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Master
IELTS
Visuals
(Academic Writing Task One )
Course
Materials &
Supplements

For Academic
Candidates
Ebrahim Tahas soni
CELTA, CertTESOL, Academic IELTS 9.0

www.tahas soni.com
www.ieltsprime.com

Master IELTS Visuals
Academic Writing Task 1

By Ebrahim Tahas soni
Cambridge CELTA (Pass B) , Sussex Downs CertTESOL (Merit), IELTS Academic 9.0 ,
Level 3 Certificate in English, Trained for teaching IELTS courses by IDP Australia &
Sussex Downs College










Sixth Edition (ver. 6.9 .6)
February 20 20
In compliance with IELTS assessment criteria, Cambridge model answers , and IDP teaching guidelines
Downloaded from www.tahassoni.com





Use our IELTS writing assessment service! Visit
www.ieltsprime.com/ ieltswr iting

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Introduction
Understanding the Rubric

WRITING TASK 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The charts below give information about world spending and population.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons
where relevant.
Write at least 150 words .




The Task
Task 1 involves reporting the data in a visual item or collection of data such as a table. You
have to :
• Summarise the information in the visual or set of data:
▪ Select the main features
▪ Report the main features
• Make comparisons were relevant
• write at least 150 words → at least 165 -170 words (sometimes even more words are
necessary to cover the main features of more detailed diagrams)

Note: Finish task 2 first before addressing task 1. Task 2 has twice as many marks as task 1 and
is less flexible in terms of coherence and paragraphing , so if you do not get around to
finishing it, you may lose more marks than when you leave task 1 unfinished.

The Answer Sheet
You will receive separate answer sheet s for tasks 1 and 2, and the one for task 1 has red
borders. Although you may ask for extra sheets to write your answer in, this is not likely to
become necessary since the space you are already provided with is way more than sufficient.
You must not write in the blank space at the bottom of the first page or in the scoring section at
the bottom of page two. A copy of the answer she et is available at the end of this coursepack.

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Task Types
1. Data driven diagrams
a. Comparison tasks

b. Trend tasks

Non -data driven diagrams
a. Process diagrams

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b. Map s


Mixed Tasks

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Assessment Criteria
Every report is read four times by an examiner and each time, it will be marked on one of the following
criteria:
• Task Achievement (TA)
• Coherence and Cohesion (CC)
• Lexical Resource (LR)
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy (GRA)

Task Achievement (TA)
This criterion assesses how appropriately, accurately and relevantly the response fulfils the
requirements set out in the task, using the minimum of 150 words.
Academic Writing Task 1 is a writing task which has a defined input and a largely predictable
output. It is bas ically an information -transfer task which relates narrowly to the factual content
of the input data or diagram and NOT to speculated explanations that lie outside the provided
diagram or data.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
1. Have you summarised the information appropriately by selecting and properly reporting
the main features?
2. Have you made comparisons properly and sufficiently?
3. Have you provided overviews of the main trends/comparisons/stages?
4. Ha ve you written a clear overview or summary for the report?
Coherence and Cohesion (CC)
This criterion is concerned with the overall clarity and fluency of the message: how the response
organises and links information, ideas and language. Coherence refers t o the linking of ideas
through logical sequencing. Cohesion refers to the varied and appropriate use of cohesive
devices (for example, logical connectors, pronouns and conjunctions) to assist in making the
conceptual and referential relationships between a nd within sentences clear.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
5. Have you organised your information logically?
6. Is there an overall flow or progression in your report?
7. Have you used linkers correctly, p roperly and sufficiently?
8. Have pronouns been used correctly and do they have clear references?
9. Have you organised the text in paragraphs logically and sufficiently?

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Lexical Resource (LR)
This criterion refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate has us ed and the accuracy and
appropriacy of that use in terms of the specific task.
The examiner takes the following points into account when assessing this aspect of your report:
1. Words
a. Range and flexibility
b. Level
c. Precision
d. Style
e. Collocation
2. Vocabulary mistakes
a. Spelling
b. Word choice
c. Word formation
Note: when evaluating mistakes, the effect each has on the reader and the intelligibility of your
report is taken into account.
Grammatical Range and Accuracy (GRA)
This criterion refers to the range and accurate use of the candidate’s grammatical resource as
m anifested in the candidate’s writing at the sentence level.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
1. Have you used a variety of sentence structures?
2. How often have you used compound structures?
3. Mistakes
a. Gr ammar
b. Punctuation
Note: when evaluating mistakes, the effect each has on the reader and the intelligibility of your
report is taken into account.

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IELTS Task 1 Writing B and D escriptors (Public Version)

Band Task Achievement Coherence and
Cohesion
Lexical Resource Grammatical Range and
Accuracy
9 • fully satisfies all the requirements of the task • clearly presents a fully developed response
• uses cohesion in such a way that it attracts no attention • skilfully manages paragraphing
• uses a wide range of vo cabulary with very natural and sophisticated control of lexical features; rare minor errors occur onlDVVOLSs
• uses a wide range of structures with full flexibility and accuracy; rare minor errors occur only as ‘slips’
8 • covers all requirements of the task sufficiently • presents, highlights and illustrates key features/ bullet points clearly and appropriately
• sequences information and ideas logically • manages all aspects of cohesion well • uses paragraphing sufficiently and ap propriately
• uses a wide range of vocabulary fluently and flexibly to convey precise meanings • skilfully uses uncommon lexical items but there may be occasional inaccuracies in word choice and collocation • produces rare errors in spelling and/or word formatio n
• uses a wide range of structures • the majority of sentences are error - free • makes only very occasional errors or inappropriacies
7 • covers the requirements of the task • (Academic) presents a clear overview of main trends, differences or stages • (General Training) presents a clear purpose, with the tone consistent and appropriate • clearly presents and highlights key features/bullet points but could be more fully extended
• logically organises information and ideas; there is clear progression througho ut • uses a range of cohesive devices appropriately although there may be some under - /over -use
• uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision • uses less common lexical items with some awareness of style and collocation • may produce occasional errors in word choice, spelling and/or word formation
• uses a variety of complex structures • produces frequent error -free sentences • has good control of grammar and punctuation but may make a few errors
6 • addresses the requirements of the task • (Academic) presents an overview with information appropriately selected • (General Training) presents a purpose that is generally clear; there may be inconsistencies in tone • presents and adequately highlights key featur es/ bullet points but details may be irrelevant, inappropriate or inaccurate
• arranges information and ideas coherently and there is a clear overall progression • uses cohesive devices effectively , but cohesion within and/or between sentences may be faulty or mechanical • may not always use referencing clearly or appropriately
• uses an adequate range of vocabulary for the task • attempts to use less common vocabulary but with some inaccuracy • makes some errors in spelling and/or word formation, but they do not imped e communication
• uses a mix of simple and complex sentence forms • makes some errors in grammar and punctuation but they rarely reduce communication

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5
• generally addresses the task; the format may be inappropriate in places • (Academic) recounts detail mechanically with no clear overview ; there may be no data to support the description • (General Training) may present a purpose for the letter that is unclear at times; the tone may be variable and sometimes inappropriate • presents, but inadequately co vers , key features/ bullet points; there may be a tendency to focus on details
• presents information with some organisation but there may be a lack of overall progression • makes inadequate, inaccurate or over - use of cohesive devices • may be repetitive because of lack of referencing and substitution
• uses a limited range of vocabulary, but this is minimally adequate for the task • may make noticeable errors in spelling and/or word formation that may cause some difficulty for the reader
• uses only a limited range of structures • attempts complex sentences but these tend to be less accurate than simple sentences • may make frequent grammatical errors and punctuation may be faulty; errors can cause some difficulty for the reader
4 • attempts to address the task but does not cover all key features/bullet points; the format may be inappropriate • (General Training) fails to clearly explain the purpose of the letter; the tone may be inappropriate • may confuse key features/bullet points with detail; parts may be unclear, ir relevant, repetitive or inaccurate
• presents information and ideas but these are not arranged coherently and there is no clear progression in the response • uses some basic cohesive devices but these may be inaccurate or repetitive
• uses only basic vocabulary which may be used repetitively or which may be inappropriate for the task • has limited control of word formation and/or spelling; errors may cause strain for the reader
• uses only a very limited range of structures with only rare use of subordinate clauses • some structures are accurate but errors predominate, and punctuation is often faulty
3 • fails to address the task, which may have been completely misunderstood • presents limited ideas which may be largely irrelevant/repetitive
• does not organise ideas logically • may use a very limited range of cohesive devices, and those used may not indicate a logical relationship between ideas
• uses only a very limited range of words and expressions with very limited control of word formation and/or spelling • errors may severely distort the message
• attempts sentence forms but errors in grammar and punctuation predominate and distort the meaning
2 • answer is barely related to the task • has very little control of organisational features
• uses an extremely limited range of voc abulary; essentially no control of word formation and/or spelling
• cannot use sentence forms except in memorised phrases
1 • answer is completely unrelated to the task • fails to communicate any message • can only use a few isolated words • cannot use sentence forms at all
0 • does not attend • does not attempt the task in any way • writes a totally memorised response • does not attempt the task in any way • writes a totally memorised response

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Section 1
Comparison
Diagrams

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Comparison Language
A. Introducing Differences
Generally, there is
a significant difference between a and b.
a wide disparity in + n.
B. Comparative Structures
1 In contrast (to A),
In comparison (with A) B is larger/smaller
by x.
by a narrow margin.
by a margin of x.
by a staggering x.

2 A is [just]+[under/over]
[approximately] x larger/smaller than B.

3 A is [under/over] twice
two/three times as large/great/high as B.

4 A is considerably/substantially
marginally/slightly greater/higher/smaller than B.

5 A is [almost/roughly /…] as large/high as B.

6 A produces/consumes/…
more/less + uncountable n.
more/fewer + countable n. than B.
the same amount/number/quantity of + n. as B.
C . Superlative Structures
1 A ranks/stands first/ second/third /last.

2 A is the [second/third] largest/smallest/most significant/most productive/ … + n.

3 A has the [second/third] greatest/widest/ most significant/most productive/ … + n.

4 A
Uses
produces
consumes
the largest/highest/smallest/lowest
proportion of + n.
quantity of + n.
amount of + uncountable n.
number of + countable n.

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D. Comparison and Contrast Linkers

Transitions
Over 90% of exports were fruits ; however , industrial exports contributed none .
Almost all female students were interested in art activities . In contrast , the figure for male
students was a mere 15% .
Most of the farmland in Europe was damaged by overgrazing . On the other hand , the most
significant cause of damage in Asia was wind erosion .

Subordinating Conjunctions
Over 90% of exports were fruits, whereas / while industrial exports contributed none .
Whereas / While over 90% of exports were fruits, industrial exports contributed none .
Although almost all girls were intere sted in art activities, only 15 % of boys took part in them.

E. Approximation

12.1%
just over 12 percent
approximately/around/about 12%
a little more than 12%
11.9%
almost/nearly 12%
approximately/around/about 12%
a little less than 12%
just below 12%
146kg
almost/nearly 150kg
approximately/around/about 150kg
less than 150kg

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Reporting Proportions

Representations of Common Proportions

75% → three -quarters → three out of every 4 people/penguins/patients/…

Out of every $100 spent by the Turkish, just over $30 was spent on food, beverages and smoking
products, which ranked first among the nations compared in the survey.

Other Structures

1 the
share
contribution
proportion
percentage
of…

The contribution of consumer expenditure in this category was similar in 3 countries, namely
Turkey, Spain and Ireland.

2
x
formed
accounted for
was responsible for
comprised
y% of…
X contributed y% to…

Money spent on leisure and education in Turkey accounted for just below 4.5% of spending
there, which was the largest proportion among the five countries.

3 The remaining x%

The remaining 40% was allocated to a variety of other items.

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Practice: The table below gives information on consumer spending on different
items in five different countries in 2020. (source: Cambridge IELTS Book 7, test 1)





Practice: The table below shows social and economic indicators for four
countries in 1994, according to United Nations statistics.
Indicators Canada Japan Peru Angola
Annual income per person (in $US) 11100 15760 160 130
Life expectancy at birth 76 78 51 47
Daily calorie supply per person 3326 2846 1927 1749
Adult literacy rate (%) 99 99 68 34

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Practice: (source: Cambridge IELTS Book 4, test 2)




Fill the gaps below using words from the following list.
appliances remaining account proportion for largest household

In an average English home, the ______ ______ of electricity, 52%, is used for
heating rooms and water.

Three kitchen ______, namely ovens, kettles and washing machines, ______
______ 18% of ______ electricity use.

The ______ 30% of electricity is used for lighting, televisions and radios (15%), and
vacuum cleaners, food mixers and electric tools (15%).
Activity taken from www.ielts -simon.com

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The chart below shows the differen t levels of post -school qualifications in Australia and the
proportion of men and women who held them in 1999. (From Cambridge IELTS Book 4, test 3)


The bar chart shows the difference between the ……………. of females and males in different
post -school qualifications in …………… in …………….. .
Overall, women had the ……………….. share in two qualifications, while men ……………. first in
three. The highest …………… for women and men we re reported in ……………………………..
and …………………………….., respectively.
There was a …………………………….. between the …………………… of males and females in
skilled vocational diploma, with the former standing first with ……………. .
The disparity between the two figures was almost … …………………… in undergraduate diploma
and postgraduate diploma. ……………………, while in the former women had the ……………….
with 70%, men …………………. for the largest percentage in the latter with …………… .
Women also …………………. first in bachelor’s degree, …………………. the share of men was
lower by …………………. (55% and 45%, respectively). In contrast, in master’s degree, the
…………………. of females was 2/3 as high as that of males, as the …………………. was
responsible for the …………………. with 60%.

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 4, test 3)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The chart below shows the different levels of post -school qua lifications in Australia and the
proportion of men and women who held them in 1999.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.


Sample answer:
The bar shows the difference between the percentage of females and males in different post -
school qualifications in Australia in 1999.
Overall, women had the highest share in two qualifications, while men ranked first in three. The
highest figures for women and men were reported in undergraduate diploma and skilled
voc ational diploma, respectively.
There was a significant difference between the proportions of males and females in skilled
vocational diploma, with the former standing first with 90%.
The disparity between t he two figures was almost the same in undergraduate diploma and
postgraduate diploma. However, while in the former women had the highest share with 70%,
men accounted for the largest percentage in the latter with 70%.
Women also ranked first in bachelor’s degree, whereas the share of men was lower by a narrow
margin (55% and 45%, respectively). In contrast, in master’s degree, the contribution of females
was 2/3 as high as that of males, as the latter was responsible for the largest share with 60%.
(164 wor ds)

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(Source: Cambridge IELTS Book 8, test 1)

Introduction and Overview:
The pie chart compares the most important reasons for land degradation.
Overall, there are three main reasons, among which over -grazing ranks first.
A wordy body paragraph:
Over -grazing is responsible for the most significant share of land degradation
(35%). There is little difference between the figures for deforestation and over -
cultivation, as the former contributes the second highest percentage with 30%,
while the share of the latter is marginally lower (28%). The remaining 7% is
accounted for by a range of other factors. (55 words)
A leaner body paragraph:
Over -grazing is responsible for the most significant share of land degradation
with 35%, followed by defor estation (30%). The contribution of over -cultivation is
lower than deforestation by a margin of 2%, and the remaining 7% is accounted
for by a range of other factors. (43 words)
An even leaner body paragraph:
Over -grazing causes the largest share of land d egradation with 35%, followed by
deforestation (30%). O ver -cultivation ranks third with 28%, and the remaining 7%
results from other factors. ( 27 words)

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Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The charts below give information about world spending and population.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.


Sample answer by E. Taha ssoni:
The pie chart s compare the shares of four major items in global expenditure , as well as how
global population is distributed.
Overall , the largest proportion of money in the world is allocated to food, while transport,
housing and clothing are other significant items . M oreo ver, the population of Asia is responsible
for the largest group of humans .
According to the first chart, t he most significant amounts are paid for food (almost a quarter of
global expenditure) and transport (almost 20%), while housing also accounts fo r a considerable
proportion. The least among the four is spent on clothing (merely 6 percent) and the remaining
40% is spent on a variety of other items.
The second chart shows that t here is a significant difference between the population of Asia
and that of other continents since approximately 3 out of every 5 human beings live in Asia.
Europe and the Americas share similar proportions and together are host to roughly one -third of
the world’s population, while the inhabitants of Africa form a mere one -tent h.
(170 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Official IELTS Practice Materials 2)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The pie charts below show how dangerous waste products are dealt with in three countries .
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample answer by E. Taha ssoni:
The charts compare three countries in terms of the methods they use to treat hazardous waste
products.
Overall, recycling is the most widely -used approach to treating hazardous waste in Korea, in
contrast to Sweden and the UK which rely mainly on landfills. Furthermore, the United Kingdom
empl oys a more varied set of waste handling schemes.
In Korea, the most significant share of dangerous waste (70%) is recycled. The second highest
proportion, 22%, is buried underground while less than half this figure is incinerated.
Sweden, on the other hand , favours landfills over the other two approaches since more than
half of all dangerous waste is buried underground. There is little difference between the shares
of recycling and burning, as the former accounts for 25% whereas the share of the latter is l ower
by a margin of 5%.
The most popular method in the United Kingdom, like in Sweden, is burying which contributes
82%. The UK also dumps 8% of its waste at sea while treating a similar proportion with chemicals
to render it harmless. Incineration is resp onsible for a mere 2%.
(180 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 3, test 2)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The chart below shows the amount spent on six consumer goods in four European countries .
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample answer by E. Tahassoni:
The diagram compares how much mo ney was spent on six different products in Germany, Italy,
France and Britain.
Overall, more money was spent on toys and photographic film than on any other product. Also,
the British were the biggest spenders in all six categories among the nations compar ed in the
bar chart, while the lowest spending levels were attributed to German consumers.
In Britain, the highest amount of money was spent on photographic film (more than 170 million
pounds), while similar amounts were spent on personal stereos and tennis racquets which
together ranked last.
The French spent the second highest amount of money among the four nations on compact
disks, toys and photographic film, while they ranked last in personal stereos, tennis racquets and
colognes.
Italian consumers spent more money on toys than on any other product (a bit less than £160
million), but they also paid a lot for photographic film.
Finally, Germans spent the least overall, having similar spending figures for all 6 products
compared in the chart.
(170 wo rds)

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 10 , test 1)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The first chart below shows how energy is used in an average Australian household. The second
chart shows the greenhouse gas emissions which result from this energy use.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample answer by E. Tahassoni:
The pie charts show the proportion of energy consumed for different tasks by average
households in Australia, as well as the subsequent greenhouse gas emissions.
Overall, heating, water heating and other appliances rank first , both in terms of energy
consumption and emissions, while cooling and lighting do not contribute much to either.
The largest proportion of energy, 42%, is used for heating purposes, followed by water heating
which accounts for 12% less. The share of other appliances is more than twice as high as that of
refrigeration (15% and 7%, respectively). The proportion of energy used for lighting is 4%, which is
twice as high as that of cooling at 2%.
On the other hand, water heating is responsible for the largest s hare of greenhouse gas
emissions at 32%, while that of other appliances is smaller by a narrow margin (28%). There is no
significant difference between the figures for heating and refrigeration (15% and 14%,
respectively), with lighting and cooling ranking last with just 8% and 3%, respectively.
(169 words)

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S ection 2
Trend Diagrams
While this section focuses on the language
needed to report data that change
through time, it is necessary to use
comparison language from section 1 to
make comparisons .

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Vocabulary for Describing Trends
Trend Verbs Nouns

• rise (rose -risen)
• increase
• grow

• double
• triple
• soar
• Jump
• a rise
• an increase
• a growth

• a doubling in + n.
• a trebling in + n.

• fall (fell -fallen)
• decline
• decrease
• drop (dropped)

• halve
• dive
• a fall
• a decline
• a decrease
• a drop
• maintain the same level
• remain stable /unchanged
• no change
Constant
Change • fluctuate [around x]/[between x and y] • a fluctuation
Position
• stand at (stood at)

• level off (levelled off )
• plateau (plateaued)

• peak [at x]

• reach
• hit
• a levelling off
• a plateau

• hit/ reach a high [of x]
• hit/ reach a peak [of x]

• hit/ reach a low [of x]
Adjectives and adverbs for degree of change:
Adjective Adverb
Very extensive change Dramatic dramatically
Extensive change substantial /significant/
considerable/remarkable
substantially /considerably /
significantly/remarkably
Average change noticeable/moderate/
marked
noticeably/ markedly /
moderately
Small change slight /minimal slightly /minimally
Adjectives and adverbs for speed of change:
Adjective Adverb
Quick change sharp /rapid /steep sharply /rapidly /steeply
Slow change steady /gradual steadily /gradually
Unexpected change sudden/abrupt suddenly/abruptly

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Grammar for Describing Trends

Past tenses
Past simple : Used for reporting consecutive trends and events in the past:
There was a significant rise in 1964 .Then, the figure dipped sharply in 1980 .
Past perfect: Used for reporting what happened by a given time in the past:
There was a sig nificant rise in 1964. Then, the figure dipped sharply and had reached 5 by 1980 .

Present tenses
Present simple: Used for reporting trends that have no specific time and occur regularly (e.g
every day), or for reporting the present value or figure of a variable:
There is a significant rise at 6am every morning . Then the figure increases sharply at 8am .

The number of people suffering from diarrhoea now stands at 158.
Present perfect: Used for reporting trends that started in the past and have continued u ntil
the present time or continue into the future:
There has been a significant rise since 2013 , and t he figure now stands at 15000 .

There has been a significant rise since 2013 , and t he figure is expected to reach 15000 in 2020 .

Future
Future forms are used to describe trends that are predicted and projected for future times and
dates. You should note that none of these predictions are certain, and therefore a level of
uncertainty is desirable in your report.
The figure will /should reach 15000 in 2020 .
It is
predicted
expected
anticipated
forecast
estimated
that the figure will increase and reach 800 in
2050.

The figure is
predicted
expected
anticipated
forecast
estimated
to increase and reach 800 in 2050.

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Example
Notice how the verbs in the following paragraphs have been changed from past forms into
future forms*:
The proportion of people using the Internet in the USA is about 20% , while t he figures for
Canada and Mexico are lower, at about 10% and 5% respectively.

In 1999 , the proportion of people using the Internet in the USA was about 20%. The
figures for Canada and Mexico were lower, at about 10% and 5% respectively. In 2005 ,
Internet usage in both the USA and Canada rose to around 70% of the population,
while the figure for Mexico reached just over 25%.

In 202 5, the proportion of people using the Internet in the USA is expected to be about
20%. The figures for Canada and Mexico will be lower, at about 10% and 5%
respectively. In 203 5, it is predicted that Internet usage in both the USA and Canada
will rise to around 70% of the population, while the figure for Mexico is expected to
reach just over 25%.


*developed from the original at www.ielts -simon.com

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Linking
First event :
At first,/Initially/In the first year,/In 1999
Middle events:
…and/but…
However/Nevertheless,
Then/Next,/After this,/Following this,/Afterwards,
This is followed by +
…following/after which… or …which is followed b +
…until…after/following which…
…until …when…
…before… + or After + , …
during/over the next…years or …years later,

Approaches to reporting figures
Common: x  y
Less Common: x ± Δ, x ± proportion
Rounding
– For Trends:
relatively/rather/almost
– For Values:
roughly/[just] about/approximately/around
almost/nearly
[just] below/under or [just] above/over
a little/slightly more/less than
Referencing
Referencing is reporting a figure by comparing it to a relevant prev iously -reported figure on the
same line or one of the lines already report. The new figure can be reported as a multiple or
proportion of the referenced figure:

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Practice: Look at the data in the table and correct the following paragraph
where necessary:

Practice: The graph below gives information about the number of cases of
diarrhea in Mashhad between 1983 and 1992.


At the beginning, it …………….. at 100 cases and …………….. the same level …………….. 1985.
The figure …………….. grew to 200 cases during the …………………………. , which was ……………..
bDGHFOLQHRIDERXWLQLWVXGGHQO\URVHIRXUIROGDQGDSHDNRI
400 cases b2QH\HDUODWHULWE 50, following which it remained stable for a
year …………….. diving dramatically and hi tting a …………….. of zero cases in 1992.

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Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below gives information about the number of parcels delivered by two major mail
services companies from 1920 to 2000.
Summarise the informatio n by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

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Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The chart below gives information about the number of books rented in a British local library in
2009.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

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Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The chart below gives information about birth and death rates in Switzerland from 197 5 to 202 5
according to United Nations statistics.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.



197 5 198 5 1995 2005 2015 2025

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Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The graph below gives information about Dubai gold sales in 2002.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.



Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :

The diagram illustrates how gold sales in Dubai changed from January to December 2002.
Overall, the figure fluctuated widely before returning to its original level at the end of the year.
Besides, gold sales were at their highest in March, while the weakest figures could be observed
in July and September.
In the first month of 2002, the figure stood at 200 million dirhams and rose slightly to reach about
225 million in February. This was followed by another increase, although much steeper, in March
when sales hit 350 million. However, this upward trend was suddenly broken and s ales declined
dramatically over the next 4 months to reach a little over 100 million in July. August sales saw a
significant rise back to January levels as the figure nearly doubled, but it dropped again in
September to the same level as it was in July. Th ere was a small increase of about 100 million
dirhams in October, after which the figure levelled off and remained relatively unchanged over
the last two months of 2002.
(174 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 7 , test 2 )
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The graph below shows the consumption of fish and some different kinds of meat in a European
country between 19 79 and 2004 .
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.


Sample ban d 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :

The diagram compares changes in consumption figures for different kinds of meat and fish in a
country in Europe from 1979 to 2004. Overall, although beef was initially the most popular type
of meat, it was overtaken by chicken towards the end of the survey . In contrast, the figure for
fish remained the least significant throughout the period.
In the first year , beef had a consumption of about 225 grams per person per week , after which
it experienced a sudden drop of 50 before increasing to about 230 in 1984. There were small
fluctuation s until 1989 , which was followed by a dramatic decrease to around half as high as its
original level in 2004.
The figure for lamb was initially almost as high as that for chicken (around 150 grams). However ,
while the former declined gradually as it reached approximately 60 in the last year, the latter
saw a considerable growth and outstripped beef consumption in 1989, peaking at 250 in 2004.
Fish consumption was originally approximately 60 grams and experie nced a small fall of about
10 over the period .
(18 0 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 8, test 4)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The graph below shows the quantities of goods transported in the UK between 1974 and 2002
by four different modes of transport .
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.


Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The diagram compares the different quantities of goods that were transported in the United
Kingdom using four means of transportation from 1974 to 2002.
Overall, the figure for road ranked first throughout the period, while that for pipeline stood last.
All modes experienced rises, except for railways which mainly showed fluctuations.
Road transport initially stood at 70 million tonnes, rising rather steadily until 1992 when it reached
about 80 mi llion. After a sudden surge in 1999, it continued to rise steadily for another 3 years to
reach a high of just below 100 million in 2002.
The figures for water and rail transport remained stable at 40 million from 1974 to 1978, after
which the former rose significantly to about 60 million before dropping slightly in 1999, followed
by another increase to 65 million in 2002. In contrast, the latter fluctuated widely over the rest of
the period, returning to its initial figure in 2002.
Goods transported via pi peline rose gradually in quantity from 5 million in 1974 to just over 20
million in 1995, following which the figure levelled off.
(18 1 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 8, test 2)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The three pie charts below show the changes in annual spending by a particular UK school in
1981, 1991 and 2001 .
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The charts compare changes in the shares of five different items which comprised the yearly
expenses of a British school between 1981 and 2001.
Overall, while the shares of three items experienced rises, there were declines in the remaining
two. Moreover, academic staff salaries contributed the largest proportion of expenditure
throughout the survey, whereas insurance had the smallest share.
Wages paid to the teaching staff accounted for the most significant proportion of expenditure
in 1981 (40%) and went up by a quarter before declining slightly. In comparison, the salaries of
non -academi c employees were responsible for less than a third of all expenses in 1981, but their
share dipped substantially by 13% over the course of these 20 years.
The share of furniture and equipment was initially as high as that of educational resources
(15%), bu t while the former dropped by 2/3 before rising fivefold, the latter experienced a
marked rise after which it halved, reaching just below 10%.
The contribution of insurance had risen minimally from 2% to 3% by 1991, before increasing
almost threefold in 2 001.
(177 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 10, test 2)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The tables below give information about sales of Fairtrade -labelled coffee and bananas in 1999
and 2004 in five European countries.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.


Sample band 7 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The tables show how fairtrade coffee and banana sales changed in five countries in 2004
compared to 1999. Overall, Coffee sales rose in all countries with the highest sales observed in
Switzerland. Banana sales also rose in all but two countries, and were highest in the UK.
In 1999, the most significant coffee sales, 3 million (3m) euros were reported in Switzerland, and
they doubled in 2004. The figure for the UK was originally 50% lower than that for Switzerlan d
(1.5m) while sales in Denmark were slightly higher (1.8m). However, while the former rose
dramatically to 20m, the latter remained relatively stable. There was little difference between
the figures for Belgium (1m) and Sweden (0.8m), and both experienced noticeable increases to
1.7m and 1m, respectively.
UK had the highest banana sales in both years, as they rose over threefold from 15 million euros
to 47m. Swiss sales were originally almost twice as high as those of Denmark (1 and 0.6m,
respectively), an d both surged, reaching 5.5 and 4m. There was little difference between the
figures for Sweden and Belgium (2 and 1.8m, respectively), and both nearly halved to reach
about 1m in 2004.
(193 words)

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Section 3
Process Diagrams
This section addresses diagrams that show
n atural and artificial procedures .

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Process:

Cycle:

…and the process/procedure/cycle starts over again.

Grammar:
A. Tenses:
Generally, the present simple tense is used to report actions which regularly happen in a process.
The larvae feed on mulberry leaves for up to 6 weeks.
Sometimes, the present perfect may also be used to signify the completion of a stage .
Once the electricity has been generated , it is transmitted to the station.

B. Passive vs. Active form
I. Natural events
For events which happen autonomously in nature, such as rain, formation of clouds or erosion of
mountains, generally use the active fo rm unless you need to shift focus from the subject to the
object of the stage.
The larvae begin forming cocoons around themselves using silk threads.

Numerous eggs are laid by a moth and hatch after 10 days.

II. Artificial events
In artificial stages, the human subjects are usually ignored so use the passive to focus on what is
being done. If the subject has also been mentioned in the diagram, add it as an "agent".
Energy is sent to the substations by means of transmission lines.

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Stage
1
Stage
2
Stage
3

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De scribing Purpose :
When you need to report the means or tool used to perform a stage, avoid using "by":
• For tools: It is done using/through the use of/by means of ...
The mixture is cut into individual bricks using a wire cutter.

• For ways and methods: It is done through/via/by means of ...
The oil is transferred to the refinery through a pipeline.


Linking
The First Stage
First,
Firstly,
First off,
First of all,
In the first stage,
At/In the beginning,
The first stage is when…
The process begins/starts/commences when…
The process begins with +
Middle Stages:
Next,
Then
After this/that,
Following this/that,
Afterwards,
In the following stage,
In the stage after/following this,
In the stage that follows,
Over the course of/During the next/following/second/third stage,
This is followed by +
When/After/Once ,
. When/Once this stage is complete,
before
Before ,
after/following which
which is followed by
The Last Stage:
Finally,
Ultimately,
Eventually,
The last/final stage is when …
The process ends when …
The process ends with +
before finally

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 8, test 3)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagrams below show the stages and equipment used in the cement -making process, and
how cement is used to produce concrete for building purposes.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The diagram s show how cement and concrete are produced. Overall, there are five stages in
the production of cement, while the procedure for producing concrete from cement and a
few other simple ingredients involves a single stage .
Cement production begins when the initial raw materials, namely limestone and clay, are
crushed using two rotating drums to make a fine powder which is then mixed in a cylindrical
mixer. The next stage involves a tube -like rotating heater with a blowtorch mounted at its
bottom opening. The mixed powder is fed from the top and simultaneously heated and
blended, after which it is transferred to a grinder using a conveyor belt. There, it is milled to yield
the final cement product which is eventually packed in bags.
This cement is used as raw material in the production of concrete in a second process. An initial
mixture comprising 15% cement, 10% water, one -quarter sand and half gravel is fed into a
rotating concrete mixer w here they are stirred until the concrete mix is ready for construction
purposes.
(1 74 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Official IELTS Practice Materials 1)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the process of using water to produce electricit y.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The diagram shows the process through which water is used to produce electrical power.
Overall, hydroelectric power is generated using water from the sea through a relatively
sophisticated procedure which comprises over ten stages.
The process begins when seawater is heated by the sun and evaporates to form small clouds in
the sky. Next, they merge into a storm cloud , which then rains over the mountain. This rainwater
is gathered in the reservoir behind a dam. T he following steps inv olve a pipe which connects
the reservoir to a turbine as well as a pump, and is controlled using a valve. Once this valve is
opened, water flows into the turbine and rotates it to produce electrical current, following
which it is pumped back into the reser voir. After this, the electricity produced by the turbine is
transferred to the transformer station th rough high voltage cables. The last stage is when the
electrical power is delivered to domestic and industrial consumers , as well as educational and
medic al facilities.
(169 words)

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Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the life cycle of the honey bee.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The chart illustrates the stages in the life of honey bees. Overall , this life cycle is comprised of six
stages , from egg s to full y matur e bees , which take approximately five weeks to complete .
The first stage is when the female bee lays up to 2 oval eggs once every 72 hours. These eggs
hatch between nine and ten days later, and immature bees, called nymphs, emerge , lack ing
the typical bee stripes.
Over the next 3 weeks , the nymphs experience three moulting stages, that is, they shed their
skins to allow further growth to occur: The first moulting happening 5 days after the eggs hatch,
a week after which the second one takes place. Nine days later , the nymphs moult for a third
time , becoming young adult h oney bees which are characterised by their striped backs. These
take four more days to mature into larger adult bees whose backs are marked with bolder and
darker stripes, an d the cycle starts over again.
(161 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From IELTS Scores Explained DVD)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the process by which bricks are manufactured for the building
industry .
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Brick manufacturing



Sample answer by A. Tootoonchi (TA: 9 | CC: 8 | LR: 7 | GRA: 8 | Overall: 8)
The picture illustrates how bricks are produced.
The process begins when clay is dug out through the use of a digger, which is followed by clay
passing through a metal grid. Fine clay is then carried by a roller after which sand and water
are added to it. In the next stage, either this mixture is pressed through a frame and cut into
bricks using a wire cutter, or it is put into moulds and formed into bricks. Following that, the
bricks are dried in a drying oven for one to two days. The next three stages involve two kilns
connected to a cooling chamber. The dried bricks are first heated from 200 to 980 degrees
centigrade, before being exposed to high temperature (870 to 1300 degrees). They are then
cooled within 48 to 72 hours. Eventually, they are packed and delivered to customers by trucks.
Overall, the procedure of producing bricks is comprised of ten stages which are rather simple.
(161 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From IELTS Scores Explained DVD)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the process by which bricks are manufactured for the building
industry .
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Brick manufacturing



Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The picture illustrates the procedure for producing construction bricks from clay, sand and
water through ten rather simple stages .
It commences when raw clay is dug using a digger machine following which it is sifted through
a metal grid into finer fragments which then fall onto a conveyor belt. In the next stage, water
and sand are added and the resulting mixture is either pushed through a frame and cut into
simple bricks, or is moulded into specially -formed bricks.
These are then placed in a special oven for one or two days in order to minimise their moisture
content. The following three stages involve the use of a couple of kilns and a cooling chamber:
bricks are first heated moderately in the first kiln to reach a temperature of between 200 and
980 degrees centigrade before being subjected to higher temperatures (870 t o 1300 degrees)
in the second one. Next, they are allowed to cool down for two to three days in the cooling
chamber. The process ends with the bricks being packed on pallets and delivered to end users
on trucks.
(182 words)

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Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram gives information about the process for making pulp and paper.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 8.5 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The diagram shows the process through which wood is used to manufacture pulp and paper
for printing and box production purposes . Overall, it is rather sophisticated and is comprised of
more than ten stages.
The process begins when trees are cut down to produce logs, after which they are chipped
and combined with purchased wood chips in a digester. The resulting pulp is then washed and
screened to make clean pulp.
This pulp can then be used to produce rough paper for making boxes. After forming the pulp in
a former device, it is dried and formed into a reel. Next, it is cut into paper bales which are
finally packed.
Alternatively, the clean pulp may be used to make refined paper for printing purposes. Once it
is cl eaned in pulp cleaners, it is dried and pressed, first in pulp presses and then in paper
presses. Ultimately, it goes through another drying stage in paper dryers before being rolled.
(159 words)

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Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram gives information about the process for making pulp and paper.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 8 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The diagram shows the process through which wood is used to manufacture pulp and paper
for printing and box production purposes. Overall, it is rather sophisticated and is comprised of
more than ten stages.
The proce ss begins when trees are cut down to produce logs, after which they are chipped
and combined with purchased wood chips in a digester. The resulting pulp is then washed and
screened to make clean pulp.
What happens next depends on the type of paper that nee ds to be produced: if it is rough
paper for packaging purposes, the pulp is formed in a former device before it is dried and
formed into a reel. Next, it is cut into paper bales, which are finally packed.
Alternatively, if the pulp is used to produce refin ed paper for printing purposes, it is cleaned
further in pulp cleaners, following which it is dried and pressed, first in pulp presses and then in
paper presses. Ultimately, it goes through another drying stage in paper dryers before being
rolled.
(170 wor ds)

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 12, test 8)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows how geothermal energy is used to produce electricity.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The diagram shows that there are five main stages in the production of electricity through the
use of geothermal energy.
The process begins with cold water being pumped from the surface of the earth down into a
4.5 kilometer -deep injection well. From there, it is transferred to the geothermal zone, a
subterranea n region composed of hot rocks, before reaching the production well, which is a
vertical pipe similar to the injection well but a bit wider.
In the stage that follows, the hot water is pumped up through the production well into a
condenser on the surface w here it is converted into steam, following which it is used to power a
turbine and rotate it. This turbine is connected to an electricity generator which, when rotated
by the turbine, produces electricity. The process ends when the electricity generated by the
generator is transferred to the power grid for consumption by end users.
(152 words)

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Section 4
Maps
This section addresses development map
diagrams .

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Describing Position and Location :

… lies/ is situated/ is located/ is sited + to the right of/to the north of /around/ below/inside/ near …




north, south, east, west, north east, north west, south east, south west
at the top/bottom
on the right/left side
in the top/bottom right/left hand corner
10 miles from
10 miles to the right of
10 miles north o f

in the middle / at the centre
along / off
across [from]
opposite
close to / near / in the vicinity of
adjacent to / next to / beside

… is surrounded by…
… is covered with …
… is connected to … via/through/by means of …


Examples:
A post office lies 200 miles east of the river.
A new restaurant has been built to the right of the church.
The new post office is located across from the cemetery.
The residential areas are connected to the city centre via a number of access roads.
The city was surroun ded by farmland.

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Useful Vocabulary for Describing Maps :

Residential /housing area: an area that has lots of houses and some schools.
Industrial area: an area that has lots of factories
Commercial area: an area that has lots of stores

Hospital: a health facility where patients receive treatment
Zoo: a place where people can go and see many kinds of animals
Post office: a place where you can send mail (letters and packages)
Fire station: a station housin g fire apparatus and firemen
Airport: an airfield equipped with control tower and hangers as well as accommodations for
passengers and cargo
Park: a recreational area where people can play football and have picnics
Skyscraper: a very tall building
Warehous e: a building where things are kept until they are sold.
Parking lot: an area where people can park cars
Museum: a place that displays things of scientific or historical or artistic value
Supermarket: a large store that sells mostly food but sometimes othe r items such as clothes and
furniture.
Factory: an industrial plant, a production facility,
Woodland: an area with lots of trees
River: a large natural stream of water (larger than a creek)
Street: the place where cars drive
Intersection /Junction : the poin t where several streets meet.

Facilities: recreation/recreational facilities, entertainment facilities, transport Facilities, medical
facilities, educational/academic facilities

Remove: remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, taking off, etc.
Develop: to make
Change: modify
Construct: to build
Relocate : to move a structure or facility to a different location
Demolish: to destroy a building or other structure completely
Replace : to take the place of or substitute for somebody or something
Expand: to become or make something become larger
Convert: turn into something else

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 1)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
Chorleywood is a village near London whose population has increased steadily since the middle
of the nineteenth century. The map below shows the development of the village.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The map shows how a village called Chorleywood developed over a period of 126 years.
Overall, it saw considerable growth , both in the establishment of new residential areas and
transportation routes, which occurred over four phases.
From 1868 to 1883 there were only two main roads in the region with Chorleywood covering a
small area along one of them. Over the next 40 years, the village grew southward alongside the
road and a railway was built in 1909 passing through this part. Chorleywood station is also
located in this area of the village.
Over the period between 1922 and 1970, the railway was the line along which Chorleywood
expanded, both towards the east and west. However, a motorway was constructed in 1970
parallel to one of the main roads and further development of the village occurred around its
intersections with the other main road and the railway between 1970 and 1994. Furthermore,
Chorleywood Park and Golf course is now located in an area enclosed by the two main roads,
the railway and this motorway.
(17 4 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Official IELTS Practice Materials 2)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagrams below show the site of a school in 2004 and the plan for changes to the school site
in 2024.
Summarise the inform ation by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.



Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The maps illustrate how a school site is planned to be d eveloped over a 20 -year period. Overall,
there will be extensive developments with regards to construction of buildings, fac ilities and
roads in the school site, and the number of students will also increase significantly .
In 2004, there was only one car p ark to the west of the site where the main entrance to the
school was located. There were also two school buildings, accommodating 600 students
altogether, separated by a path running from the main entrance to the sports field in the east.
The school was s urrounded by woodland in the north, south and east.
There are plans to increase the number of students served by the school by 400 in 2024. As a
result, a new school building will replace the old sports field, and the two original buildings are
going to be joined together. The old path will then connect these to the new building number
3, no longer running to the main entrance. Furt hermore, a part of the woodland in the east is
planned to be deforested and replaced by a new car park as well as a new, smalle r sports
field. Finally, a new road will be paved passing south of the school building, which will connect
the two car parks.
(216 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From the Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagrams below show the changes that have taken place at West Park Secondary School
since it s construction in 1950.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.



Sample band 9 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The diagrams illustrate how West Park Secondary School has developed since 1950 when it was
built. Overall, the school saw significant growth although its recreational facilities did not
develop as much as its buildings and parking space.
In 1950, the school was a single building located along the main road and to the right of a
series of houses. There was a large playground which was located right behind the school
building to the right of some farmland.
Thirty years later in 1980, the houses were demolished and replaced by a car park, as well as a
new science block, for the school while the old school building was changed into its main
building. The farmland was also replaced by a new sports field, but the playground remained
unchanged.
In the last year, 2010, the car park was extended, as a r esult of which the land previously
allocated to the sports field was added to it. However, about a third of the old playground was
turned into a new, yet much smaller, sports field.
(174 words)

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Writing Task 1 (From Cambridge IELTS Book 9, test 1)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The two maps below show an island, before and after the construct ion of some tourist facilities.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample band 8.5 response by E. Taha ssoni :
The maps illustrate how an island has changed following the development of various facilities
for visitors .
Overall, there have been significant constructions in the island in terms of accommodation and
facilities for tourists. It is noteworthy that these developments have occurred without any
noticeable damage to the trees.
The length of the island is over 1200 metres while its width varie s from about 200 to 500 metres in
different places. The only significant features before the constructions were a beach in the west
and a few palm trees in the eastern and western halves , apart from which the island was
completely bare .
The beach has now been equipped with swimming facilities , and t he western woodland is
surrounded by a series of huts which are connected to each other and to the beach via
footpaths. There is also a restaurant in the northern part which is connected to a reception
building in the middle of the island , as well as a new pier to the south , by means of a vehicle
track. Finally, a larger set of huts have been constructed between the reception and the
eastern woodland.
(185 words)

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Appendix
Official IELTS Writing
Task 1 Answer Sheet

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