IELTS Vocabulary Booster ( PDFDrive )

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Con te n ts
1 . I N TR O DUCTIO N

2. I E LTS A ND W RIT IN G
2.1 I E LTS W rit in g T ask 1
2.2 I E TLS W rit in g T ask 2
3. I D EA S O N V O CABULA RY L EA RNIN G T EC H NIQ UES
4. V O CABULA RY F O R I E LTS W RIT IN G
5. E D UCATIO N
6. E N VIR O NM EN T
Addit io nal v ocabula ry
7. F O OD
Addit io nal V ocabula ry
Negativ e a sp ects
Cookin g S ty le s
Eatin g V erb s
Id io m s
8. G LO BALIZ A TIO N
Addit io nal v ocabula ry
9. T EC H NO LO GY
10. H EA LTH
Addit io nal v ocabula ry
Medic in es
Illn esse s
11. C RIM E A ND P U NIS H M EN T
12. O UTER S P A CE
Nam es a nd f a cts
13. A RT
Addit io nal v ocabula ry
14. C O NCLU SIO N

1 . I n tr o d uctio n
F ir s t o f a ll th anks f o r p urc hasin g o ur b ook “ IE LT S V ocab ula ry B ooste r” . I h o pe y o u’ll f in d i t u se fu l
a nd b e a b le to a p ply i t i n p ra cti c e.
A s a g ro up o f te achers a t th e L in guam an l a nguage s c ho ols w e s u ccessfu lly h elp ed m any s tu d ents to
p re p are f o r I E LT S. M ost o f th em r e ached o r e xceed ed th eir ta rg et s c o re s. T here i s n o d oub t th at w e
r e aliz e th e c o m ple xity o f p re p ara ti o n f o r I E LT S a nd th in k th at a nyo ne w ho p ro m is e s m ir a culo us
r e su lts o r g uara nte es y o u a c erta in b and w ith n o p rio r te sti n g o f y o ur c urre nt l e v el o f E nglis h i s a
c heate r. B ut w e a re c o nv in ced th at s o m e p ra cti c es w ork b ette r th an o th ers . F or th is r e aso n w e
d ev elo ped a s e rie s o f I E LT S e d ucati o nal m ate ria ls , n am ed th em I E LT S 9 11, a nd i n co rp ora te d o ur
e xp erie nce i n to th em . A ll m ate ria ls h av e
3 k ey c h ara cte ris tic s
:

1 .
They a re c re ate d w ith o ne m ain g o al i n m in d - to i n cre ase y o u I E LT S s c o re a s q uic kly a s
possib le .
2 .
They a re m ad e to b e s im ple , e nte rta in in g, a nd s u ita b le f o r c and id ate s w ith d iffe re nt
le arn in g h ab its .
3 .
They w ork ! W e te ste d a ll o f th em w ith o ur s tu d ents . V ir tu ally e v ery o ne e njo yed a
sig nific ant i n cre ase i n I E LT S r e su lts !

O ur f ir s t p ro duct i n th is s e rie s i s th e v ocab ula ry c o urs e n am ed “ IE LT S V ocab ula ry B ooste r” .
I t’ s s p ecific a nd p re cis e . I t d ev elo ps p ro fe ssio nal to pic v ocab ula ry f o r I E LT S
Writ in g T ask 2 .

Bala nced d ev elo ped v ocab ula ry f o r th e m ost p opula r to pic s o f W riti n g T ask 2
Easy e xp la nati o ns f o r c and id ate s o f d iffe re nt l e v els .
Conte xtu al l e arn in g. E xam ple s a nd p ic tu re s, e xp re ssio n f o r e v en b ette r r e su lts !

This is w hat o u r s tu den ts s a y a b ou t t h is c o u rse :

“ In 4 d ays I s ta rte d t o u se s o m any n ew s m art w ord s! I fe el s o m uch m ore c o nfid en t!
An in cre d ib le r e su lt!”

“The s in gle m ost e ffic ie n t w ay t o l e a rn n ew t o pic s p ecific v o ca bula ry fo r I E LTS!”

“Abso lu te ly t h e b est I E LTS v o ca bula ry c o urse !”

2 . I E LTS a n d W rit in g
W hat i s I E LT S? W ell, w e w ill n o t f o cus to o m uch o n I E LT S d efin iti o n a nd s tr u ctu re . I f y o u a re
s e rio us a b out i t, y o u p ro bab ly h av e a lr e ad y f a m ilia riz e d y o urs e lf w ith i ts s tr u ctu re a nd m ain f e atu re s.
W hat I r e ally w ant to f o cus o n i s th e w riti n g s e cti o n.

T he w riti n g s e cti o n l a sts 6 0 m in ute s. Y ou w ill n eed to c o m ple te tw o ta sk s.

2 .1 I E LT S W ritin g T ask 1
Y ou w ill b e g iv en a ta sk b ase d o n s o m e g ra p hic i n fo rm ati o n ( c hart, g ra p h, e tc .) . Y ou w ill h av e to
w rite a d esc rip ti v e r e p ort o f a t l e ast 1 50 w ord s. Y ou a re a d vis e d to s p end 2 0 m in ute s o f y o ur e xam
t i m e o n T ask 1 .

2 .2 I E T LS W ritin g T ask 2
T his ta sk i s m ore c halle ngin g. Y ou a re e xp ecte d to w rite a 2 50-w ord e ssa y o n a g iv en to pic . Y ou w ill
h av e to c le arly o rg aniz e y o ur w riti n g a nd g iv e s o m e e xam ple s to s u p port y o ur p oin t. Y ou a re a d vis e d
t o s p end 4 0 m in ute s o n T ask 2 .

H ere ’s a n i n te re sti n g f a ct: w riti n g ta sk 2 i s w orth tw ic e th e p oin ts a s w riti n g ta sk 1 , w hic h m eans th at
T ask 2 i s tw ic e m ore i m porta nt f o r y o ur f in al s c o re .

A no th er i n te re sti n g f a ct: th e w riti n g s e cti o n i s th e to ughest p art o f th e e xam . O ffic ia l I E LT S te st
t a kers ’ s ta ti s ti c s i n d ic ate th at c and id ate s f r o m v ir tu ally a ll c o untr ie s g et th eir m in im um b and f o r
w riti n g. T ra d iti o nally y o u ta ke I E LT S to a chie v e y o ur p ers o nal o r p ro fe ssio nal g o al a nd y o u h av e a
s p ecific ta rg et b and i n m in d . B ut r e m em ber th at y o u h av e to s c o re a t l e ast a n i n d ic ate d m in im um i n
e v ery s e cti o n. A nd h ere c o m es w riti n g a gain ! M any c and id ate s h av e to r e ta ke I E LT S s e v era l ti m es
e xactl y b ecause o f f a ilin g th e w riti n g s e cti o n. B ut y o u w ill n o t m ake th e s a m e m is ta ke! W e w ill ta ke
I E LT S w riti n g s e rio usly . S o l e t’ s b egin !

3 . I d ea s o n v o ca b ula ry le a rn in g t e ch niq ues
C opio us v ocab ula ry i s v ery i m porta nt i f y o u w ant to s c o re h ig h i n I E LT S. B ut l e arn in g a l a rg e a m ount
o f n ew w ord s c an b e a to ugh ta sk , e sp ecia lly i f y o u a re b usy w ith w ork , f a m ily , a nd o th er
r e sp onsib iliti e s. I n th is c hap te r w e w ill g iv e y o u s o m e g re at ti p s o n h o w to m em oriz e l a rg e a m ounts
o f n ew v ocab ula ry a nd p hra se s i n a s h o rt s p an o f ti m e b oth b ase d o n o ur te achin g a nd p ers o nal
e xp erie nce a nd o n w hat w e h av e f o und o n th e I n te rn et.

F ir s t o f a ll y o u n eed to
re ad a lo t
. R ead in g h elp s y o u s e e th e w ord s y o u a lr e ad y k no w i n a n ew
c o nte xt a nd l e arn s o m e n ew l e xic al u nits . I r e co m mend r e ad in g e v ery th in g y o u c an f in d i n E nglis h -
a rti c le s o n th e I n te rn et, m enus, n ew sp ap ers , b ooks, a d verti s e m ents , e tc . Y ou c an e v en tr y to G oogle
s e arc h i n E nglis h . T hat w ill b e a g re at w ay to e nric h y o ur v ocab ula ry .
A no th er g re at ti p i s to
get in t h e h abit o f lo ok in g u p w ord s
y o u d on't k no w . A g o od e xam ple : y o u a re
w atc hin g a n ew T ED v id eo a nd h ear n ew w ord s th at y o u s e em to u nd ers ta nd f r o m th e c o nte xt, b ut y o u
a re n o t s u re w hat e xactl y th ey m ean. T ake y o ur ti m e to l o ok th em u p . A fte r th at
writ e t h ose w ord s in
a n ote book
with th eir tr a nsla ti o ns o r d efin iti o ns s o th at th ey b e th ere e v ery ti m e y o u w ant to r e v is e
t h em . B ut h ere y o u m ig ht a sk - h o w d o I w ork w ith th o se n ew w ord s w ritte n i n m y n o te b ook? W ell,
t h at’ s a g o od q uesti o n. A ctu ally th ere a re a l o t o f l
earn in g m eth ods: m ak in g u p a s m any
a sso cia tio ns w it h t h e w ord a s p ossib le , s a yin g t h e w ord s m any t im es, u sin g t h e w ord s in y our
s p eak in g o r w rit in g, g ro upin g t h em a cco rd in g t o d if fe re nt p rin cip le s, a sk in g s o m eone t o t e st
y ou
, e tc . Y ou a re f r e e to u se a ny m eth o d th at w ork s b est f o r y o u.
O ne m ore g o od r e co m mend ati o n i s to
fo cu s o n p hra se s
w hile w ork in g o n y o ur v ocab ula ry . I t m eans
m em oriz in g w ord s i n l e xic al c hunks o r e v en s h o rt s e nte nces. I n th is w ay y o u w ill a lw ays h av e a s e t
o f e xp re ssio ns r e ad y to u se i n a c o nv ers a ti o n. F or e xam ple , ‘ H av e a s a fe tr ip ’, ‘ E njo y y o ur m eal’ , ‘ I
a m s o h ap py to s e e y o u a gain ’, e tc . S o i n ste ad o f f o rm in g a s e nte nce f r o m s c ra tc h a nd tr y in g to
r e m em ber th e w ord s s e p ara te ly y o u w ill h av e a s e t o f s p eech p atte rn s w hic h y o u c an u se
i m med ia te ly .

T he l a st b ut n o t l e ast a d vic e i s to
re vie w o fte n.
W hen p re p arin g f o r I E LT S te st, m any s tu d ents f o llo w
a s p ecia l r itu al o f r e v ie w in g n ew v ocab ula ry e v ery m orn in g a nd e v ery e v enin g b efo re g o in g to b ed .
I n th is c ase y este rd ay’s v ocab ula ry i s m ore i m porta nt th an to day’s . T he a im i s to tr a nsfe r th e s h o rt-
t e rm k no w le d ge o f n ew v ocab ula ry i n to y o ur l o ng-te rm m em ory . F or th is r e aso n a r e v ie w i s
e xtr e m ely i m porta nt, e sp ecia lly i n th e f ir s t f e w w eeks a fte r l e arn in g n ew v ocab ula ry .
S o th o se w ere s o m e u se fu l ti p s o n h o w to r e m em ber n ew w ord s b ase d o n o ur e xp erie nce. I n a d diti o n
t o th em w e w ill a ls o te ll y o u s o m e g re at tr ic ks th at w e h av e f o und o n th e w eb . H ere i s a l is t o f th o se
t r ic ks a cco rd in g to th eir p opula rity a nd e ffe cti v eness.
F ir s tl y
p ut t h e w ord s in p la ce s w here y ou’ll s e e t h em a s o fte n a s p ossib le .
Y es, i t i s a c o m mon

ad vic e w hic h w e’v e n ev er tr ie d f o r s o m e r e aso n - p ut a s ti c ker w ith n am es o f o bje cts o n a w all, i n a
no te b ook y o u c arry a ro und , o n y o ur c o m pute r d esk to p, e tc .
Seco nd :
le arn in g v oca bula ry t h ro ugh a udio m ate ria ls .
A no th er “ la zy ” w ay to l e arn p assiv ely . Y ou
can l is te n to p odcasts o r r a d io s ta ti o ns w hile w ork in g a ro und th e h o use o r d oin g s p orts a nd
auto m ati c ally m em oriz e n ew w ord s w ith th eir m eanin gs d eriv ed f r o m th e c o nte xt. G ood r e su lts w ith
no e xtr a ti m e s p ent.

Thir d ly d
esc rib e t h e w orld a ro und y ou r e gula rly in t h e la nguage y ou a re le arn in g.
How a b out
th at? J u st p ush y o urs e lf to th in k i n E nglis h e v ery ti m e y o u h av e ti m e - d riv in g a c ar, w aiti n g i n a l in e,
go in g to w ork , e tc . Y ou c o uld s ta rt f r o m s im ple d esc rip ti o ns o f th in gs s u rro und in g y o u a nd g ra d ually
go to m ore c o m plic ate d s e lf- ta lk s. J u st d on’t ta lk to y o urs e lf o ut l o ud !

Fourth :
Use d if fe re nt a pplic a tio ns a nd e xte nsio ns f o r y our b ro w se r.
There a re a l o t o f th em . I a m
no t a n a cti v e u se r o f a p ps f o r l e arn in g a l a nguage, b ut m any p eo ple c o nsid er th em to b e v ery u se fu l.
So i t’ s u p to y o u to tr y a nd d ecid e w heth er th is a p pro ach w ork s f o r y o u.

That’ s a ll w e h av e f o r y o u i n te rm s o f l e arn in g te chniq ues. I h o pe y o u f in d th ese r e co m mend ati o ns a nd
ti p s h elp fu l i n y o ur p re p ara ti o n f o r th e I E LT S w riti n g s e cti o n I I o r s p eakin g p art o f th e e xam . H av e
fu n l e arn in g n ew w ord s a nd u sin g th em i n y o ur e v ery d ay c o nv ers a ti o ns!

4 . V oca b ula ry f o r I E LTS w rit in g
N ow l e t’ s s ta rt ta lk in g a b out s o m e u se fu l v ocab ula ry f o r I E LT S e ssa y to pic s. T here a re q uite a l o t o f
t h em : e d ucati o n, f o od, o ute r s p ace, a rt, c rim e a nd p unis h m ent, s p orts , g lo baliz a ti o n, e nv ir o nm ent. S o,
l e t’ s s ta rt f r o m e d ucati o n.

5 . E duca tio n
T his i s a r e ally b ro ad to pic - a nd a v ery p opula r o ne i n I E LT S. A ny p art o f I E LT S c an c halle nge y o u
w ith q uesti o ns r e la te d to e d ucati o n. W e th ere fo re n eed to f o cus o n th is to pic a s w ell.

L et’ s s ta rt w ith th e ty p es o f e d ucati o n. W e d is ti n guis h s e v era l ty p es.

S eco ndary e duca tio n


T ra d iti o nally i n th e U .S . s e co nd ary e d ucati o n r e fe rs to s c ho ol s tu d ie s ( g ra d es 9 to 1 2) a nd c ulm in ate s
i n a H ig h S cho ol D ip lo m a.

A ty p ic al n ext a cad em ic m ile sto ne i s w hat i s c alle d
hig her e duca tio n
. H ig her e d ucati o n i s s tu d ie s
b eyo nd h ig h s c ho ol.



Hig her e duca tio n
i n th e W este rn w orld i s u su ally
volu nta ry .

N ote : I n s o m e c o untr ie s t h e t e rm “ te rtia ry e d uca tio n” i s u se d i n ste a d.

As a r e su lt o f y o ur s tu d ie s y o u w ill h o pefu lly r e ceiv e a n o ffic ia l r e co gniti o n i n th e f o rm o f s o m e
qualific ati o n. G enera l ty p es o f q ualific ati o ns a re :

Certif ic a te
- f o r s h o rt a cad em ic p ro gra m s
Dip lo m a
- u niv ers ity l e v el p ro gra m s s h o rte r th an a d egre e
Degre e
- r e la ti v ely l o ng a cad em ic p ro gra m s c o verin g s p ecific a re as i n g re at d ep th

Tra d iti o nally th e f ir s t d egre e y o u a cq uir e i s th e
Bach elo r’s
. Y ou c an th en a p ply f o r
Maste r’s
a nd
PhD ( d octo ra te ).



PhD
c o urs e s m ay b e a m ix o f th eo ry a nd p ra cti c e i n y o ur
cho se n s u b je ct.


To s ta rt y o ur s tu d ie s i n a r e co gniz e d u niv ers ity y o u n o rm ally h av e to m eet s p ecific r e q uir e m ents .
Let’ s ta lk a b out th em u sin g s p ecific v ocab ula ry .

Entr y A dm is sio ns
a re r e q uir e m ents f o r p ro sp ecti v e s tu d ents a nd c o uld b e e xp re sse d a s y o ur
min im um g ra d e l e v el d urin g y o ur p re v io us s tu d ie s, m in im um s c o re i n s p ecific
sta ndard iz ed t e sts
(lik e I E LT S, T O EFL, A CT, G M AT, e tc .) . A no th er w ay to s a y i t i s
entr a nce r e quir e m ents
.

While c ho osin g y o ur f u tu re i n sti tu ti o n y o u c o nsid er a n um ber o f a sp ects s u ch a s
univ ersit y r a nk in gs
and
cu rric u la
. L et’ s s to p h ere ! C urric ulu m i s a no th er s u p erp opula r te rm . I t m eans th e c o nte nt ta ught i n
a s p ecific a cad em ic p ro gra m . B y c urric ulu m w e o fte n m ean c o urs e s o ffe re d b y a s c ho ol.


Curric u lu m
i s o ne o f th e f o und ati o nal e le m ents o f
effe cti v e te achin g.



Let’ s c o nti n ue. A no th er i m porta nt th in g y o u u su ally h av e to c are fu lly c o nsid er i s
tu it io n
a nd
co st o f
atte ndance
. B asic ally i t’ s m oney y o u h av e to i n v est i n y o ur s tu d ie s. T uiti o n f e es a re w hat y o u p ay
dir e ctl y to th e u niv ers ity a nd th e c o st o f a tte nd ance i n clu d es f o od, h o usin g, tr a nsp orta ti o n, b ooks, a nd
su p plie s.
Top-tie r in stit u tio ns
( a no th er v ery u se fu l e xp re ssio n w hic h m eans l e ad in g o r p re sti g io us
in sti tu ti o ns) o fte n c harg e th o usa nd s o f d olla rs y early . T o e ase th e b urd en o n th eir b ud get m any
stu d ents a p ply f o r f in ancia l a id . I t c o uld c o m e i n th e f o rm o f a
sc h ola rsh ip
( s c ho la rs h ip i s m oney f o r
yo ur e d ucati o n a w ard ed b ase d o n v ario us c rite ria d efin ed b y a s p onso r).


There a re a n um ber o f
sc h ola rsh ip
s c hem es r u n b y

go vern m ents , c hariti e s, a nd o th er o rg aniz a ti o ns.


There a re o th er f o rm s o f f in ancia l a id w hic h i n clu d e
bursa rie s
,
gra nts
,
fe llo w sh ip
, a nd
sc h ola rsh ip
.

Sch ola rsh ip s
a re a w ard ed f o r s c ho la sti c a chie v em ent.

Bursa rie s
a re a w ard ed o n th e b asis o f f in ancia l n eed , s o i t i s a c erta in ty p e o f s o cia l f in ancia l
help .

Gra nts
a re f u nd s p ro vid ed b y a c erta in p arty , o fte n a g o vern m ent d ep artm ent, c o rp ora ti o n, o r
fo und ati o n to a n i n d iv id ual o r i n sti tu ti o n.

Fello w sh ip s
u su ally r e fe r to g ra nts i n s u p port o f p ostb accala ure ate p ro je cts , o r to
pre b accala ure ate p ro je cts p urs u ed o uts id e th e s ta nd ard c urric ulu m .

All s c ho la rs h ip s a nd f e llo w sh ip s a re g ra nts a nd n eed n o t to b e r e p aid .


Pre sid enti a l c and id ate H illa ry C lin to n c alle d f o r c utti n g
stu d ent d eb t.


Now l e t’ s ta lk a b out l e arn in g m odes. T he ty p ic al d ecis io n f o r m ost s tu d ents i s to s tu d y
fu ll- tim e
, b ut
fo r th o se w ho w ork
part-tim e s tu dyin g
can b e a m ore r e alis ti c s o lu ti o n. Y ou c an a ls o c ho ose to
stu d y
dis ta ntly
o r v ia s o m e tr e nd y
onlin e p ro gra m ( e -le arn in g).
Or y o u m ig ht p re fe r a c o m bin ati o n
of o n c am pus a nd d is ta nce s tu d yin g w hic h i s c alle d th e
ble nded m ode
.

Talk in g a b out o nlin e p ro gra m s I w ill m enti o n s o m e o th er h o t te rm s a nd c o ncep ts .

MOOC
is a r e cent d ev elo pm ent i n d is ta nce e d ucati o n r a p id ly g ain in g p opula rity . I t s ta nd s f o r
Massiv e O pen O nlin e C ours e . I t i s a n o nlin e c o urs e th at h as o pen a ccess a nd i n te ra cti v e p arti c ip ati o n
pub lis h ed o n th e w eb .


Cours e ra , w hic h e m erg ed th anks to S ta nfo rd U niv ers ity
pro fe sso rs i n 2 012, h as b y f a r th e l a rg est n um ber o f
offe re d c o urs e s.


Let’ s g o th ro ugh s o m e o th er u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s. T hey a re g iv en i n a l is t s o th at y o u c an r e v is e
th e o nes y o u a lr e ad y k no w a nd l e arn s o m e n ew u se fu l e xp re ssio ns.

Educatio nal v erb s ( d efin itio ns a re p ro vid ed a cco rd in g to h ttp ://w ww.m erria m -
web ste r.c o m )

to r e vis e
- to m ake c hanges e sp ecia lly to c o rre ct o r i m pro ve ( s o m eth in g); to s tu d y ( s o m eth in g) a gain ;

to e nro ll ( in a d egre e c o urse )
- to e nte r ( s o m eo ne) a s a m em ber o f o r p arti c ip ant i n s o m eth in g; to
ta ke ( s o m eo ne) a s a m em ber o r p arti c ip ant; to b eco m e a m em ber o r p arti c ip ant

to r e vie w
- to l o ok a t o r e xam in e ( s o m eth in g) c are fu lly e sp ecia lly b efo re m akin g a d ecis io n
or j u d gm ent; to s tu d y o r l o ok a t ( s o m eth in g) a gain ; to d esc rib e o r s h o w ( a s e rie s o f th in gs o r e v ents
fr o m th e p ast)

to r e se arc h
- to s tu d y ( s o m eth in g) c are fu lly ; to c o lle ct i n fo rm ati o n a b out o r f o r ( s o m eth in g)

to a tte nd ( c la sse s)
- to g o to o r b e p re se nt a t s o m e e v ent

to m ajo r in a s u bje ct
- to p urs u e a n a cad em ic m ajo r

to d eliv er a le ctu re
– to c arry o ut/ c o nd uct a l e ctu re

to g ra duate ( fr o m a u niv ersit y )
- to e arn a d egre e o r d ip lo m a f r o m a s c ho ol, c o lle ge, o r u niv ers ity

to k eep u p w it h ( y our s tu die s)
- to g o o r m ake p ro gre ss a t th e s a m e r a te a s o th ers

to d em onstr a te a ca dem ic g ain s
– to s h o w a cad em ic p ro gre ss/e d ucati o n a chie v em ent

to b ro aden h oriz ons
- to e nla rg e / e xp and s o m eo ne's s c o pe

to f a ll b ehin d ( w it h s tu die s)
– l a g b ehin d

to e valu ate
– to d ete rm in e o r f ix th e v alu e o f s o m eth in g; to d ete rm in e th e s ig nific ance, w orth , o r
co nd iti o n o f u su ally b y c are fu l a p pra is a l a nd s tu d y

to p ro cra stin ate
- to p ut o ff i n te nti o nally th e d oin g o f s o m eth in g th at s h o uld b e d one
And th ere i s a ls o a s h o rt l is t o f g re at w ord s th at d on’t f it i n to a ny c ate go ry . Y ou m ig ht a lr e ad y k no w
so m e o f th em , o th ers m ig ht a p pear to b e n ew to y o u. T ry to r e m em ber th em o r w rite th em i n to y o ur
no te p ad a nd th in k o f s o m e e xam ple s w ith th em ! P ra cti c e m akes p erfe ct.

Cam pus
- th e a re a a nd b uild in gs a ro und a u niv ers ity , c o lle ge, s c ho ol, e tc .

Essa y
- a s h o rt p ie ce o f w riti n g th at te lls a p ers o n's th o ughts o r o pin io ns a b out a s u b je ct

Debate
- a d is c ussio n b etw een p eo ple i n w hic h th ey e xp re ss d iffe re nt o pin io ns a b out s o m eth in g

Atte ndance
- th e n um ber o f p eo ple p re se nt a t a n e v ent, m eeti n g, e tc .
th e a ct o f b ein g p re se nt a t a p la ce;
a r e co rd o f h o w o fte n a p ers o n g o es to c la sse s, m eeti n gs, e tc .

Com puls o ry
- r e q uir e d b y a l a w o r r u le ; h av in g th e p ow er o f f o rc in g s o m eo ne to d o s o m eth in g

In quis it iv e
- te nd in g to a sk q uesti o ns; h av in g a d esir e to k no w o r l e arn m ore
ask in g to o m any q uesti o ns a b out o th er p eo ple 's l iv es

Dis se rta tio n
- a l o ng p ie ce o f w riti n g a b out a p arti c ula r s u b je ct th at i s d one to e arn a n a d vanced
degre e a t a u niv ers ity

Dis c ip lin e
– a f ie ld o f s tu d y

Facu lt y
- a b ra nch o f te achin g o r l e arn in g i n a n e d ucati o nal i n sti tu ti o n

Peer
– a p ers o n w ho b elo ngs to th e s a m e a ge g ro up o r s o cia l g ro up a s s o m eo ne e ls e

Lit e ra cy
- th e a b ility to r e ad a nd w rite ; k no w le d ge th at r e la te s to a s p ecifie d s u b je ct

Alu m nus
( p l.- i- ) - s o m eo ne w ho w as a s tu d ent a t a p arti c ula r s c ho ol, c o lle ge, o r u niv ers ity

Assig nm ent
- a s p ecifie d ta sk o r a m ount o f w ork a ssig ned o r u nd erta ken a s i f a ssig ned b y a uth o rity

Thesis
- a l o ng p ie ce o f w riti n g o n a p arti c ula r s u b je ct th at i s d one to e arn a d egre e a t a u niv ers ity

6 . E nvir o n m en t
D ear f r ie nd s, i t’ s ti m e to s ta rt o ur n ew to pic - T he
envir o nm ent
. I t’ s a no th er v ery p opula r s u b je ct i n
I E TLS. Y ou m ig ht n eed to r e ad , w rite , o r ta lk a b out i t d urin g y o ur e xam . T he w ord s w e a re g o in g to
l e arn s h o uld h elp y o u s u cceed .

L et’ s ta lk a b out c ause s, e ffe cts , a nd s o lu ti o ns o f
envir o nm enta l c h alle nges
u sin g a d vanced I E LT S
v ocab ula ry .

L et’ s b egin w ith th e m ost ta lk ed a b out e nv ir o nm enta l i s su e to day -
glo bal
w arm in g
;



W hat i s g lo bal w arm in g? D ue to h um an a cti o ns w e o bse rv e th e r is e o f a v era ge E arth te m pera tu re s. I t
m ay s o und l ik e a n ic e s h ift f o r p eo ple l iv in g i n R ussia a nd C anad a, b ut s u ch c lim ate c hange tr ig gers
s o m e s e rio us n egati v e c o nse q uences.


World l e ad ers l a unch a n i n iti a ti v e to a ccele ra te w ork o n
glo bal w arm in g
.
Glo bal w arm in g
a ls o h as th e p ote nti a l to c hange r a in fa ll
and s n o w p atte rn s, i n cre ase d ro ughts a nd s e v ere s to rm s.

Let’ s a d diti o nally d efin e
dro ughts
f r o m th is s e nte nce.

Most p eo ple th in k i t’ s a p erio d o f h o t a nd d ry w eath er, b ut th at i s n o t c o m ple te ly tr u e. I t i s a s ta te o r
co nd iti o n w hen h um an d em and s f o r w ate r e xceed i ts n atu ra l a v aila b ility .

What c o nse q uences a re w e ta lk in g a b out? I t’ s v ery l ik ely th at y o u h av e h eard a l o t a b out th ese i s su es.
Melt in g G la cie rs
.



The i n cre ase i n m ean te m pera tu re s h as l e d to
melt in g
o f

most o f th e w orld ’s
gla cie rs
.


But w hat d riv es th e i n cre ase i n te m pera tu re ? G re enho use g ase s a re a w id ely d is c usse d s o urc e. S om e
gre enho use g ase s o ccur n atu ra lly , b ut h um an a cti v ity l e ad s to r e le ase o f e no rm ous e xtr a a m ounts o f
gre enho use g ase s.


Popula ti o n g ro w th ,
defo re sta tio n
, a nd f a cto r f a rm in g
are c re ati n g e xcess g re enho use g asse s i n th e a tm osp here
and c o ntr ib uti n g to
glo bal w arm in g
.
.




Defo re sta tio n
. D efo re sta ti o n i s th e c le arin g o f tr e es w ith o ut th e i n te nt o f
re pla ntin g
th em .


One o f th e c o nse q uences o f
defo re sta tio n
i s l o ss o f
bio div ersit y
.



Ano th er g re at w ord i s
bio div ersit y
.
Bio div ersit y
i s th e v arie ty o f a ll l iv in g th in gs o n E arth w hic h
in clu d e p la nts , a nim als , a nd m ic ro org anis m s.

Now w e w ill c o nti n ue w ith s o m e n ew w ord s a sso cia te d w ith b io div ers ity .


Many s p ecie s w ith in a f o re st
eco sy ste m
a re e nd em ic to
th at
habit a t
. W hen th eir h ab ita t i s l o st, i t c o uld l e ad to
th eir
extin ctio n
.


Here w e h av e 3 n ew w ord s. T he f ir s t o ne i s
extin ctio n,
w hic h m eans th at c erta in s p ecie s n o l o nger
exis t o n th e p la net. T he s e co nd w ord i s
habit a t
a nd m eans th e n atu ra l e nv ir o nm ent o f a p la nt, a nim al,
or a no th er o rg anis m . A nd th e th ir d w ord i s
eco sy ste m
a nd m eans a ny c o m munity o f l iv in g a nd n o t
liv in g th in gs th at w ork to geth er.

There a re s o m e o th er u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s:
endangere d s p ecie s
a re th o se c o nsid ere d to b e a t r is k o f
extin ctio n
.


There a re o ver 1 ,3 00 s p ecie s i n th e U nite d S ta te s th at
are l is te d a s
th re ate ned
o r
endangere d
.


The
ozone la yer
- a b elt o f n atu ra lly o ccurrin g o zo ne g as th at s its a b ove th e e arth a nd s e rv es a s a
sh ie ld f r o m th e h arm fu l u ltr a v io le t r a d ia ti o n.


Unlik e
pollu tio n
, w hic h h as m any ty p es a nd c ause s, th e
ozone la yer d eple tio n
h as b een p in ned d ow n to o ne
majo r h um an a cti v ity .


In th is s e nte nce w e s e e th e v ery n ic e p hra se
o zone la yer d eple tio n.
You w ill s o und r e ally s m art i f
yo u u se i t s o m ew here .

Our n ext w ord c o m bin ati o n i s
ca rb on f o otp rin t.
It i s th e a m ount o f
gre enhouse g ase s
em it te d
b y
so m eth in g d urin g a g iv en p erio d o f ti m e. L et’ s f in d a n e xam ple .

A
ca rb on f o otp rin
t c an b e m easu re d f o r a n i n d iv id ual o r
an o rg aniz a ti o n a nd i s ty p ic ally g iv en i n to ns o f
CO 2
.


There a re tw o g ase s w hic h p eo ple o fte n c o nfu se -
C O 2
=
ca rb on d io xid e
a nd C O =
ca rb on
monoxid e.
Their
nam es a re s im ila r, a nd th ey a re b oth d angero us i n h ig h c o ncentr a ti o n. S o o ur b est
exp la nati o n i s :

CO 2
i s p ro duced b y g aso lin e e ngin es th at u se a c ata ly ti c c o nv erte r.
CO
i s g enera te d b y g aso lin e e ngin es th at d o N OT u se a c ata ly ti c c o nv erte r. I h o pe th is c la rifie s th e
diffe re nce f o r y o u.
In m ost c ase s y o u w ill n eed to s a y o r w rite s o m eth in g l ik e ‘
to r e duce c a rb on d io xid e e m is sio ns
we
hav e to d o s o m eth in g… '

Our n ext p hra se i s
hazard ous w aste .


It’ s e sse nti a l th at
hazard ous w aste
i s h and le d , s to re d ,
tr a nsp orte d , a nd d is p ose d o f p ro perly . N o o ne s h o uld
to uch h aza rd ous w aste .


Ano th er p opula r w ord w hen w e ta lk a b out e nv ir o nm ent i s
co nta m in atio n
. M any p eo ple u se i t a s a
sy no nym o f p ollu ti o n, w hic h i s n o t c o m ple te ly c o rre ct.

Conta m in atio n
i s th e p re se nce o f u nw ante d o r f o re ig n s u b sta nces.
Conta m in atio n
m ay b e n atu ra l
whils t
pollu tio n
i s p ro duced b y th e i n flu ence o r a cti v iti e s o f p eo ple .


Conta m in atio n
o f th e f ie ld s c o uld h ap pen th ro ugh
overu se o r m is u se o f
pestic id es
.

Now w e w ill d efin e th e w ord
pestic id e
f o r y o u.
Pestic id es
a re c hem ic als th at k ill o r m anage p ests .
You m ay k no w th o se s m all C olo ra d o p ota to b eetl e s. P esti c id es c an h elp g et r id o f th em .

Well, l e t’ s m ove o n.
Landfill
. L and fill i s a n a re a o f l a nd th at i s u se d to
dis p ose o f w aste
.


The p urp ose o f a
la ndfill
i s to b ury th e w aste i n a w ay
th at i t w ill b e i s o la te d f r o m g ro und w ate r, k ep t d ry , a nd
out o f c o nta ct w ith a ir . E ach c o untr y h as a p olic y f o r
la nd fills .

Now i t’ s ti m e to ta lk a b out e nerg y, th e th in g w ith o ut w hic h p eo ple c anno t i m agin e l iv in g. T he f ir s t
phra se i s
r e new able e nerg y s o urc e s.


Win d , s o la r, a nd o th er f o rm s o f
re new able e nerg y
co uld b e th e f a ste st g ro w in g p ow er
so urc e s
o ver th e
next f e w d ecad es.


The n ext te rm i s
tid al e nerg y
. Y ou k no w w hat ti d e i s , r ig ht?


Tid al e nerg y
i s a p ow er p ro duced b y th e s u rg e o f o cean w ate rs d urin g th e r is e a nd f a ll o f ti d es.



Engin eers a ro und th e w orld a re w ork in g to i m pro ve th e
te chno lo gy o f
tid al e nerg y
genera to rs to i n cre ase th e
am ount o f e nerg y th ey p ro duce a nd d ecre ase th eir i m pact
on th e e nv ir o nm ent.



Talk in g a b out r e new ab le e nerg y, th ere a re s o m e o th er s o urc es o f i t, s u ch a s
win d t u rb in es
a nd
so la r

panels
.





Win d t u rb in es
a re a n a ffo rd ab le , e ffic ie nt, a nd a b und ant s o urc e o f e le ctr ic ity .
Som e c o m panie s h av e e m bra ced
so la r p anels
to i m pro ve th eir e nv ir o nm enta l p ro file s a nd to c ut th eir
opera ti o nal c o sts .
But u nfo rtu nate ly
fo ssil f u els
sti ll p la y a d om in ant r o le o n th e m ark et. S o a no th er n ew w ord h ere i s
fo ssil f u els
. B asic ally th ey a re s o urc es o f e nerg y i n th e f o rm o f r e m ain s o f d ead p la nts a nd a nim als .
Sound s s c ary ? W ell, th ey d ev elo ped o ver m illio ns o f y ears a nd a re n o w a v aila b le a s c o al, o il, a nd
natu ra l g as.

Som e
f o ssil f u els
, s u ch a s c o al, a re a b und ant a nd c heap .
Oth ers , l ik e o il, h av e a v aria b le c o st d ep end in g o n
geo gra p hic l o cati o n.


Now w e w ill g o th ro ugh s o m e o th er u se fu l e nv ir o nm enta l w ord s a nd p hra se s. I r e co m mend th at y o u
write d ow n th e o nes th at y o u d on’t k no w a nd r e tu rn to y o ur l is t a fte r s o m e ti m e. T ry to u se th em i n
re al l ife s itu ati o ns. F orc e y o urs e lf to d o s o a nd e v entu ally y o u w ill s ta rt to u se th em n atu ra lly w ith o ut
no ti c in g! I ’ m s u re y o u w ill s u cceed !
Additio nal v ocab ula ry
clim ate c h ange
- c hanges i n th e E arth 's w eath er p atte rn s;
acid r a in
- r a in th at c o nta in s d angero us c hem ic als b ecause o f s m oke f r o m c ars a nd f a cto rie s;

in dustr ia l w aste
- d am aged , d efe cti v e, o r s u p erflu o us m ate ria l p ro duced b y u nd ustr y ;

urb aniz atio n
- th e p ro cess b y w hic h to w ns a nd c iti e s a re f o rm ed a nd b eco m e l a rg er a s m ore a nd
more p eo ple b egin l iv in g a nd w ork in g i n c entr a l a re as;

bio degra dable
- c ap ab le o f b ein g s lo w ly d estr o yed a nd b ro ken d ow n i n to v ery s m all p arts b y n atu ra l
pro cesse s, b acte ria , e tc .

envir o nm enta lis t / e nvir o nm enta l a ctiv is t
- a p ers o n w ho w ork s to p ro te ct th e n atu ra l w orld f r o m
pollu ti o n a nd o th er th re ats ;

natu ra l d is a ste r
- a s u d den a nd te rrib le e v ent i n n atu re ( s u ch a s a h urric ane, to rn ad o, o r f lo od) th at
usu ally r e su lts i n s e rio us d am age a nd m any d eath s;
hybrid c a rs
– c ars i n w hic h tw o o r m ore d is ti n ct ty p es o f p ow er, s u ch a s i n te rn al c o m busti o n
engin e+ ele ctr ic m oto r a re u se d ;

fe rtiliz ers
- a s u b sta nce ( s u ch a s m anure o r a s p ecia l c hem ic al) th at i s a d ded to s o il to h elp th e
gro w th o f p la nts ;

ra in fo re st
- a tr o pic al f o re st th at r e ceiv es a l o t o f r a in a nd th at h as v ery ta ll tr e es;

ch em ic a ls
- s u b sta nces o bta in ed b y a c hem ic al p ro cess o r p ro ducin g a c hem ic al e ffe ct;

su sta in able a gric u lt u re
- i s th e a ct o f f a rm in g b ase d o n a n u nd ers ta nd in g o f e co sy ste m s e rv ic es, th e
stu d y o f r e la ti o nsh ip s b etw een o rg anis m s a nd th eir e nv ir o nm ent;
(W ik ip ed ia )

adverse e nvir o nm enta l e ffe cts
- a b no rm al, h arm fu l, o r u nd esir a b le i m pact o n e nv ir o nm ent;

clim ate c h ange m it ig atio n
- c o nsis ts o f a cti o ns to l im it th e m agnitu d e o r r a te o f l o ng-te rm c lim ate
change ( W ik ip ed ia ).

em is sio ns
- s u b sta nces d is c harg ed i n to th e a ir ( a s b y a s m okesta ck o r a n a uto m obile e ngin e)

exhaust f u m es
- g ase s e je cte d f r o m a n e ngin e a s w aste p ro ducts ;

to c o nse rv e e nerg y
- u se e nerg y c are fu lly i n o rd er to p re v ent l o ss o r w aste ;

to xic
– c o nta in in g p ois o no us s u b sta nces;

to r e cy cle
- t
o s e nd ( u se d n ew sp ap ers , b ottl e s, c ans, e tc .) to a p la ce w here th ey a re m ad e i n to
so m eth in g n ew ;

th e 3 R s c o nce pt
: r e d ucin g, r e usin g, r e cyclin g

7 . F ood
Y ou c an c o m e a cro ss th is to pic i n v ir tu ally a ny p art o f I E LT S. Y ou a re o fte n a sk ed a b out f o od i n th e
S peakin g p art w here y o u m ig ht e xp ect q uesti o ns a b out y o ur f a v orite ty p e o f m eal, d ese rt, r e sta ura nt,
o r i n te rn ati o nal c usto m s a ro und c o okin g a nd e ati n g. I n p art 3 o f th e s p eakin g s e cti o n y o u m ig ht b e
a sk ed to ta lk a b out n utr iti o nal a sp ects , th e r e la ti o n b etw een p ro per d ie t a nd h ealth , e tc . F ood i s a ls o a
r a th er p opula r to pic f o r W riti n g S ecti o n # 2 w here y o u c an e xp ect to w rite i n d ep th a b out c ause s a nd
e ffe cts o f o besity . S o l e t’ s s ta rt o ur f o od v ocab ula ry tr a in in g.

I n te rn atio nal C uis in es
O ur g lo baliz e d w orld i s g iv in g u s u niq ue o pportu niti e s to s h are v ario us
in te rn atio nal c u is in es
. M ost
m odern l a rg e c iti e s o ffe r a w id e v arie ty o f r e sta ura nts o f p arti c ula r c uis in es: I ta lia n, F re nch, C hin ese ,
T hai, a nd o th ers . I n a d diti o n i t’ s a p opula r to pic i n I E LT S. F or th is r e aso n to s c o re h ig h y o u h av e to
d ev elo p v ocab ula ry to s p eak a b out y o ur d ie t a nd f o od p re fe re nces. I t i s e q ually i m porta nt to u se
p ro per a d je cti v es, p ro vid e e xam ple s, b ut I w arn y o u a gain n o t to m em oriz e a ny s e nte nces o r
p ara gra p hs. R em em ber th at a t y o ur e xam y o u h av e to s p eak n atu ra lly !


I l o ve th e s im plic ity o f I ta lia n f o od w ith o nly a f e w
in gre d ie nts b ut o f e xtr a o rd in ary q uality . F re sh to m ato es
and b asil, o liv e o il a nd P ro sc iu tto d e P arm a a re ty p ic al
Ita lia n p ro ducts .


Coria nd er, g in ger, c ard am om , a nd s a ffr o n a re v ery
ty p ic al f la v ors f o r I n d ia n c uis in e. I u su ally o rd er h o t
currie s w ith l o ts o f c hilli a nd a s id e o f r a ita to c o ol
dow n. M any I n d ia n d is h es a re p re p are d w ith r ic e,
vegeta b le s, a nd s e afo od.


H ealt h y F ood
N ow ad ays w e o fte n h ear a b out th e i m porta nce o f m ain ta in in g
bala nce d a nd h ealt h y d ie t
.
I t m eans th at w e n eed to th in k c are fu lly a b out w hat w e e at a nd p re fe r
nutr ie nt d ense f o od
. B ut w hat
i s f o od r ic h i n n utr ie nts ? N utr ie nts a re th e s u b sta nces i n f o od th at o ur b ody p ro cesse s i n o rd er to
f u ncti o n.


Good n utr it io n
- a w ell- b ala nced d ie t c o m bin ed w ith
re gula r p hysic al a cti v ity i s a c o rn ers to ne o f g o od h ealth .


A nd w hat a re g o od e xam ple s o f h ealth y f o od?

Whole g ra in s
a re a tr e nd y g ro up o f w id ely d is c usse d i n gre d ie nts . S o l e t’ s d is c uss w hat a
whole gra in
pro duct i s . A cco rd in g to a n o ffic ia l d efin iti o n
whole g ra in s
o r f o ods m ad e o f th em c o nta in a ll th e
esse nti a l p arts a nd
natu ra lly o ccu rrin g n utr ie nts
o f th e e nti r e g ra in s e ed i n th eir o rig in al
pro porti o ns. B asic ally p ro ducts m ad e w ith w ho le g ra in s a re a s g o od a s th e o rig in al s e ed s.

Som e e xam ple s o f w ho le g ra in s:
Wheat, w ild r ic e, b arle y, c o rn , m ille t, b uckw heat, o ats , e tc .

Fib er
i s a no th er i m porta nt c o m ponent o f h ealth y d ie t. I t’ s f o und i n c ere als , f r u its , a nd v egeta b le s, a nd
co ntr ib ute s to k eep in g o ur d ig esti v e s y ste m h ealth y.

There i s a no th er i n te re sti n g e xp re ssio n o fte n u se d b y h ealth y f o od a d vocate s -
‘E at t h e r a in bow ’
. I t
is a s im ple w ay to r e m in d u s th at w e n eed to c o nsu m e m ore v arie ti e s o f v egeta b le s o f a ll c o lo rs .

Eatin g D is o rd er a nd U nhealt h y F ood
When w e ta lk a b out e ati n g d is o rd ers ,
obesit y
i s th e f ir s t th in g to m enti o n h ere . O besity i s c urre ntl y
am ong th e b ig gest h ealth p ro ble m s i n th e w orld . I t tr ig gers v ario us d is e ase s w hic h c o m bin ed k ill
millio ns o f p eo ple e v ery y ear.


There a re s e v era l w ord s to b e u se d to d esc rib e e xcessiv e w eig ht:
obesit y
,
overw eig ht
,
adip osit y
.



Child re n b eco m e
overw eig ht
a nd
obese
f o r a v arie ty o f
re aso ns. T he m ost c o m mon c ause s a re
poor d ie ta ry
habit s m odele d a t h om e
, l a ck o f p hysic al a cti v ity , a nd
unhealt h y e atin g p atte rn s
.

Psy cho lo gic al d is o rd ers w hic h
obesit y
m ay tr ig ger
in clu d e d ep re ssio n,
eatin g d is o rd ers
, a nd l o w s e lf-
este em .


Now l e t’ s d is c uss w hat c ause s
exce ssiv e w eig ht
a nd o besity a nd l e arn s o m e s p ecific v ocab ula ry .

Fir s tl y i t’ s
poor d ie ta ry h abit s
m odele d a t h o m e.


Offs p rin gs o f o bese p are nts a re m uch m ore l ik ely to
beco m e o bese th an o ffs p rin gs o f l e an p are nts .


Seco nd ly i t’ s th e
qualit y o f f o od
w e c o nsu m e.


For d ecad es p ro cesse d f o od h as b een g etti n g c heap er,
while f r u its a nd v egeta b le s h av e b een g etti n g m ore
exp ensiv e.


Thir d ly i t’ s th e
addic tiv e n atu re o f e ngin eere d f o od.

Now ad ays p ro ducts a re e ngin eere d to b e c heap a nd l a st
lo ng o n th e s h elf. T hey a re d ev elo ped to b e i n cre d ib ly
ta sty s o th at w e c an n ev er g et e no ugh.




But w hat a re th e p ote nti a l r is k s o f o besity ? E ngin eere d f o od i s v ery d angero us s in ce i t c an c ause a
num ber o f d is e ase s s u ch a s d ia b ete s, c ancer, s tr o ke, a nd o th ers .

Now I s u ggest th at w e g o th ro ugh s o m e a d diti o nal v ocab ula ry . A ll th e w ord s a re g ro up ed a cco rd in g
to th eir m eanin g. I f a ny o f th em a re u nfa m ilia r to y o u, l o ok th eir d efin iti o ns u p i n th e d ic ti o nary . I a ls o
ad vis e th at y o u c o m e u p w ith s e v era l e xam ple s to m em oriz e th em b ette r.


Additio nal V ocab ula ry
Food c o nte nts
fa t, o il, p ro te in , f ib er, s u gar, s a lt, a d diti v es

Food a dje ctiv es
sy ru py
- h av in g th e a p peara nce o r q uality o f s y ru p ; th ic k o r s w eet;
su gary
- ta sti n g o r l o okin g l ik e s u gar;
cris p y
- p le asa ntl y th in , d ry , a nd e asily b ro ken : h av in g a p le asa ntl y c ris p o ute r l a yer;

bit te r
- h av in g a s tr o ng a nd o fte n u np le asa nt f la v or th at i s th e o pposite o f s w eet;
j uic y
- c o nta in in g a l o t o f j u ic e;
so ur
- h av in g a n a cid ta ste th at i s l ik e th e ta ste o f a l e m on;
zesty
- h av in g a s tr o ng, p le asa nt, a nd s o m ew hat s p ic y f la v or;

ch ew y
– s o m eth in g r e q uir in g to u se y o ur te eth to c ut f o od i n to s m all p ie ces b efo re y o u s w allo w i t;
sp ic y
- f la v ore d w ith o r c o nta in in g s tr o ng s p ic es a nd e sp ecia lly o nes th at c ause a b urn in g f e elin g i n
yo ur m outh ;
peppery
- c o nta in in g p ep per o r h av in g th e q ualiti e s o f p ep per;
am bro sia l
- s o m eth in g e xtr e m ely p le asin g to ta ste o r s m ell;
cru nch y
- h av in g a h ard te xtu re a nd m akin g a l o ud s o und w hen c hew ed o r c ru sh ed : n o t s o ft o r m ush y;
delic io us
– v ery p le asa nt to ta ste ;
sa voury
- h av in g a p le asa nt ta ste o r s m ell;
unfla voure d
- w ith o ut f la v or a d diti v es;

Neg ativ e a sp ects
alle rg y
- a m ed ic al c o nd iti o n th at c ause s s o m eo ne to b eco m e s ic k a fte r e ati n g, to uchin g, o r b re ath in g
so m eth in g th at i s h arm le ss to m ost p eo ple ;
in to le ra nce
- e xcep ti o nal s e nsiti v ity ( a s to a d ru g); s p ecific ally : i n ab ility to p ro perly m eta b oliz e o r
ab so rb a s u b sta nce;
bulim ia
- a s e rio us p hysic al a nd e m oti o nal i lln ess i n w hic h p eo ple a nd e sp ecia lly y o ung w om en e at
la rg e a m ounts o f f o od a nd th en c ause th em se lv es to v om it i n o rd er to n o t g ain w eig ht;
anore xia
- a s e rio us p hysic al a nd e m oti o nal i lln ess i n w hic h a n a b no rm al f e ar o f b ein g f a t l e ad s to
very p oor e ati n g h ab its a nd d angero us w eig ht l o ss;
la cto se in to le ra nce
– th e s ta te w hen th e b ody c anno t e asily d ig est l a cto se , a ty p e o f n atu ra l s u gar
fo und i n m ilk a nd d air y p ro ducts ;
obesit y
- a c o nd iti o n c hara cte riz e d b y th e e xcessiv e a ccum ula ti o n a nd s to ra ge o f f a t i n th e b ody;

addic tio n
- a s tr o ng a nd h arm fu l n eed to r e gula rly h av e s o m eth in g ( s u ch a s a f o od) o r d o s o m eth in g
(s u ch a s g am ble );
fa m in e
- a s itu ati o n i n w hic h m any p eo ple d o n o t h av e e no ugh f o od to e at.


Cookin g S ty le s
to g rill
- to c o ok ( fo od) o n a m eta l f r a m e o ver f ir e ;
to s te am
- to c o ok w ith s te am ;
to s tir fr y
- to f r y ( s o m eth in g) q uic kly o ver h ig h h eat w hile s ti r rin g i t c o nsta ntl y ;
to d eep f r y
- to c o ok ( fo od) i n a d eep l a yer o f o il o r f a t;
to b oil
- to c o ok ( s o m eth in g) i n w ate r th at i s b oilin g;
to b ro il
- to c o ok b y d ir e ct e xp osu re to r a d ia nt h eat;
to m in ce
– to c ut f o od i n to v ery s m all p ie ces;
to r o ast
– to c o ok f o od w ith d ry h eat i n a n o ven o r o ver a f ir e .


Eatin g V erb s
to b it e
– to s e iz e w ith te eth o r j a w s s o a s to e at s o m eth in g;
to c h ew
– to u se y o ur te eth to c ut f o od i n to s m all p ie ces b efo re y o u s w allo w i t;
to t a ste
– to h av e a p arti c ula r ta ste , to s e nse th e f la v or o f s o m eth in g y o u e at o r d rin k;
to s a vour
- to e njo y th e ta ste o r s m ell o f s o m eth in g;
to s w allo w
– to ta ke ( s o m eth in g) i n to y o ur s to m ach th ro ugh y o ur m outh a nd th ro at;
to d ig est
– to c hange ( fo od th at y o u h av e e ate n) b y a b io lo gic al p ro cess i n to s im ple r f o rm s th at c an
be u se d b y th e b ody;
to in dulg e
- to a llo w ( y o urs e lf) to h av e o r d o s o m eth in g a s a s p ecia l p le asu re ;
to d ev our – to e at u p g re ed ily o r r a v eno usly .

There i s a ls o a g re at v arie ty o f i d io m s w ith f o od v ocab ula ry . H ere i s a s h o rt l is t o f th em .

Id io m s
To b e d yin g o f h unger
- e xaggera ti o n o f s a yin g th at y o u a re h ungry

To h ave a s w eet t o oth
- to l o ve s u gary f o ods

To t a k e t h e b is c u it
- r e fe rs to s o m eth in g v ery a nno yin g o r i r rita ti n g
To k now o n w hic h s id e y our b re ad is b utte re d
- to k no w w here y o ur i n te re sts l ie
To t a k e t h e b re ad o ut o f s m b’s m outh
- ta ke a w ay s m b’s m eans to e arn a l iv in g

To b utte r s o m eone u p
- to f la tte r, b e v ery n ic e to s o m eo ne, u su ally f o r s e lfis h r e aso ns

Pie ce o f c a k e
- s o m eth in g v ery e asy
Lik e c h alk a nd c h eese
- c o m ple te ly d iffe re nt
Cry o ver s p ille d m ilk
- g et u p se t o ver s o m eth in g th at c anno t b e c hanged
That’s t h e w ay t h e c o ok ie c ru m ble s
- th at’ s th e w ay i t i s a nd n o th in g c an b e d one a b out i t
Tough c o ok ie
- a s e lf- c o nfid ent a m biti o us p ers o n w ho w ill d o w hat i s n ecessa ry to g et w hat th ey
want.

Can’t m ak e a n o m ele t w it h out b re ak in g e ggs
- i t i s i m possib le to m ake i m porta nt c hange w ith o ut
causin g s o m e u np le asa nt e ffe cts

To e at h um ble p ie
- to b e f o rc ed to a d m it th at y o u d id s o m eth in g w ro ng a nd a p olo giz e

That’ s b asic ally i t f o r th is d elic io us c hap te r o f o ur v ocab ula ry b ooste r c o ars e .

8 . G lo b aliz a tio n
A no th er v ery p opula r to pic i n I E LT S i s g lo baliz a ti o n. Y ou a re v ery l ik ely to h av e i t i n w riti n g ta sk I I.
S o l e t’ s p olis h o ur v ocab ula ry o n th is to pic !

T he f ir s t i m porta nt w ord s a re
develo pin g
co untr ie s
a nd
develo ped
co untr ie s


D evelo pin g
co untr ie s
a re c o untr ie s w ith l ittl e i n d ustr ia l a nd e co no m ic a cti v ity w here p eo ple
g enera lly h av e l o w i n co m es.



C ontr a rily ,
Develo ped
co untr ie s
a re c o untr ie s w ith a l o t o f i n d ustr ia l a nd e co no m ic a cti v ity w here
p eo ple g enera lly h av e h ig h i n co m es.

There i s a ls o a no th er g o od te rm -
em erg in g e co nom y
o r
em erg in g m ark et e co nom y
w hic h m eans a
nati o n’s e co no m y p ro gre ssin g to w ard b eco m in g d ev elo ped a nd a d vanced .


Tho ugh i t o nce r e ig ned a lo ngsid e th e U nite d S ta te s a s a
world s u p erp ow er, R ussia i s n o t c la ssifie d a s a
develo ped c o untr y
a s o f 2 015.


Now l e t’ s ta lk a b out th e te rm « glo bal» a nd s o m e c o m bin ati o ns w ith i t.
Glo bal v illa ge / g lo bal e co nom y / g lo bal t r a de


Glo bal v illa ge
- th e i d ea th at w e b ecam e a s in gle c o m munity d ue to a ffo rd ab le a nd e ffe cti v e
tr a nsp orta ti o n, m ass m ed ia , a nd e le ctr o nic c o m munic ati o ns.



Peo ple a re a fr a id th at th e e v olu ti o n o f a
glo bal v illa ge
will r a is e c o nflic ts b etw een c ultu re s.


Glo bal e co nom y
r e fe rs to e co no m y o f th e w orld c o m pris in g e co no m ie s o f d iffe re nt c o untr ie s c lo se ly
in te rre la te d . B y th e w ay,
in te rre la te d
i s a no th er v ery g o od w ord to u se w hen s p eakin g a b out g lo bal

eco no m y a nd g lo baliz a ti o n.


Thanks to
glo bal e co nom y
a s h ir t i s n o w l ik ely to c o st
ro ughly th e s a m e a m ount o f m oney i n N ew Y ork a s i n
New D elh i.


And f in ally ,
glo bal t r a de
( o fte n
in te rn atio nal t r a de
) i s s im ply th e e xchange o f g o ods a nd s e rv ic es
betw een c o untr ie s.



Glo bal t r a de
n o t o nly r e su lts i n i n cre ase d e ffic ie ncy, b ut
als o a llo w s c o untr ie s to p arti c ip ate i n
glo bal e co nom y
,
enco ura gin g th e o pportu nity o f f o re ig n
in vestm ents
.




Let’ s c o nti n ue o ur s tu d ie s a nd e xam in e tw o n ew w ord s c o nnecte d w ith g lo baliz a ti o n.

Sw eats h op a nd o uts o urc in g.

Sw eats h op
( s o m eti m es s w eat f a cto ry ) i s a w ork p la ce w ith u naccep ta b ly s e v ere c o nd iti o ns a nd
usu ally e xtr e m ely l o w w ages.


In 2 006 A pple f a ced a lle gati o ns th at i ts i P od w as b ein g
pro duced i n C hin a’s
sw eats h op
c o nd iti o ns. T he A pple
in cid ent i llu str a te s h o w
sw eats h ops
c an th riv e w ith s u ch
pra cti c es a s
outs o urc in g
.




Outs o urc in g
m eans j u st w hat i t s a ys - g o in g o ut to f in d th e s o urc e o f w hat y o u n eed . I n th e
glo baliz a ti o n c o nte xt w e u su ally u se th e te rm o uts o urc in g to d esc rib e a s itu ati o n w hen b usin esse s
outs o urc e p ro ducti o n to c o untr ie s w ith d ev elo pin g e co no m ie s.


Offs h o re
outs o urc in g
is o fte n c riti c iz e d , w hic h c an m ean
bad p ub lic r e la ti o ns f o r a c o m pany.

Our n ext p hra se i s
lo ss o f id entit y
. A nd th is i s w hat c an h ap pen i f th e i d ea o f
glo bal v illa ge
d ev elo ps
fu rth er.


Som e p eo ple f e ar th at
glo baliz atio n
w ill i n ev ita b ly l e ad
to to ta l
lo ss o f c u lt u ra l id entit y .


Our n ext g ro up o f w ord s i s
pro sp erit y
,
sta ndard o f liv in g,
a nd
Hum an D evelo pm ent I n dex.

Pro sp erit y
. T o p ut i t s im ply i t i s th e s ta te o f b ein g s u ccessfu l u su ally b y m akin g a l o t o f m oney.


Glo baliz atio n
p la ys a n i m porta nt r o le i n c o ntr ib uti n g to
su sta in ab le
pro sp erit y
f o r a ll p eo ple .


Sta ndard o f liv in g
c o uld b e d esc rib ed a s a q uality o f l ife o r l e v el o f m ate ria l p ro sp erity a v aila b le to
an i n d iv id ual o r a g ro up o f p eo ple .


The
sta ndard o f liv in g
i n clu d es f a cto rs s u ch a s: i n co m e,
av aila b ility o f e m plo ym ent, a ffo rd ab ility o f h o usin g,
quality o f h ealth care , a nd m any o th ers .

And f in ally ,
Hum an D evelo pm ent I n dex
( H DI) i s a n i n d ex p re p are d b y th e U nite d N ati o ns w hic h
lis ts c o untr ie s i n th e o rd er o f h um an a chie v em ent ta kin g i n to c o nsid era ti o n th re e d im ensio ns: h ealth ,
ed ucati o n a nd l iv in g s ta nd ard s.


Hum an D evelo pm ent I n dex
a ls o s h o w s th at c o untr ie s
with l o ts o f i n co m e d o n o t a lw ays s p end m oney i n w ays
th at c re ate h ig h l ife e xp ecta ncie s o r e d ucati o n l e v els .



All th ese n ew w ord s a re v ery i m porta nt w hen y o u w ant to ta lk o r w rite a b out g lo baliz a ti o n.

Let’ s m ove o n. O ur n ext te rm i s
co nsu m eris m .


It i s th e b elie f th at i t i s g o od f o r p eo ple a nd s o cie ty to s p end a l o t o f m oney o n g o ods a nd s e rv ic es.


Alth o ugh
co nsu m eris m
c an ta ke m any f o rm s, i t g enera lly
re fe rs to v ery h ig h l e v els o f e xcessiv e c o nsu m pti o n.



Now w e m ove o n to a no th er p air o f w ord s w hic h s tu d ents o fte n c o nfu se .

Em ig ra tio n / I m mig ra tio n
The d iffe re nces b etw een th ese w ord s a re s u b tl e b ut i m porta nt f o r p re cis e w riti n g a nd s p eakin g.

To im mig ra te
m eans to s e ttl e i n a f o re ig n c o untr y . I t s u ggests p erm anent r e lo cati o n a nd a p plie s to
peo ple .

To e m ig ra te
m eans to l e av e o ne c o untr y i n o rd er to s e ttl e i n a no th er. I t a ls o a p plie s o nly to p eo ple .


It’ s n o te w orth y th at d urin g th e b oom y ears w hen I r e la nd
had c lo se to f u ll e m plo ym ent n o t m any p eo ple c ho se to
em ig ra te
.

Every m em ber o f th e J e w is h r e lig io n i s e lig ib le
to
im mig ra te
to I s ra el.


And tw o m ore te rm s a re
cu lt u ra l c o nverg ence
whic h i s a te nd ency f o r c ultu re s to b le nd a nd b eco m e
more a lik e a nd
cu lt u ra l d iv erg ence
w hic h d esc rib es th in gs th at m ake s e p ara ti o ns o f c ultu re s.


The E nglis h l a nguage i s a p rim e e xam ple o f
cu lt u ra l c o nverg ence
o n a g lo bal s c ale .

That’ s a ll f o r th e w ord p air s . A nd h ere w e h av e a c o up le o f i n te rn ati o nal a gencie s w hic h d ir e ctl y
in flu ence g lo baliz a ti o n d ev elo pm ent.

World T ra de O rg aniz atio n
( W TO ) - g lo bal o rg aniz a ti o n th at h elp s c o untr ie s a nd p ro ducers tr a d e
fa ir ly a nd e ffe cti v ely .



In te rn atio nal M oneta ry F und ( IM F)
In te rg o vern m enta l o rg aniz a ti o n w ith i ts h ead quarte rs i n W ash in gto n, D .C . th at f o cuse s o n m ain ta in in g
in te rn ati o nal e co no m ic s ta b ility .


Here 's a l is t o f s o m e o th er v ery u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s f o r p re p ara ti o n f o r I E LT S G lo baliz a ti o n
to pic s.

Additio nal v ocab ula ry
antig lo baliz atio n m ovem ent
- s a s o cia l m ovem ent c riti c al o f th e g lo baliz a ti o n o f c o rp ora te
cap ita lis m . ( W ik ip ed ia )

lo ca l
(re la ti n g to a p arti c ula r a re a, c ity o r to w n) /
natio nal
(re la ti n g to a n e nti r e n ati o n o r c o untr y )
/
dom estic
( re la ti n g to , o r m ad e i n y o ur o w n c o untr y )

in te gra tio n
( th e a ct o f b rin gin g to geth er s m alle r c o m ponents i n to a s in gle s y ste m th at f u ncti o ns a s
one) / c o opera ti o n ( a s itu ati o n i n w hic h p eo ple w ork to geth er to d o s o m eth in g)

mult ila te ra l
( in v olv in g m ore th an tw o g ro up s o r c o untr ie s) / u nila te ra l ( in v olv in g o nly o ne g ro up o r
co untr y )

pro gre ss
( th e p ro cess o f i m pro vin g o r d ev elo pin g s o m eth in g o ver a p erio d o f ti m e) / d ev elo pm ent

( th e a ct o r p ro cess o f g ro w in g o r c ausin g s o m eth in g to g ro w o r b eco m e l a rg er o r m ore a d vanced )

pro te st
( a n e v ent a t w hic h p eo ple g ath er to geth er to s h o w s tr o ng d is a p pro val a b out s o m eth in g) /
str ik e ( a p erio d o f ti m e w hen w ork ers s to p w ork i n o rd er to f o rc e a n e m plo yer to a gre e to th eir
dem and s) / d em onstr a ti o n ( a n e v ent i n w hic h p eo ple g ath er to geth er i n o rd er to s h o w th at th ey
su p port o r o ppose s o m eth in g o r s o m eo ne)

sta ndard iz atio n
- i s th e p ro cess o f i m ple m enti n g a nd d ev elo pin g te chnic al s ta nd ard s. ( W ik ip ed ia )

natio nal
s o vere ig nty - th e i d ea th at i n d ep end ent n ati o ns, w hic h h av e d ecla re d th eir i n d ep end ence,
hav e a n o rg aniz e d g o vern m ent a nd a re s e lf- c o nta in ed , h av e a r ig ht to e xis t w ith o ut o th er n ati o ns
in te rfe rin g ( a sk .c o m );

to
acce le ra te
- c ause ( s o m eth in g) to h ap pen s o oner o r m ore q uic kly ;

afflu ence
- a b und ance o f p ro perty ;

to d om in ate
– to h av e c o ntr o l o f o r p ow er o ver ( s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g);

eco nom ic g ro w th d riv ers
– s o m eth in g th at p ro vid es d ev elo pm ent a nd g ro w th o f e co no m y;

im bala nce / in equalit y
- a s ta te o r c o nd iti o n i n w hic h d iffe re nt th in gs d o n o t o ccur i n e q ual o r p ro per
am ounts ;

su perp ow er
- a n e xtr e m ely p ow erfu l n ati o n;

ta rif f
- a ta x o n g o ods c o m in g i n to o r l e av in g a c o untr y ;

tr a de b arrie r
– a g o vern m ent- in d uced r e str ic ti o n o n i n te rn ati o nal tr a d e;

bord ers
– b ound arie s b etw een c o untr ie s;

fa ir t r a de
– tr a d e i n c o nfo rm ity w ith a f a ir -tr a d e a gre em ent;

in te rd ependence
- th e m utu al r e lia nce b etw een tw o o r m ore g ro up s;

9 . T ech nolo gy
N ow i t’ s ti m e f o r a no th er i m porta nt to pic o f o ur I E TLS V ocab ula ry B ooste r c o urs e . L et’ s ta lk a b out
s o m e te chno lo gy te rm s a nd p hra se s. A s y o u p ro bab ly r e m em ber, w e g o th ro ugh o nly th e m ost p opula r
t o pic s o f I E TLS th us th ere i s h ig h c hance th at y o u w ill h av e to u se th ese w ord s d urin g y o ur e xam . S o
m ake s u re y o u w rite d ow n th e u nfa m ilia r w ord s.
W e w ill s ta rt w ith th re e e xp re ssio ns w hic h r e q uir e n o d efin iti o n.


T he d ig it a l e ra
/
th e c o m pute r a ge
/
new m edia a ge
. I t i s o ur ti m e, th e ti m e o f te chno lo gy a nd
g ad gets , F aceb ook a d dic ti o n, a nd k no w le d ge-b ase d s o cie ty .


The a rriv al o f th e
dig it a l e ra
w as s o r a p id th at w e h av e
no t y et m anaged to c o pe w ith a ll th e c o nse q uences.


A no th er 3 w ord s w hic h y o u a re v ery l ik ely to u se i n y o u w riti n g o r s p eakin g s e cti o n o n te chno lo gy
a re :
I n novatio n / B re ak th ro ugh / R evolu tio n

In novatio n
i s a n a ct o f i n tr o ducin g s o m eth in g n ew . A nd i f w e o bse rv e r a p id d ra m ati c c hanges, w e
use r e v olu ti o n. A s f o r
te ch nolo gic a l r e volu tio n
, i t c o uld o fte n b e tr ig gere d b y a
bre ak th ro ugh
- a n
act o f m akin g i m porta nt d is c o verie s.

The i n te rn et r e v olu ti o n c hanged th e w ay th at p eo ple g o t a nd s h are d i n fo rm ati o n, a ffe cti n g e v ery th in g
fr o m s o cia l r e la ti o ns to th e w ay th ey w ork .

Alth o ugh a lw ays w ith r is k , te chno lo gic al b re akth ro ughs p ro m is e th e m ost p re ssin g g lo bal c halle nges
of o ur ti m e.

Now l e t’ s d is c uss s o m e u se fu l w ord c o m bin ati o ns.

Cuttin g-e dge / r o ck et s c ie nce / t e ch -s a vvy

The a d je cti v e
cu ttin g-e dge
b asic ally m eans th e m ost a d vanced , th e l a te st. F or e xam ple , c utti n g-e d ge
te chno lo gie s. A s f o r
ro ck et s c ie nce
, i t i s a s lig htl y l e ss f o rm al e xp re ssio n w hic h m eans a n a cti v ity
re q uir in g c o nsid era b le i n te llig ence a nd a b ility .



We a ls o w ork w ith u niv ers iti e s a nd o th er e xp erts to
ensu re th at w e r e m ain a t th e
cu ttin g e dge
o f te chno lo gy.

And
te ch -s a vvy
m eans k no w in g a l o t a b out m odern te chno lo gie s a nd

Mille nnia ls a re
te ch -s a vvy
, th rifty , a nd m ore l ik ely to
str e am e nte rta in m ent o nlin e th an o th er A meric ans.


Our n ext te rm i s
Clo ud c o m putin g
. O ver th e r e cent d ecad es i t h as b eco m e a b uzzw ord i n th e I T
world . I w ill e xp la in th is te rm a s e asily a s p ossib le . C lo ud c o m puti n g m eans th at i n ste ad o f u sin g a ll
th e a p plic ati o ns p hysic ally i n sta lle d o n y o ur c o m pute r y o u c an a ccess th em o ver th e I n te rn et. T hey a re
pro vid ed a s s e rv ic e b y a no th er c o m pany. A nd i t a p plie s n o t o nly to c o m pute r p ro gra m s, b ut a ls o to
hard w are c ap acity .



The G oogle D ocs s e rv ic e a llo w s u se rs to u p lo ad
docum ents , s p re ad sh eets , a nd p re se nta ti o ns to G oogle ’s
data s e rv ers a nd s e rv es a s a n e xam ple o f
clo ud
co m putin g.




And h ere 'r e 2 m ore w ord s:
wir e le ss
a nd
mobile
. D o th ey h av e th e s a m e m eanin g? Y es a nd n o .
Som eti m es y o u c an u se e ith er, b ut th ey r e p re se nt d iffe re nt c o ncep ts . L et m e e xp la in .

Mobile
i s a w ord to d esc rib e th e n atu re o f d ev ic es. A m obile d ev ic e i s o ne th at c an b e ta ken
anyw here . U su ally th ese d ev ic es n eed a b atte ry to w ork . B ut
wir e le ss
d oes n o t m ean m obile . M any
no n-m obile d ev ic es c an c o nnect to w ir e le ss n etw ork s a s w ell a s m obile d ev ic es. I h o pe y o u f e el th e
diffe re nce.

I h av e a ls o p re p are d a l is t o f o th er u se fu l te ch r e la te d w ord s a nd p hra se s. Y ou p ro bab ly k no w m ost
of th em . B ut I e nco ura ge y o u to th in k w heth er y o u n o rm ally u se th em w hile s p eakin g o r w riti n g. D o
yo u f e el c o m fo rta b le w ith th em ? I f s o m e o f th em c o nfu se y o u, c o m e u p w ith s e v era l s e nte nces to
pra cti c e th eir u sa ge. A nd r e m em ber to r e tu rn to th ese w ord s a fte r a w hile .

use r-fr ie ndly
- e asy to l e arn , u se , u nd ers ta nd , o r d eal w ith ;

co m pute r lit e ra te
- a b le to u se c o m pute rs a nd r e la te d te chno lo gy e ffic ie ntl y ;

obso le te / o utd ate d
- n o l o nger u se d b ecause s o m eth in g n ew er e xis ts : r e p la ced b y s o m eth in g n ew er;

gadget / e quip m ent ( a p ie ce o f e quip m ent) / a pplia nce / d evic e / h ard w are

e-c o m merc e
- a cti v iti e s th at r e la te to th e b uyin g a nd s e llin g o f g o ods a nd s e rv ic es o ver th e I n te rn et;

so cia l m edia
- f o rm s o f e le ctr o nic c o m munic ati o n th ro ugh w hic h u se rs c re ate o nlin e c o m muniti e s to
sh are i n fo rm ati o n, i d eas, p ers o nal m essa ges, a nd o th er c o nte nt;

blo gs
- a W eb s ite o n w hic h s o m eo ne w rite s a b out p ers o nal o pin io ns, a cti v iti e s, a nd e xp erie nces;

vir a l
- q uic kly a nd w id ely c ir c ula te d f r o m o ne I n te rn et u se r to a no th er, a s i n " a v ir a l v id eo ";

to b ro w se
- to u se a s p ecia l p ro gra m ( c alle d a b ro w se r) to f in d a nd l o ok a t i n fo rm ati o n o n th e
In te rn et;

to d ow nlo ad
– to m ove o r c o py a f ile , p ro gra m , e tc ., f r o m a u su ally l a rg er c o m pute r s y ste m to a no th er
co m pute r o r d ev ic e;

co nnectio n
– th e s ta te w hen tw o o r m ore d ev ic es a re c o nnecte d th ro ugh th e I n te rn et o r a n etw ork ;

cy ber
- o f, r e la ti n g to , o r i n v olv in g c o m pute rs o r c o m pute r n etw ork s ( a s th e I n te rn et) ;

priv acy
- i s th e a b ility o f a n i n d iv id ual o r g ro up to s e clu d e th em se lv es, o r i n fo rm ati o n a b out
th em se lv es, a nd th ere b y e xp re ss th em se lv es s e le cti v ely ;

applic a tio ns / a pps
- i s a c o m pute r p ro gra m d esig ned to p erfo rm a g ro up o f c o ord in ate d f u ncti o ns,
ta sk s, o r a cti v iti e s f o r th e b enefit o f th e u se r;

so ftw are
- th e p ro gra m s th at r u n o n a c o m pute r a nd p erfo rm c erta in f u ncti o ns.

1 0. H ealt h
L et’ s d is c uss a no th er i m porta nt to pic w hic h w ill b e v ery u se fu l i f y o u w ant to s c o re h ig h i n I E LT S -
h ealth . I n te rm s o f l e xis th is to pic i n co rp ora te s a l o t o f u se fu l te rm s a nd p hra se s w hic h c an a ls o b e
u se d w hen ta lk in g a b out f o od, d ie t, a nd e v en s p orts . S o I a m v ery e xcite d to s ta rt!

O ur f ir s t w ord i s
a c h eck up
w hic h i s d octo r’s e xam in ati o n to e nsu re th at y o u a re h ealth y. T hat’ s a
g o od w ay to m ake s u re y o u h av e n o h ealth p ro ble m s.



It i s r e co m mend ed to h av e y o ur m ed ic al
ch eck up
o n a
re gula r b asis .


W hen p eo ple g et s ic k, th ey o fte n h av e
a s o re t h ro at
- p ain i n th e th ro at. S ore th ro at i s a v ery c o m mon
r e aso n to r e ceiv e m ed ic al c are .

T here i s a no th er g o od w ord
epid em ic ,
b ut i t h as a n egati v e m eanin g - a d is e ase a ffe cti n g a
d is p ro porti o nate ly l a rg e n um ber o f i n d iv id uals w ith in th e p opula ti o n.

The c urre nt
epid em ic
o f o besity i s c ause d l a rg ely b y a n e nv ir o nm ent th at p ro m ote s e xcessiv e f o od
in ta ke. T here a re s o m e g re at e xp re ssio ns h ere :

epid em ic b re ak out
- i s w hen a n e p id em ic s ta rts s u d denly o r s tr ik es.
to r e ach e pid em ic p ro portio ns
- m eans th at a n e p id em ic h as r e ached a l a rg e s c ale .

When y o u h av e a d is e ase , y o u n eed a d octo r
to d ia gnose
i t, w hic h m eans to r e co gniz e a d is e ase o r
illn ess.
Your d octo r w ill d ia gno se a d is e ase b ase d o n y o ur m ed ic al h is to ry a nd te st r e su lts . W hen a d is e ase i s
dia gno se d a nd tr e ate d b ut th ere a re n o s ig ns o f i m pro vem ent, w e c an ta lk a b out
dete rio ra tio n
- th e
pro cess o f s o m eth in g g etti n g w ors e .

Ano th er g o od h ealth - o r m ayb e i t’ s b ette r to s a y s ic kness - w ord i s
ch ro nic
. I ts e asy d efin iti o n i s
exis ti n g f r e q uentl y o r m ost o f th e ti m e.
Sugar m ay n o t b e th e o nly c o ntr ib uto r to a c hro nic d is e ase , b ut i t i s b y f a r th e e asie st o ne to a v oid .

If y o u a re i n o ne r o om w ith a s ic k p ers o n y o u c an e asily g et i n fe cte d .
To in fe ct
means to c ause
so m eb ody to b eco m e a ffe cte d b y a d is e ase .


If y o u r e tu rn to w ork a fte r y o ur s ic k l e av e to o s o on, y o u
may
in fe ct
y o ur c o lle agues.


Afte r b ein g p ro perly tr e ate d p eo ple u su ally
r e co ver,
w hic h m eans th at th ey r e tu rn to n o rm al
co nd iti o n, o r g et b ack f r o m b ein g i ll.

He h ad a s tr o ke, b ut i s
re co verin g
w ell.


How d o d octo rs r e co gniz e c erta in d is e ase s? C orre ct, o n th e b asis o f
sy m pto m s,
w hic h a re c hanges i n
yo ur b ody o r m in d s h o w in g th at y o u a re n o t h ealth y.

The
sy m pto m s
o f f lu u su ally d ev elo p w ith in tw o d ays o f
beco m in g i n fe cte d .


A w id ely u se d e xp re ssio n w ith th e w ord s y m pto m i s th e
onse t o f s y m pto m s
, w hic h i s w hen y o ur
sy m pto m s b eco m e n o ti c eab le .

What s h ould p eople d o n ot t o g et s ic k a nd p re vent a d is e ase ?
T hey s a y th at e xerc is e a nd h ealth y
die t c an p re v ent h eart d is e ase . S o
pre ventin g s o m eth in g
m eans to a ct a head o f s o m eth in g.

A v accin e
i s a n i n je cti o n to p ro te ct a gain st a p arti c ula r d is e ase .


Rese arc hers a re tr y in g to d ev elo p a
vaccin e
a gain st
sw in e f lu .
In m ost c ase s i t i s e no ugh to h av e o ne d ose o f a
vaccin e
to r e co ver.


When p eo ple s u d denly g et a h ig h te m pera tu re , th ey u su ally c all a n
am bula nce ,
whic h i s a v ehic le th at
ta kes s ic k p eo ple to th e h o sp ita l, e sp ecia lly i n c ase o f e m erg ency.



Because o f h ig h p re ssu re th e w om an w as ta ken b y a n
am bula nce
.



In th e p re v io us s e nte nce w e h ad th e w ord
em erg ency ,
w hic h i s a s u d den u nfo re se en c ris is ( u su ally
in v olv in g d anger) th at r e q uir e s i m med ia te tr e atm ent o r r e so lu ti o n.


In c ase o f m ed ic al
em erg ency
a p ati e nt m ig ht b e a sk ed
ab out h is o r h er b lo od ty p e.

Talk in g a b out h ealth p ro ble m s, i t i s a ls o v ery i m porta nt to m enti o n
fa tig ue
- a s ta te o f b ein g v ery
ti r e d a nd e xhauste d .


Driv er
fa tig ue
i s a m ajo r c ause o f r o ad a ccid ents .



For y o ur r e fe re nce w e h av e s o m e a d diti o nal h ealth r e la te d w ord s a nd p hra se s. I n m y o pin io n th ey
don’t n eed to b e d efin ed , th o ugh y o u h av e to r e co gniz e a nd u nd ers ta nd th em . W e w ill g o th ro ugh th em
and i f a ny o f th em a re u nfa m ilia r to y o u, ta ke s o m e ti m e to f a m ilia riz e y o urs e lf w ith th em .

Additio nal v ocab ula ry
to f e el p oorly
– f e el b ad o r s ic k

to h ave a f illin g
– h av e y o ur to oth f ix ed w hen y o u h av e a d enta l c arie s

to h ave a t o oth o ut
– to h av e y o ur to oth p ulle d o ut

a h eavy c o ld
– a b ad /s e v ere c o ld
to m ak e a s p eedy r e co very
- to r e co ver f a st

im media te a ctio n
– e m erg ency m easu re s, f ir s t a id

to p erfo rm s u rg ery o n
– to o pera te

Med ic in es
eye d ro ps
– l iq uid s u b sta nce u se d f o r e ye tr e atm ent

sy rin ge
- a d ev ic e m ad e o f a h o llo w tu b e a nd a n eed le th at i s u se d to f o rc e f lu id s i n to o r ta ke f lu id s
out o f th e b ody;

a d ose o f m edic in e
– a d ose o f a s u b sta nce th at i s u se d i n tr e ati n g d is e ase o r r e lie v in g p ain a nd th at
is u su ally i n th e f o rm o f a p ill o r a l iq uid ;
pill
- a s m all, r o und ed o bje ct th at y o u s w allo w a nd th at c o nta in s m ed ic in e, v ita m in s, e tc .;
sh ot / in je ctio n
- th e a ct o r p ro cess o f f o rc in g a l iq uid m ed ic in e o r d ru g i n to s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g
by u sin g a s p ecia l n eed le ;

pain k ille r
– a d ru g th at d ecre ase s o r r e m oves p ain th at y o u f e el i n y o ur b ody;

antib io tic s
- a d ru g th at i s u se d to k ill h arm fu l b acte ria a nd to c ure i n fe cti o ns;
re m edy
- a m ed ic in e o r tr e atm ent th at r e lie v es p ain o r c ure s a u su ally m in o r i lln ess;
Docto rs
ophta lm olo gis t
– a d octo r w ho s tu d ie s a nd tr e ats p ro ble m s a nd d is e ase s o f th e e ye;

dentis t
– a p ers o n w ho se j o b i s to c are f o r p eo ple 's te eth ;
genera l p ra cti ti o ner - a d octo r w ho se w ork i s n o t l im ite d to a s p ecia l a re a: a p ers o n w ho i s n o t a
sp ecia lis t;
nurse
- a p ers o n w ho i s tr a in ed to c are f o r s ic k o r i n ju re d p eo ple a nd w ho u su ally w ork s i n a h o sp ita l
or d octo r's o ffic e;

su rg eon
- a d octo r w ho p erfo rm s o pera ti o ns th at i n v olv e c utti n g i n to s o m eo ne's b ody i n o rd er to
re p air o r r e m ove d am aged o r d is e ase d p arts : a d octo r w ho p erfo rm s s u rg ery ;

Illn esse s
Asth m a
- a p hysic al c o nd iti o n th at m akes i t d iffic ult f o r s o m eo ne to b re ath e;
bro nch it is
- a n i lln ess i n w hic h y o ur b ro nchia l tu b es b eco m e s o re o r d am aged a nd y o u c o ugh a l o t;
ca nce r
- a s e rio us d is e ase c ause d b y c ells th at a re n o t n o rm al a nd th at c an s p re ad to o ne o r m any
parts o f th e b ody;
co ld
- a c o m mon i lln ess th at a ffe cts th e n o se , th ro at, a nd e yes a nd th at u su ally c ause s c o ughin g,
sn eezin g, e tc .;
flu ( in flu enza)
- a c o m mon d is e ase th at i s c ause d b y a v ir u s a nd th at c ause s f e v er, w eakness, b ody
aches, a nd b re ath in g p ro ble m s;
co ugh
- a p hysic al c o nd iti o n o r i lln ess th at c ause s s o m eo ne to c o ugh;
dia bete s
- a s e rio us d is e ase i n w hic h th e b ody c anno t p ro perly c o ntr o l th e a m ount o f s u gar i n y o ur
blo od b ecause i t d oes n o t h av e e no ugh i n su lin ;
dis e ase
– a n i lln ess th at a ffe cts a p ers o n, a nim al, o r p la nt : a c o nd iti o n th at p re v ents th e b ody o r m in d
fr o m w ork in g n o rm ally ;

Fatig ue
- th e s ta te o f b ein g v ery ti r e d : e xtr e m e w earin ess;
fo od p ois o nin g
- s ic kness c ause d b y b acte ria o r c hem ic als i n f o od;
fr a ctu re
- th e r e su lt o f b re akin g s o m eth in g : a c ra ck o r b re ak; e sp ecia lly : a

fe ver
- a d is e ase th at c ause s a n i n cre ase i n b ody te m pera tu re ;
heart a tta ck
- a s u d den p ain fu l a nd d angero us c o nd iti o n i n w hic h y o ur h eart s to ps b eati n g p ro perly ;
heart s tr o k e
– a h eart c o nd iti o n c ause d b y th e i n te rru p ti o n o f f lo w o f b lo od to th e b ra in ( is c hem ic
str o ke) o r th e r u p tu re o f b lo od v esse ls i n th e b ra in ( h em orrh agic s tr o ke);
in fe ctio n
- a d is e ase c ause d b y g erm s th at e nte r th e b ody;
in so m nia
- th e c o nd iti o n o f n o t b ein g a b le to s le ep ;
cu ts
- a w ound o n a p ers o n's b ody th at i s m ad e b y s o m eth in g s h arp ;
bru is e s
- a d ark a nd p ain fu l a re a o n y o ur s k in th at i s c ause d b y a n i n ju ry ;

1 1. C rim e a nd p unis h m ent
S te p b y s te p w e a re m ovin g f o rw ard to a no th er i m porta nt v ocab ula ry s e cti o n - c rim e a nd p unis h m ent.
L et’ s s ta rt w ith th e w ord
crim e
. I ts d efin iti o n i s s im ple : a n a ct a gain st th e l a w . B ut i t c an h av e m any
d iffe re nt m eanin gs w hen u se d i n e xp re ssio ns, s o l e t’ s h av e a c lo se r l o ok a t s o m e o f th em .


p etty c rim e
- n o t a s e rio us c rim e

v io le nt c rim e
- c rim e w hic h i n clu d es a ssa ult

o rg aniz ed c rim e
- o rg aniz e d g ro up o f p eo ple c o m mits c rim es o r e ngages i n c rim in al e nte rp ris e s f o r
p ro fit.

w hit e -c o lla r c rim e
- a te rm m ostl y r e fe rrin g to b usin ess w orld c rim es. U su ally c rim es c o m mitte d b y
b usin essm en o r o ffic e w ork ers f o r f in ancia l g ain .

v ic tim le ss c rim e
- a c rim e w ith n o a p pare nt v ic ti m


He h as a h is to ry o f
vio le nt c rim e
s tr e tc hin g b ack to h is
early y ears .


B rib ery i s a p opula r ty p e o f
whit e -c o lla r c rim e
. I n c ase o f
vic tim le ss c rim es
p ro se cuti o n s ta rts
w ith in o ne w eek.

Now l e t’ s w ork w ith s o m e
o th er u se fu l p hra se s.
If y o u d on’t k no w s o m e o f th em , w rite th em i n y o ur
no te p ad f o r f u tu re r e fe re nce.

to c a rry o ut a c rim e
– to c o m mit a c rim e;

to in vestig ate a c rim e
– to d ete ct / s o lv e a c rim e;

to f ig ht c rim e
– to ta ckle c rim e;

to p re vent c rim e
– to p re clu d e c rim e;

a c ra ck dow n o n c rim e
- a s e rio us a tte m pt to p unis h p eo ple f o r c o m mitti n g c rim es;

lif e o f c rim e
– c rim in al w ay o f l iv in g;

a c rim e w ave
– a s u d den i n cre ase i n th e a m ount o f c rim e i n a n a re a;

cir c u m sta nce s o f t h e c rim e
– c o nd iti o ns u nd er w hic h a c rim e w as c o m mitte d ;

th e in cid ence o f c rim e
- th e n um ber o f ti m es c rim e h ap pens o r d ev elo ps;

In g enera l, th ere a re d oze ns o f e xp re ssio ns w ith th e w ord c rim e. N ow l e t’ s m ove f o rw ard a nd d is c uss
th e ty p es o f c rim e!

A p opula r w ord i n a cti o n m ovie s i s
abductio n.
I t i s a n a ct o f c ap tu rin g, c arry in g a w ay b y f o rc e.


There h as b een a s e rie s o f
abductio ns
i n th e a re a.

Arso n
is
an a ct o f c rim in al b urn in g o f p ro perty .


It l o oked l ik e a n a ccid enta l f ir e , n o t
arso n
.



assa ult
- a v io le nt p hysic al a tta ck


His b ody s h o w ed s ig ns o f
assa ult
.

burg la ry
- i lle gal e ntr a nce i n to p re m is e s w ith c rim in al i n te nt

They s a id th ere w as a
burg la ry
, b ut n o th in g w as
mis sin g.



ch ild a buse
- p hysic al o r e m oti o nal m is tr e atm ent o f a c hild

In th e U nite d S ta te s th e l a w s d efin in g w hat c o nsti tu te s
ch ild a buse
v ary f r o m s ta te to s ta te .

dru g t r a ffic k in g
- p ro ducti o n, d is tr ib uti o n, a nd s a le o f i lle gal d ru gs


The k ey s o urc e o f p ro fit o f o rg aniz e d c rim in al g ro up s i s
dru g t r a ffic k in g
.


fr a ud
- I f y o u a re p ro m is e d a m illio n d olla rs o n th e I n te rn et, i t’ s f r a ud . F ra ud i s tr ic kery i n te nd ed to
gain a n a d vanta ge.


She w as f o und g uilty o f c o m mitti n g
fr a ud
.


hack in g
- s p ecia l ty p e o f I n te rn et c rim e. W hen s o m eb ody’s w eb site o r s e rv er i s h acked , i t m eans th at
th e s e rv er o r w eb site i s b ro ken.

hij a ck in g
- s to ppin g a nd s te alin g a v ehic le


He
hij a ck ed
a tr u ck, th re ate nin g th e d riv er w ith a g un.

murd er
- th e c rim e o f d elib era te ly k illin g a p ers o n


Her h usb and w as f o und
murd ere d
.



mansla ughte r
- a ls o k illin g a p ers o n, B UT a ccid enta lly - w ith o ut th e i n te nt to d o s o .


H H e w as b ack i n p ris o n 2 y ears l a te r, c o nv ic te d o f
mansla ughte r


te rro ris m
- v io le nce o r th re at o f v io le nce a s a w ay o f tr y in g to a chie v e a p oliti c al g o al


In te rn ati o nal a cti o n to c o m bat
te rro ris m
s h o uld f o cus
heav ily o n p re v enti o n.


bla ck m ailin g
- u sin g s e cre t i n fo rm ati o n to g et s o m eth in g i n r e tu rn ( u su ally m oney)


The f o rm er R om ania n P rim e M in is te r w as p la ced o n
pro bati o n f o r
bla ck m ail
.

fe lo ny
- a s e rio us c rim e s u ch a s m urd er o r b urg la ry

Filin g f a ls e ta x r e tu rn s i s a
fe lo ny
.


pic k pock etin g
- s te alin g s o m eo ne’s b elo ngin gs f r o m p ockets a nd p urs e s


Any to uris t c ity i s a h av en f o r
pic k pock ets
a nd th ie v es.




sh oplif tin g
- s te alin g th in gs f r o m a s h o p o r s to re .


A b oy
sh oplif te d
a to y f r o m th e s to re .


And th e l a st w ord c o m bin ati o n i s
tr a ffic o ffe nce s
- c rim es c o m mitte d o n th e r o ad . W hen c o m mitti n g
a tr a ffic o ffe nce p eo ple u su ally h av e to p ay a f in e.

In E uro pean c o untr ie s f in es f o r
tr a ffic o ffe nce s
a re
extr e m ely h ig h.


Ano th er b ig p art o f th e c rim e a nd p unis h m ent v ocab ula ry i s
c o urt v oca bula ry .

a d efe ndant
- a p ers o n a ccuse d o f a c rim e i n c o urt

The
defe ndant
w as c o nv ic te d o f m urd er.

a p ro se cu to r
- th e l a w yer w ho r e p re se nts th e s id e th at tr ie s to p ro ve th e p ers o n g uilty

The p ub lic
pro se cu to r
f in ally d ecid ed n o t to p urs u e
charg es.


a w it n ess
- a p ers o n w ho s e es s o m eth in g ( s u ch a s c rim e) h ap penin g

The d efe nse c alle d i ts f ir s t
wit n ess
.



guilt y
- r e sp onsib le f o r c o m mitti n g a c rim e o r d oin g s o m eth in g w ro ng

The j u ry f o und h im
guilt y
o f m urd er.

vic tim
- a p ers o n w ho h as b een a tta cked i n s o m e w ay b y s o m eb ody.

Som e
vic tim s
a re s e le cte d b ecause th ey s e em
vuln era b le .


And h ere w e h av e s o m e u se fu l e xp re ssio ns w ith th e w ord
vic tim
:

In noce nt / u nsu sp ectin g v ic tim
- n o t d ese rv in g to b e h arm ed ;
to p ortr a y s o m ebody a s a v ic tim
– to p re se nt s o m eb ody a s a v ic ti m .

a s u sp ect
- a p ers o n w ho i s b elie v ed to b e g uilty

The m an w as a rre ste d a s a
su sp ect
.




an a tto rn ey
- a l a w yer w ho c an s u e o r d efe nd p eo ple .

If y o u c anno t a ffo rd a n
atto rn ey
, o ne w ill b e a p poin te d
to y o u b y th e s ta te .


evid ence
- s o m eth in g th at c an s e rv e to p ro ve s o m eth in g. I n o ur c o nte xt e v id ence i s u su ally p re se nte d
in c o urt to p ro ve th at s o m eo ne i s g uilty o r i n no cent.

Popula r e xp re ssio ns w ith th e w ord
evid ence
a re :
hearsa y e vid ence
- e v id ence b ase d n o t o n a w itn ess's p ers o nal k no w le d ge b ut o n a no th er's s ta te m ent
no t m ad e u nd er o ath ;
crim in al e vid ence
– e v id ence r e la te d to a c rim in al c ase ;

in t h e lig ht o f e vid ence / in t h e f a ce o f e vid ence
– c o nsid erin g th e e v id ence;

not a s c ra p o f e vid ence
– n o e v id ence;

verd ic t
- th e d ecis io n m ad e b y a j u ry i n a tr ia l.

The j u ry r e ached a
verd ic t
a fte r h o urs o f d elib era ti o n.

And h ere is a lis t o f v erd ic t e xpre ssio ns:
fa vora ble v erd ic t
– p ositi v e v erd ic t

adverse v erd ic t
– n egati v e v erd ic t

to a ppeal a gain st a v erd ic t
– to p ro te st a v erd ic t

fin al v erd ic t
- d efin iti v e v erd ic t.

a j u dge
- a p ub lic o ffic ia l g iv en th e r ig ht to d ecid e o n q uesti o ns b ro ught b efo re a c o urt o f j u sti c e

The
ju dge
o rd ere d th e c o m pany to p ay c o m pensa ti o n.


The f o llo w in g e xp re ssio ns a re a ls o w id ely u se d :
a p anel o f in dependent j u dges – j u dic ia l d iv is io n / b ench

Hig h C ourt J udge – a j u dge in t h e H ig h C ourt


ju ry
- a g ro up o f p eo ple th at d ecid es o n a c o urt c ase

Tell th e
ju ry
i n y o ur o w n w ord s w hat h ap pened .

expre ssio ns:
tr ia l b y j u ry
– to h ear th e c ase i n a c o urt w ith p arti c ip ati o n o f j u ry
to s e rv e o n a j u ry
– c arry o ut r e sp onsib iliti e s o f a j u ry


Pen altie s
Now l e t’ s ta lk a b out p ossib le p enalti e s o r th e ty p es o f p unis h m ent a nd w ord s a nd p hra se s to d esc rib e
th em .

death p enalt y
a ls o k no w n a s
ca pit a l p unis h m ent
i s th e e xecuti o n o f a p ers o n a fte r j u d gm ent b y a
le gal s y ste m

Our c rim in al s y ste m i s v ery c are fu l i n c ase s o f
death
penalt y .


su sp ended s e nte nce
- th e j u d ge’s d ecis io n to d ela y a p ris o n o r j a il s e nte nce.

A
su sp ended s e nte nce
u su ally r e m ain s o n th e
defe nd ant’ s c rim in al r e co rd p erm anentl y .



fo rfe it u re
- th e l o ss o f p ro perty o r m oney b ecause o f l e gal o blig ati o n o r a s a j u d ge’s d ecis io n.

The c o urt m ay a ls o o rd er
fo rfe it u re
o f p ro perty i n th is
case .


pro batio n
- a p erio d o f ti m e i n w hic h a p ers o n w ho h as c o m mitte d a c rim e i s a llo w ed to s ta y o ut o f
pris o n i f th at p ers o n b ehav es w ell.

She w as p ut o n
pro batio n
f o r 3 y ears .



to s u sp end a lic e nse
- u su ally r e fe rs to a d riv er’s l ic ense a nd m eans th at y o ur l ic ense i s ta ken a w ay
fo r a p erio d o f ti m e.

If y o u a re ti c kete d f o r to o m any v io la ti o ns w ith in a
sp ecific p erio d o f ti m e,
your lic e nse w ill b e s u sp ended
.



co rp ora l p unis h m ent
- p hysic al p unis h m ent

Corp ora l p unis h m ent
of s o m e f o rm i s s ti ll u se d i n
sc ho ols i n s o m e s ta te s.


pris o n s e nte nce / c u sto dia l s e nte nce / im pris o nm ent
- th ese te rm s a re a lm ost s im ila r i n m eanin g
and th us c o uld s e rv e to p ara p hra se . T hey a ll d esc rib e a s itu ati o n w hen s o m eo ne i s c o nv ic te d a nd s e nt
to s p end a s p ecifie d p erio d o f ti m e i n p ris o n.

A c o urt c an g iv e a r a nge o f
pris o n s e nte nce s
i n clu d in g
su sp end ed , f ix ed -te rm , a nd l ife s e nte nces.


a b an
- s o m eti m es a j u ry c an i m pose a b an w hic h m eans th at y o u a re p ro hib ite d f r o m d oin g
so m eth in g.

He w as
banned
f r o m e nte rin g th e b uild in g.


a f in e
- a n a m ount o f m oney a n o ffe nd er m ust p ay

A f in e
c an b e g iv en i n ste ad o f o r i n a d diti o n to
im pris o nm ent.


co m munit y s e rv ic e
- S om eti m es a j u ry c an d ecid e to s e nd a g uilty p ers o n to p erfo rm s o m e
co m munity s e rv ic e. C om munity s e rv ic e r e fe rs to u np aid w ork b enefic ia l f o r th e c o m munity .

Alte rn ati v e s e nte nces c an i n clu d e d iffe re nt c o m bin ati o ns
of th e f o llo w in g: a s u sp end ed s e nte nce, p ro bati o n a nd
co m munit y s e rv ic e
.



And h ere ’re s o m e o th er u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s:
se ria l c rim in al - a c rim in al i n v olv ed i n a n um ber o f c rim es;

to d ete r
- to p re v ent ( s o m eth in g) f r o m h ap penin g;

pre ventio n
- th e a ct o r p ra cti c e o f s to ppin g s o m eth in g b ad f r o m h ap penin g : th e a ct o f
pre v enti n g s o m eth in g;

to r e habilit a te
- to b rin g ( s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g) b ack to a n o rm al, h ealth y c o nd iti o n a fte r a n
illn ess, i n ju ry , d ru g p ro ble m , e tc .

la w -a bid in g
- o beyin g th e l a w : n o t d oin g a nyth in g th at th e l a w d oes n o t a llo w ;
antis o cia l b ehavio r
– s o cia l m is c o nd uct;

ju venile d elin quency
- d elin q uency a m ong c hild re n.

That’ s b asic ally a ll f o r c rim e a nd p unis h m ent v ocab ula ry . I t m ig ht s e em to b e to o d iffic ult to
mem oriz e a ll o f th em i n o ne d ay, b ut y o u d on’t h av e to ! T ake y o ur ti m e, m em oriz e b asic v ocab ula ry ,
and r e m em ber to u se th em i n y o ur w riti n g a nd o th er p arts o f th e I E LT S e xam in ati o n! G ood l u ck!

1 2. O ute r S pace
S pace e xp lo ra ti o n i s a ls o a m ong p opula r I E LT S to pic s, th o ugh y o u c an p ro bab ly o nly e nco unte r i t i n
t h e W riti n g S ecti o n 2 . P opula r q uesti o ns c o uld s o und l ik e: “ M any p eo ple th in k th at th e g o vern m ent
s h o uld s p end m oney to e xp lo re th e o ute r s p ace, w hile o th ers b elie v e th at i t’ s a w aste o f p ub lic
m oney. D is c uss b oth v ie w s a nd i n clu d e y o ur o pin io n”. W ell, w hile y o u m ig ht n eed s o m e ti m e to
g enera te e no ugh i d eas o n th e to pic , I w ill m ake s u re th at y o u h av e e no ugh w ord s to ta lk a nd w rite
a b out i t.

T he b ig b ang t h eory
I t’ s n o t o nly th e n am e o f a p opula r U S s itc o m , b ut a ls o a str o physic is ts ’ th eo ry w hic h d esc rib es h o w
o ur u niv ers e c am e to e xis te nce. A nd i t i s th e l e ad in g s c ie nti fic e xp la nati o n s o f a r.




The B ig B ang T heory
r a th er i n d eta ils d esc rib es th e
fir s t m om ents o f th e b ir th o f th e U niv ers e a nd s u b m its to
th e l a w s o f p hysic s.


B la ck H ole s
B la ck h o le s a re s tr a nge o bje cts a ttr a cti n g a l o t o f a tte nti o n o f m odern s c ie nti s ts a nd n o t o nly th em .
F ilm makers a nd w rite rs e xp lo it b la ck h o le s i n th eir i n te re st.

When a l a rg er s ta r c o lla p se s, i t c o nti n ues to f a ll i n o n
its e lf a nd c re ate s a
bla ck h ole .


Astr o naut

Betw een A pril 9 1 959 w hen th e f ir s t s e v en U .S .
astr o nauts
w ere p re se nte d a t a p re ss c o nfe re nce i n
Wash in gto n D .C . a nd 1 978 a to ta l o f 7 3 m en w ere
se le cte d a s a str o nauts b y th e N ASA

Ple ase p ay a tte nti o n to s p ellin g a s i t’ s c o nfu sin g f o r m any E SL s tu d ents :
.


Ano th er g o od te rm f r o m o ute r s p ace i s
co nste lla tio n
. C onste lla ti o n i s g ro up s o f s ta rs r e p re se nti n g a
certa in f ig ure i n th e s k y.

Conste lla tio ns
a re e asily r e co gniz a b le p atte rn s th at h elp
peo ple o rie nt th em se lv es u sin g th e n ig ht s k y.

Many o f y o u h av e p ro bab ly h eard o f th e w ord
eclip se
. B ut i t i s n o t o nly th e n am e o f a c hew in g g um o r
a c ar. I n o ur c o nte xt e clip se i s w hen th e E arth o r th e m oon p asse s th ro ugh a s h ad ow o f a no th er
heav enly b ody.

I h av e n ev er s e en a l u nar
eclip se
.


Mete orit e
. I th in k i n m ost E uro pean l a nguages th is w ord s o und s th e s a m e, b ut s ti ll I w ill g iv e a
defin iti o n o f i t.

Acco rd in g to W ik ip ed ia a
mete orit e
i s a s o lid p ie ce o f d eb ris f r o m a s o urc e s u ch a s a n a ste ro id o r a
co m et th at o rig in ate s i n o ute r s p ace a nd s u rv iv es i ts i m pact o n th e E arth 's s u rfa ce.

Cosm olo gy
- i n g enera l i t i s d efin ed a s a b ra nch o f a str o no m y i n v olv in g th e o rig in a nd e v olu ti o n o f
th e u niv ers e .


Cosm olo gis ts
p uzzle o ver e xo ti c c o ncep ts s u ch a s th e
dark m atte r, th e s tr in g th eo ry , a nd d ark e nerg y. T hey
questi o n w heth er th ere i s o ne u niv ers e o r m any.



Lig ht Y ear
The m ost c o nfu sin g f a ct a b out th e l ig ht y ear i s th at i t a ctu ally m easu re s d is ta nce r a th er th an ti m e. A
lig ht y ear i s d efin ed b y h o w f a r a b eam o f l ig ht tr a v els i n o ne y ear. A nd i t’ s v ery l o ng d is ta nce - s ix
tr illio n m ile s.

Milk y W ay
It i s n o t o nly th e n am e o f a p opula r c ho co la te b ra nd , b ut a ls o th e n am e o f a s p ir a l g ala xy o f w hic h o ur
so la r s y ste m i s p art.


If y o u a re s o m ew here w ith a v ery d ark n ig ht s k y, y o u c an
so m eti m es s e e th e
Milk y W ay
a s a th ic k b and o f s ta rs i n
th e s k y.



The S ola r S yste m
- i f y o u a re f a m ilia r w ith th e m eanin g o f th e w ord s o la r ( s o m eth in g c o nnecte d w ith
th e S un), y o u m ig ht k no w th at th e S ola r S yste m i s f u ll o f p la nets , m oons, a ste ro id s, c o m ets , m in o r
pla nets , a nd m any o th er e xciti n g o bje cts .

Gra vit a tio nal f o rc e
- h av e y o u s e en th e m ovie G ra v ity w ith S and ra B ullo ck? T hen y o u m ig ht k no w
th at i t i s th e f o rc e o f a ttr a cti o n b etw een a ll m asse s i n th e u niv ers e ; e sp ecia lly th e a ttr a cti o n o f th e
earth 's m ass f o r b odie s n ear i ts s u rfa ce.

Space s p in off
- a n i te m th at h as u se s o n E arth b ut w as o rig in ally d ev elo ped f o r u se i n s p ace.
Acco rd in g to W ik ip ed ia , s p in o ffs a re c o m merc ia l p ro ducts a nd s e rv ic es w hic h h av e b een d ev elo ped
with th e h elp o f N ASA th ro ugh r e se arc h a nd d ev elo pm ent c o ntr a cts .
Now w e h av e d is c usse d m ajo r s p ace te rm s a nd i t’ s ti m e to g o th ro ugh s o m e i m porta nt n am es a nd
fa cts w hic h y o u a ls o f in d v ery h elp fu l i n y o ur p re p ara ti o n f o r I E LT S. I f y o u f in d th em i n te re sti n g, y o u
mig ht r e ad m ore i n fo rm ati o n o n th e w eb .

Nam es a n d f a cts

Hubble s p ace t e le sc o pe
- a s p ace te le sc o pe th at w as l a unched i n to l o w E arth o rb it i n 1 990 a nd
re m ain s i n o pera ti o n.


Ste phen H aw kin g
- c o sm olo gis t w ho i s b elie v ed to b e o ne o f th e g re ate st s c ie nti s ts a liv e.

Yuri G agarin
w as th e f ir s t p ers o n to tr a v el to s p ace.



Ala n S hepard
w as th e f ir s t A meric an i n s p ace.

Neil A rm str o ng
w as th e f ir s t p ers o n to w alk o n th e m oon.

1 3. A rt
W elc o m e to th e n ext to pic o f o ur I E LT S V ocab ula ry B ooste r c o urs e . I t’ s ti m e to s tu d y s o m e a rt
w ord s. A no th er p opula r to pic i n I E LT S! R ead y to s ta rt? B e a tte nti v e, w ork h ard , a nd y o u w ill g et
y o ur ta rg et o r a n e v en h ig her s c o re !

L et’ s s ta rt w ith th e te rm
Art
i ts e lf. I t’ s o fte n u se d i n e xp re ssio ns d efin in g d iffe re nt ty p es o f a rt. T here
a re q uite a l o t o f th em .

F in e a rts
- T yp e o f a rt th at c re ate s b eauti fu l th in gs. I t c o uld b e p ain ti n g, s c ulp tu re , o r m usic .

The m use um c o lle cti o n c o nsis ts o f th o usa nd s r a re
orig in al w ork s o f
fin e a rt.

A rts a nd c ra fts
- th e a cti v ity o f m akin g b eauti fu l a nd u se fu l o bje cts .

You s h o uld v is it o ne o f th e l o cal s to re s s e llin g
arts a nd
cra fts
, s u ch a s p otte ry a nd b ask ets .


V is u al a rts
- c re ati o ns th at w e c an l o ok a t. F or i n sta nce, p ain ti n g, s c ulp tu re , a rc hite ctu re , f ilm

Ano th er g o od e xam ple o f p opula r
vis u al a rt
i s f ilm ,
whic h i n clu d es d ocum enta rie s a nd s h o rt f ilm s.


P la stic a rts
- e v ery ty p e o f a rt w e c an to uch. S culp tu re w ould b e a g o od e xam ple .

P erfo rm in g a rts -
a v ery w id e te rm m eanin g a nyth in g f r o m c in em a, th eate r, o r a ny o th er f o rm o f
v is u al a rt to m odern c o m pute r p re se nta ti o ns. T he k ey c hara cte ris ti c i s th at i t’ s p erfo rm ed .

Parti c ip ati n g i n
perfo rm in g a rts
p ro gra m s h elp s
stu d ents d ev elo p a s tr o nger s e nse o f i n d iv id ualis m , s e lf-
re fle cti o n, a nd s e lf- e ste em .

I h o pe y o u n o w b ette r u nd ers ta nd w hat i s th e d iffe re nce b etw een th e v ario us ty p es o f a rt. N ow l e t’ s
dis c uss s o m e o th er w ord s c o nnecte d w ith a rt. L et’ s s ta rt w ith
wate rc o lo r.
F ir s tl y i t’ s a p ig m ent u se d
with w ate r to c re ate p ain ti n gs. S eco nd ly a w ate rc o lo r i s a p ain ti n g c re ate d w ith w ate rc o lo rs .

Wate rc o lo rs
a re i d eal f o r l a nd sc ap e p ain ti n g.



You p ro bab ly h eard th e w ord
s k etc h
w hen d is c ussin g s o m e p ro je cts , b ut i n a rt i t i s a q uic k i n fo rm al
dra w in g to c ap tu re th e e sse nti a ls o f a n o bje ct.

Sketc hes a re o fte n d one i n i n k o r c harc o al.

portr a it
- i s a p ortr a yal o f a p ers o n s h o w in g th e p ers o n’s f a ce ( c o uld b e a d ra w in g, a p ho to gra p h, o r
a s c ulp tu re ).

Som e p eo ple s a y th at a rti s ts m ere ly p ain t s e lf-
portr a it s
as i t s o lv es th e p ro ble m o f h av in g to f in d a m odel.

la ndsc a pe
- i s a w ork o f a rt th at f e atu re s a s c ene o f l a nd o r c o untr y sid e ( in o th er w ord s n atu re )

Landsc a pes
c an r a nge f r o m o il p ain ti n gs to g auche a nd
paste ls .


still- lif e p ain tin g
- i s a p ain ti n g f e atu rin g a nyth in g th at d oes n o t m ove.

Still- lif e a rt
w as c o m mon i n th e a ncie nt w orld .



oil p ain tin g
- i s a te chniq ue o f p ain ti n g w ith o il p ain ts . T he s e co nd m eanin g i s a p ic tu re p ain te d w ith
oil p ain ts .

Fat o ver l e an i s o ne o f th e f u nd am enta l c o ncep ts o f
o il
pain tin g
.

fig ura tiv e a rt
- i s a ny ty p e o f a rt th at a ccura te ly r e p re se nts a n i m age f r o m th e r e al w orld .

Fig ura tiv e a rt
h as a h is to ry a s l o ng a s th e h is to ry o f
re p re se nta ti o n i ts e lf.


co nte m pora ry a rt
- a b it c o ntr o vers ia l te rm . T he e asy d efin iti o n i s c o nte m pora ry to u s. I t m eans th at
it h as b een c re ate d d urin g o ur l ife ti m es. U su ally c o nte m pora ry a rt r e fe rs to a rtw ork s m ad e a fte r 1 970
by s ti ll l iv in g a rti s ts .

Anyth in g c an b e d one i n
co nte m pora ry a rt,
because

th ere i s n o s e t w ay to c re ate th is m odern a rt s ty le .


Now l e t’ s ta lk a b out w hic h a rt s ty le s e xis t.

Realis m
- a n a rti s ti c m ovem ent a tte m pti n g to p ortr a y th e l iv es o f o rd in ary p eo ple a nd th eir
env ir o nm ents

Realis m
, a ls o k no w n a s th e R ealis t s c ho ol, w as a m id
nin ete enth c entu ry a rt m ovem ent.



Abstr a ct a rt
i s a g enre o f a rt w hic h d oes N OT d ep ic t a p ers o n, p la ce, o r th in g i n th e n atu ra l w orld .
Obje cts a re o fte n s im plifie d o r d is to rte d .

Abstr a ct a rt
mig ht l o ok a s i f i t w ere s im ple to c re ate ,
with a s p la sh o f p ain t h ere a nd a b ru sh s tr o ke th ere .


Ano th er a rti s ti c s ty le i s
im pre ssio nis m
- a s ty le i n w hic h th e a rti s t c ap tu re s th e i m age o f a n o bje ct a s
so m eo ne w ould s e e i t i f th ey j u st c aught a g lim pse o f i t. I n o th er w ord s, i t’ s a b out th e a rti s t’ s

im pre ssio n.

Manet s ig nific antl y i n flu enced th e d ev elo pm ent o f
im pre ssio nis m
.




When ta lk in g a b out a rt m any p eo ple ta lk a b out
harm ony
. H arm ony i s a p le asin g c o m bin ati o n o r
arra ngem ent o f th in gs. F or i n sta nce, a h arm ony o f c o lo rs .

Ex.: O nce y o u u nd ers ta nd th e b asic s o f c o lo r th eo ry , y o u
can s ta rt l e arn in g h o w to c o m bin e c o lo rs i n to a c o lo rfu l
harm ony
.



Apart f r o m h arm ony i t’ s i m porta nt to k no w w hat
co m posit io n
is . I t i s th e o rg aniz a ti o n o f th e e le m ents
of d esig n i n a n a rt w ork d one a cco rd in g to p rin cip le s o f d esig n.

Com posit io n
r u le s p ro vid e a s ta rti n g p oin t f o r d ecid in g
on a c o m positi o n f o r p ain ti n g.

Now l e t’ s d is c uss w hat th e p rin cip le s o f d esig n a re . O ne o f th em i s u nity .
Unit y
i s th e c o here nce o f a n a rtw ork . U nity a llo w s u s to f e el th at a ll p arts o f th e p ie ce w ork to geth er.

“ The e sse n ce o f b ea uty i s
unity
i n v a rie ty . “
Willia m S om ers e t M augham

In g enera l th e
prin cip le s o f d esig n
re fe r to th e w ays i n w hic h a rti s ts o rg aniz e th e v is u al e le m ents o f
art. T ra d iti o nally th ey i n clu d e: b ala nce, e m phasis , c o ntr a st, u nity , m ovem ent, a nd r h yth m .
Quite i n te re sti n g, i s n ’t i t? ! N ow l e t’ s m ove o n. W hat tr a it o f c hara cte r d o y o u th in k i s i m porta nt to
hav e to c re ate w ork s o f a rt? T hat’ s r ig ht, c re ati v ity !
Cre ativ it y
i s u sin g i m agin ati o n r a th er th an
im ita ti n g s o m eth in g.

Cre ativ e
p eo ple a re a b le to l o ok a t th in gs a nd s itu ati o ns
in n o vel w ays a nd f r o m d iffe re nt a ngels a nd
pers p ecti v es.


Ano th er i m porta nt p hra se i s
fo ca l p oin t,
w hic h i s th e c ente r o f i n te re st o r a cti v ity i n a w ork o f a rt.

A p ain te r c an e m phasiz e a
fo ca l p oin t
th ro ugh th e

co m positi o n, c o lo r o r th e r a nge o f to nes u se d .


I h av e a ls o a d ded s o m e v ery u se fu l a rt r e la te d te rm s a nd p hra se s. T hey a ll h av e d efin iti o ns. L ook
th ro ugh th em a nd tr y to m em oriz e a nd u se th em i n a c o nte xt.

Additio nal v ocab ula ry
Aesth etic s
- th e s tu d y o f b eauty ;

Patte rn
- a p rin cip le o f a rt w hic h m eans th e r e p eti ti o n o f e le m ents ;

Motif
- a r e p eate d p atte rn , o fte n c re ati n g a s e nse o f r h yth m ;

A cu lt u re v ult u re
- s o m eo ne w ho i s v ery i n te re ste d i n a rt a nd c ultu re ;

art g alle ry / e xhib it s
– p la ce w here p ie ces o f a rt a re d is p la yed ;

cu ra to r
- a p ers o n w ho i s i n c harg e o f th e th in gs i n a a rt g alle ry , m use um , e tc .

artif a ct
- a s im ple o bje ct ( s u ch a s a to ol o r w eap on) th at w as m ad e b y p eo ple i n th e p ast;

maste rp ie ce
- a p ers o n’s g re ate st p eace o f w ork ;

herit a ge
- th e tr a d iti o ns, a chie v em ents , b elie fs , e tc ., th at a re p art o f th e h is to ry o f a g ro up o r n ati o n;

philis tin e
- a p ers o n w ho i s g uid ed b y m ate ria lis m a nd i s u su ally d is d ain fu l o f i n te lle ctu al o r a rti s ti c
valu es;

vis u al m eta phor
– v is u al p atte rn o r o bje ct.

1 4. C on clu sio n
S o, th at b rin gs u s to th e e nd o f a ll th e v ocab ula ry th at I h av e p re p are d f o r y o u i n th is c o urs e . I h o pe
y o u l e arn ed s o m eth in g n ew , r e fr e sh ed th e m ate ria l y o u a lr e ad y k new , a nd s y ste m iz e d u se fu l l e xic al
u nits f o r I E LT S. B ut b e a w are th at th is w as th e f ir s t p art o f o ur V ocab ula ry B ooste r s e rie s. T he n ext
p art i s c o m in g s o on! S o s e e y o u i n th e n ext v id eo s! T hanks f o r w atc hin g! H av e a g re at ti m e p re p arin g
f o r y o ur e xam !


Good L uck!
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