IELTS Band 9 Vocab Secrets ( PDFDrive )

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IE LT S B AN D 9
VO CAB S E C RETS

The T en E sse n tia l I E LT S V oca b ula ry T op ic s
Wit h D efin it io n s
Ten M od el E ssa ys
an d
Exa m ple s f o r I E LT S S pea kin g

Publis h ed b y C am brid ge I E LT S C onsu lt a nts
Cam brid ge, U nit e d K in gdom

Cop yrig h t © C am brid ge I E LT S C onsu lt a n ts a n d J essic a A lp ern e, P ete r S w ir e s 2 014.
All r ig h ts a re r e serv ed , in clu din g r e sale r ig h ts .
This e -b ook is s o ld s u bje ct t o t h e c o ndit io n t h at it w ill n ot b e
co p ie d , s to re d o r r e d is trib ute d in a n y f o rm .

Als o o n K in dle f r o m t h e s a m e p ublis h er:


.



Pack ed w it h a dvic e , e xam ple s, m odels t o f o llo w a nd r e al B and 9 e ssa ys
to h elp y ou g et t h e b est p ossib le r e su lt .

Conte nts
In tr o ducti o n f r o m th e a uth o rs
How to u se th is b ook
FA Qs a b out th e I E LT S v ocab ula ry to pic s
Topic 1 : W ork a nd c are ers
Topic 2 : E ducati o n a nd s c ho olin g
Topic 3 C hild re n a nd f a m ilie s
Topic 4 : N atu re , th e e nv ir o nm ent a nd e nerg y
Topic 5 : C ultu re , a rt a nd tr a d iti o ns
Topic 6 : H ealth care , h ealth a nd s p ort
Topic 7 : G lo bal c halle nges
Topic 8 : C iti e s a nd i n fr a str u ctu re
Topic 9 : C ountr y sid e a nd a gric ultu re
Topic 1 0: G overn m ent a nd th e a uth o riti e s
Dev elo pin g y o ur I E LT S v ocab ula ry
Overv ie w : T he I E LT S A cad em ic T ask 2 e ssa y ty p es
The m ost c o m mon m is ta kes i n I E LT S W riti n g
More f r o m C am brid ge I E LT S C onsu lta nts

In tr o d uctio n f r o m t h e a u th ors


There a re tw o p arts o f th e I E LT S e xam i n w hic h th e te st a sk s s o m e q uesti o ns a nd y o u m ust c re ate
in d ep end ent r e sp onse s: th e S peakin g T est a nd th e W riti n g T est. M any p eo ple d o n o t r e alis e th at th e
IE LT S s y ste m u se s a g ro up o f te n k ey to pic s to f o rm ula te a ll o f th ese q uesti o ns i n S peakin g a nd
Writi n g. I f y o u u nd ers ta nd th ese te n to pic s, a nd a b ove a ll i f y o u k no w s o m e a d vanced v ocab ula ry o n
each to pic to u se i n y o ur S peakin g a nd W riti n g a nsw ers , y o u c an m ake a h uge d iffe re nce to y o ur
IE LT S B and s c o re , e v en i f y o ur E nglis h c o nta in s s o m e m is ta kes.
This b ook i n tr o duces y o u to th ese te n I E LT S to pic s. E ach o f o ur te n m odule s s u m maris e s th e v ario us
ele m ents o f a to pic , a nd g iv es a n e xam ple A cad em ic T ask 2 W riti n g T ask e xactl y l ik e th e o nes y o u
will s e e i n th e e xam . I t a ls o e xp la in s h o w to a nsw er th e w riti n g T ask . E ach m odule th en te aches a
la rg e a m ount o f v ocab ula ry r e la te d to th e m odule to pic , c o nta in ed i n a B and 9 m odel e ssa y s o th at y o u
se e h o w th e w ord s a re u se d i n I E LT S W riti n g.
Each m odule h as a c le ar-to -fo llo w d efin iti o n o f e ach w ord o r p hra se , a nd a f u rth er e xam ple o f h o w to
use th ese to pic w ord s a gain i n th e S peakin g p art o f th e te st, s o th at y o u a re r e ad y to u se th e
vocab ula ry i n b oth W riti n g a nd S peakin g.
If y o u a re n o t y et f a m ilia r w ith th e d iffe re nt ty p es o f I E LT S A cad em ic W riti n g T ask 2 e ssa ys, p le ase
sta rt b y r e ad in g o ur ‘ O verv ie w ’ f r o m th e ta b le o f C onte nts . I f y o u h av e a lr e ad y r e ad o ur o th er b ooks
on th is c o ncep t, p le ase g o s tr a ig ht to th e T opic M odule s to b egin e xp and in g y o ur I E LT S v ocab ula ry .
If y o u a re n o t y et f a m ilia r w ith th e d iffe re nt p arts o f th e I E LT S S peakin g te st, p le ase c o nsid er r e ad in g
our
Band 9 S peakin g b ook
f o r h elp , e ith er b efo re o r a fte r y o u f in is h th is b ook.
If y o u n eed a d ic ti o nary w hile u sin g th is b ook, w e r e co m mend th e f r e e
Cam brid ge D ic tio narie s
Onlin e
f r o m C am brid ge U niv ers ity P re ss.

Don’t j u st tr u st to l u ck i n y o ur I E LT S e xam – th e k ey i s e xp ert a d vic e!

Je ssic a A lp ern e & P ete r S w ir e s
Cam brid ge I E LT S C onsu lta nts
cam brid geie lts @ outl o ok.c o m

How t o u se t h is b ook

This b ook w ill te ach y o u a v ery l a rg e a m ount o f v ocab ula ry o f e xactl y th e ty p e th at th e I E LT S
exam in ers w ant to s e e a nd h ear f r o m y o u i n th e e xam , c o verin g th e te n I E LT S to pic s. I t i s i m porta nt
th at y o u p re p are to a nsw er q uesti o ns o n
all
o f th ese te n to pic s, b ecause th ey a ll m ay b e u se d i n th e
te st. T here fo re , d o n o t s ta rt b y tr y in g to r e m em ber a ll th e w ord s f r o m M odule 1 , th en a ll th e w ord s
fr o m M odule 2 a nd s o o n.
Try to l e arn a nd p ra cti s e a s m all n um ber o f w ord s f r o m M odule s 1 to 1 0 a t f ir s t, a nd th en a s lig htl y
la rg er g ro up o f w ord s f r o m M odule s 1 to 1 0, a nd s o o n. I n th is w ay, y o u w ill d ev elo p a w id e I E LT S
vocab ula ry o n a ll th e to pic s, a nd n o t b eco m e a ‘ s p ecia lis t’ i n j u st o ne to pic .

FA Q s a b ou t t h e I E LT S v o ca b ula ry t o p ic s


Why d oes t h e I E LT S e xam u se t h ese t e n t o pic s a ll t h e t im e?
The I E LT S te st m anagers b elie v e th at th ese to pic s a re th e m ost s u ite d to a d vanced , a cad em ic
dis c ussio n i n th e w orld to day, a nd a ls o th at p eo ple w ho ta ke I E LT S s h o uld h av e a r e aso nab le
und ers ta nd in g a nd i n te re st r e gard in g th ese a re as.
I s e e t h at o ne T opic is a bout ‘ A gric u lt u re ,’ f o r e xam ple . I k now lit tle a bout t h is , e ven in m y
nativ e la nguage. I s t h is a p ro ble m ?
No! R em em ber th at i n I E LT S S peakin g a nd A cad em ic W riti n g, y o u a re n o t e xp ecte d to k no w
sp ecia lis e d te chnic al w ord s o r u nd ers ta nd c o m ple x i s su es. T he v ocab ula ry e xp ecte d i s w hat a n o rm al
pers o n c an m eet w hen r e ad in g th e m ed ia , n ew sp ap ers , p opula r w eb site s a nd m agazin es o n th ese
su b je cts . D on’t w orry i f y o u th in k s o m e o f th ese to pic s s e em to o a d vanced – th e v ocab ula ry th at w e
sh o w y o u w ill e nab le y o u to a nsw er q uesti o ns i n th ese a re as q uite e asily , w ith s o m e p ra cti c e.
Do I n eed t o r e m em ber a ll o f t h e w ord s in t h is b ook ?
You s h o uld tr y to r e m em ber a g ro up o f w ord s o n e ach to pic , a nd p ra cti s e u sin g th em i n y o ur w riti n g
and s p eakin g. P eo ple h av e d iffe re nt s ty le s o f m em ory , o f c o urs e . W e b elie v e th at a ty p ic al I E LT S
cand id ate s h o uld b e a b le to l e arn a nd u se a t l e ast te n n ew w ord s a nd p hra se s f o r e ach o f th e te n
to pic s. T his s h o uld m ake a m assiv e d iffe re nce to th e s tr e ngth o f y o ur I E LT S W riti n g a nd S peakin g.
Will t h is b ook h elp m e w it h t h e R eadin g a nd L is te nin g I E LT S t e sts ?
Yes, b ecause th e te n to pic s a re a ls o u se d to f o rm ula te th e R ead in g a nd L is te nin g m ate ria ls . T he
Read in g a nd L is te nin g p ap ers w ill a d diti o nally c o nta in s o m e q uite s p ecia lis e d v ocab ula ry , b ut th e
IE LT S te sts a re c are fu lly d esig ned s o th at y o u s h o uld b e a b le to g et a h ig h b and e v en i f y o u d on’t
kno w th is m ore s p ecia lis e d l a nguage.

Top ic 1 : W ork a n d c a re ers


About T opic 1

The
Work a nd c a re ers
to pic i n clu d es i s su es o f o pportu niti e s a nd p ro ble m s a t w ork , w ays o f
moti v ati n g a nd r e w ard in g w ork ers , th e w ork /life b ala nce, c hanges i n p atte rn s o f j o bs a nd w ork ( fo r
exam ple , th e g ro w th i n w ork in g f r o m h o m e), c are er c ho ic es a nd tr a in in g, a nd o ccasio nally th e
re la ti o nsh ip b etw een g o vern m ent a nd b usin esse s o r i n d ustr ie s.
You a re n o t e xp ecte d to k no w a ny v ocab ula ry c o nnecte d to s p ecia lis e d a re as o f f in ance,
mark eti n g a nd s o o n.

Topic 1 E xam ple T ask

Som e e m plo yers o ffe r t h eir e m plo yees s u bsid is e d m em bersh ip o f g ym s a nd s p orts c lu bs,
belie vin g t h at t h is w ill m ake t h eir s ta ff h ea lth ie r a nd t h us m ore e ffe ctiv e a t w ork . O th er e m plo yers
se e n o b en efit i n d oin g s o .
Consid er t h e a rg um en ts f r o m b oth a sp ects o f t h is p ossib le d eb ate , a nd r e a ch a c o nclu sio n.

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a n O pin io n> D is c ussio n ty p e T ask . Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , p re se nt tw o o r th re e
id eas o n e ach s id e o f th e d is c ussio n, a nd th en g iv e y o ur o pin io n i n th e c o nclu sio n.
If y o u a re n o t a lr e ad y f a m ilia r w ith th e d iffe re nt ty p es o f I E LT S A cad em ic T ask 2 e ssa y,
ple ase s e e th e ‘ O verv ie w ’ a t th e e nd o f th is b ook. I t i s e sse nti a l to b e f a m ilia r w ith th ese d iffe re nt
essa y ty p es b efo re y o u ta ke th e e xam .
The f o llo w in g m odel e ssa y s h o w s y o u k ey w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u c an u se to i n cre ase
yo ur b and s c o re w hen d is c ussin g th is to pic , i n b oth w riti n g a nd s p eakin g. T he k ey w ord s a re
hig hlig hte d in b old
.



Band 9 m odel e ssa y

Em plo yers a re a lw ays s e ekin g w ays to e nhance th eir e m plo yees’
pro ductiv it y
, a nd
su bsid is in g
h ealth y p urs u its m ay b e o ne w ay o f a chie v in g th is . T here a re a rg um ents o n b oth s id es,
ho w ev er, w hic h w e w ill d is c uss h ere .
On th e o ne h and , i t m ig ht b e s a id th at i f w ork ers a re f itte r a nd l e ss s tr e sse d , th eir w ork in g ti m e
will b e m ore e ffic ie nt, l e ad in g to h ig her l e v els o f
outp ut
a nd s e rv ic e. F urth erm ore , th e
work /lif e
bala nce
o f th e s ta ff w ill h o pefu lly b e i m pro ved , b ecause th eir l e is u re ti m e w ill b e m ore f u lfillin g.
This m ay e v en b e m ore
motiv atin g
th an
pay in cre m ents ,
perk s,
or
f in ancia l r e w ard s
su ch a s
bonuse s
o r
in ce ntiv es
w hic h m ay b e h ard to a tta in . F in ally , f e elin g h ealth ie r m ay l e ad to b ette r
jo b
sa tis fa ctio n
whic h i s i n i ts e lf a m oti v ati n g f a cto r.
Conv ers e ly , th e p ro ble m w ith s u ch l e is u re -b ase d s u b sid ie s i s th at th eir e ffic acy i s v ir tu ally

im possib le to q uanti fy . F or e xam ple , w ith
ta rg et-r e la te d
p aym ents , e m plo yers c an a t l e ast s e e
wheth er th e o bje cti v es a re r e ached o r n o t. I t m ig ht a ls o b e s a id th at, i f th is b ud get w as s p ent o n ( fo r
in sta nce)
on t h e j o b t r a in in g
o r
day r e le ase p ro gra m mes
, th e e m plo yees w ould a chie v e b ette r
ca re er p ro gre ssio n
a nd h av e b ette r
jo b
pro sp ects .
These m atte rs a re a ll e asie r to
measu re
,
esp ecia lly i n
p erfo rm ance r e vie w s
and
a ppra is a ls ,
and m ay e v en h elp to r e d uce th e r is k o f
re dundancy
if th e c o m pany
r e str u ctu re s, d ow nsiz es
or
o uts o urc e s
its
w ork fo rc e .
Overa ll, i t s e em s th at, w hile h ealth -re la te d s u b sid ie s a re
su perfic ia lly
a ttr a cti v e, th e l a ck o f
measu ra bilit y
i s a s u b sta nti a l d ra w back. S pend in g f u nd s o n
ongoin g t r a in in g
w ould a p pear to b e a
bette r u se o f c o m pany o r
Hum an R eso urc e s
b ud gets .

(2 59 w ord s)

Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g

These w ord s a nd p hra se s a re l is te d i n th e o rd er th at th ey a p pear i n th e e ssa y


pro ductiv it y =
th e a b ility o f p eo ple to p ro duce u se fu l r e su lts a t w ork .

Exam ple o f u sin g t h is v oca bula ry it e m in t h e I E LT S S peak in g T est:

‘M y c o untr y i s n o t a s a d vanced a s s o m e o th er c o untr ie s i n o ur i n d ustr ia l s e cto r. P ro ducti v ity
and q uality a re s ti ll q uite l o w .’

Im porta nt:
P le ase r e m em ber th at th ese e xtr a e xam ple s e nte nces a re d esig ned to s h o w y o u
ways o f u sin g th is v ocab ula ry i n I E LT S S peakin g, a nd s o th e e xam ple s m ay i n clu d e c o ntr a cti o ns
(‘
don’t ’
e tc ) a nd p ers o nal s to rie s a b out th e s p eaker a nd th eir f a m ily o r f r ie nd s. T his i s f in e i n th e
Speakin g te st, b ut n o t i n T ask 2 w riti n g, w hic h s h o uld n ev er h av e c o ntr a cti o ns o r p ers o nal s to rie s.
These S peakin g e xam ple s a ls o s o m eti m es i n clu d e l e ss f o rm al w ord s s u ch a s ‘ re ally ’ o r
‘g o od.’ A gain , th ese w ord s a re a ccep ta b le i n S peakin g, b ut tr y to u se m ore f o rm al w ord s i n W riti n g,
su ch a s ‘ s u b sta nti a lly ’ o r ‘ p ositi v e.’


to s u bsid is e =
to p ay
part o f th e c o st o f s o m eth in g, u su ally i n o rd er to h elp p eo ple .

Exam ple o f u sin g t h is v oca bula ry it e m in t h e I E LT S S peak in g T est:

‘T he g o vern m ent c o uld e nco ura ge c hild re n to b e h ealth ie r b y s u b sid is in g s w im min g l e sso ns
and s p orts c o achin g a t w eekend s.’

outp ut
= th e a m ount o f w ork o r g o ods p ro duced .

In E uro pe, i n d ustr ia l o utp ut h as d ecre ase d , m ayb e b ecause o f c o m peti ti o n f r o m p ro ducers i n
oth er c o nti n ents .

work /lif e b ala nce
= th e a b ility to w ork h ard b ut a ls o e njo y a g o od q uality f a m ily a nd s o cia l
life

Peo ple a re w ork in g l o ng h o urs th ese d ays, a nd s o th eir w ork /life b ala nce i s a ffe cte d , l e ad in g
to s tr e ss.

to m otiv ate p eople = t o g iv e t h em p osit iv e r e aso ns f o r w ork in g h ard

If e m plo yees a re g iv en r e gula r f e ed back, th ey w ill p ro bab ly b e w ell m oti v ate d a nd
co m mitte d .

pay in cre m ents
= p ay r is e s/in cre ase s

In m y c o untr y , p ay i n cre m ents h av e b een v ery l o w b ecause o f th e f in ancia l c ris is .

perk s = r e w ard f r o m a n e m plo yer w hic h a re n ot f in ancia l ( e g f r e e lu nch es, a c a r e tc )
Pers o nally , I ’ d l ik e to w ork f o r a c o m pany th at g iv es l o ts o f p erk s, b ecause I w ould f in d th is
very e njo yab le .

fin ancia l r e w ard s = a ny f o rm o f m oney p aym ent ( s a la ry , c o m mis sio n, p ensio n e tc )
Bein g a p rim ary te acher m ay b e s a ti s fy in g, b ut th e f in ancia l r e w ard s a re n o t h ig h

bonuse s
= m oney g iv en i n a d diti o n to s a la ry , u su ally i n r e tu rn f o r a chie v in g ta rg ets

Appare ntl y s o m e i n v estm ent b ankers c an e arn m illio ns o f d olla rs i n b onuse s.

in ce ntiv es
= a ny r e w ard th at m akes p eo ple w ork h ard er

Som e e m plo yers o ffe r v acati o ns o r p arti e s a s i n centi v es i f th e te am h its i ts s a le s ta rg ets .

jo b s a tis fa ctio n =
enjo ym ent o f a j o b f o r n o n-fin ancia l r e aso ns

I g et a l o t o f j o b s a ti s fa cti o n f r o m m y w ork a t th e w ild life c entr e , a lth o ugh th e f in ancia l
re w ard s a re q uite l o w .

ta rg et-r e la te d
= d ep end ent o n h itti n g a ta rg et

My b oss o nce o ffe re d m e a ta rg et- re la te d b onus, b ut i t w as a lm ost i m possib le to a chie v e!

on t h e j o b t r a in in g =
tr a in in g w hile w ork in g, n o t b y l e av in g w ork to g o to c o lle ge e tc

My s is te r h as f o und th at th e o n th e j o b tr a in in g s h e g ets a t h er b ank i s v ery u se fu l, a nd s h e h as
pro gre sse d w ell b ecause o f th is .

ongoin g t r a in in g =
tr a in in g th ro ugho ut y o ur ti m e i n a j o b, n o t j u st a t th e s ta rt

I e njo yed m y w ork a t th e a ir lin e a t f ir s t, b ut I s o on f o und th at th ere w as n o o ngo in g tr a in in g
and m y s k ills w ere n’t r e ally d ev elo ped .

day r e le ase p ro gra m mes
= p ro gra m mes o f tr a in in g o r e d ucati o n w hen e m plo yees c an s p end
enti r e d ays o ut o f w ork

I f e el th at e m plo yers s h o uld b e m uch m ore f le xib le r e gard in g tr a in in g, f o r e xam ple b y
su b sid is in g d ay r e le ase p ro gra m mes o r j o b e xchanges w ith o th er c o m panie s.

ca re er p ro gre ssio n
= th e a b ility to a d vance y o ur c are er

The p ro ble m w ith b ein g a f r e ela nce p ho to gra p her i s th at th ere ’s n o r e al c are er p ro gre ssio n,
unle ss y o u b eco m e v ery f a m ous.

jo b
pro sp ects =
th e p ossib ility o f p ro m oti o n o r h ig her l e v el w ork i n f u tu re

I r e m em ber a n i n te rv ie w w hen th e e m plo yer to ld m e th ere w ere e xcelle nt j o b p ro sp ects i n
th eir f ir m f o r y o ung p eo ple . I n r e ality , th is w as n o t r e ally tr u e.

to m easu re =
to a sse ss th e d im ensio ns o f s o m eth in g

Jo b s a ti s fa cti o n m ay b e i m porta nt, b ut c an w e r e ally m easu re i t?

su perfic ia l =
no t a d dre ssin g d eep o r i m porta nt i s su es

I’ m n o t a b ig f a n o f tr a d iti o nal m usic . I f in d th e l y ric s r a th er o ld -fa sh io ned a nd s u p erfic ia l f o r
modern l is te ners .

perfo rm ance r e vie w s/a ppra is a ls =
meeti n g a t w hic h a n e m plo yer g iv es f e ed back to a w ork er
on th eir w ork o ver a f ix ed p erio d.

I r e m em ber b ein g w orrie d a b out m y j o b a t f ir s t, b ut a t m y s ix m onth a p pra is a l m y m anager
to ld m e s h e w as p le ase d w ith m y e ffo rts .

re dundancy =
a situ ati o n w here a w ork er l o se s th eir j o b b ecause o f c hanges i n th e c o m pany
(n o t b ecause o f p ers o nal m is ta kes) ( v erb = to m ake s o m eo ne r e d und ant)

In m y h o m e to w n, th e te xti le f a cto rie s h av e c lo se d a nd m any p eo ple h av e b een m ad e
re d und ant.

to r e str u ctu re =
to c hange th e o rg anis a ti o n o f a c o m pany, u su ally i n o rd er to m ake i t m ore

effe cti v e o r to s a v e m oney.

We u se d to h av e a l a rg e tr a in in g d ep artm ent i n m y o ffic e, b ut i n o ur r e cent r e str u ctu re i t w as
elim in ate d a nd th e s ta ff w ere m ad e r e d und ant.

to d ow nsiz e =
to m ake a n o rg anis a ti o n s m alle r a nd e m plo y f e w er p eo ple

My f a th er’s c o lle ge u se d to e m plo y a lm ost o ne th o usa nd p eo ple , b ut th en i t d ow nsiz e d a nd
no w h as l e ss th an f iv e h und re d .

to o uts o urc e =
to s to p d oin g w ork i n sid e th e c o m pany a nd s e nd i t to o th er c o m panie s o r o th er
co untr ie s, u su ally to s a v e m oney

Many A meric an c o m panie s h av e o uts o urc ed th eir I T o pera ti o ns to A sia n c o untr ie s, w here
pro ducti v ity i s s im ila r a nd s a la rie s a re l o w er.

th e w ork fo rc e =
th e to ta l n um ber o f p eo ple w ork in g i n a n o rg anis a ti o n, c o m pany o r c o untr y

The w ork fo rc e i n N orth ern E uro pe i s s k ille d , b ut i t’ s a ls o i n fle xib le a nd m uch o ld er th an i n
oth er p arts o f th e w orld .

Hum an R eso urc e s (
or H R
) = th e d ep artm ent i n a c o m pany w hic h m anages r e cru itm ent,
em plo ym ent a nd tr a in in g

When I g ra d uate , I p la n to w ork i n th e H um an R eso urc es a re a o f th e o il i n d ustr y , p ossib ly i n
th e M id dle E ast.

Sum mary o f T opic 1

This c o m ple te s o ur M odule f o r T opic 1 .
Rem em ber, p le ase d on’t tr y to l e arn o r m em oris e
all
o f th ese w ord s i m med ia te ly . G o th ro ugh
th e w ho le b ook f r o m M odule 1 to 1 0, a nd tr y to p ra cti s e u sin g a s m all g ro up o f w ord s f r o m a ll o f th e
Module s, th en g o b ack a nd e xp and o n e ach g ro up .

***

Top ic 2 : E duca tio n a n d s c h oolin g

About T opic 2

The E ducati o n a nd s c ho olin g to pic i n clu d es te achin g m eth o ds a nd r e so urc es, a p pro aches to
exam s a nd te sti n g, s c ho ol m anagem ent, p up il m oti v ati o n, b ehav io ur a nd d is c ip lin e, s c ho ol s p ort,
extr a -c urric ula r a cti v iti e s, h ig her/fu rth er e d ucati o n a nd c o urs e f u nd in g.

Topic 2 e xam ple T ask

‘T he I n te rn et w ill n ever r e p la ce t r a ditio nal c o urse b ooks i n s c h ools .’
How f a r d o y o u a gre e w ith t h is p re d ic tio n?

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a n O pin io n> Pers o nal v ie w poin t ty p e e ssa y ( it a sk s h o w f a r y o u a gre e w ith a n i d ea.)
You s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic a nd g iv e y o ur o pin io n i n th e i n tr o ducti o n, th en e xp la in w hy y o u h av e
th is v ie w . Y ou s h o uld b rie fly c o nsid er th e o pposin g v ie w , th en r e sta te y o ur o pin io n i n th e c o nclu sio n.
Noti c e h o w th is e ssa y ty p e i s d iffe re nt f r o m th e O pin io n> D is c ussio n ty p e w hic h w e s a w i n
Topic 1 , w hic h a sk s y o u to
dis c u ss
b oth s id es o f a d eb ate .


Band 9 m odel e ssa y

There i s a h uge r a nge o f r e so urc es a v aila b le to th e m odern te acher, a nd th e r ig ht s e le cti o n i s
cru cia l i n d eliv erin g e ffe cti v e l e sso ns. I a gre e th at th ere w ill a lw ays b e a p la ce f o r c o urs e b ooks i n
th e s c ho ol
cu rric u lu m
, d esp ite th e m any b enefits o f th e I n te rn et.
Fir s tl y , c o urs e b ooks ( w heth er c o nv enti o nal o r d ig ita l) h av e b een d ev elo ped b y
pedagogic a l
exp erts a nd d esig ned to b e i n co rp ora te d i n to a s u b je ct
sy lla bus,
l e ad in g to te sti n g p ro ced ure s s u ch a s
fo rm al e xam in atio ns
o r
co ntin uous a sse ssm ent
. T his m eans th at th ey a re p ro ven to i m pro ve
stu d ents ’
aca dem ic a ch ie vem ent
, e nhancin g th eir p ote nti a l f o r p ro gre ssio n to
fu rth er
o r
hig her
educa tio n.
Furth erm ore ,
th e u se o f m odern c o urs e b ooks a llo w s p up ils to c o ord in ate th eir s tu d ie s a s
part o f
gro up w ork
, h o pefu lly m akin g th eir l e sso ns l e ss
te ach er-le d
a nd m ore a b out
auto nom ous
le arn in g
. T his i n i ts e lf te aches
stu dy s k ills
s u ch a s i n d ep end ent r e se arc h a nd
sy nth esis in g s o urc e s
,
ra th er th an o ld -fa sh io ned
ro te -le arn in g.
This i s w here th e I n te rn et, i n f a ct, c an p la y a u se fu l p art: to
su pple m ent
a nd a d d to
know le dge
w hic h th e s tu d ents a re
assim ila tin g
v ia th eir c o urs e b ooks.
How ev er, i t i s th e r o le o f te achers a nd s c ho ol m anagem ent g enera lly to e nsu re th at u se o f th e I n te rn et
re m ain s a
guid ed le arn in g
p ro cess, a nd n o t a n e xerc is e i n
data -g ath erin g
f r o m I n te rn et s o urc es
whic h m ay b e u nre lia b le o r e v en m is le ad in g.
It i s tr u e th at th e I n te rn et c an b e i n v alu ab le f o r a d ults ( fo r e xam ple i n
dis ta nce le arn in g
o r
se lf -s tu dy
m odule s) w ho a re a b le to
dis c rim in ate b etw een s o urc e s
a nd
sif t in fo rm atio n
to
marsh al
th eir f a cts
. H ow ev er, th is i s a m atu re s k ill a nd w e s h o uld n o t a ssu m e th at s c ho ol a ge p up ils a re r e ad y
to d o th is .

Overa ll, i t a p pears th at c o urs e b ooks, w ith th eir q uality a nd d ep th o f m ate ria l, a re s e t to
re m ain
an in te gra l p art o f t h e s y lla bus
. T he i n te rn et c an b e j u d ged a u se fu l s u p ple m ent to th is , i f
use d c are fu lly a nd
under s u perv is io n
.

(3 04 w ord s)

Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g

cu rric u lu m =
th e f u ll r a nge o f s u b je cts o ffe re d b y a s c ho ol o r g ro up o f s c ho ols

The c urric ulu m i n p riv ate s c ho ols i s s o m eti m es w id er th an i n s ta te s c ho ols , b ecause th ey h av e
more r e so urc es.

pedagogic a l
(
experts )
= ( e xp erts i n ) e d ucati o n a nd te achin g

I a d m ir e p ed ago gic al p io neers s u ch a s th e V ic to ria n E nglis h th in kers w ho b egan f r e e s c ho ols
fo r a ll c hild re n.

sy lla bus
= th e c o nte nt o f e le m ents ta ught i n a s p ecific s u b je ct

The s y lla b us f o r g eo gra p hy a t m y s c ho ol i n clu d ed v olc ano es, e arth q uakes a nd ti d al w av es,
whic h w e f o und f a sc in ati n g.

fo rm al e xam in atio ns
= e xam s w here s tu d ents a nsw er s e t w ritte n o r s p oken q uesti o ns w ith o ut
assis ta nce

co ntin uous a sse ssm ent =
giv in g s tu d ents m ark s f o r c o urs e w ork o r p ro je cts , r a th er th an
fo rm al e xam s

At m y s c ho ol, o ur g ra d es w ere b ase d 5 0/5 0 o n f o rm al e xam in ati o ns a nd c o nti n uo us
asse ssm ent, w hic h w e th o ught w as v ery f a ir to a ll th e c hild re n.

aca dem ic a ch ie vem ent =
th e m easu ra b le p erfo rm ance o f a s tu d ent i n m ark s, e xam r e su lts e tc

In m y c o untr y , c hild re n e njo y s c ho ol, b ut a cad em ic a chie v em ent i s f r a nkly q uite l o w .

fu rth er
educa tio n =
ed ucati o n a fte r l e av in g s c ho ol a t th e m in im um a ge

Som e g o vern m ents e nco ura ge f u rth er e d ucati o n b y a llo w in g te enagers to c la im b enefits w hile
th ey s tu d y.

hig her e duca tio n =
ed ucati o n a fte r a ge 1 8 a t c o lle ge o r U niv ers ity , u su ally f o r a D egre e

When I p ass I E LT S, I p la n to g o o n to h ig her e d ucati o n i n C anad a a nd d o a d egre e i n

engin eerin g.

gro up w ork =
stu d y w here p up ils d is c uss a nd a gre e a p ro je ct to geth er

Pers o nally , I th in k th at g ro up w ork e nab le s l a zy c hild re n to d o l e ss w ork th an th e e ager o nes.

te ach er-le d
le sso ns =
tr a d iti o nal l e sso ns w here th e te acher d eliv ers a l o ng ta lk a nd th e
stu d ents ta ke n o te s

In m y c o untr y , l e sso ns a re s ti ll v ery te acher-le d a nd i n te ra cti o n i s r a th er l im ite d .

auto nom ous le arn in g =
when a s tu d ent l e arn s th ro ugh i n d ep end ent s tu d y a nd r e se arc h

At U niv ers ity , y o u a re e xp ecte d to b e a n a uto no m ous l e arn er f a r m ore th an a t H ig h S cho ol,
whic h i s q uite e xciti n g f o r m e.

stu dy s k ills
= th e s k ills o f o rg anis in g, u sin g a nd c heckin g s tu d y w ork

My s tu d y s k ills w ere r a th er w eak u nti l I r e ad a n e xcelle nt b ook b y a J a p anese p ed ago gic al
exp ert.

to s y nth esis e s o urc e s =
to u se a v arie ty o f s o urc es a nd c o m bin e th em i n o ne p ro je ct

I u se th e I n te rn et to s y nth esis e m y s o urc es, a nd I a lw ays c ite th e o rig in o f th e i n fo rm ati o n. ( to
cite s o urc es = to a ckno w le d ge p ub lic ly )

ro te -le arn in g =
le arn in g b y r e p eti ti o n a nd m em oris in g i te m s

I u se d to th in k th at r o te -le arn in g w as a n egati v e a p pro ach, b ut m y r e cent e xp erie nces te achin g
in a S outh A fr ic an s c ho ol h av e c hanged m y v ie w .

to s u pple m ent =
to a d d e xtr a c o nte nt o r m ate ria l

My s u p erv is o r s a id th at I s h o uld s u p ple m ent m y e ssa y w ith m ore e xam ple s o f e xp erim ents .

to a ssim ila te k now le dge =
to a b so rb a nd u nd ers ta nd i t

I a lw ays u se a d ic ti o nary w hen I s tu d y i n E nglis h , to h elp m e a ssim ila te n ew p hra se s.

guid ed le arn in g =
le arn in g u nd er th e s u p erv is io n o f a te acher

Lesso ns i n P rim ary S cho ols s h o uld a lw ays c o nta in g uid ed l e arn in g, o th erw is e th e c hild re n
will l o se f o cus.

data -g ath erin g
= c o lle cti n g i n fo rm ati o n, u su ally i n n um eric al f o rm

Mobile p ho ne c o m panie s e m plo y m any p eo ple i n d ata -g ath erin g T ask s, to s e e h o w u se rs a re
usin g th e p ho nes a nd I n te rn et.

dis ta nce le arn in g
= l e arn in g b y th e I n te rn et o r e m ail, r a th er th an f a ce-to -fa ce

My m oth er to ok a n e nti r e d egre e b y d is ta nce l e arn in g o ver a p erio d o f f iv e y ears .

se lf -s tu dy
= s tu d yin g u sin g a c o urs e w ith o ut a te acher’s i n v olv em ent

There a re m any s e lf- s tu d y g uid es to i m pro vin g y o ur E nglis h , a nd s o m e o f th em a re a ctu ally
quite g o od.

to d is c rim in ate b etw een s o urc e s
= to d ecid e w heth er o ne s o urc e i s b ette r o r m ore r e lia b le
th an a no th er s o urc e

Child re n s h o uld n o t s tu d y u sin g u nsu p erv is e d I n te rn et a ccess, b ecause th ey c an’t d is c rim in ate
betw een th e s o urc es o f i n fo rm ati o n th ey f in d .

to s if t in fo rm atio n
= to r e m ove u nw ante d o r l e ss u se fu l i n fo rm ati o n

I h ad to s ift h und re d s o f p ages o f d ata to a rriv e a t m y c o nclu sio ns w hen I d id m y th esis .

to m arsh al f a cts
= to o rg anis e f a cts i n s u p port o f a n i d ea

In I E LT S e ssa ys, y o u s h o uld m ars h al a f e w f a cts to s u p port e ach i d ea i n th e a rg um ent.

an in te gra l p art o f t h e s y lla bus =
esse nti a l, c entr a l o r i n d is p ensa b le

Nutr iti o n i s a n i n te gra l p art o f f o od s c ie nces th ese d ays

to w ork /s tu dy u nder s u perv is io n
= u nd er th e d ir e cti o n o f a r e sp onsib le p ers o n

At c o lle ge, I d is c o vere d I d id n o t h av e to w ork u nd er s u p erv is io n a ll th e ti m e, a nd I w as f r e e
to d o i n d ep end ent r e se arc h.

***

Top ic 3 C hild re n a n d f a m ilie s


About T opic 3

The
Child re n a nd f a m ilie s
to pic i n clu d es c hild p sy cho lo gy a nd d ev elo pm ent, w ays o f
brin gin g u p c hild re n, f a m ily d is c ip lin e, c hild c are , p re sc ho ol l e arn in g, p are nta l r o le s, f a m ily
str u ctu re s a nd r o le s ( fo r e xam ple n ucle ar o r e xte nd ed f a m ilie s), a d ole sc ence, te enagers a nd e ld erly
fa m ily m em bers .

Im porta nt:
P le ase r e m em ber th at th e to pic s a re u se d i n d iffe re nt w ays i n th e W riti n g a nd
Speakin g p arts o f th e I E LT S te st.
In th e A cad em ic W riti n g te st T ask 2 , y o u s h o uld p re se nt i d eas o r o pin io ns a b out s o cie ty i n
genera l, b ut n o t a b out y o ur p ers o nal l ife . I n th e S peakin g te st, th e e xam in er w ill a lw ays a sk y o u
both
ab out s o cie ty i n g enera l ( in S peakin g p art 3 )
and a ls o
a b out y o ur p ers o nal l ife , c o untr y a nd
backgro und ( in S peakin g p arts 1 a nd 2 .)
With c o ntr o vers ia l to pic s s u ch a s ‘ fa m ilie s’ a nd ‘ h ealth ,’ s o m e c and id ate s b eco m e c o nfu se d
ab out th is d iffe re nce, b ut i t’ s a b so lu te ly e sse nti a l to r e m em ber i f y o u w ant to a chie v e a v ery h ig h
Band !

Topic 3 e xam ple T ask

Som e p eo ple b elie ve t h at c h ild re n s h ould s p en d a ll o f t h eir f r e e t im e w ith t h eir f a m ilie s.
Oth ers b elie ve t h at t h is i s u nnecessa ry o r e ven n eg ativ e. D is c u ss t h e p ossib le a rg um en ts o n b oth
sid es, a nd s a y w hic h s id e y o u p erso nally s u pport.

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a no th er O pin io n> D is c ussio n ty p e T ask . Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , p re se nt tw o o r
th re e i d eas o n e ach s id e o f th e d is c ussio n, a nd th en g iv e y o ur o pin io n i n th e c o nclu sio n. R em em ber
th at th ese O pin io n> D is c ussio n T ask s m ig ht b e e xp re sse d i n d iffe re nt w ays; l o ok f o r th e i n str u cti o n
key w ord ‘ d is c uss’ a nd i ts s y no nym s s u ch a s ‘ d eb ate ,’ ‘ c o nsid er’ a nd ‘ re v ie w .’


Band 9 m odel e ssa y

Nobody c an d eny th at p are nta l i n flu ence i s i m porta nt f o r c hild re n, a t l e ast i n c ase s w here
child re n l iv e w ith th eir p are nts ,
fo ste r p are nts
o r
guard ia ns
. H ow ev er, i t i s b y n o m eans c le ar th at
child re n s h o uld s p end ti m e e xclu siv ely i n th e f a m ily , a s w e w ill s e e.
On th e o ne h and , i t m ay a p pear a d vis a b le f o r p are nts to a ct a s
ro le m odels
and to e sta b lis h
gro und r u le s
f o r b ehav io ur b y s p end in g a s m uch ti m e a s p ossib le w ith th eir c hild re n. T his a llo w s th e
yo ungste rs to
abso rb
co nventio ns
a nd
co des o f c o nduct
w hic h th ey c an th en f o llo w th em se lv es,
ho pefu lly l e ad in g to a n a b se nce o f p ro ble m s s u ch a s
bully in g, t r u ancy
a nd
delin quency
l a te r o n.
Furth erm ore , b ein g w ith th e f a m ily s h o uld r e d uce th e r is k o f c hild re n f a llin g v ic ti m to c rim es s u ch a s

abductio n
, o r c o m in g u nd er th e i n flu ence o f n egati v e
peer p re ssu re .
On th e o th er h and , w e h av e to a sk w heth er th is i s a p ra cti c al p ro positi o n. I n a s o cie ty w here
many f a m ilie s a re
dual- in co m e
, o r w here o ne p are nt’ s r o le a s
bre adw in ner
m eans h e/s h e i s a w ay
fr o m th e f a m ily f o r l o ng p erio ds, i t i s i n ev ita b le th at c hild re n c anno t s p end a ll o f th eir ti m e w ith th e
fa m ily .
Child -m in din g
a nd
afte r-s c h ool c h ild ca re
a re o fte n u se d i n th ese c ase s, a nd i f m anaged
pro perly , th ese c an b e p erfe ctl y
via ble
a lte rn ati v es. E qually , i t s e em s th at c hild re n c an i n s o m e c ase s
le arn a c o nsid era b le a m ount f r o m th eir
peers
i n a d diti o n to a d ults , a nd a llo w in g th em to p la y w ith o ut
dir e ct s u p erv is io n m ay b e a b enefit.
To c o nclu d e, i t a p pears th at, w hile f a m ily ti m e i s e sse nti a l f o r
bondin g
a nd
abso rb in g
patte rn s o f b ehavio ur
, th ere a re d efin ite a d vanta ges w hen c hild re n a re o uts id e th e f a m ily to o. T his i s
pro vid ed th at th ey a re i n a s a fe , w ell- b ehav ed e nv ir o nm ent w ith p eers w ho a re th em se lv es
re aso nab ly
well b ro ught-u p
.

(2 87 w ord s)

Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g

fo ste r p are nts
= p eo ple w ho h av e c hild re n l iv in g i n th eir e xis ti n g f a m ily f o r a f ix ed p erio d,
with th e o rig in al p are nts ’ a gre em ent

Bein g a f o ste r p are nt i s a d iffic ult a nd ti r in g r o le , I c an i m agin e.

guard ia ns =
peo ple w ho a re l e gally a p poin te d to p ro te ct a c hild ’s i n te re sts i n th e a b se nce o f
pare nts

In s o m e c o untr ie s, th e g o vern m ent a p poin ts a g uard ia n i f th e p are nts d ie o r e xp erie nce s e v ere
diffic ulti e s.

ro le m odels =
peo ple th at c hild re n l o ok to a nd r e sp ect a s g o od e xam ple s

In s o m e c o untr ie s, th e r o yal f a m ily a re g o od r o le m odels f o r y o ungste rs , a lth o ugh i n o th er
case s th is i s n o t th e c ase .

gro und r u le s
= b asic r u le s g o vern in g th e w ay p eo ple c an b ehav e i n a s itu ati o n

Durin g th e s c ho ol h o lid ays, m y p are nts h ad s tr ic t g ro und r u le s f o r w hat w e c o uld d o o uts id e.

co nventio ns
= tr a d iti o ns o r s o cia l n o rm s th at m ost p eo ple f o llo w

It’ s a c o nv enti o n f o r g ra nd pare nts to l iv e w ith th eir c hild re n i n m any c o untr ie s.

co des o f c o nduct =
volu nta ry r u le s w hic h p eo ple a ccep t i n a s itu ati o n

The B oy S co uts h av e a f ir m c o de o f c o nd uct, w hic h s e em s to b e a p ositi v e i n flu ence.

bully in g =
when c hild re n a tta ck a nd i n ti m id ate o th er c hild re n

Bully in g c o uld b e r e d uced th ro ugh b ette r a w are ness a nd p ositi v e p eer p re ssu re i n s c ho ols .

tr u ancy
= w hen a p up il l e av es s c ho ol w ith o ut p erm is sio n ( v erb = to p la y tr u ant f r o m s c ho ol)

I m ust c o nfe ss th at a t s e co nd ary s c ho ol I s o m eti m es p la yed tr u ant a nd w ent to th e p ark w ith m y
fr ie nd s.

delin quency
= m in o r c rim e ( o fte n b y y o ung p eo ple )

Delin q uency i s a h uge p ro ble m i n u rb an a re as, e sp ecia lly w hen p olic in g i s m in im al.

abductio n =
th e c rim e o f ta kin g o r k id nap pin g p eo ple f o r a c rim in al r e aso n

Child a b ducti o n i s a g re at c o ncern f o r m any p are nts , e sp ecia lly i n S outh A meric a.

peer p re ssu re =
th e p re ssu re f r o m p eo ple i n th e s a m e g ro up to a ct i n a c erta in w ay

Many c hild re n s ta rt s m okin g d ue to p eer p re ssu re o r b ad r o le m odels .

dual- in co m e =
a f a m ily w here b oth th e f a th er a nd m oth er w ork

In m any c o untr ie s, th e d ual- in co m e f a m ily i s th e n o rm n o w ad ays.

bre adw in ner =
th e p ers o n w ho e arn s a ll o r m ost o f th e m oney i n a f a m ily

In s o m e f a m ilie s, th e f a th er i s s ti ll th e o nly b re ad w in ner.

ch ild -m in din g
= c arin g i n fo rm ally ( n o t i n s c ho ols ) f o r c hild re n w hen p are nts a re b usy o r
work in g

In s o m e c o untr ie s, th e s ta te s u b sid is e s th e c o sts o f c hild -m in d in g.

afte r-s c h ool c h ild ca re
= c arin g f o r c hild re n i n a s c ho ol s e tti n g, a s a b ove

Many f a m ilie s r e ly o n a fte r-s c ho ol c hild care b ecause b oth p are nts w ork a nd c o m mute .

via ble
= p ra cti c al a nd p ossib le to a chie v e

It i s n o t r e ally v ia b le to e xp ect a ll c hild re n to g et m axim um g ra d es i n e xam s.

peers
= p eo ple i n th e s a m e g ro up o r l e v el a s y o urs e lf

Many o f m y p eers f r o m s c ho ol a re n o w w ork in g f o r c hariti e s.

bondin g
= th e d ev elo pm ent o f c lo se e m oti o nal c o nnecti o ns b etw een p eo ple

Festi v als a nd p arti e s a re a n i d eal ti m e f o r f a m ilie s to b ond .

patte rn s o f b ehavio ur =
ways o f a cti n g a nd d oin g th in gs ( e ith er p ositi v e o r n egati v e)

Unfo rtu nate ly , s o m e c hild re n a b so rb d angero us p atte rn s o f b ehav io ur w hen w atc hin g m ovie s
or p la yin g c o m pute r g am es.

well b ro ught-u p
(to b rin g u p c hild re n = to r a is e a nd e d ucate th em i n y o ur o w n m ora l,
behav io ura l o r r e lig io us c o nv enti o ns)

I w as b ro ught u p i n a v ery r e lig io us f a m ily , a nd I s e em to h av e a b so rb ed th eir v alu es.

***

Top ic 4 : N atu re , t h e e n vir o n m en t a n d e n erg y

About T opic 4

The
Natu re , t h e e nvir o nm ent a nd e nerg y
to pic i n clu d es f o ssil f u els a nd r e new ab le f u els ,
clim ate c hange, th re ats to th e e nv ir o nm ent ( d efo re sta ti o n, p ollu ti o n e tc ) a nd th eir e ffe cts , th e
bio sp here , a nd a nim al l ife /h um an a tti tu d es to a nim als .
In th is to pic , r e m em ber to s h o w th at y o u c an w rite i n a n i m pers o nal, a cad em ic w ay, e v en i f
yo u f e el s tr o ngly a b out s o m eth in g. R em em ber th at e m oti o nal w ord s s u ch a s
te rrib le , s h ockin g,
dis g ustin g
o r
wonderfu l, f a nta stic , b rillia nt
c anno t b e u se d i n A cad em ic E nglis h e ssa ys o f th is ty p e.
You c an u se A cad em ic E nglis h s u ch a s
re g re tta ble , w orry in g, i n advis a ble
o r
adm ir a ble , h elp fu l,
in va lu able
i n ste ad , w hic h a re m ore a ccep te d i n th ese s itu ati o ns.

This to pic i s o fte n u se d f o r I d eas> C ause /e ffe ct ty p e T ask s.

Topic 4 e xam ple T ask

Pollu tio n o f r iv ers, l a kes a nd s e a s i s a m ajo r c o ncern f o r p eo ple w ho s e ek t o p ro te ct t h e
en vir o nm en t. W hat a re t h e p ossib le c a use s o f w ate r p ollu tio n, a nd w hat e ffe cts d oes t h is h ave o n
anim al l ife a nd h um an s o cie ty ?

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a n I d eas> C ause s/e ffe cts ty p e T ask . I t d oes n o t a sk f o r y o ur o pin io n, b ut i t w ants y o u to
th in k o f s o m e p ossib le i d eas o n th e to pic . Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , d esc rib e tw o o r th re e
cause s, th en tw o o r th re e e ffe cts , a nd th en s u m maris e b rie fly .


Band 9 m odel e ssa y

Wate r
co nta m in atio n
i s a s e rio us f o rm o f p ollu ti o n, a nd o ne th at c an b e c halle ngin g to r e cti fy .
There s e em to b e tw o m ain c ause s i n v olv ed , a nd a v arie ty o f d am agin g e ffe cts o n p eo ple a nd
th e
bio sp here
, w hic h w e w ill d is c uss h ere .
Pro bab ly th e m ain f a cto r i s th e i s su e o f
em is sio ns
f r o m c ars , f a cto rie s a nd o th er h um an
acti v iti e s. T hese e m is sio ns c o nta in d am agin g
pollu ta nt
partic le s
w hic h c an c o nta m in ate r a in w ate r
ru n-o ff
a nd th us e nte r
th e w ate r c y cle
, b y tr a nsfe rrin g th ro ugh th e w ate r ta b le i n to
aquif e rs
, s tr e am s
and r iv ers .
Filt r a tio n
a nd p ro cessin g a re n o t r e ally v ia b le o pti o ns f o r s u ch l a rg e v olu m es o f w ate r,
and s o th e
wate r t a ble
r e m ain s
ta in te d
w ith th ese e le m ents o ver l o ng p erio ds, a s w e s e e i n E aste rn
Euro pe to day. I n s itu ati o ns w here
so il e ro sio n
a nd
lo ggin g
h av e a lr e ad y d am aged th e l o cal
env ir o nm ent, th e a ccum ula ti o n c an b e v ery s e rio us. T he o th er m ajo r c ause i s a ccid enta l o r d elib era te
dum pin g
o f
waste
p ro ducts i n p la ces o uts id e o f c o ntr o lle d
la ndfills
o r
waste p ro ce ssin g
c entr e s.
Even s m all a m ounts o f a b and oned w aste c an e nte r w ate r s u p plie s th ro ugh th e g ro und , o fte n
und ete cte d .
The e ffe cts o n a nim al l ife c an b e s e v ere , e sp ecia lly f o r s p ecie s w hic h a re a lr e ad y e nd angere d

by s u ch th re ats a s
poach in g, h abit a t lo ss
a nd
fo od c h ain
d is ru p ti o n. C onta m in ate d w ate r c an l e ad to
dw in dlin g n um bers
o r e v en p ote nti a l
extin ctio n
, a s m ay i n d eed h ap pen to th e A sia n ti g er
popula ti o ns. T he i m pact o n h um an s o cie ty c an a ls o b e d is tr e ssin g, i n clu d in g th e p ois o nin g o f d rin kin g
wate r,
fa m in e
o r
dro ught
d ue to l a ck o f s a fe
ir rig atio n
, a nd l o ng-te rm l o ss o f l a nd a s w e s e e, f o r
exam ple , a fte r th e B ho pal p ois o nin g
ca ta str o phe
i n I n d ia . S uch e ffe cts te nd to h av e a n e sp ecia lly
gra v e i m pact o n th e v ery p oore st i n s o cie ty , w ith th e l e ast r e so urc es to c o unte r th e e nv ir o nm enta l
effe cts .
Overa ll, w e s e e th at e m is sio ns a nd d um pin g a re th e m ain o rig in s o f th e p ro ble m , a nd th at th e
effe cts o n b oth h um ans a nd a nim als a re
exace rb ate d
b y th e e xis ti n g e nv ir o nm enta l, c rim in al o r s o cia l
pro ble m s.

(3 16 w ord s)


Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g

co nta m in atio n =
pollu ti o n b y p ois o ns o r d angero us e le m ents

The a tm osp here i n l a rg e c iti e s i s o fte n c o nta m in ate d b y s m og, a s w e c an s e e i n C hin a.

th e b io sp here
= th e r e la ti o nsh ip b etw een a ll l iv in g th in gs o n th e p la net

Child re n s h o uld b e e d ucate d o n th e b io sp here th ro ugh f ie ld tr ip s a nd p ra cti c al e xp erim ents .

em is sio ns
= g ase s e nte rin g th e a tm osp here

Scie nti s ts s p end th eir w ho le c are ers s tu d yin g th e e ffe ct o f e m is sio ns o n th e c lim ate .

pollu ta nt
partic le s
= m ic ro sc o pic e le m ents o f p ollu ti o n

I r e m em ber g o in g to a f a cto ry a nd s e ein g th e s n o w c o vere d w ith p ollu ta nt p arti c le s.

ru n-o ff
= w ate r th at r u ns f r o m th e g ro und i n to r iv ers a nd l a kes

We s h o uld tr y to c o lle ct a nd u se m ore r u n-o ff w ate r, to a v oid h av in g to r e cycle w ate r s o m uch.

th e w ate r c y cle =
th e n atu ra l p ro cess o f w ate r m ovin g f r o m c lo ud s to r a in a nd s e as

Scie nti s ts b elie v e th e w ate r c ycle i s r e sp onsib le f o r v ario us n atu ra l e v ents , e sp ecia lly i n
co asta l a re as.

aquif e rs =
und erg ro und , n atu ra l w ate r s to re s

My f a m ily h av e a w ell w hic h c o nnects to a n a q uife r, g iv in g v ery p ure w ate r.

filt r a tio n
= th e p ro cess o f f ilte rin g a nd r e m ovin g i m puriti e s

Wate r f iltr a ti o n m ig ht b e a s o lu ti o n to w ate r s h o rta ges i n v ery h o t c o untr ie s.

wate r t a ble
= th e l a yer o f w ate r b elo w g ro und

In m y to w n, th e w ate r ta b le i s v ery h ig h, a nd w ate r w ill a p pear i n e v en a s m all h o le .

ta in te d
= p ollu te d o r c o nta m in ate d

The M ed ite rra nean i s b ad ly ta in te d i n s o m e a re as b y s e w age p ollu ti o n.

so il e ro sio n =
th e l o ss o f s o il b y w in d a nd r a in a cti v ity

Defo re sta ti o n h as i n cre ase d s o il e ro sio n s e rio usly i n B ra zil.

lo ggin g
= c utti n g d ow n tr e es f o r ti m ber a nd i n d ustr ia l u se

Loggin g h as e nd angere d m any s p ecie s th ro ugho ut th e w orld .

dum pin g
= l e av in g w aste d elib era te ly w ith o ut s to rin g o r tr e ati n g i t

In m ost c o untr ie s, d um pin g r u b bis h i s a c rim in al o ffe nce.

waste
= a ny m ate ria l n o t w ante d o r n eed ed a fte r a p ro cess

In m y c o untr y , w e u se w aste f r o m c o tto n m anufa ctu re f o r l ig hti n g f ir e s.

la ndfills
= o rg anis e d a re as w here w aste i s b urie d i n th e g ro und

Surp ris in gly , B rita in s ti ll s e nd s m ost o f i ts d om esti c w aste to l a nd fill s ite s.

waste p ro ce ssin g
= r e cyclin g o r r e d ucin g w aste i n to m anageab le f o rm s

My b ro th er h as a w aste p ro cessin g c o m pany, w hic h i s s u b sid is e d b y th e l o cal a uth o rity .

poach in g =
ille gally h unti n g a nd k illin g a nim als

Ele p hant p oachin g s h o uld b e a m uch h ig her p rio rity f o r th e w orld a uth o riti e s, a s e le p hants a re
an e nd angere d s p ecie s.

habit a t lo ss
= d estr u cti o n o r d is a p peara nce o f a n a nim al’s n atu ra l h o m e

Loggin g h as c ause d s u b sta nti a l h ab ita t l o ss f o r w ild life i n m any c o untr ie s.

fo od c h ain =
th e n atu ra l s y ste m o f a nim als e ati n g o th er a nim als a nd p la nts

The f o od c hain h as b een d is ru p te d b y th e l o ss o f c erta in s p ecie s, w ith w id esp re ad i m pacts o n
all a nim als .

dw in dlin g n um bers
= ( to d w in d le = to s te ad ily d eclin e i n q uanti ty )

Sta te s s e em to h av e d w in d lin g f u nd s to p ay f o r a nim al s a nctu arie s, a lth o ugh th ey a re s ti ll a b le
to p ay f o r g o vern m ent o ffic ia ls a nd th eir p erk s.

extin ctio n
= th e f in al d eath o f a ll a nim als i n a s p ecie s

Din o sa ur e xti n cti o n m ay h av e b een c ause d b y a m ete o r o r v olc ano , b ut s c ie nti s ts s e em u nsu re
ab out th is .

fa m in e
= a s itu ati o n w here th ere i s a l a ck o f f o od i n a n a re a f o r a l o ng ti m e

Many s in gers h elp m ake c harity s o ngs to r a is e f u nd s f o r f a m in e r e lie f.

dro ught
= s im ila r to f a m in e, b ut a l a ck o f w ate r

Dro ught i n c entr a l A fr ic a c an c o nti n ue f o r m any y ears , a p pare ntl y .

ir rig atio n = s u pply in g w ate r t o la nd f o r a gric u lt u re

If w e w ant q uic k s o lu ti o ns to f a m in e, b ette r i r rig ati o n a nd f a rm in g m eth o ds w ould p ro bab ly b e
th e f ir s t s te p .

ca ta str o phe
= a g re at d is a ste r a ffe cti n g m any p eo ple

The c o nti n uin g d estr u cti o n o f th e r a in f o re sts i s a c ata str o phe f o r th e g lo bal b io sp here .

exace rb ate d
(= to e xacerb ate = to m ake a n e xis ti n g p ro ble m w ors e , a ccid enta lly o r
delib era te ly )

Fam in e i n A fr ic a h as b een e xacerb ate d b y c iv il w ar a nd p oliti c al i n sta b ility .


***

Top ic 5 : C ult u re , a rt a n d t r a d it io n s

About T opic 5

The
Cult u re , a rt a nd t r a dit io ns
to pic i n clu d es h um an f o lk lo re , c ere m onie s a nd r itu als , m yth s
and l e gend s, s o cia l c usto m s, tr a d iti o nal l a nguages, d re ss a nd a rts , th e i m pact o f m odern l ife o n
tr a d iti o nal l ife sty le s a nd d iffe re nces i n n ati o nal h ab its .
Ple ase r e m em ber th at I E LT S w ill n o t a sk s p ecific ally a b out r e lig io n, p oliti c s o r s p ir itu al
belie fs , a nd y o u s h o uld n o t b ase y o ur a nsw ers i n th e W riti n g o r S peakin g te sts o n y o ur p ers o nal
belie fs i n th ese a re as. F or e xam ple , i f th e T ask a sk s w heth er y o u a gre e w ith a c erta in i d ea, y o u w ould
get a l o w m ark i f y o u s a y
‘Y e s, b eca use m y r e lig io n a gre es w ith i t/ b eca use m y P re sid en t h as t h is
polic y’
o r s im ila r.
You c an c erta in ly u se r e lig io us o r p oliti c al s itu ati o ns a s e v id ence o r e xam ple s to s u p port a n
arg um ent, b ut n o t a s a s ta rti n g p oin t. F or e xam ple , ‘
We s h ould g iv e m oney t o c h arity b eca use i t
ben efits s o cie ty , a s w e c a n s e e f o r e xa m ple i n c o untr ie s w here r e lig io us o bse rv a nce r e q uir e s
peo ple t o d o t h is r e g ula rly .
’ T his i s a m ore l o gic al a nd a cad em ic w ay to r e sp ond .

Topic 5 e xam ple T ask

In m any c o untr ie s, t r a ditio nal d re ss a nd c o stu m es a re c o nsid ere d e ffe ctiv e w ays o f
main ta in in g l in ks w ith t h e p ast. H ow e ffe ctiv e c a n t r a ditio nal c o stu m es b e, i n t h is s e n se ?
What o th er w ays e xis t t o h elp c itiz e n s c o nnect w ith a c o untr y ’s p ast?

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a n I d eas/E valu ate ty p e e ssa y.
It d oes n o t a sk f o r y o ur o pin io n a b out w heth er c o stu m es a re g o od o r b ad , b ut i t a sk s f o r y o u to
decid e w heth er th ese c o stu m es a re e ffe cti v e ( o r n o t e ffe cti v e) w ays o f m ain ta in in g l in ks w ith th e p ast,
and to s u ggest o th er w ays o f c o nnecti n g to th e p ast. Y ou s h o uld s a y h o w e ffe cti v e c o stu m es a re , w ith
exam ple s a nd e v id ence, a nd th en c o m pare th eir e ffe cti v eness to s o m e o th er p ossib le w ays o f
co nnecti n g to th e p ast.
Rem em ber th at ‘ Id eas/E valu ate ’ m eans th at y o u s h o uld c o m pare th in gs i n th e w ay th at th ey a re
use d i n s o cie ty , b ut n o t d ecid e o n y o ur p ers o nal p re fe re nce a b out th ese th in gs.

Band 9 m odel e ssa y

Most p eo ple w ould a gre e th at
pre se rv in g
c o nnecti o ns w ith o ur p ast i s a n a d m ir a b le
obje cti v e, e sp ecia lly a s th e w orld e v olv es s o r a p id ly . I f e el th at tr a d iti o nal c o stu m es a re o ne p art o f
doin g th is , b ut th ey a re b y n o m eans th e m ost i m porta nt, a s w e s h all s e e.
Adm itte d ly , h is to ric d re ss p la ys a k ey r o le i n s o cia l e v ents s u ch a s r e lig io us
rit u als
o r
milita ry
para des
, a nd th ese e v ents a re h elp fu l i n
tr a nsm it tin g s o cia l m em es
s u ch a s
public d uty
and
se lf -s a crif ic e .
Tra d iti o nal c o stu m es a ls o r e m in d u s o f th e o rig in s o f
cu lt u ra l t r a dit io ns a nd
myth olo gie s
, f o r i n sta nce th e h is to ric S w is s n ati o nal d re ss w hic h
evok es
th eir
medie val
in d ep end ence.

How ev er, i t m ust b e s a id th at c o stu m es a re a n a ccesso ry i n th ese s itu ati o ns, a nd d o n o t a p pear
to c o nsti tu te th e c entr a l m essa ge. I t i s th e
ce re m onie s
th em se lv es w hic h
co nv ey th e
cu lt u ra l n orm s
th at h elp to m ain ta in
t h e f a bric o f s o cie ty .
In th is s e nse , th e c o stu m es a re o f s e co nd ary i m porta nce.
Furth erm ore , i t s e em s th at th ere a re i n f a ct m uch m ore p ow erfu l w ays i n w hic h c ultu re i s
co nse rv ed
and
h anded d ow n
b etw een th e g enera ti o ns. M ost c o untr ie s h av e a r ic h
herit a ge
o f
le gends
a nd
fo lk lo re
a b out th e b ir th a nd d ev elo pm ent o f th eir n ati o n, s o m e o f w hic h a re m yth o lo gic al a nd s o m e
bein g g ro und ed i n tr u th ( a s w e s e e i n th e E nglis h s to rie s a b out R obin H ood o r G eo rg e a nd th e
Dra go n, f o r e xam ple .) T hese s to rie s a re a
cu lt u ra l in herit a nce
w hic h e m bodie s i m porta nt s y m bols
and c o ncep ts f a r m ore e ffe cti v ely th an d re ss. S im ila rly , w e m ust r e m em ber th e s ig nific ance o f a rt a nd
music i n p assin g o n o ur tr a d iti o ns, i n
fo rm s
r a ngin g f r o m
fin e a rt
to
handic ra fts
, a nd f r o m
opera
to
tr a d iti o nal
sh antie s
a nd
dir g es.
The p re se nce o f v is u al o r
lin guis tic
m essa ges i n th ese
media
m ake
th em m ore e ffe cti v e th an c o stu m es, w hic h c o nv ey n o l a nguage.
Overa ll, w e m ust r e co gnis e a nd w elc o m e th e u se o f tr a d iti o nal d re ss i n h elp in g to m ain ta in
our c ultu re s. H ow ev er, th e f o rm s o f s to ry , a rt a nd m usic w ould a p pear to b e th e d riv in g f o rc es i n th is
in v alu ab le p ro cess.

(3 21 w ord s)


Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g

to p re se rv e =
to p ro te ct a nd k eep s o m eth in g, u su ally b ecause i t i s v alu ab le f o r s o m e r e aso n

The s ta te p re se rv es a ncie nt b uild in gs b ecause th ey a re p art o f o ur h erita ge.


rit u als =
hig hly tr a d iti o nal c ere m onie s w hic h h av e m eanin g f o r th e p arti c ip ants

In s o m e c o untr ie s, w ed din g r itu als c o nti n ue f o r s e v era l d ays.

para des =
org anis e d p ro cessio ns i n p ub lic b y g ro up s o f p eo ple , u su ally to
co m mem ora te a n e v ent

In m y h o m e to w n, w e h av e a m ilita ry p ara d e e ach y ear to m ark o ur I n d ep end ence D ay.

to t r a nsm it =
to c o m munic ate a m essa ge, l ite ra l o r s y m bolic

The m onarc hy tr a nsm it s y m bols o f p ow er th ro ugh d re ss a nd r itu al.

so cia l m em es
= s o cia l h ab its o r p atte rn s w hic h a re tr a nsm itte d b etw een p eo ple

In B rita in , p unctu ality i s a s o cia l m em e.

public d uty =
th e w illin gness to s e rv e th e p ub lic o r th e s ta te

Civ il s e rv ants n eed a s e nse o f p ub lic d uty .

se lf -s a crif ic e =
th e w illin gness to s u ffe r o r d ie f o r a c ause

We r e m em ber th e s e lf- s a crific e o f o ur w arti m e g enera ti o n e ach y ear.

cu lt u ra l t r a dit io ns =
tr a d iti o ns c arry in g c ultu ra l i m porta nce

Hosp ita lity i s a g re at c ultu ra l tr a d iti o n i n M ed ite rra nean c o untr ie s.

myth olo gy, m yth =
a c la ssic s to ry f r o m th e p ast w hic h p eo ple k no w i s n o t tr u e b ut w hic h
carrie s m eanin g

There a re o ld m yth s a b out g ig anti c a nim als i n m y p art o f th e c o untr y sid e.

to e vok e =
to b rin g b ack m em orie s o r f e elin gs

Our n ati o nal f la g e v okes s tr o ng e m oti o ns w henev er w e s e e i t.

medie val
= a d je cti v e f o r th e M id dle A ges, r o ughly 1 050 to 1 400 i n E uro pean h is to ry

Fra nce h as s o m e s u p erb m ed ie v al a rc hite ctu re , w hic h I s a w o n m y g ap y ear.

ce re m onie s =
a c ere m ony i s s im ila r to a r itu al, u su ally i n v olv in g p eo ple i n a uth o rity

The g o vern m ent e nte rs o ffic e w ith a l o ng c ere m ony a t th e p re sid enti a l p ala ce.

cu lt u ra l n orm s =
sta nd ard s e xp ecte d o f b ehav io ur o r i d eas

In s o m e c o untr ie s, m arria ge b etw een c o usin s i s a c ultu ra l n o rm .

th e f a bric o f s o cie ty =
th e w ay th at s o cie ty i s c o nnecte d a nd m ain ta in ed

dru gs a nd c rim e a re d am agin g th e f a b ric o f s o cie ty .

to c o nse rv e =
a s y no nym f o r ‘ to p re se rv e’

Conse rv ati o n o f o ld tr e asu re s i s th e m ain r o le o f o ur c ity m use um .

to h and s o m eth in g d ow n
( fr o m o ne g enera ti o n to th e n ext) = to p ass i t f r o m p are nts to
child re n a nd to th eir c hild re n e tc

Cultu ra l v alu es h av e b een h and ed d ow n f o r h und re d s o f y ears , b ut n o w th ey a re s ta rti n g to

dis a p pear.

herit a ge
= s o m eth in g i n herite d ( = r e ceiv ed /h and ed d ow n) b y o ne g enera ti o n f r o m th e
pre v io us g enera ti o n

Our c o untr y sid e i s p art o f o ur n ati o nal h erita ge a nd w e s h o uld p re se rv e i t c are fu lly .

le gends
= s im ila r to m yth s, b ut s o m eti m es c o nta in in g a n e le m ent o f r e ality

Robin H ood i s a B riti s h l e gend , a lth o ugh m ost h is to ria ns a gre e th e c hara cte r i s b ase d o n a
re al p ers o n.

fo lk lo re
= o ld s to rie s a nd m yth s/le gend s, u su ally tr a nsm itte d v erb ally

Afr ic an f o lk lo re i s r ic h i n s to rie s o f g o ds a nd m onste rs .

in herit a nce
= a s y no nym f o r ‘ h erita ge’

Our g re ate st i n herita nce a s a n ati o n i s o ur i n d ep end ence a nd f ig hti n g s p ir it.

fin e a rt
= a rt b y f a m ous o r a ccla im ed p ain te rs

Flo re nce i n I ta ly i s a k ey d esti n ati o n f o r l o vers o f f in e a rt.

handic ra fts
= s k ills o f m akin g o bje cts b y h and , a nd a ls o th e o bje cts th em se lv es

Many i n d ig eno us p eo ple m ake a l iv in g b y s e llin g h and ic ra fts to to uris ts .

opera
= a v ery f o rm al p la y w ith a m usic al s c o re

La S cala i s th e n am e o f a f a m ous o pera v enue i n I ta ly , w hic h I ’ d l ik e to v is it.

sh antie s
a nd
dir g es =
very tr a d iti o nal s o ngs a b out b asic s u b je cts

Child re n s o m eti m es s in g s h anti e s a t p rim ary s c ho ol.

lin guis tic
= th e a d je cti v e m eanin g ‘ a b out l a nguage’

Lin guis ti c s k ills a re e sse nti a l f o r a to ur g uid e i n th e m odern e co no m y.

media
= a w ay o f c o m munic ati n g

Folk lo re i s a v ery e ffe cti v e m ed ia f o r tr a nsm itti n g o ur c ultu ra l h erita ge.

(T he p hra se ‘
th e
m ed ia ’ i s u se d to m ean a ll th e n ew sp ap ers , b ro ad caste rs , w eb site s a nd
magazin es c o m menti n g o n i s su es i n a c o untr y :
The p re sid en t r e sig ned d ue t o p re ssu re f r o m t h e
med ia , w ho d is lik ed h is p olic ie s
)


***

Top ic 6 : H ea lt h ca re , h ea lt h a n d s p ort

About th e to pic

The
Healt h ca re , h ealt h a nd s p ort
to pic i n clu d es h ealth p ro ble m s a nd d is a b iliti e s ( p hysic al
and m enta l) , w ays o f k eep in g f it a nd h ealth y, d ie t/ n utr iti o n a nd e xerc is e , w ays o f p ro vid in g ( a nd
ed ucati n g p eo ple a b out) h ealth care a nd h ealth s e rv ic es, m ed ic al i n no vati o ns a nd tr e atm ents , th e
benefits a nd m anagem ent o f c o m mon s p orts .

This i s o ne to pic e sp ecia lly w here y o u n eed to r e m em ber
not
to g iv e p ers o nal s to rie s a b out
yo urs e lf o r p eo ple th at y o u k no w i n th e T ask 2 W riti n g!

Topic 3 e xam ple T ask

Many d octo rs a re c o ncern ed a bout t h e h ig h u se o f c o m pute r g am es b y c h ild re n a nd y o ung
peo ple . W hat m en ta l a nd p hysic a l p ro ble m s m ay a ris e f r o m e xcessiv e u se o f t h ese g am es? H ow
co uld t h ese p ro ble m s b e r e d uced ?

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a n I d eas> Pro ble m /s o lu ti o n ty p e T ask .
It d oes n o t a sk a b out w heth er c o m pute r g am es a re g o od o r n o t, b ut a b out y o ur i d eas r e gard in g
possib le m enta l a nd p hysic al p ro ble m s d ue to e xcessiv e u se , a nd a ls o a ny s o lu ti o ns th at y o u c an th in k
of.
You s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , d esc rib e tw o o r th re e p ro ble m s, th en tw o o r th re e s o lu ti o ns,
and th en s u m maris e . N oti c e th at th e T ask a sk s a b out m enta l a nd p hysic al p ro ble m s, s o y o u s h o uld s a y
so m eth in g o n e ach ty p e o f p ro ble m .


Band 9 m odel e ssa y

Child re n a p pear to e njo y p la yin g v id eo g am es, a nd w hile th ere a re u nd oub te d b enefits ,
vario us n egati v e e ffe cts
ste m
f r o m th is to o. L et u s c o nsid er th e m ain i s su es, a nd th en o utl in e p ossib le
re m ed ie s.
Perh ap s th e m ajo r p hysic al p ro ble m i s th e
se denta ry lif e sty le
w hic h th ese g am es e nco ura ge,
meanin g th at y o ungste rs m ay i n clin e to
obesit y
or
in adequate d evelo pm ent.
Added to th is i s th e
str a in
on e yesig ht r e su lti n g f r o m e xcessiv e u se o f s c re ens a nd c o nso le s, m eanin g th at c hild re n m ay
su ffe r
sy m pto m s
o f p oor v is io n. T here a re a ls o c o ncern s a b out
im pair m ent
of r e fle xes d ue to th e
re p eti ti v e n atu re o f th e h and m usc le s w hen p la yin g th ese g am es, a nd a b out th e
poor d ie t
o f
co nvenie nce f o od
w hic h o fte n a cco m panie s th is l ife sty le .
The m ost a la rm in g p sy cho lo gic al i m pact o f s u ch a cti v iti e s i s p ossib ly th e r is k o f
addic tio n
,
meanin g th at c hild re n b eco m e o bse sse d w ith th e g am es a nd a re u nab le to
so cia lis e
w ith f a m ily o r
peers . T his u nd erm in es th eir
in te rp erso nal s k ills
and m akes th em
underp erfo rm
both
acad em ic ally
and s o cia lly .

Turn in g to p ossib le s o lu ti o ns, p erh ap s th e i m med ia te s te p w ould b e to p ro m ote a m ore
activ e
lif e sty le
th ro ugh e xerc is e
re gim es
o r s p orts
pro gra m mes
w hic h w ould h elp to
deto xif y
th e l ife sty le s
of c hild re n a ffe cte d . T his c o uld b e d one th ro ugh
sp onso rsh ip
o f s p orts , o r
partic ip atio n
i n
co m petit iv e
e v ents s u ch a s r a ces o r m atc hes, h o pefu lly
am elio ra tin g t h e p hysic a l e ffe cts
o f
excessiv e g am es u se . P ote nti a l
re m edie s
f o r th e d anger o f m enta l a d dic ti o n m ay b e, f ir s tl y , a n
in it ia tiv e
to
ra is e a w are ness
o f th e r is k s o f th e s itu ati o n, f o r e xam ple th ro ugh
healt h w arn in gs
o n
gam es p ackagin g o r th ro ugh h ig h-p ro file s p okesp ers o ns s p re ad in g s u ch a m essa ge. F or e xam ple , i f
sp orts
ch am pio ns
o r
fig ure heads
s p eak o ut a b out th ese d angers , th e m essa ge m ay w ell g et th ro ugh to
child re n.
To s u m u p , th e r is k s p ose d b y e xcessiv e g am in g a re c o nnecte d to a n u nhealth y l ife sty le a nd th e
possib ility o f
dependency
o n th e a cti v ity . P ossib le a nsw ers m ig ht i n v olv e s tr o nger e d ucati o n a b out
th e d angers a nd th e h ealth b enefits o f m ore a cti v e
pursu it s
.

(3 13 w ord s)

Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g


to s te m
f r o m = to c o m e o r d eriv e f r o m , o fte n u se d f o r n egati v e th in gs

A l o t o f d elin q uency th ese d ays s te m s f r o m th e u se o f d ru gs o r a lc o ho l.

se denta ry lif e sty le
= a l ife sty le w here p eo ple s it f o r l o ng p erio ds a nd a re g enera lly i n acti v e

I u se d to k eep f it, b ut s in ce I s ta rte d w ork in g a s a n a rc hite ct m y l ife sty le h ad b eco m e m ostl y
se d enta ry .

obesit y =
th e m ed ic al c o nd iti o n o f b ein g s e rio usly o verw eig ht

In s o m e c o untr ie s, o besity i s th e m ajo r c ause o f d eath a m ong y o ung a d ults .

in adequate d evelo pm ent =
in su ffic ie nt o r o bstr u cte d g ro w th o f th e b ody

If c hild re n s m oke, th is c an c ause i n ad eq uate d ev elo pm ent o f th eir l u ngs a nd b ra in s.

str a in =
str e ss o r o verw ork , p hysic al o r m enta l

I h ad to ta ke a v acati o n d ue to th e s tr a in o f w ork in g s u ch l o ng h o urs .

sy m pto m s
= i n d ic ati o ns th at a m ed ic al p ro ble m i s p re se nt

A s o re th ro at a nd h ead ache a re s y m pto m s o f a c o ld o r f lu .

im pair m ent (
verb = to i m pair
=
to h in d er o r d am age a n a b ility )

His h earin g w as i m pair e d w hen h e h eard a l o ud e xp lo sio n a s a c hild .

poor d ie t
= a l ife sty le d ie t w ith o ut s u ffic ie nt n utr ie nts

Maln utr iti o n h ap pens d ue to a p oor d ie t a nd l a ck o f m ed ic al c are .

(‘a d ie t’ c an a ls o m ean a p ro gra m me o f r e d uced c alo rie s i n te nd ed to h elp y o u l o se w eig ht:
‘ My s is te r i s a lw ays t r y in g n ew d ie ts b eca use s h e w ants t o l o se 2 k ilo s b efo re t h e s u m mer’
)

co nvenie nce f o od
= f o od w hic h i s c o oked i n i ts p ackagin g, u su ally i n a m ic ro w av e

Briti s h a nd A meric an p eo ple e at a l a rg e a m ount o f c o nv enie nce f o od.

addic tio n =
th e s ta te o f b ein g u nab le to l iv e w ith o ut s o m eth in g

Many y o ung p eo ple a re a d dic te d to s o cia l m ed ia o r I n te rn et u se .

to s o cia lis e =
to m eet w ith f r ie nd s a nd o th er p eo ple i n a f r ie nd ly w ay

At w eekend s, I l ik e to s o cia lis e a t p arti e s a nd i n c afe s w ith m y o ld f r ie nd s.

in te rp erso nal s k ills =
th e s k ills o f d ealin g w ith p eo ple s u ccessfu lly

My b oss u se d to b e v ery a nno yin g, b ut th en h e w ent o n a c o urs e to d ev elo p p ro per
in te rp ers o nal s k ills .

to u nderp erfo rm =
to p erfo rm b elo w y o ur p eers o r e xp ecta ti o ns

My f o otb all te am a re u nd erp erfo rm in g b ad ly th is y ear.

activ e lif e sty le
= a l ife sty le w ith p ro per e xerc is e a nd f itn ess

The g o vern m ent tr ie s to p ro m ote a n a cti v e l ife sty le , b ut th is i s n o t s u ccessfu l.

a r e gim e, a p ro gra m me =
a p la nned s y ste m o f e xerc is e , d ie t o r s p ort

I a d opte d a v egeta ria n r e gim e f o r th re e m onth s b efo re m y e xam s.

(‘re gim e’ a ls o m eans a v ery s tr ic t g o vern m ent:
‘In t h e 1 970’s , m any S outh A m eric a n
co untr ie s w ere r u le d b y p olic e r e g im es.’
)

to d eto xif y
y o ur b ody = to r e m ove i m puriti e s a nd p ois o ns

I w ent to a c lin ic to d eto xify b ecause I w as e ati n g to o m uch f a tty f o od.

sp onso rsh ip
= p aym ent f r o m a c o m pany to a s p ort o r o th er a cti v ity i n r e tu rn f o r p ub lic ity

Moto r r a cin g i s o fte n s p onso re d b y e nerg y d rin k b ra nd s.

partic ip atio n =
to p arti c ip ate i n s o m eth in g = to j o in a nd ta ke p art i n i t

I p arti c ip ate d i n w re stl in g w hen I w as a t c o lle ge, b ut th en I g av e u p .

co m petit iv e
= th e a d je cti v e o f ‘ c o m peti ti o n’

Canad ia ns a re v ery c o m peti ti v e a b out i c e h o ckey te am s.

am elio ra tin g t h e p hysic a l e ffe cts
= to a m elio ra te = to m ake a p ro ble m l e ss d am agin g

The e ffe cts o f h is i n ju ry w ere a m elio ra te d b y e xte nsiv e p hysio th era p y.

re m edie s
= c ure s o r a nsw ers to a p ro ble m o r s itu ati o n

There a re m any r e m ed ie s f o r c o ld a nd f lu a v aila b le i n p harm acy s to re s.

an in it ia tiv e
= a n ew p ro gra m me o r i d ea, u su ally i n g o vern m ent o r b usin ess

We n eed i n iti a ti v es to ta ckle o besity , a nti - s o cia l b ehav io ur a nd d elin q uency.

ra is e a w are ness
= to m ake p eo ple m ore a w are o f o r c arin g a b out a n i s su e

We o rg anis e d a m ara th o n to r a is e a w are ness o f h eart d is e ase a nd w ays to p re v ent i t th ro ugh
exerc is e .

healt h w arn in gs
= n o ti c es o n c ig are tte o r a lc o ho l p ackagin g w arn in g a b out th e m ed ic al
effe cts

Alm ost a ll c o untr ie s h av e h ealth w arn in gs o n to bacco th ese d ays.

ch am pio ns
= h ig hly s u ccessfu l p eo ple i n s p ort o r b usin ess

Roger F ed ere r i s a c ham pio n te nnis p la yer, a nd a g o od r o le m odel to o.

fig ure heads
= p eo ple w ho r e p re se nt p art o f s o cie ty , o ffic ia lly o r u no ffic ia lly

The s in ger A dele i s a f ig ure head f o r m any y o ung w om en th ese d ays.

dependency
= th e c o nd iti o n o f r e ly in g o n s o m eth in g i n a n a d dic ti v e w ay

The p la yer w as tr e ate d f o r d ru g d ep end ency a t a d eto x c lin ic i n P aris .

pursu it s
= h o bbie s o r s p orts w hic h p eo ple d o f o r e njo ym ent

Skiin g a nd c yclin g a re m y m ain p urs u its a t w eekend s.

***

Top ic 7 : G lo b al c h alle n ges


About T opic 7

The
g lo bal c h alle nges
to pic i n clu d es e co no m ic i s su es, th eir i m pact o n p eo ple a nd s o cie ty ,
changes i n d em ogra p hic s, m ovem ents o f p opula ti o ns b etw een c o untr ie s a nd i n sid e c o untr ie s, l o ng
te rm tr e nd s i n p opula ti o n a nd i n d ustr y , s e v ere g lo bal p ro ble m s s u ch a s f a m in e, d ro ught a nd
maln utr iti o n, a nd a ls o th e p ossib le c ause s o f a ll th ese i s su es, th eir e ffe cts a nd p ossib le s o lu ti o ns to
th em .
There a re o fte n c o nnecti o ns b etw een th is to pic a nd th e o th er to pic s, e sp ecia lly
4 N atu re , t h e e nvir o nm ent a nd e nerg y, 8 C it ie s a nd in fr a str u ctu re , 9 T he c o untr y sid e a nd
agric u lt u re , a nd 1 0 G overn m ent a nd t h e a uth orit ie s.
This m eans th at y o u m ay s o m eti m es n eed to
co m bin e v ocab ula ry f r o m tw o ( o r p ossib ly th re e) to pic s to a nsw er a T ask . F or e xam ple , a T ask m ay
ask a b out th e e ffe ct o f e co no m ic p ro ble m s o n th e c o untr y sid e, a nd y o u w ould th en u se v ocab ula ry
fr o m T opic s 7 a nd 9 .

Topic 7 e xam ple T ask

‘U nem plo ym en t r e m ain s t h e b ig gest c h alle n ge t o s c h ool- le a vers i n m ost c o untr ie s’
How f a r d o y o u a gre e w ith t h is a sse ssm en t? W hat o th er c h alle n ges f a ce y o ung p eo ple
to day?
(s c h ool- le a vers = y o ung p eo ple w ho l e a ve s c h ool w ith out g oin g o n t o f u rth er s tu die s.)

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a no th er O pin io n> Pers o nal v ie w poin t ty p e e ssa y ( it a sk s h o w f a r y o u a gre e w ith a n
id ea.) Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic a nd g iv e y o ur o pin io n i n th e i n tr o ducti o n, th en e xp la in w hy y o u
hav e th is v ie w . Y ou s h o uld b rie fly c o nsid er th e o pposin g v ie w , th en r e sta te y o ur o pin io n i n th e
co nclu sio n. T his p arti c ula r T ask h as a n e xtr a e le m ent, w hic h s o m eti m es h ap pens i n T ask 2 : i t a sk s y o u
to s u ggest s o m e o th er c halle nges a ls o . Y ou s h o uld c o m bin e th ese i d eas i n th e m ain b ody o f th e e ssa y,
as i n th e e xam ple b elo w .


Band 9 m odel e ssa y

Youth u nem plo ym ent i s c erta in ly a w orry in g
ch alle nge
f o r m ost c o untr ie s, e sp ecia lly a t a ti m e
of
eco nom ic in sta bilit y
a nd
so cia l u nre st
. H ow ev er, to s a y th at th is i s th e l a rg est
is su e
i s to o verlo ok
a r a nge o f e q ually
pre ssin g m atte rs,
as w e w ill d is c uss n o w .
It m ust b e a d m itte d th at
jo ble ssn ess
c an u nd erm in e a y o ung p ers o n’s
eco nom ic p ro sp ects
a nd
co nse q uent
so cia l m obilit y .
Nev erth ele ss, th is i s su e c an b e
am elio ra te d
by c o ord in ate d a cti o n
betw een th e s ta te a nd th e
p riv ate s e cto r,
as w e h av e s e en, f o r i n sta nce, i n C anad a r e centl y . W hen th is
is r e aliz e d , w e c an s e e th at o th er c o ncern s a re a t l e ast a s s e rio us.
Fore m ost a m ong th ese i s p erh ap s th e i s su e o f a ge
dem ogra phic s
, w here b y y o ung p eo ple b ear

th e b urd en f o r a n i n cre asin gly e ld erly p opula ti o n w ith h ig h
lo ngevit y
. T his m eans th at y o ung p eo ple
will p ay h ig her ta xes a nd w ork l o nger h o urs , p ossib ly f o rc in g th em to
mig ra te
to c o untr ie s w here th is
pre ssu re i s l o w er. T he e ffe ct o f th is i s th e ‘
bra in d ra in ’
s itu ati o n w hic h c an b e s e en i n s o uth ern
Euro pe, w here y o ung, a m biti o us p eo ple p re fe r to l e av e th eir c o untr ie s a lto geth er, e xacerb ati n g th e
pro ble m f o r th o se r e m ain in g.
Furth erm ore , w e m ust r e m em ber th at a s u b sta nti a l p ro porti o n o f y o ung p eo ple g lo bally f a ce
exis te ntia l t h re ats
s u ch a s
fa m in e, d ro ught
o r
outb re ak s
o f d is e ase . T hese p ro ble m s a re o fte n
cause d b y ( o r a re c o m pound ed b y)
civ il w ar, p olit ic a l in sta bilit y
o r th e
co rru ptio n
o f p eo ple i n
pow er l o cally . S uch r is k s a re a d anger to th eir s a fe ty i n a d diti o n to th eir
liv elih ood
, a nd s o w ould
ap pear to b e f a r m ore s e rio us th an u nem plo ym ent.
To c o nclu d e, i t s e em s l o gic al to a ccep t th at j o ble ssn ess i s a m ajo r c halle nge f o r y o ung p eo ple .
How ev er, p ers is te nt tr e nd s i n d em ogra p hic s a m ong
develo ped c o untr ie s
a nd th e p re se nce o f p hysic al
dangers i n
develo pin g c o untr ie s
s h o uld b e r e gard ed a s a t l e ast a s s e v ere .

(2 90 w ord s)


Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g

a c h alle nge
= a p ro ble m o r d iffic ulty to b e f a ced

The W est f a ces m any c halle nges d ue to i ts a gein g p opula ti o n.

eco nom ic o r p olit ic a l in sta bilit y
= a r a p id , u nm anaged c hange i n a c o untr y ’s e co no m y o r
politi c al s itu ati o n

Eco no m ic i n sta b ility c ause s m any p eo ple to m ove a b ro ad to s e ek r e lia b le w ork .

so cia l u nre st =
rio ts , p ro te sts o r f ig hti n g b y th e p ub lic a gain st e ach o th er o r th e g o vern m ent

Socia l u nre st i s s p re ad in g f r o m th e c o untr y sid e to th e c iti e s, a nd th e p olic e a re n o t r e sp ond in g.

an
is su e
= a to pic , s u b je ct o r q uesti o n th at m ust b e c o nsid ere d

The i s su e o f p etr o l p ric e i n fla ti o n i s n o t o fte n d is c usse d i n th e m ed ia .

pre ssin g m atte rs =
urg ent, i m porta nt i s su es

I c o uld n o t g o to th e c o lle ge r e unio n b ecause o f m ore p re ssin g m atte rs a t h o m e w ith m y f a m ily .

jo ble ssn ess
= a s y no nym f o r ‘ u nem plo ym ent’

Jo ble ssn ess a m ong o ld er p eo ple i s a ctu ally h ig her th an a m ong r e cent g ra d uate s.

eco nom ic p ro sp ects
= th e f u tu re p ossib iliti e s f o r a n ati o nal e co no m y

The e co no m ic p ro sp ects f o r v ery s m all c o untr ie s a re q uite p ositi v e th ese d ays.

so cia l m obilit y =
th e a b ility o f p eo ple to p ro gre ss i n te rm s o f s a la ry , l ife sty le a nd s o cia l s ta tu s

The g re ate st a id to s o cia l m obility i s g o od e d ucati o n a nd tr a in in g.

th e p riv ate s e cto r =
priv ate b usin esse s, a s o ppose d to ‘ th e p ub lic s e cto r’ m eanin g s ta te -
ow ned o r c o ntr o lle d s e rv ic es

I d efin ite ly w ant to w ork i n th e p riv ate s e cto r a fte r I g ra d uate . I t i s a m ore s ti m ula ti n g
env ir o nm ent th an th e p ub lic s e cto r.

dem ogra phic s =
th e c hanges i n s o cie ty i n te rm s o f a ge, i n co m e, n um bers , o rig in s a nd l o cati o n
in a c o untr y

Dem ogra p hic c hanges i n S cand in av ia h av e b een d ra m ati c , w ith s u b sta nti a l i m mig ra ti o n a nd a n
agein g i n d ig eno us p opula ti o n.

lo ngevit y
= th e te nd ency to h av e a l o ng l ife e xp ecta ncy

Ja p anese p eo ple h av e p erh ap s th e h ig hest l o ngev ity i n th e w orld .

to m ig ra te
= to m ove p erm anentl y b etw een c o untr ie s

Mig ra ti o n w ith in th e E uro zo ne i s a h ig hly c o ntr o vers ia l i s su e a t p re se nt.

‘ bra in d ra in ’
= th e te nd ency f o r i n te llig ent o r s u ccessfu l w ork ers to m ig ra te o ut o f a c o untr y
(u su ally e xp re sse d i n q uo te s ‘ ’)

South ern E uro pe i s e xp erie ncin g a h ig h ‘ b ra in d ra in ’ th ese d ays, b ecause o f th e l a ck o f
eco no m ic p ro sp ects .

exis te ntia l t h re ats
= a th re at to e xis te nce o r l ife

The e co no m y o f m y c o untr y f a ces a n e xis te nti a l th re at f r o m c o lla p sin g o il r e v enues.

an o utb re ak =
th e s ta rt o f a w id esp re ad p ro ble m s u ch a s d is e ase o r c o nflic t

The o utb re ak o f E bola i s a g re at c o ncern f o r d octo rs g lo bally .

civ il w ar =
war b etw een p eo ple i n sid e a c o untr y

It w ill ta ke m any y ears f o r o ur n ati o n to r e co ver f r o m th e c iv il w ar o f th e 1 990s.

liv elih ood
= th e w ay a p ers o n m akes a l iv in g

Many v illa gers s e ll h and ic ra fts , a s th is i s th e o nly l iv elih o od th ey c an f in d .

develo ped c o untr ie s
= c o untr ie s c o nsid ere d to h av e a d vanced e co no m ie s, i n d ustr ie s a nd
so cia l i n fr a str u ctu re

Dev elo ped c o untr ie s c o ntr ib ute a id to th o se n ati o ns a ffe cte d b y f a m in e.

develo pin g c o untr ie s =
co untr ie s n o t g enera lly c o nsid ere d to b e f u lly d ev elo ped y et

Illite ra cy i s a h uge c halle nge f o r d ev elo pin g c o untr ie s to o verc o m e.

***

Top ic 8 : C it ie s a n d in fr a str u ctu re

About T opic 8

The
c it ie s a nd in fr a str u ctu re
to pic i n clu d es th e o rg anis a ti o n o f u rb an tr a nsp ort,
co m munic ati o ns a nd h o usin g, tr e nd s i n c ity l ife , s o cia l p ro ble m s a sso cia te d w ith c iti e s s u ch a s
overc ro w din g a nd p etty c rim e, th e g ro w th o f c iti e s, p ossib le f u tu re d ev elo pm ents i n c ity l iv in g, a nd
co m paris o ns o f u rb an a nd r u ra l l ife sty le s.
This to pic i s o fte n u se d f o r T ask 2 I d eas> pro ble m /s o lu ti o n a nd I d eas> cause /e ffe ct ty p e
essa ys. T here i s a ls o s o m eti m es a c o nnecti o n to T opic
9 C ountr y sid e a nd a gric u lt u re ,
so y o u m ay
need to c o m bin e v ocab ula ry f r o m th e tw o to pic s.

Topic 8 e xam ple T ask

Tra nsp ort d ela ys a nd l o ng j o urn ey t im es a re a w id esp re a d p hen om en on i n m any c itie s
to day. W hat a re t h e c a use s o f t h is p ro ble m , a nd h ow c o uld t h e s itu atio n b e i m pro ved ?

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a n I d eas> M ix ed > C ause s/s o lu ti o ns ty p e e ssa y. I t d oes n o t a sk f o r y o ur o pin io n, b ut
wants y o u to s u ggest s o m e i d eas a b out th e c ause s o f a p ro ble m s itu ati o n a nd a ls o s o m e p ossib le
so lu ti o ns. Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , d esc rib e tw o o r th re e c ause s, th en tw o o r th re e s o lu ti o ns,
and th en s u m maris e .
Task 2 s o m eti m es m ix es C ause /e ffe ct a nd P ro ble m /s o lu ti o n T ask s i n th is w ay. Y ou s h o uld
re ad th e T ask v ery c are fu lly to s e e i f i t i s a ‘ m ix ed ’ ty p e. T he w ord ‘ p ro ble m ’ d oes n o t
necessa rily
mean i t i s a P ro ble m /s o lu ti o n T ask !


Band 9 m odel e ssa y

Tra nsp ort i s a n e sse nti a l p art o f
urb an
l ife , a nd l e ngth y j o urn eys a re f r u str a ti n g a nd e xp ensiv e
fo r th o se c o ncern ed . T here a p pear to b e tw o m ain c ause s o f th is , a nd s e v era l p ossib le s o lu ti o ns, a s
we w ill e xp la in h ere .
Perh ap s th e m ain c ause i s th e l a ck o f
in vestm ent o r f u ndin g f o r in fr a str u ctu re
i n th e f o rm o f
hig h-c a pacit y p ublic t r a nsp ort
a nd i n cre ase d r o ad s p ace f o r p riv ate v ehic le s. T his m eans th at to o
many v ehic le s u se th e e xis ti n g n etw ork , a nd
co ngestio n
i s i n ev ita b le . W e s e e th is i n m ost l a rg e c iti e s
glo bally , s u ch a s L ond on o r T okyo . M any
co nurb atio ns
a ls o l a ck f in ance f o r
tr a nsp ort h ubs
, s u ch a s
in te gra te d r o ad a nd r a il
f a cilit ie s
w hic h c o uld c o nnect p ub lic a nd
priv ate t r a nsp ort
, th us r e d ucin g
bottle neck s
. A f u rth er c ause s e em s to b e th e p ro ble m o f
overc ro w din g
i n c iti e s, w here b y p eo ple
mig ra te f r o m th e
hin te rla nd
a nd
se ttle
in u rb an a re as, p utti n g s tr a in o n
am enit ie s
, h o usin g a nd a b ove
all o n tr a nsp ort c ap acity . T his m eans th at a n a lr e ad y s tr e tc hed s y ste m i s o fte n p ush ed to a c riti c al
poin t, c ausin g c ancella ti o ns a nd b re akd ow ns i n th e te chno lo gy u se d , e sp ecia lly i n s itu ati o ns o f
urb an
sp ra w l
s u ch a s i n L ati n A meric a.
Regard in g p ote nti a l s o lu ti o ns, p ro bab ly th e m ain r e m ed y w ould b e to e nco ura ge i n v estm ent i n

bette r i n fr a str u ctu re , f o r e xam ple th ro ugh s u b sid ie s o r
public -p riv ate p artn ersh ip s
a s w as tr ie d
su ccessfu lly i n G erm any d urin g th e 1 990’s . T his e nhances th e n etw ork a nd f o ste rs a s e nse o f
civ ic
prid e
, to e v ery o ne’s b enefit. A no th er s o lu ti o n m ay b e to u se
ta x in ce ntiv es
to a llo w m ore
hom e
work in g
, s o th at th ere i s l e ss n eed to
co m mute
f r o m th e
su burb s
to th e
in ner c it y
f o r w ork . A f in al
re sp onse m ig ht b e th e d ev elo pm ent o f m ore f le xib le p atte rn s o f tr a nsp ort, s u ch a s
co m munal c a r-
poolin g
, w hic h w ould r e d uce r e lia nce o n e xis ti n g s y ste m s a nd v ehic le s.
In c o nclu sio n, i t s e em s th at
outd ate d
in fr a str u ctu re a nd o verc ro w din g a re th e k ey f a cto rs
behin d o ur tr a nsp ort f r u str a ti o ns. P ossib le s o lu ti o ns w ould i n v olv e b ette r f u nd in g, a nd a ls o
in novatio ns
i n w ays o f w ork in g a nd tr a v ellin g to r e d uce th e
burd en
o n th e s y ste m .

(3 11 w ord s)

Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g


urb an
= a d je cti v e m eanin g ‘ a b out c iti e s’

Urb an c rim e i s a g re at c o ncern f o r th e a uth o riti e s i n m ost c o untr ie s to day.

in vestm ent o r f u ndin g =
money to p ay f o r a n a cti v ity , e ith er f r o m g o vern m ent o r b usin ess

My h o m e to w n s e cure d i n v estm ent f r o m a c harity f o r a n ew s ta d iu m , a nd f u nd in g f r o m a l o cal
co m pany f o r s p onso rs h ip .

in fr a str u ctu re
= th e p hysic al a nd s y ste m o rg anis a ti o n o f a c ity , a re a o r c o untr y , e sp ecia lly i n
te rm s o f tr a nsp ort a nd c o m munic ati o ns

The U K r a ilw ay i n fr a str u ctu re d ate s b ack to th e 1 860’s i n m any p la ces.

hig h-c a pacit y =
ab le to h and le h ig h v olu m es o f g o ods o r p eo ple

Sea c o nta in er s h ip s a re h ig h-c ap acity i n te rn ati o nal f r e ig ht p ro vid ers .

public t r a nsp ort
= tr a nsp ort s u ch a s b use s a nd tr a in s f u nd ed b y th e s ta te ( a s o ppose d to
‘p riv ate tr a nsp ort’ s u ch a s c ars o w ned b y i n d iv id uals )

I u su ally g et to w ork b y p ub lic tr a nsp ort, e v en th o ugh i t’ s v ery c ro w ded .

co ngestio n
= s itu ati o n o f to o m uch tr a ffic , c ausin g d ela ys ( th e p hra se ‘ tr a ffic j a m ’ i s n o t
genera lly u se d i n A cad em ic E nglis h )

I h av e to l e av e h o m e v ery e arly i n th e m orn in gs, b ecause o f th e c o ngesti o n o n th e w ay to m y
co lle ge.

co nurb atio ns
= v ery l a rg e c iti e s w hic h h av e a b so rb ed o th er to w ns

Sao P ao lo i s a h uge c o nurb ati o n i n B ra zil, a nd i s s ti ll e xp and in g.

tr a nsp ort h ubs =
centr e s w here m any r o ute s c o nv erg e

Heath ro w a ir p ort i s th e l a rg est tr a nsp ort h ub i n E uro pe.

fa cilit ie s
a nd
am enit ie s =
pla ces p ro vid in g a ny s e rv ic e to th e p ub lic , e ith er p riv ate o r p ub lic
se cto r

My h o m e c ity h as m any a m eniti e s s u ch a s s w im min g p ools a nd p ark s, a nd s e v era l f a ciliti e s
fo r e ld erly p eo ple s u ch a s c are h o m es.

a b ottle neck
= a p la ce w here c o ngesti o n r e gula rly h ap pens

The c o nnecti o n f r o m a m oto rw ay to a l o cal r o ad i s a lw ays a b ig b ottl e neck.

overc ro w din g
= a s itu ati o n w here to o m any p eo ple tr y to l iv e i n o ne p la ce

Hong K ong h as m anaged i ts o verc ro w din g p ro ble m v ery s k ilfu lly .

hin te rla nd
= th e a re a a ro und a c ity a ffe cte d b y i ts d ev elo pm ent

I l iv e i n th e h in te rla nd o f o ur c ap ita l c ity , w here w e r e gula rly g o f o r s h o ppin g a nd f o r w ork
pro je cts .

to s e ttle in a p la ce =
to m ove a nd l iv e th ere p erm anentl y , u su ally w ith w ork a nd a f a m ily

I w as b orn i n A sia , b ut m y p are nts s e ttl e d i n th e U SA w hen I w as v ery y o ung.

urb an s p ra w l
= th e s itu ati o n w here a c ity e xp and s a nd b uild in gs a re c o nstr u cte d w ith o ut
co ntr o l o r l a w s

Urb an s p ra w l h as r e su lte d i n th e r a p id e xp ansio n o f m any A sia n c iti e s, w ith r e su lti n g d am age
to th e e nv ir o nm ent.

public -p riv ate p artn ersh ip s =
pro je cts f u nd ed j o in tl y b y th e g o vern m ent a nd b usin ess, to
re d uce th e c o st to th e ta xp ayer

My c o untr y h as j u st i n sta lle d a n ew tu nnel u nd er th e c entr a l m ounta in s, r u n b y a p ub lic -p riv ate
partn ers h ip .

civ ic p rid e =
th e p rid e f e lt i n th e to w n/c ity w here y o u l iv e, i ts p eo ple a nd i n fr a str u ctu re

As a s y m bol o f c iv ic p rid e, w e b uilt a n ew p ark z o ne w ith s p orts a m eniti e s a nd e d ucati o nal
exhib iti o ns.

ta x in ce ntiv es =
re d ucti o ns i n ta x to e nco ura ge p eo ple to d o o r b uy s o m eth in g

We s h o uld u se ta x i n centi v es to e nco ura ge m ore p eo ple to tr y u sin g th eir o w n s o la r p anels a t
ho m e.

hom e w ork in g =
work in g i n y o ur h o m e f o r a ll o r p art o f th e w eek

Hom e w ork in g c an b e q uite a n i s o la te d w ay to d o y o ur j o b.

to c o m mute =
to tr a v el a l o ng d is ta nce to w ork e v ery d ay

I l iv e i n th e s u b urb s a nd c o m mute b y tr a in to th e c ity c entr e .

su burb s
= th e r e sid enti a l a re as a ro und a c ity

Life i n th e s u b urb s c an b e r a th er b orin g, to b e h o nest.

th e in ner c it y =
th e o ld er, c entr a l p art o f a c ity

In ner c ity h o usin g i s o fte n o verc ro w ded a nd n o is y.

co m munal c a r-p oolin g
= a v olu nta ry s y ste m f o r p eo ple to tr a v el i n a s h are d c ar, to r e d uce
fu el u se

I tr ie d c ar-p oolin g, b ut i t w as d iffic ult to a rra nge th e j o urn eys w ith th re e o th er p eo ple .

outd ate d =
old -fa sh io ned a nd n o t r e le v ant to day

I f in d th at o ur p oliti c al p arti e s a re v ery o utd ate d th ese d ays.

in novatio ns
= n ew i d eas o r th in gs ( w hic h a re u su ally u se fu l o r e xciti n g)

Mobile c o m puti n g w as o ne o f th e g re at i n no vati o ns o f th e l a st te n y ears .

a b urd en =
a w eig ht o r r e sp onsib ility w hic h i s d iffic ult to c o pe w ith

The b urd en o f i n co m e ta x i s m uch to o h ig h th ese d ays f o r n o rm al p eo ple .

***

Top ic 9 : C ou ntr y sid e a n d a gric u lt u re

About to pic 9

The
C ountr y sid e a nd a gric u lt u re
to pic c o vers s o cia l a nd p hysic al c hanges i n th e
co untr y sid e, r u ra l v ers u s u rb an l ife sty le s, w ays o f u sin g th e c o untr y sid e, a nd m eth o ds o f f a rm in g
in clu d in g a nim als a nd c ro ps.
It m ay s e em s u rp ris in g, b ut a gric ultu re i s a ctu ally o ne o f th e m ost c o m mon to pic s i n I E LT S
acro ss th e W riti n g, R ead in g, S peakin g a nd L is te nin g te sts . T his m eans th at y o u s h o uld d efin ite ly l e arn
to u se a gric ultu re v ocab ula ry a s p art o f y o ur e xam p re p ara ti o n, e v en i f th e s u b je ct i s n o t p ers o nally
in te re sti n g f o r y o u.

Topic 9 e xam ple T ask

It i s s o m etim es s a id t h at t h e c o untr y sid e o ffe rs a h ig h q uality o f l ife , e sp ecia lly f o r
fa m ilie s. W hat a re t h e a rg um en ts f o r a nd a gain st f a m ilie s c h oosin g t o l iv e a nd w ork i n t h e
co untr y sid e, f o r e xa m ple a s f a rm ers? W hat i s y o ur o w n v ie w a bout t h is ?

Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a n O pin io n> D is c ussio n ty p e T ask . Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , p re se nt tw o o r th re e
id eas o n e ach s id e o f th e d is c ussio n, a nd th en g iv e y o ur o pin io n i n th e c o nclu sio n.
The T ask a sk s y o u s p ecific ally to th in k o f f a m ilie s a nd th e e xam ple o f f a rm ers , s o y o u s h o uld
in clu d e s o m e i d eas a b out th is . A lw ays c heck c are fu lly to s e e i f th e T ask h as a ny e xtr a o r s p ecific
in str u cti o ns s u ch a s th is – i f y o u m is s th ese , i t m ay a ffe ct y o ur s c o re b ad ly .


Band 9 m odel e ssa y

There c an b e f e w c ho ic es i n l ife m ore i m porta nt th an w here to s e ttl e a s a f a m ily , a nd th e
questi o n o f a n u rb an o r
ru ra l
l o cati o n i s c o m ple x. T here a re s tr o ng a rg um ents f o r a nd a gain st l iv in g i n
th e c o untr y sid e, a s w e w ill d is c uss n o w .
On th e o ne h and , i t m ig ht b e s a id th at th e c o untr y sid e i s r a th er a
back w ate r
, w ith f e w er
cultu ra l a m eniti e s th an a c ity i n th e f o rm o f m use um s, th eatr e s a nd e v en s p orti n g e v ents . T his m ay
mean th at f a m ilie s b eco m e i s o la te d , e sp ecia lly a s
ru ra l d epopula tio n
l e av es f e w er
co untr y d w elle rs
in th e a re a, a s w e s e e, f o r e xam ple , i n c entr a l F ra nce. A dded to th is i s th e
sc a rc it y
o f s c ho ols a nd
co lle ges, m eanin g th at c hild re n m ay n eed to tr a v el l o ng d is ta nces f o r th eir e d ucati o n. F in ally , c are er
opti o ns m ay b e m ore l im ite d i n th e c o untr y sid e f o r b oth p are nts a nd c hild re n, r e su lti n g i n
ru ra l
unem plo ym ent
a nd l o ng-te rm
ru ra l p overty
i n th e w ors t c ase s.
Conv ers e ly , l ife i n th e c o untr y sid e h as r e w ard s w hic h g o b eyo nd
mate ria l c o nsid era tio ns.
For e xam ple ,
th e
abundance
o f
natu ra l r e so urc es s u ch a s l a nd ,
wild lif e f o re str y a nd w ate r b odie s
means th at a c o m para ti v ely s im ple l ife c an b e l iv ed a t a
su bsis te nce
l e v el. M any c o untr y r e sid ents
are
se lf -s u ffic ie nt
sm allh old ers
i n th is s e nse , s a fe guard in g th em f r o m th e c hanges i n
th e w id er
eco nom y
w hic h c an
afflic t c it y d w elle rs
. I f th e p are nts a re f a rm ers , c hild re n l e arn th e i m porta nce o f

anim al h usb andry
, m eth o ds o f f a rm in g s u ch a s
cro p r o ta tio n a nd
ir rig ati o n, a nd g enera lly m ay
beco m e m ore i n tu ne w ith th e n atu ra l w orld a s a r e su lt. F in ally , a s te chno lo gy e nab le s c hild re n to
und erta ke d is ta nce l e arn in g o r
re m ote v ie w in g
o f c ultu ra l a ttr a cti o ns s u ch a s m use um s, th ey s h o uld
be l e ss i s o la te d f r o m th eir c ultu ra l h erita ge.
Overa ll, i t s e em s to m e th at q uality o f l ife i n th e c o untr y sid e to day i s i n d eed q uite h ig h, w ith
its a d vanta ges o f r e so urc es, s e lf- s u ffic ie ncy a nd
envir o nm enta l a w are ness
. T his i s e sp ecia lly tr u e
no w th at c o m munic ati o ns a re r e d ucin g th e r is k o f i s o la ti o n i n s u ch
fa r-flu ng
c o m muniti e s.

(3 17 w ord s)


Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g

ru ra l
= th e a d je cti v e f o r ‘ c o untr y sid e’

I c o m e f r o m a r u ra l a re a o rig in ally , a lth o ugh th ese d ays I l iv e i n o ur c ap ita l c ity .

a back w ate r
= a n a re a o f a c o untr y w here l ittl e o f i n te re st h ap pens

I u se d to l iv e i n a n a gric ultu ra l to w n, b ut f r a nkly i t w as s u ch a b ackw ate r th at I m oved to o ne
of th e l a rg er c iti e s.

ru ra l d epopula tio n
= th e l o ng-te rm tr e nd f o r p eo ple to m ig ra te f r o m th e c o untr y sid e to c iti e s,
le av in g th e r u ra l a re as w ith f e w p eo ple

Rura l d ep opula ti o n c an c ause h uge p ro ble m s w ith l o cal i n fr a str u ctu re , a s th ere a re n’t e no ugh
peo ple to r u n th e s e rv ic es a nd tr a nsp ort.

co untr y d w elle rs
= p eo ple w ho l iv e i n th e c o untr y sid e ( ‘c ity d w elle rs ’ = p eo ple w ho l iv e i n
citi e s)

My p are nts w ere c o untr y d w elle rs w hen th ey f ir s t m arrie d , b ut n o w w e a ll l iv e i n a c o asta l
to w n.

a s c a rc it y
= a l a ck o r s h o rta ge o f s o m eth in g

The w ors t p ro ble m I e xp erie nced i n th e c o untr y sid e w as a r e al s c arc ity o f s p orts e v ents a nd
music f e sti v als .

ru ra l u nem plo ym ent
= u nem plo ym ent a ffe cti n g r u ra l w ork ers s p ecific ally

Rura l u nem plo ym ent h as b een a m elio ra te d b y i n no vati v e I n te rn et s ta rt- u p s.

ru ra l p overty =
bein g e xtr e m ely p oor i n th e c o untr y sid e

Rura l p overty i s a l o ng-te rm s itu ati o n e xacerb ate d b y l a ck o f i n fr a str u ctu re a nd tr a in in g.

mate ria l c o nsid era tio ns =
co ncern s a b out m oney a nd m ate ria l p osse ssio ns

You c an’t o nly th in k o f m ate ria l c o nsid era ti o ns w hen d ecid in g w ho to m arry , I f e el.

an a bundance =
a v ery h ig h l e v el o f s u p ply o r a v aila b ility o f s o m eth in g

In th e m ounta in s, th ere ’s a n a b und ance o f w ild f lo w ers a nd g o ats .


wild lif e =
anim als l iv in g n atu ra lly i n th e w ild

It’ s s u rp ris in g h o w m uch w ild life y o u c an s e e i n th e s u b urb s i n A ustr a lia .

fo re str y =
th e i n d ustr y o f g ro w in g a nd c utti n g tr e es

When I g ra d uate , I w ant to w ork f o r a r e sp onsib le f o re str y c o m pany.

wate r b odie s
= i n la nd a re as o f w ate r ( riv ers , l a kes, r e se rv oir s e tc )

My c o untr y i s v ery a rid a nd h as a lm ost n o w ate r b odie s.

su bsis te nce
= a d je cti v e m eanin g ‘ p ro ducin g j u st e no ugh to l iv e o n’

Sub sis te nce f a rm ers g ro w th eir o w n f o od b ut h av e l ittl e l e ft to s e ll f o r p ro fit.

se lf -s u ffic ie nt
= n o t n eed in g to i m port o r b uy r e so urc es f r o m o uts id e th e f a rm o r c o untr y

Durin g th e w ar, o ur c o untr y b ecam e s e lf- s u ffic ie nt i n c ro ps a nd f u el.

sm allh old ers
= f a rm ers m anagin g v ery s m all f a rm s, u su ally w ith th eir f a m ilie s

I w ork ed o n a p ro je ct tr a in in g s m allh o ld ers i n S outh A meric a i n h o w to l o bby p oliti c ia ns f o r
re fo rm .

th e w id er e co nom y
= th e n ati o nal e co no m y i n a c o untr y

My b usin ess i s g ro w in g, d esp ite th e d eclin e i n th e w id er e co no m y.

to a fflic t =
to a ffe ct ( u se d f o r p ro ble m s o r d is e ase s)

Many f o re sts i n m y a re a a re a fflic te d b y w ood d is e ase w hic h a tta cks th e tr e es.

anim al h usb andry =
th e s k ill o f k eep in g a nim als

My s is te r s tu d ie d a nim al h usb and ry a t c o lle ge a nd e njo yed i t e no rm ously .

cro p r o ta tio n =
th e p ro cess o f u sin g d iffe re nt f ie ld s e ach y ear to k eep th e s o il h ealth y

Som e s m allh o ld ers d o n o t p ra cti s e c ro p r o ta ti o n, a nd s o th eir l a nd b eco m es i n fe rti le .

re m ote v ie w in g
= v ie w in g p la ces b y I n te rn et, n o t i n p ers o n

I to ok a r e m ote v ie w in g to ur o f th e M etr o polita n M use um i n N ew Y ork , a nd f o und i t v ery
im pre ssiv e.

envir o nm enta l a w are ness =
an u nd ers ta nd in g o f e nv ir o nm enta l i s su es

Env ir o nm enta l a w are ness i s p art o f th e s c ho ol c urric ulu m th ese d ays f o r m ost c hild re n.

fa r-flu ng
= r e m ote o r f a r a w ay

My f ia ncé l iv es i n a v ery f a r-flu ng v illa ge, b ut w e k eep i n to uch b y S kyp e.

***

Top ic 1 0: G overn m en t a n d t h e a u th orit ie s

About T opic 1 0

The
Govern m ent a nd t h e a uth orit ie s
to pic m ostl y i n clu d es l a w a nd o rd er, c rim e a nd
polic in g, j u sti c e a nd p unis h m ent. O ccasio nally th e T ask m ay r e fe r to w ays o f m anagin g p ub lic
se rv ic es, a nd r e la ti o ns b etw een c o untr ie s.
The T ask s m ay a sk a b out p ub lic p olic y i n te rm s o f f u nd in g ( E g ‘ H ow s h o uld p ris o ns b e r u n –
by g o vern m ents o r b y p riv ate o rg anis a ti o ns? ’) b ut w ill n o t a sk f o r y o ur p oliti c al v ie w s o r a b out
actu al e v ents i n s p ecific c o untr ie s.


Topic 1 0 e xam ple T ask

Som e o bse rv ers s a y t h at p olic e o ffic ers s h ould b e r e cru ite d f r o m t h e c o m munitie s w here
th ey w ork , s o t h at t h ey h ave l o ca l k n ow le d ge. O th er p eo ple s a y t h at t h is i s u nnecessa ry, o r e ven
undesir a ble . W here d o y o u s ta nd o n t h is d eb ate ? I s l o ca l k n ow le d ge e sse n tia l i n m odern p olic in g?


Exp la nati o n o f th e T ask

This i s a n O pin io n> Pers o nal v ie w poin t T ask . Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic a nd g iv e y o ur
opin io n i n th e i n tr o ducti o n, th en e xp la in w hy y o u h av e th is v ie w . Y ou s h o uld b rie fly c o nsid er th e
opposin g v ie w , th en r e sta te y o ur o pin io n i n th e c o nclu sio n. T he T ask h as th e s p ecific i n str u cti o n to
decid e i f y o u th in k l o cal k no w le d ge i s ‘ e sse nti a l,’ s o y o u s h o uld r e fe r to th is a s p art o f y o ur o pin io n.

Band 9 m odel e ssa y

The n eed f o r e ffe cti v e,
tr u stw orth y
polic e o ffic ers i s
para m ount
i n s o cie ty to day, e sp ecia lly
as c rim in als b eco m e m ore
devio us
a nd c re ati v e. R egard in g w heth er p olic e s h o uld b e l o cally h ir e d ,
th ere i s a c ase to b e m ad e o n b oth s id es o f th e d eb ate .
Tho se w ho s u p port l o cal r e cru itm ent o f o ffic ers p oin t to th e n eed f o r th e p olic e to u nd ers ta nd
th e
min utia e
o f th e l o cal c o m munity . F or e xam ple , a c o m munity m ay h av e c erta in
fr ic tio ns
o r a
his to ry o f a s p ecific
grie vance
, w heth er r e lig io us, p oliti c al o r o th erw is e . I n s u ch s itu ati o ns, th e
arg um ent g o es, th e p olic e n eed to s h o w
se nsit iv it y
, a nd a ls o b e a b le to a nti c ip ate th e k in d s o f c rim es
th at m ay b e
co m mit te d
. F urth erm ore , l o cal o ffic ers m ay f in d i t e asie r to g ain
in fo rm ants
i n th e
co m munity , l e ad in g to s tr o nger
evid ence
a t
tr ia ls
, h ig her
co nvic tio n
r a te s a nd a
dete rre nt
to c rim e
th ro ugh
se nte ncin g, im pris o nm ent, f in es
o r
co m munit y s e rv ic e
l e ad in g to
re habilit a tio n
o f th e
offe nder
.
On th e o th er h and , i t s e em s l ik ely th at o ffic ers f r o m th e c o m munity m ay i n f a ct s h are s o m e o f
th e
te ndencie s
o f th e p eo ple th ey g re w u p w ith . F or e xam ple , i n c o untr ie s s u ch a s M exic o , w e s e e a
hig h i n cid ence o f
co rru ptio n
a m ong th e l o cal b usin ess a nd g o vern m ent c o m munity w hic h i s e q ualle d
by
brib ery
a m ong th e p olic e. A s e co nd o bje cti o n i s th at l o cal s e nsiti v ity m ay l e ad to th e p olic e
fa ilin g to
enfo rc e la w s
f u lly , a nd e ffe cti v ely m akin g e xcep ti o ns f o r s o m e o ffe nd ers , w hic h i s

unequit a ble
to w ard s
la w -a bid in g
c iti z e ns. F in ally , w e m ust r e m em ber th at p olic e o ffic ers s h o uld
hav e
tr a nsfe ra ble s k ills
, s u ch a s
la te ra l t h in k in g
a nd
in vestig ativ e
a b ility , w hic h s h o uld
tr a nsc e nd
th eir b ackgro und o r th e e nv ir o nm ent th ey a re w ork in g i n .
Overa ll, i t s e em s to m e th at l o cal k no w le d ge i s n o t a b so lu te ly e sse nti a l f o r th e p olic e, w ho se
sk ills s h o uld b e e ffe cti v e i n a ny
co nte xt
. I n d eed , I a gre e w ith th o se w ho s a y th at th e r is k s o f l o cal
re cru itm ent
outw eig h
th e b enefits , b ecause o f th e d anger o f c o rru p ti o n a nd
over-fa m ilia rit y
w ith
pote nti a l o ffe nd ers .

(3 18 w ord s)

Exp la nati o n o f th e to pic v ocab ula ry a nd e xam ple s i n S peakin g

tr u stw orth y =
cap ab le o f b ein g tr u ste d

In m ost c o untr ie s, p oliti c ia ns a re r e gard ed a s u ntr u stw orth y a nd p ossib ly c o rru p t.

para m ount
= o f th e g re ate st i m porta nce

It i s p ara m ount th at w e f in d a s o lu ti o n to th e p ro ble m o f I n te rn et p ir a cy.

devio us
= e xtr e m ely c le v er i n a d is h o nest w ay

Onlin e c rim in als to day a re d ev io us, a nd u se m any d iffe re nt m eth o ds to d eceiv e th eir v ic ti m s.

min utia e ( p ro nounce d ‘ m y-n ew -s h y’) =
sm all d eta ils

Nobody r e ally u nd ers ta nd s th e m in uti a e o f th e n ew ta x c o de.

grie vance
= a n i s su e w hic h m akes p eo ple u p se t o r a ngry f o r a l o ng ti m e

Som e to w ns i n th e c o untr y sid e h av e a g rie v ance w ith c entr a l g o vern m ent b ecause o f l a nd
re fo rm l a w s.

se nsit iv it y
= b ein g a le rt to th e c ir c um sta nces o f a s p ecific g ro up o f p eo ple

Teachers s h o uld s h o w s e nsiti v ity to s tu d ents w ho h av e l a nguage d iffic ulti e s.

to c o m mit a n o ffe nce /a c rim e
= to d o i t

The P re sid ent c o m mitte d m urd er w hen h e a rra nged f o r h is o pponent to b e a ssa ssin ate d .

in fo rm ants =
peo ple w ho te ll th e p olic e u se fu l i n fo rm ati o n a b out c rim in als i n th eir a re a

The p olic e p aid th e i n fo rm ant f o r i n fo rm ati o n a b out w ho o rg anis e d th e r io ts
.

evid ence
= m ate ria l p re se nte d i n c o urt to p ro ve th at s o m eo ne i s g uilty o r i n no cent

The p olic e h ad a l o t o f D NA e v id ence a gain st h er, b ut n o w itn ess s ta te m ents .

a t r ia l = t h e le gal p ro ce dure o f
pro se cuti n g s o m eo ne f o r a c rim e

A m urd er tr ia l c an l a st f o r m any w eeks a nd c o st m illio ns o f E uro s to c o nd uct.

co nvic tio n
ra te s
= th e p erc enta ge o f a ccuse d p eo ple w ho a re c o nv ic te d o f ( = f o und to b e
guilty o f) a c rim e

Conv ic ti o n r a te s f o r b urg la ry a re l o w ; o nly a b out 3 0% o f tr ia ls r e su lt i n a c o nv ic ti o n.

a d ete rre nt
= s o m eth in g th at m akes p eo ple
not
w ant to d o s o m eth in g ( v erb = to d ete r)

We h av e a g uard d og a s a d ete rre nt a gain st i n tr u d ers a t n ig ht. I t d ete rs p eo ple f r o m c o m in g
in to o ur g ard en.

se nte ncin g =
th e a cti o n o f te llin g a c o nv ic te d c rim in al w hat th e p unis h m ent i s
(v erb = to s e nte nce)

Im pris o nm ent =
punis h m ent b y b ein g i n p ris o n

He w as s e nte nced to f iv e y ears i m pris o nm ent f o r th e a rm ed r o bbery o f a s h o p.

A f in e =
money p aid a s a p unis h m ent

The f in e f o r s p eed in g i n m y c o untr y i s a b out 2 00 E uro s.

co m munit y s e rv ic e
= p unis h m ent b y d oin g m anual w ork f o r th e p ub lic

Her c o m munity s e rv ic e c o nsis te d o f c le anin g th e to w n p ark s a nd s w eep in g l itte r i n th e s tr e ets .

re habilit a tio n
= th e p ro cess o f c hangin g a c rim in al’s c hara cte r s o th at h e d oes n o t c o m mit
more c rim es ( v erb = to r e hab ilita te s o m eo ne)

Som e p ris o ns u se m usic a nd d ra m a to r e hab ilita te o ffe nd ers . O th ers s a y th ere i s n o p oin t i n
tr y in g.

an o ffe nder =
a p ers o n w ho c o m mits a n o ffe nce

The g o vern m ent s h o uld p ro vid e tr a in in g f o r o ffe nd ers i n p ris o n, s o th at th ey d on’t tu rn to
crim e a gain w hen th ey l e av e.

te ndencie s =
in clin ati o ns d ue to y o ur c hara cte r ( u su ally n egati v e)

Som e y o ung p eo ple i n c iti e s h av e te nd encie s to w ard s g ra ffiti a nd v and alis m .

co rru ptio n =
th e c rim e w hen a n o ffic ia l b re aks l a w s to h elp p eo ple th at h e k no w s

Corru p ti o n i s w id esp re ad i n th e p olic e i n s o m e d ev elo pin g c o untr ie s.

brib ery
= th e c rim e o f g iv in g m oney to o ffic ia ls to g et s o m eth in g d one ( v erb = to b rib e
so m eo ne)

I h ad to b rib e a c usto m s i n sp ecto r to g et m y l u ggage th ro ugh th e a ir p ort.

to e nfo rc e la w s
= to a p ply th em to p eo ple

The p olic e a re n o t e nfo rc in g th e l a w s a b out d ro ppin g l itte r i n p ub lic . T hey s h o uld a rre st m ore
peo ple f o r th is .

unequit a ble
= u nfa ir o r d iffe re nt f o r d iffe re nt g ro up s

It i s u neq uita b le to a rre st y o ung p eo ple f o r s p eed in g, b ut n o t o ld er p eo ple .

la w -a bid in g
= f o llo w in g a ll th e l a w s i n a p ro per w ay

I a m a l a w -a b id in g c iti z e n. I n ev er b re ak th e s p eed l im it o r a ny o th er l a w s.

tr a nsfe ra ble s k ills =
sk ills th at c an b e u se d i n d iffe re nt s itu ati o ns

I h av e tr a nsfe ra b le s k ills w hic h I u se i n b oth m y p ro fe ssio nal c are er a nd m y f u nd -ra is in g w ork
fo r c hariti e s.

la te ra l t h in k in g =
th e a b ility to th in k c re ati v ely a nd i n n ew w ays

Faceb ook a nd G oogle a re g re at e xam ple s o f c o m panie s th at h av e g ro w n o n l a te ra l th in kin g.

in vestig ativ e
= a d je cti v e f r o m ‘ to i n v esti g ate ’ = to e nq uir e a b out th e c ause s o f a c rim e o r a
pro ble m

The p olic e r e fu se d to i n v esti g ate th e P rim e M in is te r, l e ad in g to a ccusa ti o ns o f c o rru p ti o n.

to t r a nsc e nd
a s itu ati o n = to b e b ig ger o r g o b eyo nd i t

The n eed f o r r e d ucin g f in ancia l w aste tr a nsc end s th e g o vern m ent – e v ery b ody s h o uld b e

sp end in g m oney m ore c are fu lly .

a c o nte xt =
a s p ecific s itu ati o n

Arm ed p olic e e v id entl y w ork w ell i n th e A meric an c o nte xt, b ut w ould b e l e ss e ffe cti v e i n a
Briti s h c o nte xt.

to o utw eig h
= to b e m ore i m porta nt th an

The a d vanta ges o f h av in g a d ie se l c ar o utw eig h th e c o sts .

over-fa m ilia rit y =
when a n o ffic ia l i s to o f r ie nd ly w ith th e p ub lic

We s h o uld d is c o ura ge o ver-fa m ilia rity b etw een j u d ges a nd l a w yers , b ecause i t c o uld l e ad to
co rru p ti o n.

***

Develo p in g y o u r I E LT S v o ca b ula ry

That c o m ple te s o ur e xp la nati o n o f th e te n I E LT S to pic s. I t’ s v ery i m porta nt n o w to tr y to s ta rt
usin g th ese w ord s i n y o ur s p eakin g a nd w riti n g a s m uch a s p ossib le .
In a d diti o n to r e ad in g th is b ook, tr y to m ain ta in a n i n te re st i n th e te n I E LT S to pic s b y r e ad in g
arti c le s, p osts a nd s to rie s o n th ese s u b je cts i n th e m ed ia . T his w ill l e t y o u s e e f u rth er e xam ple s o f
ho w th ese w ord s a nd p hra se s a re u se d , a nd m ay a ls o s h o w y o u s o m e f u rth er v ocab ula ry w hic h y o u
can u se . R ead in g a b out th e to pic s w ill a ls o g iv e y o u e v id ence, e xam ple s a nd s ta ti s ti c s w hic h y o u c an
in clu d e i n y o ur I E LT S e ssa ys a nd s p oken a nsw ers , s h o w in g th e e xam in er th at y o u a re w ell- in fo rm ed
and a b le to u se s o urc es to s u p port a rg um ents .

Overv ie w : T he I E LT S A ca d em ic T ask 2 e ssa y t y p es

There a re tw o p ossib le ty p es o f I E LT S A cad em ic T ask 2 w riti n g T ask s: O PIN IO N T ask s a nd I D EA S
Task s. L et’ s e xp la in th e d iffe re nce, b ecause th is i s v ery i m porta nt.

Fir s tl y , th ere a re O PIN IO N T ask s, w hic h a sk f o r y o ur o pin io n o n a to pic , s u ch a s w heth er y o u th in k
so m eth in g i s g o od o r b ad . T hese O PIN IO N T ask s ta ke tw o f o rm s.

Som e o f th ese a re O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N T ask s, w hic h ty p ic ally s a y
‘S om e p eo ple t h in k t h at X i s
a g ood t h in g, w hile o th er p eo ple d is a gre e. D is c u ss b oth s id es a nd g iv e y o ur o w n v ie w .’
R em em ber
th at th e e xact w ord s u se d c o uld b e d iffe re nt ( fo r e xam ple , i t m ig ht s a y
‘c o nsid er b oth a sp ects ’
o r
sim ila r) b ut th e c o ncep t w ill b e th e s a m e. I n th ese O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N T ask s, y o u s h o uld w rite
ab out e ach s id e o f th e d is c ussio n, a nd f in ally g iv e y o ur o pin io n a t th e e nd o f y o ur e ssa y.

The o th er ty p e o f O PIN IO N T ask i s th e O PIN IO N > P E R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T T ask . T hese T ask s
ty p ic ally s a y
‘X i s a g ood t h in g. T o w hat e xte n t d o y o u a gre e w ith t h is s ta te m en t? ’
A gain , th e e xact
word s w ill o fte n v ary ( fo r e xam ple , i t m ig ht s a y
‘M any p eo ple s u pport t h e s u ggestio n o f X . H ow f a r
do y o u s u pport t h is p ro posa l? ’
) b ut th e c o ncep t w ill b e th e s a m e. I n th ese O PIN IO N > P E R SO NAL
VIE W PO IN T T ask s, y o u s h o uld s ta te y o ur p ers o nal v ie w poin t a t th e
beg in nin g
o f th e e ssa y, a nd th en
exp la in w hy y o u h av e th is o pin io n.

The s e co nd ty p e o f T ask a re I D EA S T ask s, w hic h a sk y o u to th in k o f s o m e i d eas o n a to pic ( s u ch a s
th e r e aso ns f o r a p ro ble m o r s o m e w ays to s o lv e i t) o r to e v alu ate a s itu ati o n. I n th ese I D EA S T ask s,
yo u w ill g et h ig h m ark s f o r th in kin g o f a n um ber o f i d eas o n th e to pic , b ut y o u w ill l o se m ark s i f y o u
giv e a s tr o ng p ers o nal o pin io n.
The c o m mon I D EA S T ask s a re I D EA S > P R O BLE M /S O LU TIO N, I D EA S > C A USE /E FFE C T a nd
ID EA S > E VA LU ATE.

Som eti m es, a n I D EA S ty p e T ask w ill m ix d iffe re nt e le m ents , f o r e xam ple b y a sk in g y o u a b out
Pro ble m s a nd E ffe cts o r a b out C ause s a nd S olu ti o ns.

This b ook h as e xam ple s a nd e xp la nati o ns o f a ll th ese ty p es.


In th e e xam , y o u s h o uld a naly ze th e T ask c are fu lly
befo re
y o u s ta rt w riti n g, to m ake s u re y o u
und ers ta nd w hic h ty p e y o u n eed to w rite . A sk y o urs e lf: i s th is a n O PIN IO N o r a n I D EA S T ask ? I s i t
ask in g m e to g iv e m y p ers o nal v ie w , o r i s i t a sk in g m e to th in k o f s o m e i d eas o n a to pic ? W hic h ty p e
of O PIN IO N o r I D EA S T ask i s i t? T hen y o u s h o uld s p end a f e w m in ute s p la nnin g y o ur e ssa y w ith
so m e s im ple n o te s.

Don’t tr y to w rite a nyth in g v ery d iffe re nt i n s tr u ctu re f r o m th e m odels i n th is b ook. T hese m odel
essa ys a re e xactl y w hat th e e xam in ers w ant to s e e f r o m y o u. R ead o ur m odel e ssa ys, a nd th en p ra cti c e
writi n g y o ur o w n e ssa ys i n a s im ila r w ay.

The m ost c o m mon m is ta kes in I E LT S W rit in g

Usin g c o ntr a ctio ns
( fo r e xam ple
‘I d on’t t h in k’
o r ‘
We c a n’t s a y’
)
in ste ad o f t h e f u ll f o rm
( ‘
I
do n ot t h in k’
o r ‘
we c a nnot s a y.’
) N ev er u se c o ntr a cti o ns i n a cad em ic w riti n g.

Writ in g t o o f e w w ord s.
I f y o u w rite m uch l e ss th an th e r e q uir e d w ord c o unt, th e e xam in er h as to
re d uce y o ur s c o re , e v en i f y o ur e ssa y i s g o od q uality . Y ou s h o uld c o unt th e n um ber o f w ord s i n
yo ur e ssa y a fte r e ach p ara gra p h a nd k eep a c o nti n uo us to ta l; th is w ay, y o u c an b e s u re o f
re achin g a t l e ast 2 50 w ord s i n 4 0 m in ute s.

Writ in g t o o m any w ord s.
T he e xam in er i s p aid to m ark o n a n ‘ e ssa y p er h o ur b asis ,’ a nd s o w ill
no t r e ad th e e nd o f a n e ssa y i f i t e xceed s th e m in im um w ord c o unt b y m ore th an a b out 1 00
word s. T his m eans h e o r s h e w ill n o t s e e th e e nd o f y o ur a rg um ent, a nd y o ur s c o re w ill r e d uce
co nsid era b ly . R em em ber: 2 50 w ord s m in im um , a nd a b out 3 50 w ord s m axim um i n A cad em ic
Task 2 w riti n g.

Havin g h andw rit in g t h at is d if fic u lt t o r e ad.
I E LT S i s s ti ll a h and w ritte n e xam , a nd th e
exam in ers w ill n o t s p end ti m e tr y in g to u nd ers ta nd y o ur w riti n g. Y ou m ust m ake s u re th at y o ur
hand w riti n g c an b e r e ad q uic kly . Y ou s h o uld f o cus o n w riti n g c le arly w hen y o u d o y o ur p ra cti c e
essa ys. A sk f r ie nd s o r o th er s tu d ents to g iv e y o u a n h o nest o pin io n a b out w heth er y o ur w riti n g i s
easy to r e ad .

Usin g in fo rm al w ord s
( fo r e xam ple ‘ a
nic e
i d ea’ o r ‘ a
silly
th in g to d o’)
in ste ad o f a ca dem ic
word s
( fo r e xam ple ‘ a
positiv e
i d ea’ o r ‘ a
re g re tta ble
th in g to d o.’ ) R em em ber th at a cad em ic
vocab ula ry i s d iffe re nt f r o m th e l a nguage y o u w ould u se i n E nglis h w hen ta lk in g to f r ie nd s.

Giv in g p erso nal o pin io n in a n I D EA S t y pe T ask .
Check i f th e T ask i s a sk in g f o r y o ur o pin io n
or n o t. T he f ir s t q uesti o n y o u s h o uld a sk y o urs e lf i s ‘
Is t h is a n O PIN IO N o r a n I D EAS T a sk ?


Tellin g s to rie s a bout y our p erso nal h is to ry , f r ie nds o r f a m ily .
T he T ask te lls y o u to u se
‘ exa m ple s f r o m y o ur o w n e xp erie n ce
,’ b ut th is d oes
not
m ean d esc rib in g s to rie s f r o m y o ur l ife
or p eo ple y o u k no w ! I t m eans d esc rib in g e xam ple s o f th in gs i n th e w orld th at y o u k no w a b out,
hav e s tu d ie d o r h av e l e arn ed a b out i n th e m ed ia .

Giv in g e vid ence w hic h is t o o d eta ile d o r s p ecif ic t o a s u bje ct.
You m ay b e a n e xp ert i n a
parti c ula r s o cia l o r s c ie nti fic f ie ld , b ut th e e xam in er p ro bab ly h as a d iffe re nt s p ecia lty . Y ou n eed
to m ake y o ur i d eas a nd e xam ple s a ccessib le to a g enera l r e ad er. F or e xam ple , i f th e T ask to pic i s
ab out m oney a nd y o u a re a n a cco unta nt, d o n o t u se s p ecia liz e d a cco unti n g te rm s.

Bein g e m otio nal o r t o o d ra m atic w hen g iv in g y our o pin io n in a n O PIN IO N T ask .
You m ay
fe el s tr o ngly a b out i s su es s u ch a s a nim als o r c rim e, b ut a cad em ic w riti n g m ust b e u nem oti o nal.
So a v oid p hra se s s u ch a s ‘
a d is g ustin g i d ea ’
o r ‘
I d ete st t h is c o ncep t
.’ I t i s m uch b ette r to s a y
‘ an u naccep ta ble i d ea ’
o r ‘
I d is a ppro ve o f t h is c o ncep t
,’ w hic h i s m ore i m pers o nal a nd
acad em ic ; s im ila r to th e ty p e o f w riti n g th at p eo ple u se i n b usin ess r e p orts o r u niv ers ity e ssa ys.

Not f o llo w in g t h e b asic s tr u ctu re s p re se nte d in t h is b ook .
The e xam in ers w ant to s e e a c le ar,
well- s tr u ctu re d e ssa y th at i s e asy to r e ad . T hey a re a ccusto m ed to s e ein g th e s tr u ctu re s w e h av e
pre se nte d i n th is b ook, a nd th ey w ill f e el m ore p ositi v e a b out y o ur e ssa y i f th ey c an r e co gniz e
th ese s tr u ctu re s i n w hat y o u w rite .

Giv e th e e xam in ers w hat th ey w ant, a nd th ey w ill r e w ard y o u w ith a h ig h s c o re , e v en i f th ere a re
so m e g ra m mati c al m is ta kes i n y o ur E nglis h .

More f r o m C am brid ge I E LT S C on su lt a n ts

Als o o n K in dle f r o m t h e s a m e p ublis h er:


.



Pack ed w it h a dvic e , e xam ple s, m odels t o f o llo w a nd r e al B and 9 e ssa ys
to h elp y ou g et t h e b est p ossib le r e su lt .


Full o f p ra ctic a l a dvic e t o h elp y ou g et t h e b est s c o re in I E LT S S peak in g.

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To c o nta ct u s o r t o j o in o ur m ailin g n etw ork f o r n ew s o f n ew b ook s a nd o ffe rs:

cam brid geie lts @ outl o ok.c o m

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