hattingh_tian_ielts_7_writing_task_2

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IE LT S — 7 — W RIT IN G
(T as k 2 )
In clu din g 5 0 M odel E ssays
T ia n H attin gh

Copyrig ht © 2 018 T ia n H attin gh
T he m ora l r ig ht o f th e a uth or h as b een a sse rte d.
A part f ro m a ny f a ir d ealin g f o r th e p urp ose s o f r e se arc h o r p riv ate s tu dy, o r c rit ic is m o r r e vie w , a s
perm it te d u nder th e C opyrig ht, D esig ns a nd P ate nts A ct 1 988, th is p ublic atio n m ay o nly b e r e pro duced,
sto re d o r tr a nsm it te d, in a ny f o rm o r b y a ny m eans, w it h th e p rio r p erm is sio n in w rit in g o f th e p ublis h ers ,
o r in th e c ase o f r e pro gra phic r e pro ductio n in a ccord ance w it h th e te rm s o f lic ences is su ed b y th e
C opyrig ht L ic ensin g A gency. E nquir ie s c oncern in g r e pro ductio n o uts id e th ose te rm s s h ould b e s e nt to
th e p ublis h ers .
M ata dor
9 P rio ry B usin ess P ark ,
W is to w R oad, K ib w orth B eaucham p,
L eic este rs h ir e . L E8 0 R X
Tel: 0 11 6 2 79 2 299
E m ail: b ooks@ tr o ubador.c o.u k
W eb: w ww.tr o ubador.c o.u k/m ata dor
T w it te r: @ mata dorb ooks
T his w ork m ay c onta in c opyrig hte d m ate ria l th e u se o f w hic h h as n ot a lw ays b een s p ecif ic ally
a uth oriz e d b y th e c opyrig ht o w ner. S uch m ate ria l is m ade a vaila ble f o r e ducatio nal p urp ose s, to a dvance
unders ta ndin g o f h um an r ig hts , d em ocra cy, s c ie ntif ic , m ora l, e th ic al, a nd s o cia l ju stic e is su es, e tc . I t is
b elie ved th at th is c onstit u te s a “ fa ir u se ” o f a ny s u ch c opyrig hte d m ate ria l a s p ro vid ed f o r in T it le 1 7
U .S .C . s e ctio n 1 07 o f th e U S C opyrig ht L aw .
IE LT S® is a r e gis te re d tr a dem ark o f U niv ers it y o f C am brid ge E SO L, th e B rit is h C ouncil, a nd I D P
Educatio n A ustr a lia . B y u sin g th is b ook, in p rin te d a nd/o r e le ctr o nic f o rm ats , r e aders a gre e th at th ey
fu lly u nders ta nd th at I E LT S-7 is n ot a ffilia te d, a ppro ved o r e ndors e d b y U niv ers it y o f C am brid ge E SO L,
th e B rit is h C ouncil, o r I D P E ducatio n A ustr a lia .
IS B N 9 78 1 789017 2 43
IS B N ( e -b ook) 9 78 1 789013 0 47
B rit is h L ib ra ry C ata lo guin g in P ublic atio n D ata .
A c ata lo gue r e cord f o r th is b ook is a vaila ble f ro m th e B rit is h L ib ra ry .
D esig n, T ypese t, a nd C over b y S crib e I n c., P hila delp hia , P ennsy lv ania , U nit e d S ta te s
M ata dor is a n im prin t o f T ro ubador P ublis h in g L td

Dedi cate d t o m y f ath er:
C hare l D aw id N audé Hatti n gh
(1929–2003)
A nd t o m y m other:
M arg are t D agm ar H atti n gh ( née B otha),
w ho s pok e E nglis h t o m e.

Lear ning i s l ik e r ow ing ups tr e am : not to adv ance i s t o dr op
back.
—C hin ese s ayin g
E duc ation i s t he be st pr ovis ion f or ol d age .
—Aris tot le
I nt ellige nce pl us char acte r: t hat is t he goal of true
e duc ation.
—M arti n L uth er K in g J r.
I am still l ear ning.
—M ic hela ngelo

CO NTE N TS
IE LT S B and S cor e D esc ript ion s
Pre fa ce
A cknow le dg ments
T A SK 2
1 . G RAD IN G A N E SSAY
1.1. T ask D esc ript ion
1.2. T ask R espon se
1.3. C ohere nce a nd C ohesion
1.4. L exic al R esou rc e
1.5. G ra m mati c al R ange a nd A ccura cy
2 . S EN TEN CE S TA R TER S
3. S TEPS IN E SSAY W RIT IN G
4. S TA N DAR D E SSAY P AT TER N
5. U SEFU L L A N G UAG E F O R T A SK 2
6 . M ODEL E SSAY S
6.1. R oad A ccide nts
6.2. G arba ge S oc ie ty
6.3. T echnol og y a nd S cie nce

6.4. Robots
6.5. W eapon s a nd t he P oor
6.6. C olle ges
6.7. B ig ger C iti e s
6.8. W orkin g W om en
6.9. B oys a nd G ir ls
6.10. A nim als i n E xpe rim ents
6.1 1. S tr e ss ve rs u s L eis u re T im e
6.12. O lde r P eopl e
6.13. E nvi ron ment
6.14. A nim als a s P ets
6.15. T ra nsla ti n g M achin es
6.16. T ra di ti on s
6.17. T ouris m
6.18. P rof ession al S ala rie s
6.19. R edu cin g S tr e ss
6.20. T ouris m and E nglis h
6.21. C ountr y S uccess
6.22. D is ru pt ive Stu de nts
6.23. H ealth y P eopl e
6.24. T he A utom obi le
6.25. L ivi ng i n O ne P la ce
6.26. P overty
6.27. T he T ele ph one
6.28. G arde ns a nd R oads
6.29. S cie nce i n t he F utu re

6.30. Vacati on Tim e
6.31. K ids and T V
6.32. C ompute rs
6.33. S chool Spor ts
6.34. C re ati vi ty
6.35. T ra ve lin g
6.36. F em ale C rim e
6.37. S tu de nt A tti tu de
6.38. A ge of the B ook
6.39. D eve lopm ent A id
6.40. S ta tu s of the Y ou ng
6.41. W ild A nim als
6.42. T obacco
6.43. S tu de nts be for e C olle ge
6.44. C ountr y a nd C ity
6.45. C ompute r E du cati on
6.46. L oss of Cultu re s
6.47. N atu ra l F eatu re s
6.48. R eti r e m ent
6.49. E qual N um be r of Stu de nts pe r S ubj ect
6.50. M use um s
7. M ORE T O PIC S
7.1. A dverti s in g
7.2. A nim als
7.3. B ehavi or

7.4. Books
7.5. C ele br iti e s
7.6. C hange
7.7. C hildr en
7.8. C lim ate C hange
7.9. C ommunity
7.10. C ompute rs
7.1 1. C re ati vi ty
7.12. C rim e
7.13. D is a bl ed P eopl e
7.14. E ducati on
7.15. E mpl oy ment
7.16. E nvi ron ment
7.17. F am ily
7.18. F ood
7.19. Fre edom
7.20. G ende r
7.21. G loba liz a ti on
7.22. G overn m ent
7.23. H appi ness
7.24. H ealth
7.25. H obbies
7.26. H ometow n
7.27. I llite ra cy
7.28. I nte rn et
7.29. L anguages

7.30. Marria ge
7.31. M edi a
7.32. M usic
7.33. P are nts a nd C hildr en
7.34. P ollu ti on
7.35. P opula ti on
7.36. P overty
7.37. G arba ge
7.38. S hoppi ng
7.39. S mok in g
7.40. S ocie ty
7.41. S ports
7.42. S tu dy in g
7.43. T echnol og y
7.44. T ele vi sion
7.45. T ouris m
7.46. T ra nspor ta ti on
7.47. C olle ge
7.48. W ork
7.49. W orld
7.50. Y outh
8 . H O W T O A C HIE VE A B ETTER IE LT S O VER ALL B AN D S C O RE
9. B IO GRAPH Y

IE LT S B AN D S C O RE D ESC RIP TIO NS
BAND 9 : E XPER T U SER
The can di da te has a fu lly ope ra ti on al com mand of th e la ngua ge. In ot her
w or ds , th e l a nguage i s a ppr opria te , accura te , and flu ent a nd accom panie d by
com plete u nde rs ta ndi ng.
B AND 8 : V ER Y G OOD U SER
The can di da te has an ope ra ti on al com mand of th e la nguage w ith on ly
oc casion al unsy ste m ati c in accu ra cie s. Mis u nde rs ta ndi ngs do occur in
u nfa m ilia r situ a ti on s. The candi da te is abl e to handl e com plex, de ta ile d
arg um enta ti on as w ell.
B AND 7 : G OOD U SER
The candi da te has an ope ra ti on al com mand of th e la nguage, th ou gh w ith
oc casion al in ac cura cie s, in appr opria cie s, and mis u nde rs ta ndi ngs in som e
situ ati on s. The candi da te genera lly handl es com plex la nguage w ell and
unde rs ta nds de ta ile d r eason in g.
B AND 6 : C O M PETEN T U SER
The c andi da te h as a g enera lly e ffe cti ve c om mand of th e la nguage de spi te
s om e i n accura cie s, in appr opria cie s, and mis u nde rs ta ndi ngs. T he c andi da te i s
a bl e to use a nd unde rs ta nd fa ir ly c om plex la nguage, pa rti c ula rly in fa m ilia r
situ ati on s.
B AND 5 : M ODEST U SER
The c an di da te h as a pa rti a l c om mand of th e la nguage, copi ng w ith ove ra ll
m eanin g i n m os t s itu ati on s, th ou gh h e or s h e i s l ik ely to make m any m is ta kes.
T he c andi da te s h ou ld be a bl e to h andl e ba sic c om munic ati on in h is or h er
ow n f ie ld.

BAND 4 : L IM IT ED U SER
The c an di da te h as a ba sic c om pete nce th at is lim ite d to fa m ilia r s itu ati on s.
H e or sh e has fr e qu ent pr obl em s in unde rs ta ndi ng and expr ession . The
candi da te i s n ot abl e t o u se c om plex l anguage.
B AND 3 : E XTR EM ELY L IM IT ED U SER
The c andi da te is a bl e to con ve y a nd unde rs ta nd on ly g enera l m eanin gs in
ve ry fa m ilia r situ ati on s, bu t fr e qu ent br eakdow ns in com munic ati on w ill
oc cur.
B AND 2 : IN TER M IT TEN T U SER
No re al c om munic ati on is pos sibl e e xcept for th e m os t ba sic in for mati on
u sin g is ol ate d wor ds or sh or t for mula e in fa m ilia r situ ati on s a nd to meet
im medi ate n eeds . The c andi da te h as g re at di ffic ulty u nde rs ta ndi ng spok en
and w ritte n E nglis h .
B AND 1 : N O NUSER
The c and ida te e sse nti a lly h as n o abi lity to use th e la nguage be yon d pos sibl y
a f ew isol ate d w ords .
BAND 0
T he c andi da te di d not a tte m pt th e te st, and no asse ssa bl e in for mati on w as
pr ovi ded.

PR EFA C E
The In te rn ati on al Englis h Language Testi n g Syste m , or IE LT S, is an
in te rn ati on al s ta nda rdi ze d te st of E nglis h -la nguage pr ofic ie ncy fo r n on nati ve
E nglis h l a nguage s pe akers . It i s j oi ntl y m anaged by th e B riti s h C ou ncil, ID P:
IE LT S A ustr a lia , and Cam br idg e E nglis h L anguage A sse ssm ent and was
esta bl is h ed in 1989. IE LT S is on e of th e m ajor E nglis h -la nguage te sts in th e
w or ld. I n 2016, t hre e m illion tests w ere t aken i n m ore t han 140 c ountr ie s.
IE LT S is a ccept ed by m os t A ustr a lia n, B riti s h , C anadi an, and New Z eala nd
acade mic in sti tu ti on s, by m or e th an th re e th ou sa nd acade mic in sti tu ti on s in
th e U nite d Sta te s, and by va riou s pr ofession al or ganiz a ti on s acros s th e
w or ld.
IE LT S is th e on ly s e cure E nglis h la nguage te st a ppr ove d by U K V is a s a nd
Im mig ra ti on f or vi sa c ustom ers a ppl yin g bot h ou ts ide a nd in side th e U K . It i s
a ls o a requ ir e m ent f or im mig ra ti on to A ustr a lia a nd N ew Z eala nd. I n C anada ,
IE LT S is a ccept ed by the i m mig ra ti on auth or ity .
N o min im um sc or e is re qu ir e d to pass th e te st. An IE LT S re su lt or T est
R epor t F or m is is su ed to all te st ta kers . Test ta kers r e ceive a s c or e for e ach
te st c om pon ent: L is te nin g, Readi ng, W riti n g, and Spe akin g. The in di vidu al
sc or es a re t hen a ve ra ged a nd r ounde d t o pr oduce a n ove ra ll ba nd s cor e.
In sti tu ti on s a re a dvi se d not to con side r a re por t ol de r th an tw o y ears to be
va lid u nle ss t he u se r pr ove s t hat h e or she h as w orked t o m ain ta in t hat l eve l.
T he IE LT S te st h as fou r pa rts : L is te nin g, th ir ty m in ute s (pl us te n m in ute s’
tr a nsfe r ti m e); R eadi ng, six ty m in ute s; W riti n g, six ty m in ute s; a nd Spe akin g,
ele ve n to fou rte en m in ute s. The tot al te st ti m e is th ere for e tw o hou rs a nd
fifty -five min ute s.
L is te nin g, R eadi ng, and Writi n g a re c om plete d in on e s itti n g. The S pe akin g
te st m ay be ta ken on th e s a m e da y or u p to se ve n da ys be for e or a fte r th e
ot her t ests .
A ll te st ta kers ta k e th e s a m e L is te nin g a nd Spe akin g te sts , w hile th e R eadi ng
and Writi n g te sts di ffe r de pendi ng on w heth er th e te st ta ker is ta kin g th e

Acade mic or Genera l T ra in in g ve rs ion s of the t est.
O n F rida y a fte rn oon , O ctobe r 25 , 2002, I s te ppe d of f a pl ane a t th e H on gqi ao
A ir por t i n S hanghai. B efor e a ccept in g a j ob offe r i n th e P eopl e’s R epu blic of
C hin a, I h ad on ly a va gue ide a of w here C hin a w as. U nti l th en, I h ad neve r
been to a C hin e se re sta ura nt a nd had on ly h eard of c hops ti c ks. I h ad neve r
not ic ed a C hin ese c hara cte r be for e a nd had certa in ly n eve r h ea rd som eon e
spe ak M anda rin a nd/ or C anton ese .
T hat w as fifte en years ago. Som ehow I vi rtu ally neve r expe rie nced th e
“cultu re s h oc k” m on ste r s o not or iou sly dr eade d by e xpa ts . I s im pl y a ccept ed
all t hin gs s tr a nge a nd a mazin g ( and e ven a nnoy in g) a s t hey w ere .
L ik e m any a rook ie E SL te acher be for e a nd afte r m e, I too in g ood fa ith
a tte m pt ed to re for m th e C hin ese e du cati on al s y ste m in its e nti r e ty . B ut th at
als o s oon fade d a way i nto t he m uch c alm er w ate rs of “W hen i n R om e . . .”
F or tw o years , I w as in a le arn in g m ode c are er-w is e . I di sc ove re d a w hol e
new w orld of m illion s of pe opl e w illin g to go to unbe lie va ble le ngth s to
m aste r th e la nguage th at m y m ot her spok e to me fr om childh ood. I w as
for tu nate to be w or kin g in a n IE LT S tr a in in g c ente r, w here th e m anagem ent
pr oc ure d th e s e rvi ces of th e c hie f I E LT S e xam in er i n th at a re a. N ot on ly w as
I a bl e to a cqu ir e th e k now le dg e a nd sk ills n eede d to be a n I E LT S T utor , bu t I
w as a ls o privy to what e xam in ers re garde d as w or th y of a n in cre ase in a
ba nd s cor e w hen e va lu ati n g t he S pe akin g a nd W riti n g c om pon ents of the t est.
E arly in 2016, I r e loc ate d to Vie tn am . Seein g th at IE LT S is a n in te rn ati on al
te sti n g s y ste m a nd th ey g o to gre at le ngth s to ensu re th at th eir s ta nda rds a re
m ain ta in ed glob ally , I had no probl em ada ptin g my know le dg e and
expe rie nce in a new cultu ra l se tti n g. IE LT S stu de nts in V ie tn am have th e
sa m e g oa ls a s t heir pe ers i n ot her n on -E nglis h -s pe akin g c ou ntr ie s.
O ve r th e y ears , I h ave s pe nt ti m e w ith a m yria d of s tu de nts , li s te ned to an
in fin ite n u m be r of s pe eches, and re ad mor e e ssa ys th an tr a di ti on al la nguage
te achers do in a life ti m e. A nd I sti ll e njoy it. The re ason is th at stu de nts
s tu dy in g “ IE LT S for A cade mic P urpos es” h ave a n u nw ave rin g de sir e to be
accept ed by a for eig n te rti a ry in sti tu ti on a nd are g enera lly spe akin g m uch

mor e c o m mitte d to th eir s tu di es th an th eir c ou nte rpa rts w ho asp ir e to know
th e l anguage f or ot her r eason s.
T o me, th is m akes th e job of be in g a n IE LT S tu tor m uch m or e s a ti s fy in g th an
te achin g a c la ss of th ir ty to se v enty s c hool a nd/ or c ol le ge s tu de nts . O th ers ,
u ndou btedl y w ith m uch m or e g uts a nd chara cte r th an m e, are w ell s u ite d for
th e l atte r.
T he obj ecti ve of th is pu blic ati on i s to give th os e s tu de nts s tu dy in g I E LT S f or
a cade mic pu rpos es a m yria d of IE LT S topi cs th at th ey cou ld fa ce in th e
S pe akin g te st. These are accom panie d by su ggeste d answ ers th at w ill
pr ovi de them w ith s om e f re sh i de as t hat t hey c an u se w hen t akin g t he t est.
I w ou ld lik e th is pu blic ati on to be k now n a s a “ no- non se nse ” book , on ly
pr ese nti n g in for mati on th at is e sse nti a l in im pr ovi ng s k ills a nd band sc or es.
T he ta rg et popu la ti on a re th os e stu de nts a im in g to achie ve a IE LT S ba nd
sc or e be tw een 5 and 7 in th e W riti n g c om pon ent of th e te st. T he le ve l of th e
la nguage u se d i n t he s uggeste d a nsw ers a nd e ssa ys r efle ct t his a im .

AC KNO W LE D G M EN TS
To th os e stu de nts in bot h C hin a and Vie tn am w ith w hom I have had th e
pr ivi le ge to spe nd ti m e i n a nd ou t of th e c la ssroom : O ve r th e y ears , you h ave
be en in str u m enta l in m y de velopm ent a s a te acher a nd as a pe rs on . I s a lu te
y ou .
To th os e w ho to ok ti m e a nd effor t a nd, with m uch pa ti e nce, guide d me in to
th e w on derfu l w or ld of E SL a nd IE LT S, in clu di ng L anguage T ra in in g C entr e
ow ners a nd m anagers , a dm in is tr a tor s, a nd c olle agues: I thank y ou .
To all m y fr ie nds in C hin a a nd Vie tn am : Y ou u nse lfis h ly s pe nt y ou r ti m e to
s h are y o ur k now le dg e of y ou r c o untr y , its h is tor y, its pe opl e, its c ultu re , and
its pl aces n ear a nd f ar. Y ou are f rie nds inde ed.
T o th e m anagem ent and sta ff at S cribe In c.: D avi d Rech (C EO ), Ja son
H ughes (B ook D eve lope r and Manager), Je n B oe re e and Meg an G ra nde
(E di tor s), Tim Durn in g (C ove r Desig ner), and Ste ve Ush ioda (S ale s
D ir e ctor ).
T o th e m anagem ent a nd sta ff a t T rou bador P ubl is h in g L td.: J e re m y T hom pson
(M anagin g D ir e ctor ), Laure n B aile y (G rou p Custom er S ervi ce s M anager),
J on ath an W hite (S ale s and Mark eti n g M anager), Joe S hillito (P rodu cti on
C on tr ol le r), Megan Loc kw ood -J on es (E book M anager), Hannah D akin
( C ustom er S ervi ce A ssis ta nt) , K erry M cK ay ( A ccou nts A ssis ta nt) .
M y th anks g o to bot h th e a bove -m enti on ed com panie s a nd in di vidu als for
m akin g all m y dr eam s com e tr u e. You r pr ofession alis m , assis ta nce, and
in te grity h ave made this pa th s o m uch e asie r. Y ou are s im pl y t he be st.

IE LT S — 7 — W RIT IN G
Task 2
In clu din g 5 0 M odel E ssays

1 G RAD IN G A N E SSAY
1.1 T A SK D ESC RIP TIO N
The IE LT S te st is de sig ned as a tool to de te rm in e th e a bi lity o f n on nati ve
s pe akers to use th e E nglis h la n guage in all w ays pos sibl e. Band sc or es
ra ngin g fr om 1 to 9 are g ive n in e ach m odu le , and th ese fou r sc or es a re
c on verte d in to an ove ra ll ba nd sc or e. T his ove ra ll s c or e is u se d by te rti a ry
a nd other in sti tu ti on s to sti pu la te a dm is sion s ta nda rds . In ot her w or ds , th ere
is n o “pa ss/fa il,” a s th e ove ra ll s c or e i s on ly u se d as a n i n di cator . E ach ba nd
cor re spon ds to a le ve l of E nglis h c om pete nce. A ll pa rts of th e te st a nd th e
ove ra ll ba nd sc or e c an be re por te d in w hol e a nd half ba nds —f or e xam pl e,
6.5, 7.0, 7.5, or 8.0.
Due to its h ig h qu ality c on tr ol s, IE LT S i s th e w or ld’ s pr ove n te st, and IE LT S
is accept ed by th ou sa nds of or ganiz a ti on s in m or e th an 135 cou ntr ie s,
in clu di ng
• u nive rs iti e s, s chool s, t ra in in g c ol le ges, a nd t erti a ry i nsti tu te s
• g ove rn m ent de partm ents a nd a gencie s
• pr ofession al a nd i ndu str y bodi es
• m ulti n ati on al c om panie s a nd e mpl oy ers
T he IE LT S for A cade mic Purpos es te st con sis ts of fou r com pon ents —
n am ely ,
• L is te nin g
• R eadi ng
• W riti n g
• S pe akin g
T he W riti n g c om pon ent of th e te st c on sis ts of tw o ta sk s. In ta sk 1, candi da te s
are exp ecte d to analy ze / de sc ribe / expl ain / su m mariz e th e give n
in for mati on by w riti n g a t l e ast 15 0 wor ds . T he w riti n g c ou ld be , bu t doe s n ot
have to be , in th e for m of a n e ssa y. T he in for mati on is pr ese nte d vi su ally in
th e f or m of on e or more of the f ol low in g:
• l in e g ra ph s
• pi e c harts

• bot h l in e g ra ph s a nd pi e c harts
• t abl es
• t abl es a nd pi e c harts
• c ol um n g ra ph s
• ba r g ra ph s
• di agra m s
• f low charts
• m aps
In ta sk 2, th e c andi da te i s g ive n a topi c a nd ask ed to write a n e ssa y of n o le ss
th an 250 w ords .
TIM E A LLO CAT IO N
It is str on gly su ggeste d th at stu de nts sta rt by doi ng ta sk 2. There a re tw o
re ason s f or this :
1. T ask 2 c arrie s m uch m ore w eig ht i n t he g ra di ng t han t ask 1.
2. Stu de nts of te n g et bog ged do wn in ta sk 1 and th en fin d th em se lve s
with in su ffic ie nt ti m e to fin is h ta sk 2, whic h carrie s m uch m or e
weig ht.
I t is als o str on gly su ggeste d th at stu de nts spe nd te n to fifte en m in ute s
care fu lly re adi ng th e g ive n topi c a nd plannin g th eir e ssa ys. This in clu de s
decidi ng on the c on te nt a nd pl annin g t he pa ra gra ph in g.
It i s c om mon k now le dg e th at to write a g ood IE LT S e ssa y, you n eed to make
th e e xam in er f e el g ood abou t y ou r e ssa y. In ot her w or ds , you ’ve g ot to know
w hat w ill l et y ou gain poi nts a nd/ or w hat w ill l et y ou los e poi nts .
H ow doe s th e exam in er gra de you r essa y? Y ou re ceive poi nts for th e
fol low in g a spe cts :
• t ask r espon se
• c oh ere nce a nd c ohesion
• l exic al r esou rc e
• g ra m mati c al r ange a nd a ccura cy
T hese f o ur c rite ria a re e qu ally w eig hte d, so you s h ou ld pa y a tte nti on to all of
th em .

1.2 T A SK R ESPO NSE
This m eans th at y ou r e ssa y m ust s h ow th at y ou u nde rs ta nd th e g ive n topi c
cor re ctl y a nd c omplete ly . I n ot her w ords , y ou have to do w hat t hey a re a sk in g
you to do. That i s w hy i t i s s o im por ta nt to spe nd a f e w m in ute s to make s u re
th at y ou fully u nde rs ta nd w hat i s r equ ir e d.
1 .3 C O HER EN CE A ND C O HESIO N
This m eans h ow w ell y ou a re a bl e to con nect y ou r pa ra gra ph s to each ot her
and how w ell you r se nte nces in side each pa ra gra ph are con necte d. For
exam pl e, if pa ra gra ph 1 expl ain s th e a dva nta ges of tou ris m a nd pa ra gra ph 2
e xpl ain s th e di sa dva nta ges of tou ris m , th en th e la st s e nte nce in pa ra gra ph 1
s h ou ld sa y s om eth in g lik e “ In s p ite of tou ris m be in g to th e a dva nta ge of th e
econ om y, its n egati ve e ffe cts s h ou ld not be ove rlook ed.” T his s e nte nce w ill
c re ate th e c on ne cti on be tw een th e fir s t a nd se con d pa ra gra ph s. If y ou do not
do th is , th e exam in er m ig ht th in k th at you ju m pe d fr om adva nta ges to
di sa dva nta ges w ith ou t a re ason . The sa m e a ppl ie s to se nte nces in side th e
pa ra gra ph . E ve ry s e nte nce s h ou ld le ad to th e n ext on e. W e u se th e “ se nte nce
sta rte rs ” t o do t his .
H O W T O A C HIE VE A 7 B AN D S C O RE
1. M anage y ou r pa ra gra ph in g s killfu lly by prepl annin g.
2. Log ic ally or ganiz e y ou r ide as a nd th e in for mati on y ou a re pr ese nti n g
so t hat t here i s a cle ar pr ogre ssion throu ghou t t he e ssa y.
1 .4 L E XIC AL R ESO URCE
This r e fe rs to th e r a nge of voc ab ula ry y ou a re u sin g a nd th e di ffe re nt ty pe s of
s im pl e a nd com ple x s e nte nces y ou a re a bl e to use . U se y ou r be st voc abu la ry ,
bu t do not g o ov erboa rd and sh ow of f, be com e pe danti c , or m ake m is ta kes
th at c ou ld be preve nte d by usin g s im pl er voc abu la ry t hat y ou know well.
H O W T O A C HIE VE A 7 B AN D S C O RE
1. U se a w ide va rie ty of voc abu la ry t o c onvey t he m eanin g c le arly .

2. It is be tte r to use a s im pl er w or d cor re ctl y th an a m or e c om plic ate d
w or d i ncor re ctl y .
1 .5 G RAM MATIC AL R ANG E A ND A CCURACY
This re fe rs to you r s pe llin g a nd g ra m mar in s e nte nces. G ra m mar s k ills a re
a cqu ir e d by r e adi ng. B y r e adi ng, you w ill g et th e “ fe el” of th e l a nguage. Y ou
sh ou ld of c ou rs e be a bl e to spe ll th e w or ds c or re ctl y . It is be tte r to use a
s im pl er w or d whos e s pe llin g y o u a re s u re a bou t th an a c om plic ate d wor d
th at y ou m ig ht spe ll in cor re ctl y . D o not for get to use th e a rti c le s “ a” a nd
“th e.” P unctu ati on is a ls o pa rt of gra m mar a nd s hou ld be cor re ctl y u se d.

2 S EN TE N CE S TA R TE R S
2.1 G EN ER AL S EN TEN CES
I w ould l ik e t o m enti on . . .
If I h ad t o de sc ribe (topi c), . . .
I w ould s ta rt by sayin g t hat . . .
I f I h ad t o e xpr ess m y vi ew abou t ( topi c), I w ould s ay . . .
O f a ll t he ( topi c), I w ould l ik e t o s ta te . . .
O f c ou rs e t here a re m any ( topi c), bu t I w ould l ik e t o m enti on that . . .
O n t he pos iti ve side . . .
On t he n egati ve side . . .
2.2 F IR ST R EA SO N
Fir s t, . . .
F ir s t of all, . . .
T he f ir s t / m ain r eason w hy . . .
In m y opi nion . . .
I be lie ve / thin k . . .
W ith r egard t o w hy . . .
O ne of the a spe cts I c ou ld m enti on regardi ng t his t opi c i s t hat . . .
I f I h ad t o h ig hlig ht t he m ain r eason w hy . . .
2 .3 E XA M PLE S
For exam pl e . . .
F or insta nce . . .
T hat i s t o s ay . . .
W hat I m ean ( to s ay) i s . . .

To t he e xte nt t hat ( re ason ) . . .
T he f act t hat . . .
I n ot her w ords . . .
To pu t i t s im pl y / be tte r / in a not her w ay, . . .
T o be more s pe cific , . . .
2 .4 S EC O ND R EA SO N
Secon d, . . .
Furth erm or e, . . .
T he s econ d r eason w hy . . .
S econ d, i n m y opi nion . . .
Secon d, I belie ve / I thin k . . .
S econ d, w ith r egard t o w hy . . .
T he s econ d a spe ct I c ou ld m enti on regardi ng ( topi c) i s . . .
T he s econ d r eason by whic h I c ou ld h ig hlig ht w hy . . .
A not her poi nt I w ould l ik e t o m enti on is . . .
A n a ddi ti on al r eason I w ould l ik e t o m enti on is . . .
O ne m ore r eason I w ould m enti on is . . .
2 .5 L A ST R EA SO N
Lastl y , . . .
F in ally , . . .
T he l ast a spe ct I c ou ld m enti on regardi ng ( topi c) i s . . .
T he l ast r eason I c ou ld h ig hlig ht i s . . .
T he l ast poi nt I w ould l ik e t o m enti on is . . .
2 .6 G EN ER AL

As f ar a s ( topi c) i s c on cern ed . . .
In sof ar a s ( topi c) i s c on cern ed . . .
In t erm s of . . .
One of the di ffe re nces w ould be . . .
The m ain di ffe re nce i s . . .
It de pends on a cou ple of thin gs. F ir s t, . . .
2 .7 C O M PA RIN G ( O NE W IT H A NO TH ER )
One of the m ain di ffe re nces/a dva nta ges i s t hat . . .
2 .8 S U G GESTIN G ( S O LV IN G A P R O BLE M )
I t hin k/be lie ve w e s hou ld . . .
O ne s ol uti on that I c an t hin k of is t o . . .
O ne of the pos sibl e s ol uti on s w ould be to . . .
2 .9 C O NNEC TIV ES
. . . , a nd . . .
. . . , bu t . . .
. . . , bu t g enera lly s pe akin g, . . .
. . . , bu t f rom what I k now , . . .
Anyhow , . . .
Anyw ay, . . .
A t a ny r ate , . . .
In a ny c ase , . . .
N ot on ly . . . , bu t a ls o . . .

3 S TE PS IN E SSAY W RIT IN G
STEP 1 : A NALY ZE T H E T A SK A ND D ETER M IN E T H E
PU RPO SE
I. P R O VID E G EN ER AL IN FO RM AT IO N
1. D esc ribe and e xpl ain a situ ati on .
2. F or exam pl e:
a. “ Write a repor t on the s ta te of the r oa ds in y ou r pr ovi nce.”
b. “ What do y ou unde rs ta nd by the t erm gl obal warming ” ?
II. E XAM IN E C AU SE A N D E FFE C T
1. A cti ve con str u cti on : C ause -e ffe ct
2. P assive con str u cti on : E ffe ct- c ause
3. F or exam pl e:
a. “ Exam in e t he c ause s of globa l w arm in g.”
b. “ Exam in e t he c ause s of roa d a ccide nts i n y ou r c ou ntr y .”
III. O UTLIN E A P R O BLE M A N D P R ESEN T A S O LU TIO N
1. I denti fy t he pr obl em .
2. D esc ribe the pr obl em .
3. S uggest s om e s ol uti on s t o t he pr obl em .
4. F or exam pl e:
a. “W hat pr obl em s doe s y ou r c o untr y f a ce, and how c an th ey be
ove rc om e?”
b. “W hat a re th e m os t i m por ta nt tr a nspor ta ti on pr obl em s i n y ou r
cou ntr y , a nd h ow can t hey be sol ve d?”
IV . G IV E A N D J U STIF Y A N O PIN IO N
1. S ta te y ou r pos iti on .
2. S uppor t y ou r pos iti on w ith r ele va nt f acts .
3. F or exam pl e:

a. “ Do y ou thin k c om pute r g am es a re a good h obby?”
b. “ What i s y ou r opi nion abou t t he di sa dva nta ges of fast f ood? ”
V. A G REE/D IS AG REE W IT H A N A R G UM EN T
1. E xpr ess opi nion s e ith er w ay.
2. F or exam pl e:
a. “ Com pute r g am es a re a good h obby. Do you agre e?”
b. “P eop le s h ou ld not be a llow ed to keep pe ts in th e c ity . D o
you agre e?”
V I. E VA LU AT E ID EAS, E VID EN CE, O R A N A R G UM EN T
1. Eva lu ati n g s om eth in g is a sse ssin g its w or th or de cidi ng if it is g ood
or ba d.
2. A n a rg um ent i s a reason give n t o s uppor t or dispr ove som eth in g.
3. F or exam pl e:
a. “ Do y ou thin k c om pute r g am es a re g ood or bad as a hobby ?”
b. “ Eva lu ate t he i nflu ence t hat c om pute rs h ave had on our l ive s.”
V II. C O M PA R E A N D C O NTR AST E VID EN CE O R A N O PIN IO N
1. E vide nce i s s om eth in g t hat pr ove s a n i de a or suppor ts a n opi nion .
2. F or exam pl e:
a. “ Com pare a n of fic e c hair t o a n a rm chair.”
b. “ Com pare t ra di ti on al f ood t o fast f ood.”
S TEP 2 : P R EPA RE A P LA N
i. B ra in stor m a nd not e a s m any i de as a s pos sibl e. D o not or ganiz e th ese
ide as u nti l y ou have w ritte n a s m any a s y ou pos sibl y c an.
ii. O rg aniz e t he i de as a ccor ding t o t he pa tte rn .
S TEP 3 : W RIT E T H E E SSAY
Add va rie ty t o y our w riti n g by usin g
• a m ix tu re of sim pl e, c om pou nd, a nd c omplex s ente nces;

• s ente nces of diffe re nt l ength s;
• so m e se nte nces th at are not in th e nor mal su bj ect- ve rb- ob je ct
pa tte rn ;
• pa ssive voi ce i n a few sente nces;
• va rie d voc abu la ry .
S TEP 4 : P R O OFR EA D
Check f or any g ra m mar or spe llin g m is ta kes.

4 S TA N DAR D E SSAY P A T TE R N
IN TR O DUCTIO N ( 3 0–40 W ORDS)
1. Make a ge nera l sta te m ent abou t th e topi c. Use som eth in g
in te re sti n g/fr e sh , l ik e “ Con fu ciu s s aid, . . .”
2. In di cate w hat y ou a re g oi ng to cove r i n th e body of th e e ssa y. T he k ey
w or ds indi cati n g t he t opi c of each pa ra gra ph shou ld be prese nt h ere .
B O DY ( 1 80 W ORDS)
Desc ribe more f ully t he i de as m enti on ed i n t he i ntr odu cti on .
FIR ST P A R AG RAPH
3. Use a topi c s e nte nce, usu ally i n th e f or m of a s ta te m ent. T he f ir s t k ey
w or d f rom the i ntr odu cti on shou ld be prese nt i n t his s ente nce.
4. Use su ppor ti n g se nte nces (e xam pl es / re ason s / expl anati on s /
con nector s). O pt ional : Provi de a sol uti on .
SEC O ND P A R AG RAPH
5. Use a topi c s e nte nce, usu ally in th e for m of a s ta te m ent. T he s e con d
key w ord f rom the i ntr odu cti on shou ld be prese nt i n t his s ente nce.
6. Use su ppor ti n g se nte nces (e xam pl es / re ason s / expl anati on s /
con nector s). O pt ional : Provi de a sol uti on .
TH IR D P A R AG RAPH
7. Use a topi c s e nte nce, usu ally i n th e f or m of a s ta te m ent. T he th ir d key
w or d f rom the i ntr odu cti on shou ld be prese nt i n t his s ente nce.
8. Use su ppor ti n g se nte nces (e xam pl es / re ason s / expl anati on s /
con nector s). O pt ional : Provi de a sol uti on .
CO NCLU SIO N ( 3 0–40 W ORDS)
No n ew infor mati on or facts a re a dde d here .

9. Sum mariz e w hat has be en sa id. The th re e key w or ds fr o m th e
in tr odu cti on shou ld be repe ate d h ere .
10. P rovi de a con clu sion or resu lt. O pt ional : Provi de a sol uti on .

5 U SEFU L L A N G UAG E F O R T A SK 2
A . P R O VID IN G G EN ER AL F A CTU AL IN FO RM ATIO N
I w ant t o . . .
I w ould l ik e t o . . .
I w is h t o . . .
B . P R ESEN TIN G A S O LU TIO N T O A P R O BLE M
. . . c ould . . .
. . . s hou ld . . .
. . . s uggest . . .
. . . pe rh aps . . .
. . . m ig ht be abl e t o . . .
. . . i t s hou ld be possibl e t o . . .
C . G IV IN G Y O UR O PIN IO N
I t hin k . . .
I be lie ve . . .
I a m sure t hat . . .
I t i s m y opi nion that . . .
. . . i t s eem s t o m e t hat . . .
. . . i t i s e vi de nt t hat . . .
. . . i t i s obvi ous/c le ar t hat . . .
D . A G REEIN G O R D IS A G REEIN G
. . . h oweve r . . .
. . . bu t . . .

. . . alth ou gh . . .
. . . c oncur . . .
E . C REATIN G R ELA TIV E S TA TEM EN TS
Acade mic w riti n g r a re ly in vol ves a bs olute c erta in ty . To change a n a bs olute
s ta te m ent lik e, for e xam pl e, “T he sk y is bl ue” in to a sta te m ent w here th e
certa in ty is re du ced (a re la ti ve s ta te m ent) , th e fol low in g te chniqu es c an be
u se d.
I. T O R ED UCE T H E S IZ E O F A G RO UP
Uncou nta bl e i te m s:
S om e of . . .
A littl e of . . .
Much of . . .
Mos t of . . .
Cou nta bl e i te m s:
S om e of . . .
A few of . . .
Many of . . .
Mos t of . . .
II. T O R ED UCE T H E N UM BER O F T IM ES S O M ETH IN G O CCURS
Ofte n . . .
F re qu entl y . . .
S om eti m es . . .
O ccasion ally . . .
III. T O S AY S O M ETH IN G IS P O SSIB LE

. . . may . . .
. . . m ig ht . . .
. . . m aybe . . .
. . . c an . . .
. . . c ould . . .
. . . pe rh aps . . .
. . . pos sibl y . . .
IV . T O E XPR ESS D O UBT
. . . s eem s t hat . . .
. . . a ppears t o . . .
. . . a ppears t hat . . .
F . U SIN G W ORDS A ND P H RASES T O L IN K S EN TEN CES
I. T O A D D M ORE IN FO RM AT IO N
. . . a nd a ls o . . .
. . . f urth erm or e . . .
. . . a s w ell a s . . .
II. T O IN DIC AT E A C AU SE-A N D-E FFE C T R ELAT IO NSH IP S
. . . be cause of . . .
. . . c ause d by . . .
. . . s ubs equ entl y . . .
. . . t here for e . . .
. . . t he r esu lt of . . .
. . . a s a con se qu ence of . . .

III. T O IN DIC AT E T IM E
. . . t hen . . .
. . . r ecentl y . . .
. . . w hen . . .
. . . n ow . . .
. . . w hile . . .
IV . T O L IN K G EN ER AL A N D P A R TIC ULA R S TAT EM EN TS
. . . f or exam pl e . . .
. . . s uch a s . . .
. . . i n t he c ase of . . .
V. T O C O M PA R E/C O NTR AST IN FO RM AT IO N
. . . h oweve r . . .
. . . de spi te . . .
. . . a lth ou gh . . .

6 M ODEL E SSAY S
6.1 R O AD A CCID EN TS
A la rge n um ber of d eat hs ar e c au se d b road ac cid ents . W h do so man y
road ac cid ents oc cu r? Mak e re com mendat ion s th at w ou ld h elp re duce
th e n um ber of road accid ents .
S TEP 1 : A N ALY ZE T H E T A SK
1. L ook for topi c w ords : “ Larg e n um be r of de ath s,” “roa d a ccide nts ”
2. L ook for task w ords : “ W hy . . . oc cur? ”
“M ake r ecom menda ti on s . . . h elp r edu ce . . . r oad a ccide nts ”
3. Dete rm in e th e pu rpos e of th e essa y: ou tl in in g a pr obl em and
pr ese nti n g a sol uti on .
STEP 2 : P R EPA R E A P LA N
1. Bra in stor m a nd not e a s m any i de as a s pos sibl e. D o not or ganiz e th ese
ide as u nti l y ou have w ritte n a s m any a s y ou pos sibl y c an.
“dr unk dr ive rs ,” “roa d con diti on s,” “pe nalti e s,” “gove rn m ent,”
“ adve rti s in g,” “ve hic le s,” “br akes, lig hts , ste erin g, ti r e s,”
“ spe edi ng,” “fin es”
2. N ow organiz e t he i de as a ccor ding t o t he pa tte rn t hat f ol low s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. G enera l s ta te m ent “ many de ath s,” “roa d a ccide nts ”
2. I ndi cati on of body “ve hic le s,” “roa ds,” “hum ans”
B O DY
FIR ST P A RAG RAPH
3. T opic s ente nce “ ba d ve hic le m ain te nance”
4. S uppor ti n g s ente nces “ ti r e s, l ig hts ”
S ol uti on (opt ion al) “ re gula r t esti n g”

SEC O ND P A RAG RAPH
5. T opic s ente nce “ roa d c onditi on s”
6. S uppor ti n g s ente nces “ pot hol es, c urve s”
S ol uti on (opt ion al) “ mon ey”
TH IR D P A RAG RAPH
7. T opic s ente nce “ dr ive r e rror s”
8. S uppor ti n g s ente nces “ dr unken dr ivi ng, s pe edi ng”
S ol uti on (opt ion al) “ fin es, s uspe nsion of pe rm it”
C O NCLU SIO N
9. S um mary “ te st ve hic le s, i mpr ove roa ds, suspe nsion s”
10. C onclu sion “tr a ve lin g by roa d c an be made safe r”
S TEP 3 : W RIT E T H E E SSAY
N ot e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. Con fu ciu s s a id, “P eopl e g etti n g k ille d in roa d accide nts is a c urs e
pl aced on us by ours e lve s.”
2. In th is essa y, I w ill foc us o n th re e pos sibl e cause s—n am ely , th e
roa dw orth in ess o f ve hic le s, th e c on diti on of ou r r oa ds, and th e e rror s
made by hum ans.
B O DY
FIR ST P A RAG RAPH
3. Many a ccide nts a re c ause d by ba d (in ade quate ) ve hic le m ain te nance
and r epa ir s .
4. For exam pl e, ba ld ti r e s an d defe cti ve br akes w ill dr am ati c ally
in cre ase th e stoppi ng ti m e of a ve hic le . Regula r mechanic al
in spe cti on s w ould r edu ce t he n um be r of unroa dw orth y ve hic le s.
S EC O ND P A RAG RAPH
5. R oad c onditi on s a ls o c ontr ibu te t o r oad a ccide nts .

6. Roa d su rfa ces th at are in a ba d sta te of re pa ir and have m any
pot hol es a re da ngerou s. In a ddi ti on , narrow r oa ds w ith s h arp curve s
can c ause a ccide nts . Lastl y , sn ow a nd ra in m ake th e roa d su rfa ces
slippe ry a nd di ffic ult to dr ive on . T he g ove rn m ent w ill h ave to spe nd
m or e m oney on r oa d main te nance a nd so im pr ove th e c on diti on of ou r
roa d su rfa ces. M ore c are w ill h a ve to be ta ken w hen de sig nin g r oa ds
to g et r id of (elim in ate ) h aza rdou s r oa d f eatu re s.
T H IR D P A RAG RAPH
7. T he t hir d c ause of roa d a ccide nts i s dr ive r e rror s.
8. Dru nken dr ivi ng and excessive spe ed fr e qu entl y re su lt in dr ive rs
m is ju dg in g di sta nces and los in g con tr ol of th eir ve hic le s. Oth er
exam pl es a re dr ive rs w ho pa ss w ith ou t th e n ecessa ry c are a nd fa il to
u se th eir in di cator s w hen tu rn in g. A lth ou gh th e pr obl em s a ssoc ia te d
w ith dr ive r error s are th e m os t di ffic ult to sol ve , adve rti s in g
cam pa ig ns have pr ove d to be effe cti ve in edu cati n g dr ive rs abou t
roa d sa fe ty . Furth erm or e, hars h er pe nalti e s s u ch a s h eavy fin es a nd
th e su sp ension of dr ive r’s lic ense s c ou ld be a ppl ie d to disc ou ra ge
su ch da ngerou s be havi or.
CO NCLU SIO N
9. In c on clu sion , a lth ou gh i t i s i n evi ta bl e th at s om e a ccide nts w ill oc cur,
th ere a re w ays to re du ce th eir fr e qu ency. Str ic te r a nd mor e re gu la r
ve hic le te sti n g by th e auth or iti e s and mor e se ve re pe nalti e s for
c are le ss dr ive rs a re n eede d. In a ddi ti on , m or e fu nds w ill h ave to be
alloc ate d to main ta in and upg ra de roa ds and la unch adve rti s in g
cam pa ig ns.
S TEP 4 : P R O OFR EAD
Check f or any g ra m mar or spe llin g m is ta kes.

6.2 G ARBAG E S O CIE TY
Som eon e s ai d ou r s oc ie t is b ecom in g a gar bage s oc ie ty . W hat ar e th e
re as on s f or this , an d h ow do Ru thin k w e s hou ld d eal w it h it?
N ot e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. C onfu ciu s s aid, “ I l ove the bu gs i n m y h om e, bu t I h ate l itte rbu gs.”
2. In th is e ssa y, I w ill f oc us on th e r e ason s f or a ll th e g arba ge, th e ty pe s
of w aste , a nd on e pos sibl e s ol uti on . (34 w ords )
BO DY
FIR ST P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
3. Technol og ic a l de velopm ents have re su lte d in pr odu cts be com in g
use le ss ( obs olete ) m uch f aste r t han be for e.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
4. Con su m ers have be en br ain w ash ed by th e adve rti s in g in du str y to
be lie ve th at th ey s h ou ld bu y th e l a te st m ode ls of c ars , com pute rs , a nd
hou se hol d appl ia nces. For exam pl e, new -g enera ti on com pute rs
c on ta in in g i m pr ove d hardw are a nd sof tw are a re r e pl acin g ol d on es a t
an a ston is h in g ra te . C ar m anufa ctu re rs a re br in gin g ou t n ew m ode ls
e ve ry y ear ( annually ) i n or der t o boos t t heir s ale s.
S EC O ND P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
5. Waste is cla ssifie d in to tw o major cate gor ie s—n am ely ,
bi ode gra da ble a nd u nde gra da ble.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
6. Biode gra da ble w aste s a re th o se th at c an be br ok en dow n by ba cte ria .
U nde gra da bles lik e pl asti c s a nd ru bbe r, how eve r, cannot be br ok en
dow n a nd have a n e ve rla sti n g ( in fin ite ) l ife spa n. F or e xam pl e, w aste

paper a nd wood can be a bs orbe d by th e s oi l in th e for m of c om pos t.
C om pos t i s u se fu l i n c om merc ia l n urs e rie s a nd pr iva te g arde ns.
T H IR D P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
7. One of th e sol uti on s to at le ast re du ce th e g arba ge pr obl em is to
r e cycle .
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
8. For e xam pl e, m any ty pe s of p la sti c a nd ru bbe r c an be m elte d dow n
and use d a gain a s u se fu l pr odu cts . Pla sti c s h oppi ng ba gs h ave be en
use d i n n ew appl ic ati on s. ( 171 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N/S U M MARY
9. I h ave br ie fly look ed at th e or ig in s a nd ty pe s of w aste a nd re cyclin g
as a sol uti on .
CO NCLU DIN G S TAT EM EN T
10. In c on clu sio n, by e du cati n g th e pu blic a nd with m or e r e se arc h in to
r e cyclin g m eth ods , I be lie ve ou r w aste pr obl em s c an be r e du ced. (37
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 242)

6.3 T EC HNO LO GY A ND S C IE N CE
Tech nol og has d eve lop ed rap id l in re ce nt tim es, but th ere ar e still
m an qu estion s th at s c ie ntis ts h ave n ot b een ab le to an sw er to ensu re
ou r s urvi val . Do Ru agree or dis agr ee?
N ot e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
GEN ER AL S TAT EM EN T
1. Con fu ciu s sa id, “P hilos oph ers , and not sc ie nti s ts , w ill pr ovi de th e
w or ld w ith a nsw ers t o qu esti on s t hat a re i m por ta nt f or ou r s urvi va l.”
V IE W O F B O DY
2. In th is e ssa y, I w ill foc us on tw o aspe cts —n am ely , w ate r s u ppl ie s
and glob al w arm in g—a nd se e th at s c ie nti s ts h ave , to da te , not be en
su ccessfu l. ( 45 w ords )
BO DY
FIR ST P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
3. The su ppl y of fr e sh w ate r fit for c on su m pt ion by m an a nd beast is
dw in dl in g at su ch an ala rm in g ra te th at it is th re ate nin g ou r ve ry
e xis te nce on this pl anet.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
4. To be m or e spe cific , th e sou rc es of u nde rg rou nd wate r a re be in g
exhauste d by e ve r-g row in g popu la ti on s a nd in du str ie s. In a ddi ti on , in
m any pa rts of th e w or ld, th e a nnual r a in fa ll i s c on sta ntl y dr oppi ng. T o
da te , sc ie nti s ts h ave n ot be en a bl e to manufa ctu re w ate r on a la rg e
sc ale a nd at a cc ept abl e c os ts . The h arve sti n g of ic ebe rg s is on ly a
te m por ary s ol uti on .

SEC O ND P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
5. Scie nti s ts have on ly re centl y be com e aw are of th e ph eno m enon
calle d g loba l w arm in g.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
6. The in iti a l in di cati on s are th at if w e do not ta ke care of globa l
warm in g, it w ill m ake life on e arth m is e ra bl e a nd eve n im pos sibl e.
F or e xam pl e, if th e e arth ’s te m pe ra tu re ris e s to th e e xte nt th at th e
pol ar i c e c aps be gin to melt, th e oc eans w ill s u bm erg e l a rg e pa rts of
th e la ndm ass. This w ou ld mean th at c oa sta l c iti e s lik e N ew Y or k,
H on g K ong, and Lon don , to nam e a fe w , w ill be c om plete ly c ov ere d
by the oc ean. ( 173 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N/S U M MARY
9. In th is e ssa y, I l ook ed at w ate r a nd globa l w arm in g a s a spe cts w here
s c ie nti s ts c annot pr ovi de suffic ie nt a nsw ers .
C O NCLU DIN G S TAT EM EN T
10. To con clu de , I w ou ld agre e th at th ere a re m any u nsol ve d myste rie s
th at t hre ate n u s. ( 32 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 250)

6.4 R O BO TS
Rob ots c an f r e e p eop le f r om d if fic u lt or d an gerou s w or k. H ow eve r, som e
peop le ar e w orrie d ab out t he p os sib le d an gers. W hat ’s Ru r op in ion ?
Not e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. A robot is de fin ed as a n “ in te llig ent a nd obe dient bu t im pe rs on al
m achin e.”
2. I n t his e ssa y, I w ill br ie fly l ook at r obot s i n t erm s of their n atu re , t heir
s pe cia l u se s ( fu ncti on s), a nd t heir s hor tc om in gs. ( 33 w ords )
BO DY
FIR ST P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
3. Because r obot s a re n ot h um an, th ey a re u se fu l a nd effe cti ve in m any
acti on s t hat a re i m pos sibl e f or hum an be in gs t o h andl e.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
4. For e xam pl e, th ey do not g et ti r e d or bor ed. So th ey a re a bl e to do
re pe ti ti ve ta sk s for a s lon g a s w e w ant th em to. In a ddi ti on , w hen
pr ope rly m ain ta in ed, th ey do not g et ill. T hey do not n eed a va cati on
a nd do n ot need t o l ook afte r ( te nd t o) a fam ily .
S EC O ND P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
5. Robo ts a re s u ita bl e for ta sk s th at a re too com plic ate d or da ng erou s
(ris k y) t o be done ( execute d) by hum ans.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
6. For i n sta nce, th ey a re a bl e to wor k i n s itu ati on s w here r a di ati on f r om
n ucle ar m ate ria l w ou ld kill ( h arm ) h um ans. T hey h ave be en u se d for
w or k at gre at de pths in th e oc ean, lik e fin di ng and su rve yin g th e
w re ck of the T itani c .

TH IR D P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
7. Robot s c annot a ssu m e r e spon sibi lity . T hey c an on ly do what th ey a re
pr og ra m med f or.
SU PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
8. In ot her w or ds , th ey c on sta ntl y n eed a h um an be in g to prog ra m a nd
guide th em . To be m or e spe cif ic , th ey c annot sol ve pr obl em s th at
m ig ht c rop up or a da pt to changin g c ir c um sta nces th at m ig ht a ris e
w hile w or kin g. W hen le ft u natte nde d, th ey c ou ld cause m uch da mage
and cou ld produ ce la rg e qu anti ti e s of waste be for e be in g
re pr og ra m med. ( 192 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N/S U M MARY
9. In th is e ssa y, I h ave de sc ribe d th e c hara cte ris ti c s of r obot s, how th ey
cou ld s erve hum ans, a nd w hat t heir w eaknesse s a re .
10. To con clu de , it i s m y opi nion th at r obot s c annot th re ate n h um ans y et.
( 32 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 257)

6.5 W EA PO NS A ND T H E P O OR
Shou ld gove rn m ents s p end m or e m on e on w eap ons or on im provi ng th e
live s of the p oor ? G ive Ru r op in ion in t he f or m of an essay .
Not e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. Con fu ciu s s a id, “E ve ry c ou ntr y i n th e w or ld has w eapon s a nd pe opl e
livi ng i n pove rty .”
2. In th is e ssa y, I w ill foc us on th e n eed for s pe ndi ng m on ey o n bot h
weapon s a nd th e poor a nd als o on th e n eed to fin d a ba la nce. (41
w or ds )
BO DY
FIR ST P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
3. Fir s t, cou ntr ie s need weapon s to defe nd th em se lve s again st
a ggre ssor s.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
4. Som e of th ese w eapon s are extr e m ely expe nsive to develop and
m anufa ctu re . In addi ti on , th e tr a in in g of pe rs on nel to use th ese
w eapon s is cos tl y . For exam pl e, nucle ar w eapon s ta ke years to
de velop, desig n, and build. Many cou ntr ie s are for ced to acqu ir e
n ucle ar w eapon s be cause th eir enem ie s or pos sibl e (pot en ti a l)
e nem ie s h ave de velope d them .
SEC O ND P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
5. S econ d, g overn m ents n eed t o s pend m oney on the poor .
SU PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CE
6. Jobs h ave to be c re ate d, and th en th e poor n eed to be e du cate d and
tr a in ed to do th os e jobs . For exam pl e, th e ru ra l poor have to be

edu cate d in s ou nd agric ultu ra l pr acti c es, soi l a nd wate r c on se rva ti on ,
and th e u ti liz a ti o n of re sou rc es. Then th ey h ave to be tr a in ed to u se
fa rm in g e qu ipm ent l ik e tr a ctor s a nd other ve hic le s. O nly th en c an th ey
be pl aced on (de sig nate d t o) farm s.
T H IR D P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
7. Lastl y , how eve r, I a m of th e op in ion th at th ere h as to be ba la nce i n th e
w ay g ove rn m ents s pe nd t he m oney a va ila bl e t o t hem .
SU PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
8. For e xam pl e, poor pe opl e w ho have be com e tr a in ed wor kers h ave to
be look ed afte r (pr otecte d) in th e eve nt of an in va sion fr om a
neig hbor in g c ou ntr y . ( 180 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N/S U M MARY
9. We n eed weapon s; th e poor h ave to be h elpe d. To achie ve th is , a
ba la nce h as t o be fou nd.
C O NCLU DIN G S TAT EM EN T
10. To con clu d e, I be lie ve m y opi nion is m ode ra te and sh ou ld be
fol low ed. ( 30 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 251)

6.6 C O LLE G ES
Shou ld th e c ou rse s th at c ol le ge s p re se nt b e m or e th eor etic al or m or e
prac tic al ? G ive Ru r op in ion .
Not e: T he n um be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
GEN ER AL S TAT EM EN T
1. Unive rs iti e s w or ldw ide are be in g criti c iz e d by com merc e and
in du str y t hat t hey a re pr odu cin g “ nerds ” a nd “ book wor ms.”
V IE W O F B O DY
2. Let u s l ook a t th e topi c i n te rm s of th e s u bj ects i n th e c ou rs e s a nd th e
care ers i nvol ved. ( 34 w ords )
BO DY
FIR ST P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
3. F ir s t, t he s ubj ects c ove re d i n a cou rs e w ill de te rm in e t he n atu re of the
stu dy m ate ria l a nd th e a cti vi ti e s in w hic h th e s tu de nts w ill h ave to
pa rta ke.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
4. For e xam pl e, a rts a nd dram a c ou rs e s w ill h ave to con ta in m ain ly
pr acti c al su bj ects . The stu de nts need to practi c e and eve ntu ally
m aste r certa in sk ills unde r th e guida nce of th eir le ctu re rs and
pr ofessor s. W hen s tu dy in g ph ilos oph y, his tor y, or th eol og y, how eve r,
a s tu de nt w ou ld have to re ad many pr esc ribe d book s, arti c le s, a nd
pa pers in or de r to acqu ir e a b roa d th eor eti c al ba ckgrou nd of th e
su bj ect.
S EC O ND P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE

5. Secon d, th e n atu re of th e c are er f or w hic h a s tu de nt i s pr epa rin g w ill
la rg ely de te rm in e h ow m any pr acti c al a nd/ or th eor eti c al s e ssion s th e
col le ge c ou rs e w ill c on ta in .
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
6. For in sta nce, when tr a in in g a m edi cal doc tor , a nurs e , a hot el
m anager, or an engin eer, th e co urs e s w ou ld have to con ta in m any
pr acti c al m odu le s. T hese s tu de nts n eed to get “ hands -on ” e xpe rie nce
in th e sk ills th e y are goi ng to need in th eir jobs . Teachers and
le ctu re rs , on th e ot her h and, ne ed as m uch k now le dg e a s pos sibl e
abou t t he pa rti c ula r s ubj ects t hat t hey w ill be teachin g. ( 177 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N/S U M MARY
9. I have look ed at cou rs e con te nt and care er pa th s as th e fa ctor s
de te rm in in g h ow practi c al or theor eti c al a cou rs e s hou ld be .
CO NCLU DIN G S TAT EM EN T
10. To con clu de , in m y opi nion , it is im pos sibl e to make a s w eepi ng
sta te m ent i n t his r egard. ( 37 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 248)

6.7 B IG GER C IT IE S
M od ern c it ie s ar e b ecom in g big ge r an d b igge r. W hat ar e t h e r e as on s f or
th is ? D is c u ss t he ad van tage s an d d is ad van tage s of lar ge cit ie s.
N ot e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. The n um be r o f ve ry l a rg e c iti e s ( a ls o calle d megaciti e s) i n th e w or ld
is s te adi ly i ncre asin g.
2. In th is e ssa y, I w ill de al w ith s om e r e ason s for a nd adva nta g es a nd
di sa dva nta ges of this ph enom enon . (32 w ords )
BO DY
FIR ST P AR AG RAP H
3. The m ain r e ason w hy c iti e s a re be com in g bi gger ( ra pi dly e xpa ndi ng)
is th at pe opl e are m ovi ng th e re in se arc h of jobs (e m pl oy ment
oppor tu niti e s).
4. For exam pl e, th e m ain acti vi ti e s of com merc e and in du str y are
u su ally loc ate d in a nd arou nd a ve ry la rg e c ity (m etr opol is ). R ura l
pe opl e a re u nde r th e im pr ession ( h ave th e pe rc ept ion ) th at life in th e
city w ill be e asie r (m or e a fflu ent) th an in th e vi lla ges a nd on th e
fa rm s.
S EC O ND P AR AG RAP H
5. T here a re s om e a dva nta ges t o l arg e c iti e s.
6. For i n sta nce, m or e pe opl e c an u se th e s a m e f a ciliti e s ( in fr a str u ctu re )
lik e roa ds, ra ilw ays, wate r distr ibu ti on , ele ctr ic ity su ppl ie s,
te le ph one lin es, and public tr a nspor ta ti on se rvi ces lik e bu se s and
su bw ays. In a ddi ti on , la rg e c iti e s r e su lt i n th e c re ati on of m any s m all
bu sin esse s i n t he i nfor mal s ector .
TH IR D P AR AG RAP H

7. Larg e c iti e s, h ow eve r, h ave som e de fin ite ( di sti n ct) di sa dva nta ges.
8. For i n sta nce, th ere of te n i s a n i n cre ase i n c rim e ( c rim in al a cti vi ti e s).
P oor ( de sti tu te ) pe opl e r e sor t to m uggin g, hou se br eakin g, and th eft i n
a n a tte m pt to su rvi ve . G angs a nd sy ndi cate s m ake u se of ( u ti liz e ) th e
situ ati on for or ganiz e d crim e. In addi ti on , hou sin g, medi cal, and
edu cati on al sta nda rds ofte n wor se n (de te rior ate ), as exis ti n g
str u ctu re s cannot cope w ith th e su dde n in cre ase (in flu x) of la rg e
num be rs of pe opl e. T he m assive s lu m a re a in M exic o City is a g ood
exam pl e of this . ( 184 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N/S U M MARY
9. I have di sc u sse d th e re ason s w hy th e w or ld’ s popu la ti on s are
be com in g m ore u rba niz e d a nd s om e a dva nta ges a nd di sa dva nta ges.
10. To clos e, it sh ou ld be m enti on ed th at th is is a w or ldw ide
ph enom enon w ith m any con se qu ences (re pe rc ussion s). (33 words )
(T ot al w ords : 249)

6.8 W ORKIN G W OM EN
M ore an d m or e w om en ar e w or kin g ou ts id e th eir h om es. Shou ld th e
gove rn m ent foc us on th e e ducat ion of ch ild re n or n ot ? Dis c u ss Ru r
opin ion .
Not e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. Con fu ciu s s a id, “W om en s h o uld sta y a t h om e, te nd to th eir ba bies,
a nd f orget a bou t w orkin g.”
2. This e ssa y w ill de al w ith th e is su e in te rm s of th e im por ta nce of th e
fa m ily , probl em s w hen m ot hers do not e du cate th eir c hildr en, and on e
pos sibl e s ol uti on . (42 w ords )
BO DY
3. I be lie ve th at th e fa m ily is th e h ub (n ucle us) of a soc ie ty a nd th at
m ot hers s hou ld be the ( pr im ary ) e du cator s of childr en.
4. Becau se m ot hers c arry a nd giv e bi rth to th e c hildr en, th e r e la ti on sh ip
be tw een a m ot her a nd her c hild cannot be du plic ate d by a ny o th er
m eans. Rese arc h (c lin ic al stu di es) don e w ith ba by m on keys has
pr ovi ded va lu abl e in for mati on a bou t th e ps ychol og ic al e ffe cts fos te r
m ot hers h ave on sibl in gs.
5. Atte m pt s to place th e e du cati on of c hildr en in th e h ands of fos te r
pa re nts , th e br oa der s oc ie ty , or th e s ta te h ave fa ile d dism ally in th e
pa st.
6. For e x am pl e, du rin g th e for mati on of th e s ta te of Is ra el, a c om munal
sy ste m w as a dopt ed on th e “ kibbu tz im .” A ppoi nte d edu cator s r a is e d
th e childr en w hile th e m ot hers w or ked on th e com mune. These
c hildr en soon de velope d se riou s (ps ychol og ic al and em ot ion al)
pr obl em s i n s oc ie ty , a nd t he s yste m w as c hanged.
7. One w ay of fi n di ng a “ w in -w in ” s ol uti on w ou ld be to have fe w er
sc hool in g h ou rs a nd to allow m ot hers of y ou ng c hildr en to wor k h alf

days on ly .
8. This w ou ld not tr ou ble ( h in de r) th e s c hool in g pr oc ess, and childr en
w ou ld be abl e to spe nd quali ty ti m e w ith th eir m ot hers in th e
afte rn oon s a nd e venin gs. ( 180 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N/S U M MARY
9. It is cle ar fr om th e above th at fa m ily is im por ta nt in edu cati n g
childr en, and wor kin g m ot hers s h ou ld re aliz e th at th eir n eeds c ou ld
be met.
10. In c los in g, w e s h ou ld re m em be r th at ou r c hildr en a re th e fu tu re of
ou r w orld. ( 38 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 260)

6.9 B O YS A ND G IR LS
In m an cou ntr ie s, bos an d gi rls h ave t o stu d in s e par ate s c h ool s an d
col le ge s. D is c u ss t he ad van tage s an d d is ad van tage s of this p olic y.
N ot e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. The R om an C ath ol ic C hurc h w as th e fir s t to cre ate on e-g ende r
sc hool s.
2. In th is e ssa y, I w ill br ie fly look a t (in ve sti g ate ) on e a dva nta ge a nd
tw o di sa dva nta ges of this t ype of school . (29 w ords )
BO DY
FIR ST P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
3. Fir s t, te achers can in iti a te and main ta in hig h le ve ls of di sc ipl in e
w hen de alin g w ith a n u nm ix ed ( hom ogeneou s) g rou p of stu de nts .
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
4. For e xam pl e, m ain ta in in g c on tr ol ove r s tu de nts w hile i n th eir c la sse s,
dor mitor ie s, and playgrou nds or on ou ti n gs (e xcurs ion s) is le ss
c om plex t han w ith m ix ed g rou ps.
SEC O ND P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S EN TEN CE
5. Secon d, se pa ra ti n g s tu de nts fr om th os e of th e oppos ite s e x h as on e
major di sa dva nta ge in th at it robs (de prive s) stu de nts of gain in g
expe rie nce i n h avi ng r ela ti on sh ips acros s t he g ende r l in e.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
6. The h u m an r a ce c on sis ts of m ale s a nd fe m ale s. T he s oon er a pe rs on
be com es fa m ilia r w ith th e di ffe re nces be tw een m ale s a nd fe m ale s,
th e be tte r. This in clu de s ph ysic al, em ot ion al, and psychol og ic al

diffe re nces. T hese di ffe re nces h ave to be l e arn ed and expe rie nced in
or de r f or stu de nts t o a tta in t he n ecessa ry r espe ct f or each ot her.
T H IR D P AR AG RAP H T O PIC S TAT EM EN T
7. Lastl y , anot her di sa dva nta ge of th ese s c hool s i s th at th ey a re n ot a bl e
to parta ke in th e sa m e ra nge of (e xtr a m ura l) acti vi ti e s as m ix ed
sc hool s.
S U PPO RTIN G S EN TEN CES
8. To be m or e s pe cific , m ix ed sc hool s c an pr ese nt a g re ate r va rie ty of
a cti vi ti e s in w hic h boy s and gir ls are neede d—f or exam pl e,
th eatr ic al pl ays a nd da ncin g pe rfor mances. ( 169 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N/S U M MARY
9. Som e edu cati on al pol ic y m akers have th ou ght it advi sa bl e and
esta bl is h ed a n um be r of on e-g ende r s c hool s. I be lie ve th ey h ave n o
re al a dva nta ges i n a n ope n s oc ie ty bu t ve ry de fin ite di sa dva nta ges.
10. The te nde ncy w or ldw ide th ese da ys i s n ot to esta bl is h m or e s c hool s
of this n atu re . ( 44 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 242)

6.1 0 A NIM ALS IN E XPER IM EN TS
In sc h ool s, som e live an im als ar e use d in biol ogi cal exp erim ents or
re se ar ch proj ects . Som e peop le th in k th is prac tic e is cru el an d
unnece ssar y, w hile ot hers b elie ve it t o b e in t he inte re st of hum an bein gs .
Exp lai n t he t w o vi ew s.
N ot e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. Schol ars stu dy in g a nim als n e ed to in ve sti g ate th e or gans a nd body
sy ste m s of anim als l ik e f rog s a nd m ic e i n pr acti c al e xpe rim ents .
2. In th is e ssa y, I w ill br ie fly lo ok a t th e a rg um ents for a nd again st th is
pr acti c e. ( 35 w ords )
BO DY
3. Peopl e c arin g a bou t th e w elfa re of a nim als (a nim al rig hts a cti vi sts )
fe el th os e anim als sh ou ld not be use d for th ese expe rim ents and
re se arc h.
4. The extr e m is ts in th is grou p w ou ld arg ue, for exam pl e, th at all
a nim als s h ou ld have th e s a m e r ig hts a s h um ans a nd th at w e c erta in ly
w ou ld not u se h um ans i n th ese e xpe rim ents . A m or e m ode ra te vi ew i s
th at a nim als c ou ld be u se d, but w ith g re at c are ta ken n ot to le t th em
su ffe r i n a ny w ay.
5. Scie nti s ts a nd edu cator s, how eve r, fe el th ere is a n eed to con duct
th ese expe rim ents if sc hol ars and stu de nts are to be edu cate d
pr ope rly .
6. They a re of th e opi nion th at th e a nim als th at a re u se d are n ot be in g
tr e ate d in c ru el w ays. T he a nim als e ith er h ave u nde velope d nervou s
sy ste m s a nd cannot a ctu ally fe el pa in or a re dr ugged (s e da te d) or
k ille d ( put dow n) be for e be in g u se d.
7. Bot h s ide s fe e l th at th eir a rg u m ents a re ju sti fie d. It is im pos sibl e to
r e con cile w ith th e extr e m is ts , so th e m or e m ode ra te vi ew s are

con side re d when e du cator s a nd gove rn m ents for mula te th eir pol ic ie s
on the m atte r.
8. But u nti l fu rth er fa cts c an be g ath ere d, th e pr ese nt situ ati on (s ta tu s
qu o) w ill re m ain in ou r sc hoo ls , col le ges, and unive rs iti e s. (183
w or ds )
CO NCLU SIO N
9. B oth vi ew s h ave be en e xpl ain ed i n t his e ssa y w ith ou t f avor in g on e.
10. From th e di sc ussion , I h ave to con clu de th at th is is a c om plic ate d
(c om plex) is su e for w hic h th ere are sti ll no defin ite (c le ar- c ut)
a nsw ers . ( 32 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 250)

6.1 1 S TR ESS V ER SU S L E IS U RE T IM E
Man peop le t h in k t h at lif e n ow adas is m or e s tr e ssfu l an d t h ere is le ss
le is u re t im e t han in t he p as t. W hat is Ru r op in ion ?
Not e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. Str e ss and th e la ck of le is u re ti m e have be com e th e num be r-on e
dangers i n t he l ive s of mode rn pe opl e.
2. In th is essa y, I w ill look at tw o aspe cts —n am ely , city life and
fin ancia l pr essu re —a s tw o re ason s w hy pe opl e do not h ave ti m e to
r e la x. ( 44 w ords )
BO DY
3. These da ys, m any m or e pe opl e live in u rba n e nvi ron ments . C ity life
h as m uch m ore s tr e ss t han l ife i n t he c ou ntr y .
4. For e xa m pl e, goi ng to wor k b y c ar or bu s i n th e m or nin g r u sh h ou r i s
a lw ays ve ry s tr e ssfu l. In a ddi ti on , be cause popu la ti on s a re g row in g
and econ om ie s are slow in g dow n (g oi ng in to re cession s), th e
com peti ti on for jobs ( e m pl oy ment oppor tu niti e s) is be com in g fie rc er
by the da y. T his pl aces pe opl e u nde r c on sta nt s tr e ss.
5. Toda y th e ba nks a nd fin ancia l in sti tu ti on s a re m akin g it e asie r for
pe opl e to make m or e de bt. This for ces th em to wor k lon ger and
harde r in or de r to make e nds m eet. Som e e ve n r e sor t to th e pr acti c e
of h a vi ng tw o jo bs a t th e s a m e ti m e ( m oon lig hti n g). T he r e su lt i s th at
th ey h ave ve ry l ittl e l eis u re t im e.
6. For i n sta nce, in m any W este rn c ou ntr ie s, an e xpe nsive c ar a nd a l a rg e
hou se a re tw o ve ry im por ta nt s ta tu s s y m bol s a m on g y ou ng c ou ples.
T here for e, it is c on side re d nor mal for th ese y ou ng pe opl e to have
la rg e m onth ly pa ym ents on a c ar or m or tg age pa ym ents on a h ou se . It
pl aces th em u nde r g re at f in ancia l pr essu re , re su lti n g i n h ig h l e ve ls of
s tr e ss. ( 177 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
9. By l ook in g a t th e s tr e ss br ou ght a bou t by l ife i n th e c ity a nd fin ancia l
bu rde ns,
10. I c on clu de th at m ode rn pe opl e don ’t h ave s u ffic ie nt l e is u re ti m e. (25
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 246)
V O CAB ULA RY
C APIT A LIS M : Ide olog y in w hic h pr iva te capi ta l is use d for th e
pr odu cti on and di str ibu ti on of goods and s ervi ces.
ID EO LO GIE S : A m anner of th in kin g c hara cte ris ti c of a c la ss of pe opl e
or in di vidu al; ide as th at for m th e ba sis of s om e e con om ic or pol iti c al
sy ste m s.
S O CIA LIS M : Ide olog y th at a dvoc ate s th at th e s oc ie ty a s a w hol e s h ou ld
c on tr ol the pr odu cti on and di str ibu ti on of goods and s ervi ces.

6.1 2 O LD ER P EO PLE
Som e p eop le s a th at ol der p eop le s h ou ld live w it h t h eir ad ult c h ild re n,
w hile ot hers t h in k t h e sh ou ld live in h om es s p ecial l built f or ol d p eop le .
W hic h d o Ru thin k is a b ette r p rac tic e ?
N ot e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. A re ality in life is th at e lde rly pe opl e h ave to spe nd th eir la st da ys
som ew here .
2. Let u s l ook a t th e i s su e i n te rm s of th e pr ior iti e s of th e a du lt c hildr en
and why th is pr acti c e i s u nde sir a bl e a nd unaccept abl e, in m y opi nion .
(41 w ords )
BO DY
3. In toda y’s s oc ie ty , adu lt c hildr en of te n c on side r th eir e lde rly pa re nts
to be a n uis a nce th at sh ou ld be de alt w ith in th e m os t a ccept abl e
(a m ic abl e) w ay pos sibl e. T hat is th e r e ason w hy s o many r e ti r e m ent
vi lla ges and old- age hom es are be in g bu ilt th ese da ys. The ol d
pe opl e ( e lde rly ) a nd pe nsion ers a re pu t ( pl aced) th ere s o as n ot to be
in t he w ay of their a du lt c hildr en.
4. For e xa m pl e, th e a du lts c on cern ed now h ave c hildr en of th eir ow n to
pr ovi de for a nd edu cate , and th e y fe el th eir ow n c hildr en a re th eir
h ig hest pr ior ity .
5. I be lie ve th is i s a ve ry ( e xtr e m ely ) s e lfis h a nd fool is h pr acti c e. F ir s t,
th e o ld pe opl e h ave m os t pr oba bly m ade m any s a crific es a nd end ure d
m any hards hips to ensu re th at th eir childr en re ceive d a good
upbr in gin g, e ducati on , and t ra in in g.
6. They w ou ld, for in sta nce, have w or ked ve ry h ard for m any y ears to
pa y for th eir c h ildr en’s c la ss (tu iti on ) fe es a t sc hool or c ol le ge—
m or e s o if th ey h ave g ive n th eir c hildr en th e c hance ( oppor tu nity ) to

stu dy abr oa d. To be pu sh ed aside in th eir ol d age by th eir adu lt
c hildr en i s u nth ankfu l, s elfis h , a nd e ven c ru el. ( 177 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
9. To su m u p, I c ou ld sa y th at a du lt c hildr en h ave ot her pr ior iti e s bu t
sh ou ld n ot be com e s elfis h a nd u nth ankfu l i n t he pr ocess.
10. To me, th ere i s on ly on e c on clu sion : e lde rly pe opl e s h ou ld live w ith
th eir a du lt c hildr en. ( 37 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 255)
V O CAB ULA RY
A M IC ABLE : N ot hos ti le ; don e in a fr ie ndl y m anner. E xam ple: T he
am ba ssa dor of C hin a w as re ceive d am ic abl y w hen h e a rrive d on h is
vi sit t o t he f or eig n c ou ntr y .

6.1 3 E N VIR O NM EN T
Dam age to th e envi ron ment is an in evi tab le con se quen ce of th e
im prove ment i n t he s tan dar d of livi ng. W hat ar e Ru r i deas ?
Not e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. The i de a ( pe rc ept ion ) th at da mage to th e e nvi ron ment i s a n i n evi ta bl e
re su lt (c on se qu ence) of th e de velopm ent neede d to ra is e ou r
sta nda rds of livi ng h as t o be changed u rg entl y .
2. I w ill look a t th e is su e in te rm s of n atu ra l r e sou rc es, re cycli n g, and
pol lu ti on . (40 w ords )
BO DY
3. Fir s t, som e of ou r n atu ra l r e sou rc es a re ir re pl aceabl e a nd sh ou ld be
use d (u ti l iz e d) w ith g re at c are . T his i n clu de s, for e xam pl e, cru de oi l,
c oa l, and m eta l or es. H ow eve r, w e c an r e pl ace ot her r e sou rc es lik e
tr e es, a nim als , f is h , a nd pl ants .
4. For e xam pl e, w hen a n a re a h as be en de for este d, we a re a bl e to ra is e
se edl in gs a nd r epl ant t he a re a w ith t he s am e k in ds (spe cie s) t hat w ere
fou nd t here be for e.
5. Secon d, th e e xte nt to whic h w e a re u sin g n atu ra l re sou rc es c an be
lim ite d if w e pa y m or e atte nti on to re cyclin g. It is know n th at
bu sin esspe opl e are in te re ste d in de velopi ng in du str ie s th at use
g arba ge ( w aste ) a s t heir r aw m ate ria l.
6. For e xam pl e, in J a pa n, hou se w ive s h ave be en e du cate d to sor t th eir
h ou se hol d waste in to gla ss, pl asti c s, and biode gra da bles. T he w aste
th en h as a m oney ( m on eta ry ) va lu e a nd c an be mark ete d.
7. Lastl y , at th e m om ent, it is accept ed th at de velopm ent in evi ta bl y
cause s m or e pol lu ti on . This tr e nd will h ave to be re ve rs e d in th e
fu tu re .

8. For in sta nce, sc ie nti s ts a nd in du str ia lis ts h ave to re aliz e th at th ey
have to lim it th e am ou nt of pol lu ti on th at w ill re su lt fr om th e
de velopm ent of new m anufa ctu rin g pr ocesse s. ( 180 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
9. From th e ab ove , it is cle ar th at th ere are w ays to im pr ove ou r
sta nda rd of l ivi ng a nd at th e s a m e ti m e l im it ( c urb) th e da mage to th e
envi ron ment.
10. To con clu de , I w ou ld sa y, “W here th ere is a w ill, th ere is a w ay.”
(41 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 261)
A LT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH
For in sta nce, sc ie nti s ts w ill h av e to fin d an a ccept abl e a lte rn a ti ve for th e
in te rn al c om busti on e ngin e. These e ngin es a re sim pl y pr odu cin g too much
pol lu ti on . In a ddi ti on , th ey a re on ly a bou t 30 perc ent e ffic ie nt, u sin g th re e
ti m es m ore r esou rc es f or the w ork t hey a re pr odu cin g.

6.1 4 A NIM ALS A S P ETS
Peop le r e gar d an im als as t h e s ou rc e of f ood or c lot hes, an d ot hers t h in k
th at thes hou ld b e t re at ed lik e p ets . S tat e Ru r op in ion from bot h s id es.
N ot e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. There a re di ffe re nces in th e w ay th at pe opl e s e e ( pe rc eive ) a n im als .
S om e s e e th em on ly (s ol ely ) a s a s ou rc e of food or c lot hes, w hile
ot hers r egard t hem as pe ts .
2. I w ill l ook a t th ese di ffe re nces i n te rm s of m an’s pos iti on on th e f ood
c hain a nd i n t erm s of cultu ra l di ffe re nces. ( 48 w ords )
BO DY
3. On th is pl anet, hum an be in gs a re a t th e top of th e f ood chain . In ot her
w or ds , w e h ave n o on e th at fe eds on u s ( n o pr eda tor s). T he r e su lt of
th is i s th at w e, in or de r to su rvi ve, have to uti liz e a nim als a nd pl ants
th at a re l ow er dow n on the f ood c hain t han w e a re .
4. For exam pl e, in m os t pa rts of th e w or ld, a ba la nced hum an di et
w ou ld be con side re d one th at in clu de s th e necessa ry pr otein s
obt ain ed f rom the m eat of anim als .
5. In th e di ffe re n t c ultu re s of th e w or ld, th e de sc ript ion (de fin iti on ) of
w hic h a nim als a re c on side re d to be a s ou rc e of f ood and clot hin g , on
th e on e h and, and th os e th at a re c on side re d to be pe ts , on th e ot her,
of te n di ffe r c on side ra bl y.
6. For i n sta nce, in m any c ou ntr ie s, pi gs, cattl e , and sh eep are r a is e d for
th e s ol e pu rpos e of be in g s ol d to th e g enera l pu blic for c on su m pti on
in th eir h om es ( dom esti c u se ). T here a re , how eve r, som e pe opl e w ho
con side r th ese s a m e a nim als to be w on derfu l pe ts . In a ddi ti on , som e
birds and sn akes are con side re d a hig hly sou ght- a fte r (e xclu sive )
delic acy in s om e c ou ntr ie s bu t w ill be k ept a s pe ts in ot hers . (183
w or ds )

CO NCLU SIO N
9. I have had a look at ou r pos iti on in t he w orld a nd ou r di ffe re nces.
10. To con clu de , w e c ou ld sa y th at h um ans w ill c arry on u sin g a nim als
to su rvi ve (be c arn ivor ous) a nd as pe ts a s w ell. (33 wor ds ) (T ot al
w or ds : 264)
A LT ER NAT IV E C O NCLU SIO NS
9. Afte r look in g at th e pr ese n t pos iti on in te rm s of th e exis ti n g
di ffe re nces,
10. I have to sta te , in con clu sion , th at unle ss som eth in g unfor ese en
happe ns, w e w ill k eep on e ati n g a nim als a s w ell a s k eepi ng th em a s
pe ts .
9. In th is e ssa y, I h ave br ie fly lo ok ed at th e s itu ati on a s it e xis ts in th e
w or ld to da y a s w ell a s th e bi g ( va st) di ffe re nces th at e xis t be tw een
di ffe re nt c ultu re s.
10. The on ly c o nclu sion is th at th is w ill be th e c ase for m any y ears to
c om e.

6.1 5 T R ANSLA TIN G M ACHIN ES
Som e p eop le th in k th at m ac hin e tr an slat ion s ar e h igh l deve lop ed in
t od a’ s soc ie ty . There for e, it is n ot n ece ssar for c h ild re n to le ar n a
for eign lan guage . What is Ru r op in ion ?
Not e: The w or ds in pa re nth ese s are m or e adva nced alte rn ati ve s. The
num be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. C onfu ciu s s aid, “ Com munic ati on con sis ts of much m ore t han w ords .”
2. The a bove o pi nion w ill be look ed at in te rm s of h ow m eanin g is
c om munic ate d a nd t he r ol e of cultu re i n c om munic ati on . (30 w ords )
BO DY
3. It is u su ally s a id th at “ w or ds h ave m eanin gs.” H ow eve r, tod ay th e
sc ie nti s ts stu dy in g la nguages (lin guis ts ) agre e th at it is con side re d
m uch m or e advi sa bl e to sa y, “M eanin gs have w or ds .” W hat th ey
m ean is th at th e s a m e m eanin g / c on cept / ide a c an be c om munic a te d
by di ffe re nt w ords and e ven i n di ffe re nt w ays.
4. For e xam pl e, th e s a m e w or d can h ave di ffe re nt m eanin gs. B ank c an
m ean “ a pl ace w here m on ey i s k ept ” bu t a ls o “th e s ide of a r ive r.” I n
th e sa m e w ay, on e m eanin g can be com munic ate d by usin g (a ) a
spe cific w or d or ph ra se , (b) a not her w or d or ph ra se in a di ffe re nt
con te xt, and (c ) a c om plete ly di ffe re nt w or d accom panie d by c erta in
body la nguage and/ or em ot ion s. M achin es w ou ld not be abl e to
di sti n guis h be tw een a ll t hese pos sibi liti e s.
5. Peopl e use m any la nguages. In addi ti on , eve n w ith in th e sa m e
la nguage, di ffe re n t di ale cts a re u se d. For e xam pl e, C hin ese h as m any
di ale cts . Furth erm or e, th e cultu re of pe opl e in flu ences th e w ay in
w hic h t hey u se l anguage.
6. For in sta nce, th e sa yin g “ A s w hite a s sn ow ” is m eanin gle ss to an
A fr ic an pe rs on w ho has neve r se en or heard of sn ow be for e.
M achin es c annot appr ecia te t his . ( 186 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
9. In th is e ssa y, I look ed at th e is su e in te rm s of c om munic ati on a nd
cultu re .
10. From th e a bove , it’ s c le ar, in c on clu sion , th at c hildr en sh ou ld be
encou ra ged to le arn a for eig n la nguage. (31 wor ds ) (T ot al w ords :
247)
ALT ER NAT IV E C O NCLU SIO NS
9. In th is e ssa y, I h ave de alt w ith th e i s su e by l ook in g a t c om munic ati on
a nd di ffe re nces i n c ultu re s.
10. To con clu de , it is c le ar th at c hildr en s h ou ld be e ncou ra ged to le arn
on e or eve n m ore f or eig n l anguages.
9. We a ll w ou ld lik e to make ou rs e lve s u nde rs tood by a s m any pe opl e
as pos sibl e. This is m or e so when w e com e in to con ta ct w ith
f or eig ners .
10. This f or ces u s to con clu de th at c hildr en s h ou ld be m ot iva te d to le arn
a s m any l anguages a s pos sibl e.

6.1 6 T R ADIT IO NS
Som e p eop le th in k th at s tr on g tr ad it ion s c an c ivi liz e a cou ntr an d th e
gove rn m ent sh ou ld su bsid iz e m usic ian s, artis ts , actor s an d dram a
com pan ie s. D o Ru agree or dis agr ee w it h t his op in ion ?
Not e: T he n um be rs r efe r t o t he s ta nda rd e ssa y pa tte rn g ive n i n chapt er 4 .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
1. Whic h cam e fir s t, th e chic ke n or th e egg? D o tr a di ti on s civi liz e
pe opl e, or do c ivi liz e d pe ople h ave tra di ti on s?
2. Let u s i n ve sti g a te th e i s su e i n te rm s of th e h is tor ic al e vi de nce a nd th e
le gacy s oc ie ti e s h ave pr odu ced. ( 35 w ords )
BO DY
3. Throu ghou t his tor y, all th e su ccessfu l civi liz a ti on s had well-
de velope d cultu ra l tr a di ti on s, w hic h c on vinces m e to agre e w ith th e
pos iti on .
4. For e xam pl e, th e R om ans a nd Gre eks h ad a h ig h re gard for th eir
a rti s ts , poe ts , w rite rs , and ph ilos oph ers . Fam ou s pe opl e lik e P la to,
S oc ra te s, C ope rn ic us, Leon ardo da V in ci, M ic hela ngelo, and so on
com e t o m in d.
5. I be lie ve th at th e e xte nt to whic h a s oc ie ty h as le ft a le gacy in th e
w or ld i s a n i ndi cati on of how civi liz e d i t w as.
6. For i n sta nce, w arrin g n ati on s l ik e th e V ik in gs a nd M on gol s h av e l ittl e
e ffe ct on ou r w orld toda y. The C hin ese , how eve r, have e xcelle d in
m any fie lds , lik e pr in ti n g, poe tr y , th eate r, and philos oph y. The
te achin gs of C on fu ciu s (K on g F uzi) h ave a n e ffe ct on s oc ie ti e s a nd
gove rn m ents i n l arg e pa rts of Asia t o t his da y.
7. Lastl y , alth ou gh I of te n fa il to unde rs ta nd what a rti s ts a re tr y in g to
s a y, I be lie ve th at gove rn m ents sh ou ld allow arti s ts to exp re ss
th em se lve s f re ely a nd a ssis t t hem fin ancia lly i f n eed be .
8. To be m or e spe cific , gove rn m ents sh ou ld have su ffic ie nt vi sion ,
cou ra ge, and se lf- c on fide nce to eve n a llow a rti s ts to criti c iz e th eir

acti on s a nd pol ic ie s. ( 179 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
9. The h is tor ic a l e vi de nce a nd le gacie s a re on ly tw o aspe cts of th is
c om plex i ssu e.
10. To con clu de , I be lie ve it s h o uld be s a id th at m os t m ode rn s oc ie ti e s
and gove rn m ents cou ld spe nd le ss on w eapon s and mor e on
pa in tbr ush es. ( 36 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 250)
A LT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH
7. Lastl y , I be lie ve th at pu blic f u n ds s h ou ld not be w aste d on th in gs l ik e
m usic , th e a rts , and cultu re . G ov ern m ents s h ou ld not be e xpe cte d to
a ssis t a rti s ts , as th e m on ey s h ou ld in ste ad be u se d for m or e pr essin g
needs , lik e s chool s a nd h ospita ls .

6.1 7 T O URIS M
W hat ar e t he ad van tage s of tou ris m to Ru r c ou ntr ?
N ot e: T he w or ds in p are nth ese s a re m or e a dva nced alte rn ati ve s. In th is a nd
th e fol low in g e ssa ys, th e pa tte rn n um be rs a re n ot s h ow n, as s tu de nts s h ou ld
by now be fam ilia r w ith t hese .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Tou ris m is th e la rg est, ric hest, and fa ste st g row in g in du str y in th e w or ld. In
th is essa y, I w ill look at th e adva nta ges of tou ris m in te rm s of for eig n
curre ncy a nd t he i ncom e i t g enera te s. ( 33 w ords )
BO DY
Tou ris m h as ve ry fe w di sa dva nta ges. T here a re , how eve r, m any a dva nta ges
to t ouris m .
Fir s t, tou ris ts br in g f or eig n c urre ncy i n to th e c ou ntr y , re su lti n g i n th e c re ati on
( g enera ti on ) of jobs in th e tr a ve lin g a nd hos pita lity in du str ie s. For in sta nce,
m or e tou ris ts m eans m or e air c ra ft, bu se s, tr a in s, and ta xis are neede d,
re su lti n g in m or e jobs for flig ht a tte nda nts , pi lot s, and drive rs . In a ddi ti on ,
th e tou ris ts s ta y ( ove rn ig ht) i n h ot els a nd eat i n r e sta ura nts . T his m eans m or e
waite rs , por te rs , c hefs , re cept ion is ts , cle aners , and managers w il l be a bl e to
f in d jobs i n pr ese nt ( e xis ti n g) bu sin esse s. E ve n m or e a dva nta geou s i s th e f a ct
th at m or e bu sin esse s w ill be s ta rte d in th e tou ris m in du str y , em pl oy in g e ve n
mor e pe opl e.
S econ d, th e m on ey g enera te d cou ld be u se d to de velop th e e xis ti n g f a ciliti e s
and in fr a str u ctu re f u rth er, m akin g th e c ou ntr y e ve n m or e de sir a bl e a s a tou ris t
de sti n ati on . Som e of th e m on ey m ig ht be in ve ste d in ot her pr ojects , lik e th e
re stor ati on of h is tor ic al s ite s a nd bu ildi ngs or r e se arc h i n to his tor ic al e ve nts .
T he m on ey c ou ld be u se d to de velop spe cific c om muniti e s a ssoc ia te d with a
pa rti c ula r tr a di ti on al sk ill or his tor ic al site . For exam pl e, a fa rm er usin g
tr a di ti on al f a rm in g s k ills c ou ld be a ssis te d in s ta rti n g a g uesth ou se or a B & B
in h is l oc al a re a. ( 193 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
Thos e, th en, were tw o adva nta g es of tou ris m re su lti n g fr om th e m on ey
com in g in to th e c ou ntr y . T he on ly c on clu sion on e c ou ld re ach is th at tou ris m
h as t o be encou ra ged i n t he f utu re . ( 31 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 257)
E D UCAT IO NAL N O TE
The exchange ra te of th e curre ncie s of tw o cou ntr ie s w ill m ake a bi g
diffe re nce i n pe opl e de cidi ng to vi sit a s pe cific c ou ntr y or n ot . F or e xam pl e,
for m any y ears , th e ra te be tw een th e U S dol la r a nd sm alle r c urre ncie s h as
be en in fa vor of th e s m alle r c urr e ncie s. This fa ct s h ou ld be e xpl oite d to a
la rg er exte nt by th e sm alle r and developi ng cou ntr ie s by m ark eti n g th eir
tou ris m pot enti a l.

6.1 8 P R O FE SSIO NAL S A LA RIE S
Is it f ai r t h at s om e s u cce ssfu l s p or ts p rof ession als e ar n a gr eat d eal m or e
mon et han peop le in ot her i m por tan t p rof ession s? W hat is Ru r op in ion ?
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
It is w ide ly a ccept ed th at w hen s por ts pr ofession als pl ay a g am e, it is a job
( voc ati on ) for w hic h th ey h ave to be pa id (re ceive re m unera ti on ). In th is
e ssa y, I w ill look a t th e life spa n, tr a in in g n eede d, and im por ta nce of th eir
pr ofession s. ( 38 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, in de fe ndi ng th eir la rg e s a la rie s, spor ts m en a nd wom en a rg ue th at th e
ti m e in w hic h th ey a re ph ysic ally a bl e to play is re la ti ve ly s h or t. They too
h ave fin a ncia l n ee ds a nd ofte n h a ve fa m ilie s to te nd to. There fo re th ey h ave
to make (g enera te ) a s m uch m on ey a s pos sibl e in or de r to ensu re a s e cure
fu tu re w hen re ti r in g. Thos e ag ain st th ese hig h sa la rie s arg ue th at ot her
pr ofession als ru n th e sa m e ris k s. A su rg eon , for exam pl e, cou ld con tr a ct
arth riti s a nd n ot be abl e t o pe rfor m com plic ate d ope ra ti on s a ny l on ger.
S econ d, th os e oppos ed to th ese s a la rie s a rg ue th at ot her pr ofession als h ave
stu di ed for m any y ears a t a h ig h c os t to obt ain th eir qu alific ati on s. S por ts m en
and wom en, on th e ot her hand , sa y (c on te nd) th at th ey not on ly have a
spe cific ta le nt bu t a ls o have to tr a in for lon g h ou rs a nd in fa ct h ave to keep
on tra in in g t o s ta y c om peti ti ve .
Lastl y , it is s a id th at th e s por ts pe rs on ’s job is n ot a s im por ta nt a s th os e of
ot her pr ofession als , lik e doc tor s, engin eers , sc ie nti s ts , and so on. Spor ts
pe opl e di sa gre e and sa y th at th ey pr ovi de a necessa ry se rvi ce to th e
com munity w hen t hey h elp ( assis t) pe opl e r ela x. ( 187 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

Afte r lo ok in g a t th e ti m e th ey c an pl ay, th e a m ou nt of tr a in in g th ey h ave to
u nde rg o, and th e se rvi ce th ey pr ovi de to th eir fa ns (s u ppor te rs ), I w ou ld
c on clu de that t heir s ala rie s a re j usti fie d. ( 32 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 257)
A LT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH
Lastl y , it is s a id th at th e s k ills th at s por ts pe opl e h ave to maste r c annot be
c om pare d to th e sk ills th at ot her pr ofession als , lik e doc tor s, engin eers ,
sc ie nti s ts , and so on, have to maste r. The spor ts pe opl e cou nte r th is by
challe ngin g th eir c riti c s to have a g o at th e s k ills n eede d in th eir di ffe re nt
spor ts .

6.1 9 R ED UCIN G S TR ESS
M od ern s oc ie t has b rou ght ab out m or e s tr e ss in p eop le ’s d ai l live s an d
job s. S om e r e ad , som e e xe rc is e , an d ot hers w or k in t h eir gar dens. W hat
do Ru thin k ar e t he b est w as to r educe s tr e ss?
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Str e ss a nd str e ss-re la te d illn esse s, lik e h eart a tta cks (c ardi ac a rre st) , have
be com e m ajor c ause s of s u ic ide a nd de ath in m ode rn s oc ie ti e s. T hre e w ays
to re du ce s tr e ss—n am ely , ph ysic al e xerc is e , tr a ve lin g, and pos iti ve th in kin g
—w ill be disc usse d i n t his e ssa y. ( 36 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, I a m of th e opi nion th at a ny ph ysic al e xerc is e is a g ood way to re du ce
str e ss. Str e ss is a c on diti on a ffe c ti n g a pe rs on ’s n ervou s s y ste m . There for e
th e bodi es of fit a nd health y pe opl e c an h andl e s tr e ss be tte r. H ow eve r, care
s h ou ld be ta ken n ot to pa rta ke ( in du lg e) i n e xerc is e s o hard (s tr e nuou s) th at i t
le ads to or cause s i nju rie s.
S econ d, I be lie ve th at tr a ve lin g is a g ood way to re du ce s tr e ss . Tra ve lin g
allow s on e to get aw ay fr om th e sou rc e of th e str e ss fr om ti m e to ti m e
(oc casion ally ). The unknow n envi ron ment encou nte re d will be pl easin g
(s oot hin g) to th e n ervou s s y ste m , and in a ddi ti on , th e di ffe re nt pe opl e a nd
site s w il l be s ti m ula ti n g. This w ill s u re ly ta ke on e’s m in d off th e s tr e ssfu l
situ ati on .
Lastl y , I be lie ve th e be st w ay to re du ce str e ss is to change y ou r th in kin g
pa tte rn s. N egati ve th ou ghts a re c ou nte rpr odu cti ve a nd usu ally de ve lop in to a
neve r-e ndi ng c y cle (s pi ra l) . This c ou ld re su lt in se ve re fe ar (a n xie ty ) a nd
eve n de pression . The sa yin g “E ve ry da rk clou d has a silve r lin in g” is
a ppl ic abl e. It is pos sibl e to se e som eth in g pos iti ve in each and eve ry
s itu ati on or c ir c um sta nce. B ut th is n eeds (re qu ir e s) a de fin ite de cis ion a nd
effor t f rom us. ( 187 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
Physic al e xerc is e , tr a ve lin g, and pos iti ve th in kin g h ave be en h ig hlig hte d as
w ays to re du ce str e ss. It sh ou ld be cle ar, in con clu sion , th at th ere are a
num be r of ways t o r edu ce s tr e ss. ( 30 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 253)
A LT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH
Fir s t, I a m of th e opi nion th at a ny ph ysic al e xerc is e is a g ood way to re du ce
str e ss. W hen y ou a re bu sy w ith e xerc is e s, you a re th in kin g of th e m ove s y ou
m ake, and th is u su ally ta kes y ou r m in d of f th e th in gs th at w ou ld cause s tr e ss.
B ecom in g ph ysic ally ti r e d and sw eati n g a re g ood for y ou r bl ood cir c ula ti on
a nd br eath in g ( re spi ra tor y) s yste m .

6.2 0 T O URIS M A ND E N G LIS H
Tou ris m is d eve lop in g quic k l in m an cou ntr ie s, an d E ngl is h is b ecom in g
th e m os t pop ular lan guage in th e w or ld . W ill th e gr eat num bers of
E ngl is h -s p eak in g t ouris ts af fe ct ot her l an guage s an d c ult u re s?
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Lik e so many th in gs in life , unfor tu nate ly , tou ris m not on ly has pos iti ve
e ffe cts . In th is e ssa y, I w ill look a t th is is su e in te rm s of la nguage a nd mor al
(e th ic al) s ta nda rds . (29 w ords )
BO DY
Sl ang is de fin e d as “ w or ds or ph ra se s, or pa rti c ula r m eanin gs of th ese , th at
are in c om mon in for mal u se bu t a re g enera lly c on side re d not to for m pa rt of
th e sta nda rd la nguage and are of te n use d delibe ra te ly for nove lty or
uncon venti on ality .” For exam pl e, br o is use d in ste ad of br othe r . One
pos sibl e negati ve effe ct of a gre ate r num be r of E nglis h -s pe akin g tou ris ts
vi siti n g a r e gion m ig ht be th at th ey in flu ence loc al pe opl e to use m or e s la ng
in t heir l anguage.
S econ d, tou ris ts m ay h ave a n ega ti ve in flu ence on th e m or al s ta nda rds a nd
eth ic al sta nda rds (pr in cipl es) of com muniti e s. Crim e, dr ugs, por nog ra ph y,
pr os ti tu ti on , and alc oh olis m m ig ht in cre ase a m on g loc als in th e pr ese nce of
la rg e n um be rs ( m asse s) of tou ris ts ( vi sitor s). For in sta nce, th e y ou ng pe opl e
(y ou ngste rs / y ou nger g enera ti o n) in a c om munity m ig ht w ant to copy th e
custom s of ot her c ou ntr ie s a nd in th e pr oc ess le ave ( a ba ndon ) th e tr a di ti on s
and pr in cipl es t aught t o t hem . F or exam pl e, A meric anis m has be com e a thre at
to com muniti e s de spe ra te ly in need of for eig n m on ey (c urre ncy). A good
(e xcelle nt) c ase i n poi nt i s th e w ay i n w hic h H aw aii h as c hanged s in ce i t h as
be com e a fam ou s t ou ris t de sti n ati on . (174 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

To su m mariz e , la rg e num be rs of Englis h -s pe akin g tou ris ts cou ld affe ct
com muniti e s n egati ve ly . In c on clu sion , on e c ou ld sa y th at c om muniti e s h ave
to be c are fu l (a w are ) of th is a n d ta ke th e s te ps n eede d (n ecessa ry ) to keep
th e e ffe c ts to a m in im um w ith ou t di sc ou ra gin g tou ris ts f r om vi siti n g th em . (42
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 245)
A LT ER NAT IV E C O NCLU SIO N
In th is e ssa y, I h ave di sc usse d th e in flu ence of tou ris ts on th e la nguage a nd
m or als of th e loc al pe opl e (loc als ). In con clu sion , I have sh ow n th at all
c om muniti e s th at a re vi site d by l a rg e n um be rs of tou ris ts s h ou ld be a w are of
th e pos sibl e negati ve effe cts th at th is m ig ht have on th em and th eir
c om muniti e s.

6.2 1 C O UNTR Y S U CCESS
Shou ld t h e s u cce ss of a cou ntr y b e m eas ure d in t e rm s of t h e s tan dar d of
livi ng of it s p eop le or in t e rm s of it s e con om ic d eve lop ment? Stat e Ru r
opin ion .
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Diffe re nt g ove rn m ents h ave di ffe re nt pr ior iti e s w hen de te rm in in g w heth er th e
cou ntr y in vol ved is a su ccess or not . In th is essa y, I w ill look at th ese
di ffe re nces by refe rrin g t o f ir s t- w or ld a nd t hir d- wor ld c ountr ie s. ( 32 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, on e w ou ld n or mally ( in sti n cti ve ly ) th in k th at e con om ic de velopm ent i n
a c o untr y a utom ati c ally m eans th at i ts pe opl e e njoy a h ig h s ta nda rd of l ivi ng.
U nfor tu nate ly , t his s itu ati on (sc enario) is n ot fou nd a ll ove r t he w orld.
S econ d, mos t f ir s t- w or ld cou ntr ie s r e gard th e i m pr ove ment i n th e s ta nda rd of
livi ng of th eir pe opl e a s th eir h ig hest (top) pr ior ity . They a re n ot obs esse d
w ith pr odu cin g i m pr essive ( fla m boy ant) te chnol og ic al pr ojects a n d sc hem es.
M os t weste rn Europe an cou ntr ie s, for exam pl e, are spe ndi ng la rg e
(s u bs ta nti a l) pa rts of th eir n ati on al bu dgets on th e su bs idi za ti on of soc ia l
se rvi ces l ik e m edi cal a id a nd pe nsion funds .
Lastl y , m any de velopi ng c ou ntr ie s, or th ir d- wor ld cou ntr ie s, pl ace a h ig her
pr ior ity on econ om ic and te chnol og ic al de velopm ent th an on th e
im pr ove ment of th e s ta nda rd of livi ng of th eir pe opl e. For e xam pl e, be cause
of th e m assive in com e g ain ed fr om th e sa le of c ru de oi l, som e A ra b and
A fr ic an cou ntr ie s have be en abl e to develop im pr essive te chnol og ic al
pr ojects and gla m or ou s citi e s. How eve r, la rg e pa rts (s e gm ents ) of th eir
popu la ti on s c on ti n ue to live i n m is e ra bl e pove rty . O th er c ou ntr ie s a re k now n
to spe nd m assive a m ou nts on de velopi ng n ucle ar w eapon s w hile th e g re ate st
pa rt (m ajor ity ) of th eir popu la ti on s do not h ave a ccess to ba sic g oods a nd
se rvi ces. ( 186 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
So I have not ed th e di ffe re nce in appr oach in tw o ty pe s of cou ntr ie s. In
c on clu sion , I be lie ve de velopi ng c ou ntr ie s s h ou ld change th eir pr ior iti e s. (23
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 241)
A LT ER NAT IV E C O NCLU SIO N
To su m mariz e , in th is e ssa y, I h ave s h ow n th at de velope d cou ntr ie s h ave a
di ffe re nt appr oach to what “civi liz e d” m eans as oppos ed to developi ng
cou ntr ie s. In c on clu sion , on e c ou ld sa y th at de velopi ng c ou ntr ie s h ave to be
made aw are of the a lte rn ati ve meanin g of “civi liz e d.”

6.2 2 D IS R UPTIV E S TU DEN TS
Dis ru ptive s tu d ents h ave a negat ive in flu ence on ot hers. T hese s tu dents
s h ou ld be tau ght se par ately . Do Ru agr ee or dis agr ee? Stat e Ru r
opin ion .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
There is n o dou bt th at s om e s tu d ents be have ba dly a nd cause di ff ic ulti e s for
ot her s tu de nts . In th is e ssa y, I w ill de al w ith th e e ffe cts th at s e pa ra ti on w ill
h ave on the e du cati on of the s tu de nts a nd on soc ie ty a s a w hol e. ( 40 w ords )
BO DY
W hen di sru pt ive stu de nts are re m ove d to se pa ra te cla sse s, th eir fu tu re
e du cati on al oppor tu niti e s w ill be com e s e ve re ly lim ite d. For in sta nce, th ere
w ill n ot be s u ffic ie ntl y qu alifie d te achers to cope w ith th e a ddi ti on al c la sse s
re qu ir e d for th ese s tu de nts . In a ddi ti on , th ey w ill n ot h ave th e op por tu nity to
i n te ra ct w ith w ell- be have d s tu de nts on a da ily ba sis .
T hese se pa ra te cla sse s w ill be se en as a sor t of “pr is on ” in w hic h
pr obl em ati c s tu de nts a re pl aced if th ey do not re spon d to warn in gs. These
“ pr is on ” c la sse s w ill c erta in ly a cqu ir e a n egati ve r e pu ta ti on i n th e e du cati on
s y ste m , and stu d ents pl aced th ere w ill be r idi cule d and look ed dow n u pon by
th eir pe ers .
S tu de nts pl aced in th ese c la sse s, for w hate ve r re ason , w ill n eve r re cove r
fr om th e e xpe rie nce. T hey w ill h a ve s e riou s e m ot ion al pr obl em s a nd fin d it
e xtr e m ely di ffic ult t o m ain ta in pos iti ve self- im ages.
W hen e ve ntu ally le avi ng s c hool , th ese pe opl e w ill be a t a di sa dva nta ge, as
in sti tu ti on s of h ig her e du cati on w ill n ot a ccept th em . F urth erm or e, em pl oy ers
w ill be re lu cta n t to em pl oy th em , and th ese for mer stu de nts m ig ht eve n
choos e t o t urn t o a life of crim e. ( 174 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

The n egati ve r e su lts of s u ch pu niti ve a cti on s w ill be s e en i n th e e du cati on al,
e m ot ion al, and voc ati on al live s of th ese stu de nts . There for e, it sh ou ld be
con side re d th or ou ghly be for e w e c on demn s tu de nts to a “ pr is on ” c la ss. (34
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 248)
A LT ER NAT IV E IN TR O DUCTIO N
Stu de nts a re h um ans a nd be have in c erta in w ays for a r e ason . B y look in g a t
th e r oot of th e pr obl em , a l a sti n g s ol uti on c an be f ou nd. This e ssa y w ill de al
w ith th e e ffe cts th at s e pa ra ti on w ill h ave on th e e du cati on of th e s tu de nts a nd
on soc ie ty a s a w hol e.

6.2 3 H EA LT H Y P EO PLE
A h eal th perso n is of te n d esc rib ed as on e w ho has a good d ie t, ge ts lot s
of e xe rc is e , an d avoi ds s tr e ss. W hat d o peop le d o in Ru r c ou ntr to stay
h eal th ?
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
As e ls e w here i n th e w or ld, my p eopl e h ave be com e m or e h ealth c on sc iou s i n
r e cent y e ars . T he th re e m ain a spe cts of a h ealth y l ife —n am ely , di et, exerc is e ,
and str e ss re du cti on —w ill be de alt w ith in te rm s of a ty pi cal life sty le . (39
w or ds )
BO DY
The tr a di ti on al custom s and dish es in m y cultu re are genera lly good for
( be nefic ia l to) a ba la nced diet. For e xam pl e, ric e is th e s ta pl e food and is
c om plem ente d by a w ide va rie ty of ve geta bl es a nd fr u it. Fis h , se afood, and
w hite m eat a re g enera lly pr efe rr e d to re d meat. A lc oh ol i s c on su m ed in ve ry
m ode ra te qu anti ti e s, a nd w hen i t i s c on su m ed, i t i s m ostl y be er.
A s fa r as exerc is e is con cern ed, my pe opl e, in genera l, get hig her th an
ave ra ge a m ou nts of e xerc is e a s pa rt of th eir da ily rou ti n es. That is to sa y,
th os e in th e c iti e s s e ldom ow n c ars or m ot or cycle s. They of te n g o to wor k
and ba ck ( c om mute ) on foot or by bi cycle , and are n ot u nw illin g ( re lu cta nt)
to w alk l on g di sta nces or do m anual l abor .
An e asy goi ng te m pe ra m ent i s a n ati on al c hara cte ris ti c a m on g m y pe opl e. F or
in sta nce, for eig ne rs a re a m aze d to fin d th at r oa d ra ge a nd pu blic v iol ence a re
vi rtu ally n on exis te nt i n m y c ou ntr y . In a ddi ti on , be cause of th e s oc ia l pos iti on
of w om en, dom esti c vi olence h as n eve r r e ached di stu rbi ng l e ve ls . L astl y , m y
pe opl e love to pa rta ke in on e o f th e popu la r spor ts , lik e pi ng-pon g (ta bl e
te nnis ) a nd ba sk etba ll. ( 181 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

In con clu sion , it cou ld be sa id th at m y pe opl e keep (m ain ta in ) health y
life sty le s as fa r as th eir di et, exerc is e pa tte rn s, and str e ss le ve ls are
c on cern ed. The fu tu re w ill s h ow to what e xte nt a m or e W este rn iz e d life sty le
w ill c hange t he s ta tu s qu o (prese nt s itu ati on ). ( 40 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 260)
A LT ER NAT IV E C O NCLU SIO N
In th is e ssa y, I h ave look ed at th e a ve ra ge di et, exerc is e pa tte rn s, and str e ss
le ve ls o f m y pe opl e, and I c annot h elp bu t c on clu de th at g enera lly th ey a re
h ealth y b ecause of th e da ily a cti vi ti e s th ey e ngage in a s pa rt of th eir n or mal
livi ng pa tte rn s.

6.2 4 T H E A UTO M OBIL E
The au tom obile h as h ad a prof ou nd e ffe ct on m od ern lif e . S om e of t h ese
e ffe cts h ave b een p os it ive an d ot hers n egat ive . D is c u ss t h ese e ffe cts in
t h e f or m of an essay .
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
The a utom obi le h as br ou ght a bou t c hanges in a lm os t a ll a spe cts ( s ph ere s) of
h um an life . M any of th e effe cts w ere good (w hol esom e) and con tr ibu te d
gre atl y to th e de velopm ent of s oc ie ti e s. H ow eve r, autom obi le s h ave c re ate d
som e s eriou s pr obl em s t oo. ( 35 w ords )
BO DY
On th e pos iti ve side , autom obi le s have ope ned up whol e new w or lds
pr evi ou sly u nkno w n to man. For e xam pl e, new in du str ie s in m anufa ctu rin g,
re pa ir in g, m ain ta in in g, se llin g, in su rin g, and drivi ng ve hic le s w ere c re ate d.
T he pa ving of roa ds w as i m pr ove d, and t unnels , h ig hw ays, a nd be tte r br idg es
w ere bu ilt (c on str u cte d) . A ll th is re su lte d in m illion s of n ew c are ers be in g
for med and jobs c re ate d. In a ddi ti on , th e ide as ( c on cept s) of c om muti n g a nd
pr iva te lon g-di sta nce tr a ve lin g w ere in tr odu ced, givi ng ris e to th e tou ris m
in du str y a nd t he f or mati on of subu rbs arou nd c iti e s.
O n th e negati ve side , autom obi le s cre ate d soc ia l and envi ron menta l
pr obl em s not know n to hum ans be for e. For in sta nce, you ng pe opl e cou ld
le ave th e ir h om es m or e e asily in s e arc h of e nte rta in m ent a nd excite m ent a nd
so re du ce th e ti m e s pe nt w ith th eir fa m ilie s. Secon d, ecol og ic ally s e nsiti ve
a re as lik e de se rts , wilde rn ess are as, and ra in for ests w ere now easily
a ccessibl e to th os e s e ekin g to use ( e xpl oit) th e n atu ra l r e sou rc es f ou nd th ere .
L astl y , autom obi le s bu rn fos sil fu els , pr odu cin g la rg e qu anti ti e s of h arm fu l
(poi son ous) e xha ust g ase s, w hic h i n tu rn a re pol lu ti n g th e e arth ’s a tm os ph ere
a nd t hre ate nin g ou r ve ry e xis te nce on this pl anet. ( 174 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
In c o nclu sion , except for th e w heel, th e a utom obi le h as h ad a g re ate r e ffe ct
on ou r live s th an a ny ot her in ve nti on . Thus it is di ffic ult to de cide if w e
sh ou ld t hank or curs e M r. F ord f or his l egacy. ( 37 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 146)
E D UCAT IO NAL N O TE
It is genera lly accept ed th at H enry F or d was th e fir s t m an to produ ce
autom obi le s on a la rg e sc ale . O th er pi on eers w ere th e g entl e m en D aim le r
and Benz fr om G erm any. M r. B enz n am ed his a utom obi le a fte r h is da ughte r
M erc ede s, and th e M erc ede s-B en z w as bor n. A ls o in G erm any, th e B ava ria n
M otor W orks be cam e f am ou s a s t he B MW Com pany.

6.2 5 L IV IN G IN O NE P LA CE
Som e p eop le live in on e c om munit for th eir e ntir e live s. O th ers m ove
ar ou nd t o dif fe re nt p ar ts of t h e c ou ntr y . C om par e an d c on tr as t livi ng in
on e p lac e Ru r e ntir e lif e t o m oving ar ound t o d if fe re nt p lac es.
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Som e pe opl e c h oos e to live in on e c om munity a ll th eir live s, w hile ot hers
c hoos e a nom adi c life sty le . In th is essa y, sta yin g and movi ng w ill be
com pare d in te rm s of fa m ily and cultu ra l sta bi lity and in te rm s of
w or ldvi ew s. ( 38 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t of a ll, livi ng in on e pl ace e nsu re s a w ell- e sta bl is h ed and sta bl e fa m ily
s tr u ctu re . For in sta nce, th e fa m il y c ir c le pr ovi des a s ou rc e of s e lf- ide nti ty
a nd becom es a sa fe have n in ti m es of tr ou ble. In addi ti on , hou se hol ds
con sis ti n g of th re e or eve n fou r genera ti on s livi ng tog eth er are know n to
pr odu ce em ot ion ally sta bl e citi z e ns, and th ey als o look afte r tr a di ti on al
custom s a nd s kills .
In c on tr a st, nom ads le ave fa m ily a nd fr ie nds be hin d and have to esta bl is h
n ew re la ti on sh ips a t e ve ry n ew pl ace. Unfa m ilia r n eig hbor hoods , sc hool s,
w or kpl aces, churc hes, cultu re s, custom s, clim ate s, and so on m ay be
str e ssfu l, e spe cia lly i n t he l ive s of childr en a nd t eenagers .
S econ d, peopl e w ith lim ite d expos ure to other com muniti e s m ay be com e
sta gnate d and narrow -m in de d and fin d it di ffic ult to unde rs ta nd th e c ultu ra l,
r a cia l, e th nic , or relig iou s ba ckgrou nds fou nd i n ot her c om muniti e s.
O n th e ot her h and, movi ng to a n ew e nvi ron ment e nabl es y ou a nd you r f a m ily
to com e i n to con ta ct w ith a nd appr ecia te n ew i de as, custom s, and tr a di ti on s.
T his de velops a w ide r a nge ( va rie ty ) of w or ldvi ew s fr om w hic h to choos e
th e on e m os t pr efe rre d. As th e sa yin g g oe s, “V arie ty is th e spi ce of life .”
(182 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
In con clu sion , it has to be sa id th at bot h life sty le s have adv anta ges and
di sa dva nta ges in te rm s of fa m ily s tr u ctu re s a nd wor ldvi ew s. Peopl e di ffe r,
a nd th ere for e th ere w ill a lw ays be th os e w ho choos e on e or th e ot her. (36
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 256)
V O CAB ULA RY
N O M AD : A m em be r of a pe opl e h avi ng n o pe rm anent a bode a nd who
tr a ve l f rom place t o pl ace t o f in d f re sh pa stu re f or their l ive stoc k.

6.2 6 P O VER TY
Eve r cou ntr has p oor p eop le , an d e ve r cou ntr has d if fe re nt w as of
d eal in g wit h th e p oor an d p ove rty . W hat ar e som e of th e re as on s for
w or ld p ove rt"W hat can be d on e t o as sis t t he p oor ?
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Con fu ciu s s a id, “P ove rty a nd th e poor c an be f ou nd all ove r th e w or ld.” T he
la ck of ba sic goods and se rvi ces and food and sh elte r m ake th eir live s
mis e ra bl e. Ove rpopu la ti on and unde rde velopm ent w ill be di sc usse d as
re ason s f or pove rty , and sc hool in g ( e du cati on al) pr og ra m s w ill be pr ese nte d
as a w ay t o a ssis t t he poor . (51 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, all ove r th e w or ld, ove rpopu la ti on h as be en s e en ( ide nti fie d) a s on e of
th e m ain re ason s for pove rty . For exam pl e, Chin a and Afr ic a have had
except ion ally h ig h popu la ti on g ro w th r a te s f or m any de cade s. T he f or mer h as
ta ken th e dr asti c (h ars h ) m easu re of th e “ on e-c hild pol ic y” to change th e
situ ati on , bu t t he l atte r h as n ot m ade any di ffe re nce y et.
S econ d, unde rde velopm ent is a not her m ajor re ason . M any c ou ntr ie s do not
have s u ffic ie nt e con om ic g row th to su ppor t th eir g row in g popu la ti on s. T hese
c ou ntr ie s of te n g o to war w ith th eir n eig hbor s to se ttl e a rg um ents ( di spu te s)
ove r th e fe w (lim ite d) re sou rc es in th eir re gion , causin g fu rth er m is e ry a nd
hards hip to th e p eopl e in vol ved. When n atu ra l di sa ste rs lik e dr ou ghts oc cur,
th e s itu ati on w orse ns. A recent e xam pl e i s t he on goi ng dr ought i n E th iopi a.
L astl y , edu cati n g pe opl e a bou t th e a dva nta ges of f a m ily pl annin g a nd tr a in in g
th em to be com e s e lf- s u ffic ie nt h ave pr ove d to re du ce pove rty . For in sta nce,
in A fr ic a , th e pe rc ept ion i s th at l a rg e f a m ilie s a re a n i n ve stm ent f or on e’s ol d
age. In a ddi ti on , usin g th e a va ila bl e l a nd to su ppor t y ou r f a m ily i s a s k ill th at
has t o be acqu ir e d. ( 176 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
In th is e ssa y, I look ed at ove rpopu la ti on a nd unde rde velopm en t a s re ason s
for pove rty a nd edu cati on a s on e s ol uti on to th e pr obl em . W e s h ou ld accept
th at th e s ol uti on s w ou ld re qu ir e m uch ti m e, effor t, and mon ey. (34 wor ds )
(T ot al w ords : 261)
A LT ER NAT IV E C O NCLU SIO N
In th is e ssa y, I h ave s e en th at w ith ou t ove rpopu la ti on a nd unde rde velopm ent,
pove rty i s n ot e asily f ou nd. I h ave l ook ed at e du cati on a s on e s o lu ti on to th e
pr obl em . W e sh ou ld accept th at th e sol uti on s w ou ld re qu ir e m uch ti m e,
effor t, a nd m oney.

6.2 7 T H E T ELE PH O NE
Dis c u ss th e fol low in g stat em ent. Befor e th e ad vent of c om pute rs, th e
te le phon e w as regar ded as the m ost s ign if ic an t i nve ntion .
IN TR O DUCTIO N
There a re m any opi nion s on w hat s h ou ld be r e garde d as th e m os t s ig nific ant
in ve nti on be for e th e c om pute r. L et u s l ook a t th e te le ph one i n te rm s of a ti m e-
sa vi ng de vice and as a ca ta ly st in th e de velopm ent of mode rn
te le com munic ati on s. ( 39 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, lon g-di sta nce com munic ati on con sti tu te s a su bs ta nti a l as w ell as
in di spe nsa bl e pa rt of th e da ily a cti vi ti e s of m ode rn m an. For e xam pl e, th e
ti m e, and th ere for e m on ey, sa ve d by a ny bu sin ess, ir re spe cti ve of ty pe or
siz e , by u sin g a n e ffe cti ve te le ph one s y ste m i s s im pl y i n calc ula b le . F rom th e
hou se w ife on a lon ely fa rm in th e A ustr a lia n O utba ck to th e gre ate st
g ove rn m ent, fr om w or kers a nd stu de nts to ty coon s, all of u s w ou ld get a g re at
de al l ess don e i f n ot for the s im pl e t ele ph one.
S econ d, except for th e w heel, th e te le ph one, m or e th an a ny ot her in ve nti on
e ve r in h is tor y, has s e rve d as a c ata ly st for th e de velopm ent of a n a rra y of
de vices. For in sta nce, th e gre ate st ph enom enon of all ti m es, th e in te rn et,
c am e a b ou t a s a r e su lt of s e rvi ce pr ovi ders u sin g te le ph ones to con nect w ith
e ach ot her. In addi ti on , new te c hnol og y w ill soon re su lt in v ide oph ones
be com in g a com mon pi ece of equ ipm ent i n m ode rn s oc ie ty . L astl y , t he m obi le
ph one, to nam e bu t on e, has le d to th e bi rth of a num be r of com plete
i n du str ie s, genera ti n g u npr ecede nte d wealth a nd in th e pr oc ess pr ovi ding a
live lih ood f or m illion s. ( 182 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
Because th os e ti n y i n str u m ents a re n ow ta ken f or g ra nte d, we s e ldom r e aliz e
th e sig nific ance of w hat M r. Bell di d. To con clu de , th e te le ph one is

undou btedl y th e m os t s ig nific ant in ve nti on be for e th e c om pute r. (32 wor ds )
(T ot al w ords : 253)
A LT ER NAT IV E IN TR O DUCTIO NS
There a re m any th in gs th at c an b e r e garde d as th e m os t s ig nific a nt in ve nti on
be for e th e c om pute r. In th is e ssa y, I w ill look a t th e te le ph one in te rm s of it
be in g a ti m e-s a vi ng de vice and a cata ly st in th e de velopm ent of m ode rn
te le com munic ati on s. ( 42 w ords )
There ha ve be en m any sig nific ant in ve nti on s be for e th e com pute r. In th is
e ssa y, I w ill loo k a t th e te le ph one in te rm s of it be in g a ti m e-s a vi ng de vice
and a cata ly st i n t he de velopm ent of mode rn t ele com munic ati on s. ( 35 w ords )

6.2 8 G ARDEN S A ND R O ADS
There a re m or e an d m or e ve hic le s in f r on t of ou r h ou se s, w hic h is ve ry
d an gerou s for c c lis ts an d p ede str ian s. B esid es, m an gar dens h ave to
m ak e w a for h igh was or e xp re ssw as . H ow c an w e m ak e e ve rRn e
sat is fie d?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
M urph y’s la w sa ys, “If you tr y to sa ti s fy eve ry on e, som ebody w ill be
di ssa ti s fie d.” In th is e ssa y, th e a bove is su e w ill be de alt w ith in te rm s of
pe opl e’s n eeds , de velopm enta l r e qu ir e m ents , and th e pl annin g of c iti e s. (35
w or ds )
BO DY
Fir s t, envi ron men ta l ps ychol og is ts h ave pr ove d th at pe opl e livi ng in c iti e s
need to expe rie nc e n atu re i n s om e w ay or a not her. F or e xam pl e, it w as f ou nd
th at c hildr en w ho are bor n a nd grow u p in “ con cre te ju ngle s” a nd do not
have th e oppor tu nity to pl ay on l a w ns, clim b tr e es, or s e e a nd sm ell f low ers
a nd plan ts on ce in a w hile de velop hig her le ve ls of a ggre ssion th an th os e
kids w ho do h ave such oppor tu niti e s.
S econ d, citi e s a re pl aces w here c om merc e a nd in du str y a re c on centr a te d.
T his re su lts in th e n eed for m any ve hic le s to move a rou nd and to do so
qu ic kly . For th is , a netw or k of roa ds, hig hw ays, fr e ew ays, and bypasse s
needs to be built. T hese t ake u p a lot of spa ce i n ou r c iti e s.
L astl y , it is alw ays di ffic ult to change situ ati on s in exis ti n g citi e s. W hen
pl annin g n ew c iti e s, how eve r, w e a re a bl e to ensu re th at th e n e eds of th e
pe opl e a s w ell a s c om merc e a nd in du str y a re m et. W hen th ey a re e du cate d at
unive rs iti e s, city pl anners sh ou ld be m ade a w are of e ve ry on e’s n eeds a nd
tr a in ed t o s olve pr obl em s. ( 176 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

So I h av e br ie fly l ook ed at th e n eeds of pe opl e a nd bu sin ess a nd w hat h as to
be don e i n t he f utu re . T o c onclu de , it c ou ld be said t hat w e h ave to l earn f rom
th e m is ta kes of th e pa st to bu ild be tte r c iti e s in th e fu tu re . (45 wor ds ) ( T ot al
w or ds : 256)
E D UCAT IO NAL N O TE
In 19 49, an A meric an c apt ain , E dw ard A. M urph y, w as w or kin g on a pr oject
for th e m ilita ry a nd, because of m any se tba cks, sa id, “If a nyth in g c an g o
w ron g, it w ill.” T his “ la w ” ( lik e N ew ton ’s la w ) be cam e k now n w or ldw ide
a s “ M urph y’s l a w ,” a nd sin ce th e n, m any m or e “ la w s” h ave be en f or mula te d
on e ve ry s u bj ect i m agin abl e. F or e xam pl e, “W hen I a m e arly , th e bos s i s l a te ,
bu t w hen I am la te , th e bos s is early ”; “If you tr y to sa ti s fy eve ry on e,
som ebody will be dissa ti s fie d” ; a nd “ Not hin g i s a s e asy a s i t l ook s.”

6.2 9 S C IE N CE IN T H E F U TU RE
Scie nce an d te ch nol og cre at ed m od ern s oc ie ty . H ow eve r, som e p eop le
t h in k t h at s c ie ntis ts w ill n o lon ge r c re at e an thin g fr om n ow on . W hat is
Ru r op in ion ?
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
All of u s w ou ld lik e to know w hat th e fu tu re h as in s tor e for u s. T his m ig ht
be com e pos sibl e in th e fu tu re , as w ill be s h ow n in th is e ssa y, in te rm s of
c om pute rs , s ate llite s, a nd c lon in g. ( 36 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, w ith th e h elp of c om pute rs , ta sk s th at w ere im pos sibl e in th e pa st c an
now be don e r e la ti ve ly e asily a n d qu ic kly . T his i s ope nin g u p mor e a nd mor e
pos sibi liti e s f or scie nti s ts . F or exam pl e, w ith t he de velopm ent of the e le ctr on
m ic ros cope , sc ie nti s ts c an n ow obs erve a nd stu dy th e in di vidu al pa rts of a
s in gle c ell w ith e ase .
S econ d, sa te llite s a nd spa ce te chn ol og y h ave m ade th e im pos sibl e pos sibl e.
F or in sta nce, by pl acin g a h om in g de vice on a n a nim al or bi rd, it c an be
fol low ed where ve r i t g oe s, and th e m ig ra tor y r ou te s of bi rds l ik e pe nguin s or
s tor ks c an be fol low ed c onsta ntl y .
L astl y , sc ie nti s ts a re br eakin g n ew g rou nd (m akin g n ew di sc ove rie s) e ve ry
da y. T hey a re m ovi ng th e bor ders of ou r k now le dg e f u rth er a nd fu rth er a fie ld.
In addi ti on , it se em s th at sc ie nti s ts are be com in g br ave r in m ovi ng in to
u nknow n are as and te rritor ie s. Clon in g, for exam pl e, is fa st be com in g a
re ality . In m any ot her fie lds , th ere a re de velopm ents th at w e, in ou r w ilde st
dr eam s, w ou ld not h ave th ou ght pos sibl e a fe w y ears a go. At th e m om ent,
th ere i s n o in di cati on th at th e pr ese nt s itu ati on w ill c hange i n th e n ear f u tu re .
(181 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

To su m mariz e , I h ave h ad a look a t c om pute rs , sa te llite s, and c lon in g a s
exam pl es of th e pr ese nt s itu ati o n. So it c an be s e en, in c on clu sion , th at th e
oppos ite of th e a bove s ta te m ent w ou ld be tr u er. Scie nti s ts w il l be a bl e to
c re ate a lm os t a nyth in g i n t he f utu re . ( 46 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 263)
E D UCAT IO NAL N O TE
By usin g sa te llite s, tw o adu lt m ale pe nguin s calle d Pete r and Paul w ere
fol low ed as th ey m ove d to th eir br eedi ng site s alon g th e coa st of S ou th
A fr ic a. T he m ig ra ti on r ou te s of s tor ks h ave be en pl otte d fr om S ou th A fr ic a,
th rou gh A fr ic a a nd th e M iddl e E ast, to th eir br eedi ng s ite s in E urope . T heir
pos iti on s a t t he e nd of eve ry da y c an be seen on a m ap on the i nte rn et.

6.3 0 V A CATIO N T IM E
Peop le d oi ng dif fe re nt k in ds of w or k e njo dif fe re nt am ounts of vac ation
t im e. S hou ld al l p eop le h ave t h e s am e am ount of le is u re t im e? G ive Ru r
opin ion usin g s om e of Ru r ow n e xp erie nce s as exam ple s.
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Wor kers (bl ue-c ol la r s ta ff) fe el it is u nfa ir w hen of fic e (w hite -c ol la r) s ta ff
h ave a va cati on w hile th ey h ave to wor k. I w ill l ook a t th e i s su e i n te rm s of a
ba sic pr in cipl e a nd r em unera ti on pa ckages. ( 31 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, I be lie ve th at th ere i s a ba sic pr in cipl e i n vol ved here , w hic h pe opl e i n
g enera l do not lik e to adh ere to. I call it th e “B e th ankfu l and please d”
pr in cipl e. It sta te s, “B e th ankfu l for w hat y ou h ave a nd please d for w hat
ot hers h ave .” A ll of u s g et va cati on s, for w hic h w e s h ou ld be th ankfu l. W e
sh ou ld be pl ease d, and not je alou s, di sg ru ntl e d, or a ngry , if som eon e e ls e
g ets m or e ti m e of f. F or e xam pl e, i n h ig h s c hool , a f r ie nd of m in e w ho had th e
sa m e g ra de s a s I h ad re ceive d a s c hol ars h ip to atte nd a m ath tr a in in g c am p. It
w as on ly h um an for m e to fe el c heate d, but I w as th ankfu l th a t I w as s ti ll
h ealth y a nd sti ll a bl e to get g ood g ra de s. I c on gra tu la te d him a nd wis h ed him
th e be st of luck.
S econ d, when y ou a re of fe re d a job and an a ccom panyin g w age pa ckage, it
s ta te s th e a m ou nt of va cati on ti m e th at y ou w ill r e ceive . If y ou a re n ot h appy
w ith th is , it i s y o ur r ig ht to tu rn dow n th e of fe r. It i s w ron g to acc ept th e of fe r
and th en la te r, w hen y ou fin d out w hat ot hers a re re ceivi ng, fe el c heate d.
(192 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
I h ave look ed at a pr in cipl e a nd wage pa ckages. In c on clu sion , w e s h ou ld
r e m in d ours e lve s th at l ife i n g en era l i s u nfa ir. T here i s a lw ays s om eon e w ho

is be tte r of f t han y ou . (31 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 254)
V O CAB ULA RY
D IS G RUNTLED : T o be u nhappy , su lk y, m oody , di sc on te nte d. E xam ple:
W hen m y pa re nts tr e at m e str ic tl y , I a m di sg ru ntl e d and com plain to
th em .
REM UNER ATIO N : R ew ard or pa y for s e rvi ces r e n de re d to a c om pany
or or ganiz a ti on . Exam ple: I a m h ap py f or th e r e m unera ti on th at I r e ceive
for the w ork t hat I do.
SC H O LA RSH IP : Paym ent re ce ive d for tu iti on fe es to stu dy at a
pa rti c ula r sc hoo l or col le ge. Usu ally aw arde d to a top stu d ent or
ath le te . E xam ple: A t ou r sc hool , th e be st stu de nt in m ath re ceive d a
sc hol ars h ip of US$10,000 t o stu dy engin eerin g a t L ia on in g U nive rs ity .

6.3 1 K ID S A ND T V
Som e p a re nts in th e U nit e d K in gd om d ecid ed n ot to have te le vi sion s in
t h eir h om es. The belie ve th at b doi ng th is , th eir c h ild re n w ill sp end
th eir le is u re tim e m or e cre at ive ly . To what ext ent do Ru agr ee or
dis agr ee w it h t heir d ecis ion ?
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Con fu ciu s s a id, “T ele vi sion i s a n e xtr e m ely s tr on g m edi um .” I d is a gre e w ith
th os e U K pa re nts a nd will su ppor t m y opi nion in te rm s of a n e du cati on al
pr in cipl e a nd t he a dva nta ges of tele vi sion . (30 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, w hen e du cati n g ou r c hildr en, it is m or e pr odu cti ve to te ach th em to
m ake go od (h ealth y) de cis ion s on th eir ow n ra th er th an keep on m akin g
de cis ion s for th em ( on th eir be ha lf) . T he for mer s tr a te gy h elps th em be com e
in de pende nt. T he c ase i n poi nt i s a g ood exam pl e. W hen g row n u p, th ey w ill
h ave to de cide f o r th em se lve s h ow m uch ti m e th ey a re g oi ng to spe nd pe r da y
watc hin g T V a nd what pr og ra m s th ey a re g oi ng to choos e. T his b rin gs m e to
m y n ext poi nt.
S econ d, te le vi sion has adva nta ges as well. Fir s t, th ere are good
(w hol esom e) pr og ra m s th at are adva nta geou s in edu cati n g childr en. For
exam pl e, doc um enta ry pr og ra m s br oa den th eir genera l kno w le dg e on
su bj ects th at a re n ot e asy to stu d y ot herw is e . To be m or e s pe cif ic , N ati on al
G eog ra ph ic a nd Dis c ove ry C han nel pr og ra m s w ill g ive th em in sig hts in to
n atu re a nd w orld c ultu re s i n t he be st pos sibl e w ay.
In a ddi ti on , new s pr og ra m s k eep childr en in for med on loc al a nd wor ldw ide
( g loba l) eve nts , while doc um enta ry pr og ra m s cou ld provi de th em w ith
ba ckgrou nd in for mati on e xpl ain in g th e c ause s a nd/ or re su lts of e ve nts . To
ensu re th a t th ese pr og ra m s a re o f h ig h r e pu te , th e j ou rn alis ts a nd T V s ta ti on s
have spe nt m any h ou rs i n pr epa rin g t hem . ( 186 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
I h ave br ie fly l ook ed a t t he i ssu e i n t erm s of an e du cati on al pr in cipl e a nd t wo
adva nta ges of T V. P are nts w ho de cide n ot to have a te le vi sion i n th eir h om es
are ta kin g a n e asy w ay ou t to th e di sa dva nta ge ( de tr im ent) of th eir c hildr en.
(41 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 257)
A LT ER NAT IV E T O S EC O ND-T O -L A ST P A R AG RAPH
In a ddi ti on , there i s n o g uara nte e t hat w hen r em ovi ng t he T V from a hom e, t he
affe cte d childr en w ill s pe nd th eir l e is u re ti m e m or e c re ati ve ly . T his m ig ht, in
fa ct, re su lt in c hildr en le avi ng th e h om e to fin d alte rn ati ve a nd pot enti a lly
n egati ve m eans of re la xin g. R ath er, pa re nts s h ou ld advi se th eir c hildr en on
h ow a ba la nce c an be fou nd be tw een w atc hin g T V a nd engagin g in m or e
cre ati ve for ms of leis u re t im e a cti vi ti e s.

6.3 2 C O M PU TER S
The com pute r is wid el use d in mod ern soc ie ty . What ar e th e
dis ad van tage s if on e can not use a com pute r? What sh ou ld th e
gove rn m ent d o?
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
For m any, livi ng in a m ode rn s o cie ty im pl ie s th at th ey c an u se c om pute rs to
s om e e xte nt (a re c om pute r lite ra te ). Let’ s c on side r th e qu esti on in te rm s of
th e c a re er pa th s of s om e pr ofession s a nd look a t w hat g ove rn m ents c an do in
th e s chool s. ( 39 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, th e num be r of care er pa th s in w hic h on e needs to be abl e to use
c om pute rs on a da ily ba sis is g row in g by th e da y. N ot ve ry lon g a go, it w as
th e case in on ly a fe w spe cia liz e d jobs th at com pute rs w ere neede d
(in di spe nsa bl e). Toda y, how eve r, eve n bl ue-c ol la r w or kers h ave to know
th eir w ay arou nd th e keyboa rd at w or k. For in sta nce, mor e and mor e
manufa ctu rin g pr oc esse s a re be com in g c om pute riz e d, re cept ion is ts a re u sin g
w or d proc essor s in ste ad of ty pe write rs , and filin g cle rk s don ’t w or k in
r oom s fu ll of s h elve s a nd file s a nym or e bu t c on su lt th e da ta ba se s on th eir
c om pute rs f or infor mati on .
Secon d, I a m of th e opi nion th at f u tu re g ove rn m ents w ill be f or ced to look a t
th eir ed ucati on sy ste m s and make som e adj ustm ents . In th e pa st, math
( m ath em ati c s) w as c on side re d a m ust, espe cia lly in th e e du cati on of boy s.
C hildr en w ill h ave to be in tr od uced to com pute rs a t a n e arly a ge, and a
su bj ect l i k e c om pute r s c ie nce w ill h ave to be com e j u st a s i m por ta nt a s m ath .
T his w ill m ean s pe ndi ng la rg e a m ou nts of m on ey in th e tr a in in g of te achers
a nd bu yin g ( acqu ir in g) t he n ecessa ry e qu ipm ent. ( 179 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

Edu cati on a nd som e c are er pa th s h ave be en di sc usse d as e xam pl es of w hy
on e sh ou ld be com pute r lite ra te in th e wor kpl ace toda y and what
gove rn m ents w ill h ave to do i n t he f utu re . ( 31 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 249)
A LT ER NAT IV E T O T H E F IR ST T W O P A R AG RAPH S
For m any, livi ng in a m ode rn s o cie ty im pl ie s th at th ey c an u se c om pute rs to
s om e e xte nt (a re c om pute r lite ra te ). Let’ s c on side r th e qu esti on in te rm s of
th e rol e th e in te rn et pl ays in m ode rn s oc ie ty a nd look a t w hat g ove rn m ents
c an do i n t he s chool s.
F ir s t, alth ou gh com pute rs in th em se lve s have changed our wor ld
dr am ati c ally , th e in te rn et is be co m in g a n e ve n g re ate r s ou rc e of c hange. For
exam pl e, bu yin g a nd se llin g g oods a nd se rvi ces e le ctr on ic ally ( e -c om merc e)
by m eans of th e in te rn et is fa st be com in g s ta nda rd practi c e in th e bu sin ess
w or ld. In a ddi ti on , m or e u nive rs iti e s a re re ve rti n g to on lin e e du cati on a s
oppos ed t o n ormal ( con venti on al) t eachin g m eth ods .

6.3 3 S C HO OL S PO RTS
Som e p e op le s a th at s p or ts s h ou ld n ot b e e ncou rage d at s c h ool , as it
c au se s com petit ion rat her th an coop erat ion am ong stu dents . To what
ext ent d o Ru agree or dis agr ee w it h t his op in ion ?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Con fu ciu s s a id, “C om peti ti on is a fa ct of life .” I be lie ve s c hoo l s por ts a re
e sse nti a l to prepa re c hildr en for a du lt life . B y re fe rrin g to te am s por ts , th e
essa y w ill s how that a ba la nce i s i nde ed pos sibl e. ( 35 w ords )
BO DY
W hen pa rta kin g i n te am s por ts l ik e ba sk etba ll, soc cer, or vol le yba ll, sc hol ars
h ave th e oppor tu nity to gain e xpe rie nce i n w hat c oope ra ti on f or th e be nefit of
th e te am is lik e. F or e xam pl e, in di vidu al pl ayers m ay h ave th eir ow n ide as
bu t h ave to adh ere to th e g am e pl an to re ach th e obj ecti ve s of th e te am a s s e t
ou t by the c oa ch.
A t th e s a m e ti m e, th e in di vidu al pl ayers a s a te am a re a bl e to com pete w ith
ot her te am s. This s h ou ld te ach th em th e be nefits of n ot be in g s e lfis h a nd to
s ti ll h ave th e de sir e a nd mot iva ti on to win . To be m or e s pe cific , w hen th e
te am w in s, th is c an be ju st a s re w ardi ng a s w hen a n in di vidu al a th le te is
tr iu m ph ant.
I n a ddi ti on , even w ith in t he c on te xt of the obj ecti ve s of the t eam and t he g am e
pl an, in d ivi du als c an e xcel by di spl ayin g spe cific sk ills . For e xam pl e, in
s oc cer, pl ayers lik e P elé a nd Die go Mara don a be cam e le gends be cause of
th eir e xce pt ion al s k ills . H ow eve r, at a ll ti m es th rou ghou t th eir c are ers , th ey
had th e se lf- di sc ipl in e to keep in m in d what w as be st for th e te am as a
w hol e. ( 180 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
I c ou ld su m mariz e by sa yin g th at te am spor ts a re on e w ay of a chie vi ng a
ba la nce in te achin g childr en coope ra ti on as w ell as com peti ti on . In

con clu sion , w e sh ou ld not e th at sc hool spor ts h ave a vi ta l pa rt to play in
e du cati on . (39 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 254)
V O CAB ULA RY
ESSE N TIA L : V ery i m por ta nt, in di spe nsa bl e, som eth in g c annot be w ith ou t
it. E xam ple: T o m ake du mpl in gs, i t i s e sse nti a l t o h ave flou r a nd w ate r.
W HO LESO M E : P rom otin g ph ysic al or m or al health . E xam ple: F re sh
ve geta bl es are pa rt of a w hol esom e di et. Regula r exerc is e is an
esse nti a l pa rt of a w hol esom e l ife sty le .

6.3 4 C REATIV IT Y
Cre at ive ar tis ts s h ou ld b e gi ve n m or e f r e edom t o exp re ss t h eir id eas in
t h e f or m of w ord s, pic tu re s, m usic , or f ilm s, an d t h e gove rn m ent s h ou ld
n ot p lac e an re str ic tion s on th em . To what e xt ent d o Ru agr ee or
d is agr ee?
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Alth ou gh I pe rs on ally of te n fa il to unde rs ta nd what a rti s ts a re tr y in g to sa y
(e xpr ess), I fu lly a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent. I w ill s u ppor t th is by r e fe rrin g to
c riti c is m of the g ove rn m ent by arti s ts a nd t he f undi ng of the a rts . ( 38 w ords )
BO DY
In th e fir s t pl ac e, arti s ts are know n to be criti c al of any w ron gdoi ngs
(in ju sti c es) in soc ie ty . They of te n are not afr a id to expr ess th eir vi ew s
th rou gh th eir a rt. In ot her w or ds, th ey u se th eir a rt to protest. W hen th ey
criti c iz e th e g ove rn m ent be cause of on e or m or e of i ts pol ic ie s, th ey be com e
very unpopu la r. For exam pl e, in th e U nite d Sta te s, arti s ts criti c iz e d th e
gove rn m ent for th e w ar in V ie tn am . In S ou th A fr ic a, many arti s ts w ere
a gain st th e sy ste m calle d “A pa rth eid” and were of te n hara sse d and
pe rs e cute d to th e e xte nt th at th ey h ad to fle e th e c ou ntr y a nd live in e xile
e ls e w here .
S econ d, genera ll y s pe akin g, arti s ts a re pe rfor min g th eir a rt n ot in or de r to
m ake m on ey bu t ra th er to expr ess th eir vi ew s a nd fe elin gs. There for e, th ey
of te n nee d fin ancia l help (a ssis ta nce) to keep on pe rfor min g th eir art.
G ove rn m ents a re r e lu cta nt to help som eon e w ho is c riti c al of w hat th ey a re
doi ng. I a m of th e opi nion th at th is is n ot a h ealth y ( de sir a bl e) s itu ati on a nd
sh ou ld be c hanged where ve r it oc curs . To be m or e spe cific , gove rn m ents
s h ou ld have e nou gh ( s u ffic ie nt) v is ion , cou ra ge, and se lf- c on fide nce to allow
a rti s ts t o c riti c iz e t heir a cti on s a nd pol ic ie s. ( 188 w ords )

CO NCLU SIO N
I h ave l ook ed at th is i s su e i n te rm s of a rti s ts be in g c riti c s of g ove rn m ents a nd
needi ng ( re qu ir in g) m on ey ( fu nds ). T he c on clu sion c an be m ade ( dr aw n) th at
it is h ard to expe ct a g ove rn m ent to fu nd su ch a rti s ts . (34 words ) (T ot al
w or ds : 260)
E D UCAT IO NAL N O TE
A pa rth eid was a s y ste m of g ove rn m ent im pos ed on th e popu la ti on of S ou th
A fr ic a in 1948. It w as ba se d on ra cia l di sc rim in ati on again st th e bl ack
A fr ic an n ati on s of th e c ou ntr y . T hese pe opl e w ere r e str ic te d to certa in a re as
calle d “hom ela nds ,” w here livi ng con diti on s w ere poor . In th e “w hite
a re as,” th ese pe opl e had no vot in g rig hts , and apa rth eid la w s ru le d all
a spe cts of th eir da ily live s. The sy ste m w as w ide ly con demned by th e
in te rn ati on al com munity and le d to UN sa ncti on s, re su lti n g in th e S ou th
A fr ic an g ove rn m ent h avi ng n or mal di plom ati c re la ti on s on ly w ith B rita in ,
T aiw an, and Is ra el. The s y ste m w as a bol is h ed by th e pr im e m in is te r a t th e
ti m e, Mr. F. W. de K le rk . He fr e ed all pol iti c al pr is on ers , in clu di ng
M r. N els on M ande la , w ho be cam e t he f ir s t bl ack pr eside nt i n 1994.

6.3 5 T R AVELIN G
Peop le w or ld w id e ar e in cre as in gl tr ave lin g ab road t o wor k f or p eriod s
of m on th s or e ve n e ars. T his p henom enon b rin gs ab out b ot h ad van tage s
and d is ad van tage s. G ive Ru r op in ion .
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
M ig ra nt w or kers le ave h om e in s e arc h of w or k in ot her pa rts of th eir ow n
cou ntr y or in a no th er c ou ntr y . I w ill look a t th is ph enom enon in te rm s of th e
adva nta ges a nd di sa dva nta ges a n d th en de cide on ( for mula te ) a n opi nion . (38
w or ds )
BO DY
There are m any di sa dva nta ges to wor kin g abr oa d. Fir s t, it is di ffic ult to
l e ave fa m ily a nd fr ie nds be hin d for m on th s or y ears . Secon d, th e “ cultu re
s h oc k” m ig ht be too se ve re to endu re . T hir d, if th e m ig ra nt w or ke r doe s n ot
know th e la nguage spok en in th e for eig n cou ntr y , it w ill re su lt in m uch
fr u str a ti on and m is u nde rs ta ndi ng.
T he m os t obvi ous a dva nta ge of w or kin g a br oa d is th at on e is a bl e to se arc h
for a job with th e re m unera ti on pa ckage, envi ron ment, an d wor kin g
con diti on s th at on e l ik es be st. F or e xam pl e, a te acher w ho wants to tr a ve l to
A sia w ou ld love a te achin g pos iti on in a n in te re sti n g c ou ntr y lik e C hin a. If
th e job, in a ddi ti on , of fe rs a r e a son abl e s a la ry a nd fr e e h ou sin g, m eals , and
tr a nspor ta ti on , it w ould be hard t o r esis t.
I n m y opi nion , each pe rs on h as to con side r th e a dva nta ges a nd di sa dva nta ges
and th en de cide if h e or s h e w ou ld want to wor k a br oa d. You ng pe opl e a nd
ba chelor s, for e xam pl e, do not h ave fa m ilie s to th in k of a nd wou ld go and
w or k a br oa d mor e e asily . U nem pl oy ed pe opl e u nabl e to fin d jobs w ill g o
eve n i f t he w orkin g c on diti on s w ill n ot be easy. ( 187 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

To su m mariz e , th en, I have not ed som e adva nta ges and disa dva nta ges of
w or kin g a br oa d for lon g ti m es (e xte nde d pe riods ). To con clu de , w e c ou ld
s a y th at e ach pe rs on h as to con side r h is or h er ow n c ir c um sta nces a nd th en
de cide . (35 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 260)
E D UCAT IO NAL N O TE
M ig ra ti on is th e ph enom enon by w hic h som e anim als , bi rds , in se cts , and
fis h es c om e a nd go accor ding to th e s e ason s. In ot her w or ds , th ey m ove in
r e spon se to natu ra l for ces lik e te m pe ra tu re or food su ppl y. Sw allow s, for
e xam pl e, m ig ra te fr om E urope a nd Asia to sou th ern A fr ic a. They u se th e
sa m e rou te s, calle d mig ra tor y ro ute s, and have th e s a m e de sti n ati on s in th e
nor th a nd s outh . M any m yste rie s s ti ll oc cur a rou nd m ig ra ti on in n atu re .

6.3 6 F E M ALE C RIM E
It is fou nd b a su rve th at th e crim e rat e am ong Ru ng wom en is
in cre as in g. S pell ou t t he p os sib le r eas on s an d s ol ution s.
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Crim e i s de fin ed as “ acts th at a re pu nis h abl e by th e l a w .” I w ill di sc uss w hy
you ng w om en act in th is w ay by re fe rrin g to th eir childh oods and th eir
c ir c um sta nces a nd a ls o pr ese nt on e pos sibl e s ol uti on . (35 w ords )
BO DY
From th e ir childh ood days, many you ng pe opl e are not edu cate d str ic tl y
a bou t w hat i s r ig ht a nd what i s w ron g. T heir pa re nts a llow th em to do alm os t
anyth in g, so when th ey le ave th e ir h om es, th ey te nd to disre gard th e r u le s of
s oc ie ty i n g enera l a nd th e l a w s o f th e c om muniti e s th ey l ive i n . F or e xam pl e,
if a pa re nt doe s n ot te ach a c hild to re spe ct th e pos se ssion s o f ot hers , th e
child w ill n ot con side r t heft a s a crim e.
M any y o ung w om en in ou r c iti e s a re for ced by c ir c um sta nces to e ngage ( g et
in vol ved) in crim e. They, for in sta nce, le ave th eir ru ra l (c ou ntr y side )
hom etow ns i n s e arc h of a be tte r l ife i n th e c ity . U nabl e to fin d a j ob, th ey a re
for ced to go (re ve rt) to a life of c rim e. Str e etw is e c rim in als k now th ey a re
vu ln era bl e a nd e xpl oit t hem , a nd m any be com e pr osti tu te s or drug a ddi cts .
O ne sol uti on w ould be for c ity c ou ncils to sta rt (e m ba rk on ) job cre ati on
pr og ra m s w ith th is grou p in m in d. In genera l, th ese w om en have no
qu alific ati on s or sk ills , bu t th ere are m any pos sibi liti e s in a city . For
in sta nce, th ey cou ld assis t in tr a ffic con tr ol and act as te m por ary bu s
con ductor s du rin g pe ak ( ru sh ) h ou rs . ( 189 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

There a re m any fa ctor s th at c on tr ibu te to you ng w om en g etti n g in vol ved in
( e ngagin g i n ) c rim e. I h ave l ook ed at e du cati on a nd unfor ese en c ir c um sta nces
and at a pos sibl e sol uti on . The con clu sion w ou ld be th at it is a se riou s
probl em that c ou ld be sol ve d. ( 40 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 264)
A LT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH
The m or al s ta nda rds of pe opl e i n g enera l a re s te adi ly de cre asin g. T his i s on e
re ason w hy th e c rim e r a te is in cre asin g on a w or ldw ide s c ale . T here s h ou ld
th ere for e be n o re ason w hy th e ra te w ou ld not in cre ase for th is pa rti c ula r
grou p of the popu la ti on calle d “ you ng w om en.”
V O CAB ULA RY
ST R EETW IS E : T he a bi lity t o m ain ta in on ese lf i n a city e nvi ron ment.

6.3 7 S TU DEN T A TTIT U DE
There ar e som e se riou s p rob le m s in sc h ool s w or ld w id e re su lt in g fr om
stu dents ’ at tit u des. Anal z e th e pos sib le re as on s for th is gr ow in g
phenom enon an d gi ve Ru r s ol ution s.
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Teachers a re f in di ng i t m or e a nd m or e ( in cre asin gly ) di ffic ult to con tr ol th eir
c la sse s. In th is essa y, I w ill look at hum an rig hts and pare nts ’ fe ars as
re ason s f or this a nd s uggest on e pos sibl e s ol uti on . (33 w ords )
BO DY
In th e m ilita ry and other for ces, di sc ipl in e is th ou ght of (re garde d as) a
nor mal a nd esse nti a l w ay of life . In th e re st of soc ie ty , how eve r, th e ide a
(c on cept ) of hum an rig hts is be com in g m or e im por ta nt. School s fin d it
di ffic ult to main ta in a ny l e ve l of di sc ipl in e, fe arin g th at w hen th ey di sc ipl in e
stu de nts , t hos e s tu de nts a nd/ or their pa re nts w ill t ake t hem to c ourt ( su e t hem )
on a va rie ty of c harg es. In a ddi ti on , lik e i n m any s c hool s i n B rita in , te achers
fe ar for th eir sa fe ty and eve n th eir live s w hen atte m pt in g to in sti ll
( im pl em ent) s om e di sc ipl in e i n t he c la ssroom .
Fearin g th at th ey w ill e str a nge (a lie nate ) th eir c hildr en, pa re nts sh y a w ay
fr om di sc ipl in in g th eir c hildr en a t h om e. Tou gh love (be in g to ugh / h ard /
str ic t on s om eon e in h is or h er ow n be st in te re st) is n ot a popu la r c on cept
th ese da ys. C hil dr en a re , for in sta nce, le ft to make th eir ow n de cis ion s on
h ow much t im e a nd e ffor t t hey w ill s pe nd on their s tu di es.
O ne pos sibl e sol uti on w ou ld be to re w ard stu de nts w ho have unde rg on e
som e ty p e of di sc ipl in ary tr a in in g. Stu de nts c ou ld be of fe re d sc hol ars h ips if
th ey h ave a tte nde d a c erta in n um be r of le ade rs h ip cam ps or c om plete d a
spe cifie d am ou nt of com munity se rvi ce du rin g th eir sc hool ca re ers . (179
w or ds )

CO NCLU SIO N
I h ave look ed at s oc ie ty a nd th e h om e for r e ason s, and I a ls o su ggeste d on e
sol uti on to th e p robl em . In c on clu sion , th ere a re n o easy sol uti on s to th is
pr obl em . T he r oot of th e pr obl em i s de epl y f ix ed (e m be dde d) i n s oc ie ty , bu t
we s hou ld k eep on look in g f or answ ers . ( 48 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 260)
A LT ER NAT IV E C O NCLU SIO N
I h av e l ook ed at s oc ie ty a nd th e h om e f or r e ason s a nd su ggeste d on e s ol uti on
to th e pr obl em . In c on clu sion , I c ou ld sa y th at th e pr obl em i s a n i n di cati on of
th e a tti tu de of pe opl e in g enera l a nd not ju st th at of s c hol ars . A ny pos sibl e
sol uti on s w ill h ave to r each f ar a nd w ide into s ocie ty . ( 53 w ords )

6.3 8 A G E O F T H E B O OK
Som e s a th e a ge of t h e b ook h as p as se d: vi deos , com pute rs , te le vi sion ,
and film s w ill p re se nt th e in for mat ion in th e fu tu re . O th ers th in k th at
book s an d w rit te n w or ds w ill s till b e n ece ssar for s p re ad in g in for mat ion
an d in c om ple tin g e ducat ion . D is c u ss b ot h s id es an d gi ve Ru r op in ion .
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Prin te d book s a s w e k now th em toda y h ave s e rve d us w ell for a bou t five
h undr ed years in spr eadi ng in fo rm ati on and com pleti n g edu cati on . In th is
e ssa y, I w ill l ook at t w o vi ew s a nd pr ese nt a n opi nion . (35 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, t he n um be r of tool s u se d t o r epl ace c on venti on al book s i s i ncre asin g by
th e da y. These d evi ces a re be com in g m or e c on venie nt a nd chea pe r. That is
w hy m any fe el th at w ritte n w or ds pr in te d on sh eets of pa per and made
(bou nd) into a book sim pl y c annot con ti n ue t o e xis t.
S econ d, how eve r, th ere a re m any pe opl e w ho wou ld arg ue th at book s w ill
r e m ain in ou r live s in th eir pr ese nt for m. They be lie ve th at pe opl e w ill
a lw ays w ant to keep sh elve s fu ll of book s a t h om e a nd in th e of fic e or vi sit
th e l oc al l ibr ary f r om ti m e to ti m e. T hey l ove th e s m ell a nd fe el o f ol d book s
or get e xcite d w hen a new book is pu blis h ed.
L astl y , in m y opi nion , th e e vi de nce poi nts to th e book in its pr ese nt for m
disa ppe arin g fr om ou r live s. I b elie ve th at in th e fu tu re w e w ill be c allin g
som e ot he r de vices “ book s.” I don ’t k now w hat th ey w ill look li k e, bu t y ou
w ou ld sti ll be a bl e to carry th em i n y ou r h andba g, ta ke th em h om e a nd cuddl e
in be d w ith on e, or buy on e a s a gift f or a frie nd. ( 182 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

To su m mariz e , it s e em s th at th ere a re tw o side s to th e s tor y, bu t th e c hances
(odds ) are heavi ly in fa vor of th e book di sa ppe arin g. I cannot help but
con clu de th at w e w ill h ave to re w rite , re th in k, re ph ra se , and re de fin e ou r
defin iti on of a “book ” s om eti m e s oon . (45 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 262)
A LT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH
Pape r i s m ade ( m anufa ctu re d) f r o m tr e es, w hic h a re g oi ng to be com e s c arc er
and mor e e xpe nsive in th e fu tu re . In a ddi ti on , th e ti m be r c ou ld be u se d for
ot her pu rpos es lik e bu ildi ng m ate ria l th an for pa per. Eve n toda y book s a re
be com in g so expe nsive th at m any c annot a ffor d to bu y th em . Stu de nts , for
e xam pl e, a re n ow sta rti n g t o dow nloa d s om e of the i nfor mati on that t hey n eed
fr om the i nte rn et.

6.3 9 D EVELO PM EN T A ID
S om e p eop le t h in k t h at it is a mor al ob ligat ion f or d eve lop ed c ou ntr ie s t o
p rovi de inte rn at ion al ai d t o d eve lop in g c ountr ie s, w hile ot hers w orrt hat
th e ai d m igh t b e m is u se d b th e gove rn m ents of t h e p oor c ou ntr ie s an d
will n ot ac tu al l help th e p oor im prove th eir livi ng stan dar ds. W hat is
Ru r op in ion ?
Not e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
W hy s hou ld on e c ou ntr y h elp a not her? W hat i s h appe nin g t o t he a id? Is g ivi ng
aid a sol uti on to th e pr obl em ? I w ill look at som e aspe cts in te rm s of
cor ru pt ion and g uilt a nd pr ese nt on e s ol uti on . (36 w ords )
It h as be en pr ove d th at in m any c ase s, a de velope d cou ntr y do nate s la rg e
am ou nts of m on ey, food, and med ic in es to a poor c ou ntr y on ly to fin d th at th e
loc al popu la ti on has re ceive d no benefit fr om th is . In ste ad, only cor ru pt
gove rn m ents an d offic ia ls w ere enric hed in th e pr oc ess. In A fr ic a, for
e xam pl e, it w as fou nd th at of fic ia ls sol d don ate d medi cin e to th os e w ho
cou ld a ffor d i t, a nd poor peopl e w ere a voi ded a nd e xclu de d.
BO DY
There i s a s c hool of th ou ght th at be lie ve s ( c on te nds ) th at de velope d cou ntr ie s
fe el g uilty for u sin g (e xpl oiti n g) th e g oods (re sou rc es) of poor c ou ntr ie s in
or de r to enric h th em se lve s. A ccor ding to th em , de velopm ent a id doe s n ot
have th e i n te re st of th e de velopi ng c ou ntr y i n m in d bu t i s a n a tte m pt to soot he
th eir tr o ubl ed co nsc ie nces. For e xam pl e, du rin g th e c ol on ia l e ra , cou ntr ie s
lik e B rita in , F ra nce, P or tu gal, S pa in , and Germ any e xpl oite d th e va st n atu ra l
re sou rc es f ou nd i n A fr ic a a nd e ls e w here .
I a m of th e opi nion th at de velopm ent a id sh ou ld re su lt i n c ou ntr ie s i m pr ovi ng
th e s ta nd ard of l ivi ng of th e pe op le i t i s m eant f or . T his c ou ld be a chie ve d by
don ati n g e xpe rti s e in ste ad of m oney. To be m or e s pe cific , a c ou ntr y c ou ld

provi de e ngin ee rs , sc ie nti s ts , doc tor s, and so on to help th e loc al pe opl e.
(199 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
The s a yin g “ G iv in g s om eon e a f is h i s g ood, but s h ow in g h im h ow to fis h f or
h im se lf is m uch be tte r” a ppl ie s. In c on clu sion , on e c ou ld on ly s pe cula te on
w hat de velope d cou ntr ie s w ill do in th e fu tu re . (35 wor ds ) (T ot al w or ds :
270)
VO CAB ULA RY
EXPE RTIS E : T he opi nion , sk ill, know le dg e of a n e xpe rt ( a pe rs on w ho
has s pe cia liz e d tr a in in g a nd/ or q ualific ati on s i n a c erta in f ie ld: s u rg eon ,
engin eer, etc .) . Exam ple: W hen y ou w ant a C hin ese di sh pr epa re d, you
have to g et t he e xpe rti s e of a chef f rom that c ou ntr y .

6.4 0 S TA TU S O F T H E Y O UNG
Ove r th e p as t fif t e ars, Ru ng peop le b egan to gai n th e stat us an d
pow er los t b older p eop le . W hat ar e th e is su es? Is it a good or a bad
deve lop ment?
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Toda y’s y ou ngste rs h ave a s e nse of s e lf- c on fide nce th at th eir pa re nts l a cked.
In th is e ssa y, th e is su e w ill be de alt w ith in te rm s of th e c hanges in th e
envi ron ment in w hic h childr en grow up and an eva lu ati on of th e pr ese nt
situ ati on . (40 w ords )
Durin g th e pi on eerin g y ears of th e n in ete enth c entu ry , pe opl e be cam e m atu re
a du lts a t a n e arly a ge. They of te n h ad to le ave s c hool a nd sta rt w or kin g in
th eir te en s. They g ot m arrie d and had childr en e ve n be for e th eir tw enti e th
bi rth da ys. T he l a rg est pa rt of th e popu la ti on w as f ou nd in th e r u ra l ( fa rm in g)
are as. D urin g th e f ir s t h alf of th e tw enti e th c entu ry , pe opl e s ta rte d to move to
th e citi e s in se arc h of a be tte r life . Toda y 60 perc ent of th e w or ld’ s
popu la ti on s l ive in a n u rba n ( tow n a nd c ity ) e nvi ron ment.
B O DY
The childr en of th is genera ti on gre w up in an in du str ia liz e d and
te chnol og ic ally ric h (a fflu ent) e nvi ron ment. They h ad mor e oppor tu niti e s to
s tu dy a n d were e xpos ed to many m or e i n flu ences th an th eir pa re nts w ere . F or
exam pl e, t hey g re w up w ith a utom obi le s, t ele vi sion , com pute rs , a nd s o on .
This de velopm ent h as h ad pos iti ve a nd negati ve r e su lts ( c on se qu ences). O n
th e on e hand, it is a good developm ent in th at you ngste rs are be com in g
in de pende nt a nd se lf- s u ppor ti ve e arlie r. O n th e ot her h and, how eve r, m any
have n ot be en a bl e to handl e th is s ta tu s a nd pow er, re su lti n g, for e xam pl e, in
a m ore vi olent s oc ie ty . ( 177 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

I c ou ld su m mariz e by s a yin g th at c hanges ta kin g pl ace i n de mog ra ph ic s h ave
pos iti ve a nd negati ve r e su lts . A ll th at c an be s a id for s u re in c on clu sion , is
th at a gre at change has ta ken p la ce in th e sta tu s and pow er of th e la te st
g enera ti on . (42 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 259)
V O CAB ULA RY
D EM OGRAPH IC S : S ta ti s ti c s of a w ide ra nge of fa ctor s in di cati n g th e
qu ality o f life in c om muniti e s. T hese fa ctor s in clu de bi rth s, de ath s, age
di str ibu ti on , m ean in com e, ph ysic al di str ibu ti on , and so on . Exam ple:
T he gove rn m ent w ill have a clos e look at th e de mog ra ph ic s of a
pr ovi nce w hen th ey de cide on th e n um be r of sc hool s th at h ave to be
bu ilt i n t hat pr ovi nce.
R URAL : Livi ng or situ ate d in a co untr y , pa stor al, or agric ultu ra l
(fa rm in g) s itu ati on .
URBA N : L iv in g or s itu ate d in a c ity or tow n. E xam ple: I n th e r u ra l a re as,
th ere i s l ess pol lu ti on than i n t he u rba n a re as.

6.4 1 W IL D A NIM ALS
W ild an im als have no plac e in th e tw ent- fir st ce ntu ry , an d th eir
p rot ection is a w aste of resou rc e s. D o Ru agree or dis agr ee?
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
The n atu ra l e nvi ron ment on ou r pl anet is of te n c alle d “M other N atu re .” I
c om plete ly di sa gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent a nd will g ive th re e re ason s for m y
vi ew by re fe rrin g to th e ps ychol og ic al, soc ia l, and envi ron menta l a spe cts .
(34 w ords )
BO DY
Psy chol og is ts h ave s h ow n th at c on ta ct w ith w ild anim als h as a h ealin g e ffe ct
on th e h um an n ervou s s y ste m . They a re e ve n look in g a t th e pos sibi lity th at
ot her illn esse s c an be h eale d (c ure d) in th is w ay. For e xam pl e, in A meric a,
A ustr a lia , Is ra el, and Sou th A fr ic a, br in gin g c hildr en in to bodi ly (ph ysic al)
c on ta ct w ith dol phin s a nd so expos in g th em to th e voi ces of th e a nim als h ave
re du ced som e di sor de rs in chil dr en. The effe ct of ph ysic al con ta ct w ith
e le ph ants by childr en w ho were bor n bl in d is pr ese ntl y be in g look ed at
(in ve sti g ate d) .
It is sa id th at p eopl e a re soc ia lly be tte r de velope d and can h a ndl e m or e
str e ss w hen th ey h ave s om e c on ta ct w ith w ild anim als . F or i n sta nce, vi siti n g
gam e re se rve s, wilde rn ess are as, and zoos is be com in g m or e and mor e
popu la r am on g city dw elle rs . In addi ti on , bird- watc hin g (a m ate ur
or nith ol og y) i s f ast be com in g t he m ost popu la r ou tdoor acti vi ty i n t he w orld.
W ild anim als of te n pl ay a n im po rta nt ( c ru cia l/vi ta l) pa rt in th e pr otecti on of
th e e nvi ron ment. In In di a a nd Afr ic a, for e xam pl e, vu ltu re s a re k now n to
r e str ic t th e s pr ead of di se ase s l ik e a nth ra x a m on g dom esti c c attl e h erds . (171
w or ds )
CO NCLU SIO N

We have se en th at w ild anim als have a pos iti ve in flu ence in fie lds lik e
m edi cin e, soc ia l de velopm ent, and th e e nvi ron ment. T o re m ove w ild anim als
fr om ou r live s n ot on ly w ou ld be h arm fu l (de tr im enta l) to ou r e xis te nce on
th is pl an et bu t c ou ld, in fa ct, be de adl y (fa ta l) . (43 wor ds ) (T ot al w or ds :
248)
VO CAB ULA RY
O RNIT H O LO GY : T he s cie nti fic s tu dy of birds .
ED UCAT IO NAL N O TE
O rn ith ol og y i s th e on ly s c ie nce i n th e w or ld th at m akes u se of th e s e rvi ces of
a m ate ur bi rd enth usia sts (c alle d bi rde rs ) to col le ct sc ie nti fic d ata . This is
don e, f or exam pl e, w hen c om pilin g a “bi rd a tl a s.”

6.4 2 T O BACCO
Alt h ou gh w e ar e f r e e t o use t o b ac co, som e p eop le f e el it s h ou ld b e m ad e
ille gal lik e an Rt her d ru g. T o what ext ent d o Ru agree or dis agr ee?
N ot e: T he w ords in pa re nth ese s a re m ore a dva nced a lte rn ati ve s.
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Burn in g toba cco le ave s in s om e w ay a nd in halin g th e s m ok e is a h abi t th at
m illion s of pe opl e all ove r th e w or ld are pr acti c in g. The is su e w ill be
in ve sti g ate d by re fe rrin g to fr e edom , re str ic ti on s, and th e pos iti on of
childr en. ( 38 w ords )
BO DY
Lik e fr e e dom of spe ech a nd re li g ion , fr e edom of c hoi ce is a ba sic h um an
rig ht th at all adu lt pe opl e sh o uld be abl e to enjoy . There is no re ason
(ju sti fic ati on ) for anyon e to th in k th at th ey can m ake be tte r choi ces th an
eve ry body e ls e . W hat I m ean is th at e ach a nd eve ry a du lt pe rs on s h ou ld be
abl e to de cide for h im - or h ers e lf if h e or sh e is g oi ng to use a ddi cti ve
m ate ria ls ( su bs ta nces) l ik e t oba cco, a lc oh ol, or drugs.
P ol ic y m akers s h ou ld ra th er look a t th e re ason s w hy pe opl e c hoos e to use
a ddi cti ve s u bs ta n ces. R estr ic ti n g th e u se of a s u bs ta nce h as n eve r be en a n
effe cti ve de te rre nt. F or e xam pl e, th e pr oh ibi ti on l a w s du rin g th e 1920s i n th e
U S a gain st th e u se of a lc oh ol pr ove d to have th e oppos ite e ffe ct for w hic h
th ey w ere de sig ned and were for th at re ason su bs equ entl y re m ove d
(a bol is h ed) .
That c hildr en h ave to be pr otecte d again st ru th le ss a nd gre edy e le m ents in
ou r soc ie ty is a pr in cipl e th at is genera lly accept ed in all civi liz e d
com muniti e s. For e xam pl e, th e pr in cipl es on w hic h th e la w s c on cern in g th e
sa le of toba cco to childr en a re b ase d sh ou ld diffe r c on side ra bl y fr om th os e
appl ie d ( perta in in g) t o a dults . ( 185 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

I h ave di sc usse d th e is su e in te rm s of fr e edom of c hoi ce, re str ic ti n g la w s,
a nd th e s pe cia l s itu ati on of c hildr en. It s h ou ld be c le ar, in c on clu sion , th at
th is is a c om plex is su e w ith m any u nansw ere d (u nre sol ve d) qu esti on s. (35
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 258)
A LT ER NAT IV E V IE W
Toba cco is a dr ug, and it h as b een pr ove n th at it is da ngerou s to pe opl e’s
h ealth . For exam pl e, it has be en fou nd beyon d any dou bt th at sm ok in g
cig are tte s is on e of th e m ain c on tr ibu ti n g fa ctor s c ausin g h eart d is e ase s lik e
cardi ac a rre st. N ow i t i s g enera ll y a ccept ed th at s m ok in g c ause s l u ng c ancer
and e mph yse m a.

6.4 3 S TU DEN TS B EFO RE C O LLE G E
Som e peop le belie ve th at stu dents w ho wan t to go to col le ge af te r
gr ad uat in g fr om h igh s c h ool s h ou ld e it h er s p end ab out on e y ear d oi ng a
job to ob tai n som e w or k e xp erie nce or tr ave l to enlar ge th eir w or ld
vi sion . D o Ru agree or dis agr ee?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Lim ite d expe rie nce a nd vision a re c om mon a m on g c ol le ge s tu de nts . In th is
e ssa y, im matu rity , la ck of g oa ls , and hig h c os ts a re m enti on ed as r e ason s w hy
th e p re se nt s itu ati on (s ta tu s qu o) c annot be a ccept ed (tol era te d) a ny lon ger.
( 32 w ords )
BO DY
Stu de nts in g enera l a re sti ll ve ry im matu re w hen th ey g ra du ate fr om h ig h
sc hool a nd have n ot le arn ed to w or k on th eir ow n (be in de pende nt) . For
exam pl e, t hey a re m ore i nte re ste d i n pl ayin g c om pute r g am es t han s tu dy in g.
W hen g ra du ati n g fr om h ig h s c hool , m any s tu de nts h ave n o ide a w hat c are ers
th ey w ill w ant to fol low . T hey a re u nfa m ilia r w ith th e di ffe re nt c are ers th at
are a va ila bl e a nd what c erta in jobs a re a bou t (in vol ve). It m eans th at th ey
stu dy w ith ou t g oa ls , and by th e ti m e th ey g ra du ate , th ey of te n r e ali z e th at th ey
are n ot qu alifie d ( su ite d) for the j obs that t hey w ould t hen l ik e t o do.
T he c os t of k eepi ng a s tu de nt a t c ol le ge i s h ig h, and we c annot a ffor d to have
stu de nts w ho a re i m matu re a nd h ave no l ong-te rm goa ls . F or insta nce, w hen a
stu de nt fa ils a n e xam or c hanges h is or h er m ajor , a lot of m on ey th at c ou ld
be be tte r u se d ( for m ore u se fu l pu rpos es) i s l os t.
T ra ve lin g or doi ng a j ob (be in g e m pl oy ed) f or a y ear be for e g oi ng to col le ge
w ill re du ce th e above -m enti on ed probl em s. Tra ve lin g w ill w ide n th e
stu de nts ’ vi sion , and t hey w ill l earn t o be inde pende nt, w hile a job w ill t each
th em som e di sc ipl in e. ( 186 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

In sh or t, I h ave se en th at m or e-m atu re stu de nts w ith c le ar g oa ls w ill sa ve
cou ntr ie s a lot of m on ey a nd re sou rc es. I th ere for e c on clu de th at stu de nts
s h ou ld tr a ve l or w or k for a t le ast a y ear be for e e nrol lin g a t a c ol le ge. (39
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 257)
A LT ER NAT IV E V IE W
W hen gra du ati n g fr om hig h sc hool , stu de nts are fa m ilia r w ith th e stu dy
envi ron ment a nd rou ti n e. If th ey a re for ced to go and wor k for a y ear, th is
r ou ti n e w ill be br ok en, and stu de nts m ig ht not w ant to re tu rn to a stu dy
envi ron ment.

6.4 4 C O UNTR Y A ND C IT Y
There is a huge gap in t h e s tan dar d of livi ng in t h e r u ral ar eas an d in t h e
cit ie s. W hat ar e th e re as on s for th is in Ru r cou ntr " How can th e
dif fe re nce b e r educe d?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Toda y 60 perc ent of th e w or ld’ s popu la ti on live s in c iti e s. In th is e ssa y, I
w ill l oo k a t m on ey m ade ( g enera te d) a nd gove rn m ent s pe ndi ng a s r e ason s f or
th is ph enom enon a nd at de centr a liz a ti on a s a pos sibl e w ay to re du ce th e g ap.
(38 w ords )
BO DY
Rura l a re as c on sis t m ain ly of fa rm in g c om muniti e s th at a re u su ally n ot ve ry
ric h. In th e citi e s, how eve r, sh ops (c om merc e) and fa ctor ie s (in du str y )
genera te la rg e am ou nts of m on ey. M anufa ctu rin g in du str ie s, for exam pl e,
change (c on vert) ra w m ate ria ls in to produ cts th at are sol d all ove r th e
cou ntr y a nd are e ve n e xpor te d to other c ou ntr ie s. T he s a la rie s of th e w or kers
a re spe nt in th e city , and th e pr ofits genera te d are use d to expa nd th e
bu sin ess, e nla rg in g t he c ity f urth er.
A s a r e su lt of th e a bove , nati on al, pr ovi ncia l, and loc al g ove rn m ents s pe nd
m or e m on ey on th e fa ciliti e s (in fr a str u ctu re ) in th e citi e s th an in th e
cou ntr y side . Tra nspor ta ti on s y ste m s, for e xam pl e, have to de al (c ope ) w ith
th e de mand s et by the i ndu str ie s i n t he c ity .
T he g ap c an be re du ced by m ea ns of a pr oc ess c alle d de centr a liz a ti on . It
m eans th at acti vi ti e s th at are now centr a liz e d in th e citi e s are spr ead
(di str ibu te d) m ore w ide ly th rou ghou t a re gion . The gove rn m ent can give
in centi ve s to in du str ie s if th ey a re pr epa re d to move ou t of th e c ity . For
in sta nce, ava ila b le l a nd can be g ive n to th em on th e c on diti on th at th ey bu ild
fa ctor ie s on it a nd e mpl oy loc al pe opl e. ( 182 w ords )
We h ave s e en th a t m on ey g enera te d and spe nt by th e a uth or iti e s is th e m ain
r e ason for u rba niz a ti on a nd th at by s ta rti n g ( pr om otin g) de centr a liz a ti on , th e

proc ess c an be reve rs e d.
C O NCLU SIO N
In c on clu sion , it c an be s a id th at th e s itu ati on c ou ld be c hanged. (39 wor ds )
(T ot al w ords : 259)
A LT ER NAT IV E V IE W
It de pends on h ow standar d of l iv ing i s de fin ed. The a bove e ssa y w as ba se d
on th e assu m pt ion th at sta nda rd of livi ng is de fin ed in m ate ria lis ti c and
m on ey ( m on eta ry ) te rm s. H ow eve r, sta nda rd of l ivi ng c an a ls o be de fin ed in
te rm s of th e e m ot ion al, ph ysic al, and soc ia l qu ality of life . For e xam pl e, in
th e c ou ntr y side , there i s l ess pol lu ti on , str e ss, a nd c rim e t han i n t he c iti e s.

6.4 5 C O M PU TER E D UCATIO N
The c om pute r is w id el use d in e ducat ion tod ay. Som e p eop le b elie ve
th at te ac hers w ill n ot p la an im por tan t rol e in th e clas sroom in th e
fu tu re . T o w hat ext ent d o Ru agree or dis agr ee?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Lik e many other jobs (pr ofession s), edu cati on is bou nd to change
dr am ati c ally i n th e f u tu re . C om pute rs r e pl acin g te achers w ill be di sc usse d in
te rm s of th e a dva nta ges of c om pute rs a nd th e r e ason s w hy f e w er pe opl e th in k
of (con side r) a teachin g c are er. ( 37 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, it s h ou ld be m enti on ed th at a c om pute r is a ty pe of r obot . It h as m any
adva nta ges th at c ou ld be u se d (u ti liz e d) in c la ssroom s itu ati on s. To be m or e
spe cific , com pute rs do not h ave to be tr a in ed at g re at c os t. A s soon a s a
pr og ra m h as be en w ritte n, th e s o ftw are c an be c opi ed to as m any pl aces a s
w e w ant. C om pute rs do not g et ti r e d (e xhauste d) a nd do not n eed to ta ke a
va cati on . T his m akes th em ve ry c os t e ffe cti ve . T hey a re n ot m oody on s om e
days a nd br ig ht- e y ed and bu sh y-ta ile d on ot hers . In a ddi ti on , th ey do not n eed
food ( nou ris h m ent) , h ousin g ( sh elte r), c lot hes, a nd s o on .
Secon d, we h ave to ta ke n ot e th at for m any re ason s, fe w er pe opl e w ant to
be com e te achers toda y. T his is pa rti c ula rly s o in th e c ase of m en ( m ale s). It
is s a id, for e xam pl e, th at te achers do not r e ceive g ood (s a ti s fa ctor y) s a la rie s
(c om pensa ti on /r e m unera ti on ) a nd in ste ad look for ot her jobs (o ccupa ti on s)
w here th e y a re a bl e to earn m uch m or e. In a ddi ti on , be cause of th e c hangin g
atti tu de of stu de nts t ow ard di sc ipl in e, t he w orkin g e nvi ron ment i n t he s chool s
is be com in g l e ss a ttr a cti ve . In s o m e c ou ntr ie s, te achers n ow ada ys do not f e el
sa fe i n t he c la ssroom at a ll. ( 189 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

I tou ched on th e a dva nta ges of c om pute rs a nd th e r e ason s for fe w er pe opl e
choos in g e du cati on a s a c are er. T his l e ads u s to con clu de th at c o m pu te rs a re
de fin ite ly goi ng to play an im por ta nt rol e in edu cati on in th e fu tu re . (38
w or ds ) ( Tot al w ords : 264)
A LT ER NAT IV E V IE W
Com pute rs w ill n eve r be a bl e to re pl ace c on venti on al te achers . Teachin g is
a n e xtr e m ely h um an a cti vi ty . The pe rs on al tou ch is a bs olute ly n ecessa ry in
m any te a chin g situ ati on s. For exam pl e, w hen stu dy in g a fa m ou s pl ay, th e
te acher w ill s ti m ula te th e s tu de nts w ith h is or h er pe rs on al vi ew s a nd guide
th e s tu de nts s o t hat t hey a re a bl e t o de velop t heir ow n vi ew s.

6.4 6 L O SS O F C ULT U RES
W hat ar e th e re as on s w h we ar e los in g a var ie t of lan guage s an d
cu lt u re s i n t he w orld t od a?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
In m any c ou ntr ie s, m in or ity g rou ps a re s w allow ed up (be in g in c or por ate d /
assim ila te d) by ot her soc ie ti e s. Let us look at th re e re aso ns w hy th e
la nguages a nd c ultu re s of these s m alle r g rou ps are di sa ppe arin g. ( 28 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, sm alle r grou ps cannot m ain ta in th em se lve s again st ric her soc ie ti e s.
T he w ealth y de te rm in e th e la ngu age a nd cultu re in w hic h bu sin ess is don e,
and th is s pr eads to all s ph ere s of da ily life . For e xam pl e, N ati ve A meric ans
have be en assim ila te d in to th e C aucasia n soc ie ty of th e U S, and th eir
la nguage a nd a re i s s low ly bu t s ure ly di sa ppe arin g.
S econ d, as pe opl e m ove ou t of th e c ou ntr y side a nd be com e m or e u rba niz e d,
th ey te nd to los e th eir cultu ra l ide nti ty . For in sta nce, th e A bor ig in es of
A ustr a lia a re m ovi ng fr om th e O utba ck (re m ot e se m ide se rt a re as) in to th e
citi e s i n s e arc h o f e m pl oy ment a nd a be tte r l ife . H ere th ey l e arn th e l a nguage
of th e w hite s i n or de r to su rvi ve , and la te r th eir c hildr en g o to white s c hool s
and be com e c om plete ly a lie nate d f rom their l anguage a nd c ultu re .
L astl y , as th e m em be rs of th ese sm all com muniti e s are accep te d in to th e
la rg er c o m muniti e s, th ey u su ally s ta rt to in te rm arry w ith m em be rs of th ese
la rg er c om muniti e s a nd so gra du ally di sa ppe ar a s a n ati on . The pos iti on of
th e F le m is h c om munity i n H ol la n d cou ld be m enti on ed as a pos sibl e e xam pl e
of this pr ocess. ( 174 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
This e ssa y h as a tte m pt ed to sh ow th at w ealth , urba niz a ti on , and in te rm arria ge
are th re e re ason s for c ultu re s a nd la nguages di sa ppe arin g. B ut it h as to be

sa id, in con clu sion , th at th ere are m any ot her fa ctor s th at have to be
con side re d. ( 38 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 240)
A LT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH S
One of th e “ bu zz w or ds ” u se d mor e a nd mor e toda y is gl obal iz at ion . It is
de fin ed as “th e in te gra ti on and de moc ra ti z a ti on of th e w or ld’ s cultu re s,
e con om ie s, and in fr a str u ctu re th rou gh tr a nsn ati on al in ve stm ent, ra pi d
pr olife ra ti on of c om munic ati on a nd in for mati on te chnol og ie s, and th e im pa ct
of fr e e-m ark et for ces on loc al, re gion al, and nati on al e con om ie s.” P er th e
de fin iti on , globa liz a ti on is r espon sibl e f or a va rie ty of languages a nd c ultu re s
di sa ppe arin g of f t he f ace of the e arth .

6.4 7 N ATU RAL F E ATU RES
Som e p eop le b elie ve th at on e’s ch ar ac te r is fixe d b nat ure . O th ers
b elie ve it is ac cu m ulat ed d urin g th e gr ow th p roc ess. W hat v ie w d o Ru
su ppor t?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Each a nd e ve ry pe rs on is u niqu e. T here h as n eve r be en, and neve r w ill be ,
anot her pe rs on l ik e y ou or m e a ga in . In th is e ssa y, I w ill s h ow th at to answ er
th is qu esti on , we have to disti n guis h be tw een ph ysic al and other
chara cte ris ti c s. ( 41 w ords )
BO DY
In th e f ir s t pl ace, w e h ave to know th at ou r g enes, w hic h w e i n herit f r om ou r
pare nts , de te rm in e ou r ph ysic al c hara cte ris ti c s. E xclu di ng c os meti c s u rg ery ,
th ere is n o way th at w e c an c hange th ese fe atu re s. M any pe opl e, espe cia lly
w om en, fin d it h ard to accept th is fa ct. For e xam pl e, som e w om en spe nd
cou ntl e ss ( in fin ite ) a m ou nts of m on ey, ti m e, and effor t i n a n a tte m pt to change
th eir ph ysic al f e atu re s, and eve n m or e s o as s oon a s th ey be com e ol de r ( s ta rt
to age). M any o f u s, how eve r, sim pl y a ccept a n u nusu al (pe culia r) fe atu re
lik e a larg e n os e, s hor t l egs, a nd s o on and c arry on with ou r l ive s.
O ur e th ic al a nd soc ia l c hara cte r, h ow eve r, can be c hanged du rin g th e g row th
pr oc ess. W e u su ally r e fe r to it a s “ grow in g u p” or “ be com in g m atu re .” F or
in sta nce, as w e g row ol de r w e le arn to ada pt to ou r c ir c um sta n ces, and th e
pe opl e w e h ave to live a nd wor k w ith . T his i s i n c on tr a st to a ba by, w ho has
not l e arn ed to co nside r ot hers a nd is on ly w or rie d (c on cern ed) a bou t i ts ow n
needs . Som e pe opl e neve r de ve lop th eir chara cte r and re m ain se lfis h
(e goc entr ic ) h um an be in gs a ll t heir l ive s. ( 182 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
To su m m ariz e , I h ave look ed at ph ysic al fe atu re s a nd other c hara cte ris ti c s
and have re ached th e con clu sion th at th e fir s t on e (for mer) cannot be

changed, while th e la st (la tte r) is usu ally changed durin g th e m atu ra ti on
pr oc ess. ( 33 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 256)
N O TE
In h is book The F ou r T em peram ent T he ory , A meric an a uth or T im L aH ay
m akes t he f ol low in g di sti n cti on s:
C har acte r : T he s e t of e th ic al a nd soc ia l pr in cipl es th at y ou a cqu ir e
fr om di ffe re nt sou rc es, lik e you r pa re nts , te achers , unive rs ity
l e ctu re rs , ol der pe opl e, a nd f rie nds , or develop y ours e lf.
P ersonal ity : T he s oc ia l m ask th at w e w ear ove r th is c om binati on of
te m pe ra m ent a nd chara cte r a nd sh ow to th e w or ld in ou r e ve ry da y
live s.
T em pe ram ent : T he se t of tr a its (fe atu re s) th at you are bor n w ith .
T hese tr a its are de te rm in ed by you r genes, whic h you hav e
in herite d fr om y ou r pa re nts . T hey i n clu de ph ysic al f e atu re s l ik e th e
col or of you r eyes, hair, and sk in and em ot ion al fe atu re s lik e
te m pe r.

6.4 8 R ETIR EM EN T
Com pan ie s s h ou ld e ncou rage t h eir s e nior s taf f t o re tir e at ag e f if t- five
in o rd er to give m or e op por tu nit ie s to th e Ru nge r ge nerat ion . D o Ru
agr ee or dis agr ee?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Afte r s p endi ng m os t of y ou r a du lt l ife w or kin g, th e de cis ion to re ti r e i s n ot a n
easy one. Rele va nt fa ctor s lik e cor por ate move ment, te chnol og y
developm ent, a nd dr eam s w ill be look ed a t i n t his e ssa y. ( 33 w ords )
BO DY
To sta rt, w e s h ou ld th in k of ( c on side r) th e f a ct th at e ve ry y ear m or e a nd mor e
stu de nts are gra du ati n g and loo kin g for jobs (e nte rin g th e la b or m ark et) .
W hen pe opl e re ti r e at th e age of six ty or six ty -five th ey are bl oc kin g
(re str ic ti n g) y ou ngste rs fr om e nte rin g th e m ark et. That is to sa y, eve ry on e
wor kin g for th at pe rs on ( ju nior ) h as to wait s o much lon ger be for e th ey a re
a bl e t o m ove up t he c or por ate l adde r.
S econ d, we have to re m em be r th at te chnol og y is changin g at an eve r-
in cre asin g pa ce. I f a pe rs on has n ot be en s tu dy in g a cti ve ly du rin g h is w orkin g
life , his or h er k n ow le dg e w ill be c om plete ly ou tda te d at a ge fif ty -five . For
in sta nce, t he t im e t o de velop a new type (genera ti on ) of com pute rs i s r edu ced
all th e ti m e. The m em be rs of th e y ou nger g enera ti on in a n or ganiz a ti on or
c om pany a re u su ally f am ilia r w ith t hese de velopm ents .
L astl y , at th e age of fifty -five , em pl oy ees have had enou gh (s u ffic ie nt)
oppor tu nity to re aliz e th eir dr eam s or fu lfill th eir a m bi ti on s a nd sh ou ld be
con te nt w ith w hat th ey h ave a chie ve d. For in sta nce, on e sh ou ld re ally n ot
sta rt c hasin g (pu rs u in g) a n ew dr eam a t th is a ge or h ave m any u nfu lfille d
am bi ti on s. ( 180 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N

I h ave di sc usse d th e qu esti on by m enti on in g (re fe rrin g to) m ove ment in th e
cor por ate s tr u ctu re , new te chnol og y, and dr eam s a nd am bi ti on s. F rom th is , it
c an be c on clu de d th at it w ou ld be ve ry g ood (a dva nta geou s) if pe opl e w ere
to r eti r e a t a ge f ifty -five . (38 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 251)

6.4 9 E Q UAL N UM BER O F S TU DEN TS P ER S U BJE C T
Unive rsit ie s s h ou ld ac ce pt e qual n um bers of m ale an d f e m ale s tu dents in
e ve rs ubje ct. D o Ru agree or dis agr ee?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Terti a ry i n sti tu ti o ns w or ldw ide a re a fr a id of be in g a ccuse d of di sc rim in ator y
practi c es a nd th ere for e a re c on side rin g th e a bove qu esti on . In th is e ssa y, I
w ill foc us on th e su bj ects and in du str ie s in vol ved and th e ove rridi ng
pr in cipl e. ( 34 w ords )
BO DY
Fir s t, I be lie ve th e a nsw er to th is qu esti on w ill de pend on th e pa rti c ula r
su bj ect in vol ved. To be m or e spe cific , w hen ta lk in g a bou t a su bj ect lik e
nurs in g, it w ou ld be a dvi sa bl e to accept m or e fe m ale th an m ale stu de nts .
T ra di ti on ally , it h as be en a ccept abl e for fe m ale n urs e s to atte nd to male a s
w ell a s f em ale pa ti e nts . T his c annot be said of male n urs e s.
S econ d, we s h ou ld con side r w hat th e n eeds of th e pa rti c ula r in du str ie s a re .
F or e xam pl e, in th e in for mati on te chnol og y in du str y , gende r s h ou ld not be a
fa ctor , bu t in th e c on str u cti on in d ustr y , th ere m ig ht be s om e jobs th at a re n ot
su ita bl e f or f e m ale s. In W este rn c ultu re s toda y, th is i s n ot a popu la r vi ew , as
th e f em ale s t here be lie ve that t here i s n o j ob t hat t hey a re n ot abl e t o do.
L astl y , I be lie ve th at th e ove rrid in g pr in cipl e s h ou ld be th at th e g ende r of a
s tu de nt c a n n eve r be a r e ason to di sc rim in ate a gain st a ny s tu de nt e ve r. T hat i s
to sa y, as fa r a s it is pr acti c ally pos sibl e, a s tu de nt s h ou ld be a bl e to de cide
w hat s ubj ect h e or she w is h es t o s tu dy . (181 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
It w as s h ow n th a t th e s u bj ect a n d th e in du str y h ave to be c on side re d in th is
m atte r. T hat e qu al n um be rs of m ale a nd fe m ale s tu de nts a re n ot g oi ng to be
pr acti c al is th e on ly con clu sion th at can be re ached. (38 wor ds ) (T ot al
w or ds : 253)

ALT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH
In som e cou ntr ie s, certa in su bj ects lik e m ath em ati c s, for exam pl e, are
u npopu la r a mon g s tu de nts . T here of te n a re n ot suffic ie nt s tu de nts w ho w ant t o
enrol l in th ese s u bj ects . O ne of th e re su lts is th at th ere a re n ot a s u ffic ie nt
num be r of tr a in ed te achers in th ese s u bj ects . It is m y opi nion th at in c ase s
lik e th ese , all th e a va ila bl e s tu de nts w anti n g to enrol l h ave to be a ccept ed
ir re spe cti ve of their g ende r.

6.5 0 M USEU M S
What ar e t h e p urp os es of p lac es s u ch as m use um s an d gal le rie s, an d h ow
sh ou ld t heb e f unded?
IN TR O DUCTIO N
M use um s, his to ric al site s, cla ssic al art and music , and so on have no
fin ancia l be nefits i n ou r s oc ie ty . In th is e ssa y, I w ill f oc us on th e i m por ta nce
of root s a nd t he da ngers of technol og y. ( 33 w ords )
BO DY
It is in m use um s a nd at h is tor ic al s ite s th at w e a re r e m in de d of ou r h is tor y.
H is tor y i s th e w ay i n w hic h w e k eep in c on ta ct w ith ou r r oot s, w hic h i n tu rn
pr ovi des u s w ith a s e nse of be lo ngin g. T hen l ife a nd th e f u tu re be com e m or e
meanin gfu l. For e xam pl e, w hen pe opl e k now th e h is tor y of th eir c ou ntr y a nd
nati on , th ey have a be tte r unde rs ta ndi ng of th eir pr ese nt situ ati on . They
unde rs ta nd th at th ey are pa rt of som eth in g th at is m uch gre ate r th an
th em se lve s.
M ode rn te chnol og y i s r a pi dly r e pl acin g th e th in gs th at w ere i m por ta nt to ou r
soc ie ti e s i n th e pa st. T ra di ti on s a nd custom s a re di sa ppe arin g a t a n a la rm in g
ra te . That is to sa y, cra fts a nd art for ms a re be in g pr acti c ed by fe w er a nd
fe w er pe opl e.
T o main ta in m use um s a nd th e l ik e r e qu ir e s m on ey. G ove rn m ents s h ou ld make
it on e of th eir pr ior iti e s to pr ovi de th e fu nds for th e m ain te nance of e xis ti n g
pl aces a nd for de velopi ng n ew on es. For in sta nce, re se arc h in to th e pa st
sh ou ld be g oi ng on . In th is w ay, m or e in for mati on a bou t ou r h is tor y c an be
g ath ere d a nd s hare d w ith t he pu blic . ( 179 w ords )
CO NCLU SIO N
Aspe cts su ch a s ou r ba ckgrou nd , th e e ffe ct of m ode rn te chnol ogy, and th e
fu ndi ng of m use um s have be en de alt w ith in th is essa y. This le ads us to

con clu de th at s om e of th e ta xpa yers ’ m on ey s h ou ld be u se d for th is w or th y
cause . ( 40 w ords ) ( Tot al w ords : 252)
A LT ER NAT IV E P A R AG RAPH
M em be rs of th e you nger genera ti on are be com in g le ss in te re ste d in and
enth usia sti c a bou t c ele br ati n g th e tr a di ti on al fe sti va ls of th eir c u ltu re s. T hey
are in flu enced by W este rn cultu re s and are be com in g m or e in te re ste d in
W este rn fe sti va ls lik e C hris tm as, Hallow een, and Vale nti n e’s D ay. W hen
you ng pe opl e a re ta ken to pl aces l ik e m use um s, it w ill h elp to in sti ll i n th em
a pr ide for w hat i s t heir s .

7 M ORE T O PIC S
Not e: O n th e IE LT S te st sh eet, th e fol low in g in str u cti on a ppe ars a fte r th e
topi c is give n: G iv e re as ons for your ans wer and inc lude any re le vant
exam ples fr om your ow n know le dge or expe rie nc e. Write at le as t 250
w or ds .
7.1 A DVER TIS IN G
1. Toda y th e h ig h s a le s of popu la r c on su m er g oods r e fle ct th e po wer of
a dve rti s in g a nd not th e re al n eeds of th e soc ie ty in w hic h th ey a re
s ol d. T o what e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
2. Som e pe opl e s a y th at a dve rti s in g e ncou ra ges u s to bu y th in gs th at w e
re ally do not n e ed. Oth ers s a y th at a dve rti s e m ents te ll u s a bou t n ew
pr odu cts th at m ay im pr ove ou r live s. W hic h vi ew poi nt do you a gre e
w ith ?
3. In a r e cent s u rve y c on ducte d in th is c ou ntr y , it w as f ou nd th at u p to 20
pe rc ent of tw elve -y ear-ol ds in som e sc hool s w ere sh ow in g early
s ig ns of nic ot in e addi cti on . In th e eig hte en- to tw enty -y ear age
br acket, th e pe rc enta ge w as as hig h as 70 perc ent. A la rg e
con tr ibu ti n g f a ctor to th is h ig h l e ve l of a ddi cti on w as a ttr ibu te d to th e
uncensor ed TV a dve rti s in g of c ig are tte s. F or th is r e ason , all c ig are tte
a dve rti s in g s hou ld be banned. D is c uss.
7 .2 A NIM ALS
1. Zoos are som eti m es se en as necessa ry bu t poor alte rn ati ve s to a
natu ra l e nvi ron ment. D is c uss s o m e of th e a rg um ents for a nd again st
k eepi ng a nim als i n z oos .
2. Wild anim als h ave n o place in th e tw enty -fir s t c entu ry , and tr y in g to
pr ese rve th ese a nim als i s a w aste of r e sou rc es. T o what e xte nt do y ou
agre e or disa gre e?
3. Anim als a ls o h ave e m ot ion s a nd fe el pa in e qu al to th at of h um ans.
T here for e w e sh ou ld stop pharm aceuti c al com panie s fr om doi ng
tr ia ls on innoc ent a nim als . D o you agre e or disa gre e?
4. I s a nim al t esti n g n ecessa ry ? G ive you r opi nion w ith s om e e xam pl es.

5. To w hat e xte nt i s th e u se of a nim als i n s c ie nti fic r e se arc h a ccept abl e?
A nsw er t he qu esti on w ith s om e e xam pl es.
6. Are ou r z oos c ru el to wild anim als ? A nsw er th e qu esti on i n th e f or m
of an e ssa y.
7 .3 B EH AVIO R
1. In m any cou ntr ie s, sc hool s have se ve re pr obl em s w ith stu de nt
be havi or. W hat do you th in k a re th e c ause s of th is ? W hat s ol uti on s
can y ou suggest?
2. Anti s oc ia l be havi or h as in cre ase d in re cent y ears . Peopl e g enera lly
be lie ve that s oc ie ty i s t o bl am e. W hat do y ou thin k t he c ause s a re , a nd
w ho i s r espon sibl e f or this ?
3. School s and pare nts sh ou ld ta ke th e re spon sibi lity to in tr odu ce
“rig ht” or “ w ron g” be havi or to you ng pe opl e. To what e xte nt do you
agre e or disa gre e?
7 .4 B O OKS
1. It h as be en s a id th at “ not e ve ry th in g th at is le arn ed is c on ta in ed in
book s.” C om pare and con tr a st know le dg e gain ed fr om expe rie nce
w ith k now le dg e g ain ed fr om boo ks. In y ou r opi nion , w hic h s ou rc e i s
m or e i m por ta nt? W hy?
2. Will m ode rn te chnol og y s u ch a s th e i n te rn et e ve r r e pl ace th e book or
th e w ritt e n w or d as th e m ain sou rc e of in for mati on ? E xpl ain y ou r
view in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
3. Mode rn te chnol og y i s m akin g th in gs e asily a va ila bl e. T he i n te rn et h as
pr ovi ded us w ith dow nloa dable ve rs ion s of m os t of th e book s w e
need. Can th e in te rn et re pl ace th e w or ld of book s? G ive y ou r ow n
view s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
7 .5 C ELE B RIT IE S
1. Succe ssfu l spor ts pr ofession als c an e arn a g re at de al m or e m on ey
th an pe opl e in ot her im por ta nt pr ofession s. Som e pe opl e th in k th is is
fu lly ju sti fie d, while ot hers th in k it is u nfa ir. D is c uss bot h vi ew s a nd
give you r ow n opi nion .

2. “P rof ession al s por ts m en a nd wom en g ive m illion s of pe opl e a g re at
de al of pl easu re a nd fu lly de se rve th e e xtr e m ely h ig h sa la rie s th ey
earn .” D o y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
3. Shou ld cele br iti e s l ik e s por ts a nd ente rta in m ent pe rs on aliti e s be pa id
m or e th an ot her pr ofession als lik e doc tor s a nd arc hite cts ? S ta te y ou r
opi nion .
4. Are fa m ou s pe opl e tr e ate d unfa ir ly by th e m edi a? S hou ld th ey be
g ive n m or e pr iva cy, or i s th e pr ic e of th eir f a m e a n i n va sion i n to th eir
pr iva te l ive s? G ive you r vi ew s i n n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
7.6 C HANG E
1. Som e pe opl e pr efe r to spe nd th eir live s doi ng th e s a m e th in gs a nd
avoi ding c hange. O th ers , how eve r, th in k th at c hange i s a lw ays a g ood
th in g. D is c uss bot h vi ew s a nd g ive you r opi nion .
2. If y ou w ere g ive n th e pow er to change a nyth in g, w hat c hanges w ou ld
y ou im ple m ent in th is c entu ry to m ake ou r w or ld a be tte r pl ace to
l ive ? D is c uss a few changes i n n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
3. “F unda menta l c hanges a re ta kin g pl ace in th e s tr u ctu re a nd habi ts of
A sia n f a m ilie s.” D o you th in k th is s ta te m ent i s tr u e, and if s o, do you
th in k i t i s be nefic ia l or de tr im enta l t o f am ily m em be rs ?
4. Recent a dva nc em ents in te chnol og y h ave le d to many c hanges in ou r
daily liv es, bu t s om e pe opl e w ou ld arg ue th at w e a re be com in g too
de pende nt on te chnol og y a nd th at n ot a ll th ese c hanges a re be nefic ia l.
G ive you r opi nion and s uppor t y ou r a rg um ent.
7 .7 C HIL D REN
1. In m any de velopi ng c ou ntr ie s, childr en w or k i n s om e f or m or a not her
to brin g in n ecessa ry in com e fr om a n e arly a ge. In th e fir s t w or ld,
m any pe opl e th in k th is is da magin g and wron g, bu t ot hers w ou ld
a rg ue th at th eir w or k br in gs th em a s e nse of c on tr ibu ti n g, be lon gin g,
and r espon sibi lity . W hat i s y ou r opi nion ?
2. Childr en ove r fifte en y ears of a ge s h ou ld be a llow ed to make th eir
ow n de cis ion s w ith ou t a ny in te rfe re nce fr om th eir pa re nts . D o you
agre e or disa gre e?
3. It i s g enera lly be lie ve d th at s o m e pe opl e a re bor n w ith c erta in ta le nts
—f or in sta nce, for s por ts or m usic —a nd others a re n ot . H ow eve r, it

is s o m eti m es c la im ed th at a ny c hild can be ta ught to be com e a g ood
spor ts p ers on or m usic ia n. D is c uss bot h vi ew s a nd give y ou r ow n
opi nion .
4. Shou ld clos e r e la ti ve s be i n vol ved in th e e du cati on of c hildr en ? G ive
y ou r opi nion .
5. Now ada ys, childr en pl ay le ss w ith on e anot her, and th is has an
im pa ct on th eir de velopm ent. W hat a re th e r e ason s for th is ? D oe s it
h ave a pos iti ve or negati ve effe ct on childr en?
7 .8 C LIM ATE C HANG E
1. Scie nti s ts a nd th e n ew s m edi a a re pr ese nti n g e ve r m or e e vi de nce of
c lim ate change. Gove rn m ents cannot be expe cte d to sol ve th is
pr obl em . It is th e re spon sibi lity of in di vidu als to change th eir
life sty le t o pr eve nt f urth er da mage. W hat a re y ou r vi ew s?
7 .9 C O M MUNIT Y
1. A c om pany h as a nnou nced th a t i t w is h es to bu ild a l a rg e f a ctor y n ear
you r c om munity . D is c uss th e a dva nta ges a nd disa dva nta ges of th is
n ew in flu ence on you r com munity . Do you su ppor t or oppos e th e
fa ctor y? E xpl ain y ou r pos iti on .
2. The on ly w ay to preve nt ove rc row ding in citi e s is to preve nt
m ig ra ti on from rura l a re as. G ive you r opi nion and vi ew s.
3. The on ly e ffe cti ve w ay to de al w ith u nem pl oy ment is to in tr odu ce
ra pi d u rba niz a ti on . T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
4. To what exte nt w ill m ig ra ti on fr om th e de velopi ng w or ld to th e
de velope d wor ld be com e a s oc ia l a nd pol iti c al is su e in th e tw enty -
fir s t c entu ry ? G ive you r vi ew s i n n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
5. Wor kin g a nd livi ng a br oa d helps u s k now ot her c ultu re s w ell. To
w hat e xte nt do you th in k w or kin g a br oa d has a pos iti ve or n egati ve
im pa ct on our c ultu ra l l ive s?
6. Capi ta l pu nis h m ent is br uta l a nd ba rba ric a nd sh ou ld be a bol is h ed.
G ive you r vi ew s i n n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
7. If y ou w ere g ive n th e pow er to change a nyth in g, w hat c hanges w ou ld
y ou im ple m ent in th is c entu ry to m ake ou r w or ld a be tte r pl ace to
l ive ? D is c uss a few changes i n n o l ess t han 250 w ords .

7.1 0 C O M PU TER S
1. We are be co m in g in cre asin gly de pende nt on com pute rs . They are
u se d in bu sin ess e s, hos pita ls , and crim e de te cti on a nd eve n to fly
pl anes. W hat th in gs w ill th ey be use d for in th e fu tu re ? Is th is
de pende nce on com pute rs a good th in g or sh ou ld we be m or e
su spi ciou s of their be nefits ?
2. Com pute rs c an e asily do all b asic a nd adva nced calc ula ti on s. D o you
th in k you r childr en sh ou ld spe nd mor e ti m e le arn in g ba sic
m ath em ati c s or ra th er le arn adva nced com pute r te chnol og y? G ive
y ou r vi ew s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
3. Com pute rs c an tr a nsla te a ll k in ds of l a nguages w ell. D o ou r c hildr en
need to le arn m or e la nguages or ra th er le arn adva nced com pute r
te chnol og y i n t he f utu re ?
4. Som e pe opl e be lie ve th at c om pute rs a re m or e of a h in dr ance th an a
h elp in toda y’s w or ld. Oth ers fe el th at th ey a re su ch in di spe nsa bl e
tool s th at th ey w ou ld not be a bl e to live or w or k w ith ou t th em . W hat
is y ou r opi nion ?
7.1 1 C REATIV IT Y
1. Cre ati ve a rti s ts s h ou ld be g ive n m or e fr e edom to expr ess th eir ide as
in th e for m of w or ds , pi ctu re s, m usic , or film s, and th e g ove rn m ent
sh ou ld not pl ace a ny r e str ic ti on s on th eir c re ati vi ty . T o what e xte nt do
y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his opi nion ?
2. Do yo u th in k a rti s ts lik e w rite rs , m usic ia ns, and pa in te rs a re s ti ll of
va lu e i n s oc ie ty t oda y? D is c uss a nd s uppor t y ou r opi nion .
3. These da ys, pe opl e pa y m or e a tte nti on to arti s ts (w rite rs , pa in te rs ,
a nd so on ) a nd give le ss a tte nti on to th e im por ta nce of di sc ip lin es
lik e s cie nce a nd t echnol og y. T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
7 .1 2 C RIM E
1. In m any c iti e s, se curity m easu re s s u ch a s th e u se of vi de o cam era s i n
pu blic pl aces a re be in g i n cre ase d in or de r to re du ce c rim e, bu t s om e
peopl e be lie ve th at th ese m easu re s re str ic t ou r in di vidu al fr e edom .
Do t he be nefits of incre ase d s ecurity ou tw eig h t he dr aw ba cks?

2. Crim e r a te s te nd to be h ig her i n c iti e s th an i n s m alle r tow ns. E xpl ain
s om e pos sibl e r eason s f or this t re nd, a nd s uggest s om e s ol uti on s.
3. In m any citi e s, crim e is in cre asin g. W hy do you th in k th is is
h appe nin g? W hat c an g ove rn m ents do t o help r edu ce c rim e l eve ls ?
4. Capi ta l pu nis h m ent i s a br uta l pr acti c e a nd sh ou ld be a bol is h ed. Give
y ou r vi ew s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
5. Shou ld crim in als be pu nis h ed with le ngth y ja il te rm s or re edu cate d
and re habi lita te d usin g com mun ity se rvi ce pr og ra m s, for in sta nce,
be for e be in g r e in tr odu ced to soc ie ty ? G ive y ou r vi ew s i n th e f or m of
a n e ssa y.
6. Shou ld crim in als be s e nt to ja il, or s h ou ld we in ste ad le t th em do
s om eth in g els e as pu nis h m ent. Sta te you r vi ew and give som e
re ason s.
7. Crim in als are se t fr e e on ce th ey fin is h th eir ja il te rm s. Is th e
re in tr odu cti on of c rim in als i n to soc ie ty j u sti fie d? S ta te y ou r vi ew s i n
n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
7.1 3 D IS A BLE D P EO PLE
1. In m os t c ou ntr ie s, di sa bl ed pe opl e a re n ot c ate re d to ade quate ly —f or
exam pl e, bu ildi ngs a re of te n in appr opria te ly de sig ned. Gove rn m ents
r e ly too heavi ly on c hariti e s a nd vol unta ry or ganiz a ti on s to provi de
assis ta nce a nd f undi ng. W hat f urth er m easu re s c ou ld be taken t o a ssis t
di sa bl ed pe ople?
2. There are sti ll m any com panie s th at re fu se to em pl oy dis a bl ed
pe opl e. W hat, i n y ou r vi ew , c ould be done t o s olve this pr obl em ?
7.1 4 E D UCATIO N
1. It i s g enera lly be lie ve d th at s o m e pe opl e a re bor n w ith c erta in ta le nts
—f or in sta nce, for s por ts or m usic —a nd others a re n ot . H ow eve r, it
is s o m eti m es c la im ed th at a ny c hild can be ta ught to be com e a g ood
spor ts p ers on or m usic ia n. D is c uss bot h vi ew s a nd give y ou r ow n
opi nion .
2. Som e pe opl e th in k i t w ou ld be a g ood ide a f or s c hool s to te ach e ve ry
y ou ng pe rs on h ow to be a g ood pare nt. D o you a gre e or di sa gre e w ith
th is opi nion ? D esc ribe the s kills a pe rs on needs to be a good pa re nt.

3. Schoo lc hildr en a re be com in g f a r too depende nt on c om pute rs . T his i s
h avi ng an ala rm in g effe ct on re adi ng and writi n g sk ills . Teachers
n eed to avoi d usin g c om pute rs in th e c la ssroom a t a ll c os ts a nd go
ba ck t o t eachin g ba sic s tu dy skills . D o you agre e or disa gre e?
4. Shou ld de velopi ng c ou ntr ie s pa y m or e a tte nti on to edu cati on or to
i m pr ovi ng bu sin ess sta nda rds ? G ive y ou r vi ew s in th e for m o f a n
essa y.
5. School s and pare nts sh ou ld ta ke th e re spon sibi lity to in tr odu ce
“rig ht” or “ w ron g” be havi or to you ng pe opl e. To what e xte nt do you
agre e or disa gre e?
6. Edu ca ti on is s om eti m es c on side re d to be s om eth in g for y ou th s on ly .
S om e pe opl e, how eve r, con side r edu cati on to be a life lon g ta sk .
W hat is you r opi nion ? G ive re a son s and su ppor t you r ide as w ith
s pe cific e xam pl es.
7. The ide a of g oi ng ove rs e as for c ol le ge s tu dy is a n e xciti n g pr os pe ct
for m any stu de nts . But w hile it m ay of fe r som e adva nta ges, it is
pr oba bly be tte r to sta y a t h om e be cause of th e di ffic ulti e s a s tu de nt
in evi ta bl y e ncou nte rs livi ng a nd stu dy in g in a di ffe re nt c ultu re . To
w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
8. Do th e be ne fits of stu dy in g abr oa d ju sti fy th e di ffic ulti e s? W hat
advi ce w ould y ou of fe r t o a prospe cti ve stu de nt?
9. Child re n s h ou ld be ta ught s e x e du cati on i n s c hool s. G ive y ou r vi ew s
in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
10. Readi ng com ic book s on ly rot s childr en’s m in ds and does not
pr ovi de th em w ith any good edu cati on . How fa r do you agre e or
di sa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
1 1. Edu cati on i s th e s in gle m os t i m por ta nt f a ctor i n th e de velopm ent of a
c ou ntr y . D o you agre e or disa gre e?
12. What a re th e fa ctor s th at a re re la te d to acade mic su ccess in h ig h
sc hool stu de nts ? A nsw er t he qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
13. Edu cati on is re cog niz e d as vi ta l to th e fu tu re of any soc ie ty in
toda y’s w or ld. Gove rn m ents th rou ghou t th e w or ld sh ou ld make
edu cati on c om puls or y for a ll c hildr en be tw een th e a ges of five a nd
fifte en. T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
14. For eig n-la nguage in str u cti on s h ou ld be gin in k in de rg arte n. D is c uss
in t he f or m of an e ssa y.

15. Are z oos n ece ssa ry for e du cati on ? A nsw er th e qu esti on in th e for m
of an e ssa y.
16. Som e pe opl e th in k th at stu d ents sh ou ld atte nd extr a c la sse s a fte r
sc hool . O th ers be lie ve th at th ey s h ou ld be a llow ed to play. D is c uss
bot h s ide s of the a rg um ent a nd g ive you r opi nion .
17. It is g enera lly be lie ve d th at e du cati on is of vi ta l im por ta nce in th e
de velopm ent of i n di vidu als a nd for th e w ell- be in g of s oc ie ti e s. W hat,
i n y o ur opi nion , sh ou ld edu cati o n c on sis t of to fu lfill bot h of th ese
fu ncti on s?
18. Many pe opl e th in k pu blic l ib ra rie s s h ou ld foc us on pr ovi ding book s
and not w aste th eir lim ite d fu nds on e xpe nsive h ig h-te ch m edi a s u ch
as c om pute rs , vi deos, a nd D VD s. S ta te y ou r opi nion in a n e ssa y.
19. Sex e du cati on in s c hool s is on ly in tr odu cin g c on flic ti n g ide as a nd
con fu sion am on g th e im matu re m in ds of stu de nts and sh ou ld be
stoppe d immedi ate ly . G ive you r opi nion in n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
20. In or de r to keep stu de nts m or e foc use d, spor ts c la sse s sh o uld be
stoppe d in h ig h s c hool s. D o you th in k th is w ill be th e be st a ppr oach
for a be tte r g enera ti on ?
21. As m os t pos tg ra du ate re se arc h is fu nde d by in du str ie s, stu de nts ’
g ra nts sh ou ld als o com e fr om th e sa m e sou rc e. H ow m uch do you
agre e w ith t his ? G ive you r vi ew s i n n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
22. Som e pe opl e be lie ve th at on ly pu pils w ith s im ila r in te re sts s h ou ld
be g ive n a dm is sion to pa rti c ula r s c hool s. O th ers a re of th e opi nion
th at s c ho ol s s h ou ld be ope n to all c hildr en w ith va rie d in te re sts . H ow
m uch do y ou a gre e or di sa gre e? G ive y ou r opi nion in n o le ss th an
250 w ords .
7.1 5 E M PLO YM EN T
1. Many pe opl e de cide on a c are er pa th e arly i n th eir l ive s a nd keep to
i t. T his , th ey a rg ue, le ads to a m or e s a ti s fy in g w or kin g life . To what
exte nt do y ou a gre e w ith th is vi ew ? W hat ot her th in gs c an pe opl e do
in or der t o h ave a sati s fy in g w orkin g l ife ?
2. Many pe opl e s a y th at th e on ly w ay to guara nte e g etti n g a g ood j ob is
to com ple te a c ou rs e of c ol le ge e du cati on . O th ers c la im th at it is
be tte r to sta rt w or k a fte r s c hool a nd gain e xpe rie nce in th e w or ld of
wor k. H ow much do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t he a bove view s?

3. Livi ng a nd work in g a br oa d helps u s g et to know ot her c ultu re s be tte r.
T o what exte nt do you th in k w or kin g abr oa d has a pos iti v e or
negati ve im pa ct on our c ultu ra l l ive s?
4. Som e s a y th at ol de r pe opl e o f ove r fifty y ears of a ge s h ou ld re ti r e
a nd be repl aced by you ngste rs . D o you agre e or disa gre e?
5. Is it w is e for a n in du str y to re pl ace its e xpe rie nced bu t ol d wor kers
w ith new and you ng bu t le ss-e xpe rie nced in di vidu als ? G ive you r
view s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
6. Em pl oyees’ s a la rie s a re n ot e nou gh to make th em h appy . B enefits l ik e
health in su ra nce and so on sh ou ld be use d mor e to make th em
happi er. D o you agre e or disa gre e?
7. In th e w or ld toda y, how c an c om panie s k eep th eir e m pl oy ees h appy ?
Expr ess y ou r ide as on h ow sa la ry , health c are , and va cati on s, for
e xam pl e, c an m ake e mpl oy ees h appy .
8. Mon ey is th e on ly m ot iva ti on al fa ctor for s u ccess in a ny w or k fie ld.
H ow much do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
9. Is it g ood for s c hool a nd col le ge s tu de nts to ta ke pa rt in pa rt- ti m e
jobs ? A nsw er t he qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
10. There is an age afte r w hic h on e’s effic ie ncy de cre ase s. You ng
pe opl e s h ou ld re pl ace a ll th e o ld pe opl e in th e w or kpl ace. D o y ou
agre e or disa gre e?
11. In s om e c ou ntr ie s, th e a ve ra ge w or ker i s obl ig ed to re ti r e a t th e a ge
of fi fty , w hile in ot hers , pe opl e c an w or k u nti l th ey a re s ix ty -fiv e or
s e ve nty . U p to what a ge do you th in k pe opl e s h ou ld be e ncou ra ged to
r e m ain i n pa id e mpl oy ment? G ive reason s f or you r a nsw er.
12. Shou ld re ti r e m ent be m ade c om puls or y a t s ix ty -five y ears of a ge?
A nsw er t he qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
13. The on ly e ffe cti ve w ay to de al w ith u nem pl oy ment is to in tr odu ce
ra pi d u rba niz a ti on . T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
14. The te rm te le com mut ing re fe rs to wor kers doi ng th eir jobs fr om
h om e f or pa rt of e ach w eek a nd com munic ati n g w ith th eir of fic e u sin g
com pute rs . Tele com muti n g is grow in g in m any cou ntr ie s and is
e xpe cte d to be com mon for m os t of fic e w or kers in th e com in g
de cade s. H ow do you th in k s oc ie ty w ill be a ffe cte d by th e g row th of
te le com muti n g?
15. Soon pe opl e who cannot wor k with com pute rs will be
disa dva nta ged. To what e xte nt do you a gre e or di sa gre e w ith th is

view ?
16. Ric h c ou ntr ie s sh ou ld not of fe r jobs to sk ille d pe opl e fr om poor
c ou ntr ie s. D o you agre e or disa gre e?
17. Tim e is a n im por ta nt fa ctor in e ve ry fie ld. Do you th in k fol low in g
str ic t ti m e lim its is m or e im por ta nt th an g ivi ng qu ality r e su lts ? G ive
y ou r vi ew s i n n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
18. Mon ey i s th e on ly m ot iva ti on al f a ctor f or s u ccess i n a ny w or k f ie ld.
H ow much do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his ?
7 .1 6 E N VIR O NM EN T
1. For ests a re th e lu ngs of th e e arth . D estr u cti on of th e w or ld’ s for ests
a m ou nts to th e de ath of th e w or ld as w e c urre ntl y k now it. To what
exte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
2. Peopl e’s c hara cte rs a re in flu enced by th eir e nvi ron ment ra th er th an
by their g enes. D o you agre e or disa gre e?
3. To what e xte n t s h ou ld econ om ic pl annin g be in flu enced by th e n eed
for envi ron menta l c on se rva ti on ? G ive reason s f or you r a nsw er.
4. Becau se m os t of th e popu la ti o n in de velopi ng c ou ntr ie s do not h ave
su ffic ie nt food to eat or pl aces to sta y, it is im mate ria l to ta lk a bou t
sa vi ng for ests a s a g estu re in pr otecti n g ou r e nvi ron ment. The a im
s h ou ld be to u ti liz e t he l and f or m axim um food pr oducti on and m akin g
hom es a va ila bl e t o t he h om ele ss. S ta te y ou r opi nion on this m atte r.
5. Dam age to th e envi ron men t is an in evi ta bl e con se qu ence of
w or ldw ide i m pr ove ments i n th e s ta nda rd of l ivi ng of pe opl e. D is c uss
w ith e xam pl es.
6. The r is in g l e v els of c on gesti on a nd air pol lu ti on f ou nd in m os t of th e
w or ld’ s citi e s can be attr ibu te d di re ctl y to th e ra pi dly in cre a sin g
num be r of pr iva te c ars in u se . In or de r to re ve rs e th is de clin e in th e
qu ality o f l ife i n c iti e s, atte m pt s m ust be m ade to encou ra ge pe op le to
u se th eir c ars le ss a nd pu blic tr a nspor ta ti on m or e. D is c uss pos sibl e
ways t o e ncou ra ge t he u se of pu blic t ra nspor ta ti on .
7. Now ada ys, envi ron menta l pr obl em s a re too big to be m anaged by
in di vidu al pe rs on s or in di vidu al c ou ntr ie s. In ot her w or ds , it is a n
in te rn ati on al pr obl em . T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
7 .1 7 F A M IL Y

1. “F unda menta l c hanges a re ta kin g pl ace in th e s tr u ctu re a nd habi ts of
A sia n f a m ilie s.” D o you th in k th is s ta te m ent i s tr u e, and if s o, do you
th in k i t i s be nefic ia l or de tr im enta l t o f am ily m em be rs ?
2. In toda y’s c om peti ti ve w or ld, many f a m ilie s f in d it n ecessa ry f or bot h
pare nts to go out to wor k. W hile som e sa y th e childr en in th ese
fa m ilie s be nefit fr om th e addi ti on al in com e, ot hers fe el th ey la ck
su ppor t be cause of th eir pa re nts ’ abs ence. Dis c uss and give you r
opi nion .
3. In y ou r opi nion , sh ou ld gove rn m ents in te rve ne in th e rig hts of th e
in di vidu al w ith r egard t o f am ily pl annin g?
7 .1 8 F O OD
1. Biot echnol og y c om panie s a ll ove r th e w or ld are de velopi ng di ffe re nt
ty pe s of g eneti c ally m odi fie d crops . H ow eve r, not e nou gh is k now n
abou t th e im pa ct of th ese c rops on ou r h ealth a nd th e e nvi ron ment.
I n te rfe rin g w ith natu re in th is w ay sh ou ld be pr oh ibi te d. To what
exte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
2. The r a nge a nd qu ality of f ood th at w e c an bu y h ave c hanged because
of te chnol og ic al and sc ie nti fic adva nces. Som e pe opl e re gard th is
c hange a s a n im pr ove ment, w hile ot hers be lie ve th at it is h arm fu l.
D is c uss bot h vi ew s a nd g ive you r ow n opi nion .
3. Now ada ys, food has be com e easie r to prepa re . Has th is change
im pr ove d th e w ay pe opl e l ive ? U se s pe cific r e ason s a nd exam pl es to
s u ppor t y ou r a nsw er.
4. A c ou ntr y sh ou ld produ ce a ll th e food th at is re qu ir e d to fe ed its
popu la ti on a nd im por t a s littl e a s pos sibl e. D is c uss th is sta te m ent
sh ow in g w heth er y ou agre e or disa gre e.
5. Toda y’s food tr a ve ls th ou sa nds of m ile s be for e it r e aches c ustom ers .
W hy i s t his ? I s t his a pos iti ve or negati ve tre nd?
6. Hum an be in gs do not n eed to eat m eat in or de r to main ta in g ood
health be cause th ey can get all th eir food needs fr om m eatl e ss
pr odu cts a nd meatl e ss s u bs ta nces. A ve geta ria n di et i s a s h ealth y a s a
di et c on ta in in g m eat. A rg ue f or or again st t he a bove opinion .
7.1 9 F R EED O M

1. Cre ati ve a rti s ts s h ou ld alw ays be g ive n th e fr e edom to expr ess th eir
ow n ide as in w hic heve r w ay th ey w is h , lik e in w or ds , pi ctu re s,
m usic , film , and so on . T here s h o uld be n o gove rn m ent r e str ic ti on s on
w hat th ey do. To what exte nt d o you agre e or di sa gre e w ith th is
opi nion ?
2. Technol og y h as fa cilita te d ou r live s s o much a nd give n u s a lot of
fr e edom . Som e pe opl e, how eve r, be lie ve th at it has cause d mor e
probl em s f or us. W hat i s y ou r opi nion ?
3. In m any c iti e s, se curity m easu re s s u ch a s th e u se of vi de o cam era s i n
pu blic pl aces a re be in g i n cre ase d in or de r to re du ce c rim e, bu t s om e
peopl e be lie ve th at th ese m easu re s re str ic t ou r in di vidu al fr e edom .
Do t he be nefits of incre ase d s ecurity ou tw eig h t he dr aw ba cks?
7 .2 0 G EN DER
1. To what e xte n t h as th e tr a di ti on al m ale r ol e c hanged in th e l a st tw enty
y ears ? A nsw er t he qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
2. Many pe opl e be lie ve th at w om en m ake be tte r pa re nts th an m en a nd
th at th is is w hy th ey h ave a g re ate r rol e in ra is in g c hildr en in m os t
soc ie ti e s. Oth ers cla im th at m en are ju st as good as w om en at
pa re nti n g. Write an essa y expr essin g you r poi nt of vi ew . Give
r e ason s f or you r a nsw er.
3. Mos t hig h-le ve l jobs are don e by m en. Shou ld th e gove rn m ent
encou ra ge a s y ste m w here by a c erta in pe rc enta ge of th ese jobs w ill
be rese rve d f or w om en? G ive you r vi ew s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
7 .2 1 G LO BALIZ A TIO N
1. As mass com munic ati on and tr a nspor ta ti on con ti n ue to grow ,
soc ie ti e s are be com in g mor e and mor e alik e, le adi ng to a
phenom enon know n as globa liz a ti on . Som e pe opl e fe ar th at
globa liz a ti on w ill in evi ta bl y le ad to a tot al los s of c ultu ra l ide nti ty .
T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
2. Eve n th ou gh g loba liz a ti on a ffe cts th e w or ld’ s e con om ic s in a ve ry
pos iti ve w ay, its n egati ve s ide s h ou ld not be for got te n. D o you a gre e
or di sa gre e?
7 .2 2 G OVER NM EN T

1. Gove rn m ents s h ou ld make m or e of a n e ffor t to prom ote a lte rn ati ve
s ou rc es of e nerg y. To what e xte nt do you a gre e or di sa gre e w ith th is
opi nion ?
2. What do you th in k th e g ove rn m ent in y ou r c ou ntr y s h ou ld do to make
you r c ou ntr y m ore s uccessfu l?
3. Shou ld poor c ou ntr ie s c on ti n u e to re ceive in te rn ati on al a id? G ive
y ou r vi ew .
4. Dis c u ss th e a dva nta ges a nd disa dva nta ges of g ivi ng in te rn ati on al a id
to poor cou ntr ie s.
5. Gove rn m ents sh ou ld spe nd mor e m on ey on edu cati on th an on
re cre ati on and s por ts . D o you agre e or disa gre e?
6. Som e pe opl e a rg ue th at g ove rn m ents sh ou ld spe nd mon ey on ly on
m edi cin e and edu cati on and th at th in gs lik e th eate rs and spor t
sta di um s a re l uxurie s. D o you agre e or disa gre e?
7. Many pe opl e a re s ta rvi ng to death i n di ffe re nt pa rts of th e w or ld. Is i t
ju sti fia bl e for a ny g ove rn m ent to spe nd huge a m ou nts of m on ey on
spa ce e xpl or ati on pr ojects ? A nsw er th e qu esti on in th e for m of a n
essa y.
8. Shou ld wealth y n ati on s be r e q uir e d to sh are th eir w ealth w ith poor er
nati on s by pr ovi ding s u ch th in gs a s food and edu cati on , or is it th e
re spon sibi lity of th e g ove rn m ents of poor er n ati on s to look a fte r th eir
c iti z e ns t hem se lve s? G ive you r vi ew s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
9. Shou ld ric h c o untr ie s w rite of f th e de bt of poor c ou ntr ie s? G iv e y ou r
view s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
10. Doe s for eig n a id help don or c ou ntr ie s m or e th an th e re cipi ents ?
G ive you r vi ew s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
1 1. Shou ld ric h c ou ntr ie s pa y m or e for e nvi ron menta l da mage? G ive
y ou r vi ew s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
12. Shou ld developi ng cou ntr ie s con centr a te on im pr ovi ng in d ustr ia l
sk ills , or s h ou ld th ey pr om ote e du cati on f ir s t? S ta te y ou r vi ew s i n th e
for m of an e ssa y.
13. Safe ty s ta nda rds a re im por ta nt w hen bu ildi ng pe opl e’s h om es. W ho
sh ou ld be re spon sibl e for enfor cin g str ic t bu ildi ng code s—t he
gove rn m ent or th e pe opl e w ho build th e h om es? G ive y ou r vi ew s in
th e f or m of an e ssa y.
14. In m os t c ou ntr ie s, di sa bl ed pe opl e a re n ot c ate re d to ade quate ly —
for exam pl e, buildi ngs are ofte n in appr opria te ly desig ned.

Gove rn m ents re ly too heav ily on chariti e s and volunta ry
or ganiz a ti on s to pr ovi de assis ta nce and fu ndi ng. What fu rth er
m easu re s c ou ld be taken t o a ssis t di sa bl ed pe ople?
15. In y ou r opi nion , sh ou ld gove rn m ents in te rve ne in th e rig hts of th e
in di vidu al w ith r egard t o f am ily pl annin g?
16. The be st w ay to re du ce th e n u m be r of tr a ffic a ccide nts i s to make a ll
y ou ng dr ive rs c om plete a s a fe dr ivi ng e du cati on c ou rs e be for e b ein g
lic ense d t o dr ive . D o you agre e or disa gre e?
17. Som e pe opl e be lie ve th at it is a gove rn m ent’ s re spon sibi lity to
pr ovi de c are a nd fin ancia l s u ppor t f or pe opl e a fte r th ey r e ti r e . O th ers
s a y th at pe opl e s h ou ld help th em se lve s. S ta te y ou r opi nion w ith s om e
exam pl es.
18. In B rita in , w hen pe opl e g et ol d, th ey of te n g o to live in a n urs in g
hom e w ith ot her ol d peopl e, w here th ere are nurs e s to look afte r
th em . S om eti m es th e g ove rn m ent h as to pa y f or th is c are . W ho sh ou ld
be respon sibl e f or ou r ol d pe ople? G ive reason s.
7 .2 3 H APPIN ESS
1. Happi ness is c on side re d ve ry im por ta nt in life . W hy is it di ffic ult to
de fin e? W hat f actor s a re i m por ta nt i n a chie vi ng h appi ness?
2. Em pl oyees’ s a la rie s a re n ot e nou gh to make th em h appy . B enefits l ik e
health in su ra nce and so on sh ou ld be use d mor e to make th em
happi er. D o you agre e or disa gre e?
7 .2 4 H EA LT H
1. In m any c ou ntr ie s toda y, th e e ati n g h abi ts a nd life sty le s of c h ildr en
are di ffe re nt fr om th os e of pr ev iou s g enera ti on s. Som e pe opl e sa y
th is h as h ad a n egati ve e ffe ct on th eir h ealth . To what e xte nt do y ou
agre e or disa gre e w ith t his opi nion ?
2. The num be r of ove rw eig ht childr en in de velope d cou ntr ie s is
in cre asin g. Som e pe opl e th in k th is is du e to probl em s su ch a s th e
grow in g n um be r of fa st food outl e ts . O th ers be lie ve th at pa re nts a re
to blam e for n ot look in g a fte r th e ir c hildr en’s h ealth . To what e xte nt
do y ou agre e w ith t hese vi ew s?
3. Out of a co untr y ’s health bu dget, a la rg e pr opor ti on sh ou ld be
dive rte d fr om tr e atm ent to spe ndi ng on health edu cati on and

preve nta ti ve m easu re s. T o what e xte nt do you a gre e or di sa gre e w ith
th is s ta te m ent?
4. Shou ld pare nts be obl ig ed to im muniz e th eir childr en again st
c hildh ood dise ase s, or do in di vidu als h ave th e r ig ht to choos e n ot to
i m muniz e t heir c hildr en?
7 .2 5 H O BBIE S
1. Som e pe opl e be lie ve th at hobbi es need to be di ffic ult to be
enjoy abl e. T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
2. Peopl e f ol low i n te re sts a nd ha ve h obbi es ( e .g ., col le cti n g a nd makin g
th in gs). D o you th in k th ese a re poi ntl e ss? H ow c an pe opl e l e arn f r om
h obbi es?
3. “ Com pute r g am es a re a good h obby.” D o y ou agre e or disa gre e?
7 .2 6 H O M ETO W N
1. If y ou c ou ld change on e im por ta nt th in g a bou t y ou r h om etow n, w hat
w ou ld you c hange? U se re ason s a nd spe cific e xam pl es to su p por t
you r a nsw er.
7 .2 7 IL LIT ER ACY
1. Illite ra cy has tr a di ti on ally be en vi ew ed as la rg ely a th ir d -w or ld
pr obl em . H ow ev er it is be com in g a ppa re nt th at in c ou ntr ie s s u c h a s
th e U S a nd Austr a lia , illite ra cy is on th e in cre ase . D is c uss pos sibl e
cause s f or this a nd i ts e ffe ct on soc ie ty .
2. Usin g a c om pute r e ve ry da y c an h ave m or e n egati ve th an p os iti ve
e ffe cts on you r c hildr en. D o you agre e or disa gre e?
7 .2 8 IN TER NET
1. The i n te rn et h as m ade i n for mati on s o handy , bu t a t th e s a m e ti m e, it’ s
s poi lin g ou r c hildr en w ith a ll th e a du lt c on te nt. Shou ld childr en be
k ept aw ay f rom the i nte rn et? G ive you r vi ew s i n t he f or m of an e ssa y.
2. The in te rn et w ill br in g pe opl e of th e w or ld clos er tog eth er. D o you
agre e or disa gre e?
3. Unive rs ity le ctu re rs a re n ow a bl e to pu t th eir le ctu re s on th e in te rn et
for stu d ents to re ad, so th e im por ta nce of atte ndi ng fa ce-to- fa ce

le ctu re s h as be en re du ced. Do you be lie ve th e u se of th e in te rn et in
for mal e du cati on is a good i dea?
7 .2 9 L A NG UAG ES
1. Seve ra l l a nguages di e e ve ry y ear. M any pe opl e f e el th is i s a pos iti ve
tr e nd and th at a w or ld with fe w er la nguages pr om otes h arm on y a nd
unde rs ta ndi ng be tw een pe opl e. A naly ze bot h s ide s of th is a rg um ent
and pr ovide you r opi nion .
7.3 0 M ARRIA G E
1. In s om e c ou ntr ie s, m arria ges a re a rra nged by th e pa re nts , bu t i n ot her
case s, pe opl e choos e th eir ow n m arria ge pa rtn ers . Dis c uss bot h
sy ste m s.
7 .3 1 M ED IA
1. Com pare th e a dva nta ges a nd disa dva nta ges of th re e of th e fol low in g
as m edi a f or c om munic ati n g i n for mati on . S ta te w hic h y ou c on side r to
be th e m os t eff e cti ve : com ic s, book s, ra di o, te le vi sion , film , and
th eate r.
2. It is be com in g m or e a nd mor e di ffic ult to esc ape th e in flu ence of th e
m edi a on ou r live s. Dis c uss th e adva nta ges and disa dva nta ges of
livi ng i n a m edi a-ric h s oc ie ty .
3. The m ass m edi a, in clu di ng T V, ra di o, and new spa pers , have g re at
in flu ence in s h api ng pe opl e’s id eas. To what e xte nt do you a gre e or
di sa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent? G ive reason s f or you r a nsw er.
4. Now ada ys, ra di o is be in g r e pl aced by T V a nd th e in te rn et. To what
exte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his vi ew ?
5. Are fa m ou s pe opl e tr e ate d unfa ir ly by th e m edi a? S hou ld th ey be
g ive n m or e pr iva cy, or i s th e pr ic e of th eir f a m e a n i n va sion i n to th eir
pr iva te l ive s? E xpl ain y ou r vi ew in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
6. The n ew s m edi a h ave a n egati ve in flu ence on s oc ie ty . D o you a gre e
or di sa gre e?
7 .3 2 M USIC

1. There a re m an y di ffe re nt ty pe s of m usic in th e w or ld toda y. W hy do
w e n e ed music ? Is th e tr a di ti on al m usic of a c ou ntr y m or e im po rta nt
th an i nte rn ati on al m usic ?
2. It i s g enera lly be lie ve d th at s o m e pe opl e a re bor n w ith c erta in ta le nts
—f or in sta nce, for s por ts or m usic —a nd others a re n ot . H ow eve r, it
is s o m eti m es c la im ed th at a ny c hild can be ta ught to be com e a g ood
spor ts pe rs on or m usic ia n. D is c uss bot h of th ese vi ew s a nd give y ou r
ow n opi nion .
7.3 3 P A REN TS A ND C HIL D REN
1. Som e pa re nts r a is e th eir c hild re n w ith s tr ic t di sc ipl in e, w hile ot hers
le ave th em f r e e to le arn th e l e sson s of l ife on th eir ow n. W hic h on e of
th ese i s t he be tte r a ppr oach a nd w hy?
2. Shou ld pare nts be obl ig ed to im muniz e th eir childr en again st
c hildh ood dise ase s, or do in di vidu als h ave th e r ig ht to choos e n ot to
i m muniz e t heir c hildr en?
3. Wom en a re a lw ays be tte r pa re nts th an m en. To what e xte nt do you
agre e or disa gre e?
4. Childr en s h ou ld neve r be e du cate d at h om e by th eir pa re nts . D o you
agre e or disa gre e?
5. Childr en le arn be st by obs erv in g th e be havi or of a du lts a nd copy in g
it. T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
6. Childr en a ct a ccor ding to th e i m pr ession s th ey g et f r om th eir pa re nt’ s
be havi or. If a c hild be have s ba dly, his pa re nts s h ou ld be c on side re d
re spon sibl e and sh ou ld be pu nis h ed. Do you agre e w ith th is
vi ew poi nt?
7. Do you a gre e or di sa gre e w ith th e fol low in g s ta te m ent? P are nts a re
th e b est te achers . U se s pe cific r e a son s a nd exam pl es to su ppor t y ou r
answ er.
8. Decid in g th e s iz e of on e’s ow n fa m ily is a pe rs on al pr efe re n ce. In
y ou r opi nion , sh ou ld th e gove rn m ent in te rve ne in th e rig hts of th e
in di vidu al w ith r egard t o f am ily pl annin g?
7 .3 4 P O LLU TIO N
1. To what e xte n t s h ou ld econ om ic pl annin g be in flu enced by th e n eed
for envi ron menta l c on se rva ti on ?

2. Dam age to th e envi ron men t is an in evi ta bl e con se qu ence of
w or ldw ide im pr ove ments i n t he s ta nda rd of livi ng. D is c uss.
3. The r is in g l e v els of c on gesti on a nd air pol lu ti on f ou nd in m os t of th e
w or ld’ s citi e s can be attr ibu te d di re ctl y to th e ra pi dly in cre a sin g
num be r of pr iva te c ars in u se . In or de r to re ve rs e th is de clin e in th e
qu ality o f l ife i n c iti e s, atte m pt s m ust be m ade to encou ra ge pe op le to
u se th eir c ars le ss a nd pu blic tr a nspor ta ti on m or e. D is c uss pos sibl e
ways t o e ncou ra ge t he u se of pu blic t ra nspor ta ti on .
7.3 5 P O PU LA TIO N
1. Cou ntr ie s su ch as C hin a, In di a, and Ja pa n have unsu sta in abl e
popu la ti on g row th . In fa ct, m any e xpe rts a re of th e opi nion th at th e
popu la ti on “expl os ion ,” w hic h i s n ow a ve ry w orry in g c on cern , i s t he
m os t s e riou s th re at to life on th is pl anet. G ive s om e s u ggesti on s to
a ddr ess t his pr obl em .
7.3 6 P O VER TY
1. Eve ry c ou ntr y h as poor pe opl e, and eve ry c ou ntr y h as di ffe re nt w ays
of d ealin g w ith th e poor a nd po verty . W hat a re s om e of th e r e ason s
for w orld pove rty ? W hat c an be don e t o a ssis t t he poor ?
7.3 7 G ARBAG E
1. Now ada ys, w e a re pr odu cin g m or e a nd mor e g arba ge. W hy do you
th in k th is is h app enin g? W hat c an g ove rn m ents do to help re du ce th e
am ou nt of garba ge pr odu ced?
8 .3 8 S H O PPIN G
1. Shoppi ng h as be com e a fa vor ite pa sti m e a m on g y ou ng pe opl e. W hy
do y ou thin k i t’ s l ik e t hat, a nd do y ou thin k t hey m ust be encou ra ged t o
do ot her t hin gs r ath er t han s hoppi ng?
7 .3 9 S M OKIN G
1. It h as be en pr ove d th at s m ok in g k ills . In s om e c ou ntr ie s, it h as be en
m ade ille gal for pe opl e to sm ok e in all pu blic pl aces except in

certa in a re as. A ll c ou ntr ie s s h ou ld make th ese r u le s. D o you a gre e or
di sa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
2. Sm ok in g toba cco, lik e ot her d angerou s dr ugs, sh ou ld be m ade i lle gal.
D o y ou agre e or disa gre e?
3. Sm ok in g is a ba d habi t and sh ou ld be ba nned com plete ly on a
w or ldw ide scale . G ive you r vi ew s on this .
4. Som e bu sin esse s now sa y th at sm ok in g is for bidde n in all th eir
of fic es. D o you agre e or disa gre e? G ive reason s.
5. Som e g ove rn m ents h ave ba nned sm ok in g i n a ll pu blic pl aces. D o you
agre e or disa gre e? G ive reason s f or you r opi nion .
6. In a r e cent s u rve y c on ducte d in th is c ou ntr y , it w as f ou nd th at u p to 20
pe rc ent of tw elve -y ear-ol ds in som e sc hool s w ere sh ow in g early
s ig ns of nic ot in e addi cti on . In th e eig hte en- to tw enty -y ear age
br acket, th e pe rc enta ge w as as hig h as 70 perc ent. A la rg e
con tr ibu ti n g f a ctor to th is h ig h l e ve l of a ddi cti on w as a ttr ibu te d to th e
uncensor ed TV a dve rti s in g of c ig are tte s. F or th is r e ason , all c ig are tte
a dve rti s in g s hou ld be banned. D is c uss.
7 .4 0 S O CIE TY
1. In s om e c ou ntr ie s, you ng pe opl e h ave l ittl e l e is u re ti m e a nd are u nde r
a l ot of pr essu re to wor k h ard in th eir s tu di es. W hat do you th in k a re
th e c ause s of this ? W hat s ol uti on s c an y ou suggest?
2. Now ada ys, som e pe opl e s ti ll pr efe r to ride bi cycle s. To what e xte nt
do y ou thin k t his w ill h elp u s i n t oda y’s w orld?
3. Now ada ys, pe opl e c are a bou t th eir a ppe ara nce m or e th an be for e. D o
you agre e or disa gre e?
4. I f y ou w ere g ive n t he oppor tu nity , w hat c hanges w ould y ou im pl em ent
to m ake ou r w orld a bette r pl ace f or livi ng?
5. Som e a uth or s be lie ve th at u rba niz a ti on is a “ m ode rn di se ase .” D o
you agre e w ith t his vi ew ?
6. Tim e is a n im por ta nt fa ctor in e ve ry fie ld. Do you th in k fol low in g
str ic t ti m e lim its is m or e im por ta n t th an obt ain in g qu ality r e su lts ? T o
w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his vi ew poi nt?
7. Now ada ys, th e g ap be tw een th e qu ality of life in th e c ou ntr y side a nd
in th e c iti e s h as in cre ase d in m any c ou ntr ie s. W hat c an g ove rn m ents
do t o reve rs e t his t re nd?

8. There i s a g ap i n th e s ta nda rds of l ivi ng be tw een th e c ou ntr y side a nd
citi e s. H ow tr u e is th is in y ou r c ou ntr y ? W hat m easu re s sh ou ld be
ta ken t o r edu ce t his g ap?
9. As mass com munic ati on and tr a nspor ta ti on con ti n ue to grow ,
soc ie ti e s are be com in g mor e and mor e alik e, le adi ng to a
phenom enon know n as globa liz a ti on . Som e pe opl e fe ar th at
globa liz a ti on w ill in evi ta bl y le ad to a tot al los s of c ultu ra l ide nti ty .
T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
10. Decidi ng th e s iz e of on e’s o w n fa m ily is a pe rs on al pr efe re nce. In
y ou r opi nion , sh ou ld gove rn m ents in te rve ne in th e rig hts of th e
in di vidu al w ith r egard t o f am ily pl annin g?
11. To what e xte nt do you th in k m ig ra ti on f r om th e de velopi ng w or ld to
th e de velope d wor ld becom e a soc ia l and pol iti c al is su e in th e
tw enty -fir s t c entu ry ?
12. Now ada ys, doc tor s c an be com e ve ry ric h. M aybe th ey s h o uld not
foc us on pr ofita bl e a cti vi ti e s s u ch a s pl asti c s u rg ery or look in g a fte r
ric h pa ti e nts on ly a nd con centr a te m or e on pa ti e nt’ s h ealth n o matte r
how ric h t hey a re . D o you agre e or disa gre e?
13. I n y ou r opi nion , w hat f actor s c on tr ibu te t o a movi e be in g g ood?
14. Hum an be in gs do not n eed to eat m eat in or de r to main ta in g ood
health . A ve geta ria n di et is as health y as a di et con ta in in g m eat.
A rg ue f or or again st t his opi nion .
15. The on ly w ay to preve nt ove rc row ding in citi e s is to pre ve nt
m ig ra ti on from rura l a re as. G ive you r opi nion and vi ew s.
16. In B rita in , w hen pe opl e g et ol d, th ey of te n g o to live in a n urs in g
hom e w ith ot her ol d peopl e, w here th ere are nurs e s to look afte r
th em . S om eti m es th e g ove rn m ent h as to pa y f or th is c are . W ho sh ou ld
be respon sibl e f or ou r ol d pe ople? G ive reason s.
17. New s e di tor s de cide w hat to br oa dcast on T V a nd what to pr in t in
n ew spa pers . W hat fa ctor s do you th in k in flu ence th eir de cis ion s?
H ave w e be com e u se d to ba d ne w s? W ou ld it be be tte r i f m or e g ood
new s w as r epor te d?
18. Wou ld you be a bl e to live w ith ou t a T V ? A nsw er th e qu esti o n i n th e
for m of an e ssa y.
19. Peopl e w ho have or ig in al i de as a re of m uch g re ate r va lu e to soc ie ty
th an th os e w ho are s im pl y a bl e to copy th e ide as of ot hers w ell. To
w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?

20. Peop le in th e m ode rn w or ld are be com in g le ss de pende nt on e ach
ot her. D o you agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
21. Som e pe opl e th in k vi sitor s to other c ou ntr ie s s h ou ld im ita te loc al
custom s a nd be havi or. O th ers di sa gre e a nd th in k th at th e h os t c ou ntr y
s h ou ld w elc om e c ultu ra l di ffe re nces. W hat i s y ou r opi nion ?
22. A c om pany h as a nnou nced th at it w is h es to bu ild a la rg e fa ctor y
near y ou r c om munity . D is c uss th e a dva nta ges a nd disa dva nta ges of
th is n ew in flu ence on y ou r c om munity . D o you s u ppor t or oppos e th e
fa ctor y? E xpl ain y ou r pos iti on .
23. Com peti ti ve ness is con side re d to be a pos iti ve qu ality am on g
peopl e. T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
24. Som e pe opl e th in k th at pl annin g for th e fu tu re is a w aste of ti m e.
T hey be lie ve it is m or e im por ta nt to foc us on th e pr ese nt. D o you
agre e or disa gre e?
25. In m any co untr ie s, th e pr opor ti on of ol de r pe opl e is ste adi ly
in cre asin g. D oe s th is tr e nd have m or e n egati ve e ffe cts or pos iti ve
e ffe cts on soc ie ty ?
26. To what exte nt has th e tr a d iti on al m ale rol e changed in th e la st
tw enty y ears ?
27. Peopl e’s chara cte r is in flu enced by envi ron ment ra th er th an
geneti c s. D o you agre e or disa gre e?
28. Do you th in k a rti s ts l ik e w rite rs , m usic ia ns, and pa in te rs a re s ti ll of
va lu e i n s oc ie ty t oda y? D is c uss a nd s uppor t y ou r opi nion .
7.4 1 S PO RTS
1. Som e pe opl e th in k th at da nge rou s s por ts s h ou ld be ba nned. To what
exte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
2. In or de r to keep stu de nts m or e foc use d, spor ts cla sse s sh ou ld be
stoppe d in h ig h s c hool s. D o you th in k th is w ill be th e r ig ht a ppr oach
for a be tte r g enera ti on ?
3. Shou ld spor ts c la sse s be sa crific ed in h ig h sc hool so stu de nts c an
con centr a te on acade mic s ubj ects ? D is c uss.
4. Prof ession al spor ts in vol ve la rg e su m s of m on ey and re ceive
e nor mou s m edi a cove ra ge. M eanw hile , se riou s cultu re , in clu di ng
m usic , art a nd th eatr e , is ba dly n egle cte d. This is m akin g ou r s o cie ty
s h allow er. T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?

5. Now ada ys, pe opl e pr efe r to fol low s por ts e ve nts on T V r a th er th an
ta ke pa rt in s por ts th em se lve s. D o you th in k th is is a pos iti ve or a
n egati ve de velopm ent?
7 .4 2 S TU DYIN G
1. Som e pe opl e th in k th at c hildr en s h ou ld le arn to com pete i n th e w or ld,
bu t ot hers th in k th at c hildr en s h ou ld be ta ught to coope ra te s o as to
be com e m or e u se fu l to soc ie ty . Sta te y ou r re ason s fr om bot h side s
and g ive you r opi nion .
2. Stu dy in g th e E nglis h la nguage in a n E nglis h -s pe akin g c ou ntr y is th e
be st bu t n ot the on ly w ay t o l earn t he l anguage. D o you agre e w ith t his
s ta te m ent?
3. Fin ancia l edu cati on sh ou ld be a m anda tor y com pon ent of sc hool
pr og ra m s. To what exte nt do you agre e or di sa gre e w ith th is
s ta te m ent?
7 .4 3 T EC HNO LO GY
1. Recent a dva nc em ents in te chnol og y h ave le d to many c hanges in ou r
daily liv es, bu t s om e pe opl e w ou ld arg ue th at w e a re be com in g too
de pende nt on te chnol og y a nd th at n ot a ll th ese c hanges a re be nefic ia l.
G ive you r opi nion and s uppor t y ou r a rg um ent.
2. Com pute rs a nd mode ms h ave m ade it pos sibl e for of fic e w or kers to
do much of th eir w or k f r om h om e i n ste ad of w or kin g i n of fic es e ve ry
da y. W ork in g fr om hom e sh ou ld be encou ra ged, as it is good for
w or kers a nd e mpl oy ers . D o you agre e or disa gre e?
3. Technol og y h as fa cilita te d ou r live s s o much a nd give n u s a lot of
fr e edom . Som e pe opl e, how eve r, be lie ve th at it has cause d mor e
probl em s f or us. W hat i s y ou r opi nion ?
4. Is te chnol og y ti m e c on su m in g, or doe s it a ctu ally s a ve ti m e? A nsw er
th e qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
5. “L ife w as sim pl er w ith ou t so much te chnol og y.” D o you a gre e or
di sa gre e?
6. Doe s m ode rn te chnol og y m ake life m or e con venie nt, or w as life
be tte r w hen te chnol og y w as s im ple r? A nsw er th e qu esti on i n th e f or m
of an e ssa y.

7. Mode rn te chnol og y i s tr a nsfor min g th e w ay w e w or k a nd is of be nefit
to our soc ie ty . How fa r do yo u th in k ou r soc ia l live s have be en
in flu enced by mode rn t echnol og y?
8. Technol og y is m akin g c om munic ati on e asie r in toda y’s w or ld at th e
expe nse of pe rs on al c on ta ct, as m any pe opl e c hoos e to wor k a t h om e
in fr on t of a c om pute r s c re en. W hat da ngers a re th ere for a s oc ie ty
th at de pends on c om pute r s c re ens r a th er th an fa ce-to- fa ce c on ta ct for
its m ain m eans of com munic ati on ?
9. The th re at of nucle ar w eap on s m ain ta in s w or ld peace. Nucle ar
pow er provi des cheap and cle an energ y. The be nefits of nucle ar
te chnol og y fa r ou tw eig h th e di sa dva nta ges. Do you agre e or
di sa gre e? G ive reason s f or you r a nsw er.
10. To what ex te nt has in for mati on te chnol og y changed wor k and
w or kin g pr acti c e s in th e pa st te n y ears ? A nsw er th e qu esti on in th e
for m of an e ssa y.
1 1. These da ys, pe opl e pa y m or e a tte nti on to arti s ts ( w rite rs , pa in te rs ,
a nd so on ) a nd give le ss a tte nti on to th e im por ta nce of th in gs lik e
sc ie nce a nd t echnol og y. T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
12. Mode rn i n ve nti on s br in g m an y di sa dva nta ges to ou r s oc ie ty . D o you
agre e or disa gre e?
13. M odern t echnol og y l ik e m obi le ph ones a nd t he i nte rn et c an be use fu l
to old peopl e. M ake su ggesti o ns on how w e can encou ra ge ol d
pe opl e t o u se s uch t echnol og y.
14. Mode rn te chnol og y is m akin g th in gs e asily a va ila bl e. The in te rn et
has p rovi ded us w ith dow nloa da ble ve rs ion s of m os t of th e book s w e
need. Can th e in te rn et re pl ace th e w or ld of book s? G ive y ou r ow n
view s i n n o l ess t han 250 w ords .
15. Mod ern te chnol og y is tr a nsfor min g th e w ay w e w or k and is of
be nefit to ou r s oc ie ty . H ow fa r do you th in k ou r s oc ia l live s s h ou ld
be influ enced by mode rn t echnol og y?
16. It is in evi ta b le th at a s te chn ol og y de velops , so tr a di ti on al c ultu re s
m ust be los t. Technol og y a nd tr a di ti on a re in com pati bl e—y ou c annot
have bot h t og eth er. T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
7 .4 4 T ELE VIS IO N
1. T ele vi sion : c ou ld y ou be with ou t i t? D is c uss.

2. Now ada ys, ra di o is be in g r e pl aced by T V a nd th e in te rn et. To what
exte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his i de a?
3. New s e di tor s de cide w hat to broa dcast on T V a nd what to prin t in
n ew spa pers . W hat fa ctor s do you th in k in flu ence th eir de cis ion s?
H ave w e be com e u se d to ba d ne w s? W ou ld it be be tte r i f m or e g ood
new s w as r epor te d?
7 .4 5 T O URIS M
1. The cos ts of in te rn ati on al tr a ve l are de cre asin g and tou ris m is
g row in g. W hat a re th e a dva nta ges a nd disa dva nta ges of in cre asin g
tou ris m acti vi ty i n di ffe re nt c ou ntr ie s?
2. Touris m c an d eve lop a c ou ntr y , bu t i t c an a ls o cause h arm . S ta te y ou r
opi nion in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
3. How doe s a c ou ntr y e nsu re th at tou ris m be nefits its de velopm ent?
A nsw er t he qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
4. Mor e a nd mor e c ou ntr ie s a re ope nin g th eir door s to tou ris ts . M any
pe opl e be lie ve th at th e adva nta ges of tou ris m ou tw eig h th e
di sa dva nta ges. S ta te y ou r opi nion in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
5. Tou ris m i s be com in g i n cre asin g ly i m por ta nt a s a s ou rc e of r e ve nue to
m any c ou ntr ie s, bu t i ts di sa dva nta ges s h ou ld not be ove rlook ed. What
are s om e of th e pr obl em s of tou ris m ? A nsw er th e qu esti on i n th e f or m
of an e ssa y.
6. Doe s tr a ve l h elp pr om ote u nde rs ta ndi ng a nd com munic ati on be tw een
cou ntr ie s? A nsw er t he qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
7. Acco rdi ng to th os e in th e tr a ve l bu sin ess, th e n atu re of th e a ve ra ge
“va cati on ” is changin g. Rath er th an se ekin g a re la xin g br eak in a
fa ra w ay pl ace, pe opl e n ow w ant e xcite m ent on th eir va cati on s a nd
are k een to pa rti c ipa te in u nusu a l a nd challe ngin g a cti vi ti e s. D o you
agre e or disa gre e?
8. Mos t pe opl e be lie ve th at tr a v elin g a br oa d is a g re at e xpe rie n ce for
th e you nger genera ti on , bu t ot hers th in k it is a w aste of ti m e and
m on ey. D is c uss th ese opi nion s a n d menti on y ou r poi nt of vi ew w ith
s u ita bl e e xam pl es.
9. Som e pe opl e sa y th at tou ris ts sh ou ld re spe ct loc al custom s and
be havi or. Oth ers fe el th e hos t cou ntr y sh ou ld ada pt to please th e
tou ris ts . E xpl ain y ou r vi ew in t he f or m of an e ssa y.

7.4 6 T R ANSPO RTA TIO N
1. The fir s t c ar a ppe are d on B riti s h roa ds in 1888. By th e y ear 2020,
th ere m ay be as m any as tw enty -n in e m illion ve hic le s on B riti s h
roa ds. A lte rn ati ve for ms of tr a nspor ta ti on s h ou ld be e ncou ra ged, and
in te rn ati on al l a w s i n tr odu ced to con tr ol c ar ow ners h ip and use . W hat
do y ou thin k?
2. The be st w ay to re du ce th e n um be r of tr a ffic a ccide nts i s to make a ll
y ou ng dr ive rs c om plete a s a fe -dr ivi ng e du cati on c ou rs e be for e be in g
lic ense d t o dr ive . D o you agre e w ith t his vi ew ?
3. Many pe opl e be lie ve th at a n e ffe cti ve pu blic tr a nspor ta ti on s y ste m i s
a key com pon en t of a m ode rn city . Dis c uss th e adva nta ges and
di sa dva nta ges of pu blic t ra nspor ta ti on .
4. Som e pe opl e w elc om e c heap a ir tr a ve l, bu t s om e a rg ue th at it w ill
le ad t o m ore e nvi ron menta l pr obl em s. W hat i s y ou r opi nion ?
5. In cre asin g th e pr ic e of g as is th e be st w ay to sol ve tr a ffic ja m s a nd
pol lu ti on in la rg e c iti e s. To what e xte nt do you a gre e or di sa g re e?
W hat ot her m easu re s, i f a ny, do y ou thin k w ould be more e ffe cti ve ?
6. The r is in g l e v els of c on gesti on a nd air pol lu ti on f ou nd in m os t of th e
w or ld’ s citi e s can be attr ibu te d di re ctl y to th e ra pi dly in cre a sin g
num be r of pr iva te c ars in u se . In or de r to re ve rs e th is de clin e in th e
qu ality o f l ife i n c iti e s, atte m pt s m ust be m ade to encou ra ge pe op le to
u se th eir c ars le ss a nd pu blic tr a nspor ta ti on m or e. D is c uss pos sibl e
ways t o e ncou ra ge t he u se of pu blic t ra nspor ta ti on .
7. Now ada ys, som e pe opl e s ti ll pr efe r to ride bi cycle s. To what e xte nt
do y ou thin k t his w ill h elp u s i n t oda y’s l ife ?
7 .4 7 C O LLE G E
1. Som e pe opl e th in k th at c ol le g es s h ou ld provi de g ra du ate s w ith th e
know le dg e a nd sk ills n eede d in th e w or kpl ace. O th ers th in k th at th e
tr u e fu ncti on of a c ol le ge s h ou ld be to give a ccess to know le dg e for
its ow n sa ke, re gardl ess of w heth er th e cou rs e is use fu l to an
em pl oy er. W hat, i n y ou r opi nion , shou ld t he f uncti on of a col le ge be ?
2. You ng pe opl e s h ou ld be e ncou ra ged to tr a ve l or w or k for on e y ear
afte r h ig h s c hool a nd be for e s ta rti n g c ol le ge. W hat a re th e a dva nta ges
and di sa dva nta ges?

3. To what exte nt sh ou ld col le ges fu ncti on as tr a in in g grou nds for
e m pl oy ment? A nsw er t he qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
4. To what e xte nt sh ou ld col le g e c ou rs e s be g eare d to th e e co nom ic
n eeds of soc ie ty ? A nsw er t he qu esti on in t he f or m of an e ssa y.
5. Gove rn m ents h ave to place th e s a m e n um be r of m en a nd wom en in
di ffe re nt fie lds of s tu dy a t c ol le ges. To what e xte nt do you a gre e or
di sa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
6. As m os t pos tg ra du ate re se a rc h is fu nde d by in du str ie s, stu de nts ’
g ra nts s h ou ld als o com e f r om th e s a m e s ou rc e. T o what e xte nt do you
agre e w ith t his vi ew ?
7. Peopl e atte nd col le ges or unive rs iti e s for m any di ffe re nt re ason s
(e .g ., new expe rie nces, care er prepa ra ti on , and in cre ase d
know le dg e). W hy do y ou thin k pe opl e a tte nd c olle ges or unive rs iti e s?
U se s pe cific r eason s a nd e xam pl es t o s uppor t y ou r a nsw er.
8. Eve ry body s h ou ld be a llow ed a dm is sion to col le ge s tu dy pr og ra m s
re gardl ess of th eir a cade mic a bi lity . To what e xte nt do you a gre e or
di sa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
9. Full- ti m e c ol le ge stu de nts spe nd mos t of th eir ti m e stu dy in g. They
sh ou ld be doi ng ot her a cti vi ti e s too. To what e xte nt do you a gre e or
di sa gre e?
7 .4 8 W ORK
1. Now ada ys, doc tor s c an be co m e ve ry ric h. M aybe th ey sh o uld not
foc us on pr ofita bl e a cti vi ti e s s u ch a s pl asti c s u rg ery or look in g a fte r
ric h pa ti e nts on ly a nd con centr a te m or e on pa ti e nts ’ h ealth n o matte r
how ric h t hey a re . T o w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e?
2. Peopl e n ow ada ys pu t m or e e m ph asis on s oc ia l s k ills . Som e pe opl e
belie ve th at soc ia l sk ills are m or e im por ta nt in addi ti on to good
qu alific ati on s for job su ccess. To what exte nt do you agre e or
di sa gre e?
3. Som e pe opl e pr efe r to wor k for a la rg e c om pany. O th ers pr efe r to
w or k for a sm all c om pany. W hic h w ou ld you pr efe r? U se spe cific
r e ason s a nd de ta ils t o s uppor t y ou r c hoi ce.
4. Mos t hig h-le ve l jobs are don e by m en. Shou ld th e gove rn m ent
encou ra ge a certa in pe rc enta ge of th ese jobs to be re se rve d for
w om en?

5. Shou ld developi ng cou ntr ie s con centr a te on im pr ovi ng in d ustr ia l
sk ills , or shou ld t hey pr om ote e du cati on fir s t?
6. Enor mou s e ffor t is pu t in to re se arc hin g a nd mark eti n g “ th e pe rfe ct
pot ato chip” w hile re se arc h in to str e ss at w or k, for exam pl e, is
ig nor ed. How im por ta nt are sta ff w or kin g con diti on s? Shou ld
e m pl oy ers re se arc h and im pr ove th e w or kin g con diti on s of th eir
s ta ff?
7. I n s om e c ou ntr ie s, pe ople pa y di ffe re nt r ate s of tax de pendi ng on their
s a la ry ; i n ot her c ou ntr ie s, eve ry on e pa ys th e s a m e r a te . W hic h do you
be lie ve is t he be st s yste m ?
8. Tim e is a n im por ta nt fa ctor in e ve ry fie ld. Do you th in k fol low in g
str ic t ti m e lim its is m or e im por ta n t th an obt ain in g qu ality r e su lts ? T o
w hat e xte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his vi ew poi nt?
9. What a re s om e im por ta nt qu aliti e s of a g ood su pe rvi sor ( bos s)? U se
spe cific de ta ils and exam pl es to expl ain w hy th ese qu aliti e s are
im por ta nt.
7 .4 9 W ORLD
1. More and mor e qu alifie d peopl e are m ovi ng fr om poor to ric h
cou ntr ie s to fill va cancie s in spe cia lis t are as lik e engin eerin g,
com puti n g, and medi cin e. Som e pe opl e be lie ve th at by e ncou ra gin g
th e m ove ment of s u ch pe opl e, ric h c ou ntr ie s a re s te alin g fr om poor
c ou ntr ie s. O th ers f e el th at th is i s on ly pa rt of th e n atu ra l m ove ment of
w or kers a rou nd t he w orld. S ta te y ou r opi nion .
2. I n t he pa st, pe ople u se d t o tra ve l t o m any pl aces t o s ee t he di ffe re nces
fr om th eir c ou ntr y . N ow a ll th e pl aces a rou nd th e w or ld are g etti n g
m or e a nd mor e s im ila r. W hat is th e c ause of th is s im ila rity ? D o y ou
th in k t he a dva nta ges of this s im ila rity ou tw eig h t he di sa dva nta ges?
3. We c annot h elp eve ry on e i n th e w or ld who needs h elp, so we s h ou ld
on ly be c on cern e d with ou r ow n c om muniti e s a nd cou ntr ie s. T o what
exte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his s ta te m ent?
4. S ome pe opl e s ay t hat i ncre ase d bu sin ess a nd c ultu ra l c on ta ct be tw een
nati on s w ill h ave pos iti ve e ffe cts . O th ers be lie ve c ou ntr ie s w ill los e
th eir u niqu e i de nti ti e s. S ta te y ou r opi nion .
7.5 0 Y O UTH

1. Recent fig ure s s h ow a n in cre ase in vi olent c rim e a m on g y ou ngste rs
u nde r th e a ge of e ig hte en. Som e ps ychol og is ts c la im th at th e ba sic
r e ason for th is is th at c hildr en th ese da ys a re n ot g etti n g th e s oc ia l
and em ot ion al in pu t th ey n eed fr om pa re nts a nd te achers . To what
exte nt do y ou agre e or disa gre e w ith t his opi nion ?
2. Edu ca ti on is s om eti m es c on side re d to be s om eth in g for y ou th s on ly .
S om e pe opl e, how eve r, con side r edu cati on to be a life lon g ta sk .
W hat is you r opi nion ? G ive re a son s and su ppor t you r ide as w ith
s pe cific e xam pl es.
3. In s om e c ou ntr ie s, you ng pe opl e h ave l ittl e l e is u re ti m e a nd are u nde r
a l ot of pr essu re to wor k h ard in th eir s tu di es. W hat do you th in k a re
th e c ause s of this ? W hat s ol uti on s c an y ou suggest?

8 H O W T O A C HIE VE A B ETTE R IE LT S
O VER ALL B AN D S C O RE
1. IN TR O DUCTIO N
1.1 Ofte n I c all th e f ol low in g poi nts “ se cre ts ,” be cause ve ry f e w pe opl e
know a b ou t th em , or if th ey k now , th ey don ’t pa y s u ffic ie nt a tte n ti on
to th em . A s w ill be s e en, m os t of th e poi nts a re n ot hin g m or e th an
sim pl e c om mon s e nse a nd sh ou ld be s e en a s h in ts on h ow a c andi da te
c an a chie ve th e m axim um ba nd sc or e w ith th e s k ills a nd know le dg e
th at h e or she h as pr ocure d du rin g h is or her pr epa ra ti on s.
1.2 Som e of th ese poi nts c an be fou nd on th e of fic ia l IE LT S w ebs ite s,
bu t s om e poi nts w ill n ot be di sc usse d by a ny IE LT S of fic ia l a nd/ or
exam in er a s t hey a re c on side re d t o be “in side infor mati on .”
1.3 The ow ners of IE LT S a re ve ry pr ou d of th eir h ig h sta nda rds a nd
re pu ta ti on . T his i s t he on ly w ay t o e nsu re a hig h l eve l of cre di bility i n
th e a cade mic w orld.
1.4 There a re m any m yth s on th e in te rn et a bou t th e IE LT S e xam . T hese
m yth s usu ally or ig in ate fr om pe opl e w ho are not nati ve E ng lis h
spe akers . S om e of these m yth s a re pu re n on se nse . F or exam pl e:
a. T he te st i s e asie r i n s om e l oc ati on s. T his i s n ot tr u e. T he te sts
a nd s cor in g a re e xactl y t he s am e a ll ove r t he w orld.
b. The e xam in er w ho doe s th e S pe akin g te st is th e s a m e pe rs on
w ho will c heck m y W riti n g te st, s o I c annot r e pe at s om eth in g
in W riti n g a nd S peakin g. T his i s pos sibl e bu t h ig hly u nlik ely .
c . The S pe akin g te st is re cor de d be cause th e e xam in er w ho is
doi ng th e S pe akin g te st is n ot th e on e w ho will g ive m e m y
sc or e. T his is fa ls e . T he te st is r e cor de d in c ase y ou di spu te
th e s c or e th at y ou r e ceive d. In th at c ase , th e r e cor ding w ill be
pl ayed back to on e or m or e a lte rn ati ve e xam in ers , and th en a
de cis ion w ill be made by them tog eth er.
d. Spe akin g a nd Writi n g topi cs c an be pr edi cte d. This is fa ls e .
L azy s tu de nts lik e to be lie ve th is . U nlik e s om e ot her te sti n g
sy ste m s, t here a re n o s hor tc uts w hen doi ng t he I E LT S e xam .

2. G EN ER AL
2.1 V ocabu la ry i s on e of the f ou r c rite ria i n S pe akin g a nd W riti n g.
a. K eep you r ow n pe rs on al voc abu la ry log . If y ou do not h ave
on e, sta rt on e im medi ate ly a nd keep it u p to da te for th e r e st
of you r l ife .
b. U se y ou r voc abu la ry l og to s et u p a revi ew pr ogra m .
c. V ocabu la ry s hou ld be functi on al.
2.2 There is n o way for y ou to g et a h ig h s c or e if y ou do not h ave a
fu ncti on al voc abu la ry of abou t te n th ou sa nd wor ds . Functi on al
voc abu la ry m eans y ou k now a ll th e m eanin gs of th e w or d, th e c o rre ct
spe llin g, th e c or re ct pr on uncia ti o n, and mos t im por ta ntl y , how to use
th e w ord i n a spe ech or an e ssa y.
2.3 A s h allow bu t w ide g enera l k now le dg e is a k ey c om pon ent for a
h ig h ove ra ll ba nd sc or e: su bj ects lik e his tor y, geog ra ph y, bi olog y
(bot any and zool ogy), chem is tr y , math em ati c s, and so on. It is
a bs olute ly c ru cia l i n a ll t he I E LT S di sc ipl in es.
2.4 Rem em be r, in S pe akin g a nd Writi n g, th e e xam in er is a for eig ner.
D urin g y ou r s tu di es, you s h ou ld not tr y to make y ou r m ot her-ton gue
tu tor h appy . Y ou r obj ecti ve i s to make th e e xam in er h appy . Y ou r l oc al
te acher c an h elp you w ith m any th in gs, bu t h e or s h e c om es fr om a
di ffe re nt c ultu re . Peopl e live in a for eig n c ou ntr y for m any y ears a nd
sti ll do not k now h ow th e loc als th in k. Y ou r c ultu re is in y ou r g e nes.
Y ou c annot c hange i t c om plete ly . Y ou r obj ecti ve s h ou ld be to im pr ess
th e exam in er. From th e ve ry fir s t w or ds you spe ak or w rite , th e
exam in er is im medi ate ly s ta rti n g to eva lu ate y ou a nd sta rti n g to for m
an o pi nion on w hat y ou r s c or e w ill e ve ntu ally be . R em em be r, “F ir s t
im pr ession s a re l asti n g.”
2.5 Learn new habi ts . Decide on spe cific fr a m ew or ks, se nte nce
poi nte rs , ph ra se s, and so on a nd use th em a t e ve ry oppor tu nity . See
poi nt 2.6 for a n e xam pl e. This w ill g ive y ou m or e se lf- c on fide nce
and r edu ce n ervou sn ess.
2.6 If y ou w ant a m edi oc re s c or e, you on ly h ave to do and sa y m edi oc re
th in gs. How eve r, if you w ant a spe cia l sc or e, you have to do
som eth in g s pe cia l. Y ou h ave to do som eth in g th at m os t ot her s tu de nts
do not d o. You h ave to sta nd ou t fr om th e m adde nin g c row d. This is
on ly f a ir . F or e xam pl e, if s om eon e a sk s y ou , “H ow a re y ou ?” a nd y ou

answ er, “I’ m f in e, th ank y ou ,” th at i s m edi oc re , and you c annot e xpe ct
a h ig h s c or e. B ut if y ou a nsw er, “I’ m br ig ht- e yed and bu sh y-ta ile d,
th ank you . And you ?” th en you r sc or e w ill im medi ate ly be com e
su bs ta nti a lly h ig her.
2.7 In L is te nin g a nd Readi ng, th e sc or in g is don e m echanic ally . It is
c om plete ly obj ecti ve and cannot be m anipu la te d by anyon e. In
S pe akin g a nd W riti n g, how eve r, th e s c or in g i s don e by a h um an b ein g
calle d th e exam in er. This is a su bj ecti ve acti on . You r sc or e
com plete ly de pends on w hat th e exam in er is fe elin g and th in kin g
abou t y ou r w ork. R efe r t o 2.4 a bove .
3. L IS TEN IN G
3.1 The qu esti on s be com e m or e di ffic ult in e ve ry n ew s e cti on . In y ou r
stu di es, foc us on th e fir s t se cti on fir s t. Do not atte m pt th e la te r
se cti on s in th e be gin nin g. Pra cti c e se cti on 1 ove r a nd ove r a gain .
F in d as m any ve rs ion s as po ssibl e, and lis te n and answ er th e
qu esti on s to se cti on 1 on ly . K eep re pe ati n g th is u nti l y ou of te n g et a t
le ast e ig ht qu esti on s c or re ct in th is se cti on . Then do th e sa m e for
s e cti on 2. If y ou a re a im in g a t a ba nd sc or e be tw een 5 and 6, it is a
w aste of ti m e to spe nd hou rs tr y in g to fig ure ou t th e answ ers in
s e cti on s 3 and 4 be for e y ou h ave c om plete c on fide nce in s e cti o ns 1
a nd 2. Only if y ou a re a im in g a t a ba nd sc or e of 7 sh ou ld you m ove
on to se cti on 3, a nd move to se cti on 4 on ly if y ou w ant a n 8 . O f
cou rs e i t g oe s w ith ou t s a yin g th at i n th e e xam y ou s h ou ld tr y y ou r be st
in s e cti on s 3 and 4. Eve n i f y ou h ave n o ide a w hat th e c or re ct a nsw er
is , j ust g uess. Y ou mig ht be lucky a nd pi ck u p a few poi nts .
3.2 There a re c erta in lin guis ti c te chniqu es for h ow to do th e te st m or e
effe cti ve ly . A sk y ou r tu tor to help you w ith th is . B ecause of th e s pe ed
of th e pr ese nta ti on , th e IE LT S L is te nin g te st is of te n c riti c iz e d, and it
is th en sa id th at th e te st has, in som e w ays, be com e m or e of an
in te llig ence te st th an a la nguage te st. In a ny c ase , it is a k now n fa ct
th at t he t est i s c halle ngin g, t o s ay t he l east.
4 . S PEA KIN G
4.1 See poi nt 3.1 a b ove . T he s a m e a ppl ie s to spe akin g. It is a w aste of
ti m e to spe nd hou rs tr y in g to fig ure ou t th e a nsw ers in pa rt 3 be for e

you have com plete con fide nce in pa rts 1 and 2. Only if you are
a im in g for a 7 or 8 ba nd sc or e s h ou ld you m ove on to pa rt 3 in y ou r
prepa ra ti on for th e e xam . O f c ou rs e it g oe s w ith ou t s a yin g th at in th e
exam y o u s h ou ld tr y y ou r be st in pa rt 3. But y ou w ill n ot for fe it a
g ood perfor mance i n pa rts 1 and 2 if y ou c annot pe rfor m w ell i n pa rt
3.
4.2 You do not h ave to col le ct a nd mem or iz e di ffe re nt de ta ils for e ach
and eve ry topi c. T here a re g rou ps of topi cs, and on e s e t of de ta ils c an
be a da pted to su it a ny pa rti c ula r topi c in th at g rou p. For e xam pl e,
th ere are m any topi cs abou t pe opl e. If you know a num be r of
adj ecti ve s to de sc ribe a pe rs on , you c an u se th em for a ny pe rs on .
Rem em be r poi nt 2.6 above . If y ou o nly k no w be aut iful a nd kind , you
w ill achie ve a m edi oc re sc or e, bu t if you know adj ecti ve s lik e
chol eric , phl egm atic , s angui ne , melanc holic , and so on, and you
know how to u se t hem , y our s cor e w ill i m pr ove dram ati c ally .
4.3 How c an y ou a voi d th e s itu ati on w here y ou h ave a bs olute ly n o ide a
abou t th e topi c in pa rt 2? W hen pr epa rin g for th e te st, have a b rie f
look a t a s m any topi cs a s pos sib le . D o not tr y to stu dy th e c on te n t of
a ll th em . There are sim pl y too many. Ju st m ake su re th at you
unde rs ta nd what th e topi cs a re a bou t a nd th at y ou h ave a fe w k ey
w or ds in m in d. Then c hoos e a n um be r of ty pi cal topi cs a nd stu dy
th em in de ta il. You c an th en a d ju st y ou r k now le dg e to fit a ny topi c
give n to you . T his w ill a ls o elim in ate th e s tr e ss of w on derin g w hic h
topi c y ou w ill r eceive .
4.4 See 2.4 a bove . U se y ou r body la nguage to make th e e xam in er fe el
good abo ut y ou . S how a l ot of r e spe ct to him or h er. S m ile a nd tr y to
m ake h im or h er s m ile . B e h on est, espe cia lly if y ou do not k now th e
answ er t o a questi on .
4.5 You do not h ave to te ll th e tr u th . T he e xam in er is n ot in te re ste d in
th e f a ctu al a ccura cy of w hat y ou a re s a yin g. H e or s h e w ants to know
how w ell y ou h ave m aste re d Englis h . O f c ou rs e , you s h ou ld re fr a in
fr om sayin g s om eth in g r idi culou s or abs urd.
4.6 Respe ct th e c ultu re of th e e xa m in er. O fte n y ou h ave n o ide a w here
h e o r s h e i s f r om , so be c are fu l w hen s pe akin g a bou t ot her c ou ntr ie s,
th eir le ade rs , th eir h is tor y, and so on . If pos sibl e, sta y a w ay fr om
pol iti c al a nd r elig iou s s ta te m ents .
4.7 D urin g t he e xam :

a. B e pol ite . T he e xam in er is n ot y ou r e nem y or ou t to tr ic k y ou
in to m akin g a s m any m is ta kes a s pos sibl e.
b. Be y ou rs e lf. It is fu ti le to tr y to be som eth in g or som eon e
other th an y ou rs e lf. A ny a tte m pt by y ou to project a c erta in
im age w ill on ly le ad to hig her le ve ls of a nxie ty on y ou r s ide ,
and t his w ill de fin ite ly be to y our de tr im ent.
c . B e di sc ipl in ed. Fol low th e e xam in er’s in str u cti on s c are fu lly .
D o not unde r any cir c um sta nces arg ue w ith or qu esti on
r e qu ests by the e xam in er.
d. Durin g pa rts 2 a nd 3, you a re a llow ed to ask th e e xam in er to
r e pe at a nd/ or c la rify a qu esti on . L is te n to whate ve r h e or s h e
sa ys atte nti ve ly bu t unde r no cir c um sta nces in te rru pt or
atte m pt to a rg ue w ith h im or her.
e . M ake a s m any n ot es a s pos sib le du rin g th e on e m in ute g ive n
to you be for e y ou h ave to prese nt a spe ech in pa rt 2. Then
of te n g la n ce a t th ese n ot es in or de r to re m em be r w hat y ou
w ere pl annin g to sa y. D o not c ha nge y ou r ide as du rin g y ou r
spe ech. S cie nti fic s tu di es h ave pr ove n th at ou r i n iti a l th ou ghts
a re u su ally th e be st. You r n ot es s h ou ld be a n a id in h elpi ng
you say w hat y ou not ed a s c alm ly a nd c le arly a s pos sibl e.
5 . W RIT IN G
5.1 Task 1 doe s n ot c arry a s m uch w eig ht a s ta sk 2. Task 1 is s h or te r
and easie r be cau se th ere i s i n for mati on g ive n f or y ou to wor k w ith . In
ta sk 2, h oweve r, y ou are c om plete ly on you r ow n.
5.2 There for e, you sh ou ld in iti a lly foc us on ta sk 2 in you r stu di es.
S pe nd 80 perc ent of y ou r s tu dy ti m e on ta sk 2 and 20 perc ent on ta sk
1.
5.3 You h ave to de cide on a fr a m ew or k for ta sk 2, and th en y ou s h ou ld
fol low th is fr a m ew or k re lig iou sly fr om th en on . This fr a m ew or k
sh ou ld be com e a h abi t, and you h ave to be a bl e to pr odu ce i t w ith ou t
eve n t hin kin g.
5.4 See poi nt 2.6 . G enera lly spe akin g, A sia n pe opl e a re c on for mis ts .
T hey do not appr ecia te cre ati vi ty , in iti a ti ve , and in di vidu alis m as
m uch a s W este rn ers do. There for e, A sia n s tu de nts of te n do not lik e

th e a dvi ce th at th ey re ceive fr om for eig ners be cause it doe s n o t fit
w ell i nto t heir c ultu ra l be lie fs .
5.5 With th e a bo ve in m in d, you s h ou ld make th e ve ry fir s t s e nte nce of
y ou r essa y as eye-c atc hin g, in te re sti n g, cre ati ve , and spe cia l as
pos sibl e. D o not s im pl y pa ra ph ra se th e topi c. T his ide a c om es fr om
n on nati ve spe akers . It is n ot w ron g, bu t it doe s n ot illu str a te y ou r
Englis h sk ills a nd will in flu ence y ou r sc or e pos iti ve ly . A c re ati ve
s e nte nce w ill i m pr ove you r s cor e dr am ati c ally .
5.6 D urin g t he e xam :
a. D o not s ta rt w riti n g im medi ate ly . Spe nd at le ast five m in ute s
re adi ng th e topi cs a nd plannin g y ou r ta sk 2 essa y a nd makin g
som e k ey n ot es.
b M ake a n ot e of y ou r fr a m ew or k a nd key w or ds for ta sk 2 on
th e ba ck of the l ast s heet of pa per g ive n t o y ou.
c. L ea ve th e f ir s t pa ge g ive n to you bl ank a nd sta rt by u sin g y ou r
not es a nd th en w riti n g th e e ssa y on th e s e con d and th ir d pa ges
th at w ere g ive n t o y ou.
d. Afte r you have com plete d you r essa y, era se th e not es you
m ade on th e ba ck of th e la st pa ge , and th en do ta sk 1 on th e
fir s t pa ge.
e. S ta y a s c los e to 250 wor ds a s pos sibl e i n ta sk 2. Do not w rite
m or e th an 150 wor ds in ta sk 1. Few er th an th at w ill n ot h ave
a la rg e im pa ct on y ou r s c or e, bu t m or e w ill h ave a n egati ve
e ffe ct.
f . W hen pr epa rin g f or th e e xam , use a ctu al I E LT S W riti n g pa per
so th at a fte r s om e ti m e y ou k now h ow m any w or ds on a ve ra ge
you u su ally w rite i n a l in e. T his w ill s a ve y ou ti m e w hen y ou
w ant t o k now how many w ords you have w ritte n.
6 . R EA DIN G
6.1 S ee poi nt 3.1 a bove .
6.2 Again , of c ou rs e it g oe s w ith ou t s a yin g th at in th e e xam y ou s h ou ld
tr y y ou r be st in s e cti on s 3 and 4. Eve n if y ou h ave n o ide a w hat th e
cor re ct a nsw er is , ju st g uess. Y ou m ig ht be lu cky a nd pick u p a fe w
poi nts .

9 B IO G RAPH Y
Chris ti a an ( T ia n) H atti n gh w as bor n a nd br ed in S ou th A fr ic a. H e w as bl esse d in be in g
ra is e d in a bi lin g ual h om e, w ith a n A fr ik aans-s pe akin g fa th er a nd an E nglis h -s pe akin g
m ot her. In 1974, he c om plete d a fou r-y ear tr a in in g c ou rs e a s a for est m anager fr om th e
S aasve ld For estr y C ol le ge, now pa rt of th e N els on M ande la M etr opol ita n U nive rs ity . H e
spe nt m ost of th e n ext n in e y ears a s a tr a in in g m anager ( in s a w millin g) in th e S ou th ern
A fr ic a ti m be r in du str y . Durin g th is ti m e, he stu di ed th e Zulu la nguage, whic h is
c on side re d t o be the l in gua f ra nca of the r egion , as a thir d l anguage.
In 1 987, he c om plete d a B A de gre e in ps ychol og y a nd ph ilos op hy a t th e U nive rs ity of
S ou th A fr ic a. Sta rti n g in 1974, he s tu di ed biblic al H ebr ew for th re e y ears a t th e s a m e
unive rs ity , and alth ou gh he nev er achie ve d a for mal acade mic qu alific ati on in th e
su bj ect, he soon fe lt obl ig ed to sh are his know le dg e w ith ot hers w ho were equ ally
in te re ste d in l e arn in g m or e f r om th e O ld Testa m ent. A s a r e su lt of th is y earn in g, he l a te r
con ducte d pa rt- ti m e c la sse s for be gin ners a t th e loc al P ol yte chnic in R uste nbu rg , Sou th
A fr ic a, w here h e w as l ivi ng a t t he t im e.
H e h as be en a n a vi d bi rde r f or th e pa st f or ty -tw o years a nd is a f ou ndi ng m em be r of th e
R uste nbu rg br anc h of B ir dl ife Sou th A fr ic a. He has be en bi rdi ng in B ot sw ana,
Z im ba bw e, N am ibi a, M ala w i, C hin a, T haila nd, and la te ly V ie tn am . H e h as vi site d Is ra el
se ve ra l ti m es, fir s t a s a C hris ti a n pi lg rim a nd la te r to stu dy th e bi rds of th e r e gion m or e
clos ely . Retu rn in g to Sou th A fr ic a in 2001, he pr ese nte d ta lk s on bi rdi ng in Is ra el a t
se ve ra l B ir dl ife S ou th A fr ic a br anches.
In 2002, h e m ove d to main la nd Chin a, w here h e be cam e a n E SL/IE LT S te acher. H e w as
for tu nate i n th at th e c hie f I E LT S e xam in er f or th e L ia on in g P rovi nce be cam e h is pe rs on al
tu tor ove r th e n ext tw o years . A s a r e su lt, he g ot to know w hat IE LT S e xam in ers w ere
e xpe cti n g fr om s tu de nts in or de r to achie ve a n a bove -a ve ra ge ba nd sc or e. D urin g h is
fou rte en-y ear sta y in C hin a, he stu di ed and becam e pr ofic ie nt in M anda rin C hin ese ,
gain in g e ve n m or e i n sig hts i n to th e e ffor ts a nd sk ills n eede d when a tte m pt in g to acqu ir e a
n ew la nguage. Subs equ entl y , he h as s u ccessfu lly tu tor ed hundr eds of IE LT S s tu de nts in
C hin a a nd V ie tn am ove r t he pa st f ifte en y ears .
In F ebr uary of 2 012, he pu blis h ed B ir ds and Bibl es i n His tor y ( IS B N 978-
1- 907313- 70-7), cove rin g th e his tor y of th e Tanakh, th e his tor y of
or nith ol og y, and all 409 re fe re nce s to bi rds i n th e O ld and New T esta m ents .
F rom Sept em be r 2014, he con ducte d cla sse s for be gin ners in bi blic al
H ebr ew in th e city of S henzh en in C hin a unti l M arc h 2016, when he
re loc ate d to Vie tn am . H e h as be en a n E SL te acher / IE LT S in str u ctor a nd an on lin e
bi blic al H ebr ew teacher t here s in ce t hen.
P ers on al w ebs ite : w ww.tia nhatti n gh.c om
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