2013_timothy_dickeson_ielts_high_score_vocabulary

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IE LT S H ig h S co re
Vocab ula ry L is t ( 2 012)

“D is co ve r
A S pecia lly S ele cte d L is t o f
IE LTS
Voca b ula ry W ord s G uara n te ed T o
In cre ase Y our S co re !


By:
Tim oth y D ic keso n

Copyrig ht
© b y
Tim oth y D ic ke so n – A ll R ig hts R ese rv e d

Lim it s o f L ia b ilit y / D is cla im er o f W arra n ty :
T he a u th or a n d p ublis h er o f t h is b ook a n d t h e a cco m pan yin g m ate ria ls h ave
u sed t h eir b est e ffo rts in p re p arin g t h is p ro gra m . T he a u th or a n d p ublis h er m ake
n o r e p re sen ta tio n o r w arra n tie s w it h r e sp ect t o t h e a ccu ra cy, a p plic ab ilit y ,
f it n ess, o r c o m ple te n ess o f t h e c o nte n ts o f t h is p ro gra m . T hey d is cla im a n y
w arra n tie s ( e xp re ssed o r im plie d ), m erc h an ta b ilit y , o r f it n ess f o r a n y p artic u la r
p urp ose. T he a u th or a n d p ublis h er s h all in n o e ven t b e h eld lia b le f o r a n y lo ss o r
o th er d am ag e, in clu din g b ut n ot lim it e d t o s p ecia l, in cid en ta l, c o nseq uen tia l, o r
o th er d am ag es. A s a lw ays, t h e a d vic e o f a c o m pete n t le g al, t a x, a cco untin g o r
o th er p ro fe ssio nals s h ould b e s o ught.
T his m an ual c o nta in s m ate ria l p ro te cte d u nder In te rn atio nal a n d F ed era l
C opyrig ht L aw s a n d T re atie s. A ny u nau th oriz e d r e p rin t o r u se o f t h is m ate ria l is
p ro hib it e d .

I E LT S is jo in tly o w ned b y B rit is h C ouncil, ID P: IE LT S A ustr a lia a n d t h e U niv ers it y
o f C am brid ge E SO L E xam in atio ns ( C am brid ge E SO L).

Ple ase n ote : A ll
Verb s
h ave a n e xpla natio n t h at s ta rts w it h “ T o”

A BA NDO N
: T o g iv e u p c o m ple te ly -
abandoned
th e s in kin g s h ip .
S yno nym s: r e lin q uis h , f o rg o , f o rs a ke

A CADEM IC
: P erta in in g to s c ho ol; th eo re ti c al a
ca dem ic i n
te re sts ; a n
aca dem ic
dis c ussio n
,
with
n o p ra cti c al i m plic ati o ns.
S yno nym : s c ho la sti c

A CCELER ATE
: - T o q uic ken, s p eed ti p - to ok a n
accele ra te d
c o urs e i n o rd er to g ra d uate e arly .
S yno nym : e xp ed ite ( a d j. e xp ed iti o us)
A nto nym : r e ta rd

A DVER SIT Y
: M is fo rtu ne - c alm i n th e f a ce o f
adversity
.
S yno nym s: a fflic ti o n
, m is c hance, r e v ers e s

A G GRESSIV E
( n o un: A GGRESSIO N. a n u np ro voked a tta ck): s e lf- a sse rti v e; a tta ckin g,
o ffe nsiv e - a nno yed p eo ple b y h is
aggre ssiv e
a tti tu d e;
S yno nym s: b um pti o us
, o ffic io us,
obtr u siv e
A nto nym s:
meek, h um ble , r e ti r in g, d iffid ent

A M BIG UO US
: U ncerta in , v ague, c ap ab le o f b ein g i n te r- i n m ore th an o ne w ay - p uzzle d b y th e
a m big uous
s ta te m ent.
S yno nym s: h azy
, o bsc ure , e q uiv ocal, d ub io us, n eb ulo us
A nto nym s: e xp lic it
, u nq uesti o nab le

A NO NYM OUS
: O f u nkno w n a uth o rs h ip -a n
anonym ous
p ub lic ati o n.

A PPR EH EN SIV E
( v erb : A PPR EH EN D): F earfu l - B ein g u np re p are d , J o hn i s
appre h en siv e
of
t h e e xam in ati o n.

A RTFU L
: S ly ; c ra fty - a tta in ed h is m ean o bje cti v e b y
artfu l
m easu re s.
S yno nym s: c unnin g, w ily , a d ro it, i n genio us, g uile fu l
A nto nym s: g uile le ss, i n genuo us,
artl e ss

ATH EIS T
: O ne w ho d enie s th at G od e xis ts - T he
ath eis t
d ecla re d , " T here i s n o G od."
Syno nym s: i n fid el
, a gno sti c ,
sc ep ti c

ATTR IB U TE
( v erb ): A ssig n -
attr ib ute d
h is s u ccess to b ard w ork .
Syno nym : a sc rib e
( no un
): A n i n here nt q uality - G enero sity w as h is o uts ta nd in g
attr ib ute
.

AUTH EN TIC
: G enuin e - p ro ved to b e a n
auth en tic
d ocum ent.
Syno nym s: v erita b le
, b ona f id e
Anto nym s; a p ocry p hal
, c o unte rfe it, s p urio us, b ogus

BA NTER
: G ood-n atu re d te asin g o r r id ic ule -T he tw o w its I e xchanged
bante r
, to th e a m use m ent
of th e a ud ie nce.
Syno nym s: r a ille ry
, c haff

BIA SE D
: P re ju d ic ed - m is le d b y a
bia se d
p oin t o f v ie w .
Syno nym s: b ig o te d
, a rb itr a ry , p arti a l, p arti s a n
Anto nym s: d is in te re ste d
, e q uita b le

BIZ A RRE
: Q ueer; u nusu al i n a p peara nce-
biz a rre
c lo th es, o utl a nd is h i n th e e xtr e m e.
Syno nym s: o dd
, f a nta sti c , g ro te sq ue, e ccentr ic

BO G
: A s w am p - s a nk i n to th e s p ongy
bog
.
Syno nym s: m ora ss, f e n, q uagm ir e , m ir e

CANDID
( n o un: C A NDOR): F ra nk, o uts p oken; i m parti a l a
ca ndid
r e p ly th at c o uld h ard ly b e
more f o rth rig ht.
Syno nym s: a rtl e ss, i n genuo us,
unb ia se d
Anto nym s: g uile fu l, e v asiv e

CH RO NIC
: C onti n uin g a l o ng ti m e; h ab itu al- a .
ch ro nic
c o m pla in t, p ers is ti n g f o r y ears .
Syno nym s: p ers is te nt
, u nre m itti n g, i n v ete ra te , i n cessa nt, c o nsta nt
Anto nym s: i n te rm itte nt
, s p ora d ic ,
in fr e q uent

CIV IL
:
1 .
Of o r h a vin g to d o w it h c it iz e ns o r th e s ta te - W e I
civ il
d utie s a s w ell a s
civ il
lib ertie s.
2 .
Polit e , c o urte ous - a nsw ere d in a
civ il
fa shio n.
Syno nym s: r e sp ectf u l, g ra cio us

CO ALIT IO N
( v erb : C O ALE SC E): A llia nce; m erg in g o f v ario us u nits i n to o ne u nit - th re e
parti e s f o rm in g a
co alitio n
to r u le th e c o untr y .
Syno nym s: a m alg am ati o n, c o nso lid ati o n, f u sio n

CO LLU SIO N
: W ork in g to geth er s e cre tl y f o r a n e v il p urp ose - a cte d i n
co llu sio n
to o verth ro w
th e g o vern m ent.
Syno nym s: c o lla b ora ti o n, c o nsp ir a cy, c o nniv in g, m achin ati o n

CO M PA TIB LE
: H arm onio us; a b le , to g et a lo ng to geth er p arte d c o m pany b ecause th ey w ere n o t
co m patib le
.
Syno nym s: c o ngru o us, c o nsis te nt
Anto nym s: i n co ngru o us, d is c o rd ant, i n co m pati b le

CO M PE N SA TIO N
: P aym ent f o r s e rv ic es - j u st
co m pen sa tio n
f o r h is
la b or
.
Syno nym s: s ti p end , r e m unera ti o n, r e co m pense , e m olu m ent

CO M PL A CEN T
: S elf- s a ti s fie d - l o oked o n h is o w n p erfo rm ance w ith a
co m pla cen t
s m ile .
Syno nym : s m ug

CO NDO LE
( n o un: C O NDOLE N CE): T o e xp re ss s y m path y w ith a no th er i n s o rro w , p ain , o r
mis fo rtu ne -
co ndole d
w ith e ach o th er i n th eir g rie f.
Syno nym s: c o m mis e ra te , s h o w c o m passio n, s o la ce

CO NDO NE
: T o f o rg iv e o r o verlo ok ( a n o ffe nse ) -
co ndoned
th e d eed , i n v ie w o f th e o ffe nd er's
age.
Syno nym s: e xte nuate , p allia te , m iti g ate , g lo ss

CO NSE N SU S
. G enera l a gre em ent - T he
co nse n su s
o f th e c o m mitte e w as th at n o a cti o n s h o uld
be ta ken.
Syno nym : a cco rd

CO SM OPO LIT A N
( n o un): O ne w ho i s a t h o m e i n a ll c o untr ie s - A
co sm opolita n
c an f e el a t
ease a nyw here i n th e w orld .
(a d j.) : F re e f r o m l o cal p re ju d ic es - a w orld -w id e
tr a v elle r
,
co sm opolita n
i n ta ste s a nd a tti tu d es.
Syno nym s: C ath o lic
Anto nym s: p aro chia l, p ro vin cia l

CRASS
: C oars e a nd s tu p id - d is p la yed
cra ss
i g no ra nce.
Syno nym : g ro ss

CRED IB LE
: W orth y o f b elie f - a
cre d ib le
sto ry , tr u e to l ife .
Anto nym : in cre dib le

CRED IT A BLE
: D ese rv in g o r r e fle cti n g C re d it o r
ho no ur
- a p pla ud ed f o r h is
cre d ita ble
perfo rm ance.
Syno nym s: p ra is e w orth y, m erito rio us,
co m mend ab le
Anto nym s: d is c re d ita b le , i n fa m ous, o ppro brio us,
ig no m in io us

CURT
: R ud ely a b ru p t - o ffe nd ed b y th e
cu rt
r e sp onse .
Syno nym s: b lu nt, b ru sq ue, b lu ff
Anto nym s: a ffa b le , c iv il

DELIN Q UEN T
( n o un): A n o ffe nd er - f o und to b e a
delin quen t
b y th e c o urt.
(a d j.) : F ailin g to
fu lfil
a n o blig ati o n - to o m any p eo ple w ho a re
delin quen t
i n m eeti n g th eir c iv ic
duti e s.
Syno nym : d ere lic t

DEM EA NO R
:
Behav io ur
; b earin g - c arry in g h im se lf w ith a p ro ud
dem ea nour
.
Syno nym s: d eportm ent, m ie n

DEN O UNCE
( n o un: D EN UN CIA TIO N): T o s p eak a gain st -
den ounced
b y th e p re ss a s a tr a ito r.
Syno nym s: s ti g m ati z e , c ensu re , r e p re hend , c asti g ate
Anto nym s: l a ud , e ulo giz e

DEPR EC IA TE
: T o b elittl e o r s p eak
slig hti n gly
o f -
dep re cia te d
J o hn's a cti n g a b ility .

Syno nym s: d is p ara ge, d ero gate ( a d j. d ero gato ry )
Anto nym s: e nhance, m agnify , e xto l, l a ud , e ulo giz e

DEV IO US
:
(1 ) W in d in g ; in d ir e ct - to ok a
devio us
, r a th e r th a n th e d ir e ct w ay h o m e.
Syno nym : c ir c uito us
(2 ) S tr a yin g f r o m th e r ig ht c o urs e - u se d
devio us
m eans to a tta in h is w ic ked e nd s.
Syno nym s: c ro oked , e rrin g

DEV O UT
: D ev ote d to r e lig io us o bse rv ances -
devo ut
i n h is r e gula rity o f a tte nd ance a t w ors h ip .
Syno nym s: p io us, r e lig io us
Anto nym : i m pio us

DIL EM MA
: A s itu ati o n c allin g f o r a c ho ic e b etw een tw o e q ually d iffic ult a lte rn ati v es; h ence, a
diffic ult o r p erp le xin g s itu ati o n - f a ced w ith a
dile m ma
d efy in g s o lu ti o n.
Syno nym s: p re d ic am ent
, q uand ary , p lig ht

DIS C RETE
: S ep ara te - tw o
dis c re te
i s su es, to ta lly u nre la te d .

DIS T R AUG HT
: M enta lly d is tr e sse d ; d is tr a cte d -
dis tr a ught
by tr ia ls a nd tr ib ula ti o ns.
Syno nym : h ara sse d

DIV ER SE
: ( v erb : D IV ER SIF Y ; n o un: D IV IS IB IL IT Y ): V arie d ; d iffe re nt - tw o
div erse
chara cte rs ; o ne c and id , th e o th er i n sin cere .
Syno nym : m ulti fa rio us

DIV ULG E
: T o m ake p ub lic o r r e v eal - r e fu se d to
div u lg e
h is s o urc e o f i n fo rm ati o n.
Syno nym s: d is c lo se , i m part

DYN AM IC
: F orc efu l - p osse sse d
dyn am ic
e nerg y, ti r e le ss a nd p ow erfu l.
Syno nym : e nerg eti c
Anto nym s: s ta ti c , i n ert, d orm ant, to rp id , s lu ggis h , q uie sc ent

ED IF Y
: T o i n str u ct o r u p lift, p arti c ula rly i n m ora ls o r r e lig io n - a s to ry th at
ed ifie s
th e r e ad er, a s
well a s e nte rta in s h im

EJA CULA TE
: T o e xcla im o r u tte r s u d denly
-
eja cu la te d
c ry o f h o rro r.

EN G EN DER
: T o c ause , p ro duce, o r s ti r u p -a n a ct th at
en gen dere d
go od w ill.

ER RATIC
: I r re sp onsib le , e ccentr ic ; l a ckin g a f ix ed p urp ose
erra tic
behav io ur
, r e fle cti n g h is
queer i d eas.

EXC EPT IO NABLE
: O bje cti o nab le -
e xcep tio nable
behav io ur
, u niv ers a lly c riti c iz e d .
Syno nym s:
questi o nab le , r e p re hensib le ,
censu ra b le
Anto nym : l a ud ab le

EXEM PL A RY
( n o un: E X EM PLA R): S erv in g a s a m odel; c o m mend ab le
- e xem pla ry
co nd uct
ap pro ved b y a ll.
Syno nym s: i llu str a ti v e, ty p ic al; p ra is e w orth y, l a ud ab le

EXO TIC
: S tr a nge a nd f o re ig n - a n
exo tic
c o stu m e i m porte d f r o m A sia .

EXPL O IT
( v erb ): T o u se f o r o ne's s e lfis h p urp ose – r e fu gees
exp lo ite d
b y u nsc ru p ulo us
em plo yers .
( no un
): A b rillia nt d eed - l a ud ed f o r h is
exp lo its
i n s c ie nce.
Syno nym : f e at

EXTIN CT
: N o l o nger e xis ti n g o r a cti v e - th e
extin ct
d in o sa ur, a liv e o nly i n h is to ry .
Syno nym : d efu nct
Anto nym : e xta nt

FA CADE
: F ro nt o r f a ce, e sp ecia lly o f a b uild in g - a
fa ca de
o f m arb le .

FE A SIB LE
: W ork ab le - a
fe a sib le
p la n, p ro ved p ra cti c al b y - p re v io us e xp erie nce.
Anto nym : i m pra cti c ab le

FE TIS H
.
(1 ) S om eth in g th at i s b elie v ed to h av e m agic al p ow ers - s a v ages w ors h ip pin g th e
fe tis h
in a
cere m onia l d ance.

Syno nym : c harm , ta lis m an, a m ule t
(2 ) A n o bje ct o f u nre aso nin g d ev oti o n a nd w ors h ip – P ho to gra p hy, b egun a s a h o bby, b ecam e a
fe tis h .

FIC TIT IO US
: U nre al; m ad e-u p - u se d a
fic titio us
nam e to a v oid b ein g r e co gniz e d .
Syno nym : f a b ric ate d

FL A UNT
: D is p la y o r w av e b oastf u lly -
fla unte d
th e e xcelle nt r e p ort b efo re h is d elig hte d
pare nts .

FL EETIN G
: P assin g s w iftl y - th e
fle etin g
h o urs o f h ap pin ess
Syno nym s: tr a nsito ry , f u giti v e

FL U CTU ATE
: T o w av er f r o m o ne c o urs e to a no th er; to v ary i r re gula rly - h is m ood
flu ctu atin g
with e v ery h o ur.
Syno nym s: o sc illa te , v acilla te , u nd ula te ,
sw ay

FR UST R ATE
: T o p re v ent ( th e a tta in m ent o f a n o bje ct) ; to d efe at o r r e nd er i n effe ctu al - H is
sc ho la sti c p ro gre ss w as
fr u str a te d b y
a s e rio us i lln ess.
Syno nym s: b alk , th w art, f o il, b affle , o bstr u ct, d is c o m fit
Anto nym : a b et

GARNIS H
: T o tr im o r d eco ra te - d is h es
garn is h ed
a ttr a cti v ely w ith g re ens.
Syno nym s: a d orn , d eck

GREG ARIO US
: H ab itu ally f o nd o f a sso cia ti n g i n a c o m pany o r h erd -
gre g ario us
s h eep ; th at
gre g ario us
a nim al, m an.
Anto nym s: l o ne
, a lo of

HAIL
: T o g re et - T he c ro w d
haile d
th e r e tu rn in g h ero .
Syno nym s: a cco st, s a lu te

HO AX
( n o un): A tr ic k o r d ecep ti o n; a p ra cti c al j o ke - p la yed a
hoax
u p on th e c re d ulo us p ub lic .
Syno nym : c anard
( verb
): T o p la y a tr ic k o n; to d eceiv e - H e
hoaxed
th e c ro w d c o m ple te ly w ith h is d is g uis e .

HYPO TH ESIS
: A n a ssu m pti o n m ad e f o r th e s a ke o f a rg um ent - w ork ed f r o m a f a nta sti c
hyp oth esis .
Syno nym : s u p positi o n

ID IO SY N CRASY
: A . p ers o nal p eculia rity - W earin g w hite w as o ne o f W his tl e r's
id io sy n cra sie s.
Syno nym s: e ccentr ic ity , f o ib le , m anneris m , c ro tc het, a b erra ti o n, q uir k , s in gula rity

IM MACULA TE
: S potl e ss; p ure - a n
im macu la te
r e p uta ti o n.
Syno nym s: u nd efile d , u nsu llie d , u nb le m is h ed ,
unta rn is h ed
Anto nym s: d efile d , s u llie d , b le m is h ed

IM MUNE
( v erb : I M MUN IZ E ): E xem pt f r o m ; p ro te cte d f r o m -
im mune
f r o m ta xati o n.
Syno nym :
u nsu sc ep ti b le

IM PE C CABLE
: F aultl e ss - p erfo rm ed w ith
im pecca ble
s k ill.
Syno nym s: c o nsu m mate , i r re p ro achab le , u nerrin g, i n fa llib le
Anto nym s: c ulp ab le , f a llib le

IM PE R VIO US
: I n cap ab le o f b ein g p enetr a te d - a m in d
im perv io us
to n ew i d eas.
Syno nym s: i m perm eab le , i m penetr a b le
Anto nym s: p erm eab le , p erv asiv e

IM PL IC IT
:
(1 ) I m plie d b ut n o t c le arly e xp re sse d - a n
im plic it
a gre em ent.
(2 ) U nq uesti o nin g -
im plic it
c o nfid ence.
Syno nym s: ta cit, i m plie d
Anto nym : e xp lic it

IM PO RT
( n o un): M eanin g; s ig nific ance o r i m porta nce - a m atte r o f g re at
im port
.
Syno nym s: p urp ort, m om ent, c o nse q uence

IN CIS IV E
: C utti n g, p enetr a ti n g -
in cis iv e
c riti c is m .
Syno nym s: s a rc asti c , m ord ant, tr e nchant, a cute

IN CREM EN T
: A n i n cre ase - a s a la ry
in cre m en t.
Syno nym : a ccru al

IN DIG EN O US
: N ati v e - R ic e i s
in dig en ous
to C hin a.
Syno nym s: i n nate
, i n b orn

IN FE R EN CE
: A c o nclu sio n r e ached b y r e aso nin g f r o m d ata o r p re m is e s - a n
in fe re n ce
d ra w n
fr o m h is r e m ark s.
Syno nym s: d ed ucti o n
, i m plic ati o n

IN G EN IO US
: D em onstr a ti n g o rig in ality , s k ill, o r r e so urc efu ln ess - a n
in gen io us
d ev ic e.
Syno nym s: d extr o us
, i n v enti v e,
ad ro it
Anto nym s: m ala d ro it
, g auche

IN H IB IT
: T o c heck o r h in d er -
in hib ite d
h is f r ie nd f r o m a f o olh ard y c o urs e .
Syno nym s: r e str a in
, c urb
Anto nym : p ro m ote

IN ST IG ATE
: T o s ti r ti p -
in stig ate d
d is c o nte nt a m ong th e s o ld ie rs .
Syno nym s: f o m ent, i n cite

IN TEG RIT Y
: H onesty , m ora l s o und ness - a m an o f p ro ved
in te g rity
.
Syno nym s: p ro bity , u p rig htn ess, i n co rru p ti b ility

JA RG ON
: C onfu se d , u nin te llig ib le , m eanin gle ss ta lk ; s p ecia l v ocab ula ry u se d o nly b y m em bers
of a g ro up o r tr a d e - V arie ty , a n ew sp ap er w ritte n i n th eatr ic al
ja rg on
.
Syno nym s: g ib beris h , a rg o t, c ant

JE O PA RDY
: D anger - H is l ife w as i n
je o pard y
.
Syno nym s: h aza rd , p eril

JU DIC IO US
: W is e ; u sin g o r e xhib iti n g g o od j u d gm ent - a w ell- c ho se n p la n, te rm ed
ju dic io us
b y
all.
Syno nym s: d is c re et
, p oliti c , d is c ern in g

LA TEN T
: H id den; p re se nt b ut n o t f u lly d ev elo ped -
la te n t
ta le nt th at ti m e w ill r e v eal.

Syno nym s: d orm ant
, q uie sc ent, c o vert, p ote nti a l
Anto nym s: a p pare nt
, p ate nt

LA VIS H
:
(1 ) P ro fu se o r g enero us -
la vis h
i n p ra is e .
Syno nym s: a m ple , s u p era b und ant
(2 ) G iv en to e xtr a v agance - a
la vis h
s p end er.
Syno nym s: p ro dig al, m unific ent, m agnanim ous.
Anto nym s: p ars im onio us, n ig gard ly , f r u gal,
penurio us

LETH AL
: D ead ly - a
le th al w ea pon
.
Syno nym s: m orta l, f a ta l

LO NG EV IT Y
: P ro lo nged d ura ti o n o f l ife - a c o untr y r e m ark ab le f o r th e
lo ngevity
o f i ts
in hab ita nts .

LO W
: T o b ello w s o ftl y l ik e c attl e - th e
lo w in g
h erd i n th e m ead ow .
Syno nym : m oo

LU CID
: C le ar; tr a nsp are nt; e asily u nd ers to od - a
lu cid
e xp la nati o n o f a d iffic ult te xt.
Syno nym s: p ellu cid , p ers p ic uo us, i n te llig ib le , l im pid , l u m in o us,
tr a nslu cent
Anto nym s: a b str u se , o bsc ure

LU DIC RO US
: R id ic ulo us; p ro ducin g l a ughte r - a
lu dic ro us
r e m ark th at s e t th em a ll
to
r o arin g.
Syno nym s: m ir th fu l, d ro ll, c o m ic al, a b su rd
Anto nym s: d ole fu l, l u gub rio us, d is m al

MALIC IO US
(n oun:
MALIC E): B earin g, o r a cti n g w ith , d elib era te i ll- w ill o r s p ite - h urti n g
with
malic io us
in te nt.
Syno nym s: r a nco ro us
, m alig nant, m ale v ole nt, v ir u le nt,
vin d ic ti v e
Anto nym : b enig n

MED IO CRE
: A vera ge i n q uality - a
med io cre
perfo rm ance, u nw orth y o f h is ta le nts .

MONO LO GUE
: A s p eech b y o ne p ers o n - T he a cto r g av e h is v ie w s i n a d ra m ati c
monolo gue
.

Syno nym : s o lilo quy
Anto nym s: c o llo quy
( a d j. c o llo quia l) : c o nv ers a ti o n b etw een tw o o r m ore p ers o ns; d ia lo gue:
co nv ers a ti o n b etw een tw o p ers o ns

MUNDANE
: O f, o r p erta in in g to , th e w orld , a s c o ntr a ste d w ith th e s p ir it -
mundane
a ffa ir s .
Syno nym s: e arth ly
, te rre str ia l, s e cula r, te m pora l

MURKY
: D ark ; c lo ud y - a
murk y
c av ern .
Syno nym s: d is m al
, te neb ro us, f u lig in o us
Anto nym s: r e sp le nd ent
, g lo w in g, l u str o us, l u m in o us, f u lg ent, c o ru sc ati n g

MUTA BLE
: G iv en to f r e q uent c hange i n n atu re , m ood, o r f o rm
- m uta ble
in
mood a s a s p rin g
win d .
Syno nym s: v acilla ti n g
, f ic kle , i n co nsta nt, f itf u l, m erc uria l, w av erin g, c ap ric io us
Anto nym s: c o nsta nt
, s te ad y

MYR IA D
: I n num era b le - th e
myria d
s ta rs i n th e h eav ens.

NAUTIC AL
: P erta in in g to s h ip s o r n av ig ati o n - a
nautic a l
care er.
Syno nym s: m arin e, n av al, m ariti m e

NO TO RIO US
: W id ely k no w n ( in a b ad s e nse ) - a
noto rio us
g am ble r.

NO VIC E
: A b egin ner - c o nd ucte d h im se lf i n p oliti c s l ik e a
novic e.
Syno nym s: ty ro
, n eo phyte
Anto nym : v ir tu o so

OBLIV IO US
( n o un: O BLIV IO N): F org etf u l; a b se nt- m in d ed - w alk in g
obliv io us
o f h is
su rro und in gs.
Syno nym s: u nm in d fu l
, h eed le ss,
ab str a cte d

OBSE SSIO N
: A p ers is te nt f e elin g, i d ea, a cti v ity , e tc ., w hic h d om in ate s a p ers o n; th e s ta te o f
bein g e xclu siv ely p re o ccup ie d b y a f ix ed i d ea - N ow th at h e h as l e arn ed b ow lin g, i t h as b eco m e
his
obse ssio n
.
Syno nym s: m ania
, i n fa tu ati o n ( a f o olis h p assio n), m ono m ania

OBSO LETE
: N o l o nger i n u se - a n
obso le te
w ord , n o t e v en i n clu d ed b y m ost d ic ti o narie s.
Syno nym s: a rc haic
, a nti q uate d

OBTR USIV E
( v erb : O BTR UD E): T hru sti n g o nese lf o r i ts e lf i n to u nd ue p ro m in ence - m ad e
him se lf o bno xio usly
obtr u siv e
.
Syno nym s: i n tr u siv e
, a ggre ssiv e

OST R ACIZ E
: T o b anis h ; to e xclu d e f r o m p ub lic
fa v our
o r p riv ile ges - a f o rm er p re m ie r
ostr a ciz e d
b y p opula r v ote .
Syno nym : o utl a w

PA RADO X
: A s e lf - c o ntr a d ic to ry s ta te m ent; s o m eth in g 't h at a p pears to b e a b su rd a nd y et m ay b e
tr u e - " L ife i s to o i m porta nt a m atte r to
be
ta ken s e rio usly ." -
a para dox
b y O sc ar W ild e.
Syno nym : a no m aly

PA RAPH RASE
: T o r e sta te th e m eanin g o f a p assa ge i n o th er w ord s -
para phra se d
th e p oem i n
a f e w l in es o f p ro se .

PA RO DY
( n o un): A h um oro us i m ita ti o n o f a n a uth o r's s ty le a nd m anneris m s - w ro te a
paro dy
o n
Kip lin g's "
Gunga
D in ."
Syno nym : b urle sq ue
( verb
): T o w rite a p aro dy - p aro die d th e p opula r a uth o rs o f th e ( la y to h is a ud ie nce's a m use m ent.
Syno nym : M im ic

PE R VER SE
:
Wilfu lly
b ent o n d oin g th e w ro ng th in g - a
perv erse
l a d , a lw ays d is o beyin g h is
pare nts .
Syno nym s: h ead str o ng
,
fo rw ard
, r e fr a cto ry , w ayw ard , f r a cti o us

PE TR IF Y
: T o
para ly ze
w ith h o rro r, f e ar, o r s u rp ris e -
petr ifie d
b y th e e nem y b om bard m ent.
Syno nym s: s tu p efy
, s tu n, b ew ild er, a m aze

PL A G IA RIS M
. A dopti n g a nd r e p ro ducin g, w ith o ut a ckno w le d gm ent, th e w riti n gs o r i d eas o f
ano th er a nd p assin g th em o ff a s o ne's o w n - d enie d th e c harg e o f d elib era te
pla gia ris m
.

PL A TIT U DE
: A d ull a nd c o m monp la ce r e m ark - b ore d p eo ple b y h is p om pous p hra se s a nd
pla titu des
.
Syno nym s: b ro m id e
, tr u is m , a xio m

PR EST IG E
: E ste em o r i n flu ence a cco rd ed f o r r e co gniz e d a chie v em ents o r r e p uta ti o n - A s
Senato r h e e njo yed g re at
pre stig e
.
Syno nym : d is ti n cti o n

PR ED ATO RY
:
(1 ) I n clin ed to p lu nd er o r r o b; -
pre d ato ry
b and s r o am in g th e c o untr y sid e.
(2 ) P re yin g o n, o th ers -
pre d ato ry
a nim als p ro w lin g a b out.
Syno nym s: p re d acio us, l o oti n g, p illa gin g

PR ELU DE
: A n i n tr o ducti o n, f o re ru nner, o r p re lim in ary s te p - a s h o rt
pre lu de
to th e p la y.
Syno nym s: P re fa ce, p ro lo gue. P re am ble
Anto nym : e p ilo gue

PR ESU M PT IO N
:
(1 ) S om eth in g ta ken f o r g ra nte d - a cte d o n a r e aso nab le
pre su m ptio n
.
(2 ) G oin g b eyo nd p ro per b ound s; i m pud ent b old ness - H is q uesti o n w as d ow nrig ht
pre su m ptio n
.
Syno nym s: e ffr o nte ry , f o rw ard ness, a rro gance

PR O CRAST IN ATE
: T o p ostp one o r p ut o ff to a no th er ti m e - m is se d h is o pportu nity b y
pro cra stin atin g
to o l o ng.
Syno nym s: d efe r, d ela y

PR O GNO ST IC ATE
( n o un: P R O GNOSIS ): T o f o re cast - T he W eath er B ure au
pro gnostic a te s
daily .
Syno nym s: p re sa ge
, p orte nd , a ugur, f o re b ode

PR O VIS IO NAL
: T em pora ry ; f o r th e ti m e b ein g - a
pro vis io nal
p la n u nti l a p erm anent d ecis io n
is r e ached .
Syno nym : te nta ti v e

PR O XIM IT Y
: N earn ess-w ork ed i n c lo se
pro xim ity
to h is h o m e.
Syno nym s : p ro pin q uity
, v ic in ity
Anto nym : r e m ote ness

QUASH
: T o c ru sh ; to r e nd er v oid -
quash ed
a r e b ellio n;
quash ed
a n i n d ic tm ent.

Syno nym s: s u p pre ss
, e xti n guis h , q uell; a nnul

RADIC AL
( n o un): O ne w ho a d vocate s e xtr e m e b asic c hanges - T he r e fo rm m ovem ent w as l e d
by a
ra dic a l
.
(a d j.) : T ho ro ugh, e xtr e m e -
ra dic a l
m easu re s a d opte d to m eet th e e m erg ency.
Anto nym :
(n o un a nd a d j.)
co nse rv ati v e

RAM IF IC ATIO N
: A b ra nchin g; s u b -d iv is io n - s tu d ie d th e s u b je ct i n a ll i ts
ra m ific a tio ns
.

REFU TE
: T o p ro ve i n co rre ct o r f a ls e -
re fu te d
h is o pponent's a rg um ent.
Syno nym s: r e b ut
, c o nfu te
Anto nym s: s u b sta nti a te , c o nfir m , c o rro bora te

REIT ER ATE
: R ep eat ( s e v era l ti m es) -
re ite ra te d
h is s to ry o nce m ore .

REN EG ADE
: O ne w ho f o rs a kes p oliti c al o r p arty p rin cip le s o r h is r e lig io us f a ith - a
re n eg ade
fr o m h is f o rm er
alle gia nce.
Syno nym s: tu rn co at, a p osta te , r e cre ant, tr a ito r

RESP IT E
:
(1 ) T em pora ry d efe rm ent o r c essa ti o n o f w ork o r p ain - a b rie f
re sp ite
f r o m
la b or
.
Syno nym : s u rc ease
(2 ) A te m pora ry d ela y i n th e e xecuti o n o f - a s e nte nce - g ra nte d th e d oom m an a te m pora ry
re sp ite
.
Syno nym : r e p rie v e

RESIL IE N T
: E la sti c ; l ig ht- h earte d ; p osse ssin g p ow er o f r e co very - a
re silie n t
S pir it, r e fu sin g to
ad m it d efe at.
Syno nym s: f le xib le , p lia b le , s u p ple , l im ber

RETR IB U TIO N
: T he r e w ard o r p unis h m ent e xacte d f o r a n i n ju ry , w ic ked ness, o r o th er a cti o n -
su ffe re d j u st
re tr ib utio n
f o r h is f o lly .
Syno nym s: r e q uita l, n em esis

RETR IE V E
:
(1 ) T o m ake g o od -
re tr ie ved
a m is ta ke.
(2 ) T o r e co ver -
re tr ie ved
th e s u itc ase l e ft a t th e s ta ti o n.

(3 ) T o r e sto re -
re tr ie ved
h is l o st f o rtu nes.

SA TELLIT E
:
(1 ) A n a tte nti v e o r f la tte rin g f o llo w er - a p rin ce s u rro und ed b y m any
sa te llite s
.
Syno nym s: l a ckey, to ad y, d is c ip le , a d here nt; a d j., f a w nin g, o bse q uio us, p arti s a n
(2 ) A c o untr y i n flu enced o r c o ntr o lle d b y a no th er - F re ed om i s c o nsp ic uo usly
ab se nt ,i n
th e
Sovie t
sa te llite s
.
(3 ) A b ody ( n atu ra l o r a rti fic ia l) w hic h r e v olv es a ro und a l a rg er b ody, g enera lly a p la net - T he
moon i s th e o nly n atu ra l
sa te llite
o f th e e arth , b ut i n r e cent y ears i t h as b een j o in ed b y m any
arti fic ia l
sa te llite s
.

SO RDID
: M ean a nd b ase ; f ilth y
- S ord id
moti v es b re ed s e lfis h a cti o ns.
Syno nym s: d egra d ed , v ile , i g no ble

SP O RADIC
: O ccurrin g s in gly , a t i r re gula r i n te rv als ; s c atte re d
- s p ora dic
case s o f i lln ess.

SP U RN
: T o r e fu se o r r e je ct w ith c o nte m pt - a n o ffe r th at w as
sp urn ed
in sta ntl y .
Syno nym s: r e p el, s n ub

ST R IN G EN T
: S tr ic t; c o m pellin g, c o nstr a in in g
str in gen t
re gula ti o ns;
str in gen t
re q uir e m ents .
Syno nym s: e xacti n g, r ig id
Anto nym : l a x

TA NG IB LE
: R eal; a ctu al -
ta ngib le
g ain s w hic h m ay b e s e en.
and
c o unte d .
Syno nym s: m ate ria l, v erita b le , p erc ep ti b le , s u b sta nti a l

TA NTA M OUNT
: E quiv ale nt - a n a ct th at i s
ta nta m ount
to tr e aso n.

TA UNT
( v erb ).
To r e p ro ach w ith c o nte m pt -
ta unte d
h im w ith th e c harg e o f f a ilu re to a ct
pro m ptl y .
Syno nym s: m ock, tw it, g ib e, s n eer, d erid e
( noun
):
An i n su lti n g, j e erin g, o r b itte r r e m ark - h urle d
ta unts
at h is f o es.

TEEM IN G
: I n a b und ance, f e rti le , h ig hly p ro ducti v e - th e
te em in g
tr o pic s, r a nk w ith v egeta ti o n.
Syno nym s: s w arm in g, f r u itf u l, f e cund , a b ound in g

TR ANQ UIL
: C alm ; p eacefu l - a
tr a nquil
s u m mer n ig ht.
Syno nym s: p la cid , s e re ne
Anto nym s: p ertu rb ed , r u ffle d , tu rb ule nt

TR IV IA L
: O f l ittl e - i m porta nce - a
tr iv ia l
o ffe nse .
Syno nym : p altr y
Anto nym s: g ro ss, m om ento us

VANQ UIS H
: T o s u b due o r c o nq uer - a n a rm y
va nquis h ed
w ith h eav y l o sse s.

VAUNT
: T o b oast - p ro ud ly
va unte d
h is s tr e ngth .
Syno nym s: b ra g ( n o un: b ra ggad ocio , b ra ggart) , p ro cla im

VER SA TIL E
: A ble to d o m any th in gs
sk ilfu lly
-
versa tile
i n a ll th e a rts .

WHIM
( a d j.: W HIM SIC A L): A s u d den n o ti o n o r p assin g f a ncy - fr e q uentl y a cte d o n th e
whim
o f
th e m om ent.
Syno nym s: c ap ric e, v agary , c ro tc het

ZE A LO US
( n o un: Z E A LO T: f a nati c ): F ull o f e nth usia sm o r e agern ess - a
ze a lo us
s tu d ent, f ir s t i n
his c la ss.
Anto nym : p erfu ncto ry

Ple ase n ote : A ll
Verb s
h ave a n e xpla natio n t h at s ta rts w it h “ T o”

A BA NDO N
: T o g iv e u p c o m ple te ly -
abandoned
th e s in kin g s h ip .
S yno nym s: r e lin q uis h , f o rg o , f o rs a ke

A CADEM IC
: P erta in in g to s c ho ol; th eo re ti c al a
ca dem ic i n
te re sts ; a n
aca dem ic
dis c ussio n
,
with
n o p ra cti c al i m plic ati o ns.
S yno nym : s c ho la sti c

A CCELER ATE
: - T o q uic ken, s p eed ti p - to ok a n
accele ra te d
c o urs e i n o rd er to g ra d uate e arly .
S yno nym : e xp ed ite ( a d j. e xp ed iti o us)
A nto nym : r e ta rd

A DVER SIT Y
: M is fo rtu ne - c alm i n th e f a ce o f
adversity
.
S yno nym s: a fflic ti o n
, m is c hance, r e v ers e s

A G GRESSIV E
( n o un: A GGRESSIO N. a n u np ro voked a tta ck): s e lf- a sse rti v e; a tta ckin g,
o ffe nsiv e - a nno yed p eo ple b y h is
aggre ssiv e
a tti tu d e;
S yno nym s: b um pti o us
, o ffic io us,
obtr u siv e
A nto nym s:
meek, h um ble , r e ti r in g, d iffid ent

A M BIG UO US
: U ncerta in , v ague, c ap ab le o f b ein g i n te r- i n m ore th an o ne w ay - p uzzle d b y th e
a m big uous
s ta te m ent.
S yno nym s: h azy
, o bsc ure , e q uiv ocal, d ub io us, n eb ulo us
A nto nym s: e xp lic it
, u nq uesti o nab le

A NO NYM OUS
: O f u nkno w n a uth o rs h ip -a n
anonym ous
p ub lic ati o n.

A PPR EH EN SIV E
( v erb : A PPR EH EN D): F earfu l - B ein g u np re p are d , J o hn i s
appre h en siv e
of
t h e e xam in ati o n.

A RTFU L
: S ly ; c ra fty - a tta in ed h is m ean o bje cti v e b y
artfu l
m easu re s.
S yno nym s: c unnin g, w ily , a d ro it, i n genio us, g uile fu l
A nto nym s: g uile le ss, i n genuo us,
artl e ss

ATH EIS T
: O ne w ho d enie s th at G od e xis ts - T he
ath eis t
d ecla re d , " T here i s n o G od."
Syno nym s: i n fid el
, a gno sti c ,
sc ep ti c

ATTR IB U TE
( v erb ): A ssig n -
attr ib ute d
h is s u ccess to b ard w ork .
Syno nym : a sc rib e
( no un
): A n i n here nt q uality - G enero sity w as h is o uts ta nd in g
attr ib ute
.

AUTH EN TIC
: G enuin e - p ro ved to b e a n
auth en tic
d ocum ent.
Syno nym s: v erita b le
, b ona f id e
Anto nym s; a p ocry p hal
, c o unte rfe it, s p urio us, b ogus

BA NTER
: G ood-n atu re d te asin g o r r id ic ule -T he tw o w its I e xchanged
bante r
, to th e a m use m ent
of th e a ud ie nce.
Syno nym s: r a ille ry
, c haff

BIA SE D
: P re ju d ic ed - m is le d b y a
bia se d
p oin t o f v ie w .
Syno nym s: b ig o te d
, a rb itr a ry , p arti a l, p arti s a n
Anto nym s: d is in te re ste d
, e q uita b le

BIZ A RRE
: Q ueer; u nusu al i n a p peara nce-
biz a rre
c lo th es, o utl a nd is h i n th e e xtr e m e.
Syno nym s: o dd
, f a nta sti c , g ro te sq ue, e ccentr ic

BO G
: A s w am p - s a nk i n to th e s p ongy
bog
.
Syno nym s: m ora ss, f e n, q uagm ir e , m ir e

CANDID
( n o un: C A NDOR): F ra nk, o uts p oken; i m parti a l a
ca ndid
r e p ly th at c o uld h ard ly b e
more f o rth rig ht.
Syno nym s: a rtl e ss, i n genuo us,
unb ia se d
Anto nym s: g uile fu l, e v asiv e

CH RO NIC
: C onti n uin g a l o ng ti m e; h ab itu al- a .
ch ro nic
c o m pla in t, p ers is ti n g f o r y ears .
Syno nym s: p ers is te nt
, u nre m itti n g, i n v ete ra te , i n cessa nt, c o nsta nt
Anto nym s: i n te rm itte nt
, s p ora d ic ,
in fr e q uent

CIV IL
:
1 .
Of o r h a vin g to d o w it h c it iz e ns o r th e s ta te - W e I
civ il
d utie s a s w ell a s
civ il
lib ertie s.
2 .
Polit e , c o urte ous - a nsw ere d in a
civ il
fa shio n.
Syno nym s: r e sp ectf u l, g ra cio us

CO ALIT IO N
( v erb : C O ALE SC E): A llia nce; m erg in g o f v ario us u nits i n to o ne u nit - th re e
parti e s f o rm in g a
co alitio n
to r u le th e c o untr y .
Syno nym s: a m alg am ati o n, c o nso lid ati o n, f u sio n

CO LLU SIO N
: W ork in g to geth er s e cre tl y f o r a n e v il p urp ose - a cte d i n
co llu sio n
to o verth ro w
th e g o vern m ent.
Syno nym s: c o lla b ora ti o n, c o nsp ir a cy, c o nniv in g, m achin ati o n

CO M PA TIB LE
: H arm onio us; a b le , to g et a lo ng to geth er p arte d c o m pany b ecause th ey w ere n o t
co m patib le
.
Syno nym s: c o ngru o us, c o nsis te nt
Anto nym s: i n co ngru o us, d is c o rd ant, i n co m pati b le

CO M PE N SA TIO N
: P aym ent f o r s e rv ic es - j u st
co m pen sa tio n
f o r h is
la b or
.
Syno nym s: s ti p end , r e m unera ti o n, r e co m pense , e m olu m ent

CO M PL A CEN T
: S elf- s a ti s fie d - l o oked o n h is o w n p erfo rm ance w ith a
co m pla cen t
s m ile .
Syno nym : s m ug

CO NDO LE
( n o un: C O NDOLE N CE): T o e xp re ss s y m path y w ith a no th er i n s o rro w , p ain , o r
mis fo rtu ne -
co ndole d
w ith e ach o th er i n th eir g rie f.
Syno nym s: c o m mis e ra te , s h o w c o m passio n, s o la ce

CO NDO NE
: T o f o rg iv e o r o verlo ok ( a n o ffe nse ) -
co ndoned
th e d eed , i n v ie w o f th e o ffe nd er's
age.
Syno nym s: e xte nuate , p allia te , m iti g ate , g lo ss

CO NSE N SU S
. G enera l a gre em ent - T he
co nse n su s
o f th e c o m mitte e w as th at n o a cti o n s h o uld
be ta ken.
Syno nym : a cco rd

CO SM OPO LIT A N
( n o un): O ne w ho i s a t h o m e i n a ll c o untr ie s - A
co sm opolita n
c an f e el a t
ease a nyw here i n th e w orld .
(a d j.) : F re e f r o m l o cal p re ju d ic es - a w orld -w id e
tr a v elle r
,
co sm opolita n
i n ta ste s a nd a tti tu d es.
Syno nym s: C ath o lic
Anto nym s: p aro chia l, p ro vin cia l

CRASS
: C oars e a nd s tu p id - d is p la yed
cra ss
i g no ra nce.
Syno nym : g ro ss

CRED IB LE
: W orth y o f b elie f - a
cre d ib le
sto ry , tr u e to l ife .
Anto nym : in cre dib le

CRED IT A BLE
: D ese rv in g o r r e fle cti n g C re d it o r
ho no ur
- a p pla ud ed f o r h is
cre d ita ble
perfo rm ance.
Syno nym s: p ra is e w orth y, m erito rio us,
co m mend ab le
Anto nym s: d is c re d ita b le , i n fa m ous, o ppro brio us,
ig no m in io us

CURT
: R ud ely a b ru p t - o ffe nd ed b y th e
cu rt
r e sp onse .
Syno nym s: b lu nt, b ru sq ue, b lu ff
Anto nym s: a ffa b le , c iv il

DELIN Q UEN T
( n o un): A n o ffe nd er - f o und to b e a
delin quen t
b y th e c o urt.
(a d j.) : F ailin g to
fu lfil
a n o blig ati o n - to o m any p eo ple w ho a re
delin quen t
i n m eeti n g th eir c iv ic
duti e s.
Syno nym : d ere lic t

DEM EA NO R
:
Behav io ur
; b earin g - c arry in g h im se lf w ith a p ro ud
dem ea nour
.
Syno nym s: d eportm ent, m ie n

DEN O UNCE
( n o un: D EN UN CIA TIO N): T o s p eak a gain st -
den ounced
b y th e p re ss a s a tr a ito r.
Syno nym s: s ti g m ati z e , c ensu re , r e p re hend , c asti g ate
Anto nym s: l a ud , e ulo giz e

DEPR EC IA TE
: T o b elittl e o r s p eak
slig hti n gly
o f -
dep re cia te d
J o hn's a cti n g a b ility .

Syno nym s: d is p ara ge, d ero gate ( a d j. d ero gato ry )
Anto nym s: e nhance, m agnify , e xto l, l a ud , e ulo giz e

DEV IO US
:
(1 ) W in d in g ; in d ir e ct - to ok a
devio us
, r a th e r th a n th e d ir e ct w ay h o m e.
Syno nym : c ir c uito us
(2 ) S tr a yin g f r o m th e r ig ht c o urs e - u se d
devio us
m eans to a tta in h is w ic ked e nd s.
Syno nym s: c ro oked , e rrin g

DEV O UT
: D ev ote d to r e lig io us o bse rv ances -
devo ut
i n h is r e gula rity o f a tte nd ance a t w ors h ip .
Syno nym s: p io us, r e lig io us
Anto nym : i m pio us

DIL EM MA
: A s itu ati o n c allin g f o r a c ho ic e b etw een tw o e q ually d iffic ult a lte rn ati v es; h ence, a
diffic ult o r p erp le xin g s itu ati o n - f a ced w ith a
dile m ma
d efy in g s o lu ti o n.
Syno nym s: p re d ic am ent
, q uand ary , p lig ht

DIS C RETE
: S ep ara te - tw o
dis c re te
i s su es, to ta lly u nre la te d .

DIS T R AUG HT
: M enta lly d is tr e sse d ; d is tr a cte d -
dis tr a ught
by tr ia ls a nd tr ib ula ti o ns.
Syno nym : h ara sse d

DIV ER SE
: ( v erb : D IV ER SIF Y ; n o un: D IV IS IB IL IT Y ): V arie d ; d iffe re nt - tw o
div erse
chara cte rs ; o ne c and id , th e o th er i n sin cere .
Syno nym : m ulti fa rio us

DIV ULG E
: T o m ake p ub lic o r r e v eal - r e fu se d to
div u lg e
h is s o urc e o f i n fo rm ati o n.
Syno nym s: d is c lo se , i m part

DYN AM IC
: F orc efu l - p osse sse d
dyn am ic
e nerg y, ti r e le ss a nd p ow erfu l.
Syno nym : e nerg eti c
Anto nym s: s ta ti c , i n ert, d orm ant, to rp id , s lu ggis h , q uie sc ent

ED IF Y
: T o i n str u ct o r u p lift, p arti c ula rly i n m ora ls o r r e lig io n - a s to ry th at
ed ifie s
th e r e ad er, a s
well a s e nte rta in s h im

EJA CULA TE
: T o e xcla im o r u tte r s u d denly
-
eja cu la te d
c ry o f h o rro r.

EN G EN DER
: T o c ause , p ro duce, o r s ti r u p -a n a ct th at
en gen dere d
go od w ill.

ER RATIC
: I r re sp onsib le , e ccentr ic ; l a ckin g a f ix ed p urp ose
erra tic
behav io ur
, r e fle cti n g h is
queer i d eas.

EXC EPT IO NABLE
: O bje cti o nab le -
e xcep tio nable
behav io ur
, u niv ers a lly c riti c iz e d .
Syno nym s:
questi o nab le , r e p re hensib le ,
censu ra b le
Anto nym : l a ud ab le

EXEM PL A RY
( n o un: E X EM PLA R): S erv in g a s a m odel; c o m mend ab le
- e xem pla ry
co nd uct
ap pro ved b y a ll.
Syno nym s: i llu str a ti v e, ty p ic al; p ra is e w orth y, l a ud ab le

EXO TIC
: S tr a nge a nd f o re ig n - a n
exo tic
c o stu m e i m porte d f r o m A sia .

EXPL O IT
( v erb ): T o u se f o r o ne's s e lfis h p urp ose – r e fu gees
exp lo ite d
b y u nsc ru p ulo us
em plo yers .
( no un
): A b rillia nt d eed - l a ud ed f o r h is
exp lo its
i n s c ie nce.
Syno nym : f e at

EXTIN CT
: N o l o nger e xis ti n g o r a cti v e - th e
extin ct
d in o sa ur, a liv e o nly i n h is to ry .
Syno nym : d efu nct
Anto nym : e xta nt

FA CADE
: F ro nt o r f a ce, e sp ecia lly o f a b uild in g - a
fa ca de
o f m arb le .

FE A SIB LE
: W ork ab le - a
fe a sib le
p la n, p ro ved p ra cti c al b y - p re v io us e xp erie nce.
Anto nym : i m pra cti c ab le

FE TIS H
.
(1 ) S om eth in g th at i s b elie v ed to h av e m agic al p ow ers - s a v ages w ors h ip pin g th e
fe tis h
in a
cere m onia l d ance.

Syno nym : c harm , ta lis m an, a m ule t
(2 ) A n o bje ct o f u nre aso nin g d ev oti o n a nd w ors h ip – P ho to gra p hy, b egun a s a h o bby, b ecam e a
fe tis h .

FIC TIT IO US
: U nre al; m ad e-u p - u se d a
fic titio us
nam e to a v oid b ein g r e co gniz e d .
Syno nym : f a b ric ate d

FL A UNT
: D is p la y o r w av e b oastf u lly -
fla unte d
th e e xcelle nt r e p ort b efo re h is d elig hte d
pare nts .

FL EETIN G
: P assin g s w iftl y - th e
fle etin g
h o urs o f h ap pin ess
Syno nym s: tr a nsito ry , f u giti v e

FL U CTU ATE
: T o w av er f r o m o ne c o urs e to a no th er; to v ary i r re gula rly - h is m ood
flu ctu atin g
with e v ery h o ur.
Syno nym s: o sc illa te , v acilla te , u nd ula te ,
sw ay

FR UST R ATE
: T o p re v ent ( th e a tta in m ent o f a n o bje ct) ; to d efe at o r r e nd er i n effe ctu al - H is
sc ho la sti c p ro gre ss w as
fr u str a te d b y
a s e rio us i lln ess.
Syno nym s: b alk , th w art, f o il, b affle , o bstr u ct, d is c o m fit
Anto nym : a b et

GARNIS H
: T o tr im o r d eco ra te - d is h es
garn is h ed
a ttr a cti v ely w ith g re ens.
Syno nym s: a d orn , d eck

GREG ARIO US
: H ab itu ally f o nd o f a sso cia ti n g i n a c o m pany o r h erd -
gre g ario us
s h eep ; th at
gre g ario us
a nim al, m an.
Anto nym s: l o ne
, a lo of

HAIL
: T o g re et - T he c ro w d
haile d
th e r e tu rn in g h ero .
Syno nym s: a cco st, s a lu te

HO AX
( n o un): A tr ic k o r d ecep ti o n; a p ra cti c al j o ke - p la yed a
hoax
u p on th e c re d ulo us p ub lic .
Syno nym : c anard
( verb
): T o p la y a tr ic k o n; to d eceiv e - H e
hoaxed
th e c ro w d c o m ple te ly w ith h is d is g uis e .

HYPO TH ESIS
: A n a ssu m pti o n m ad e f o r th e s a ke o f a rg um ent - w ork ed f r o m a f a nta sti c
hyp oth esis .
Syno nym : s u p positi o n

ID IO SY N CRASY
: A . p ers o nal p eculia rity - W earin g w hite w as o ne o f W his tl e r's
id io sy n cra sie s.
Syno nym s: e ccentr ic ity , f o ib le , m anneris m , c ro tc het, a b erra ti o n, q uir k , s in gula rity

IM MACULA TE
: S potl e ss; p ure - a n
im macu la te
r e p uta ti o n.
Syno nym s: u nd efile d , u nsu llie d , u nb le m is h ed ,
unta rn is h ed
Anto nym s: d efile d , s u llie d , b le m is h ed

IM MUNE
( v erb : I M MUN IZ E ): E xem pt f r o m ; p ro te cte d f r o m -
im mune
f r o m ta xati o n.
Syno nym :
u nsu sc ep ti b le

IM PE C CABLE
: F aultl e ss - p erfo rm ed w ith
im pecca ble
s k ill.
Syno nym s: c o nsu m mate , i r re p ro achab le , u nerrin g, i n fa llib le
Anto nym s: c ulp ab le , f a llib le

IM PE R VIO US
: I n cap ab le o f b ein g p enetr a te d - a m in d
im perv io us
to n ew i d eas.
Syno nym s: i m perm eab le , i m penetr a b le
Anto nym s: p erm eab le , p erv asiv e

IM PL IC IT
:
(1 ) I m plie d b ut n o t c le arly e xp re sse d - a n
im plic it
a gre em ent.
(2 ) U nq uesti o nin g -
im plic it
c o nfid ence.
Syno nym s: ta cit, i m plie d
Anto nym : e xp lic it

IM PO RT
( n o un): M eanin g; s ig nific ance o r i m porta nce - a m atte r o f g re at
im port
.
Syno nym s: p urp ort, m om ent, c o nse q uence

IN CIS IV E
: C utti n g, p enetr a ti n g -
in cis iv e
c riti c is m .
Syno nym s: s a rc asti c , m ord ant, tr e nchant, a cute

IN CREM EN T
: A n i n cre ase - a s a la ry
in cre m en t.
Syno nym : a ccru al

IN DIG EN O US
: N ati v e - R ic e i s
in dig en ous
to C hin a.
Syno nym s: i n nate
, i n b orn

IN FE R EN CE
: A c o nclu sio n r e ached b y r e aso nin g f r o m d ata o r p re m is e s - a n
in fe re n ce
d ra w n
fr o m h is r e m ark s.
Syno nym s: d ed ucti o n
, i m plic ati o n

IN G EN IO US
: D em onstr a ti n g o rig in ality , s k ill, o r r e so urc efu ln ess - a n
in gen io us
d ev ic e.
Syno nym s: d extr o us
, i n v enti v e,
ad ro it
Anto nym s: m ala d ro it
, g auche

IN H IB IT
: T o c heck o r h in d er -
in hib ite d
h is f r ie nd f r o m a f o olh ard y c o urs e .
Syno nym s: r e str a in
, c urb
Anto nym : p ro m ote

IN ST IG ATE
: T o s ti r ti p -
in stig ate d
d is c o nte nt a m ong th e s o ld ie rs .
Syno nym s: f o m ent, i n cite

IN TEG RIT Y
: H onesty , m ora l s o und ness - a m an o f p ro ved
in te g rity
.
Syno nym s: p ro bity , u p rig htn ess, i n co rru p ti b ility

JA RG ON
: C onfu se d , u nin te llig ib le , m eanin gle ss ta lk ; s p ecia l v ocab ula ry u se d o nly b y m em bers
of a g ro up o r tr a d e - V arie ty , a n ew sp ap er w ritte n i n th eatr ic al
ja rg on
.
Syno nym s: g ib beris h , a rg o t, c ant

JE O PA RDY
: D anger - H is l ife w as i n
je o pard y
.
Syno nym s: h aza rd , p eril

JU DIC IO US
: W is e ; u sin g o r e xhib iti n g g o od j u d gm ent - a w ell- c ho se n p la n, te rm ed
ju dic io us
b y
all.
Syno nym s: d is c re et
, p oliti c , d is c ern in g

LA TEN T
: H id den; p re se nt b ut n o t f u lly d ev elo ped -
la te n t
ta le nt th at ti m e w ill r e v eal.

Syno nym s: d orm ant
, q uie sc ent, c o vert, p ote nti a l
Anto nym s: a p pare nt
, p ate nt

LA VIS H
:
(1 ) P ro fu se o r g enero us -
la vis h
i n p ra is e .
Syno nym s: a m ple , s u p era b und ant
(2 ) G iv en to e xtr a v agance - a
la vis h
s p end er.
Syno nym s: p ro dig al, m unific ent, m agnanim ous.
Anto nym s: p ars im onio us, n ig gard ly , f r u gal,
penurio us

LETH AL
: D ead ly - a
le th al w ea pon
.
Syno nym s: m orta l, f a ta l

LO NG EV IT Y
: P ro lo nged d ura ti o n o f l ife - a c o untr y r e m ark ab le f o r th e
lo ngevity
o f i ts
in hab ita nts .

LO W
: T o b ello w s o ftl y l ik e c attl e - th e
lo w in g
h erd i n th e m ead ow .
Syno nym : m oo

LU CID
: C le ar; tr a nsp are nt; e asily u nd ers to od - a
lu cid
e xp la nati o n o f a d iffic ult te xt.
Syno nym s: p ellu cid , p ers p ic uo us, i n te llig ib le , l im pid , l u m in o us,
tr a nslu cent
Anto nym s: a b str u se , o bsc ure

LU DIC RO US
: R id ic ulo us; p ro ducin g l a ughte r - a
lu dic ro us
r e m ark th at s e t th em a ll
to
r o arin g.
Syno nym s: m ir th fu l, d ro ll, c o m ic al, a b su rd
Anto nym s: d ole fu l, l u gub rio us, d is m al

MALIC IO US
(n oun:
MALIC E): B earin g, o r a cti n g w ith , d elib era te i ll- w ill o r s p ite - h urti n g
with
malic io us
in te nt.
Syno nym s: r a nco ro us
, m alig nant, m ale v ole nt, v ir u le nt,
vin d ic ti v e
Anto nym : b enig n

MED IO CRE
: A vera ge i n q uality - a
med io cre
perfo rm ance, u nw orth y o f h is ta le nts .

MONO LO GUE
: A s p eech b y o ne p ers o n - T he a cto r g av e h is v ie w s i n a d ra m ati c
monolo gue
.

Syno nym : s o lilo quy
Anto nym s: c o llo quy
( a d j. c o llo quia l) : c o nv ers a ti o n b etw een tw o o r m ore p ers o ns; d ia lo gue:
co nv ers a ti o n b etw een tw o p ers o ns

MUNDANE
: O f, o r p erta in in g to , th e w orld , a s c o ntr a ste d w ith th e s p ir it -
mundane
a ffa ir s .
Syno nym s: e arth ly
, te rre str ia l, s e cula r, te m pora l

MURKY
: D ark ; c lo ud y - a
murk y
c av ern .
Syno nym s: d is m al
, te neb ro us, f u lig in o us
Anto nym s: r e sp le nd ent
, g lo w in g, l u str o us, l u m in o us, f u lg ent, c o ru sc ati n g

MUTA BLE
: G iv en to f r e q uent c hange i n n atu re , m ood, o r f o rm
- m uta ble
in
mood a s a s p rin g
win d .
Syno nym s: v acilla ti n g
, f ic kle , i n co nsta nt, f itf u l, m erc uria l, w av erin g, c ap ric io us
Anto nym s: c o nsta nt
, s te ad y

MYR IA D
: I n num era b le - th e
myria d
s ta rs i n th e h eav ens.

NAUTIC AL
: P erta in in g to s h ip s o r n av ig ati o n - a
nautic a l
care er.
Syno nym s: m arin e, n av al, m ariti m e

NO TO RIO US
: W id ely k no w n ( in a b ad s e nse ) - a
noto rio us
g am ble r.

NO VIC E
: A b egin ner - c o nd ucte d h im se lf i n p oliti c s l ik e a
novic e.
Syno nym s: ty ro
, n eo phyte
Anto nym : v ir tu o so

OBLIV IO US
( n o un: O BLIV IO N): F org etf u l; a b se nt- m in d ed - w alk in g
obliv io us
o f h is
su rro und in gs.
Syno nym s: u nm in d fu l
, h eed le ss,
ab str a cte d

OBSE SSIO N
: A p ers is te nt f e elin g, i d ea, a cti v ity , e tc ., w hic h d om in ate s a p ers o n; th e s ta te o f
bein g e xclu siv ely p re o ccup ie d b y a f ix ed i d ea - N ow th at h e h as l e arn ed b ow lin g, i t h as b eco m e
his
obse ssio n
.
Syno nym s: m ania
, i n fa tu ati o n ( a f o olis h p assio n), m ono m ania

OBSO LETE
: N o l o nger i n u se - a n
obso le te
w ord , n o t e v en i n clu d ed b y m ost d ic ti o narie s.
Syno nym s: a rc haic
, a nti q uate d

OBTR USIV E
( v erb : O BTR UD E): T hru sti n g o nese lf o r i ts e lf i n to u nd ue p ro m in ence - m ad e
him se lf o bno xio usly
obtr u siv e
.
Syno nym s: i n tr u siv e
, a ggre ssiv e

OST R ACIZ E
: T o b anis h ; to e xclu d e f r o m p ub lic
fa v our
o r p riv ile ges - a f o rm er p re m ie r
ostr a ciz e d
b y p opula r v ote .
Syno nym : o utl a w

PA RADO X
: A s e lf - c o ntr a d ic to ry s ta te m ent; s o m eth in g 't h at a p pears to b e a b su rd a nd y et m ay b e
tr u e - " L ife i s to o i m porta nt a m atte r to
be
ta ken s e rio usly ." -
a para dox
b y O sc ar W ild e.
Syno nym : a no m aly

PA RAPH RASE
: T o r e sta te th e m eanin g o f a p assa ge i n o th er w ord s -
para phra se d
th e p oem i n
a f e w l in es o f p ro se .

PA RO DY
( n o un): A h um oro us i m ita ti o n o f a n a uth o r's s ty le a nd m anneris m s - w ro te a
paro dy
o n
Kip lin g's "
Gunga
D in ."
Syno nym : b urle sq ue
( verb
): T o w rite a p aro dy - p aro die d th e p opula r a uth o rs o f th e ( la y to h is a ud ie nce's a m use m ent.
Syno nym : M im ic

PE R VER SE
:
Wilfu lly
b ent o n d oin g th e w ro ng th in g - a
perv erse
l a d , a lw ays d is o beyin g h is
pare nts .
Syno nym s: h ead str o ng
,
fo rw ard
, r e fr a cto ry , w ayw ard , f r a cti o us

PE TR IF Y
: T o
para ly ze
w ith h o rro r, f e ar, o r s u rp ris e -
petr ifie d
b y th e e nem y b om bard m ent.
Syno nym s: s tu p efy
, s tu n, b ew ild er, a m aze

PL A G IA RIS M
. A dopti n g a nd r e p ro ducin g, w ith o ut a ckno w le d gm ent, th e w riti n gs o r i d eas o f
ano th er a nd p assin g th em o ff a s o ne's o w n - d enie d th e c harg e o f d elib era te
pla gia ris m
.

PL A TIT U DE
: A d ull a nd c o m monp la ce r e m ark - b ore d p eo ple b y h is p om pous p hra se s a nd
pla titu des
.
Syno nym s: b ro m id e
, tr u is m , a xio m

PR EST IG E
: E ste em o r i n flu ence a cco rd ed f o r r e co gniz e d a chie v em ents o r r e p uta ti o n - A s
Senato r h e e njo yed g re at
pre stig e
.
Syno nym : d is ti n cti o n

PR ED ATO RY
:
(1 ) I n clin ed to p lu nd er o r r o b; -
pre d ato ry
b and s r o am in g th e c o untr y sid e.
(2 ) P re yin g o n, o th ers -
pre d ato ry
a nim als p ro w lin g a b out.
Syno nym s: p re d acio us, l o oti n g, p illa gin g

PR ELU DE
: A n i n tr o ducti o n, f o re ru nner, o r p re lim in ary s te p - a s h o rt
pre lu de
to th e p la y.
Syno nym s: P re fa ce, p ro lo gue. P re am ble
Anto nym : e p ilo gue

PR ESU M PT IO N
:
(1 ) S om eth in g ta ken f o r g ra nte d - a cte d o n a r e aso nab le
pre su m ptio n
.
(2 ) G oin g b eyo nd p ro per b ound s; i m pud ent b old ness - H is q uesti o n w as d ow nrig ht
pre su m ptio n
.
Syno nym s: e ffr o nte ry , f o rw ard ness, a rro gance

PR O CRAST IN ATE
: T o p ostp one o r p ut o ff to a no th er ti m e - m is se d h is o pportu nity b y
pro cra stin atin g
to o l o ng.
Syno nym s: d efe r, d ela y

PR O GNO ST IC ATE
( n o un: P R O GNOSIS ): T o f o re cast - T he W eath er B ure au
pro gnostic a te s
daily .
Syno nym s: p re sa ge
, p orte nd , a ugur, f o re b ode

PR O VIS IO NAL
: T em pora ry ; f o r th e ti m e b ein g - a
pro vis io nal
p la n u nti l a p erm anent d ecis io n
is r e ached .
Syno nym : te nta ti v e

PR O XIM IT Y
: N earn ess-w ork ed i n c lo se
pro xim ity
to h is h o m e.
Syno nym s : p ro pin q uity
, v ic in ity
Anto nym : r e m ote ness

QUASH
: T o c ru sh ; to r e nd er v oid -
quash ed
a r e b ellio n;
quash ed
a n i n d ic tm ent.

Syno nym s: s u p pre ss
, e xti n guis h , q uell; a nnul

RADIC AL
( n o un): O ne w ho a d vocate s e xtr e m e b asic c hanges - T he r e fo rm m ovem ent w as l e d
by a
ra dic a l
.
(a d j.) : T ho ro ugh, e xtr e m e -
ra dic a l
m easu re s a d opte d to m eet th e e m erg ency.
Anto nym :
(n o un a nd a d j.)
co nse rv ati v e

RAM IF IC ATIO N
: A b ra nchin g; s u b -d iv is io n - s tu d ie d th e s u b je ct i n a ll i ts
ra m ific a tio ns
.

REFU TE
: T o p ro ve i n co rre ct o r f a ls e -
re fu te d
h is o pponent's a rg um ent.
Syno nym s: r e b ut
, c o nfu te
Anto nym s: s u b sta nti a te , c o nfir m , c o rro bora te

REIT ER ATE
: R ep eat ( s e v era l ti m es) -
re ite ra te d
h is s to ry o nce m ore .

REN EG ADE
: O ne w ho f o rs a kes p oliti c al o r p arty p rin cip le s o r h is r e lig io us f a ith - a
re n eg ade
fr o m h is f o rm er
alle gia nce.
Syno nym s: tu rn co at, a p osta te , r e cre ant, tr a ito r

RESP IT E
:
(1 ) T em pora ry d efe rm ent o r c essa ti o n o f w ork o r p ain - a b rie f
re sp ite
f r o m
la b or
.
Syno nym : s u rc ease
(2 ) A te m pora ry d ela y i n th e e xecuti o n o f - a s e nte nce - g ra nte d th e d oom m an a te m pora ry
re sp ite
.
Syno nym : r e p rie v e

RESIL IE N T
: E la sti c ; l ig ht- h earte d ; p osse ssin g p ow er o f r e co very - a
re silie n t
S pir it, r e fu sin g to
ad m it d efe at.
Syno nym s: f le xib le , p lia b le , s u p ple , l im ber

RETR IB U TIO N
: T he r e w ard o r p unis h m ent e xacte d f o r a n i n ju ry , w ic ked ness, o r o th er a cti o n -
su ffe re d j u st
re tr ib utio n
f o r h is f o lly .
Syno nym s: r e q uita l, n em esis

RETR IE V E
:
(1 ) T o m ake g o od -
re tr ie ved
a m is ta ke.
(2 ) T o r e co ver -
re tr ie ved
th e s u itc ase l e ft a t th e s ta ti o n.

(3 ) T o r e sto re -
re tr ie ved
h is l o st f o rtu nes.

SA TELLIT E
:
(1 ) A n a tte nti v e o r f la tte rin g f o llo w er - a p rin ce s u rro und ed b y m any
sa te llite s
.
Syno nym s: l a ckey, to ad y, d is c ip le , a d here nt; a d j., f a w nin g, o bse q uio us, p arti s a n
(2 ) A c o untr y i n flu enced o r c o ntr o lle d b y a no th er - F re ed om i s c o nsp ic uo usly
ab se nt ,i n
th e
Sovie t
sa te llite s
.
(3 ) A b ody ( n atu ra l o r a rti fic ia l) w hic h r e v olv es a ro und a l a rg er b ody, g enera lly a p la net - T he
moon i s th e o nly n atu ra l
sa te llite
o f th e e arth , b ut i n r e cent y ears i t h as b een j o in ed b y m any
arti fic ia l
sa te llite s
.

SO RDID
: M ean a nd b ase ; f ilth y
- S ord id
moti v es b re ed s e lfis h a cti o ns.
Syno nym s: d egra d ed , v ile , i g no ble

SP O RADIC
: O ccurrin g s in gly , a t i r re gula r i n te rv als ; s c atte re d
- s p ora dic
case s o f i lln ess.

SP U RN
: T o r e fu se o r r e je ct w ith c o nte m pt - a n o ffe r th at w as
sp urn ed
in sta ntl y .
Syno nym s: r e p el, s n ub

ST R IN G EN T
: S tr ic t; c o m pellin g, c o nstr a in in g
str in gen t
re gula ti o ns;
str in gen t
re q uir e m ents .
Syno nym s: e xacti n g, r ig id
Anto nym : l a x

TA NG IB LE
: R eal; a ctu al -
ta ngib le
g ain s w hic h m ay b e s e en.
and
c o unte d .
Syno nym s: m ate ria l, v erita b le , p erc ep ti b le , s u b sta nti a l

TA NTA M OUNT
: E quiv ale nt - a n a ct th at i s
ta nta m ount
to tr e aso n.

TA UNT
( v erb ).
To r e p ro ach w ith c o nte m pt -
ta unte d
h im w ith th e c harg e o f f a ilu re to a ct
pro m ptl y .
Syno nym s: m ock, tw it, g ib e, s n eer, d erid e
( noun
):
An i n su lti n g, j e erin g, o r b itte r r e m ark - h urle d
ta unts
at h is f o es.

TEEM IN G
: I n a b und ance, f e rti le , h ig hly p ro ducti v e - th e
te em in g
tr o pic s, r a nk w ith v egeta ti o n.
Syno nym s: s w arm in g, f r u itf u l, f e cund , a b ound in g

TR ANQ UIL
: C alm ; p eacefu l - a
tr a nquil
s u m mer n ig ht.
Syno nym s: p la cid , s e re ne
Anto nym s: p ertu rb ed , r u ffle d , tu rb ule nt

TR IV IA L
: O f l ittl e - i m porta nce - a
tr iv ia l
o ffe nse .
Syno nym : p altr y
Anto nym s: g ro ss, m om ento us

VANQ UIS H
: T o s u b due o r c o nq uer - a n a rm y
va nquis h ed
w ith h eav y l o sse s.

VAUNT
: T o b oast - p ro ud ly
va unte d
h is s tr e ngth .
Syno nym s: b ra g ( n o un: b ra ggad ocio , b ra ggart) , p ro cla im

VER SA TIL E
: A ble to d o m any th in gs
sk ilfu lly
-
versa tile
i n a ll th e a rts .

WHIM
( a d j.: W HIM SIC A L): A s u d den n o ti o n o r p assin g f a ncy - fr e q uentl y a cte d o n th e
whim
o f
th e m om ent.
Syno nym s: c ap ric e, v agary , c ro tc het

ZE A LO US
( n o un: Z E A LO T: f a nati c ): F ull o f e nth usia sm o r e agern ess - a
ze a lo us
s tu d ent, f ir s t i n
his c la ss.
Anto nym : p erfu ncto ry
X