bennet_tania_ielts_toefl_fce_cae_essay_writing_20_typical_mi

Формат документа: pdf
Размер документа: 0.56 Мб




Прямая ссылка будет доступна
примерно через: 45 сек.



  • Сообщить о нарушении / Abuse
    Все документы на сайте взяты из открытых источников, которые размещаются пользователями. Приносим свои глубочайшие извинения, если Ваш документ был опубликован без Вашего на то согласия.

A bout t h e b ook

T he b ook w as w ritte n f o r t h ose s tu den ts w ho a re p la n nin g t o
s it f o r E FL e x am s o r t e sts s u ch a s F C E, C AE, t h e T O EFL
a n d I E LT S t e sts . T he c o nte n t i s b uilt o n t h e d esc rip tio n o f
t y p ic al m is ta k es m ad e b y e x am -ta k ers i n t h eir e ssa y s; i t a ls o
i n clu des c o m men ts a n d t ip s o n h ow t o a vo id t h ese e rro rs ,
a n d p ra ctic al e x erc is e s.

IE LT S
TO EFL
CA M BRID GE E X AM S

ESSA Y W RIT IN G

20 T Y PIC AL M IS TA KES I N S TR UCTU RE A N D
DEV ELO PM EN T

ti p s i llu str a ti v e e xam ple s p ra cti c al e xerc is e s

By T A N IA B EN NETT

DO N’T M IS S T H E O TH ER B O OKS I N T H IS S E R IE S!

TO EFL E SSA Y W RIT IN G
TY PIC A L M IS TA KES I N S T R U CTU RE A ND D EV ELO PM EN T
45 P R A CTIC A L E X ER CIS E S W IT H A NSW ER S

FC E F O R S C H OOLS
ESSA Y W RIT IN G
PR A CTIC A L E X ER CIS E S O N S T R U CTU RE A ND D EV ELO PM EN T

IE LT S E SSA Y W RIT IN G
TY PIC A L M IS TA KES I N S T R U CTU RE A ND D EV ELO PM EN T
PA RT1
IN TR O DUCTIO N
PA RT 2
MAIN P A RA GRA PH S
PA RT 3
CO NCLU SIO N
PA RT 4
PR A CTIC A L E X ER CIS E S

Part 2 , P art 3 a nd P art 4 w ill b e is su ed in 2 017

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including
photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Copyright © 201 9 by Tania Bennett

CO NTEN TS
MIS TA K E 1
MIS TA K E 2
MIS TA K E 3
MIS TA K E 4
MIS TA K E 5
MIS TA K E 6
MIS TA K E 7
MIS TA K E 8
MIS TA K E 9
MIS TA K E 1 0
MIS TA K E 1 1
MIS TA K E 1 2
MIS TA K E 1 3
MIS TA K E 1 4
MIS TA K E 1 5
MIS TA K E 1 6
MIS TA K E 1 7
MIS TA K E 1 8
MIS TA K E 1 9
MIS TA K E 2 0
AN SW ER K EY

MIS TA K E 1
CO NFU SIN G T H E T Y PE S O F E SSAY Q UESTIO NS

Man y s tu den ts o fte n fo rg et to e sta b lis h th e ty p e o f
th eir essa y q uestio n; as a re su lt th ey an sw er th e
wro ng q uestio n.

TIP :
Id en tif y th e essa y ty p e befo re beg in nin g to
write th e e ssa y ; e ach e ssa y ty p e h as a d iff e re n t
org an iz atio nal s tr u ctu re .


The m ost c o m mon E FL e xam e ssa y q uestio n t y pes a re
1)

Agre e/d is a gre e
2)

Pre fe re nce
3)

Expla natio n
4)

Desc rip tio n
5)

Pro ble m s o lv in g
6)

Contr a st a nd c o m pare
7)

Im agin ary s it u atio n
8)

Advanta ges / D is a dvanta ges

Exerc is e 1 -1
Stu d y th e e ssa y q uesti o ns 1 -7 . I d enti fy th e q uesti o n ty p es. C heck w ith th e
answ ers .

Essa y q uestio n
1 A n i n cre asin g n um ber o f p eo ple to day f r e q uentl y c hange th eir
care ers a nd p la ces o f r e sid ence s e v era l ti m es d urin g th eir l iv es. I s th is a p ositi v e
dev elo pm ent?

Essa y q uestio n 2
W hy i s d aily h o m ew ork i m porta nt? W hat i s y o ur o pin io n?
Essa y q uestio n 3
Som e s tu d ents p re fe r l e arn in g a f o re ig n l a nguage o nlin e; o th ers
don’t. W hic h d o y o u p re fe r?

Essa y q uestio n 4
M oney f o r p ostg ra d uate r e se arc h i s l im ite d . T here fo re , s o m e
peo ple c la im th at f in ancia l s u p port f r o m g o vern m ents s h o uld o nly b e p ro vid ed f o r
sc ie nti fic r e se arc h r a th er th an r e se arc h f o r l e ss u se fu l s u b je cts . D o y o u a gre e o r
dis a gre e?

Essa y q uestio n 5
Som e p eo ple b elie v e th at th e g o vern m ent s h o uld i n cre ase th e
num ber o f s p orts f a ciliti e s to i m pro ve p ub lic h ealth , w hile o th ers b elie v e th is h as
littl e e ffe ct a nd w e n eed o th er m easu re s to i m pro ve i t. D is c uss a nd g iv e y o ur o w n
opin io n.
Essa y q uestio n 6
I f y o u w ere g iv en a s u m o f m oney to s ta rt y o ur o w n b usin ess, w hat
busin ess w ould y o u s ta rt?
Essa y q uestio n 7
T he m ovem ent o f p eo ple f r o m a gric ultu ra l a re as to c iti e s f o r w ork
can c ause s e rio us p ro ble m s i n b oth p la ces. W hat a re th e s e rio us p ro ble m s a nd w hat
measu re s c an b e ta ken to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s?

Essa y q uestio n 8
How d o p eo ple i n y o ur c o untr y ty p ic ally s p end th eir m oney?
Essa y q uestio n 9
Many p eo ple s u p port th e d ev elo pm ent o f
re new ab le e nerg y
so urc es. D o th e a d vanta ges o utw eig h th e d is a d vanta ges?

Exerc is e 1 -2
Stu d y th e i n tr o ducti o ns b elo w . D o th ey a d dre ss th e r ig ht q uesti o ns?

Essay q uestio n
1 A n in cre asin g n um ber o f p eople to day f re quently c hange th eir c are ers a nd p la ce o f r e sid ence
se vera l tim es d urin g th eir liv es. I s th is a p osit iv e d evelo pm ent? W hat is y our o pin io n?

In tr o 1
New te chno lo gy h as tr a nsfo rm ed a ll s p here s o f p eo ple ’s l iv es i n clu d in g th e
atti tu d e to e m plo ym ent a nd p la ce o f l iv in g. I n th e m odern w orld m any p eo ple
welc o m e a nd u se th e o pportu niti e s to l iv e a nd w ork i n d iffe re nt c o untr ie s. I b elo ng
to th is g ro up o f p eo ple .

Essay q uestio n 2
W hy is d aily h om ew ork im porta nt? W hat is y our o pin io n?
In tr o 2
Many s tu d ents w ill c o nfe ss th at
th ey d o n o t e njo y d oin g th eir h o m ew ork .
How ev er, f r o m m y p oin t o f v ie w h o m e a ssig nm ents a re a n i n te gra l p art o f a ny
ed ucati o nal p ro cess.


Essay q uestio n 3
S om e s tu dents p re fe r le arn in g a f o re ig n la nguage o nlin e; o th ers d on’t. W hic h d o y ou
pre fe r?
In tr o 3
Learn in g a f o re ig n l a nguage o nlin e h as m any a d vanta ges. I n sta nt a ccess to
ed ucati o nal m ate ria ls a nd th eir v arie ty a re a m ong th e m ain b enefits o f o nlin e s tu d ie s

in c o m paris o n to tr a d iti o nal c la ssro om l e sso ns.


Essay q uestio n 4
M oney f o r p ostg ra duate r e se arc h is lim it e d. T here fo re , s o m e p eople c la im th at f in ancia l s u pport
fro m g overn m ents s h ould o nly b e p ro vid ed f o r s c ie ntif ic r e se arc h r a th er th an r e se arc h f o r le ss u se fu l s u bje cts . D o
you a gre e o r d is a gre e?
In tr o 4
Many p eo ple th in k th at p ostg ra d uate r e se arc h i s u nd erfu nd ed . I e nti r e ly
dis a gre e w ith th is s ta te m ent. A lth o ugh p ub lic f in ancia l s u p port to u niv ers iti e s i s o fte n
criti c iz e d f o r b ein g to o l o w , l a b ora to rie s a nd s c ie nce c entr e s a lw ays r e ceiv e
ab und ant p riv ate f u nd in g.



Essay q uestio n 5
S om e p eople b elie ve th at th e g overn m ent s h ould in cre ase th e n um ber o f s p orts f a cilit ie s to
im pro ve p ublic h ealt h , w hile o th ers b elie ve th is h as lit tle e ffe ct a nd w e n eed o th er m easu re s to im pro ve it . D is c uss
and g iv e y our o w n o pin io n.
In tr o 5
Pub lic h ealth i s a m id th e m ain c o ncern s o f l o cal g o vern m ents . I ts
im pro vem ent d ep end s o n tw o f a cto rs – m ed ic al c are a nd s p orts f a ciliti e s. I to ta lly
agre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at l o cal a uth o riti e s s h o uld f u nd b uild in g m ore s p orts
centr e s to e nco ura ge p eo ple to d o m ore s p ort.


Essay q uestio n 6
I f y ou w ere g iv en a s u m o f m oney to s ta rt y our o w n b usin ess, w hat b usin ess w ould y ou s ta rt?
In tr o 6
Som e p eo ple c ho ose to w ork i n d ep end entl y , o th ers p re fe r w ork in g f o r a
co m pany. F ro m m y p oin t o f v ie w , th e f ir s t s c enario i s m ore b enefic ia l f o r a n
in d iv id ual.


Essay q uestio n 7
T he m ovem ent o f p eople f ro m a gric ult u ra l a re as to c it ie s f o r w ork c an c ause s e rio us p ro ble m s
in b oth p la ces. W hat a re th e s e rio us p ro ble m s a nd w hat m easu re s c an b e ta ken to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s?
In tr o 7
Many p eo ple p re fe r l iv in g i n m ajo r c iti e s to th e c o untr y sid e. A lth o ugh i t m ay
no t a lw ays b e th e r o ute to p ers o nal a nd s o cia l w ellb ein g th e a d vanta ges o f th is
atti tu d e o utw eig h th e d is a d vanta ges.

MIS TA K E 2
MIS R EA D IN G O F T H E E SSAY Q UESTIO N

Man y s tu den ts o fte n m is re ad t h e e ssa y q uestio n a n d
so l o se m ark s.

TIP :
In o rd er n ot t o c o nfu se t h e t a sk i d en tif y t h e k ey
vo cab ula ry i n t h e e ssa y q uestio n a t t h e v ery
beg in nin g o f t h e w ritin g t e st.



Stu dy t h e e ssa y q uestio ns:

Essa y questio n 1
N ow ad ays peo ple can
work fr o m hom e
usin g m odern
te ch nolo gy
. S om e th in k th is is extr e m ely
benefic ia l fo r w ork ers
. D o yo u
agre e
o r
dis a gre e
w ith th is o pin io n?

Essa y q uestio n 2
N ow ad ays p eo ple c an
work f r o m h om e
u sin g m odern
te ch nolo gy
. S om e th in k th is o nly
benefit s t h e w ork ers, b ut n ot t h e
em plo yers.
D o y o u
agre e
o r
dis a gre e
with th is o pin io n?

Essa y q uestio n 3
N ow ad ays p eo ple c an
work f r o m h om e
u sin g m odern
te ch nolo gy
a nd a re e m plo yed
fr o m a ro und t h e w orld
. S om e th in k th is
only
benefit s t h e e m plo yers, b ut n ot t h e w ork ers
. D o y o u
agre e
or
dis a gre e
with
th is o pin io n?

Note s:
These t h re e s im ila rly w ord ed q uestio ns r e quir e a bso lu te ly d if fe re nt
answ ers.

In t h e a nsw er t o t h e f ir st q uestio n
– s a y i f y o u a gre e/a gre e to s o m e
exte nt/ d is a gre e w ith th e o pin io n th at i t’ s “ b enefic ia l f o r w ork ers to w ork f r o m
ho m e”; e xp la in w hy; p ay a tte nti o n to th e f a ct th at th ere i s n o s p ecific ati o n i n th e
questi o n i f th e e m plo yee i s l o cate d i n th e s a m e p la ce/c o untr y o r n o t w ith th e

em plo yer.
In t h e a nsw er t o t h e s e co nd q uestio n
–sa y i f y o u a gre e/a gre e to s o m e e xte nt/
dis a gre e w ith th e o pin io n th at “ w ork in g f r o m h o m e b enefits w ork ers n o t
em plo yers ” ; e xp la in w hy; p ay a tte nti o n to th e f a ct th at th ere i s n o s p ecific ati o n
in th e q uesti o n i f th e e m plo yer a nd e m plo yee a re l o cate d i n th e s a m e
pla ce/c o untr y o r n o t.
The t h ir d q uestio n
i s a b out w ork in g i n te rn ati o nally o nly ; s a y i f y o u
agre e/a gre e to s o m e e xte nt/ d is a gre e w ith th e o pin io n th at th is o pportu nity i s
benefic ia l o nly f o r c o m panie s, n o t f o r w ork ers .
Take n o ti c e th at th is q uesti o n
als o a sk s a b out w ork in g f r o m h o m e.

Exerc is e 2 -1
Stu d y th e e ssa y q uesti o ns b elo w , p ay a tte nti o n to th e k ey w ord s i n th e
questi o ns. H ow d o th e ta sk s d iffe r i n th e g ro up s? C om pare y o ur a nsw ers w ith
th e A nsw er k ey.

1.
Essa y q uestio n 1
Many co untr ie s aim to im pro ve liv in g sta nd ard s b y eco no m ic
dev elo pm ent i n s m all to w ns. D o y o u s u p port th ese c hanges?

Essa y q uestio n 2
M any co untr ie s aim to im pro ve liv in g sta nd ard s b y eco no m ic
dev elo pm ent. D o y o u s u p port th ese c hanges?

Essa y q uestio n 3
M any co untr ie s aim to im pro ve liv in g sta nd ard s b y eco no m ic
dev elo pm ent. D o y o u th in k th e a d vanta ges o f e co no m ic d ev elo pm ent o utw eig h th e
dis a d vanta ges?
2.
Essa y q uestio n 1
T he m ovem ent o f p eo ple f r o m a gric ultu ra l a re as to c iti e s f o r w ork
can c ause s e rio us p ro ble m s i n b oth p la ces. W hat a re th e s e rio us p ro ble m s a nd w hat
measu re s c an b e ta ken to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s?
Essa y q uestio n 2
The m ovem ent o f p eo ple f r o m s m all to w ns to c iti e s f o r w ork c an
cause s e rio us p ro ble m s i n b oth p la ces. W hat a re th e s e rio us p ro ble m s a nd w hat
measu re s c an b e ta ken to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s?

Essa y q uestio n 3
The m ovem ent o f p eo ple f r o m r u ra l a re as to c iti e s f o r w ork c an
cause s e rio us p ro ble m s i n b oth p la ces. W hat a re th e s e rio us p ro ble m s a nd w hat
measu re s c an b e ta ken to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s?
3.
Essa y q uestio n 1
The d ev elo pm ent o f te chno lo gy c hanges th e w ay p eo ple i n te ra ct
with e ach o th er. I n w hat w ay d oes i t c hange th e ty p es o f r e la ti o nsh ip b etw een
peo ple ? I s th is a p ositi v e o r n egati v e d ev elo pm ent?

Essa y q uestio n 2
The d ev elo pm ent o f te chno lo gy c hanges th e w ay p eo ple i n te ra ct
with e ach o th er. I s th is a p ositi v e o r n egati v e d ev elo pm ent?

MIS TA K E 3

FA IL IN G T O A D DRESS T H E E SSAY Q UESTIO N I N T H E
IN TR O DUCTIO N


The a b se n ce o f a c le ar a n sw er t o t h e e ssa y q uestio n
in t h e i n tr o ductio n i s a c o m mon m is ta k e m an y
stu den ts m ak e i n t h eir e ssa y s.



TIP 1 :
Mak e s u re t h at b y t h e t im e a r e ad er r e ach es t h e
beg in nin g o f t h e m ain b ody o f y o ur e ssa y, y o ur
an sw er t o t h e e ssa y q uestio n i s c le ar t o t h em .



Essay q uestio n
N ow adays p eople c an w ork fro m h om e u sin g m odern te chnolo gy. S om e th in k
th is is e xtr e m ely b enefic ia l f o r w ork ers . D o y ou a gre e o r d is a gre e w it h th is o pin io n?

Stu dy t h e in tr o ductio ns 1 -3 :

In tr o 1
The tr e nd o f d is ta nce w ork in g i s b eco m in g m ore a nd m ore w id e-
sp re ad a ro und th e w orld . H ow ev er, I d o n o t e nti r e ly a gre e w ith th e
opin io n th at w ork in g f r o m h o m e i s a lw ays a d vanta geo us f o r e m plo yees.


In tr o 2
I w ho lly a gre e w ith th e o pin io n th at r e m ote w ork in g b enefits
em plo yees a nd th e b otto m l in e. T here a re th re e r e aso ns f o r th at.

In tr o 3
In th e a ge o f m odern te chno lo gy th e i m age o f o ffic e s p ace h as
beco m e f lu id : m any e m plo yees w ork f le xib ly a nd o fte n r e m ote ly . I n
co m paris o n to c o m muti n g s ta ff r e m ote w ork ers e njo y th re e m ain
benefits .

Com ment: I n tr o 1
answ ers th e q uesti o n c le arly – i t i s th e b est v ers io n
am ong th e th re e; a lth o ugh
In tr o 2
s ta te s th e a nsw er to th e q uesti o n,
ho w ev er
it i n clu d es th e e m pty a nd u nnecessa ry p hra se “ th e b otto m l in e”;
th e a uth o r’s o pin io n i s c le ar i n
In tr o 3 ,
but i t i s n o t s ta te d e xp lic itl y , th e
passa ge o nly i m plie s th e a nsw er.

Exerc is e 3 -1
Stu d y th e i n tr o ducti o ns b elo w . W hic h v ers io n i s th e b est a nd w hy?
Com pare y o ur a nsw ers w ith th e A nsw er k ey.

1.
Essay q uestio n 1
Many c ountr ie s a im to im pro ve liv in g s ta ndard s b y e conom ic d evelo pm ent in s m all to w ns. D o
you s u pport th ese c hanges?
In tr o 1
Eco no m ic d ev elo pm ent
in s m all to w ns
c re ate s n ew j o bs a nd f o ste rs th e
gro w th o f i n co m e; i n s y nc w ith th is c hange h o usin g, h ealth care a nd e d ucati o nal
sy ste m s a re i m pro ved .
In tr o 2
I s u p port th e i d ea th at to r a is e l iv in g s ta nd ard s – i n cre ase i n co m es a nd
im pro ve p ub lic s e rv ic es – i n a c o untr y , g o vern m ents s h o uld f o ste r e co no m ic
dev elo pm ent i n s m all s e ttl e m ents .
In tr o 3
I a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at e co no m ic d ev elo pm ent i n s m all to w ns a nd
agric ultu ra l r e gio ns i s n ecessa ry f o r th e r is e o f th e s ta nd ard s o f l iv in g.
2.
Essay q uestio n 2
Som e p eople b elie ve th at th e g overn m ent s h ould in cre ase th e n um ber o f s p orts f a cilit ie s to
im pro ve p ublic h ealt h , w hile o th ers b elie ve th is h as lit tle e ffe ct a nd w e n eed o th er m easu re s to im pro ve it . D is c uss
and g iv e y our o w n o pin io n.
In tr o 1
Som e p eo ple a re c o nv in ced th at b uild in g m ore s p orts f a ciliti e s w ill h era ld
th e i m pro vem ent o f p ub lic h ealth i n th e a re a. O th ers d is a gre e a nd b elie v e th at
pro m oti o n a nd e d ucati o n a re th e u lti m ate a v enues to a ssis t p eo ple c hange th eir
se d enta ry l ife sty le to b e m ore a cti v e a nd b eco m e h ealth ie r.
In tr o 2
Many p eo ple th in k th at m ore s p orts c entr e s a nd s ta d iu m s i n th e a re a w ill
enco ura ge p eo ple to d o m ore s p ort a nd , c o nse q uentl y , w ill s tr e ngth en p ub lic h ealth . I
do n o t s u p port th is a p pro ach.
In tr o 3
The
sig nific ance o f s p orts a cti v iti e s i n p eo ple ’s l iv es i s u nq uesti o nab le i n th e
world o f s tr e ssfu l w ork a nd s e d enta ry l ife sty le . A c o m munity w hic h e njo ys
a v arie ty
of s p orts f a ciliti e s c o m bin ed w ith s p orts e v ents f o r a d ults a nd c hild re n i s b ound to b e
physic ally a nd m enta lly h ealth y.

3.
Essay q uestio n 3
The m ovem ent o f p eople f ro m a gric ult u ra l a re as to c it ie s f o r w ork c an c ause s e rio us p ro ble m s
in b oth p la ces. W hat a re th e s e rio us p ro ble m s a nd w hat m easu re s c an b e ta ken to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s?

In tr o 1
The i n cre asin g f lo w o f p eo ple f r o m a gric ultu ra l a re as to
big c iti e s r e su lts i n
many s e rio us p ro ble m s. T his tr e nd g ro w s s te ad ily a nd tr a nsfo rm s th e s o cia l
la nd sc ap es o f th e p la ces.
In tr o 2
In th e m odern w orld m any a gric ultu ra l a re as s e e th e m ig ra ti o n o f p eo ple to
majo r c iti e s. T he r e aso ns b ehin d th is tr e nd a re w ork -re la te d , e d ucati o nal a nd
cultu ra l.
In tr o 3
The
tr e nd o f m ovin g f r o m a gric ultu ra l a re as to m ajo r c iti e s h as a d vers e
effe cts o n b oth p la ces. W hils t i t b rin gs e nv ir o nm enta l, h o usin g a nd w ork -re la te d
pro ble m s to c ity d w elle rs , a gric ultu ra l p ro ducti o ns l o se w ork ers a nd th e s e cto r i s
lik ely to s u ffe r.

MIS TA K E 4
BAD LY -S TR UCTU RED I N TR O DUCTIO N


TIP 1 :
A s h ort a n d c le ar i n tr o ductio n i s t h e s tr o ngest
beg in nin g o f a n E FL e ssa y. I t i s c o m monly 2 -3
se n te n ces l o ng.

TIP 2 :
The a n sw er t o t h e e ssa y q uestio n s h ould b e t h e k ey
messa g e o f
th e
in tr o ductio n. I t c o m monly i n clu des
or i s a cco m pan ie d b y t h e p ara p hra se d e ssa y
questio n/


TIP 3 :
The
in tr o ductio n m ay a ls o i n clu de t h e t o pic
sta te m en t
.


TIP 4 :
It i s s o m etim es a d vis a b le t o f o re sh ad ow
su pportin g p oin ts i n t h e i n tr o ductio n.


Essay q uestio n
Now adays p eople c an w ork f ro m h om e u sin g m odern te chnolo gy. S om e th in k
th is o nly b enefit s th e w ork ers , b ut n ot th e e m plo yers . D o y ou a gre e o r d is a gre e w it h th is o pin io n?

In tr o 1
I e nti r e ly d is a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at th e s c enario o f r e m ote
work in g i s n o t b enefic ia l f o r b usin esse s b ut f o r e m plo yees.

In tr o 2
In th e a ge o f n ew te chno lo gy m any c o m panie s a re e m bra cin g th e
pote nti a l o f r e m ote w ork in g. I n d is p uta b ly , i t i s a d vanta geo us f o r
em plo yees a nd i t i n cre ase s j o b s a ti s fa cti o n. Y et, s o m e p eo ple th in k th at
re m ote w ork in g d oes n o t b enefit b usin esse s. I to ta lly d is a gre e w ith th is
opin io n. T here a re th re e m ain r e aso ns f o r th at.
In tr o 3
Few p eo ple w ill d is a gre e th at r e m ote w ork in g i s a d vanta geo us
and r e w ard in g f o r e m plo yees. O n th e o th er h and , m any th in k th at
busin esse s d o n o t b enefit f r o m th is s c enario . A s f a r a s I a m c o ncern ed I
dis a gre e w ith th is .
The r e aso ns a re r e la te d to l o w s tr e ss a nd h ig h
fle xib ility o f r e m ote w ork l e ad in g to h ig her l e v els o f p ro ducti v ity .

Com ment: I n tr o 1
co nsis ts o f th e a nsw er to th e q uesti o n;
th e f ir s t
se nte nce

in
I n tr o 2
is a
to pic s ta te m ent , i t a ls o i n clu d es th e e ssa y ta sk
and th e r e sp onse to i t , a nd
it o utl in es th e s c o pe o f th e m ain b ody i n th e
la st s e nte nce.;
In tr o 3
in clu d es th e r e sta te d e ssa y q uesti o n, th e a nsw er
to th e e ssa y q uesti o n a nd i t a ls o f o re sh ad ow s th e a rg um ents .


Exerc is e 4 -1
Stu d y th e i n tr o ducti o ns b elo w .
Whic h i n tr o ducti o n i n clu d es th e to pic
sta te m ent? W hic h i n tr o ducti o n f o re sh ad ow s th e m ain p oin ts ? W hic h
in tr o ducti o n o nly c o nsis ts o f th e a nsw er to th e q uesti o n?

Essay q uestio n 1
Many y oung p eople to day le ave s c hool w it h a n egativ e a ttit u de to w ard s le arn in g. W hy d o y ou
th in k th is is h appenin g? W hat c an b e d one to e ncoura ge a p osit iv e a ttit u de to le arn in g in y oung p eople ?

In tr o 1
The l a ck o f e nth usia sm to s tu d y a m ong y o ung a d ults h as b een u nd er d eb ate f o r
th e l a st f e w d ecad es. F ro m m y p oin t o f v ie w , o verlo ad ed s c ho ol s c hed ule s, m ed io cre
te xtb ooks a nd th e a b se nce o f i n sp ir in g te achers a re th e m ain c o ntr ib uto rs to th e i s su e.
Essay questio n 2
Air tr a vel and te le com munic atio ns have bro ught about in cre ase d conta ct and clo se r
re la tio nsh ip s w it h people fro m dif fe re nt countr ie s. T o w hat exte nt do you agre e th at so cie tie s benefit fro m
in te rn atio nal to uris m a nd b usin ess?

In tr o 2
Many p eo ple th in k th at i n te rn ati o nal to uris m a nd b usin ess n urtu re l o cal
eco no m ie s. I w ho lly a gre e w ith th is o pin io n.
Essay q uestio n 3
S om e p eople th in k a ll p are nts s h ould ta ke c hild care tr a in in g c ours e s. D o y ou a gre e o r d is a gre e?

In tr o 3
Pre sc ho ol c arin g f o r c hild re n r e q uir e s m uch k no w le d ge o f th e p hysic al a nd
psy cho lo gic al d ev elo pm ent o f i n fa nts . T his k no w le d ge u se d to b e c o nv eyed f r o m
old er g enera ti o ns to y o unger i n th e p ast. I n th e m odern w orld th e tr a d iti o n h as b een

dis a p pearin g m ain ly b ecause o f th e f a ct th at y o ung a d ults l iv e i n d ep end entl y a nd
se p ara te ly f r o m th eir o ld er r e la ti v es. C onse q uentl y , m any p eo ple th in k th at p are nts
sh o uld a tte nd c hild care tr a in in g c o urs e s. I e nti r e ly s u p port th is o pin io n.

MIS TA K E 5
FA IL IN G T O C LA RIF Y O BSC URE V OCABULA RY I N
TH E E SSAY Q UESTIO N
TIP :
If t h ere a re m ultip le m ean in gs o f s o m e k ey w ord s
in t h e e ssa y q uestio n, s a y a t t h e b eg in nin g w hic h
in te rp re ta tio n w ill b e u se d i n t h e e ssa y.

Essa y q uestio n.
Org aniz a ti o ns h elp p eo ple to m ake th eir l iv es b ette r.
Do y o u a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent?

In tr o 1
I w ho lly a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at o rg aniz a ti o ns e nco ura ge
peo ple a nd m ake th eir l iv es b ette r.

In tr o 2
I w ho lly a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at c lu b s, c hariti e s a nd
acti v is t o rg aniz a ti o ns m ake p eo ple ’s l iv es b ette r – s a fe r a nd m ore
meanin gfu l.

Com ment:
The w ord s “ o rg aniz a ti o ns” a nd “ liv e b ette r” i n th e e ssa y
questi o n a re v ague. T hey h av e to b e s p ecifie d i n th e i n tr o ducti o n.
In tr o 2
i s th e b ette r v ers io n.


Exerc is e 5 -1
Stu d y th e i n tr o ducti o ns b elo w . W hic h v ers io ns a re b ette r? W hy?
Essay q uestio n
What is a v ery im porta nt s k ill a p ers o n s h ould le arn in o rd er to b e s u ccessfu l? C hoose o ne s k ill
and u se s p ecif ic r e aso ns a nd e xam ple s to s u pport y our c hoic e.
In tr o 1
Pro fe ssio nal a chie v em ents a re i n flu enced b y m any d iffe re nt f a cto rs .
How ev er, I a m c o nv in ced th at p eo ple s h o uld f o ste r th eir s o ft s k ills a s th e m ost
sig nific ant s tr e ngth o f th eir p ers o nality i n o rd er to b eco m e s u ccessfu l i n th eir c are ers .
In tr o 2
In th e a ge o f th e I n te rn et b ein g c o m pute r-lite ra te i s th e m ost i m porta nt s k ill
fo r a s u ccessfu l p ers o n.
In tr o 3
Every o ne h as th eir o w n f o rm ula s f o r s u ccess i n th eir p ers o nal l ife a nd c are er.
Yet, f r o m m y p oin t o f v ie w , p ro fe ssio nal a nd p ers o nal s u ccess i s u nachie v ab le
with o ut m aste rin g th e m ost s ig nific ant s tr e ngth o f o ne’s p ers o nality – so ft s k ills .

M IS TA K E 6
CASTIN G D OUBT O N Y OUR E X PE RTIS E

TIP :
Avo id s ta te m en ts s u ch a s
I a m n ot a n e x pert i n … I
have n ever h ad t h is e x perie n ce b ut… I f I a m n ot
mis ta k en …
They w ill c ast d oubt o n y o ur e x pertis e .

Essa y q uestio n
Many p eo ple v is it m use um s w hen th ey tr a v el to n ew
pla ces. W hy d o y o u th in k p eo ple v is it m use um s? U se s p ecific r e aso ns a nd
exam ple s to s u p port y o ur a nsw er.

In tr o 1
I a m n o t a m use um -g o er a nd w hen I tr a v el a ro und m y c o untr y o r g o
ab ro ad I n ev er v is it m use um s. H ow ev er, I w ill tr y to f in d r e aso ns w hy
to uris ts v is it m use um s.

In tr o 2
Vis iti n g p la ces i s e xciti n g. T ra v elle rs e njo y th e u nfa m ilia r v ie w s
and l e arn a b out c ultu re s, p ra cti c e s p eakin g a f o re ig n l a nguage a nd ta ste
lo cal c uis in es. I n a d diti o n, tr a v ele rs a lw ays p ut o n th eir r o ute l o cal
muse um s a nd g alle rie s. W hy?

Com ment.
In tr o 1
casts d oub t o n th e a uth o r’s e xp erti s e .


Exerc is e 6 -1
Stu d y th e i n tr o ducti o ns b elo w . W hic h v ers io n i s b ette r? W hy?

Essa y q uestio n
New sp ap ers h av e a b ig in flu ence o n p eo ple 's id eas o r o pin io ns. D o
yo u a gre e o r d is a gre e?

In tr o 1
I a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at n ew sp ap ers c an m anip ula te p eo ple 's id eas o r
opin io ns, w hic h r e su lts i n a s tr o ng i n flu ence b oth o n s o cie ty a nd i n d iv id uals .

In tr o 2
I h av e to c o nfe ss th at I d o n o t r e ad n ew sp ap ers . H ow ev er, I w ill tr y to
su p port th e o pin io n th at n ew sp ap ers i n flu ence p eo ple ’s o pin io ns a nd i d eas.

MIS TA K E 7
DOUBLE A RGUM EN T

TIP :
Avo id a d ouble a rg u m en t s u ch a s
Som etim es I t h in k
th at
tr a vellin g i s g o od, a n d s o m etim es I t h in k t h at
tr a vellin g i s b ad .

If y o u t r y t o d evelo p a d ouble a rg u m en t, y o u m ay
not h ave s u ff ic ie n t t im e / s p ace t o a n sw er t h e e ssa y
questio n l o gic ally a n d c o m ple te ly a t t h e t e st.



Essa y q uestio n 1
I f y o u c o uld g o b ack to s o m e ti m e a nd p la ce i n th e p ast,
when a nd w here w ould y o u g o ? W hy? U se s p ecific r e aso ns a nd d eta ils to
su p port y o ur c ho ic e.
In tr o 1
If I f o und m yse lf i n th e s itu ati o n o f g o in g b ack i n ti m e, i t w ould b e
a to ugh c ho ic e f o r m e a s a h is to ria n w here to g o . F ir s t I w ould d ecid e to
watc h a nd l is te n to th e f a m ous M arti n L uth er K in g’s s p eech o n A ugust, 2 8
in 1 963 i n th e L in co ln M em oria l i n W ash in gto n; th en I w ould th in k o f
vis iti n g A ncie nt E gyp t w here I c o uld w itn ess th e c o nstr u cti o n o f
Pyra m id s. T here w ould b e m any o th er p la ces I w ould l ik e to g o b ack i n
ti m e s e eth in g i n m y m in d b efo re I c o uld m ake m y c ho ic e.

In tr o 2
If I f o und m yse lf i n th e s itu ati o n o f g o in g b ack i n ti m e, I w ould
decid e o n v is iti n g A ncie nt E gyp t.

Com ment: I n tr o 1
giv es 2 p ossib le r e sp onse s a nd i m plie s m any o th ers
but i n th e e nd i t d oes n o t a nsw er th e q uesti o n.
In tr o 2
is s h o rt, c le ar a nd
to th e p oin t
.

Exerc is e 7 -1
Stu d y th e i n tr o ducti o ns b elo w . W hic h v ers io n i s b ette r? W hy?

Essa y q uestio n
New sp ap ers h av e a b ig in flu ence o n p eo ple 's id eas o r o pin io ns. D o
yo u a gre e o r d is a gre e?

In tr o 1
I agre e w ith th e sta te m ent th at new sp ap ers m anip ula te p eo ple 's id eas o r
opin io ns, w hic h r e su lts i n a s tr o ng i n flu ence b oth o n s o cie ty a nd i n d iv id uals .

In tr o 2
I a gre e a nd d o n o t a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at n ew sp ap ers c an m anip ula te
peo ple 's i d eas o r o pin io ns. F ro m m y p oin t o f v ie w , i t d ep end s p ure ly o n th e r e ad er.

MIS TA K E 8
IN CLU D IN G S U PPO RTIN G E X AM PLE S I N T H E
IN TR O DUCTIO N


TIP :
Do n ot w rite s u pportin g e x am ple s i n y o ur
in tr o ductio n!


Essa y questio n
New sp ap ers hav e a big in flu ence on peo ple 's id eas or
opin io ns. D o y o u a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent?

In tr o 1
I a gre e w ith th e sta te m ent th at n ew sp ap ers c an m anip ula te p eo ple 's
id eas o r o pin io ns. T o i llu str a te , s ta ti s ti c ally , th e m ore f a v oura b le a rti c le s a b out
a p re sid enti a l c and id ate a p pear in n ew sp ap ers , th e h ig her th e lik elih o od fo r
th em to b e e le cte d .

Com ment:
it w as a m is ta ke to i n clu d e th is e xam ple i n th e i n tr o ducti o n.

MIS TA K E 9
SID ETR ACKIN G I N T H E F IR ST S E N TE N CES O F T H E
IN TR O DUCTIO N
Sid etr a ck in g o r d iv ertin g f ro m th e to pic o f th e e ssa y
questio n in th e in tr o ductio n is a ty p ic al m is ta k e m an y
stu den ts m ak e in th e f ir s t f e w s e n te n ces w hen th ey p ro vid e
gen era l b ack gro und in fo rm atio n o r th e ta sk s ta te m en t.

TIP :
Do n ot f o rg et to e sta b lis h th e to pic o f th e e ss a y
questio n a n d s ta y w ith in i t.


Essa y q uestio n
Som e p eo ple th in k m usic p la ys a n i m porta nt r o le i n
so cie ty , w hile o th ers b elie v e m usic i s s im ply a f o rm o f e nte rta in m ent
fo r i n d iv id uals . D is c uss b oth v ie w s a nd g iv e y o ur o pin io n.
In tr o 1
I a d ore m usic . T his a rt c an d o w ond ers – i t i s th era p euti c ,
philo so phic al a nd e nte rta in in g. I n a b ro ad er s e nse , o n th e o ne h and ,
music p la ys a s ig nific ant r o le i n th e h is to ry o f a ny c o untr y a nd i ts
cultu re ; o n th e o th er h and , i t i s e nte rta in in g f o r i n d iv id uals .
In tr o 2
Music i s o m nip re se nt i n h um an l ife . I t p la ys a s ig nific ant r o le
in th e h is to ry o f a ny c o untr y a nd i ts c ultu re ; i t e nte rta in s a nd a m use s
peo ple .

Com ment:
The b egin nin g o f th e f ir s t p assa ge s h o w s a s id etr a ckin g
pro ble m – i t i n tr o duces th e a uth o r’s a tti tu d e to m usic , w hic h i s b eyo nd
th e to pic o f th e e ssa y q uesti o n. T he s e co nd i n tr o ducti o n i s th e b ette r
vers io n-it i s s h o rt a nd c le ar; th e to pic s ta te m ent i s to th e p oin t.

Exerc is e 9 -1
Stu d y th e e ssa y q uesti o ns b elo w a nd m atc h th em w ith th e to pic . C heck w ith
th e A nsw er k ey.

Essa y q uestio n1
Som e p eo ple th in k m usic p la ys a n i m porta nt r o le i n s o cie ty , w hile
oth ers b elie v e m usic i s s im ply a f o rm o f e nte rta in m ent f o r i n d iv id uals . D is c uss b oth
vie w s a nd g iv e y o ur o pin io n.

Essa y t o pic 1
Do d iffe re nt
Music g enre s i n flu ence p eo ple d iffe re ntl y ?

Essa y t o pic 2
What d o y o u th in k a b out m usic ?
Essa y t o pic 3
The r o le o f m usic i n h um an l ife

Essa y q uestio n 2
New sp ap ers h av e a b ig in flu ence o n p eo ple 's id eas o r o pin io ns.
Do y o u a gre e o r d is a gre e?

Essa y t o pic 1
The r o le o f n ew sp ap ers i n h um an l ife

Essa y t o pic 2
What d o y o u th in k a b out n ew sp ap ers ?
Essa y t o pic 3
The a b ility o f n ew sp ap ers to c hange p eo ple ’s i d eas o r o pin io ns

Essa y q uestio n
3 Many y o ung p eo ple to day le av e sc ho ol w ith a n egati v e a tti tu d e
to w ard s le arn in g. W hy do yo u th in k th is is hap penin g? W hat can be done to
enco ura ge a p ositi v e a tti tu d e to l e arn in g i n y o ung p eo ple ?
Essa y t o pic 1
Your a tti tu d e to s c ho ol

Essa y t o pic 2
The p ro ble m o f a n egati v e a tti tu d e to w ard s l e arn in g
Essa y t o pic 3
Makin g c hild re n m ore e nth usia sti c a b out l e arn in g

Exerc is e 9 -2
Stu d y th e i n tr o ducti o ns b elo w . W hic h v ers io n i s b ette r? W hy? C heck w ith
th e A nsw er k ey.

Essa y q uestio n
Hum or m akes th e w orld a b ette r p la ce. D o y o u a gre e o r d is a gre e?
In tr o 1
Hum our i s u b iq uito us i n a ll s p here s o f h um an l ife .
Peo ple o f a ll a ges r e sp ond
to h um our; th ey s m ile to e ach o th er a nd e xchange j o kes, e njo y w atc hin g c o m ed ie s a nd
la ugh a t c o m ed ia ns. M any p eo ple th in k th at h um our m akes th e w orld a b ette r – m ore
exciti n g a nd l e ss s tr e ssfu l – p la ce to l iv e i n . I to ta lly a gre e w ith th is s ta te m ent
.

In tr o 2
Hum our i s u b iq uito us i n a ll s p here s o f h um an l ife , b ut w hat m akes th is
exp erie nce l a rg ely m eanin gfu l?
Many p eo ple th in k th at h um our m akes th e w orld a
bette r – m ore e xciti n g a nd l e ss s tr e ssfu l – p la ce to l iv e i n . I to ta lly a gre e w ith th is
sta te m ent.

In tr o 3
Hum our i s u b iq uito us i n a ll s p here s o f h um an l ife . I t p ro vokes l a ughte r a nd
pro vid es a m use m ent, a nd i t h as m any d iffe re nt f o rm s. B esid es r e cre ati o nal h um or th e
most p opula r a re s a ti r e , p aro die s a nd
gallo w s h um our
. Many p eo ple th in k th at
hum our m akes th e w orld a b ette r – m ore e xciti n g a nd l e ss s tr e ssfu l – p la ce to l iv e i n .
I to ta lly a gre e w ith th is s ta te m ent.

MIS TA K E 1 0
RESTA T IN G
Rep eatin g t h e s a m e i d eas o r r e sta tin g i s a t y p ic al
mis ta k e m an y s tu den ts m ak e i n t h eir e ssa y s. A
re sta te d i d ea m ay b e f o und i n t h e i n tr o ductio n, m ain
body o r c o nclu sio n.

TIP 1 :
Avo id r e sta tin g; i t f ills t h e s p ace o f t h e e ssa y, b ut i t
does n ot m ax im iz e t h e s c o re .


TIP 2 :
In th e m ain b ody d evelo p th e a rg u m en ts in ste ad o f
re sta tin g th em by utiliz in g sp ecif ic in fo rm atio n,
co nse q uen ces a n d/o r s u pportin g e x am ple s
.


Essa y q uestio n.
Now ad ays c o m panie s s h o uld p ut m ore e m phasis o n s o cia l
sk ills i n th e r e cru itm ent p ro cess. T o w hat e xte nt d o y o u a gre e o r d is a gre e?

In tr o
I to ta lly a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at n o w ad ays c o m panie s m ust g iv e
more a tte nti o n to th e s o cia l s k ills o f a p plic ants w hen th ey e m plo y n ew s ta ff;
in te rv ie w ers s h o uld n o t f a il to u nd ers ta nd th e i m porta nce o f s o cia l
exp erti s e a m ong p ro sp ecti v e e m plo yees.

Com ment:
The s e co nd p art o f th is i n tr o ducti o n
is a n e m pty s ta te m ent,
because i t r e sta te s a nd p ara p hra se s w hat h as a lr e ad y b een s a id .

Exerc is e 1 0-1
Stu d y th e p assa ges b elo w . W hic h a re th e b est v ers io ns? W hy?

Essay q uestio n
Many c it y c ouncils a re m akin g d ecis io ns to c lo se th e lo cal p ublic lib ra rie s n ow adays. W hy is th is

happenin g?
Answ er:
city c o uncils c lo se l o cal l ib ra rie s b ecause th e s e rv ic e b eco m es u nuse d .
There a re th re e r e aso ns b ehin d th at.
Passa ge 1
The m ain r e aso n i s th e g ro w in g p opula rity o f e -b ooks.

Lib ra rie s a re
lo sin g th eir v is ito rs i n th e r e al
world , s in ce r e ad in g a cti v iti e s a nd p ra cti c es a re
movin g i n to c yb ers p ace. M ore a nd m ore p eo ple p re fe r e le ctr o nic b ooks a nd o nlin e
re ad in g to tr a d iti o nal p rin te d e d iti o ns. R ic h l ib ra ry c o lle cti o ns a re b eco m in g u nuse d ,
th us, p ro m pti n g l o cal g o vern m ents to te rm in ate th e e xis te nce o f th e i n sti tu ti o ns.
Passa ge 2
T he m ain r e aso n i s th e g ro w in g p opula rity o f e -b ooks a nd o nlin e r e ad in g.
Child re n a nd a d ults m ove to c yb ers p ace w hate v er th ey a re i n te re ste d i n r e ad in g –
child re n’s r h ym es o r p oetr y , d ete cti v e s to rie s o r s c ie nti fic m agazin es. S ta ti s ti c ally ,
th e n um ber o f p eo ple w ho r e ad p ap er b ooks h as b een d ecre asin g b y s e v en p er c ent
yearly f o r th e l a st th re e y ears .
As a r e su lt, f e w er p eo ple u se l ib ra ry s e rv ic es a nd th e
book f u nd s a re n o t n eed ed , th us, p ro m pti n g l o cal g o vern m ents to te rm in ate th e
exis te nce o f th e i n sti tu ti o ns.
Passa ge 3
Next, i n th e m odern w orld r e ad in g b ooks h as l o st i ts d om in ance a s a
le is u re ti m e a cti v ity d ue to a m ulti tu d e o f m odern te chno lo gic al e nte rta in m ents .
Many a d ults a nd c hild re n s p end th eir s p are ti m e i n f r o nt o f th eir c o m pute rs p la yin g
gam es o r s o cia l n etw ork in g, w atc hin g o nlin e m ovie s o r Y ouT ub e s k etc hes. T his l e ad s
to th e l o ss o f p ra cti c e o f r e ad in g r e gula rly , d is c o ura ges r e ad in g a nd e m pti e s l ib ra ry
re ad in g h alls .
Passa ge 4
Next, r e ad in g b ooks h as l o st i ts d om in ance a s a l e is u re ti m e a cti v ity i n th e
modern w orld . F ew er a nd f e w er p eo ple r e se rv e th eir f r e e ti m e f o r r e ad in g b ooks
re gula rly . T hey p la y c o m pute r g am es, w atc h m ovie s o nlin e o r s u rf th e n et i n ste ad .
These a cti v iti e s a re m ore p opula r th an r e ad in g l ite ra tu re . T his d ev elo pm ent a b and ons
lib ra ry s e rv ic es a nd e m pti e s l ib ra ry r e ad in g h alls .

Passa ge 5
Fin ally , th e s h o rt- s ig hte d p olic y o f l o cal a uth o riti e s c o ntr ib ute s to th e
dis c o nti n uance o f l ib ra ry s e rv ic es. D esp ite f u nd in g
in no vati o ns, s u ch a s i n cre asin g
access to d ig ita l s e rv ic es a nd e -le nd in g, l o cal g o vern m ents
re d uce o penin g h o urs a nd
sta ffin g a nd
cut c o sts
. T his i g no re s
th e c hangin g d em and s o f l ib ra ry r e ad ers a nd
re su lts i n d iv erti n g l o yal v is ito rs f r o m l ib ra rie s. T hese i n sti tu ti o ns
beco m e u nusa b le
and d ecis io ns a re m ad e to c lo se i t.

MIS TA K E 1 1

MIS C O NCEPTIO N A BO UT A T TE N TIO N-G ETTE R S

Som e s tu den ts a re e ag er t o i n clu de “ h ooks” o r
atte n tio n-g ette rs s u ch a s s ta tis tic s, f a cts o r f a m ous
quota tio ns i n t h eir E FL e ssa y s.

On t h e o ne h an d, “ h ooks” c an m ax im iz e s c o rin g
becau se t h ey a re t y p ic ally w ritte n i n a s o phis tic ate d
la n gu ag e.

On t h e o th er h an d, t h ere a re n o r e q uir e m en ts t o
in clu de t h em i n t h e e ssa y i n tr o ductio n; a ls o t h e
tim e f o r t h e E FL
Writin g T est i s l im ite d , a n d i t
mig h t b e b ette r t o c o ncen tr a te o n t h e o th er a sp ects
of y o ur e ssa y w ritin g.

Essa y q uestio n
Som e p eo ple th in k th at o nly g o vern m ents c an h elp th e
env ir o nm ent. O th ers d is a gre e. W hat i s y o ur o pin io n?

In tr o 1
Mahatm a G and hi f a m ously s a id : “ W e m ust b eco m e th e c hange w e w ant
to s e e i n th e w orld .”

These w ord s o f w is d om a re th e a nsw er to th e q uesti o n
wheth er i n d iv id uals c an h elp th e e nv ir o nm ent o r n o t; a nd th ey r e fle ct m y
opin io n th at b oth g o vern m ents a nd i n d iv id uals a re c ap ab le o f m akin g th e
world g re ener.
In tr o 2
I d iffe r f r o m th o se p eo ple w ho th in k th at o nly g o vern m ents ’ a cti o ns
can h elp th e e nv ir o nm ent. F ro m m y p oin t o f v ie w , b oth g o vern m ents a nd
in d iv id uals a re c ap ab le o f m akin g th e e nv ir o nm ent m ore s u sta in ab le .

Com ment: I n tr o 1
in clu d es a f a m ous q uo ta ti o n ( a n a tte nti o n-g ette r) w here as
In tr o 2
does n o t. H ow ev er, th e g ra m mati c al s tr u ctu re s a nd v ocab ula ry u se i n
both i n tr o ducti o ns a re o f s im ila r l e v els .

MIS TA K E 1 2

BAD LY -S TR UCTU RED M AIN B O DY

The m ain b ody o f th e e ssa y s h ould c o nsis t o f 3 -4
para g ra p hs w hic h have th e sa m e str u ctu re : each
para g ra p h in tr o duces o ne m ain p oin t a n d d evelo ps
it.


TIP 1 :
The o pen in g s e n te n ce o f e ach p ara g ra p h s h ould s ta te
yo ur m ain p oin t. S ig n post t h em w ith t h e l in kin g
word s s u ch a s “ F ir s tly ,… S eco ndly ,… ”, “ O ne r e aso n
is ..., A noth er r e aso n i s … ”, “ E ducatio nally ,
Cultu ra lly ,… ”

TIP 2 :
Double c h eck i f t h e o pen in g s e n te n ce o f e ach m ain
para g ra p h a n sw ers th e q uestio n, e .g . “ W hy d o y o u
ag re e/d is a g re e..? ”, “ W hy d o y o u p re fe r… ?”, “ W hy
would y o u c h oose ..? ”.

Essa y q uestio
n Will m odern te chno lo gy, s u ch a s th e i n te rn et, e v er r e p la ce
th e b ook o r th e w ritte n w ord a s th e m ain s o urc e o f i n fo rm ati o n?
Answ er –
n ew te chnolo gy w ill r e pla ce th e w rit te n w ord

Fir st o f a ll,
p urc hasin g o nlin e r e ad in g m ate ria ls i s a s e asy a s th e c lic k o f a
butto n; i t i s c o nv enie nt a nd f a st. ( … )

Seco ndly
, c arry in g d ig ita l b ooks d oes n o t a d d a ny w eig ht to o ne’s b ag. ( … )

Thir d ly ,
k eep in g d ig ita l b ooks s a v es s p ace a nd d oes n o t m ake a ny m ess i n
one’s f la t. ( … )

Fin ally ,
r e ad in g d ig ita l m ate ria ls i s m ore e njo yab le d ue to c o m ple m enta ry
vid eo s a nd i n te ra cti v e f u ncti o ns. ( … )

Com ment
. B egin nin g th e m ain p ara gra p hs w ith th ese f o ur s e nte nces w ill
make th e e ssa y c le ar a nd w ell- s tr u ctu re d ; i t w ill b e e asy f o r th e e xam in er to
fo llo w th e m essa ge o f th e c o m positi o n.




Exerc is e 1 2-1
Stu d y th e s e nte nces b elo w . W hic h o nes a re c le ar a nd s tr o ng a rg um ents ?

Essa y q uestio n 1
Many y o ung p eo ple
go to s tu d y a t u niv ers ity . W hy?
1.
Fir s tl y , y o ung p eo ple n eed s c ie nti fic k no w le d ge.
2. F ir s tl y , f o r m any s tu d ents a u niv ers ity i s a p la ce w here th ey c an d ev elo p th eir
sp ecific i n te re sts .
3. T o b egin w ith , g etti n g a d egre e w ill m ake y o ung p eo ple p ro fe ssio nally m ore
co m peti ti v e.
Essa y q uestio n 2
Many p eo ple th in k th at th e b est p la ce to l iv e i s a c ity c entr e . D o
yo u a gre e o r d is a gre e?
Answ er
– I a gre e.
1 . F ir s tl y , th e s h o ppin g e xp erie nce i s m ore e xciti n g i n c ity c entr e s th an i n r e sid enti a l
are as.
2. F ir s t o f a ll, l ife i n a c ity c entr e i s b ette r th an i n a r e sid enti a l a re a.

3. T he f ir s t r e aso n i s c ultu ra l.
Essa y q uestio n 3
New sp ap ers h av e a b ig i n flu ence o n p eo ple 's i d eas o r o pin io ns.
Do y o u a gre e o r d is a gre e?
Answ er
– I a gre e
1.
To b egin w ith , n ew sp ap ers a re th e m ost a ffo rd ab le s o urc e o f i n fo rm ati o n o n th e
pla net.
2.
Fir s tl y , th e n ew sp ap er l a nguage a nd c o nte nt a re i n te llig ib le f o r a r e ad er o f a ny
backgro und .
3.
Fir s t o f a ll, m any p eo ple a re f o nd o f r e ad in g n ew sp ap ers a nd m agazin es
.

MIS TA K E 1 3
BAD LY -S TR UCTU RED M AIN P A RAGRAPH S
Man y m is ta k es i n s tu den ts ’ e ssa y s o ccu r d ue t o
bad ly -s tr u ctu re d m ain p ara g ra p hs a n d a l a ck o f
develo pm en t o f t h e m ain p oin ts .

TIP 1:
To develo p th e m ain poin ts can did ate s sh ould
utiliz e sp ecif ic in fo rm atio n, co nse q uen ces an d/o r
su pportin g e x am ple s.

TIP 2 :
Follo w a s im ple p atte rn – s ta rt f ro m a g en era l m ain
poin t, g o t o m ore s p ecif ic i n fo rm atio n/c o nse q uen ces;
an d g o t o e ven m ore s p ecif ic i n fo rm atio n o r
su pportin g e x am ple s.


Essa y q uestio n
. M obile p ho nes a nd th e i n te rn et a re v ery u se fu l. H ow ev er,
it i s r a re f o r th e o ld er g enera ti o n to u se th em . I n w hat w ays c an m obile
pho nes a nd th e i n te rn et b e u se fu l to th e o ld er g enera ti o n?

Socia lly
, n ew te chno lo gy g iv es a c hance to k eep c o nsta ntl y i n to uch w ith
fa m ily a nd f r ie nd s. ( 1 )T exti n g, o nlin e c hatti n g a nd v id eo c o nfe re ncin g
co m bat l o nelin ess w hic h m any o ld p eo ple f a ce.

Educa tio nally
, th ro ugh u sin g th e i n te rn et e ld erly p eo ple c an f o llo w th eir
in te re sts o r ta ke u p a n ew h o bby a t th e c lic k o f a b utto n. ( 2 ) F or i n sta nce, a n
old p ers o n c an l e arn h o w to c o ok a n ew d is h o r to b uild a tr e e h o use .

Pro fe ssio nally ,
m any r e ti r e d p eo ple c an c o nti n ue w ork in g o nlin e. ( 3 ) F or
exam ple , th o se w ho w ork ed i n s c ho ols m ay b e i n te re ste d i n f in d in g s tu d ents
on th e I n te rn et. E qually , e ngin eers c an d o s o m e te chnic al w ork f r o m h o m e.

(4 ) T his w ill e nab le th em to f u lfill th eir p ote nti a l a nd m ake th eir l iv es m ore
exciti n g a nd m eanin gfu l.

Com ment:
(1 ) d ev elo ps th e a rg um ent, ( 2 ) i s a s u p porti n g e xam ple , ( 3 ) i s a
su p porti n g e xam ple ; ( 4 ) i s a c o nse q uence


Ex.1 3-1
Stu dy t h e p assa ges b elo w . W hat is t h e r o le o f e ach s e nte nce in t h e
passa ges?

Essay q uestio n
Many c it y c ouncils a re m akin g d ecis io ns to c lo se
th e
lo cal p ublic lib ra rie s n ow adays. W hy is th is
happenin g?
Answ er:
city c o uncils c lo se l o cal p ub lic l ib ra rie s b ecause th e s e rv ic e b eco m es
unuse d . T here a re th re e r e aso ns b ehin d th at.
Passa ge 1
( 1 )T he m ain r e aso n i s th e g ro w in g p opula rity o f e -b ooks a nd o nlin e
re ad in g. ( 2 )C hild re n a nd a d ults m ove to c yb ers p ace w hate v er th ey a re i n te re ste d i n
re ad in g – c hild re n’s r h ym es o r p oetr y , d ete cti v e s to rie s o r s c ie nti fic m agazin es.
(3 )S ta ti s ti c ally , th e n um ber o f p eo ple w ho r e ad p ap er b ooks h as b een d ecre asin g b y
se v en p er c ent y early f o r th e l a st th re e y ears .
(4 )A s a r e su lt, f e w er p eo ple u se th e
lib ra ry s e rv ic es a nd th e b ook f u nd s th ere a re n o t n eed ed , th us, p ro m pti n g l o cal
go vern m ents to te rm in ate th e e xis te nce o f th e i n sti tu ti o ns.
Passa ge 2
(1 )N ext, i n th e m odern w orld r e ad in g b ooks h as l o st i ts d om in ance a s a
le is u re ti m e a cti v ity d ue to a m ulti tu d e o f m odern te chno lo gic al e nte rta in m ents .
(2 )M any a d ults a nd c hild re n s p end th eir s p are ti m e i n f r o nt o f th eir c o m pute rs
pla yin g g am es o r s o cia l n etw ork in g, w atc hin g o nlin e m ovie s o r Y ouT ub e s k etc hes.
(3 )T his l e ad s to th e l o ss o f p ra cti c e o f r e ad in g r e gula rly , d is c o ura ges r e ad in g a nd
em pti e s l ib ra ry r e ad in g h alls .

Passa ge 3
(1 ) F in ally , th e s h o rt- s ig hte d p olic y o f l o cal a uth o riti e s c o ntr ib ute s to th e
dis c o nti n uance o f l ib ra ry s e rv ic es.
( 2 )
D esp ite f u nd in g
in no vati o ns, s u ch a s
in cre asin g a ccess to d ig ita l s e rv ic es a nd e -le nd in g, l o cal g o vern m ents
re d uce
openin g h o urs a nd s ta ffin g a nd
cut c o sts
.
(3 )
This i g no re s
th e c hangin g d em and s o f
lib ra ry r e ad ers a nd r e su lts i n d iv erti n g l o yal v is ito rs f r o m l ib ra rie s. ( 4 ) T hese
in sti tu ti o ns
beco m e u nusa b le
and d ecis io ns a re m ad e to c lo se i t.

MIS TA K E 1 4

IN APPR O PR IA T E E X AM PLE S

TIP 1 :
A g o od su pportin g e x am ple is c le ar a n d re le van t to
th e poin t bein g m ad e; it sh ould not in clu de an y
obsc u re o r g en era l i n fo rm atio n.


TIP 2 :
Typ ic ally , a su pportin g ex am ple sh ould not be to o
lo ng; i t s h ould n ot d om in ate t h e p ara g ra p h.


Essa y q uestio n
. M obile p ho nes a nd th e i n te rn et a re v ery u se fu l. H ow ev er, i t i s
ra re f o r th e o ld er g enera ti o n to u se th em . I n w hat w ays c an m obile p ho nes a nd
th e i n te rn et b e u se fu l to th e o ld er g enera ti o n?
Passa ge1
Pro fe ssio nally , m any r e ti r e d p eo ple c an c o nti n ue w ork in g o nlin e a nd f u lfillin g
th eir p ote nti a l. ( 1 )F or e xam ple , th o se w ho w ork ed i n s c ho ol m ay b e i n te re ste d
in f in d in g s o m e j o b o n th e I n te rn et. C urre ntl y , e d ucati o nal s e rv ic es o nlin e
are
exp and in g a nd i n cre asin gly m ore s c ho ol te achers a re i n d em and . T his w ill
le ad to m akin g th eir r e ti r e m ent
more e xciti n g a nd m eanin gfu l.


Passa ge 2
Pro fe ssio nally , m any r e ti r e d p eo ple c an c o nti n ue w ork in g o nlin e a nd f u lfillin g
th eir p ote nti a l. ( 2 )F or e xam ple , th o se w ho w ork ed i n
sc ho ol m ay b e i n te re ste d
in f in d in g s tu d ents o n th e I n te rn et. ( 3 ) O r, f o r i n sta nce, p ensio ners m ig ht m eet
new f r ie nd s a nd f o rm er c o lle agues o n s o cia l n etw ork s. T his w ill l e ad to
makin g th eir l iv es m ore e xciti n g a nd m eanin gfu l.

Com ment.
Exam ple s 1 s h o w s a s id etr a ckin g p ro ble m , th e s e nte nce a b out e d ucati o nal
se rv ic es i s n o t to th e p oin t.
Exam ple s 2
is s h o rt, s tr a ig htf o rw ard a nd to th e p oin t.

Exam ple s 3 i s i n ap pro pria te i n th is p ara gra p h, i t d oes n o t s u p port th is m ain
poin t; i t n eed s to b e m oved to a no th er p ara gra p h a b out s o cia l r e la ti o nsh ip s.



Exerc is e 1 4-1
Stu d y th e p assa ges b elo w . A re th e e xam ple s s u ita b le a nd a p pro pria te ?

Essay q uestio n 1
Som e p eople a re a gain st
su rv eilla nce c am era s, o th ers th in k s u rv eilla nce c am era s a re
necessa ry . C ontr a st a nd c om pare th eir v ie w poin ts . W hat is y our o pin io n?
Passa ge 1
The m ain r e aso n o f th e s u p porte rs i s th at s u rv eilla nce c am era s p re v ent m any c rim es
su ch a s th efts , b urg la rie s a nd r o bberie s. T hie v es a v oid p la ces w ith C CTV s b ecause
th ey c an b e e asily i d enti fie d o n th e v id eo r e co rd in gs. E qually , o w ners o f f la ts a nd
ho use s f e el s a fe r i n th e e v ent th at s u rv eilla nce c am era s a re i n ts ta lle d i n th eir p la ces.
To i llu str a te , y este rd ay I w atc hed th e n ew s a b out tw o
burg la rs
who h ad b een a b le
to o utm aneuv er a s u rv eilla nce s y ste m o f a b ig a rt g alle ry a nd h ad b een c aught o nly
by a ccid ent. T he m use um s u ed th e c o m pany w hic h i n sta lle d th e s y ste m a nd d ecid ed
to e m plo y th e b urg la rs
as s a fe ty a nd s e curity c o nsu lta nts i n o rd er to p ro te ct i ts
co lle cti o n. A cco rd in g to th e r e p ort, th e s u rv eilla nce s y ste m w as i m pro ved a nd th e
burg la rs
gav e a n i n te rv ie w a ssu rin g th e p ub lic th at th e s y ste m w ould p re v ent a ny
ro bbery a tte m pt.
Essay q uestio n 2
Som e p eople th in k th at o nly a h ig hly - p ayin g jo b is e njo yable . D o y ou a gre e o r d is a gre e?
Answ er: I d is a gre e.
Passa ge 2
The f ir s t r e aso n i s th at a h ig hly - p ayin g j o b d oes n o t a lw ays a llo w p eo ple to f u lfil
th eir p ote nti a ls . I f p eo ple ’s a b iliti e s a nd ta le nts a re n o t i n v olv ed i n th eir w ork in g
ro uti n e, th e j o b w ill n ev er b e e njo yab le a nd p le asa nt. O n th e o pposite , i t w ill b rin g
bore d om , l a ck o f e nth usia sm a nd e v en i r rita ti o n. H ig h s a la ry w ill n o t c o m pensa te
th is a b se nce o f j o b s a ti s fa cti o n. F or e xam ple , m y b ro th er w ork s i n a h o te l
as a
manager a nd h e i s n o t h ap py w ith h is j o b b ecause h e d oes n o t e njo y w ork in g w ith
peo ple . I n a d diti o n, h e d re am s o f b eco m in g a w rite r b ecause h e i s g o od a t w riti n g
no vels .

Exerc is e 1 4-2
Stu d y th e p assa ges b elo w . A re th e e xam ple s s u ita b le a nd a p pro pria te ?

Essay q uestio n
Many c it y c ouncils a re m akin g d ecis io ns to c lo se th e lo cal p riv ate lib ra rie s n ow adays. W hy is th is
happenin g?

Answ er:
city c o uncils c lo se l o cal l ib ra rie s b ecause th e s e rv ic e b eco m es u nw ante d .
Passa ge 1
F ir s tl y , n o w ad ays r e ad in g b ooks h as l o st i ts d om in ance a s a l e is u re ti m e
acti v ity . M any p eo ple w ork l o ng h o urs a nd th ey p re fe r to s p end th eir p re cio us s p are
ti m e w ith th eir f a m ilie s a nd f r ie nd s d esp ite e xp lo rin g th e w orld o f l ite ra tu re . I n
ad diti o n, r e ad in g i s s h rin kin g d ue to a m ulti tu d e o f m odern e nte rta in m ent p ra cti c es
su ch a s p la yin g c o m pute r g am es, w atc hin g m ovie s o nlin e a nd s o cia l n etw ork in g. F or
exam ple , w henev er m y b ro th er h as f r e e ti m e f r o m h is s c ho ol s tu d ie s, h e e ith er p la ys
co m pute r g am es o r c hats w ith h is f r ie nd s o nlin e. A ll th ese l e ad to th e d ecre asin g
num ber o f l ib ra ry u se rs .

Passa ge 2
S eco nd ly , th e s h o rt- s ig hte d p olic y o f l o cal a uth o riti e s c o ntr ib ute s to th e
dis c o nti n uance o f p ub lic l ib ra ry s e rv ic es. D esp ite f u nd in g i n no vati o ns, s u ch a s
in cre asin g a ccess to d ig ita l s e rv ic es a nd e -le nd in g, l o cal g o vern m ents
re d uce
openin g h o urs a nd s ta ffin g a nd
cut c o sts .
This i g no re s
th e c hangin g d em and s o f
lib ra ry r e ad ers a nd r e su lts i n d iv erti n g l o yal v is ito rs f r o m l ib ra rie s. T he s e rv ic e
beco m es u nw ante d a nd d ecis io ns a re m ad e to c lo se i t. T o i llu str a te , f iv e p ub lic
lib ra rie s h av e b een c lo se d i n m y n ati v e to w n o ver th e l a st th re e y ears .

MIS TA K E 1 5
Mis p la cin g t h e a n sw ers t o s u b-q uestio ns a n d t h e o pposin g
opin io n p assa g e
Som e e ssa y q uestio ns m ay i n clu de t h e m ain t a sk
an d a s u b-ta sk .

Essay q uestio n1
T he m ovem ent o f p eople f ro m a gric ult u ra l a re as to c it ie s f o r w ork c an c ause
se rio us p ro ble m s in b oth p la ces. W hat a re th e s e rio us p ro ble m s a nd w hat m easu re s c an b e
ta ken to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s?
Com ment 1 :
T he f ir s t q uesti o n s h o uld b e tr e ate d a s th e m ain ta sk h ere
and th e s e co nd – a s a s u b -ta sk .

Essay q uestio n 2
N ow adays, p eople c an c hoose a ny p la ce in a ny c ountr y to liv e a nd w ork
because of th e im pro ved te chnolo gy in com munic atio n and tr a nsp ort
.   Do th e advanta ges
outw eig h th e d is a dvanta ges o f th is ?
Com ment 2 :
The m ain b ody o f th e r e sp onse to th is q uesti o n s h o uld b e
dom in ate d b y th e d esc rip ti o n o f th e a d vanta ges a nd d is a d vanta ges. T he
answ er to th e q uesti o n “
Do th e a dvanta ges o utw eig h th e d is a dvanta ges o f th is ? ”
sh o uld b e w ritte n i n th e l a st m ain p ara gra p h.

Essay q uestio n 3
S om e p eople th in k c om pute rs a nd th e In te rn et a re im porta nt in c hild re n's
sc hoolin g, b ut o th ers th in k s tu dents c an le arn m ore e ffe ctiv ely in s c hools w it h te achers . D is c uss
both p oin ts o f v ie w a nd g iv e y our o w n o pin io n.
Com ment 3 :
The m ain ta sk i n th is q uesti o n i s to g iv e r e aso ns f o r tw o
vie w s o n c hild re n’s s c ho olin g.
The q uesti o n a b out y o ur o w n o pin io n i s
a s u b -ta sk a nd i t i s a d vis a b le to r e sp ond to i t i n th e p ara gra p h
pre ced in g th e c o nclu sio n.

Essay q uestio n
4 The d evelo pm ent o f te chnolo gy c hanges th e w ay p eople in te ra ct w it h e ach
oth er. I n w hic h w ays d oes it c hange r e la tio nsh ip s b etw een p eople ? I s th is a p osit iv e o r n egativ e
develo pm ent?
Com ment 4
: The m ain ta sk in th is q uesti o n is to d esc rib e a fe w
changes
in th e w ay p eo ple i n te ra ct u nd er th e i n flu ence o f th e d ev elo pm ent o f
te chno lo gy. T he s e co nd q uesti o n i s a s u b -ta sk , th e r e sp onse to i t s h o uld
be w ritte n i n th e m ain c lo sin g p ara gra p h.


TIP 1 :
To s u m mariz e, i t i s a d vis a b le t o p la ce t h e a n sw er
to t h e s u b-q uestio n i n t h e p ara g ra p h p re ced in g t h e

co nclu sio n. O r, i n s o m e r e sp onse s, a t t h e e n d o f
th e m ain p ara g ra p hs i n t h e P ro ble m -s o lv in g
essa y s. T hese a n sw ers t o s u b-q uestio ns s h ould n ot
dom in ate t h e e ssa y.

TIP 2 :
It is n ot o blig ato ry , b ut th e o pposin g o pin io n
may be dis c u sse d in
Agre e/D is a g re e an d
Pre fe re n ce e ssa y s. H ow ever, i t m ust n ot b e g iv en
to o m uch s p ace i n t h e e ssa y.


TIP 3 :
It is ad vis a b le to pla ce th e opposin g opin io n
dis c u ssio n in th e c lo sin g p ara g ra p h o f th e m ain
body.


Exerc is e 1 5-1
Stu d y th e p assa ges b elo w a nd c o m ment o n th eir s tr u ctu re . C heck w ith th e A nsw er
key.

Essa y q uestio n 1
Som e p eo ple th in k c o m pute rs a nd th e In te rn et a re im porta nt in
child re n's s c ho olin g, b ut o th ers th in k s tu d ents c an l e arn m ore e ffe cti v ely i n tr a d iti o nal
sc ho ols . D is c uss b oth p oin ts o f v ie w a nd g iv e y o ur o w n o pin io n.
In tr o 1
Many s c ho ols p ut e m phasis o n th e u se o f c o m pute rs
in c la ss n o w ad ays. I a m a
su p porte r o f th is m odern a p pro ach b ecause o f i ts i m porta nce f o r th e c hild re n’s f u tu re .
How ev er, m any p eo ple o ppose th is o pin io n a nd a re i n f a v our o f tr a d iti o nal s c ho ols .
The f ir s t v ie w poin t h as tw o a rg um ents . ( ...)
The a d vocate s o f tr a d iti o nal s c ho ols h av e tw o m ain r e aso ns b ehin d th eir o pin io n.
(… )
Conclu sio n1
To c o nclu d e, a v is io n o f w heth er to e xp lo it c o m pute rs i n s c ho ol s tu d ie s

or n o t d iffe rs . A s f a r a s I a m c o ncern ed , I e nd ors e th e i n no vati v e v ie w o f u ti liz in g
co m pute rs a nd th e I n te rn et.

Essay q uestio n 2
Rese arc h s u ggests th at th e m ajo rity o f c rim in als w ho a re s e nt to
pris o n
co nti n ue to c o m mit c rim es w hen th ey a re r e le ase d . W hy d o y o u th in k th is i s th e c ase ?
What c an b e d one to s o lv e th is p ro ble m ?
Answ er
: th e r e aso n i s th e l a ck o f p ro per e d ucati o nal a nd p sy cho lo gic al s e rv ic es
Para gra ph 1
In th e f ir s t p la ce, w hils t i n j a il, th e m ajo rity o f o ffe nd ers a re n o t
pro vid ed w ith o pportu niti e s to g ain p ro fe ssio nal k no w le d ge a nd s k ills . T his d ep riv es
th em o f th e h o pe o f f in d in g a j o b w hen th ey a re r e le ase d , th us, r e tu rn in g to n o rm al
ev ery d ay l ife a nd n o t to th eir c rim in al p ast. ( … )
The u lti m ate r e so lu ti o n o f th is p ro ble m i s o rg aniz a ti o nal a nd s ta ffin g r e fo rm s a nd
su ffic ie nt f u nd in g o f th e p ris o n e d ucati o nal s y ste m .
Para gra ph 2
The s e co nd e xp la nati o n w hy o ffe nd ers c o nti n ue to c o m mit c rim es w hen
th ey a re r e le ase d i s th e l a ck o f a r e hab ilita ti o n p ro m oti o n i n j a ils . S im ila r to
pro fe ssio nal e d ucati o n, i n m ate s s h o uld b e p ro vid ed w ith p ris o n-ta ilo re d
psy cho lo gic al, p hilo so phic al a nd r e lig io us tr a in in gs, l e ad in g to th eir r e d em pti o n.
(… )T he s o lu ti o n to th is p ro ble m l ie s i n a r a d ic al c hange o f te achin g i n j a ils a nd
fu nd in g th is e d ucati o nal p ro cess.
Conclu sio n
To c o nclu d e, th e l a ck o f p ro fe ssio nal e d ucati o n a nd r e hab ilita ti o n
su p port a re th e m ain r e aso ns w hy p ris o ners r e v ert to a l ife o f c rim e a fte r th eir
re le ase . T his c an b e c hanged i f g o vern m ents e ase f in ancia l c o nstr a in ts i n p ris o ns a nd
re fo rm th e e d ucati o nal p ris o n s y ste m .


Essay q uestio n 3
Som e p eople th in k c om pute rs a nd th e I n te rn et a re im porta nt in c hild re n's s c hoolin g, b ut o th ers
th in k s tu dents c an le arn m ore e ffe ctiv ely u sin g tr a dit io nal s c hool m eth ods. W hat is y our o pin io n?
In tr o 3
Many s c ho ols p ut e m phasis o n c o m pute r u se i n c la ss n o w ad ays. I a m a
su p porte r o f th is m odern a p pro ach. Y et, s o m e p eo ple d o n o t s h are th is o pin io n
arg uin g th at c o m pute rs a nd th e I n te rn et d is c o ura ge c re ati v ity a nd i n d ep end ent
decis io n-m akin g a m ong c hild re n. T hat m ig ht b e tr u e w ith
th e e xcessiv e u se o f
co m pute rs a nd th e I n te rn et b ut s c ho ol c urric ula o ffe r w ell- ta ilo re d I n te rn et- re la te d
and ti m e-fr a m ed c la sse s.

MIS TA K E 1 6

SID ETR ACKIN G P R O BLE M S I N T H E M AIN B O DY

Div ertin g fro m th e to pic o f th e essa y q uestio n is a
co m mon e rro r in E FL e ssa y s. It r e su lts in u ndesir a b le
em pty s e n te n ces a n d b rin gs l o w er m ark s.

TIP 1 :
Avo id s id etr a ck in g; i t f ills t h e s p ace i n t h e e ssa y, b ut
it d oes n ot m ax im iz e t h e s c o re .

TIP 2 :
In t h e m ain p ara g ra p hs s ta y w ith in y o ur a rg u m en t
to pic ; d evelo p t h e a rg u m en ts , a d d c o nse q uen ces a n d
su pportin g e x am ple s.

Essa y q uestio n
Som e p eo ple th in k th at o nly g o vern m ents c an h elp th e
env ir o nm ent. O th ers d is a gre e. W hat i s y o ur o pin io n?
Answ er:
I d is a gre e, I th in k i n d iv id uals a nd o rg aniz a ti o ns c an h elp th e
env ir o nm ent

Fir s tl y , i n d iv id uals c an m ake th e w orld g re ener b y r e d ucin g f o od w aste i n th e
ho use ho ld .
This c an b e d one b y
pla nnin g th e m eals a head
to p re v ent f o od f r o m
sp oilin g, f r e eze w hat c an b e f r o ze n, m ix f r e sh h erb s w ith s a lt to k eep th em
lo nger a nd to e xte nd th e l ife o f f r u it a d d s u gar. T his m ay s e em a s b ein g a m in o r
effe ct e v en r e gio nally b ut o nce th e tr e nd i s m ain str e am , i t w ill m in im iz e g as
em is sio ns a nd a ir c o nta m in ati o n f r o m l a nd fills b oth r e gio nally a nd g lo bally .
Furth erm ore , p urc hasin g o f f o od w ill d ecre ase a nd r e su lt i n a gric ultu ra l
dev elo pm ents b eco m in g m ore s u sta in ab le . ( 1 )In a d diti o n, r e d ucin g f o od w aste
cuts f a m ily e xp ense s a nd h elp s to s a v e m oney f o r a f a m ily s e asid e h o lid ay.

Com ment: :
Sente nce ( 1 ) i s a s id etr a ckin g p ro ble m . I t d oes n o t s u p port th e
arg um ent; i t i s n o t to th e p oin t a nd s h o uld b e l o st.

Exerc is e 1 6-1
Stu d y th e p assa ges b elo w . C om ment o n th eir s tr u ctu re a nd d ev elo pm ent a nd
check w ith th e A nsw er K ey.
Essay q uestio n 1
A u niv ers it y d egre e is a m ust f o r s u ccess in th e m odern w orld . D o y ou a gre e o r d is a gre e?
Answ er:
I a gre e ( p ro fe ssio nal a nd p ers o nal s u ccess)
Passa ge 1
Fir s tl y , m any p re sti g io us p ositi o ns c an b e o ccup ie s o nly b y p ro fe ssio nals w ith a
univ ers ity d egre e. M any e m plo yers d o n o t c o nsid er u nd erg ra d uate s a s j o b a p plic ants
at a ll. A lth o ugh f in is h in g a d egre e d em and s m enta l a nd p hysic al e ffo rts a s w ell a s
fin ancia l i n v estm ents , i t e nsu re s a g o od p la cem ent a nd h ig her l ife ti m e e arn in gs .
Seco nd ly , i t i s e asie r f o r u niv ers ity g ra d uate s to a d ap t u nd er th e c o nd iti o n o f h ig h
unem plo ym ent r a te . T hey c an a p ply f o r a j o b o vers e as i n a c o untr y w ith th e l a ck o f
qualifie d s p ecia lis ts . I n a d diti o n, i t w ill b e e asie r f o r th em to g et a n ew q ualific ati o n
whic h i s b ase d o n th eir f ir s t a nd w hic h c an h elp to f in d a j o b.
Thir d ly , s o cia liz in g w ith u niv ers ity g ra d uate s c an b e e nric hin g a nd e nlig hte nin g d ue
to th e f u nd am enta l k no w le d ge th ey a cq uir e d urin g th eir s tu d ie s. I n m any c o m muniti e s
th ey a re w elc o m ed a s f r ie nd s a nd m ento rs , w hic h l e ad s to th eir s u ccessfu l s o cia l l ife .
In a d diti o n, i n s o m e c ultu re s, a u niv ers ity d egre e h as a p rio r s ig nific ance i n c ho osin g
a p artn er.
Essay q uestio n 2
Many c it y c ouncils a re m akin g d ecis io ns to c lo se th e lo cal p ublic lib ra rie s n ow adays. W hy is
th is h appenin g?
Answ er:
city c o uncils c lo se l o cal l ib ra rie s b ecause th e s e rv ic e b eco m es u nw ante d .
There a re th re e r e aso ns b ehin d th at.
Passa ge 2
The m ain r e aso n i s th e g ro w in g p opula rity o f e -b ooks.

Lib ra rie s a re
lo sin g th eir v is ito rs i n th e w orld w here r e ad in g a cti v iti e s a nd p ra cti c es a re m ovin g
in to c yb ers p ace. P ers o nally , I p re fe r p hysic al b ooks to th eir d ig ita l e q uiv ale nts b ut
th e p rin te d w ord l o vers a re r a p id ly b eco m in g a m in o rity . R ic h l ib ra ry c o lle cti o ns a re
beco m in g u nw ante d , th us, p ro m pti n g l o cal g o vern m ents to te rm in ate th e e xis te nce o f
th e i n sti tu ti o ns.
Passa ge 3
Additi o nally , i n th e m odern w orld r e ad in g b ooks h as l o st i ts d om in ance a s
a l e is u re ti m e a cti v ity . P eo ple w ork l o ng h o urs a nd th ey p re fe r to s p end th eir
pre cio us f r e e ti m e w ith th eir f a m ilie s a nd f r ie nd s i n s p ite o f r e ad in g a b ook. I n
ad diti o n, r e ad in g i s s h rin kin g d ue to a m ulti tu d e o f e nte rta in m ent p ra cti c es s u ch a s
pla yin g c o m pute r g am es, w atc hin g m ovie s o nlin e a nd s o cia l n etw ork in g. A lth o ugh,
fo r e xam ple , t
he a m ount o f ti m e s p ent p la yin g a nd th e n atu re o f th e g am es a re o fte n
criti c is e d b y p sy cho lo gis ts , th e w orld i s e xp erie ncin g th e s u rg e o f g am in g.

Passa ge 4
Fin ally , th e s h o rt- s ig hte d p olic y o f l o cal a uth o riti e s c o ntr ib ute s to th e
dis c o nti n uance o f l ib ra ry s e rv ic es. D esp ite f u nd in g i n no vati o ns, s u ch a s i n cre asin g
access to d ig ita l s e rv ic es a nd e -le nd in g, l o cal g o vern m ents
re d uce o penin g h o urs a nd
sta ffin g a nd
cut c o sts
. T his i g no re s
th e c hangin g d em and s o f l ib ra ry r e ad ers a nd
re su lts i n d iv erti n g l o yal v is ito rs f r o m l ib ra rie s. T he s e rv ic e b eco m es u nw ante d a nd
decis io ns a re m ad e to c lo se i t. I n m any c o untr ie s p ro fe ssio nals a nd a cti v is ts b rin g
atte nti o n to th is a nd o rg anis e p ro te sts a nd e v ents i n s u p port o f p ub lic l ib ra rie s.

MIS TA K E 1 7

OBSC URIT Y P R O BLE M S

Som e stu den ts te n d to overg en era liz e th eir id eas,
arg u m en ts an d main poin ts . It brin gs undesir a b le
obsc u rity t o t h e w ritin g.

TIP :
Avo id o r d o n ot le ave w ith out c la rif y in g
gen era l id eas;
do not use vag u e vo cab ula ry su ch as
so m eth in g,
s o m ew here ,
in m an y o th er s itu atio ns, it r e su lts in m an y
pro ble m s e tc .

Exerc is e 1 7-1
Stu d y th e i n tr o ducti o n p assa ges b elo w . C om ment o n th eir s tr u ctu re a nd c heck
with th e A nsw er K ey.

Essay q uestio n
M any
b usin esse s f a ce a s ta ff tu rn over p ro ble m n ow adays. W hat s h ould b usin esse s d o to s o lv e
th is p ro ble m ?
Answ er:
im pro ve w ork c ondit io ns, r a is e w ages, a nd in tr o duce f le xib le w ork in g h ours
In tr o 1
Many m odern b usin esse s s u ffe r f r o m a r e te nti o n p ro ble m w hic h, f r o m m y
poin t o f v ie w , c an
be m in im iz e d b y i m pro vin g w ork c o nd iti o ns, r a is in g w ages a nd
in tr o ducin g f le xib le w ork in g h o urs .
In tr o 2
Many m odern b usin esse s s u ffe r f r o m a r e te nti o n p ro ble m w hic h, f r o m
my p oin t o f v ie w , c an
be m in im iz e d b y i m pro vin g w ork c o nd iti o ns, r a is in g
wages a nd m any o th er i m pro vem ents a t th e w ork p la ce.
Exerc is e 1 7-2
Stu d y th e p assa ges b elo w . C om ment o n th eir s tr u ctu re a nd c heck w ith th e
Answ er K ey.

Essay q uestio n
Som e p eople s a y th at d is c ip lin e is m ore im porta nt th an ta le nt. D o y ou a gre e o r d is a gre e?
In tr o 1
I w ho lly a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at d is c ip lin e p la ys a m ore s ig nific ant r o le
th an ta le nt i n m any s itu ati o ns i n p eo ple ’s l iv es.

In tr o 2
I w ho lly a gre e w ith th e s ta te m ent th at d is c ip lin e i s m ore s ig nific ant th an
ta le nt i n s tu d ie s a nd p ro fe ssio nal l ife .
Passa ge 1
Fir s t o f a ll, to p p erfo rm ers i n a ny p ro fe ssio nal s e tti n g s u cceed n o t th ro ugh
th eir n atu ra l a b iliti e s a nd ta le nts b ut th ro ugh d is c ip lin e. T he l a tte r i m plie s f o llo w in g
polic ie s f o r e m plo yees a nd r e gula r w ork p ra cti c e. F or i n sta nce, i f a n e m plo yee i s
alw ays l a te f o r w ork , th ey a re m ost l ik ely to b e d is m is se d w ith o ut r e fe re nce to th eir
ta le nts . F urth erm ore , o nly r e gula r w ork p ra cti c e c an b rin g d esir a b le r e su lts i n a ny
pro fe ssio n. T o i llu str a te , c o m ple ti n g a p ro je ct r e q uir e s c o m mitm ent a nd d is c ip lin e,
and m eeti n g d ead lin es i s d ep end ent o n th is n o t j u st o n ta le nt a lo ne. E qually , i f
ath le te s a b and on th eir tr a in in g s c hed ule , th eir s p orti n g a b iliti e s w ill n o t h elp th em to
win .
Passa ge 2
Fir s t o f a ll, i n a ny e d ucati o nal p ro cess, i f s tu d ents d o n o t h av e a
dis c ip lin ed a p pro ach to th eir s tu d ie s, th ey w ill n o t s u cceed d esp ite th eir i n nate
ab iliti e s a nd ta le nts . D is c ip lin e i n s tu d ie s i m plie s r e gula r w ork . W hen i t i s n o t th e
guid in g p rin cip le , i t l e ad s to s tu d ents h av in g d iffe re nt p ro ble m s i n e d ucati o nal
in sti tu ti o ns. I n a d diti o n, i t h as a n a d vers e e ffe ct o n th e s tu d ents ’ f u tu re .

MIS TA K E 1 8

BAD LY -S TR UCTU RED C O NCLU SIO N

A g o od c o nclu sio n r e sta te s t h e
main p oin ts ; it is
sh ort an d cle ar; it co nsis ts of 1-3 se n te n ces.
Longer c o nclu sio ns o fte n sh ow sid etr a ck in g o r
re sta tin g p ro ble m s.

TIP 1 :
Your c o nclu sio n c an b e a s lo ng a s o ne s e n te n ce
whic h para p hra se s th e an sw er
to th e essa y
questio n.
How ever, it is a d vis a b le to b uild th e c o nclu sio n
fro m al
l
th e m ain poin ts - th e para p hra se d
an sw er t o t h e e ssa y q uestio ns a n d a rg u m en ts .

TIP 2 :
Sig n post y o ur c o nclu sio n w ith t h e l in kin g w ord s
“ In c o nclu sio n” , “ T o c o nclu de” o r “ T o
su m mariz e”

TIP 3 :
Do n ot i n clu de a n y n ew a rg u m en ts ,
ex am ple s o r n ew i d eas i n y o ur c o nclu sio n. I t
sh ould b e d one i n t h e m ain b ody.


Exerc is e 1 8-1
Stu d y th e c o nclu sio ns b elo w . C om ment o n th eir s tr u ctu re a nd c o m pare
with th e A nsw er K ey.

Essay q uestio n 1
Rese arc h s u ggests th at th e m ajo rit y o f c rim in als w ho a re s e nt to p ris o n c ontin ue to c om mit
crim es w hen th ey a re r e le ase d. D o y ou a gre e th at th is p ro ble m c annot b e s o lv ed?

Answ er
: I d on’t a gre e. I t c an b e s o lv ed th ro ugh p ro fe ssio nal e d ucati o n a nd a h ig h
le v el o f r e hab ilita ti o n s e rv ic es i n j a ils .
Conclu sio n1
To c o nclu d e, th e p ro ble m th at o ffe nd ers r e v ert to a l ife o f c rim e a fte r
th eir r e le ase c an b e s o lv ed i f th e g o vern m ents f u nd p ro fe ssio nal e d ucati o n a nd
psy cho lo gic al s e rv ic es i n j a ils .
Conclu sio n2
In c o nclu sio n, I d o n o t s u p port th e o pin io n th at i t i s u nachie v ab le to
so lv e th e p ro ble m o f r e su m in g a l ife o f c rim e b y f o rm er o ffe nd ers w ho h av e b een
re le ase d f r o m j a ils .
Conclu sio n 3
I n c o nclu sio n, I d o n o t s u p port th e o pin io n th at i t i s u nachie v ab le to
so lv e th e p ro ble m o f f o rm er o ffe nd ers r e su m in g a l ife o f c rim e I t w ill b e s o lv ed i f
go vern m ents f u nd p ro fe ssio nal e d ucati o n a nd p sy cho lo gic al s e rv ic es i n j a ils . I n
ad diti o n, th e p ro ble m o f o verc ro w din g i n p ris o ns h as to b e a d dre sse d a nd s o rte d o ut.

MIS TA K E 1 9
IN APPR O RIA T E U SE O F R ESTA T IN G T E C HN IQ UE

Resta tin g or re p etitio n is one of th e ty p ic al
mis ta k es s tu den ts m ak e i n t h e E FL e ssa y.

TIP 1 :
How ever, a co nsis te n t
an d cle ar essa y sh ould
i n clu de
th e essa y questio n re sta te d tw ic e – in th e
in tr o ductio n a n d i n t h e c o nclu sio n
th e r e sp ond to th e e ssa y q uestio n r e sta te d o nce
– i n t h e c o nclu sio n

TIP 2 :
It i s a d vis a b le t o r e sta te t h e
su pportin g p oin ts
(a rg u m en ts ) i n t h e c o nclu sio n.

TIP 3 :
In s o m e e ssa y s i t i s a d vis a b le t o f o re sh ad ow t h e
su pportin g p oin ts i n t h e i n tr o ductio n.


Exerc is e 1 9-1
Stu d y th e p assa ges b elo w . C om ment o n th eir s tr u ctu re a nd c o m pare
with th e A nsw er K ey.

Essay q uestio n
M any
b usin esse s f a ce a s ta ff tu rn over p ro ble m n ow adays. W hat s h ould b usin esse s d o to s o lv e
th is p ro ble m ?
Answ er:
im pro ve w ork c ondit io ns, r a is e w ages, a nd in tr o duce f le xib le w ork in g h ours
In tr o 1
Many m odern b usin esse s s u ffe r f r o m a r e te nti o n p ro ble m w hic h, f r o m m y

poin t o f v ie w , s h o uld b e m in im iz e d b y i m pro vin g w ork c o nd iti o ns, r a is in g w ages a nd
in tr o ducin g f le xib le w ork in g h o urs .
In tr o 2
Many p eo ple th in k th at i m pro vin g w ork c o nd iti o ns, r a is in g s a la rie s f o r
em plo yees a nd i n tr o ducin g f le xib le w ork in g h o urs w ill b e b enefic ia l f o r b usin esse s. I
su p port th is o pin io n. T he a sp ects o f th e w ork in g e nv ir o nm ent a nd m oneta ry r e tu rn s
are a m ong th e m ost s ig nific ant f a cto rs o f w ork s a ti s fa cti o n.
Conclu sio n 1
In c o nclu sio n, to s o lv e th e s ta ff tu rn o ver p ro ble m , b usin esse s s h o uld
co nsid er f a ir p ay r is e s, g iv in g m ore c o ntr o l to w ork ers o ver th eir w ork in g h o urs
and i n tr o ducin g b ette r w ork c o nd iti o ns f o r th e e m plo yees.
Conclu sio n 2
In c o nclu sio n, to s o lv e th e s ta ff tu rn o ver p ro ble m , b usin esse s s h o uld
co nsid er f a ir p ay r is e s. I n cre asin g s a la rie s w ill l e ad to th e l o yalty o f th e e m plo yees
to th e c o m pany th ey a re w ork in g f o r.

MIS TA K E 2 0

IN APPR O PR IA T E U SE O F G EN ER AL A N D S PE C IF IC
WRIT IN G

TIP 1
Giv e g en era l i n fo rm atio n w hen
-fo re sh ad ow in g th e su pportin g poin ts in th e
in tr o ductio n
-re sta tin g th e su p portin g poin ts in th e
co nclu sio n

TIP 2
Giv e s p ecif ic i n fo rm atio n w hen
-th e e ssa y q uestio n i s t o o g en era l
-a n sw erin g t h e e ssa y q uestio n
-d evelo pin g a n d e la b ora tin g t h e a rg u m en ts
- g iv in g t h e s u pportin g e x am ple s

TIP 3 :
To r e sta te th e e ssa y q uestio n a n d th e a n sw er to th e
essa y q uestio n p ara p hra se t h em b y
1. u tiliz in g s y n onym s
2. u tiliz in g a d iff e re n t g ra m mar s tr u ctu re
3. d evelo pin g t h e s e n te n ce ( m ak in g i t l o nger)
4. m ix in g t h e a b ove-m en tio ned m eth ods;
5. su m mariz in g o r m ak in g th e se n te n ces sh orte r ,
ch an gin g t h e v o cab ula ry a n d s tr u ctu re

Exerc is e 2 0-1
Matc h th e s e nte nces a ) – k ) w ith th e c o m ments 1 ) – 5 )

1.u ti liz in g s y no nym s
2. u ti liz in g a d iffe re nt g ra m mar s tr u ctu re
3. d ev elo pin g th e s e nte nce ( m akin g i t l o nger)
4. m ix in g th e a b ove-m enti o ned m eth o ds;
5. s u m mariz in g o r m akin g th e s e nte nces s h o rte r , c hangin g th e v ocab ula ry a nd
str u ctu re
Essay q uestio n
1 N ow adays p eople a re liv in g lo nger a nd lo nger. W hat c hanges d oes it b rin g to s o cie ty ?
a)

In th e m odern w orld p eo ple a re l iv in g l o nger a nd l o nger.
b)

Now ad ays l ife ti m es a re b eco m in g l o nger.
c)

In th e m odern w orld l ife e xp ecta ncy f ig ure s a re r is in g.
d)

In th e tw enty -fir s t c entu ry , th e a v era ge l ife e xp ecta ncy i s h ig her th an e v er
befo re .
e)

In th e tw enty -fir s t c entu ry p eo ple a re l iv in g l o nger a nd l o nger th anks to
im pro vem ents i n m ed ic al c are a nd n utr iti o nal s c ie nce.
Essay q uestio n
2 Wild a nim als h ave n o p la ce in th e 2 1st c entu ry . S om e p eople th in k th at p re ventin g w ild a nim als
fro m d yin g o ut is a w aste o f r e so urc es. T o w hat e xte nd d o y ou a gre e o r d is a gre e?
f)

Som e p eo ple b elie v e th at s a v in g w ild a nim als f r o m e xti n cti o n i s a w aste
of r e so urc es.
g)

Som e p eo ple th in k th at p re v enti n g w ild a nim als f r o m d yin g o ut i s a w aste
of f in ancia l, m ate ria l a nd h um an r e so urc es.
h)

Som e th in k p eo ple c anno t p re se rv e w ild life b y i n v esti n g r e so urc es.
Essay q uestio n
3 Govern m ents s h ould m ake m ore e ffo rt to p ro m ote a lt e rn ativ e s o urc es o f e nerg y. T o w hat
exte nd d o y ou a gre e o r d is a gre e w it h th is o pin io n?
i) M any p eo ple th in k th at g o vern m ents s h o uld
make p ro porti o nate ly m ore e ffo rt to
su p port a nd p ro m ote a lte rn ati v e s o urc es o f e nerg y.
j) M any p eo ple th in k th at th e r e in fo rc em ent o f p ro m oti n g o f a lte rn ati v e s o urc es o f
energ y
sh o uld b e c o nsid ere d a s o ne o f th e p rio riti e s b y g o vern m ents i n th eir w ork .
k) M any p eo ple th in k th at e nd ors in g r e new ab le e nerg y p ro je cts s h o uld b e a m ong
go vern m ents ’ p rio riti e s a nd th ey m ust s tr e ngth en th eir w ork i n th is f ie ld .

Exerc is e 2 0-2
Stu d y th e p assa ges b elo w . C om ment o n th eir s tr u ctu re a nd c o m pare
with th e A nsw er K ey.

Essa y q uestio n
M any
b usin esse s f a ce a s ta ff tu rn over p ro ble m n ow adays. W hat s h ould b usin esse s d o to
so lv e th is p ro ble m ?
Answ er
: im pro ve w ork c ondit io ns, r a is e w ages, a nd in tr o duce f le xib le w ork in g h ours

In tr o 1
Many m odern b usin esse s s u ffe r f r o m a r e te nti o n p ro ble m w hic h, f r o m m y
poin t o f v ie w , c an
be m in im iz e d b y i m pro vin g w ork c o nd iti o ns, r a is in g w ages a nd
in tr o ducin g f le xib le w ork in g h o urs .

In tr o 2
Many m odern b usin esse s s u ffe r f r o m a r e te nti o n p ro ble m th e r o ot o f w hic h
lie s i n u nsa ti s fa cto ry w ork c o nd iti o ns, l o w s a la rie s a nd p oorly -s c hed ule d w ork in g
ho urs . F ro m m y p oin t o f v ie w , th e f ir s t s te p i n s o lv in g th is p ro ble m i s r e nti n g l a rg er
work in g o ffic es a nd u p gra d in g th e o ffic e e q uip m ent. T he s e co nd s te p i s c hangin g th e
pay p olic y i n f a v our o f e m plo yees. F in ally , b usin esse s s h o uld g iv e th e o pportu nity to
th eir w ork ers to d ecid e w hat w ork in g r e gim e i s th e m ost a ccep ta b le f o r th em .

Conclu sio n 1
In c o nclu sio n, to s o lv e th e s ta ff tu rn o ver p ro ble m , b usin esse s s h o uld
co nsid er f a ir p ay r is e s, g iv in g m ore c o ntr o l to w ork ers o ver th eir w ork in g h o urs
and i m pro vin g w ork c o nd iti o ns f o r th e e m plo yees.

Conclu sio n2
In c o nclu sio n, th ere a re th re e m ain a v enues to s o lv e th e p ro ble m o f
sta ff tu rn o ver i n m odern b usin esse s. F ir s tl y , b usin ess m anagem ents s h o uld ta ke
care
of th e q uality o f th e w ork in g s p aces a nd e q uip m ent f o r th eir w ork ers ; s e co nd ly , th ey
sh o uld ta ke a d iffe re nt a p pro ach to th e w ork in g r e gim e o f th e e m plo yees a nd d ev elo p
a n ew s y ste m o f w ork in g h o urs , w hic h w ill b e c o m fo rta b le f o r e ach e m plo yee; a nd
th e l a st, b ut n o t th e l e ast i s th e f in ancia l s id e o f e m plo yin g p eo ple – th eir c o ntr ib uti o n
to th e b usin ess a nd i n co m es s h o uld b e b ala nced , w hic h i s a s ig nific ant i s su e i n
modern b usin esse s.

ANSW ER K EY
Exerc is e 1 -1
Q1 – G enera lly it ’s a n A gre e/D is a gre e q uestio n ty pe ( D o y ou a gre e th at it ’s p osit iv e o r n ot? )
Q2 – it ’s a n E xpla natio n q uestio n ty pe.
Q3 – it ’s a P re fe re nce q uestio n ty pe.
Q4 – it ’s a n A gre e/D is a gre e q uestio n ty pe.
Q5 – it ’s a C ontr a st/C om pare q uestio n ty pe.
Q6 – it ’s a n I m agin ary s it u atio n q uestio n ty pe.
Q7
– it ’s a P ro ble m -s o lv in g q uestio n ty pe.
Q8
– it ’s a P ro ble m -s o lv in g q uestio n ty pe.
Q9
– it ’s a P ro ble m -s o lv in g q uestio n ty pe.

Exerc is e 1 -2
Com ment:
All th e in tr o ductio ns in th is e xerc is e a nsw er th e w ro ng ty pes o f q uestio ns, s id etr a ck a nd a re n ot to th e
poin t.

Task 1
i s a n A gre e/D is a gre e q uesti o n ty p e, a nd th e w rite r h as to c ho ose i f th e
pheno m eno n i s p ositi v e o r n egati v e a nd e xp la in w hy th ey th in k s o . H ow ev er, th e
auth o r o f I n tr o 1 s ta te s h is /h er p re fe re nce a b out th e s c enario o f c hangin g c are ers a nd
pla ces o f l iv in g.
Task 2
i s a n e xp la nati o n e ssa y q uesti o n, b ut th e I n tr o ducti o n d oes n o t a nsw er th e
questi o n “ W hy”. I n ste ad , i t a nsw ers th e q uesti o n “ Is d aily h o m ew ork i m porta nt o r
no t” .
In tr o 3
i s a b out a d vanta ges b ut th e q uesti o n a sk s a b out th e p re fe re nce. “ P re fe r” i s a
key w ord i n th e ta sk .

In T ask 4
th e c and id ate d is a gre es w ith th e w ro ng p oin t w hic h i s n o t i n th e ta sk .

In tr o 5
s h o w s s id etr a ckin g a b out m ed ic al c are ; a ls o , th e c and id ate d oes n o t a nsw er
th e q uesti o n a b out p ossib le w ays o f i m pro vin g p ub lic h ealth ; h e/s h e j u m ps to
his /h er o w n o pin io n.

Task 6
The c and id ate d id n o t p ay a tte nti o n to th e ty p e o f th e q uesti o n w hic h i s a n
im agin ary s itu ati o n.
Task 7
The k ey p hra se i n th e ta sk i s “ w hat p ro ble m ”, b ut th e c and id ate w rite s a b out
ad vanta ges a nd d is a d vanta ges.

Exerc is e 2 -1
Lot 1
. A lt h ough
th e fir s t a n d s e co nd t a sk s
a sk th e e xam -ta ker if th ey a gre e o r d is a gre e w it h th e c hanges, th e
fir s t a sk s s p ecif ic ally a bout c hanges in s m all to w ns w here as th e s e cond q uestio n is g enera l.
The t h ir d e ssay

questio n
is d if fe re nt f ro m th e f ir s t tw o b ecause it b elo ngs to A dvanta ges/D is a dvanta ges ty pe a nd it r e quir e s a
dif fe re nt s tr u ctu re in th e a nsw er.
Lot 2
. Q uestio ns 1 -3 a sk a bout th e f lo w to b ig c it ie s f ro m 1 )a gric ult u ra l a re as, 2 ) s m all to w ns, 3 )ru ra l a re as.
The th ir d ta sk is a bout m ovin g f ro m r u ra l a re as w hic h a re n ot n ecessa rily a gric ult u ra l in th e s e nse o f c om merc ia l
pro ductio n. T he r e sp onse a bout r u ra l a re as s h ould b e m ain ly a bout h ow r u ra l c om munit ie s, c ult u re s a nd tr a dit io ns
will s u ffe r. H ow ever, th e a gric ult u re a rg um ent is p erfe ctly s u it a ble in th is r e sp onse .
The s e cond ta sk is a bout m ovin g f ro m s m all to w ns w hic h m ig ht lo se th eir id entit y a nd s ta gnate .
Lot 3
. Q uestio n 1 is p re dom in antly a D esc rip tio n ty pe, w here as th e s e cond q uestio n is a n A gre e/D is a gre e ty pe.
(D o y ou a gre e th at it ’s a p osit iv e d evelo pm ent? O r d o y ou d is a gre e?)
Exerc is e 3 -1
Lot 1 - I n tr o 2
is th e b est v ers io n.
I n tr o 1
does n ot a nsw er th e q uestio n
cle arly ;
I n tr o 3
in clu des u nnecessa ry
in fo rm atio n
about a gric ult u ra l r e gio ns.
Lot 2 -
This is a C ontr a st/c om pare q uestio n ty pe a nd I n tr o 1 a ddre sse s it th e b est – it p ara phra se s th e ta sk . I n tr o 2
la cks th e s e cond o pin io n. A ls o , it is a dvis a ble to s ta te th e a uth or’s o pin io n in th e la st m ain p ara gra ph ( n ot in th e
in tr o ductio n). I n tr o 3 is th e w ors t v ers io n b ecause it d oes n ot a ddre ss th e ta sk a t a ll, b ut p onders o ver th e
im porta nce o f s p orts e vents a nd f a cilit ie s f o r p eople .
Lot 3 -
In tr o 3 is th e b est v ers io n.
It r e sp onds to th e q uestio n e xplic it ly . I n tr o s 1 a nd 2 a re e m pty p ie ces o f w rit in g:
th ey a re n ot to th e p oin t a nd th ey d o n ot a nsw er th e e ssa y q uestio n. T hey in clu de ir re le vancie s.

Exerc is e 4 -
1
In tr o 1
in clu des th e to pic s ta te m ent, th e a nsw er to th e e ssa y q uestio n a nd f o re sh adow s th e a rg um ents ;
In tr o 2

in clu des th e p ara phra se d e ssa y q uestio n a nd th e a nsw er to it ; th e c andid ate n arro w ed th e g enera l s c ot o f th e e ssa y
questio n a bout b enefit s .
In tr o 3
in clu des th e to pic s ta te m ent, th e p ara phra se d e ssa y q uestio n a nd th e a nsw er to
th e e ssa y q uestio n. H ow ever, th e s e cond a nd th e th ir d s e nte nces d w arf th e o th er id eas a nd a re lik ely to b e o ne o f
th e m ain p oin ts o f th e e ssa y. I t is a dvis a ble to m ove th em to th e m ain b ody a nd d evelo p in to a p ara gra ph.

Exerc is e 5 - 1

Com ments :
In tr o s 1 a nd 3 a re
th e b est v ers io ns b ecause th e a uth ors o utlin e e xplic it ly w hat k in d o f s u ccess th ey
will d is c uss in th eir e ssa ys.
Pro fe ssio nal s u ccess is im plie d in I n tr o 2 b ut th e a uth or d oes n ot m entio n it e xplic it ly .
Exerc is e 6 -1
In tr o 2
casts d oubt o n th e a uth or’s e xpertis e .
Exerc is e 7 -1
In tr o 1
is th e b ette r v ers io n. I n tr o 2 in tr o duces a n u ndesir a ble d ouble a rg um ent.
Exerc is e 9 -1
Essa y q uestio n 1 - to pic 3;
Essa y q uestio n 2 - to pic 3; E ssa y q uestio n 3 - to pic 2 ; T he w ord “ c hild re n” is n ot s u it a ble in
to pic 3 and a nd th is to pic is a bout th e s u b-ta sk in th e q uestio n.
Exerc is e 9 -2
In tr o 2 is th e b est v ers io n. I n tr o 1 w ould b e a ccepta ble , if th e to pic s ta te m ent w as n ot o verlo aded w it h h ow p eople
re sp ond to h um or. I n tr o 3 d em onstr a te s a s id etr a ckin g p ro ble m in th e s e nte nce a bout th e f o rm s o f h um ors . T he
to pic o f th e e ssa y q uestio n is th e r o le o f h um or in p eople ’s liv es/h ow h um or in flu ences th e w orld w e liv e in .
Exerc is e 1 0-1

Com ment:
The b est p assa ges a re
2, 3 a nd 5 . T hey d evelo p th e a rg um ents . P assa ge 1 d em onstr a te s r e sta tin g
pro ble m s in th e s e cond a nd th ir d s e nte nces. P assa ge 4 s h ow s th e s ig ns o f r e sta tin g p ro ble m s in th e s e cond a nd in
th e f o urth s e nte nces.
Exerc is e 1 2-1
Essay q uestio n 1
Sta te m ents 2 a nd 3 a re th e b est a rg um ents . S ta te m ent 1 is to o g enera l a nd o bsc ure .
Essay q uestio n 2
Sta te m ents 1 a nd 3 a re th e b est a rg um ents .
Sta te m ent 2 is n ot a s u pportin g a rg um ent, it p ara phra se s th e q uestio n.
Essay q uestio n 3
Sta te m ents 1 -2 a re th e b est- o rg aniz e d a rg um ent. S ta te m ent 3 is v ague a nd d oes n ot s u pport th e a nsw er to th e
questio n; it ’s n ot to th e p oin t.
Exerc is e 1 3-1
Passag e 1 .C om ment 1 :
(1 ) – th e a rg um ent; ( 2 ) – d evelo pin g th e a rg um ent o r g iv in g s p ecif ic in fo rm atio n; ( 3 ) – a
su pportin g e xam ple ; ( 4 ) c onse quences.
Passag e 2 .C om ment 2 :
(1 ) –
th e a
rg um ent; ( 2 ) – d evelo pin g th e a rg um ent o r g iv in g s p ecif ic in fo rm atio n; ( 3 ) –
conse quences.
Passag e 3 .C om ment 3 :
(1 ) –
th e
arg um ent; ( 2 ) – d evelo pin g th e a rg um ent o r g iv in g s p ecif ic in fo rm atio n; ( 3 ) –
develo pin g th e a rg um ent o r g iv in g s p ecif ic in fo rm atio n; ( 4 ) – conse quences.
Exerc is e 1 4-1
The e xam ple in P assa ge 1 is to o lo ng; it g iv e a bso lu te ly u nnecessa ry in fo rm atio n in d eta il a nd t d eto urs th e to pic o f
th e a rg um ent. A ls o , th e w ord “ y este rd ay” is n ot a ppro pria te in e ssa ys, b ut in n ew s r e ports .
A b ette r v ers io n:
To illu str a te , th e la te st s ta tis tic s is su ed b y th e n atio nal s e rv ic e
sta te s th at th e n um ber o f
sh oplif tin g a s w ell a s r o bbery a tte m pts d ecre ase s b y 9 5 p er c ent if th ere a re s u rv eilla nce c am era s in s h oppin g
cente rs , s h oppin g h alls a nd s m alle r s h ops.
The e xam ple in P assa ge 2
la cks c la rit y . I t d oes n ot s u pport th e a rg um ent w hic h c ontr a sts a jo b w it h h ig h f in ancia l
re tu rn w it h out jo b s a tis fa ctio n a nd a jo b w it h a lo w er s a la ry w it h jo b s a tis fa ctio n.
A b ette r v ers io n
: F or e xam ple , in th e p ast m y b ro th er h ad a h ig hly -p aid jo b in h osp it a lit y b usin ess. T he o ffic e
work w as s o b orin g f o r h is c re ativ e p ers o nalit y th at o ne d ay h e r e sig ned. A lt h ough h is in com e is m uch lo w er n ow ,
he r e aliz e s h is lit e ra ry ta le nts : h e is a c olu m nis t a lo cal n ew sp aper a nd h is b ooks a re p ublis h ed o ccasio nally . H e
liv es h is p ro fe ssio nal a nd p ers o nal lif e h appily a nd in f u ll.

Exerc is e 1 4-2
Com ment
: T he e xam ple in P assa ge 1 is s h ort a nd s im ple , b ut it is to th e p oin t a nd s u pports th e a rg um ent. T he
exam ple in P assa ge 2 is in appro pria te – it e xplo it s th e s ta tis tic s th at d o n ot s u pport th e a rg um ent.

Exerc is e 1 5-1
Essay q uestio n1. C om ment 1 :
This is a C ontr a st/C om pare q uestio n ty pe a nd th e m ain ta sk h ere is to d is c uss th e
tw o o pposin g o pin io ns a nd p ro vid e th eir r e aso ns. I t w ould b e m ore lo gic al if th e p ers o nal o pin io n s ta te m ent w it h it s
re aso ns w ere p la ce in th e p ara gra ph p re cedin g th e c onclu sio n. I n th is p assa ge th e p ers o nal o pin io n s ta te m ents
dom in ate I n tr o 1 a nd C onclu sio n 1 .
Essay q uestio n2. C om ment 2 :
This p assa ge s ta te s th e s a m e id eas o f h ow to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s th re e tim es! I t
would b e m ore lo gic al a nd c onsis te nt to w rit e a bout it o nce – in th e c lo sin g p assa ge o f th e m ain b ody.
Essay q uestio n3. C om ment 3 :
It w ould b e m ore lo gic al a nd c onsis te nt to a void d is c ussin g th e o pposin g o pin io n

in th e in tr o ductio n a nd m ove it to th e la st m ain p ara gra ph.



Exerc is e 1 6-1
Com ment: P
assa ges
1-4 h ave s id etr a ckin g p ro ble m s in th e s e nte nces w hic h g o b eyond th e a rg um ent to pic s. T he
com ments a bout h ow h ard u niv ers it y s tu die s a re in P assa ge is s id etr a ckin g. P assa ge 2 s h ow s a s id etr a ckin g
pro ble m
in th e s e nte nces s ta tin g th e a uth or’s p ers o nal o pin io n a bout e -b ooks, P assa ge 3 - in th e la st s e nte nce a bout
gam in g, P assa ge 4 – in th e la st s e nte nce a bout p ro te sts .
Exerc is e 1 7-1
Com ment:
In tr o 1 is th e b ette r v ers io n, it ’s c le ar a nd s tr a ig htf o rw ard w here as I n tr o 2 in clu des th e o bsc ure
vocabula ry “ a nd m any o th er im pro vem ents ” .
Exerc is e 1 7-2
Com ment 1 :
The u se o f th e p hra se “ in m any s it u atio ns in p eople ’s liv es” m akes I n tr o 1 u ncle ar; I n tr o 2 is th e
bette r v ers io n b ecause it r e defin es th e e ssa y ta sk w hic h is v ague.
Com ment 2 :
Passa ge 1 is c le ar a nd lo gic al, a nd it is e asy f o r th e r e ader to f o llo w th e m essa ge.
Com ment 3 :
Passa ge 2 is f u ll o f o bsc ure w rit in g.
There is a n a tte m pt to c la rif y th e p hra se “ d is c ip lin e in s tu die s” in th e p assa ge, b ut th e s e nte nce “ D is c ip lin e in
stu die s im plie s r e gula r w ork ” is s till v ague b ecause it is n ot c le ar w hat k in d o f w ork th e a uth or is w rit in g a bout.
The s ta te m ent “ it le ads to s tu dents h avin g d if fe re nt p ro ble m s in e ducatio nal in stit u tio ns” is a noth er p ie ce o f o bsc ure
writ in g. I t is n ot c le ar w hat k in d o f p ro ble m s th e a uth or is w rit in g a bout.
The la st s e nte nce is a ls o e xtr e m ely v ague. T he r e ader d oes n ot g et a c le ar m essa ge w hat th e p hra se “ a n a dvers e
effe ct” m eans.
Passa ge 2 .: A b ette r v ers io n
Fir s t o f a ll, in a ny e ducatio nal p ro cess, if s tu dents d o n ot h ave a d is c ip lin ed a ppro ach, th ey w ill n ot s u cceed in th eir
stu die s th eir in nate a bilit ie s a nd ta le nts . D is c ip lin e in s tu die s im plie s r e gula r le arn in g h abit s : a tte ndin g c la sse s, d oin g
hom ew ork a nd w rit in g p ro je cts . W hen it is n ot th e g uid in g p rin cip le , d is re gard in g s tu dents ’ ta le nts , th e r e su lt is p oor
perfo rm ance: s tu dents r e ceiv e lo w m ark s a nd f a il th eir te sts . I n a ddit io n, s tu dents ’ p ro fe ssio nal f u tu re d epends o n
th eir e ducatio nal b ackgro und. T hose w ho d o n ot s u cceed in th eir te sts a nd e xam s w ill h ave
a lim it e d c hoic e in
gettin g a p la ce a t u niv ers it y o r in g ettin g a p re stig io us jo b.
Exerc is e 1 8-1
Com ment:
Conclu sio n 2 is th e b est v ers io n. I t r e sta te s th e a nsw er to th e q uestio n c le arly . C onclu sio n1 la cks th e
answ er to th e e ssa y q uestio n, a lt h ough it r e sta te s th e m ain a rg um ents . T he s e rio us m is ta ke o f th e a uth or o f
Conclu sio n 3 is th at h e/s h e in clu ded a n ew a rg um ent in th e c onclu sio n.
Exerc is e 1 9-1
Com ment 1
: I n tr o 1
is th e b ette r v ers io n b ecause it r e sta te s th e q uestio n; I n tr o 2 d oes n ot r e sta te th e q uestio n
and d oes n ot a nsw er it , b ut s h ow s a r e sta tin g p ro ble m – r e it e ra te s
th e s a m e p oin ts a bout c hanges a t th e
work pla ce
.
Com ment 2 :
Conclu sio n 1 is
th e b ette r v ers io n b ecause it r e sta te s th e m ain p oin ts ; C onclu sio n 2 r e sta te s th e
poin t a bout p ay r is e s tw ic e a nd d oes n ot r e sta te th e o th er tw o m ain p oin ts .
Exerc is e 2 0-1
a-1 ; b -1 ; c -1 ; d -1 ; e -3 ; f - 1 ; g -3 ; h -5 ; i- 3 ; j- 2 ; k -4

Exerc is e 2 0-2
Com ment 1
: I n tr o 1 is th e b ette r v ers io n b ecause it a nsw ers th e e ssa y q uestio n in g enera l; I n tr o 2 is o verlo aded
wit h s p ecif ic in fo rm atio n
whic h s h ould b e s a ved f o r th e m ain b ody o f th e e ssa y.
Com ment 2 :
Conclu sio n 1 is th e b ette r v ers io n b ecause it r e sta te s th e m ain p oin ts in g enera l; C onclu sio n 2 is
overlo aded w it h s p ecif ic in fo rm atio n w hic h s h ould h ave b een g iv en in th e m ain b ody o f th e e ssa y. A ls o , it s h ow s a
sid etr a ckin g p ro ble m in th e v ery la st p art. T he s e cond s e nte nce is to o le ngth y a nd c um bers o m e.
X