Формат документа: pdf
Размер документа: 1.86 Мб

Прямая ссылка будет доступна
примерно через: 45 сек.

  • Сообщить о нарушении / Abuse
    Все документы на сайте взяты из открытых источников, которые размещаются пользователями. Приносим свои глубочайшие извинения, если Ваш документ был опубликован без Вашего на то согласия.


Jamshid Safarov

Food, Health, Medicine

• Words
• Collocations
• Articles


Food, Health, Medicine


Words & Collocations
Cooking Vocabulary
with word definitions , example sentences and quiz
Photo: Cooking vegetables in a pan.
Knowing how to cook is a one of the most useful skills we can learn. If we can
cook, we can eat healthy dishes made at home with fresh ingredients instead
of having to buy unhealthy fast food or expensive pre -cooked or frozen meals.
Cooking our own meals is not only healthy and cheap, but can also be fun if
we explore cookbooks and cooking websites and find new recipes to try.
Frying, boil ing and steaming
Even if you only have a small stove or cooker with a couple of hotplates, you
can cook delicious food at home. You can fry meat, fish or eggs in a frying
pan with oil or butter. You can also chop or slice vegetables
and sauté or stir -fry them in a pan or a wok. Another way of cooking
vegetables and grains like rice is by boiling or steaming them. You


can peel vegetables like potatoes and carrots before cooking them, and
even mash them after they're cooked if you like. You can also boil othe r foods
like spaghetti, eggs and certain meats, or steam fish and other seafood like
crabs and mussels.
With a simple hotplate you can also make soups and stews. The ingredients
for these often include diced meats and vegetables as well as a pinch of salt.
You can also sprinkle in spices like pepper or paprika or add herbs like basil
or parsley. You can even make sauces by melting butter in a saucepan
and mixing in flour and milk before adding other ingredients
like grated cheese and then stirring until your sauce is smooth.
Grilling and roasting
If you have a stove with a grill or broiler, or an appliance such as an electric
grill, you can also grill meat, fish and vegetables. If you're grilling food at a
high temperature, be careful. It's easy to burn it if you cook the food for too
long. But many people love grilling, and some even say it's the best way to
cook fish, steak and many other meats.
If you also have an oven you can roast certain meats and vegetables. In an
oven, food is surrounded by hot air that gradually cooks from all sides, so
roasting a whole chicken or a leg of lamb takes time. After being cooked, roast
meat is carved into pieces before being served , often together with roast
potatoes, carrots and onions. A meal like this is some times called a "Sunday
roast" as it was traditionally cooked every Sunday in countries like England
and Australia.
Ovens can also be used to bake foods like bread, cakes, cookies, pastries
and pies. The main ingredient of most baked foods is wheat f lour. After being
sifted to remove any lumps, the flour is used to prepare a batter or dough
that's put into a preheated oven to bake. People often think baking is difficult,
but as the following recipe shows it can be easy if you have simple directions
to follow.
Vanilla Cake
• 1 cup white sugar
• 1/2 cup butter
• 2 eggs
• 1 tbsp vanilla extract
• 1 1/2 cups self -raising flour


• 1/2 cup milk
1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease and flour a
cake pan.
2. In a mixing bowl, cream together the sugar and butter. Beat in the eggs,
then add a tablespoon of vanilla extract and whisk . Add flour to the
mixture and stir in milk until the batter is smooth. Pour or spoon batter
into the greased cake pan.
3. Bake for 30 to 40 minutes in the preh eated oven.

baking a cake

beating eggs

boiling water

burnt toast

carving meat

chopping green onions


cutting a pepper

frying fish fillets


grating cheese


mashing potatoes

melting butter

mixing flour and eggs

peeling an apple

roasting a chicken

sautéing mushrooms

slicing a tomato

sprinkling salt

steaming broccoli

stirring a sauce


stir -frying vegetables

tablespoon and teaspoon

whisking a cake mix
Kitchens and Kitchenware
with word definitions , example sentences and quiz
Foods like fruit, nuts and certai n shellfish can be eaten raw, but most of the
food we eat is cooked. It can be cooked outdoors over a campfire or on
a barbecue , but most food is cooked indoors in a room called a kitchen .
Kitchens have their own specially -designed fixtures and
electric ap pliances as well as many smaller items of kitchenware for
preparing and cooking food and making drinks.
Kitchen fixtures and furniture
Kitchen fixtures include sinks for rinsing food and washing the dishes ,
benches on which food is prepared, and drawers in which kitchen
utensils and eating utensils are kept. Kitchens can also have shelves and
cupboards for storing cooking pots and pans and other kitchenware along
with tableware like dinner plates, soup bowls, coffee cups and wine glasses.
They might also have special furniture such as a kitchen table and chairs at
which quick meals can be prepared and eaten.


Photo: A typical modern kitchen with many kitchen fixtures and appliances.
Kitchen appliances
The one appliance that all kitchens must have is a stov e or cooker. Some
kitchens have a large all -in -one gas or electric stove with several gas rings or
electric hotplates on the top, a grill or broiler underneath, and an oven under
the grill for baking and roasting. Instead of having an all -in -one stove like this,
a kitchen can have a single or multiple hotplate that sits on a bench along with
a microwave or toaster oven and a separate electric grill.
Modern kitchens also have a refrigerator with a cooler for keeping food and
drinks cold and a freezer for stor ing frozen foods. Most kitchens also have
a toaster for making toast, an electric water boiler or kettle for making tea
and coffee, and a blender for making fruit smoothies and milkshakes. Other
common appliances include food processors , rice cookers, coff ee makers
and machines, and dishwashers of various sorts.
Modern kitchens are also full of kitchenware of two basic kinds; cookware ,
meaning pots, pans and cooking dishes, and kitchen utensils like kitchen
knives and stirring spoons. Many diffe rent kinds of cookware are used in
different parts of the world, but the most common include cooking
pots, saucepans , frying pans and woks . Cookware that's only used in an
oven is called ovenware and includes metal baking trays , cake tins and
roasting pans as well as heatproof ceramic or glass casserole dishes , pie
dishes and other ovenproof cooking dishes.
Common kitchen utensils found in most homes include a set of very sharp
kitchen knives, some wooden stirring spoons, a spatula , a grater , a soup
ladle, a vegetable peeler and a pair of kitchen tongs . Other items found in


kitchens include chopping boards , measuring cups, mixing
bowls, colanders , cooking tim ers, oven mitts or gloves, tea towels or
dishtowels, and so on.


casserole dish or

chopping board


cooking pot or stockpot



eating utensils or cutlery
(UK) or silverware (US)

food processor

frying pan or frypan



grill (UK) or broiler (US)



kitchen sink

kitchen utensils or cooking

refrigerator or fridge



stove or cooker or range



vegetable peeler


Dining Vocabulary
with word definitions , example sentences and quiz
Photo: Dining table set up outdoors.
B reakfast, lunch and dinner
In most parts of the world people have three meals a day. The first is
breakfast, then lunch in the middle of the day and dinner in the evening. Most
people have breakfast at home, and some take a home -made lunch to work or
schoo l. Most people also have dinner at home, and for many modern
families dinnertime is the only chance we have to get together and talk to one
another. At family dinners we don't have to follow the rules
of etiquette for formal dining, but if you go to expensi ve restaurants or travel
for business it's useful to know these rules. You might also need to know them
if you're hosting a dinner party or having special guests for dinner.
Table settings and dining etiquette


Houses and large apartments often have a dining room with a dining
table that can seat many people. Dining rooms are sometimes used for
everyday meals, but often they're only used for big family gatherings, dinner
parties or formal meals. If you're hosting a meal like this, you'll probably use
you r best set of dinnerware and cutlery. Before your guests arrive you'll need
to set the table . Begin by covering the table with a tablecloth and then place
a centrepiece such as candle sticks or a flower arrangement in the middle of
the table. Then arrange place settings around the table, making sure there's
a place for everyone, including yourself.
Place settings for formal dinners usually include a place mat , or an empty
space, in the middle with a dinner fork and a smaller salad fork to the left,
a table knife and soup spoon to the right, and a dessert fork and
spoon across the top. Each place setting also has a bread plate and butter
knife on the left and a drinking glass or tumbler and a wine glass on the
right. Sometimes these glasses are on coasters , but only if place mats are
used instead of a tablecloth. The place settings for dinner in most hotel dining
rooms and fancy restaurants are also like this.
Salad or soup bowls , dinner plates and dessert bowls are often brought to
the table during the meal, an d if so they shouldn't be on the table before the
meal begins. There should, however, be a folded napkin at each guest's
place, and if you're serving steak or fish you can add a steak knife or fish
knife as well. Salt and pepper shakers and jugs full of dr inking water should
also be on the table. If you're serving tea or coffee after the meal, bring cups
and saucers as well as a sugar bowl, teaspoons and a small jug of milk or
cream to the table.


butter knife





cup and saucer

dessert fork and spoon

dinner fork

dinner plate

dinnerware set

fish knife

napkin or serviette


place setting

salt and pepper shakers


setting the table

soup spoon

steak knife

sugar bowl

table knife



water jug

wine glass

Restaurant Vocabulary
with word definitions , example sentences and quiz


Photo: Small restaurant in Montevideo ( Carvalho )
Most people eat out quite often, even if they like cooking and eating at home.
They might eat breakfast or lunch in a cafeteria or canteen where they work
or study, or go to a café or restaurant nearby. Many people also go out to eat
dinner once or twice a week. They might go to a fast fo od restaurant for a
quick meal, or go to a proper restaurant if they're eating out with family or
friends, or when going on a date. They might go somewhere that serves just
one country's food like an Italian or Japanese restaurant, or to a restaurant
that serves a particular type of food like seafood or vegetarian food. They
might even go to a high -class restaurant that serves expensive cuisine in a
formal setting.
English has become the world's international language, so if you're travelling,
studying or w orking overseas it's the language you'll probably use when
eating out. You might use it to make a booking and reserve a table, and
when you arrive you might be greeted in English by the head waiter or maitre
d’ before being led to your table. Then your wai ter or waitress will probably
bring menus in English and tell you about the day's specials and answer any
questions, also most -likely in English.
Menus and courses
A menu is a list of the food and drinks that guests can order. Menus are
sometimes written o n large boards for everyone to see, and sometimes
they're printed on paper and handed to each guest. A simple menu like a
breakfast menu or a children's menu might list just a few dishes and drinks,
but lunch and dinner menus usually list many dishes. They can be à la
carte dishes ordered individually, or dishes grouped together in a set menu . In
European or Western -style menus, dishes are listed in a series of courses .


The first course is called starters, appetizers or hors d’oeuvres , and can be
a bowl of s oup, a small serving of pasta , a salad or one of
many savoury starters. Next is the main course or entrée , and this is usually
fish, meat or poultry served with vegetables or salad or other side dishes . In
many restaurants vegetarian entrées are also availa ble these days.

After the main course, your waiter or waitress might bring a dessert menu if
you haven't already ordered desserts from the main menu. Desserts are
nearly always sweet, and can be frozen like ice cream or gelato, served at
room temperature like fruit salad or cakes, or served hot like
pancakes, puddings and fruit pies. Dess ert is sometimes followed by
a cheese platter with a selection of different cheeses as well as crackers,
dried fruits, nuts, etc. Guests are usually offered tea and coffee, and
sometimes chocolates are also served after a meal.
Many people like to drink win e when they eat out, and higher -class
restaurants often employ a wine steward or sommelier who helps guests pair
wines from the wine list with the food they order. Traditionally, red wines are
paired with darker meats like steak, roast beef and duck, while white wines
and light reds are paired with lighter meats like chicken, fish and seafood.
Many wine lists don't show the prices, so make sure you ask how much a
glass or bottle costs before ordering. Famous wines can cost thousands of
dollars per bottle, a nd you don't want to get a nasty shock when you see
the bill .
Bills and tipping


When you've finished your meal and you're ready to leave, ask your waiter for
the bill. In many countries a service charge of 10% to 20% of the total
amount is added to the bill. This is meant to be shared among the service
staff, but in North America and some Easter n European countries a service
charge isn't added. In these places you should give a tip¹ of 15% to 20%
directly to the waiter instead. Waiters and other staff like bartenders are
usually paid very low wages, so when eating out try to tip² generously,
espe cially in countries like the USA where a service charge isn't added to the
à la carte (adjective): ordered as a separate dish; not part of a set menu - Do
you have à la carte dishes as well as set menus?
appetizer (noun): a dish that's eaten before the main course - For an
appetizer I'll have spring rolls, please.
bill (also US "check") (noun): the written amount you must pay for a meal
and drinks - Can we have the bill, please?
café (also "coffee shop") (noun): an informal restaurant serving simple
meals plus hot and cold drinks - Is there an all -night café around here?
cafeteria (also "canteen") (noun): a place that sells low -cost meals in a
school or work -place, usually from a self -service counter - What's the food in
the school cafeteria li ke?
cheese platter (noun): a selection of cheeses and crackers served on a large
plate - After dessert, we had a cheese platter and some more wine.
course (noun): one part of a meal - French meals usually include three or four
cuisine (noun): a co untry or region's style of cooking - There's more to Indian
cuisine than curries, you know.
dessert (noun): sweet food eaten at the end of a meal - You love desserts,
don't you?
eat out (phrasal verb): to go out to a restaurant, esp. at night - We usually eat
out three or four nights a week.
entrée (noun): 1. the main course of a meal 2. a course before the main
course (Br English) - What are you having for your entrée?
fast food (noun): quickly prepared food like hamburgers and French fries - I'll
get some fast food on the way home.


high -class (adjective): of high quality or high social status - We can't afford to
go to those high -class restaurants.
hors d’oeuvre (noun): a savoury food served as an appetizer before the main
course - Let's order some hor s d'oeuvres first.
maitre d’ (also "head waiter") (noun): the person who supervises a
restaurant's waiting staff - Good maitre d’s earn a lot of money these days.
make a booking (also "book a table") (phrase): to contact a restaurant and
reserve a table fo r a meal - It's a popular restaurant so we'd better make a
menu (noun): the list of foods and drinks served in a restaurant, café, hotel,
etc. - Let's check the menu before deciding whether to eat here.
pasta (noun): Italian food made from flour a nd water, such as spaghetti,
ravioli, lasagne, etc. - You can order any of our pasta dishes as an appetizer if
you want.
pudding (noun): a soft sweet food eaten as a dessert - My grandma used to
make the best chocolate pudding ever!
restaurant (noun): a pl ace with a kitchen and dining area where people pay to
eat meals - There are lots of Thai and Japanese restaurants around here.
savoury (adjective): (of food) salty or spicy rather than sweet - Most
appetizers are savoury dishes.
service charge (also "serv ice") (noun): an extra amount added to a
restaurant bill that's meant to be given to staff for their service - They've
already added a 20% service charge.
set menu (noun): a multi -course meal sold for a fixed price - Are the set
menus good value?
side dish (also "side order") (noun): an extra dish or serving that's ordered
together with a main dish - I'll have the steak with a side dish of potato salad,
sommelier (also "wine steward") (noun): a wine expert who advises guests
on ordering or pairing w ines - Our sommelier also developed our wine list and
orders the wines.
special (noun): a dish that's available sometimes, but isn't on the regular
menu - Today's specials are grilled Hawaiian salmon and Australian tiger


tip¹ (noun): extra money given by a guest to a waiter or other staff - If the
service is great, leave a big tip.
tip² (verb): to give extra money to a waiter or other staff member for their
service - Waiters don't earn much, so I always tip them.
vegetarian (adjective): of dishes or diets that don't include animal products,
esp. meat - My doctor says I should switch to a vegetarian diet.
waiter (male) or waitress (female) (noun): a person who takes orders from
guests and brings their food - Have you ever bee n a waiter?
wine list (noun): a printed list of all the wines available in a restaurant - Would
you like to see the wine list, madam?

Food and Health Vocabulary
with word definitions , example sentences and quiz


The food we eat can affect our health in many ways. If we eat food
that's contaminated with bacteria, we'll be sick and go to the toilet m ore
often. We can also get sick if we eat dangerous foods like poisonous
mushrooms or certain kinds of fish. These foods have short -term effects on
our health, but food can also have long -term effects on our health.
These long -term effects vary depending o n where we live and how much we
eat. In a country with food shortages due to war or lack of rain, people might
suffer from malnutrition . People with malnutrition lose a lot of weight and
become very thin and weak. They can also develop long -term illnesses due to
the lack of essential nutrients like vitamin C and iron. People in rich,
developed countries can also develop food -related illnesses, but they're
usually related to eating too much, or overeating , rather than eating too little.
The term malnutrition is made from the combining form mal - (bad) + the
noun nutrition (food, nourishment, eating). It therefore means "bad eating",
and covers "wrong" eating, under -eating and over -eating. Other words formed
with mal - include: malpractice, malfunction, malodorous
Overweight and obesity

People who overeat can become overweight , especially if they don't
exercise. Being a little overweight isn't usually related to serious health
problems, but putting on more weight and becoming obese definitely is. This


is because obesity is a major risk factor for many serious illnesses that can
be fatal and shorten our lives by many years.
People who are suffering from malnutrition can usually recover by simply
eating nutritious food, but people who are obese face a far more difficult
situation. To recover they must lose a lot of weight by eating less and
changing to a healthy diet¹ . This can be very difficult to do, especially if they
live in a place full of Western -style fast foods and processed foods. And
even if they lose weight by going on a diet² , most people soon return to their
usual diet and put the weight back on. So learning about food and health and
how to prevent obesity in the first place is one of the most important things we
can learn.
All the energy our bodies need comes from the food we eat, and it's measured
in calories . If we balance the calories we get from food wit h the number we
"burn" each day as energy, our body weight stays the same. But if we eat
more food than we need, the extra energy is stored as body fat and we put on
weight. You can check to see if your body weight is healthy or not by
measuring your heigh t and weight and then calculating your body mass
index (or BMI) with a special formula. If your BMI is between 18.5 and 25,
your weight is healthy. If it's between 25 and 30, you're overweight, and if it's
over 30, you're obese and need to change your diet .
The obesity epidemic


Before the 1970s obesity wasn't a serious problem, but in the mid -70s obesity
rates began rising in Western countries like the USA, UK and Australia. These
were the first countries in which major food companies began increasing
the ir profits by selling more snack foods, fast foods and processed junk
food than ever before. Fast food companies opened hamburger, pizza and
fried chicken outlets in every big town and city and spent huge amounts of
money marketing them. Major food compani es filled supermarkets with
frozen "TV dinners" and convinced families they were as healthy as home -
cooked meals. They marketed more and more sweets, snack foods and
sugary drinks to children even though they knew they were damaging their
health and ruinin g their teeth. They spent millions of
dollars lobbying governments in order to stop them from regulating their
industry and reducing their profits.
In the 1990s Western food companies began targeting people in developing
countries as well, and many are now eating hamburgers, pizzas and other
Western foods instead of traditional local foods. As a result, obesity rates
have increased greatly in those countries as well. According to the World
Health Organization (WHO), only 1% of the world's children were obes e in
1975, but the number is now 10 times higher. The number of overweight and
obese adults has also increased greatly since 1975 and is now over 2 billion
people. The situation has become so serious that it's being called an
obesity epidemic .


An epidemic usually involves just one disease, but the obesity epidemic is
related to several diseases. It's a major risk factor for heart disease and heart
attacks, high blood pressure and strokes , diabetes and kidney disease,
and many kinds of cancer , all of which can be fatal. And our risk of
developing one of these diseases increases every time we eat certain
dangerous or fattening foods.
Dangerous foods

Most nutritionists now agree that a diet of Western -style processed food and
fast food i s one of the unhealthiest diets of all. This is because it's so high
in saturated fats , trans fats , sugar and salt, all of which can be a danger to
Saturated fats and trans fats
Saturated fats and trans fats are dangerous because they increase our blood
levels of cholesterol , a substance that can form fatty lumps that block blood
flow and cause heart attacks and stroke. The worst foods for saturated fats
include bacon, sausages, hamburgers, fatty steaks, ham and salami pizzas,
high -fat cream, etc.
Trans fats are even more dangerous and harder to avoid because food
companies use them so often. They can be found in potato crisps, donuts,


pastries, cookies and other processed foods as well as in margarine and oils
used to make French fries, onion rings and other deep -fried foods. They're
banned in New York City and certain other places, but still used elsewhere
even though the WHO has said they cause over half a million deaths every
year. (Source: WHO News Release, 14 May 2018)
Featured Reading: Trans Fats
(with vocabulary list and quiz questions)
Trans fats make cookies, donuts, French fries and many other foods taste
better and last longer, but the World He alth Organization (WHO) says they
cause over 500,000 deaths EVERY YEAR!! To find out more, check out
our Featured Reading !
Sugar is a natural carbohydrate found in fruits and v egetables, but it's also
added to thousands of products to make them taste sweeter. It's added to soft
drinks and energy drinks, flavoured yoghurt, cereals, cookies, cakes, sweets
and candy, and most other processed foods. Too much sugar can cause
obesity and diabetes as well as heart disease. Just one soft drink or energy
drink contains nearly half the sugar we should consume in one day, so
anyone on a diet of Western -style processed foods is sure to consume too
much. In 2014 Dr. Frank Hu, professor of nut rition at Harvard University,
wrote, "The effects of added sugar intake — higher blood pressure,
inflammation, weight gain, diabetes, and fatty liver disease — are all linked to
an increased risk for heart attack and stroke."
We all need a little salt in our diets, but consuming more than 5 or 6 grams per
day can lead to high blood pressure which is a major risk factor for heart
disease, stroke and kidney disease. A high -salt diet is also a probable risk
factor for stomach cancer. Salt is added to so m any products (often listed as
sodium or sodium chloride on the packet) that it's become yet another reason
to avoid processed foods.
Healthy diets and foods
To learn more about food and health, nutritionists have studied diets in places
where people are healthier and live longer than usual. They've found that in
Japan and Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, rates of heart
disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer are among the lowest in the world. Even
though their traditional cuisines look and taste very different, Japanese and
Mediterranean people eat many of the same foods. They eat lots of fruits,
vegetables, whole grains, beans and nuts, and they cook i n vegetable oils


rather than animal fats. Their traditional diets also include plenty of fish and
seafood, but not many dairy foods or eggs, and little or no red meat.
Mediterranean Diet
Mediterranean and Japanese diets are similar and both are linked to l ow rates
of diet -related illness like heart disease. Should we use them as a guide to
healthy eating? Many experts now think so.
• fresh vegetables
• fish and seafood
• grains (esp. wholewheat bread and pasta)
• beans, legumes and nuts
• fresh and dried fruits
• eggs and dairy foods in moderation
• olive oil
Many nutritionists now recommend low -fat diets like this, or the
similar pescetarian diet that includes dairy products, fish and seafood, but no
poultry or red meat like pork or beef. Some are even recommending a totally
meat -free vegetarian or vegan diet, especially for people with heart disease
or other diet -related illnesses. But if you become vegetarian or vegan, they
say you must make sure you get all the essential amino acids from protein -
rich plant foods l ike soybeans.
If we eat healthy foods in a balanced diet, there's a good chance we'll live long
and healthy lives. A balanced diet should provide around the same number of
calories as the body uses each day. This allows us to maintain a healthy BMI
by ensuring we don't lose or gain too much weight. Our diet should include a
wide variety of fresh, natural foods with a good balance of nutrients plus all
the essential vitamins and minerals. We should try to avoid fatty foods and
processed foods that co ntain substances that can be dangerous like sugar
and salt, and additives such as preservatives , colourings and artificial
flavourings that might not have been tested for long enough. And we should
definitely avoid Western -style fast foods that contain saturated fats and trans
Share on: Twitter , Google+ , Facebook
body mass index (or BMI) (noun): a weight -to -height ratio that shows if
you're overweight, underweight or at a healthy weight - Jason's body mass
index is 27, so he's a bit overweight.


calorie (noun): a unit for mea suring the amount of energy we get from food
- How many calories are there in a can of soft drink?
carbohydrate (noun): a substance in foods such as bread and potatoes that
is a major source of energy or calories - Is limiting carbohydrates a good way
to l ose weight?
cancer (noun): a serious illness that is usually difficult to cure and often leads
to death - My cousin died of lung cancer when he was fifty.
cholesterol (noun): a substance in body cells that can cause heart disease if
levels in the blood are too high - The test shows you have too much bad
cholesterol in your blood.
consume (verb): to eat or drink something - How many calories should we
consume every day?
contaminate (verb): to make something a carrier of disease - Food that isn't
sto red properly can become contaminated with dangerous bacteria.
diabetes (noun): a serious illness in which your body cannot regulate the
amount of sugar in the blood - Being obese is the most common cause of type
2 diabetes.
diet¹ (noun): all the foods a pe rson normally eats - My doctor said a
vegetarian diet rich in plant protein is best.
diet² (noun): a limited amount or range of food that someone eats to lose
weight or become healthier - I've been on lots of diets but I'm still overweight.
epidemic (noun) : the sudden spread of a disease or medical condition
- Processed foods are causing a global obesity epidemic.
fast food (noun): food served quickly, esp. Western foods like hamburgers,
pizzas, fried chicken and French fries - Fast food joints are everywhe re
around here.
fatal (adjective): causing someone to die - The heart attack wasn't fatal. He
heart disease (noun): a medical condition in which the heart fails to work
properly - Eating healthy food prevents heart disease.
high blood pressure (o r hypertension) (noun): a condition in which the
blood pressure is higher than it should be - High blood pressure can cause
strokes, can't it?


junk food (noun): unhealthy food, esp. fatty fast foods and processed snack
foods - Kids eat far too much junk food these days.
lobby (verb): to contact people with power like politicians and try to influence
them for your benefit - The food industry spends millions of dollars lobbying
malnutrition (noun): a condition of weakness or illness caused by eating too
much food, not enough food or unhealthy food - There are still many poor
people who suffer from malnutrition.
market (verb): to use advertising and other persuasive methods to make
people want a product - Shouldn't people who produce and market dangerous
foods be punished?
nutrient (noun): a substance in food that is necessary for good health - A
healthy diet gives us all the nutrients we need.
nutritious (adjective): (of food or drinks) containing substances we need in
order to be healthy - Japanese food is both nutritious and delicious.
obese (adjective): very fat; far above a healthy weight (BMI >30) - Why are so
many people in Australia obese these days?
obesity (noun): the state of being very overweight, or the medical condition
relate d to this - If marketing junk food to kids causes obesity, why isn't it
overeat (verb): to eat more food than the body needs - If I didn't overeat, I
wouldn't be overweight.
overweight (adjective): above a normal or healthy weight (BMI 25 -30) - How
can I stop my kids from becoming overweight?
pescetarian (adjective): (of a diet) including vegetarian food and fish, but no
other meat - My cousin thinks farming animals and chickens is cruel and bad
for the planet, so he's pescetarian.
preservative (nou n): a chemical substance used for preventing food from
spoiling or wood from decaying - Many processed foods have added
preservatives and artificial colourings and flavourings.
process (verb): to add chemicals or other substances to food to make it last
lo nger or look or taste better - The processed food industry makes a huge
amount of money.


profit (noun): money made by selling a product or service - Companies will do
whatever's necessary to increase their profits.
regulate (verb): to use official powers o r laws to control an activity, process or
industry - The only way to prevent obesity is to regulate the food industry.
risk factor (noun): something that increases your chances of developing a
disease or being injured - Smoking is a risk factor for lung ca ncer.
saturated fat (noun): a type of fat that's found in butter, cheese, red meat,
etc. - Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet can help you live
stroke (noun): the sudden bursting of a blood vessel in the brain that can
cause serious illness or death - After he had a stroke, Harry couldn't walk or
talk normally.
trans fat (or trans fatty acid) (noun): an artificial fat that makes food last
longer and taste better but is very bad for health - Trans fats are banned in
many places because they're so bad for our health.
vegan (adjective): (of a diet) with plant foods only; without animal products,
including meat, fish, seafood, eggs, milk, cheese, etc - Let's try sticking to a
vegan diet.
vegetarian (adjective): (of a diet) with plant foods and sometimes dairy
products, but wi thout meat, fish, or seafood - Most people I met in India were


Finger licking
Lip smacking

Vocabulary+Sample Speaking Answers


During the IELTS Speaking exam you may be asked questions to do with health and fitness.
Read the following IELTS -style questions and answers below and pay attention to the phrases
in bold . Use the ‘Definitions’ section at the bottom of the page to check the meaning of any
phrases you don’t understand.
Part 1 -style questions
Examiner: Have you got a relation you’re particularly fond of?
Sinita: Yes … my granddad … he’s 94 years old but generally he’s as fit as a
fiddle … we’re very close and see each other a lot … whenever he goes down
with a cold or is under the weather I make a point of visiting him …
Examiner: Do you do any sport?
Jon: Yes … I’m keen on skateboarding … but I haven’t done it for a while … I had
a bad fall recently and pulled a muscle and had a few cuts and bruises … but
I’m on the mend and hope to be doing it again soon …
Examiner: Is there anything you’re particularly afraid of?
Davide: The dentist … I hate going to the dentist … I only ever go if I have a
toothache so it usually means I have to have a filling or even have a tooth out …
I really don’t like it …
Part 2 -style task
Describe a time when you were ill. You should say:
• when this was
• what your symptoms were
• how long the illness lasted
and say how it affected your life at the time.
Pierre: This is a tricky one really as I’m usually quite healthy … I’ve never been
seriously ill … like everyone else I sometimes get a few aches and pains or catch
a cold … I can remember a few months ago I had to have time off work with a
heavy cold … I had the usual symptoms … a blocked nose … sore throat … it
lasted quite a while … about 2 weeks I think though I didn’t have that much time
off work … for a few days I remember feeling poorly but I was over the worst of
itafter a few days and went back to work … I always find it’ s better to be active
when you feel ill as it keeps your mind off your sPSWRPV,WKLQNP\IDPLO\
get a little fed up with me when I’m ill though … I tend to feel sorry for myself
and lie on the sofa all day as if I’ m at death’s door … but as I said earl ier … on
this occasion it was nothing serious and didn’t really cause me any problems …


Part 3 -style questions
Examiner: What costs are involved when you are ill in your country?
Anya: Well … people have to pay prescription charges which can be quite
expensive … but fortunately general healthcare is free … unless you want to go
private of course and then you can pay a fortune for your treatment …
Examiner: In your experience are people too quick to take time off work when
they’re ill?
Alicia: Yes .. I ’ve got friends who have a day off work if they wake up with
a runny nose … and in most cases they seem to make a speedy recovery after
they’ve phoned in sick …
Examiner: Do women pay more attention to their health than men?
Julie: I think so yes … women are more likely to see their GP for a check -up if
they’re concerned about something … men tend to avoid facing up to any health
problems they have … my dad always seems to have a very chesty cough but
refuses to go to make an appointment to see the doctor …
• aches and pains : minor pains that continue over a period of time
• to be a bit off colour : to feel a little ill
• to be at death’s door : (informal) to b e very ill indeed
• to be on the mend : to be recovering after an illness
• to be over the worst : to have got through the most serious or uncomfortable stage of
an illness
• to be under the weather : (informal) to not feel well
• a blocked nose : when the nose has excess fluid due to a cold
• to catch a cold : to get a cold
• a check -up : a physical examination by a doctor
• a chesty cough : a cough caused by congestion around the lungs
• cuts and bruises : minor injuries
• to feel poorly : to feel ill
• as fit as a fiddle : to be ve ry healthy
• to go down with a cold : to become ill
• to go private : to choose to be treated by commercial healthcare rather than by services
offered by the state
• GP : General Practitioner (family doctor)
• to have a filling : to have a tooth repaired
• to have a too th out : to have a tooth removed
• a heavy cold : a bad cold
• to make an appointment : to arrange a time to see the doctor
• to make a speedy recovery : to recover quickly from an illness
• to phone in sick : to call work to explain you won’t be attending work due to illness
• prescription charges : money the patient pays for medicine authorised by a doctor
• to pull a muscle : to strain a muscle


• a runny nose : a nose that has liquid coming out of it
• a sore throat : inflammation that causes pain when swallowing

Health and Healthcare: Sample
questions and answers for IELTS
speaking exam

Part 1
1. In what ways do you try to stay healthy?
-I try to have a balanced diet as often as I can. I also exercise regularly.
2. Is it easy to keep fit where you live?
-To be honest, no, it is not. Fast foods are always tempting. People around me can be
bad influence when it comes to being fit especially when choosing healthy foods and
doing some exercises.

3. What part of your lifestyle would you most li ke to make healthier?
– Well, I would say, my sleeping habits . I can hardly get enough rest at night. I
usually lack sleep .
4. Are you careful about what you eat?
-Not really. But, I try though. It’s just that, it’s difficult to choose what to eat.
5. How import ant is a healthy lifestyle for you?
-I think it is very important. It helps us to be more effective and productive with our
everyday activities.

6. Do you eat much junk food??
-No. I rarely eat junk food . I just eat them when other people who are with me ar e
eating them, and I only eat a small amount.


Part 2
Describe a time when you were ill. You should say:

o when this was
o what your symptoms were
o how long the illness lasted
and say how it affected your life at the time
I will talk about a terrible experience when I got ill. It happened a few months ago when
I had flu coupled with sore throat . A week before it happened, I was so stressed with
work. I had stayed late nights in the office to meet several deadlines. I lack sleep and I
couldn’t also eat on time.
My body started to feel weak ; I started to have slight fever and colds . I knew it was
going to be bad because I was having headaches , and severe muscle and body aches .
I also s tarted to have dry cough and my throat hurts .
It lasted for about a week. I went to see a doctor so I can get the right prescription. I
was advised to have bed rest for a few days.
I was not able to report for work for a week. Luckily, I have already finished all my
deadlines before it happened. But, it had still affected my life because I failed to do my
daily routine. I also asked my mom to take care of me since I lived alone. When I came
back to work, there’s a h uge pile of paper work waiting on my desk.

Part 3
1. What is the role of the government in promoting healthcare

I believe that the government plays a major role in promoting healthcare . The
government should educate the people about health and guide them about
having healthy lifestyles. It must create more programs and activities that
would disseminate appropriate and accurate information about health. I also believe
that the government should improve the health sector to make it more accessible for th e
people. .
2. What more do you think could be done to promote healthy living in your


I think that the government should have more initiatives and implement strict
policies when it comes to activities that affect people’s health. For example,
the ba nning of smoking in public places would not just benefit the smokers, but the
none -smokers as well. People must also be educated about the advantages of having
a healthy lifestyle . I also think that putting up more establishments for people
to engage in sp orts or exercises must be encouraged .

3. How can individuals take more responsibility for their own health?

Lifestyle plays a major role in our health. We must care for our own health. There are
a lot of things we can do to stay fit and healthy. For examp le, being conscious about
our food intake and exercising regularly must be practiced. Discipline is very
important. We must be always try to avoid unhealthy practices and vices .

balanced diet range of food that is arranged in good proportions
If you eat a well balanced and healthy diet , and take a reasonable amount of exercise,
the occasional junk food meal certainly won’t harm you .
Exercise physical activity done to improve health
Obesity and lack of exercise tend to lead to insulin resistance.
to be fit to be in good physical shape
Allan hasn’t been fit enough for full -time professional football.
healthy foods food that helps to stay physically strong and resilient
Choosing the right healthy food depends on one’s perceptions.
sleeping habits a settled or regular tendency or practice, related to sleep,
especially one that is hard to give up
I suffer from insomnia and at times it is very hard to level out my sleeping habits .
to lack sleep be deficient in sleep
I usually lack sleep .
to be productive to be effi cient, achieving useful results
What do you need to be productive ?
organic food food that is produced without using harmful chemicals


Organic food is much too expensive.
vegetarian food food that does not contain meat
I’m a strict vegetarian right from my birth and I don’t even know the taste of
non vegetarian food.

processed food food that has chemicals in it to make it last a long time
The term ‘ processed food ‘ applies to any food that has been altered from its natural
junk food food that is full of sugar or fat, and is bad for your health
The less junk food you eat, the less you want.
fast food food such as hamburgers, which is prepared quickly and which yo u can
take away with you to eat
For one month, I ate nothing but fast food
banning of smoking prohibiting of smoking
The primary reason the government has not already banned smoking is because of
the very large tax revenue they receive for the sale of tobacco.

disseminate information spread information
It is not illegal to disseminate information on how to make a bomb.
Initiative an act or strategy intended to resolve a dif ficulty or improve a situationr
There is a new initiative against highly processed food.
to implement policies to put into effect a plan or principle of action adopted
by a governm ent, organization or individual
What are the best implemented Australian government policies of the last 50 years?
healthy lifestyle the way in which a person or group lives that helps to stay
All you need to do to have a healthy lifestyle is follow 3 simple things
engage in sports participate or become involved in sports
If you engage yourself in sports that does not mean that your weight will decrease.
to encourage give support, confidence
I do not encourage diets, eating less or limiting the amount of food one eats.
discipline controlled or self -controlled behavior


When you are disciplined , healthy and good at something people will come into your

to avoid vices keep away from a bad habit
Dieting and avoiding vices are useful to stay healthy.
intense workout vigorous session of physical exerci se
An intense workout varies from person to person. Intense workout for me would mea n
pushing myself beyond limits.
to limit sugar intake to restrict the amount of sugar taken into body
Get lots of exercise, eat a balanced diet, limit sugar intake , don’t smoke day.
to hit the gym to arrive at a gym
This week I hit the gym twice.

to get sick become ill
At the last minute, I got sick and couldn’t go.
to cough to suddenly push air out of your throat with a short sound, often
The man paused and coughed nervously before continuing.
sore throat a condition marked by pain in the throat – the passage from the back
of your mouth to the top of the tubes that go down to your lungsand stomach
A sore throat is a symptom of the common cold
runny nose A condition of discharge of mucus (a slimy substance) from the nose,
often a symptom of the common cold
Turmeric is an efficient solution for how to get rid of a runny nose and cold as well.
H eadache a continuous pain in the head
Computer headaches are common these days. In fact, computers may be one of the
ma in causes of chronic daily headaches in today’s world.


chills an unpleasant feeling of coldness in the atmosphere, one’s surroundings, or
the body
Chill is the feeling of cold and shivering that comes with or without fever. Chills may
also occur when exposed to a cold environment.
health benefits an advantage gained from something that helped to stay
physically strong and resilient
Coriander is also known as the miracle herb. That is used widely across the world
with a lot of health benefits .
early diagnosis the identification of the nature of an illness done before t he
usual or expected time [fat]
Preventative care, early diagnosis , and general wellness care are relatively
inexpensive to provide, and they can help promote healthy behaviors both in general
and specific to any health risks that a person might have.
T reatment medical care
Medical treatment will not cure the disease but will remedy the symptoms.
lifestyle related diseases A disease associated with the way a person or
group of people lives. Lifestyle diseases include atherosclerosis, hea rt disease, and
stroke; obesity
Diabetes is a lifestyle relateddisease.


Medical English Vocabulary
Here is some essential vocabulary for nurses and medical
professionals working in an English -speaking context. Each word is shown
with its part of speech and meaning, while an example sentence shows the
word in context.
part of speech meaning example sentence
not normal for the human
This amount of weight loss
is abnormal for women your age.
pain that won't go away I can't sleep because my
knees ache in the night.
quick to become
We knew the baby was coming
right away because the woman's
labour pains were acute .


allergy noun
allergic adj
a body's abnormal
reaction to certain foods
or environmental
substances (eg causes a
Your son is extremely allergic to
pe anuts.
emergency vehicle that
rushes people to a
We called the ambulance when
Josh stopped breathing.
a condition that causes
people to lose their
I can't remember the accident
because I had amnesia .
amputation noun
amputate verb
permanent removal of a
We had to amputate his leg
because the infection spread so
anaemia noun
anaemic adj
occurs when the body
doesn't have enough red
blood cells
I have low energy because I
am anaemic .
medication that kills
bacteria and cures
My throat infection went away
after I started the antibiotics .
anti -depressant
medication that helps
relieve anxiety and
The anti -depressants helped me
get on with life after Lucy died.
a scheduled meeting with
a medical professional
I've made you
an appointment with a specialist
in three week's time.


a disease that causes the
joints to become swollen
and crippled
My grandmother can't knit
anymore because the arthritis in
her hands is so bad.
asthma (attack)
a condition that causes a
blockage of the airway
and makes it difficult for a
person to breathe
I carry an inhaler when I run
because I have asthma .
a disease -causing
To prevent the spread
of bacteria it is important that
nurses wash their hands often.
wounds that develop on a
patient's body from lying
in one place for too long
If you don't get up and take a
walk, you will develop
painful bedsores .
not harmful (not
We're hoping that the tests will
show that the lump in your breast
is benign .
removal of human tissue
in order to conduct certain
medical tests
The biopsy ruled out a number of
blood count
the amount of red and
white blood cells a person
You will be happy to know that
your blood count is almost back
to normal.
blood donor
a person who gives blood
to a blood bank or other
Blood donors have to answer
questions about their medical


blood pressure
the rate at which blood
flows through the body
High blood pressure puts you at
risk of having a heart attack.
a device that holds injured
body parts in place
You will probably always have to
wear a brace on your ankle when
you jog.
position of an unborn
baby in which the feet are
down and the head is u p
We thought it was going to be
a breech birth, but the baby
turned himself around.
a bone that is divided in
two or more pieces as a
result of an injury
We thought it was just a sprain,
but it turned out his leg
was broken .
bruise noun
bruised adj
injured body tissue that is
visible underneath the
The woman was
badly bruised when she came
into the emergency room.
Caesarean section,
procedure that involves
removing a baby from its
mother through an
incision in the woman's
lower abdomen
The baby was so large that we
had to perform a Caesarean
section .
disease caused by the
uncontrollable growth of
There are many different options
when it comes to treating cancer .
resuscitation (CPR)
restoring a person's
breath and circulation
You saved your brother's life by
performing CPR .


a hard bandage that is
wrapped around a broken
bone to keep it in place
My leg was in a cast for
chapel, chapeline
a place where loved ones
can go to pray for a
patient's recovery;
a priest who visits
patients in the hospital
If you want a place to pray,
the chapel is on the third floor.
type of treatment used on
cancer patients
My mother has already had three
rounds of chemotherapy .
a virus commonly
contracted by children,
characterized by itchy
spots all over the body
It is best to get chickenpox as a
child so that you don't get it worse
as an adult.
a person who determines
the cause of death after a
person dies
We only call the coroner if we
think a death is suspicious.
critical condition
requiring immediate and
constant medical attention
You can't see her right now; she's
in critical condition .
objects that people with
injured legs or feet use to
help them walk
I'd rather hop on one foot than
use crutches .
a sac in the body -tissue
filled with fluid
(sometimes diseased)
We' re going to remove
the cysts just to be on the safe


unable to hear The accident left the patient
both deaf and blind.
a lack of something
necessary for one's
The tests show that you have an
iron deficiency .
in need of water It is easy for the elderly to
become dehydrated in this heat.
loss of mental capacity It is hard to watch a loved one
suffering with dementia .
type of disease typically
involving insulin
deficie ncy
People with diabetes have to
constantly check their blood sugar
medical explanation of an
illness or condition
The doctor would prefer to share
the diagnosis with the patient
experiencing pain This pain medication should
relieve some of your discomfort .
a medical disorder that is
harmful to a person's
I understand that
this disease runs in your family.
when a bone is
temporarily separated
from its joint
You will h ave to wear a sling
because of
your dislocated shoulder.


a medical problem that
needs immediate
It is important that children know
which number to dial in case of
an emergency .
ER (emergency
the hospital room used for
treating patients with
immediate and life -
threatening injuries
The child was rushed into
the ER after he had a severe
allergic reaction to a bee sting.
on the outside This cream is for external use
only. Do not get it near your ears,
eyes, or mouth.
false negative
a test that incorrectly
comes back negative
We had two false
negative pregnancy tests, so we
didn't know we were having a
family history
medical background of a
person's family members
The doctor was concerned about
my family history of skin cancer.
causing death The doctor made a fatal error
when he wrote the wrong
fever noun
feverish adj
higher than normal body
He is very feverish , and his
temperature is near danger point.
flu (influenza)
many types of respiratory
or intestinal infections
passed on through a virus
People who have the flu should
not visit hospital patients.


fracture noun
fractured adj
broken or cracked bone Your wrist is fractured and needs
a cast.
a micro -organism,
especially one that
causes disease
Flowers are not allowed in the
ward to avoid the risk
of germs being brought in.
a medical condition or
physical feature that is
passed on in the family
The disease is part genetic and
part environmental.
a ball of tissue that grows
bigger than normal, either
on or under the skin
That growth on your shoulder is
starting to worry me.
heart attack
instance in which blood
stops pumping through
the heart
People who smoke are at greater
risk of having a heart attack .
the virus that infects the
human T -cells and leads
HIV can be passed down from the
mother to her fetus.
bumps that appear on the
surface of the skin during
an allergic reaction
I broke out in hives after I ate that
potato casserole.
illness noun
ill adj
general term for any
condition that makes a
person feel sick for a
certain period of time
Her illness went away when she
started eating better.


immune system
the parts of the body that
fight diseases, infections,
and viruses
You can't have visitors because
your immune system is low.
immunization noun
immunize verb
an injection that protects
against a specific disease
Babies ar e immunized three
times in their first year.
cut in the body made
during surgery
I had to have stitches to close
the incision .
unclear We have to do more x -rays
because the first ones
were inconclusive .
young baby The nurse will demonstrate how
to bathe an infant .
infection noun
infected adj
diseased area of the body
(viral or bacterial)
The wound should be covered
when you swim to prevent it from
becoming infected .
appearance (red and
swollen) of an injured
body part
My right ankle was so inflamed it
was twice the size of my left one.
damage to the body Her injuries were minor; just a
few cuts and bruises.
intensive care unit
section of the hospital
where patients get
constant attention and
She will remain in the ICU until
she can breathe on her own.


doctors rely on
specialized equipment
under the skin, inside the
The doctors will be monitoring her
for any internal bleeding.
feeling discomfort on the
skin's surface
If you are allergic to this
medication your skin will get red
and itchy .
a tube that pumps liquids
and medication into a
patient's body
The toddler was so dehydrated
that t he doctor decided to get him
on an IV .
lab results
tests that come back from a
laboratory and help doctors
make a diagnosis
The lab results have come in
and you are free to go home.
lab (laboratory)
place where samples of
blood/urine etc. are taken for
I'll take these samples down to
the lab on my way out.
life support
a machine that keeps
patients alive by helping them
The woman has severe brain
damage and is currently on life
support .
life -threateni ng
when injuries and conditions
are extremely serious
The victim was shot in two
places but the bullet wounds are
not life -threatening .
light -headed
feeling of dizziness and being
off -balance, caused by lack
of oxygen in the brain
If you are feeling light -
headed again, lie down and call


expected to grow and get
much worse (especially
related to cancerous cells)
I'm afraid at least one of the
tumours is malignant .
medical school
(med. school)
place where someone trains
to be a doctor
After eight years of medical
school I can finally practice
an infant that is less than
three months old
You have to support her neck
because she is still a newborn .
no feeling in a certain body
The needle will make your lower
body feel numb .
OR (operating
the place where major
surgeries and operations take
You must wear a face mask and
gloves while you are in the OR .
operation noun
operate on verb
a medical procedure that
involves going inside a
person's body in an attempt
to fix a problem
The operation lasted seven
hours, but it was successful.
strong discomfort in certain
areas of the body
We gave your husband some
medicine to relieve some of
the pain .
pain killer, pain
type of medicine that takes
away some or all of the
discomfort of an illness or
You can take two pain
killers every four hours.


unable to move certain areas
of the body
We thought her legs
we re paralyzed for life, but she
is learning how to walk.
a person staying in a hospital
or medical facility
The patients in Room 4 are not
getting along.
a person who fills a doctor's
prescription and gives people
advice about medication
Ask the pharmacist if there is a
generic brand of this medication.
a place where people go to
buy medication and other
medical supplies
You should be able to buy a
bandage at the pharmacy .
doctor Ask your family physician to
refer you to a specialist.
poison noun
poisonous adj
a substance that is very
dangerous if it enters the
human body
The child was bitten by
a poisonous snake.
of the time period leading up
to giving birth
The woman was well prepared
for labour because she took
the prenatal classes.
prescription noun
prescribe verb
the correct amount and type
of medication needed to cure
an illness or relieve
You will need to visit your doctor
to get another prescrip tion .


privacy noun
private adj
being alone; personal (eg test
You will have to pay for
a private hospital room if you
don't want a room -mate.
high energy X -rays that
destroy cancer cells
If the radiation doesn't kill all of
the abnormal cells, the cancer
will come back.
part of a doctor's training that
takes place in the hospital;
a student working under a
John is a resident under Dr
routine check -up
a doctor's appointment to
check a person's general
I'd like to see you a year from
now for a routine check -up .
plain uniform (usually green,
white, or blue) worn by
medical professionals
I have some extra scrubs in my
scrub up
carefu lly wash hands before
and after seeing a patient
I have to scrub up and get ready
for surgery.
second opinion
input from a second doctor
about an illness or symptom
I went to another doctor to get
a second opinion about these
sudden violent movements or
unconsciousness caused by
electrical signal malfunction
in the brain
People who suffer from epilepsy
are prone to seizures .


body not getting enough
blood flow
The woman was in shock after
being pulled from the river.
side effects
other symptoms that might
occur as a result of a certain
medication or procedure
One of the side effects of
antidepressants is a loss of
painful I have a sore throat and a runny
the uncontrollable tightening
of a muscle
Ever since I injured my leg I've
been having muscle spasms in
my upper thigh.
a doctor that is an expert in a
certain kind of medicine
My family doctor is sending me
to a specialist .
an injury (less serious than a
break) to a joint (ankle, wrist,
knee etc)
I sprained my knee playing
stable condition
a patient is stable if their
medical condition is no longer
changing rapidly
You can see your husband now;
he is in a stable condition .
sharp, temporary pain It may sting when I insert the
stress noun
stressed adj
worry that causes muscles to
tighten and blood pressure to
You need to take some time off
work and relieve some of
your stress .


swelling noun
swollen adj
ligaments (parts that hold the
joints together) growing
bigger and rounder after an
injury to a joint
I knew my ankle was sprained
because it was so swollen .
pain or physical changes that
occur because of an illness
or disease
You have all of the symptoms of
a diabetic.
amount of heat measured in
a body; higher than normal
We brought Jesse to emergency
because he was running a
(high) temperature .
painful when touched or used The incision was tender after the
test results
medical information that
helps doctors understand a
patient's condition or body
The test results came back
negative. You aren't pregnant.
treatment aimed at improving
a person's mental or physical
I was able to go back to work a
few weeks after starting
the therapy .
moving of an organ from one
human to another
The heart transplant saved your
a test that examines the
body's internal organs and
processes using sound
waves (often used during
The ultrasound shows that we
are expecting a baby boy.


umbilical cord
the lifeline from the mother to
the fetus (when cut at birth
this forms the belly button)
I had an emergency C -section
because the umbilical cord was
wrapped around the baby's neck.
alive, but appearing to be
asleep and unaware of the
I hit my head on the steering
wheel and was
still unconscious when the
ambulance arrived.
urine sample
a small amount of the body's
liquid waste that is tested for
different medical reasons
The urine sample tells us how
much alcohol is in your blood.
the thin tubes that transport
bloo d around the body and
back to the heart
I'm just looking for the
best vein in which to insert the
a dangerous organism that
causes the spread of minor
and major diseases
The virus is contractable
through the exchange of bodily
visiting hours
time of day when friends and
family are allowed to visit
patients in hospital
I'm afraid you'll have to come
back during visiting hours .
discharge of a person
stomach contents th rough the
The pregnant woman can't
stop vomiting .
a section of a hospital or
health facility where patients
I should warn you that we're
entering the mental health ward .


a chair on wheels used for
transporting patients from
place to place
If you get in the wheelchair I'll
take you down to see the
wound noun
wounded adj
injury to body ("flesh wound"
means not deep)
The wounded soldiers are being
airlifted to the hospital.
a photograph of a person's
bones and organs
The technician took x-rays of my
shoulder to make sure it wasn't


Human Body - Medical English

One of the first things you need to know when working as a medical
professional in English is the parts of the body. You will need to learn the
names of the internal (inside the skin) and external body parts. You will also
need to learn the words for the functions of each of these body parts. Here are
the basics to get you started.


Inside the head is the brain, which is responsible for thinking. The top
of a person's scalp is covered with hair . Beneath the hairline at the f ront of
the face is the forehead . Underneath the forehead are the eyes for seeing,
the nose for smelling, and the mouth for eating. On the outside of the mouth
are the lips , and on the inside of the mouth are the teeth for biting and
the tongue for tasting . Food is swallowed down the throat . At the sides of the
face are the cheeks and at the sides of the head are the ears for hearing. At
the bottom of a person's face is the chin . The jaw is located on the inside of
the cheeks and chin. The neck is what attaches the head to the upper body .

Upper Body
At the top and front of the upper body, just below the neck is
the collar bone . On the front side of the upper body is the chest , which in
wom en includes the breasts . Babies suck on the nipples of their mother's
breasts. Beneath the ribcage are the stomach and the waist . The navel ,
more commonly referred to as the belly button , is located here as well. On
the inside of the upper body are the heart for pumping blood and
the lungs for breathing. The rear side of the upper body is called the back ,
inside which the spine connects the upper body to the lower body.

Upper Limbs (arms)
The arms are attached to the shoulders . Beneath this area is
called the armpit or underarm . The upper arms have the muscles known
as triceps and biceps . The joint halfway down the arm is called the elbow .
Between the elbow and the next joint, the wrist , is the forearm . Below the
wrist is the hand with four fingers an d one thumb . Beside the thumb is
the index finger. Beside the index finger is the middle finger, followed by
the ring finger and the little finger. At the ends of the fingers are fingernails .


Lower Body
Below the waist, on left and right, are the hips . Between the hips
are the reproductive organs, the penis (male) or the vagina (female). At the
back of the lower body are the buttocks for sitting on. They are also
commonly referred to as the rear end or the bum (especially with children).
The internal organs in the lower body include the intestines for digesting
food, the bladder for holding liquid waste, as well as the liver and
the kidneys . This area also contains the woman's uterus , which holds a baby
when a woman is pregnant.

Lower Limbs ( legs)
The top of the leg is called the thigh , and the joint in the middle of
the leg is the knee . The front of the lower leg is the shin and the back of the
lower leg is the calf . The ankle connects the foot to the leg. Each foot has
five toes . The smalle st toe is often called the little toe while the large one is
called the big toe . At the ends of the toes are toenails .

Used Sources: