palpitation for the second quarter of the year.
• The number of students in debate clubs uctuated in diferent months of the year and rapid ups and downs could be observed in the last
three months of this year.
Mt s lu ý khi mô t các bin ng trong bin i
- Không din t tt c s liu trong biu . Bn ch nên chn t 5-7 thay i ni bt và a ra s so sánh và i lp gia các s liu.
- Lu ý câu hi trong bài là tóm tt các ý chính trong biu vit báo cáo, vì vy bn cn th hin s so sánh, i lp, a ra im cao
nht và thp nht và c im chính trong các biu .
Vocabulary
T vng din t s dao ng thng xuyên
Ví d: • The price of the goods uctuated during the rst three months in 2017.
• The graph shows the oscillations of the price from 1998 to 2002.
• The passenger number in this station oscillates throughout the day and in early morning and evening, it remains busy.
• The changes of car production in Japan shows a palpitation for the second quarter of the year.
• The number of students in debate clubs uctuated in diferent months of the year and rapid ups and downs could be observed in the last
three months of this year.
Mt s lu ý khi mô t các bin ng trong bin i
- Không din t tt c s liu trong biu . Bn ch nên chn t 5-7 thay i ni bt và a ra s so sánh và i lp gia các s liu.
- Lu ý câu hi trong bài là tóm tt các ý chính trong biu vit báo cáo, vì vy bn cn th hin s so sánh, i lp, a ra im cao
nht và thp nht và c im chính trong các biu .
58

T vng ch thi gian
T vng din t các loi thay i khác nhau
Thay i rt ln (Great Change)
Thay i ln (Big Change)
T vng din t các loi thay i khác nhau
Thay i va phi (Medium Change)
Thay i nh (Minor Change)
From 1990 to 2000 / Commencing from 1980 / Between 1995 and 2005 / After 2012.
By 1995 / In 1998 / In February, Over the period / During the period / During 2011
In the rst half of the year / For the rst quarter / The last quarter of the year / During the rst decade
In the 80s / In the 1980s / During the next 6 months / In the mid-70s / Next 10 years / Previous year / Next year,
Between 1980 - 1990 / Within a time span of ten years / within ve years
Next month, Next quarter, Next year, Previous month, Previous year
Since, Then, From
T vng ch thi gian
Vocabulary
T vng din t các loi thay i khác nhau
Thay i rt ln (Great Change)
Thay i ln (Big Change) T vng din t các loi thay i khác nhau
Thay i va phi (Medium Change)
Thay i nh (Minor Change)
From 1990 to 2000 / Commencing from 1980 / Between 1995 and 2005 / After 2012.
By 1995 / In 1998 / In February, Over the period / During the period / During 2011
In the rst half of the year / For the rst quarter / The last quarter of the year / During the rst decade
In the 80s / In
the 1980s / During the next 6 months / In the mid-70s / Next 10 years / Previous year / Next year,
Between 1980 - 1990 / Within a time span of ten years / within ve years
Next month, Next quarter, Next year, Previous month, Previous year
Since, Then, From
59

Các loi %, s phn và con s

S phn trm
Phân s
T l
10% increase, 25 percent decrease, increased by 15%, dropped by 10 per cent, fall at 50%, reached 75%,
tripled, doubled, one-fourth, three-quarters, half, double fold, treble, 5 times higher, 3 timers lower,
declined to about 49%, stood exactly at 43%.
4% = A tiny fraction.
24% = Almost a quarter.
25% = Exactly a quarter.
26% = Roughly one quarter.
32% = Nearly one-third, nearly a third.
49% = Around a half, just under a half.
50% = Exactly a half.
51% = Just over a half.
73% = Nearly three quarters.
77% = Approximately three quarters, more than three-quarters.
79% = Well over three quarters.
2% = A tiny portion, a very small proportion.
4% = An insignicant minority, an insignicant proportion.
16% = A small minority, a small portion.
70% = A large proportion.
72% = A signicant majority, A signicant proportion.89% = A very large proportion.
89% = A very large proportion
Các loi %, s phn và con s

S phn trm
Phân s
T l
Vocabulary
10% increase, 25 percent decrease, increased by 15%, dropped by 10 per cent, fall at 50%, reached 75%,
tripled, doubled, one-fourth, three-quarters, half, double fold, treble, 5 times higher, 3 timers lower,
declined to about 49%, stood exactly at 43%.
4% = A tiny fraction.
24% = Almost a quarter.
25% = Exactly a quarter.
26% = Roughly one quarter.
32% = Nearly one-third, nearly a third.
49% = Around a half, just under a half.
50% = Exactly a half.
51% = Just over a half.
73% = Nearly three quarters.
77% = Approximately three quarters, more than three-quarters.
79% = Well over three quarters.
2% = A tiny portion, a very small proportion.
4% = An insignicant minority, an insignicant proportion.
16% = A small minority, a small portion.
70% = A large proportion.
72% = A signicant majority, A signicant proportion.89% = A very large proportion.
89% = A very large proportion
60

Ví d:• The price of the oil reached a peak amounting $20 in February and a
gain touched the lowest point amounting only $10 in July
• Student enrollment in foreign Universities and Colleges increased dramati
cally hitting a peak of over 20 thousand in 2004.
• The highest number of books was sold in July while it was lowest in
December.
T vng ch im cao nht và thp nht trong biu
Approximately / Nearly
Roughly / Almost
About / Around
More or less
Just over / Just under
Just around / Just about
Just below
A little more than / A little less than
Ví d: • The price of the oil reached a peak amounting $20 in February and a
gain touched the lowest point amounting only $10 in July
• Student enrollment in foreign Universities and Colleges increased dramati
cally hitting a peak of over 20 thousand in 2004.
• The highest number of books was sold in July while it was lowest in
December.
T vng ch im cao nht và thp nht trong biu Approximately / Nearly
Roughly / Almost
About / Around
More or less
Just over / Just under
Just around / Just about
Just below
A little more than / A little less than
Vocabulary 61

Ví d:• The number of high-level women executives is well beneath than the number of male executives in this organisation, where approximately
2000 people work in executive levels.
• About 1000 people died in the highway car accident in 2003 which is
well above than the statistics of all other years.
Between … (year/month)... and … (year/month )...
From … (year/month/day/date) ... to … (year/month/day/date) ...
In … (year/month) ...
On .. .(day/day of the week/a date) ...
At ..., In …, By ...
During ... (year) ...
Over the period/ over the century/ later half of the year/ the year ...
Over the next/ past/ previous ... days/ weeks/ months/ years/ decades … Equalled
Doubled
Trebled / tripled
Quadrupled (fourfold /four times)
Pentadrupled (vefold /ve times)
Hexadrupled (sixfold /six times)
Septupled (sevenfold /seven times)
Octupled (Eightfold/eight times)
Nonupled (Ninefold/ nine times)
Centupled (hundredfold/ hundred times)
T ng ch ngày tháng nm và nhng quy tc ng pháp:
T vng th hin s so sánh trong biu : T vng din t s thay i ln/nh ra sao:
Ví d:
• The number of high-level women executives is well beneath than the number of male executives in this organisation, where approximately
2000 people work in executive levels.
• About 1000 people died in the highway car accident in 2003 which is
well above than the statistics of all other years.
Between … (year/month)... and … (year/month )...
From … (year/month/day/date) ... to … (year/month/day/date) ...
In … (year/month) ...
On .. .(day/day of the week/a date) ...
At ..., In …, By ...
During ... (year) ...
Over the period/ over the century/ later half of the year/ the year ...
Over the next/ past/ previous ... days/ weeks/ months/ years/ decades … Equalled
Doubled
Trebled / tripled
Quadrupled (fourfold /four times)
Pentadrupled (vefold /ve times)
Hexadrupled (sixfold /six times)
Septupled (sevenfold /seven times)
Octupled (Eightfold/eight times)
Nonupled (Ninefold/ nine times)
Centupled (hundredfold/ hundred times)
Vocabulary
T ng ch ngày tháng nm và nhng quy tc ng pháp:
T vng th hin s so sánh trong biu : T vng din t s thay i ln/nh ra sao:
62

With regards to
In the case of
As for
Turning to
When it comes to ... ...
Where ... is/are concerned, ...
Regarding ...
identical to/ Identical with ...
equal to with ...
exactly the same ...
the same as ...
precisely the same ...
absolutely the same ...
just the same as … almost the same as ...
nearly the same as ...
practically the same as ...
almost identical/ similar ...
about the same as …
Equalled
Doubled
Trebled / tripled
Quadrupled (fourfold /four times)
Pentadrupled (vefold /ve times)
Hexadrupled (sixfold /six times)
Septupled (sevenfold /seven times)
Octupled (Eightfold/eight times)
Nonupled (Ninefold/ nine times)
Centupled (hundredfold/ hundred times)
Khi mun cp n mt c im trong biu :
Similarly, In a similar fashion, In the same way, Same as, As much as, Meanwhile.
However, On the contrary, On the other hand, In contrast, Meanwhile, By Comparison
The reverse is the case…
It is quite the opposite/ reverse…
T vng th hin so sánh và i lp:
T vng th hin s tng ng gia 2 c im/xu hng: Nu 2 i tng c so sánh không ging ht nhau mà ch gn tng ng:
Nu 2 i tng c so sánh ging ht nhau:
T vng th hin s i ngc gia 2 c im/xu hng:
T vng din t s thay i ln/nh ra sao:
With regards to
In the case of
As for
Turning to
When it comes to ... ...
Where ... is/are concerned, ...
Regarding ...
identical to/ Identical with ...
equal to with ...
exactly the same ...
the same as ...
precisely the same ...
absolutely the same ...
just the same as … almost the same as ...
nearly the same as ...
practically the same as ...
almost identical/ similar ...
about the same as …
Equalled
Doubled
Trebled / tripled
Quadrupled (fourfold /four times)
Pentadrupled („vefold /„ve times)
Hexadrupled (sixfold /six times)
Septupled (sevenfold /seven times)
Octupled (Eightfold/eight times)
Nonupled (Ninefold/ nine times)
Centupled (hundredfold/ hundred times)
Khi mun cp n mt c im trong biu :
Similarly, In a similar fashion, In the same way, Same as, As much as, Meanwhile.
However, On the contrary, On the other hand, In contrast, Meanwhile, By Comparison
The reverse is the case…
It is quite the opposite/ reverse…
T vng th hin so sánh và i lp:
T vng th hin s tng ng gia 2 c im/xu hng: Nu 2 i tng c so sánh không ging ht nhau mà ch gn tng ng:
Nu 2 i tng c so sánh ging ht nhau:
T vng th hin s i ngc gia 2 c im/xu hng:
T vng din t s thay i ln/nh ra sao:
Vocabulary
63

Các quy tc s dng các gii t ch thi gian:

IN

1. S dng “in” khi bn nói n nm, tháng, thp k, th k, mùa trong nm.
Ví d:
Years = in 1998, in 2015
Months = in January, in December
Decades = in the nineties, in the seventies
Centuries = in the 19th century, in the 14th century, in the 1980s
Seasons = in summer, in winter, in autumn
2. S dng “in” khi nói v quá kh và tng lai.
Ví d:
Past time = in 1980, in the past, in 1235, in the ice age, in the seventies, in the last century
Future time = in 2030, in the future, in the next century

3. S dng “in” khi nói v mt quãng thi gian dài.
Ví d: in the ice age, in the industrial age, in iron age
ON

1. S dng “On” khi nói v các th trong tun hay các dp c bit trong nm.
Ví d:
Days of the week = on Sunday, on Friday, on Tuesday
Special days = on New Year's Day, on your birthday, on Independence Day, on holiday, on wedding day

2. S dng “on” khi nói v ngày/ tháng/ nm, ngày/tháng.
Ví d: on July 4th, on 21st January 2015, on 5th May etc Các quy tc s dng các gii t ch thi gian:

IN

1. S dng “in” khi bn nói n nm, tháng, thp k, th k, mùa trong nm.
Ví d:
Years = in 1998, in 2015
Months = in January, in December
Decades = in the nineties, in the seventies
Centuries = in the 19th century, in the 14th century, in the 1980s
Seasons = in summer, in winter, in autumn
2. S dng “in” khi nói v quá kh và tng lai.
Ví d:
Past time = in 1980, in the past, in 1235, in the ice age, in the seventies, in the last century
Future time = in 2030, in the future, in the next century

3. S dng “in” khi nói v mt quãng thi gian dài.
Ví d: in the ice age, in the industrial age, in iron age
ON

1. S dng “On” khi nói v các th trong tun hay các dp c bit trong nm.
Ví d:
Days of the week = on Sunday, on Friday, on Tuesday
Special days = on New Year's Day, on your birthday, on Independence Day, on holiday, on wedding day

2. S dng “on” khi nói v ngày/ tháng/ nm, ngày/tháng.
Ví d: on July 4th, on 21st January 2015, on 5th May etc
Vocabulary
64

3. S dng “on” khi nói v các bui trong ngày.
Ví d: on Friday morning, on Saturday afternoon, on Sunday evening, on Monday
evening

Tuy nhiên, di ây là mt s li hay gp khi dùng “on” và “in” trong bài thi mà bn cn chú ý:
AT

1. S dng “at” khi bn cn din t chính xác thi gian.
Ví d: At 8 o'clock, at 10:45 am, at 2 PM, at 9 o'clock

2. S dng “at” khi nói v các ba trong ngày.
Ví d: At breakfast time, at lunchtime, at dinner time

3. S dng “at” khi nói v ngày cui tun, ngày ngh l,hay vào bui ti.
Ví d: At the weekend, at Christmas, at Easter, at night

Lu ý: t im cao trong Writing Task 2, bn cn s dng các gii t nh to, by, of, of, in ,on, for chính xác. Ví d:
It started at..., It peaked at...
It reached at..., It reached the lowest point /nadir at...
It increased to 80 from 58. It decreased from 10 to 3.
There was a drop of six units. It dropped by 3 units.
It declined by 15%. There was a 10% drop in the next three years3. S dng “on” khi nói v các bui trong ngày.
Ví d: on Friday morning, on Saturday afternoon, on Sunday evening, on Monday
evening

Tuy nhiên, di ây là mt s li hay gp khi dùng “on” và “in” trong bài thi mà bn cn chú ý:
AT

1. S dng “at” khi bn cn din t chính xác thi gian.
Ví d: At 8 o'clock, at 10:45 am, at 2 PM, at 9 o'clock

2. S dng “at” khi nói v các ba trong ngày.
Ví d: At breakfast time, at lunchtime, at dinner time

3. S dng “at” khi nói v ngày cui tun, ngày ngh l,hay vào bui ti.
Ví d: At the weekend, at Christmas, at Easter, at night

Lu ý: t im cao trong Writing Task 2, bn cn s dng các gii t nh to, by, of, of, in ,on, for chính xác. Ví d:
It started at..., It peaked at...
It reached at..., It reached the lowest point /nadir at...
It increased to 80 from 58. It decreased from 10 to 3.
There was a drop of six units. It dropped by 3 units.
It declined by 15%. There was a 10% drop in the next three years
Vocabulary
65

Ngôn ng Trang trng và Không trang trng
IELTS Writing là bài kim tra vit mang tính hc thut vì vy trong quá trình vit bài bn nên tránh s dng các t không trang trng. Di ây
là các cách thay th ngôn ng vn nói bng các t ng trang trng dùng trong vn vit.Ngôn ng Trang trng và Không trang trng
IELTS Writing là bài kim tra vit mang tính hc thut vì vy trong quá trình vit bài bn nên tránh s dng các t không trang trng. Di ây
là các cách thay th ngôn ng vn nói bng các t ng trang trng dùng trong vn vit.
Vocabulary Vocabulary 66

Greater or Higher?
Chúng ta s dng Greater/ Smaller (Fewer) khi so sánh 2 con s và Higher/Lower khi so sánh gia 2 t s hay phn trm.
Ví d: • The number of male doctors in this city was greater than the number
of female doctors.
• The number of European programmers who attended the seminar was few
er than the number of Asian programmers.
• The percentage of male doctors in this city was higher than the per
centage of female doctors.
• During 2010, the inow of illegal immigrants was lower than that of 2012.
• The birth rate in Japan in 2014 was higher than the birth rate in 2
015
Trng t so sánh gia hai mc cao hn/ln hn ca 2 s liu:
Overwhelmingly, Substantially, Signicantly.
Considerably. Moderately, Markedly.
Hardly, Barely, Slightly, Fractionally, MarginallyGreater or Higher?
Chúng ta s dng Greater/ Smaller (Fewer) khi so sánh 2 con s và Higher/Lower khi so sánh gia 2 t s hay phn trm.
Ví d: • The number of male doctors in this city was greater than the number
of female doctors.
• The number of European programmers who attended the seminar was few
er than the number of Asian programmers.
• The percentage of male doctors in this city was higher than the per
centage of female doctors.
• During 2010, the inow of illegal immigrants was lower than that of 2012.
• The birth rate in Japan in 2014 was higher than the birth rate in 2
015
Trng t so sánh gia hai mc cao hn/ln hn ca 2 s liu:
Overwhelmingly, Substantially, Signicantly.
Considerably. Moderately, Markedly.
Hardly, Barely, Slightly, Fractionally, Marginally
Vocabulary 67

Subsequently, Respectively, Consecutively, Sequentially.
Previous, Next, First, Second, Third, Finally, Former, Latter
Then / Afterwards / Following that / Followed by / Next / Subsequently / Former
Latter / After / Previous / Prior to / Simultaneously / During / While / Finally.
T vng th hin trình t
Mt s tips cn lu ý:
"The market shares of HTC, Huawei, Samsung, Apple and Nokia in 2010 were 12%, 7%, 20%, 16% and 4
% globally."
Câu trên không rõ mi th trng chim bao nhiêu % khin ngi c khó hiu. Nu trong 1 câu có nhiu hn 2 con s hay 2 giá tr, bn nên s
dng các t consecutively/ sequentially/ respectively. S dng các t nh vy giúp s % cp n tng ng vi th trng th nht, th
hai hay th 3.
Nh vy câu trên s c vit nh sau:
"The market shares of HTC, Huawei, Samsung, Apple and Nokia in 2010 were 12%, 7%, 20%, 16% and 4
% respectively in the global market."
Chú ý: Bn không nên s dng các t “consecutively/ sequentially/ respectively” nu ch có 2 giá tr c cp n.
T vng din t s chuyn tip
T vng miêu t các xu hng hay d liu khác nhau trong 1 on vn thì s chuyn tip khá quan trng. Di ây là mt s t/cm t chuyn
tip mà bn có th s dng: Subsequently, Respectively, Consecutively, Sequentially.
Previous, Next, First, Second, Third, Finally, Former, Latter
Then / Afterwards / Following that / Followed by / Next / Subsequently / Former
Latter / After / Previous / Prior to / Simultaneously / During / While / Finally.
T vng th hin trình t
Mt s tips cn lu ý:
"The market shares of HTC, Huawei, Samsung, Apple and Nokia in 2010 were 12%, 7%, 20%, 16% and 4
% globally."
Câu trên không rõ mi th trng chim bao nhiêu % khin ngi c khó hiu. Nu trong 1 câu có nhiu hn 2 con s hay 2 giá tr, bn nên s
dng các t consecutively/ sequentially/ respectively. S dng các t nh vy giúp s % cp n tng ng vi th trng th nht, th
hai hay th 3.
Nh vy câu trên s c vit nh sau:
"The market shares of HTC, Huawei, Samsung, Apple and Nokia in 2010 were 12%, 7%, 20%, 16% and 4
% respectively in the global market."
Chú ý: Bn không nên s dng các t “consecutively/ sequentially/ respectively” nu ch có 2 giá tr c cp n.
T vng din t s chuyn tip
T vng miêu t các xu hng hay d liu khác nhau trong 1 on vn thì s chuyn tip khá quan trng. Di ây là mt s t/cm t chuyn
tip mà bn có th s dng:
Vocabulary
68

Stood at / A marked increase / Steep / Gradual
Hike / Drastic / Declivity / Acclivity / Prevalent / Plummet
To level of / To reach a plateau
To hit the highest point / To stay constant
To atten out / To show some uctuation
To hit the lowest point / Compared to
Compared with / Relative to
Horizontal / Vertical
Across / Across from
Under / Over / Inside / Beside / On top of / Adjacent / Opposite / Next to
Along / Through / As far as
Midpoint / Halfway / In the middle
Intersection / Overlapping
Exterior
Parallel to / Parallel / Perpendicular to
Edge / Diagonal
In front of the / Behind the
To the right / To the left
On the right-hand side / On the left-hand side
T vng khác
Mt s t vng c s dng trong 1 bài vit Task 1:
T vng miêu t Map: Mt s t vng c s dng trong 1 bài vit Task 1:Stood at / A marked increase / Steep / Gradual
Hike / Drastic / Declivity / Acclivity / Prevalent / Plummet
To level of / To reach a plateau
To hit the highest point / To stay constant
To atten out / To show some uctuation
To hit the lowest point / Compared to
Compared with / Relative to
Horizontal / Vertical
Across / Across from
Under / Over / Inside / Beside / On top of / Adjacent / Opposite / Next to
Along / Through / As far as
Midpoint / Halfway / In the middle
Intersection / Overlapping
Exterior
Parallel to / Parallel / Perpendicular to
Edge / Diagonal
In front of the / Behind the
To the right / To the left
On the right-hand side / On the left-hand side
Vocabulary
T vng khác
Mt s t vng c s dng trong 1 bài vit Task 1:
T vng miêu t Map: Mt s t vng c s dng trong 1 bài vit Task 1:
69

T vng miêu t mt quá trình
Trong phn m u, bn có th vit theo dng sau:
The diagram/ picture/ ow/ chart depicts/ illustrates/ describes the
process of/ how....
miêu t quá trình, t vng bn s dng:
kt thúc 1 bc, bn vit:
Mt bc trong quá trình có liên quan n iu gì, bn có th vit:First/ Firstly, Second/ Secondly, Third/Thirdly ......
Next/ After that/ Then, Following that/Followed by, Subsequently/ Subsequent to that, Finally/ Lastly…
Where/ From where/ After which/ After that/ Afterward…
When/ As soon as/ Immediately, Just after that...
At the beginning, In the end, Just after the beginning, Just before the end.
After this step/ stage/ process…
Once this stage/ step is completed…
Khi mt quá trình lp li nhiu ln, bn vit: The cycle/ process then repeat itself
The cycle/ process is then repeated
The phase/ step/ stage involved…
T vng miêu t mt quá trình
Trong phn m u, bn có th vit theo dng sau:
The diagram/ picture/ ow/ chart depicts/ illustrates/ describes the
process of/ how....
miêu t quá trình, t vng bn s dng:
kt thúc 1 bc, bn vit:
Mt bc trong quá trình có liên quan n iu gì, bn có th vit:
almost the same as ...
nearly the same as ...
practically the same as ...
almost identical/ similar ...
about the same as … Then / Afterwards / Following that / Followed by / Next / Subsequently / Former
Latter / After / Previous / Prior to / Simultaneously / During / While / Finally. Then / Afterwards / Following that / Followed by / Next / Subsequently / Former
Latter / After / Previous / Prior to / Simultaneously / During / While / Finally.
First/ Firstly, Second/ Secondly, Third/Thirdly ......
Next/ After that/ Then, Following that/Followed by, Subsequently/ Subsequent to that, Finally/ Lastly…
Where/ From where/ After which/ After that/ Afterward…
When/ As soon as/ Immediately, Just after that...
At the beginning, In the end, Just after the beginning, Just before the end.
After this step/ stage/ process…
Once this stage/ step is completed…
Khi mt quá trình lp li nhiu ln, bn vit: The cycle/ process then repeat itself
The cycle/ process is then repeated
The phase/ step/ stage involved…
almost the same as ...
nearly the same as ...
practically the same as ...
almost identical/ similar ...
about the same as …
Vocabulary
70

T vng din t s d oán
Mt s biu và quá trình không ch lit kê các s liu hay d liu mà còn a ra s d oán trong tng lai. Ví d, biu ng din t dân
s ca mt quc gia t nm 1950 n 2050 qua 100 nm. Nh trong thi vit nm 2017, bn phi mô t dân s ca quc gia ó n nm
2016. i vi dân s nm 2017, bn s s dng thì tng lai n. Cui cùng, dân s t 2018 n 2050 là s d oán và chính vì vy bn nên
s dng thì tng lai n trong bài vit. Hn na, bn cn s dng chính xác t vng miêu t s liu trong tng lai. Di ây là dng mu câu
bn tham kho:
It is predicted/ estimated/ projected/ forecasted/ expected/ anticipated
that......... will ...........
Is /are predicted/ estimated/ projected/ forecasted/ expected/ anticipat
ed to ............
It gives prediction/ estimation/ projection/ forecast of ..........
It ...... will .........
....... Will have ....... by ....... (year/month/decade).......
T vng th hin giá tr và d liu kt hp trong 1 câu
Bn không nên trình bày tng d liu hay s liu trong bài vit, thay vào ó th hin các iu di ây:• So sánh các d liu vi nhau
• S tng phn gia các s liu
• im cao nht
• im thp nht
• Tng th biu
Tuy nhiên, so sánh hay th hin s tng phn gia các d liu, bn cn a ra 1 s liu làm mc quy chiu. Ví d trong câu sau: The British
spent over eighty thousand Pounds on average which was twice than the spending of Americans and approximately quadruple than that of Irish,
thì 80 thousand pounds là mc quy chiu. T vng din t s d oán
Mt s biu và quá trình không ch lit kê các s liu hay d liu mà còn a ra s d oán trong tng lai. Ví d, biu ng din t dân
s ca mt quc gia t nm 1950 n 2050 qua 100 nm. Nh trong thi vit nm 2017, bn phi mô t dân s ca quc gia ó n nm
2016. i vi dân s nm 2017, bn s s dng thì tng lai n. Cui cùng, dân s t 2018 n 2050 là s d oán và chính vì vy bn nên
s dng thì tng lai n trong bài vit. Hn na, bn cn s dng chính xác t vng miêu t s liu trong tng lai. Di ây là dng mu câu
bn tham kho:
It is predicted/ estimated/ projected/ forecasted/ expected/ anticipated
that......... will ...........
Is /are predicted/ estimated/ projected/ forecasted/ expected/ anticipat
ed to ............
It gives prediction/ estimation/ projection/ forecast of ..........
It ...... will .........
....... Will have ....... by ....... (year/month/decade).......
T vng th hin giá tr và d liu kt hp trong 1 câu
Bn không nên trình bày tng d liu hay s liu trong bài vit, thay vào ó th hin các iu di ây: • So sánh các d liu vi nhau
• S tng phn gia các s liu
• im cao nht
• im thp nht
• Tng th biu
Tuy nhiên, so sánh hay th hin s tng phn gia các d liu, bn cn a ra 1 s liu làm mc quy chiu. Ví d trong câu sau: The British
spent over eighty thousand Pounds on average which was twice than the spending of Americans and approximately quadruple than that of Irish,
thì 80 thousand pounds là mc quy chiu.
Vocabulary
71

Di ây là 1 danh sách t vng th hin nhng s liu và ví d trong bài vit ca bn
Is/ was/ were: The percentage of foreign students was exactly ten in 2001 in this university and it rose three times in ten years.
Stand at/ Stood at: The percentages of males and females who opined that they should be allowed to get married at 21 stood at 14 and 16 in
1990 but witnessed a noticeable decline in 2010.
Exactly & As high as: The sale in March was exactly 400 and went up as high as 1100 in June.
Using (): In summer, the number of refrigerators sold (154) was far greater than the refrigerators sold (63) in winter.
Which:
• From January to March the death case rose three times which was only 23 between October and December.
• The temperature, which was 21 degrees C in March, climbed to 39 degrees C in mid-July.
Makes up: In the rst decade, the population remained steady, which made up 2.8 million approximately, but it doubled in the next 30 years.
Constitutes: The initial expenditure, which constituted 280 USD, climbed rapidly and reached the peak during 2014.
Accounts for:
• In June 2016. the number of Asian students enrolment in this university accounted for 45 which is estimated to be almost double in the next
year.
• The number of infected people, which accounts for nine, is markedly lower than the number of infected patients in the last month, which
accounted for forty. Di ây là 1 danh sách t vng th hin nhng s liu và ví d trong bài vit ca bn
Is/ was/ were: The percentage of foreign students was exactly ten in 2001 in this university and it rose three times in ten years.
Stand at/ Stood at: The percentages of males and females who opined that they should be allowed to get married at 21 stood at 14 and 16 in
1990 but witnessed a noticeable decline in 2010.
Exactly & As high as: The sale in March was exactly 400 and went up as high as 1100 in June.
Using (): In summer, the number of refrigerators sold (154) was far greater than the refrigerators sold (63) in winter.
Which:
• From January to March the death case rose three times which was only 23 between October and December.
• The temperature, which was 21 degrees C in March, climbed to 39 degrees C in mid-July.
Makes up: In the rst decade, the population remained steady, which made up 2.8 million approximately, but it doubled in the next 30 years.
Constitutes: The initial expenditure, which constituted 280 USD, climbed rapidly and reached the peak during 2014.
Accounts for:
• In June 2016. the number of Asian students enrolment in this university accounted for 45 which is estimated to be almost double in the next
year.
• The number of infected people, which accounts for nine, is markedly lower than the number of infected patients in the last month, which
accounted for forty.
Vocabulary
72

Mt s t vng m bo t band im cao
Plateau
- Meaning: Reach a state of little or no change after a period of activity or progress, levelled out.
- Example: The share price of the ACME company have plateaued out.
Dip
- Meaning: Submerge, lower plunge, sink.
- Example: The employee satisfaction score then dipped in 2005 and remained at this level for the next three years.
Slump
- Meaning: Decrease, decline, deteriorate.
- Example: The number of passengers then slumped and reached to only 2500 compared to four thousand in the previous year.
Steep
- Meaning: Sheer, sharp, abrupt, perpendicular.
- Example: The steep decline of the heavy drinkers contributed to the enhanced life expectancy in this country.
Substantial
- Meaning: Notable, considerable, signicant, marked
- Example: A substantial number of these diploma holders did not nish their tertiary education.
Dramatic
- Meaning: Signicant, notable, noteworthy, remarkable, considerable, substantial.
- Example: The dramatic rise of the car use has polluted the air.
Gradual
- Meaning: Step by step, slow but continuous, uniform, successive, progressive, steady, regular, even, consistent.
- Example: The participation of women in these sectors gradually improved and in 2015, more than 38% women were employed in these job
sectors. Mt s t vng m bo t band im cao
Plateau
- Meaning: Reach a state of little or no change after a period of activity or progress, levelled out.
- Example: The share price of the ACME company have plateaued out.
Dip
- Meaning: Submerge, lower plunge, sink.
- Example: The employee satisfaction score then dipped in 2005 and remained at this level for the next three years.
Slump
- Meaning: Decrease, decline, deteriorate.
- Example: The number of passengers then slumped and reached to only 2500 compared to four thousand in the previous year.
Steep
- Meaning: Sheer, sharp, abrupt, perpendicular.
- Example: The steep decline of the heavy drinkers contributed to the enhanced life expectancy in this country.
Substantial
- Meaning: Notable, considerable, signicant, marked
- Example: A substantial number of these diploma holders did not nish their tertiary education.
Dramatic
- Meaning: Signicant, notable, noteworthy, remarkable, considerable, substantial.
- Example: The dramatic rise of the car use has polluted the air.
Gradual
- Meaning: Step by step, slow but continuous, uniform, successive, progressive, steady, regular, even, consistent.
- Example: The participation of women in these sectors gradually improved and in 2015, more than 38% women were employed in these job
sectors.
Vocabulary
73

Decline
- Meaning: Reduce, decrease, plummet, plunge, slump, shrink, fall of, lessen.
- Example: Investment in clean energy declined in the third world countries in 2005 while it actually doubled in most of the rst world countries.
An upward trend
- Meaning: The tendency of being higher, something that goes upward.
- Example: An upward trend in the number of club members was visible from 2005 to 2007 after which it actually dropped.
Respectively
- Meaning: Consecutively, sequentially.
- Example: Car theft cases in Denmark, Sweden, UK and Japan were respectively 240, 210, 354 and 189 in January 2018.
Consecutively
- Meaning: Sequentially, progressively.
- Example: While the daily fast food consumption per person in the UK was 50 grams, it was 61, 32 and 25 grams in the USA, Sweden and China
consecutively.
Apex
- Meaning: The highest point, peak, vertex, pinnacle, summit, top.
- Example: The price then increased noticeably and reached the apex in 2017.
Acclivity
- Meaning: Ascent, climb, rise.
- Example: The activity of the car ownership in Europe further developed and reached to 57% in 2011.
Declivity
- Meaning: A downward slope, decline, decrease.
- Example: The declivity on the number of female members in 2011 was almost double than that of the previous year. Decline
- Meaning: Reduce, decrease, plummet, plunge, slump, shrink, fall of, lessen.
- Example: Investment in clean energy declined in the third world countries in 2005 while it actually doubled in most of the rst world countries.
An upward trend
- Meaning: The tendency of being higher, something that goes upward.
- Example: An upward trend in the number of club members was visible from 2005 to 2007 after which it actually dropped.
Respectively
- Meaning: Consecutively, sequentially.
- Example: Car theft cases in Denmark, Sweden, UK and Japan were respectively 240, 210, 354 and 189 in January 2018.
Consecutively
- Meaning: Sequentially, progressively.
- Example: While the daily fast food consumption per person in the UK was 50 grams, it was 61, 32 and 25 grams in the USA, Sweden and China
consecutively.
Apex
- Meaning: The highest point, peak, vertex, pinnacle, summit, top.
- Example: The price then increased noticeably and reached the apex in 2017.
Acclivity
- Meaning: Ascent, climb, rise.
- Example: The activity of the car ownership in Europe further developed and reached to 57% in 2011.
Declivity
- Meaning: A downward slope, decline, decrease.
- Example: The declivity on the number of female members in 2011 was almost double than that of the previous year.
Vocabulary
74

Prevalent
- Meaning: Common, general, usual, prevailing, widespread, endemic, rampant.
- Example: The prevalence of the trend could be better understood if we compare the data with that of the last twenty years.
Enumerate
- Meaning: Identify, itemise, list, summarise, recite, specify, quote, relate.
- Example: The illustration enumerates how Australian Bureau of Meteorology collects up-to-the-minute information on the weather.
Radically
- Meaning: Completely, hurriedly, abruptly.
- Example: The technological advancement has radically changed the way employees used to work in their ofces.
Positive development
- Meaning: Improvement, progress, stay forward, increase, grow, rise.
- Example: The increasing number of female executives in the company is considered a positive development.
Subsequent
- Meaning: Following, next, successive, succeeding.
- Example: Despite a hike at the beginning of the year, the oil price steadily declined in the subsequent months until June 2017.
Commence
- Meaning: Start, begin, set in motion, open, initiate, inauguarate.
- Example: The construction of the road was commenced at the beginning of 2001 and ended in 2003.
Plunge
- Meaning: Slump, plummet, shrink, fall of, decline, decrease, drop, reduce.
- Example: Employers' contribution to the fee for skill development courses has plunged to a great extent in the last decade, as the graph
suggests. Prevalent
- Meaning: Common, general, usual, prevailing, widespread, endemic, rampant.
- Example: The prevalence of the trend could be better understood if we compare the data with that of the last twenty years.
Enumerate
- Meaning: Identify, itemise, list, summarise, recite, specify, quote, relate.
- Example: The illustration enumerates how Australian Bureau of Meteorology collects up-to-the-minute information on the weather.
Radically
- Meaning: Completely, hurriedly, abruptly.
- Example: The technological advancement has radically changed the way employees used to work in their ofces.
Positive development
- Meaning: Improvement, progress, stay forward, increase, grow, rise.
- Example: The increasing number of female executives in the company is considered a positive development.
Subsequent
- Meaning: Following, next, successive, succeeding.
- Example: Despite a hike at the beginning of the year, the oil price steadily declined in the subsequent months until June 2017.
Commence
- Meaning: Start, begin, set in motion, open, initiate, inauguarate.
- Example: The construction of the road was commenced at the beginning of 2001 and ended in 2003.
Plunge
- Meaning: Slump, plummet, shrink, fall of, decline, decrease, drop, reduce.
- Example: Employers' contribution to the fee for skill development courses has plunged to a great extent in the last decade, as the graph
suggests.
Vocabulary
75

To dive
- Meaning: Fall, descent, plummet, plunge, nosedive, drop.
- Example: Consumption of word resources in some Asian countries, on the contrary, has dived after 2014.
Abrupt
- Meaning: Swift, sudden, instantaneous, hurried, startling, unanticipated, unexpected, rapid, speedy.
- Example: The abrupt rise of the population in the early 21st century is contrasting to that of the beginning of the 18th century, as the data
suggests.
Relative
- Meaning: Correlative, corresponding, parallel, reciprocal.
- Example: The academic performance and professional efciency are somewhat relative to each other despite the presence of many other
variables, according to the survey outcome.
Modest
- Meaning: Tolerable, adequate, moderate, fair, satisfactory, acceptable.
- Example: The wheat export then witnessed a modest decline and it afected the revenue earned in 2015.
Variation
- Meaning: Disparity, inequality, dissimilarity, diference, variety, diversication.
- Example: It can be inferred from the given data that variations in the pH values are sometimes detrimental.
Elucidate
- Meaning: Explain, make clear, clarify, throw/shed light on, explicate, annotate.
- Example: The line chart elucidates how much waste was recycled in the UK between 1990 and 2015.
Unravel
- Meaning: Untangle, clear up, disentangle, explain, straighten out, separate out.
- Example: The data unravel the fact that the crime rate increases in the later decades despite some stringent initiatives from the law-enforcers. To dive
- Meaning: Fall, descent, plummet, plunge, nosedive, drop.
- Example: Consumption of word resources in some Asian countries, on the contrary, has dived after 2014.
Abrupt
- Meaning: Swift, sudden, instantaneous, hurried, startling, unanticipated, unexpected, rapid, speedy.
- Example: The abrupt rise of the population in the early 21st century is contrasting to that of the beginning of the 18th century, as the data
suggests.
Relative
- Meaning: Correlative, corresponding, parallel, reciprocal.
- Example: The academic performance and professional efciency are somewhat relative to each other despite the presence of many other
variables, according to the survey outcome.
Modest
- Meaning: Tolerable, adequate, moderate, fair, satisfactory, acceptable.
- Example: The wheat export then witnessed a modest decline and it afected the revenue earned in 2015.
Variation
- Meaning: Disparity, inequality, dissimilarity, diference, variety, diversication.
- Example: It can be inferred from the given data that variations in the pH values are sometimes detrimental.
Elucidate
- Meaning: Explain, make clear, clarify, throw/shed light on, explicate, annotate.
- Example: The line chart elucidates how much waste was recycled in the UK between 1990 and 2015.
Unravel
- Meaning: Untangle, clear up, disentangle, explain, straighten out, separate out.
- Example: The data unravel the fact that the crime rate increases in the later decades despite some stringent initiatives from the law-enforcers.
Vocabulary
76

Hy vng tài tiu này ã giúp các bn ci thin k nng làm bài IELTS Writing Task 1 ca mình.
Nu mun tìm hiu thêm các kin thc IELTS và các phng pháp luyn thi hiu qu tng band im trong
thi gian ngn nht, hãy ng ngi ngn liên h ngay JOLO bn nhé! Hy vng tài tiu này ã giúp các bn ci thin k nng làm bài IELTS Writing Task 1 ca mình.
Nu mun tìm hiu thêm các kin thc IELTS và các phng pháp luyn thi hiu qu tng band im trong
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