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IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 2 Table of Contents CRIME AND PUNISHMENT ...................................................................................................... 3 MEDIA AND ADVERTISING ...................................................................................................... 8 THE ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................... 14 BUSINESS AND MONEY .......................................................................................................... 20 GOVERNMENT ....................................................................................................................... 25 SPORT AND EXERCISE ............................................................................................................ 30 SPACE EXPLORATION ............................................................................................................. 35

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 3 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT 1. crime of passion Meaning: refers to a crime, especially murder, caused by sexual jealousy Example: People who carry out crimes of passion often regret their actions later, when they reflect on what they have done. 2. to serve a prison sentence Meaning: to carry out confinement in prison as a punishment Example: They are serving long prison sentences for their part in the assassination. 3. to turn to crime/ drugs Meaning: To start committing crimes or using drugs. Example: During periods of high youth unemployment, some youngsters turn to crime to obtain money. 4. to be tough on crime Meaning: To punish crime severely Example: The crime rate is likely to fall if governments take strong measures to be tough on crime. 5. to contest the verdict Meaning: not agree with the decision of the jury after the trial of a case Example: In many countries, the accused person has the right to contest the verdict which was reached in the court. 6. to take into consideration Meaning: to think about a particular fact or detail and allow it to have some influence when you are making a decision Example: The previous criminal records of those who are found guilty must be taken into consideration when a sentence is passed.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 4 7. to reintegrate back into society/ community Meaning: to restore someone through education or therapy Example: There is an increasing focus among policy-makers and practitioners on identifying programs and strategies that will help prisoners successfully reintegrate back into their communities without re-offending. 8. to be soft on crime Meaning: not to impose strict punishments on offenders Example: In order to deter criminals effectively, governments must not follow policies which are soft on crime. 9. a policy of zero tolerance Meaning: a policy of applying laws very strictly, so that every illegal action is punished, even if it is not very serious Example: I would argue that the most effective way to reduce crime is to implement a policy of zero tolerance. 10. a chance of rehabilitation Meaning: a chance of helping someone to have a normal life after serving a prison sentence Example: We should give ex-offerders a chance of rehabilitation and teach them how to become useful members of society. embark on something Meaning: To start something new Example: Young people sometimes embark on a life of crime as a result of the bad influence of criminals whom they know. make a fresh start Meaning: to try something new after making mistakes in one’s life Example: I believe that people should have the opportunity to make a fresh start after they are released from prison.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 5 13. to act as a deterrent Meaning: a measure which makes somebody less likely to do something Example: Longer prison sentences would act as a deterrent and would be one useful measure to tackle rising crime. 14. to release back into society. Meaning: to give freedom to prisoners who have finished their sentences. Example: He was released back into society after serving two years of a five-year sentence. 15. corporal punishment Meaning: to punish by physically harming the offender Example: Many schools have abandoned the policy of corporal punishment for children who misbehave and prefer to give extra work or detention after school instead. 16. drug trafficking Meaning: importing and selling illegal drugs Example: Some people argue that legalising drugs would put an end to the evil of drug trafficking and the violence associated with it. 17. a non-custodial sentence Meaning: a sentence which is not served in prison Example: There is a wide range of non custodial sentences which a court may give to offenders, including: fines, probation orders or community service orders. 18. to be found guilty Meaning: the court decided that the person did commit the crime Example: If people are found guilty of committing serious offences, heavy punishments should be imposed.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 6 19. the full weight of the law Meaning: all the strictest punishments available according to the laws of a country. Example: In order to deter crime, the full weight of the law must be imposed for all serious offences. 20. to impose a ban on sth Meaning: to enforce an official rule which says that something is not allowed Example: Most governments have imposed a ban on the sale of tobacco to those aged under 16. 21. to convict a criminal Meaning: to find an offender guilty and to punish them Example: Once the courts have convicted a criminal, the punishment should be severe. 22. law-abiding citizens Meaning: people who obey and respect the law Example: The government could take some effective steps to protect law-abiding citizens. 23. to enforce the law Meaning: to make sure that the law is obeyed Example: The role of the police and the courts is to enforce the law. 24. capital punishment Meaning: punishment by death Example: In some states of America, those who commit murder are sometimes sentenced to capital punishment. 25. forensic evidence

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 7 Meaning: connected with the scientific tests conducted by the police when investigating a crime Example: Modern police methods include the use of forensic evidence, such as DNA samples, to investigate crimes. 26. to install surveillance cameras Meaning: to put cameras in a place where a crime is likely to be committed Example: The security company has installed surveillance cameras at all the entrances and exits of the shopping mall. put on probation Meaning: to make a convicted person see an official at regular intervals to check on their good behavior, as an alternative to going to prison Example: The young offender was put on probation, as his crime was not serious enough to send him to prison. 28. to punish wrongdoers Meaning: to punish people who do something illegal Example: Stricter measures must be introduced by governments to punish wrongdoers. arrest suspects Meaning: to stop and hold people who the police think may have committed a crime Example: The government should give the police greater powers to arrest suspects. 30.the letter of the law Meaning: the exact wording of the law, without considering any excuses Example: I believe that the courts must apply the strict letter of the law and impose the harshest possible sentences on criminals.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 8 MEDIA AND ADVERTISING 1. to broadcast propaganda Meaning: to send out a programme on television or radio that may be false or exagerrated in order to gain support for a political leader, a party, etc Example: The media in North Korea broadcast propaganda every day about the dangers of war with South Korea and the USA. 2. a leading article Meaning: a piece of writing which deals with the most important news item of the day.
 Example: Newspapers in my country often have a leading article on some sensational crime that has been committed. 3. editorial policy Meaning: the policy of the newspaper, as decided by the person in charge of producing the newspaper
 Example: The editorial policy of a newspaper determines whether serious news items are reported in a responsible way. 4. sensational journalism Meaning: reporting which tries to get your interest by presenting facts or events as more shocking or worse than they are.
 Example: Unfortunately, sensational journalism has resulted in much public distrust of the media. 5. to carry a story Meaning: to include an item in a news report
 Example: The media nowadays carries too many stories about celebrities and trivia and not enough serious news.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 9 6. news coverage Meaning: the reporting of news and sport in newspapers, tv, or radio. Example: The US presidential election received global news coverage, so that the whole world became interested in the outcome. 7. to make front page headlines Meaning: to be an important item of news in the newspapers, on radio or TV.
 Example: It seems that every insignificant event in the lives of celebrities makes front page headlines. 8. breaking news Meaning: newly received information about an event that is currently taking place OPIC Example: One disadvantage of the printed media is that it is unable to carry the latest breaking news stories. 9. up to the minute Meaning: having the latest information
 Example: Newspapers are unable to provide up to the minute news coverage of events as they happen. 10. stale news Meaning: information that is no longer interesting or new, because it has already been reported
 Example: Newspapers have now become only a source of stale news, which is a major reason why they have become less popular. 11. falling circulation Meaning: the decline in the number of copies of a newspaper sold each day Example: As a result of their falling circulation, newspapers are losing advertising

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 10 revenue. 12. celebrity endorsement Meaning: A form of brand or advertising campaign that involves a well known person using their fame to help promote a product or service Example: Celebrity endorsement by famous TV stars is commonly used by companies to encourage consumers to trust and buy their products. 13. to subscribe to a magazine Meaning: to pay money regularly in order to receive a copy of a magazine Example: Those with a strong interest in a particular field sometimes prefer to subscribe to a magazine which has articles relating to that area. 14. the financial/business sections Meaning: Newspapers have increasingly turned to providing expert, detailed analysis of recent events, for example in their financial or business sections. 15. online advertising Meaning: advertising a product or service on the internet
 Example: The growing popularity of online advertising has resulted in a loss of revenue for the printed media in general. 16. to slash the prices of products Meaning: to reduce the price dramatically
 Example: Supermarkets, for example, always carry huge in-store advertisements when they slash the prices of products.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 11 17. to be wary of something Meaning: not completely trusting or certain about something
 Example: Consumers must always be wary of the claims made in advertisements, because such claims are often exagerrated or untrue. IELTS TOPIC VOCABULARY BY NGOCBACH 18. to promote their products Meaning: to make products popular by advertising them
 Example: Most large enterprises contract specialist marketing companies to promote their products. 19. to buy goods impulsively Meaning: to buy things suddenly without any planning and without considering the effects they may have
 Example: Advertising motivates consumers to buy goods impulsively. 20. to be swayed by advertisements Meaning: to be influenced to buy things as a result of advertising
 Example: If consumers were not easily swayed by advertisements, the advertising industry would not exist. 21. market research Meaning: the action of collecting information about what people buy Example: In deciding how to promote their products or services, businesses should first conduct market research. 22. a price war Meaning: a situation in which companies or shops continually reduce their prices in order to attract customers away from their competitors
 Example: Advertising plays a key role in price wars between supermarkets.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 12 23. to launch a product Meaning: to introduce a new product
 Example: Companies have recognised that the services of the marketing industry are essential to launch a new product successfully. 24. target audience Meaning: consumers whom businesses aim at when selling their products Example: Companies which sell soft drinks, like Coca Cola, aim mainly at a target audience of children and adolescents. 25. brand awareness Meaning: the action of bringing the name of a company to the attention of the public
 Example: Advertising, not the quality of the product, is responsible for creating brand awareness among consumers, as can be seen by the success of market leaders such as Nike or Coca Cola. 26. prime time television Meaning: the hours during which most people are watching TV
 Example: Although advertising on prime time television is expensive, it is guaranteed to reach a large audience. VOCABULARY BY NGOCBACH 27. the electronic media Meaning: broadcast media which use electronic technology, such as the internet, television, radio, DVDs, etc.
 Example: In contrast, to print media, the electronic media are growing in popularity, especially among the youth.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 13 28. to impose regulations on Meaning: to control something by means of rules
 Example: Governments must impose regulations on the advertising industry in order to protect consumers. 29. commercial advertising Meaning: advertising on the radio or television, between or during programmes.
 Example: Commercial advertising on television provides the revenue for most TV channels. 30. telemarketing Meaning: a method of selling things or taking orders for sales by telephone Example: Telemarketing has become a growth industry, employing millions of people across the world.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 14 THE ENVIRONMENT 1. to discharge chemical waste 
 Meaning: to dispose of waste products from chemical processes.
 Example: Nowadays, more and more company and industrial zones have been discharging chemical waste into rivers, causing death to many fish and other aquatic animals. 
 2. environmental degradation 
 Meaning: the process or fact of the environment becoming worse
 Example: Africa is a continent in which environmental degradation is evident in the spread of deserts and the extinction of animal species. 
 3. to take action on global warming 
 Meaning: to do what has to be done on problems related to global warming
 Example: There have been numerous international conferences to warn of the dangers, but many governments have refused to take action on global warming. 
 4. to be bio-degradable 
 Meaning: a substance or chemical that can be changed to a natural harmless state by the action of bacteria
 Example: Most plastics are not biodegradable, and remain as waste products in the environment for thousands of years. 
 5. to deplete natural resources 
 Meaning: To reduce the amount of natural resources.
 Example: Timber companies must not be allowed to deplete natural resources by

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 15 cutting down trees without planting new trees to replace them. 
 6. ozone layer depletion 
 Meaning: refers to a steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere
 Example: Ozone layer depletion has the effect of allowing harmful radiation from the sun to penetrate the atmosphere and this increases the risk to humans of skin cancer. 
 7. an ecological crisis 
 Meaning: a serious situation that occurs when the environment of a species or a population changes in a way that destabilizes its continued survival 
 Example: Environmental degradation caused by human activity is provoking an ecological crisis which threatens our existence. 8. carbon footprint Meaning: a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced by the daily activities of a company or person
 Example: By providing subsidies, governments should encourage companies to reduce their carbon footprint through energy efficiency or other ‘green measures’. 9. to cut down on emissions Meaning: to reduce the amount of gases sent out into the air
 Example: People must be made aware of the need to cut down on emissions from their cars if we are to reduce air pollution.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 16 10. to fight climate change Meaning: To try to prevent changes in climate patterns, such as rainfall, temperature and winds.
 Example: Unless we consume less of the Earth’s natural resources, it will be impossible to fight climate change and safeguard our future. 11. to reduce the dependence/reliance on fossil fuels Meaning: to decrease people’s consumption of fossil fuels, like oil, coal or gas.
 Example: Governments must invest heavily in solar and wind energy projects in order to reduce our dependence/reliance on fossil fuels. 12. to alleviate environmental problems Meaning: to make bad environmental problems less severe
 Example: Everyone can assist in the effort to alleviate environmental problems in the local community through simple actions such as recycling waste or planting a tree in their garden. 13. to throw one’s weigh behind sth Meaning: To use one's influence to help support
 Example: The council is to throw its weight behind a campaign to save one of the borough's best-loved beauty spots. 14. to hold sbdy accountable for + noun/gerund Meaning: to consider someone responsible for something; to blame something on someone
 Example: Companies which discharge chemical waste from their factories into the sea or into rivers must be held accountable for their actions and be fined heavily.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 17 15. to achieve sustainable development Meaning: economic development that is achieved without depleting natural resources
 Example: Organic methods must be introduced everywhere in order to achieve sustainable development in agriculture. 16. alternative energy sources Meaning: refers to any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel Example: Clean energy which does not pollute the Earth can only come from greater reliance on alternative energy sources. 17. food miles Meaning: Distance food has to travel between where it is grown or made and where it is consumed
 Example: We can all reduce our carbon footprint by flying less, and reduce our food miles by buying local produce. 18. captive breeding Meaning: the reproduction of animals in confinement, not in their natural habitats.
 Example: A successful captive breeding programing zoos has resulted in an increase in the world’s panda population. 19. to stem from Meaning: to be caused by
Example: Scientists say that global warming partly stems from the increase in car exhaust emissions. 20. environmental impact assessment Meaning: a study into how a development, like a new road, a new dam or other construction activity will affect the plants, animals and local communities living in an area.
 Example: The government must commission an independent environmental impact

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 18 assessment whenever a new development is proposed. 21. the greenhouse effect Meaning: the natural process by which the sun warms the surface of the Earth.
 Example: Our burning of fossil fuels is increasing the greenhouse effect and making the Earth hotter, endangering all life on the planet. 22. global warming Meaning: the process by which the Earth is getting hotter, as a result of the greenhouse effect – in particular the increase in carbon dioxide in the air. Example: Perhaps the major environmental challenge which faces humanity today is global warming, because it threatens our survival. 23. habitat destruction Meaning: the process that occurs when a natural habitat, like a forest or wetland, is changed so dramatically by humans that plants and animals which live there.
 Example: The elephant population in the world is declining because of habitat destruction caused by human exploitation of the environment. 24. endangered species Meaning: plants or animals that only exist in very small numbers, so that in future they may disappear forever
 Example: One example of an endangered species is the lowland gorilla, which has almost disappeared as a result of the destruction of its forest habitat. 25. on the brink of extinction Meaning: an animal or plant which has almost disappeared from the planet Example: Before the captive breeding program in zoos, the giant panda was on the brink of extinction

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 19 26. renewable energy Meaning: energy is renewable when it source, like the sun or wind, cannot be exhausted or can easily be replaced (like wood, as we can plant trees for energy)
 Example: More funding is required from government funds to help companies to develop renewable energy, such as companies which produce solar panels for buildings. 27. wind farms Meaning: an area of land on which there are a lot of windmills or wind turbines for producing electricity
 Example: Wind farms should be constructed in mountainous areas or in the sea, close to land. 28. environmentally friendly Meaning: behavior or products that do not harm the environment Example: We can help to protect the environment by using detergents and cosmetics that are environmentally friendly. 29. toxic waste Many species of fish are endangered as a result of the toxic waste dumped by industries into the rivers and the sea. 30. the green movement Meaning: all the organisations concerned with the protection of the environment
 Example: Individuals should join one of the organisations which form part of the green movement, in order to campaign for changes in official policy on the environment.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 20 BUSINESS AND MONEY 1. To take something into consideration/ account Meaning: to consider or remember something when judging a situation Example: No business will succeed if it fails to take the needs of customers into account/into consideration. 2. To break into a market Meaning: to enter a market with the connotation that entrance to the industry was difficult. Example: It is difficult to break into the market for designer sportswear because there is too much competition from leading brands like Nike. 3. To keep someone’s word Meaning: to uphold one's promise; to do as one says Example: I lent him a lot of money, so I hope that he keeps his word and repays the loan. 4. To reach a consensus Meaning: to come to an agreement Example: The directors of the company have reached a consensus on the new business plan. 5. To make the most of something Meaning: to make something appear as good as possible; to exploit something; to get as much out of something as is possible. Example: They designed the advertisements to make the most of the product's features. 6. To go out of business Meaning: if a company goes out of business, it stops doing business permanently, especially because it has failed Example: If we sold food at those prices we’d soon go out of business. 7. To do market research Meaning: to collect information about what people buy and why they choose it. Example: Advertising companies do a lot of market research before they design promotion campaigns.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 21 8. To make cutbacks Meaning: to decrease, to reduce Example: The company made cutbacks at their stores in New York and many employees were dismissed. 9. To manage expectations Meaning: Seek to prevent disappointment by establishing in advance what can realistically be achieved or delivered by a project, undertaking, course of action, etc. Example: the company needs to manage the expectations of investors by presenting a realistic figure for next year’s estimated profits. 10. To make a calculation Meaning: to assess a situation and figure out (or guess) the outcome Example: We cannot make a precise calculation of the price until we have all the costs. 11. To pay in arrears Meaning: refers to making a payment to a supplier later than the terms of the arrangement under which goods or services were purchased from the supplier. Example: The company pays one month in arrears to all its suppliers and employees. 12. To buy at auction Meaning: to buy something at a usually public sale of goods or property, where people make higher and higher bids (= offers of money) for each thing, until the thing is sold to the person who will pay most Example: Buying a property at an auction can be a nerve-wracking or exhilerating experience. 13. To squander a chance/ savings Meaning: to waste money or supplies, or to waste opportunities by not using them to your advantage Example: James squandered all his savings in an unsuccessful business venture to sell ice cream in Alaska.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 22 14. Overhead cost Meaning: refers to regular costs required to run a business, such as rent, electricity, wages etc Example: An increase in rents in the shopping mall increased the overhead costs of all the shops which operated there. 15. A takeover Meaning: an act of taking over a company by buying its shares Example: Sony made a successful takeover of the broadcasting company CBS. 16. A merger Meaning: the action of joining two or more businesses into one Example: The directors of Kentucky Fried Chicken and Burger King are considering a merger of the two companies. 17. A heavy workload Meaning: having many tasks to perform Example: Many employees of the company take time off work because of illness and stress due to the heavy workload. 18. Compensation Meaning: something that somebody gives you [usually money] because they have hurt you or damaged something that you own Example: I received a large sum of money as compensation for the injury which I sustained at work. 19. Revenue Meaning: the money that a government receives from taxes or which a company receives from its business Example: The tax revenues of the government have fallen as a result of the economic crisis. 20. White-collar Meaning: working in an office, not a factory Example: The insurance company is offering some white-collar jobs if you want to apply. 21. Blue-collar

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 23 Meaning: connected with people who do physical work in industry Example: He’s a blue-collar worker in a car factory. 22. To run your own business Meaning: to have a business which you own Example: I was tired of working for other people, so I decided to run my own business. 23. To earn a living Meaning: to earn money Example: I used to earn a living as a teacher, but now I sell used cars. 24. Enhance their public image Meaning: to make their company appear more attractive to people Example: In order to enhance their public image, some companies donate large sums of money to charities. 25. To grow a business Meaning: to expand a business, usually a new one Example: The company started one year ago with only one shop, but they have grown the business and now have ten shops. 26. To gain a competitive edge Meaning: to achieve an advantage over another company or organization, often by providing the same goods or services at a lower price Example: The high quality of VW cars, combined with their affordable price, has enabled the company to gain a competitive edge over all its rivals in world markets. 27. Maximize profits Meaning: to increase profits to the highest possible level Example: The company has hired a marketing consultant to recommend how to maximize profits next year. 28. To conduct a business Meaning: to operate a business in a particular way Example: It is important to conduct a business with honesty in order to gain the confidence of customers

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 24 29. To be made redundant Meaning: to lose one’s job Example: The car factory has closed and 1000 employees have been made redundant. 30. Pension scheme Meaning: a system in which you and your employer pay money regularly into a fund, to use when you retire from work Example: One of the benefits of working for a big corporation is that such large companies usually provide a good pension scheme.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 25 GOVERNMENT 1. to abide by Meaning; (formal) to accept and act according to a law, an agreement, etc. Example: Motorists who do not abide by the rules of the road should be severely punished. 2. parliamentary democracy Meaning: a system of government in which candidates are voted to represent the people of a country in a national parliament or assembly Example: Freedom of speech is usually one of the rights enjoyed by citizens in a parliamentary democracy. 3. to adhere to Meaning: to behave according to a particular law, rule, set of instructions, Example: Governments which fail to adhere to their election promises generally become unpopular very quickly. 4. constitutional government Meaning: connected with the laws which a country is governed by Example: The media have an important role to play in reporting on the actions of politicians, to ensure the proper functioning of constitutional government. 5. the executive branch Meaning: that part of the government organisation responsible for implementing laws and decisions Example: The enforcement of policies affecting schools and hospitals is the responsibility of the executive branch of the government. 6. the legislative branch Meaning: that part of the government responsible for making laws Example: Laws relating to human rights have been passed by the legislative branch of many national governments. 7. the separation of powers Meaning: the principle that separates government authority into three branches – legislative (the Parliament or Senate), executive (the President or Ministers) and the judiciary (the judges and courts).

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 26 Example: In the USA, the independence of the courts from the government is safeguarded by the separation of powers 8. to adopt policies Meaning: to start to use particular policies Example: In order to deal with traffic congestion, the government must adopt policies to restrict the use of private cars. 9. to impose spending cuts Meaning: to introduce new rules to spend less money on something Example: It is essential for the authorities to impose spending cuts on space programs in order to fund health services. 10. to raise taxes on Meaning: to increase the amount of tax on something Example: Governments should raise taxes on cigarettes to persuade more people to give up smoking. 11. to curb public spending on Meaning: to restrict what the government spends on something Example: I would argue that it is preferable to curb public spending on building new roads rather than to impose spending cuts on education. 12. to allocate resources to Meaning: to make money and materials available to do something Example: If governments allocate more resources to improving public transport, this will reduce the problem of traffic congestion in cities. 13. to introduce restrictions on Meaning: to limit what people can do or what can happen Example: The government must introduce restrictions on smoking in public places. 14. to infringe on/upon something Meaning: to limit somebody’s legal rights Example: Governments must sometimes infringe upon individual freedoms in the wider interests of society.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 27 15. to be a government priority Meaning: something which is so important that the government should deal with it first. Example: In developing countries, spending on health and education should be top government priorities. 16. to prioritize expenditure on Meaning: to put the need to spend money on certain things first Example: I believe that it is important to prioritize expenditure on medical research in order to save lives. 17. to provide funding for Meaning: to give money to enable something to be done Example: Providing funding for health care must be a priority of governments. 18. high on the agenda Meaning: something which is among the first things in the list of actions to be taken Example: The rehabilitation of prisoners must be high on the agenda of prison authorities everywhere. 19. to exert pressure on Meaning: to use power to influence somebody or something Example: Environmental organisations should exert pressure on governments to invest in renewable energy projects. 20. to form a pressure group Meaning: to organize a group of people who try to influence the government to achieve the action that they want. Example: Activists in my country have formed a pressure group to persuade the government to close nuclear power stations. 21. to provide public subsidies for Meaning: to give government money to reduce the costs of services or to produce goods in order to keep the price low Example: In order to promote agriculture that is environmentally-friendly, the government should provide public subsidies for organic farmers.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 28 22. international bodies Meaning: organizations which operate in many countries Example: National governments ought to give funds to international bodies, like the Red Cross and the United Nations, to deal with emergency situations. 23. national and local authorities Meaning: government organizations acting at a national level or within a smaller, local area Example: Tackling crime is a responsibility of both national and local authorities. 24. non-governmental organizations: NGOs Meaning: a charity or association that is independent of government or business Example: Individuals could donate money to NGOs to help others in need of food, shelter and medical services. 25. to campaign for something Meaning: to take part in a series of activities in order to achieve a specific aim. Example: People who are concerned about the environment should campaign for stricter controls on pollution. 26. government decision-making Meaning: the process of deciding about something official Example: Pressure groups are sometimes able to influence government decision-making. 27. to impose an official ban on Meaning: to say or declare that something is not allowed Example: Governments ought to impose an official ban on the use of mobile phones on public transport. 28. government sponsorship Meaning: the act of providing financial support by the government Example: Government sponsorship of the arts is necessary if creative talent is to be encouraged.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 29 29. a welfare state Meaning: a taxation system which allows governments to provide for the economic and social well-being of its citizens Example: In order to eradicate poverty, I believe that a welfare state should be established in all developing countries. 30. a stopgap measure Meaning: a policy or action adopted for a short time until some more permanent solution is found Example: Building more prisons will not solve the problem of rising crime rates, but it is a stopgap measure which the government must take to protect ordinary citizens.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 30 SPORT AND EXERCISE 1. to take up sport/to take up exercise Meaning: to start doing a sport, to start doing exercise Example: Governments should provide sports facilities to encourage more people to take up sport. 2. to get into shape Meaning: to become fit Example: If people have a sedentary lifestyle, they must do regular exercise to get into shape. 3. to keep fit Meaning: to stay in good physical condition Example: A healthy diet and plenty of exercise are essential for people to keep fit. 4. to exert oneself Meaning: to make a big physical effort to do something Example: I believe that sports professionals deserve high salaries, because constant hard training is necessary so that they can exert themselves to the limit when they compete. 5. to work out at the gym Meaning: to train the body by physical exercise at the gym Example: As part of a healthy lifestyle, people of all ages should work out at the gym on a regular basis. 6. to be out of condition Meaning: to be physically unfit Example: One of the causes of obesity is that many people are out of condition and fail to exercise regularly. 7. to be in the peak of condition Meaning: to be in the best possible physical condition Example: Sports professionals should receive high salaries, because they must always be in the peak of condition in order to perform at the highest levels.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 31 8. to take gentle exercise Meaning: to do exercise which is not physically demanding or tiring Example: Even the elderly can keep fit by taking gentle exercise, like jogging or even a walk in the park. 9. alternative forms of exercise Meaning: taking exercise in less common ways, involving the mind as well as the body Example: Alternative forms of exercise, such as yoga and tai chi, are popular in my country among people of all ages. 10. to outlaw dangerous sports Meaning: to ban or prohibit sports which have a high risk of causing injury Example: I believe that the government should outlaw dangerous sports because participants may suffer serious injuries. 11. on safety grounds Meaning: for reasons of safety Example: Boxing is a very dangerous sport and must be outlawed on safety grounds. 12. a high/low probability of injury Meaning: you are very likely/not very likely to be injured Example: If anyone plans to take up mountaineering or skydiving, they should be aware that there is a high probability of injury. 13. life-threatening injuries Meaning: injuries which are so serious that the person may die Example: Paragliding and cliff-jumping are two examples of extreme sports in which life-threatening injuries are sustained all too often by those who take part. 14. an extreme sport Meaning: a sporting activity which is very dangerous Example: Personally, I cannot understand why some people take up an extreme sport, and they should consider all the risks first.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 32 15. essential sports gear Meaning: the equipment and clothing needed to practice a particular sport Example: In order to reduce the risks associated with dangerous sports, participants should undergo rigorous training and use all the essential sports gear required. 16. to take sensible precautions Meaning: to do something in advance in order to prevent problems or to avoid danger Example: Anyone engaging in an extreme sport must take sensible precautions and seek expert advice. 17. to foster a competitive spirit Meaning: encourage the desire to beat others in a sports event Example: The problem with encouraging sport at school is that it fosters a competitive spirit among students, instead of teaching children simply to do the best that they can in all aspects of life. 18. the Olympic ideal Meaning: the ultimate goal is not to win but to know that you have taken part and done your best in a competition Example: Unfortunately, professional sport is just another branch of the entertainment industry, and the Olympic ideal has been lost. 19. a win-at-all-costs attitude Meaning: an idea that a match or competition must be won, using all possible means Example: Youth sport is being ruined by a win-at-all-costs attitude, which includes cheating and breaking the rules in order to achieve victory. 20. be disqualified from participating Meaning: not to be allowed to join a competition Example: Sportsmen or sportswomen who take drugs should be disqualified from participating in sport for a long time. 21. performance-enhancing drugs Meaning: drugs which improve the ability of a sportsperson to compete Example: Athletes who take performance-enhancing drugs are not only cheating, but they also set a bad example for young people.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 33 22. to fail a drugs test Meaning: to fail an examination before or after a competition to make sure that you have not taken illegal drugs to improve your performance Example: Cycling is a sport which has been discredited in recent years, as so many competitors have failed drugs tests. 23. to use illegal substances Meaning: to use drugs or medicines which are not allowed under the rules of a competition Example: In professional sport, it has become increasingly common to use illegal substances in order to win at all costs. 24. to place too much value on sport Meaning: to regard sport as too important Example: I would argue that schools place too much value on sport in the curriculum, and participation in sport should be an out-of-school activity. 25. a sports fan Meaning: a person who takes a keen interest in sport Example: While I think that it is healthy to be a sports fan, people should remember that for most people, sport is just entertainment, not a matter of life and death. 26. to set a record Meaning: to achieve the best result ever achieved in a sport Example: Real Madrid have set a record for the number of goals scored in a match. 27. sports coverage Meaning: the activity of reporting news related to sport Example: Many top sports stars are now known to millions of people around the world because of global sports coverage by the media. 28. sports commentators Meaning: people who are experts on sport and talk or write about it in the media Example: Not only sports stars, but even some sports commentators have become well-known celebrities.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 34 29. sports merchandising Meaning: the activity of selling products connected with a sport or sportsperson Example: Sports merchandising is a multi-billion dollar business worldwide, in the form of t-shirts and sports equipment. 30. the endorsement of sporting goods Meaning: an advertising statement, usually by a famous sportsperson, saying that they use or like a particular product. Example: In addition to their fabulous salaries, sports celebrities also make a great deal of money through their endorsement of sporting goods such as trainers or even casual clothes or deodorants!

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 35 SPACE EXPLORATION 1. The space race Meaning: competition between the US and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 60s to be the first to explore space Example: The space race in the 1950s marks an important point in the development of space exploration 2. A space probe Meaning: a type of space craft that does not have a person inside Example: Space probes can be sent to far distances for long periods of time to gather information about different areas in space. 3. A lunar module Meaning: a small craft used for travelling between the moon and the larger space craft orbiting the moon. Example: When the first men walked on the moon they came out of the lunar module. The first man to walk on the moon said "One small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." 4. To put into orbit Meaning: To send something into space, following a curved path of a planet or an object as it moves around a star, a moon or a planet Example: A new satellite has been put into orbit around the earth. 5. Manned space flight Meaning: a voyage into space which has a person to control it Example: As manned space flights are so dangerous, many checks must be carried out first. 6. To launch a space rocket Meaning: to send a rocket into space Example: Nowadays, men launch space rockets – not ships – to discover new worlds. 7. The cosmos Meaning: the universe, especially when it is thought of as an ordered system Example: Although the challenge of exploring and understanding the cosmos is exciting, it is also very expensive

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 36 8. To pour money into space research Meaning: to spend enormous amounts of money on space research Example: Some people argue that it is wasteful to pour money into space research. 9. A test flight Meaning: a flight during which a space craft or part of its equipment is tested Example: Test flights add to the huge costs of space exploration. 10. A space shuttle Meaning: a spacecraft designed to be used, for example, to travel between the earth and a space station Example: The first space shuttle was front-page news, but now people are no longer excited by the concept. 11. A space station Meaning: a large structure that is sent into space and remains above the earth as a base for people working and travelling in space Example: Even maintaining an international space station is so expensive that the costs must be shared by several countries. 12. Space vogages Meaning: journeys into space Example: Public interest in the early space voyages was unprecedented. 13. Space tourism Meaning: travelling to space as a form of vacation/holiday Example: Billionaires are the only people who are likely to experience space tourism in the foreseeable future. 14. To discover the mysteries of the universe Meaning: to find out more about space Example: Space exploration is an essential element in our attempt to discover the mysteries of the universe. 15. Space missions Meaning: flights into space

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 37 Example: Recent space missions have begun to explore Mars and more distant parts of the universe. 16. The conquest of space Meaning: the act of gaining control over the difficult task of exploring space Example: The conquest of space is a challenge that continues to inspire the public imagination. 17. To be an inspiration to Meaning: to make somebody excited about something, especially thinking of the future Example: The images of the first men on the moon were an inspiration to people, and made them more hopeful about the future. 18. Spacesuits and helmets Meaning: the clothing worn by astronauts. Example: Astronauts must find it difficult to carry out maintenance tasks during space flights wearing uncomfortable spacesuits and helmets. 19. Vacuum-packed food Meaning: a space that is completely empty of all substances, including all air or other gas Example: During manned space flights, astronauts have to live off vacuum-packed food. 20. Weightless conditions Meaning; having no weight or appearing to have no weight. As a result, astronauts appear to float in space. Example: Astronauts work in weightless conditions, which must make even routine tasks very difficult. 21. To endure hardships and discomforts Meaning: to experience and deal with conditions that are unpleasant Example: I doubt that space tourism will have mass appeal in the future. Travellers would have to endure hardships and discomforts such as weightless conditions, vacuum-packed food and wearing spacesuits and helmets. 22. To float through space Meaning: to move slowly in the air Example: Space tourism would be really boring, simply floating through space and looking out of the window of the spacecraft. 23. Zero gravity Meaning: having no force to pull objects to the ground, so that they float.

IELTS VOCABULARY BY TOPICS 38 Example: Living in conditions of zero gravity in space must be extremely tiring and uncomfortable. 24. Satellite technology Meaning: the technology of sending electronic devices into space for communications purposes Example: Satellite technology has resulted in huge advances in communications and information-gathering. 25. A spin-off Meaning: a useful result of an activity that was designed to produce something different Explanation: Space programs have produced spin-offs that have revolutionized modern life, such as satellite television and communications. 26. To make space travel commercially viable Meaning: to make space travel a success financially Example: Holidays in space are just fantasy. It is doubtful if it will ever be possible to make space travel commercially viable. 27. The quest for a new homeland Meaning: the search for a new place to inhabit Example: As humans are destroying their own planet, the quest for a new homeland in the universe is essential. 28. Alien life forms Meaning: creatures from another world Example: One of the most exciting possibilities of the space program is finding alien life forms on other planets. 29. Extraterrestrial life Meaning: life that may exist on another planet Example: The quest for extraterrestrial life will prove that humans are not alone in the universe. 30. In the realm of science fiction Meaning: only possible in science fiction stories, only fantasy Example: Most of the arguments in favour of space programs are in the realm of science fiction.