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IE LT S V OCABU LA RY M AST ER CLA SS
8.5 ©
B O OK 3
+ I E LTS L IS T E N IN G & R EAD IN G
DIC TIO NARY
D OM IN AT E P RO FIC IE N CY L EV EL
V OCA BU LA RY FO R IE LT S L IS T EN IN G ,
REA DIN G , W RIT IN G & S PE A KIN G
IE LTS V OCABU LA RY B O OK 3 ©
M AR C R OCH E

8.5

“You can 't bu ild u p a v ocabu lar y i f
you never m eet an y n ew w ords. A nd
to m eet t h em you must r ead.”
- R udol f F le sc h

Copyrig ht © 2 020 M arc R och e

Dis c lai m er
A lthough t he aut hor and publ is he r ha ve m ade eve re ffor t t o e nsure t ha t
the inf ormation i n this book w as c or re ct a t pr ess t im e, t he aut hor and
publ is he r do not assum e a nd he re bGi sc la im anl ia bi litt o a nSa rtf or
anl oss, da mage , or disrupt ion c aus ed be rror s or om is sions , whethe r
suc h e rror s or om is sions resul t f rom neglige nce, a ccide nt, or anRt her
caus e.

Cop righ t © 2020 b Marc R oche. A ll R igh t R ese rve d.
N o pa rt of thi s bus ine ss voc abul arERRNm aEe repr oduc ed, di str ibut ed,
or tra ns mitte d i n a nf orm or ba nm eans , inc ludi ng phot ocopi ng,
re cor ding, or other e le ctr oni c or mecha nical m ethods , or ba ny
inf ormation s tor age and r etr ie va l s s te m w ithout the pr ior w ritte n
pe rm is sion of the publ is he r, e xcept in t he case of ve rEr ie f quot ations
e m bodi ed i n c ritic al r evi ew s a nd c erta in ot her non- com merc ia l us es
pe rm itte d bc opright law .
Topi cs c ove re d i n this book-
IE LTS v ocabul ary, I ELTS l is te ni ng, I ELTS gr ammar , I ELTS s peaking,
I E LTS w riting, I ELTS r eadi ng, I ELTS ac ademic , I ELTS G ene ral Trai ning

Tab le o f C onte n ts
G et M arc R oche’s S tar te r L ib rar F OR F REE
D ed ic at ion
E pigr ap h
How to U se T his B ook
Abou t T he A uth or
O th er B ook s B M arc R oche
IE LT S V OCABU LA RY F OR 8.5: Prof ic ie n cV ocab ular f or Read in g,
L is te n in g, S peak in g & Wr it in g S kills
T op ic 1. P eop le
T op ic 2. H eal th & M ed ic in e
Top ic 3. S ocial & Leis u re
T op ic 4. E ducat ion
T op ic 5: Adve rtis in g
Top ic 6: Trave l & plac es
T op ic 7: Anim als
Top ic 8: Tech nol ogDn d C om pute rs
T op ic 9: Fas hion
T op ic 10: Cit L if e
T op ic 1 1: E nvi ron men t
Top ic 12: Med ia
F U LL N OTES S EC TIO N WI TH A NSWE RS
Top ic 1. P eop le
T op ic 2. H eal th & M ed ic in e
Top ic 3. S ocial & Leis u re
T op ic 4. E ducat ion
T op ic 5: Adve rtis in g
Top ic 6: Trave l & plac es

Top ic 7: Anim als
Top ic 8: Tech nol ogDn d C om pute rs
T op ic 9: Fas hion
T op ic 10: Cit L if e
T op ic 1 1: E nvi ron men t
Top ic 12: Med ia
I E LT S L is te n in g & Read in g V ocab ular D ic tion ary
-A -
-B -
- C -
- D -
- E -
- F -
- G -
- H -
- I -
- L -
- M -
- N -
- O -
- P -
- Q -
- R -
- S -
- T -
- U -
- V -
- W -
- Z -

BLA NK N OTES S EC TIO N
FR EE O NLIN E E NGLIS H R ESO URCES F OR IELT S
T han k Ru
Wh at N ow ?
Mega- Bon us: M arc R oche’s E ntir e S tar te r L ib rar Rf Free B ook s!
B on us C hap te r: F REE B OOK! T he P rod uctivi tC heat Sheet

GET M ARC R OCH E ’ S S TA RTER L IB R ARY F O R
FR EE
Sig n u p f o r e x clu siv e c o nte n t v ia e m ail a n d g et a n
in tr o ducto ry b ook a n d l o ts m ore , a ll f o r f re e.
D eta ils c a n b e f o u nd a t t h e e n d o f t h e b ook .

DED IC ATIO N
For m Ee aut if ul son, w ho bright ens m Ga with hi s s m ile , hi s que stions
a nd hi s m is c hi ef.
F or m Sa re nt s, w ho ha ve alw as be en t here .
F or M addi , for be ing s uch a wonde rful m othe r t o m son.

EPIG RAPH
Yo u r i n abil ity t o s e e o th er p ossib ilitie s a n d y o u r
la ck o f v o ca bu la ry a re y o u r b ra in 's lim its , n ot th e
univ erse 's .
- S co tt A dam s
One fo rg ets w ord s a s o n e fo rg ets n am es. O ne's
v o ca bu la ry n eed s c o n sta n t f e rtiliz in g o r i t w ill d ie .
- E vely n W au gh

HOW TO U SE T HIS B OOK
IE LT S V oc ab ular M aste rclas s 8.5 © BOOK 3 + IELT S L is te n in g &
R ead in g D ic tion ar- Dom in at e P rof ic ie n cL eve l V oc ab ular f or
IE LT S L is te n in g, R ead in g, Wr it in g & Speak in g ( IE LT S
V O CABU LA RY B OOK 3 © )
The M aste rc la ss t o 8.5 i s s im ple:
T hi s book i s not designe d to be an e xha ustive lis t of words , but ins te ad, a
foc used a nd e as- access gui de for exa m pr epa ra tion + an I ELT S L is te ni ng
& R eadi ng M ini -D ic tiona ry . R evi ew ans ections tha t RXf eel RXQe ed t o
and us e t he m as a sta rting poi nt for fur the r r ese arc h a nd pr actic e.
1. R ead t he de fini tions and w rite dow n an example s ent enc e f or each
voc abul ari te m .
2. A t t he end of each t opi c c ha pter, RX’ ll f ind a n exerc is e t o r evi ew RXr
unde rs ta ndi ng of the voc abul ary . T he exa mples i n t he exe rc is e s a re
fra gm ent s f rom IELT S S pe aki ng, I ELT S W riting, I ELT S L is te ni ng a nd
IE LT S R eadi ng s tl e que stions and a nswers . A fte r r eadi ng t he de fini tions ,
com plete t he exa mple s ent enc es, us ing t he words in t he cha pter.
3. C heck RXr ans wers .
4. C heck RXr origi na l s ent enc e a ga in a nd s ee i f i t ne eds cor re ctions .
5. M ake cle an *N otes / w rite a de fini tion i n RXr own words and a n
exa mple s ent enc e i n RXr *Notes.
6. R e-re ad RXr *Notes t w ic e pe r da and pr actis e s ai ng t he sent enc es.
7. T here i s a n I ELT S L is te ni ng a nd R eadi ng M ini -D ic tiona rf or qui ck
re fe re nc e.
8. T his i s a pe rfe ct a ddi tion t o IELT S V oc abul arM aste rc la ss B ook 1
& B ook 2, but als o t o the book I ELT S S pe aki ng 8.5 M aste rc la ss a nd I ELT S
W riting 8.5 M aste rc la ss. P ra ctic e a ns wering t he spe aki ng a ctivi tie s
(s pe aki ng c ards and e xam que stions ) a t t he ba ck of the book I ELT S
Spe aki ng 8.5 M aste rc la ss i n f ront of a m ir ror or with a partne r i f pos sibl e.

When RXGRt his, a ppl tim e l im its t o m ake it m ore l ike the real e xa m
and us e l angua ge from thi s book t o insta nt li mpr ove RXr spe aki ng
sc or e!
9. U se t he “Bla nk N otes S ection” at t he end of thi s w orkbook t o add RXr
own not es a nd r ecor d RXr progr ess.

ABO UT T HE A UTH OR
Marc i s or igi na llf rom Manc heste r a nd c urre nt ll ive s i n S pain. H e i s a
w rite r, t eache r, t ra ine r, a nd e ntre pr ene ur. H e ha s c ol la bor ate d w ith
or ga nizations suc h a s t he Britis h C ounc il, t he Roa l M elbour ne Ins titut e
of Technol oga nd Unive rs itRf Technol ogS GQeamong ot hers . M arc
ha s a ls o w orke d w ith m ultina tiona ls s uc h a s N ike , G la xoS mithK line or
Bol sa s M erc ados .
Learn m ore a bout Marc a t a m azon.c om/a ut hor /m arc roc he

OTH ER B OOKS B Y M ARC R OCH E
IE LT S V oc ab ular M aste rclas s 8.5 ( BO OK 1)
IE LT S V oc ab ular M aste rclas s 8.5 ( BO OK 2)
IE LT S S peak in g 8.5 M aste rclas s
IE LT S Wr it in g M aste rclas s 8.5
G ram mar for IELT S 8.5 ( Book 1)

IE LT S V O CABU LA RY F O R 8 .5 :
P RO FIC IE N CY V OCABU LA RY FO R
R EA DIN G , L IS T EN IN G , S PE A K IN G &
W RIT IN G S KIL LS

TOPIC 1 . P EO PL E
Acq uai ntan ce = ( n) w hen RXNQRw som eone well e nough t o saKe llo
a nd t alk t o them w hen RXs ee t he m, but the ’re not a frie nd.
S ib lin g = br othe r or sis te r
C har acte ris tic = tSi cal
R ese m ble = w he n s om ethi ng l ooks sim ila r t o s om ethi ng e ls e , i t
re se m bles t ha t t hi ng.
Reliab le = som ethi ng or som eone tha t c an be trus te d f or func tiona l
thi ngs (som ethi ng or som eone RXc an r elRQ) .
*Note: t he oppos ite i s ‘ unr elia bl e’
B on d = m eans a clos e l ink or to f orm a clos e l ink i f w e us e i t a s a ve rb
C on sc iou s = w hen RXr cons cious of som ethi ng i t m eans RX’ re a ware
of som ethi ng.
In heren t = a na tur al pa rt of som ethi ng i s i nhe re nt to t hat t hi ng.
Self -e ste em = the leve l c onf ide nce or be lie f RXKa ve in RXr own
abi litie s a nd pos itive qua litie s.
*N ote: S elf -e ste em is of te n de sc ribe d a s ‘ hi gh’ or ‘low ’.

Ste reot p ic al = som ethi ng t hat f its i nt o t he tSi cal i de as a bout the way
it s houl d be.
Ten den c= som ethi ng t hat ha ppe ns repe ate dl y. T re nd.
G en der = the sex of a pe rs on.
L if e tim e = t he pe riod of tim e t ha t s om ethi ng e xists or tha t a pe rs on or
a n a nimal l ive s.
S m pat his e = w hen RXs mpathi se w ith s om eone it m eans tha t Ru
unde rs ta nd t heir pos ition a nd situa tion. I t’s s im ila r t o ha ving e mpa thy .
Har dw ir ed = ins tinc tive be haviour
Hab it u al l= us ua lly

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. Certa in t Se s of bird onl live in one place i n t heir e nt ir e
…………...
2. I r eallw ith a ll t he pe opl e w ho l ost t he ir
jobs , be caus e nobodw ant s t o be in t hat s itua tion. I thi nk t he
gove rnm ent can do m ore t o he lp t hem at t he m om ent bGRi ng X,
Y and Z for exa mple.
3. I’m …………………. t hat I w ill ne ed t o w ork ve rKa rd t o
becom e a doc tor , but it’s m Gr eam and I ’m w iling t o make the
sa crif ic e.
4. G etting i nto a car a ccide nt is one of the ………………… da ngers
of dr ivi ng, s o it’s ve ri mpor ta nt tha t dr ive rs pa full a tte nt ion on
the roa d s o w e c an m ini mis e t he ris k.
5. W hite s ha rks do not …………………… a tta ck hum ans , unl ess
the c onf use t he m w ith s eals . H oweve r, t he Ka ve a reallEa d

re put ation, a nd I thi nk t his ha s c ont ribut ed t o a lot of sha rk de aths
ove r t he e ars , a s t he ’ve be en a ctive lKXQt ed i n m anSa rts of
the world.
6. S tudi es s ugge st t ha t pe opl e w ith hi gher ………………… a re
m or e l ike lt o be suc cessful in t heir c are ers .
7. I w ant to s tuda ccount ing, but I don’ t t hi nk I ’m the
………………………….. a ccount ant . T he ste re ot Si cal
account ant is a ve rRr ganise d a nd m ethodi cal pe rs on w ho enjos
siting a t a de sk c runc hing num bers ( m aki ng c alc ul ations ).
8. T he re i s a ………………….. now ada s to s ocia lis e t hr ough
te chnol ogy. I thi nk i t ha s s om e ve rc le ar be nefits , but it ne eds to
be us ed i n m odera tion. T he be nefits a re X , Y and Z . Howeve r, t he
da nge rs a re A , B and C .
9. I t hi nk our desir e t o i mpr ove and gr ow is ………………… i nto
us as hum ans , but it ne eds to be stim ulate d. T his i s w hI str ongl y
belie ve tha t w e ne ed t o pr omote r eal- w or ld, pr actic al e duc ation.
I f pe opl e s ee t ha t t he c an l earn r eal- w or ld s kills , i t w ill
e nc our age the m to ke ep l earni ng.
10 . In m RSi nion, ………………. i s s adl s till a nd i ssue we ne ed t o
ta ckl e i n t oda ’s w orkpl ace. T here a re s till gr eat di spa ritie s
be tw een m ale a nd f em ale e m ploe es i n t erm s of wage s a nd
oppor tuni tie s.
11 . I don’ t know her ve rw ell, s he 's not realla frie nd, s he’s m ore of
an ………………...
12 . T he shop of fe rs a di sc ount for ………………… w ho sign up f or
stor e c ards .

13 . Addi ng s osauc e w hile RX’ re c ooki ng the ve geta bl es gi ves t he
di sh i ts ………………. V ie tna mese f la vour .
14 . Por che ’s ne w 2020 c ar m ode l …………………….. t he ol d 1970s
mode ls .
15 . It’s i m por ta nt for m e t ha t m f rie nds are ………………, I don’t
like pe opl e w ho a re l ate or who c anc el pl ans at t he last m inut e.
16 . M c ar i s ve ri t ha s ne ver br oke n dow n.
17 . I’m ve rc los e t o m fam ily , w e ha ve a ve rs tr ong …………...
18 . It’s i m por ta nt for pe opl e t o ……………. i f t he w ork t oge the r
clos ely . I t’s e asie r t o do t his i n s mall of fic es r athe r t ha n bi g
offic es. T his i s w hI prefe r w orking f or sm all c om panies, a s
the t end t o ha ve a sm alle r, f rie ndl ie r e nvi ronm ent .

TOPIC 2 . H EA LT H & M ED IC IN E
Alle rgi c = w he n RXKa ve a ne gative phs ic al r eaction t o a subs ta nc e.
H ar mfu l = not safe , ba d for a pe rs on or bad for som ethi ng.
Appetit e /h unge r = RXr desir e f or som ethi ng ( usua llf ood) .
*Note: ‘ cra ve ’ m eans w hen RXr eallw ant som ethi ng. A str ong de sir e
for som ethi ng.
Lif e stl e = the was om eone live s t he ir l if e . Y our lif e stl e c an be
active , sede ntary , s oc ia bl e, e tc …
In gr ed ie n ts = the com pone nts of a spe cif ic m edi cine , dr ink, f ood or
dish.
N utr it iou s = ful l of vita m ins , fat, pr otein, c arbohGr ate s or other
esse nt ia l c om pone nts f or good he alth.
S uffe r = fe el di sc om for t or pa in. I t c an a ls o be used t o de sc ribe when
som ethi ng ne gative ha ppe ns to RXRr when RXKa ve a ne gative he alth
c ondi tion.

Sed en tar = the oppos ite of active . T his i s of te n us ed t o de sc ribe jobs ,
activi tie s a nd l if e stl e.
P sc hol ogi cal = r ela te d t o ps chol ogRr the m ind.
B en efic ial = good, pos itive or he lpf ul.
Detr im en tal = ba d or negative . N ot he lpf ul
In tak e = cons umption/ the am ount RXe at or drink.
E rad ic at e = ge t r id or som ethi ng ( ext erm ina te )
W ell- b ein g = RXr well- be ing i s RXr leve l of com for t, he alth a nd
happi ness.
S eve rit y = the serious ness of som ethi ng.
Preve ntive = actions tha t a im to pr eve nt or stop s omethi ng

Addit ive s = the che mic als t ha t a re a dde d to f ood a nd drink t o stop i t
from rot ting or to e nha nce f avour .
Prese rvat ive s = the che mic als t ha t a re a dde d to f ood a nd drink t o ke ep
it f re sh f or longe r.
A dm in is te r= to gi ve a pa tie nt a m edi cine or medi cal t re atm ent .
Adm it = to of fic ia lla llow som eone to s ta i n hos pita l f or m edi cal
care .
A gon = int ens e phs ic al pa in or em otiona l s uf fe ring.
A ntid ot e = a dr ug t hat s tops the ne gative effe cts of a poi son.
C on su lt an t = a n e xpe rie nc ed doc tor in a hos pita l w ho s pecia lis e s i n a
spe cif ic a re a of medi cine .

Diagn osis = a n of fic ia l c onc lus ion a bout a pa tie nt ’s c ondi tion, gi ven by
a doc tor .
In oc ulat e = to us e a va ccine pr otect pe opl e a ga ins t a di se ase ( to
va ccina te ).
N ursin g h om e ( C ar e h om e) = a pl ace w here t he elde rll ive when t hey
are not abl e t o l ook a fte r t he mse lve s due to t heir a ge or due to a n illne ss.

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. I don’ t t hi nk I coul d ever w ork i n a n of fic e, a s I don’ t t hi nk I ’d
like tha t ………….. I ’m an a ctive pe rs on w ho enjos doi ng
thi ngs out door s a nd m oving a round a lot and s ta i ng i n one place
indoor s f or 8- 12 hour s a da everGa is m idea of he ll!
2. M XQc le w as ………………… w ith C rohn’ s di se ase s eve ra l
e ars a go, but he still w orks ful l- tim e a nd ha sn’ t l et i t s top hi m
from pur sui ng m ost of his hobbi es.
3. H e w orks as a cardi ologa t a chi ldr en’ s hos pita l i n
the citc ent re . H is w ork i s ve rGe mandi ng but he’s pa ssiona te
a bout it.
4. A funns tor Ka ppened t o m e on m last bi rthda y. I took m GRg
to ge t ……………. a gains t r abi es a nd s omeone had br ought an
aba ndone d dog i nto t he ve t’s t o t ra nd he lp i t. L ong s tor s hor t, I
e nde d up a dopting a nother dog!

5. If RXJe t bi tte n ba poisonous sna ke, it’s i m por ta nt to go t o
hospita l s o t hec an gi ve RXa n ………………..
6. The re ha s be en a lot of cont rove rs s urroundi ng the leve l of care
in s om e …………………….
7. W hen I broke mleg I was i n ……………, s o I rang m frie nd
and s he took m e t o hos pita l.
8. T he m ore pe opl e a re ……………… i nto hos pita ls , t he hi ghe r t he
de mand on m edi cal s ta ff a nd ot her r esour ces.
9. T he dr ug i s ……………… or ally , t wic e a da y.
10 . It’s be tte r f or RXr health of RXa void eating t oo m anf oods tha t
cont ain …………………………………..
11 . I t w as …………….. w hen m team los t t he cha mpions hip i n the
la st 3 s econds of the ga me! ( Thi s i s a n e xagge ra tion, but very
c om mon)
12 . Havi ng RXr heart br oke n is ………………….
13 . M f avour ite di sh i s pe peroni pizza. T he …………….. a re pi zza
dough, c heese , t om ato, pe peroni , olive oi l a nd c hilly .
14 . O ur ……………………… i s m ore i m por ta nt tha n m oney. W e
need t o f ocus on t his s o t hat w e c an e ra di cate t hi s pr obl em .
15 . It’s i m por ta nt to m onitor RXr dailRf tra ns fats .
16 . T oo m uch s uga r c an be ext re m elt o RXr
health.

17 . ……………… medi cine is of te n m ore e ffe ctive tha n t re atm ent .
(It a im s t o s top di se ase s be for e t he Ge velop)
18 . W e unde re stim ate d t he …………………… of the situa tion.
19 . T he gove rnm ent ha s put ……………… m easur es i n pl ace s o t hat
bus ine sse s c an r ecove r a s qui ckl a s pos sibl e.
20 . W e ne ed t o …………… t he pr obl em now or it w ill c aus e m ore
da mage in t he fut ur e.
21 . I t hi nk j unk f ood incre ase s RXr …………., a s i t ha s ve rl ittle
s ubs ta nc e. I t doe sn’ t f ill RXf or long a nd make s RXc ra ve m ore.
22 . T he ………………… i mpa ct of what ha s ha ppe ned ha s be en
enor mous . It ha s c ha nge d the waw e l ive and t he waw e vi ew
the world.
23 . I ne ed t o e xerc is e m ore be caus e I ha ve a ve r.
job, w here I s pe nd m ost of the da sitting dow n at a de sk.
24 . A voc ados are ve rt hea re pa cke d w ith i ron,
vi ta m ins and he althf at.
25 . I ……… qui te a lot dur ing t he loc kdow n, as I c oul dn’ t vi sit m y
fa m ily .
26 . Ja ck ……………… a car a ccide nt w hen he was RXQJe r, a nd i t
cha nge d hi s l if e . H e i s now ext re m els uccessful and r espons ibl e.
27 . P eopl e w ho …………….. f rom rare ge netic di sor de rs ne ed m ore
gui dance f rom doc tor s.

28 . It w oul d be ………………… i f w e c oul d ha ve m ore
te le com muting f rom now on, a s i t r educ es pot ent ia l r is ks and
re duc es da mage to t he envi ronm ent . I t i s a ls o c heape r f or m any
com panies, s o e verRQe woul d be nefit f rom thi s t Se of cha nge .
29 . The pa nde mic ha s be en ve rt o busine sse s a ll ove r
the world.
30 . S m oki ng i s ve rQRt jus t t o t he pe rs on s moki ng, but als o
to t he pe opl e a round. T his i s w hw e ne ed t o m ake it i lle ga l i n
m RSi nion.
31 . I’m ……………….. t o nuts, s o I ne ed t o be verc are ful w hen I
eat out in r esta ur ant s.
32 . I be lie ve tha t t he gove rnm ent ne eds to i ntroduc e t ight er
re str ic tions to r egul ate t he ……………….. i n natur al r em edi es,
a s t he a re of te n pot ent ia llGa ngerous .

TOPIC 3 . S OCIA L & L EIS U RE
Con for m = to f ollow soc ia l r ul es.
C oop erat e = w hen pe ople w ork w ell t oge the r
Min dse t ( fr am e of min d) = the waou t hink. Y our ment al a ttitude at a
pa rtic ul ar poi nt in RXr lif e or in a partic ul ar s itua tion.
M in or it = a s m all pe rc ent age of a gr oup or population.
S hun = to r eje ct
W e c an’ t …….. our respons ibi lita s c itiz ens . W e ha ve to be sens ibl e
and r espons ibl e t o pr eve nt da nge rous situa tions like thi s f rom happe ning
aga in.
C on vention al = the us ual, nor mal or tra di tiona l w aRf doing s omethi ng
or thi nki ng. ‘ Conve ntiona l w is dom ’ i s a n e xpr ession, m eani ng: what
mos t pe opl e be lie ve to be true , or what m ost e xpe rts a ccept as t he
tr ut h.
In te rac tion = com muni cation be tw een pe ople ( w ritte n, s poke n or
thr ough s ign l angua ge for exa mple).

Pressu re = str e ss or expe cta tions .
Con duct = T hi s c an be used a s ve rb a nd a s a noun m eani ng be haviour -
behave. W hen us ed a s a ve rb t o m ean ‘ behave’, i t i s r efle xi ve , m eani ng
it goe s w ith m self , RXr se lf , hi mse lf , he rs e lf e tc ..
P ronunc ia tion *N ote: t he str e ss i s on t he fir s t s l la bl e w hen i t’s us ed a s
a noun a nd on the second s lla bl e w hen us ed a s a ve rb.
M ainstr eam = c om mon l ike s or ide as. P opul ar
A pprop riat e = accept abl e or sui ta bl e f or a pa rtic ul ar s itua tion.
M ult ic u lt u ral = s om ethi ng t hat ha s s eve ra l di ffe re nt cul tur es. I t c an be
a t eam , a de partm ent , a city , a count re tc ..
A bsor bin g = s om ethi ng t hat e nt erta ins RXs o much, t hat RXf orge t
about eve rt hing e ls e .
E xh ilar atin g = som ethi ng t hat m ake s RXf eel f ul l of ene rga nd
exc ite m ent . T hrilling.
I n dulge = to do s omethi ng t hat RXl ike (like a rew ard) .
Pursu e = to f ollow an a ctivi ti n or der t o r each a goa l. T hink of cha sing
RXr dream s.
T ed iou s = not exc iting. F ocusing on hi ghlspecif ic but bor ing t hings (in
the spe ake r’s opi nion) .
Trivi al = uni mpor ta nt

Unw in d = to be gin t he pr ocess of rela xa tion a fte r s tr e ss or ha rd w ork
Fos te r = to pr otect s om ethi ng a nd encour age it t o gr ow (an i dea, a n
attitude , a feeling, a n action or a resul t) .

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. I de cide d t o …………….. m self a nd ha d a weeke nd i n New
Y or k.
2. I us ualll ike to ……………. bGRi ng some e xe rc is e a nd
m eeting up w ith s om e f rie nds at t he weeke nd. W e ha ve a few
dr inks and go out for di nne r or we w atc h a film . I als o l ike to
unw ind a t t he end of the da E r eadi ng a nd lis te ni ng t o som e
mus ic . I t r eallKe lps to c le ar m m ind.
3. L ot s of de cis ions tha t w e t hi nk a re r ealli mpor ta nt w hen w e’re
RXQJe r s eem …………….. w hen w e ge t ol der.
4. I f ound pa ra gl idi ng …………………….. I was hooke d from the
fir s t t im e I trie d i t.
5. I r eallw ant to s tuda nd work i n L ondon, be caus e i t’s s uc h a
……………………. pl ace. I love walki ng dow n the str e et a nd

se eing a ll t he di ffe re nt pe opl e f rom all ove r t he world, or , going
to t he m arke ts a nd c hatting t o the loc als .
6. T he film w as ……………., I coul dn’ t t ake m e es of f t he scre en
(it ha d us glued t o the scre en) . F rom the pl ot, to t he cha ra cte rs
a nd s etting, I thought it w as a ll i nc re di ble.
7. I w ant to ………………… a care er i n e ngi neering.
8. I f ind num bers a nd M aths qui te ………………., I ’m m uch m ore
int ere ste d i n bi ology .
9. The gove rnm ent ha s i nt roduc ed pol ic ie s t ha t ……….. f air
c om petition a mong c ompanies.
10 . T ur ning up t o a for mal of fic e j ob i ntervi ew in s hor ts i s not
………….. obvi ously , s o t her eje cte d hi m. T his m ade hi m re-
exa mine hi s l if e .
11 . I l ive qui te a ………… l if e dur ing t he week. I live in a sm all
a pa rtm ent in t he citc ent re a nd I work a nd s tudm ost da s.
How eve r, a t t he weeke nds , I w ork a s a m agi cia n a t pr iva te e ve nts
around t he count r!
12 . Accor ding t o ……………….. w is dom in H ollw ood, f ilm s c an’ t
make a pr ofit unl ess t he Ka ve bi g na me a ctor s a nd a ctr e sse s a nd
la rge budge ts . I realll ike film s t ha t de ft hos e odds .
*Note: ‘ de ft he odds ’ m eans to s ucceed de spi te w hat pe opl e be lie ve
or de spi te l ow proba bilitRf suc cess.
13 . T he re i s a …………….. of peopl e w ho a gree w ith t his pol itic al
pa rt’ s pol ic ie s, but the m ajor itRf the popul ation a re a ga ins t
the m.

14 . Peopl e j udge RXEa se d on how RXour se lf m ore
tha n on how RXGress, e ven t hough t he waou dr ess i s a ls o a
bi g f actor .
15 . The re i s t oo m uch ………………….. on RXQJSe ople t oda y.
P eopl e e xpe ct us to ha ve eve rt hing f igur ed out bthe tim e w e’re
18, but tha t doe sn’ t us uallKa ppen. I know peopl e w ho a re i n t he
40s and a re s till f igur ing t heir l if e out and de cidi ng w hat t he y
want to do!
16 . Soc ia l m edi a a nd t he int erne t i n ge nera l ha ve cha nge d our
………………………….
17 . Mf avour ite ba nd, t he Sna ke Patr ol , w ere not verw ell know n
whe n t hes ta rte d, but the n t her ele ase d t hat s ong ‘ Slithe r i n t he
Wind’ and t heEe cam e ……………... S uddenly, e verRQe was
lis te ni ng t o them.
18 . It’s i m por ta nt to ……………… w ith RXr cla ss m ate s be caus e i t
m ake s pr ojects e asie r a nd i t he lps RXl earn f aste r, a s RXc an
le arn f rom each ot her.
19 . I r ealla dm ir e m f athe r be caus e he refus es t o …………. t o
wha t s oc ie tGi cta te s. W hen pe ople t ol d hi m tha t he shoul d go t o
univers ita nd s tudl aw , he refus ed. I nste ad, he sta rte d hi s ow n
busine ss w hen he had no m oneand he made it s uc cessful
thr ough ha rd w ork a nd e ffor t.
20 . W hen RXt ra in f or an i mpor ta nt foot ball m atc h, i t’s i m por ta nt to
ke ep a pos itive …………. a nd consta nt lt rt o m ake sm all
im pr ove ment s. I t’s i m por ta nt to vi ew RXr mis ta ke s a s l essons
ra the r t ha n f ailur es.

TOPIC 4 . E DUCATIO N
Theor etic al = com ing f rom the orie s, not practic e. I t’s a not her w aRf
sa i ng t hat s om ethi ng ha s not been pr oven in the real w orld. T heoretic al
is a ls o us ed a s a n a djective to de sc ribe som ethi ng t hat f oc uses on
a bs tr a ct c onc ept s r athe r t ha n pr actic ing a ski ll.
A cq uir e = to buw ith m oney, ge t bc hance or ga in t hrough e ffor t.
P le ase *N ote: I t’s qui te a for mal ve rb, s o it i s of te n us ed i n e verGa y
conve rs a tion w ith a little bi t of irony . It’s us ed a s a col our ful alte rna tive
to ‘ bu’ , ‘ge t’ , or ‘ga in’ in i nformal c onve rs a tions . In f ormal
conve rs a tions , it’s of te n us ed i n intervi ew s ( to t alk a bout ski lls or
e xpe rie nc e RXKa ve acqui re d) or spe aki ng e xams l ike IELT S.
V al id = accept abl e or reasona ble
Dete rm in e = find out , disc ove r or de cide afte r doi ng r ese arc h

Estab lis h = pr ove or cons olida te
S ign if ic an t = m eani ngf ul or im por ta nt
M is c al cu lat ion = a m is ta ke , us ing ba d judgm ent or maki ng a n error in a
calc ul ation.
M eth od ic al = be ing or ganise d or care ful and pa tie nt w hen RXGo
som ethi ng.
Cram = to ove rloa d t he br ain bt ri ng t o learn a lot in a shor t pe riod of
tim e.
C om puls or = obl iga tor y, s om ethi ng RXH AV E to do

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. Fir s t, I ha ve to ……………. w hethe r I s houl d studa Maste rs ’
de gree or whethe r I s houl d trt o ga in m ore i ndus tr e xpe rie nc e.
2. T alk a bout a ……………….. da in RXr lif e .
You s houl d say:
Whe n i t w as.
What happe ned.
Why it w as … ……………. and how it m ade you f eel.
A ns wer: O k, t he most m eani ngful/im por tant day I c an r em em be r
is bl ah bl ah blah
3. The s houl d …………….. w here t he vi rus cam e f rom fir s t, a nd
the n e sta bl is h w as to pr eve nt thi s f rom happe ning a gain i n the
fut ur e.

4. I a lw as sat hat I ’m goi ng to be reallRr ganise d f or m tests ,
but I a lw as end up …………………….. i t a ll i n a t t he last
m inut e!
5. I t hi nk t hat c hoos ing t his ve nue for the eve nt w as a
………………………… on m Sart, a s t he w ere c om plete ly
unpr epa re d a nd di dn-t of fe r a nRf the servi ces t he a dve rtis e d. I
re alls houl d have che cke d t heir r evi ew s f ir s t.
6. I t hi nk t hat i n or der t o be as s uc cessful as pos sibl e a t uni vers ity ,
RXQe ed t o be …………………. ba lw as ke epi ng a n organise d
*N otebook a nd ba lw as cate gor is ing RXr *Notes i nt o s ections .
7. I be lie ve tha t i t s houl d be ……………………… t o have som e
sor t of practic al t ra ini ng a s pa rt of RXr degree. I thi nk t hat
getting i ndus tr e xpe rie nc e i s vi ta l i n t oda ’s j ob m arke t.
*N ote: ‘ Indus tr e xpe rie nc e’ i s a term w hich l ite ra llm eans
expe rie nc e of working i n the sector w here RXw ant to be
em ploe d. (It c an be work e xpe rie nc e pl acem ent s or ful l- tim e
jobs RX’ ve ha d in the pa st)
8. I r ecent la new w atc h, w hich I ha ve com plete ly
f a lle n i n love with!
9. T he ide a t ha t t im e-tr a ve l i s pos sibl e i s pur elW e
don’t a ctua llNQRw becaus e i t i s c ur re nt li mpos sibl e t o t est t he
the ory.
10 . Y ou m ake a …………… poi nt. ( Thi s m eans : ‘ W hat RX’ re s ai ng
is f air ’).
11 . I t hi nk i t’s i m por ta nt to ha ve a ……………………… c ompone nt
in a Busine ss c our se s o RXc an unde rs ta nd c erta in c onc ept s, but

RXals o ne ed a practic al c om pone nt, s o RXc an l earn how to
im plem ent thos e c onc ept s i n t he real w orld.
12 . T alk a bout som ethi ng RX’ ve ……………. r ecent ly .
Y ou s houl d ment ion:
W hat It i s
W he n y ou … …………… it.
H ow you … ………….. i t and w hy it’s i m por tant to y ou.
*Note: I n t his e xa mple RXc ould talk a bout som ethi ng RXKa ve
bought or a ski ll RXKa ve obt aine d t hrough RXr effor ts .

TOPIC 5 : A DVER TIS IN G
Persu ad e = c onvi nce s om eone of som ethi ng
Unavoi dab le = c erta in to ha ppen
Effe ctive = whe n s om ethi ng a chi eve s i ts pur pose
Plo= tr ic k
In tr u sive = inva sive
H p e-u p = a phr asa l ve rb m eani ng t o exagge ra te f or a com merc ia l or
publ ic r ela tions int ere st
H p e= w e a ls o us e ‘ hSe ’ a s a noun m eani ng e xagge ra tion ( usua llf or
com merc ia l r easons )
Endor se = of fic ia llr ecom mend a produc t or a com pany
Gullib le = too t rus ting or east o tric k
P rom in en t = not ic eabl e or ext ra or dina ry

Entic e = te m pt bRf fe ring s omethi ng
Bom bar d = c ont inuous lGi re ct s om ethi ng t owards som eone
In esc ap able = som ethi ng RXc an’ t a voi d.

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. If RXa llow adve rtis e rs t o pr omote ga mbling, pe ople w ill ga mble
mor e. I t’s …………………….
2. W e a re c ons ta nt lw ith a dve rts e ve rGa Rn
TV, onl ine , on t he radi o, i n ne wspa pers a nd e ven on t he str e et. I t
se em s l ike eve rw here w e l ook t here ’s a n a dve rt.
3. I t hi nk w e a re a ll qui te ………………. a s c ons umers . W e of te n
be lie ve com panies j us t be caus e t he a dve rtis e on T V.
4. It s eem s l ike eve rw here w e l ook t here ’s a n a dve rt, i t’s
…………………..
5. F ast f ood c ompanies ………… us with a dve rts of de lic ious
looki ng food, but when RXa ctua llt ri t, i t’s of te n
di sa ppoi nting.

6. ……………… advertis ing s ells pr oduc ts a nd c re ate s br and
aw are ne ss.
7. A ………………… m arke ting gur u argue s t ha t a ll publ ic ity ,
w he the r i t’s pos itive or ne gative , is a ctua llJRRGf or a com pany.
8. Shops use s pe cia l di sc ount s a s a m arke ting ……………… t o
enc our age pe opl e t o go i nto t heir s hops and buRt her pr oduc ts .
P eopl e go i nto t he shop f or the di sc ount and e nd up bui ng
produc ts t ha t a re not on di sc ount .
9. I f ind …………… a dvertis ing l ike int erne t popups and c ooki es
re alla nnoi ng.
10 . The rol e of adve rtis ing i s t o ……………….. c ustom ers t o buy
pr oduc ts t he GRQ’ t ne cessa rilQe ed.
11 . It’s i m por ta nt to i gnor e t he ………………… w hen RX’ re t ri ng
to c hoos e a good r esta ur ant .
12 . M ost c om panies …………. t heir pr oduc ts t o s ell m ore.
13 . N ike are …………….. bf am ous professiona l f oot balle rs a ll
ove r t he world.

TOPIC 6 : T RAV EL & PL A CES
M em or ab le = som ethi ng s pecia l or unf orge tta bl e
C ustom = a l oc al t ra di tion or habit
Rem ote = isol ate d or far a way
S pectac ular = stunni ng, a mazing or veri mpr essive
L an dsc ap e = la rge na tur al a re a of land
B as ic = sim ple, not com plic ate d or luxur ious . (Ofte n us ed t o de sc ribe
a ccom moda tion)
B ar ren = w ithout vegeta tion
W an der = w alk w ithout a spe cif ic de stina tion

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. It’s a ………………. t o eat c he ese a nd c old- cut s i n
M edi te rra ne an c ount rie s s uc h a s S pa in a nd I ta ly .
2. O n our fir s t da in B erlin, w e …………… a round t he cita nd
expl ored di ffe re nt m arke ts a nd ba rs a round t he cent re .
3. T he lands cape is qui te …………, but it’s s tunni nglEe aut if ul .
The suns ets i n pa rtic ul ar a re a m azing.
4. D ur ing our trip t o T haila nd, w e vi site d a ………………. i sla nd
jus t of f t he coa st of Phuke t. I t w as s pe cta cul ar.
5. W hen I visite d B angkok, I ate t he m ost …………….. f ood and
the tem ples w ere a bs olutels tunni ng.
6. The Sout h of Spa in ha s s om e a m azing …………... I n som e a re as,
RXc an go s kiing i n the m ornings and t hen go t o the hot beach i n
the afte rnoon. I t’s s tunni ng.

7. Our hot el w as r eallEXt we onl Xs ed i t a s a pl ace t o
sle ep. W e s pe nt m ost of our tim e out side , expl oring t he cita nd
goi ng on gui ded t our s. I t w as a n a mazing e xperie nc e.
8. T ra ve ling r ound A meric a w ith m fam ilw as a
……………………. e xperie nc e. W e m ana ged t o vi sit s ix s ta te s i n
tot al a nd di d an amazing r oad t rip dow n Route 66.

TOPIC 7 : A NIM ALS
Endan gered = a s pe cie s of ani mal or plant tha t’s di ng.
Ven om ous = poi sonous
D om estic at ed = tra ine d t o live with hum ans in hous es i ns te ad of in t he
wild.
T hrive = grow str ong
V uln erab le = som ethi ng t hat c an be hurt or tha t i s i n da nger.
D win dle = shr ink i n num bers , be com e f ew er or weake r
Hab it at = Natur al e nvi ronm ent of an a nimal or plant spe cie s.
S urvi val = cont inui ng t o exist
C o- exi st = live in t he sam e t im e or place

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. We m ust put str ic te r s s te m s i n pl ace i n or der t o e nsure t he
……………. of spe cie s s uc h a s c hi mpa nzees, m ount ain gor illa s
and or angut ans .
2. The large hum an pr ese nc e i n t he are a ha s ha d a negative effe ct on
f is h ……………….
3. H ighe r pe naltie s c oul d stop s muggl ers , pr otect publ ic he alth a nd
help pr ese rve …………. s pecie s s uc h a s t ige rs .
4. W hile m ana nimals a re a lr e adf acing a nd w ill c ont inue to f ace
se rious probl em s due to gl obal w arm ing, s ome s pe cie s w ill
a ctua llRQa warm ing pl ane t.
5. H um ans can …………… w ith pl ant s a nd ot her a ni mals , w e j us t
ne ed t o s ee i t a s a m ajor pr ior ity . I str ongl Eelie ve tha t i n t en or
tw ent - e ars -tim e i t w ill be too l ate t o r eve rs e t he effe cts of
gl oba l w arm ing. W e m ust a ct now ; our sur viva l de pends on i t.

6. The M ount ain G orilla i s one of the m ost c ritic all…
a ni mals on t he pl ane t.
7. S cie nt is ts r ecent lc re ate d t he large st bot ani cal da ta se t e ve r a nd
di sc ove re d t hat a lm os t 40% of plant spe cie s t ha t l ive on l and a re
pot ent ia llt o global w arm ing. I f w e don’ t m ake
ra di cal c ha nge s now , we r is k l osing t hese s pe cie s i n t he ne xt few
e ars . T his w ill be carrGi sa str ous cons eque nces f or hum an
be ings .
8. I t hi nk i t’s i m por ta nt to r em em be r t ha t not all a ni mals c an be or
shoul d be ……………….. I honestlEe lie ve tha t pe opl e s houl d
not be allow ed t o ha ve pe ts l ike sna kes, bi rds or monke s. It’s
c rue l a nd pot ent ia llGa ngerous in m RSi nion.
9. M anSe ople a ssum e t ha t m ost s na kes a re poi sonous , but of the
3,500 s nake spe cie s a round t he world, onl a re a ctua lly
………………..

TOPIC 8 : T EC H NO LO GY AND C OM PU TER S
Vir tu al = in a com puter or sim ulation, not in t he real w orld
D igi tal = com puteris e d r athe r t ha n phs ic al. O fte n us ed t o r efe r t o
inf ormation a nd information pr oducts .
E m brac e = ha ppi la ccept
A ddic tive = whe n s om ethi ng m ake s pe opl e w ant m ore a nd m ore
Secu rit ( Secu re) = S afe t( Safe )
C uttin g- ed ge = the ne west or most a dva nced t echnol ogy, de sign or
m ethod.
C b erb ulli ng = a tta cki ng ot her pe opl e onl ine
T ech nol ogi cal = r ela te t o t echnol ogy
Dat ed = not rele va nt or true anm ore be caus e t hi ngs have cha nge d
Dom estic ap plian ces = m achi ne s w e us e i n our homes
‘W hite -goods ’, m eans dom estic a ppl ia nc es l ike washi ng m achi ne s a nd
di shw ashe rs , but doesn’ t us ualli nclude devices l ike bl ende rs or air
f re rs f or exa mple.
S urp as s = B e or do m ore t ha n. D o som ethi ng be tte r t ha n or be bette r
tha n. B e bi gge r t ha n, hi gher t ha n, f aste r t ha n e tc .
U pgr ad e = ge t a be tte r-qua litYe rs ion of som ethi ng

In novat ive = c re ative and ne w

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. As hum ans , w e c ont inua lls tr ive to …………………. w hat w e
can do a nd what w e t hi nk i s pos sibl e. I thi nk i t’s m ind- boggl ing
to t hink a bout the technol ogw e m ight have in 1- 200 e ars , a nd
the thi ngs tha t w ill be pos sibl e i n 500 e ars . I t j us t bl ow s m y
mind!
*N ote: ‘ m ind- boggl ing’ means ‘am azing’ or ‘inc re di ble’. ‘ It bl ow s
mm ind’ or it’s ‘ m ind bl owing’ means the sam e. I t’s s om ethi ng s o
am azing or int ere sting, t hat i t e xc ite s RXa nd make s RXf eel a sens e
of w onde r.
2. S ale s of ………… books , or e-books , have be en r is ing s te adi ly
f or e ars now .
3. Mf avour ite pos se ssion i s m Qe w phone . I bought it l ast w eek.
T hi s pa rtic ul ar m ode l c ont ains a …………………. pr ocessor
w hi ch m ake s i t 50% faste r t ha n t he pr evi ous mode l f rom the
sa m e br and. I als o l ove the de sign, a s i t’s s le ek a nd r obus t a t t he
sa m e t im e.

*Note: ‘ Sle ek’ m eans sm oot h or stl is h, w hile ‘ robus t’ m eans str ong
a nd dur abl e. I n t he exa mple RXc ould ha ve als o t alke d a bout its
‘ …………….. de sign’ ins te ad of its pr ocessor .
4. ……………………. i s a huge issue now ada s, be caus e vi ctim s
cannot esc ape the bul li ng.
5. It w oul d be an a bsolute ga me-c ha nge r i f t he gove rnm ent coul d
int roduc e a pol ic Rf upgr adi ng ………… t echnol ogw ith
c ut ting- edge ene rge ffic ie nt m ode ls , i mpr ovi ng pe rfor manc e
and e nergc onsumption.
*N ote: a ‘ga me-c ha nge r’ or ‘ga me-c ha ngi ng’ , means a radi cal c ha nge
(us ua llSRs itive ). S om ethi ng t hat w oul d change eve rt hing i f i t w as
appl ie d i n this e xa mple.
6. …………………………. f orm pa rt of a m ulti- bi llion- dolla r
indus tr y . A lthough m anRf the m are e xt re m elKa ndy, we of te n
end up bui ng devices w e don’ t ne ed a nd t hat don’ t e ve n m ake
our live s a ne asie r. *N ote: ‘ H and’ means conve nient .
7. The …………………. e ra ha s br ought manEe nefits t o our live s.
In m RSi nion, i t ha s m assive li mpr ove d hum an i ntera ction by
pr ovi ding us with m ore opt ions to c onne ct w ith pe ople f rom all
ove r t he pl ane t a nd t o ke ep i n touc h with f am ila nd f rie nds when
we’re f ar a way. I t ha s a llow ed us to c om muni cate dur ing t im es of
c ris is a nd i t a llow s us to w ork t oge the r f or com mon goa ls . N one
of thi s w as pos sibl e ( w oul d ha ve be en pos sibl e) t hi rte ars a go.
8. Som e of the m ost ……………….. i nventions in hum an hi stor y
ha ve be en bor n out of pur e ne cessity . I t’s a tot al c lic hé , but
necessitr ealli s t he m othe r of inve ntion.
*N ote: ‘ N ecessiti s t he m othe r of inve ntion’ is a n e xpr ession i n
Engl is h a nd i n seve ra l ot her l angua ges. I t m eans tha t hum ans inve nt
thi ngs the Qe ed. I n tim es of ext re m e ne ed w e t hi nk of our most
cre ative ide as i n or der t o s urvive .

9. I know it’s a bi t of a clic hé , but I s till be lie ve tha t ……………..
r e aliti s t he fut ur e of ent erta inm ent .
10 . I t hi nk t hat a s a soc ie ty , w e’re not paing e nough a tte nt ion t o the
fa ct t ha t t echnol ogi s ve rW hile i t c an be ext re m ely
be nefic ia l, t he re a re a ls o m anSRt ent ia l dr aw ba cks .
**N ote: ‘ dr aw ba cks ’ i s l ike sai ng ‘ disa dva ntage s’
11 . D ata ………….. i s a m assive issue at t he m om ent , a nd r ight ful ly
s o. C ompanies hol d a lot of inf ormation a bout us, and i t w oul d be
dange rous in t he wrong ha nds.
*Note: ‘ and r ight ful ls o’, is a n i nformal phr ase w e us e a t t he end of
se nt enc es t o s ta te t ha t w hat w e’ve jus t m ent ione d is j us tif ie d.
E xa mples c oul d be :
Smoking has been banne d in publ ic s pac es, and r ight ful ly s o!
W he n t hey di dn’ t s end he r t he pr oduc t s he ’d pai d for, s he de mande d
her m one y bac k, and r ight ful ly s o!
12 . N ot eve rRQe has …………. t his ne w era of readi ng on RXr
phone or on ot her e le ctr oni c de vices. M anSe ople s till pr efe r t o
re ad books the tra di tiona l w ay.
13 . W e de cide d t o …………….. our kitc he n, r epl acing a ll of our
out date d a ppl ia nc es w ith ne w cut ting- edge one s.

TOPIC 9 : F ASH IO N
Shop pers = pe opl e w ho buf rom reta il s tor es.
P as sin g = shor t. S om ethi ng t hat w ill di sa ppe ar qui ckl y
Tren d= fa shi ona ble
Im puls ive = an a ction c arrie d out without thi nki ng. O r a pe rs on w ho
doesn’ t t hi nk be for e a cting.
C on su m eris m = the be haviour or cul tur e of bui ng things we don’ t
necessa rilQe ed.
P urch as e = in t he noun f orm, this m eans som ethi ng t hat ha s be en
bought . In t he ve rb f orm, it m eans ‘bu’ .

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. I be lie ve tha t s om e pe opl e c hoos e c lot he s onl Ee caus e t he a re
……………., but I don’ t t hi nk m ost pe opl e do t hat. I thi nk m ost
pe opl e c hoos e t he clot he s t he l ike withi n t he cur re nt tre nds .
2. The m ost m em or abl e t hi ng I ’ve eve r ……… i s m c ar. I t gi ves
me i nde pende nce a nd f re edom , so I can go w here ve r I w ant . I t
allow s m e t o s tuda nd work a nd i t a llow s m e t o vi sit m f rie nds
and f am ily . H avi ng i t ha s c om plete lc hange d m lif e f or the
be tte r.
3. I r eallKRSe respons ibl e f ashi on i sn’ t a ……………… t re nd. I
hope tha t t he top br ands in t he indus tr w ill t ake a m ore a ctive
r ol e i n t he ne ar-fut ur e, a s m ore pe opl e r ecogni se t he im por ta nc e
of be ing e nvironm ent all- cons cious .
4. ……………… bui ng is a ha bit t ha t I w oul d like to s top!
W henever I go t o a shoppi ng cent re I a lw as end up bui ng
som ethi ng. I find i t r eallKa rd t o r esis t!

5. I t hi nk …………………. i s m ostlQe gative , be caus e i t m ake s us
foc us on t hings tha t a re n’ t i m por ta nt . M anSe ople put more t im e
and e ffor t i nt o obt aini ng m ate ria l pos se ssions tha n t heGRi nto
im pr ovi ng t hemse lve s a s hum an be ings .
6. Exam ine r Q uestion: W hGRs ome pe opl e e nj oc lot he s
shoppi ng?
Candi date A ns wer: G ood que stion! I thi nk s ome ………….. e njot he
expe rie nc e of walki ng a round t he di ffe re nt shops tri ng t hings on.
ManSe ople a ls o go w ith f rie nds or fam ila nd m ake it i nt o a soc ia l
out ing. T heJRf or lunc h, or for cof fe e, or the JRt o the cine ma a fte r
shoppi ng.
7. I ha d to bor row mone to …………………. m fir s t c ar.

TOPIC 1 0: C IT Y L IF E
In ad eq uat e = not good e nough
Tran sp or tat ion (tr an sp or t) = the tSe of ve hicle RXXs e t o t ra ve l
Ped estr ian = pers on w alki ng on t he str e et
C om mute = In t he noun f orm, this m eans RXr jour net o s chool or
wor k. I n the ve rb f or, it m eans to t ra ve l t o w ork or school .
Pave men t = the pl ace w here pe destr ia ns shoul d walk on t he str e et ( not
the roa d).
Slu m s = ve rSRRr -qua litKRXs ing, of te n w ithout runni ng w ate r or
e le ctr ic ity .
In fr as tr u ctu re = se rvi ces a nd ba sic s tr uc tur es i n a n are a. I nfra - m eans
‘be low ;’ s o t he inf ra str uc tur e i s t he ‘ba sic s tr uc tur e be low ’ a count ry , a n
econom y, a bus ine ss or an or ganisa tion.
O ve rp op ulat ed ( ove rp op ulat ion )= w he n t here a re t oo m anSe ople i n
an a re a.
O uts k ir ts = the edge of a city , t ow n or villa ge .
Isol at ed = se pa ra te d f rom others
I n eq ual it = T he oppos ite of equa lity . D is pa ritRr im ba la nc e i n
som ethi ng. O fte n us ed t o talk a bout peopl e’s r ight s or livi ng s ta nda rds .

Ove rw helm ed = una ble t o de al w ith a situa tion
S hor tage = a lack of som ethi ng
Afflu en t = r ic h / wealth/ prospe rous
R un-d ow n = w he n t alki ng a bout thi ngs it m eans ol d a nd ne glecte d.
W hen t alki ng a bout hum ans , ‘run- dow n’ m eans tir e d- looki ng or looki ng
slight li ll.

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. I f ound A mste rda m to be ver- frie ndl y, a s t he re a re
ve rf ew cars , a nd t he bi kes t he re a re qui te r espe ctf ul of the
pe opl e w alki ng a round.
2. W ate r …………… c aus e m ajor pr obl em s i n s om e a re as of the
count ry .
3. P ubl ic ………………… i n mKRm e t ow n is gr eat. T here a re
bus es e ve rf if te en m inut es a nd t ra in l ine s e ve rt went m inut es.
Y ou c an be anw here i n t ow n w ithi n t went m inut es.
4. O ne thi rd of the pe opl e i n t he citl ive in …………... T heGRQ’ t
have ele ctr ic itRr runni ng w ate r.
5. M ore f undi ng is r equi re d t o boos t t he crum bling ……………of
the count r' s pr oduc tion pl ant s.

*Notes:
F undi ng = Mone y
Requi re d = Neede d
Boos t = Im pr ove or revi ta lis e
C rum bling = decai ng or run- dow n
6. I ha ve to ……………… f or one hour eve rGa to ge t t o c la ss!
7. T he ……………. a re qui te r un- dow n in m Qe ighbour hood, but
the counc il don’ t ha ve enough m oneto f ix t hem.
8. Half of the cit’ s popul ation l ive in …………………… hous ing.
T he condi tions are qui te ba d for the se pe opl e, a s m ost of the m
don’ t ha ve runni ng w ate r.
9. I gr ew up on t he ……………… of the city , but I m ove d clos er t o
the cent re w hen I sta rte d w orking. T he com mute w as j us t t oo
long t o do e verGa !
10 . The ………………. i n urban a re as ha s l ed t o a n incre ase i n
pol lut ion a nd inadequa te hous ing a mong ot her i ssue s. T his i s
som ethi ng t hat ne eds to be addr esse d s oone r r athe r t ha n l ate r.
*N ote: ‘ soone r r athe r t ha n l ate r’ i s a n e xpr ession t o empha sis e t ha t
som ethi ng ne eds to be done now not in t he fut ur e.
11 . John M ilton pr oposed a new ss te m de signe d to r em ove
…………… i n health c are but it w as r eje cte d bKi s ow n pol itic al
pa rty .
12 . T he he althc are s s te m w as i ni tia llE t he she er
num ber of inf ections . Thec oul dn’ t ha ndl e i t.
*N ote: t he word ‘ she er’ i s us ed t o e xpr ess t ha t t he onl thing t hat
affe cte d t he situa tion w as t he thi ng RX’ re t alki ng a bout . In t he

exa mple, ‘ the num ber of inf ections ’, t he num ber of inf ections was t he
onl Rr main c aus e of the pr obl em .
13 . W hen I tra ve lle d r ound M exi co, I visite d a n …………
com muni ti n the m iddl e of the de se rt. I t w as r ealli ntere sting.
M ost of the pe opl e t he re ha d ne ver s een a for eigne r be for e, s o
the w ere r eallc urious . Thew ere s o w elc om ing a nd ki nd that I
a ctua llf elt a bi t s ad w hen I ha d to leave .
14 . Som e pa rts of mc ita re qui te …………………, but the cent re
is ve rQi ce t o w alk a round a nd has m anKi dden ge ms.
15 . I r ealla dm ir e m XQc le B ob, be caus e he grew up i n a very
de prive d a re a, but he mana ged t o s et up s eve ra l bus ine sse s a nd he
now live s i n one of the m ost ……………… a re as i n t ow n. I
adm ir e hi s dr ive and a mbition, a s w ell a s hi s c re ativi ty .
*N otes:
D epr ive d= poor
Grow up= when RX’ re r ais e d i n a certa in pl ace
S et up = sta rt bus ine sse s or projects
D rive = D ete rm ina tion ( re fus ing t o be defe ate d)

TOPIC 1 1 : E NVIR O NM EN T
Agr ic u lt u ral = conne cte d t o r ais ing a nimals f or food a nd growing f rui ts
a nd ve geta bl es bc ultiva ting t he soi l a nd pr oducing c rops .
Ren ew ab le = s om ethi ng t hat c an be produc ed a gain a nd a gain
L oggi ng = s s te m atic allc utting dow n tre es
V it al = esse nt ia l f or the exi ste nc e of som ethi ng
Ir rigat ion = s s te m s t o s uppl are as w ith w ate r.
P ressin g = ur ge nt
Pol lu tan t = a s ubs ta nc e t ha t c ont am ina te s
E cos ste m = the envi ronm ent in a n are a a nd a ll t he bi ologi cal l if e i n
it

Unpreced en te d = som ethi ng t hat ha s ne ver ha ppe ned be for e
Saf egu ard = pr otect a ga ins t s om ethi ng

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. Tre es a re ……………… f or the envi ronm ent .
2. W e m ust ………………….. t he envi ronm ent aga ins t t he
de str uc tion of habita ts a nd t he ove r-e xpl oita tion of natur al
re sour ces s uc h a s f re sh w ate r a nd f is he rie s a m ong ot her i ssue s.
3. T he m ost da nge rous gase ous air ……………… r ele ase d i nto t he
air i n ur ban a re as a re S ulphur dioxi de, ni tr oge n di oxide, and
carbon m onoxide;
4. I gr ew up i n an …………………… c ommuni ts o farm ing w as
still i n m Elood.
5. ………………. i s a m ajor issue in m anf orests a nd j ungl es a ll
ove r t he world. A s m ore t re es a re c hoppe d down, these na tur al
are as a re s hr inki ng m ore a nd m ore.

6. Tre es a re ……………….. na tur al r esour ces, but the s houl d be
tr e ate d w ith e xtre m e c are .
7. L ack of inve stm ent in ne w m ethods mar esul t i n de te rior ation of
the ……………… s ste m in t he are a a nd a subs eque nt de cline of
the loc al e conom y.
*N otes:
D ete rior ation= decay. W hen s om ethi ng br eaks dow n and di ssol ve s
Subs eque nt= e ve ntua l. W hen s om ethi ng ha ppens as a resul t of
s om ethi ng e ls e .
8. T he re i s a ………………. ne ed f or hous ing i n the are a.
9. H alf of the se t re es c oul d be gone withi n f ive e ars , t hr eate ni ng
jobs and ……………...
10 . Gove rnm ent s w ere not sur e how to de al w ith t he situa tion
be caus e i t w as …………….. i n 21st- c ent ur l if e .

TOPIC 1 2: M ED IA
T ab loi d = ne wspa pers t ha t a re not as s erious and i mpa rtia l
Im par tial = ne utra l
B ias ed = not neutra l or im pa rtia l
E sc ap is m = a noun t o desc ribe when RXXs e s om ethi ng t o forge t a bout
nor mal l if e a nd e sc ape RXr probl em s.
M ed iu m = singul ar noun f or m edi a. M edi a i s pl ural ( m os t pe opl e don’ t
re alis e ).
W ell i nfor med = ha ving e nough hi gh-qua liti nformation t o unde rs ta nd
and m ake good de cis ions
S cru tin is e = e xa mine or ana ls e c are ful ly
C en sor = to r em ove parts of what i s s aid or publ is he d i n the m edi a or in
anf orm of com muni cation be caus e RXGRQ’ t w ant som eone to s ee,
re ad or hear t ha t i nf ormation.

Man ip ulat e = to c ont rol som eone or som ethi ng i ndire ctl( has a
ne gative connot ation)
S pot ligh t = publ ic a tte nt ion / publ ic it/ lim elight / be ing i n the publ ic
e e
Im ply = to s ugge st s om ethi ng w ithout sai ng i t di re ctly

Exercis e
C hoos e a w ord or phras e f rom the d efin it ion s ab ove and w rit e i t i n t he
cor rect gap below .
- I f t here i s m ore t han on e p os sib le an sw er, c hoos e t he b est op tion
f or the s en te n ce.
- Y ou m igh t n eed t o u se t he s am e w ord or phras e m ore t han on ce
in s om e c as es.
- Y ou m an eed t o ad apt t he f or m of the w ord t o f it i nto t he
se n te n ce. F or exam ple , Ru migh t n eed t o c han ge a ve rb t o t hir d
p erson sin gu lar to e nsu re s ubje ct-ve rb agr eem en t l ik e bon d-bon ds.
1. The Pre side nt’s bl unde rs ga ve the ……………… pr ess gr eat
sa tis fa ction.
2. T he m edi a ……………. t hat t he re ha d be en a cove r-up. T hey
never s aid i t di re ctly , but it w as t he logi cal c onc lus ion f rom the
w at her epor te d t he whol e s tor y.
*N ote: a ‘cove r-up’ is w hen gove rnm ent s or bus ine sse s t rt o s top t he
publ ic f rom findi ng out about som ethi ng s erious .
3. It’s i m por ta nt to ……………. pol itic ia ns to e nsure t ha t t he a re
hone st a nd t rus tw or thy .
4. Int era ctive serie s a nd f ilm s ope n up t he ……………… of video
platf or ms t o t he pa rtic ipa tion of view ers .
5. F or m anSe ople w atc hi ng f ant ass erie s a nd f ilm s on N etf lix or
on T V is a for m of ……………….

6. I t hi nk t he gove rnm ent and t he m edi a …………… us in m any
w as . T her epor t t he ne ws t he wat hew ant us to s ee i t.
7. T he tabl oid pr ess ga ve a ve ra ccount of the
situa tion.
*N ote: t he word ‘ account ’ m eans ‘re por t’ i n t his c ont ext .
8. I c om plete lGi sa gr ee w ith a ni nitia tive s w hich a im to
…………… t he Int erne t i n a nw ay, s ha pe or for m.
*N ote: ‘ in a nw ay, s ha pe or for m’ m eans ‘in a nw a’ , but adds ext ra
e m pha sis .
9. A judge has t o be fair a nd ………………, or the law los es a ll
m eani ng.
*N ote: w hen s om ethi ng ‘ los es a ll m eani ng’ , we m ean t hat i t l os es i ts
pur pos e or va lue in s om e w ay.
10 . C ons umers ne ed t o be …………………… a bout the side effe cts
of so- calle d na tur al r em edi es.
*N ote: ‘ So- calle d’ is us ed t o c om muni cate t o t he lis te ne r t ha t Ru
be lie ve a w ord t hat i s us ed t o de sc ribe som eone or som ethi ng i s
wrong i n som e w ay.
11 . I t hi nk m anc ele br itie s s tr uggl e w ith l ivi ng t heir l ive s i n t he
……………. I t m ust be verKa rd t o ha ve eve rSa rt of RXr lif e
s c rut ini se d bs tr a nge rs .

FU LL N O TES S E C TIO N W IT H
A NSW ER S

TOPIC 1 . P EO PL E
Acqua int anc e= ( n) w hen RXNQRw som eone well e nough t o saKe llo
a nd t alk t o them w hen RXs ee t he m, but the ’re not a frie nd.
F or exa mple: I don’ t know her ve rw ell, s he 's not realla frie nd, s he’s
m or e of an a cqua int anc e.
S ibl ing = brothe r or sis te r
F or exa mple: T he shop of fe rs a di sc ount for sibl ings who s ign up f or
stor e c ards .
Cha ra cte ris tic = tSi cal
F or exa mple: A ddi ng s osauc e w hile RX’ re c ooki ng the ve geta bl es
gi ve s t he di sh i ts c ha ra cte ris tic V ie tna mese f la vour .
Rese m ble = w hen s om ethi ng l ooks sim ila r t o s om ethi ng e ls e , i t
re se m bles t ha t t hi ng.
For exa mple: P or che ’s ne w 2020 c ar m ode l r ese m bles t he ol d 1970s
mode ls .
R elia bl e = som ethi ng or som eone tha t c an be trus te d f or func tiona l
thi ngs (som ethi ng or som eone RXc an r elRQ) .
For exa mple:
It’s i m por ta nt for m e t ha t m f rie nds are r elia bl e, I don’ t l ike pe opl e
who a re l ate or who c anc el pl ans at t he last m inut e.
M c ar i s ve rr elia bl e, i t ha s ne ver br oke n dow n.
*Note: t he oppos ite i s ‘ unr elia bl e’

Bond = means a clos e l ink or to f orm a clos e l ink i f w e us e i t a s a ve rb
F or exa mple ( noun) : I ’m ve rc los e t o m fam ily , w e ha ve a ve rs tr ong
bond.
F or exa mple ( ve rb) : I t’s i m por ta nt for pe opl e t o bond i f t he w ork
toge the r c los ely . I t’s e asie r t o do t his i n s mall of fic es r athe r t ha n bi g
offic es. T his i s w hI prefe r w orking f or sm all c om panies, a s t he t end
to ha ve a sm alle r, f rie ndl ie r e nvi ronm ent .
Cons cious = w hen RXr cons cious of som ethi ng i t m eans RX’ re a ware
of som ethi ng.
For exa mple: I ’m cons cious tha t I w ill ne ed t o w ork ve rKa rd t o
becom e a doc tor , but it’s m Gr eam and I ’m w iling t o make the
sa crif ic e.
Inhe re nt = a na tur al pa rt of som ethi ng i s i nhe re nt to t hat t hi ng.
For exa mple: G etting i nto a car a ccide nt is one of the inhe re nt da nge rs
of dr ivi ng, s o it’s ve ri mpor ta nt tha t dr ive rs pa full a tte nt ion on t he
roa d s o w e c an m ini mis e t he ris k.
S elf -e ste em = the leve l c onf ide nce or be lie f RXKa ve in RXr own
abi litie s a nd pos itive qua litie s.
F or exa mple: S tudi es s ugge st t ha t pe opl e w ith hi gher s elf -e ste em are
m or e l ike lt o be suc cessful in t heir c are ers .
*N ote: S elf -e ste em is of te n de sc ribe d a s ‘ hi gh’ or ‘low ’.
S te re ot Si cal = som ethi ng t hat f its i nt o t he tSi cal i de as a bout the wai t
shoul d be.
For exa mple: I w ant to s tuda ccount ing, but I don’ t t hi nk I ’m the
ste re ot Si cal a ccount ant . T he ste re ot Si cal a ccount ant is a ve ry

orga nise d a nd m ethodi cal pe rs on w ho enjos siting a t a de sk c runc hing
num bers ( m aki ng c alc ul ations ).
T ende nc= som ethi ng t hat ha ppe ns repe ate dl y. T re nd.
F or exa mple: T he re i s a tende ncQRw ada s to s ocia lis e t hr ough
te chnol ogy. I thi nk i t ha s s om e ve rc le ar be nefits , but it ne eds to be
us ed i n m odera tion. T he be nefits a re X , Y and Z . Howeve r, t he da nge rs
a re A , B and C .
Gende r = the sex of a pe rs on.
F or exa mple: I n m RSi nion, ge nder i s s adl s till a nd i ssue we ne ed t o
ta ckl e i n t oda ’s w orkpl ace. T here a re s till gr eat di spa ritie s be tw een
m ale a nd f em ale e m ploe es i n t erm s of wage s a nd oppor tuni tie s.
L if e tim e = the pe riod of tim e t ha t s om ethi ng e xists or tha t a pe rs on or
a n a nimal l ive s.
F or exa mple: C erta in t Se s of bird onl live in one place i n t heir e nt ir e
lif e tim e.
S m pathi se = w hen RXs mpathi se w ith s om eone it m eans tha t Ru
unde rs ta nd t heir pos ition a nd situa tion. I t’s s im ila r t o ha ving e mpa thy .
For exa mple: I realls m pathi se w ith a ll t he pe opl e w ho l ost t he ir j obs ,
becaus e nobodw ant s t o be in t hat s itua tion. I thi nk t he gove rnm ent can
do m ore t o he lp t hem at t he m om ent bGRi ng X, Y and Z for exa mple.
H ardw ir e d = ins tinc tive be haviour
For exa mple: I thi nk our desir e t o i mpr ove and gr ow is ha rdw ir e d i nto
us as hum ans , but it ne eds to be stim ulate d. T his i s w hI str ongl y
belie ve tha t w e ne ed t o pr omote r eal- w or ld, pr actic al e duc ation. I f
peopl e s ee t ha t t he c an l earn r eal- w or ld s kills , i t w ill e nc our age the m
to ke ep l earni ng.

Habi tua ll= usually
F or exa mple: W hite s ha rks do not habitua lla tta ck hum ans , unl ess t he y
conf use t he m w ith s eals . H oweve r, t he Ka ve a reallEa d reput ation,
a nd I thi nk t his ha s c ont ribut ed t o a lot of sha rk de aths ove r t he e ars , a s
the ’ve be en a ctive lKXQt ed i n m anSa rts of the world.
T OPIC 2 . H EA LT H & M ED IC IN E

TOPIC 3 . S OCIA L & L EIS U RE
Conf orm = to f ollow soc ia l r ul es.
F or exa mple: I realla dm ir e m f athe r be caus e he refus es t o c onf orm to
w ha t s oc ie tGi cta te s. W hen pe ople t ol d hi m tha t he shoul d go t o
univers ita nd s tudl aw , he refus ed. I nste ad, he sta rte d hi s ow n bus ine ss
w he n he had no m oneand he made it s uc cessful thr ough ha rd w ork a nd
effor t.
C oope ra te = w hen pe ople w ork w ell t oge the r
For exa mple: I t’s i m por ta nt to c oope ra te w ith RXr cla ss m ate s be caus e
it m ake s pr ojects e asie r a nd i t he lps RXl earn f aste r, a s RXc an l earn
from each ot her.
M inds et ( fra m e of mind) = the waou t hink. Y our ment al a ttitude at a
pa rtic ul ar poi nt in RXr lif e or in a partic ul ar s itua tion.
F or exa mple: W hen RXt ra in f or an i mpor ta nt foot ball m atc h, i t’s
i m por ta nt to ke ep a pos itive m inds et a nd c onsta nt lt rt o m ake sm all
im pr ove ment s. I t’s i m por ta nt to vi ew RXr mis ta ke s a s l essons rathe r
tha n f ailur es.
M inor it= a sm all pe rc ent age of a gr oup or population.
F or exa mple: T he re i s a m inor itRf peopl e w ho a gree w ith t his pol itic al
pa rt’ s pol ic ie s, but the m ajor itRf the popul ation a re a ga ins t
the m.
Shun = to r eje ct
F or exa mple: W e c an’ t s hun our respons ibi lita s c itiz ens . W e ha ve to be
se ns ibl e a nd r espons ibl e t o pr eve nt da nge rous situa tions like thi s f rom
ha ppe ning a gain.

Conve ntiona l = the us ual, nor mal or tra di tiona l w aRf doing s omethi ng
or thi nki ng. ‘ Conve ntiona l w is dom ’ i s a n e xpr ession, m eani ng: what
mos t pe opl e be lie ve to be true , or what m ost e xpe rts a ccept as t he
tr ut h.
For exa mple: I live qui te a conve ntiona l l if e dur ing t he week. I live in a
sm all a pa rtm ent in t he citc ent re a nd I work a nd s tudm ost da s.
How eve r, a t t he weeke nds , I w ork a s a m agi cia n a t pr iva te e ve nts a round
the count r! I love it be caus e………..
F or exa mple: A ccor ding t o conve ntiona l w is dom in H ollw ood, f ilm s
can’ t m ake a pr ofit unl ess t he Ka ve bi g na me a ctor s a nd a ctr e sse s a nd
la rge budge ts . I realll ike film s t ha t de ft hos e odds , suc h a s …
*N ote: ‘ de ft he odds ’ m eans to s ucceed de spi te w hat pe opl e be lie ve or
despi te l ow proba bilitRf suc cess.
Int era ction = com muni cation be tw een pe ople ( w ritte n, s poke n or
thr ough s ign l angua ge for exa mple).
F or exa mple: S oc ia l m edi a a nd t he int erne t i n ge nera l ha ve cha nge d our
int era ctions (the waw e i nt era ct) .
P re ssur e = str e ss or expe cta tions .
For exa mple: T he re i s t oo m uch pr essur e on RXQJSe ople t oda y. P eopl e
expe ct us to ha ve eve rt hing f igur ed out bthe tim e w e’re 18, but tha t
doe sn’ t us uallKa ppen. I know peopl e w ho a re i n t he 40s and a re s till
f igur ing t heir l if e out and de cidi ng w hat t he w ant to do!
C onduc t = T his c an be used a s ve rb a nd a s a noun m eani ng be haviour -
behave
For exa mple: P eopl e j udge RXEa se d on how RXconduct RXr se lf m ore
tha n on how RXGress, e ven t hough t he waou dr ess i s a ls o a big
fa ctor .

Mains tr e am = com mon l ike s or ide as.
F or exa mple: M favour ite ba nd, t he Sna ke Patr ol , w ere not verw ell
know n when t hes ta rte d, but the n t her ele ase d t hat s ong ‘ Slithe r i n t he
Wind’ and t heEe cam e m ains tr e am . E verRQe was l is te ni ng t o them.
Appr opria te = accept abl e or sui ta bl e f or a pa rtic ul ar s itua tion.
F or exa mple: T urning up t o a for mal of fic e j ob i ntervi ew in s hor ts i s not
a ppr opria te obvi ously , s o t her eje cte d hi m. T his m ade hi m re-e xa mine
hi s l if e .

Fos te r = to pr otect s om ethi ng a nd encour age it t o gr ow (an i dea, a n
attitude , a feeling, a n action or a resul t) .
F or exa mple: T he gove rnm ent ha s i nt roduc ed pol ic ie s t ha t f os te r f air
c om petition a mong c ompanies.
M ultic ul tur al = som ethi ng t hat ha s s eve ra l di ffe re nt cul tur es. I t c an be a
te am , a de partm ent , a city , a count re tc ..
F or exa mple: I reallw ant to s tuda nd work i n L ondon, be caus e i t’s
s uc h a multic ul tur al pl ace. I love walki ng dow n the str e et a nd s eeing a ll
the di ffe re nt pe opl e f rom all ove r t he world, or going to the m arke ts a nd
cha tting t o the loc als .
A bs orbing = som ethi ng t hat e nt erta ins RXs o much, t hat RXf orge t
about eve rt hing e ls e .
F or exa mple: T he film w as a bs orbing, I coul dn’ t t ake m e es of f t he
sc re en ( it ha d us glued t o the scre en) . F rom the pl ot, to t he cha ra cte rs
a nd s etting, I thought it w as a ll i nc re di ble.
E xhi la ra ting = som ethi ng t hat m ake s RXf eel f ul l of ene rga nd
exc ite m ent . T hrilling.
F or exa mple: I found pa ra gl idi ng e xhila ra ting. I was hooke d from the
fir s t t im e I trie d i t.
I ndul ge = to do s omethi ng t hat RXl ike (like a rew ard) .
For exa mple: I de cide d t o indul ge m self a nd ha d a weeke nd i n New
Y or k.
Pur sue = to f ollow an a ctivi ti n or der t o r each a goa l. T hink of cha sing
RXr dream s.
F or exa mple: I w ant to pur sue a care er i n e ngi neering.
T edi ous = not exc iting. F ocusing on hi ghlspecif ic but bor ing t hings (in

the spe ake r’s opi nion) .
For exa mple: I find num bers a nd M aths qui te t edi ous , I’m m uch m ore
int ere ste d i n bi ology .
Trivi al = uni mpor ta nt
F or exa mple: L ots of de cis ions tha t w e t hi nk a re r ealli mpor ta nt w hen
we’re RXQJe r s eem trivi al w hen w e ge t ol der.
U nw ind = to be gin t he pr ocess of rela xa tion a fte r s tr e ss or ha rd w ork
For exa mple: I us ualll ike to unw ind bGRi ng some e xe rc is e a nd
m eeting up w ith s om e f rie nds at t he weeke nd. W e ha ve a few dr inks and
go out for di nne r or we w atc h a film . I als o l ike to unw ind a t t he end of
the da E r eadi ng a nd lis te ni ng t o som e m usic . I t r eallKe lps to c le ar
m m ind.
T OPIC 4 . E DUCATIO N
The oretic al = com ing f rom the orie s, not practic e. I t’s a not her w aRf
sa i ng t hat s om ethi ng ha s not been pr oven in the real w orld. T heoretic al
is a ls o us ed a s a n a djective to de sc ribe som ethi ng t hat f oc uses on
a bs tr a ct c onc ept s r athe r t ha n pr actic ing a ski ll.
F or exa mple: T he ide a t ha t t im e-tr a ve l i s pos sibl e i s pur elt heoretic al.
W e don’ t a ctua llNQRw becaus e i t i s c ur re nt li mpos sibl e t o t est t he
the ory.

For exa mple: I thi nk i t’s i m por ta nt to ha ve a the oretic al c om pone nt in a
B us ine ss c our se s o RXc an unde rs ta nd c erta in c onc ept s, but RXa ls o
ne ed a practic al c om pone nt so RXc an l earn how to i mplem ent thos e
conc ept s i n t he real w orld.
A cqui re = to buw ith m oney, ge t bc hance or ga in t hrough e ffor t.
F or exa mple: I recent la cqui re d a new w atc h, w hich I ha ve com plete ly
f a lle n i n love with!
P le ase *N ote: I t’s qui te a for mal ve rb, s o it i s of te n us ed i n e verGa y
conve rs a tion w ith a little bi t of irony . It’s us ed a s a col our ful alte rna tive
to ‘ bu’ , ‘ge t’ , or ‘ga in’ in i nformal c onve rs a tions .
In f ormal c onve rs a tions , it’s of te n us ed i n intervi ew s or spe aki ng e xams
suc h a s t he IELT S test.
F or exa mple: T alk a bout som ethi ng RX’ ve acqui re d r ecent ly .
Y ou s houl d ment ion:
W hat I t i s
W hen RXa cqui re d i t.
H ow RXa cqui re d i t
Whi t’s i m por ta nt to RX.
C om pulsor = obl iga tor y, s om ethi ng RXH AV E to do
For exa mple: I be lie ve tha t i t s houl d be com pulsor t o ha ve som e s or t of
pr actic al t ra ini ng a s pa rt of RXr degree. I thi nk t hat ge tting i ndus tr y
e xpe rie nc e i s vi ta l i n t oda ’s j ob m arke t.
*N ote: ‘ Indus tr e xpe rie nc e’ i s a term w hich l ite ra llm eans expe rie nc e
of w orking i n the sector w here RXw ant to be em ploe d. (It c an be work
expe rie nc e pl acem ent s or ful l- tim e j obs RX’ ve ha d in the pa st)
V alid = accept abl e or reasona ble

For exa mple: Y ou m ake a va lid poi nt. ( Thi s m eans : ‘ W hat RX’ re s ai ng
is f air ’).
D ete rm ine = find out or disc ove r
For exa mple: F ir s t, I ha ve to de te rm ine whethe r I s houl d studa
M aste r’s de gree or whethe r I s houl d trt o ga in m ore i ndus tr y
e xpe rie nc e.
E sta bl is h = prove or cons olida te
F or exa mple: T he s houl d esta bl is h w here t he vi rus cam e f rom fir s t, a nd
the n e sta bl is h w as to pr eve nt thi s f rom happe ning a gain i n the fut ur e.
S igni fic ant = m eani ngf ul or im por ta nt
F or exa mple:
T alk a bout a signi fic ant da in RXr lif e .
Y ou s houl d sa:
W hen i t w as.
W hat ha ppe ned.
Whi t w as s igni fic ant and how it m ade RXf eel.
A ns wer: O k, t he m ost m eani ngf ul/im por ta nt da I can r em em be r i s
…………….
M is c alc ul ation = a m is ta ke , us ing ba d judgm ent or maki ng a n error in a
calc ul ation.
F or exa mple: I thi nk t hat c hoos ing t his ve nue for the eve nt w as a
m is c alc ul ation on m Sart, a s t he w ere c om plete lXQSr epa re d a nd
didn- t of fe r a nRf the servi ces t he a dve rtis e d. I realls houl d have
che cke d t heir r evi ew s f ir s t.
M ethodi cal = be ing or ganise d or care ful and pa tie nt w hen RXGo
som ethi ng.

For exa mple: I thi nk t hat i n or der t o be as s uc cessful as pos sibl e a t
uni vers ity , RXQe ed t o be methodi cal ba lw as ke epi ng a n organise d
*N otebook a nd ba lw as cate gor is ing RXr *Notes i nt o s ections .
Cra m = to ove rloa d t he br ain bt ri ng t o learn a lot in a shor t pe riod of
tim e.
F or exa mple: I a lw as sat hat I ’m goi ng to be reallRr ganise d f or m y
te sts , but I a lw as end up c ra m ming i t a ll i n a t t he last m inut e!

TOPIC 5 : A DVER TIS IN G
Pers ua de = convi nce s om eone of som ethi ng
For exa mple: T he rol e of adve rtis ing i s t o pe rs ua de cus tom ers t o buy
pr oduc ts t he GRQ’ t ne cessa rilQe ed.
U na voi dable = certa in
F or exa mple: I f RXa llow adve rtis e rs t o pr omote ga mbling, pe ople w ill
ga mble m ore. I t’s una voidable.
E ffe ctive = w hen s om ethi ng a chi eve s i ts pur pose
For exa mple: e ffe ctive adve rtis ing s ells pr oduc ts a nd c re ate s br and
aw are ne ss.
P lo= tric k
F or exa mple: S hops use s pe cia l di sc ount s a s a m arke ting pl oto
enc our age pe opl e t o go i nto t heir s hops and buRt her pr oduc ts . P eopl e
go i nto t he shop f or the di sc ount and e nd up bui ng products t ha t a re not
on di sc ount .
Int rus ive = inva sive
F or exa mple: I find i ntrus ive adve rtis ing l ike int erne t popups and
cooki es r ealla nnoi ng.
HSe -up = exa gge ra te f or a com merc ia l or publ ic r ela tions int ere st
*N ote: w e a ls o us e ‘ hSe ’ a s a noun m eani ng e xagge ra tion ( usua llf or
com merc ia l r easons )
For exa mple: I t’s i m por ta nt to i gnor e t he hSe when RX’ re t ri ng t o
choos e a good r esta ur ant .

Endor se = of fic ia llr ecom mend a produc t or a com pany
For exa mple: N ike are e ndor se d bf am ous professiona l f oot balle rs a ll
ove r t he world.
G ul libl e = too t rus ting or east o tric k
F or exa mple: I thi nk w e a re a ll qui te gul libl e a s c ons umers . W e of te n
be lie ve com panies j us t be caus e t he a dve rtis e on T V.
Prom ine nt = not ic eabl e or ext ra or dina ry
F or exa mple: A pr om ine nt m arke ting gur u argue s t ha t a ll publ ic ity ,
w he the r i t’s pos itive or ne gative , is a ctua llJRRGf or a com pany.
Ent ic e = tem pt bRf fe ring s omethi ng
For exa mple: F ast f ood c ompanies e nt ic e us with a dve rts of de lic ious
looki ng food, but when RXa ctua llt ri t, i t’s of te n di sa ppoi nting.
B om bard = cont inuous lGi re ct s om ethi ng t owards som eone
F or exa mple: W e a re c ons ta nt lERm barde d w ith a dve rts e ve rGa Rn
TV, onl ine , on t he radi o, i n ne wspa pers a nd e ven on t he str e et. I t s eem s
like eve rw here w e l ook t here ’s a n a dve rt.
I ne sc apa ble = som ethi ng RXc an’ t a voi d.
For exa mple: I t s eem s l ike eve rw here w e l ook t here ’s a n a dve rt, i t’s
i ne sc apa ble.

TOPIC 6 : T RAV EL & PL A CES
M em or abl e = som ethi ng s pecia l or unf orge tta bl e
F or exa mple: T ra ve ling r ound A meric a w ith m fam ilw as a
m em or abl e e xpe rie nc e. W e m ana ged t o vi sit s ix s ta te s i n t otal a nd di d
an a mazing r oad t rip dow n Route 66.
C us tom = a loc al t ra di tion or habit
For exa mple: I t’s a cus tom to e at c he ese a nd c old- cut s i n M edi te rra ne an
count rie s s uc h a s S pa in a nd I ta ly .
R em ote = isol ate d or far a way
F or exa mple: D uring our trip t o T haila nd, w e vi site d a rem ote i sla nd j ust
off t he coa st of Phuke t. I t w as s pe cta cul ar.
S pe cta cul ar = stunni ng, a mazing or veri mpr essive
F or exa mple: W hen I visite d B angkok, I ate t he m ost s pe cta cul ar f ood
and t he tem ples w ere a bs olutels tunni ng.
Lands cape = large na tur al a re a of land
F or exa mple: T he Sout h of Spa in ha s s om e a m azing l ands cape s. I n s om e
are as, RXc an go s kiing i n the m ornings and t hen go t o the hot beach i n
the afte rnoon. I t’s s tunni ng.
Basic = sim ple, not com plic ate d or luxur ious . (Ofte n us ed t o de sc ribe
a ccom moda tion)
F or exa mple: O ur hot el w as r eallEa sic , but we onl Xs ed i t a s a pl ace
to s le ep. W e s pe nt m ost of our tim e out side , expl oring t he cita nd goi ng
on guided t our s. I t w as a n a mazing e xperie nc e.
B arre n = without vegeta tion

For exa mple: T he lands cape is qui te ba rre n, but it’s s tunni nglEe aut if ul .
The suns ets i n pa rtic ul ar a re a m azing.
W ande r = w alk w ithout a spe cif ic de stina tion
F or exa mple: O n our fir s t da in B erlin, w e w ande re d r ound t he cita nd
expl ored di ffe re nt m arke ts a nd ba rs a round t he cent re .

TOPIC 7 : A NIM ALS
Enda ngere d = a spe cie s of ani mal or plant tha t’s di ng.
For exa mple: T he M ount ain G orilla i s one of the m ost c ritic ally
e nda ngere d a nimals on t he pl ane t.
V enom ous = poi sonous
F or exa mple: M anSe ople a ssum e t ha t m ost s na kes a re poi sonous , but
of the 3,500 s nake spe cie s a round t he world, onl a re a ctua lly
ve nom ous.
Dom estic ate d = tra ine d t o live with hum ans in hous es i ns te ad of in t he
wild.
F or exa mple: I thi nk i t’s i m por ta nt to r em em be r t ha t not all a ni mals c an
be or shoul d be dom estic ate d. I hone stlEe lie ve tha t pe opl e s houl d not
be allow ed t o ha ve pe ts l ike sna kes, bi rds or monke s. It’s c rue l a nd
pot ent ia llGa ngerous in m RSi nion.
Thr ive = gr ow str ong
F or exa mple: W hile m ana nimals a re a lr e adf acing a nd w ill c ont inue
to f ace s erious probl em s due to gl obal w arm ing, s ome s pe cie s w ill
a ctua llt hrive on a warm ing pl ane t.
V ul ne ra bl e = som ethi ng t hat c an be hurt or tha t i s i n da nger.
F or exa mple: S cie nt is ts r ecent lc re ate d t he large st bot ani cal da ta se t
eve r, a nd di sc ove re d t hat a lm os t 40% of plant spe cie s t ha t l ive on l and
are pot ent ia llYXl nera bl e t o gl obal w arm ing. I f w e don’ t m ake radi cal
cha nge s now , we r is k l osing t hese s pe cie s i n t he ne xt few e ars . T his
will be carrGi sa str ous cons eque nces f or hum an be ings .
Dwindl e = shr ink i n num bers , be com e f ew er or weake r

For exa mple: H ighe r pe naltie s c oul d stop s muggl ers , pr otect publ ic
he alth a nd he lp pr ese rve dw indl ing s pecie s s uc h a s t ige rs .
H abi ta t = N atur al e nvi ronm ent of an a nimal or plant spe cie s.
F or exa mple: T he large hum an pr ese nc e i n t he are a ha s ha d an ne gative
e ffe ct on f is h ha bita ts .
S ur viva l = cont inui ng t o exist
F or exa mple: W e m ust put str ic te r s s te m s i n pl ace i n or der t o e nsure
the sur viva l of spe cie s s uc h a s c hi mpa nzees, m ount ain gor illa s a nd
or angut ans .
Co- exi st = live in t he sam e t im e or place
F or exa mple: H um ans can c o-exi st w ith pl ant s a nd ot her a ni mals , w e
jus t ne ed t o s ee i t a s a m ajor pr ior ity . I str ongl Eelie ve tha t i n t en or
tw ent - e ars -tim e i t w ill be too l ate t o r eve rs e t he effe cts of globa l
warm ing. W e m ust a ct now ; our sur viva l de pends on i t.

TOPIC 8 : T EC H NO LO GY AND C OM PU TER S
Vir tua l = in a com puter or sim ulation, not in t he real w orld
F or exa mple: I know it’s a bi t of a clic hé , but I s till be lie ve tha t vi rtua l
re aliti s t he fut ur e of ent erta inm ent .
Digi ta l = com puteris e d r athe r t ha n phs ic al. O fte n us ed t o r efe r t o
inf ormation a nd information pr oducts .
F or exa mple: S ale s of digita l books , or e-books , have be en r is ing
s te adi lf or e ars now .
Em br ace = ha ppi la ccept
F or exa mple: H ow eve r, not eve rRQe has e m br aced t his ne w era of
re adi ng on RXr phone or on ot her e le ctr oni c de vices. M anSe ople s till
pr efe r t o r ead books the tra di tiona l w ay.
A ddi ctive = w hen s om ethi ng m ake s pe opl e w ant m ore a nd m ore
For exa mple: I thi nk t hat a s a soc ie ty , w e’re not paing e nough a tte nt ion
to t he fact t ha t t echnol ogi s ve ra ddi ctive . W hile i t c an be ext re m ely
be nefic ia l, t he re a re a ls o m anSRt ent ia l dr aw ba cks .
*N ote: ‘ dr aw ba cks ’ i s l ike sai ng ‘ disa dva ntage s’
S ecu rit ( Secu re) = S afe t( Safe )
F or exa mple: D ata s ecur iti s a m assive issue at t he m om ent , a nd
right ful ls o. C ompanies hol d a lot of inf ormation a bout us, and i t w oul d
be da nge rous in t he wrong ha nds.

*Note: ‘ and r ight ful ls o’, is a n i nformal e xpr ession w e us e a t t he end of
se nt enc es t o s ta te t ha t w hat w e’ve jus t m ent ione d is j us tif ie d.
E xa mples c oul d be : S moki ng ha s be en ba nned in publ ic s pa ces, a nd
right ful ls o!
When t heGi dn’t s end he r t he pr oduc t s he ’d pa id f or, s he de mande d he r
mone Ea ck, a nd r ight ful ls o!
Cuttin g- ed ge = the ne west or most a dva nced t echnol ogy, de sign or
m ethod.
F or exa mple: M favour ite pos se ssion i s m Qe w phone . I bought it l ast
w eek. T his pa rtic ul ar m ode l c ont ains a cut ting- edge processor w hich
m ake s i t 50% faste r t ha n t he pr evi ous mode l f rom the sam e br and. I als o
love the de sign, a s i t’s s le ek a nd r obus t a t t he sam e t im e.
*N ote: ‘ Sle ek’ m eans sm oot h or stl is h, w hile ‘ robus t’ m eans str ong
a nd dur abl e. I n t he exa mple RXc ould ha ve als o t alke d a bout its
‘ c ut ting- edge design’ ins te ad of its pr ocessor .
Cb erb ulli ng = a tta cki ng ot her pe opl e onl ine
F or exa mple: C Ee rbul li ng i s a huge issue now ada s, be caus e vi ctim s
cannot esc ape the bul li ng.
Tech nol ogi cal = r ela te t o t echnol ogy
For exa mple: T he technol ogical e ra ha s br ought manEe nefits t o our
live s. I n m RSi nion, i t ha s m assive li mpr ove d hum an i ntera ction by
pr ovi ding us with m ore opt ions to c onne ct w ith pe ople f rom all ove r t he
pl ane t a nd t o ke ep i n touc h with f am ila nd f rie nds when w e’re f ar a way.
It ha s a llow ed us to c om muni cate dur ing t im es of cris is a nd i t a llow s us
to w ork t oge the r f or com mon goa ls . N one of thi s w as pos sibl e ( w oul d

have be en pos sibl e) t hi rte ars a go.
Dat ed = not rele va nt or true anm ore be caus e t hi ngs have cha nge d
For exa mple: I t w oul d be an a bsolute ga me-c ha nge r i f t he gove rnm ent
coul d introduc e a pol ic Rf upgr adi ng da te d t echnol ogw ith c utting-
e dge ene rge ffic ie nt m ode ls , i mpr ovi ng pe rfor manc e a nd e nergy
c ons umption.
*N ote: a ‘ga me-c ha nge r’ or ‘ga me-c ha ngi ng’ , means a radi cal c ha nge
(us ua llSRs itive ). S om ethi ng t hat w oul d change eve rt hing i f i t w as
appl ie d.
D om estic a ppl ia nc es = m achi ne s w e us e i n our homes
D om estic ap plian ces are a m ulti- bi llion- dolla r i ndus tr y . A lthough m any
of the m are e xt re m elKa ndy, we of te n e nd up bui ng devices w e don’ t
need a nd t hat don’ t e ve n m ake our live s a ne asie r.
*N otes: ‘ H and’ means conve nient .
‘W hite goods ’, m eans dom estic a ppl ia nc es l ike washi ng m achi ne s a nd
di shw ashe rs , but doesn’ t us ualli nclude devices l ike bl ende rs or air
f re rs f or exa mple.
S urp as s = B e or do m ore t ha n. D o som ethi ng be tte r t ha n or be bette r
tha n. B e bi gge r t ha n, hi gher t ha n, f aste r t ha n e tc .
F or exa mple: A s hum ans , w e c ont inua lls tr ive to s urpa ss w hat w e c an
do a nd w hat w e t hi nk i s pos sibl e. I thi nk i t’s m ind- boggl ing t o think
about the technol ogw e m ight have in 1- 200 e ars , a nd t he thi ngs tha t
will be pos sibl e i n 500 e ars . I t j us t bl ow s m m ind!
*N ote: ‘ m ind- boggl ing’ means ‘am azing’ or ‘inc re di ble’.
‘It bl ow s m m ind’ or it’s ‘ m ind bl owing’ means the sam e. I t’s
s om ethi ng s o amazing or int ere sting, t hat i t e xc ite s RXa nd make s Ru
fe el a sens e of wonde r.
U pgr ad e = ge t a be tte r-qua litYe rs ion of som ethi ng

For exa mple: W e de cide d t o upgr ade our kitc he n, r epl acing a ll of our
out date d a ppl ia nc es w ith ne w cut ting- edge one s.
In novat ive = c re ative and ne w
For exa mple: I be lie ve tha t s om e of the m ost i nnova tive inve ntions in
hum an hi stor Ka ve be en bor n out of pur e ne cessity . I t’s a tot al c lic hé ,
but necessitr ealli s t he m othe r of inve ntion.
*N ote: ‘ N ecessiti s t he m othe r of inve ntion’ is a clic hé expr ession i n
Engl is h a nd i n seve ra l ot her l angua ges. I t m eans tha t hum ans inve nt
thi ngs the Qe ed. I n tim es of ext re m e ne ed w e t hi nk of our most c re ative
ide as i n or der t o s urvive .

TOPIC 9 : F ASH IO N
Shop pers = pe opl e w ho buf rom reta il s tor es.
F or exa mple: W hGRs ome pe opl e e nj oc lot he s s hoppi ng?
Good que stion! I thi nk s ome s hoppe rs e nj ot he expe rie nc e of walki ng
around t he di ffe re nt shops tri ng t hings on. M anSe ople a ls o go w ith
f rie nds or fam ila nd m ake it i nt o a soc ia l out ing. T heJRf or lunc h, or
for cof fe e, or the JRt o the cine ma a fte r s hoppi ng.
Pas sin g = shor t. S om ethi ng t hat w ill di sa ppe ar qui ckl y
For exa mple: I reallKRSe respons ibl e f ashi on i sn’ t a pa ssing t re nd. I
hope tha t t he top br ands in t he indus tr w ill t ake a m ore a ctive rol e i n
the ne ar-fut ur e, a s m ore pe opl e r ecogni se t he im por ta nc e of be ing
e nvi ronm ent all- cons cious .
Tren d= fa shi ona ble
For exa mple: I be lie ve tha t s om e pe opl e c hoos e c lot he s onl Ee caus e
the a re t re ndy , but I don’ t t hi nk m ost pe opl e do t hat. I thi nk m ost
pe opl e c hoos e t he clot he s t he l ike withi n t he cur re nt tre nds .
Im puls ive = an a ction c arrie d out without thi nki ng. O r a pe rs on w ho
doesn’ t t hi nk be for e a cting.
F or exa mple: I m pul sive bui ng is a ha bit t ha t I w oul d like to s top!
W henever I go t o a shoppi ng cent re I a lw as end up bui ng somethi ng. I
find i t r eallKa rd t o r esis t!
C ons umeris m = the be haviour or cul tur e of bui ng things we don’ t
necessa rilQe ed.
F or exa mple: I thi nk c onsumeris m is m ostlQe gative , be caus e i t m ake s
us foc us on t hings tha t a re n’ t i m por ta nt . M anSe ople put more t im e a nd
effor t i nt o obt aini ng m ate ria l pos se ssions tha n t heGRi nto i mpr ovi ng
the mse lve s a s hum an be ings .

Pur cha se = in t he noun f orm, this m eans som ethi ng t hat ha s be en
bought . In t he ve rb f orm, it m eans ‘bu’ .
For exa mple: T he m ost m em or abl e t hi ng I ’ve eve r pur cha se d i s m c ar.
I t gi ves m e i nde pende nce a nd f re edom so I can go w here ve r I w ant . I t
allow s m e t o s tuda nd work a nd i t a llow s m e t o vi sit m f rie nds and
fa m ily . H avi ng i t ha s c om plete lc hange d m lif e f or the be tte r.
F or exa mple ( ve rb) : I ha d to bor row mone to pur cha se m f ir s t c ar.

TOPIC 1 0: C IT Y L IF E
In ad eq uat e = not good e nough
For exa mple: H alf of the cit’ s popul ation l ive in i nadequa te hous ing.
T he condi tions are qui te ba d for the se pe opl e, a s m ost of the m don’ t
have runni ng w ate r.
T ran sp or tat ion (tr an sp or t) = the tSe of ve hicle RXXs e t o t ra ve l
For exa mple: P ubl ic t ra ns por t i n m KRm e t ow n is gr eat. T here a re bus es
eve rf if te en m inut es a nd t ra in l ine s e ve rt went m inut es. Y ou c an be
anw here i n t ow n w ithi n t went m inut es.
P ed estr ian = pers on w alki ng on t he str e et
F or exa mple: I found A mste rda m to be verSe destr ia n- frie ndl y, a s t he re
a re ve rf ew cars , a nd t he bi kes t he re a re qui te r espe ctf ul of the pe opl e
walki ng a round.
C om mute = In t he noun f orm, this m eans RXr jour net o s chool or
wor k. I n the ve rb f or, it m eans to t ra ve l t o w ork or school .
For exa mple: I ha ve to c om mute f or one hour eve rGa to ge t t o c la ss!
P ave men t = the pl ace w here pe destr ia ns shoul d walk on t he str e et ( not
the roa d).
For exa mple: T he pa vement s a re qui te r un- dow n in m Qe ighbour hood,
but the counc il don’ t ha ve enough m oneto f ix t hem.
Slu m s = ve rSRRr -qua litKRXs ing, of te n w ithout runni ng w ate r or
e le ctr ic ity .

For exa mple: O ne thi rd of the pe opl e i n t he citl ive in s lum s. T hey
don’ t ha ve ele ctr ic itRr runni ng w ate r.
I n fr as tr u ctu re = se rvi ces a nd ba sic s tr uc tur es i n a n are a. I nfra - m eans
‘be low ;’ s o t he inf ra str uc tur e i s t he ‘ba sic s tr uc tur e be low ’ a count ry , a n
econom y, a bus ine ss or an or ganisa tion.
F or exa mple: M ore f undi ng is r equi re d t o boos t t he crum bling
inf ra str uc tur e of the count r' s pr oduc tion pl ant s.
*N otes:
F undi ng = Mone y
Requi re d = Neede d
Boos t = Im pr ove or revi ta lis e
C rum bling = decai ng or run- dow n
Ove rp op ulat ed ( ove rp op ulat ion )= w he n t here a re t oo m anSe ople i n
an a re a.
F or exa mple: T he ove rpopul ation i n ur ban a re as ha s l ed t o a n incre ase i n
pol lut ion a nd inadequa te hous ing a mong ot her i ssue s. T his i s s om ethi ng
tha t ne eds to be addr esse d s oone r r athe r t ha n l ate r.
*N ote: ‘ soone r r athe r t ha n l ate r’ i s a n e xpr ession t o empha sis e t ha t
som ethi ng ne eds to be done now not in t he fut ur e.
O uts k ir ts = the edge of a city , t ow n or villa ge .
For exa mple: I gr ew up on t he out ski rts of the city , but I m ove d clos er t o
the cent re w hen I sta rte d w orking. T he com mute w as j us t t oo l ong t o do
eve rGa !
Isol at ed = se pa ra te d f rom others
F or exa mple: W hen I tra ve lle d r ound M exi co, I visite d a n isol ate d
com muni ti n the m iddl e of the de se rt. I t w as r ealli ntere sting. M ost of
the pe opl e t he re ha d ne ver s een a for eigne r be for e, s o t hew ere r eally

cur ious . Thew ere s o w elc om ing a nd ki nd that I a ctua llf elt a bi t s ad
w he n I ha d to leave .
In eq ual it = T he oppos ite of equa lity . D is pa ritRr im ba la nc e i n
som ethi ng. O fte n us ed t o talk a bout peopl e’s r ight s or livi ng s ta nda rds .
For exa mple: J ohn M ilton pr oposed a new ss te m de signe d to r em ove
ine qua litie s i n he alth c are but it w as r eje cte d bKi s ow n pol itic al pa rty .
O ve rw he lm ed = una ble t o de al w ith a situa tion
F or exa mple: T he he althc are s s te m w as i ni tia llRYe rw he lm ed bt he
she er num ber of inf ections .
*Note: t he word ‘ she er’ i s us ed t o e xpr ess t ha t t he onl thing t hat
affe cte d t he situa tion w as t he thi ng RX’ re t alki ng a bout . In t he exa mple,
‘the num ber of inf ections ’, t he num ber of inf ections was t he onl Rr
main c aus e of the pr obl em .
Shor tage = a lack of som ethi ng
For exa mple: W ate r s hor ta ge s c aus e m ajor pr obl em s i n s om e a re as of
the count ry .
A fflu en t = r ic h / wealth/ prospe rous
F or exa mple: I realla dm ir e m XQc le B ob, be caus e he grew up i n a
verGe prive d a re a, but he mana ged t o s et up s eve ra l bus ine sse s a nd he
now live s i n one of the m ost a fflue nt are as i n t ow n. I adm ir e hi s dr ive
a nd a mbition, a s w ell a s hi s c re ativi ty .
*N otes:
D epr ive d= poor
Grow up= when RX’ re r ais e d i n a certa in pl ace
S et up = sta rt bus ine sse s or projects
D rive = D ete rm ina tion ( re fus ing t o be defe ate d)

Run-d ow n = w he n t alki ng a bout thi ngs it m eans ol d a nd ne glecte d.
F or exa mple: S om e pa rts of mc ita re qui te r un- dow n, but the cent re i s
ve rQi ce t o w alk a round a nd has……..
*N ote: W hen t alki ng a bout hum ans , ‘run- dow n’ m eans tir e d- looki ng or
looki ng slight li ll.

TOPIC 1 1 : E NVIR O NM EN T
Agr ic u lt u ral = conne cte d t o r ais ing a nimals f or food a nd growing f rui ts
a nd ve geta bl es bc ultiva ting t he soi l a nd pr oducing c rops .
For exa mple: I gr ew up i n an agric ul tur al c om muni ts o farm ing w as
still i n m Elood.
Ren ew ab le = s om ethi ng t hat c an be produc ed a gain a nd a gain
F or exa mple: T re es a re r ene wabl e na tur al r esour ces, but the s houl d be
tr e ate d w ith e xtre m e c are .
L oggi ng = c ut ting dow n tre es
F or exa mple: L oggi ng is a m ajor issue in m anf orests a nd j ungl es a ll
ove r t he world. A s m ore t re es a re c hoppe d down, these na tur al a re as a re
s hr inki ng m ore a nd m ore.
V it al = esse nt ia l f or the exi ste nc e of som ethi ng
For exa mple: T re es a re vi ta l f or the envi ronm ent .

Ir rigat ion = s s te m s t o s uppl are as w ith w ate r.
F or exa mple: L ack of inve stm ent in ne w m ethods mar esul t i n
de te rior ation of the irriga tion s ste m in t he are a a nd a subs eque nt
decline of the loc al e conom y.
*N otes:
D ete rior ation= decay. W hen s om ethi ng br eaks dow n and di ssol ve s
Subs eque nt= e ve ntua l. W hen s om ethi ng ha ppens as a resul t of
s om ethi ng e ls e .
P ressin g = ur ge nt
For exa mple: T he re i s a pr essing ne ed f or hous ing i n the are a.
P ol lu tan t = a s ubs ta nc e t ha t c ont am ina te s
F or exa mple: T he m ost da nge rous gase ous air pol lut ant s r ele ase d i nto
the air i n ur ban a re as a re S ulphur dioxi de, ni tr oge n di oxide, and c arbon
m onoxi de;
Ecos ste m = the envi ronm ent in a n are a a nd a ll t he bi ologi cal l if e i n
it
F or exa mple: H alf of the se t re es c oul d be gone withi n f ive e ars ,
thr eate ni ng j obs and e cos ste m s.

Unpreced en te d = som ethi ng t hat ha s ne ver ha ppe ned be for e
For exa mple: G ove rnm ent s w ere not sur e how to de al w ith t he situa tion
be caus e i t w as unpr ecede nted i n 21s t- c ent ur l if e .
S af egu ard = pr otect a ga ins t s om ethi ng
For exa mple: W e m ust s afe gua rd t he envi ronm ent aga ins t t he
de str uc tion of habita ts a nd t he ove r-e xpl oita tion of natur al r esour ces
suc h a s f re sh w ate r a nd f is he rie s a m ong ot her i ssue s.

TOPIC 1 2: M ED IA
T ab loi d = ne wspa pers t ha t a re not as s erious and i mpa rtia l
F or exa mple: T he Pre side nt’s bl unde rs ga ve the tabl oid pr ess gr eat
sa tis fa ction.
I m par tial = ne utra l
F or exa mple: A judge has t o be fair a nd i mpa rtia l, or the law los es a ll
m eani ng.
*N ote: w hen s om ethi ng ‘ los es a ll m eani ng’ , we m ean t hat i t l os es i ts
pur pos e or va lue in s om e w ay.
B ias ed = not neutra l or im pa rtia l
F or exa mple: T he tabl oid pr ess ga ve a ve rEi ase d a ccount of the
situa tion.
*N ote: t he word ‘ account ’ m eans ‘re por t’ i n t his c ont ext .
Esc ap is m = a noun t o desc ribe when RXXs e s om ethi ng t o forge t a bout
nor mal l if e a nd e sc ape RXr probl em s.
F or exa mple: F or m anSe ople w atc hi ng f ant ass erie s a nd f ilm s on
N etf lix or on T V is a for m of esc api sm .
M ed iu m = singul ar noun f or m edi a. M edi a i s pl ural ( m os t pe opl e don’ t
re alis e ).
F or exa mple: I nt era ctive serie s a nd f ilm s ope n up t he m edi um of video
platf or ms t o t he pa rtic ipa tion of view ers .
W ell i nfor med = ha ving e nough hi gh-qua liti nformation t o unde rs ta nd
and m ake good de cis ions
F or exa mple: C ons umers ne ed t o be well i nf ormed a bout the side effe cts
of so- calle d na tur al r em edi es.

*Note: ‘ So- calle d’ is us ed t o c om muni cate t o t he lis te ne r t ha t Ru
be lie ve a w ord t hat i s us ed t o de sc ribe som eone or som ethi ng i s w rong
in s om e w ay.
S crut ini se = exa mine or ana ls e c are ful ly
F or exa mple: I t’s i m por ta nt to s crut ini se pol itic ia ns to e nsure t ha t t he y
are hone st a nd t rus tw or thy .
Cens or = to r em ove parts of what i s s aid or publ is he d i n the m edi a or in
anf orm of com muni cation be caus e RXGRQ’ t w ant som eone to s ee,
re ad or hear t ha t i nf ormation.
F or exa mple: I c om plete lGi sa gr ee w ith a ni nitia tive s w hich a im to
cens or the Int erne t i n a nw ay, s ha pe or for m.
*N ote: ‘ in a nw ay, s ha pe or for m’ m eans ‘in a nw a’ , but adds ext ra
e m pha sis .
M ani pul ate = to c ont rol som eone or som ethi ng i ndire ctl( has a
ne gative connot ation)
F or exa mple: I thi nk t he gove rnm ent and t he m edi a m ani pul ate us in
m anw as . T her epor t t he ne ws t he wat hew ant us to s ee i t.
S pot light = publ ic a tte nt ion / publ ic it/ lim elight / be ing i n the publ ic
e e
F or exa mple: I thi nk m anc ele br itie s s tr uggl e w ith l ivi ng t heir l ive s i n
the spot light . It m ust be verKa rd t o ha ve eve rSa rt of RXr lif e
s c rut ini se d bs tr a nge rs .
Im pl= to s ugge st s om ethi ng w ithout sai ng i t di re ctly
F or exa mple: T he m edi a i m plie d t hat t he re ha d be en a cove r-up. T hey
never s aid i t di re ctly , but it w as t he logi cal c onc lus ion f rom the wat hey
re por te d t he whol e s tor y.

*Note: a ‘cove r-up’ is w hen gove rnm ent s or bus ine sse s t rt o s top t he
publ ic f rom findi ng out about som ethi ng s erious .

IE LT S L IS T EN IN G & R EA DIN G
V OCABU LA RY D IC TIO NARY

-A -
Abat e: M EA NIN G: R educ e, di mini sh
S E N TEN CE: H er s tr e ss ove r s pe ndi ng s o much m oneRQKe r hous e a ba te d
w he n t he real e sta te br oke r t ol d he r a bout the pr ope rt' s c ur re nt m arke t
value .
Aberran t: M EA NIN G: A bnor mal, de viant
S E N TEN CE: R unni ng na ked dow n the str e et m ight be cons ide re d a berra nt
be haviour .
AbeDn ce: M EA NIN G: T em por arc essa tion or sus pe nsion
S E N TEN CE: H er t hought s of he r l ove r w ere i n a beance w hile s he studi ed
for he r e xa m.
Abrid ge : MEA NIN G: C onde nse or shor te n
S E N TEN CE: A udi o books are a lm os t a lw as abr idge d, sinc e f ew pe opl e
want to l is te n t o a 200- hour stor y.
A bsc on d: M EA NIN G: L eave secre tla nd hur rie dl y, of te n t o e sc ape or
avoi d arre st
S E N TEN CE: T he tena nts a bs conde d owing s ix m onths’ r ent .
Abste m iou s : M EA NIN G: C ons uming m odera te li n s om ethi ng,
espe cia llf ood a nd drink
S E N TEN CE: ‘ W e onl Ka d one cour se a t di nne r.’ ‘Vera bste m ious of
RX’
Abstr u se : M EA NIN G: D if fic ul t t o unde rs ta nd

SE N TEN CE: T he doc tor ’s ha ndw riting w as s o a bstr us e t ha t t he pa tie nt ha d
to a sk hi m to pr int the lette r.
A dm on is h : M EA NIN G: R epr im and, w arn
S E N TEN CE: S he adm onishe d hi m for pour ing a thi rd gl ass of wine .
Adult e rat e: M EA NIN G: D eba se a subs ta nc e ba dding a nother s ubs ta nc e
SE N TEN CE: C oc aine is a dul te ra te d a nd da ngerous .
Aesth etic : M EA NIN G: C onc erne d w ith be aut y
SE N TEN CE: T he re a re pr actic al a s w ell a s a esthe tic r easons for pl ant ing
tr e es; not onlGRt re es gi ve oxJe n neede d f or hum an a nd a nimal l if e , but
the a ls o a dd be aut y.
A ffab ilit : M EA NIN G: A tende nct o be frie ndl and a pproacha ble
SE N TEN CE: J ohn’ s a ffa bi litKe lpe d hi m in hi s i nt ervi ew w ith t he
Ful br ight Schol ars hi p de cis ion pa nel; t he s ele cte d hi m for the
sc hol ars hi p.
Afflu en t : M EA NIN G: W ealthy , w ell of f
SE N TEN CE: J udgi ng bt he siz e of the hous es a nd t he abunda nce of tre es,
thi s w as a n a fflue nt subur b.
Aggr andiz e: M EA NIN G: I nc re ase i n pow er, w ealth, r ank; or enl arge , e.g.
aggr andi ze a n e sta te .
S E N TEN CE: S om e pol itic al l eade rs m aa im to a ggr andi ze t he ir pow er
w ithout cons ide ring t he wis he s of the ir ow n pol itic al pa rty .
A ggr egat e: M EA NIN G: G athe r i nt o a mass or whol e; a ccum ulation of a
whol e

SE N TEN CE: T he aggr ega te w ealth of thi s c ount ri s s ta gge ring t o the
im agi na tion.
A lac rit : M EA NIN G: S pe edw illingne ss
S E N TEN CE: H e de mons tr a te d hi s e age rne ss t o c oope ra te ba nswering t he
em ail w ith a la crity .
A lle vi at e: M EA NIN G: L esse n a probl em or suf fe ring
S E N TEN CE: T he stim ulus pa cka ge ha s a lle vi ate d t he pr obl em s of the
G re at R ecession, but tim es a re s till t ough.
A llu rin g: M EA NIN G: H ighl attr a ctive , fasc ina ting
S E N TEN CE: T he m usic c om ing f rom the da rke ned ba r w as ve ra llur ing
to t he tra ve lle rs .
A m algam : MEA NIN G: A m ixt ur e of multipl e t hi ngs
SE N TEN CE: T he m usic pl ae d bt he ba nd w as a n a malga m of hip-hop,
fla m enc o a nd j azz, bl endi ng t he thr ee s tl es w ith s urpris ing r esul ts .
A m bigu ous: M EA NIN G: not cle ar or de cide d
SE N TEN CE: T he ele ction r esul t w as a m biguous .
Am bival en t: M EA NIN G: ha ving m ixe d e motions about som ethi ng
SE N TEN CE: S am w as a m biva le nt about studi ng for the exa m be caus e
doi ng s o was t im e-c ons uming, e t he was a bl e t o i mpr ove his a na lt ic al
ski lls .
A m elior ate: M EA NIN G: T o m ake be tte r
S E N TEN CE: I sa be l’s pa in of scor ing l ess i n t he exa m tha n K ate w as
am elior ate d w hen s he di sc ove re d s he still qua lif ie d f or the Fulbr ight

Schol ars hi p.
Anac hron is m : M EA NIN G: A n e rror in c hronol og; som ethi ng out of da te
or ol d-fa shi one d
SE N TEN CE: i t i s a n a nachr oni sm to s ee a hor se a nd c art on t he fre ew ay.
A nal ogou s : M EA NIN G: C om para bl e, s im ila r
S E N TEN CE: L ivi ng w ith a pet i s a na logous to ha ving a RXQJc hild; Ru
ha ve to w atc h w hat t he SXt int o t heir m out h.
Anar ch : M EA NIN G: A bsenc e of law or gove rnm ent
S E N TEN CE: O nce t he di cta tor w as a ssa ssina te d, t he count rf ell i nt o t otal
ana rc hy , a s none of the oppos ition gr oups were s tr ong e nough t o seiz e
pow er.
A nom al: M EA NIN G: D evi ation f rom what i s c om mon; som ethi ng w hich
is unus ual
SE N TEN CE: W hile t he cos metic s di vision of the com panKa s m any
fe m ale e xe cut ive s, i t's a n a nom ali n the rest of the com pany, sadl y, onl y
4% of mana gement pos itions are f ille d bw omen.
A ntip at h: M EA NIN G: A feeling of dislike or ave rs ion
S E N TEN CE: T he re w as w ide spr ead publ ic a nt ipa tht owards ins erting a n
ide ntif i ng c hip i nto t he va ccine .
Antiq uit : M EA NIN G: A ncie nt tim es
S E N TEN CE: G old a ntiqui tie s w ere di sc ove re d i n P aki sta n; the se be longe d
to s om e t hous and e ars a go.
Apat h: M EA NIN G: L ack of conc ern, m otiva tion or int ere st i n i mpor ta nt
m atte rs

SE N TEN CE: A s a fir m be lie ve r i n de moc ra tic gove rnm ent , s he coul d not
unde rs ta nd t he apa thRf peopl e w ho ne ver bot here d t o vot e.
A ppeas e: M EA NIN G: S atis fa nd r elie ve
S E N TEN CE: M m othe r i s s o a ngr she wasn' t t he fir s t pe rs on w e c alle d
w he n t he ba bw as bor n – I 'm hopi ng to appe ase he r bEr ingi ng t he ba by
to s ee he r t oda !
Appris e : M EA NIN G: I nf orm or tell ( som eone )
SE N TEN CE: I thought it w as t he right thi ng t o appr is e C hris of what ha d
happe ned i n hi s of fic e w hile he was a way.
A pprob ation : MEA NIN G: a ppr ova l or prais e
S E N TEN CE: H e w rot e m ana pproba tions to w orks of Hebr ew lite ra tur e.
A pprop riat e: M EA NIN G: s ui ta bl e or prope r i n t he cir c um sta nc es
S E N TEN CE: I t w as e nt ir e la ppr opria te t ha t s he br ought her bof rie nd t o
the fam ilC hris tm as pa rty .
A rcan e : M EA NIN G: S ecre t, m ste rious , know n onlto the ini tia te d
S E N TEN CE: C ursive writing i s be com ing a rc ane in our world of word
proc essing.
A rd uou s: M EA NIN G: R equi ring l ots of ha rd w ork, ve rGi ffic ul t
SE N TEN CE: W ithout a pr ope r t eache r, t he exa m is f ar t oo a rduous to
studf or bour se lf .
A rtic u lat e: M EA NIN G: U sing l angua ge in a cle ar, f lue nt w ay
S E N TEN CE: H er a rtic ul ate pr ese nt ation of the adve rtis ing c am pa ign
im pr esse d he r e m ploe rs .

Artle ss: M EA NIN G: N atur al, w ithout prete nc e or de cept ion
S E N TEN CE: M anSe ople be lie ve tha t I m ra n K han s eem s t o be an a rtle ss
pol itic ia n w ho c an e lim ina te c or rupt ion f rom Paki sta n.
A sc etic : M EA NIN G: P ra ctis ing pr onounc ed s elf -di sc ipl ine from all f or ms
of indul gence
SE N TEN CE: R eligi ous peopl e c an l ive fruga l a nd a sc etic l ive s.
A ssid uou s: M EA NIN G: S how ing gr eat c are a nd pe rs e ve ra nc e
SE N TEN CE: S he was a ssiduous in poi nting out eve rf eatur e of the hom e
to t he pr ospe ctive bue rs .
A ssu age : MEA NIN G: P rovi de relie f f rom an unpl easa nt feeling
S E N TEN CE: T he ele ctr ic its uppl fina llr esum ed, a nd i t a ssua ged t he
angr Se ople; be caus e a fte r a few m inut es t he f orgot the ir i nc onve nienc e.
A tte n uat e: M EA NIN G: R educ e t he for ce, e ffe ct, or value of
SE N TEN CE: M anSe ople c la im tha t t he flu va ccine atte nua te s t he ir
illne ss.
A udac iou s : M EA NIN G: D aring, bol d; taki ng r is ks
S E N TEN CE: S he m ade an a uda cious decis ion t o qui t he r j ob.
A usp ic iou s: M EA NIN G: F avour abl e, pos itive
S E N TEN CE: T he ope ning ni ght of the m usic al r eceive d a n auspicious
r e vi ew from the the atr e c ritic .
A uste re : M EA NIN G: S eve re ls im ple, pl ain
S E N TEN CE: T he gr adua tion s peake r D elive re d a n auste re m essa ge : t he
econom Is ba d, a nd a cade mic s uc cess a lone isn' t e nough t o succeed i n the

job m arke t.
A uste rit : M EA NIN G: S te rnne ss, s eve rit; reduc ed publ ic s pe ndi ng
Dur ing t he recession, t he gove rnm ent int roduc ed a uste ritm easur es, a nd
manSXEl ic s erva nts w ere r etr e nc hed.
Auton om ous : M EA NIN G: I nde pende nt
SE N TEN CE: T he count rw as c om pris e d of a num ber of aut onom ous
provi nces.
A var ic e: M EA NIN G: G re ed f or w ealth
S E N TEN CE: E arlJRl d-digge rs w ere i ns pire d ba varic e.
A vi d: M EA NIN G: P assiona te or ent hus ia stic
S E N TEN CE: H am id I s a n a vid r eade r of nove ls , a rtic le s a nd e ditor ia ls ;
thi s he lpe d hi s c om prehe nsion i mmens ely .

-B -
B an al : M EA NIN G: L acki ng or igi na lity
S E N TEN CE: F re que nt us e of ordina ra nd uni ntere sting w ords m ake s a n
essa s eem ba nal; t hi s ge nera te s a low scor e i n e ssa s .
Belie : M EA NIN G: G ive a fals e i m pr ession
S E N TEN CE: T he cor rupt actions of som e of fic ia ls be lie t he ir c la im to be
re pr ese nt ative of sound a uthor ity .
B en efic en t: M EA NIN G: ( of a pe rs on) generous or doi ng good
SE N TEN CE: C la ris sa f ound a benefic ent m ent or in he r m ana ger a t w ork.
Ben ign : MEA NIN G: H arm le ss
T he doc tor tol d S te phe n that t he lum p on hi s a rm w as be nign a nd could be
re m ove d easily .
B rac in g : M EA NIN G: F re sh, i nvigor ating; giving s tr e ngt h
SE N TEN CE: H eathe r t ook he r dog f or a br acing w alk bt he oc ean a t 6a m
tha t da y.
B urge on : M EA NIN G: G row rapi dly, f lour is h
S E N TEN CE: I n t he spr ing, t he pl ant s t ha t bur geon a re a pr om is e of the
be aut t hat i s t o c om e.
B urn is h : M EA NIN G: e nha nce or im pr ove
SE N TEN CE: T he pol itic ia n t ook a dvantage of anRSSRr tuni tt o bur nish
hi s i m age .
Bol ste r: M EA NIN G: S uppor t or str e ngt hen

SE N TEN CE: T he fall i n i ntere st r ate s i s s ta rting t o bol ste r i nve stor
c onf ide nce.
B om bas tic : M EA NIN G: P om pous , show y
SE N TEN CE: T he spe ech m ade bt he ne w he adm aste r w as a little
bom bastic .
B oor is h : M EA NIN G: r ough a nd bad-manne re d; coa rs e .
S E N TEN CE: E ve n t hough t he pi ra te c apt ain w as br utal a nd boor is h w ith
hi s m en, he was a lw as cour te ous to t he fem ale c apt ive s.
B uttr ess: M EA NIN G: S uppor t, r einf orce
S E N TEN CE: I n t he de bating c lub, t he stude nts l earnt how to but tr e ss t he ir
a rgum ent w ith r ele va nt facts .

- C -
C ac op hon : MEA NIN G: A ha rs h, di sc or da nt, or meani ngl ess m ixt ur e of
sounds .
SE N TEN CE: T he noi se of ba rki ng dogs and s ir e ns adde d to the cacophony
at m idni ght; I di dn' t s le ep.
C an did : M EA NIN G: S inc ere or hone st
S E N TEN CE: T he candi d attitude of the pr im e m ini ste r i ns pire d m any
RXQJi ndividua ls t o s ee hi m as a rol e m ode l.
C ap ric iou s: M EA NIN G: U npr edi cta bl e
SE N TEN CE: S ha re m arke t be haviour was c apr ic ious dur ing t he COVID -
19 pa ndemic .
C as tigat e: M EA NIN G: C ritic iz e ha rs hl y
SE N TEN CE: D rill s erge ant s a re know n to c astiga te ne w recrui ts s o
m erc ile sslt hat t he latte r of te n br eak dow n.
Chic an er: M EA NIN G: T he us e of de cept ion or subt erfuge
S E N TEN CE: T he re i s pl ent Rf chi cane ri n the world of int erna tiona l
espi ona ge.
Cat als t: M EA NIN G: S om ethi ng t hat c aus es c ha nge
SE N TEN CE: T he stude nt’s i de as w ere t he cata ls t f or the teache r’s
di ffe re nt appr oach t o teachi ng.
Cau stic : M EA NIN G: I nt ende d to hur t, bi tte rls arc astic
S E N TEN CE: T he di vor cing c oupl e s poke to e ach ot her w ith c aus tic
r e m arks .

Cir cu m sc rib e: M EA NIN G: L im it or restr ic t
S E N TEN CE: U nrelia bl e a ccess t o f unds cir c um sc ribe d t he inve stor ’s
a ctivi tie s.
C oagu lat e: M EA NIN G: ( of a flui d) cha nge to a sol id or sem i- s ol id s ta te
S E N TEN CE: B lood ha d coagul ate d a round t he edge s of the wound.
Chau vinis m : M EA NIN G: E xc essive suppor t f or one ’s ow n caus e, gr oup
or sex
S E N TEN CE: M ale c ha uvi nists do not belie ve wom en a re t he ir e qua l.
C od a: MEA NIN G: A conc ludi ng e vent, s ection or rem ark
S E N TEN CE: A pr ae r w as t he coda to t he pr ie st’s s ession t hat S unda y.
C oge nt: M EA NIN G: C onvi ncing, l ogical
S E N TEN CE: T he de fe nc e pr ese nt ed c oge nt argum ent s t o t he jur ; the ir
ve rdi ct: not guilty .
C om men su rat e: M EA NIN G: E qua l i n e xtent , pr opor tiona l
SE N TEN CE: H er s ala rw as c om mens urate w ith he r e xpe rie nc e a nd
qua lif ic ations .
Com pen diu m : M EA NIN G: a col le ction or set of sim ila r i te m s.
S E N TEN CE: T he book s he bor row ed w as a com pendi um of maps and
stor ie s of the count rs he pl anne d to vi sit.
C om plai san t: M EA NIN G: W illing t o please ot hers
S E N TEN CE: F light atte nda nts a re us uallYe rc om plais a nt w ith
pa sse nge rs .

Con don e: M EA NIN G: A ccept or ove rlook be haviour tha t i s c ons ide re d
w rong or offe ns ive
S E N TEN CE: T he school did not condone sm oki ng i n the pl aJr ound.
Con fou nd: M EA NIN G: C aus e c onf usion w ith s urpris e ; m ix up
S E N TEN CE: T he tw ins w oul d de libe ra te lc onf ound t heir t eache rs by
sw appi ng s eats i n t he cla ssroom .
Con noi sse u r: M EA NIN G: E xpe rt of art; or sim ply, e xpe rt
S E N TEN CE: M igue l m ana ged a vineard a nd w as s om ethi ng of a w ine
c onnoi sse ur .
Com plian t: M EA NIN G: S ubm is sive , w illing t o obe som eone els e
S E N TEN CE: H e w as c om plia nt w hen t he pol ic e a ske d hi m to s te p out of
the car.
C on te n tiou s: M EA NIN G: L ike lt o c aus e c ont rove rs y
S E N TEN CE: T he film make r pr oduc ed a verc ont ent ious doc ument arRn
the sta te of the gl oba l e nvi ronm ent .
Con ciliat or : MEA NIN G: S oot hing a nd satis fi ng
SE N TEN CE: S he was s till a ngr Ge spi te hi s c onc ilia tor w ords to he r a fte r
the ir a rgum ent .
Con tr it e : M EA NIN G: F eeling or expr essing r em or se
S E N TEN CE: T he teache r f ound a verc ont rite s tude nt w hen he visite d t he
dete nt ion r oom .
Con com it an t: M EA NIN G: A ccom pani ng, a ssoc ia te d
S E N TEN CE: T he jos of mothe rhood ha d conc omita nt anxi etie s.

Con undru m : M EA NIN G: A di ffic ul t pr obl em ; puz zle
S E N TEN CE: T he studRf phsic s i nvol ved m anc onundr ums.
C on verge : MEA NIN G: T endi ng t o com e t oge the r f rom diffe re nt
di re ctions
S E N TEN CE: T he crow d conve rge d on t he hol relic .
C on vol ute d : M EA NIN G: T wis te d, ve rc om plic ate d
S E N TEN CE: Y our argum ent is s o c onvol uted t hat I 'm not abl e t o
unde rs ta nd i t e nough t o sta rt c ritiqui ng i t.
C ou rte ou s: M EA NIN G: P olite a nd r espe ctf ul in m anne r
SE N TEN CE: T he law e r s ent m e a ve rc our te ous lette r.
C rave n: M EA NIN G: V erc owardl y
SE N TEN CE: W hen he saw the ene mt roops adva ncing, he had a cra ve n
im pul se t o r un f or hi s l if e .
C restfal le n : M EA NIN G: D eje cte d, s ad a nd di sa ppoi nted
S E N TEN CE: H alf t he crow d in the sta di um were c re stf a lle n a fte r t he ir
te am los t t he gr and f ina l.
C ulp ab ilit y : M EA NIN G: D ese rvi ng bl am e
SE N TEN CE: T he ext ent of the cul pa bilitRf each na tion i n its ha ndl ing of
the cris is be cam e c le are r ove r t im e.
C ursor : MEA NIN G: B rie f, ha sty
S E N TEN CE: H e ga ve the repor t a cur sor Jl anc e be for e ha ndi ng i t t o hi s
se cre ta ry .

- D -
D an der: M EA NIN G: T inSa rtic le s, f rom hair , s kin or feathe rs ; a feeling
of ange r, t em pe r
SE N TEN CE: T he sm ir k on t he vi lla in’ s f ace r ais e d t he da nde r of the
pol ic em an.
D au nt: M EA NIN G: D is c our age or fright en
S E N TEN CE: T he stude nt da unt ed hi s c la ssm ate w hen t he teache r w as not
looki ng.
Cred ulou s: M EA NIN G: T rus ting t oo e asilRr without enough e vide nce.
S E N TEN CE: F ew pe opl e a re c re dul ous enough t o belie ve tha t t he Unite d
N ations has gl oba l a ut hor ity .
D eb unk : M EA NIN G: S how som ethi ng t o be fals e
S E N TEN CE: I nve stiga tive jour nalis ts ha ve de bunke d various pol itic al
m ths .
Decor um : M EA NIN G: P rope r I n m anne rs a nd c onduc t
SE N TEN CE: D is c ipl ine requi re s t he de cor um of one ’s be haviour and
attitude tow ards rul es a nd r egul ations .
Defau lt : M EA NIN G: F ailur e t o f ulfil a n obl iga tion, e spe cia lla fina ncia l
one
S E N TEN CE: T he com panw ill ha ve to r estr uc tur e i ts de bts t o a voi d
defa ul t.
D efe ren ce: M EA NIN G: P olite a nd r espe ctf ul subm is sion

SE N TEN CE: H e r esponde d with na tur al de fe re nc e, gi ving t hem hi s f ul l
atte nt ion.
D elib erat ion : MEA NIN G: C are ful cons ide ra tion; slow move ment
S E N TEN CE: T he jur Ge live re d i ts ve rdi ct a fte r due delibe ra tion.
D elin eat e: M EA NIN G: D esc ribe in pr ecis e de ta il
S E N TEN CE: I do ne ed t he cash, but I'm not signi ng up f or thi s
ps c hol ogical e xpe rim ent unl ess RXGe line ate w hat's goi ng to ha ppen.
Dem ean : MEA NIN G: C aus e a los s i n di gnita nd r espe ct f or som ethi ng or
som eone ; do s omethi ng t hat i s be neath one ’s di gni ty
S E N TEN CE: S he di d not demean he rs e lf bc alling he r bof rie nd a fte r
se eing hi m w ith a not her gi rl.
D en igr ate: M EA NIN G: C ritic iz e unf air l; di spa ra ge .
SE N TEN CE: D on’ t l is te n t o the doom and gl oom merc ha nts w ho de nigr ate
the ir ow n count ry .
D erid e: M EA NIN G: E xpr ess c ont em pt for ; r idi cul e.
S E N TEN CE: T he de cis ion t o cre ate a shoppi ng mall i n f ront of the lake
w as de ride d be nvironm ent alis ts
D erivat ive : MEA NIN G: N ot or igi na l
SE N TEN CE: M anm odern s inge rs ' a lbum s a re m ere di sa ppoi ntment ,
de riva tive of seve ra l hi t a lbum s f rom pa st l ege nds .
Desic cat e: M EA NIN G: D ehGr ate , r em ove wate r f rom
S E N TEN CE: O ut W est, i t w as t he tim e of the sum mer s un a nd dus t s tor ms,
w he n w hole de sic cate d f arm s bl ew away.

Desu lt or : MEA NIN G: L acki ng a plan, pur pose, or ent hus ia sm
S E N TEN CE: A few pe opl e w ere l eft a t t he pa rty , da ncing i n a desul tor y
fa shi on.
Dete rren t: M EA NIN G: s om ethi ng t hat di sc our age s or is i nt ende d to
disc our age som eone from doi ng s omethi ng
SE N TEN CE: C am era s a re a m ajor de te rre nt to c rim e
Diat rib e: M EA NIN G: A for ceful and bi tte r ve rba l a tta ck a gains t s om eone
or som ethi ng
SE N TEN CE: T he spe ech w as a di atr ibe aga ins t c ons umeris m .
Dic h ot om : MEA NIN G: A cont ra st be tw een t wo t hings tha t a re oppos ed,
or ve rGi ffe re nt .
SE N TEN CE: T he re i s a fixe d di chot omEe tw een s cie nc e a nd r eligi on.
Did ac tic is m : M EA NIN G: A phi los ophRf teachi ng i n art a nd l ite ra tur e
SE N TEN CE: T he di dactic qua litie s of his poe tr RYe rs ha dow its l ite ra ry
qua litie s; t he lesson he teache s i s m ore m em or abl e t ha n t he line s.
D if fid en ce: M EA NIN G: L ack of self -c onf ide nce, s hQe ss
S E N TEN CE: H er di ffide nce s how ed up i n the cla ssroom when s he was
aske d t o s peak.
D if fu se : M EA NIN G: S pr ead out over a large are a; not conc ent ra te d
S E N TEN CE: N ew technol ogies di ffus e r api dly.
D igr ession : MEA NIN G: a tem por arGe partur e f rom the m ain s ubj ect i n
spe ech or writing.
S E N TEN CE: “ Let's r etur n t o the m ain t opi c a fte r t ha t br ie f di gression.”

Dis ab use : M EA NIN G: F re e s om ebodf rom an i ncorre ct be lie f.
S E N TEN CE: I w ill a tte m pt to di sa bus e RXRf RXr im pr ession of my
clie nt 's gui lt; I know he is i nnoc ent .
Dis c ern in g: M EA NIN G: M ent allTXi ck a nd obs erva nt
SE N TEN CE: T he shi ps in t he ha rbour were not disc erni ble i n t he fog.
D is c or dan t: M EA NIN G: D is a gr eeing or inc ongr uous ; l acki ng i n ha rm ony
SE N TEN CE: T he ope ra tive pr inc ipl e of de moc ra ci s a ba la nc e of
di sc or da nt qua litie s
D is c ou nte n an ce : M EA NIN G: R efus e t o a ppr ove of; di stur b t he
com pos ure of
S E N TEN CE: W hen c api ta lis t de velopm ent di sc ount ena nces t he pe opl e, i t
los es i ts s oul . The soul of capi ta lis t de velopm ent at t he na tiona l, r egi ona l
and gl obal l eve l m ust be the pe opl e.
D is c red it : M EA NIN G: I nj ur e T he reput ation of
S E N TEN CE: t he cam pa ign w as hi ghl Qe gative in t one ; e ach c andi date
tr ie d t o di sc re di t t he ot her.
D is c rep an c: M EA NIN G: L ack of cons is te nc Ee tw een f acts
S E N TEN CE: T he re i s a di sc re pa ncEe tw een t he account ant ’s r epor t a nd
the clie nt ’s .
D ir ge : MEA NIN G: A m our nful song, pi ece of music , or sound
SE N TEN CE: W hen K im sang a dirge for he r de cease d f athe r, s he br ought
eve rRQe to t ears .
D is c rete : M EA NIN G: I ndi vidua lls epa ra te

SE N TEN CE: S pe ech i s pr oduc ed a s a cont inuous sound s igna l r athe r t ha n
disc re te uni ts .
D is in ge nuou s: M EA NIN G: N ot sinc ere , not sim ple
SE N TEN CE: A lthough he was RXQJKi s r em arks indi cate d t hat he was
di singe nuous .
Dis in te reste d : M EA NIN G: U npr ejudi ced bc onside ra tion of pers ona l
gain; uni ntere ste d.
S E N TEN CE: M Ge cis ion t o inve st i n RXr com pani s a di sint ere ste d
one ; I a m acting on be half of a clie nt .
Dis joi nte d : M EA NIN G: D is c onne cte d
S E N TEN CE: I n pol itic s w e ha ve seen, w henever t he re i s a cla sh of
int ere sts , pol itic al pa rtie s ha ve be com e di sjoi nted.
D is m is s : M EA NIN G: D is c ha rge from an of fic e or pos ition; tre at a s
unw orthRf cons ide ra tion
S E N TEN CE: T he pr im e m ini ste r di sm is se d f ive m em be rs of his c abi ne t.
D is p ar age : MEA NIN G: B elittle , r ega rd a s be ing of little w orth
S E N TEN CE: T he fem ini st gr oup t ende d to di spa ra ge m en.
D is p ar ate: M EA NIN G: E sse nt ia llGi ffe re nt , not abl e t o be com pare d.
S E N TEN CE: T he tw o a uthor s i nha bit di spa ra te w orlds of thought .
Dis q uie tin g: M EA NIN G: D is tur bing, c aus ing a nxiety .
S E N TEN CE: M r. A mir 's l ack of em otion a t hi s w if e 's de ath w as
di squi eting – s o much s o, i n fact, t ha t e ve n hi s ow n fam ilEe gan t o
sus pe ct he had som ethi ng t o do w ith i t.

Dis se m ble : M EA NIN G: H ide or disgui se one 's r eal f eelings or be lie fs
S E N TEN CE: S he sm ile d a nd l ooke d away, di sse m bling he r t rue em otions .
Dis se m in at e: M EA NIN G: S pr ead w ide ly , e spe cia lli nformation
S E N TEN CE: H ealth a uthor itie s s houl d foste r good pr actic e by
di sse m ina ting i nformation
D is sol ution : MEA NIN G: t he action of ceasing or dism is sing a n asse m bly,
pa rtne rs hi p, or offic ia l body
S E N TEN CE: T he di ssol ution of the ir m arria ge afte r 20 e ars t ook pl ace i n
a f ew m inut es.
D is son ance : M EA NIN G: l ack of agr eem ent or ha rm ony , espe cia lli n
mus ic
S E N TEN CE: T he m eeting e nded in upr oar a nd di ssona nce.
D is te n d : M EA NIN G: S well or caus e t o s well bSr essur e f rom ins ide
S E N TEN CE: T he abdom en di ste nde d rapi dly.
D is til : M EA NIN G: R em ove im pur itie s f rom , inc re ase t he conc ent ra tion
of
S E N TEN CE: Y ou c an’ t dr ink t he wate r f rom the rive r, but RXc an di stil i t.
D ive st: M EA NIN G: T ake som ethi ng a waf rom som ebody
S E N TEN CE: T he pr eside nt w as di veste d of his pow er t o a ct a nd c ould no
longe r gove rn.
D oc tr in ai re: M EA NIN G: T ri ng t o impos e doc tr ine without taki ng
pr actic al c ons ide ra tions int o a ccount

SE N TEN CE: M r. C hief J us tic e i s s uc h a doc tr ina ir e pe rs on t hat he will
ne ver c om prom is e on t he sent enc es he make s f or terror is ts .
D oc um en t: M EA NIN G: S uppor t w ith e vide nce; w ritte n pi ece
S E N TEN CE: I n t he ana lt ic al w riting a sse ssm ent , if RXw rite a n e ssa y
w ith w ell- doc ument ed e xamples, RXs hould get a hi gh s cor e.
D ogm atic : M EA NIN G: i nc line d t o laGRw n princ ipl es a s unde niabl t rue
S E N TEN CE: S he was not tem pted t o be too dogm atic a bout what s he
be lie ve d.
Dogm atis m : M EA NIN G: T he tende nct o be right all t he tim e, w ith l ittle
c ons ide ra tion f or ot hers
S E N TEN CE: M r. J one s s how s a n i nfle xi ble dogm atis m w hen i t c om es t o
ans wering di ffic ul t que stions .
Dor man t: M EA NIN G: T em por arili nactive
S E N TEN CE: T he di se ase m ar em ain dor mant and unde te cte d unt il i t i s
tr a ns mitte d t o ot her f is h.
D upe: M EA NIN G: T ric k, de ceive
S E N TEN CE: T he m ana ger w as dupe d into hi ring a crim ina l.

- E -
E bullie n t: M EA NIN G: E ne rge tic a nd f ull of che er
S E N TEN CE: F atim a s ounde d ebul lie nt and ha ppw hen s he got verKi gh
exa m scor e.
E ccen tr ic : M EA NIN G: O dd; deviating f rom nor mal, unus ual
SE N TEN CE: H er pa re nt s w ere e ccent ric but verl ova ble.
E cle ctic : M EA NIN G: S ele cting w hat s eem s be st f rom various stl es or
ide as
S E N TEN CE: T he gove rnm ent appl ie d a set of bipartis a n a nd e cle ctic
pol ic ie s.
E ffic ac y : M EA NIN G: T he qua litRf being a ble t o pr oduc e t he int ende d
effe ct
S E N TEN CE: T he effic acRf RXr prepa ra tion of the exa m de pends on
RXr devot ion a nd ha rd w ork.
Effr on te r: M EA NIN G: R ude or im pe rtine nt be haviour
SE N TEN CE: T he teache r c ondone s no e ffront eri n he r c la ssroom .
Egr egi ou s: M EA NIN G: E xtre m elEa d to s uch a n extent tha t i t be com es
shoc king
SE N TEN CE: T he pr im e m ini ste r’s a bus e of pow er w as s o e gregi ous tha t
eve n hi s ow n fam ilGe se rte d hi m and a ske d t he int erna tiona l c our ts t o
ta ke action a gains t hi m.
Ele gy : M EA NIN G: a m our nful poe m; a lam ent for the de ad

SE N TEN CE: A n e xample of an e le gi s a poe m w ritte n t o honour a
decease d m an
E lic it : M EA NIN G: D ra w out a reaction, a nswer, or fact
S E N TEN CE: I trie d t o e lic it a sm ile f rom Joa nna .
Eloq uen ce : M EA NIN G: P ers ua sive spe ech or writing
S E N TEN CE: S he spoke with s uch e loque nce a t t he m eeting.
E m bellis h : M EA NIN G: D ecor ate a nd a dorn; add de ta ils t o a stor t hat
maQRt be accur ate
S E N TEN CE: M m othe r-in- la w 's s tor ie s a bout her j our nef rom Russia
m ade us laugh be caus e s he em be llis he d t he ba re f acts of he r t ra ve ls w ith
hum orous ane cdot es.
E m pir ic al : M EA NIN G: B ase d on e xperie nc e or expe rim ent ation
S E N TEN CE: H e di str us te d hunc hes a nd i ntuitive fla she s; he placed hi s
re lia nc e e nt ir e lRQe mpiric al da ta .
E m ulat e: M EA NIN G: I m ita te ; m atc h or sur pa ss bi mita tion
S E N TEN CE: M ans inge rs w is he d t o e mulate E lvi s P re sle y.
E ndem ic : M EA NIN G:) R egul arlf ound a mong pa rtic ul ar pe opl e or in a
certa in a re a ( of a di se ase or condi tion)
S E N TEN CE: I s s ur ging i nequa lite nde mic t o c api ta lis m ?
Enervat e: M EA NIN G: T o w eake n phs ic ally , m ent allRr morally
S E N TEN CE: T he long s uffe ring f rom para ls is ha s e ne rva te d hi m.

Enge nder: M EA NIN G: G ive ris e t o, c aus e ( a f eeling, s itua tion, or
c ondi tion)
S E N TEN CE: T he issue of race r ais e d bt he pol itic ia n ha s e nge ndere d
cont inui ng c ontrove rs y.
E nhan ce: M EA NIN G: F ur the r i m pr ove the qua lity , va lue , or ext ent of ;
int ens if y , i nc re ase
S E N TEN CE: H is r efus al doe s not hing t o enha nce hi s r eput ation.
E phem eral : M EA NIN G: L asting onl a shor t t im e
SE N TEN CE: T he m af li s a n e phe mera l c re atur e; i t onl live s f or a
coupl e of hour s.
E quan im it : M EA NIN G: C alm ne ss a nd c ompos ure, e spe cia lli n di ffic ul t
situa tions
S E N TEN CE: S he accept ed bot h the good a nd the ba d w ith e qua nimity .
E quit ab le : M EA NIN G: I m pa rtia l or fair
S E N TEN CE: T he m edi ator sugge ste d a n equi ta bl e s ol ution f or bot h
partie s.
E quivoc ate: M EA NIN G: T o s peak va guels o a s t o c onc eal t he trut h
SE N TEN CE: A fte r S ha ron br ought the car hom e a n hour afte r he r c ur fe w ,
she equi voc ate d w hen he r pa re nt s poi ntedl a ske d he r w here s he ha d be en.
E rron eou s : M EA NIN G: W rong, i ncorre ct
S E N TEN CE: I thought ma nswer w as c or re ct, but it w as e rrone ous; i t's
us ua llt he case f or tric kTXe stions .

Eru dit e : M EA NIN G: W ell- e duc ate d, ha ving or show ing gr eat know le dge
or learni ng
SE N TEN CE: S te ve tur ne d a nc onve rs a tion i nto a n erudi te di sc us sion.
E sot eric : M EA NIN G: U nde rs tood bRQl a few pe opl e w ith s pecia liz ed
know le dge or int ere sts ; obs cur e
SE N TEN CE: S he read a com pila tion of esot eric phi los ophi cal t he orie s.
E ulog: M EA NIN G: E xpr ession of prais e , of te n on t he oc casion of
s om eone 's de ath.
S E N TEN CE: A ll t he eul ogi es of his f rie nds were r ead i n c hur ch a nd t he
fune ra l w as a tte nde d bm any .
Euphem is m : M EA NIN G: a n e xpr ession s ubstitut ed f or one cons ide re d t o
be too bl unt when r efe rring t o som ethi ng unpl easa nt or em ba rra ssing
S E N TEN CE: T he phr ase ‘ pa sse d a wa’ is a euphe mis m for sai ng
som eone died.
E uphor ia: M EA NIN G: A feeling of ext re m e e xc ite m ent
S E N TEN CE: K atie w as e uphor ic a fte r s he got an a dm is sion a t H arva rd
U ni ve rs ity , w ith f ull s chol ars hi p.
Exac erb at e: M EA NIN G: M ake worse
S E N TEN CE: T he cre am the doc tor pr esc ribe d onl exacerba te d t he rash
on S te ve ’s f oot .
Exac tin g: M EA NIN G: E xtre m elGe mandi ng
SE N TEN CE: T he aut hor ’s r equi re m ent s w ere e xa cting, t he edi tor w oul d
need w eeks to do t he work.

Exc ulp at e: M EA NIN G: S how som eone is f re e f rom blam e
SE N TEN CE: I w ill pr ese nt evi de nce of innoc enc e a nd hone sti n hi s 10
e ars of servi ce f or thi s c ount rt hat w ill e xc ulpa te m c lie nt from suc h
groundl ess c ha rge s.
E xi ge nc: M EA NIN G: U rge nt requi re m ent or ne ed
S E N TEN CE: P olitic al de cis ions are pr ese nt ed a s a m atte r of exi ge ncy, a s
though t here w ere no ot her c hoi ce.
E xon erat e: M EA NIN G: O ffic ia lla bsolve from blam e; r ele ase f rom
obl iga tion or duty
SE N TEN CE: I n or der t o w ork i n the USA , one requi re s pr oof of
exone ra tion f rom anc rim ina l a ct.
E xt ran eou s: M EA NIN G: I rre le va nt; of ext erna l or igi n
SE N TEN CE: W e c re ate bubbl es of inf ormation, s ilos of opi nion, a nd we
tune out all t ha t i s e xt ra ne ous or disa gr eeabl e.
E xt rap olat ion : MEA NIN G: T he action of estim ating be xtens ion of
c ur re nt tre nds , or appl ing c urre nt m ethods
S E N TEN CE: I e xt ra pol ate t ha t ge tting hom e w ill t ake 20 m inut es a s i t
took 20 m inut es t o ge t t he re .

- F -
F ac etiou s : M EA NIN G: I na ppr opria te lf unny , flippa nt
SE N TEN CE: F acetious rem arks about a cla ssm ate a re i na ppr opria te a t t he
se rious mom ent w hen RXJRt an e xcelle nt scor e i n t he exa m, but RXr
cla ssm ate got a ve rSRRr scor e.
F ac ile : M EA NIN G: S upe rfic ia l, s im plis tic ; e asila chi eve d
SE N TEN CE: H is e ssa c ont aine d m anf acile ge nera liz ations .
Fac ilit at e: M EA NIN G: M ake an a ction or process e asie r.
S E N TEN CE: B usine sse s w ere l oc ate d i n the sam e a re a t o f acilita te t he
re side nts’ vi siting a nd shoppi ng.
Fal lac iou s: M EA NIN G: B ase d on uns ound argum ent s
SE N TEN CE: D on’ t be mis le d bt he falla cious adve rtis e m ent .
Fal te rin g: M EA NIN G: H esita ting; los ing s tr e ngt h or mom ent um
SE N TEN CE: T he sur pris ing de cre ase i n t he va lue of the eur o a s c om pare d
to ot her c ur re nc ie s i s s ign of a falte ring e conom y.
F as tid iou s: M EA NIN G: G ivi ng ve rc are ful atte nt ion t o de ta il
S E N TEN CE: T he Prof essor is s o f astidi ous tha t he hardl e ver a ppr ove s a
stude nt’s t he sis on f ir s t s ubm is sion, be caus e he is s o f astidi ous about little
poi nts l ike punc tua tion.
F at uou s: M EA NIN G: S illy , f ool is h
S E N TEN CE: H er c om ment s on t he film festiva l c om petition w ere f atuous .

Faw nin g : M EA NIN G: S how ing e xagge ra te d a ffe ction or fla tte r;
obs equi ous
SE N TEN CE: T he puppw as f aw ni ng on i ts m aste r.
F elic it ou s: M EA NIN G: A pt, s uite d t o the cir c um sta nc es; pl easing
S E N TEN CE: T he felic itous music m ade m e ha ppy .
Fervor : M EA NIN G: I nt ens e a nd e arne st f eeling
S E N TEN CE: T he pr ie st de live re d hi s s erm on w ith gr eat f ervor .
Flag : M EA NIN G: L os e e nt hus ia sm or ene rgy
S E N TEN CE: W hen t he oppos ing hoc ket eam scor ed i ts t hi rd goa l onl y
minut es i nt o t he fir s t pe riod, t he hom e t eam 's s pi rits f la gge d.
Fle d gl in g: M EA NIN G: a pe rs on, c re atur e or organization t hat i s
im matur e, i ne xpe rie nc ed, or unde rde velope d
SE N TEN CE: P aki sta n i s a count rw ith a fle dgl ing de moc ra cy
F lou t: M EA NIN G: O penlGi sre ga rd, i n term s of a rul e, l aw , or
conve ntion
S E N TEN CE: T he KXJJe d each ot her, ope nlf lout ing t he soc ia l
di sta nc ing r ules.
F oi ble : M EA NIN G: S light fla w or de fe ct, e spe cia llRf cha ra cte r
S E N TEN CE: H er t ende nct o gos sip w as a n a ll- too- hum an f oible.
F om en t: M EA NIN G: T o i nstiga te or stir up, e spe cia llGi sc or d or troubl e
SE N TEN CE: G re enpe ace f om ent ed pr otests on t he oc ean a gains t w haling.

For estal l: M EA NIN G: T o pr eve nt, hi nde r or thw art ba ction i n adva nce
SE N TEN CE: T he w ill ha nd i n their r esigna tions to f oresta ll a vot e of no
conf ide nce.
F or lor n: M EA NIN G: S ad A nd l onely
S E N TEN CE: A fte r hi s l ove r l eft hi m and w ent w ith s om e ot her guy ,
Edw ard w as f or lor n.
For tu it ou s : M EA NIN G: O ccur ring bKa ppchance; bl ucka ccide nt
SE N TEN CE: T he re i s no c onnection be tw een t hese t w o e vents; t he ir
tim ing i s e nt ir e lf ortui tous .
Fru gal it y : M EA NIN G: T he attitude of not spe ndi ng m uch m oney
SE N TEN CE: M ont e w as no m is e r, but was s im plf ruga l, w is e ls pendi ng
the little t ha t he earne d.
Futile : M EA NIN G: U se le ss, i ne ffe ctive
S E N TEN CE: H is a tte m pts a t s caling t he wall w ere f ut ile , i t w as s im plt oo
high f or hi m.

- G -
G ainsa: M EA NIN G: D enRr disput e; oppos e
SE N TEN CE: H e s hr ugge d his s houl ders , una ble t o ga ins at he argum ent .
Gallin g: M EA NIN G: C aus ing i rrita tion, e xaspe ra ting
S E N TEN CE: L earni ng voc abul arl is ts w ithout sent enc e e xa mples I s a
ga lling t hing f or m ost s tude nts.
G am bit : M EA NIN G: A ction a im ed a t pr oduc ing a fut ur e a dva ntage ; a
r e m ark t o ope n or redi re ct a conve rs a tion
S E N TEN CE: O ne ga mbit i s t o r equi re phot o identif ic ation. T his s houl d
ens ure t ena nts a re pr ope rlm ana ged.
Gar ru lou s: M EA NIN G: T alka tive , w ordy
SE N TEN CE: M anc lub m em be rs a voi ded t he com panRf the ga rrul ous
juni or exe cut ive , be caus e hi s c ons ta nt cha tte r bor ed t hem to t ears .
G au ch e: M EA NIN G: C lum sa nd a wkw ard i n s ocia l be haviour
SE N TEN CE: I t I s t erribl Ja uche to put ketc hup on RXr ste ak a nd t hen
ta lk w ith RXr mout h full a s RXe at i t! T ha t's t he last t im e I e ve r br ing Ru
to a nice pl ace!
G aw k: M EA NIN G: P hs ic alla wkw ard
S E N TEN CE: A s a teena ger, s he thought of he rs e lf a s ga wka nd of te n
slouc hed s o a s not to s eem so m uch t alle r t ha n he r pe ers ; of cour se , now
tha t s he 's a supe rm ode l, no one thi nks of he r a s ga wka t a ll.
G lib : M EA NIN G: F lue nt w ith i nsinc eritRr supe rfic ia lity

SE N TEN CE: P olitic ia ns are us uallJl ib a nd a rtic ul ate s pe ake rs ; t hi s he lps
the m in t heir c am pa ign.
G loat in g: M EA NIN G: S mug or malic ious satis fa ction
S E N TEN CE: A fte r t he fight , the winne r s tood ove r hi s oppone nt and
gl oa te d.
G oad : M EA NIN G: P rod, i ncite , s o a s t o s tim ulate a n a ction or reaction.
S E N TEN CE: H e w as t ri ng t o goa d her i nt o a fight .
Gou ge: MEA NIN G: T o s coop out and m ake gr oove s or hol es
S E N TEN CE: T he wate r c ha nne l ha d be en gouge d out bthe ebbi ng w ate r
G ran diloq uen t : M EA NIN G: E xpr esse d i n loftl angua ge, stl e, or
m anne r, e spe cia lli n a wat hat i s i nt ende d to impr ess.
S E N TEN CE: T he fie sta w as a gr andi loque nt cele br ation of Spa nish gl ory.
G regar iou s : M EA NIN G: S oc ia bl e, f rie ndl y
SE N TEN CE: A s a gr ega rious boD ave ran up t o everSe rs on on t he
plaJr ound a nd want ed t o be the ir f rie nd.
G rove llin g: M EA NIN G: B eha ving i n a faw ni ng or servi le m anne r
SE N TEN CE: J our nalis ts l ike to de sc ribe pol itic al l eade rs a s gr ove lling i n
the ir i nt era ctions with ot hers .
G uile le ss: M EA NIN G: I nnoc ent and w ithout decept ion
S E N TEN CE: T he stude nt ga ve a gui le le ss e xpl ana tion of his a bs enc e f rom
c la ss.
G ullib le : M EA NIN G: E asilSe rs ua ded t o be lie ve som ethi ng; cre dul ous

SE N TEN CE: T he pl an w as a de libe ra te a tte m pt to pe rs ua de a gul libl e
publ ic t o s pend t heir m one y.

- H -
H ac knee d: M EA NIN G: C om monpl ace, not fre sh or origi na l
SE N TEN CE: T he Engl is h t eache r c ritic iz ed he r s tor Ee caus e of its
ha ckne ed a nd unor igi na l pl ot.
HalcRn : MEA NIN G: C alm ; r ic h; ha ppy
SE N TEN CE: T he re w ere ha lc RQGa s all s um mer.
H ar an gue: M EA NIN G: A long ve rba l a tta ck; pom pous spe ech
S E N TEN CE: T he spe ake r on t he soa pbox ha ra ngue d the gove rnm ent .
Har row in g: M EA NIN G: E xtre m elGi stur bing or distr e ssing
S E N TEN CE: T he trip i n the am bul anc e w as ha rrow ing f or the m bot h.
Hod gepod ge: MEA NIN G: J um ble of diffe re nt ki nds of thi ngs
SE N TEN CE: T he exhi bition w as a hodge podge of medi oc re a rt, ba d art,
a nd r eallEa d art; i t w as di slike d bm anYi sitor s.
H om oge neou s: M EA NIN G: of the sam e ki nd; alike
S E N TEN CE: T he une mploe d are not a hom ogenous group.
Hum dru m : M EA NIN G: B oring, m onotonous , rout ine
S E N TEN CE: A fte r f ive e ars i n t he sam e r ol e, S andr a f ound t he work a
little hum drum .
Hp erb ol e: M EA NIN G: E xa gge ra tion
S E N TEN CE: O h, c ome on, s ai ng ' tha t m ovi e w as s o ba d it m ade m e
puke ,’ w as s ur elKpe rbol e. I str ongl GRXEt tha t RXa ctua llYRm ite d!

- I -
I c on oclas tic : M EA NIN G: D efi ng t ra di tion
S E N TEN CE: J acks on P olla ck w as a n i conoc la stic a rtis t, t otallEr eaki ng
with t ra di tion bs plashi ng pa int on a blank c anva s.
Id ol at r: M EA NIN G: T he worshi p of idol s; e xc essive adm ir a tion
S E N TEN CE: W e m ust not allow our idol atr Rf pop s ta rs t o m ake the m
se em m ore t ha n m orta l.
I gn om in iou s: M EA NIN G: E mba rra ssing, hum ilia ting
S E N TEN CE: H e s uf fe re d a n ignom ini ous defe at.
I m mutab le : M EA NIN G: U nchangi ng ove r t im e, pe rm ane nt
SE N TEN CE: S cie nc e pr ese nt s us with s om e i m mutabl e f acts , l ike gr avi ty
on pl ane t E arth.
I m pai r : M EA NIN G: M ake worse , da mage
S E N TEN CE: L is te ni ng t o loud m usic w ithout earpl ugs with a lm os t
certa inl i mpa ir RXr hearing ove r t im e.
Im pas sive : MEA NIN G: N ot show ing e motion
S E N TEN CE: H is c ol d, i mpa ssive face s ta re d a t t he crippl e be ggi ng on t he
str e et.
I m ped e: M EA NIN G: B loc k or obs tr uc t pr ogr ess
S E N TEN CE: T he judge dete rm ine d t hat t he de te ctive ha d not int ent iona lly
s e t out to i mpe de the pr ogr ess of the inve stiga tion.
I m perm eab le : M EA NIN G: N ot allow ing f lui d t o pa ss t hr ough, w ate rpr oof

SE N TEN CE: T he boa t i s m ade from im pe rm eabl e w ood.
Im pertu rb ab le : M EA NIN G: U nsha keabl c alm
S E N TEN CE: G re g r em aine d i mpe rtur ba ble dur ing hi s e xa m, e ven t he last
m om ent s be for e c om pletion di dn't pa nic hi m.
Im pervi ou s: M EA NIN G: N ot affe cte d or inf lue nced; resis ta nt to w ate r or
he at
S E N TEN CE: T he ss te m rem aine d i mpe rvi ous to a ll s ugge stions of
cha nge .
Im plac ab le : M EA NIN G: H ostile , una ble t o be appe ase d, r ele nt le ss
S E N TEN CE: T he ba rris te r w as i m placabl e i n hi s ha ndl ing of the of fe nc e.
Im plic it : M EA NIN G: N ot di re ctle xpr esse d; esse nt ia llc onne cte d w ith;
a bs olute
SE N TEN CE: S he ha d an implic it f aith i n G od.
Im plod e: M EA NIN G: B urst I nw ard
S E N TEN CE: T he re i s a ne w technol ogRf cont rol le d de molition dur ing
w hi ch ol d bui ldi ngs im plode in a matte r of seconds , without anGa mage
to ne arbEXi ldi ngs .
In ad verte n tl: M EA NIN G: A ccide ntally , w ithout int ent ion
S E N TEN CE: C hris i na dve rte nt lGi alle d S andr a’s num ber a nd s he ha ppi ly
a ns were d t he call.
I n cen se d : M EA NIN G: E xtre m ela ngr y
SE N TEN CE: M r. S mith i s know n for hi s ki ndne ss t ow ards chi ldr en;
unki ndne ss t ow ards chi ldr en bRt hers i nc ens ed hi m.

In cessan tly : M EA NIN G: C ont inui ng w ithout stoppi ng
SE N TEN CE: T he ba ts m an hi t bounda rie s a nd s ixe s i nc essa nt la nd w on
the ga me!
In ch oat e: M EA NIN G: J us t be gun, not ful lGe velope d; rudi ment ary
S E N TEN CE: T he count rw as a still i nc hoa te de moc ra cy.
In con gruit y : M EA NIN G: M is m atc h; inc om patibi lity
S E N TEN CE: T he inc ongr uitRf his f le shf ace a nd s kinnERG di stur be d
her.
I n con se q uen tial : M EA NIN G: H avi ng l ittle i m por ta nc e; i llogi cal;
ha pha zard
S E N TEN CE: H er a ns wers w ere i nc ons eque ntia l de spi te t he num bering on
the pa ge.
In cor por ate : M EA NIN G: B ring s omethi ng i nto a large r w hol e; i nc lude
S E N TEN CE: T he second di vision t eam inc orpor ate d t hird di vision pl ae rs
in t he latte r ha lf of the season.
In cor rigi ble : M EA NIN G: A pe rs on or behaviour tha t c annot be refor med
or cha nge d
SE N TEN CE: M frie nd’ s f athe r i s a n i ncorrigi ble dr inke r.
I n defat igab le : M EA NIN G: T ir e le sslSe rs is ting
S E N TEN CE: H e ha d cour age , a vi vid s ens e of dut y, a n i nde fa tiga ble l ove
of w ork, a nd a ll t he inqui sitive zeal a nd i nventive ene rgRf a bor n
re for mer.
I n dete rm in at e: M EA NIN G: V ague and unc le ar, c annot be dete rm ine d

SE N TEN CE: O ur ga la xKa s a n i nde te rm ina te num ber of sta rs
I n dif fe ren t: M EA NIN G: N ot caring, unc oncerne d; m edi oc re
S E N TEN CE: B ecaus e s he felt no de sir e t o m arry , s he was i ndi ffe re nt to
the cons ta nt pr opos als bKe r l ove r.
I n dige nce: M EA NIN G: A sta te of ext re m e pove rt; de stitut ion
S E N TEN CE: A fte r t he U.S. S upr em e C our t c ase , G ide on v . Wainw right in
1963, s ta te gove rnm ent s w ere r equi re d t o pr ovide law e rs t o i ndi gent
defe nda nts.
In dol en t : M EA NIN G: L azy, w ant ing t o avoi d effor t or exe rtion
S E N TEN CE: A t l unc htim e t he indol ent ki ds sat a round w hile t he active
ki ds pl ae d ga mes.
In elu ctab le : M EA NIN G: I ne sc apa ble, una ble t o be avoi ded
SE N TEN CE: T wo i neluc ta bl e f acts of lif e a re de ath a nd t axe s.
In ert: M EA NIN G: N ot abl e t o m ove; i na ctive
S E N TEN CE: T he stor w as i ne rt a nd c are le ss, a s i f t he aut hor was w riting
ha lf -a sle ep.
In exor able : M EA NIN G: C ont inui ng w ithout anSRs sibi litRf being
s toppe d
SE N TEN CE: T echnol ogm oves i ne xor abl t ow ards a di gita l f ut ur e.
In heren t: M EA NIN G: E xisting a s a pe rm ane nt, e sse nt ia l qua lity
S E N TEN CE: N ew rese arc h s eem s t o s uppor t t he ide a t ha t hum ans ha ve an
inhe re nt sens e of fair ne ss – e ven ba bies be com e ups et a t e qua l a nd une qual
distr ibut ions of food.

In noc uou s: M EA NIN G: H arm le ss, i nof fe ns ive
S E N TEN CE: T he jour nalis t a ske d a coupl e of innoc uous questions at t he
pr ess c onf ere nc e.
In sat iab le : M EA NIN G: U nable t o be satis fie d, phs ic alla nd s piritua lly
S E N TEN CE: S he ha s a n i nsatia bl e de sir e t o l earn t he Engl is h l angua ge.
In sc ru tab ilit : M EA NIN G: T he qua litRf being i mpos sibl e t o i nve stiga te
S E N TEN CE: T he re i s a certa in i nscrut abi litRf the fut ur e.
In se n sib le : M EA NIN G: B are la ble t o be perc eive d; inc apa ble of
se ns ation
S E N TEN CE: T he re w as a n i nsens ibl e c ha nge in hi s t em pe ra tur e.
In sin uat e: M EA NIN G: H int at s om ethi ng ne gative ; be com e i nvol ved i n a
subt le w ay
S E N TEN CE: H e i ns inua te d hi mse lf i nt o t he conve rs a tion of the pe opl e a t
the ne arbt abl e.
In sip id : M EA NIN G: L acki ng f la vour , weak or taste le ss
S E N TEN CE: T he fir s t ba nd t o plaa t t he conc ert w as a little i ns ipi d.
In su lar it : M EA NIN G: T he qua litRf being i sol ate d or deta che d
SE N TEN CE: T he 1950s were a de cade of cons erva tis m and i nsularity .
In tr ac tab le : M EA NIN G: D if fic ul t t o m ana ge or moul d
SE N TEN CE: T he ki nde rga rte n ki ds w ere i nt ra cta bl e a nd t he teache r gr ew
frus tr a te d.

In tr an sige nce: M EA NIN G: U nw illingne ss t o c hange one ' be lie fs ;
stubbor nness
S E N TEN CE: D espi te m anc alls f or m erc y, t he judge rem aine d
int ra ns ige nt, c iting s tr ic t l ega l pr ecede nce.
In undat e: M EA NIN G: Q uickl f ill up, ove rw he lm
S E N TEN CE: H er i nbox w as i nunda te d w ith e mails on he r bi rthda y.
In ured : M EA NIN G: M ade tough bKa bitua l e xpos ure
SE N TEN CE: H e w as i nur ed t o the sound of his ne ighbour ’s dog ba rki ng.
In ve ctive : MEA NIN G: I ns ulting, a busive , or highl critic al l angua ge
SE N TEN CE: H is i nve ctive was ove rhe ard be verRQe in t he ne xt of fic e.
In vol ved: M EA NIN G: C onne cte d; hi ghl com plex
S E N TEN CE: S he was i nvol ved i n a nimal c are t hr ough he r G ir l G uide s
mem be rs hi p.
Ir as cib le : M EA NIN G: H avi ng or show ing a tende nct o be easila nge re d.
S E N TEN CE: E arli n their m arria ge , Julie di sc ove re d he r hus band c ould
be ira sc ibl e.
Ir resol ute : M EA NIN G: U ncerta in how to a ct or proceed
S E N TEN CE: T he ne w gove rnor was i rre sol ute; he neede d t he advi ce f rom
the com mitte e.
Itin erar : MEA NIN G: A pl anne d rout e or jour ney
SE N TEN CE: H is i tine ra ri nclude d an of fic ia l vi sit t o C ana da

- L -
L ac klu str e: M EA NIN G: L acki ng e nergy , e xcite m ent , e nthus ia sm , or
pa ssion.
S E N TEN CE: W e w ere di sa ppoi nted bt he lackl us tr e pe rfor manc e of our
cric ke t t eam thi s w eeke nd.
Lac on ic : M EA NIN G: S ai ng ve rl ittle
S E N TEN CE: W hile M artha alw as sw oone d ove r t he hunky , laconi c t Se s
in r om ant ic c om edi es, he r bof rie nd w as ve rt alka tive – a nd not very
hunky .
Lar gesse : M EA NIN G: L ibe ra liti n be stow ing gi fts ; ge nerous of spi rit
S E N TEN CE: H er pa rtne r’s l arge sse w arm ed he r he art; he was ge nerous to
fa m ily , f rie nds and ne ighbour s.
L as sit u de: M EA NIN G: T ir e dne ss, l azine ss
S E N TEN CE: A s a couc h pot ato I tur n l assitude int o a n art f or m!
Lat en t: M EA NIN G: E xisting, but not et de velope d or mani fe st; hi dde n
or conc eale d.
S E N TEN CE: A ustr a lia ha s a huge rese rve of late nt tale nt .
Lau d : M EA NIN G: P ra is e hi ghl y
SE N TEN CE: I n t he ne wspa per obi tua ry , s he was l aude d as a br illia nt ope ra
s inge r.
L eth ar gic: M EA NIN G: A ffe cte d bl etha rg; sluggi sh a nd a pathe tic
S E N TEN CE: Y este rda I felt l etha rgi c a nd s ta e d a t hom e; t oda I am
re aring t o go!

Leve e: M EA NIN G: A n e mba nkm ent bui lt t o pr eve nt the ove rflow of a
rive r
SE N TEN CE: T he Ka d their pi cni c on t he leve e ne xt to t he rive r.
L evi t: M EA NIN G: L acki ng s erious ness
S E N TEN CE: S top gi ggling a nd w riggl ing a round i n the pe w; s uc h l evi ti s
im pr ope r i n c hur ch.
L og : M EA NIN G: R ecor d of da-to- da a ctivi tie s; t re e t runk
S E N TEN CE: L aw e rs w ho bi ll bt he hour have to be sur e t o l og a ll t he
tim e t he s pend on e verc lie nt 's c ase .
L oq uac iou s: M EA NIN G: T alka tive , w ordy .
SE N TEN CE: M Igue l i s ve rl oqua cious and c an s peak on t he tele phone for
hour s.
L ucid : M EA NIN G: E asilXQGe rs tood; cle ar; i nt elligi ble.
S E N TEN CE: E xa mple s ent enc es a re a not her l uc id w aRf learni ng
voc abul ary .
L ull: M EA NIN G: C aus e t o f all a sle ep; qui ete n dow n
SE N TEN CE: T he cont inuous readi ng of vocabul arl ulle d M ir ia m to
sle ep.
L um in ou s: M EA NIN G: G ivi ng of f s of t l ight ; s hi ning
SE N TEN CE: H er ha ppf ace w as l um inous in t he tw ilight .

- M -
M agn anim it : M EA NIN G: G ene ros itRf spi rit; uns elf is hne ss
S E N TEN CE: B oth s ide s w ill ha ve to s how magna nimitt o r each a
com prom is e .
M alad roi t: M EA NIN G: N ot ski lf ul ; a wkw ard; bungl ing
S E N TEN CE: A m ala dr oit m ove ment of his ha nds caus ed t he car t o
sw erve .
Malfe as an ce: M EA NIN G: W rongdoi ng ba public of fic ia l
S E N TEN CE: T he hi gh- ra nki ng of fic ia l's m alf e asa nc e w as di sc ove re d onl y
afte r he had fle d t he count ry .
M alin ge rer: M EA NIN G: S om eone who s hirks dut y, w ork or effor t, of te n
pr ete ndi ng t o be unw ell
S E N TEN CE: T he doc tor said m son w as a m alinge re r.
M alle ab le : M EA NIN G: E asili nflue nced; pl ia bl e
SE N TEN CE: T he fans of the gove rnor are a s m alle abl e a nd e asill ed a s
she ep.
M ave ric k : M EA NIN G: R ebe l, nonc onformis t
S E N TEN CE: M ost c op m ovies f eatur e he roe s t ha t a re m ave ric k pol ic e
of fic ers , br eaki ng a ll t he rul es, bl owing t hings up, a nd getting t heir guns
c onf is c ate d bt he chi ef – but ultim ate ls avi ng t he da y.
M aw kis h : M EA NIN G: E ffus ive lRr ins inc ere le motiona l; e xc essive ly
s e nt im ent al
S E N TEN CE: T he Vale nt ine ’s D ac ards w ere a bi t m aw ki sh t o m taste .

Mellif lu ou s: M EA NIN G: P le asing t o the ear
S E N TEN CE: A li w oke up e arlt o the m ellif luous singi ng of spa rrow s.
M en dac iou s : M EA NIN G: N ot telling t he trut h; li ng.
SE N TEN CE: T he pol itic al pa rtw orke rs ha d be en m enda cious thr oughout
the cour t i nve stiga tion a nd as a resul t t he w ere puni she d s eve re ly .
M en dac it : M EA NIN G: T he tende nct o be untrut hf ul
SE N TEN CE: Y ou ne ed t o ove rc om e t hi s de plor abl e m enda city , or no one
will e ve r be lie ve ant hing RXs ay.
M etam orphos is : M EA NIN G: C ha nge of for m or sha pe.
SE N TEN CE: T he m eta m or phos is of cate rpi lla r t o but te rfli s t Si cal of
m ans uch c hange s i n a nimal l if e .
M etic u lou s: M EA NIN G: E xtre m elc are ful and pr ecis e
S E N TEN CE: S he was m etic ul ous in he r pr oof re adi ng a nd cop- edi ting
bus ine ss.
M im ic k in g: M EA NIN G: C opi ng, imita ting
S E N TEN CE: W hen R ic ha rd w as c aught mim ic ki ng hi s t eache r i n a rude
w ay, he was put on de te nt ion.
M is an th rop e: M EA NIN G: A pe rs on w ho di slike s hum anki nd a nd avoids
hum an s ocie ty .
S E N TEN CE: H ostile a nd unt rus ting pe ople c an be desc ribe d a s
mis a nt hr opi c.
M it igat e: M EA NIN G: L esse n t he ext ent of a ha rm ful or ne gative out com e

SE N TEN CE: S uns cre en i s us ed t o m itiga te t he effe cts of sun on RXr ski n.
M od ic u m : M EA NIN G: A sm all or mode ra te a m ount
SE N TEN CE: W hen RXa warde d t he Fulbr ight Schol ars hi p, RXw ill ha ve
onl a modi cum expe nse of the vi sa t o be ar; a ll m ajor expe nses a re
c ove re d bt he schol ars hi p.
M ollif : M EA NIN G: C alm or soot he; ga in t he good w ill of
S E N TEN CE: W e t rie d t o m ollif t he hs te ric al c hi ld bSr omis ing he r
manJi fts .
M orbid : M EA NIN G: S ugge sting t he hor ror of de ath a nd de cay
S E N TEN CE: T he stor ie s of the war w ere m orbid a nd ups etting t o the
chi ldr en.
M orose: M EA NIN G: E xtre m elJl oom and de presse d
S E N TEN CE: S he was m oros e a fte r he r a unt passe d a way.
M undan e : M EA NIN G: C om mon, or dina ry
S E N TEN CE: H e w as c onc erne d onl with m unda ne m atte rs ; w here t o pa rk
the car, w hat but che r w as be st e tc .

- N -
N as cen t: M EA NIN G: T he bi rth or beginni ng of som ethi ng
SE N TEN CE: I f w e c oul d identif t hese r evol utiona rm ovement s i n t heir
na sc ent sta te , w e w oul d be abl e t o e lim ina te s erious troubl e i n l ate r e ars .
N egat e: M EA NIN G: M ake ine ffe ctive bc ounterba la nc ing t he effe ct of
S E N TEN CE: T he di sc ove rRf one dinos aur jaw ne gate d t he wis dom tha t
all di nos aur s w ere ve geta ria n; tha t j aw w as f rom a carni vor e.
N uan ce: M EA NIN G: S ha de of subt le di ffe re nc e i n m eani ng, c olour or
fe eling;
SE N TEN CE: T he uns kille d e e of the laSe rs on ha s di ffic ul ti n
disc erni ng t he nua nces of col our in t he pa int ing.

- O -
O bdurat e : M EA NIN G: S tubbor n
SE N TEN CE: I a rgue d this poi nt w ith hi m, but he was obdur ate de spi te a ll
the convi ncing r easons I c oul d gi ve.
Obju rgat ion : MEA NIN G: H ars h c ritic is m
S E N TEN CE: W hen s om eone receive s a seve re s col ding, t hee xpe rie nc e
obj urga tion.
N eop ht e: M EA NIN G: A pe rs on w ho is br and ne w to a subj ect or activi ty
S E N TEN CE: F our -da c ooki ng cla sse s a re of fe re d t o bot h neopht es a nd
expe rts .
N ettle som e : M EA NIN G: C aus ing i rrita tion or annoa nce; e asila nnoe d
SE N TEN CE: S he found t he pa perw or k i n he r j ob ve rQe ttle som e.
N ot or ie t: M EA NIN G: F am ous but for ne gative reasons
S E N TEN CE: T he not orie tRf Paki sta n a s a cor rupt sta te i s due to i ts l ack
of a ge nui ne ss te m for account abi lity .
O bse q uiou s: M EA NIN G: S ervi le , f aw ni ng
SE N TEN CE: T he fam ous singe r ha d an entour age of frie nds and s ta ff,
m anRf whom were obs equi ous .
Obvi at e: M EA NIN G: E lim ina te a ne ed or diffic ul ty
S E N TEN CE: T o obvi ate a n a nt inf esta tion w e c le an our kitc he n r egul arly .
O cclu de: M EA NIN G: C los e up, or obstr uc t ( an ope ning)

SE N TEN CE: F ounda tion m ake -up oc clude s t he por es of our ski n.
Offic iou s : M EA NIN G: E xc essive le age r i n gi ving unw ant ed a dvi ce,
int erfe ring
S E N TEN CE: M c olle ague can be offic ious in t elling m e how to do m y
job. I t i s a nnoi ng!
Om nis c ie n ce: M EA NIN G: A ll- know ing; having i nfini te know le dge
S E N TEN CE: N obode xcept G od c an c la im to ha ve om nisc ie nc e.
O nerou s: M EA NIN G: I nvol ving a great de al of effor t, t roubl e, or
di ffic ul ty
S E N TEN CE: H e f ound hi s dut ie s i nc re asingl RQe rous .
Opprob riu m : M EA NIN G: A sta te of ext re m e di shonour
S E N TEN CE: H e t hr ew a can of drink of f t he ba lc ony , and e arnt
oppr obrium .
Orth od ox: MEA NIN G: T ra di tiona l; a dhe ring t o what i s c om monl y
accept ed
S E N TEN CE: H e w as a n or thodox ve geta ria n; he did not eve n e at f is h.
O ste n tat iou s : M EA NIN G: C ha ra cte riz ed ba prete nt ious or show y
displ a; de signe d to impr ess
S E N TEN CE: H er dr ess w as a sim ple de sign – gl am or ous without being
os te nt atious .

- P -
P ar ad igm : MEA NIN G: S ta nda rd e xample; a ccept ed pe rs pe ctive
S E N TEN CE: F ar f rom being a tSi callEa wdy , this l im eric k i s a pa ra di gm
of the for m – ne arla ll of the m relRQRf f-c ol our joke s.
P ar agon : MEA NIN G: A pe rs on or thi ng r ega rde d a s a pe rfe ct e xa mple of
a pa rtic ul ar qua lity .
S E N TEN CE: M m othe r w as t he pa ra gon of kindne ss; s he was be love d by
many .
Par tis an : MEA NIN G: O ne-s ide d; pr ejudi ced
S E N TEN CE: O ur judi cia l s s te m cons is ts of pa rtis a n j udge s; i n or der t o
be pr om oted a s a judge , one shoul d have a str ong r ela tions hip w ith a
s tr ong pol itic al pa rty .
P at hol ogi cal : M EA NIN G: C aus ed bSKs ic al or ment al di se ase
S E N TEN CE: H er f rie nd t urne d out to be a pa thol ogical l ia r, not hing s he
eve r s aid w as t rue .
Pat ron is in g: M EA NIN G: T re ating ot hers w ith c onde sc ens ion
S E N TEN CE: E xpe rts i n a fie ld s om etim es a ppe ar t o pa tr oni se pe opl e w ho
are l ess know le dge abl e on t he subj ect.
P au cit : M EA NIN G: T he pr ese nc e of som ethi ng i n onl small or
ins uffic ie nt qua ntitie s
S E N TEN CE: A pa ucitRf good c heer a t t he pa rtl ed t o the hos t t ur ning
up t he m usic .
P ed an tic : M EA NIN G: E xc essive lc onc erne d w ith m inor deta ils or rul es;
ove rls crupul ous

SE N TEN CE: H is a na ls es a re c are ful and e ven pa ins ta ki ng, but never
pedantic .
P ed estr ian : MEA NIN G: O rdi na r; dul l
SE N TEN CE: V oc abul arc la ss w ithout exa mple s ent enc es l ooks to be
pe destr ia n f or m ans tude nts.
P en ch an t : M EA NIN G: L iki ng, pr efe re nc e or str ong i nclina tion
S E N TEN CE: H e ha d a str ong pe nchant for scul ptur e a nd ow ned s o m any
sta tue s.
P erfid iou s : M EA NIN G: U ntrus tw or tha nd de ceitf ul
S E N TEN CE: T he law e r de cide d not to r epr ese nt hi s pe rfidi ous clie nt .
Perfu nctor : MEA NIN G: D one rout ine la nd w ith l ittle i nt ere st or care
S E N TEN CE: H er bof rie nd ga ve he r a pe rfunc tor Ni ss on hi s w aRXt the
door .
Perip heral : M EA NIN G: N ot of prim ari mpor ta nc e
SE N TEN CE: M m ain goa l i s t o ge t i nt o a good gr adua te s chool ; w hethe r
it ha s good f itne ss f acilitie s i s r ealla periphe ra l c onc ern.
P erm eab le : M EA NIN G: A llow ing l iqui ds or ga se s t o pa ss t hr ough
SE N TEN CE: A frog' s s ki n i s pe rm eabl e t o w ate r.
P ersp ic ac iou s: M EA NIN G: S hr ew d, w is e , di sc erni ng
SE N TEN CE: F or a five -e ar-ol d ki d, Tobw as ve rSe rs pi cacious .
Pen ur: M EA NIN G: E xtre m e pove rty
S E N TEN CE: A job l oss a nd f am ilEr eakdow n can l ead t o pe nury.

Peren nial : M EA NIN G: L asting f or an i nfini te t im e; e ndur ing or
c ont inua llr ecur ring
S E N TEN CE: H is pa re nt s ha d a pere nni al di str us t of the m edi a.
P ervas ive : MEA NIN G: S pr eadi ng or spr ead t hroughout , everw here
S E N TEN CE: T alki ng a bout the weathe r i s pe rva sive am ong a dults .
P hle gm atic : M EA NIN G: H avi ng a n une motiona l a nd s tol idl c alm
di spos ition.
S E N TEN CE: T he Britis h c hara cte r c an be phlegm atic c om pare d w ith t he
em otiona l S pa nish.
P hon : MEA NIN G: F ake ; i ns inc ere
S E N TEN CE: S he 's s uc h a phonSe rs on, pr ete ndi ng t o be frie nd pe ople a nd
the n t alki ng a bout the m be hind t heir ba cks .
Pie ty : M EA NIN G: D evot ion t o God or to r eligi ous practic es.
S E N TEN CE: T he nuns live live s of pieta nd c harita bl e w orks .
Plac ate: M EA NIN G: P acif ; br ing pe ace t o
SE N TEN CE: T he teache r t rie d t o pl acate t he ups et m othe r w hos e c hi ld ha d
fa ile d i n the cla ss.
P lac id : M EA NIN G: P eaceful , c alm
S E N TEN CE: H er dog w as qui te pl acid, a nd di d not str uggl e w hen t he ve t
gave hi m an i njection.
P las tic it : M EA NIN G: T he qua litRf being e asils haped or moul ded
SE N TEN CE: F ine cla y, a t t he right degree of plastic ity , i s m ore us eful .

Ple th or a: MEA NIN G: A n a bunda nce or exc ess or som ethi ng
SE N TEN CE: S he ha d a plethor a of pot ent ia l da te s; 10 bos aske d he r out .
Plu m met : M EA NIN G: D rop s harpl ; fall s tr a ight dow n.
SE N TEN CE: D uring t he fir s t m inut e or so of a skGi ve, the di ver
plum mets t ow ards earth i n f re e f all; t he n, he activa te s a pa ra chut e a nd
floa ts dow n at w hat s eem s l ike a rela tive ll eis ur elSa ce.
P ol em ic al : M EA NIN G: I nvol ving c ontrove rs Rr disput e
SE N TEN CE: D on’ t di sc us s pol itic s w ith RXr pare nt s; i t w ill onl end up
in a pol em ic al a rgum ent .
Por ou s: M EA NIN G: F ull of hol es or ope nings
SE N TEN CE: T he bor der be tw een t he USA and M exi co w as por ous befor e
the EXi lt t he wall.
P ragm atic : M EA NIN G: A pe rs on or sol ution t hat t ake s a realis tic
a ppr oach
S E N TEN CE: M Ga ught er w ant s a uni cor n f or he r bi rthda y, w hich i sn’ t
ve rSr agm atic .
P lat it u de: M EA NIN G: A trite or obvi ous rem ark; a clic he
S E N TEN CE: T he pe p talk t he bos s ga ve to hi s t eam w as f ul l of platitude s.
P ream ble : M EA NIN G: I nt roduc tor s ta te m ent , pr efa ce
S E N TEN CE: H is e arlSXEl ic ations were j us t a pr eam ble t o hi s l ate r,
e xt ens ive writte n w orks .
Preclu de: M EA NIN G: P re ve nt from happe ning, m ake im pos sibl e
SE N TEN CE: T aki ng t he Pill pr eclude d he r f rom falling pr egna nt.

Precar iou sl: M EA NIN G: D ange rous ly
S E N TEN CE: T he gl ass w as pr ecarious lEa la nc ed on t he edge of the tabl e.
P recip it at e: M EA NIN G: c aus e s om ethi ng t o ha ppen sudde nly,
une xpecte dl a nd not alw as in a good w ay
S E N TEN CE: T he assa ssina tion of the Arc hbi shop pr ecipi ta te d W orld W ar
T w o.
Prevar ic at ion : MEA NIN G: T he de libe ra te a ct of de viating f rom the trut h
SE N TEN CE: T he repor te r s aid t hat he is e xt re m els orrf or spr eadi ng t he
preva ric ations about the Prim e M ini ste r's de ath i n the hos pita l.
P ris tin e: M EA NIN G: U nspoi le d; rem aini ng i n a pur e s ta te
S E N TEN CE: M uch of the coa stline of Austr a lia i s m ade up of pris tine
be ache s.
P recu rsor : MEA NIN G: S om ethi ng t hat c om es be for e, a nd i ndicate s t ha t
som ethi ng w ill f ol low
S E N TEN CE: P ride is a pr ecur sor to a fall.
P rob it y : M EA NIN G: T he qua litRf having s tr ong m oral pr inc ipl es;
hone sta nd de cenc y
SE N TEN CE: S he show ed gr eat pr obi ti n the di vor ce pr ocess a nd t hey
spl it a m ic abl y.
P resc ie n t: M EA NIN G: H avi ng or show ing know le dge of eve nts be for e
the t ake pl ace
S E N TEN CE: I t i s di ffic ul t, now , to a ppr ecia te j us t how presc ie nt he r a rt
w or k w as.

Prob le m atic : M EA NIN G: C ons titut ing or prese nt ing a probl em .
SE N TEN CE: T he COVID -19 l ockdow n was pr obl em atic f or bus ine sse s
and e mploe es.
P resu m ptu ou s: M EA NIN G: T aki ng l ibe rtie s, bol d forwardne ss
S E N TEN CE: I hope I w on' t be cons ide re d pr esum ptuous if I of fe r Ru
s om e a dvi ce.
P rod igal : M EA NIN G: R ashl Rr waste ful le xtra va gant
SE N TEN CE: O ut of all t he fam ily , t he ir unc le w as t he m ost pr odi gal, a nd
the Ea ile d hi m out fre que ntly .
P rof ou nd: M EA NIN G: V eri nsight ful ; de ep
S E N TEN CE: S he realis e d t he book of fe re d s om e ve rSr ofound m essa ge s
on our cur re nt soc ie ty .
P revar ic at e: M EA NIN G: B e de libe ra te la mbiguous in or der t o m is le ad
S E N TEN CE: H is s tl e w as t o pr eva ric ate , but she saw thr ough hi m and got
to t he trut h.
Proh ib it ive : MEA NIN G: T endi ng t o disc our age (espe cia llSr ic es)
S E N TEN CE: T he books were m ade br ow se r-pr oof with pr ohibitive
c ellopha ne wra ppi ng.
Prol if e rat e : M EA NIN G: I nc re ase r api dli n num ber; m ultipl y
SE N TEN CE: S cie nc e f ic tion m aga zine s pr olif e ra te d i n the 1920s .
Prol if ic : M EA NIN G: P roduc tive ; f rui tf ul
S E N TEN CE: S he wrot e t hr ee s ongs befor e br eakf ast; s he was a pr olif ic
s ongw rite r i n t his s ta ge of he r c are er.

Prop en sit : M EA NIN G: A n i nclina tion or natur al t ende nct o be have in a
pa rtic ul ar w ay
S E N TEN CE: T he dog ha s a pr ope nsitt o ba rk, a nd w e ha ve a pr ope nsity
to be annoe d bit!
P ros crib e: M EA NIN G: F or bid, e spe cia llE l aw
S E N TEN CE: T he he adm aste r pr oscribe d t he us e of mobi le phone s i n t he
cla ssroom .
Prot rac te d : M EA NIN G: D ra w n out for a long t im e, i n a tedi ous way
S E N TEN CE: T he pr otra cte d he at ha d the effe ct of drivi ng pe ople a way
from the cite ste rda y.
P ru den t : M EA NIN G: W is e ; j udi cious .
SE N TEN CE: H er pa rtne r w as pr ude nt w ith t heir m one and t heir f ut ur e,
w hi ch m ade he r ve rKa pp!
Punctiliou sly : M EA NIN G: F astidi ous ly , ve rc are ful ly
S E N TEN CE: B ritis h s oldiers a ct punc tilious la t t he cha ngi ng of the gua rd
a t B uc kingha m Pala ce.
P rop it iat e: M EA NIN G: w in or rega in f avour ; a ppe ase
S E N TEN CE: H e pr opi tia te d hi s m othe r on M othe r’s D aw ith a bouque t
and a box of choc olate s.
P unge nt: M EA NIN G: H avi ng a sha rpl s tr ong t aste or sm ell
S E N TEN CE: T his hom egr ow n ga rlic ha s a pa rtic ul arlSXQJe nt fla vour .
Prop rie t: M EA NIN G: C onf orming t o good m anne rs or appr opria te
be haviour

SE N TEN CE: T he TXe stione d the pr opr ie tRf certa in i nve stm ent s m ade
bt he counc il.

- Q -
Q ual if ie d : M EA NIN G: of fic ia llr ecogni zed a s be ing t ra ine d t o pe rfor m a
pa rtic ul ar j ob; certif ie d
S E N TEN CE: I w as w ell qua lif ie d w ith a degree t o t each t he cla ss E ngl is h
voc abul ar!
Q uib ble : M EA NIN G: S mall f ight or argum ent ove r s om ethi ng
uni mpor ta nt
S E N TEN CE: S he di d not want to qui bble ove r a few eur os w hen s he
bought the dog f rom the pe t s hop.
Q uie sc en t: M EA NIN G: R esting, qui et
S E N TEN CE: H e e nj oe d qui esc ent m om ent s i n hi s ga rde n ha mmoc k on a
beaut if ul sum mer S unda y.
Q uot id ian : M EA NIN G: D aily , r out ine , or dina ry
S E N TEN CE: S he enj oe d all t hi ngs quot idi an: doi ng c hores, br ushing he r
te eth, goi ng to work, be caus e s he ha d a happQa tur e.

- R -
R an kle : M EA NIN G: A ggr ava te ; m ake angr y
SE N TEN CE: W e di d not want to r ankl e t he cat, s o w e put the puppy
out side .
Rar efie d : M EA NIN G: E le va te d a bove the or dina ry
S E N TEN CE: T he schol ars w ere i n a n animate d a nd r are fie d c onve rs a tion
a bout world pol itic s.
R eb uttal : M EA NIN G: A count er a rgum ent to a rgum ent ; a di sa gr eem ent
S E N TEN CE: S te ve rebut te d J ason’ s vi ew tha t hi s t eam w oul d w in t he
game.
R ecal cit r an t: M EA NIN G: O bstina te lXQc oopera tive ; pi g-he ade d
SE N TEN CE: S he ha s a cla ss of recalc itr a nt fif te en- e ar-ol ds .
Recan t : M EA NIN G: T ake ba ck s om ethi ng t hat w as pr evi ous ls aid
S E N TEN CE: H ere tic s w ere bur ned i f t he Gi d not recant .
Reclu se : M EA NIN G: A pe rs on w ho live s a sol ita rl if e a nd t ends to a voi d
othe r pe opl e
SE N TEN CE: A fte r r etur ning f rom the pi lgr im age she ha s t ur ne d i nto a
virtua l r eclus e.
R econ dit e : M EA NIN G: D if fic ul t t o c om prehe nd; abs tr us e
SE N TEN CE: T he book on m athe matic al t he ori s f ul l of recondi te
inf ormation.
R efr ac tor : MEA NIN G: S tubbor n or unm ana geabl e

SE N TEN CE: M GRJi s r efra ctor RQt he lead; he doe s not want to w alk!
R efu te : M EA NIN G: P rove to be fals e
S E N TEN CE: S he refut ed he r ki ds’ c la im the Ka d brushe d t heir t eeth by
pr oduc ing t he dr toot hbr ushe s.
R ele gat e: M EA NIN G: A ssign t o an inferior rank or position
S E N TEN CE: T he ir s oc cer t eam w as r ele ga te d t o third di vision i n the ne w
se ason.
R ep roac h : M EA NIN G: C ritic iz e.
S E N TEN CE: I w ant m w ork t o be above repr oa ch a nd w ithout error
R ep rob ate: M EA NIN G: A n unpr inc ipl ed pe rs on; a ba d egg
SE N TEN CE: T he pol itic ia n ha d to pr ese nt hi mse lf a s m ore of a lova ble
re pr oba te t ha n a pur elc orrupt offic ia l.
R ep udiat e: M EA NIN G: R efus e t o a ccept ; r eje ct.
S E N TEN CE: A s a n a dul t, B en r epudi ate d t he religi on of his upbr ingi ng
and w ent to w ork on S undas.
Resc in d: M EA NIN G: R evoke , canc el, or repe al ( a l aw , or der, or
a gr eem ent )
SE N TEN CE: T he gove rnm ent eve ntua llr esc inde d the pol ic a fte r i t
fa ced s eve re c ritic is m from bot h the oppos ition a nd the publ ic .
R esol ution : MEA NIN G: Q ualitRf being f ir m lGe te rm ine d
SE N TEN CE: G ive n t he m ana re as of conf lic t s till a waiting r esol ution,
the out com e of the pe ace t alks rem ains pr obl em atic .

Resol ve : MEA NIN G: S ettle or find a sol ution t o a probl em or cont ent ious
m atte r
S E N TEN CE: T he fir m aim s t o r esol ve pr obl em s w ithi n 30 da s
Retic en t: M EA NIN G: Q uiet, r estr a ine d
SE N TEN CE: S he was r etic ent about her f eelings in hi s c om pana s s he di d
not know him ve rw ell.
R eve llin g : M EA NIN G: T aki ng gr eat pl easur e
SE N TEN CE: A fte r r eceivi ng t he job of fe r s he reve lle d a ll w eeke nd w ith
he r f am ila nd f rie nds .
Reve ren t : M EA NIN G: F eeling or show ing de ep a nd s olem n r espe ct
S E N TEN CE: I n c hur ch t here i s a r eve re nt sile nc e w hen t he pr ie st s as ,
‘L et us pray.’
R udim en tar : MEA NIN G: B asic ; c rude
S E N TEN CE: T he test w ill be eas; it onl requi re s a rudi ment ary
know le dge of Engl is h.

- S -
S agac iou s: M EA NIN G: A cut elw is e , ve rs hrew d
SE N TEN CE: T he pr eside nt acqui re d s om e s aga cious advi sor s t o he lp hi m
with m ana ging t he econom y.
S age : MEA NIN G: A pr ofoundl wis e m an, e spe cia lli n a ncie nt hi stor Rr
le ge nd
SE N TEN CE: A ris tot le , t he gr eat A the nian phi los ophe r, w as undoubt edl a
sa ge .
Sal ubriou s: M EA NIN G: C onduc ive to he alth or wellbe ing
S E N TEN CE: A fte r s pe ndi ng m ane ars s m oki ng a nd dr inki ng, T om
re cogni zed t he ne cessitRf adopt ing a more s alubr ious lif e stl e.
S an ction : MEA NIN G: A ppr ove , give pe rm is sion; puni sh, s peak ha rs hl t o
SE N TEN CE: A meric a's s anc tions on C uba mean t hat i t i s i lle ga l f or
A m eric ans to do bus ine ss w ith C uba n com panies.
S an guin e: M EA NIN G: C onf ide ntlRSt im is tic a nd c heerful
S E N TEN CE: T he whol e f am ilw as s angui ne about the ir c ha nces of goi ng
on hol ida y.
S at iat e: M EA NIN G: S atis fy
S E N TEN CE: T he Japa nese m eal di d not satia te hi m and he ate a sandw ic h
w he n he got hom e.
S at urat e : M EA NIN G: S oa k t hor oughl y
SE N TEN CE: T he rain s atur ate d t he fie ld a nd c aus ed t he rive r t o r is e .

Sat urn in e: M EA NIN G: G loom y, m ean, s cow ling
S E N TEN CE: D o not be mis le d bKi s s atur nine appe ara nc e; he is not as
gl oom as he looks .
Savou r: M EA NIN G: A ppr ecia te f ul l; taste s om ethi ng s avour y
SE N TEN CE: A s a pa re nt , it's i m por ta nt to t ake a ste p ba ck a nd r eally
s a vour the spe cia l m om ent s –t hos e c hi ldr en w ill gr ow up s oone r t ha n Ru
thi nk.
Scat hin g: M EA NIN G: V erKa rs h or seve re
S E N TEN CE: J os eph s uffe re d s cathi ng c ritic is m from the judge at t he
singi ng c ompetition.
S cru pulou s: M EA NIN G: C are ful to do t hings prope rlRr cor re ctly
S E N TEN CE: S he was s crupul ous with r epa ing he r f rie nds str a ight away
if t he l ent he r m one y.
S ecrete : M EA NIN G: C onc eal, hi de; r ele ase
S E N TEN CE: H Is a sse ts ha d be en s ecre te d t o S wis s ba nk a ccount s
Shar d: M EA NIN G: A br oke n pi ece of a br ittle a rtif a ct
S E N TEN CE: S ha rds of glass f le w in a ll di re ctions
S kep tic : M EA NIN G: O ne who doubt s ot hers unl ess t he Ka ve seen
evi de nce
SE N TEN CE: S he was s cept ic al a bout her s is te r’s c la im she ha d seen a
ghos t!
S ol ic it ou s: M EA NIN G: F ull of anxi eta nd c oncern; show ing hove ring
a tte nt ive ness

SE N TEN CE: S he was t ina nd solic itous , a sof t, s weet l ady .
Sop orif ic : M EA NIN G: T endi ng t o induc e dr ow sine ss or sle ep
S E N TEN CE: T he m otion of the tra in ha d a som ew ha t s opor if ic e ffe ct.
S par tan : MEA NIN G: P ra ctic ing gr eat s elf -de nial, uns paring a nd
uncomprom is ing i n disc ipl ine or judge ment
S E N TEN CE: H er a pa rtm ent w as s o s parta n t hat s he coul dn't e ve n s erve us
bot h soups ; s he onl Ka d one bowl a nd one spoon.
Spas mod ic al l: M EA NIN G: I n s pur ts a nd f its ; w ith s pasm s
SE N TEN CE: T he ne wbor n gi ra ffe l ie s i n a sodde n heap, he avi ng
spa sm odi callw ith i ts f ir s t gul ps of air.
S peciou s: M EA NIN G: P la us ibl e but fals e ; de cept ive lSl easing
S E N TEN CE: M is inf ormation, f als e hoods and s pecious cla im s dom ina te
hi s publ ic pr onounc em ent s.
S por ad ic : M EA NIN G: R ecur ring i n scatte re d a nd i rre gul ar or
unpr edi cta bl e i ns ta nc es
S E N TEN CE: I n t he last f ew de cade s, t he west ha s be en s ubj ecte d t o
spor adi c t error is t bom bings .
Stigm a : M EA NIN G: A ne gative assoc ia tion
S E N TEN CE: T he se da s the re i s f ar l ess s tigm a a tta che d t o be ing i n a
sa m e s ex r ela tions hip.
Stin gy : M EA NIN G: N ot ge nerous with m oney
SE N TEN CE: M anc ompanies a re t oo s tingt o rais e t he sala rie s of the ir
w or ke rs .

Stin t: M EA NIN G: B e ve re conom ic al a bout spe ndi ng; an unbr oken
period of tim e
SE N TEN CE: H e doe sn' t s tint on w ini ng a nd di ning – e verQi ght he spe nds
hundr eds of dol la rs i n r esta ur ant s a nd ba rs
S tip ulat e: M EA NIN G: S pe cif a s a condi tion or requi re m ent in a cont ra ct
or agr eem ent
S E N TEN CE: H e s tipul ate d c erta in c ondi tions befor e t he ir m arria ge
S tol id : M EA NIN G: S how ing l ittle e m otion; expr essionl ess
S E N TEN CE: H er f ace w as s tol id, but ins ide she was t hr ille d.
S ubstan tiat e: M EA NIN G: G ive suppor t t o a cla im
S E N TEN CE: M ore e vi de nce of the Toot h Fair i s ne ede d t o s ubs ta nt ia te
he r e xi ste nc e.
S uperfic ial it : M EA NIN G: L ack of depth of know le dge or thought or
fe eling; sha llow ness
S E N TEN CE: I ns ta nt di gita l i nt era ctions , on RXr phone or com puter,
e nc our age supe rfic ia lity , i ns ularita nd t riba lis m .
Str if e : M EA NIN G: S ta te of fight ing or argui ng vi olent ly
S E N TEN CE: S tr if e i n t he M iddl e E ast ha s c ont inue d for m any , m any
e ars .
S uperse d e: M EA NIN G: T ake the pl ace or move int o t he pos ition of
S E N TEN CE: W hen hi s f athe r pa sse d a way, T obs upers e de d hi m as he ad
of the fam ily .

Str u t: M EA NIN G: W alk w ith a proud s wagge r w ith a little a rroga nce
thr ow n in
SE N TEN CE: A fte r hi tting hi s t hi rd s ix, t he ba ts m an s tr ut te d dow n the
pitc h.
S ubpoe na: M EA NIN G: A writ or dering a pers on t o atte nd a cour t
SE N TEN CE: T he cour ie r de live re d t he subpoe na to he r door and s he ha d
to s ign f or it.
S ubsid e: M EA NIN G: W ear of f or die dow n; sink t o a low er l eve l; de sc end
S E N TEN CE: T he world w aite d pa tie nt lf or the da nge r of COVID -19 t o
subs ide .
Suppos it ion : MEA NIN G: A n a ssum ption or hSRt hesis
S E N TEN CE: T he w ere w orking on t he suppos ition t hat hi s de ath w as
m ur de r.
S c op han t : M EA NIN G: A pe rs on w ho trie s t o w in f avour from pow erful
pe opl e bf la tte ring t hem
SE N TEN CE: T he fans ba cks ta ge we ve rs copha ntic .

- T -
T ac it : M EA NIN G: U nde rs tood, w ithout actua llEe ing e xpresse d; im plie d
S E N TEN CE: T he w ere hol ding ha nds; i t w as t acit t he w ere l ove rs .
T ac it u rn : M EA NIN G: T alki ng l ittle , r ese rve d
SE N TEN CE: D esm ond’ s t acitur n be haviour in f ront of the Fulbr ight
de cis ion pa nel ha s m ade hi s i nt ervi ew awkw ard, he nce t he pa nel ha s
re je cte d hi m for the schol ars hi p.
Tan gential : M EA NIN G: O f s upe rfic ia l r ele va nce, i f a ny
SE N TEN CE: S he m ade som e t ange ntia l r em arks on he r s is te r’s c are er, a nd
the n c hange d the subj ect.
T hrif t : M EA NIN G: G re at c are i n s pendi ng m oney
SE N TEN CE: I n ol der a ge , m ost pe opl e be com e t hr if ta nd t end t o save
m one as m uch a s pos sibl e.
T im or ou s: M EA NIN G: T im id, s hy
SE N TEN CE: I n bi g gr oups she was t im or ous , but with c los e f rie nds she
w as ve rRXt going.
Tir ad e: M EA NIN G: L ong s tr ing of violent , e motiona llc harge d w ords
SE N TEN CE: T he re a re m ant ir a de s i n t he spe eche s of pol itic ia ns in
pa rlia m ent .
Tem peran ce: M EA NIN G: M ode ra tion, r estr a int
S E N TEN CE: N oted f or hi s t em pe ra nc e, he seldom drinks alc ohol .
Tor por : M EA NIN G: M ent al a nd phs ic al i na ctivi ty

SE N TEN CE: A fte r t he huge meal a t t he fie sta , t he fam ilf ell i nt o a tor por
and di d not mana ge to da nce.
T en uou s: M EA NIN G: V ert hin or slight
S E N TEN CE: T he re i s a tenuous link be tw een i ntere st r ate s a nd
inve stm ent .
Tor rid : M EA NIN G: V erKRt ; pa ssiona te a nd e motiona llc harge d
SE N TEN CE: I t w as t he m ost t or rid r om anc e s he ha d ever be en l ucky
enough t o find.
T or tu ou s: M EA NIN G: F ull of tw is ts a nd t urns
SE N TEN CE: T he rout e t o C air ns from Bris ba ne in A ustr a lia i s r em ote a nd
tor tuous .
Trac tab le : M EA NIN G: E asilm ana ged or cont rol le d
S E N TEN CE: E mergi ng s eque ncing t echnol ogies c an pr ovide ext ra
inf ormation a nd m ake the com putationa l pr obl em m ore t ra cta bl e.
T ran sgr ession : MEA NIN G: A n a ct t ha t goe s a ga ins t a law , r ule, or code of
conduc t; a n of fe ns e.
S E N TEN CE: I 'l l be keepi ng a n ee out for fur the r t ra ns gressions from tha t
em ploe e.
T rif lin g: M EA NIN G: U nimpor ta nt
S E N TEN CE: A fte r he int errupt ed t he teache r w ith s om e t rif ling m atte r,
the teache r r esum ed t he cla ss.
T ru cu le n ce: M EA NIN G: O bstr e pe rous and de fia nt aggr ession

SE N TEN CE: T he ba ske tba ll t eam w on t hrough s heer t ruc ulenc e; t he re
w ere l ot s of foul s i n t he ga me.
T um ult u ou s: M EA NIN G: T roubl ed a nd di sor de re d, t urbul ent
S E N TEN CE: T he pol ic e pr ese nc e e ns ured t here w as not a tum ultuous
r e action t o the ext ens ion of loc kdow n.

- U -
U biq uit ou s: M EA NIN G: E xisting e verw here a t t he sam e t im e
SE N TEN CE: F acebook, C oca-C ol a a nd H ollw ood a re ubi quitous
A m eric an i nve ntions .
Um brage : MEA NIN G: A feeling of ange r c aus ed bEe ing of fe nde d
SE N TEN CE: I took um brage at t he sugge stion t hat I w as l azy, a s I w ork
eight hour s a da y.
U ndersc or e: M EA NIN G: T o e mpha siz e, c all s pe cia l a tte nt ion t o
SE N TEN CE: H e unde rs c or ed hi s poi nts i n t he de bate .
U nse em ly : M EA NIN G: I nde cent ; i na ppr opria te ; una ccept abl e
SE N TEN CE: H eathe r’s unc le m ade uns eem ls ugge stions to he r f rie nd
w he n t hew ere a lone .

- V -
V ac illat ion : MEA NIN G: M ovi ng ba ck a nd f orth; cha ngi ng of opinion
SE N TEN CE: T he re w as a fair bi t of va cilla tion on S te ve n’s pa rt, he coul d
not make up hi s m ind.
V en erat e: M EA NIN G: W orshi p, a dore, be in a we of
S E N TEN CE: Y ou pr obablGRQ’ t ve nera te RXr teache r or RXr boss,
how eve r RXm aa ct l ike RXGR!
Verac iou s: M EA NIN G: T rut hf ul; pr ecis e la ccur ate
S E N TEN CE: W hile w e e le ct our leade rs i n t he hope tha t e ve rt hing t hat
the s aw ill be vera cious , histor Ka s s how n that s uc h a hope is na ive .
Verb os e : M EA NIN G: U sing or cont aini ng t oo m anw ords
SE N TEN CE: T his a rtic le i s t oo ve rbos e; nobodKa s e nough t im e t o r ead
the whol e a rtic le , s o w e m ust e di t i t t o m ake it br ie f a nd t o the poi nt.
Viab le : M EA NIN G: A ble t o f unc tion pr operly , a ble t o gr ow
SE N TEN CE: T he inf ant , though pr em atur elERr n, is vi abl e a nd ha s a
good c hance of sur viva l.
V in dic at e: M EA NIN G: S how to be right bSr oviding j ustif ic ation or
pr oof ; c le ar of blam e; de fe nd
S E N TEN CE: T he gove rnor ’s pol ic RQl ockdow n was vi ndi cate d bt he
drop i n corona virus de aths ; hi s de cis ion t o extend i t w as t he right one .
Vis c ou s: M EA NIN G: H avi ng a thi ck, s tic kc onsis te nc Ee tw een s olid
a nd l iqui d; ha ving a high vi sc os ity .

SE N TEN CE: I t s eem ed t o take for eve r f or the vi sc ous cough m edi cine to
pour out of the bot tle .
V it u perat ive : MEA NIN G: M arke d bKa rs hl a bus ive critic is m ; s cathi ng
SE N TEN CE: S cot s w ho oppos ed i nde pende nce hur le d vi tupe ra tive ins ults
a t t he inde pende nce pa rty .
V oc if e rou s: M EA NIN G: O ffe ns ive ll oud; given t o ve hement out cry
S E N TEN CE: S om e s ta te s i n t he US a re c ont endi ng w ith voc if e rous
pr otests a s t he e xtend l ockdow n for C OVID -19.
V ol at ile : M EA NIN G: L ia bl e t o l ead t o s udde n change ; t endi ng t o va ry
of te n
S E N TEN CE: S ophi e’s r ela tions hip w ith D ave can be volatile ; t he f ight
a nd m ake up r egul arly .
V ol ubilit : M EA NIN G: T he qua litRf being e ffor tle ss i n s peech a nd
writing
S E N TEN CE: T he vol ubiliti n hi s e xpr ession s how s hi s l eve l of
know le dge in t he topi c.

- W -
W ar ran te d : M EA NIN G: J us tif ie d or show n to be reasona ble; pr ovi de
ade qua te gr ound f or
SE N TEN CE: T he em ploe es f eel t ha t i ndus tr ia l a ction i s w arra nt ed
W ar : MEA NIN G: V erc aut ious ; on gua rd
S E N TEN CE: B e w arRf anRQe who t ells RXt hat ' anRQe ' c an ge t r ic h
w ith s om e s pe cia l pl an or sche me.
W elt e r: M EA NIN G: M ove in a tur bul ent fashi on; a conf used m ultitude of
thi ngs ; be im mers e d i n
SE N TEN CE: E aste r w as s ol em nlm arke d a mid t he welte r of de ath a nd
suf fe ring due to C OVID -19.
Wh im sic al : M EA NIN G: D ete rm ine d bc hance or whim; i ndul ging i n or
inf lue nced bf anc y
SE N TEN CE: T he pl ot and c hara cte rs i n P ete r P an are qui te w himsic al.
- Z -
Z eal : M EA NIN G: E age r e nt hus ia sm ; pr om pt w illingne ss; e xc essive
f e rvour .
SE N TEN CE: E ach i nhe rite d t heir pa re nt s’ z eal f or soc ia l j us tic e.

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FR EE O NLIN E E N GLIS H R ESO URC ES
FO R I E LT S
Thi s i s a gr eat vi deo a ctivi ts ite w ith c lips and que stions around f ilm s a nd
TV serie s. I t ha s di ffe re nt leve ls a nd i s gr eat f or lis te ni ng a nd speaki ng
ski lls ( pr onunc ia tion) .
https ://w ww.e slvi de o.c om /
Onl ine Pronunc ia tion D ic tiona rE C am br idge Unive rs ity .
ht tps ://di ctiona ry .c am br idge .org/br ow se /pr onunc ia tion/ engl is h/

THANK YO U
I hope RX’ve found i t us eful !
As I m ent ione d in the for ew or d, a lot of ha rd w ork ha s gone int o t his
pr oject.
M w hole obj ective with t his book i s t o he lp RXr each RXr ultim ate goa l
of achi evi ng a n 8.5 i n RXr IELT S test. T his book i s not designe d to be an
exha ustive lis t of words , but ins te ad, a foc used a nd e as- access gui de for
exa m pr epa ra tion. R evi ew ans ections tha t RXf eel RXQe ed t o a nd us e
the m as a sta rting poi nt for fur the r r ese arc h a nd pr actic e.

WHAT N OW ?
In t he ne xt few pa ges, RX’ ll f ind a massive bundl e of fre e r esour ces Ru
c an ge t hol d of , inc ludi ng l ette r a nd e mail t em plate s, pr ese nt ation
te m plate s a nd gr am mar a nd voc abul arr esour ce books ! A s a fre e m em be r
with e xclus ive access t o m fre e s ta rte r l ibr ary , RX’ ll a ls o ge t f re e r epor ts ,
books and a rtic le s t o he lp RXt ake RXr Engl is h t o the ne xt leve l!
I f RXe njoe d this book, I ’d be verJr ate ful if RX’ d pos t a shor t r evi ew
on A mazon. Y our suppor t r eallGRe s m ake a di ffe re nc e a nd m eans a lot to
m e. I read a ll t he revi ew s pe rs ona lly , s o I can ge t RXr feedba ck a nd m ake
thi s book e ven be tte r i n t he fut ur e.
T ha nks for RXr suppor t.

MEG A -B ONUS : M ARC R OCH E ’ S E NTIR E
S TA RTER L IB R ARY OF F REE B OOKS !
Sign up t o the fre e V IP L is t t oda y, t o gr ab RXr downloa dable e -books ☺
I hope RXKa ve found t his book us eful . T hank RXf or readi ng.
https ://w ww.idm adr id.e s/vi p- re sour ces

BONUS C HAPT ER : F R EE B O OK! T HE
P RO DU CTIV IT Y C HEAT S HEET
Dow nloa d RXr fre e c opRf The Produc tivi tC heat S he et: 15 S ecre ts of
P roduc tivi tKe re !
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