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IE LT S 8 .5
IE LT S V
OCABU LA RY
M
AST ER CLA SS
.
P HRASA L
V
ER BS
, E
SSA Y
V
OCABU LA RY
,
G RAPH
V
OCABU LA RY
& S
PE A K IN G
V OCABU LA RY
IE LT S V
OCABU LA RY
B
OOK
M ARC
R
OCH E

Cop yrig h t © 2 018 b y M arc R och e. A ll R ig h t R ese rv ed .
N o p art o f t h is I E LTS b ook p ublic atio n m ay b e r e p ro duced , d is tr ib ute d , o r
t r a n sm itte d i n a n y f o rm o r b y a n y m ean s, i n clu din g p hoto co pyin g, r e co rd in g,
o r o th er e le ctr o nic o r m ech an ic al m eth ods, o r b y a n y i n fo rm atio n s to ra g e a n d
r e tr ie v al s y ste m w ith out t h e p rio r w ritte n p erm is sio n o f t h e p ublis h er, e x cep t
in t h e c ase o f v ery b rie f q uota tio ns e m bodie d i n c ritic al r e v ie w s a n d c erta in
oth er n onco m merc ia l u se s p erm itte d b y c o pyrig ht l a w .
Topic s c o vere d i n t h is b ook-
IE LTS, I E LTS V oca bula ry , I E LTS a ca dem ic v o ca bula ry , v o ca bula ry I E LTS,
IE LTS b ook, I E LTS G en era l

T ABLE
OF
C
ONTEN TS
A bout T he A uth or
O th er B ooks B y M arc R och e
W hy I W ro te t h is I E LTS B ook
W hy Y ou S hould R ead T his I E LTS B ook
W RIT IN G V O CABU LA RY
C hap te r 1 I E LTS V ocab ula ry f o r G ra p h D esc rip tio ns ( IE LTS A cad em ic )
C hap te r 2 I E LTS V ocab ula ry f o r B ar C harts ( IE LTS A cad em ic )
C hap te r 3 . I E LTS V ocab ula ry f o r P ie C harts ( IE LTS A cad em ic )
C hap te r 4 . I E LTS V ocab ula ry f o r T ab le s ( IE LTS A cad em ic )
C hap te r 5 . I E LTS V ocab ula ry f o r P ro cesse s ( IE LTS A cad em ic )
C hap te r 6 . I E LTS V ocab ula ry f o r M ap s ( IE LTS A cad em ic )
C hap te r 7 . I E LTS V ocab ula ry f o r E ssa y s ( IE LTS A cad em ic I E LTS G en era l
T ra in in g)
C hap te r 8 . I E LTS V ocab ula ry f o r L ette rs & E m ails ( IE LTS G en era l
T ra in in g)
P H RASA L V ER BS F O R S P E A K IN G , R EA DIN G & L IS T EN IN G
V O CABU LA RY ( A CADEM IC & G EN ER AL T R AIN IN G )
C hap te r 9 . I m porta n t P hra sa l V erb s f o r I E LTS
C hap te r 1 0. T ypes o f P hra sa l V erb s
C hap te r 1 1. T ypes o f P hra sa l V erb s ( P art 2 )
C hap te r 1 2. S ocia lis in g
S ex , D atin g & R ela tio nsh ip s
C hap te r 1 3. P hra sa l V erb s w ith ‘ T ak e'
C hap te r 1 4. P hra sa l V erb s w ith ‘ P ut’
C hap te r 1 5. P hra sa l V erb s w ith ‘ G et’
C hap te r 1 6. P hra sa l V erb s w ith ‘ C om e’

Chap te r 1 7. B onus C hap te r: F orm al V s I n fo rm al L an guag e
Chap te r 1 8. B onus C hap te r: 1 01 I E LTS G ra m mar R ule s
Bonus: F re e W eb site s f o r I E LTS P ra ctic e
IE LTS S peak in g P hra se s ( B an ds 8 .0 – 9 .0 )
Chap te r 1 9. H ow t o L earn T housa n ds o f W ord s i n E nglis h i n O nly 6 M onth s

A BO UT
T
HE
A
UTH OR
M arc R och e
is th e #1 A m azo n best- s e llin g au th or of
Leg al Englis h :
C ontr a ct L aw a nd I E LTS W ritin g M aste rc la ss,
am ong o th ers .
M arc is o rig in ally fro m M an ch este r a n d c u rre n tly liv es in M ad rid . H e is a
t e ach er, tr a in er, w rite r an d busin ess m an ag er. H e has co lla b ora te d w ith
o rg an is a tio ns s u ch a s th e B ritis h C ouncil, th e R oyal M elb ourn e In stitu te o f
T ech nolo gy a n d U niv ers ity o f T ech nolo gy S ydney a m ong o th ers . M arc h as
a ls o w ork ed w ith m ultin atio nals s u ch a s N ik e, G la x oS m ith K lin e o r B ols a s y
M erc ad os. I n h is f re e tim e, h e lik es to tr a v el, c o ok, w rite , p la y s p orts , w atc h
f o otb all ( M an ch este r C ity a n d R eal M ad rid ) a n d s p en d tim e w ith f rie n ds a n d
f a m ily .
L earn m ore a b out M arc ’s T ra in in g C om pan y a t
http s://w ww.i d m ad rid .e s
/

O TH ER B O OKS B Y M ARC R O CH E
I E LT S W RIT IN G : A DVA NCED W RIT IN G M AST ER CLA SS ( I E LT S
T A SK S 1 & 2 ): I E LT S A CADEM IC W RIT IN G B O OK B A ND 7 .0 -
8 .5

T O EFL W rit in g M aste rcla ss: A dvan ced W rit in g C ou rse f o r T O EFL
T ask s 1 & 2
L eg al E nglis h : C on tr a ct L aw : B asic t o A dvan ced T O LES ( L eg al E nglis h
a n d T O LES P rep ara tio n B ook 1 )

W HY
I W
RO TE
TH IS
I E LT S B
OOK
V ocab ula ry i s e sse n tia l i n o rd er t o a ch ie v e y our d esir e d I E LTS b an d s c o re . I t
v astly i m pro ves y our w ritte n E nglis h a n d s p eak in g s k ills , a s w ell a s y our
l is te n in g c o m pre h en sio n a n d g ra m mar f o r t h e e x am . M aste r E nglis h
V ocab ula ry q uic k ly w ith “
IE LTS 8 .5 .
IE LTS V oca b ula ry M aste rcla ss
” i s
p ack ed f u ll o f I E LTS v ocab ula ry , i n clu din g p hra sa l v erb s e x erc is e s a n d
e x pla n atio ns. “
IE LTS 8 .5 : I E LTS V oca bu la ry M aste rc la ss. P hra sa l V erb s,
E ssa y V oca bu la ry , G ra ph V oca bu la ry & S pea kin g V oca bu la ry
” i s t h e b est-
s e llin g n ew I E LTS v ocab ula ry b ook b y M arc R och e, c o nta in in g e sse n tia l
I E LTS v ocab ula ry , a n I E LTS p hra sa l v erb s d ic tio nary , v ocab ula ry e x erc is e s
f o r I E LTS a n d I E LTS s p eak in g v ocab ula ry .
“ IE LTS 8 .5 : I E LTS V oca bu la ry M aste rc la ss. P hra sa l V erb s, E ssa y
V oca bu la ry , G ra ph V oca bu la ry & S pea kin g V oca bu la ry

is i d eal f o r
a n yone w ho h as p ro ble m s u nders ta n din g, r e m em berin g a n d u sin g v ocab ula ry
f o r t h e I E LTS t e st a n d f o r a n yone w ho w an ts t o s p eak E nglis h f lu en tly a n d
c o nfid en tly . D on´t w aste h ours u pon h ours r e se arc h in g v ocab ula ry a n d t r y in g
t o u nders ta n d i ts m ean in g. T his b ook w ill m ak e y our l e arn in g m ore e ffic ie n t
w ith l e ss o f y our o w n e ffo rt, w hic h m ean s m ore s p are t im e t o r e v ie w o th er
c o ncep ts .

W HY
Y
OU
S
HOULD
R
EA D
T
HIS
I E LT S B
OOK
I E LTS 8.5 : IE LTS Voca bu la ry M aste rc la ss. Phra sa l Verb s, Essa y
V oca bu la ry , G ra ph V oca bu la ry & S pea kin g V oca bu la ry
will g iv e y ou th e
s k ills , to ols , k now le d ge a n d p ra ctic e n eed ed to fe el c o nfid en t w hen ta ck lin g
q uestio ns in all parts of th e IE LTS ex am , an d w hen sp eak in g an d
u nders ta n din g in E nglis h . T his IE LTS v ocab ula ry b ook is a s e lf -s tu dy s te p -
b y-s te p m an ual o n h ow to u se a n d u nders ta n d I E LTS te rm in olo gy. K now in g
t h is v ocab ula ry w ill h elp p re p are y ou fo r a ll th e ty pes o f q uestio ns th at y ou
m ig ht h av e t o a n sw er i n t h e e x am .
T he v ocab ula ry i n clu ded i s e sse n tia l f o r:
I E LTS G en era l
I E LTS a ca dem ic v o ca bula ry

C HAPT ER
1 .
I E LT S V
OCABU LA RY
FO R
G
RAPH
D ESC RIP T IO NS
( I E LT S A
CADEM IC
)
W hen y ou w rite a b out a g ra p h i n T ask 1 o f t h e I E LTS A cad em ic
t e st, y ou w ill m ost l ik ely b e u sin g t h e l a n guag e o f c h an ge a n d / o r
t h e l a n guag e o f c o m parin g a n d c o ntr a stin g.
I n t h is f ir s t p art w e’ll l o ok a t e x pan din g y our r a n ge o f v ocab ula ry
a n d g ra m mar s tr u ctu re s f o r d esc rib in g c h an ges.

E xercis e 1
Connect t h e v ocab ula ry o f c h an ge w ith t h e p arts o f t h e
g ra p h. M ore t h an o ne o ptio n i s p ossib le i n s o m e c ase s.

A-B … …………..
B-C … …………..
B-D … ………….
D-F … ………….
F … …………….
F-H … ………….
G … …………..
I-J … …………..
J-K … …………..
L-M … …………..
Defin it io n s f o r s o m e d if fic u lt w ord s

Answ ers
A-B
Fell a nd t h en q uic kly r e co vere d / D ip ped
B-C Fell/d ro pped /s h ra n k dra stic ally / dra m atic ally / sh arp ly /
Plu m mete d t o /P lu nged t o
B-D
Dro pped a nd t h en l e velle d o ff/e ven ed o ut a t
D-F
Rose /in cre a se d d ra m atic a lly /S oare d / R ockete d
F
Hit a p ea k / P ea ked a t/r e a ch ed a h ig h o f
F-H
Flu ctu ate d / w as e rra tic
G
Hit a l o w o f …
I-J
Rose /in cre a se d s te a dily / R ose /in cre a se d g ra dually
J-K R em ain ed f la t/c o nsta nt/u nch anged /s ta ble a t

L-M F ell g ra dually / s te a dily

C HAPT ER
2 .
I E LT S V
OCABU LA RY
FO R
B
AR
C
HARTS
( I E LT S A
CADEM IC
)
B ar C hart L an gu age
I n o rd er to w rite a w ell- o rg an iz ed a n d s tr u ctu re d a n sw er f o r ta sk 1
i n th e A cad em ic e x am , y ou n eed to s h ow h ow th in gs r e la te to e ach
o th er i.e . b y c o m parin g a n d c o ntr a stin g th e in fo rm atio n p re se n te d
w here n ecessa ry .
I n m ost c ase s, y ou w ill n ot b e u sin g l a n guag e o f c h an ge t o d esc rib e
b ar c h arts , s o y our f o cu s w ill b e o n c o m parin g a n d c o ntr a stin g th e
i n fo rm atio n.

2 I m porta n t G ra m mar R ule s f o r t h is p art:
1 . C om para tiv es a re m ad e w it h
more
o r
-e r
, b ut N EV ER b oth .
T he w ea th er i s g ettin g
warm er
. ( N O T
… m ore w arm er.
)
T he g am e i s g ettin g
more p opu la r
. ( N O T
… m ore p opula re r.
)
2 . U se su perla tiv es to co m pare p eo p le an d th in gs w it h th e
g ro u ps o r c a te g orie s t h at t h ey b elo n g t o .
M ary is th e ta lle st o f th e fiv e g ir ls . ( N O T
Mary is th e ta lle r o f th e
f iv e g ir ls .
)
J a m es i s t h e o ld est p erso n i n t h e c la ss.

O th er I m porta n t L an gu age
C om para tiv es a n d s u perla tiv es a re u se fu l to c o m pare a n d c o ntr a st
i n fo rm atio n, b ut t h ey w on't b e e n ough i n t h e e x am .
H ere are so m e oth er use fu l w ord s an d str u ctu re s th at lo ok at
d if fe re n ces b etw een d ata :
T ra n sit io n s
1 . T he U K c o nsu m es n early 1 20 m illio n to nnes o f c h oco la te p er
y ear; how ev er, it pro duces only 2% of th e ch oco la te so ld in
E uro pe.
2 . S pain p ro duces la rg e a m ounts o f o liv e o il. In c o m paris o n, Ita ly
p ro duces v ery l ittle .
3 . C hin a c o nsu m es m ore t h an a q uarte r o f t h e w orld ´s m eat. O n t h e
o th er h an d, G erm an y c o nsu m es j u st 1 .2 % e ach y ear.
S ubord in atin g C on ju nctio n s
1 . C hin a co nsu m es m ore th an a quarte r of th e w orld ´s m eat,
w hile /w here as G erm an y c o nsu m es j u st 1 .2 % e ach y ear.
2 . W hile G erm an y c o nsu m es n early 8 0 m illio n to nnes o f ric e p er
y ear, i t p ro duces n one
.
3 . A lth ough Ita ly p ro duced o ver 6 m illio n to nnes o f o liv es, S pain
p ro duced a lm ost d ouble d urin g t h e s a m e p erio d.
H ere a re s o m e s tr u ctu res f o r d is c u ssin g s im ila rit ie s:
T ra n sit io n s
In dia c o nsu m es a lm ost 1 00 m illio n to nnes o f r ic e p er y ea r;
L ik ew is e / S im ila rly , C hin a c o nsu m es 1 18.8 m illio n.

Oth er S tr u ctu res
1 .
Both th e U K a n d S pain p ro duce m ed iu m le v els o f
carb on e m is sio ns.
2 .
Austr ia pro duced th e sa m e am ount of butte r as
Sw itz erla n d.
3 .
Win d pow er acco unts fo r th e sa m e to ta l en erg y
pro ductio n a s s o la r p ow er d oes.
4 .
Lik e T haila n d, M ala y sia p ro duces 3 0,0 00 b ottle s.

C HAPT ER
3 .
I E LT S V
OCABU LA RY
FO R
P
IE
C
HARTS
( I E LT S A
CADEM IC
)
Y ou m ust d em on str a te a varie ty of la n gu age in th e IE LTS
A ca d em ic W rit in g e x am .
W hen d esc rib in g p ie c h arts , a v arie ty o f
f ra ctio ns a n d p erc en ta g es a re g ood. Y ou s h ould a ls o u se p hra se s to
s h ow w hen a n um ber i s n ot e x act, s u ch a s ‘ ro ughly ’, ‘ ju st u nder’ o r
‘ ju st o ver’ f o r e x am ple .

H ere a re s o m e l a nguage e xa m ple s t o i n cre a se y o ur f le xib ility w hen
d esc rib in g p ie c h arts :
P ercen ta ge/F ra ctio n
80% /
fo ur-fif th s
75% /
th re e-q uarte rs
70% /
se v en i n t e n
5% 6 5% /
tw o-th ir d s
60% /
th re e-fif th s
55% /
more t h an h alf
50% /
half
45% /
more t h an t w o f if th s
40% /
tw o-fif th s
35% /
more t h an a t h ir d
30% /
le ss t h an a t h ir d
25% /
a q uarte r
20% /
one f if th ( a f if th )
15% /
le ss t h an a /o ne f if th
10% /
one i n t e n
5% /
one i n t w en ty

P ercen ta ge
Qualif ie r
77%
ju st o ver t h re e q uarte rs
77%
ap pro xim ate ly t h re e q uarte rs
49%
ju st u nder a h alf
49%
nearly a h alf
32%
alm ost a t h ir d
P ercen ta ge
pro p ortio n / n um ber / a m ou nt / m ajo rit y /
m in orit y
75% - 8 5%
a v ery l a rg e m ajo rity
65% - 7 5%
a s ig nif ic an t p ro portio n
10% - 1 5%
a m in ority
5%
a v ery s m all n um ber

E xercis e : P ie C harts w hic h C om pare P ast a n d F utu r
e
U se th e lis ts o f w ord s a bove a n d th e p ro m pts b elo w ( 1 -3 ) to w rite
y o u r ow n se n te n ces. A dd th e re le va n t data in bra ck ets an d
c h an ge t h e v erb t e n se s a cco rd in gly .
1 .
Hig h-s p eed t r a n sp ort a cco unt f o r ( 2 0% ) t r a ffic v olu m e
in 2 015 w hile i n 2 050 f o re cast r e p re se n t ( 4 5% ).
2 .
Estim ate p ro portio n s u ccess r a te 2 025 ( 3 5% ) i n
co ntr a st t o ( 6 3% ) 2 015.
3 .
in 2 006 l a p to ps m ak e u p b ulk d ev ic es ( 9 4% ) u se d b ut
2020 t h is f o re cast d ro p t o ( 2 0% )
1 .
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
2 .
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3 .
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
Answ ers:
1 . H ig h-s p eed tr a nsp ort a cco unte d fo r 2 0% o f tr a ffic vo lu m e in
2 015 w hile i n 2 050 i t i s f o re ca st t o r e p re se n t 5 5% .
2 . I t i s e stim ate d t h at t h e p ro portio n o f s u ccess r a te w ill f a ll t o 3 5%
i n 2 025 i n c o ntr a st t o 6 3% i n 2 015.
3 . I n 2 006 la pto ps m ade u p th e b ulk o f d evic es u se d ( 9 4% ), b ut b y
2 025, t h is i s f o re ca st t o d ro p t o 2 0% .

C HAPT ER
4 .
I E LT S V
OCABU LA RY
FO R
T
ABLES
( I E LT S
A CADEM IC
)
T ab le s c an lo ok sc ary if y ou d on´t k now w here to sta rt, b ut th e
d esc rip tio n o f a t a b le i s e x actly t h e s a m e a s a l in e g ra p h i f t h e t a b le
i s m easu re d o ver tim e. I f th e ta b le is n ot m easu re d o ver tim e, th en
w e w ould u se e x actly th e s a m e d esc rip tio n a s w ith a b ar c h art th at
i s n ot o ver t im e.
I t’ s e asie r t o a p pre cia te t h e t r e n ds a n d p atte rn s i n t h e l in e g ra p h, b ut
i f y ou can se e th e ch an ges in th e ta b le , th en th e d esc rip tio n is
e x actly t h e s a m e.
W hen y ou s ta rt th e ta sk , y ou m ust lo ok f o r d ata th at y ou c an g ro up
t o geth er, a s y ou w ould d o i n a n y o th er d esc rip tio n.
Y ou sh ould alw ay s sta rt w ith th e m ost in te re stin g in fo rm atio n
( o fte n th e b ig gest th in gs) a n d le av e th e le ast in te re stin g d ata u ntil
t h e e n d o f t h e d esc rip tio n.

E xercis e
1
R e-p h ra se s e n te n ces a -i u sin g t h e v o ca bu la ry i n t h e l is t b elo w . Y ou c a n
m ake a n y n ecessa ry c h an ges. T here a re f o u r e x pre ssio n s y o u w on ´t n eed
t o u se .
T he b ulk o f
t h e l o w est p erc en ta g es
w as n otic eab ly h ig her
a s m alle r p ro portio n o f
w as s ig nif ic an tly h ig her
h ad t h e l o w est p erc en ta g es
h ad s lig htly h ig her f ig ure s
a t h ir d o f t h e n um ber o
f
4 0% o f
O ver 7 5%
T hre e t im es t h e n um ber o f
t h e l a rg est p ro portio n o f
O ne i n f o ur
a .
The O asis c o ncert w as a tte n ded b y t h re e t im es a s m an y

peo ple a s t h e B lu r c o ncert.
b .
More t h an f o ur o ut o f t e n p eo ple c h ose t o u se t r a in s.
c .
The l a rg est p ro portio n o f p urc h ase s c am e f ro m
Germ an y a s o ppose d t o t h e S pain .
d .
A q uarte r o f c u sto m ers o rd ere d p rin t r a th er t h an d ig ita l
pro ducts .
e .
The w eb site l o st j u st u nder t h re e q uarte rs o f i ts v is ito rs
when c o m pare d t o l a st y ear.
f .
Consu m ers i n a ll c o untr ie s s p en t m ore o n t o ys t h an o n
an y o th er p ro duct c ate g ory .
g .
Consu m ers s p en t t h e l e ast o n l e is u re /e d ucatio n i n a ll
co untr ie s.
h .
Consu m ers i n T urk ey a n d I re la n d s p en t q uite a l o t m ore
on f o od, d rin ks a n d t o bacco t h an c o nsu m ers i n t h e o th er
co untr ie s.
i .
Spen din g o n
clo th in g a n d f o otw ear w as a l o t h ig her i n
Portu gal, a t 1 0% , t h an i n t h e r e st o f t h e
co untr ie s.
a .
.
………………………………………………………………………………………….........................
b .
.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………....
c .
.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
d .
.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
e .
.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
f .
.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
g .
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
h .
.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
i .
.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

S uggeste d A nsw ers;
a .
The O asis c o ncert w as a tte n ded b y
th ree t im es t h e
num ber o f
man y p eo ple a s t h e B lu r c o ncert.
b .
More t h an
40% o f
peo ple c h ose t o u se t r a in s.
c .
The b ulk o f
p urc h ase s c am e f ro m G erm an y a s
oppose d t o t h e S pain .
d .
One i n f o u r
c u sto m ers o rd ere d p rin t r a th er t h an d ig ita l
pro ducts .
e .
The s o cia l m ed ia w eb site l o st j u st
under 7 5%
o f i ts
vis ito rs w hen c o m pare d t o l a st y ear.
f .
The l a rg est p ro p ortio n
o f s p en din g i n a ll c o untr ie s
was o n t o ys.
g .
The l e is u re /e d ucatio n c ate g ory h as
th e l o w est
percen ta ges
i n t h e t a b le .
h .
Consu m er s p en din g o n f o od, d rin ks a n d t o bacco
was
notic ea b ly h ig h er
i n T urk ey a n d I re la n d t h an i n t h e
oth er c o untr ie s.
i .
Spen din g o n c lo th in g a n d f o otw ear
was s ig n if ic a n tly
hig h er
i n P ortu gal, a t 1 0% , t h an i n t h e r e st o f t h e
co untr ie s.

C HAPT ER
5
.
I E LT S V
OCABU LA RY
FO R
P
RO CESSE S
( I E LT S
A CADEM IC
)
D esc rib in g S eq uen ces
T he f o llo w in g l in kin g w ord s a n d p hra se s i n t h e b ox
ca n
b e u se d t o d esc rib e a
s e q uen ce.

E xercis e 1
:
H ig h lig h t o r u nderlin e th e lin kin g w ord s in A -G a n d d ecid e
w hic h o n e is t h e f ir st s te p in t h e s e q uen ce. O nce y ou h ave d on e
t h is , d ecid e w hat is b ein g d esc rib ed a n d p ut th e se n te n ces in
o rd er.
A .
If it is th e la tte r, th e b ro ken o r f a u lty c o m ponen ts o f
th e d ev ic e a re r e p air e d
B .
an d th e ta b le t is th en se n t back fo r sa le as a
re fu rb is h ed p ro duct.
C .
Once th e dev ic e bre ak s, it is eith er dis c ard ed or
re cy cle d a t a s p ecia lis t r e cy clin g p oin t.
D .
These a re th en tr a n sp orte d to a d if fe re n t fa cto ry fo r
asse m bly
E .
Fir s t, th e in te rn al c o m ponen ts fo r th e p ro cesso r a re
man ufa ctu re d i n a n o uts o urc ed f a cto ry .
F .
Afte r th at th ey a re s e n t to th e c en tr a l w are h ouse f o r
dis tr ib utio n a ro und t h e c o untr y
G .
At th e s a m e ti m e, th e e x te rio r a n d th e m em ory c h ip
are p ro duced

E xercis e 2
:
M atc h 1 t o 6 b elo w w it h a s e n te n ce o r p hra se A -F t o c o m ple te
s e q uen ce d esc rip tio n s. P le a se n ote t h at e a ch f u ll s e n te n ce
b elo n gs t o a d if fe ren t d esc rip tio n .
1 .
As s o on a s t h e b ric k s h av e b een c u t w ith t h e w ir e -
cu tte r
2 .
Afte r f e rm en ta tio n,
3 .
Once t h e o ra n ges a re r ip e t h ey a re c o lle cte d ,
4 .
The w ate r t h en f lo w s i n to a n arro w c h am ber c alle d a
pen sto ck ,
5 .
When t h e p la n t r e ach es a c erta in w id th , t h e l e av es a re
pic k ed .
6 .
In t h e e arly s ta g es o f m ilk p ro ductio n, c o w s g ra ze i n
th e f ie ld a n d s u bse q uen tly ( th en -a fte rw ard s) t a k en t o a
milk in g m ach in e t w ic e a d ay .
A .
th e c h oco la te i s p la ced i n to m ould s a n d l e ft t o c o ol
dow n.
B .
The r a w p ro duct i s t h en h eate d t o a h ig h t e m pera tu re
to k ill b acte ria a n d m ak e i t s a fe f o r h um an
co nsu m ptio n. F ollo w in g t h is , i t i s p ut i n to
re frig era tio n s to ra g e.
C .
th ey a re t h en s p re ad ( la id ) o ut o n a l a rg e ( in dustr ia l
siz ed ) t r a y t o e n ab le t h em t o d ry u nder t h e s u n.
D .
th ey
are p ut i n a n o ven t o d ry f o r 2 4 – 4 8 h ours .
E .
They a re t h en d rie d , s o rte d , b le n ded a n d p ack ag ed
re ad y f o r d is tr ib utio n t o r e ta ile rs .

F .
where t h e r e su ltin g h ig h p re ssu re t u rn s t h e t u rb in e,
whic h i s i n t u rn c o nnecte d t o a g en era to r i n t h e
pow erh ouse a b ove.

Answ ers:
E xercis e 1
Lin kin g w ord s: if, a nd , th en , o nce, th en , fir st, a fte r th at, a t
t h e s a m e t im e.
The l ife cycle o f a t a ble t c o m pute r i s b ein g d esc rib ed .
E, G , D , F , C , A , B
E xercis e 2
1d , 2 a, 3 c, 4 f, 5 e, 6 b
S om e E sse n tia l V oca b ula ry f o r P ro cess D esc rip tio n s:
N ou n
Verb
S to ra g e
Sto re
P aste u ris a tio n
Paste u ris e
H arv est – h arv estin g
Harv est
D eliv ery
Deliv er
A sse m bly
Asse m ble
P ack in g - P ack ag in g
Pack - P ack ag e

E xercis e 3 :
R ea d th e p ro cess d esc rip tio n o n th e n ex t p age a n d fill in th e
b la n ks w it h t h e m is sin g w ord o r p hra se .
The d ia g ra m
………………
th e w ate r c y cle . F ir s tly , w ate r
… ……………
f ro m th e
………………
, r is e s in to th e a tm osp here ,
c o ols a n d c o nden se s in to r a in o r s n ow in c lo uds, a n d f a lls a g ain to
t h e s u rfa ce in th e fo rm o f ra in a n d s n ow (p re cip ita tio n). T he n ex t
s ta g e sh ow s th e w ate r‘s jo urn ey afte r fa llin g to th e gro und,
… ……………
en ds with
…………………………………..
.
(3
w ord s)
In th e fir s t s ta g e o f th e
pro cess
, w ate r, a p pro xim ate ly 8 0%
o f w hic h c o m es f ro m O cean s,
………………
in to t h e a ir a s a r e su lt

of th e heat of th e su n. A fte r
… ……………
, th e w ate r vap our
co nden se s to fo rm clo uds. A n
………………
8 0% o f th e w ate r
vap our c o m es f ro m O cean s
.
In th e nex t
………………
, as clo uds accu m ula te
co nden sa tio n th ey p ro duce p re cip ita tio n in th e fo rm o f ra in an d
sn ow . A la rg e p art o f th e w ate r fro m th e p re cip ita tio n fa lls in to
la k es o r i s
………………
by t h e e arth .
Part of th e gro undw ate r th en
………………
back to th e
ocean w ith out re ach in g th e im perv io us la y er th ro ugh su rfa ce
ru noff.
………………
, O cean w ate r flo w s (s e ep s) th ro ugh to th e
fre sh w ate r a q uif e rs d urin g t h e p ro cess i s s a ltw ate r i n tr u sio n.

Answ ers:
The dia g ra m
illu str a te s
th e w ate r cy cle . Fir s tly , w ate r
e v ap ora te s
fro m th e
Ocea n
, ris e s in to th e a tm osp here , c o ols a n d
c o nden se s i n to r a in o r s n ow i n c lo uds, a n d f a lls a g ain t o t h e s u rfa ce
i n th e f o rm o f r a in a n d s n ow ( p re cip ita tio n). T he n ex t s ta g e s h ow s
t h e w ate r‘s jo urn ey a fte r fa llin g to th e g ro und,
whic h
en ds w ith
s a lt w ate r i n tr u sio n
.
In th e fir s t s ta g e o f th e
pro cess
, w ate r, a p pro xim ate ly 8 0%
o f w hic h c o m es f ro m O cean s,
ev ap ora te s
in to th e a ir a s a r e su lt o f
t h e h eat o f th e s u n. A fte r
t h is
, th e w ate r v ap our c o nden se s to f o rm
c lo uds. A n
estim ate d
80% of th e w ate r vap our co m es fro m
O cean s
.

In th e n ex t
sta ge
, a s c lo uds a ccu m ula te c o nden sa tio n th ey
pro duce p re cip ita tio n in th e f o rm o f r a in a n d s n ow . A la rg e p art o f
th e w ate r fro m th e p re cip ita tio n fa lls in to la k es o r is
ab so rb ed
by
th e e arth .
Part o f t h e g ro undw ate r t h en
flo w s
b ack t o t h e o cean w ith out
re ach in g t h e i m perv io us l a y er t h ro ugh s u rfa ce r u noff.
Fin ally
, O cean w ate r f lo w s ( s e ep s) t h ro ugh t o t h e f re sh w ate r
aq uif e rs d urin g t h e p ro cess i s s a ltw ate r i n tr u sio n.

C HAPT ER
6 .
I E LT S V
OCABU LA RY
FO R
M
APS
( I E LT S
A CADEM IC
)

V erb s t o d esc rib e c h an ges i n m ap s
E xercis e 1
M atc h ea ch b eg in nin g o f a se n te n ce 1 -7 w ith a n en din g A -G .
M ore t h an o n e o ptio n m ay b e p ossib le .
N otic e t h e v erb p h ra se s u nderlin ed i n A -G ( w e w ill l o ok a t t h ese l a te r).
1 .
The c en tr e o f t h e v illa g e
2 .
Sev era l o ld h ouse s
3 .
A n ew h osp ita l
4 .
The o ld f a cto rie s
5 .
Som e o ld m ills
6 .
Som e o f t h e t r e es a ro und t h e o ld p ark
7 .
The f ir e s ta tio n
A .
re p la ced
t h e o ld r u n-d ow n s p orts c en tr e *
B .
were k nock ed d ow n
to m ak e w ay f o r
a n ew p ark .
C .
were pulle d dow n
, w ith a new hote l
ta k in g th eir
pla ce
D .
were d em olis h ed
to cre ate
m ore sp ace w hic h
was
tu rn ed i n to
a c am psite
E .
were c h opped d ow n
in o rd er
to in cre ase th e s iz e o f
path .
F .
was co nverte d in to
a gym an d th e car park
to rn
dow n
.
G .
was t o ta lly t r a n sfo rm ed
o ver t h e f if te en y ear p erio d.
* r u n-d ow n is a n a d je ctiv e w hic h m ean s d ecay in g, d ir ty o ld
a n d n ot t a k en c are o f

U se fu l c h an ge p hra se s f o r m ap d esc rip tio n s:
R ep la ced
to ok t h e p la ce o f
w ere k nock ed d ow n t o m ak e w ay
fo r
when a b uild in g o r w all i s
delib era te ly d estr o yed t o c re ate
sp ace f o r s o m eth in g e ls e
w ere p ulle d d ow n
build in g o r w all w as d estr o yed
esp ecia lly b ecau se i t w as v ery
old o r d an gero us
w ere d em olis h ed t o c rea te
when a b uild in g o r w all i s
delib era te ly d estr o yed t o c re ate
sp ace f o r s o m eth in g e ls e
w as t u rn ed i n to
were t r a n sfo rm ed o r c h an ged
in to s o m eth in g e ls e
w ere c h op ped d ow n
th e a ctio n o f c u ttin g t r e es u ntil
th ey f a ll
to i n crea se t h e s iz e o f
gen eric t e rm f o r: t o m ak e b ig ger
or w id er
to r ed uce t h e s iz e o f
gen eric t e rm f o r: t o m ak e
sm alle r o r n arro w er
ta k in g t h eir p la ce
occu pyin g t h e p la ce w here t h e
oth er t h in g u se d t o b e
w as c o n verte d i n to
was t r a n sfo rm ed o r c h an ged
in to
w as t o rn d ow n
was k nock ed d ow n

E xercis e 2
U nderlin e th e m ost a p pro pria te v erb in b old in s e n te n ces 1 -8 a n d
p ut i t i n to t h e r ig ht f o rm t o s u it t h e s e n te n ce.
1 .
The ab an doned car-p ark near th e woodla n ds
dev elo p /b eco m e
i n to a m use u m .
2 .
The are a ro und th e city cen tr e
tu rn in to /b eco m e
le ss
accessib le w ith t h e c o nstr u ctio n o f t h e n ew t h eatr e .
3 .
As t h e c ity
ex te n d/e x p an d
, m ore b us s ta tio ns w ere b uilt.
4 .
A b us s ta tio n
co n str u ct/ b eco m e
a fte r th e o ld w are h ouse s
were k nock ed d ow n.
5 .
The dow nto w n are a of th e city co m ple te ly
ch an ge/d em olis h
with th e in tr o ductio n of th e new
sh oppin g c en tr e .
6 .
A n um ber o f i m porta n t d ev elo pm en ts
ta k e p la ce/ c o n vert
,
whic h t o ta lly
alt e r/e x p an d
t h e c h ara cte r o f t h e p re m is e s.
7 .
The a re a
tu rn in to /b eco m e
m ore fa m ily -frie n dly w ith th e
in tr o d uce/ k nock d ow n
o f n ew p ark s a n d o pen s p aces.
8 .
The ro ad w as
ex te n d/e x p an d
to th e to w n cen tr e , an d a
new b us s e rv ic e w as in tr o duced to c arry p asse n gers to a n d
fro m t h e a ir p ort.

… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

E xercis e 3 :
L ook a t t h e f o llo w in g m ap t a sk f r o m a n I E LTS t e st. R ea d t h e s a m ple
a n sw er o n t h e n ex t p age a n d f ill i n t h e b la n ks w ith t h e m is sin g w ord o r
p h ra se .
Im age S ourc e: C am brid ge E nglis h P ra ctic e T ests .
S am ple A nsw er:
The tw o m ap s illu str a te th e c h an ges w hic h h av e … ………..

(2 w ord s) o n a s m all is la n d, b efo re a n d a fte r it w as d ev elo ped ( its
dev elo pm en t) f o r t o uris m
.
It is cle ar fro m th e d ia g ra m th at th e is la n d h as … …….
co nsid era b ly w ith th e … …………... o f to uris m , a n d se v era l n ew
dev elo pm en ts can be se en in th e se co nd dia g ra m . The m ost
im porta n t ch an ges are th at th e is la n d now has am ple
acco m modatio n f o r to uris ts a n d th ere is a p eer to e n ab le v is ito rs to
access t h e i s la n d.
One o f th e m ost str ik in g ch an ges are th e acco m modatio n
huts w hic h are co nnecte d by fo otp ath s an d w hic h hav e been
…………. a ro und th e re cep tio n a n d re sta u ra n t a re a. A to ta l o f 6
huts , h av e b een c o nstr u cte d in th e w est o f th e is la n d a n d a n oth er 9
hav e b een b uilt a ro und t h e c en tr e o f t h e i s la n d.
A p ie r h as a ls o b een d ev elo ped o n th e so uth c o ast o f th e
is la n d to m ak e th e is la n d … ……… to to uris ts a n d th ere is a s h ort
ro ad lin kin g it w ith th e re cep tio n a n d re sta u ra n t. T he tr e es w hic h
were s c atte re d a ro und th e is la n d h av e b een le ft u nto uch ed , a n d a
sw im min g a re a h as b een … ………. j u st o ff t h e b each .

Answ ers:
Exercis e 1
1 .
G
2 .
B/C /D
3 .
A
4 .
B/C /D
5 .
B/C /D
6 .
E
7 .
A/F
Exercis e 2
1 .
dev elo ped / w as d ev elo ped
2 .
becam e
3 .
ex pan ded
4 .
was c o nstr u cte d
5 .
was c o m ple te ly c h an ged / c o m ple te ly c h an ged
6 .
to ok p la ce, a lte re d
7 .
becam e , i n tr o ductio n
8 .
was e x te n ded

Exercis e 3
The tw o m ap s illu str a te th e c h an ges w hic h h av e ta k en p la ce
o n a sm all is la n d, befo re an d afte r it was dev elo ped (its
d ev elo pm en t) f o r t o uris m .
It is cle ar fro m th e dia g ra m th at th e is la n d has ch an ged
c o nsid era b ly w ith th e in tr o ductio n of to uris m , an d se v era l new
d ev elo pm en ts can be se en in th e se co nd dia g ra m . The m ost
i m porta n t ch an ges are th at th e is la n d now has am ple
a cco m modatio n f o r to uris ts a n d th ere is a p eer to e n ab le v is ito rs to
a ccess t h e i s la n d.
One o f th e m ost str ik in g ch an ges are th e acco m modatio n
h uts w hic h a re c o nnecte d b y fo otp ath s a n d w hic h h av e b een b uilt
a ro und th e re cep tio n a n d re sta u ra n t a re a. A to ta l o f 6 h uts , h av e
b een c o nstr u cte d in th e w est o f th e is la n d a n d a n oth er 9 h av e b een
b uilt a ro und t h e c en tr e o f t h e i s la n d.
A p ie r h as a ls o b een d ev elo ped o n th e so uth c o ast o f th e
i s la n d to m ak e th e is la n d a ccessib le to to uris ts a n d th ere is a s h ort
r o ad lin kin g it w ith th e re cep tio n a n d re sta u ra n t. T he tr e es w hic h
w ere s c atte re d a ro und th e is la n d h av e b een le ft u nto uch ed , a n d a
s w im min g a re a h as b een d esig nate d j u st o ff t h e b each .

C HAPT ER
7 .
I E LT S V
OCABU LA RY
FO R
E
SSA Y S
( I E LT S
A CADEM IC
I E LT S G
EN ER AL
T
RAIN IN G
)
C on nectin g w ord s a n d s e t p hra se s
P uttin g y ou r r ea so n s i n o rd er
Fir s tly /S eco ndly . T hir d ly /F in ally
E xp ressin g a n o p in io n
I h old t h e v ie w t h at ...
In m y v ie w …
It i s p ro bab ly t r u e t o s a y t h at… .
There c an b e n o d oubt t h at …
M en tio n in g w hat o th er p eo p le
th in k
It h as b een s u ggeste d t h at… .
There a re t h ose w ho b elie v e t h at..
There a re t h ose w ho a rg ue t h at…
Opponen ts / s u pporte rs o f ( e .g .
huntin g) … a rg ue t h at… .
Most p eo ple h old f ir m ly t o t h e b elie f
th at…
It i s o fte n c la im ed t h at…
C om mon o p in io n s i n s o cie ty
It i s w id ely b elie v ed /th ought t h at
Few p eo ple w ould c o nte st t h at…
.
Nobody w ould d is p ute t h e f a ct t h at
….
It i s g en era lly a g re ed t h at…
R efe rrin g t o e v id en ce a n d f a cts
Rese arc h s u ggests t h at…
All t h e e v id en ce s u ggests t h at …
Recen t e v id en ce i n dic ate s t h at … ..
C han gin g d ir ectio n
How ev er/N ev erth ele ss

Giv in g e x am ple s
For e x am ple
fo r i n sta n ce
su ch a s
Con clu din g
In c o nclu sio n / O vera ll,

E xercis e 1
F ill t h e g ap s w it h a n a p pro p ria te w ord o r p hra se f r o m t h e b ox:
T o c o n clu de
I h old t h e v ie w
th at
how ev er.
Fir stly ,
rese a rch
su ggests t h at
m ay
whic h c a n l e a d
to
For i n sta n ce,
when p eo p le
th ey a re m ore
lik ely t o
Seco n dly , f e w
peo p le w ou ld
co n te st t h at
Therefo re
it i s l ik ely t h at
F in ally ,
su ch a s
How ev er, t h ere
are t h ose w ho
arg u e t h at
nob od y w ou ld
co n te st t h e f a ct
th at
In a d dit io n , i t
is o fte n c la im ed
th at
Nob od y w ou ld
dis p ute t h e f a ct
th at
th ere c a n b e n o
dou bt t h at
Hen ce,

M od el E ssa y
………………………………………….. m an y p ro gra m s o n
t e le v is io n in clu de vio le n t sc en es, esp ecia lly actio n an d horro r
m ovie s. … ……………… th ey sh ould not be allo w ed , … ……
m an y p eo ple d is a g re e w ith t h is o pin io n. I n t h is e ssa y , I w ill d is c u ss
b oth s id es a n d g iv e r e aso ns f o r m y o pin io n.
……..
,
………………………………………….. peo ple
w ho w atc h vio le n t pro gra m s an d pla y vio le n t co m pute r gam es
… …. w orry m ore a b out t h eir o w n s a fe ty , … …………… p ro ble m s
i n s o cie ty . … ……………
, … …… a re w orrie d a b out th eir s a fe ty ,
… ………………… re act ag gre ssiv ely to w ard s str a n gers .
… ……………………………………….. s o m e c h ild re n c o py w hat
t h ey se e o n te le v is io n a n d in c o m pute r g am es. … … if th ey a re
w atc h in g an d in te ra ctin g with vio le n ce on a daily basis
… ………………………… th ey w ill c o py th is ty pe o f b eh av io r.
… ………
, th ere a re m ore b en efic ia l a ctiv itie s th at c h ild re n c o uld
b e p artic ip atin g i n , … ……….. p la y in g a s p ort o r r e ad in g a b ook.
………………………………………….. v io le n ce is n ot
s o m eth in g w e le arn fro m te le v is io n an d co m pute r gam es. For
e x am ple , … ……………………………………….. th ere were
m urd ers befo re te le v is io n an d vid eo gam es were in ven te d .
… ……………
,
………………………………………….. c h ild re n

can not w atc h v io le n t p ro gra m s a n d p la y in ap pro pria te v id eo gam es
easily . F or i n sta n ce, t h ere a re r e str ic tio ns f o r s o m e p ro gra m mes a n d
gam es, an d m an y p are n ts d o n ot allo w th eir ch ild re n to w atc h
te le v is io n a fte r a c erta in t im e.
…………….
, alth ough th ere are so m e re aso nab le
arg um en ts ag ain st h ig her re str ic tio ns o n v io le n t v id eo gam es an d
pro gra m mes fo r ch ild re n , ………………. th e pote n tia l
dis a d van ta g es o f c h ild re n c o pyin g w hat th ey s e e a n d h ear in th ese
pro gra m mes a n d g am es f a r o utw eig h th e a d van ta g es o f h av in g f re e
access t o t h em . F urth erm ore , c u rre n t r e str ic tio ns a re i n effe ctiv e a n d
easy to ig nore . … ………….
, g overn m en ts a n d lo cal in stitu tio ns
sh ould d o m ore to p ro m ote alte rn ativ e activ itie s an d to en gag e
young p eo ple i n t h eir l o cal c o m munitie s f ro m a n e arly a g e.

A nsw ers:
Nob od y w ou ld d is p ute th e fa ct th at
m an y p ro gra m s o n
t e le v is io n in clu de vio le n t sc en es, esp ecia lly actio n an d horro r
m ovie s.
I h old t h e v ie w t h at
th ey s h ould n ot b e a llo w ed ,
how ev er
m an y p eo ple d is a g re e w ith t h is o pin io n. I n t h is e ssa y , I w ill d is c u ss
b oth s id es a n d g iv e r e aso ns f o r m y o pin io n.
Fir stly
,
rese a rch su ggests th at
p eo ple w ho w atc h v io le n t
p ro gra m s a n d p la y v io le n t c o m pute r g am es
may
w orry m ore a b out
t h eir ow n sa fe ty ,
whic h ca n le a d to
pro ble m s in so cie ty .
For
i n sta n ce
,
when p eo p le
are w orrie d ab out th eir sa fe ty ,
th ey a re
m ore l ik ely t o
r e act a g gre ssiv ely t o w ard s s tr a n gers .
Seco n dly
,
fe w
p eo p le w ou ld c o n te st th at
s o m e c h ild re n c o py w hat th ey s e e o n
t e le v is io n a n d in c o m pute r g am es.
Hen ce
, if th ey a re w atc h in g a n d
i n te ra ctin g w ith v io le n ce o n a d aily b asis
it is lik ely t h at
th ey w ill
c o py th is ty pe of beh av io r.
Fin ally
, th ere are m ore ben efic ia l
a ctiv itie s th at c h ild re n c o uld b e p artic ip atin g in
su ch a s
p la y in g a
s p ort o r r e ad in g a b ook.
How ev er, th ere a re th ose w ho a rg u e th at
v io le n ce is n ot
s o m eth in g w e le arn fro m te le v is io n an d co m pute r gam es. For
e x am ple ,
nob od y w ou ld c o n te st t h e f a ct t h at
th ere w ere m urd ers
b efo re te le v is io n a n d v id eo gam es w ere in ven te d .
In a d dit io n
,
it is
o fte n cla im ed th at
ch ild re n can not w atc h v io le n t p ro gra m s an d
p la y in ap pro pria te vid eo gam es easily . For in sta n ce, th ere are
r e str ic tio ns f o r s o m e p ro gra m mes a n d g am es, a n d m an y p are n ts d o
n ot a llo w t h eir c h ild re n t o w atc h t e le v is io n a fte r a c erta in t im e
.
To c o n clu de
, a lth ough th ere a re s o m e r e aso nab le a rg um en ts
a g ain st h ig her r e str ic tio ns o n v io le n t v id eo gam es a n d p ro gra m mes
f o r ch ild re n ,
th ere ca n be no dou bt th at
th e pote n tia l
d is a d van ta g es o f c h ild re n c o pyin g w hat th ey s e e a n d h ear in th ese

pro gra m mes a n d g am es f a r o utw eig h th e a d van ta g es o f h av in g f re e
access t o t h em . F urth erm ore , c u rre n t r e str ic tio ns a re i n effe ctiv e a n d
easy to ig nore .
Therefo re
, govern m en ts an d lo cal in stitu tio ns
sh ould d o m ore to p ro m ote alte rn ativ e activ itie s an d to en gag e
young p eo ple i n t h eir l o cal c o m munitie s f ro m a n e arly a g e.

S yn onym s o f “ A rg um en t”
The w ord s i n t h e b ox b elo w a re a ll u se fu l e x am ple s o f w ord s
l ik e ‘ a rg um en t’ , w hic h y ou c an u se w ith th e w ord ‘ th is ’ ( o r ‘ th ese ’
i n p lu ra l) t o s p ecif y m ore i n fo rm atio n.
a n aly sis
ap pro ach
co ncep t
co nte x t
d ata
defin itio n
en vir o nm en t
ev id en ce
fa cto r
fu nctio n
in te rp re ta tio n
is su e
m easu re
meth od
perio d
polic y
p rin cip le
pro ced ure
pro cess
re se arc h
re sp onse
se cto r
str u ctu re
Theo ry
Here i s a n e x am ple o f h ow w e c a n u se t h is s tr u ctu re i n a n
e ssa y.
There i s n o d oubt t h at c o rru ptio n i s t h e m ost i m porta nt p oin t
t o fo cu s on, beca use it orig in ate s fr o m positio ns of pow er.
C orru ptio n ca n ta ke m any sh apes a nd fo rm s, su ch a s p olitic a l,
w hic h in vo lv es c rim es in a c o untr y ’s le g al s y ste m a nd w ith in th e
p olic e, a nd e co nom ic , fo r e xa m ple b y m is u sin g ta x m oney. A ll th e
e vid en ce s u ggests th at c o untr ie s w ith c o rru pt g overn m en ts a re n ot
a ble t o d evelo p a s f a st a s c o untr ie s w here t h ere i s l e ss c o rru ptio n.
These f a cto rs [ ...] .
O R
This n eg ativ e e n vir o nm en t [ ...]
.
The f ir s t s e n te n ce o f a p ara g ra p h is v ita l, a s it s h ow s h ow it
c o nnects w ith t h e o vera ll s tr u ctu re , a n d c an s ig nal w hat w ill h ap pen
n ex t.
When y ou p ra ctic e w ritin g, a lw ay s c h eck th at y our e ssa y is
l o gic al by underlin in g th e m ost im porta n t se n te n ces in each
p ara g ra p h. Y ou s h ould b e a b le to u nders ta n d th e w hole e ssa y o nly

by re ad in g th ose se n te n ces. If you can ’t, you need to m ak e
ch an ges.

C HAPT ER
8 .
I E LT S V
OCABU LA RY
FO R
L
ETTER S
& E
MAIL S
( I E LT S G
EN ER AL
T
RAIN IN G
)

8 .1 L ETTER O F R EFE R EN C
E
I n t h is t y pe o f f o rm al l e tte r, y ou'r e a sk ed t o p ro vid e a r e fe re n ce f o r
a c o lle ag ue o r f rie n d t o a p ro sp ectiv e e m plo yer o r e d ucatio nal
i n stitu tio n.
Y ou m ay f in d i t h elp fu l t o n ote d ow n u se fu l e x pre ssio ns w hic h y ou
c an i n clu de,
S om e U se fu l L an gu age f o r t h is t y p e o f l e tte r o r e m ail
I h ave k n ow n X f o r … .
I a m c o nfid en t t h at … .
I h ave n o h esita tio n i n r e co m men din g h im … .
X i s s o cia ble , r e lia ble , s e lf- c o nfid en t, o utg oin g
X p osse sse s a t h oro ugh g ro undin g i n …
s ta nd h im i n g ood s te a d
a s i s s h ow n b y t h e f a ct t h at …

E xercis e 1
:
L ook a t t h e g ap s i n s a m ple a n sw er b elo w :
W here c o u ld y ou u se t h ese l in kin g w ord s a n d d is c o u rse m ark ers t o
c o m ple te t h e t e x t? Y ou w ill n ot n eed t o s u e a ll o f t h em .
F ir stly , i n a dditio n , f o r i n sta n ce, m ore o ver, f u rth erm ore o r b y w ay o f
e x am ple .
S am ple A nsw er ( L ette r o f R efe ren ce):
T o w hom i t m ay c o ncern ,
M ary a n d I w ork ed t o geth er a t J & J R eta il f o r 1 0 y ears .
I t i s m y p le asu re t o r e co m men d h er f o r t h e p ositio n o f s h op a ssis ta n t.
1 … ……………….., M ary i s a s e lf -c o nfid en t a n d o utg oin g p ers o n, w ho f in ds
i t e asy t o r e la te t o p eo ple f ro m a ll k in ds o f b ack gro unds
.
D urin g h er t im e a t J & J R eta il, M ary p ro ved t o b e f rie n dly , c o m munic ativ e,
h ard -w ork in g a n d e x celle n t a t m an ag in g h er t im e. 2 .… …………….., M ary i s
t h e k in d o f p ers o n w ho w ork s w ell w ith o th ers , a s s h e d is p la y s g re at
s e n sitiv ity a n d s y m path y. S he w as a lw ay s w illin g t o c o ntr ib ute a n d h elp h er
c o lle ag ues. 3 … ……………. a t J & J R eta il s h e w as p opula r a n d f u lly
c o m mitte d t o t h e o rg an is a tio n’s o bje ctiv es.
4 … …………….. a t J & J R eta il, M ary d em onstr a te d e x celle n t E nglis h
l a n guag e s k ills d ealin g w ith E nglis h -s p eak in g c u sto m ers o n a d aily b asis . S he
p asse d h er E nglis h e x am s a ro und 6 m onth s a g o a n d h as a k een i n te re st i n
f a sh io n, w hic h I a m s u re w ill s ta n d h er i n g ood s te ad w hen s h e i s h elp in g
c u sto m ers i n E nglis h .
I r e co m men d M ary w ith out r e se rv atio n — s h e w ould b e a n e x celle n t a sse t t o

your c o m pan y.
Ple ase d o n ot h esita te t o c o nta ct m e i f y ou h av e a n y q uestio ns.
Sin cere ly ,
Your n am e a n d S urn am e

Now y ou c a n c h eck y ou r a n sw ers b y r ea d in g “ S am ple A nsw er ( L ette r o f
Refe ren ce)” o n t h e n ex t p age…

S am ple A nsw er ( L ette r o f R efe ren ce):
T o w hom i t m ay c o ncern ,
M ary a n d I w ork ed t o geth er a t J & J R eta il f o r 1 0 y ears .
I t i s m y p le asu re t o r e co m men d h er f o r t h e p ositio n o f s h op a ssis ta n t.
F ir s tly , M ary i s a s e lf -c o nfid en t a n d o utg oin g p ers o n, w ho f in ds i t e asy t o
r e la te t o p eo ple f ro m a ll k in ds o f b ack gro unds.
D urin g h er t im e a t J & J R eta il, M ary p ro ved t o b e f rie n dly , c o m munic ativ e,
h ard -w ork in g a n d e x celle n t a t m an ag in g h er t im e. I n a d ditio n, M ary i s t h e
k in d o f p ers o n w ho w ork s w ell w ith o th ers , a s s h e d is p la y s g re at s e n sitiv ity
a n d s y m path y. S he w as a lw ay s w illin g t o c o ntr ib ute a n d h elp h er c o lle ag ues.
M ore o ver, ( F urth erm ore ) a t J & J R eta il s h e w as p opula r a n d f u lly c o m mitte d
t o t h e o rg an is a tio n’s o bje ctiv es.
B y w ay o f e x am ple , ( F or i n sta n ce) a t J & J R eta il, M ary d em onstr a te d
e x celle n t E nglis h l a n guag e s k ills d ealin g w ith E nglis h -s p eak in g c u sto m ers o n
a d aily b asis . S he p asse d h er E nglis h e x am s a ro und 6 m onth s a g o a n d h as a
k een i n te re st i n f a sh io n, w hic h I a m s u re w ill s ta n d h er i n g ood s te ad w hen
s h e i s h elp in g c u sto m ers i n E nglis h .
I r e co m men d M ary w ith out r e se rv atio n — s h e w ould b e a n e x celle n t a sse t t o
y our c o m pan y.
P le ase d o n ot h esita te t o c o nta ct m e i f y ou h av e a n y q uestio ns.
S in cere ly
,
Y our n am e a n d S urn am e
( W ord c o unt: 1 97)
R efe ren ce p ro n ou ns:
R efe re n ce p ro nouns l ik e t h is , t h at, t h ey o r i t a re c o m monly u se d t o r e fe r b ack
t o s o m eth in g o r s o m eo ne r e cen tly m en tio ned .

Rela tiv e c la u se s:
Rela tiv e c la u se s c an b e u se d t o g iv e a d ded i n fo rm atio n t o a s ta te m en t a n d
th ey a llo w y ou t o l in k i d eas t o geth er i n w ell- fo rm ed s e n te n ces.
Substit u tio n :
Oth er f o rm s o f c o hesiv e d ev ic es i n clu de t h in gs l ik e s u bstitu tio n. T his i s
where y ou u se a s y nonym f o r e x am ple t o r e fe r b ack w ard s o r f o rw ard s t o a
co nnecte d p oin t i n t h e t e x t.
E.g . R ep la cin g a v erb p hra se :
The m anagem en t t e a m a t J & J R eta ils w ere v ery h appy w ith M ary , a nd s o
were t h e r e st o f t h e s ta ff ( a nd t h e r e st o f t h e s ta ff w ere a ls o v ery h appy w ith
her).
Usin g p ara g ra p hs a n d a v arie ty o f c o hesiv e d ev ic es e ffe ctiv ely w ill h elp y ou
sc o re w ell i n t h e “ C ohere n ce a n d
Cohesio n” a n d “ T ask a ch ie v em en t” p arts o f
th e a sse ssm en t c rite ria .
Tip :
W hen y ou'r e r e ad in g, m ak e a p oin t o f l o okin g
out f o r c o hesiv e d ev ic es l ik e t h e o nes w e'v e l o oked a t i n t h is s e ctio n.

8 .2 L ETTER O F C O M PL A IN T:

I a m w ritin g t o c o m pla in a bout…
I w ould l ik e t o e xp re ss m y d is sa tis fa ctio n w ith …
I a m w ritin g t o e xp re ss m y c o ncern a bout t h e.…
I m ust c o m pla in i n w ritin g a bout…
I f e el I m ust c o m pla in t o y o u a bout…
I w is h t o c o m pla in i n t h e s tr o ngest t e rm s a bout…
I a m w ritin g t o i n fo rm y o u o f a n a ppare n t e rro r i n y o ur r e co rd s…
P ara p hra sin g e x ercis e :
E xam ple :
0 ) B asic P ro ble m :
“I w ant t o c o m pla in a bout t h e b ad s e rv ic e i n t h e
r e sta ura nt. “
i i. K ey L an guag e:
I w ould l ik e t o e xp re ss m y d is sa tis fa ctio n w ith …
i ii, K ey W ord y ou m ust u se : P O OR ( B ad i s t o o i n fo rm al, s o w e c an u se
poor
i n ste ad )
i v . F in al P ro duct:
“I w ould l ik e t o e xp re ss m y d is sa tis fa ctio n w ith t h e p oor
s ta ndard o f s e rv ic e i n t h e r e sta ura nt.

N ow t r y t o c o m ple te t h e p ro cess u sin g t h e f o llo w in g l a n gu age:
1 )
i . B asic p ro ble m :
“The c in em a i s r e a lly f a r a w ay f r o m e very th in g”
i i. K ey P hra se :
I w is h t o c o m pla in i n t h e s tr o ngest t e rm s a bout…
i ii, K ey W ord : A CCESSIB IL IT Y
i v . F in al P ro duct:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
2)
i. B asic p ro ble m :
“D urin g m y c o urse , t h ere w ere t o o m any s tu den ts i n t h e
cla ss”
ii. K ey P hra se :
I a m w ritin g t o e xp re ss m y c o ncern a bout t h e.…
iii, K ey W ord : N UM BER
iv . F in al P ro duct:
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

A nsw ers:
1 ) I w is h t o c o m pla in i n t h e s tr o ngest t e rm s a bout t h e a ccessib ility o f t h e
c in em a.
2 ) I a m w ritin g t o e xp re ss m y c o ncern a bout t h e n um ber o f s tu den ts i n t h e
c la ss d urin g m y c o urse

T op ic s p ecif ic p hra se s
• P oor s ta ndard o f s e rv ic e/s lo w s e rv ic e
• I a m a sk in g f o r/I w ould l ik e t o r e q uest a r e p la cem en t
• N o a cco m modatio n/T ra vel d ela ys/R ath er r u de s ta ff
• B adly s c ra tc h ed /d en te d w ra ppin g/p acka gin g
• T o c la im /d em and f o r a r e fu nd
• I a m r e tu rn in g … t o y o u f o r c o rre ctio n o f t h e f a ult/fo r
i n sp ectio n/r e p air /s e rv ic in g
• D efe ctiv e/fa ulty g oods/d efe ctiv e i te m /m ach in e
• T he… m ay n eed r e p la cin g
• T o r e sto re a n i te m t o f u ll w ork in g o rd er…
• I a m e n clo sin g t h e b ro ken r a dio i n t h is p acka ge; p le a se s e n d m e a
r e p la cem en t..
• Y ou s a id t h at … I f e el s u re t h ere m ust b e s o m e m is ta ke a s I a m s u re t h at…
E ndin g t h e l e tte r
• I d o n ot u su ally c o m pla in , b ut, a s a n o ld c u sto m er, I h ope y o u w ill b e
i n te re ste d i n m y c o m men ts .
• W e l o ok f o rw ard t o d ea lin g w ith t h is m atte r w ith out d ela y.
• I f e el t h at y o ur c o m pany s h ould c o nsid er a n a ppro pria te r e fu nd
.
• I w ould b e g ra te fu l i f y o u w ould s e n d m e a c o m ple te r e fu nd a s s o on a s
p ossib le
• W e f e el t h ere m ust b e s o m e e xp la natio n f o r ( th is d ela y) a nd e xp ect y o ur
p ro m pt r e p ly .
• W ill y o u p le a se l o ok i n to t h is m atte r a nd l e t u s k n ow t h e r e a so n f o r …
• T hank y o u f o r y o ur a ssis ta nce.

• I l o ok f o rw ard t o h ea rin g f r o m y o u a t y o ur e a rlie st c o nven ie n ce.
• I a m r e tu rn in g t h e d am aged g oods/ite m s… a nd s h all b e g la d i f y o u w ill
re p la ce t h em .
• P le a se l o ok i n to t h is m atte r a t o nce a nd l e t m e k n ow t h e d ela y.
• P le a se c h eck y o ur r e co rd s a gain .
• T hank y o u f o r y o ur c o opera tio n i n c o rre ctin g t h is d eta il…
• I w is h t o d ra w y o ur a tte n tio n t o …
• I w ould s u ggest t h at…
• I s u ggest t h at i m med ia te s te p s b e t a ken .
• I w is h t o c o m pla in a bout…
• I l o ok f o rw ard t o a p ro m pt r e p ly a nd h ope t h at y o u w ill t a ke i n to
co nsid era tio n…
• I a m r e a lly d is sa tis fie d w ith

Now l o ok a t t h e s a m ple a n sw er f o r t h e q uestio n w e l o ok ed a t e a rlie r i n
th is s e ctio n . P ay s p ecia l a tte n tio n t o t h e l a n gu age a n d s tr u ctu re u se d .
Sam ple A nsw er
Dea r S ir /M adam ,
I w ould l ik e t o e xp re ss m y d is sa tis fa ctio n w ith t h e p oor s ta ndard o f s e rv ic e
we r e ceiv ed d urin g o ur r e cen t v is it t o D in o´s B ar. F ir stly , t h e s ta ff w ere
gen era lly q uite r u de a nd u nhelp fu l, t h ey s e em ed t o l a ck b asic f o od k n ow le d ge
and t h ey d id n ot s e em i n te re ste d i n t h e j o b. F or i n sta nce, n one o f t h em c o uld
offe r a ny a dvic e t o m e o n c h oosin g a d is h .
A f u rth er c a use f o r c o m pla in t w as t h at t h e f o od w as c o ld w hen i t a rriv ed t o
our t a ble . I u ndersta nd t h at i t w as a b usy n ig ht, b ut, w e b ooked t h e t a ble a nd
th e m en us t h e d ay b efo re , s o I f e el t h at t h ey s h ould h ave b een r e a dy.
Fin ally , n ot o nly d id w e r e ceiv e s u bsta ndard f o od a nd u nfr ie n dly , u nhelp fu l
se rv ic e, b ut w e w ere a ls o c h arg ed f u ll p ric e f o r o ur m ea ls a fte r w e
co m pla in ed . I n m y o pin io n t h e p ric es s e em t o b e v ery e xp en siv e f o r t h e

quality o f t h e f o od a nd t h e s e rv ic e p ro vid ed .
I d o n ot u su ally c o m pla in , b ut, a s a l o ya l c u sto m er, I h ope y o u w ill b e
in te re ste d i n m y c o m men ts . P erh aps i t w ould b e a ppro pria te t o o ffe r s o m e
tr a in in g c o urse s t o s ta ff a t D in o´s B ar, i n o rd er t o a vo id t h is f r o m h appen in g
again . I f e el t h at c u sto m er s e rv ic e w as a b ig i s su e, a s w as t h e q uality o f t h e
fo od. I f t h ese t w o p ro ble m s w ere f ix ed , t h en p ric e m ig ht n ot b e s u ch a n i s su e
in t h e f u tu re , a s c u sto m ers w ould b e h appy t o p ay l ittle m ore f o r a b ette r
exp erie n ce. I h ope y o u w ill t a ke t h ese p oin ts i n to c o nsid era tio
n
I l o ok f o rw ard t o y o ur r e p ly .
Yours f a ith fu lly ,
Nam e a nd S urn am e

8 .3 F orm al L ette rs: S tr u ctu re R ule s
G reetin g
N am e u nknow n:
Dea r S ir /M adam ,
N am e k now n:
Dea r M r… / D ea r M rs… / D ea r M s..+ s u rn am e
R ea so n f o r w rit in g
I a m w ritin g t o … I a m w ritin g w ith r e g ard t o …
I a m w ritin g o n b eh alf o f …
A sk in g q uestio n s
I w ould b e g ra te fu l i f …
I w onder i f y o u c o uld … .
C ould y o u … ?
R efe rrin g t o s o m eo n e e ls e ´s l e tte r / p oin ts

A s y o u s ta te d i n y o ur l e tte r, … .
Reg ard in g … / C oncern in g …
W ith r e g ard t o … .
F in is h in g t h e l e tte r
I f y o u r e q uir e a ny f u rth er i n fo rm atio n, p le a se d o n ot h esita te t o c o nta ct m e.
I l o ok f o rw ard t o h ea rin g f r o m y o u
.
S ig n in g
I f D ea r + n am e = Y ours s in cere ly ,
I f D ea r S ir / M adam = Y ours f a ith fu lly
Y our f ir s t n am e + s u rn am e m ust b e w ritte n c le arly u nder y our s ig natu re

8.4 F orm al L ette r I E LTS G en era l E xam C heck lis t.
When y ou h av e w ritte n y our l e tte r, c h eck :
1. I t i s a f o rm al l e tte r
2. I t i n clu des a ll t h e i n fo rm atio n n ecessa ry
3. Y ou h av e a sk ed a ll t h e q uestio ns y ou n eed t o
4. T he q uestio ns a re c o rre ctly f o rm ula te d i n dir e ct q uestio ns
5. T he l e tte r i s d iv id ed i n to p ara g ra p hs
6. Y ou h av e c h eck ed t h e l e tte r c are fu lly f o r m is ta k es

F orm al L ette rs: L an gu age
L ette rs c an b e a n yth in g f ro m v ery f o rm al t o v ery i n fo rm al. T he I E LTS
G en era l W ritin g p ap er w ill n ev er a sk y ou t o w rite a s p ecia liz ed b usin ess o r
l e g al l e tte r r e q uir in g a p ro fe ssio nal k now le d ge o f b usin ess w ord s, s tr u ctu re s
a n d e x pre ssio ns. H ow ev er, t h ey m ig ht a sk y ou t o w rite a f o rm al, a s e m i-
f o rm al o r a n i n fo rm al e m ail o r l e tte r.
I n t h is s e ctio n o f t h e c h ap te r, w e w ill f o cu s o n y our u se o f l a n guag e a n d i n
p artic u la r, y our a b ility t o c re ate a f o rm al r e g is te r. T his w ill h elp y ou t o d o
w ell i n t w o o f t h e a sse ssm en t c rite ria : l a n guag e o f c o urs e i n t e rm s o f u sin g a
r a n ge o f f o rm al v ocab ula ry a n d g ra m matic al s tr u ctu re s a n d c o m munic ativ e
a ch ie v em en t b y b ein g a b le t o c re ate a n a p pro pria te f o rm al t o ne t h at h as a
p ositiv e e ffe ct o n t h e r e ad er. W e w ill i d en tif y s o m e o f t h e f e atu re s o f f o rm al
E nglis h t h at w e o fte n f in d i n f o rm al l e tte rs .
A t t h e e n d o f t h is s e ctio n y ou w ill f in d a l is t o f u se fu l f o rm al- in fo rm al
e q uiv ale n ts . T his l is t w ill s a v e y ou a l o t o f t im e i n y our p re p ara tio n f o r t h e
e x am . F or e x am ple , i n a l e tte r o f c o m pla in t:
“I w as r a th er d is a ppoin te d ”
i s a
f o rm al w ay o f s a y in g
“I w as f u rio us”
o r
“I w as v ery a ngry ” .
S ee h ow m an y
m ore f o rm al a n d i n fo rm al e q uiv ale n t i te m s y ou c an l e arn n ex t.

E xercis e 1
:
T ra n sfo rm t h e i n fo rm al o r s e m i- fo rm al v ersio n o f e a ch p hra se f r o m a
l e tte r o f c o m pla in t i n to a f o rm al s ty le . Y ou c a n m ak e s m all c h an ges t o
t h e c o n te n t o f t h e s e n te n ces i f y ou t h in k i t ´s n ecessa ry a n d y ou c a n u se a
d ic tio n ary .
E xam ple : I t h ou gh t I ’d w rite = I a m w ritin g
a . s ta te o f t h e p la y gro und =
… …………………………………………………………………………
b . I h av e n otic ed l o ad s o f r u bbis h =
… …………………………………………………………………………
c . I r e ck on =
… …………………………………………………………………………
d . T he t e ach er I ’m t a lk in g a b out =
… …………………………………………………………………………
e . O n t o p o f t h is =
… ………………………………………………………………………

f . a l o ad o f p ro ble m s =
… …………………………………………………………………………
g . Y ou c o uld =
… …………………………………………………………………………
h . s to p =
… …………………………………………………………………………
i . W hat’ s m ore =

……………………………………………………………………………
j. b ette r =
……………………………………………………………………………
k. T o f in is h =
……………………………………………………………………………
l. I ´m l o okin g f o rw ard t o h earin g f ro m y ou =
……………………………………………………………………………

A nsw ers
:
a . s ta te o f t h e p la yg ro und = c o nditio n o f t h e p la yg ro und
b . I h ave n otic ed l o ads o f r u bbis h = T here i s a g re a t d ea l o f l itte r
c . I r e cko n = I t i s m y o pin io n t h at…
d . T he t e a ch er I ’m t a lk in g a bout = T he t e a ch er i n q uestio n O R T he t e a ch er I
a m r e fe rrin g t o
e . O n t o p o f t h is = F urth erm ore
f . a l o ad o f p ro ble m s = a n um ber o f p ro ble m s
g . Y ou c o uld = i t m ay b e p ossib le f o r y o u
h . s to p = p re ven t
i . W hat’ s m ore = I n a dditio n
j . b ette r = m ore s u ita ble O R m ore a deq uate
k . T o f in is h = I n c o nclu sio n
l . I ´m l o okin g f o rw ard t o h ea rin g f r o m y o u = I l o ok f o rw ard t o y o ur r e p ly O R
I l o ok f o rw ard t o h ea rin g f r o m y o u

E xercis e 2 :
N ow h ere a re s o m e f u ll s e n te n ces f ro m f o rm al l e tte rs . C om ple te t h e s e n te n ces
u sin g o nly o ne w ord .
a . I a m w ritin g i n … …………. t o y our j o b a d vertis e m en t i n t h e A BC
n ew sp ap er
b . I w ould l ik e t o … …………. f o r t h e p ositio n o f t r a n sla to r.
c . I a m … …………. t o c o m e f o r i n te rv ie w a t a n y t im e c o nven ie n t t o y ou.
d . I w ould b e … …………. i f y ou c o uld s e n d m e f u rth er i n fo rm atio n
r e g ard in g t h e p ositio n.
e . P le ase f in d m y C V … ………….
f . I w ould l ik e t o e x pre ss m y … …………. w ith t h e p oor s ta n dard o f s e rv ic e
w e r e ceiv ed d urin g o ur r e cen t v is it t o y our c in em a.
g . F or … …………., n one o f t h em c o uld o ffe r a n y a d vic e t o m e o n c h oosin g
a d is h
.
h . F in ally , n ot o nly … …………. w e r e ceiv e s u bsta n dard f o od a n d u nfrie n dly ,
u nhelp fu l s e rv ic e, b ut w e w ere a ls o c h arg ed f u ll p ric e f o r o ur m eals a fte r w e
c o m pla in ed .
i . I l o ok f o rw ard t o y our r e p ly .

A nsw ers
:
a . I a m w ritin g i n r e p ly /r e sp onse t o y o ur j o b a dvertis e m en t i n t h e A BC
n ew sp aper
b . I w ould l ik e t o a pply f o r t h e p ositio n o f t r a nsla to r.
c . I a m a va ila ble / a ble t o c o m e f o r i n te rv ie w a t a ny t im e c o nven ie n t t o y o u.
d . I w ould b e g ra te fu l i f y o u c o uld s e n d m e f u rth er i n fo rm atio n r e g ard in g t h e
p ositio n.
e . P le a se f in d m y C V a tta ch ed ( e m ail) / e n clo se d ( le tte r).
f . I w ould l ik e t o e xp re ss m y d is sa tis fa ctio n w ith t h e p oor s ta ndard o f s e rv ic e
w e r e ceiv ed d urin g o ur r e cen t v is it t o y o ur c in em a.
g . F or i n sta nce, n one o f t h em c o uld o ffe r a ny a dvic e t o m e o n c h oosin g a
d is h .
h . F in ally , n ot o nly d id w e r e ceiv e s u bsta ndard f o od a nd u nfr ie n dly ,
u nhelp fu l s e rv ic e, b ut w e w ere a ls o c h arg ed f u ll p ric e f o r o ur m ea ls a fte r w e
c o m pla in ed .
i . I l o ok f o rw ard t o y o ur r e p ly .

U se o f t h e P assiv e ( S om etim es
)
O kay , t h e n ex t e x am ple i s o ne w here t h e p assiv e h as b een u se d i n ste ad o f a n
a ctiv e f o rm . T his i s a c o m mon f e atu re o f f o rm al w ritin g b ut s h ould n ot b e
o veru se d .
T his s e n te n ce i s a n e x am ple o f h ow w e m ig ht s tr u ctu re a s e n te n ce f o rm ally .
I n fo rm al:
“The w aite r d id o ffe r u s a noth er d is h , b ut w hen i t a rriv ed i t w as
c o ld a gain .”
F orm al:
“A lth ough w e w ere o ffe re d a n a lte rn ativ e d is h , w hen i t w as
d eliv ere d t o t h e t a ble i t w as c o ld a gain ” .
N otic e t w o c la u se s i n t h e i n fo rm al v ers io n a re j o in ed b y b ut w here as i n t h e
f o rm al v ers io n, t h e t w o c la u se s h av e b een r e v ers e d a n d b ut i s r e p la ced w ith
a lth ough w hic h s ta rts t h e s e n te n ce. T his i s a m ore f o rm al w ay o f s a y in g t h e
s a m e t h in g.
W ith in t h e f o rm al s e n te n ce “
Alth ough w e w ere o ffe re d a n a lte rn ativ e d is h ,
w hen i t w as d eliv ere d t o t h e t a ble i t w as c o ld a gain ” ,
t h ere a re f u rth er
e x am ple s o f v ocab ula ry t h at i s m ore f o rm al t h an t h e e q uiv ale n t i n t h e
i n fo rm al v ers io n. F or e x am ple ,
alte rn ativ e d is h
is a m ore f o rm al w ay o f
s a y in g
anoth er d is h
.
A s w e s a w a b ove, p hra sa l v erb s a re m ost t y pic al o f i n fo rm al l e tte rs —
a lth ough t h ere a re s o m e w hic h h av e n o m ore f o rm al e q uiv ale n ts a n d a re
c o m mon i n a ll t y pes o f l e tte r (
lo ok f o rw ard t o ,
f o r e x am ple ). M ost p hra sa l
v erb s, h ow ev er, d o h av e f o rm al e q uiv ale n ts a n d t h ese w ould b e p re fe rre d i n
m ost f o rm al l e tte rs w here as t h e f o rm al e q uiv ale n ts w ould b e v ery r a re ly u se d
i n a n i n fo rm al l e tte r.

6 Q uic k R ule s o f F orm al V S I n fo rm al
:
1 . W e t e n d t o u nders ta te o ur f e elin gs a n d w ould s a y
I w as r a th er
d is a ppoin te d
o r
I w as s o m ew hat s u rp ris e d
i n ste ad o f s a y in g h ow w e r e ally
f e lt.
2 . F or t h e s a m e r e aso n, w e d o n ot u se e x cla m atio n m ark s.
3 . W e o fte n u se t h e p assiv e t o e m phasiz e t h e a ctio n w hen t h e p ers o n i s o f l e ss
i m porta n ce
4 . W e a v oid c o ntr a ctio ns i n f o rm al l e tte rs .
5 . W e u se f o rm al e q uiv ale n ce o f i d io m atic l a n guag e a n d p hra sa l v erb s
6 . P artic u la r s e n te n ce s tr u ctu re s c an b e u se d t o c re ate a f o rm al t o ne. I n vers io n
i s o ne e x am ple o f t h is “ A lth ough w e w ere o ffe re d a n a lte rn ativ e d is h , w hen i t
w as d eliv ere d t o t h e t a b le i t w as c o ld a g ain ”.

E xercis e 3
:
R ew rite t h e f o llo w in g s e n te n ces u sin g f o rm al e q uiv ale n ts f o r t h e p hra sa l
v erb s. U se a d ic tio nary i f n ecessa ry . Y ou m ig ht n eed t o m ak e o th er c h an ges
t o t h e s tr u ctu re s.
1 ) I ’m s o c h uffe d t h at y ou’v e b een t a lk ed i n to c o m in g t o t h e m eetin g.
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
2 ) T he f o otb all c lu b’s f a cilitie s h av e b een d one u p, s o t h is s h ould m ak e o ur
p erfo rm an ces b ette r.
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
3 ) A s o ur t o w n i s q uite c u t o ff, p erh ap s w e c o uld a rra n ge f o r y ou t o b e p ut u p
i n a h ote l i n t h e c ity f o r a f e w d ay s.
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
4 ) W e w ill m ak e u p f o r t h e i n co nven ie n ce o f h av in g t o w ait f o r s o l o ng.
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
… ……………………………………………………………………………..

A nsw ers
:
1 ) I a m v ery h appy t h at y o u h ave b een c o nvin ced t o a tte n d t h e m eetin g.
2 ) T he f o otb all c lu b’s f a cilitie s h ave b een r e fu rb is h ed , w hic h s h ould i m pro ve
o ur p erfo rm ances.
3 ) A s o ur t o w n i s q uite i s o la te d , w e c o uld a rra nge h ote l a cco m modatio n i n
t h e c ity f o r a f e w d ays.
4 ) W e w ill c o m pen sa te y o u f o r t h e i n co nven ie n ce o f h avin g t o w ait f o r s o
l o ng.

8 .5 I n fo rm al L ette r
s
T he in fo rm al le tte r is g oin g to b e v ery f rie n dly , v ery r e la x ed , v ery
e asy l a n guag e.
L ET'S S T A RT W IT H A T Y PIC AL T A SK .
A n E nglis h -s p eak in g frie n d is v is itin g y our re g io n fo r a c o uple o f
w eek s d urin g h is h olid ay s a n d h as w ritte n to y ou to a sk f o r s e v era l
r e co m men datio ns.
W rit e a l e tte r t o y ou r f r ie n d.
I n y our l e tte r y ou s h ould :
• o ffe r t o h elp f in d a cco m modatio n
• g iv e a d vic e a b out t h in gs t o d o
• p ro vid e i n fo rm atio n a b out w hat c lo th es t o b rin g..
I n t h is t y p e o f t a sk , y ou s h ou ld b eg in y ou r l e tte r a s f o llo w s:
D ea r … y o ur f r ie n d's n am e.
A f e w t h in gs t o k eep i n m in d.
• Y ou h av e a b out 2 0 m in ute s t o w rite t h is .
• Y ou s h ould h av e a t l e ast 1 50 w ord s. A im f o r a b out 1 80 ( a l ittle b it m ore b ut
d on't g o t o o l o ng- I f y ou'r e o ver 2 40 w ord s, y ou'v e w ritte n m uch m ore t h an
y ou n eed t o .)
• A ddre ss t h e p oin ts , h av e y our o pen in g a n d c lo sin g a n d t h at's i t
!
L et's s ta rt w ith t h e g en era l i d ea o f w hat y ou'r e t r y in g t o d o, w hat y ou'r e t r y in g
t o a cco m plis h .

The t o n e:
‘T he t o ne’ o f t h e l e tte r m ean s h ow y our l e tte r s o unds, o r t h e o vera ll f e elin g i t
giv es t h e r e ad er. I t s h ould b e v ery r e la x ed , v ery i n fo rm al, t h is i s w hat t h e
ex am in ers a re l o okin g f o r.
For e x am ple : i f y ou'r e w ritin g t o y our f rie n d, w rite i t a s t h ough y ou w ere
sp eak in g t o y our f rie n d; v ery c asu al.
You c an s ta rt w ith :
Dea r- H ello - H i
a n d t h en t h e p ers o n´s f ir s t n am e, n ev er t h eir s u rn am e.
You s h ould n´t u se
Mr., M rs., D r..
Do n ot p ut f ir s t a n d l a st n am e b ecau se y ou d o n ot a d dre ss y our f rie n d o r
fa m ily m em ber b y h is o r h er f ir s t a n d l a st n am e i n r e al l if e .
Use c o n tr a ctio n s:
Now c o ntr a ctio ns a re s u ita b le . S o i n t e rm s o f h ow y ou'r e g oin g t o u se I 'v e,
it's , d on't e tc .., I n a f o rm al l e tte r, y ou s a y d o n ot w here as i n a n i n fo rm al l e tte r,
you s a y d on't .
Sla n g a n d i d io m s
Not o nly a re s la n g a n d i d io m s o kay n ow , t h ey 'r e a ctu ally r e co m men ded
becau se t h ey d em onstr a te t h at y ou c an a d ap t y our l a n guag e t o d if fe re n t
co nte x ts . W hen y ou s p eak w ith
your f rie n ds, y ou n orm ally u se v ery c asu al
la n guag e i n clu din g s la n g a n d i d io m s.
Nev erth ele ss, r e m em ber i t h as t o b e n atu ra l, s o d on't b e t o o h eav y o n t h e
sla n g o r t h e i d io m s. O ne o r t w o h ere a n d t h ere a re g re at, b ut i f y ou o veru se
th em , i t b eco m es u nnatu ra l a n d t h e e x am in ers m ay p en alis e y ou f o r i t.
Note t h at y ou c an u se i d io m s i n y our f o rm al l e tte r a s w ell b ut v ery c are fu lly ,
very s e le ctiv ely a n d i t h as t o b e v ery a p pro pria te , s o i t´ s g en era lly n ot
re co m men ded .

Sta y o rg an iz ed a n d f o cu se d :
You s till h av e t o r e m em ber w hat i t i s y ou'r e d oin g a n d m ak e i t v ery c le ar i n
th e l e tte r. A re y ou t h an kin g t h e p ers o n, a re y ou a n sw erin g a q uestio n, a re y ou
ask in g f o r s o m eth in g, a re y ou o ffe rin g a d vic e? M ak e t h is c le ar r ig ht a w ay i n
th e i n tr o ductio n. M ak e s u re t h e b ody f o llo w s.
Lan gu age
Again , y ou d on't w an t t o u se v ery s e rio us l a n guag e i n a n i n fo rm al l e tte r o r
em ail, y ou d on't w an t t o u se t o o m an y f o rm al o r c o m ple x w ord s b ecau se
th at's n ot h ow w e s p eak t o f rie n ds a n d f a m ily n orm ally .
With o ur f rie n ds w e'r e u su ally v ery c asu al a n d r e la x ed .
For e x am ple :
I j u st w ante d t o s a y t h anks f o r h elp in g m e o ut l a st w eek.
In a f o rm al l e tte r, y ou w ould w rite
I'm w ritin g t o e xp re ss m y a ppre cia tio n a nd g ra titu de f o r y o ur a ssis ta nce w ith
la st w eek's m atte r.
.
Notic e t h e d if fe re n t f e el o f t h e t w o s e n te n ces. O ne i s v ery c asu al, o ne i s v ery
fo rm al.
Anoth er e x am ple :
Should y o u r e q uir e a ny f u rth er i n fo rm atio n, p le a se d o n ot h esita te t o c o nta ct
me -
f o rm al.
Vers u s
Let m e k n ow i f y o u n eed a nyth in g e ls e -
s u per c asu al.
To m ak e y our l e tte r l o ok r e al, t h e b est t h in g y ou c an d o i s A LW AYS r e ly o n
your p ers o nal e x perie n ce.

F orm al V S I n fo rm al L an gu age L is t:
I t i s v ita l t h at y ou c an d is tin guis h b etw een f o rm al a n d i n fo rm al l a n guag e i n
E nglis h , n ot o nly f o r t h is e x am , b ut a ls o f o r c o m munic atio n i n g en era l.
W ritin g a l e tte r o r e m ail t o a f rie n d i s o bvio usly n ot t h e s a m e a s w ritin g a
l e tte r o f r e co m men datio n f o r a f rie n d w ho h as a p plie d f o r a j o b. H ere a re
s o m e e x am ple s o f f o rm al a n d i n fo rm al w ord s w ith t h e s a m e m ean in g,
V ER BS:
F O RM AL: I N FO RM AL
t o d ep art: t o g o
t o c arry o ut: t o d o
t o p ro vid e: t o g iv e
t o r e ta in : k eep
t o c ease : s to p
t o s e ek : l o ok f o r
a ssis t, a id : t o h elp
l ib era te : t o f re e
o bta in : t o g et
t o d esir e : w an t
r e q uest: t o a sk f o r
t o f u nctio n: w ork
t o d em onstr a te : s h o
w
t o r e sid e: l iv e
r e q uir e : n eed
O TH ER W ORD S:

FO RM AL: I N FO RM AL
su bse q uen tly : n ex t / l a te r
im matu re , i n fa n tile : c h ild is h
su ffic ie n t: e n ough
fu rth er: m ore ( in fo rm atio n)
hen ce, t h ere fo re : s o
defic ie n cy , l a ck o f: l ittle , t h ere i s n o
pers p ir a tio n: s w eat
in ex pen siv e: c h eap

C HAPT ER
9
I M PO RTA NT
P
HRASA L
V
ER BS
FO R
I E LT S
W hat i s a p hra sa l v erb ?
P hra sa l v erb s a re a g ro up o f t w o o r m ore w ord s w hic h p erfo rm t h e s a m e
f u nctio n a s a n oth er v erb . A p hra sa l v erb i s a p hra se t h at i s m ad e u p o f a m ain
v erb a n d a n a d verb , a p re p ositio n o r b oth . T hey a re i d io m atic w ay s o f
e x pre ssin g a n a ctio n. T hin k o f i t l ik e a s a n dw ic h :
[ M ain V erb ] + a d verb /p re p ositio n/a d verb a n d p re p ositio n = p hra sa l v erb
P hra sa l v erb s a re u niq ue t o E nglis h a n d o th er G erm an ic l a n guag es a n d c an
c au se i s su es f o r E nglis h l e arn ers . T hey c an b e t r a n sitiv e ( th ey t a k e a d ir e ct
o bje ct) , i n tr a n sitiv e ( th ey d o n ot t a k e a d ir e ct o bje ct) , s e p ara b le ( th ey c an b e
s e p ara te d ) a n d i n se p ara b le ( th ey c an not b e s e p ara te d ). W e w ill c o ver t h e
d if fe re n ces b etw een t h ese , c o m ple te w ith d esc rip tio ns a n d e x erc is e s, l a te r o n.
A lth ough t h e m ean in gs d if fe r, p hra sa l v erb s a re c o nju gate d j u st l ik e m ain
v erb s. F or e x am ple , t o b re ak d ow n c o nju gate s l ik e t o b re ak
:
T he c a r b re a ks d ow n.
T he c a r b ro ke d ow n.
H ere a re s o m e c o m mon p hra sa l v erb s t o g et y ou s ta rte d :
P hra sa l V erb
brin g u p
E xam ple
He b ro ught u p t h e f a ct t h at I w as t o o s h ort t o g o o n t h e
r o lle rc o aste r.
M ean in g: t o m en tio n a t o pic
P hra sa l V erb
call o ff

Exam ple
She c a lle d o ff t h e w ed din g.
Mean in g: t o c an cel
Phra sa l V erb
carry o n
Exam ple
The b ag w as h ea vy a nd m y f e et h urt, b ut I c a rrie d o n w ith t h e
walk .
Mean in g: t o c o ntin ue
Phra sa l V erb
deal w ith
Exam ple
I c a n’t d ea l w ith s tr e ss.
Mean in g: t o h an dl
e
Phra sa l V erb
en d u p
Exam ple
They e n ded u p i n S heffie ld .
Mean in g: t o r e ach a s ta te o r p la ce
Phra sa l V erb
fa ll t h ro ugh
Exam ple
Our p la ns t o m eet f o r c o ffe e f e ll t h ro ugh.
Mean in g: t o n ot h ap pen
Phra sa l V erb
get o n w ith ( s o m eth in g)
Exam ple
She w as b usy , s o I g ot o n w ith m y e ssa y.
Mean in g: t o c o ntin ue t o d o
Phra sa l V erb
han d i n
Exam ple
I h anded i n m y t h esis .
Mean in g: t o s u bm it
Phra sa l V erb
jo in i n

Exam ple
She j o in ed i n t h e c o nversa tio n a t t h e p arty .
Mean in g: t o p artic ip at
e
Phra sa l V erb
keep u p w ith
Exam ple
My b oss t a lk s t o o f a st a nd I c a n’t k eep u p.
Mean in g: t o s ta y a t t h e s a m e p ace o r l e v el.
Phra sa l V erb
le t d ow n
Exam ple
She w as s u ppose d t o c o lle ct m e a t 6 :0 0 b ut s h e d id n’t. S he r e a lly l e t
me d ow n.
Mean in g: t o d is a p poin t
Phra sa l V erb
lo ok f o rw ard t o
Exam ple
Are y o u l o okin g f o rw ard t o y o ur h olid ay?
Mean in g: t o b e e x cite d a b out s o m eth in g, t o a n tic ip ate s o m eth in g g ood.
Phra sa l V erb
mix u p
Exam ple
I c a n’t t e ll t h e t w in s a part; I a lw ays m ix u p t h eir
nam es.
Mean in g: t o m is ta k e o ne t h in g f o r a n oth er
Phra sa l V erb
pass a w a
y
Exam ple
My g ra ndfa th er p asse d a w ay l a st n ig ht.
Mean in g: t o d ie
Phra sa l V erb
put o ff
Exam ple
I k ep t p uttin g i t o ff, e ven t h ough I k n ew I h ad t o d o i t
Mean in g: t o p ostp one

Phra sa l V erb
ru le o ut
Exam ple
We k n ow i t w asn ’t J o hn w ho a te S ara h’s p asta , s o w e c a n r u le h im
out
Mean in g: t o e lim in ate
Phra sa l V erb
stic k u p f o r ( s o m eo ne)
Exam ple
Cath erin e w as a lw ays g ettin g b ullie d , s o A le x s tu ck u p f o r
her.
Mean in g: t o d efe n d
Phra sa l V erb
th in k o ver
Exam ple
Ja nin e t o ld R oger t h at s h e w ould h ave t o t h in k o ver h is
pro posa l.
Mean in g: t o c o nsid e
r
Phra sa l V erb
work o ut
Exam ple
1. I t’ s i m porta nt f o r y o ur f itn ess t h at y o u w ork o ut t h re e t im es a w eek.
2. T he M ath s p ro ble m w as d iffic u lt b ut I e ven tu ally w ork ed i t o ut.
Mean in g:
1. t o d o p hysic al e x erc is e
2. t o s o lv e a p ro ble m

D o p hra sa l v erb s m ak e a n y s e n se ?
I f y ou a n aly ze t h em l o gic ally , n o.. H ow ev er, l e t´ s t r y t o f in d s o m e l o gic … .
T he m ean in gs o f p hra sa l v erb s a re n ot i m med ia te ly o bvio us, f o r e x am ple :
T om b ro ke u p w ith J en ny.
T om s e p ara te d f r o m J en ny.
W e k now t h at T om d id n ot b re ak J e n ny i n to s m all p ie ces, h e s to pped b ein g
h er b oyfrie n d. T his i s a n e x am ple o f a p hra sa l v erb n ot b ein g d ir e ctly l in ked
t o t h e m ean in g o f i ts m ain v erb .
H ow ev er, s o m etim es w ith p hra sa l v erb s w e c an w ork b ack w ard s t o
u nders ta n d t h e l o gic o f t h em . B re ak in g s o m eth in g d oes n ot h av e t o b e
c o m ple te ly p hysic al, i t c an a ls o b e f ig ura tiv e. T he i d ea i s t h at y ou a re
b re ak in g a b ond b etw een s o m eo ne. B ecau se o f t h is m ean in g, w e c an a ls o u se
t o b re ak u p t o m ean :
- S ep ara te p eo ple f ro m f ig htin g: I h ad t o b re ak u p a f ig ht.
- A p oor c o nnectio n: I t r ie d t o c all h er b ut t h e l in e k ep t b re ak in g u p
.
A t f ir s t g la n ce, y ou m ay n ot s e e a l in k b etw een t o b re ak a n d t o b re ak u p, b ut
w hen y ou w ork b ack w ard s a n d t h in k f ig ura tiv ely , t h e m ean in g b eco m es
c le are r.
H ow w ill I l e a rn t h em ?
A s w ith a n y i te m o f v ocab ula ry , y ou w ill h av e t o l e arn t h em i n div id ually .
T he m ore E nglis h m ed ia t h at y ou c o nsu m e, t h e m ore p hra sa l v erb s y ou w ill
l e arn .
T A SK 1
T ry t o m atc h t h e p hra sa l v erb s b elo w w it h t h eir s y n on ym s:

Phra sa l V erb

Exa m ple
a. t h ro w a w ay

Jo hn t h re w a w ay h is a pple c o re .

b. l o ok i n to
Sara h l o oked i n to t h e m urd er c a se .
c. g et a w ay w it h

The r o bber g ot a w ay w ith t h e c rim e.
d. u se u p
Use u p t h e w ash in g-u p l iq uid b efo re y o u b uy a noth er
bottle !

e. r u n o u t o f
My p hone r a n o ut o f b atte ry .

Mea n in gs
:
1. u se c o m ple te ly
2. e x hau st s u pply
3. i n vestig ate
4. d is c ard
5. e sc ap e b la m e
Check y ou r a n sw ers a t t h e b otto m o f t h e n ex t p age.
When c a n I u se P hra sa l V erb s?
Phra sa l v erb s a re u se d i n n on-fo rm al s itu atio ns. Y ou w ill h ear t h em u se d i n
sp eech o n a d aily b asis , i n e m ails b etw een f rie n ds, a n d i n s o m e m ag azin es.
They a re b eco m in g m ore a n d m ore p re v ale n t, b ut t h ere a re c erta in s itu atio ns
where y ou s h ould a v oid u sin g t h em :
- F orm al l e tte rs o r e m ails .
- A cad em ic p ap ers o r p re se n ta tio ns.

T A SK 2 :
I n t h e f o llo w in g e m ail, u nderlin e a ll t h e p hra sa l v erb s t h at y ou c a n f in d
a n d w rit e t h eir m ea n in gs b elo w . Y ou m ay n eed t o u se a d ic tio n ary .
H i J a ck ,
I ’m s o rry t h at I w as l a te t o w ork t o day . M y c ar b ro ke d ow n y este rd ay , s o I
t o ok t h e b us i n ste ad . H ow ev er, t h e b us w as h eld u p i n t r a ffic ! I t s e em s t h at
e v ery one w as g oin g t o w ork a t t h e s a m e t im e!
D on’t w orry a b out t h e p ro je ct, I ’ll b e a b le t o c atc h u p w ith t h e r e st o f m y
c o lle ag ues. I ’ll d ro p b y t h e o ffic e o n t h e w eek en d a n d s e e i f t h ere i s a n yth in g
e x tr a t h at I c an d o.
I h ope y ou’v e g ot o ver y our c o ld , I h ear i t’ s b een g oin g r o und t h e o ffic e
r e cen tly .
B est w is h es,
G ary

( 1 )
/
( 2 )
/
( 3 )
/
( 4 )
/
( 5 )
/
( 6 )
/

A NSW ER S
T ask 1 :
a )
4
b )
3
c )
5
d )
1
e )
2
T ask 2 :
( 1 )
bre a k d ow n / t o s to p w ork in g
( 2 )
hold u p / t o d ela y ( to b e h eld u p- t o b e d ela yed )
( 3 )
ca tc h u p / t o d o t a sk s
( 4 )
dro p b y / v is it b rie fly
( 5 )
get o ver / t o r e co ver f r o m a n i lln ess
( 6 )
go r o und / t o a ffe ct a l o t o f p eo ple

C HAPT ER
1 0
T YPE S
OF
P
HRASA L
V
ER B
T here a re 4 t y pes o f p hra sa l v erb :
T ra n sit iv e p hra sa l v erb s
I n tr a n sit iv e p hra sa l v erb s
S ep ara b le p hra sa l v erb s
I n se p ara b le p hra sa l v erb s
T ra n sit iv e a n d I n tr a n sit iv e P hra sa l V erb s
T here a re t w o t y pes o f v erb s i n E nglis h : T ra n sitiv e a n d I n tr a n sitiv e.
T ra n sitiv e v erb s t a k e a d ir e ct o bje ct, w here as i n tr a n sitiv e v erb s d o n ot.
T ra n sit iv e p hra sa l v erb s
T hese p hra sa l v erb s t a k e a d ir e ct o bje ct:
I l o ok a fte r m y s is te r o n M ondays
I lo ok a fte r
+ my s is te r
on M ondays
[p hra sa l v erb ]
+ [d ir e ct o bje ct
]
I n tr a n sit iv e p hra sa l v erb s
T hese p hra sa l v erb s d o n ot t a k e a d ir e ct o bje ct:
W hen I g ro w u p, I w ant t o b e a f ir e fig hte r.
W hen
I gro w u p
I w ant t o b e a f ir e fig hte r
[p hra sa l v erb ]
T ask 1

Look a t t h e p hra sa l v erb s b elo w i n t h e t a b le w it h t h eir e x am ple s. D ecid e
wheth er t h ey a re t r a n sit iv e o r i n tr a n sit iv e.
( Y ou c an f in d t h e a n sw ers a t
th e e n d o f t h is s e ctio n).
Phra sa l V erb : E xam ple
1.
Tak e o u t

Ple a se t a ke o ut t h e b in s b efo re y o u l e a ve.
2.
Cheer u p

I n eed t o c h eer u p m y s is te r b eca use s h e’s c ry in g.
3.
Com e b ack

I’m w aitin g f o r m y m oth er t o c o m e b ack f r o m t h e s h ops.
4.
Go t h ro u gh

I w en t t h ro ugh m y f a th er’s b ottle o f c o lo gne.
5.
Get u p

I g et u p e very m orn in g a t 6 am .
6.
Get b y

I t w as a d iffic u lt y ea r a nd M rs C allo w ay l o st h er j o b, b ut t h ey
got b y.
7.
Pass o u t

She p asse d o ut b eca use o f t h e a m ount o f p ain s h e w as s u ffe rin g
fr o m .
8.
Get a lo n g w it h

He g ets a lo ng w ith m ost p eo ple .
Task 2
Rea d t h e f o llo w in g s e n te n ces. T hey a re a ll t r a n sit iv e. U nderlin e t h e
tr a n sit iv e v erb s a n d h ig h lig h t t h e d ir ect o b je ct.
1. H e i s s o c re ativ e; h e m ad e u p a s to ry f o r h is d au ghte r a n d h er f rie n ds.
2. I h av e t o f ill o ut t h is f o rm s o I c an g o t o u niv ers ity .
3. C an y ou h elp m e h an g u p t h is p ic tu re ?
4. T here w as a p ro ble m w ith h is e ssa y ; h e h ad l e ft o ut a c o nclu sio n.
5. T he o ld f rie n ds r a n i n to e ach o th er o n t h e s tr e et.
6. I d on’t l ik e h ow s h e l o oks d ow n o n e v ery one.
7. W e t r ie d o n t h e c o stu m es b ut w e l o oked a w fu l i n t h em !

8. S he t a k es a fte r h er g ra n dm oth er.
9. M y m oth er s a y s I h av e t o g et r id o f m y o ld t o ys.
10. I c an ’t h ear a n yth in g - p le ase t u rn u p t h e v olu m e
!
You c an f in d t h e a n sw ers a t t h e e n d o f t h is s e ctio n.
Sep ara b le a n d I n se p ara b le P hra sa l V erb s
As p hra sa l v erb s c o nsis t o f a m ain v erb , a n a d verb o r p re p ositio n o r b oth ,
th ese v erb s c an s o m etim es b e s e p ara te d . O nly t r a n sitiv e v erb s ( w hic h t a k e a
dir e ct o bje ct) c an b e s e p ara te d .
Sep ara b le p hra sa l v erb s
These p hra sa l v erb s, a s t h e n am e s u ggests , c an b e s e p ara te d :
Turn o ff t h e l ig ht b efo re y o u l e a ve.
Turn t h e l ig ht o ff b efo re y o u l e a ve.
Only t r a n sit iv e p hra sa l v erb s ( w hic h t a k e a d ir ect o b je ct) c a n b e
se p ara te d . H ow ev er, i t i s i m porta n t t o r em em ber:
All s e p ara b le p hra sa l v erb s a re t r a n sit iv e, b ut n ot a ll t r a n sit iv e p hra sa l
verb s a re s e p ara b le .
Turn o ff
+ th e l ig ht
befo re y o u l e a ve.
[P hra sa l v erb ]
+ [d ir e ct o bje ct]
Turn
+
th e l ig ht
+ o ff b efo re y o u l e a ve.
[P V p art 1 ]
+ [d ir e ct o bje ct]
+ [ P V p art 2
]
In se p ara b le p hra sa l v erb s
These p hra sa l v erb s, a s t h e n am e s u ggests , c an ’t b e s e p ara te d :

He p asse d a w ay l a st n ig ht.
He
passe d a w ay
la st n ig ht
[in se p ara b le v erb s]
They c an not b e s e p ara te d d ue t o t h e f a ct t h at t h ere i s n o d ir e ct o bje ct. T he
phra se
‘la st n ig ht’
i s a n a d verb .
Word O rd er
When s e p ara tin g p hra sa l v erb s, t h ere i s a w ord o rd er t h at m ust b e a d here d t o :
When r e fe rrin g t o a s p ecif ic o bje ct o r p ers o n, t h e o bje ct c an g o b etw een t h e
phra sa l v erb o r a fte r t h e p hra sa l v erb :
I p ic ked u p S ophie f r o m s c h ool.
I p ic ked S ophie u p f r o m s c h ool.
When u sin g a p ro noun a s t h e d ir e ct o bje ct, t h e p ro noun c an o nly g o b etw een
th e p hra sa l v erb :
I p ic ked h er u p f r o m s c h ool
.
Task 3
The f o llo w in g p hra se s a re s e p ara b le p hra sa l v erb s.
Writ e o u t t h e d if fe ren t
ways t o s e p ara te t h e p hra sa l v erb u sin g c o rrect w ord o rd er.
Exam ple :
I h ung u p t h e p ic tu re o n t h e w all.
I h ung t h e p ic tu re u p o n t h e w all.
I h ung i t u p o n t h e w all.
1. S he p ut o ut t h e f ir e .

…………………………………………………………………………………………
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2.
I c alle d o ff t h e p arty .
…………………………………………………………………………………………
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3.
Osc ar a sk ed o ut S am an th a.
…………………………………………………………………………………………
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4.
They h an ded i n t h eir e ssa y s o n t im e.
…………………………………………………………………………………………
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5.
I l ik e s h ow in g o ff m y n ew b oots .

…………………………………………………………………………………………
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6.
Turn o ff t h e w ash in g m ach in e!
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7.
I h av e t o d ro p o ff m y s is te r a t a p arty .
…………………………………………………………………………………………
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8.
She w on’t g iv e u p h er l o ve o f s in gin g.
…………………………………………………………………………………………
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9.
Put o n y our h at.

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10.
I m ad e u p a l ie .
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You c an f in d t h e a n sw ers a t t h e e n d o f t h is s e ctio n.

A nsw ers:
T ask 1
1 .
Tra nsitiv e
2 .
Tra nsitiv e
3 .
In tr a nsitiv e
4 .
Tra nsitiv e
5 .
In tr a nsitiv e
6 .
In tr a nsitiv e
7 .
In tr a nsitiv e
8 .
Tra nsitiv e
T ask 2
1 .
He i s s o c re a tiv e; h e m ade u p a s to ry f o r h is d aughte r a nd h er f r ie n ds.
2 .
I h ave t o f ill o ut t h is f o rm s o I c a n g o t o u niv ersity .
3 .
Can y o u h elp m e h ang u p t h is p ic tu re ?
4 .
There w as a p ro ble m w ith h is e ssa y; h e h ad l e ft o ut a c o nclu sio n.
5 .
The o ld f r ie n ds r a n i n to e a ch o th er o n t h e s tr e et.
6 .
I d on’t l ik e h ow s h e l o oks d ow n o n e very o ne.
7 .
We t r ie d o n t h e c o stu m es b ut w e l o oked a w fu l i n t h em !
8 .
She t a kes a fte r h er g ra ndm oth er.
9 .
My m oth er s a ys I h ave t o g et r id o f m y o ld t o ys.
1 0.
I c a n’t h ea r a nyth in g - p le a se t u rn u p t h e v o lu m e!

Task 3
1.
She p ut o ut t h e f ir e .
She p ut t h e f ir e o ut.
She p ut i t o ut.
2.
I c a lle d o ff t h e p arty .
I c a lle d t h e p arty o ff.
I c a lle d i t o ff.
3.
Osc a r a sk ed o ut S am anth a.
Osc a r a sk ed S am anth a o ut.
Osc a r a sk ed h er o ut.
4.
They h anded i n t h eir e ssa ys o n t im e
.
They h anded t h eir e ssa ys i n o n t im e.
They h anded t h em i n o n t im e.
5.
I l ik e s h ow in g o ff m y n ew b oots .
I l ik e s h ow in g m y n ew b oots o ff.
I l ik e s h ow in g t h em o ff.
6.
Turn o ff t h e w ash in g m ach in e!
Turn t h e w ash in g m ach in e o ff!
Turn i t o ff!
7.
I h ave t o d ro p o ff m y s is te r a t a p arty .
I h ave t o d ro p m y s is te r o ff a t a p arty .

I h ave t o d ro p h er o ff a t a p arty .
8.
She w on’t g iv e u p h er l o ve o f s in gin g.
She w on’t g iv e h er l o ve o f s in gin g u p.
She w on’t g iv e i t u p.
9.
Put o n y o ur h at
.
Put y o ur h at o n.
Put i t o n.
10.
I m ade u p a l ie .
I m ade a l ie u p.
I m ade i t u p.

C HAPT ER
1 1
T YPE S
OF
P
HRASA L
V
ER BS
( P
ART
2 )
P hra sa l v erb s c an b e f ru str a tin g t o l e arn . T hey o fte n b ear l ittle r e se m bla n ce t o
t h e m ain v erb a n d t h ere a re s o m an y t o l e arn w ith d if fe re n t m ean in gs.
T he b est w ay t o l e arn t h ese i s t o l e arn ‘ c lu ste rs ’ o f p hra sa l v erb s.
F or e x am ple , t h e v erb ‘ ta k e’:
I f y ou l o ok i n a l a rg e d ic tio nary , y ou w ill b e a b le t o s e e t h e v ario us p hra sa l
v erb s u nder t h e m ain v erb . I t i s a g ood i d ea t o l e arn t h ese i n g ro ups
.
T ask 1
M atc h t h e p hra sa l v erb s ( 1 -6 ) w it h t h eir m ea n in gs ( a -f).

Phra sa l V erb s w ith
“ Put

Mean in gs:
a. T ole ra te
b. R etu rn t o i ts r ig htf u l p la ce
c. A llo w s o m eo ne t o s ta y f o r t h e n ig ht
d. S av e s o m eth in g f o r l a te r
e. P ostp one, d ela y
f. W ear s o m eth in g
1. P ut a w ay -
T ra n sitiv e, s e p ara b le .
Exam ple :
I p ut a w ay a l ittle m oney e a ch
month f o r m y s a vin gs.
Mean in g:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. P ut o ff -
T ra n sitiv e, s e p ara b le .
Exam ple :
I k eep p uttin g o ff m y h om ew ork
beca use t h ere a re m ore f u n t h in gs t o d o!
Mean in g:
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. P ut o n -
T ra n sitiv e, s e p ara b le .
Exam ple :
It’ s c o ld o uts id e s o I s u ggest y o u
put o n y o ur j a cket.
Mean in g:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. P ut u p-
T ra n sitiv e, s e p ara b le .
Exam ple :
My a unt a nd u ncle a re c o m in g t o
London s o I ’m p uttin g t h em u p f o r t h e n ig ht.
Mean in g:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. P ut u p w it h -
T ra n sitiv e, i n se p ara b le .
Exam ple :
I c a nnot p ut u p w ith t h is
nonse n se a ny l o nger!
Mean in g:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. P ut b ack -
T ra n sitiv e, i n se p ara b le .
Exam ple :
I ’m n ot b uyin g y o u t h at t o y
so p ut i t b ack.
Mean in g:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
You c an f in d t h e a n sw ers a t t h e e n d o f t h is s e ctio n
.
Task 2
MORE P H RASA L V ER BS W IT H “ P U T”:
a. I ´m p re p are d t o
pu t u p w ith
i t f o r t h e t im e b ein g.
b. T he W orld W ild life F und
pu t o u t
a p re ss r e le a se .
c. D on´t
pu t o ff
u ntil t o m orro w w hat c a n b e d one t o day.
d. A fte r m y d og w as
pu t d ow n
, I c rie d f o r d ays.
e. H e b eg an t o
pu t a w ay
a ll t h e t o ys h e h ad t a ken o ut t o p la y w ith .
f. T he T ra de U nio n c o uncil
pu t f o rw ard
a p la n f o r n atio nal r e co very .
g. M y s e lf- c o nfid en ce h as b een u nderm in ed b eca use m y m oth er i s a lw ays
pu ttin g m e d ow n
.
h. I ´v e g ot n ow here t o s le ep ! C ould a nyb ody
pu t m e u p
?
Matc h t h e p hra sa l v erb s w it h t h eir m ea n in gs. P ut
on e o r t w o w ord s
i n
ea ch g ap :
1. I f y ou p ut s o m eth in g _ _____, y ou p ostp one i t u ntil a l a te r t im e.
2. I f y ou p ut s o m eth in g _ _____, y ou r e p la ce i t s o m ew here t id ily .

3. I f y ou p ut a n a n im al _ ______, y ou k ill i t b ecau se i t i s t o o o ld o r i t i s i n t o o
much p ain
.
4. I f y ou p ut s o m eo ne _ ______, y ou g iv e t h em a b ed f o r a n ig ht o r t w o.
5. I f y ou p ut _ ______ s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g, y ou t o le ra te o r a ccep t t h em ,
ev en t h ough t h at p ers o n o r t h in g i s d is a g re eab le .
6. I f y ou p ut s o m eo ne _ _____, y ou c ritic iz e o r h um ilia te t h em .
7. I f y ou p ut _ _____an i d ea o r a p ro posa l, y ou s ta te o r p ublis h i t s o p eo ple
can c o nsid er a n d d is c u ss i t.
8. I f a s ta te m en t i s p ut _ _____ t o p eo ple , i t i s o ffic ia lly t o ld t o t h em .
Put a p hra sa l v erb i n e a ch g ap ( !!!! W atc h t h e t e n se )
1. I l e ft m y g ir lf rie n d b ecau se s h e´s a lw ay s _ _______.
2. I _ ________ h er m oods i f I w ere y ou.
3. I f t h ey _ _________ f o r t h e n ig ht, I w ould h av e h ad t o s le ep i n t h e s tr e et.
4. C lin to n h as _ _________ a p re ss r e le ase w hic h c o ntr a d ic ts h is p re v io us
sta te m en ts .
5. Y ou n eed n´t _ _________ t h e m eetin g: e v ery body c o uld h av e m ad e i t i n
th e e n d.
6. E very d ay , t h e g overn m en t _ ______ a n ew p la n t o t a ck le u nem plo ym en t.
7. I f t h ey f in d s tr a y d ogs i n t h e s tr e ets , t h e p oor a n im als _ _______
.
8. A s a c h ild , I c o uld n ev er g et u se d t o _ _______ m y t h in gs _ _______ a fte r I
had u se d t h em .
Task 3
In t h is c o n versa tio n b etw een t w o f r ie n ds ( J im a n d S ash a), u nderlin e t h e
phra sa l v erb s a n d w rit e t h eir m ea n in gs b elo w . Y ou m ay n eed t o u se a
dic tio n ary .

Jim :
I m ea nt t o c a ll i n o n m y g ra nddad t o day, b ut h e p asse d a w ay l a st n ig ht.
Sash a:
O h, I ’m s o rry J im . W ere y o u l o okin g a fte r h im ?
Jim :
N o, m y g ra ndm a w as. I t h in k s h e l ik ed t a kin g c a re o f h im .
Sash a:
A re y o u g oin g t o g o o ver l a te r, t o s e e h ow s h e i s ?
Jim :
Y es, I ’ll v is it h er l a te r. S he’s w ith m y p are n ts a t t h e m om en t. I ’ll h ave t o
fin d o ut w hat t h e p la n i s .
Sash a:
W hy d on’t y o u c o m e o ver t o m y p la ce? W e c a n o rd er p iz za , o r i f
yo u’d p re fe r, w e c a n e a t o ut.
Jim :
S ure , t h at’ s a g ood i d ea . I ’m l o okin g f o rw ard t o i t.
1… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
You c an f in d t h e a n sw ers a t t h e e n d o f t h is s e ctio n.

T hre e-W ord P hra sa l V erb s
W e h av e a lr e ad y d is c u sse d f o ur t y pes o f p hra sa l v erb s:
tr a n sit iv e,
i n tr a n sit iv e, s e p ara b le a n d i n se p ara b le
. M ost o f t h e p hra sa l v erb s w hic h
w e h av e s tu die d i n t h ese s e ctio ns h av e b een t w o p art: t h ey a re m ad e u p o f a
m ain v erb a n d a p re p ositio n o r a n a d verb . H ow ev er, t h ere a re p hra sa l v erb s
w ith t w o p artic le s. T hese a re c alle d
th ree-w ord p hra sa l v erb s.
T hree-w ord P hra sa l V erb s
T hese a re
alw ays t r a n sit iv e
d ue t o t h e f a ct t h at t h ey r e q uir e a d ir e ct o bje ct
a n d t h ey a re
on ly i n se p ara b le .
W e h av e a lr e ad y s e en a f e w t h re e-w ord p hra sa l v erb s, b ut b elo w a re s o m e
a d ditio nal o nes f o r y ou t o l e arn :

T ask 4 :
T he p ara gra p h b elo w d oes n ot u se p hra sa l v erb s. U sin g t h e t h ree-w ord
p hra sa l v erb s f r o m t h e t a b le a b ove, r ew rit e t h e s to ry .
T hree-w ord p hra sa l v erb s f r o m t h e t a b le :
Com e u p w ith ,
g et a lo n g w ith , t a lk b ack t o , g et a w ay f r o m , w alk o u t o n
I h av e n ev er h ad a g ood r e la tio nsh ip w ith m y s is te r. S he a lw ay s a n sw ers
i m polite ly t o o ur p are n ts . L ast s u m mer I g re w s ic k o f i t. I n eed ed t o t a k e a
b re ak f ro m h er, o r I w ould g o c ra zy ! I t h ought o f a p la n t h at w ould h elp . I
d ecid ed t o a b an don m y f a m ily o nce a n d f o r a ll…
Y ou c an f in d t h e a n sw ers a t t h e e n d o f t h is s e ctio n.
… ………………………………………………………………………………………
… ………………………………………………………………………………………
… ………………………………………………………………………………………
… ………………………………………………………………………………………
… ………………………………………………………………………………………
… ………………………………………………………………………………………
… ………………………………………………………………………………………
… ………………………………………………………………………………………
… ……………………………………………………………………………………
T ask 5

Usin g t h e t h ree-w ord p hra sa l v erb s i n t h e t a b le a b ove ( lis te d w it h t h eir
defin it io n s), w rit e t h e m is sin g p hra sa l v erb s i n t h e s e n te n ces b elo w .
Three-w ord p hra sa l v erb s:
Thin k b ack o n
Look u p t o
Cut d ow n o n
Look o u t f o r
Make s u re o f
1.
I a m p uttin g o n w eig ht, I n eed t o _ ____________________________
my c h oco la te e atin g!
2.
She _ ____________________________ h er o ld er b ro th er.
3.
- D o y ou w an t t o g o o n a w alk i n t h e c o untr y sid e t o day ?
- S ure , b ut w e’ll h av e t o _ ____________________________
ra ttle sn ak es!
4.
_____________________________ t h e s itu atio n b efo re y ou a ct.
5.
When I _ ____________________________ o ur m arria g e, I r e m em ber

all t h e g ood p arts .
You c an f in d t h e a n sw ers a t t h e e n d o f t h is s e ctio n.

A nsw ers:
T ask 1
1 . d
2 . e
3 . f
4 . c
5 . a
6 . b
T ask 2
1 . I f y o u p ut s o m eth in g o ff, y o u p ostp one i t u ntil a l a te r t im e.
2 . I f y o u p ut s o m eth in g a w ay, y o u p la ce i t s o m ew here t id ily .
3 . I f y o u p ut a n a nim al d ow n, y o u k ill i t b eca use i t i s t o o o ld o r i t i s i n t o o
m uch p ain .
4 . I f y o u p ut s o m eo ne u p, y o u g iv e t h em a b ed f o r a n ig ht o r t w o.
5 . I f y o u p ut u p w ith s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g, y o u t o le ra te o r a ccep t t h em , e ven
t h ough t h at p erso n o r t h in g i s a nnoyin g o r u nple a sa nt.
6 . I f y o u p ut s o m eo ne d ow n, y o u c ritic iz e o r h um ilia te t h em .
7 . I f y o u p ut f o rw ard a n i d ea o r a p ro posa l, y o u s ta te o r p ublis h i t s o p eo ple
c a n c o nsid er a nd d is c u ss i t
.
8 . I f a s ta te m en t i s p ut o ut t o p eo ple , i t i s o ffic ia lly t o ld t o t h em .
P ut a p hra sa l v erb i n e a ch g ap ( W atc h t h e t e n se )
1 . I l e ft m y g ir lfr ie n d b eca use s h e´s a lw ays p uttin g m e d ow n.
2 . I w ould n`t p ut u p w ith h er m oods i f I w ere y o u.
3 . I f t h ey h adn`t p ut m e u p f o r t h e n ig ht, I w ould h ave h ad t o s le ep i n t h e

str e et.
4. C lin to n h as p ut o ut a p re ss r e le a se w hic h c o ntr a dic ts h is p re vio us
sta te m en ts .
5. Y ou n eed n´t h ave p ut o ff t h e m eetin g: e very b ody c o uld h ave m ade i t i n t h e
en d.
6. E very d ay, t h e g overn m en t p uts f o rw ard a n ew p la n t o t a ckle
unem plo ym en t.
7. I f t h ey f in d s tr a y d ogs i n t h e s tr e ets , t h e p oor a nim als a re p ut d ow n.
8. A s a c h ild , I c o uld n ever g et u se d t o p uttin g m y t h in gs a w ay a fte r I h ad
use d t h em .
Task 3
1. c a ll i n o n - v is it
2. p asse d a w ay - d ie
d
3. l o okin g a fte r - c a re f o r
4. t a kin g c a re o f - c a re f o r
5. g o o ver - v is it
6. f in d o ut - d is c o ver
7. c o m e o ver - v is it ( th e p erso n b ein g v is ite d u se s t h is )
8. e a t o ut - e a t a t a r e sta ura nt i n ste a d o f h om e
9. l o okin g f o rw ard t o - a ntic ip ate w ith p le a su re
Task 4
I h ave n ever g otte n a lo ng w ith m y s is te r. S he a lw ays t a lk s b ack t o o ur
pare n ts . L ast s u m mer I g re w s ic k o f i t. I n eed ed t o t a ke a b re a k f r o m h er, o r I

would g o c ra zy ! I t h ought o f a p la n t h at w ould h elp . I d ecid ed t o a bandon m y
fa m ily o nce a nd f o r a ll…
Task 5
1.
I a m p uttin g o n w eig ht, I n eed t o c u t d ow n o n m y c h oco la te e a tin g!
2.
She l o oks u p t o h er o ld er b ro th er.
3.
- D o y o u w ant t o g o o n a w alk i n t h e c o untr y sid e t o day?
- S ure , b ut w e’ll h ave t o l o ok o ut f o r r a ttle sn akes!
4.
Make s u re o f t h e s itu atio n b efo re y o u a ct.
5.
When I t h in k b ack o n o ur m arria ge, I r e m em ber a ll t h e g ood p arts .

C HAPT ER
1 2
S ocia lis in g
E XER CIS E
1
M atc h t h e p hra sa l v erb s w ith t h e d efin itio ns. Y ou m ay n eed t o u se a
d ic tio nary .
1 . f a ll o ut
2 . b um p i n to
3 . h it i t o ff
4 . a sk s o m eo ne o ut
5 . t u rn u p
6 . h an g o u
t
l ik e s o m eo ne w hen y ou f ir s t m eet

quarre l o r f ig ht ( w ith s o m eo ne)
arriv e t o o r a tte n d a n e v en t
meet ( s o m eo ne) b y c h an ce
in vite s o m eo ne t o a p la ce w ith r o m an tic i n te n tio ns.
sp en d a l o t o f t im e w ith s o m eo ne
E XER CIS E
2
C HOOSE
TH E
CO RREC T
PH RA SA L
VER BS
TO
CO M PL ETE
TH E
PA RA GRA PH
. W
RIT E
TH E
WORD S
IN
TH E
BLA NKS
.
The o th er d ay I ( 1 ) a sk ed o ut / b um ped i n to a n o ld f rie n d o f m in e, J o e
Burto n, w hile I w as a t t h e s u perm ark et. I h ad n’t s e en h im f o r a g es. I w an te d
to ( 2 ) c atc h u p / h it i t o ff w ith h im , s o I s u ggeste d g oin g f o r a b eer.
Unfo rtu nate ly , J o e w as v ery b usy , s o h e d id n’t h av e t im e f o r a b eer.
‘L et’ s ( 3 )
ch at y o u u p / m eet u p l a te r i n t h e w eek’
, I s a id . J o e l o oked i n h is p hone a n d
sa id ,
‘ w hy d on’t w e ( 4 ) f it i n / g et t o geth er f o r l u nch a t 1 2.3 0 o n W ed nesd ay
at t h e R ed L io n p ub?
’.
It´ s n ot a v ery f o rm al p la ce, s o I d id n’t n eed t o ( 5 ) d re ss u p / h an g o ut f o r t h e
occasio n. I g ot t o t h e p ub a b out 1 5 m in ute s l a te , s o I w as s lig htly s tr e sse d . B y
th e t im e J o e ( 6 ) f e ll o ut / t u rn ed u p I ´d f in is h ed m y s e co nd b eer a n d I w as
sta rv in g. H e w as a lm ost a n h our l a te !

E xerc is e
3
U se t h e o th er p hra sa l v erb s f ro m t h e p re v io us a ctiv ity t o c o m ple te t h e
p ara g ra p h.
A sk o ut/ h it i t o ff/c h at u p/fit i n /h and o ut/fa ll o ut
I r e m em ber h ow I m et m y g ir lf rie n d. I u se d t o ( 1 ) … ……… w ith a g ro up o f
m ate s e v ery w eek en d. O ne d ay , m y b est f rie n d G eo rg ie c am e a lo ng w ith h is
s is te r M ary a n d h er f rie n d A nna. B oth M ary a n d A nna w ere a b out t h e s a m e
a g e a s w e w ere . A nna h ad n oth in g i n c o m mon w ith m y f rie n ds, s o s h e d id n’t
( 2 )… ……….. H ow ev er, M ary , l o ved f o otb all a n d m usic , a n d I ( 3 )
… ………… w ith h er i m med ia te ly .
I ( 4 )… ………… a n d s h e s a id y es, s o I w as t h rille d . W e w en t t o a n ic e p ub
n ear t h e l a k e w ith out t h e o th ers . A g uy a t t h e b ar t r ie d t o ( 5 )… …………
w hen I w en t t o t h e t o ile t b ut s h e t u rn ed h im d ow n, w hic h m ad e m e s m ile !
S oon a fte r t h at, I ( 6 )… ………… w ith G eo rg ie a n d w e d id n’t s p eak a g ain f o r
a f e w m onth s b ecau se h e o w ed m e m oney a n d n ev er p aid m e b ack . W e h av e
n ow f o rg otte n a b out i t t h ough a n d w e a re f rie n ds a g ain .

A NSW ER S
E XERC IS E
1
1 . f a ll o ut- q uarre l o r f ig ht ( w ith s o m eo ne)
2 . b um p i n to - m eet ( s o m eo ne) b y c h ance
3 . h it i t o ff- l ik e s o m eo ne w hen y o u f ir st m eet
4 . a sk s o m eo ne o ut- i n vite s o m eo ne t o a p la ce w ith r o m antic i n te n tio ns.
5 . t u rn u p- a rriv e t o o r a tte n d a n e ven t
6 . h ang o ut- s p en d a l o t o f t im e w ith s o m eo ne
E XERC IS E
2
T he o th er d ay I ( 1 ) b um ped i n to a n o ld f r ie n d o f m in e, J o e B urto n, w hile I
w as a t t h e s u perm ark et. I h adn’t s e en h im f o r a ges. I w ante d t o ( 2 ) c a tc h u p
w ith h im , s o I s u ggeste d g oin g f o r a b eer.
U nfo rtu nate ly , J o e w as v ery b usy , s o h e d id n’t h ave t im e f o r a b eer. ‘ L et’ s ( 3 )
m eet u p l a te r i n t h e w eek’, I s a id . J o e l o oked i n h is p hone a nd s a id , ‘ w hy
d on’t w e ( 4 ) g et t o geth er f o r l u nch a t 1 2.3 0 o n W ed nesd ay a t t h e R ed L io n
p ub?’.
I t´ s n ot a v ery f o rm al p la ce, s o I d id n’t n eed t o ( 5 ) d re ss u p f o r t h e o cca sio n.
I g ot t o t h e p ub a bout 1 5 m in ute s l a te , s o I w as s lig htly s tr e sse d . B y t h e t im e
J o e ( 6 ) t u rn ed u p I ´d f in is h ed m y s e co nd b eer a nd I w as s ta rv in g. H e w as
a lm ost a n h our l a te !
E xerc is e
3
A sk o ut/ h it i t o ff/c h at u p/fit i n /h and o ut/fa ll o ut
I r e m em ber h ow I m et m y g ir lfr ie n d. I u se d t o ( 1 ) h ang o ut w ith a g ro up o f
m ate s e very w eeken d. O ne d ay, m y b est f r ie n d G eo rg ie c a m e a lo ng w ith h is
s is te r M ary a nd h er f r ie n d A nna. B oth M ary a nd A nna w ere a bout t h e s a m e
a ge a s w e w ere . A nna h ad n oth in g i n c o m mon w ith m y f r ie n ds, s o s h e d id n’t
( 2 ) f it i n . H ow ever, M ary , l o ved f o otb all a nd m usic , a nd I ( 3 )h it i t o ff w ith h er
i m med ia te ly .

I ( 4 ) a sk ed h er o ut a nd s h e s a id y es, s o I w as t h rille d . W e w en t t o a n ic e p ub
nea r t h e l a ke w ith out t h e o th ers. A g uy a t t h e b ar t r ie d t o ( 5 ) c h at h er u p
when I w en t t o t h e t o ile t b ut s h e t u rn ed h im d ow n, w hic h m ade m e s m ile !
Soon a fte r t h at, I ( 6 ) f e ll o ut w ith G eo rg ie a nd w e d id n’t s p ea k a gain f o r a
fe w m onth s, b eca use h e o w ed m e m oney a nd n ever p aid m e b ack. W e h ave
now f o rg otte n a bout i t t h ough a nd w e a re f r ie n ds a gain .

P hra sa l V erb E xerc is e
s
P hra sa l V erb s E xerc is e 1
D o t h e p hra sa l v erb q uiz zes h ere t o s e e h ow m an y y ou k now . Y ou m ay n eed
t o l o ok b ack a t p re v io us c h ap te rs o r c o nsu lt a d ic tio nary .
C om e b ack t o t h e q uiz a w eek o r t w o l a te r a n d s e e i f y ou s till r e m em ber
t h em !
C hoose t h e a n sw er A , B , C o r D t h at c o m ple te s e ach s e n te n ce. T here a re
F IV E q uestio ns i n a ll.
1 ) I f y ou d on't s tu dy, y ou w ill ....... u p i n a p oorly p aid j o b
c o m e
e n d
s a v e
r is
e
2 ) I f a n a rra n gem en t, p la n , o r d eal … …… t h ro ugh, i t f a ils t o h ap pen
F alls
c o m es
g oes
l e ts
3 ) S he's s m art e n ough t o … ………. o ut w hat t o d o

ra is e
th in k
fig ure
se
e
4) I f y ou … ….. o ut a f o rm o r o th er d ocu m en t r e q uestin g i n fo rm atio n, y ou
write i n fo rm atio n i n t h e s p aces o n i t
write
note
co m ple te
fill
5) I f y ou … …………so m eth in g o ut, y ou l e arn s o m eth in g t h at y ou d id n ot
alr e ad y k now , e sp ecia lly b y m ak in g a d elib era te e ffo rt t o d o s o .
pull
push
se
e
fin d
Phra sa l V erb s E xerc is e 2
Choose t h e a n sw er A , B , C o r D t h at c o m ple te s e ach s e n te n ce. T here a re

FIV E q uestio ns i n a ll.
1) T he f ilm w as O K b ut i t d id n't r e ally ........ u p t o a ll t h e h ype.
co m e
liv e
gro w
lo ok
2) I t's t e arin g m e ........ t o s e e m y t w o b est f rie n ds a rg uin g s o m uch . I w is h
th ey 'd s o rt t h eir d if fe re n ces o ut a n d s ta rt b ein g f rie n dly w ith e ach o th er a g ain .
ap art
up
out
th ro ugh
3) T his i s a r e al b arg ain . Y ou s h ould s n ap i t ........ w hile y ou h av e t h e c h an ce
.
out
in
back
up
4) W e r e ally d o n eed t o g et a n oth er c ar. T his o ne k eep s ........ d ow n.
bre ak in g
ta k in g
fa llin g
cu ttin g

5) Y ou n ev er w an te d t o t a k e t h at j o b. D on't ........ o ut y ou'r e d is a p poin te d y ou
fa ile d t h e i n te rv ie w .
work
se t
put
mak e

V ocab ula ry N ote s:
I f y ou m ak e o ut t h at s o m eth in g i s t h e c ase o r m ak e s o m eth in g o ut t o b e t h e
c ase , y ou t r y t o c au se p eo ple t o b elie v e t h at i t i s t r u e w hen i n r e ality i t i s n ’t. .
I f y ou s n ap s o m eth in g u p, y ou b uy i t q uic k ly b ecau se i t i s c h eap o r i s j u st
w hat y ou w an t
I f s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g l iv es u p t o w hat t h ey w ere e x pecte d t o b e, t h ey a re
a s g ood a s t h ey w ere e x pecte d t o b e.
I f a m ach in e o r a v eh ic le b re ak s d ow n, i t s to ps w ork in g.
I f s o m eth in g t e ars y ou a p art, i t m ak es y ou f e el v ery u pse t, w orrie d , a n d
u nhap py.
S ex , D atin g & R ela tio nsh ip s
R ead t h e t e x t a n d u nderlin e t h e p hra sa l v erb s y ou f in d. T ry t o g uess t h e
m ean in g f ro m t h e t e x t a n d t h en c h eck t h e d efin itio ns i n t h e p hra sa l v erb n ote s
b elo w .
I f y ou a re s in gle a n d y ou l ik e s o m eo ne w ho i s a ls o s in gle , y ou m ig ht t h in k
a b out c h attin g h im o r h er u p, o r f lir tin g w ith t h em , w hic h i s v ery s im ila r.
W hen y ou c h at s o m eo ne u p, i t s h ow s t h at y ou a re k een o n t h at p ers o n. I t´ s
o fte n a g ood i d ea t o a sk t h e p ers o n o ut i f y ou t h in k t h at h e o r s h e i s a ls o k een
o n y ou. I f y ou a re g oin g o ut w ith s o m eo ne a n d y ou g o o ff h im o r h er, t h en
a fte r a w hile i t m ig ht b e a g ood i d ea b re ak u p o r s p lit u p
.
S plittin g u p w ith y our p artn er i s o fte n a g ood i d ea i f y ou t h in k t h at y ou w ill
b oth b e h ap pie r o uts id e o f t h e r e la tio nsh ip .
H ow ev er, i f y ou n orm ally g et o n l ik e a h ouse o n f ir e a n d y ou h av e a l o t i n
c o m mon, i t m ig ht b e a b ette r i d ea t o w ork t h ro ugh y our p ro ble m s s o t h at y ou
c an b e h ap py t o geth er a n d t h at w ay y ou d on´t n eed t o s p lit u p.
P hra sa l V erb N ote s:
T o c h at s o m eo ne u p i s t o f lir t w ith t h em a s y ou s p eak . T he o bje ctiv e i s t o g et
t o k now t h e p ers o n b ette r i n a r o m an tic w ay .

When y ou a re k een o n s o m eo ne y ou l ik e t h em a n d y ou a re a ttr a cte d t o h im o r
her.
Ask s o m eo ne o ut i s t o i n vite s o m eo ne f o r d in ner, t o t h e c in em a o r t o a n e v en t
when y ou a re a ttr a cte d t o t h at p ers o n a n d y ou w an t t o g et t o k now h im o r h er
bette r.
To b e g oin g o ut w ith s o m eo ne i s a s ta g e o f r o m an tic r e la tio nsh ip s w here t w o
peo ple m eet s o cia lly , e ach w ith t h e o bje ctiv e o f e v alu atin g t h e o th er p ers o n´s
su ita b ility a s a p ro sp ectiv e p artn er i n a n i n tim ate r e la tio nsh ip o r m arria g e
To g o o ff s o m eo ne i s w hen y ou s to p l ik in g t h at p ers o n.
To s p lit u p o r b re ak u p w ith s o m eo ne i s w hen y ou s to p a r e la tio nsh ip w ith a
pers o n.
To g et o n, g et a lo ng o r g et o n w ell w ith s o m eo ne i s t o h av e a g ood
re la tio nsh ip w ith t h at p ers o n. I t c an b e r o m an tic ally o r a s f rie n ds
.
To g et o n l ik e a h ouse o n f ir e i s t o h av e a n e x celle n t r e la tio nsh ip w ith
so m eo ne. I t c an b e r o m an tic ally o r a s f rie n ds.
To h av e a l o t i n c o m mon w ith s o m eo ne i s w hen y our p ers o nalitie s,
ex perie n ces o r o bje ctiv es i n l if e a re s im ila r. T his b uild s a g ood b asis f o r a
good r e la tio nsh ip .
To w ork t h ro ugh a p ro ble m i s t o t r y t o s o lv e i t.

E xerc is e
3
N ow i n se rt t h e p hra sa l v erb s a n d e x pre ssio ns i n to t h e g ap s i n t h e t e x t b elo w .
Y ou c an u se t h e s a m e e x pre ssio n m ore t h an o nce a n d y ou m ay n ot n eed t o
u se a ll e x pre ssio ns:
A )
to c h at a g ir l / b oy u p
B )
to b e k een o n ( s b dy )
C )
to b e e n gag ed t o ( s b dy )
D )
to g o o ff ( s b dy )
E )
to l e av e ( s b dy )
F )
to a sk a g ir l / b oy o ut
G )
to b e g ood f rie n ds
H )
to g et m arrie d t o ( s b dy )
I )
to b e g oin g o ut w ith ( s b dy )
J )
to g et o n w ell w ith ( s b dy ) ( to g et o n l ik e a h ouse o n f ir e w ith s o m eo ne)
K )
to b e f o nd o f ( s b dy )
L )
to b e i n l o ve w ith ( s b dy )
M )
to s p lit u p w ith ( s b dy )
N )
to s e p ara te f ro m ( s b dy )
O )
to g et d iv orc ed f ro m ( s b dy
)
P )
to h av e a l o t i n c o m mon w ith ( s b dy )
Q ) t o t a k e s o m eo ne o ut
S ta g es o f l o ve – p hra sa l v erb s g ap f ill
S ta g es o f L ove.
B ill f a n cie d S usa n t h e f ir s t m om en t h e c au ght s ig ht o f h er a cro ss a c ro w ded

dis c o th eq ue. A lth ough h e w as q uite s h y, h e d ecid ed t o g o o ver
an d_____________1 h er_ ___________. S he w as v ery f rie n dly a n d e asy t o
ta lk t o , s o h e a sk ed h er i f s h e w an te d t o ________________2 h im . S he
ag re ed , a n d a f e w n ig hts l a te r, h e_ ___________________3 t o d in ner a t a
very e x pen siv e r e sta u ra n t. T hey h ad a w onderfu l e v en in g t o geth er a n d
re alis e d t h at t h ey _________________4 e ach o th er.
Afte r t h at t h ey s ta rte d s e ein g e ach o th er o n a r e g ula r b asis a n d b efo re l o ng,
Bill k new t h at h e_ ________________5 S usa n . S he f e lt t h e s a m e w ay a b out
him s o t h ey d ecid ed t o __________________6.
Four w eek s b efo re t h e w ed din g S usa n m et a h an dso m e s a ilo r c alle d T om a n d
sta rte d ___________________7 h im . S he w an te d t o ___________________8
her e n gag em en t t o B ill, b ut s h e d id n’t k now h ow t o t e ll h im .
Even tu ally , a w eek b efo re t h e w ed din g, S usa n t o ld B ill t h e t r u th . H e w as
heartb ro ken ! T hey ___________________9 t h e w ed din g a n d t h ey h av en ’t
se en e ach o th er s in ce.
Susa n a n d T om d id n’t s ta y t o geth er f o r v ery l o ng. T hey k ep t o n h av in g
arg um en ts a n d f in ally t h ey __________________10. A s f o r p oor B ill, h e s till
th in ks a b out S usa n a n d t h e l if e t h ey c o uld h av e h ad t o geth er.
Collo catio n
s
A c o llo catio n ( a ls o c o llo cate ) i s a w ord o r p hra se w hic h i s f re q uen tly
co m bin ed w ith a n oth er w ord o r p hra se , i n a w ay t h at s o unds c o rre ct t o n ativ e
sp eak ers o f E nglis h . A n e x am ple o f a c o m mon c o llo catio n i s “
hea vy s n ow ”.
We o fte n u se p re p ositio ns t o g o w ith v erb s i n o rd er t o m ak e p hra sa l v erb s.
For e x am ple :
Sco op u p: t o p hysic a lly l ift s o m eth in g w ith y o ur h ands o r w ith a t o ol. E g: t o
sc o op u p d ir t. .
Plu ck u p t h e c o ura ge t o d o s o m eth in g: t o f o rc e y o urse lf t o b e b ra ve e n ough
to d o s o m eth in g

E xerc is e
4
T he f o llo w in g s e n te n ces c o nta in n orm al c o lo catio ns a n d p hra sa l v erb s.
C hoose t h e a n sw er A , B , C o r D t h at c o m ple te s e ach s e n te n ce. T here a re
F IV E q uestio ns i n a ll. U se y our i n stin ct a t f ir s t, t h en c h eck y our a n sw ers a t
t h e e n d o f t h is c h ap te r. ( W hen y ou h av e c h eck ed y our a n sw ers , w rite a
s e n te n ce i n y our n ote b ook u sin g t h e c o llo catio n o r p hra sa l v erb f ro m t h e
a n sw er).
1 ) I f in ally ........ u p t h e c o ura g e t o g o a n d s e e t h e M an ag er a b out a p ay r is e .
fe tc h ed
ra is e d
sc o oped
plu ck ed
2 ) I a g re e w ith y ou ........ p rin cip le b ut I 'm n ot s u re y our i d ea w ould w ork i n
p ra ctic e.
on
with
in
a t
3 ) H e's n ot v ery c are fu l w ith m oney a n d o fte n b uys t h in gs ........ i m puls e .
in
on
with
at
4 ) T he r e b el s o ld ie rs ........ t h e b om b i n t h e t o w n c en tr e .

ere cte d
plo tte d
pla n te d
se t
5) C ould y ou ........ t h e c u rta in s p le ase T he s u n's s h in in g i n m y e y es.
sw in g
push
dra w
ro ll

E xerc is e
5
F or Q uestio ns 1 -8 , c o m ple te t h e s e co nd s e n te n ce s o t h at i t h as a s im ila r
m ean in g t o t h e f ir s t s e n te n ce u sin g t h e w ord g iv en . D o n ot c h an ge t h e w ord
g iv en . Y ou m ust u se b etw een t w o a n d f iv e w ord s. U se a d ic tio nary i f y ou
n eed t o a n d t h en c h eck y our a n sw ers a t t h e e n d o f t h is c h ap te r.
1 . I 'm r e ally e x cite d a b out t h e h olid ay .
F O RW ARD
I ............................................ t h e h olid ay .
2 . M y a la rm r a n g e arly t h is m orn in g.
O FF
M y a la rm ............................................ e arly t h is m orn in g.
3 . W hy d on't y ou s ta rt l e arn in g J a p an ese ?
T A KE
H av e y ou t h ought a b out ..................................................... J a p an ese ?
4 . M y p are n ts r a is e d m e t o b elie v e i n j u stic e a n d f a ir n ess.
U P
M y p are n ts ................................................... t o b elie v e i n j u stic e a n d f a ir n ess.
5 . M in dy h as c an celle d t h e m eetin g.
O FF
M in dy ....................................................... t h e m eetin g.
6 . I t h in k t h ey s h ould b an s m okin g.
A W AY
T hey s h ould ....................................................... s m okin g.

7. I 'v e g ot t o r e d uce t h e a m ount o f b eer I d rin k.
DOW N
I m ust ............................................................. a m ount o f b eer I d rin k.
8. M y b ro th er w ill l e t y ou s ta y w ith u s.
UP
My b ro th er w ill .......................................................... .

E xerc is e
6
P ut t h e p hra sa l v erb i n to t h e r ig ht f o rm t o c o m ple te e ach s e n te n ce
L O OK F O RW ARD T O : t o b e e x cite d a b out s o m eth in g
I a m r e ally … …………………………. o ut n ex t h olid ay !
C O M E U P W IT H : t o i n ven t o r t h in k o f a n ew i d ea o r c o ncep t
W e n eed t o … ……………………….. a n i d ea f o r t h e p arty s o on!
T O F A LL B EH IN D: t o n ot p ro gre ss a s q uic k ly a s t h e p eo ple a ro und y ou
W e a re i n d an ger o f … ……………………………… o n t h is p ro je ct.
T O H OLD S O M ETH IN G A GAIN ST S O M EO NE: t o r e se n t s o m eo ne f o r
s o m eth in g
I k now I ´m l a te , p le ase d on´t … ………………………. m e.
T O P U T I N ( A R EQ UEST ): T o o ffic ia lly r e q uest s o m eth in g
W e n eed t o … …………… a r e q uest f o r a n ew p rin te r i n t h e o ffic e, t h e o ne
w e h av e i s v ery o ld
.
T O S E E S O M EO NE O FF: t o s a y ‘ g oodbye’ t o s o m eo ne
T hey d ecid ed n ot t o … ……………………………th e s ta tio n a fte r a ll.

E xerc is e
7
F or Q uestio ns 1 -6 , c o m ple te t h e s e co nd s e n te n ce s o t h at i t h as a s im ila r
m ean in g t o t h e f ir s t s e n te n ce, u sin g t h e w ord g iv en . D o n ot c h an ge t h e w ord
g iv en . Y ou m ust u se b etw een t h re e a n d s ix w ord s, i n clu din g t h e w ord s g iv en .
1 . R obert w as v ery n erv ous a b out t h e p re se n ta tio n n ex t w eek .
F O RW ARD
R obert … ……………………………….… . t h e p re se n ta tio n n ex t w eek .
2 . S he’d b een s tr u gglin g t o t h in k o f a r e ally o rig in al s p eech f o r t h e w ed din g
C O M E
N o m atte r h ow h ard s h e t r ie d … ………………….w ith a n i d ea f o r a r e ally
o rig in al s p eech f o r t h e w ed din g.
3 . H er b oss s a id h e w asn ’t p ro gre ssin g a s w ell a s o th er m em bers o f t h e t e am .
D ANGER
H er b oss w arn ed h er t h at s h e w as … …………..… beh in d w ith h er p ro gre ss
.
4 . M ary t h ought i t u nfa ir t h at h er f rie n d r e se n te d h er f o r n ot c allin g.
A GAIN ST
M ary t h ought i t u nfa ir t h at h er f rie n d s h ould … ………………… f o r n ot
c allin g.
5 . J e rry d ecid ed t h at h e’d a sk t o b e t r a n sfe rre d t o a n oth er c o urs e .
R EQ UEST
J e rry d ecid ed t o p ut … …………………………..a t r a n sfe r t o a n oth er c o urs e .
6 . T hey d ecid ed t h ey w ould n’t g o w ith h er t o t h e b each a fte r a ll.

SE E
They d ecid ed n ot t o … …………………….… t h e b each a fte r a ll.

A nsw ers
C hapte r 6 - P hra sa l V erb s E xerc is e 1
1 . I f y o u d on't s tu dy, y o u w ill e n d u p i n a p oorly p aid j o b
2 . I f a n a rra ngem en t, p la n, o r d ea l f a lls t h ro ugh, i t f a ils t o h appen
3 . S he's s m art e n ough t o f ig ure o ut w hat t o d o
4 . I f y o u f ill o ut a f o rm o r o th er d ocu m en t r e q uestin g i n fo rm atio n, y o u w rite
i n fo rm atio n i n t h e s p aces o n i t
5 . I f y o u f in d s o m eth in g o ut, y o u l e a rn s o m eth in g t h at y o u d id n ot a lr e a dy
k n ow , e sp ecia lly b y m akin g a d elib era te e ffo rt t o d o s o .
C hapte r 6 - P hra sa l V erb s E xerc is e 2
1 . L iv e
2 . A part
3 . U p
4 . B re a kin g
5 . M ake

C hapte r 6 - P hra sa l V erb s E xerc is e
3
S ta g es o f L ove.
B ill f a ncie d S usa n t h e f ir st m om en t h e c a ught s ig ht o f h er a cro ss a c ro w ded
c lu b. A lth ough h e w as q uite s h y, h e d ecid ed t o g o o ver a nd C H AT 1 h er U P.
S he w as v ery f r ie n dly a nd e a sy t o t a lk t o , s o h e a sk ed h er i f s h e w ante d t o G O
O UT W IT H 2 h im . S he a gre ed , a nd a f e w n ig hts l a te r, h e T O OK H ER O UT 3
t o d in ner a t a v ery e xp en siv e r e sta ura nt. T hey h ad a w onderfu l e ven in g
t o geth er a nd r e a lis e d t h at t h ey H AD A L O T I N C O M MON W IT H 4 e a ch
o th er.
A fte r t h at t h ey s ta rte d s e ein g e a ch o th er o n a r e g ula r b asis a nd b efo re l o ng,
B ill k n ew t h at h e W AS I N L O VE W IT H 5 S usa n. S he f e lt t h e s a m e w ay a bout
h im s o t h ey d ecid ed t o G ET M ARRIE D 6 .
F our w eeks b efo re t h e w ed din g S usa n m et a h andso m e s a ilo r c a lle d T om a nd
s ta rte d G O O UT W IT H 7 h im . S he w ante d t o B REAK O FF 8 h er
e n gagem en t t o B ill, b ut s h e d id n’t k n ow h ow t o t e ll h im .
E ven tu ally , a w eek b efo re t h e w ed din g, S usa n t o ld B ill t h e t r u th . H e w as
h ea rtb ro ken ! T hey B RO KE O FF 9 t h e w ed din g a nd t h ey h aven ’t s e en e a ch
o th er s in ce.
S usa n a nd T om d id n’t s ta y t o geth er f o r v ery l o ng. T hey k ep t o n h avin g
a rg um en ts a nd f in ally t h ey S P LIT U P 1 0. A s f o r p oor B ill, h e s till t h in ks
a bout S usa n a nd t h e l ife t h ey c o uld h ave h ad t o geth er.

C hapte r 6 - P hra sa l V erb s E xerc is e
4
1 ) I f in ally ........ u p t h e c o ura ge t o g o a nd s e e t h e M anager a bout a p ay r is e .
fe tc h ed
ra is e d
sc o oped
plu cked
2 ) I a gre e w ith y o u ........ p rin cip le b ut I 'm n ot s u re y o ur i d ea w ould w ork i n
p ra ctic e.
on
with
in
at
3 ) H e's n ot v ery c a re fu l w ith m oney a nd o fte n b uys t h in gs ........ i m puls e .
in
on
with
a t
4 ) T he r e b el s o ld ie rs ........ t h e b om b i n t h e t o w n c en tr e .
ere cte d
plo tte d
pla nte d
se t

5) C ould y o u ........ t h e c u rta in s p le a se t h e s u n's s h in in g i n m y e yes.
sw in g
push
dra w
ro ll
Chapte r 6 : E xerc is e 5
FO RW ARD
I a m r e a lly l o okin g f o rw ard t o t h e h olid ay.
OFF
My a la rm w en t o ff e a rly t h is m orn in g
.
TA K E
Have y o u t h ought a bout t a kin g u p J a panese ?
UP
My p are n ts b ro ught m e u p t o b elie ve i n j u stic e a nd f a ir n ess.
OFF
Min dy h as c a lle d o ff t h e m eetin g.
AW AY
They s h ould d o a w ay w ith s m okin g.
DOW N
I m ust c u t d ow n o n a m ount o f b eer I d rin k.

UP
My b ro th er w ill p ut y o u u p.

C hapte r 6 : E xerc is e 6
:
L O OK F O RW ARD T O : t o b e e xcite d a bout s o m eth in g
I a m r e a lly l o okin g f o rw ard t o o ut n ext h olid ay!
C O M E U P W IT H : t o i n ven t o r t h in k o f a n ew i d ea o r c o ncep t
W e n eed t o c o m e u p w ith a n i d ea f o r t h e p arty s o on!
T O F ALL B EH IN D : t o n ot p ro gre ss a s q uic kly a s t h e p eo ple a ro und y o u
W e a re i n d anger o f f a llin g b eh in d o n t h is p ro je ct.
T O H OLD S O M ETH IN G A G AIN ST S O M EO NE: t o r e se n t s o m eo ne f o r
s o m eth in g
I k n ow I ´m l a te , p le a se d on´t h old i t a gain st m e.
T O P U T I N ( A R EQ UEST ): T o o ffic ia lly r e q uest s o m eth in g
W e n eed t o p ut i n a r e q uest f o r a n ew p rin te r i n t h e o ffic e, t h e o ne w e h ave i s
v ery o ld .
T O S E E S O M EO NE O FF: t o s a y ‘ g oodbye’ t o s o m eo n
e
T hey d ecid ed n ot t o s e e h im o ff a t t h e s ta tio n a fte r a ll.
C hapte r 6 : E xerc is e 7
F O RW ARD
R obert w as n ot l o okin g f o rw ard t o t h e p re se n ta tio n n ext w eek.
C O M E
N o m atte r h ow h ard s h e t r ie d s h e c o uld n't c o m e u p w ith ( s h e c o uld n ot c o m e
u p w ith ) w ith

an i d ea f o r a r e a lly o rig in al s p eech f o r t h e w ed din g.
DAN G ER
Her b oss w arn ed h er t h at s h e w as i n d anger o f f a llin g b eh in d w ith h er
pro gre ss.
AG AIN ST
Mary t h ought i t u nfa ir t h at h er f r ie n d s h ould h old i t a gain st h er f o r n ot
ca llin g.
REQ UEST
Jerry d ecid ed t o p ut i n a r e q uest f o r a t r a nsfe r t o a noth er c o urse
.
SE E
They d ecid ed n ot t o s e e h im o ff a t t h e s ta tio n a fte r a ll.

C HAPT ER
1 3
P HRASA L
V
ER BS
WIT H
‘ T
AK E

M in i- D ic tio n ary
P hra sa l V erb s w it h ‘ ta k e’
H ere i s a l is t w it h s o m e e x am ple s o f t h e m ost c o m mon p hra sa l v erb s w it h
‘ ta k e’. U se t h is g lo ssa ry t o c o m ple te e x ercis e s a t t h e e n d o f t h is c h ap te r.
T ak e a b ack -
M ean in g: S urp ris e o r s h ock - E xam ple :
It t o ok m e a back w hen
s h e a sk ed s u ch a p erso nal q uestio n.
T ak e a fte r-
M ean in g: T o h av e s im ila r a p peara n ce, c h ara cte r o r p ers o nality t o
a n o ld er f a m ily m em ber- E xam ple
: S he t a kes a fte r h er f a th er.
T ak e a gain st
- M ean in g: S to p l ik in g s o m eo ne; t o b eco m e h ostile t o w ard -
E xam ple :
She t o ok a gain st M ary w hen s h e w as p ro m ote d o ver h er.
T ak e a p art
- M ean in g: S ep ara te s o m eth in g i n to i ts p arts -E xam ple :
The
m ech anic t o ok t h e c a r a part t o f in d t h e p ro ble m .
T ak e a sid e-
M ean in g: G et s o m eo ne a lo ne t o t a lk t o t h em -E xam ple :
Jo hn w as
t a ken a sid e b y t h e m anager w hen h e s h oute d a t a c u sto m er. .
T ak e a w ay-
M ean in g: R em ove s o m eth in g a n d p ut i t i n a d if fe re n t p la ce-
E xam ple :
My d ad t o ok o ur p la te s a w ay a nd c a m e b ack w ith c h oco la te c a ke
f o r d esse rt
!
T ak e a w ay-
M ean in g: R em ove s o m eth in g, e ith er m ate ria l o r a b str a ct, s o t h at
a p ers o n n o l o nger h as i t- E xam ple :
Ja ck´s m um t o ok h is c o m pute r a w ay u ntil
h e i m pro ved a t s c h ool.
T ak e a w ay
- M ean in g: S ubtr a ct o r d im in is h s o m eth in g- E xam ple :
If I h ave
t h re e o ra nges a nd I t a ke a w ay t w o, h ow m any o ra nges d o I h ave l e ft? T he
a nsw er i s … . o ne.
T ak e a w ay-
M ean in g: L eav e a m em ory o r i m pre ssio n i n o ne’s m in d t h at y ou

th in k a b out l a te r- E xam ple
: I t o ok a w ay t h e i m pre ssio n t h at t h e m anager d id
not g et a lo ng w ith h is p la yers.
Tak e a w ay-
M ean in g: F orc e s o m eo ne t o l e av e a p la ce a n d t a k e h im o r h er
so m ew here e ls e - E xam ple :
T he p olic e t o ok t h e s u sp ect t o t h e s ta tio n f o r
questio nin g.
Tak e a w ay f r o m
- M ean in g: M ak e s o m eth in g s e em w ors e , n ot s o g ood o r
le ss i n te re stin g- E xam ple :
His b eh avio r t o ok a w ay f r o m t h e e xcite m en t o f t h e
party .
Tak e b ack -
M ean in g: R etr a ct s o m eth in g y ou s a id e arlie r. - E xam ple :
You a re
not s e lfis h ; I t a ke i t b ack, I ´m s o rry .
Tak e b ack
- M ean in g: W hen s o m eth in g m ak es y ou r e m em ber s o m e p ast
ev en t o r t im e w e s a y t h at i t ‘ ta k es y ou b ack ’- E xam ple :
That f ilm t a kes m e
back t o w hen I w as a k id a t C hris tm as.
Tak e b ack -
M ean in g: S ta rt a r e la tio nsh ip a g ain w ith s o m eo ne a fte r y ou h av e
sp lit u p- E xam ple :
Ja ne h as f o rg iv en A aro n, a nd t a ken h im b ack d esp ite h is
beh avio r.
Tak e b ack -
M ean in g: R eg ain p osse ssio n o f s o m eth in g - E xam ple :
I´m t a kin g
back m y l a pto p b eca use y o u a re a lw ays u sin g i t w ith out a sk in g
!
Tak e b ack -
M ean in g: R etu rn s o m eth in g t o a s h op f o r a r e fu nd o r e x ch an ge-
Exam ple :
These s h oes a re t o o s m all, I ´m g oin g t o h ave t o t a ke t h em b ack t o
th e s h op t o m orro w .
Tak e d ow n-
M ean in g: R em ove s o m eth in g f ro m a w all o r s im ila r v ertic al
su rfa ce t o w hic h i t i s f ix ed o r h an din g p ositio n- E xam ple :
She t o ok d ow n t h e
photo gra ph a nd r e p la ced i t w ith t h e f r a m ed p ic tu re .
Tak e d ow n-
M ean in g: M ak e n ote s, e sp ecia lly t o r e co rd s o m eth in g s p oken -
Exam ple :
If y o u h ave a p en , y o u s h ould t a ke d ow n t h e m ost i m porta nt p oin ts
of t h e l e ctu re .
Tak e d ow n-
M ean in g: R em ove a t e m pora ry s tr u ctu re - E xam ple : W hen
ev ery th in g e ls e i s r e ad y, w e c an t a k e d ow n t h e g azeb o.
Tak e d ow n-
M ean in g: L ow er a n i te m o f c lo th in g w ith out r e m ovin g i t-
Exam ple :
The n urse a sk ed m e t o t a ke d ow n m y t r o use rs.

Tak e f o r
- M ean in g. T hin k o f o r r e g ard a s- E xam ple :
What d o y o u t a ke m e
fo r, a f o ol?
Tak e f o r-
M ean in g: t o g et c o nfu se d a b out w hat s o m eth in g o r w ho s o m eo ne
is - E xam ple :
Sorry , I t o ok y o u f o r s o m eo ne e ls e , y o u l o ok l ik e a f r ie n d o f
min e.-
Tak e f o r ( a ls o ‘ ta k e i n f o r’, ‘ ta k e f o r a r id e’, ‘ r ip o ff’ o r ‘ d o’ s o m eo n e)-
Mean in g: D efra u d; E xam ple :
J a ne i s v ery u pse t b eca use t h e s c a m mers t o ok
her f o r 5 00 p ounds.
Tak e i n -
M ean in g: S horte n ( a p ie ce o f c lo th in g) o r m ak e i t s m alle r-
Exam ple
: I a sk ed t h e t a ilo r t o t a ke t h e t r o use rs i n a b it a ro und t h e l e g
.
Tak e i n -
M ean in g: A bso rb i n fo rm atio n o r u nders ta n d t h e r e ality o f t h at
in fo rm atio n- E xam ple :
He w as i n s h ock a fte r t h e i n cid en t, s o i t t o ok h im a
while t o t a ke t h e n ew s i n .
Tak e i n -
M ean in g: D eceiv e, g iv e a f a ls e i m pre ssio n- E xam ple :
Every o ne w as
ta ken i n b y h is l ie s.
Tak e i t o u t o n
- M ean in g: U nle ash o ne’s a n ger o n [ a p ers o n o r t h in g o th er
th an t h e o ne t h at c au se d i t] - E xam ple :
Don’t t a ke i t o ut o n m e j u st b eca use
yo u´r e i n a b ad m ood.
Tak e i t u pon o n ese lf
- M ean in g: A ssu m e p ers o nal r e sp onsib ility f o r a t a sk o r
actio n- E xam ple :
She t o ok i t u pon h erse lf t o r in g h im a nd a sk h im t o c o m e
over.
Tak e o ff-
M ean in g: T o r e m ove s o m eth in g, u su ally c lo th es o r a ccesso rie s-
Exam ple :
The d octo r a sk ed m e t o t a ke o ff m y s h ir t.
Tak e o ff-
M ean in g: I m ita te , o fte n i n a c o m ic al m an ner - E xam ple :
Jo hn
Kra ven i s a c o m ed ia n w ho t a kes o ff a ll t h e f a m ous p eo ple i n m y c o untr y .
Tak e o ff-
M ean in g: W hen a n a ir c ra ft l e av es t h e g ro und a n d b eg in s t o f ly ; t o
asc en d i n to t h e a ir - E xam ple :
The h elic o pte r t o ok o ff a t 6 pm .
Tak e o ff
- M ean in g: t o b eco m e s u ccessfu l o r g ro w - E xam ple : T he p ro je ct h as
re ally t a k en o ff t h is y ear, w e a re v ery e x cite d .
Tak e o ff-
M ean in g: t o l e av e- E xam ple :
We h ave t o t a ke o ff n ow o r w e a re

goin g t o b e l a te .
Tak e o n -
M ean in g: i n tr o duce, b rin g i n o r a cq uir e - E xam ple :
The t r u ck t o ok
on 5 0 p alle ts i n S outh am pto n t h is m orn in g
.
Tak e o n -
M ean in g: e m plo y, b rin g i n - E xam ple :
When t h e n um ber o f
cu sto m ers i n cre a se d , w e h ad t o t a ke o n m ore s ta ff.
Tak e o n -
M ean in g: B eg in t o h av e o r e x hib it p hysic al t r a its - E xam ple :
He
to ok o n t h e a ppea ra nce o f a c rim in al f o r t h e r o le i n h is n ew m ovie .
Tak e o n -
M ean in g: T ak e r e sp onsib ility o r b urd en - E xam ple :
I’ll t a ke o n t h e
extr a w ork i f y o u c a n m anage t h e p ro je ct.
Tak e o n -
M ean in g: A tte m pt t o f ig ht o r c o m pete w ith - E xam ple :
They t o ok o n
th e m ost n oto rio us g ang m em bers i n t h e c ity a nd t h ey w on.
Tak e o u t-
Mean in g: R em ove- E xam ple :
Ple a se t a ke o ut t h e r u bbis h b efo re
th e k itc h en s ta rts t o s m ell!
Tak e o u t-
M ean in g: I n vite s o m eo ne o ut s o cia lly , o fte n f o r r o m an tic r e aso ns-
Exam ple :
Let m e t a ke y o u o ut f o r a d rin k
Tak e o ver-
M ean in g: A dopt a r e sp onsib ility o r d uty f ro m s o m eo ne e ls e -
Exam ple : H e w ill t a k e o ver t h e j o b p erm an en tly w hen t h e a cco unta n t r e tir e s.
Tak e o ver-
M ean in g: T ak e c o ntr o l o f s o m eth in g f o r s o m eo ne t e m pora rily -
Exam ple :
Can y o u t a ke o ver d riv in g f o r h alf a n h our w hile I g et s o m e s h ut-
eye ( s le ep )?
Tak e o ver-
M ean in g: B uy t h e c o ntr o l o f a b usin ess- E xam ple :
Rola C ola
PLC i s p la nnin g t o t a ke o ver P unja bi M C L td t h is m onth .
Tak e o ver-
M ean in g: T ak e c o ntr o l b y c o nquest o r i n vasio n- E xam ple :
Germ any t o ok o ver h alf o f E uro pe l e a din g u p t o
WW2. ( N ote : “ Lea d u p t o ”
mea ns “ in t h e e ven ts w hic h c a use d a nd w hic h c a m e b efo re ” )
Tak e t o -
M ean in g: A dap t t o ; t o l e arn , g ra sp o r m aste r s o m eth in g- E xam ple :
He t o ok t o g old i n sta ntly , h e w as a n atu ra l. ( N ote : “ a n atu ra l” m ea ns
so m eo ne w ho h as n atu ra l t a le n t a t s o m eth in g)
Tak e t o -
M ean in g: t o g o i n to o r m ove t o w ard s- E xam ple :
A s w e d ro ve

th ro ugh f ie ld , d oze n s o f b ir d s t o ok t o t h e a ir , s c a re d b y t h e n ois e o f t h e c a r.
Tak e u p-
M ean in g: t o s ta rt d oin g ( a n a ctiv ity ) r e g ula rly - E xam ple :
I´m
th in kin g o f t a kin g u p t e n nis o nce a w eek.
Tak e u p-
M ean in g: t o s ta rt t o t a lk a b out a n i s su e o r p ro ble m w ith s o m eo ne-
Exam ple :
I t o ok m y c o ncern s u p w ith t h e m anager.
Tak e u p-
M ean in g: O ccu py; t o c o nsu m e ( s p ace o r t im e)- E xam ple :
The s o fa
ta kes u p h alf t h e l iv in g r o om .
Tak e u p-
M ean in g: A ccep t a p ro posa l o r o ffe r- E xam ple :
Jo hn:
Next t im e y o u´r e i n t o w n, I ´ll b uy y o u a b eer.
Ja m es:
I ´ll t a ke y o u u p o n t h at!
Tak e t h ro u gh
- M ean in g: E xpla in i n s te p s; g iv e a t o ur o f a p la ce- E xam ple :
Let m e t a ke y o u t h ro ugh t h e b asic s o f h ow t o c o ok S outh ern F rie d C hic ken

E xercis e
1
F or e a ch o f t h e s ix q uestio n s c h oose t h e o n e c o rrect a n sw er. Y ou m ig h t
n eed t o c h eck t h e g lo ssa ry a b ove.
1 . W hen h is f a th er r e tir e s, h e’s p la n nin g t o t a k e _ ____ h is f a cto ry i n B eijin g.
a . o ff
b . a fte r
c . u p
d . o ver
2 . O ur p la n e t o ok _ ___ 2 h ours l a te !
a . o ver
b . u p
c . o ff
d . a fte r
3 . W hy d o s o m an y m en t a k e _ ___ g olf w hen t h ey r e tir e ?
a . o ver
b . o ff
c . u p
d . a fte
r
4 . R oberto g ets a n gry a l o t, h e t a k es _ ____ h is f a th er.
a . o ver
b . o ff
c . i n
d . a fte r

5. W hen I h eard s h e w as p re g nan t, I c o uld n’t t a k e i t _ ____ a t f ir s t.
a. a fte r
b. o ver
c. i n
d. o ff
6. I w as c o m ple te ly t a k en _ ___ w hen h e t o ld m e h e w as w ork in g l a te a t t h e
offic e.
a. a fte r
b. i n
c. o ver
d. a fte r

E xercis e
2
1 M atc h e a ch s e n te n ce b eg in nin g 1 - 1 0 w it h a n a p pro p ria te e n din g a ) –
j ).
1 S he i s v ery s im ila r t o h er m oth er, w here as h er s is te r t a k es
2 T he n ew C EO i s v ery s e rio us a n d w e h av en ’t r e ally t a k en
3 I n eed t o r e m em ber t h is l e sso n. I ’ll g et a p en a n d p ap er a n d t a k e
4 M y f e et a re s w olle n . I t h in k I ’ll t a k e
5 T his j u m per i s t o o b ig . I n eed t o t a k e
6 W hen m y m um r e tir e d , I t o ok
7 M ic h ael’ s b eco m e i n se p ara b le f ro m h is b ik e s in ce h e t o ok
8 Y ou s h ould g et r id o f t h is t a b le . I t’ s a s m all r o om a n d i t t a k es
9 W e h av e t o o m uch t o d o a t w ork . W e n eed t o t a k e
1 0 I t h ought I c o uld m an ag e t h is j o b, b ut I t h in k I ´v e t a k en
a ) i t b ack .
b ) o n m ore s ta ff
c ) o n t o o m uch
d ) u p h alf t h e r o om .
e ) u p c y clin g
.
f ) o ff m y s h oes.
g ) o ver t h e f a m ily b usin ess.
h ) t o h er.
i ) a fte r h er f a th er.
j ) d ow n t h e m ost i m porta n t p arts .

Exercis e 3
Now w rit e t h e i n fin it iv e o f e a ch o f t h e p hra sa l v erb s w it h ‘ ta k e’ f r o m
ex ercis e 2 n ex t t o i t s m ea n in g b elo w .
a) a ccep t t h e r e sp onsib ility f o r s o m eth in g _ ______________
b) s ta rt a n ew h obby o r a ctiv ity _ ______________
c) s ta rt t o l ik e o r f e el g ood a b out _ ______________
d) t o e m plo y ( g iv e a j o b t o ) _ ______________
e) r e m in d o r p ro voke m em orie s _ ______________
f) t o b eco m e s u ccessfu l _ ______________
g) m ak e n ote s
_______________
h) t o b e s im ila r i n a p peara n ce o r p ers o nality _ ______________
i) t a k e c o ntr o l o f
_______________
j) o ccu py s p ace o r t im e
_______________

A nsw ers:
E xercis e 1
1 :
a . ‘ T ake o ff’ u su ally r e fe rs t o p la nes o r c lo th es!
b . ‘ T ake a fte r’ m ea ns ‘ s im ila r t o ’.
c . ‘ T ake u p’ m ea ns b eg in a s p ort o r h obby.
d . C orre ct - H e p la ns t o ‘ ta ke o ver’ t h e f a cto ry – t a ke c o ntr o l o f i t.
2 :
a . ‘ T ake o ver’ u su ally m ea ns t a ke c o ntr o l o f.
b . ‘ T ake u p’ m ea ns b eg in a s p ort o r h obby.
c . C orre ct - T he p la ne ‘ to ok o ff’ 2 h ours l a te i s c o rre ct. I t d ep arte d o r l e ft t h e
g ro und.
d . ‘ T ake a fte r’ m ea ns ‘ s im ila r t o ’.
3 :
a . ‘ T ake o ver’ u su ally m ea ns t a ke c o ntr o l o f.
b . ‘ T ake o ff’ u su ally r e fe rs t o p la nes o r c lo th es!
c . C orre ct - ‘ T ake u p’ m ea ns b eg in a s p ort o r h obby
.
d . ‘ T ake a fte r’ m ea ns ‘ s im ila r t o ’.
4 :
a . ‘ T ake o ver’ u su ally m ea ns t a ke c o ntr o l o f.

b. ‘ T ake o ff’ u su ally r e fe rs t o p la nes o r c lo th es!
c. ‘ T ake i n ’ m ea ns t o t r y t o u ndersta nd s o m eth in g o r t o f o ol s o m eo ne.
d. C orre ct - ‘ T ake a fte r’ m ea ns ‘ s im ila r t o ’. ‘ H e t a kes a fte r h is f a th er’.
5:
a. ‘ T ake a fte r’ m ea ns ‘ s im ila r t o ’.
b. ‘ T ake o ver’ u su ally m ea ns t a ke c o ntr o l o f.
c. C orre ct - T ake i n ’ m ea ns t o t r y t o u ndersta nd s o m eth in g – o fte n u se d i n t h e
neg ativ e.
d. ‘ T ake o ff’ u su ally r e fe rs t o p la nes o r c lo th es!
6:
a. ‘ T ake a fte r’ m ea ns ‘ s im ila r t o ’
.
b. C orre ct - ‘ T ake i n ’ m ea ns t o b e f o ole d b y s o m eo ne. ‘ I w as t a ken i n b y h is
lie s’
c. ‘ T ake o ver’ u su ally m ea ns t a ke c o ntr o l o f.
d. ‘ T ake a fte r’ m ea ns ‘ s im ila r t o ’.
Exercis e 2
1 S he i s v ery s im ila r t o h er m oth er, w here a s h er s is te r t a kes a fte r h er
fa th er.
2 T he n ew C EO i s v ery s e rio us a nd w e h aven ’t r e a lly t a ken t o h er.
3 I n eed t o r e m em ber t h is l e sso n. I ’ll g et a p en a nd p aper a nd t a ke
4 M y f e et a re s w olle n . I t h in k I ’ll t a ke o ff m y s h oes.

5 T his j u m per i s t o o b ig . I n eed t o t a ke i t b ack.
6 W hen m y m um r e tir e d , I t o ok o ver t h e f a m ily b usin ess.
7 M ic h ael’ s b eco m e i n se p ara ble f r o m h is b ik e s in ce h e t o ok u p
cyclin g.
8 Y ou s h ould g et r id o f t h is t a ble . I t’ s a s m all r o om a nd i t t a kes u p h alf t h e
ro om .
9 W e h ave t o o m uch t o d o a t w ork . W e n eed t o t a ke o n m ore s ta ff.
10 I t h ought I c o uld m anage t h is j o b, b ut I t h in k I ´v e t a ken o n t o o m uch
.
Exercis e 3
a) a ccep t t h e r e sp onsib ility f o r s o m eth in g – T ake o n
b) s ta rt a n ew h obby o r a ctiv ity – T ake u p
c) s ta rt t o l ik e o r f e el g ood a bout – T ake t o
d) t o e m plo y ( g iv e a j o b t o ) – T ake o n
e) r e m in d o r p ro vo ke m em orie s – T ake b ack
f) t o b eco m e s u ccessfu l – T ake o ff
g) m ake n ote s
- T ake d ow n
h) t o b e s im ila r i n a ppea ra nce o r p erso nality - T ake a fte r
i) t a ke c o ntr o l o f- T ake o ver
j) o ccu py s p ace o r t im e- T ake u p

C HAPT ER
1 3
P HRASA L
V
ER BS
WIT H
‘ P
UT

M in i- D ic tio n ary
P hra sa l V erb s w it h ‘ p ut’
H ere i s a l is t w it h s o m e e x am ple s o f t h e m ost c o m mon p hra sa l v erb s w it h
‘ p ut’. U se t h is g lo ssa ry t o c o m ple te e x ercis e s a t t h e e n d o f t h is c h ap te r.
P ut o u t-
Mean in g: E xtin guis h a l ig ht o r s o m eth in g w hic h h as f ir e . E xam ple :
P ut o ut y o ur c ig are tte p le a se , t h is i s a n o-s m okin g a re a .
P ut o u t-
Mean in g: R ele ase o r p ublis h . E xam ple :
We n eed t o p ut o ut a n e m ail
e xp la in in g t h e s itu atio n.
P ut ( e ffo rt) i n to -
M ean in g: T o t r y - E xam ple : I p ut a l o t o f w ork i n to t h e
p re se n ta tio n.
P ut a cro ss-
M ean in g: E xpla in o r c o m munic ate s o m eth in g c le arly a n d
u nders ta n dab ly - E xam ple : T he w ay s h e p ut t h e m essa g e a cro ss w as q uite
r u de.
P ut a sid e-
M ean in g: S av e ( m oney )- E xam ple :
I t r y t o p ut a f e w q uid a sid e
e very d ay f o r o ur s u m mer h olid ay. ( N ote : “ quid ” i s s la ng f o r B ritis h p ounds)
P ut a sid e
- M ean in g: I g nore o r i n te n tio nally d is re g ard ( s o m eth in g),
t e m pora rily o r p erm an en tly - E xam ple :
We n eed t o p ut o ur d iffe re n ces a sid e
.
P ut a w ay-
M ean in g: p ut s o m eth in g s o m ew here o rg an is e d o r o ut o f s ig ht.
E xam ple :
When I t id y m y r o om I p ut a ll m y c lo th es a w ay.
P ut a w ay-
Mean in g: C onsu m e i n l a rg e q uan titie s ( fo od a n d d rin k)
-
Exam ple :
H e p ut a w ay 1 2 c h ic ken w in gs, 2 s te a ks a nd a w hole r o ast c h ic ken .. W hat a
b ea st!
P ut a w ay-
Mean in g: S en d t o j a il- E xam ple :
They p ut h er a w ay f o r 2 y ea rs o n
w ea pons c h arg es.

Put b ack -
Mean in g: R etu rn s o m eth in g t o i ts o rig in al p la ce
-
Exam ple : S he
put t h e t o ys b ack i n t h e c u pboard .
Put b ack -
M ean in g: P ostp one a m eetin g, e v en t o r a p poin tm en t- E xam ple :
The m eetin g h as b een p ut b ack t o 2 pm d ue t o t h e s to rm s.
Put d ow n-
Mean in g: B elittle , h um ilia te o r d em ean
-
Exam ple :
She´s n ot v ery
nic e, s h e c o nsta ntly p uts h er h usb and d ow n.
Put d ow n-
M ean in g: P ay a d ep osit o r i n itia l i n sta llm en t- E xam ple :
She p ut
dow n a 2 ,0 00 e u ro d ep osit.
Put d ow n-
M ean in g: E lim in ate o r s to p b y f o rc e- E xam ple :
Govern m en t
se cu rity f o rc es q uic kly p ut d ow n t h e c iv il u nre st.
Put d ow n-
Mean in g: K ill a n a n im al b ecau se i t i s s ic k o r s u ffe rin g.- E xam ple :
We h ad t o p ut o ur d og d ow n l a st m onth b eca use h e w as t o o i ll.
Put d ow n-
Mean in g: W rite ( s o m eth in g)
-
Exam ple :
Put d ow n y o ur n am e a nd
addre ss o n t h is p aper.
Put d ow n-
M ean in g: F in is h a p hone-c all; t o h an g u p- E xam ple :
Don’t p ut t h e
phone d ow n p le a se , I w ant t o a polo gis e t o y o u
!
Put d ow n-
Mean in g: A dd a n am e t o a l is t
-
Exam ple :
I ’v e p ut m yse lf d ow n o n
th e V IP l is t f o r t h e p arty . .
Put d ow n o r P uttin g u p-
Mean in g: M ak e p ric es, o r t a x es, l o w er o r h ig her
-
Exam ple :
The C hin ese g overn m en t a re p uttin g u p t h e p ric e o f o il i n o rd er t o
stim ula te t h e u se o f r e n ew able e n erg ie s.
Put d ow n-
Mean in g: P la ce a b ab y s o m ew here t o s le ep
-
Exam ple :
I h ave j u st
put C harle y d ow n s o p le a se b e q uie t!
Put d ow n ( a b ook )-
Mean in g: S to p, t e m pora rily o r p erm an en tly , r e ad in g ( a
book)
-
Exam ple :
I c a n´t p ut t h is b ook d ow n, i t´ s s o i n te re stin g!
Put d ow n a s-
Mean in g: M ak e a ssu m ptio ns a b out s o m eo ne´s p ers o nality .
-
Exam ple
: I p ut h er d ow n a s a n a rro gant, m ate ria lis tic s n ob, b ut s h e i s
actu ally v ery s w eet.
Put d ow n f o r
- M ean in g: P ut s o m eo ne o n a l is t o f p eo ple w ho h av e o ffe re d t o
help , o r c o ntr ib ute t o s o m eth in g- E xam ple :
Put J a ck d ow n t o h elp w ith t h e

cle a nin g, h e t o ld m e h e w ante d t o d o i t.
Put d ow n t o -
M ean in g: a ssu m e o r c o m e t o t h e c o nclu sio n a b out t h e c au se o f
a s itu atio n- E xam ple :
We o fte n p ut h ig h c rim e r a te s d ow n t o h ig h
unem plo ym en t.
Put o n -
Mean in g: T o f a k e o r p re te n d
.
Exam ple :
He p uts o n f u nny a ccen ts t o
make u s l a ugh.
Put o n ( c lo th es)-
Mean in g: T o f it c lo th es o n y our b ody
.
Exam ple :
It´ s r e a lly
su nny, I n eed t o p ut m y h at o n!
Put o n -
Mean in g: T o b la m e s o m eo ne e ls e f o r s o m eth in g
.
Exam ple :
You c a n´t
put t h at o n m e, i t w asn ´t m y f a ult
!
Put o n ( w eig h t)-
Mean in g: T o g ain w eig ht o r f a t
.
Exam ple :
I h ave p ut o n a t
le a st 2 s to ne o ver C hris tm as. I d id n´t s to p e a tin g!
Put f o rw ard ( a s u ggestio n o r i d ea )-
Mean in g: P ro pose f o r c o nsid era tio n
-
Exam ple :
The C EO p ut f o rw ard n ew p la ns t o r e d uce c o sts .
Put f o rw ard -
Mean in g: C han ge t h e t im e i n a t im e z o ne t o a l a te r t im e
.
Exam ple :
I a lm ost f o rg ot t h at w e h ave t o p ut t h e c lo cks f o rw ard t o m orro w b y
1 h our.
Put u p w it h -
Mean in g: T ole ra te
.
Exam ple :
I'm t o o t ir e d t o p ut u p w ith h im ,
his a ttitu de a nnoys m e.
Put u p-
Mean in g: O ffe r a cco m modatio n f o r t h e n ig ht
.
Exam ple :
My p are n ts
put u s u p w hile o ur h ouse w as b ein g r e -fu rb is h ed .
Put u p-
Mean in g: r a is e .
Exam ple :
Put y o ur h ands u p i n t h e a ir l ik e y o u j u st
don´t c a re !

Put s o m eo n e u p t o s o m eth in g-
Mean in g: m an ip ula te s o m eo ne o r c o nvin ce
th em t o d o s o m eth in g.
Exam ple :
Did M ary p ut y o u u p t o t h is ? I t o ld h er I
did n´t w ant t o t a lk a bout m y p ro ble m .
Put o ff-
Mean in g: D is tr a ct
.
Exam ple :
Don´t t r y t o p ut m e o ff t h e g am e, t h at´ s
ch ea tin g!
Put o ff-
Mean in g: D ela y
.
Exam ple :
We p ut o ff t h e s h ow b eca use o f t h e r a in .

Put s o m eo n e o ff s o m eth in g o r s o m eo n e-
Mean in g: M ak e s o m eo ne s to p
lik in g s o m eth in g o r s o m eo ne. E xam ple :
Her l a ck o f a s e n se o f h um our p ut
me o ff h er, s o I d id n´t a sk h er o ut
.
.
Exercis e 1
Phra sa l v erb s w it h ‘ p ut’
Matc h e a ch s e n te n ce b eg in nin g 1 - 1 2 w it h a n a p pro p ria te e n din g a ) – l ) .
1 .
It’ s r a in in g q uite h eav ily . Y ou s h ould p ut o n
2 .
I d id n´t r e co gniz e h er w hen I s a w h er b ecau se s h e h ad p ut o n
3 .
There ’s n oth in g g ood o n T V . W hy d on´t w e p ut o n
4 .
She m ig ht n eed t o m ove. H er l a n dla d y h as p ut u p
5 .
We n eed t o p ut u p n ew
6 .
Put y our h an d u p
7 .
My p are n ts o ffe re d t o p ut
8 .
How d o y ou p ut u p
9 .
We h ad t o p ut o ff t h e m eetin g
10
.

It s n ow ed s o h eav ily t h at i t p ut u s o ff
11
.

I c o uld n ev er c o ncen tr a te a t u niv ers ity , b ecau se a ll
12
.

We n eed t o p ut o ut
a) u s u p f o r t h e w eek en d w hen w e g o t o v is it.
b) a l o t o f w eig ht.
c) b ecau se t h e C EO w as s tu ck i n t r a ffic .
d) w ith h er c o nsta n t m oan in g?
e) y our n ew c o at.
f) t h e f ir e b efo re i t s p re ad s.
g) g oin g o ut, s o w e w atc h ed a f ilm i n ste ad
.
h) t h e p artie s a n d t h e n ois e p ut m e o ff.
i) h er r e n t.

j) a n o nlin e f ilm ?
k) c u rta in s b ecau se t h e o ld o nes h av e h ole s i n t h em .
l) i f y ou h av e a n y q uestio ns.

E xercis e
2
N ow d ecid e w hic h p hra sa l v erb i s n eed ed i n e a ch s e n te n ce:
1 . I c an 't _ __ h er a n ym ore , s h e's d riv in g m e b onkers !
(N ote : t o d riv e s o m eo ne
b onkers m ea ns t o d riv e h im o r h er c ra zy - t o a nnoy)
P ut o n
P ut b ack
P ut u p w ith
2 . P le ase _ __ t h e b re ad w hen y ou'r e f in is h ed u sin g i t.
P ut b ack
P ut o n
P ut d ow n
3 . C an y ou _ __ t h e c o nfe re n ce u ntil F rid ay p le ase ?
P ut u p
P ut o ff
P ut d ow
n
4 . S he _ __ a ll t h e t im e, b ut h e's s till m arrie d t o h er.
P uts h im u p
P uts h im a cro ss
P uts h im d ow n
5 . T hey _ __ a n ew b lo g p ost e v ery w eek . I t's r e ally g ood.
P ut u p w ith
P ut d ow n

Put o ut
6. I w as t r y in g t o _ __ m y o pin io n b ut n o o ne l is te n ed .
Put a w ay
Put a cro ss
Put u p w ith

A nsw ers
:
E xercis e 1
1 .
It’ s r a in in g q uite h ea vily . Y ou s h ould p ut o n y o ur n ew c o at.
2 .
I d id n´t r e co gniz e h er w hen I s a w h er b eca use s h e h ad p ut o n a
lo t o f w eig ht.
3 .
There ’s n oth in g g ood o n T V . W hy d on´t w e p ut o n a n o nlin e
film ?
4 .
She m ig ht n eed t o m ove. H er l a ndla dy h as p ut u p h er
re n t.
5 .
We n eed t o p ut u p n ew c u rta in s b eca use t h e o ld o nes h ave
hole s i n t h em .
6 .
Put y o ur h and u p i f y o u h ave a ny q uestio ns.
7 .
My p are n ts o ffe re d t o p ut u s u p f o r t h e w eeken d w hen w e g o t o
vis it.
8 .
How d o y o u p ut u p w ith h er c o nsta nt m oanin g?
9 .
We h ad t o p ut o ff t h e m eetin g b eca use t h e C EO w as s tu ck i n
tr a ffic .
10
.

It s n ow ed s o h ea vily t h at i t p ut u s o ff g oin g o ut, s o
we w atc h ed a f ilm i n ste a d.
11
.

I c o uld n ever c o ncen tr a te a t u niv ersity , b eca use a ll
th e p artie s a nd t h e n ois e p ut m e o ff.
12
.

We n eed t o p ut o ut t h e f ir e b efo re i t s p re a ds.
E xercis e 2
1 . I c an 't _ __ h er a n ym ore , s h e's d riv in g m e b onkers !
(N ote : t o d riv e s o m eo ne
b onkers m ea ns t o d riv e h im o r h er c ra zy - t o a nnoy)
P ut o n
P ut b ac
k
P ut u p w it h
2 . P le ase _ __ t h e b re ad w hen y ou'r e f in is h ed u sin g i t.
P ut b ack

Put o n
Put d ow n
3. C an y ou _ __ t h e c o nfe re n ce u ntil F rid ay p le ase ?
Put u p
Put o ff
Put d ow n
4. S he _ __ a ll t h e t im e, b ut h e's s till m arrie d t o h er.
Puts h im u p
Puts h im a cro ss
Puts h im d ow n
5. T hey _ __ a n ew b lo g p ost e v ery w eek . I t's r e ally g ood.
Put u p w ith
Put d ow
n
Put o u t
6. I w as t r y in g t o _ __ m y o pin io n b ut n o o ne l is te n ed .
Put a w ay
Put a cro ss
Put u p w ith

C HAPT ER
1 5
P HRASA L
V
ER BS
WIT H
‘ G
ET

M in i- D ic tio n ary
P hra sa l V erb s w it h ‘ g et’
H ere i s a l is t w it h s o m e e x am ple s o f t h e m ost c o m mon p hra sa l v erb s w it h
‘ g et’. U se t h is g lo ssa ry t o c o m ple te e x ercis e s a t t h e e n d o f t h is c h ap te r.
g et a cro ss
( s e p ara b le ) – t o c o m munic ate c le arly - E xam ple :
The m an w as s o
s tu bborn t h at w e c o uld n´t g et t h e m essa ge a cro ss a nd c h ange h is m in d.
g et a h ea d
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o m ak e p ro gre ss
-
Exam ple :
She n eed s
t o w ork h ard i n l ife i f s h e w is h es t o b e s u ccessfu l.
g et a lo n g ( g et o n )
(in tr a n sitiv e) – t o h av e a g ood r e la tio nsh ip - E xam ple :
I g et
a lo ng v ery w ell w ith m y g ra ndfa th er. W e h ave s im ila r p erso nalitie s.

g et a ro u nd ( 1 )-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o a v oid o r t o o verc o m e a p ro ble m , a r u le , o r
a c h alle n ge
- E xam ple :
Walte r g ot a ro und t h e r u le s b y p re te n din g h e d id n´t
k n ow a bout t h em .
g et a ro u nd ( 2 )-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o g o f ro m p la ce t o p la ce
-
E xam ple : S in ce h e l iv es i n t h e c ity c en tr e , h e g ets a ro und e v ery w here o n f o ot
.
g et a ro u nd t o ( 3 )
– t o f in ally d o s o m eth in g
-
Exam ple :
We f in ally g ot r o und
t o c le a rin g t h e l o ft a fte r t h re e m onth s!
g et a t-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o h in t o r t o m ean - E xam ple :
What a re y o u
g ettin g a t? C an y o u b e m ore s p ecific a nd g iv e m e a n e xa m ple ?
g et a t
– t o r e ach s o t h at y ou c an t a k e s o m eth in g- E xam ple :
Can y o u p ass m e
t h at b ottle p le a se ? I c a n´t g et a t i t b eca use I ´m t o o s h ort.
g et a w ay-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o e sc ap e
-
Exam ple :
The p ris o ners g ot
a w ay t h ro ugh a h ole i n t h e w all.
g et a w ay w it h s o m eth in g
– t o e sc ap e r e sp onsib ility
-
Exam ple :
We g ot a w ay

with n ot d oin g o ur h om ew ork b eca use w e t o ld t h e t e a ch er t h at o ur d og h ad
ea te n i t.
get b ack -
( in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o r e tu rn - E xam ple :
Jere m y a lw ays g ets
back l a te f r o m t h e o ffic e. H e h as a v ery i n te n se j o b.
get b y-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o s u rv iv e
-
Exam ple :
When w e w ere y o ung
my f a m ily h ad n o m oney, b ut w e g ot b y.
get d ow n ( to )-
( in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o c o ncen tr a te o r f o cu s o n a t a sk . -
Exam ple :
Let´ s g et d ow n t o b usin ess. W e n eed t o f in d a s o lu tio n t o t h e s u pply
pro ble m . .
get d ow n ( 1 )-
(s e p ara b le ) – t o d is c o ura g e
-
Exam ple :
Don´t l e t t h e r a in g et
yo u d ow n!
get d ow n ( 2 )-
(s e p ara b le ) – t o p ut i n w ritin g- E xam ple :
Ple a se B ob, c a n y o u
get t h e m in ute s d ow n d urin g t h e m eetin g?
get i n -
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o a rriv e
-
Exam ple :
T he b us g ot i n a n h our
ea rly b eca use o f t h e m is ta ke i n t h e t im eta ble
.
get o ff ( 1 )-
( in se p ara b le ) – t o l e av e- E xam ple :
I f o rg ot m y h at w hen I g ot o ff
th e t r a in .
get o ff ( 2 )-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o r e ceiv e l e sse r p unis h m en t
-
Exam ple :
He c ra sh ed h is c a r i n to a s h op w in dow b eca use h e w as o n h is p hone, b ut h e
got o ff w ith j u st a s m all f in e a nd s o m e c o m munity s e rv ic e.

get o ff ( 3 )-
(s e p ara b le ) – t o i n te rru pt
-
Exam ple :
W e h ave t h e d ay o ff t o day
beca use o f t h e f lo ods. W e d on´t h ave t o g o t o w ork !
get o u t ( 1 )-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o s p re ad
-
Exam ple :
Word g ets o ut
quic kly i n o ur s m all v illa ge, s o e very o ne k n ew M ic h ael w as p la nnin g o n
pro posin g t o J ess.
get o u t ( o f) ( 2 )-
( in se p ara b le ) – t o e sc ap e- E xam ple :
Jo e a lw ays h as a n
excu se a nd g ets o ut o f c le a nin g t h e c a r.
get o u t ( o f) ( 3 )-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o l e av e
-
Exam ple :
Let’ s g et o ut o f h ere .. I ´m
hot a nd t ir e d !
get o ver-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o r e co ver- E xam ple :
It t o ok J ill s o m e t im e t o g et

over h er d iv o rc e.
get r id o f-
(in se p ara b le ) – d is p ose o f s o m eth in g o r d is m is s s o m eo ne
-
Exam ple :
Ple a se g et r id o f t h at o ld b ik e. I t’ s s o d ir ty
get t h ro u gh ( 1 )-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o f in is h
-
Exam ple :
We n eed t o g et t h ro ugh
at l e a st 6 p ages o f m ate ria l i n t o day´s l e sso n.
get t h ro u gh ( 2 )-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o c o m munic ate a m essa g e e ffe ctiv ely
-
Exam ple :
We n eed t o g et t h ro ugh t o h im b efo re h e d oes s o m eth in g s tu pid , b ut
he d oesn ´t l is te n .
get t o ( 1 )-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o a n noy
-
Exam ple :
His c o m men ts g ot t o m e
!
get t o ( 2 )-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o a rriv e
-
Exam ple :
What t im e w ill y o u g et t o t h e
sta tio n?
get t o geth er-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o m eet u p w ith s o m eo ne - E xam ple :
They g ot t o geth er f o r a d rin k a nd 6 m onth s l a te r t h ey w ere m arrie d !
get u p-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – w ak e u p a n d g et o ut o f b ed
-
Exam ple :
My
new j o b s ta rts a t 8 a m s o I h ave t o g et u p a t 6 o ´c lo ck.
get u p t o
– t o d o
-
Exam ple :
What d id y o u g et u p t o y este rd ay?

E xercis e 1
R ea d t h e s e n te n ces b elo w . U nderlin e t h e p hra sa l v erb s a n d t r y t o w ork
o u t t h e m ea n in g f r o m t h e c o n te x t. T hen c o m ple te t h e g ap s b elo w e a ch
s e n te n ce u sin g o n e o f t h e f o llo w in g m ea n in gs.
t o c o m munic a te a m essa ge e ffe ctiv ely
t o r e a ch s o t h at y o u c a n t a ke s o m eth in g
t o c o m munic a te c le a rly
t o e sc a pe r e sp onsib ility
t o a vo id o r t o o verc o m e a p ro ble m , a r u le , o r a c h alle n ge
t o e sc a pe
t o d is c o ura ge
t o r e co ver
1 ) T hey r e alis e d i t w ould b e a d if fic u lt c h alle n ge, b ut a fte r a l o t o f h ard w ork
t h ey g ot a ro und i t.
P hra sa l V erb : … ……………………………………………………
M ea n in g: … …………………………………………………………..
2 ) I c an n ev er g et a t t h e t o p s h elf i n t h e s u perm ark et, s o I a lw ay s h av e t o a sk
f o r h elp . I w is h I w ere t a lle r.
P hra sa l V erb : … …………………………………………………

M ea n in g: … …………………………………………………………..
3 ) A fte r J im h ad m ad e s e v era l u nsu ccessfu l a tte m pts t o g et t h ro ugh t o S ally ,
h e r e aliz ed s h e w asn ´t l is te n in g, s o h e w en t h om e.
P hra sa l V erb : … ……………………………………………………
M ea n in g: … …………………………………………………………..

4) A lb ert m an ag ed t o g et a w ay f ro m t h e m eetin g e arly f o r M ary ´s b ir th day .
Phra sa l V erb : … ……………………………………………………
Mea n in g: … …………………………………………………………..
5) M y g ir lf rie n d l e ft m e l a st m onth a n d I f e lt v ery s a d , b ut I ’v e g ot o ver i t
now .
Phra sa l V erb : … ……………………………………………………
Mea n in g: … …………………………………………………………..
6) I d on´t l ik e s a d f ilm s, t h ey r e ally g et m e d ow n.
Phra sa l V erb : … ……………………………………………………
Mea n in g: … ………………………………………………………….
.
7) J a so n i s a g ood p re se n te r w ho a lw ay s g ets h is m essa g e a cro ss.
Phra sa l V erb : … ……………………………………………………
Mea n in g: … …………………………………………………………..
8) T he p olic e d id n´t c atc h t h e t h ie f, s o h e g ot a w ay w ith i t.
Phra sa l V erb : … ……………………………………………………
Mea n in g: … …………………………………………………………..

A nsw ers
:
1 ) T hey r e alis e d i t w ould b e a d if fic u lt c h alle n ge, b ut a fte r a l o t o f h ard w ork
t h ey g ot a ro und i t.
g et a ro u nd
t o a v oid o r t o o verc o m e a p ro ble m , a r u le , o r a c h alle n ge
2 ) I c an n ev er g et a t t h e t o p s h elf i n t h e s u perm ark et, s o I a lw ay s h av e t o a sk
f o r h elp . I w is h I w ere t a lle r.
g et a t
t o r e ach s o t h at y ou c an t a k e s o m eth in g
3 ) A fte r J im h ad m ad e s e v era l u nsu ccessfu l a tte m pts t o g et t h ro ugh t o S ally ,
h e r e aliz ed s h e w asn ´t l is te n in g, s o h e w en t h om e.
g et t h ro u gh

t o c o m munic ate a m essa g e e ffe ctiv ely
4 ) A lb ert m an ag ed t o g et a w ay f ro m t h e m eetin g e arly f o r M ary ´s b ir th day .
g et a w ay-
t o e sc ap
e
5 ) M y g ir lf rie n d l e ft m e l a st m onth a n d I f e lt v ery s a d , b ut I ’v e g ot o ver i t
n ow .
g et o ver-
t o r e co ver
6 ) I d on´t l ik e s a d f ilm s, t h ey r e ally g et m e d ow n.
g et d ow n
t o d is c o ura g e

7) J a so n i s a g ood p re se n te r w ho a lw ay s g ets h is m essa g e a cro ss.
get a cro ss

to c o m munic ate c le arly
8) T he p olic e d id n´t c atc h t h e t h ie f, s o h e g ot a w ay w ith i t.
get a w ay w it h

to e sc ap e r e sp onsib ility

C HAPT ER
1 6
P HRASA L
V
ER BS
WIT H
‘ C
OM E

M in i- D ic tio n ary
P hra sa l V erb s w it h ‘ c o m e’
H ere i s a l is t w it h s o m e e x am ple s o f t h e m ost c o m mon p hra sa l v erb s w it h
‘ c o m e’. U se t h is g lo ssa ry t o c o m ple te e x ercis e s a t t h e e n d o f t h is c h ap te r.
c o m e a cro ss ( 1 )-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o f in d
-
Exam ple :
I c a m e a cro ss a v ery
i n te re stin g b ook w hile b ro w sin g t h e s e co nd-h and b ooksh ops i n M anch este r.
c o m e a cro ss ( 2 )-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o g iv e t h e i m pre ssio n o r a p peara n ce
-
E xam ple :
He c a m e a cro ss q uite a rro gant a t f ir st b ut h e w as a n ic e g uy.
c o m e a lo n g ( 1 )-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o p ro gre ss
-
Exam ple :
How i s h er
a ssig nm en t c o m in g a lo ng?
c o m e a lo n g ( 2 )-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o c asu ally a tte n d o r a p pear
s o m ew here
- E xam ple :
When J en ny c a m e a lo ng a fte r w ork , R obbie l e ft
b eca use h e w as s till a ngry w ith h er.
c o m e a ro u nd-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o c h an ge o pin io ns
-
Exam ple :
Afte r
h ours o f a rg uin g h e f in ally c a m e r o und ( h e a gre ed w ith m e
)
c o m e b ack ( 1 )-
(in se p ara b le ) - - t o r e tu rn
-
Exam ple :
Madis o n c o m es b ack
f r o m L ondon t o m orro w . W e n eed t o p ic k h er u p f r o m t h e a ir p ort a t 2 .
c o m e b ack ( 2 )-
(in se p ara b le ) - - t o r e m em ber- w hen a m em ory r e tu rn s
b ecau se o f s o m eth in g y ou s e e, h ear o r f e el
-
Exam ple :
It a ll c a m e b ack t o m e
w hen I s a w t h e r in g. I ´d f o rg otte n e very th in g, b ut n ow I r e m em ber.
c o m e b y-
(in se p ara b le ) – t o g et o r o bta in
-
Exam ple :
I c a m e b y t h is w atc h
w hen I w as w alk in g a lo ng t h e b ea ch a nd f o und i t.
c o m e d ow n ( w it h )-
( in se p ara b le ) – t o b eco m e i ll- E xam ple :
Mayb e y o u
s h ould g o t o t h e d octo r´s . T his i s t h e t h ir d t im e y o u´v e c o m e d ow n w ith a c o ld

th is m onth .
co m e f r o m -
(in se p ara b le ) - - t o o rig in ate
-
Exam ple :
Madis o n c o m es f r o m a
wea lth y f a m ily . J a ck c o m es f r o m E ngla nd.
co m e i n -
(in se p ara b le ) - - t o f in is h
-
Exam ple :
Madis o n c a m e i n l a st i n t h e
ra ce, b ut s h e e n jo yed h erse lf.
co m e i n to -
(in se p ara b le ) - - t o a cq uir e
-
Exam ple :
Madis o n c a m e i n to m oney
when s h e w as 2 1, a fte r h er p are n ts s u dden ly d ie d .
co m e o ff ( 1 )-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o g iv e t h e i m pre ssio n
-
Exam ple :
Ja ck c o m es o ff a s a h ard p erso n, b ut i n f a ct h e i s q uite c a rin g.
co m e o ff ( 2 )-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o s to p t a k in g a d ru g o r m ed ic atio n
-
Exam ple :
Mic k i s c o m in g o ff d ru gs, h e h as a s e rio us a ddic tio n.

co m e o n -
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o g iv e t h e i m pre ssio n
-
Exam ple :
Ja ck
co m es o n a s a h ard p erso n, b ut i n f a ct h e i s q uite c a rin g.
co m e o n -
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o s ta rt t o w ork ( w ate r, e le ctr ic ity e tc ..)
-
Exam ple :
The e le ctr ic ity c a m e b ack o n t w o h ours a fte r t h e p ow er c u t.
co m e o u t-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o b e r e v eale d o r t o r e v eal i n fo rm atio n
-
Exam ple :
The p la yer’s p ast c a m e o ut w hen h is o ld f r ie n ds s p oke t o t h e p re ss.
co m e o ver-
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o v is it c au sa lly o r s p onta n eo usly
-
Exam ple :
Com e o ver f o r d in ner t o nig ht, w e´r e h avin g a S unday r o ast!
co m e t h ro u gh -
(in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o d o w hat i s e x pecte d
-
Exam ple :
Willia m c a m e t h ro ugh o nly a fte r W anda b eg ged h im f o r t h re e d ays t o g et t h e
tic kets f o r t h e g am e.
co m e t o -
(in se p ara b le ) – t o t o ta l ( c o untin g m oney )
-
Exam ple :
The r e sta ura nt
bill c o m es t o 1 50 d olla rs
co m e u p-
( in tr a n sitiv e - n o o bje ct) – t o b e m en tio ned i n c o nvers a tio n-
Exam ple :
The t o pic o f h is m oney p ro ble m s c a m e u p d urin g t h e c o nversa tio n.
co m e u p w it h -
(in se p ara b le ) – t o i n ven t o r t h in k a b out s o m eth in g n ew
-
Exam ple :
Jo e c a m e u p w ith a v ery g ood i d ea f o r t h e m ark etin g c a m paig n.
co m e u pon -
(in se p ara b le ) – t o d is c o ver b y a ccid en t
- Exam ple :
While c le a nin g

th e h ouse , w e c a m e u pon a n a m azin g p ic tu re f r o m t h e 1 9
th
c en tu ry .

E xercis e 1
:
W rit e t h e c o rrect p rep osit io n t o m ak e m ea n in gfu l s e n te n ces.
1 .
Mary c o m es … ………….. I re la n d a n d s h e w as b orn i n D ublin .
2 .
Ja so n c am e … …………….. l a st i n t h e m ara th on.
3 .
He c am e… …………. h om e q uite l a te , b ut h e h ad a g ood r e aso n.
4 .
I c am e … ………….. s o m e o ld f rie n ds a t t h e p arty .
5 .
The p ric e o f o il i s c o m in g … …………, s o d em an d w ill g o u p.
6 .
She i s t r y in g t o c o m e … ……….. t h e m ed ic atio n b ut s h e h as t o d o i t
gra d ually .
7 .
They c am e … …………….. t o C oven tr y l a st C hris tm as, s o w e´v e
got t o g o o ver t o t h eir s t h is y ear.

E xercis e 2
:
C om ple te t h e p hra sa l v erb f o r e a ch s e n te n ce. U se t h e g lo ssa ry i n t h is u nit
i f y ou n eed t o .
1 .
I … ……………….. a l o t o f m oney w hen I t u rn ed 1 8 b ecau se I
in herite d i t f ro m m y g ra n dpare n ts .
2 .
Now I r e m em ber! I t´ s a ll … ……………. t o m e.

3 .
The t r u th … …………………………… w hen o ne o f t h e w itn esse s
sp oke t o r e p orte rs a n d i t w as p ublis h ed i n t h e p re ss.
4 .
We n eed t o … ……………… w ith s o m e c re ativ e i d eas f o r t h e n ew
sto ry . I t s h ould b e a n a ctio n t h rille r w ith a s tr o ng m ain c h ara cte r.

Answ ers:
Exercis e 1
1 .
Mary c o m es f r o m I r e la nd a nd s h e w as b orn i n D ublin .
2 .
Ja so n c a m e i n l a st i n t h e m ara th on.
3 .
He c a m e b ack h om e q uite l a te , b ut h e h ad a g ood r e a so n.
4 .
I c a m e a cro ss s o m e o ld f r ie n ds a t t h e p arty .
5 .
The p ric e o f o il i s c o m in g d ow n, s o d em and w ill g o u p.
6 .
She i s t r y in g t o c o m e o ff t h e m ed ic a tio n b ut s h e h as t o d o i t
gra dually .
7 .
They c a m e o ver t o C oven tr y l a st C hris tm as, s o w e´v e g ot t o g o o ver
to t h eir s t h is y ea r.
Exercis e 2
1 .
Cam e i n to
2 .
Com in g b ack
3 .
Cam e o ut
4 .
Com e u p

C HAPT ER
1 7
B ONUS
C
HAPT ER
: F
ORM AL
V S I
NFO RM AL
L ANG UAG E
S IX Q uic k R ule s o f F orm al V S I n fo rm al:
1 . W e t e n d t o u nders ta te o ur f e elin gs a n d w ould s a y I w as r a th er d is a p poin te d
o r I w as s o m ew hat s u rp ris e d i n ste ad o f s a y in g h ow w e r e ally f e lt.
2 . F or t h e s a m e r e aso n, w e d o n ot u se e x cla m atio n m ark s.
3 . W e o fte n u se t h e p assiv e t o e m phasiz e t h e a ctio n w hen t h e p ers o n i s o f l e ss
i m porta n ce
4 . W e a v oid c o ntr a ctio ns i n f o rm al l e tte rs .
5 . W e u se f o rm al e q uiv ale n ce o f i d io m atic l a n guag e a n d p hra sa l v erb s
6 . P artic u la r s e n te n ce s tr u ctu re s c an b e u se d t o c re ate a f o rm al t o ne. I n vers io n
i s o ne e x am ple o f t h is “ A lth ough w e w ere o ffe re d a n a lte rn ativ e d is h , w hen i t
w as d eliv ere d t o t h e t a b le i t w as c o ld a g ain ”.

E xercis e 1
:
R ew rit e t h e f o llo w in g s e n te n ces u sin g f o rm al e q uiv ale n ts f o r t h e p hra sa l
v erb s. U se a d ic tio n ary i f n ecessa ry . Y ou m ig h t n eed t o m ak e o th er
c h an ges t o t h e s tr u ctu res.
1 ) I ’m s o c h uffe d t h at y ou’v e b een t a lk ed i n to c o m in g t o t h e m eetin g.
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
2 ) T he f o otb all c lu b’s f a cilitie s h av e b een d one u p, s o t h is s h ould m ak e o ur
p erfo rm an ces b ette r.
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
3 ) A s o ur t o w n i s q uite c u t o ff, p erh ap s w e c o uld a rra n ge f o r y ou t o b e p ut u p
i n a h ote l i n t h e c ity f o r a f e w d ay s.
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
4 ) W e w ill m ak e u p f o r t h e i n co nven ie n ce o f h av in g t o w ait f o r s o l o ng.
… ……………………………………………………………………………..
… ……………………………………………………………………………..

A nsw ers
:
1 ) I a m v ery h appy t h at y o u h ave b een c o nvin ced t o a tte n d t h e m eetin g.
2 ) T he f o otb all c lu b’s f a cilitie s h ave b een r e fu rb is h ed , w hic h s h ould i m pro ve
o ur p erfo rm ances.
3 ) A s o ur t o w n i s q uite i s o la te d , w e c o uld a rra nge h ote l a cco m modatio n i n
t h e c ity f o r a f e w d ays.
4 ) W e w ill c o m pen sa te y o u f o r t h e i n co nven ie n ce o f h avin g t o w ait f o r s o
l o ng.

F orm al V S I n fo rm al L an gu age L is t:
I t i s v ita l t h at y ou c an d is tin guis h b etw een f o rm al a n d i n fo rm al l a n guag e i n
E nglis h , n ot o nly f o r t h is e x am , b ut a ls o f o r l if e i n g en era l. W ritin g a l e tte r o r
e m ail t o a f rie n d i s o bvio usly n ot t h e s a m e a s w ritin g a l e tte r o f
r e co m men datio n f o r a f rie n d w ho h as a p plie d f o r a j o b.
H ere a re s o m e e x am ple s o f f o rm al a n d i n fo rm al w ord s w ith t h e s a m e
m ean in g,
F O RM AL
I N FO RM AL
t o d ep art
g o
t o r e ta in
k eep
t o c ease
s to p
t o f u nctio n
w ork
t o d em onstr a te
s h ow
t o r e sid e
l iv e
d efic ie n cy
l a ck
p ers p ir a tio n
s w eat
i n ex pen siv e
c h eap
r e q uir e
n eed
n ex t / l a te r
s u bse q uen tly
c h ild is h
i m matu re , i n fa n til
e
e n ough
s u ffic ie n t
m ore ( in fo rm atio n)
f u rth er
t o h elp
a ssis t, a id
t o f re e
l ib era te
t o g et
o bta in

wan t
t o d esir e
to a sk f o r
r e q uest
so
t h ere fo re
lo ok f o r t o s e ek

C HAPT ER
1 8
B ONUS
C
HAPT ER
: 1 01 I E LT S G
RAM MAR
R ULES
( Q
UIC K
N
OTES
)
T his s h ort b onus c h ap te r i s a n I n sta n t N ote s m in i- b ook, w hic h h as b een
w ritte n t o s e rv e a s a q uic k r e v is io n g uid e f o r E nglis h s tu den ts . T hese
g ra m mar t ip s a re p artic u la rly c ru cia l i n t h e S peak in g a n d W ritin g s e ctio ns o f
e x am s a n d i n s p oken a n d w ritte n E nglis h i n g en era l.
O nce y ou r e ad a n d i n te rn aliz e t h e a d vic e i n t h is m in i- b ook, y ou w ill b e b ette r
e q uip ped t o s u ccessfu lly t a k e a r a n ge o f E nglis h l a n guag e e x am s a t v ario us
l e v els , f ro m B 1 t o C 2.
L et´ s g et s ta rte d !
1 01 E nglis h G ra m mar R ule s
1 . T he w ord “
peo p le ”
i s A LW AYS p lu ra l.
P eo ple a re a lw ay s t a lk in g a b out h im ( N OT P eo ple i s ...)
T he p eo ple i n t h e r o om w ere s ta rtin g t o g et n erv ous. ( N OT: T he p eo ple i n t h e r o om w as… )
2 . A fte r
wou ld r a th er
, u se a n i n fin itiv e ( w ith out t o ) o r a p ast t e n se , n ot a p re se n t t e n se
.
I 'd r a th er s ta y a t h om e t h is e v en in g. ( N OT I 'd r a th er t o s ta y a t h om e...)
I w ould r a th er y ou p aid m e i n c ash . ( N OT I w ould r a th er y ou p ay m e i n c ash .)
3 . U se a n
-in g
f o rm a fte r b e/g et u se d t o .
I 'm u se d t o d riv in g i n L ondon n ow , b ut i t w as h ard a t t h e b eg in nin g. ( N OT I 'm u se d t o d riv e...)
I 'l l n ev er g et u se d t o l iv in g i n t h is p la ce.
4 .
How l o n g a re y ou h ere f o r?
I s a q uestio n a b out t h e f u tu re .
' H ow l o ng a re y ou h ere f o r? ' 'T ill E aste r.' ( N OT 'S in ce C hris tm as.')
5 . D on't u se
co u ld
t o t a lk a b out s o m eth in g t h at y ou s u cceed ed i n d oin g.

I m an ag ed t o r u n 1 0 k m y este rd ay i n u nder a n h our. ( N OT I c o uld r u n 1 0 k m y este rd ay ...)
How m an y e g gs w ere y ou a b le t o g et? ( N OT ...c o uld y ou g et? )
6.
In dir ect q uestio n s
u su ally h av e t h e s a m e c o nstr u ctio n a s s ta te m en ts .
I a sk ed w here h er p are n ts w ere . ( N OT U SU ALLY I a sk ed w here w ere h er p are n ts .)
The p olic em an w an te d t o k now w here I l iv ed . ( N OT ...w here d id I l iv e?
)
7. T o s a y t h at s o m eth in g i s n ot n ecessa ry , u se
need n't
o r
don 't h ave t o
, n ot m ustn 't .
You n eed n't p ay n ow ; t o m orro w w ill b e O K. ( N OT Y ou m ustn 't p ay n ow ; t o m orro w w ill b e O K.)
I d on't h av e t o w ear a t ie a t w ork . ( N OT I m ustn 't w ear a t ie a t w ork .)
8.
Every th in g
i s a s in gula r w ord .
Every th in g w as b ro ken . ( N OT E very th in g w ere b ro ken .)
Is e v ery th in g r e ad y?
9. U se
beca u se
o r
so
, b ut n ot b oth t o geth er.
Becau se t h e t r a in w as l a te I m is se d t h e m eetin g. O R T he t r a in w as l a te , s o I m is se d t h e m eetin g. ( B U T
NOT B ecau se t h e t r a in w as l a te , s o I m is se d t h e m eetin g.)
10. W e
sa y s o m eth in g t o a p erso n
.
She n ev er s a y s 'H ello ' t o m e. ( N OT S he n ev er s a y s m e 'H ello '. )
Andre w h as s a id n oth in g t o P ete r. ( N OT A ndre w h as s a id P ete r n oth in g.)
11.
Tell
n orm ally n eed s a p ers o nal o bje ct
.
He t o ld u s t h at h e w as g oin g h om e. ( N OT H e t o ld t h at h e w as g oin g h om e.)
I'v e t o ld y ou e v ery th in g I k now .
12. D on't u se
ev ery
t o t a lk a b out t w o p eo ple o r t h in gs.
You c an p ark o n e ach s id e o f t h e s tr e et. ( N OT ...o n e v ery s id e o f t h e s tr e et. )
He w as h old in g a g la ss i n e ach h an d.
13.
Far
i s u nusu al i n a ffir m ativ e s e n te n ces, e x cep t i n a v ery f o rm al s ty le .
We l iv e a l o ng w ay f ro m h ere . ( N OT U SU ALLY W e l iv e f a r f ro m h ere .)
It's a l o ng w ay t o M an ch este r.
14. W e d on't u su ally u se
befo re
t o m ean 'i n f ro nt o f'.

You c an p ark i n f ro nt o f t h e s ta tio n. ( N OT ... b efo re t h e s ta tio n.)
There 's a b ig t r e e j u st i n f ro nt o f o ur h ouse .
15. A fte r
lo ok
, w e u se a t w ith a n o bje ct.
Look a t t h e m oon! ( N OT L ook t h e m oon!)
What a re y ou l o okin g a t
?
16. W e u se
when
, n ot a s o r w hile , t o t a lk a b out a g es a n d p erio ds o f l if e .
When I w as 1 4 I f ir s t g ot i n te re ste d i n a rc h aeo lo gy. ( N OT A s/W hile I w as 1 4...)
We l iv ed i n L ondon w hen I w as a c h ild . ( N OT ... a s/w hile I w as a c h ild .)
17. A fte r
as l o n g a s
, u se a p re se n t t e n se t o r e fe r t o t h e f u tu re .
I'l l r e m em ber t h is h olid ay a s l o ng a s I l iv e. ( N OT ... a s l o ng a s I w ill l iv e.)
You c an h av e m y b ik e a s l o ng a s y ou b rin g i t b ack t o m orro w .
18. W e s a y
as u su al
, n ot a s u su ally .
Let's m eet t o m orro w a t 1 0.0 0, a s u su al.
Van essa l a te a s u su al.
19.
As w ell a s
( w ith a s im ila r m ean in g t o 'n ot o nly ... b ut a ls o ') i s n orm ally f o llo w ed b y a n - in g f o rm .
As w ell a s b re ak in g h is l e g , h e h urt h is a rm . ( N OT A s w ell a s h e b ro ke h is l e g ...)
He w ork s f u ll t im e a s w ell a s b rin gin g u p t h re e c h ild re n .
20. E xpre ssio ns l ik e
in t h ree h ou rs' t im e
r e fe r t o t h e f u tu re
.
We'l l n eed t h e r e p ort i n t w o w eek s' t im e. ( B U T N OT H e w ro te t h e r e p ort i n f o ur h ours ' t im e.)
I'l l s e e y ou a g ain i n a m onth 's t im e.
21. W e d on't n orm ally u se
to
a fte r a rriv e.
What t im e d o w e a rriv e i n L ondon? ( N OT … a rriv e t o L ondon? )
The t r a in a rriv ed a t o ur s ta tio n h alf a n h our l a te .
22.
Beca u se
is a c o nju nctio n; b ecau se o f i s a p re p ositio n.
We c an celle d t h e m atc h b ecau se i t r a in ed . ( N OT … b ecau se o f i t r a in ed .)
We c an celle d t h e m atc h b ecau se o f t h e r a in . ( N OT … becau se t h e r a in .)

23. A fte r t h e v erb
la ck
, n o p re p ositio n i s n ecessa ry .
The s o up l a ck s s a lt. ( N OT … l a ck s o f s a lt.)
It's a g ood n ovel, b ut i t l a ck s s tr u ctu re .
24.
Befo re
( m ean in g ‘ b efo re t h at') f o llo w s a n e x pre ssio n o f t im e.
Last s u m mer, I d ecid ed t o g o a n d v is it t h e t o w n t h at I h ad l e ft e ig ht y ears b efo re . ( N OT … b efo re e ig ht
years .)
I h ad a lr e ad y m et h er o nce, a b out t h re e y ears b efo re .
25.
New s
i s s in gula r a n d u nco unta b le
All t h e n ew s i s b ad . ( N OT A ll t h e n ew s a re b ad .)
I h av e s o m e n ew s f o r y ou ( N OT I h av e a n ew s f o r y ou)
26. Y ou
borro w s o m eth in g f r o m s o m eb od y
.
I b orro w ed t h e m oney f ro m m y b ro th er. ( N OT I b orro w ed m y b ro th er t h e m oney .)
Can w e b orro w s o m e s u gar f ro m y ou?
27. W e p re fe r
clo se d
, n ot s h ut, b efo re a n oun.
When I t a lk t o y ou, I f e el a s i f I 'm s ta n din g i n f ro nt o f a c lo se d d oor. ( N OT … a s h ut d oor.)
He's g ot a c lo se d m in d. Y ou c an 't t e ll h im a n yth in g.
28. W e s a y
co m e f r o m
( p re se n t) t o g iv e o ur t o w n, c o untr y e tc o f o rig in .
Ja m es c o m es f ro m L iv erp ool. ( N OT J a m es c am e f ro m L iv erp ool.)
Where d o y ou c o m e f ro m ?
29. C om para tiv es a re m ad e w ith
more
o r
-e r
, b ut
nev er b oth .
The w eath er i s g ettin g c o ld er. ( N OT … m ore c o ld er.)
Ple ase t r y t o b e m ore p olite . ( N OT … m ore p olite r.
)
30. W e n ev er u se
on t h e c o n tr a ry
t o g iv e a n oth er s id e o f a q uestio n.
It's h ard w ork . O n t h e o th er h an d, i t's i n te re stin g. ( N OT o n t h e c o ntr a ry , i t's i n te re stin g.)
She's v ery b ad -te m pere d . O n t h e o th er h an d, s h e's g en ero us.
31. I n a ffir m ativ e s e n te n ces w e g en era lly u se
a l o n g t im e
, n ot
lo n g
, e x cep t i n a v ery f o rm al s ty le .
We w aite d a l o ng t im e, b ut s h e d id n’t c o m e. ( N OT W e w aite d l o ng, b ut … )

It w ill b e a l o ng t im e b efo re w e i n vite h er a g ain .
32. U se s u perla tiv es t o c o m pare p eo ple a n d t h in gs w ith t h e g ro ups t h at t h ey b elo ng t o .
San dra i s t h e t a lle st o f t h e f iv e g ir ls . ( N OT S an dra i s t h e t a lle r o f t h e f iv e g ir ls .)
I t h in k I ’m t h e o ld est p ers o n i n t h e c la ss.
33. W e o fte n u se
i n
a fte r d re sse d t o d esc rib e t h e c lo th es
She w as d re sse d i n y ello w f ro m h ead t o f o ot. S he l o oked l ik e a d affo dil.
The b rid e w as d re sse d i n w hite s ilk .
34. W e d on’t u se
it … + i n fin it iv e
w ith a llo w
.
Sm okin g i s n ot a llo w ed . ( N OT I t i s n ot a llo w ed t o s m oke.)
We w ere n ’t a llo w ed t o u se c alc u la to rs i n t h e e x am . ( N OT I t w asn ’t a llo w ed t o u se … )
35.
Whose
m ean s ‘
who i s ’
o r ‘
who h as’
;
whose
i s a p osse ssiv e.
Who’s t h at? ( N OT W hose t h at? )
Who’s t a k en m y k ey s? ( N OT W hose t a k en m y k ey s? )
Whose c o at i s t h at? ( N OT W ho’s c o at i s t h at? )
36. W e d on’t u su ally u se
oth er
w ith u nco unta b le n ouns.
Can I h av e m ore r ic e? ( N OT … o th er r ic e?)
Perh ap s w e s h ould u se d if fe re n t o il. ( N OT … o th er o il.)
37. W e u se
eit h er
, n ot
an y
, t o t a lk a b out t w o p eo ple o r t h in gs.
I c an w rite w ith e ith er h an d. ( N OT … w ith a n y h an d.)
‘D o y ou p re fe r M onday o r T uesd ay ?’ ‘ E ith er d ay w ill d o.’
38. D on’t p ut a rtic le s a n d p osse ssiv es t o geth er b efo re n ouns.
She’s a f rie n d o f m in e. O R S he’s m y f rie n d. ( B U T N OT S he’s a m y f rie n d.)
Pete r’s l o st h is k ey s. ( N OT … t h e h is k ey s.
)
39. W e s a y t h at s o m eb ody i s
good , b ad , c le v er e tc a t s o m eth in g
.
My s is te r i s v ery g ood a t S cie n ce. ( N OT … g ood i n S cie n ce.)
I’m v ery b ad a t l a n guag es.

40. D on’t l e av e o ut
a/a n
i n n eg ativ e e x pre ssio ns.
Don’t g ot o ut w ith out a c o at. ( N OT … w ith out c o at.)
It’ s d if fic u lt t o g et t h ere i f y ou h av en ’t g ot a b ik e. ( N OT … i f y ou h av en ’t g ot b ik e.)
41. W e u se
an y
, n ot e v ery , t o s a y ‘ o ne o r a n oth er’.
‘W hic h n ew sp ap er w ould y ou l ik e?’ ‘ It d oesn ’t m atte r. A ny o ne.’ ( N OT … e v ery o ne.)
‘W hen w ould y ou l ik e t o c o m e t o d in ner? ’ ‘ A ny d ay i s O K.’
42.
Advic e
i s u nco unta b le .
Can y ou g iv e m e s o m e a d vic e? ( N OT … a n a d vic e?)
My f a th er g av e m e t h re e p ie ces o f a d vic e. ( N OT … t h re e a d vic es.)
43. W e d on’t u se
so m e
i f w e k now t h e e x act n um ber.
You’v e g ot b eau tif u l f in gers . ( N OT … s o m e b eau tif u l f in gers .)
A m ounta in b ik e n eed s t o h av e s tr o ng w heels . ( N OT … s o m e s tr o ng w heels .
)
44. W e d on´t u se a rtic le s i n s o m e c o m mon e x pre ssio ns w ith
hom e
,
sc h ool
a n d
bed
.
Why i s n ’t A ngela a t s c h ool t o day ? ( N OT … a t t h e s c h ool t o day ?)
I w an t t o s p en d a d ay i n b ed .
45. W hen
whic h ? w hat?
o r
who?
a re s u bje cts , w e m ak e q uestio ns w ith out d o.
Whic h c o sts m ore - t h e b lu e o ne o r t h e g re y o ne? ( N OT W hic h d oes c o st m ore … ?)
What h ap pen ed t o y our b ik e? ( N OT W hat d id h ap pen t o y our b ik e?)
Who p honed ? ( N OT W ho d id p hone?)
46. W e d on´t u se a rtic le s a fte r t h e
am ou nt/n um ber o f
.
I w as s u rp ris e d b y t h e a m ount o f m oney t h at w as c o lle cte d . ( N OT … t h e a m ount o f t h e m oney … )
The n um ber o f u nem plo yed r o se s h arp ly l a st m onth . ( N OT T he n um ber o f t h e u nem plo yed … )
47. W e u se
beca u se
, n ot a s o r s in ce, i f t h e r e aso n i s t h e m ost i m porta n t p art o f t h e s e n te n ce.
Why a m I l e av in g? I ’m l e av in g b ecau se I ’m f e d u p. ( N OT I ’m l e av in g a s/s in ce I ’m f e d u p.)
They ’re l a u ghin g b ecau se t h ey t h in k y our h at’ s f u nny.
48.
Tra vel
i s n orm ally u nco unta b le .
I l ik e t r a v el.

We w en t o n a t r ip /jo urn ey t o t h e A nta rc tic l a st s p rin g. ( N OT W e w en t o n a t r a v el … )
49.
Can
h as n o i n fin itiv e. W e u se
be a b le t o
i n ste ad .
I’d l ik e t o b e a b le t o s in g. ( N OT … t o c an s in g.)
When w ill y ou b e a b le t o m eet u s?
50. T he d if fe re n ce b etw een
a
an d
an
d ep en ds o n p ro nuncia tio n, n ot s p ellin g.
She’s a U S c itiz en . ( N OT S he’s a n U S c itiz en .)
Would y ou l ik e t o b e a n M P? ( N OT … a M P?)
51.
Wea th er
i s u nco unta b le .
We h ad t e rrib le w eath er l a st w eek . ( N OT … a t e rrib le w eath er … )
I h ope w e g et g ood w eath er a t t h e w eek en d.
52. W ord s l ik e
Presid en t, K in g, D octo r
i n t itle s h av e n o a rtic le .
Pre sid en t O bam a v is ite d t h e P ope. ( N OT T he P re sid en t O bam a … )
I'd l ik e t o s e e D r J o nes. ( N OT … t h e D r J o nes.
)
53. W e u su ally u se
over
, n ot a cro ss, t o m ean 'o n/to t h e o th er s id e o f s o m eth in g h ig h'.
Why a re y ou c lim bin g o ver t h at w all? ( N OT … a cro ss t h at w all? )
I t h re w h is k ey s o ver t h e f e n ce, w here h e c o uld n't g et t h em .
54.
Actu ally m ea n s ' r ea lly ' o r ' in f a ct'
, n ot 'n ow '.
She s a id s h e w as 1 8, b ut a ctu ally s h e w as 1 5.
In 1 700 t h e p opula tio n o f L ondon w as h ig her t h an i t i s n ow . ( N OT … t h an i t a ctu ally i s .)
55.
Asle ep a n d a fr a id
a re n ot n orm ally u se d b efo re n ouns.
He h ad t h e i n nocen t e x pre ssio n o f a s le ep in g b ab y. ( N OT … o f a n a sle ep b ab y.)
In t h e h ouse , w e f o und a f rig hte n ed c h ild h id in g i n t h e k itc h en . ( N OT … a n a fra id c h ild .)
56. W e d on't u su ally p ut a n a d verb a n d i ts c o m ple m en t t o geth er b efo re a n oun.
We'r e l o okin g f o r p eo ple w ho a re s k ille d i n d esig n. ( N OT … s k ille d i n d esig n p eo ple .)
He h as a d if fic u lt a ccen t t o u nders ta n d. ( N OT … a d if fic u lt t o u nders ta n d a ccen t.)
57.
Even tu ally m ea n s ' f in ally '
, n ot ´ fro m t im e t o t im e´, 'p ossib ly ' o r 'p erh ap s'
.

It t o ok a l o ng t im e, b ut e v en tu ally h e f in is h ed h is s tu die s.
I'm n ot s u re w hat I 'l l d o n ex t y ear. P erh ap s I 'l l g o t o u niv ers ity i f I c an g et a p la ce. ( N OT E ven tu ally I 'l l
go t o u niv ers ity … )
58. W e d on't u su ally u se
t o o
b efo re a d je ctiv e + n oun.
The p ro ble m w as t o o d if fic u lt. ( B U T N OT I t w as a t o o d if fic u lt p ro ble m .)
I p ut d ow n t h e b ag b ecau se i t w as t o o h eav y. ( B U T N OT I p ut d ow n t h e t o o h eav y b ag .)
59. W e u su ally p ut d esc rip tiv e a d je ctiv es b efo re c la ssif y in g a d je ctiv es.
An o ld p olitic al i d ea ( N OT A p olitic al o ld i d ea)
The l a te st e d ucatio nal r e fo rm ( N OT T he e d ucatio nal l a te st r e fo rm )
60. N ouns r e fe rrin g t o n atio nality a re o fte n d if fe re n t f ro m t h e c o rre sp ondin g a d je ctiv es.
Gra h am i s t y pic al W els h m an . ( N OT … a t y pic al W els h .)
He's m arrie d t o a S pan ia rd . ( N OT … a S pan is h .)
61.
Adje ctiv es t h at e x p ress o p in io n s
u su ally c o m e b efo re o th er d esc rip tiv e a d je ctiv es.
a l o vely c o ol d rin k ( N OT a c o ol l o vely d rin k)
th eir w onderfu l o ld h ouse ( N OT t h eir o ld w onderfu l h ouse )
62.
Pro n ou n o b je cts
c o m e b efo re a d verb p artic le s.
Can y ou s w itc h i t o n, p le ase ? ( N OT … sw itc h o n i t… )
I’m g oin g t o t h ro w t h em a ll o ut. ( N OT … t h ro w o ut t h em a ll.)
63.
Adverb s
c an ’t u su ally b e u se d i n ste ad o f a d je ctiv es.
She d an ced h ap pily i n to t h e r o om . ( N OT S he d an ced h ap py … )
I’m t e rrib ly s o rry . ( N OT I ’m t e rrib le s o rry .)
64.
Afte r a ll
d oesn ’t m ean ‘ fin ally ’. I t m ean s ‘
all t h in gs c o n sid ered ’ o r ‘ in s p it e o f w hat w as
ex p ecte d ’.
It t o ok a l o ng t im e, b ut f in ally w e f o und o ur d re am h ouse . ( N OT … b ut a fte r a ll w e f o und o ur d re am
house .)
She c an m ak e h er o w n b ed . A fte r a ll, s h e’s n ot a b ab y a n y m ore .
I e x pecte d t o f a il t h e e x am , b ut I p asse d a fte r a ll.
65.
Ago
c o m es a fte r a n e x pre ssio n o f t im e.

Ann p honed t w o h ours a g o. ( N OT … a g o t w o h ours .)
I s h ould h av e f in is h ed t h is w ork s ix w eek s a g o.
66. W e d on’t n orm ally u se
all
w ith out a n oun t o m ean ‘ e v ery body’.
Every body w as q uie t. ( N OT A ll w ere q uie t.
)
I’v e w ritte n t o e v ery body. ( N OT I ’v e w ritte n t o a ll.)
67. I n
ex cla m atio n s w it h h ow
, t h e a d je ctiv e o r a d verb c o m es i m med ia te ly a fte r h ow .
How c o ld i t i s ! ( N OT H ow i t i s c o ld !)
How w ell s h e s in gs! ( N OT H ow s h e s in gs w ell! )
68. W e d on’t u se
ev ery
w ith u nco unta b le n ouns.
I l ik e a ll m usic . ( N OT I l ik e e v ery m usic .)
I c an d o e v ery k in d o f w ork . ( N OT … e v ery w ork .)
69. A fte r
eit h er,
w e u se a s in gula r n oun.
I c an c o m e o n W ed nesd ay o r T hurs d ay - e ith er d ay i s O K. ( N OT … e ith er d ay s … )
She c an w rite w ith e ith er h an d.
70. W e u su ally a sk ‘
What c o lo u r … ?
’ w ith out a p re p ositio n.
What c o lo ur i s y our n ew b ik e? ( N OT O f w hat c o lo ur … ?)
What c o lo ur i s h er h air t h is w eek ?
71. W e d on’t u su ally d ro p n ouns
afte r a d je ctiv es
.
Poor l ittle b oy! ( N OT P oor l ittle !
)
The m ost i m porta n t t h in g i s t o b e h ap py. ( N OT T he m ost i m porta n t i s t o b e h ap py.)
72.
All d ay
d oesn ’t m ean t h e s a m e a s e v ery d ay .
I w ork ed a ll d ay y este rd ay , f ro m 8 .0 0 t ill b ed tim e.
I w ork ed e v ery d ay e x cep t S unday l a st w eek . ( N OT … a ll d ay e x cep t S unday … )
73. D on’t d ro p
a/a n a fte r w hat
i n e x cla m atio ns.
What a r u de m an ! ( N OT W hat r u de m an !)
What a n a w fu l f ilm ! ( N OT W hat a w fu l f ilm !)

74.
Exp erie n ce
a n d
ex p erim en t
d on’t m ean t h e s a m e.
We d id a n e x perim en t i n t h e c h em is tr y l e sso n t o s e e i f y ou c o uld g et c h lo rin e g as f ro m s a lt. ( N OT W e
did a n e x perie n ce … )
I’m e x perim en tin g w ith a n ew p erfu m e.
I h ad a l o t o f i n te re stin g e x perie n ces d urin g m y y ear i n A fric a. ( N OT I h ad a l o t o f i n te re stin g
ex perim en ts … )
Hav e y ou e v er e x perie n ced t h e f e elin g t h at y ou w ere g oin g m ad ? ( N OT H av e y ou e v er e x perim en te d
th e f e elin g … ?)
75. W e d on’t u su ally u se
refle x iv e p ro n ou ns
afte r
fe el
.
I f e el r e ally e n erg etic t o day . ( N OT I f e el m yse lf r e ally … )
Andre w o fte n f e els d ep re sse d . ( N OT … f e els h im se lf d ep re sse d .
)
76. W e u se
half
w ith out o f i n e x pre ssio ns o f m easu re m en t a n d a m ount.
They l iv e a b out h alf a m ile f ro m h ere . ( N OT … h alf o f a m ile … )
I o nly n eed h alf a p in t.
77. W e u se
hea r
, n ot l is te n t o , t o s a y t h at s o m eth in g ‘ c o m es t o o ur e ars ’.
Sudden ly I h eard a s tr a n ge n ois e . ( N OT S udden ly I l is te n ed t o a s tr a n ge n ois e .)
Did y ou h ear t h at?
78. A fte r
help
, w e c an u se o bje ct + i n fin itiv e ( w ith o r w ith out t o ).
Can y ou h elp m e ( to ) f in d m y r in g? ( N OT … h elp m e f in din g m y r in g?)
Let m e h elp y ou ( to ) w ash u p.
79. W e u su ally s a y
hop e

not
, r a th er t h an d o n ot h ope.
I h ope i t d oesn ’t r a in t o m orro w . ( N OT I d on’t h ope i t r a in s t o m orro w .)
‘Is P ete r c o m in g t h is e v en in g?’ ‘ I h ope n ot.’
80. W e s a y t h at y ou
cra sh i n to
s o m eth in g
.
Gra n ny c ra sh ed i n to a t r e e y este rd ay . ( N OT G ra n ny c ra sh ed a g ain st a t r e e y este rd ay .)
The p la n e c ra sh ed i n to a m ounta in .
81.
Sin gu la r f o rm s
a re u se d b efo re n ouns i n p lu ra l m easu rin g e x pre ssio ns.
I f o und a t e n -e u ro n ote o n t h e p av em en t. ( N OT … a t e n -e u ro s n ote … )

He g oes f o r a f iv e-m ile w alk e v ery m orn in g.
82.
It's
m ean s 'i t i s ' o r 'i t h as'; i ts i s a p osse ssiv e.
It's l a te . ( N OT I ts l a te .)
It's s to pped r a in in g. ( N OT I ts s to pped r a in in g.)
The d og h asn 't e ate n i ts f o od. ( N OT … it's f o od.)
83. W e d on't u su ally u se
als o
i n s h ort a n sw ers .
'I l ik e t h is p la ce.' 'M e t o o.' ( N OT I a ls o .)
'I 'v e g ot a h ead ach e.' 'S o h av e I .' ( N OT I h av e a ls o .)
84. W e d on't u su ally p ut
a c o m ma
b efo re t h at ( c o nju nctio n o r r e la tiv e p ro noun).
I k new t h at I h ad s e en h im s o m ew here b efo re . ( N OT I k new , t h at …
)
She c o uld n't f in d t h e p ap er t h at h ad h is a d dre ss o n. ( N OT … t h e p ap er, t h at h ad … )
85.
Rest
( m ean in g 't h in gs l e ft o ver') i s u nco unta b le .
I'l l t a k e t h ese g ra p es a n d y ou c an h av e t h e r e st. ( N OT … t h e r e sts .)
We'r e h av in g l e ft- o vers f o r s u pper. ( N OT W e'r e h av in g r e sts … )
86.
Sam e
i s n orm ally u se d w ith
th e
, a n d f o llo w ed b y
as
.
Giv e m e t h e s a m e a g ain , p le ase . ( N OT G iv e m e s a m e a g ain , p le ase .)
She h as t h e s a m e b ir th day a s m e. ( N OT S he h as m y s a m e b ir th day . O R S he h as s a m e b ir th day l ik e m e.)
87. A fte r
wou ld l ik e
, w e n orm ally u se a
-to i n fin it iv e
.
Would y ou l ik e t o d an ce? ( N OT W ould y ou l ik e d an cin g?)
I'd l ik e t o g o t o A ustr a lia . ( N OT I 'd l ik e g oin g t o A ustr a lia .)
88. W e u se
rem in d ( o f)
t o m ean 'm ak e s o m eb ody r e m em ber'.
Rem in d m e t o p ay t h e m ilk m an . ( N OT R em em ber m e t o p ay … )
The s m ell o f h ay r e m in ds m e o f m y c h ild hood. ( N OT … r e m em bers m e m y c h ild hood.)
For m ore d eta ils , s e e P ra ctic al E nglis h U sa g e T hir d E ditio n 4 99.
89. A fte r
accu se
, w e n orm ally u se
of
, n ot f o r
.
She a ccu se d m e o f r e ad in g h er l e tte rs . ( N OT … f o r r e ad in g h er l e tte rs .)

Both t h e y oung m en a re a ccu se d o f a tte m pte d m urd er.
90. W e d on't n orm ally u se a n i n fin itiv e a fte r
why
.
I k now h ow t o d o i t, a n d I k now w hen t o d o i t, b ut I d on't k now w hy I s h ould d o i t. ( N OT … I d on't
know w hy t o d o i t.)
Why d o w e l o ck t h is o ffic e?
91.
Dem on str a tiv es
r e p la ce a rtic le s.
I d on't l ik e t h at c o lo ur. ( N OT … t h e t h at c o lo ur.)
Hav e y ou s e en t h is r e p ort? ( N OT … t h e t h is r e p ort.)
92. W e d on't n orm ally u se p ro gre ssiv e f o rm s o f h ear.
I ( c an ) h ear t h e s e a. ( N OT I a m h earin g t h e s e a.)
I t h in k I ( c an ) h ear P ete r c o m in g u p t h e s ta ir s .
93. A fte r
dis c u ss
, n o p re p ositio n i s n ecessa ry .
We s p en t h alf a n h our d is c u ssin g t h e w eath er. ( N OT … d is c u ssin g a b out t h e w eath er.)
Let's d is c u ss y our p la n s.
94. W e u su ally d ro p
at
i n q uestio ns b eg in nin g W hat t im e … ?
What t im e w ould y ou l ik e t o e at? ( N OT U SU ALLY A t w hat t im e … ?
)
I'm n ot s u re w hat t im e t h e f ilm s ta rts .
95. W e s a y
on h olid ay
( s in gula r).
I'l l b e o n h olid ay n ex t w eek . ( N OT … o n h olid ay s … )
We m et J o hn a n d V ir g in ia w hen w e w ere o n h olid ay i n G re ece.
96. D on't d ro p
a b efo re h undre d .
Our f a m ily h as l iv ed h ere f o r a h undre d y ears . ( N OT … f o r h undre d y ears .)
The f a cto ry i s a b out a h undre d m ile s w est o f L ondon.
97. I f y ou c an 't s e e o r f in d s o m eb ody, t h ey a re
now here t o b e s e en /f o u nd
.
When I w en t b ack t o t h e c ar p ark , m y c ar w as n ow here t o b e s e en . ( N OT … m y c ar w as n ow here t o
se e.)
The c h ild re n w ere n ow here t o b e f o und. ( N OT … n ow here t o f in d.)

98. W e d on't n orm ally u se
mig h t
t o t a lk a b out p ast p ossib ility .
I f e lt v ery h ot a n d t h ir s ty . P erh ap s I w as i ll. ( N OT … I m ig ht b e i ll.)
I s a w a g ir l g oin g i n to P ete r's h ouse . M ay be i t w as J e an ne. ( N OT … I t m ig ht b e J e an ne.)
99. W e u se
bea t
, n ot w in , t o s a y t h at o ne p ers o n d efe ats a n oth er i n a g am e, f ig ht e tc
.
My g ir lf rie n d b eat m e a t p oker l a st n ig ht. ( N OT M y g ir lf rie n d w on m e a t p oker l a st n ig ht.)
Aberd een b eat B ris to l 3 -0 .
100. W e u se
ev en
, n ot a ls o , t o a d d s u rp ris in g i n fo rm atio n.
They w ere a ll a sle ep , e v en t h e g uard d og. ( N OT … a ls o t h e g uard d og.)
Every body w as i n t im e, e v en G ra n ny. ( N OT … als o G ra n ny.)
101.
Was v s. w ere
“If I w ere r ic h , I ’d b uy l o ts a n d l o ts o f s h oes.” ( N OT … I f I w as r ic h … ..)
This m is ta k e i s s o c o m mon a m ong n ativ e s p eak ers o f E nglis h t h at i t i s c o m monly a ccep ta b le t o s a y w as
an d i t i s e v en q uite p ossib le t h at t h e e x am in ers w on’t n otic e.
If w hat y ou’re s a y in g i s h ypoth etic al, t h en y ou n eed t o u se w ere . I f y ou’v e u se d “ if ,” t h at’ s a p re tty
good i n dic ato r t h at w ere i s a p pro pria te .
“I w ould n’t g o t h ere i f I w ere y ou.”
(Y ou’re n ot m e, s o i t’ s s u bju nctiv e)
or
“If I w ere a t h om e r ig ht n ow , I ’d b e w atc h in g a f ilm .

L IN KIN G
W
ORD S

Note : [ N P] = N oun P hra se , w hic h m ay i n clu de a n oun, o r a v erb al n oun ( -
in g f o rm ):
e.g . I n ste a d o f
co m pla in ts
, i t w ould b e b ette r t o o ffe r a dvic e
In ste a d o f
co m pla in in g,
Exercis e 1
Rew rit e t h e i n fo rm atio n b elo w i n 3 o r 4 s e n te n ces. Y ou m ust d ecid e h ow
th e i d ea s a re l o gic a lly r ela te d a n d t h en u se a m ark er o r c o n ju nctio n
(c o ord in atin g o r s u bord in atin g) t o m atc h y ou r m ea n in g.
Learn in g F re n ch i s n ot e asy . M an y p eo ple w ould a rg ue t h at l e arn in g S pan is h
is h ard er.
Fre n ch a n d E nglis h s h are a l o t o f s im ila ritie s i n t h eir v ocab ula ry . F re n ch a n d
Span is h b oth h av e d if fe re n t a rtic le s f o r m asc u lin e a n d f e m in in e n ouns. Y ou
hav e t o c h an ge t h e e n din gs o f a d je ctiv es t o m atc h t h e n ouns. T his i s h ard f o r
sp eak ers o f E nglis h . E nglis h d oes n ot u se a d je ctiv e e n din gs.
Most p eo ple b elie v e t h at s p eak in g E nglis h h elp s y ou t o s ta rt l e arn in g F re n ch
an d S pan is h . W hen y ou h av e p asse d t h e b asic s ta g es, E nglis h i s l e ss h elp fu l.
At a n a d van ced l e v el o f S pan is h a n d F re n ch , k now in g E nglis h i s a rg uab ly n ot
very h elp fu l.
Answ ers
:
Lea rn in g F re n ch i s n ot e a sy , b ut m any p eo ple w ould a rg ue t h at l e a rn in g
Spanis h i s h ard er, b eca use F re n ch a nd E nglis h s h are a l o t o f s im ila ritie s i n
th eir v o ca bula ry . N everth ele ss, F re n ch a nd S panis h b oth h ave d iffe re n t
artic le s f o r m asc u lin e a nd f e m in in e n ouns. T here fo re , y o u h ave t o c h ange t h e
en din gs o f a dje ctiv es t o m atc h t h e n ouns, w hic h i s h ard f o r s p ea kers o f
Englis h s in ce E nglis h d oes n ot u se a dje ctiv e e n din gs. M ost p eo ple b elie ve
th at s p ea kin g E nglis h h elp s y o u t o s ta rt l e a rn in g F re n ch a nd S panis h b ut
when y o u h ave p asse d t h e b asic s ta ges, E nglis h i s l e ss h elp fu l a nd a t a n

adva nced l e vel o f S panis h a nd F re n ch , k n ow in g E nglis h i s a rg uably n ot v ery
help fu l.

B ONUS
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REE
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EB SIT ES
FO R
E
NGLIS H
P
RA CTIC E
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Quiz zes f o r A ca d em ic
Purp ose s
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QUEST IO NS).
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YOU N EED A P E N A ND
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Som e g ood
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Tip s o n s tu dyin g e ffe ctiv ely .
Pro n uncia tio n
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Hear a n d p ra ctis e s im ila r
so unds.
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Hear a n d p ra ctis e s im ila r
co nso nan ts .
www.f o netik s.o rg /n am ese n g.h tm l
Hear a n d p ra ctis e E nglis h
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Hear a n d p ra ctis e d if fic u lt
word s.
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A p ro nuncia tio n d ic tio nary .
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Hear t h e p ro nuncia tio n o f
vario us E nglis h g ra m mar
poin ts .
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Hear a n d p ra ctis e s o unds.
IE LT S S
PE A K IN G
P
HRASE S
( B
ANDS
8 .0 -9 .0 )
Lik es/d is lik es
Opin io n

I’m i n to …
I’m a k een /a v id ( s u rfe r)
I’m k een o n/f o nd o f ( s u rfin g)
I ( g o s u rfin g) t o u nw in d, t o e sc ap e t h e
str e sse s a n d s tr a in s o f m y d ay t o d ay
lif e .
I l ik e n oth in g m ore t h an ( to g o s u rfin g)
I’m i tc h in g t o t r y /g o… . ( I r e ally w an t
to )
As f a r a s I ’m c o ncern ed ,
As I s e e i t,
Fro m m y p oin t o f v ie w ,
In m y h um ble o pin io n,
I’d s a y t h at…
Com parin g/c o n tr a stin g
Both p ic tu re s s h ow …
In t h is p ic tu re t h ey l o ok a s t h ough t h ey
are … . W here as/w hile i n t h is p ic tu re …
In c o ntr a st
On t h e o th er h an d
Desc rib in g p ic tu res
The f ir s t t h in g t h at s tr ik es m e
ab out t h is p ic tu re i s …
The t h in g t h at r e ally j u m ps o ut
of t h is p ic tu re i s …
In t h is p ic tu re i t l o oks a s
if /th ough t h ey a re …
They c o uld /m ig ht/m ay b e…
They c o uld /m ig ht/m ay h av e
ju st…
I’m p re tty s u re t h at t h ey ’re
fe elin g…
I’d g uess t h at t h ey a re …
Agreein g
We s e e e y e t o e y e.
Yeah , I ’d g o a lo ng w ith t h at.
Abso lu te ly !
You t o ok t h e w ord s r ig ht o ut o f m y
mouth .
I c o uld n’t a g re e m ore .
You h av e a p oin t t h ere .
I’m w ith y ou 1 00% o n t h is o ne.
Dis a greein g
We d on’t s e e e y e t o e y e.
I t a k e y our p oin t b ut…
I t e n d t o d is a g re e w ith y ou t h ere .
That’ s n ot a lw ay s t h e c ase
I b eg t o d if fe r
Is n ’t i t m ore a c ase o f…
Sta rtin g t o m ak e a c o n clu sio n
Let’ s g et d ow n t o t h e n itty g ritty .
The b otto m l in e i s w e h av e t o c h oose
Ask in g f o r o p in io n
What’ s y our t a k e o n… .?
Where d o y ou s ta n d o n… .?

one…
It’ s a t o ugh o ne, I ’m t o rn b etw een …
an d … .
Shall w e g o w ith … .?
In m y o pin io n… ., w ould y ou g o
alo ng w ith t h at?
What a re y our t h oughts o n t h is ?
Perso n alis in g
Speak in g f ro m p ers o nal e x perie n ce,…
For m e p ers o nally ,..
This i s a t o pic t h at i s p artic u la rly c lo se
to m y h eart…
It’ s f u nny I w as j u st t h in kin g a b out t h is
th e o th er d ay .
My g ut/in itia l r e actio n i s …
If I w ere t o c h oose o ne o f t h ese
situ atio ns ( p art 2 p ic tu re s), I ’d g o
with … b ecau se …
Im pressiv e s tr u ctu res
Anoth er p oin t I ’d l ik e t o a d d
ab out … i s …
It’ s a ls o w orth b earin g i n m in d
th at…
Com in g b ack t o w hat ( J a v i) w as
sa y in g a b out … . I ’d a ls o l ik e t o
poin t o ut t h at…
I t h in k i t’ s i m porta n t n ot t o
fo rg et t h at…
The v ast m ajo rity o f p eo ple t e n d
to t h in k t h at…
At t h e e n d o f t h e d ay …
When a ll’ s s a id a n d d one…
Tip s
Eye-c o nta ct
Activ e l is te n in g
Open b ody l a n guag e
Speak u p
Don’t d om in ate
Ask in g f o r r ep etit io n
I b eg y our p ard on, I d id n’t c atc h
th at.
Sorry w ould y ou m in d r e p eatin g
th at?
Could y ou r e p eat t h e q uestio n
ple ase
?
C HAPT ER
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ONTH S

Do y ou s p en d a l o t o f t im e a n d e ffo rt i n l e arn in g v ocab ula ry b ut s till f in d
dif fic u lty u sin g i t w hen r e q uir e d ? H av e y ou s p en t a l o t o f t im e m em oriz in g
vocab ula ry w ord s b ut f o rg et t h em w hen y ou n eed t h em t h e m ost? D on’t
worry i f y ou a n sw ere d a b ig r e so undin g “ Y ES” t o a n y o f t h ese q uestio ns
becau se y ou a re n ot a lo ne. T here a re a n um ber o f u se fu l t o ols , m eth ods, a n d
ex erc is e s w hic h w ill h av e y ou n ot o nly r e m em berin g, b ut u sin g y our
ex te n ded v ocab ula ry w ith m in im al e ffo rt. L et’ s g et s ta rte d !
Use M nem onic D ev ic es
What a re m nem onic d ev ic es? W ell t h ey i n clu de a v arie ty o f t e ch niq ues a n d
meth ods t h at h elp r e m em ber o r r e call i n fo rm atio n.
FA NBO YS
For e x am ple , m an y s tu den ts o fte n n eed t o r e call t h e c o nju nctio ns u se d i n
Englis h g ra m mar. R em em berin g F A NBO YS i s a g ood t o ol t o r e call t h ese
word s ( F or, A nd, N or, B ut, O r, Y et, S o). T he b est p art o f t h is i s y ou c an u se
your c re ativ ity t o m ak e i t i n te re stin g a n d d if fe re n t. Y ou c o uld c re ate a s o ng
out o f t h e w ord s, s im ila r t o w hat m an y c h ild re n
do w hen t h ey l e arn n am es o f
co untr ie s a n d c ap ita ls . F in din g s o m e w ord s t h at r h ym e t o geth er w ould g iv e
your s o ng s o m e r h yth m , s o g et c re ativ e a n d d on’t b e a fra id t o t r y s o m eth in g a
bit s illy . S illy i s g ood b ecau se i t h elp s t h e b ra in r e m em ber.
Ton gu e t w is te rs
Tongue t w is te rs a re a f u n w ay o f p ra ctic in g s o unds, a n d t h is r e p etitio n o f
so unds c re ate s a n oth er t y pe o f r h yth m :
Silly S ally s a t b y t h e s e a sh ore
co lle ctin g s e a sh ells .
This c an b e d one w ith w ord s t h at b eg in w ith t h e s a m e s o und o r e v en h av e
sim ila r s o unds w ith in o r a t t h e e n d o f a w ord . I t c an c re ate a n i n te re stin g b eat
or j in gle w hic h h elp s y ou r e m em ber e asily a n d q uic k ly .
Teach i t t o t h e m ir ro r!

One o f t h e b est a n d e asie st w ay s t o r e m em ber a n yth in g i s t o t e ach s o m eo ne
els e . I f y ou c an ’t t e ach s o m eo ne e ls e , t h en t e ach y ours e lf i n t h e m ir ro r!
Share y our k now le d ge. I n o rd er t o t e ach v ocab ula ry t o s o m eo ne e ls e , y ou
need t o h av e a g ood g ra sp o f t h e w ord a n d t h e m an y c o nte x ts i n w hic h i t i s
use d . I n f a ct, i f y ou r e fe r t o a d ic tio nary y ou m ay f in d t h at t h ere a re m ultip le
defin itio ns r e la te d t o t h e w ord i ts e lf . B efo re t e ach in g, i t’ s i m porta n t t o s tu dy
an d t h oro ughly u nders ta n d t h e w ord f ir s t. L ook f o r s e n te n ces t h at c o nta in t h at
word s o y ou c an u nders ta n d h ow i t c an b e u se d w ith o th er w ord s f o r
mean in g. P ra ctic e m ak in g y our o w n s e n te n ces a s w ell. E nco ura g e t h e
“stu den t” t o a sk q uestio ns f o r u nders ta n din g a n d c la rity .

M ak e i t a p art o f y our d aily r o utin e
N ow i t’ s i m porta n t t o u se w hat y ou h av e l e arn ed . A s t h e s a y in g g oes: “ If y ou
d on’t u se i t, y ou l o se i t.” T he f ir s t s te p h ere i s t o l o ok f o r w ay s t o u se t h e n ew
w ord s.
N ote ca rd s o r p ost-it n ote s
N ote card s o r p ost- it n ote s a re u se fu l a s t h ey a re h an dy. Y ou c an s tic k p ost- its
a n yw here a s a r e m in der. J u st w rite t h e n am e, s h ort d efin itio n, o r e v en a
s e n te n ce a s a n e x am ple . H ere 's w hat y our n ote card c o uld l o ok l ik e:
I m part: t o m ak e k now n
S ynonym s: t e ll, d is c lo se
S en te n ce: T each ers i m part k now le d ge t o t h eir s tu den ts .
L earn S uffix es
S uffix es a re w ord e n din gs t h at m ay c h an ge a w ord ’s m ean in g. T hey c an b e
u se d t o c h an ge a w ord s o t h at i t m ain ta in s t h e r u le s o f g ra m mar. C onsid er t h e
f o llo w in g s e n te n ces
I t i s a t r a ditio n i n C hin ese c u ltu re t o e a t u sin g c h opstic ks.
T he o ld er g en era tio n i s m ore t r a ditio nal t h an t o day’s y o uth .
T he w ed din g c ere m ony i s t r a ditio nally c o nducte d b y a p rie st.
L earn in g s u ffix es a n d h ow t h ey c h an ge w ord s i s a u se fu l t o ol. W ith t h e s u ffix
- a lly , a s i n “ tr a d itio nally ”, i t i s u nders to od t h at
we a re u sin g a n a d verb
d esc rib in g a n a ctio n. T he – tio n i n “ tr a d itio n” m ak es i t a n oun, s o i t’ s o fte n
p la ced a t t h e b eg in nin g o f a s e n te n ce. U nders ta n din g p la cem en t o f w ord s w ill
h elp y ou m ak e s u re s e n te n ces a re g ra m matic ally c o rre ct.
R ead , R ead , a n d R ead !

Today ’s f a st p aced l if e sty le m ak es i t c h alle n gin g, i f n ot i m possib le , t o m ak e
th e t im e t o r e ad . H ow ev er, t o r i n cre asin g E nglis h v ocab ula ry , i t’ s a b so lu te ly
esse n tia l. R ead w hat y ou e n jo y r e ad in g i n y our o w n l a n guag e b ut r e ad i t i n
Englis h ! I f y ou l ik e m usic , r e ad a b out m usic , i f y ou l ik e b usin ess, r e ad
busin ess!
The 3 0 m in ute R ule
The 3 0 m in ute R ule s ta te s t h at t h ir ty m in ute s o f p le asu ra b le r e ad in g e v ery
day w ill l e ad t o a m azin g r e su lts i n y our l e v el o f E nglis h o ver t im e. ‘ T hir ty
min ute r e ad ers ’, p eo ple w ho r e ad f o r f u n f o r a t l e ast 3 0 m in ute s p er d ay , t e n d
to h av e a v ast v ocab ula ry . F urth erm ore , s e v era l s tu die s h av e s u ggeste d t h at
th e h ealth b en efits c an b e c o nsid era b le : l iv in g l o nger, i n cre asin g I Q , a n d
re d ucin g s tr e ss a m ong o th er p erk s. O ver t im e, r e ad in g r e g ula rly c an a ls o
in cre ase v ocab ula ry a n d m ak e i t e asie r t o u tiliz e t h ese w ord s i n p ra ctic al a n d
fu nctio nal s itu atio ns.
Don’t w orry i f y ou c an ’t f in d t h e t im e i n a b usy l if e sty le t o p ic k u p a b ook t o
re ad .
Look f o r f rie n ds o r c o lle ag ues w ho e n jo y r e ad in g. O fte n t im es, i n te ra ctin g
with b ookw orm s o r a v id r e ad ers w ill h elp y ou p ic k u p v ocab ula ry o r n ew
ex pre ssio ns f ro m t h em . D on’t h esita te t o a sk a b out a n yth in g t h at i s
unfa m ilia r
.
Rea d N ew sp ap ers
A n ew sp ap er i s a v ery v alu ab le t o ol t h at h as a w ealth o f i n fo rm atio n a t y our
fin gertip s. W heth er i t’ s t h e p ap er v ers io n o r t h e e le ctr o nic v ers io n, i t d oesn ’t
matte r. N ew sp ap ers a re a t o ol w hic h w ill s p ark c u rio sity a n d e n co ura g e y ou
to r e ad m ore a b out a v arie ty o f t o pic s.
Spen d t im e i n te ra ctin g w ith e x pert p ro fe ssio nals i n
vario us f ie ld s i f y ou c an .
That d oesn ’t m ean y ou n eed t o s p en d t im e a t c o lle g es o r u niv ers itie s. E xpan d
your f ie ld o f a w are n ess a n d i n te re st t o c o nnect t o t h ose o uts id e y our c ir c le o f

frie n ds a n d c o lle ag ues. Y ou c an j o in v ario us c h at f o ru m s o r g ro ups i n s o cia l
med ia . L earn n ew v ocab ula ry a n d s u bje cts . Y ou w ill d efin ite ly s e e t h e
dif fe re n ce.
Dow nlo ad a d ic tio nary a p p
Anyone w ho w an ts t o i m pro ve t h eir v ocab ula ry r e ally m ust d ow nlo ad a n a p p
to t h eir p hone. I t’ s n ot a t a ll p ra ctic al t o l u g a ro und a d ic tio nary . A d ic tio nary
ap p o n a s m artp hone c an b e a ccesse d q uic k ly . A ls o , b ein g f a m ilia r w ith s o m e
onlin e t o ols t h at g iv e s e n te n ce e x am ple s u sin g t h e w ord s i n d if fe re n t c o nte x ts
is e x tr e m ely u se fu l. R em em ber t h at w ord s f it t o geth er i n s e n te n ces b ase d o n
th eir m ean in g, s o i t’ s i m porta n t t o a lw ay s u nders ta n d t h e c o nte x t o r
su rro undin g w ord s s o t h at t h e s e n te n ce o r e x pre ssio n m ak es s e n se
.
Reco rd s e n te n ces a n d s tr u ctu re s i n y our n ote b ook,
nev er s in gle w ord s
NEV ER w rite a s in gle w ord f o llo w ed b y a d efin itio n i n y our n ote b ook!
Alw ay s a d d a n e x am ple s e n te n ce a n d p ay a tte n tio n t o t h e o rig in al s e n te n ce
where y ou s a w t h is w ord . E nglis h w ord s c an o fte n c h an ge m ean in gs
dep en din g o n t h e p re p ositio ns t h ey g o w ith o r t h e t y pe o f s e n te n ce t h ey a re
in .
For e x am ple :
He w as t u rn ed a w ay a t t h e d oor b ecau se h e w as w earin g t r a in ers .
Mea nin g: H e w as r e je cte d
He t u rn ed a w ay w hen I t r ie d t o s p eak t o h im b ecau se h e w as v ery a n gry .
Mea nin g: H e l o oked t h e o th er w ay o r t u rn ed h is h ea d t o w ard s a d iffe re n t
dir e ctio n s o h e d id n´t h ave t o l o ok a t m e.
Mak e i t f u n!

Learn in g n ew E nglis h v ocab ula ry w ord s d oesn ’t h av e t o b e a c h ore ! F in d
way s t o m ak e i t f u n, i n te re stin g, a n d r e w ard in g. D ow nlo ad a f e w g am in g
ap ps t h at f o cu s o n b uild in g o r u sin g v ocab ula ry w ord s. A c o m mon o ne i s
“W ord s w ith F rie n ds” w here y ou g et t o s h are a n d l e arn n ew w ord s w ith y our
ow n c ir c le o f f rie n ds. T ry i t! Y ou w ill s e e t h e r e su lts .

O NE
L
AST
T
HIN G
...
I f y ou e n jo yed t h is b ook o r f o und i t u se fu l I ’d b e v ery g ra te fu l i f y ou’d p ost a
s h ort r e v ie w o n A m azo n. Y our s u pport r e ally d oes m ak e a d if fe re n ce a n d I
r e ad a ll t h e r e v ie w s p ers o nally s o I c an g et y our f e ed back a n d m ak e t h is b ook
e v en b ette r.
I f y ou’d l ik e t o l e av e a r e v ie w t h en a ll y ou n eed t o d o i s c lic k t h e r e v ie w l in k
o n t h is b ook’s p ag e o n A m azo n h ere
:
T han ks f o r r e ad in g a n d t h an ks a g ain f o r y our s u pport!
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