IELTS Recent Actual Test
With Answers Volume 3
Reading Practice Test 1
READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on
Reading Passage 1 on the following pages.
REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF
FOOD PROMOTION TO CHILDREN
This review was commissioned by the Food Standards Agency to examine the
current research evidence on:
• the extent and nature of food promotion to children
• the effect, if any, that this promotion has on their food knowledge,
preferences and behaviour.
A Children’s food promotion is dominated by television advertising, and the
great majority of this promotes the so-called ‘Big Four’ of pre-sugared breakfast
cereals, soft-drinks, confectionary and savoury snacks. In the last ten years
advertising for fast food outlets has rapidly increased. There is some evidence
that the dominance of television has recently begun to wane. The importance
of strong, global branding reinforces a need for multi-faceted communications
combining television with merchandising, ‘tie-ins’ and point of sale activity. The
advertised diet contrasts sharply with that recommended by public health
advisors, and themes of fun and fantasy or taste, rather than health and
nutrition, are used to promote it to children. Meanwhile, the recommended diet
gets little promotional support.
B There is plenty of evidence that children notice and enjoy food promotion.
However, establishing whether this actually influences them is a
complex problem. The review tackled it by looking at studies that had
examined possible effects on what children know about food, their food
preferences, their actual food behaviour (both buying and eating), and their
health outcomes (eg. obesity or cholesterol levels). The majority of studies
examined food advertising, but a few examined other forms of food
promotion. In terms of nutritional knowledge, food advertising seems to have
little influence on children’s general perceptions of what constitutes a
healthy diet, but, in certain contexts, it does have an effect on more
specific types of nutritional knowledge. For example, seeing soft drink and
cereal adverts reduced primary aged children’s ability to determine
correctly whether or not certain products contained real fruit.
C The review also found evidence that food promotion influences children’s
food preferences and their purchase behaviour. A study of primary
school children, for instance, found that exposure to advertising influenced
which foods they claimed to like; and another showed that labelling and
signage on a vending machine had an effect on what was bought by secondary
school pupils. A number of studies have also shown that food advertising can
influence what children eat. One, for example, showed that
advertising influenced a primary class’s choice of daily snack at playtime.
D The next step, of trying to establish whether or not a link exists between food
promotion and diet or obesity, is extremely difficult as it requires research to
be done in real world settings. A number of studies have attempted this by
using amount of television viewing as a proxy for exposure to television
advertising. They have established a clear link between television viewing and
diet, obesity, and cholesterol levels. It is impossible to say, however, whether
this effect is caused by the advertising, the sedentary nature of television
viewing or snacking that might take place whilst viewing. One study resolved
this problem by taking a detailed diary of children’s viewing habits. This
showed that the more food adverts they saw, the more snacks and calories
E Thus the literature does suggest food promotion is influencing children’s diet
in a number of ways. This does not amount to proof; as noted above with this
kind of research, incontrovertible proof simply isn’t attainable. Nor do all
studies point to this conclusion; several have not found an effect. In addition,
very few studies have attempted to measure how strong these effects are
relative to other factors influencing children’s food choices. Nonetheless, many
studies have found clear effects and they have used sophisticated
methodologies that make it possible to determine that i) these effects are not
just due to chance; ii) they are independent of other factors that may influence
diet, such as parents’ eating habits or attitudes; and iii) they occur at a brand
and category level.
F Furthermore, two factors suggest that these findings actually downplay the
effect that food promotion has on children. First, the literature focuses
principally on television advertising; the cumulative effect of this combined
with other forms of promotion and marketing is likely to be significantly
greater. Second, the studies have looked at direct effects on individual
children, and understate indirect influences. For example, promotion for fast
food outlets may not only influence the child, but also encourage parents to
take them for meals and reinforce the idea that this is a normal and desirable
G This does not amount to proof of an effect, but in our view does provide
sufficient evidence to conclude that an effect exists. The debate should now
shift to what action is needed, and specifically to how the power of commercial
marketing can be used to bring about improvements in young people’s eating.
Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the most suitable heading for paragraphs A-G from the list of
headings below. Write the ppropriate number, i-x, in boxes 1-7 on your
List of Headings
iGeneral points of agreements and
disagreements of researchers
ii How much children really know
iii Need to take action
iv Advertising effects of the “Big
v Connection of advertising and
children’s weight problems
vi Evidence that advertising affects
what children buy to eat
vii How parents influence children’s
viii Advertising’s focus on unhealthy
ix Children often buy what they want
x Underestimating the effects
advertising has on children
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading
In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the
views of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the
views of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the
writer thinks about this
There is little difference between the number of
healthy food advertisements and the number of unhealthy food
TV advertising has successfully taught children
nutritional knowledge about vitamins and others.
It is hard to decide which aspect of TV viewing has
caused weight problems of children.
The preference of food for children is affected by
their age and gender.
Wealthy parents tend to buy more “sensible food”
for their children.
There is a lack of investigation on food promotion
methods other than TV advertising.
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on
Reading Passage 2 below.
THE BRIDGE THAT SWAYED
When the London Millennium footbridge was opened in June 2000, it swayed
alarmingly. This generated huge public interest and the bridge became known
as London’s “wobbly bridge. ”
The Millennium Bridge is the first new bridge across the river Thames in London
since Tower Bridge opened in 1894, and it is the first ever designed for
pedestrians only. The bridge links the City of London near St Paul’s Cathedral
with the Tate Modern art gallery on Bankside.
The bridge opened initially on Saturday 10th June 2000. For the opening
ceremony, a crowd of over 1,000 people had assembled on the south half of
the bridge with a band in front. When they started to walk across with the band
playing, there was immediately an unexpectedly pronounced lateral movement
of the bridge deck. “It was a fine day and the bridge was on the route of a
major charity walk,” one of the pedestrians recounted what ho saw that day.
“At first, it was still. Then if began to sway sideways, just slightly. Then, almost
from one moment to the next, when large groups of people were crossing, the
wobble intensified. Everyone had to stop walking to retain balance and
sometimes to hold onto the hand rails for support.” Immediately it was decided
to limit the number of people on the bridge, and the bridge was dubbed the
‘wobbly’ bridge by the media who declared it another high-profile British
Millennium Project failure. In older to fully investigate and resolve the issue the
decision was taken to close the bridge on 12th June 2000.
Arup, the leading member of the committee in charge of the construction of the
bridge, decided to tackle the issue head on. They immediately undertook a
fast-track research project to seek the cause and the cure. The embarrassed
engineers found the videotape that day which showed the center span swaying
about 3 inches sideways every second and the south span 2 inches every 1.25
seconds. Because there was a significant wind blowing on the opening days
(force 3-4) and the bridge had been decorated with large flags, the engineers
first thought that winds might be exerting excessive force on the many large
flags and banners, but it was rapidly concluded that wind buffeting had not
contributed significantly to vibration of the bridge. But after measurements
were made in university laboratories of the effects of people? walking on
swaying platforms and after large-scale experiments with crowds of
pedestrians were conducted on the bridge itself, a new understanding and a
new theory were developed.
The unexpected motion was the result of a natural human reaction to small
lateral movements. It is well known that a suspension bridge has tendency to
sway when troops march over it in lockstep, which is why troops arc required
to break step when crossing such a bridge. “If we walk on a swaying surface we
tend to compensate and stabilise ourselves by spreading our legs further apart
but this increases the lateral push”. Pat Dallard, the engineer at Arup, says that
you change the way you walk to match what the bridge is doing. It is an
unconscious tendency for pedestrians to match their footsteps to the sway,
thereby exacerbating it even more. “It’s rather like walking on a rolling ship
deck you move one way and then the other to compensate for the roll.” The
way people walk doesn’t have to match exactly the natural frequency of the
bridge as in resonance the interaction is more subtle. As the bridge
moves, people adjust the way they walk in their own manner. The problem is
that when there are enough people on the bridge the total sideways push can
overcome the bridge’s ability to absorb it. The movement becomes excessive
and continues to increase until people begin to have difficulty in walking they
may even have to hold on to the rails.
Professor Fujino Yozo of Tokyo University, who studied the earth-resistant Toda
Bridge in Japan, believes the horizontal forces caused by walking, running or
jumping could also in turn cause excessive dynamic vibration in the lateral
direction in the bridge. He explains that as the structure began moving,
pedestrians adjusted their gait to the same lateral rhythm as the bridge; the
adjusted footsteps magnified the motion just like when four people all stand up
in small boat at the same time. As more pedestrians locked into the same
rhythm, the increasing oscillation led to the dramatic swaying captured on film
until people stopped walking altogether, because they could not even keep
In order to design a method of reducing the movements, an immediate
research program was launched by the bridge’s engineering designer Arup. It
was decided that the force exerted by the pedestrians had to be quantified and
related to the motion of the bridge. Although there are some descriptions of
this phenomenon in existing literature, none of these actually quantifies the
force. So there was no quantitative analytical way to design the bridge against
this effect. The efforts to solve the problem quickly got supported by a number
of universities and research organisations.
The tests at the University of Southampton involved a person walking on the
spot on a small shake table. The tests at Imperial College involved persons
walking along a specially built, 7.2m-long platform, which could be driven
laterally at different frequencies and amplitudes. These tests have their own
limitations. While the Imperial College test platform was too short that only
seven or eight steps could be measured at one time, the “walking on the spot”
test did not accurately replicate forward walking, although many footsteps
could be observed using this method. Neither test could investigate any
influence of other people in a crowd on the behavior of the individual tested.
The results of the laboratory tests provided information which enabled the
initial design of a retrofit to be progressed. However, unless the usage of the
bridge was to be greatly restricted, only two generic options to improve its
performance were considered feasible. The first was to increase the stiffness of
the bridge to move all its lateral natural frequencies out of the range that could
be excited by the lateral footfall forces, and the second was to increase
the damping of the bridge to reduce the resonant response.
Choose FOUR letters, A-I.
Write the correct letters in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.
Which FOUR of the following could be seen on the day when the bridge
opened to the public? A
the bridge moved vertically
Ithe bridge swayed from side to side
the bridge swayed violently throughout the opening ceremony
it was hard to keep balance on the bridge
pedestrians walked in synchronised steps
pedestrians lengthened their footsteps
a music band marched across the bridge
the swaying rhythm varied to the portions of the bridge
flags and banners kept still on the bridge
Complete the summary below.
NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each
Write your answers in boxes 18-23 on your answer sheet.
To understand why the Millennium Bridge swayed, engineers of Arup studied the
videotape taken on the day of the opening ceremony. In the beginning they
thought the forces of 18
might have caused the movement because
there were many flags and banners on the bridge that day. But quickly new
understandings arose after series of tests were conducted on how people walk on
floors. The tests showed people would place their leg 20 to
keep balance when the floor is shaking. Pat Dallard even believes pedestrians
may unknowingly adjust their 21
to match the sway of the bridge.
Professor Fujino Yozo’s study found that the vibration of a bridge could be caused
by the 22
. of people walking, running and jumping on it because the
lateral rhythm of the sway could make pedestrians adjust their walk and reach the
same step until it is impossible to stand 23
Complete the table below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each
Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet
Test conducted by Problems of the test
Not enough data collection
Not long enough
Not like the real walking experience
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on
Reading Passage 3 below.
Internal Market: Selling the inside
When you think of marketing, you more than likely think of marketing to your
customers: How can you persuade more people to buy what you sell? But
another "market" is just as important: your employees, the very people who
can make the brand come alive for your customers. Yet in our work helping
executives develop and carry out branding campaigns, my colleagues and I
have found that companies very often ignore this critical constituency.
Why is internal marketing so important? First, because it's the best way to help
employees make a powerful emotional connection to the products and services
you sell. Without that connection, employees are likely to undermine the
expectations set by your advertising. In some cases, this is because they
simply don't understand what you have promised the public, so they end up
working at cross-purposes. In other cases, it may be they don't actually believe
in the brand and feel disengaged or, worse, hostile toward the company.
We've found that when people care about and believe in the brand, they're
motivated to work harder and their loyalty to the company increases.
Employees are united and inspired by a common sense of purpose and
Unfortunately, in most companies, internal marketing is done poorly, if at all.
While executives recognise the need to keep people informed about the
company's strategy and direction, few understand the need to convince
employees of the brand's power—they take it as a given.
Employees need to hear the same messages that you send out to the
marketplace. At most companies, however, internal and external
communications are often mismatched. This can be very confusing, and it
threatens employees' perceptions of the company's integrity: They are told one
thing by management but observe that a different message is being sent to
the public. One health insurance company, for instance, advertised that the
welfare of patients was the company's number one priority, while employees
were told that their main goal was to increase the value of their stock options
through cost reductions. And one major financial services institution told
customers that it was making a major shift in focus from being a financial
retailer to a financial adviser, but, a year later, research showed that the
customer experience with the company had not changed. It turned out that
company leaders had not made an effort to sell the change internally, so
employees were still churning out transactions and hadn't changed their
behavior to match their new adviser role.
Enabling employees to deliver on customer expectations is important, of
course, but it's not the only reason a company needs to match internal and
external messages. Another reason is to help push the company to achieve
goals that might otherwise be out of reach. In 1997, when IBM launched its e-
business campaign (which is widely credited for turning around the company's
image), it chose to ignore research that suggested consumers were unpre-
pared to embrace IBM as a leader in e-business. Although to the outside world
this looked like an external marketing effort, IBM was also using the campaign
to align employees
around the idea of the Internet as the future of technology. The internal
campaign changed the way employees thought about everything they did,
from how they named products to how they organised staff to how they
approached selling. The campaign was successful largely because it gave
employees a sense of direction and purpose, which in turn restored their
confidence in IBM's ability to predict the future and lead the technology
industry. Today, research shows that people are four times more likely to
associate the term "e-busi-ness" with IBM than with its nearest competitor.
Perhaps even more important, by taking employees into account, a company
can avoid creating a message that doesn't resonate with staff or, worse, one
that builds resentment. In 1996, United Airlines shelved its "Come Fly the
Friendly Skies" slogan when presented with a survey that revealed the depth of
customer resentment toward the airline industry. In an effort to own up to the
industry's shortcomings, United launched a new campaign, "Rising," in which it
sought to differentiate itself by acknowledging poor service and prom-ising
incremental improvements such as better meals. While this was a logical
premise for the campaign given the tenor of the times, a campaign focusing on
customers' distaste for flying was deeply discouraging to the staff. Employee
resentment, ultimately made it impos-sible for United to deliver the
improvements it was promising, which in turn undermined the "Rising" pledge.
Three years later, United decided employee opposition was under-mining its
success and pulled the campaign. It has since moved to a more inclusive
brand message with the line "United," which both audiences can embrace.
Here, a fundamental principle of advertising—find and address a customer
concern—failed United because it did not consider the internal market.
When it comes to execution, the most common and effective way to link
internal and external marketing campaigns is to create external advertising
that targets both audiences. IBM used this tactic very effectively when it
launched its e-business campaign, It took out an eight-page ad in the Wall
Street Journal declaring its new vision, a message directed at both customers
and internal stakeholders. This is an expensive way to capture attention, but if
used sparingly, it is the most powerful form of communication; in fact, you
need do it only once for everyone in the company to read it. There's a symbolic
advantage as well. Such a tactic signals that the company is taking its pledge
very seriously; it also signals transparency—the same message going out to
Advertising isn’t the only way to link internal and external marketing. At Nike, a
number of senior executives now hold the additional title of "Corporate
Storyteller." They deliberately avoid stories of financial successes and
concentrate on parables of "just doing it," reflecting and reinforcing the
company's ad campaigns. One tale, for example, recalls how legendary coach
and Nike cofounder Bill Bowerman, in an effort to build a better shoe for his
team, poured rubber into the family waffle iron, giving birth to the prototype of
Nike's famous Waffle Sole. By talking about such inventive moves, the
company hopes to keep the spirit of innovation that characterises its ad
campaigns alive and well within the company.
But while their messages must be aligned, companies must also keep external
promises a little ahead of internal realities. Such promises provide incentives
for employees and give them something to live up to. In the 1980s, Ford turned
"Quality Is Job 1" from an internal rallying cry into a consumer slogan in
response to the threat from cheaper, more reliable Japanese cars. It did so
before the claim was fully justified, but by placing it in the public arena, it gave
employees an incentive to match the Japanese. If the promise is pushed too far
ahead, however, it loses credibility. When a beleaguered British Rail launched
a cam-paign announcing service improvements under the banner "We're
Getting There," it did so prematurely. By drawing attention to the gap between
the promise and the reality, it prompted destructive press coverage. This, in
turn, demoralised staff, who had been legiti-mately proud of the service
advances they had made.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.
NB You can use any letter more than once.
A health company
A financial institution
A computer company
A sport shoe company
A railway company
A alienated its employees by its
apologetic branding campaign.
B attracted negative publicity
through its advertising campaign.
C produced conflicting image
between its employees and the
D successfully used an advertising
campaign to inspire employees
Edraws on the legends of the
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading
33-40 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the
views of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the
views of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the
writer thinks about this
A strong conviction in the brand can contribute to
higher job performance.
It is common for companies to overlook the
necessity for internal communication.
Consumers were ready to view IBM as a leader in e-
business before the advertising campaign.
United Airlines’ failure in its branding campaign was
due to the bad advice of an advertisement agency.
United Airlines eventually abolished its campaign to
boost image as the result of a market research.
It is an expensive mistake for IBM to launch its new
Nike employees claimed that they were inspired by
their company tales.40
A slight difference between internal and external
promises can create a sense of purpose.
9NO 10 YES
11NOT GIVEN 12NOT GIVEN
20further apart 21footsteps
22horizontal forces 23upright
24(Engineer designer) Arup 25Imperial College
26University of Southampton 27C
36NO 37NOT GIVEN
38NO 39NOT GIVEN
Academic IELTS Reading 1
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