abrahaim_j_ways_of_the_ielts_winners

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By

J. A bra h im

T he a u th or i s a n on -n ativ e s p ea k er a n d h as h im se lf s c o re d b an d 9
i n t h e I E LT S.
H e i s a p ro fe ssio n al I E LT S t u to r, a n d h as h elp ed t h ou sa n ds o f
s tu den ts a cro ss t h e w orld s c o re 7 + i n t h e I E LT S.

CO NTEN T

1 . W hat D oes I t T ak e T o B e A n I e lt s W in ner?

2 . W hat I s T he I e lt s ?
2 .1 W HAT I S T H E I E LT S S C O RE U SE D F O R?
2 .2 S T R U CTU RE O F T H E I E LT S
2 .3 I E LT S B A NDS
2 .4 T H E M YTH S O F I E LT S

3 . T he W in nin g I e lt s P re p S tr a te g ie s
3 .1 T H E F IR ST S T EP: K NOW Y OURSE LF
3 .2 I D EN TIF Y IN G Y OUR W EA K A REA S
3 .3 W ORK IN G O N Y OUR S T R O NG A REA S
3 .4 W HIC H I S T H E B EST C O URSE /B O OK/S T U DY M ATER IA L F O R M E?
3 .5 M UST H AV E B O OKS
3 .6 I S P R IV ATE T U TO RIN G T H E H OLY G RA IL O F A H IG H S C O RE?

4 . H ow D o T he I e lt s W in ners A ctu ally S tu dy?
4 .1 W HY T H E M OST I M PO RTA NT P R O BLEM S A RE T H E O NES Y OU G ET W RO NG
4 .2 W HAT I S T H E R IG H T T IM E T O B O OK Y OUR I E LT S E X A M ?
4 .3 W HY D O I E LT S W IN NER S T R A IN L IK E A N A TH LETE?

5 . H ow D id K ir a n G o F ro m 5 T o 8 …

6 . W hy S om e P eo p le S co re H ig h er T he S eco n d T im e A ro u nd

7 . B ea tin g T he F ou r C om pon en ts O f T he I e lt s
7 .1 L IS T EN IN G
7 .2 S P EA KIN G
7 .3 R EA DIN G
7 .4 W RIT IN G

8 . T he W in nin g A ppro ach
8 .1 T IM E M ANAGEM EN T
8 .2 D O I E LT S W IN NER S W ORK I N G RO UPS?
8 .3 W HY T H E W IN NER S I G N ORE S E LEC TED ‘ D IF FIC U LT ’ P R O BLEM S
8 .4 W HY Y OU S H OULD R EA D T H E N EW SPA PER S
8 .5 H OW T O F IN D O UT Y OUR F U TU RE I E LT S S C O RE W IT H OUT T A KIN G T H E I E LT S
8 .6 W HEN S H ORTC U TS/E D UCATED G U ESSE S A RE I M PO RTA NT
8 .7 W HY M EN TA L F IT N ESS I S K EY

9. H ow T o G et ‘ L uck y’ I n I e lt s

10. T he W in nin g M in d S et
10.1 B U RN IN G D ESIR E T O E X CEL
10.2 H OW W IN NER S O VER CO M E L IM IT IN G B ELIE FS
10.3 H OW W IN NER ’S M ANAGE T H EIR S E LF I M AGE T O S U CCEED
10.4 T H E M EN TA L P IC TU RE P R IN CIP LE

11 . T he W in nin g T ra it s
11 .1 H OW W IN NER S P LA N
11 .2 B EW ARE O F Y OUR B IG GEST E N EM Y
11 .3 H OW P ER SIS T EN CE P A Y S

12. H ow B urn ou ts C an R uin Y ou P re p & H ow Y ou C an A void
Them
12.1 R EC O GN IZ IN G T H E S Y M PTO M S
12.2 G ETTIN G O UT O F I T

13. H ow W in ners A void T he ‘ A vera ge’ M in dse t

14. I e lt s W in ners C ou ntd ow n T o T he D D ay…
14.1 A W EEK B EFO RE T H E T EST
14.2 T H E D AY B EFO RE T H E T EST
14.3 T H E T EST D AY
14.4 T H OSE F IV E H OURS

15. M an agin g T est A nxie ty
15.1 W HAT D OES T EST A NXIE TY F E EL L IK E?
15.2 W HAT C A N Y OU D O T O C O NTR O L T EST A NXIE TY ?
15.3 S O H OW D O Y OU G ET T O B E S E LF-C O NFID EN T?

16. S hou ld Y ou E ver C an cel Y ou r S co re ?

1 . W hat d oes i t t a k e t o b e a n I E LT S W in ner?

I f y o u th in k it is o nly k no w le d ge th at w ill m ake y o u a n IE LT S w in ner, th in k a gain . K no w le d ge c an
o nly ta ke y o u s o f a r!

T here a re s c o re s o f g ra d uate s a nd e v en P hD s w ho h av e n o t m anaged to g et a B and 7 + i n th e I E LT S.

O f c o urs e , th is w as b efo re th e
‘W ays o f t h e I E LTS w in ners’
e xis te d !

T he p oin t i s th at
know le dge b y it s e lf is n ot s u ffic ie nt t o a ce t h e I E LT S.

Y ou n eed th e o th er
‘in ta ngib le ’
q ualiti e s & s m art S tu d yin g S tr a te gie s to m ake th e th in g w ork .

T he s u b se q uent s e cti o ns w ill d is c uss s o m e o f th ese s tr a te gie s,
but f ir st…

2 . W hat i s t h e I E LT S?

I n te rn atio nal E nglis h L anguage T estin g S yste m or co m monly ca lle d IE LT S
is an exam th at
a sse sse s a p ers o n’s E nglis h s k ills . T here is n o p assin g o r fa ilin g s c o re in th e IE LT S e xam . U nlik e
o th er E nglis h e xam s s u ch a s T O EFL w here in y o u n eed to a cq uir e a c erta in s c o re to p ass th e te st,
I E LT S is m ore fo cusse d in g augin g th e in d iv id ual’s E nglis h s k ills . E ach s c o re in th e IE LT S e xam
e xp re sse s a n i n d iv id ual’s E nglis h l e v el.

T he IE LT S exam is re co gnis e d b y m ost univ ers iti e s aro und th e w orld lik e A ustr a lia , U K , N ew
Z eala nd , U S a nd C anad a. M ost o f th ese c o untr ie s o ffe r s tu d ie s a b ro ad a s w ell a s m ig ra ti o n p ro gra m s
i n th eir c o untr y e ith er fo r p erm anent r e sid ency o r w ork p ro gra m s m akin g th e te st a n in te gra l p art o f
t h eir ap plic ati o n. E ach are a re q uir e s a certa in le v el o f E nglis h co m pete ncy th at w ill allo w th e
e xam in ee to b e a d m itte d a t th e u niv ers ity , g ain e ntr a nce fo r p erm anent r e sid ency a nd g et h ir e d fo r a
j o b a p plic ati o n.

T here a re tw o v ers io ns o f th e IE LT S E xam s a nd e ach s e rv es its o w n p urp ose s. A n e xam in ee s h o uld
k no w w hic h of th e tw o vers io ns he m ust ta ke befo re ap ply in g fo r th e exam s. S co re s are no t
i n te rc hangeab le and kno w in g th e sp ecific ty p e of IE LT S exam is necessa ry in co m ple ti n g yo ur
r e q uir e m ents f o r y o ur s tu d y, i m mig ra ti o n o r w ork a p plic ati o n.

A ca dem ic I E LT S
is c o m monly ta ken b y th o se w ho a re tr y in g to o bta in a d egre e i n a u niv ers ity e ith er
f o r g ra d uate o r u nd erg ra d uate s tu d ie s. It is u se d b asic ally in d ete rm in in g th e s tu d ent’ s E nglis h s k ills
w here E nglis h i s th e m ain l a nguage u se d d urin g th eir c o urs e s tu d y. M eeti n g th e r e q uir e d I E LT S s c o re
i s e sse nti a l to g ain in g a ccep ta nce f o r y o ur s tu d ie s.

A ca dem ic I E LT S
is a n im pro ved E nglis h s k ills te st fo r th o se w ho w ant to g ain a ccep ta nce fo r th eir
s tu d ie s a nd a re e sp ecia lly p la nnin g to s tu d y a b ro ad . I t c o nsis ts o f th e f o ur m ain a re as o f E nglis h s k ills
( lis te nin g, r e ad in g, w riti n g a nd s p eakin g) w here in r e ad in g a nd w riti n g a re e nti r e ly d iffe re nt f r o m th at
o f th e G enera l I E LT S. T hese tw o a re as a re m ore c o m pre hensiv e a nd n eed s a th o ro ugh a naly sis b y th e
e xam in ee.

A ca dem ic IE LT S
exam is necessa ry as w ell fo r th o se w ho are ap ply in g fo r p ro fe ssio nal w ork
a b ro ad l ik e n urs e s, d octo rs , d enti s ts a nd p hysic al th era p is ts .

Genera l I E LT S
is fo r in d iv id uals w ho a re a p ply in g fo r im mig ra ti o n o r w ork in g a b ro ad . E m plo yers
and c o untr ie s w here E nglis h is th e m ed iu m o f in str u cti o n w ant to k no w th e E nglis h le v els o f th e
mig ra nts o r w ork ers b efo re th ey a ccep t th eir a p plic ati o n. O bta in in g th e r e q uir e d s c o re i s i m porta nt i n
bein g a ccep te d f o r th e j o b a s w ell a s i n e nte rin g th e c o untr y w here y o u a p plie d f o r y o ur m ig ra ti o n.

Genera l I E LT S
is a m uch s im ple r te st c o m pare d to th e A cad em ic IE LT S c o nsis ti n g o f th e fo ur m ain
are as o f E nglis h s k ills . Its m ain p urp ose is g enera lly fo cusse d o n th e in d iv id ual’s s o cia l s u rv iv al a t
work and in th e co untr y s/h e w is h es to liv e. T his gauges th e in d iv id ual’s E nglis h sk ills in
co m munic ati n g a t h is /h er w ork a nd liv in g e nv ir o nm ent. G enera lly , th e E nglis h s k ills re q uir e d w hen
mig ra ti n g a nd a p ply in g f o r w ork i s to h av e a b asic a nd s im ple u nd ers ta nd in g o f th e E nglis h l a nguage
allo w in g th e p ers o n to e xp re ss h im se lf. M ore o ver, G enera l IE LT S fo r w ork a p plic ati o n is fo r th o se
ap plic ants th at a re a p ply in g a s s k ille d w ork ers l ik e c arp ente rs , m aso ns, w aite rs a nd p lu m bers .

How ev er, co nsid erin g th e fa ct th at th e IE LT S sc o re s are no t in te rc hangeab le , ap ply in g fo r an
Acad em ic I E LT S e xam c an s e rv e th e p urp ose o f a ll th re e a p plic ati o ns. A m in im um s c o re o f 5 w ill b e
accep te d in g etti n g in to a u niv ers ity . G enera lly y o ur s c o re is d ep end ent o n th e s c ho ol’s r e q uir e m ent.
Som e s c ho ols r e q uir e a s c o re o f 5 w hile o th ers r e q uir e a s c o re a s h ig h a s 7 o r 8 . F or i m mig ra ti o n a nd
jo b p urp ose s a s c o re o f 5 i s a ccep ta b le .

Where t o A pply f o r a n I E LT S E xam ?
IE LT S e xam is a v aila b le w orld w id e. It h as m ore th an 5 00 lo cati o ns in 1 30 d iffe re nt c o untr ie s. It is
jo in tl y m anaged b y th e B riti s h C ouncil, I D P
- I E LT S A ustr a lia a nd th e U niv ers ity o f C am brid ge E SO L
Exam in ati o ns ( C am brid ge E SO L).

You c an f in d th e n eare st I E LT S T est C entr e i n y o ur l o cati o n b y v is iti n g th eir w eb site (
www.i e lts .o rg
).
You c an e ith er c all o r s e nd th em a n e m ail to f in d m ore d eta ils a nd i n fo rm ati o n o n w hat y o u n eed to d o
in a p ply in g f o r y o ur e xam .

How t o A pply f o r a n I E LT S E xam ?
IE LT S a p plic ati o n c an b e f ile d i n tw o w ays. Y ou c an e ith er s e nd y o ur a p plic ati o n v ia m ail o r y o u c an
ap ply i n p ers o n a t th e I E LT S T est C entr e .

Fillin g u p th e a p plic ati o n f o rm p ro perly i s v ery i m porta nt w hen a p ply in g f o r y o ur I E LT S e xam . M ake

su re y o u h av e fille d u p a ll th e n ecessa ry in fo rm ati o n a nd a nsw ere d a ll th e q uesti o ns o n th e fo rm
befo re r e gis te rin g f o r y o ur e xam .

The fo llo w in g d ocum ents s h o uld b e c o m ple te d w hen filin g y o ur IE LT S re gis tr a ti o n v ia m ail o r in
pers o n.
Com ple te d I E LT S A pplic ati o n F orm
Com ple te d I E LT S P aym ent F orm
Receip t f o r y o ur I E LT S p aym ent
2 l a te st p assp ort s iz e p ho to s ( n o t o ld er th an 6 m onth s)
Certi fie d p ho to co py o f th e fir s t p age o f y o ur p assp ort w here y o ur p ic tu re a nd p ers o nal d eta ils
are f o und .

The I E LT S T est C entr e w ill s e nd y o u a c o nfir m ati o n l e tte r v ia e m ail i f y o ur r e gis tr a ti o n f o r th e e xam
is se nt via m ail. If yo u ap plie d in pers o n yo ur co nfir m ati o n le tte r w ill be giv en to yo u up on
co m ple ti o n o f y o ur a p plic ati o n.

How m uch d oes a n I E LT S E xam C ost?
IE LT S e xam c o sts th e s a m e f o r b oth G enera l a nd A cad em ic e xam s. C urre ntl y i t c o sts £ 11 0. T here i s a
se t te st f e e f o r th e T est C entr e s i n e v ery c o untr y .

How l o n g d oes a n I E LT S e x am t a k e?
Appro xim ate ly , th e I E LT S e xam ta kes a b out 2 h o urs a nd 4 5 m in ute s. T he s p eakin g e xam c an b e ta ken
on th e s a m e d ay o r i t c an b e s c hed ule d f o r a no th er d ay w ith in s e v en d ays f r o m th e d ate o f th e e xam .

How o fte n i s a n I E LT S e x am g iv en ?
IE LT S e xam s a re u su ally g iv en th re e o r fo ur ti m es a m onth d ep end in g o n th e c o untr y a nd th e IE LT S
Test C entr e . S om e I E LT S e xam s c an b e a rra nged f o r p arti c ula r i n sti tu ti o ns a nd s p onso rs a s w ell.

How o fte n c a n y ou t a k e t h e I E LT S E xam ?
If th e d esir e d s c o re i s n o t m et, y o u c an ta ke th e I E LT S e xam a fte r th re e m onth s f r o m th e f ir s t te st d ate
yo u h ad ta ken th e e xam o n.

How l o n g i s t h e s c o re v alid f o r?
IE LT S s c o re s a re v alid fo r u p to tw o y ears . If y o u a re n o t a b le to u se y o ur te st s c o re w ith in th e s a id
valid ity p erio d, y o u n eed to ta ke th e e xam a gain if y o u a re a p ply in g fo r y o ur s tu d ie s, im mig ra ti o n o r
work .

What y ou r I E LT S S co re m ea n s?
The IE LT S s c o re is a n in d iv id ua l’s E nglis h le v el in u sin g th e E nglis h la nguage. S co re s a re r e p orte d
as b and s c o re s f r o m 1 b ein g th e l o w est u p to 9 b ein g th e h ig hest. T he e xam in ees a re g iv en a n o vera ll
band s c o re a nd s e p ara te s c o re s f o r e ach o f th e a re as i n th e E xam .

When i s a n I E LT S e x am r e su lt i s su ed ?
Resu lts o f I E LT S e xam s a re i s su ed a fte r tw o w eeks f r o m th e d ate y o u h av e ta ken th e e xam . I t i s s e nt to
yo u p ers o nally o r it c an b e s e nt to fiv e d iffe re nt in sti tu ti o ns a s s p ecifie d b y y o u o n y o ur a p plic ati o n
fo rm .

2 .1 W hat i s t h e I E LT S s c o re u se d f o r?

N ot a ll s c o re s a re c re a te d e q u al

T he IE LT S s c o re is u se d fo r a sse ssin g th e le v el o f E nglis h n eed ed fo r c erta in c and id ate s o r s tu d ents
i n perfo rm in g effic ie ntl y and effe cti v ely in th eir stu d ie s, im mig ra ti o n, w ork or tr a in in g. S co re
r e q uir e m ents a re s e t b y th e e ach o f th e i n sti tu ti o ns o r o rg anis a ti o ns a nd m ay v ary f r o m o ne to a no th er
d ep end in g o n th eir s p ecific n eed s a nd r e q uir e m ents .

E nro llin g i n a C olle g e o r U niv ersit y
W hen g o in g fo r s tu d ie s a b ro ad e sp ecia lly in A ustr a lia , U K , C anad a a nd th e U S, a n IE LT S s c o re is
o ne o f th e b asic r e q uir e m ents . C erta in c o lle ges o r u niv ers iti e s r e q uir e a m in im um A cad em ic IE LT S
s c o re o f 5 o r a s h ig h a s 7 o r 8 .

I E LT S S co re f o r M ig ra tio n
M ost i n d iv id uals w ho a re m ig ra ti n g to A ustr a lia , C anad a o r N ew Z eala nd n eed to s h o w th eir E nglis h
l e v el b efo re g etti n g th eir v is a s a t th e r e sp ecti v e e m bassy. I n d iv id uals a re r e q uir e d to h av e a m in im um
G enera l I E LT S S co re o f 5 .

I E LT S S co re f o r T ra in in g a n d W ork
T ho se w ho a re a p ply in g fo r p ro fe ssio nal tr a in in g o r w ork a b ro ad lik e w ork in g a s n urs e s, d octo rs o r
t h era p is ts n eed to h av e a n A cad em ic IE LT S s c o re o f 7 o r 8 . T his is o ne o f th e b asic re q uir e m ents
e sp ecia lly f o r th o se w ho w ill b e w ork in g i n c o untr ie s l ik e U S, U K , A ustr a lia o r C anad a.

S kille d w ork ers lik e w aite rs , c arp ente rs , p lu m bers a nd w eld ers w ho a re g o in g to A ustr a lia , C anad a
o r U K n eed a G enera l I E LT S s c o re o f 4 .5 o r 5 b efo re th ey a re a ccep te d f o r th e j o b th ey a re a p ply in g.
H av in g k no w le d ge w hy y o u a re b ein g a sk ed f o r a n I E LT S s c o re w hen g o in g f o r y o ur s tu d ie s, w ork o r
m ig ra ti o n i s a w ay o f c o nd iti o nin g y o ur m in d f o r y o ur I E LT S p re p ara ti o n. I f y o u w ant to p urs u e y o ur
c are er o r m ig ra te in a no th er c o untr y y o u m ust p ro perly p re p are fo r y o ur IE LT S to fu lfil y o ur c ho se n
c are er p ath a s w ell a s f u lfillin g y o ur d re am s i n l iv in g a b ro ad .

2 .2 S tr u ctu re o f t h e I E LT S

A s th e s a yin g g o es, ‘ A f a m ilia r d ev il i s b ette r th an a n u nfa m ilia r o ne’, i t i s b est to f a m ilia riz e y o urs e lf
t h o ro ughly w ith th e s tr u ctu re o f th e I E LT S b efo re y o u p ro ceed w ith th e p re p .

L is te nin g, R ead in g, W riti n g a nd S peakin g a re th e f o ur c o m ponents o f a n I E LT S T est.

L is te n in g
T he IE LT S lis te nin g te st ap pro xim ate ly ta kes 3 0 m in ute s. T he te st ta ker is ask ed to lis te n to a
r e co rd ed m ate ria l o nly o nce. T here a re fo ur se cti o ns in th e lis te nin g te st th at a re p re se nte d in a n
i n cre asin g o rd er o f d iffic ulty . T he fir s t a nd s e co nd s e cti o ns a re o f g enera l to pic s w hile th e th ir d a nd
f o urth s e cti o ns a re f o cusse d o n a c erta in s tu d y o r tr a in in g.

R ea d in g
T he IE LT S re ad in g te st ta kes 6 0 m in ute s. T he e xam in ee is p ro vid ed th re e re ad in g te xts w here th e
q uesti o ns a re p re se nte d in in cre asin g d iffic ulty . T here a re a ro und 4 0 q uesti o ns in th e re ad in g e xam
t h at th e te st ta ker s h o uld a nsw er i n a n h o ur.

W rit in g
T he IE LT S w riti n g te st ta kes a ro und 6 0 m in ute s. T here a re tw o s e cti o ns in th e w riti n g te st th at th e
e xam in ee m ust co m ple te in an ho ur. T he fir s t ta sk is to co m ple te a re p ort b ase d o n th e giv en
i n fo rm ati o n. T his c an b e a g ra p h, a d ia gra m o r a p ro cess. Y ou a re a sk ed to d esc rib e th e in fo rm ati o n
g iv en a nd w rite a r e p ort c o nsis ti n g o f 1 50 w ord s i n 2 0 m in ute s.

T he s e co nd ta sk is w riti n g a n e ssa y o n a g iv en to pic . T he te st ta ker is g iv en 4 0 m in ute s to c o m ple te
t h is ta sk a nd w rite 2 50 w ord s. O f th e tw o ta sk s, th e s e co nd ta sk c arrie s m ore w eig ht fo r g etti n g th e
f in al b and s c o re f o r th is c o m ponent.

S pea k in g
T he s p eakin g te st ta kes a b out 1 1 – 1 4 m in ute s. It is in th e fo rm o f a n o ra l in te rv ie w w here in th e

cand id ate is a sk ed c erta in q uesti o ns b y th e e xam in er. D urin g th e sp eakin g e xam , th e c and id ate is
ask ed q uesti o ns to a nsw er a nd e xp re ss h is /h er o pin io ns o n c erta in to pic s a nd j u sti fy th em .

The s p eakin g e xam is c o m pose d o f th re e p arts . T he fir s t p art c o nsis ts o f g enera l q uesti o ns a b out th e
cand id ate , h is life o r h is in te re sts . T he s e co nd p art c o nsis ts o f a to pic w hic h th e te st ta ker h as to
dis c uss o r ta lk a b out a nd th e th ir d p art is a d is c ussio n o f is su es th at a re lin ked to th e to pic o f th e
se co nd p art o f th e s p eakin g te st.

2 .3 I E LT S B an ds

T he I E LT S i s a 9 -b and te st. E
ach b and c o rre sp ond s to a d esc rip ti v e s ta te m ent g iv in g a s u m mary o f th e
E nglis h c o m pete nce o f a c and id ate c la ssifie d a t th at le v el. O vera ll B and S co re s c an b e r e p orte d in
e ith er w ho le o r h alf b and s.

T he n in e b and s a nd th eir d esc rip ti v e s ta te m ents a re a s f o llo w s:

9 E xpert U se r
H as fu lly o pera ti o nal co m mand o f th e la nguage: ap pro pria te , accura te and flu ent w ith co m ple te
u nd ers ta nd in g.

8 V ery G ood U se r
H as
fu lly o pera ti o nal c o m mand o f th e la nguage w ith o nly o ccasio nal u nsy ste m ati c in accura cie s a nd
i n ap pro pria cie s. M is u nd ers ta nd in gs m ay o ccur in u nfa m ilia r situ ati o ns. H and le s c o m ple x d eta ile d
a rg um enta ti o n w ell.

7 G ood U se r
H as o pera ti o nal c o m mand o f th e la nguage, th o ugh w ith o ccasio nal in accura cie s, in ap pro pria cie s a nd
m is u nd ers ta nd in gs in so m e situ ati o ns. G enera lly hand le s co m ple x la nguage w ell and und ers ta nd s
d eta ile d r e aso nin g.

6 C om pete nt U se r
H as g enera lly e ffe cti v e c o m mand o f th e la nguage d esp ite so m e in accura cie s, in ap pro pria cie s a nd
m is u nd ers ta nd in gs. C an use and und ers ta nd fa ir ly co m ple x la nguage, parti c ula rly in fa m ilia r
s itu ati o ns.

5 M odest U se r
H as p arti a l c o m mand o f th e l a nguage, c o pin g w ith o vera ll m eanin g i n m ost s itu ati o ns, th o ugh i s l ik ely
t o m ake m any m is ta kes. S ho uld b e a b le to h and le b asic c o m munic ati o n i n o w n f ie ld .

4 L im it e d U se r

Basic co m pete nce is lim ite d to fa m ilia r situ ati o ns. H as fr e q uent p ro ble m s in und ers ta nd in g and
exp re ssio n. I s n o t a b le to u se c o m ple x l a nguage.

3 E xtr e m ely L im it e d U se r
Conv eys a nd u nd ers ta nd s o nly g enera l m eanin g in v ery fa m ilia r s itu ati o ns. F re q uent b re akd ow ns in
co m munic ati o n o ccur.

2 I n te rm it te nt U se r
No re al c o m munic ati o n is p ossib le e xcep t fo r th e m ost b asic in fo rm ati o n u sin g is o la te d w ord s o r
sh o rt fo rm ula e in fa m ilia r s itu ati o ns a nd to m eet im med ia te n eed s. H as g re at d iffic ulty u nd ers ta nd in g
sp oken a nd w ritte n E nglis h .

1 N on U se r
Esse nti a lly h as n o a b ility to u se th e l a nguage b eyo nd p ossib ly a f e w i s o la te d w ord s.

0 D id n ot a tte m pt t h e t e st
No a sse ssa b le i n fo rm ati o n p ro vid ed .

2 .4 T he M yth s o f I E LT S

I E LT S M yth s & F ea rs
F ea r n ot: h ere a re m yth b u ste rs t o y o ur r e sc u e

M yth
: T he I E LT S T est i s m ore d iffic ult th an a ny o th er E nglis h te sts .
F act:
Com parin g IE LT S T est to T O EFL, G M AT o r G RE; th e IE LT S T est is m uch s im ple r th an th e
o th er th re e E nglis h e xam s. E ach te st is fo cusse d in a sse ssin g d iffe re nt s k ills o f th e c and id ate . It o nly
b eco m es d iffic ult b ecause o f th e p re ssu re o f m eeti n g a re q uir e d s c o re to b e a ccep te d in a c erta in
i n sti tu ti o n f o r y o ur s tu d ie s, w ork o r tr a in in g.


M yth :
It i s m uch e asie r to ta ke th e I E LT S te st i n c erta in c o untr ie s c o m pare d to o th er c o untr ie s.
F act:
The I E LT S te st i s s ta nd ard is e d g lo bally . T he k in d o f e xam g iv en i n e ach c o untr y i s n o d iffe re nt
f r o m th e o th er c o untr ie s. C and id ate s w ho a re ta kin g th e e xam , fo r e xam ple in th e P hilip pin es, a re
f a cin g th e s a m e s e t o f q uesti o ns a s th o se c and id ate s w ho a re ta kin g th e e xam i n I n d ia .


M yth :
One g ets b ette r s c o re s i n c erta in I E LT S T esti n g C entr e s.
F act:
T his is m ore o f a lo cal v ers io n a m ong th o se w ho h av e n o t m et th e r e q uir e d s c o re in IE LT S.
T his u su ally s u rfa ces w hen o ne fa ils to a chie v e th e n eed ed s c o re in o ne te sti n g c entr e a nd o bta in s it
f r o m a no th er te sti n g c entr e .



M yth :
I c an c ho ose th e ty p e o f I E LT S te st I w ant to ta ke.
F act:
Not re ally . E very th in g d ep end s o n th e re q uir e m ent o f th e sc ho ol o r o rg anis a ti o n yo u are
a p ply in g fo r. If th e sc ho ol o r o rg anis a ti o n re q uir e s a g enera l o r a cad em ic sc o re th en y o u h av e to
f o llo w th is r e q uir e m ent b efo re a p ply in g f o r y o ur e xam .

Myth :
You c anno t ta ke th e I E LT S te st m ore th an 3 ti m es.
Fact:
This is n o t tr u e. A nyo ne c an ta ke th e IE LT S e xam a s m any ti m es a s s /h e w is h es e v en a fte r
meeti n g th e r e q uir e d I E LT S te st s c o re f o r th e p urp ose o f i m pro vin g h is /h er s c o re .


Myth :
IE LT S T est i s e asie r i n c erta in p arts o f th e y ear a nd d iffic ult i n o th er p arts o f th e y ear.
Fact:
This has been co nte ste d m any ti m es. T he fo rm ula ti o n of an IE LT S Test is dis tr ib ute d ,
im ple m ente d a nd s c hed ule d r a nd om ly a nd n o o ne k no w s w hat e xactl y th ey w ill b e g iv en in d iffe re nt
parts o f th e y ear.


Myth :
Som e s p eakin g te st e xam in ers a re s tr ic te r c o m pare d to o th ers .
Fact:
This i s a c o m mon m is c o ncep ti o n a m ong te st ta kers w ho h av e b een ta kin g th e I E LT S te sts f o r th e
se co nd o r th ir d ti m e. A no th er th in g is th e d is c ussio ns a m ong te st ta kers a fte r g etti n g o ut o f th eir
sp eakin g te st f e elin g v ery c o nfid ent a b out th e i n te rv ie w te sts a nd s ta rt s a yin g th at th e e xam in er i s n o t
str ic t. T he tr u th i s a ll e xam in ers a re tr a in ed a nd a re m ark ed f o r th e c o nsis te ncy o f th eir p erfo rm ance.
The w ay th ey g iv e th eir sc o re s o n a sp eakin g te st is b ase d in a c rite rio n th at is sim ila r fo r a ll
exam in ers .



Myth :
You g et b ette r s c o re s i n th e r e ad in g e xam i f y o u a re f a m ilia r w ith th e to pic .
Fact:
Not tr u e. F am ilia rity w ith th e to pic i n th e r e ad in g e xam d oes n o t g uara nte e a c and id ate th at s /h e
will b e g etti n g b ette r sc o re s. In fa ct, fa m ilia rity w ith th e to pic te nd s to re la x th e c and id ate s a nd
answ er th e q uesti o ns to o q uic kly . B ein g f a m ilia r w ith th e to pic c o m es a s a d is tr a cti o n i n ste ad o f b ein g
help fu l a s th e q uesti o ns s h o uld b e r e ad a nd a nsw ere d p ro perly a nd n o t i n th e w ay y o u k no w a b out th e
to pic .


Myth :
Writi n g s c o re s a re m ark ed d ep end in g o n th e m ood o f th e e xam in er.
Fact:
Every o ne h as th eir g o od a nd b ad d ays th at c an a ffe ct th eir w ork . I t i s b ut l o gic al to c o m e to th is
co nclu sio n. E xam in ers a re tr a in ed w ith th is k in d o f jo b a nd a re a sse sse d fo r th eir c o nsis te ncy w hen
mark in g e xam s b ase d o n th e c rite ria a s s p ecifie d b y th e m anagem ent o f I E LT S.

Myth :
You g et a l o w er s c o re w hen y o u d o n o t u nd ers ta nd p arts o f th e s p eakin g te st.
Fact:
One th in g y o u s h o uld r e m em ber w hen ta kin g th e IE LT S te st is th at y o u a re b ein g a sse sse d fo r
yo ur E nglis h c o m munic ati o n s k ills . T he th o ught o f a sk in g th e e xam in er to r e p eat th e q uesti o n d oes n o t
mean th at y o u a re n o t g o od i n E nglis h . I t i s a ctu ally s h o w in g y o ur c o m munic ati v e s k ills a nd g etti n g a n
assu ra nce th at y o u h av e u nd ers to od w hat w as b ein g a sk ed . A sk in g th e e xam in er to r e p eat th e q uesti o n
is actu ally dem onstr a ti n g yo ur lin guis ti c sk ills ra th er th an answ erin g th e questi o n w ith o ut
und ers ta nd in g w hat i s b ein g a sk ed .


Myth :
My s c o re w ill s u ffe r i f m y p oin t o f v ie w i s d iffe re nt f r o m th at o f th e e xam in er.
Fact:
You E nglis h s k ills i s n o t d ep end ent o n th e e xam in er’s p oin t o f v ie w . Y ou a re b ein g a sse sse d o n
ho w y o u c o nstr u ct a nd e xp re ss y o ur i d eas o n a g iv en to pic . Y our s c o re s i n w riti n g a nd s p eakin g h av e
no th in g to d o w ith th e e xam in er’s p oin t v ie w . I n f a ct, th ere i s n o w ay f o r a ny te st ta ker to k no w w hat
th e e xam in er f e els a b out w hat y o u h av e w ritte n o r s p oken a b out.


Myth :
I l o se p oin ts w hen th e e xam in er te lls m e to s to p ta lk in g d urin g m y s p eakin g e xam .
Fact:
When th e e xam in er a sk s y o u to s to p ta lk in g o n th e s e co nd p art o f y o ur s p eakin g e xam s th ere is
no th in g to w orry a b out. It m eans th at th e e xam in er h av e h eard e no ugh to a sse ss y o ur s p oken E nglis h
ab ility .


Myth :
One c an s tu d y s u ccessfu lly f o r th e te st o n h is /h er o w n.
Fact:
This a ctu ally d ep end s o n y o ur l e v el o f u nd ers ta nd in g a nd h o w w ell y o u c o m pre hend e v ery th in g
ab out th e fo ur c o m ponents o f th e e xam . O ne m ig ht h av e a m is c o ncep ti o n a nd th in k th at g etti n g in to a
re v ie w p ro gra m f o r I E LT S o r f o r a ny e xam f o r th at m atte r, i s a ll f o r p ro fite erin g. A g uid ed r e v ie w i s
bette r th an re v ie w in g o n y o ur o w n. Y ou g et to d is c uss w ith y o ur fe llo w re v ie w ers w hen y o u a re
enro lle d in a n IE LT S p re p ara ti o n c la ss. T his a llo w s y o u to s p eak th e E nglis h la nguage, e xp re ss y o ur
id eas in E nglis h a nd g et to le arn m ore o n h o w to d ev elo p th e r ig ht w ay o f ta kin g y o ur w ritte n e xam s
and g et th em e v alu ate d . T here is n o o ne to c riti c iz e y o ur w ork w hen y o u a re r e v ie w in g o n y o ur o w n
and th e r o om f o r i m pro vin g y o urs e lf i s to o s m all.

Myth
: T akin g a s m any p ra cti c e te sts w ill g iv e y o u b ette r s c o re s i n I E LT S.
Fact:
It h elp s b ut th e r e al e sse nce o f ta kin g th e p ra cti c e te sts is to k no w w here y o u h av e c o m mitte d
th e m is ta kes a nd h o w y o u c an im pro ve th em a nd s ta rt fo rm ula ti n g y o ur o w n s tr a te gie s w henev er a
certa in ty p e o f q uesti o n is p re se nte d to y o u. T akin g th e p ra cti c e te sts a nd c heckin g y o ur w ork is fin e
but w ith o ut a naly sin g th e m is ta kes y o u h av e m ad e th ere is n o w ay y o u c an im pro ve y o ur a b ility a nd
in cre ase y o ur s c o re .
Myth :
Lis te nin g te st i s th e m ost d iffic ult p art o f th e e xam .
Fact:
There is n o th in g e asy o r d iffic ult in a ny o f th e fo ur c o m ponents o f th e IE LT S e xam . E very th in g
is d ep end ent o n ho w th e stu d ent fe els afte r ta kin g th e exam . T here w ill b e p arts w here certa in
diffic ulti e s a re m et a nd th e c and id ate m ig ht e nd u p s a yin g th is p art i s m ore d iffic ult th an o th ers .


Myth :
Getti n g a g o od s c o re i n I E LT S i s a p ro of th at I c an a lw ays u se i t i n th e f u tu re .
Fact:
You c anno t u se y o ur I E LT S te st s c o re s a ll th e ti m e. A n I E LT S s c o re i s v alid o nly f o r tw o y ears
and i t w ill b e a ccep te d w ith in th at p erio d a lo ne.

3 . T he W in nin g I E LT S P re p S tr a te g ie s

G iv en th e sta ggerin g d iv ers ity in th e a p plic ant p ool, th ere c an b e
no O NE w in nin g str a te gy
fo r
I E LT S.

H ow ev er, h av in g b een a h ig h s c o re r m yse lf a nd h av in g i n te ra cte d w ith h und re d s o f h ig h s c o re rs f r o m
a ro und th e w orld , th ere i s a c le ar-c ut l is t o f s tu d y m ate ria ls th at a m ajo rity o f w in ners h av e u se d .

T his i s n o t to s a y th at th is i s th e ‘ E xclu siv e’ l is t, b ut d oin g m ore f r o m th is l is t w ill o pen th e d oor f o r
y o u to r e ach y o ur f u ll p ote nti a l.

3 .1 T he F ir st S te p : K now y o u rse lf

T yp ic ally , th e fir s t s te p th at IE LT S w in ners ta ke is to id enti fy th eir o w n s tr e ngth s a nd w eaknesse s. It
n eed s a b it o f a naly sis a nd a b it o f ta kin g s o m e c o m pre hensiv e te sts u nd er I E LT S c o nd iti o ns.

B efo re y o u p ro ceed w ith th e a ctu al p re p ara ti o n, y o u n eed to k no w w here e xactl y y o u s ta nd a nd h o w
m uch g ro und y o u n eed to c o ver.

I t h elp s to a sse ss y o ur s tr e ngth s a nd w eaknesse s th ro ugh a g o od q uality te st; o ne th at i s c o m para b le to
t h e a ctu al I E LT S te st i n b oth th e q uality o f i ts q uesti o ns a nd i ts s c o rin g.

H ere , i t i s v ery i m porta nt th at y o u d o n o t a tta ch to o m uch s ig nific ance to y o ur s c o re o n th is te st – th e
t e st h as to b e p ure ly o f a n i n d ic ati v e n atu re . Y ou s h o uld n eith er g et d is h earte ned w ith a l o w s c o re n o r
g et c o m pla cent w ith a h ig h s c o re , f o r i t c an a ll c hange – f o r b ette r o r f o r w ors e – b y th e ti m e y o u ta ke
t h e a ctu al te st.
G iv en th e d iv ers ity o f I E LT S w in ners , a nd th eir e d ucati o nal b ackgro und , s o m e a re b ound to b e s tr o ng
i n o ne o r m ore a re as o f R ead in g w hile o th ers c o uld h av e th eir s tr e ngth s i n th e W riti n g s e cti o n.

Y ou n eed to ta ke a c lo se r lo ok a t th e IE LT S s y lla b us a nd ta ke tw o fu ll- le ngth p ra cti c e p ap ers . T his
w ill g iv e y o u a g o od i d ea o f w here y o u s ta nd a nd w hic h I E LT S a re as y o u n eed to f o cus o n.

T he b est s o urc e fo r th ese te sts w ould b e e ith er
IE LT S P ra ctic e T ests
by P ete r M ay
or
Cam brid ge
P ra ctic e T est f o r I E LT S 7
by V anessa J a kem an
.

3 .2 I d en tif y in g y o u r w ea k a re a s

A lm ost e v ery o ne h as w eak a re as. U su ally it is th e S peakin g if y o u d o n o t u se E nglis h a t w ork o r
c o uld b e a ny o f th e o th er th re e s e cti o ns b ase d o n y o ur c ir c um sta nces.

I n s o m e o th er c ase s, i t i s th e a b ility to l a st th e 3 h o urs .
M ore th an a nyth in g e ls e , th e IE LT S te sts y o ur p ow er to s it a nd c o ncentr a te fo r a fu ll th re e h o urs .
‘ C are le ss’ E rro rs a re u su ally o nly a s y m pto m o f l a ck o f c o ncentr a ti o n.

I t is w is e to id enti fy y o ur w eak a re a in th e b egin nin g its e lf a nd s ta rt p la nnin g to d ev ote m ore ti m e to
i t. I n te rm s o f th e ti m e s p ent, th e i m pro vem ents w ill b e m uch s tr o nger i f y o u w ork o n y o ur w eak a re as.

A naly zin g th e r e su lts o f y o ur p ra cti c e te sts w ill c le arly in d ic ate w here y o u n eed to fo cus, w heth er it
i s R ead in g, S peakin g o r y o ur C oncentr a ti o n.

O nce y o u h av e a n i d ea o f th e a re as o n w hic h y o u n eed to w ork h ard er th ro ugh th e d ia gno sti c te st, y o u
c an a cco rd in gly s tr e am lin e y o ur e ffo rts . A g o od w ay is to r e v ie w th e te xtb ooks a t th e s c ho ol le v el,
w ith o ut g o in g i n to to o m uch d eta il. A ll f o ur s e cti o ns w ork o n th e b asis o f a f a ir ly w ell d efin ed s e t o f
r u le s. It is im porta nt to b e fa m ilia r w ith th ese r u le s. W ork o n th e b asic s fo r a c o up le o f w eeks – g et
t h e c o ncep ts r ig ht, c la rify a ll y o ur d oub ts , w ork th ro ugh s o lv ed a nd u nso lv ed e xam ple s – b efo re y o u
a tte m pt f u rth er f u ll l e ngth p ra cti c e te sts .

3 .3 W ork in g o n y o u r s tr o n g a re a s

M ost p eo ple ta ke th eir str o ng a re as fo r g ra nte d a nd d o n o t g iv e su ffic ie nt ti m e to b ru sh u p th eir
k no w le d ge.

T his is p ro bab ly w hat h ap pened in M ary ’s c ase . S he w as s o c o nfid ent in R ead in g th at s h e d id n o t
g iv e i t e no ugh a tte nti o n a nd a s a r e su lt l o st p re cio us p oin ts .

O ne m ajo r a d vanta ge th at y o u g et i n w ork in g o n y o ur s tr o ng a re as i s th e c o nfid ence th at y o u g et w hen
y o u c ra ck p ro ble m a fte r p ro ble m .

Y ou s h o uld s p end
at le ast o ne t h ir d o f y our p re para tio n t im e o n y our s tr o ng a re as.

N ow co m es th e ti m e to id enti fy w hic h b ooks/c o urs e s/s tu d y m ate ria ls yo u need to ad dre ss yo ur
w eaknesse s a nd b oost y o ur s tr e ngth s.

3 .4 W hic h i s t h e B est C ou rse /B ook/S tu dy M ate ria l f o r
m e?

T oday’s IE LT S m ark et o ffe rs a b ew ild erin g a rra y o f o pti o ns. S o m uch th at y o u c an s p end d ays ju st
g o in g th ro ugh w hat v ario us te st p re p c o m panie s h av e to o ffe r.

H ere i s a g lim pse :

W eek en d C ou rse
T here i s a w id e a rra y o f c o m panie s p ro vid in g th e w eekend c o urs e f o r b usy s tu d ents .
T his u su ally la sts 1 6 h o urs o ver tw o d ays a nd p ro vid es a n In tr o ducti o n to v ario us s e cti o ns o f th e
I E LT S w ith s o m e ti p s a nd tr ic ks.

P riv ate T u to rin g
T his i n v olv es o ne-to -o ne i n str u cti o n w ith a n I E LT S e xp ert i n str u cto r.
I t c an r a nge fr o m a fe w h o urs to a fe w w eeks d ep end in g o n h o w m uch p riv ate tu to rin g y o u th in k y o u
m ig ht n eed .

C la ssro om C ou rse
T his u su ally i n v olv es a c la ssro om s e tti n g w ith a n um ber o f s tu d ents a nd o ne o r m ore i n str u cto rs .
T his i s f o r p eo ple w ho p re fe r th e c la ssro om w ay o f te achin g.

O nlin e C ou rse
T his is use fu l if yo u w ant to stu d y at yo ur ow n co nv enie nce w ith o ut bein g re str ic te d by th e
r e q uir e m ents o f th e tu to r.
A ls o h elp s i f y o u l iv e i n a p la ce w here th ere i s n o f a ce-to -fa ce i n str u cti o n f a cility a v aila b le .

O nlin e Q uestio n B an ks
T his o pti o n i s g o od i f y o u w ant s o m e e xtr a p ra cti c e i n s p ecific a re as.

Good O ld f a sh io n ed B ook s & S oftw are
This i s o f c o urs e th e o pti o n th at a m ajo rity o f th e I E LT S W in ners ta ke.
While s tu d yin g fr o m th e r ig ht b ooks is n o g uara nte e fo r s u ccess, s tu d yin g fr o m th e w ro ng b ooks c an
be d is a str o us. Y ou n o t o nly e nd u p s p end in g ti m e o n th e w ro ng ty p e o f q uesti o ns, y o u a ls o n ev er g et
su ffic ie nt p ra cti c e o n a re as th at y o u n eed .

Amongst th e th o usa nd s o f w eb s ite s a nd h und re d s o f b ooks a v aila b le i n th e m ark et, y o u n eed to s e le ct
th e c o rre ct o nes c o rre sp ond in g to y o ur s tr e ngth s a nd w eaknesse s.

The fo llo w in g s e cti o n lis ts th e e asily a v aila b le b ooks th at y o u c an m atc h to y o ur o w n s tr e ngth s a nd
weaknesse s.

3 .5 M ust H av e B ooks

T here is n o p arti c ula r
must h ave b ooks
fo r IE LT S. H ow ev er, it is tr u e th at stu d yin g an E nglis h
l a nguage b ook c an i m pro ve y o ur E nglis h s k ills . C ho osin g th e r ig ht k in d o f b ook i s n o t a n e asy ta sk b ut
s e le cti n g th e b ook th at b est s u its y o u i s f a r b ette r th an j u st p urc hasin g a b ook th at i s r e co m mend ed to
y o u.

O ne o f th e b est w ays in cho osin g an IE LT S b ook fo r yo ur re v ie w is to se le ct th e o ne th at yo u
u nd ers ta nd b est. T here a re c erta in I E LT S b ooks th at a re p ro vid ed w ith a g o od s u m mary a nd r e v ie w s
t h at c an a ttr a ct y o u to b uy th em . M ost IE LT S b ooks o fte n g o w ith p ra cti c e te sts a nd m ost o f th em a re
o f th e s a m e p re se nta ti o n a nd th is s h o uld n o t b e y o ur m ain c o ncern . F ocus o n th e s k ill p re p ara ti o n o f
t h e b ook. O ne g o od th in g y o u c an d o i s s c an o ver th e b ook. S ee h o w i n fo rm ati v e i s th e te xt i n h elp in g
y o u p re p are fo r th e e xam . S om e b ooks o ffe r g uid elin es o n h o w y o u sh o uld a nsw er th e d iffe re nt
q uesti o ns i n a n I E LT S te st. T his w ill h elp y o u i n m any w ays w hen s itti n g f o r th e e xam .

S om e o f th e h ig hly r e co m mend ed b ooks f o r I E LT S te st p re p ara ti o n a re :

1 .
IE LT S P ra ctic e T ests b y P ete r M ay
is r e co m mend ed fo r th o se w ho d o n o t h av e m uch ti m e in
work in g th ro ugh a c o urs e b ook. W hat i s g re at a b out th is b ook i s th e w ay i t p re se nts a d vic es a nd
div ers e str a te gie s on ho w th e stu d ents can im pro ve th eir sk ills . C and id ate s can tr y th e
su ggesti o ns m ad e b y th e a uth o r a nd w ork o ut in c heckin g th eir a nsw ers b efo re g o in g fo r o ne
actu al p ra cti c e te st. T he b ook c o m es w ith a n E xp la nato ry K ey fo r th e s tu d ents to c o rre ct th eir
answ ers a nd f in d o ut w hy th eir a nsw ers a re r ig ht o r w ro ng.

2 .
In sta nt I E LT S P ack b y G uy B ro ok – H art.
This b ook is p acked w ith n um ero us p ra cti c e te sts
and a cti v iti e s th at e nhance th e te st ta ker’s E nglis h s k ills i n a nsw erin g th e q uesti o ns i n a n I E LT S
exam . L iv ely d is c ussio ns a re w hat m ake th e b ook m ore e ffe cti v e a s th e s tu d ents a re e nco ura ged
to p arti c ip ate o n th e p ra cti c e l e sso ns.

3 .
202 H elp fu l H in ts f o r I E LT S P re para tio n b y G ra y A dam s a nd T erry P eck
. T his I E LT S b oo k
is a w ell s tr u ctu re d b ook p ro vid in g h in ts a nd s tr a te gie s a nd h as e no ugh p ra cti c e te sts . I t i s m ost
help fu l i n g etti n g th ro ugh th e w riti n g te st.

4 .
Cam brid ge P ra ctic e T est fo r IE LT S 7 b y V anessa J ak em an
. T his is th e la te st s e rie s o f th e
Cam brid ge P ra cti c e fo r IE LT S s e rie s. J u st lik e th e fir s t b ooks th at w ere o ut in th e m ark et, th is
IE LT S b ook c o m es w ith a c o m ple te p ackage o f th e fo ur IE LT S te st c o m ponents th at h elp s th e
stu d ents i n i m pro vin g th eir s c o re s i n a n I E LT S e xam .


Book s t o A void
Com mon M is ta k es a t I E LT S I n te rm edia te a nd H ow t o A void T hem b y P aulin e C ulle n
And
Com mon M is ta k es a t I E LT S A dvance a nd H ow t o A void T hem b y J ulie M oore

These a re tw o IE LT S b ooks th at s h o uld b e a v oid ed . B oth b ooks fa il to p ro vid e e no ugh in fo rm ati o n
and p ra cti c e te sts to m eet th e stu d ent’ s exp ecta ti o ns. T hey are m ore co ncentr a te d in th e use o f
gra m mar a nd a rti c le s. T hey a re n o t s u ffic ie nt f o r p ra cti c in g a nd p re p arin g f o r a n I E LT S e xam .

3 .6 I s p riv ate t u to rin g t h e H oly G ra il o f a h ig h s c o re ?

P riv ate tu to rin g i s p ro bab ly th e m ost e ffic ie nt w ay to w ard s a h ig h s c o re . H ow ev er, n o t m any o f u s c an
s p are th e ti m e o r th e m oney f o r th is .
W hile th is m ay g iv e y o u th e b est c hance o f a h ig h s c o re , th ere a re o th er p ath s th at le ad to th e s a m e
r e su lt.

T he B est w ays to g et th e
maxim um o ut o f P riv ate T uto rin g
a re :

Ø Fir s t id enti fy y o u s tr e ngth s a nd w eaknesse s. It is h ig hly lik ely th at y o u w ill b e w eak in o ne o r
tw o s e cti o ns r a th er th an a ll f o ur.
Ø Focus th e P riv ate T uiti o n o n th e a re a o f y o ur w eaknesse s a nd s tu d y y o ur s tr e ngth s o n y o ur o w n.
Ø Pro bab ly th e m ost i m porta nt th in g i s to s e le ct th e i n str u cto r w ho h as s c o re d a b ove th e s c o re th at
yo u a re a im in g f o r.

M ost o f th e l a rg er te st p re p c o m panie s a re n o t v ery o pen w hen i t c o m es to p ro vid in g th eir i n str u cto r’s
a ctu al s c o re s o n th e I E LT S, s o y o u s h o uld b e e sp ecia lly a w are o f th e q uality o f th e i n str u cto r y o u a re
g etti n g.

M ost w in ners a v oid P riv ate T uiti o ns o r th e I n -p ers o n c o urs e s.

4 . H ow d o t h e I E LT S W in ners a ctu ally s tu d y?

F ro m c lo se i n te ra cti o n w ith th e I E LT S w in ners , h ere i s w hat y o u c an l e arn .


4 .1 W hy t h e m ost i m porta n t p ro b le m s a re t h e o n es y o u
g et w ro n g

T his i s w here th e m ost l e arn in g l ie s, th is i s w here y o u k no w i m med ia te ly th at y o ur c o ncep ts a re s h aky
a nd th is i s w here th e g re ate st o pportu nity to i m pro ve l ie s.

W hat w in ners d o is to m ain ta in a lis t o f A LL th e q uesti o ns th ey g et w ro ng. T hen th ey r e v is it th is lis t
a fte r a b out a w eek a nd th en a gain a fte r a b out a m onth . I f a fte r a m onth , th ey c an s ti ll r e call W HY th ey
m ad e th e e rro r, th ey s tr ik e o ut th e p ro ble m ; o th erw is e th ey k eep th e p ro ble m i n th eir l is t.




I n th e w ord s o f R ags, a n I E LT S W in ner:

‘ M y b est m eth od o f im pro vem en t w as to s ta rt a n ote b ook d iv id ed in to fo ur s e ctio ns S pea kin g,
W ritin g, L is te n in g a nd R ea din g. I f I g ot A N Y p ro ble m w ro ng, I w ould p ut it in th ere - th e w hole
p ro ble m . B efo re I s tu die d e very n ig ht, I w ould r e vie w t h is n ote b ook. A fte r a ll, t h ese a re t h e t h in gs
th at I w ould h ave g otte n w ro ng if I h ad ta ken th e I E LTS w ith out s tu dyin g. T H ESE A R E W HAT I
N EED ED H ELP O N. A nd b y s e ein g t h ese e very n ig ht, b elie ve m e, w hen I s a w a s im ila r p ro ble m , I
d id n't g et i t w ro ng a gain . T hat i s w hat i m pro vem en t i s a ll a bout. W hat g ood i s s tu dyin g i f y o u g et
th e s a m e th in g w ro ng tw ic e o r th re e tim es? N one. S o g et a n ote b ook a nd r e co rd y o ur e rro rs, s o
th at y o u b eco m e s o fa m ilia r w ith th ese th at y o u W AN T to s e e th em o n th e r e a l th in g. W hen y o u

se e it o n th e r e a l I E LTS, y o u'l l c h uckle b eca use it’s th e s a m e p ro ble m th at y o u s a w e very n ig ht
when y o u s p en t 1 5 m in s l o okin g a t t h at n ote b ook o f m is ta kes - a nd i ts C AK E T O Y O U
. ‘
- R ags ( IE LT S: 7 .5 )



Win ners alw ays N EED to kno w w hy th ey go t a p ro ble m w ro ng. If th e p ro ble m lie s in th eir
und ers ta nd in g o f th e c o ncep ts , th ey g o b ack a nd s tu d y m ore .

4 .2 W hat i s t h e r ig h t t im e t o b ook y o u r I E LT S E xam ?

‘I s ta rte d p re p arin g f o r I E LTS i n N ov. I h ad t h ought t h at I w ould j u st p re p are f o r i t a nd w hen I
th in k t h at I a m r e a dy, I w ill g o g iv e t h e t e st. B ut t h at w as n ot a v ery g ood i d ea . W ith out a f ix ed
dea dlin e, I c o uld n ot fo cu s v ery w ell. I n J a nuary fir st w eek, I d ecid ed to p ic k a d ate in J a n
en d. O nly a fte r th is d id I g et s e rio us a nd d id s o m e m ea nin gfu l w ork . S o m y a dvic e is , d o n ot
sp en d a l o t o f t im e p re p arin g f o r i t. G iv e y o urse lf 2 -3 m onth s, p ic k a d ate , a nd g o f o r i t!’
- A ndy ( I E LTS: 7 )


There a re p le nty o f p eo ple w ho w ait f o r th e r ig ht ti m e to s ta rt a p ro je ct, r ig ht ti m e to c hange th eir
jo b, to c hange c are er a nd s o o n. U nfo rtu nate ly , th ere i s n o s u ch th in g a s th e
Perfe ct t im e.

The IE LT S w in ners a re o nly to o a w are o f th is a nd s o th ey g o a nd re gis te r fo r th e IE LT S. T hey
don’t w ait f o r th em se lv es to b e ‘ S uffic ie ntl y ’ p re p are d f ir s t. B ecause th ey k no w th at n o m atte r h o w
much y o u s tu d y, y o u w ill n ev er b e s u ffic ie ntl y p re p are d f o r a te st l ik e th e I E LT S.

Pra ctic e T ests :

It is im porta nt th at th e p ra cti c e te sts y o u a tte m pt h av e b een p re p are d b y s o m e a uth o rity , a nd th at
th ey r e fle ct a ctu al te st q uesti o ns a nd s c o re s. T ry ta kin g th e te sts u nd er s im ula te d c o nd iti o ns w ith
utm ost c o ncentr a ti o n.

The c o m ple te te st is o f n early fiv e h o urs d ura ti o n – a p erio d lo ng e no ugh fo r o ur c o ncentr a ti o n to
fla g. I t w ill ta ke a c o up le o f te sts b efo re y o u d ev elo p th e r h yth m f o r ta kin g th ese te sts .

Als o , i t i s i m pera ti v e th at y o u g et a g o od f e ed back o n y o ur p erfo rm ance i n th ese te sts – s o th at y o u
can l e arn f r o m y o ur m is ta kes a nd m ake s u re y o u d o n o t r e p eat th em . A m is ta ke o n th e p ra cti c e te st
must b e lo oked u p on a s a le arn in g o pportu nity , a nd n o t a s s o m eth in g to fr e t a b out. O nce y o u h av e
pra cti c ed 4 -5 te sts , y o ur s c o re s a re b ound to i m pro ve, g iv en th at th e l e v el o f th e q uesti o ns d oes n o t
vary to o m uch.

Win ners w rite th e p ra cti c e e ssa ys a t l e ast a c o up le o f ti m es u nd er c o ntr o lle d ti m e c o nd iti o ns.

How m uch t im e d o y ou n eed t o p re p are ?
To a l a rg e e xte nt, th is i s a f u ncti o n o f y o ur i n iti a l s ta te o f r e ad in ess.

The IE LT S re q uir e s prim arily tw o kin d s of in p uts : Speakin g/L is te nin g and re ad in g/w riti n g
gra m mati c ally c o rre ct E nglis h (b ut s u b je ct to s e v ere p re ssu re s o f ti m e). B oth o f th ese a re s k ills
acq uir e d o ver m any y ears o f s c h o olin g, a nd th e s tr o nger y o ur f o und ati o ns i n th ese s u b je cts a re , th e
easie r i t i s f o r y o u to p re p are .

Typ ic ally , I r e co m mend th at y o u s ta rt p re p arin g a t le ast 1 -2 m onth s b efo re y o ur te st d ate . D urin g
th is ti m e p erio d, y o ur p re p ara ti o n w ill b e d iv id ed in to tw o p arts – th e in iti a l 1 -1 ½ m onth s w hen
yo u c o ncentr a te o n s tr e ngth enin g y o ur f o und ati o ns b y d elv in g i n to th e to pic s o f th e I E LT S s y lla b us,
and th e fin al tw o w eeks o r s o w hen y o u w ill fo cus o n s a m ple IE LT S te sts th at g iv e y o u a fe el o f
th e a ctu al c o m pute r a d ap ti v e I E LT S.

Tim e s p ent b y m ost I E LT S W in ners a v era ged b etw een 1 a nd 2 m onth s.
All a v era ged 2 -3 h rs p er d ay a nd n o l e ss th an 5 -1 0 h rs o n th e w eekend s.

4 .3 W hy d o I E LT S W in ners t r a in l ik e a n A th le te ?

Ø Most of th e Top ath le te s re gula rly do alti tu d e tr a in in g. T his exp ose s th em to a
to ugher
envir o nm e
nt
th an th ey w ould f a ce i n th e r e al r a ce.
If y o u w ant to b e a n I E LT S W in ner, y o u s h o uld p ra cti c e w ith th e to ugher p ro ble m s.

Ø Top a th le te s u su ally
fo cu s o n o ne a re a
o f tr a in in g a t a ti m e, a t le ast in th e e arly s ta ges. F or
exam ple , th ey m ig ht f o cus o n s tr e ngth , e nd ura nce, a gility , m obility , p la nnin g, a nd p sy cho lo gy f o r
a f e w d ays a nd th en m ove o n to th e n ext i te m .
In IE LT S, in th e b egin nin g o f y o ur p re p ara ti o n, it is a d vis a b le to c o ncentr a te o n o ne a re a, b e
th at R ead in g, S peakin g o r o ne o f th e o th ers .

Stu dy i n b lo ck s
One W in ner m enti o ned s tu d yin g in 8 0 m in ute b lo cks w ith o ut g etti n g u p to b uild s ta m in a. A no th er
Win ner m enti o ned s tu d yin g in 7 0 m in ute b lo cks w ith e xact n um bers o f q uesti o ns th at a re o n th e
re al I E LT S to b uild s ta m in a a nd s k ill. M any a gre e th at th e a b ility to h and le th e ti m e c o nstr a in ts i s
nearly a s i m porta nt i s s o lv in g th e p ro ble m .

5 . H ow d id K ir a n g o f r o m 5 t o 8 …

K ir a n w as a b rig ht, s m art w ork in g g ra d uate in te nt o n g o in g to o ne o f th e T op 1 0 M ed ic al S cho ols in
t h e U S.

I n h is o w n w ord s:
‘ It i s c o m ple te ly t r u e t h at t h e I E LTS t e sts y o ur a bility t o h andle s tr e ss m ore t h an i t d oes a nyth in g
e ls e . I n r e tr o sp ect, l o okin g b ack a t a ll t h e p ro ble m s I e n co unte re d , m ost o f t h em w ere v ery m uch
lik e C am brid ge te sts , a nd o nly a fe w w ere d arn n ea r im possib le to a nsw er. If g iv en tim e, e a ch
q uestio n w as s o lv a ble . I E LTS w ants y o u t o b e s tr e sse d g oin g i n to t h e e xa m s o t h at a f e w d iffic u lt
q uestio ns h ere a nd th ere w ill c o m ple te ly th ro w y o u o ff y o ur p ace a nd ra ttle y o u. W hen th at
h appen s, I E LTS h as g ot y o u a nd y o u a re m ost lik ely n ot g oin g to r e co ver. T hat’s w hat h appen ed
to m e in th e fir st te st...
pre e x am jitte rs... a c o u ple o f h ard p ro ble m s, a n d th en it sp ir a lle d
d ow nw ard s a s I lo st h ope a n d tr u st in m y a bilitie s
. T here ’s n o o ne e a sy w ay to re lie ve th e
s tr e ss... e a ch p erso n i s d iffe re n t, b ut d o w hat y o u c a n d o, t o l im it a ny s tr e ss b efo re a nd d urin g t h e
e xa m ’.
- K ir a n ( IE LT S: 8 , S eco nd A tte m pt)

I n h is p ra cti c e te sts , K ir a n w as c o nsis te ntl y s c o rin g i n th e 7 -8 r a nge. H ow ev er, w hen h e a ctu ally w ent
o n to ta ke h is IE LT S e xam ; h e w as s h o cked to s e e a s c o re o f 5 . In ste ad o f lo sin g h eart, K ir a n to ok it
a s a c halle nge. H e d ecid ed to ta ke p ro fe ssio nal h elp .

N o, h e d id n o t d o a ny p riv ate c o achin g o r ta ke a ny fa ce-to -fa ce c la sse s; in ste ad h e h ad d eta ile d
d is c ussio ns a b out h is p re p ara ti o n s tr a te gy a nd b ase d o n in p uts fr o m h is c o ach, d ecid ed to tr a nsfo rm
i t.

6 . W hy so m e p eo p le sc o re h ig h er th e se co n d
t im e a ro u nd

I E LT S W in ners ty p ic ally a p pro ach th e I E LT S a s a c halle nge o r a s a n o pportu nity to " sh o w th eir s tu ff" ,
i n ste ad o f v ie w in g i t a s a s c ary h urd le th at's tr y in g to k eep th em o ut o f th eir c ho se n c o lle ge.

M ost p eo ple w ho m ake a s e co nd a tte m pt im pro ve th eir s c o re , o fte n b y a b out 1 .5 p oin ts . A necd ota l
e v id ence s u ggests th at m uch o f th e i m pro vem ent i s n o t d ue to a d diti o nal p re p , b ut s im ply l e ss a nxie ty
b ecause o f f a m ilia rity w ith th e te st f o rm at a nd e nv ir o nm ent.

S om eti m es, p eo ple a re s o ld o n th e i d ea th at th e I E LT S i s a n A pti tu d e te st a nd b y i ts v ery n atu re , d oes
n o t a llo w f o r i m pro vem ents i n s c o re b y m ere ly s tu d yin g!!

A s a R esu lt , s o m e s tu den ts D O N O T p re p are w ell e n ou gh th e fir st
t im e r o u nd.

H ow ev er, b y th e ti m e th ey h av e ta ken th e IE LT S a nd g o t a n o t s o im pre ssiv e s c o re , th ey a re W is e r.
T hey th en m ake a p ro per s tu d y p la n a nd g o th ro ugh th e r ig ht m ate ria l.
T his , c o up le d w ith th e f ir s t p oin t, u su ally r a is e s th e s c o re b y a b out 1 .5 p oin ts .

C re a tin g a S tu dy S ch ed ule

Y ou w ill n eed to d ev elo p a s tu d y p la n f o r y o urs e lf th at ta kes i n to a cco unt y o ur s tr e ngth s, w eaknesse s,
s tu d y h ab its , a nd s c hed ule . T he m ost i m porta nt th in g to d o b efo re a nyth in g e ls e i s to f a m ilia riz e y o ur-
s e lf w ith th e f o rm at o f th e e xam . Y ou c an d o th is b y r e v ie w in g th e
IE LTS.o rg
w eb site o r r e ad in g th e
i n tr o ducto ry c hap te r in a ny IE LT S s tu d y g uid e. T heir w eb site in clu d es a g o od lis t o f a ll th e s u b je ct
a re as th at a re a f a ir g am e o n th e I E LT S.

N ext y o u s h o uld ta ke y o ur f ir s t f u ll- le ngth p ra cti c e te st to g et a b ase lin e s c o re . M ake a n o te o f w hic h
a re as y o u p erfo rm ed p oorly o n a nd m ake a p la n to s p end s o m e e xtr a ti m e o n th em . B egin r e v ie w in g
t h e s c ie nce to pic s u sin g s tu d y g uid es, n o te s f r o m y o ur c o lle ge c o urs e s, te xtb ooks, o r a nyth in g e ls e th at
y o u fe el h as g o od a nd re le v ant re v ie w . T here is n o “ rig ht” o rd er to stu d y th e su b je ct a re as; th is
d ep end s o n w here yo ur str e ngth s and w eaknesse s are . O nce yo u fe el co nfid ent in th e fa cts and
c o ncep ts th at c an s h o w u p o n th e I E LT S, y o u s h o uld b egin w ork in g th ro ugh f u ll- le ngth I E LT S p ra cti c e
t e sts o n a r e gula r b asis . W ith e v ery p ra cti c e te st y o u ta ke, u se y o ur s c o re to d ia gno se y o ur w eakest
a re as a nd g o b ack to th em f o r a d diti o nal r e v ie w .
T hro ugho ut y o ur p re p ara ti o n f o r th e I E LT S y o u n eed to s e t a sid e ti m e to ta ke f u ll- le ngth p ra cti c e te sts
a t re gula r in te rv als , p re fe ra b ly o nce a w eek, to tr a ck yo ur p ro gre ss. L ook at yo ur sc o re in th e
b egin nin g, m id dle a nd e nd o f y o ur s tu d y p ro gra m to s e e h o w w ell y o u a re d oin g a nd to p in p oin t a re as
y o u n eed m ore f o cus o n.

I t is r e co m mend ed th at y o u b egin y o ur p re p ara ti o n fo r th e IE LT S a nyw here fr o m 1 -2 m onth s b efo re
y o ur te st d ate . T he k ey i s to p ace y o ur-s e lf a nd a v oid c ra m min g a t th e l a st m in ute , s in ce th is i s n o t th e
t y p e o f e xam th at l e nd s i ts e lf to l a st- m in ute p re p ara ti o n. I f y o u a re s ti ll i n c o lle ge, y o u m ig ht w ant to
t a ke a lig hte r c o urs e lo ad d urin g th e s e m este r in w hic h y o u p la n to s tu d y fo r th e IE LT S s o y o u w ill
h av e e no ugh ti m e to d ev ote to i t.
T here i s n o o ne-s iz e -fits -a ll s tu d y s c hed ule f o r a ll I E LT S te st ta kers , b ut i f y o u s p end s o m e ti m e e arly
i n th e p ro cess d ev elo pin g th e b est s tu d y s tr a te gy f o r y o u, i t w ill p ay o ff w ith g re at r e w ard s.

W hat th e W in ners K now A bou t E ach S ectio n o f th e IE LT S a n d
H ow t o B ea t I t?

I E LT S T ests i s a s k ills e xam . I t c halle nges y o ur l is te nin g, r e ad in g, w riti n g a nd s p eakin g s k ills . A g o od
u nd ers ta nd in g o f e ach o f th e f o ur c o m ponents w ill l e ad y o u to a b ette r b and s c o re .

A ll I E LT S l is te nin g q uesti o ns a re p re se nte d i n th e s a m e o rd er a s y o u l is te n to th em . W henev er y o u a re
g o in g f o r a l is te nin g p ra cti c e te st i t i s a d vis a b le th at y o u g o o ver th e q uesti o ns f ir s t b efo re ta kin g th e
e xam . H av in g a n i d ea o f th e q uesti o ns w ill g iv e y o u a h in t o n w hat to l o ok o ut f o r w hen th e r e co rd er
i s p la yed .

T akin g ti m ed r e ad in g p ra cti c e te sts w ill d ev elo p y o ur s k im min g a nd s c annin g s k ills . It a ls o h elp s in
c re ati n g yo ur o w n ti m e sa v in g te chniq ues w hen d oin g th e exam . K no w in g th e d iffe re nt ty p es o f
q uesti o ns in th e r e ad in g te st w ill h elp y o u a s w ell in h av in g a g o od u nd ers ta nd in g o f y o ur a b iliti e s
t h at i s b ein g te ste d .

T he sa m e th in g w ith th e w riti n g co m ponent; yo ur ab ility to und ers ta nd and desc rib e certa in
i n fo rm ati o n th at a re p re se nte d i n th e f o rm o f a g ra p h, d ia gra m o r p ro cess p la ys a v ita l r o le i n w riti n g
a g o od r e p ort. Y our a b ility to w rite a nd p re se nt y o ur o w n p oin t o f v ie w s i n a c o hesiv e s ty le i s a s w ell
b ein g c halle nged o n th e s e co nd p art o f th e w riti n g e xam .

P ro vid in g f u ll a nd d ir e ct to -th e-p oin t a nsw ers , h o w w ell y o u c an ta lk a t l e ngth o n a c erta in to pic a nd
h o w y o u p ro vid e a nsw ers to q uesti o ns o n a p arti c ula r to pic a re o ne o f th e w ays o f m akin g i t th ro ugh
t h e s p eakin g te st.

W hen i t c o m es to th e s p eakin g te st y o u h av e to ta ke n o te th at y o u d o n o t n eed to f o llo w a n E nglis h o r
A meric an a ccent a t a ll. J u st s p eak s p onta neo usly a b out y o ur id eas o n w hat y o u th in k a b out c erta in
t o pic s th at a re b ein g a sk ed . M ake s u re th at y o ur a nsw ers a re w ell u nd ers to od a nd y o u s p eak w ith
c la rity .

T ry in g to s p eak l ik e a B riti s h o r a n A meric an w ill n o t h elp y o u w hen d oin g th e s p eakin g te st. I t m ig ht
c o m e a s a d is tr a cti o n to th e e xam in er w hy y o u a re s p eakin g th is w ay w hen y o u h av e y o ur o w n w ay o f

sp eakin g th e E nglis h l a nguage. I t w ill a ls o b e o ne o f th e r e aso ns w hy y o u m ig ht n o t m eet th e n ecessa ry
sc o re y o u a re tr y in g to a chie v e. It m ay c ause y o u to fa lte r a s w ell in a nsw erin g th e q uesti o ns w hen
ad ap ti n g to th ese a ccents . T ry to s p eak a s n atu ra lly a s p ossib le i f y o u w ant to m ake i t o n th e s p eakin g
exam .

Most in d iv id uals w ill b e h av in g a nd d ev elo pin g th eir o w n s tr a te gie s a nd te chniq ues in b eati n g th e
IE LT S e xam . H ow ev er, th e b est w ay to b eat it is to k no w y o ur s tr e ngth s a nd w eakness a nd w hic h
ab iliti e s a m ong th e o nes y o u h av e a re b ein g te ste d .

7 . B ea tin g t h e F ou r c o m pon en ts o f t h e I E LT S

T he fir s t th in g y o u m ust d o to b eat th e fo ur c o m ponents o f IE LT S is to b eco m e c o m fo rta b le w ith th e
E nglis h l a nguage. I n d oin g th is y o u s h o uld tr y to a t l e ast a d ap t to a n E nglis h e nv ir o nm ent th e b est y o u
c o uld . S ta rt w atc hin g E nglis h s h o w s to a ccusto m y o urs e lf w ith E nglis h , s ta rt s p eakin g i n E nglis h w ith
y o ur f a m ily a nd f r ie nd s a nd a sk th em to d o th is f a v our f o r y o u w hile p re p arin g f o r y o ur e xam . T ry to
s p eak th e E nglis h la nguage a t w ork w ith y o ur c o lle agues. S om e m ay fe el in d iffe re nt a b out it w hile
s o m e w ill b e th ere to e nco ura ge y o u a s w ell.

W hen doin g th e IE LT S exam th e go ld en ru le is to fo llo w th e in str u cti o ns pro perly . F ollo w in g
i n str u cti o ns is v ita l w hen ta kin g th e e xam . K no w in g a nd h av in g th e c o rre ct a nsw er w ill n o t m ake it
r ig ht i f y o u d o n o t f o llo w th e p ro per i n str u cti o ns. M ake s u re th at y o u s p ell th e w ord s c o rre ctl y .

T he b asic th in g yo u sh o uld d o to b eat all th e IE LT S co m ponents is to d ev elo p th e te chniq ues,
s tr a te gie s a nd h o w to s a v e ti m e i n a nsw erin g th e q uesti o ns.

7 .1 L is te n in g

P assin g th e I E LT S l is te nin g c o m ponent w ill ta ke a f e w te chniq ues to d o i t. T he f ir s t th in g y o u h av e to
r e m em ber is th at th e re co rd ed m ate ria l is p re se nte d in a n in cre asin g d iffic ulty . W hile th e fir s t a nd
s e co nd p arts a re m uch e asie r to l is te n to , th e th ir d a nd th e f o urth s e cti o ns w ill b e m uch f a ste r th an th e
f ir s t tw o s e cti o ns.

G o o ver th e q uesti o ns b ein g a sk ed w hile th e e xam is y et to s ta rt. U nd ers ta nd w hat is b ein g a sk ed in
e ach s e t o f q uesti o ns. Y ou d o n o t n eed to u nd ers ta nd w hat is b ein g s a id o n th e re co rd ed m ate ria l.
W hat i s i m porta nt i s y o u l is te n f o r th e a nsw er a s y o u h ear th e d ia lo gues. W hat i s b ein g s a id a nd w hat
i s w ritte n a re n o t e xactl y th e s a m e. M ost w ill b e p ara p hra se d . D o n o t s ti c k o n o ne q uesti o n a s th is
w ill d is tr a ct y o ur a tte nti o n in lis te nin g. If y o u d id n’t h ear th e a nsw er o r y o u d on’t k no w th e a nsw er,
m ove o n to th e n ext q uesti o n. T he a nsw ers a re a lw ays g iv en in o rd er. If y o u m is se d o ne a nsw er y o u
c an tr y g uessin g th e a nsw er f o r th e n um ber y o u m is se d .

T he acad em ic lis te nin g te st is one are a of th e IE LT S w here te achers canno t assis t stu d ents in
p re p ara ti o n a s g o od a s th ey c an a ssis t i n o th er a re as o f th e e xam in ati o n. T his te st a re a i s b ase d o n th e
s k ill o f lis te nin g, w hic h is d ev elo ped th ro ugh in d iv id ual p ra cti c e o ver ti m e, ra th er th an b y te acher
i n str u cti o n.

T he lis te nin g
te st h as fo ur s e cti o ns, e ach w ith 1 0 ite m s ( o r q uesti o ns). E ach ite m is w orth o ne m ark .
T he ite m s a re d esig ned s o th at th e a nsw ers a p pear in o rd er in th e lis te nin g p assa ge. D urin g th e te st,
y o u a re g iv en ti m e to r e ad th e q uesti o ns a nd w rite d ow n a nd c heck y o ur a nsw ers . A nsw ers c an b e
w ritte n o n th e Q uesti o n P ap er a s y o u l is te n. W hen th e ta p e e nd s, y o u a re g iv en te n m in ute s to tr a nsfe r
y o ur a nsw ers o n th e A nsw er S heet.


I m porta nt w ord s a nd m ain id eas in c o nv ers a ti o n a re o nes th at w ill c o m e u p a gain a nd a gain . L is te n
c are fu lly fo r a ny w ord o r w ord s th at c o m e u p re p eate d ly . W hat w ord s c o m e u p in n early e v ery
s ta te m ent m ad e? T hese w ord s w ith
hig h fr e q uency
are lik ely to be in th e m ain id ea of th e
c o nv ers a ti o n.
F or e xam ple , in a c o nv ers a ti o n a b out c la ss s iz e in th e b usin ess d ep artm ent o f a c o lle ge, th e te rm
“ cla ss s iz e ” i s l ik ely to a p pear i n n early e v ery s ta te m ent m ad e b y e ith er s p eaker i n th e d is c ussio n.
V oic e C han ges
I E LT S e xp ects y o u to b e a b le to r e co gniz e a nd in te rp re t n uances o f s p eech. B e o n th e a le rt fo r a ny
c hanges i n v oic e w hic h m ig ht r e gis te r s u rp ris e , e xcite m ent o r a no th er e m oti o n. I f a s p eaker i s ta lk in g

in a n o rm al m ono to ne v oic e a nd s u d denly r a is e s h is v oic e to a h ig h p itc h, it is a c lu e th at s o m eth in g
criti c al i s b ein g s ta te d . L is te n f o r a s p eaker to c hange th eir v oic e a nd u nd ers ta nd th e m eanin g o f w hat
is b ein g s a id .

Exam ple :

Man: L et’ s g o to W al- m art.
Wom an: T here ’s a W al- m art i n th is s m all to w n?
If th e w om an’s s ta te m ent w as h ig her p itc hed , i n d ic ati n g s u rp ris e a nd s h o ck, th en s h e p ro bab ly d id n o t
exp ect to b e a W al- m art i n th at to w n.

Specif ic s
Lis te n c are fu lly fo r s p ecific p ie ces o f in fo rm ati o n. A dje cti v es a re c o m monly a sk ed a b out in IE LT S
questi o ns.
Try to r e m em ber a ny m ain a d je cti v es th at a re m enti o ned . P ic k o ut a d je cti v es s u ch a s n um bers , c o lo rs
or s iz e s.

Exam ple :

Man: L et’ s g o to th e s to re a nd g et s o m e a p ple s to m ake th e p ie .
Wom an: H ow m any d o w e n eed ?
Man: W e’ll n eed f iv e a p ple s to m ake th e p ie .
A ty p ic al q uesti o n m ig ht b e a b out h o w m any a p ple s w ere n eed ed .
In te rp re t
As y o u a re l is te nin g to th e c o nv ers a ti o n, p ut y o urs e lf i n th e p ers o n’s s h o es. T hin k a b out w hy s o m eo ne
would m ake a sta te m ent. Y ou’ll n eed to d o m ore th an ju st re gurg ita te th e sp oken w ord s b ut a ls o
in te rp re t th em .

Exam ple :
Wom an: I th in k I ’ m s ic k w ith th e f lu .
Man: W hy d on’t y o u g o s e e th e c am pus d octo r?

Sam ple Q uestio n:
W hy d id th e m an m enti o n th e c am pus d octo r?
Answ er:
The c am pus d octo r w ould b e a b le to d ete rm in e i f th e w om an h ad th e f lu .

Fin d t h e H id den M ea n in g
Look fo r th e m eanin g b ehin d a s ta te m ent. W hen a s p eaker a nsw ers a q uesti o n w ith a s ta te m ent th at
doesn ’t i m med ia te ly s e em to a nsw er th e q uesti o n, th e r e sp onse p ro bab ly c o nta in ed a h id den m eanin g
th at y o u w ill n eed to r e co gniz e a nd e xp la in .
Exam ple :

Man: A re y o u g o in g to b e r e ad y f o r y o ur p re se nta ti o n?
Wom an: I ’ v e o nly g o t h alf o f i t f in is h ed a nd i t’ s ta ken m e f iv e h o urs j u st to d o th is m uch. T here ’s o nly
an h o ur l e ft b efo re th e p re se nta ti o n i s d ue.
At fir s t, th e w om an d id n o t s e em to a nsw er th e q uesti o n th e m an p re se nte d . S he re sp ond ed w ith a
sta te m ent th at o nly s e em ed l o ose ly r e la te d . O nce y o u l o ok d eep er, th en y o u c an f in d th e tr u e m eanin g
of w hat s h e s a id . I f i t to ok th e w om an f iv e h o urs to d o th e f ir s t h alf o f th e p re se nta ti o n, th en i t w ould
lo gic ally ta ke h er a no th er fiv e h o urs to d o th e s e co nd h alf. S in ce s h e o nly h as o ne h o ur u nti l h er
pre se nta ti o n i s d ue, s h e w ould p ro bab ly N OT b e r e ad y f o r th e p re se nta ti o n. S o, w hile a n a nsw er w as
no t i m med ia te ly v is ib le to th e m an’s q uesti o n, w hen y o u a p ply s o m e l o gic to h er r e sp onse y o u w ould
fin d th e h id den m eanin g u nd ern eath .
Befo re y o u t a ke t h e t e st

Take e v ery o pportu nity to p ra cti c e y o ur lis te nin g s k ills . T his c a n b e a cco m plis h ed b y a n a cti v ity a s
sim ple a s lis te nin g to th e ra d io . B oth th e a cad em ic lis te nin g te st a nd th e ra d io p ro vid e y o u w ith
voic es b ut y o u c anno t s e e th e s p eakers . (L is te nin g to th e te le v is io n is a ls o g o od, b ut y o u m ust n o t
vie w th e s c re en fo r th e p ra cti c e to b e m ost e ffe cti v e.) T o fu rth er im pro ve y o ur lis te nin g, c o nsid er
answ erin g a f e w s im ple q uesti o ns a b out w hat y o u h eard :


WHO
was in v olv ed ?
WHAT
h ap pened ?
WHEN
d id it h ap pen?
WHY
d id it h ap pen?
HO W
d id it

hap pen?


When y o u t a ke t h e t e st:

Be s u re to r e ad th ro ugh a ll th e q uesti o ns B EFO RE lis te nin g. Y ou w ill h av e a c hance a t it in th e s ta rt
and i t i s a w is e u se o f th o se 2 0 s e co nd s. B y k no w in g i n a d vance w hat i n fo rm ati o n w ill b e a sk ed , y o u
can lis te n m ore p urp ose fu lly . It’ s lik e g o in g o n a
Sca ven ger H unt
---y o u w ill h av e a ( m enta l) lis t o f
th in gs to l o ok f o r. W ith o ut th e l is t, h o w w ill y o u k no w w hat to f in d ?

As y o u r e ad o ver th e q uesti o ns P R ED IC T w hat ty p es o f a nsw ers y o u m ig ht n eed to f in d . F or e xam ple ,
if th e q uesti o n r e fe rs to a te le p ho ne n um ber, y o u k no w th at s o m ew here in th e te xt y o u w ill h ear th e
word “ te le p ho ne” a nd s o m e n um bers . B e v ery c are fu l n o t to w rite th e fir s t te le p ho ne n um ber th at a
sp eaker g iv es a s s o m eti m es a no th er s p eaker w ill c o rre ct th e n um ber a nd g iv e a n ew o ne.
Answ er a ll q uesti o ns a s y o u h ear th em . D o n o t r e ly o n y o ur m em ory . A lth o ugh i t i s o nly 1 0 q uesti o ns
per s e cti o n, y o u d o n o t w ant to tr y to s to re a ll o f th e a nsw ers ti ll th e e nd . W rite y o ur a nsw ers o n th e
questi o n s h eet a s y o u lis te n a nd th en tr a nsfe r th o se a nsw ers to th e a nsw er s h eet a t th e e nd . Y ou w ill
hav e 1 0 m in ute s a t th e e nd f o r th is p urp ose . A ls o , th is w ill e nsu re th at y o ur a nsw ers a re c are fu lly a nd
th o ughtf u lly co m ple te d . G ra m mar and sp ellin g are im porta nt. It is unlik ely th at yo u w ill m ake a
gra m mar e rro r g iv en th at th e m axim um n um ber o f w ritte n w ord s is th re e, h o w ev er, if a w ord is
mis sp elle d , i t c o uld b e m ark ed w ro ng.
Follo w a ll d ir e cti o ns. I f a q uesti o n a sk s f o r n o m ore th an th re e w ord s— only u se th re e w ord s. N ev er
le av e a q uesti o n u nansw ere d . D o y o ur b est to e lim in ate th e c ho ic es th at a re n o t f u lly c o rre ct a nd m ake
an e d ucate d g uess. S om e a nsw er o pti o ns w ill b e p arti a lly c o rre ct. T hese a re g iv en to d is tr a ct y o u
fr o m r e ad in g a ll th e c ho ic es th o ro ughly a nd f in d in g th e M OST c o rre ct a nsw er.

S A M PL E T R ANSC RIP T
(3 s p eak ers )

A d is c u ssio n a m ong t h re e u niv ersit y s tu dents w ho h ave v olu nte ere d t o o rg aniz e a n in te rn atio nal
m usic f e stiv al a t t h eir c o lle ge.

B obby:
T hanks f o r c o m in g to th is m eeti n g o n s u ch a s h o rt n o ti c e, H am eed a nd M arie la . I t l o oks l ik e
w e h av e ju st b eco m e th e o rg aniz in g c o m mitte e fo r th is y ear’s in te rn ati o nal m usic fe sti v al. W e’v e a ll
j u st m et so perh ap s w e sh o uld sta rt by in tr o ducin g ours e lv es and giv in g a bit of backgro und
i n fo rm ati o n.
H am eed
: O K, I’ m H am eed . I fin is h ed th re e y ears o f a m usic d egre e in K ab ul, w here I c o m e fr o m .
T his y ear I d ecid ed to s tu d y o vers e as to g et to k no w a d iffe re nt p art o f th e w orld . I ’ m a ls o a b ig f a n o f
E uro pean m usic , e sp ecia lly F re nch a nd I ta lia n. T ho se a re th e l a nguages I s tu d ie d , a lo ng w ith E nglis h .
T o m e, m usic i s a g re at w ay to l e arn a b out th e r e st o f th e w orld .
[Q uesti o n # 1]
I w as in th e m usic clu b a t m y u niv e rsity
so w hen I sa w a no ti c e ask in g fo r
v olu nte ers , I th o ught it w ould b e a g o od w ay to m eet p eo ple a nd g et in v olv ed in s o m eth in g I r e ally
e njo y.
M arie la :
T hanks, H am eed . M y n am e i s M arie la a nd I c o m e f r o m S pain . I ’ m d oin g g ra d uate s tu d ie s i n
E nglis h L ite ra tu re . I w ent to so m e o f th e co ncerts at th e fe sti v al la st year and enjo yed th em . I
e sp ecia lly l ik ed th e v id eo i n te rv ie w s. T hat w as w hen I d ecid ed to g et i n v olv ed .
[ Q uesti o n # 2]
I u se d t o d o m usic r e vie w s f o r o u r s tu den t n ew sp aper
b ack h o m e i n M ad rid .
B obby:
H i, I’ m B obby fr o m W ale s a nd I’ m a 4
th
Y ear J o urn alis m s tu d ent. M usic is m y h o bby. L ast
y ear I jo in ed th e o rg aniz in g c o m mitte e ju st lik e y o u h av e n o w a nd s o m eho w th is y ear I’ v e e nd ed u p
b ein g i n c harg e.
[ Q uesti o n # 3]
I’m a ctu ally a ble to u se m y c o ord in atin g w ork o n th e f e stiv a l to w ard a c re d it f o r
o n e o f m y c o u rse s.
I h av e to w rite u p a re p ort o n th e fe sti v al, w ith re co m mend ati o ns s o th at’ s a n
e xtr a m oti v ati o n f o r m e. I h o pe th is i s g o in g to b e a g o od e xp erie nce f o r u s a ll. O K, w here w ould y o u
l ik e to s ta rt?
H am eed:
H ow a b out a g enera l o verv ie w o f th e f e sti v al? I d on’t r e ally k no w m uch a b out i t.
B obby:
W ell, th e m usic f e sti v al w as s ta rte d b y th e I n te rn ati o nal S tu d ents ’ S ocie ty f iv e y ears a go a nd
h as g ro w n e v ery y ear.
[ Q uesti o n # 4]
I t is h eld o ve r 4 n ig h ts d u rin g S tu dy B re a k–W ed n esd ay to S atu rd ay. N orm ally w e

have 3 c o n certs a n ig h t.
Last y ear w e tr ie d to c ho ose p erfo rm ers fr o m d iffe re nt p arts o f th e w orld
th at f it to geth er i n s o m e w ay… mayb e a s im ila r th em e. O r, w e c o uld f e atu re a ty p e o f i n str u m ent, l ik e
th e d ru m s o r k eyb oard .
[P ause ]
Ham eed:
W ho p ic ks th e p erfo rm ers ?
Bobby:
[ Q uesti o n # 5]
It’s u p t o u s o n t h e c o m mitte e t o d ecid e.
Marie la :
Y ou m ean w e g et to p ic k a ll th e p erfo rm ers o urs e lv es? W hat a h ard d ecis io n! T here a re s o
many to c ho ose f r o m .
Bobby:
W ell, th at’ s th e f u n p art. W e h av e th is c ata lo gue o f i n d ep end ent m usic a gents . T he p erfo rm ers
are lis te d b y la nguage and hav e a sh o rt su m mary . W e ju st hav e to go th ro ugh it to fin d a go od
co m bin ati o n o f p erfo rm ers w ho w ill a ttr a ct a n a ud ie nce.
Ham eed:
M arie la m enti o ned s o m eth in g a b out i n te rv ie w s. H ow d oes th at f it i n ?
Bobby:
W e s e t u p c am era s in th e fo yer o f th e m usic h all a nd d id liv e in te rv ie w s b efo re , d urin g th e
in te rm is sio n, a nd a fte r th e s h o w .
[Q uesti o n #6]
Anyo n e fr o m th e au die n ce co u ld co m e up an d ta lk abou t th e film
. The
Bro ad casti n g a nd J o urn alis m S cho ol s e t i t u p a nd r a n th e i n te rv ie w s. T hey w ere s h o w n o n b ig s c re ens
aro und th e lo bby a nd in th e m usic h all. It w ent o ver r e ally w ell. W e h ad a lo ng lin e u p o f s tu d ents
waiti n g to b e i n te rv ie w ed o n T V. E very b ody w ante d th eir m in ute o f f a m e.
Ham eed:
G re at i d ea!
Bobby:
Y eah, i t w ork ed r e ally w ell. W e s h o uld c erta in ly d o s o m eth in g s im ila r a gain .
Marie la :
M ayb e e v en d ev elo p th e i d ea f u rth er… lik e a w eb site w ith a ud ie nce r e v ie w s a nd d is c ussio n
so w e c an g et a s m uch p arti c ip ati o n a nd i n v olv em ent a s p ossib le .
Bobby:
H ey, th at’ s a g o od i d ea!
Ham eed:
C an I a sk a q uesti o n? N one o f th e m usic i s i n E nglis h , r ig ht? I s th ere a ny tr a nsla ti o n?
Bobby:
W ell, w e d o o ccasio nally c ho ose a n E nglis h g ro up , b ut o nly fr o m u nusu al p la ces w here th e
dia le ct i s s o s tr o ng th ey s o m eti m es n eed tr a nsla ti o n, l ik e f r o m th e C arib bean, o r e v en W ale s!
[Q uesti o n # 7]
The m ajo rity o f th e g ro u ps in th e f e stiv a l p erfo rm in th eir n ativ e la n gu age, w ith
ly ric s o n th e b ig s c re en in E nglis h .
We’v e le arn ed fr o m e xp erie nce th at s tu d ents d on’t lik e r e ad in g
tr a nsla te d l y ric s. M ayb e th ey r e ad to o m uch a lr e ad y. W hate v er th e r e aso n, m ost o f th e a ud ie nces j u st
enjo y th e m usic i ts e lf a nd a re n’t b oth ere d w ith u nd ers ta nd in g th e w ord s.
Marie la :
S o h o w l a rg e a n a ud ie nce c an w e e xp ect a nd h o w m uch d oes i t c o st to g et i n ?
Bobby:
I t c o sts $ 5 p er c o ncert o r a $ 20 p ass f o r th e w ho le e v ent— a ll 1 2 c o ncerts f o r th e r e al m usic
fa n. W e w ould h av e b ro ken e v en l a st y ear
[Q uesti o n # 8]
ex cep t fo r a b ad sto rm
b efo re th e F rid ay n ig ht p erfo rm ance---w e a lm ost h ad to

cancel th e w ho le th in g. B ut o vera ll w e h ad a g o od tu rn o ut— m ore th an 2 000 p eo ple i n 4 d ays.
Marie la :
T hat’ s w hat I w as w ond erin g a b out— th e f in ancia l p art. W here d oes th e f u nd in g c o m e f r o m ?
What k in d o f b ud get d o w e h av e? (
Fade o ut… ….)

SA M PL E Q UEST IO NS
: M ult ip le C hoic e s

Obje ctiv e:
In th is ty p e o f q uesti o n, y o u w ill b e g iv en a s te m , th at i s , a w ord , a p art o f a s e nte nce o r a
questi o n th at m ust b e c o m ple te d b y se le cti n g o ne o f th e o pti o ns g iv en. T here is o nly o ne c o rre ct
answ er; o th er o pti o ns m ay b e p arti a lly , b ut n o t c o m ple te ly c o rre ct.

Read th e s te m c are fu lly . E lim in ate th e in co rre ct o pti o ns. S ele ct th e m ost c o rre ct a nsw er th at w ould
make th e s ta te m ent c o m ple te a nd c o rre ct a cco rd in g to w hat y o u h eard .

1.)

H am eed
A.

has d one m usic r e v ie w s.
B.

Is c urre ntl y i n h is th ir d y ear.
C.

will b e e arn in g c o urs e c re d it f o r th e m usic f e sti v al p ro je ct.
D.

has p la yed m usic p ro fe ssio nally .
E.

Is e nro lle d i n m ed ia s tu d ie s.
F.

work s a s a j o urn alis t.
G.

has m usic c lu b e xp erie nce.

2.)

M arie la
A . h as d one m usic r e v ie w s.

B. I s c urre ntl y i n h er th ir d y ear.
C . w ill b e e arn in g c o urs e c re d it f o r th e m usic f e sti v al p ro je ct.
D . h as p la yed m usic p ro fe ssio nally .
E . i s e nro lle d i n m ed ia s tu d ie s.
F . w ork s a s a j o urn alis t.
G . h as m usic c lu b e xp erie nce.

3 .) B obby
A . h as d one m usic r e v ie w s.

B. I s c urre ntl y i n h is th ir d y ear.

C . w ill b e e arn in g c o urs e c re d it f o r th e m usic f e sti v al p ro je ct.
D . h as p la yed m usic p ro fe ssio nally .
E . i s e nro lle d i n m ed ia s tu d ie s.
F . w ork s a s a j o urn alis t.
G . h as m usic c lu b e xp erie nce.

4.)

T he t o ta l n um ber o f c o nce rts in t h e f e stiv al e ach y ear is
A.

fiv e.
B.

th re e.
C.

tw elv e
.

5.)
Who c h oose s t h e m usic a l p erfo rm ers f o r t h e f e stiv al?
A.

th e c o m mitte e m em bers
B.

th e I n te rn ati o nal S tu d ents ’ S ocie ty
C.

th e i n d ep end ent a gents

6.) D urin g t h e in te rm is sio n, w ho is in te rv ie w ed o n c a m era ?
A.

music s tu d ents
B.

mem bers o f th e a ud ie nce
C.

th e o rg aniz in g c o m mitte e

7.)

O f t h e c o nce rts in t h e f e stiv al,
A.

no ne a re p erfo rm ed i n E nglis h .
B.

most h av e l y ric s tr a nsla te d o n th e b ig s c re en.
C.

many a re p erfo rm ed i n E nglis h .

8.)

T he f e stiv al d id n ot m ak e a p ro fit la st b eca use o f
A.

poor w eath er.
B.

th e h ig h p ric e o f a d m is sio n.
C.

a l a ck o f p ub lic ity .




SA M PL E Q UEST IO N A NSW ER S

1 .
G
2 .
A
3 .
C
4 .
C
5 .
A
6 .
B
7 .
B
8 .
A


SA M PL E Q UEST IO NS
: S ente nce C om ple tio n

Obje ctiv e:
In th is ty p e o f q uesti o n, y o u w ill b e g iv en a n i n co m ple te s ta te m ent th at m ust b e c o m ple te d
usin g i n fo rm ati o n y o u h eard i n th e l is te nin g te xt.
Be s u re to c o m ple te th e s ta te m ent u sin g
th re e
w ord s o r l e ss. T he s ta te m ents w ill b e p re se nte d i n th e
sa m e o rd er a s y o u h eard th e i n fo rm ati o n i n th e te xt.


1.)

Bobby o pens th e c o m mitte e m eeti n g b y a sk in g f o r e v ery o ne to _ ______.


2.)

I n a d diti o n to E nglis h , H am eed a ls o s tu d ie d _ _____________________.

3.)

M arie la a tte nd ed a nd e njo yed th e m usic f e sti v al _ __________________.

4.)

The f e sti v al m ig ht h av e a th em e, o r f e atu re c erta in i n str u m ents l ik e th e _ ________________.


5.)

The p erfo rm ers i n th e f e sti v al a re s e le cte d o ut o f a _ ________________.


6.)

T he a ud ie nce i n te rv ie w s a re s h o w n i n th e m usic h all o n _ ____________.

7.)

M arie la su ggests th at th ey co uld in cre ase stu d ent in te re st and in v olv em ent by
_____________________________________________.

8.)

The d ia lo gue e nd s w ith M arie la a sk in g a b out th e f e sti v al’s _ __________.

SA M PL E Q UEST IO N A NSW ER S


1.

in tr o duce t h em se lv es
. ( m ak e in tr o ductio ns)
2.

Fre nch a nd I ta lia n.
3.

la st y ear.
4.

dru m s o r k eyboard .
5.

ca ta lo gue.
6.

big s c re ens
. ( b ig s c re en t e le vis io ns)
7.

develo pin g a w ebsit e .
( c re atin g a w ebsit e )
8.

fu ndin g
. ( m oney, f in ancia l m atte rs)

Ø Lis te n c are fu lly to th e i n tr o ducti o n to e ach s e cti o n. T his w ill g iv e y o u u se fu l i n fo rm ati o n a b out
th e s itu ati o n a nd th e s p eakers .


Ø Use th e ti m e a t th e b egin nin g o f e ach s e cti o n to r e ad a head th e q uesti o ns a nd th in k a b out th e
to pic .
Ø Read th e in str u cti o ns fo r e ach ta sk c are fu lly . R em em ber to c heck th e m axim um n um ber o f
word s a llo w ed .
Ø Write a ll y o ur a nsw ers a s y o u l is te n — r e m em ber y o u w on’t h ear th e r e co rd in g a s e co nd ti m e.
Ø Check th at w hat y o u w rite m akes s e nse i n th e c o nte xt.
Ø Answ er a ll th e q uesti o ns e v en if y o u d on’t fe el su re a b out a n a nsw er — y o u m ay h av e
und ers to od m ore th an y o u th in k.
Ø Wait u nti l th e e nd o f th e te st to tr a nsfe r y o ur a nsw ers . Y ou h av e te n m in ute s fo r th is w hic h is
ple nty o f ti m e.
Ø Write c le arly w hen y o u tr a nsfe r y o ur a nsw ers . If a n a nsw er is n ’t c le ar o n y o ur a nsw er s h eet,
yo u w ill l o se th e m ark .
Ø Check y o ur s p ellin g ( a nd g ra m mar w here n ecessa ry ).

Ø Don’t w orry i f y o u h av e to c ro ss o ut o r c hange a n a nsw er.
Ø Don’t p anic i f y o u m is s o ne q uesti o n. L ook a head a nd c o ncentr a te o n th e n ext o ne.
Ø Don’t tr y to r e p hra se w hat y o u h ear. W rite d ow n th e w ord s y o u h ear w hic h f it th e q uesti o n.

7 .2 S P E A K IN G

T he f ir s t th in g y o u s h o uld r e m em ber a b out th e s p eakin g ta sk i s th at m ost q uesti o ns a p ply to y o u. I t c an
b e a b out y o ur w ork , c urre nt n ew s, te chno lo gy a nd it c an b e a ny to pic th at y o u m eet in e v ery d ay life
s itu ati o ns. A nsw er th e q uesti o ns c o m ple te ly a nd d o n o t l e av e a ny r o om f o r th e e xam in er to f o rm ula te
a no th er q uesti o n o ut o f y o ur a nsw ers . W hen y o u a re a sk ed to ta lk a b out a g iv en to pic , m ake s u re to
p re se nt y o ur i d eas c le arly a nd s p eak p ro perly f o r th e e xam in er to u nd ers ta nd w hat y o u a re s a yin g. B e
s u re to p ro vid e in d ep th a nsw ers to y o ur o pin io ns, e xp la in a nd ju sti fy y o ur a nsw ers a nd b e a b le to
d esc rib e, m ake c o m paris o ns o r s p ecula ti o ns w hen n eed ed .

P ra cti c e m akes perfe ct. L earn in g th e str a te gie s and te chniq ues on ho w to beat th e fo ur IE LT S
c o m ponents w ill g iv e y o u m ore c hances i n g etti n g h ig her s c o re s d urin g th e I E LT S e xam s.



T he sp eakin g p art o f th e IE LT S te nd s to c re ate a nxie ty fo r th e stu d ent; h o w ev er, it is b asic ally a
c o nv ers a ti o n a b out Y OU. T his is o ne to pic in w hic h y o u a re a n e xp ert. L asti n g o nly 1 5 m in ute s, th is
t e st w ill g iv e y o u a n o pportu nity to ta lk a b out y o urs e lf, y o ur p la ns fo r th e fu tu re , y o ur p ast s tu d ie s,
r e aso n f o r w hic h y o u a re ta kin g th e I E LT S, y o ur c o untr y , y o ur to w n o r o th er i n te re sti n g p ers o nal f a cts .
T here fo re , b e p re p are d f o r th ese ty p es o f s u b je cts . Y ou s h o uld p re p are s o m eth in g to s a y a b out th em i n
a d vance, th ere fo re a l is t o f p ossib le q uesti o ns w ill f o llo w .
I n a d diti o n, th e e xam in er w ill g iv e y o u a to pic to d is c uss; th en g iv e s o m e fo llo w -u p q uesti o ns a b out

yo ur s u b je ct m atte r.

Rem em ber to a lw ays u se w ord s a nd p hra se s w ith w hic h y o u a re c o m fo rta b le . I t i s m ore i m porta nt to
be c o nfid ent a nd a ccura te in y o ur w ord c ho ic es th an it is to a tte m pt to u se v ocab ula ry th at y o u a re
unsu re o f.

In
Part 1
o f th e te st, y o u w ill a nsw er g enera l q uesti o ns a b out y o urs e lf. T his p art la sts b etw een fo ur
and f iv e m in ute s. U se th is ti m e to b eco m e c o m fo rta b le w ith th e te sti n g p ro cess a nd y o ur e xam in er. B e
re la xed ,
th ere is n o r ig ht o r w ro ng a nsw er
---y o u a re s im ply e v alu ate d o n th e m anner in w hic h y o u
giv e y o ur a nsw er.


What i s t h e e x am in er l is te n in g f o r?

The r h yth m o f y o ur s p eech:
Does i t f lo w n atu ra lly ? A re y o ur i d eas p re se nte d i n a l o gic al o rd er?
The e ffe cti v eness o f y o ur w ord c ho ic es:
Is yo ur v ocab ula ry ad eq uate fo r th e to pic yo u are
dis c ussin g? A re y o ur d esc rip ti o ns u nd ers ta nd ab le b ase d o n y o ur c ho ic es?
The c o rre ctn ess o f y o ur g ra m mar:
Do y o u h av e sa ti s fa cto ry su b je ct- v erb a gre em ent a nd u se
co rre ct v erb te nse s? A re y o u s e le cti n g e ffe cti v e a d je cti v es a nd a d verb s?
The cla rity of yo ur pro nuncia ti o n:
Are yo ur w ord s and se nte nces enuncia te d cle arly and
sm ooth ly ?


Befo re y o u t a ke t h e t e st

Ø Ask y o ur fr ie nd s o r fa m ily m em bers to a nsw er s o m e o f th e s a m ple in te rv ie w q uesti o ns. L is te n
to th eir a nsw ers a nd d ecid e w hic h o nes a re th e m ost i n te re sti n g a nd w ell- p re se nte d .
Ø Write d ow n a s m any th in gs a b out y o urs e lf a s y o u c an i n th re e m in ute s.
Ø Ask a f r ie nd to b e y o ur e xam in er a nd c o nd uct a m ock i n te rv ie w u sin g th e s a m ple q uesti o ns.
Ø Ask fr ie nd s o r fa m ily m em bers to a nsw er s o m e o f th e s a m ple q uesti o ns a b out y o u. L is te n fo r
deta ils a nd a nti d ote s th at y o u m ay h av e f o rg o tte n a b out y o urs e lf.

Sam ple Q uestio n s f o r P art 1

1 . W hat i s th e m eanin g o f y o ur n am e? W hy d o y o u th in k i t w as s e le cte d f o r y o u?
2 . D oes y o ur n am e r e fle ct y o ur p ers o nality ? W hat c hara cte ris ti c s c o m e to m in d ?
3 . D esc rib e y o ur h o m eto w n. W hat d o y o u l ik e a nd d is lik e a b out i t?
4 . W hat l a nguages a re s p oken i n y o ur c o untr y ? A re th ere r e gio nal d ia le cts ?
5 . W here d id y o u g o to s c ho ol? H ow i m porta nt d o y o u th in k e d ucati o n i s f o r f u tu re s u ccess?
6 . W hat i s th e f a v orite f o od i n th e r e gio n w here y o u l iv e?
7 . D esc rib e y o ur l e is u re ti m e a cti v iti e s. D o y o u h av e c erta in i n te re sts o r h o bbie s th at y o u e njo y?
8 . H ow m any p eo ple a re i n y o ur i m med ia te f a m ily a nd w hat d o th ey d o?
9 . W hat i s y o ur d re am j o b? W hy w ould y o u l ik e to w ork i n th at f ie ld ?
10. A re th ere a ny in te re sti n g h is to ric al m onum ents in y o ur to w n? D o to uris ts c o m e to se e th ese
sig hts ?

When y o u t a ke t h e t e st
Ø Lis te n c are fu lly to th e q uesti o n a nd s e ek c la rific ati o n if y o u d o n o t fu lly u nd ers ta nd w hat is
bein g a sk ed .
Ø Answ er a ll p arts o f th e q uesti o n f u lly , u sin g c le ar e xp la nati o ns a nd v iv id d esc rip ti o ns.
Ø Add l e ngth to s o m e o f y o ur a nsw ers u sin g s h o rt a necd ote s o r q uo te s f r o m o th ers .

When y o u a re i n th e te st, s m ile a nd l o ok th e e xam in er i n th e e ye. T ry to b e f r ie nd ly a nd l o ok a s th o ugh
yo u a re e njo yin g th e c o nv ers a ti o n. T his h as a b ig e ffe ct o n th e e xam in er. If a n e xam in er h as to ta lk
with s o m eo ne w ho d oesn 't ta lk m uch, d oesn 't s m ile a t a ll a nd w ho c le arly d oesn 't w ant to b e th ere ,
th en i t h as a n egati v e e ffe ct o n th e e xam in er. B ein g n erv ous i s f in e. T he e xam in er u nd ers ta nd s th at a nd
will tr y a nd p ut y o u a t e ase . B ut b e f r ie nd ly . I t m akes a d iffe re nce.

Don't w orry ab out th e o ccasio nal m is ta ke. T he exam in er w ill exp ect so m e m is ta kes - afte r all,
Englis h is a fo re ig n la nguage fo r y o u a nd p eo ple m ake m is ta kes in s p eakin g fo re ig n la nguages. T he
exam in er i s n o t m akin g a n o te o f e v ery s in gle m is ta ke th at y o u m ake. T his w ould b e i m possib le to d o
and c o ncentr a te o n y o ur sp eakin g. H e w ill m ore lik ely g et a g enera l im pre ssio n o f y o ur E nglis h
accura cy s o i n d iv id ual e rro rs d on't m atte r. M ore i m porta nt i s y o ur c o m munic ati o n.
You h av e to ta lk . W ith o ut y o ur ta lk in g in p ut, th e e xam in er c an't g ra d e y o u v ery w ell. T ry a nd g iv e a s
fu ll a n a nsw er a s y o u c an s o th at y o u s h o w th e e xam in er th at y o u a re c o m fo rta b le a t ta lk in g a t le ngth
and c an c o m munic ate w ell. D on't d o th is to e xtr e m es th o ugh. W hen y o u h av e fin is h ed w hat y o u h av e
to s a y, s to p. D on't tr y a nd f o rc e m ore o ut a s i t w ill p ro bab ly b e s tr a in ed a nd r e p eti ti v e. T he e xam in er
will s e e th at y o u h av e fin is h ed a nd w ill g iv e y o u th e n ext q uesti o n. S im ila rly , y o u w on't b e a b le to
answ er all q uesti o ns at le ngth . D iffe re nt p eo ple can ta lk ab out d iffe re nt q uesti o ns m ore and th e
exam in er k no w s th is . I f y o u d on't k no w m uch a b out s o m eth in g, s a y s o a nd th en s a y w hat y o u d o k no w .
When yo u'r e fin is h ed , th e exam in er w ill giv e yo u ano th er q uesti o n. Y ou can't d uck o ut o f ev ery
questi o n th o ugh - th e r e sp onsib ility i s o n y o u to ta lk .
Don't tr y to b e to o c le v er. J u st tr y a nd ta lk n o rm ally a s th at is w hen y o u w ill p erfo rm a t y o ur b est. If
yo u tr y a nd e xte nd y o urs e lf to o m uch, th en th at i s w hen y o u w ill m ake th e m ost e rro rs .
Perfe cti o n is n o t n eed ed . Y ou c an s ti ll m ake s o m e e rro rs a nd g et a 9 (n o t m any e rro rs th o ugh). S o
don't l e t m akin g e rro rs u p se t y o u. G et o n w ith th e ta lk in g a nd c o ncentr a te o n y o ur c o m munic ati o n.
One th in g th at p uts cand id ate s o ff is th at th e sp eakin g te st is re co rd ed . T his is d one so th at, if
necessa ry , th e sp eakin g c an b e re -m ark ed . If th e b and s fo r a c and id ate 's w riti n g a nd sp eakin g fo r
in sta nce a re v ery d iffe re nt, th en th e c and id ate 's te st is r e -c hecked . If th e s p eakin g w as n o t r e co rd ed ,
th en th is c o uld n o t b e d one. T his d oesn 't h ap pen v ery o fte n. S am ple r e co rd in gs a re a ls o s e nt to th e
IE LT S a d m in is tr a ti o n to b e m onito re d to m ake s u re th at e xam in ers a re d oin g a g o od j o b a nd a ssig nin g
th e c o rre ct b and s. S o tr y a nd f o rg et th at th e r e co rd er i s th ere a nd g et o n w ith a nsw erin g th e q uesti o ns.

In
Part 2
, y o u w ill h av e m ore ti m e to th o ro ughly d is c uss o ne to pic . T he e xam in er w ill p ro vid e a
su b je ct a nd y o u w ill h av e 1 to 2 m in ute s to s p eak a b out it. Y ou w ill b e g iv en o ne m in ute to p re p are
and to ta ke s h o rt n o te s. A fte r y o ur ta lk , th e e xam in er w ill th en a sk o ne o r tw o f o llo w -u p q uesti o ns.

What i s t h e e x am in er l is te n in g f o r?

Adeq uate c o vera ge o f th e to pic
: D id y o u s p eak a t l e ngth w ith f u ll e xp la nati o ns o f y o ur th o ughts ?
Did y o u u se a p pro pria te g ra m mar a nd v ocab ula ry ?

Befo re y o u t a ke t h e t e st
1.

Read a n ew sp ap er o r w atc h a n ew s p ro gra m o n te le v is io n e v ery d ay. T his w ill e xp ose y o u
to i n fo rm ati o n a nd v ie w poin ts o n c urre nt e v ents i n th e w orld .

2.

Sele ct a n i s su e o r e v ent i n th e n ew s. C ond uct e no ugh r e se arc h s o th at y o u h av e a n a d eq uate
vocab ula ry lis t o f re la te d w ord s. T hin k a b out y o ur p ositi o n o r o pin io n o n th is m atte r a nd
ho w y o u w ould e xp re ss th o se f e elin gs i n a p ro fe ssio nal m anner.

3.

Thin k a b out h o w th is is su e o r e v ent im pacts y o u p ers o nally . B e c erta in to u se e xam ple s
fr o m y o ur o w n l ife w hen d is c ussin g a to pic .

4.

Pra cti c e c o m parin g a nd c o ntr a sti n g e v ents a nd p eo ple in th e n ew s, re m em berin g to b e
bala nced i n y o ur d esc rip ti o ns o f e ach s id e.

Sam ple Q uestio n s f o r P art 2

1.

Dis c uss w hat h as b een th e g re ate st d is c o very in h is to ry . W hat o ne in v enti o n o r p ie ce o f
kno w le d ge h as c hanged m ore l iv es f o r th e b ette r?

2.

Who i s y o ur h ero ? W hy i s th is p ers o n s o m eo ne w ho m y o u l o ok u p to a nd w is h to b e l ik e?

3.

How h as te chno lo gy c hanged o ur s o cie ty ? W hat a re th e p ositi v e a nd n egati v e a sp ects o f
liv in g i n th e a ge o f e le ctr o nic s?

When y o u t a ke t h e t e st

1.

Afte r b ein g g iv en y o ur to pic to d is c uss, q uic kly w rite a fe w n o te s to g uid e y o ur ta lk .
Sim ply w rite k eyw ord s o r n am es to p ro m pt y o u to in clu d e th at in fo rm ati o n. A s y o u s p eak,
re fe r to th e l is t o f w ord s a nd e xp and w ith s h o rt s to rie s a nd d eta ils .

2.

Alw ays in clu d e e xam ple s fr o m y o ur o w n life . T his g iv es y o ur ta lk m ore c o lo r, b ut m ost
im porta ntl y , p ers o nal e xp erie nces a nd o pin io ns a re e asie r to e xp re ss th an m em oriz e d f a cts .


In
Part 3
o f th e te st, y o u a nd th e e xam in er w ill e ngage in a d is c ussio n o f m ore a b str a ct is su es a nd
co ncep ts w hic h a re th em ati c ally lin ked to th e to pic y o u ta lk ed a b out in P art 2 . T he d is c ussio n la sts
betw een f o ur a nd f iv e m in ute s.


What i s t h e e x am in er l is te n in g f o r?

Your a b ility to m ake c o nnecti o ns a nd d ra w c o nclu sio ns
: C an y o u re la te th e to pic to e v ents in
world o r y o ur o w n l ife ? C an y o u c o m pare a nd c o ntr a st th e to pic w ith r e la te d i n fo rm ati o n?

Your a b ility to p re se nt a nd d efe nd y o ur p ositi o n
: Can y o u u se p ers u asiv e l a nguage to j u sti fy y o ur
opin io n? A re y o u u sin g c le ar a nd c o nv in cin g l a nguage to c o m munic ate y o ur a ssu m pti o ns?

Befo re y o u t a ke t h e t e st

1.

Read a n ew sp ap er o r w atc h a n ew s p ro gra m o n te le v is io n e v ery d ay. T his w ill e xp ose y o u
to i n fo rm ati o n a nd v ie w poin ts o n c urre nt e v ents i n th e w orld .

2.

Sele ct a n is su e o r e v ent in th e n ew s. C ond uct e no ugh r e se arc h th at y o u h av e a n a d eq uate
vocab ula ry lis t o f re la te d w ord s. T hin k a b out y o ur p ositi o n, o r o pin io n o n th is m atte r a nd
ho w y o u w ould e xp re ss th o se f e elin gs i n a p ro fe ssio nal m anner.


SA M PL E: S E C TIO N 2

Desc rib e a f a v orite h o lid ay d esti n ati o n th at y o u l ik e.
You s h o uld s a y:
When y o u f ir s t w ent th ere .
How y o u g et th ere .
What y o u d o w hen y o u'r e th ere .
And e xp la in w hy th is p la ce i s s o s p ecia l f o r y o u.
So, y o u c an se e th e fo rm at o f th is se cti o n. T he p ra cti c e p ro ced ure is a s b efo re . C heck o ut o th er
questi o n ty p es a nd s o on y o u w ill b e a b le to d ev elo p y o ur o w n. T hen p ra cti c e th em w ith s o m eo ne o r
by y o urs e lf. S oon, ta lk in g fo r 2 m in ute s w ith o ut s to ppin g w on't b e a p ro ble m . R em em ber y o u d on't
hav e to ta lk fa st o r w ith o ut b re aks. T hey w ant y o u to ta lk n o rm ally . T alk a t a n o rm al s p eed , p ause to
ta ke b re ath s a nd ta ke ti m e to c o nsu lt y o ur n o te s to g iv e y o urs e lf id eas a b out w hat to ta lk a b out n ext.
The fo llo w u p q uesti o n to e nd S ecti o n 2 is n o t s o im porta nt th at it n eed s to b e p ra cti c ed a s it o nly
re q uir e s a fe w w ord s a s a n a nsw er. A n e xam ple q uesti o n fr o m th e e xam in er fo r th e s u b je ct a b ove
co uld b e:
"D o y ou t h in k I w ould e njo y a h olid ay in t h is p la ce t o o?"
The c and id ate w ould j u st b e e xp ecte d to s a y s o m eth in g l ik e:
"O h y es, I t h in k s o ."
O r:
"M ay b e n ot. I t m ig ht b e t o o h ot f o r y ou."
You c an s e e th at n o th in g v ery l o ng i s r e q uir e d .

At th is p oin t I'd lik e to e xp la in a b out th e 1 m in ute p re p ara ti o n ti m e a nd th e n o te s th at y o u c an w rite
durin g it. F ir s t o f a ll, u se y o ur p re p ara ti o n ti m e a nd m ake n o te s. B efo re y o u b egin y o ur m ono lo gue,
yo u w ill h av e 1 m in ute to p re p are fo r it. S om e p eo ple th in k th at th ey d on't n eed th e ti m e a t a ll a nd
will s ta rt s tr a ig ht a w ay. V ery o fte n th ese p eo ple w ill d ry u p e arly a nd b e a t a lo ss a b out h o w to
co nti n ue. U se yo ur ti m e. S om eo ne sta rti n g str a ig ht aw ay d oes no t get any ad vanta ge at all o ver
so m eo ne w ho ta kes th e f u ll m in ute to p re p are .
So, w hat s h o uld y o u w rite i n y o ur n o te s? F ir s t o f a ll, d on't tr y a nd w rite o ut y o ur w ho le ta lk w ord f o r
word . Y ou d on't h av e e no ugh ti m e. L ookin g a t th e q uesti o n a b ove ( w hic h is a ty p ic al la yo ut fo r th is
se cti o n) y o u c an s e e th at th ere is a m ain q uesti o n (D esc rib e a fa v orite h o lid ay d esti n ati o n th at y o u
lik e.) a nd th en 3 m in i- q uesti o ns fo llo w in g ( S ay w hen y o u fir s t w ent th ere , h o w y o u g et th ere , w hat
yo u d o w hen y o u'r e th ere a nd e xp la in w hy th is p la ce i s s o s p ecia l f o r y o u).
These q uesti o ns a re h ere to h elp y o u a s th ey g iv e y o u id eas to ta lk a b out a nd g iv e y o ur ta lk a b it o f
str u ctu re . H ow ev er, i t a sk s y o u to ta lk a b out th ese th in gs s o y o u s h o uld ta lk a b out th em . I n y o ur n o te s
quic kly j o t d ow n o ne o r tw o i d eas f o r e ach o f th e q uesti o ns, s o th at th ey w ill r e m in d y o u a b out th in gs
to ta lk a b out w hen y o u lo ok a t y o ur n o te s d urin g y o ur ta lk . F in ally , if y o u h av e ti m e, m ayb e m ake a
no te o f s o m eth in g fr o m y o ur o w n e xp erie nce c o nnecte d to th e ta lk in g th em e. W hen y o u a re ta lk in g
ab out s o m eth in g f r o m y o ur o w n e xp erie nce, i t i s e asie r to ta lk a t l e ngth . F or e xam ple , f o r th e q uesti o n
ab ove, y o u c o uld b e j u st f in is h in g a nd s ti ll h av e 4 5 s e co nd s l e ft to ta lk . Y ou c o uld b e s a yin g w hy th e
pla ce is so sp ecia l to y o u. A s y o u ru n o ut o f id eas y o u c o uld g iv e a n e xam ple o ut o f y o ur o w n
exp erie nce. Y ou c o uld s a y:

"A ctu ally th e fa ct th at I lik e th e p la ce s o m uch is s h ow n fr o m s o m eth in g th at h appen ed to m e th e
la st t im e I w as t h ere . I w as i n a r e sta ura nt h avin g s o m e f o od a nd..."
The s u b je ct o f y o ur s to ry d oesn 't m atte r a s y o u a re s ti ll o n th e s u b je ct o f y o ur ta lk . T he m ain th in g i s
th at i t's k eep in g y o u ta lk in g.
Sam ple Q uestio n s f o r P art 3

Rem em ber th at th e to pic yo u ta lk ab out in P art 2 is yo ur o nly clu e to th e p ossib le fo llo w up
dis c ussio n i n P art 3 .

As y o u p re p are a nd s p eak a b out y o ur to pic , th in k a b out h o w it m ig ht b e e xp and ed a nd v ie w ed fr o m
diffe re nt a ngle s. I f y o ur to pic i s
art
, i t i s l ik ely th at y o u w ill b e a sk ed to c o nsid er:


Ø The im pact o f a rt o n s o cie ty .
Ø How a rt is r e fle ctiv e o f b oth t h e a rtis t a nd t h e t im e p erio d in w hic h h e liv ed.
Ø The m any u se s o f a rt: e xpre ssio n, m ark etin g, c o m munic a tio n o f v alu es.

In P art 3 , y o u w ill z o om o ut th e to pic i n te rm s o f h o w i t c o m pare s to o th er s im ila r to pic s; h o w i t c an
be r e la te d to o th er p erio ds o f ti m e; o r h o w y o u m ig ht p re d ic t i ts p erc ep ti o n g lo bally .
When y o u t a ke t h e t e st
Don’t b e r e lu cta nt to s p eak h yp oth eti c ally u sin g c o nd iti o nal “ if- th en” s ta te m ents to d em onstr a te y o ur
ab ility to m anip ula te th e to pic a nd i ts p ossib le a sp ects .


SA M PL E: S E C TIO N 3

Secti o n 3 r e ally c arrie s o n f r o m w here S ecti o n 2 l e ft o ff. T he e xam in er w ill a sk y o u q uesti o ns th at a re
re la te d to th e s u b je ct th at y o u ta lk ed a b out in S ecti o n 2 . F or e xam ple , fo r th e q uesti o n w e lo oked
ab ove a t a b out a h o lid ay d esti n ati o n, th e e xam in er m ig ht c ho ose to a sk y o u q uesti o ns a b out to uris m
and th e a ir lin e in d ustr y . T he e xam in er w ill h av e a s e t o f q uesti o ns to a sk y o u. H ow m any h e a sk s
dep end s o n h o w l o ng y o u ta lk f o r i n y o ur a nsw ers . N one o f th e q uesti o ns w ill b e o f a te chnic al n atu re
or r e q uir e a ny s p ecia lis t k no w le d ge a s th at w ould b e u nfa ir, b ut y o u w ill b e e xp ecte d to g iv e y o ur
opin io n o n w hat i s a sk ed y o u.
So, l e t's l o ok a t s o m e e xam ple s.
Touris m


Can y o u p re d ic t a ny m ajo r c hanges th at c o uld h ap pen in th e T ouris m In d ustr y o ver th e n ext 5 0

years ?
Can y o u c o m pare th e to uris m i n d ustr y i n y o ur c o untr y to day w ith th e to uris m i n d ustr y w hen y o ur
gra nd pare nts w ere y o ung? C an y o u id enti fy so m e o f th e fa cto rs th at h av e le d to th e In d ustr y
su ccess o f th e a ir lin e i n d ustr y ?
Air lin e


Can y o u s u ggest a ny w ays i n w hic h a ir tr a v el c o uld b e m ad e s a fe r?

You c an s e e th at th e q uesti o ns h ere a re m ore a naly ti c al a nd r e q uir e m ore th o ught th an th e q uesti o ns i n
th e p re v io us s e cti o ns.

Regard in g p ra cti c e, th e p ro ced ure is a s in th e p re v io us s e cti o ns. Y ou n eed to g et s o m eo ne to d o th e
questi o ns w ith y o u o r d o th em a lo ne a nd th en d ev elo p y o ur o w n q uesti o ns a nd p ra cti c e w ith th em .

7 .3 R EA D IN G

I n b eati n g th e re ad in g e xam th e fir s t th in g y o u n eed to k no w is to d ev elo p th e h ab it o f sc annin g,
s k im min g a nd p ara p hra sin g. T here is a b ig d iffe re nce b etw een s c annin g a nd s k im min g. S cannin g is
g o in g o ver th e r e ad in g p assa ge to g et a n i d ea o f w hat i s th e to pic a ll a b out. S kim min g i s w hen y o u a re
l o okin g fo r so m e d eta ils o r in fo rm ati o n. M ost o f th e q uesti o ns a re p ara p hra se d . T hey a re w ritte n
d iffe re ntl y f r o m th e w ay y o u r e ad th em o n th e r e ad in g p assa ge.

T here a re s e v era l ty p es o f q uesti o ns th at g o w ith th e re ad in g e xam . E ach q uesti o n is lo okin g fo r a
p arti c ula r a b ility th at y o u n eed to a p ply w hen a nsw erin g th em . A no th er th in g is y o u s h o uld k no w in
w hic h questi o ns yo u are perfo rm in g w ell and in w hic h questi o ns yo u are ta kin g m uch ti m e in
a nsw erin g. I f y o u ta ke ti m e i n a nsw erin g a p arti c ula r ty p e o f q uesti o n, l e av e i t f o r th e l a st p art s o y o u
w ill n o t g et s tu ck in ta kin g to o m uch ti m e o n th ese ty p es o f q uesti o ns. F ir s t a nsw er q uesti o ns w hic h
a re e asie r f o r y o u to a nsw er.

T here a re q uesti o ns w here in y o u d o n o t n eed to g o o ver th e r e ad in g p assa ge to g et th e a nsw ers . S uch
q uesti o ns n eed c o m mon s e nse a nd a re e asily d eriv ed if y o u a re a b le to m ake y o ur o w n c o nclu sio ns.
T here a re q uesti o ns w ho se a nsw ers a re n o t o n th e re ad in g p assa ge. A n u nd ers ta nd in g o f th e w ho le
p assa ge w ill p ro vid e y o u th e a nsw ers to th ese q uesti o ns. D urin g y o ur p ra cti c e te sts y o u w ill f in d a ll
t h ese ty p e o f q uesti o ns a nd y o u c an e asily c o m pare th em w hen y o u s it d urin g th e e xam s. K no w in g th e
t y p e o f q uesti o ns a nd h o w y o u g o a b out th em w ill h elp y o u g et a b ette r s c o re i n r e ad in g.

The r e ad in g p art o f th e te st h as th re e s e cti o ns. Y ou w ill h av e 6 0 m in ute s to c o m ple te th e te st. T here i s
no e xtr a ti m e g iv en a t th e e nd o f th e te st to tr a nsfe r y o ur a nsw ers to th e a nsw er p ap er (lik e in th e
lis te nin g te st) , th ere fo re y o ur a nsw ers m ust b e o n th e a nsw er p ap er a t th e e nd o f th e 6 0 m in ute s. T he
te st h as 4 0 q uesti o ns b ase d o n a s e rie s o f 3 te xts . T he to ta l l e ngth o f a ll th e te xts c o m bin ed i s b etw een
2000 a nd 2 750 w ord s.

As in a ll th e d iffe re nt p arts o f th e IE LT S, th e R ead in g T est g ets p ro gre ssiv ely m ore d iffic ult. In e ach
se cti o n o f th e re ad in g te st, th ere w ill b e o ne te xt w ith 1 2 to 1 4 q uesti o ns to a nsw er in se v era l
diffe re nt f o rm ats . T he ty p es o f q uesti o ns w ill f o llo w . T he te xts w ill c o m e f r o m m agazin es, b ooks a nd
jo urn als a nd a re w ritte n fo r g enera l in te re st o r fo r a n a cad em ic , a lth o ugh n o n-s p ecia lis t re ad er. A t
le ast o ne te xt w ill c o nta in a l o gic al a rg um ent. I f th ere a re a ny te chnic al w ord s th at y o u w ould n o t b e
exp ecte d to k no w , a s h o rt g lo ssa ry w ill b e p ro vid ed .

What t y p e o f q uestio n s w ill y ou b e a sk ed ?

Ø Multi p le c ho ic e q uesti o ns
Ø Sho rt a nsw er q uesti o ns
Ø Com ple ti o n questi o ns: co m ple ti n g se nte nces, co m ple ti n g no te s, co m ple ti n g a su m mary ,
co m ple ti n g a g ra p hic
Ø Matc hin g a b ank o f h ead in gs to i d enti fy p ara gra p hs o r p arts o f te xt
Ø Matc hin g a b ank o f w rite r’s v ie w s/c la im s/in fo rm ati o n w ith th e te xt
Ø Id enti fic ati o n o f i n fo rm ati o n i n th e te xt
Ø Tru e & F als e ( o r a nsw er n o t g iv en)
Ø Matc hin g l is ts /p hra se s
Ø Cla ssific ati o n q uesti o ns

Befo re y o u r e a d
Sele ct s e v era l p assa ges o f r e ad in g th at a re b etw een 5 00 a nd 9 00 w ord s i n l e ngth . Y ou c an e v en s ta rt
with a s im ple n ew sp ap er o r m agazin e a rti c le . T here is n o m agic o r s e cre t m eth o d to b eco m in g a
bette r r e ad er. A ll i t ta kes i s l o ts o f p ra cti c e.

Pra cti c e th e f o llo w in g r e ad in g te chniq ues to a ssis t y o u i n b eco m in g a m ore e ffic ie nt r e ad er.

SK IM MIN G

Skim min g is r e ad in g fa st to g et th e “ gis t” ( g enera l id ea) o f th e te xt. T here a re d iffe re nt te chniq ues o f
doin g th is . Y ou c an r u n y o ur e yes o ver th e te xt, g etti n g th e o vera ll m eanin g, n o t s to ppin g a t w ord s th at
yo u d on’t und ers ta nd . S to ppin g fo r unfa m ilia r w ord s w ill slo w yo u d ow n w hen sk im min g. T he
im porta nt th in g w ith sk im min g is sp eed . A no th er w ay to sk im is to ju st re ad th e fir s t and la st
para gra p hs o f a te xt. Y ou c o uld a ls o j u st r e ad th e ti tl e , s u b ti tl e s a nd i llu str a ti o ns, i f th ere a re a ny. T he
fir s t m eth o d - --re ad in g it q uic kly fo r th e g is t- -- is u su ally b est; h o w ev er, it d ep end s o n y o ur r e ad in g
sp eed . Y our s p eed w ill q uic kly i m pro ve w ith p ra cti c e.

SC ANNIN G

Scannin g is a ls o a v alu ab le te chniq ue b ecause y o u a lr e ad y k no w h o w to d o it. T his is th e te chniq ue
yo u u se w hen y o u a re re ad in g a te le p ho ne b ook o r a d ic ti o nary . Y ou a re n o t s ta rti n g a t th e to p a nd
re ad in g e v ery lin e b ack a nd fo rth a s y o u w ould r e ad a n o vel. Y ou a re m ovin g y o ur e yes a ro und th e
te xt, b ack a nd a cro ss a nd u p a nd d ow n. Y ou a re s e arc hin g f o r s o m e s p ecific i n fo rm ati o n: a w ord o r a
nam e. T his i s u se fu l o n th e I E LT S b ecause y o u w ill o fte n h av e to f in d s p ecific i n fo rm ati o n. Y ou r e ad
th e q uesti o n a nd th en y o u s e arc h f o r k ey w ord s o r i d eas a sso cia te d w ith th e q uesti o n i n th e te xt. T his
is a b it m ore d iffic ult to p ra cti c e th an s k im min g. Y ou c an p ra cti c e b y h av in g a fr ie nd a sk y o u k ey
word s a nd p hra se s f r o m a te xt th at y o u b oth h av e r e ad . J u st l ik e w ith s k im min g, f r e q uent p ra cti c e w ill
im pro ve y o ur s p eed .

When y o u t a ke t h e t e st
Ø Don’t s p end to o l o ng o n a s in gle q uesti o n a s th at w ill r e d uce y o ur ti m e f o r a nsw erin g q uesti o ns
th at c o uld b e e asie r f o r y o u.
Ø Som eti m es le av in g a q uesti o n a nd c o m in g b ack la te r c an h elp y o u a nsw er it to o. L eav e a ny
questi o ns th at y o u h av e s p ent to o l o ng o n a nd c o m e b ack a t th e e nd o f th e te st i f y o u h av e ti m e.
Ø If th e q uesti o n h as a ‘ y es/n o /n o t g iv en’ a nsw er, th e a nsw er y o u a re l o okin g f o r d oes n o t e xis t a s

it c o uld b e a ‘ n o t g iv en’ o r N I. B e a w are s o y o u d on’t w aste ti m e lo okin g fo r s o m eth in g th at
is n ’t th ere .
Ø Read th e q uesti o ns a nd in str u cti o ns s o y o u d on’t m ake a s illy m is ta ke. F or e xam ple , p eo ple
ofte n w ill m ix th e y es/n o a nsw ers w ith th e tr u e/fa ls e a nsw ers a nd w rite y es a s a n a nsw er
in ste ad o f tr u e o r v ic e v ers a .
Ø If th e q uesti o n a sk s fo r n o m ore th an 3 w ord s, u se n o m ore th an 3 w ord s. W riti n g 4 w ord s o r
more i s w ro ng a nd i s s u b je ct to p enalty .
Ø One a re a th at s tu d ents d on’t lik e is th at, in th e re ad in g te st, g o od g ra m mar a nd s p ellin g a re
im porta nt. T he g ra m mar p art is n o t a s im porta nt a s y o u c an’t m ake m any g ra m mar e rro rs in 3
word s ( th e m axim um y o u u se in th e r e ad in g te st) b ut, if y o u s p ell s o m eth in g w ro ng, it w ill b e
mark ed a s w ro ng.
Ø Tim e m anagem ent i s a n i m porta nt th in g to b e a w are o f. Y ou h av e a n um ber o f te xts to r e ad a nd
40 q uesti o ns to a nsw er i n 1 h o ur. I f y o u s p end to o l o ng o n o ne p art, y o u m ay f in d th at y o u w on’t
hav e e no ugh ti m e to f in is h a ll th e q uesti o ns, s o m e o f w hic h c o uld b e q uite e asy.


REA DIN G P A SSA G E 1

FIN D IN G T H E L O ST F REED OM

Para gra p h 1
The p riv ate c ar is a ssu m ed to h av e w id ened o ur h o riz o ns a nd in cre ase d o ur m obility . W hen w e
co nsid er o ur c hild re n’s m obility , th ey c an b e d riv en to m ore p la ces (a nd m ore d is ta nt p la ces) th an
th ey c o uld v is it w ith o ut a ccess to a m oto r v ehic le . H ow ev er, a llo w in g o ur c iti e s to b e d om in ate d b y
cars has p ro gre ssiv ely ero ded child re n’s in d ep end ent m obility . C hild re n hav e lo st m uch o f th eir
fr e ed om to e xp lo re th eir o w n n eig hb orh o ods o r c iti e s w ith o ut a d ult s u p erv is io n. In re cent s u rv eys,
when p are nts in s o m e c iti e s w ere a sk ed a b out th eir o w n c hild ho od e xp erie nces, th ey re m em bere d
hav in g m ore , o r f a r m ore , o pportu niti e s f o r g o in g o ut o n th eir o w n, c o m pare d w ith th eir o w n c hild re n
to day. T hey h ad m ore f r e ed om to e xp lo re th eir o w n e nv ir o nm ent.

Para gra p h 2
Child re n’s in d ep end ent a ccess to th eir lo cal s tr e ets m ay b e im porta nt fo r th eir o w n p ers o nal, m enta l
and psy cho lo gic al dev elo pm ent. A llo w in g th em to get to kno w th eir ow n neig hb orh o ods and
co m muniti e s giv es th em a ‘s e nse o f p la ce’. T his d ep end s o n ‘a cti v e exp lo ra ti o n’, w hic h is no t

pro vid ed f o r w hen c hild re n a re p asse ngers i n c ars . ( S uch c hild re n m ay s e e m ore , b ut th ey l e arn l e ss.)
Not o nly i s i t i m porta nt th at c hild re n b e a b le to g et to l o cal p la y a re as b y th em se lv es, b ut w alk in g a nd
cyclin g j o urn eys to s c ho ol a nd to o th er d esti n ati o ns p ro vid e g enuin e p la y a cti v iti e s i n th em se lv es.

Para gra p h 3
There are very sig nific ant ti m e and m oney co sts fo r pare nts asso cia te d w ith tr a nsp orti n g th eir
child re n to s c ho ol, s p ort a nd to o th er lo cati o ns. R ese arc h in th e U nite d K in gd om e sti m ate d th at th is
co st, i n 1 990, w as b etw een 1 0 b illio n a nd 2 0 b illio n p ound s.

Para gra p h 4
The re d ucti o n in child re n’s fr e ed om m ay als o co ntr ib ute to a w eakenin g of th e se nse of lo cal
co m munity . A s fe w er c hild re n a nd a d ults u se th e s tr e ets a s p ed estr ia ns, th ese s tr e ets b eco m e le ss
so cia b le p la ces. T here is le ss o pportu nity fo r c hild re n a nd a d ults to h av e th e s p onta neo us s e nse o f
co m munity . T his in its e lf m ay e xacerb ate fe ars a sso cia te d w ith a ssa ult a nd m ole sta ti o n o f c hild re n,
because th ere a re fe w er a d ults a v aila b le w ho k no w th eir n eig hb ors ’ c hild re n, a nd w ho c an lo ok o ut
fo r th eir s a fe ty .

Para gra p h 5
The e xtr a tr a ffic in v olv ed in tr a nsp orti n g c hild re n re su lts in in cre ase d tr a ffic c o ngesti o n, p ollu ti o n
and a ccid ent r is k . A s o ur r o ad s b eco m e m ore d angero us, m ore p are nts d riv e th eir c hild re n to m ore
pla ces, th us c o ntr ib uti n g to i n cre ase d l e v els o f d anger f o r th e r e m ain in g p ed estr ia ns. A nyo ne w ho h as
exp erie nced e ith er th e re d uced v olu m e o f tr a ffic in p eak h o ur d urin g s c ho ol h o lid ays, o r th e tr a ffic
ja m s n ear s c ho ols a t th e e nd o f a s c ho ol d ay, w ill n o t n eed c o nv in cin g a b out th ese p oin ts . T hus, th ere
are a ls o i m porta nt e nv ir o nm enta l i m plic ati o ns o f c hild re n’s l o ss o f f r e ed om .

Para gra p h 6
A s i n d iv id uals , p are nts s tr iv e to p ro vid e th e b est u p brin gin g th ey c an f o r th eir c hild re n. H ow ev er, i n
doin g s o , ( e .g . b y d riv in g th eir c hild re n to s p orts p ra cti c es, s c ho ol o r j u st r e cre ati o n) p are nts m ay b e
co ntr ib uti n g to a m ore d angero us e nv ir o nm ent fo r c hild re n in g enera l. T he id ea th at ‘ s tr e ets a re fo r
cars a nd b ack y ard s a nd p la ygro und s a re f o r c hild re n’ i s a s tr o ngly h eld b elie f, a nd p are nts h av e l ittl e
cho ic e a s i n d iv id uals b ut to k eep th eir c hild re n o ff th e s tr e ets i f th ey w ant to p ro te ct th eir s a fe ty .

Para gra p h 7
In m any p arts o f D utc h c iti e s, a nd s o m e tr a ffic -c alm ed p re cin cts in G erm any, r e sid enti a l s tr e ets a re

no w p la ces w here c ars m ust g iv e w ay to p ed estr ia ns. I n th ese a re as, r e sid ents a re a ccep ti n g th e v ie w
th at th e fu ncti o n o f s tr e ets is n o t s o le ly to p ro vid e m obility fo r c ars . S tr e ets m ay a ls o b e fo r s o cia l
in te ra cti o n, w alk in g, c yclin g a nd p la yin g. O ne o f th e m ost i m porta nt a sp ects o f th ese E uro pean c iti e s,
in te rm s o f g iv in g c iti e s b ack to c hild re n, h as b een a r a nge o f ‘ tr a ffic c alm in g’ in iti a ti v es, a im ed a t
re d ucin g th e v olu m e a nd sp eed o f tr a ffic . T hese in iti a ti v es h av e h ad c o m ple x in te ra cti v e e ffe cts ,
le ad in g to a s e nse th at c hild re n h av e b een a b le to ‘re cap tu re ’ th eir lo cal n eig hb orh o ods, a nd m ore
im porta ntl y , th at th ey h av e b een a b le to d o th is in sa fe ty . R ecent re se arc h h as d em onstr a te d th at
child re n i n m any G erm an c iti e s h av e s ig nific antl y h ig her l e v els o f f r e ed om to tr a v el to p la ces i n th eir
ow n n eig hb orh o ods o r c iti e s th an c hild re n i n o th er c iti e s i n th e w orld .

Para gra p h 8
Modify in g c iti e s in o rd er to e nhance c hild re n’s fr e ed om w ill n o t o nly b enefit c hild re n. S uch c iti e s
will b eco m e m ore e nv ir o nm enta lly s u sta in ab le , a s w ell a s m ore s o cia b le a nd m ore l iv ab le f o r a ll c ity
re sid ents . P erh ap s i t w ill b e o ur c o ncern f o r o ur c hild re n’s w elfa re th at c o nv in ces u s th at w e n eed to
challe nge th e d om in ance o f th e c ar i n o ur c iti e s.

QUEST IO NS

Questio n s 1 -5
T R UE o r F A LSE o r N I
Read s ta te m ents 1 -5 w hic h r e la te to P ara gra p hs 1 , 2 , a nd 3 o f th e r e ad in g p assa ge.
Answ er
T if th e s ta te m ent is tr u e,
F if th e s ta te m ent is fa ls e o r
NI
if th ere is n o in fo rm ati o n g iv en in
th e p assa ge. W rite y o ur a nsw ers i n th e s p aces n um bere d 1 -5 o n th e a nsw er s h eet. O ne h as b een d one
fo r y o u a s a n e xam ple .

Exam ple
The p riv ate c ar h as m ad e p eo ple m ore m obile .
Answ er: T ru e

Questi o ns
1. T he p riv ate c ar h as h elp ed c hild re n h av e m ore o pportu niti e s to l e arn .
2. C hild re n a re m ore i n d ep end ent to day th an th ey u se d to b e.
3. W alk in g a nd c yclin g to s c ho ol a llo w s c hild re n to l e arn m ore .

4. C hild re n u su ally w alk o r c ycle to s c ho ol.
5. P are nts s a v e ti m e a nd m oney b y d riv in g c hild re n to s c ho ol.

ANSW ER S
1 .
Fals e
2 .
Tru e
3 .
NI
4 .
Fals e
5 .
Fals e
Questio n s 6 -9
M ATC H IN G P R O BLEM S & C AUSE S

In P ara gra p hs 4 a nd 5 , th ere a re F O UR p ro ble m s s ta te d . T hese p ro ble m s, n um bere d a s q uesti o ns 6
th ro ugh 9 , a re l is te d b elo w . E ach o f th ese p ro ble m s h as a c ause , l is te d A th ro ugh G .
Fin d th e co rre ct cause fo r each p ro ble m and w rite th e co rre sp ond in g le tte r A -G , in th e sp aces
num bere d 6 -9 o n th e a nsw er s h eet. O ne h as b een d one f o r y o u a s a n e xam ple .

Exam ple
There a re m ore c a use s th an p ro ble m s s o y o u w ill n ot u se a ll o f th em a nd y o u m ay u se a ny C ause
more t h an o nce.

Exam ple : P R O BLE M : l o w s e nse o f c o m munity f e elin g
Answ er: C A USE :
F
r e d uced f r e ed om f o r c hild re n


Pro ble m s

Cause s

6. S tr e ets b eco m e l e ss s o cia b le . A . f e w a d ults k no w l o cal c hild re n
7. F ew er c hances f o r m eeti n g f r ie nd s B . f e w er p eo ple u se th e s tr e ets
8. F ears o f d anger f o r c hild re n C . i n cre ase d p ollu ti o n
9. H ig her a ccid ent r is k D . s tr e ets a re l e ss f r ie nd ly
E . l e ss tr a ffic i n s c ho ol h o lid ays
F. r e d uced f r e ed om f o r c hild re n
G. m ore c hild re n d riv en to s c ho ol

ANSW ER S
6. B
7. B /A
8. G /C
9. G


Questio n s 1 0-1 4
S TA TE M EN T C O M PL ETIO NS

Questi o ns 1 0-1 4 a re s ta te m ent b egin nin gs w hic h r e p re se nt i n fo rm ati o n g iv en i n P ara gra p hs 7 a nd 8 . I n
th e b ox b elo w , th ere a re s o m e s ta te m ent e nd in gs n um bere d 1 -1 0.
Cho ose th e c o rre ct e nd in g f o r e ach s ta te m ent. W rite y o ur a nsw ers 1 -1 0, i n th e s p aces n um bere d 1 0-1 4
on th e a nsw er s h eet.
One h as b een d one f o r y o u a s a n e xam ple .
There a re m ore s ta te m en t e n din gs t h an y o u w ill n eed .

Exam ple
By d riv in g th eir c hild re n to s c ho ol, p are nts h elp c re ate ......
Answ er: 1 . a d angero us e nv ir o nm ent

Sta te m ents
10. C hild re n s h o uld p la y… …
11 . I n s o m e G erm an to w ns, p ed estr ia ns h av e r ig ht o f w ay… …
12. S tr e ets s h o uld a ls o b e u se d f o r… …
13. R ed ucin g th e a m ount o f tr a ffic a nd th e s p eed i s … …
14. A ll p eo ple w ho l iv e i n th e c ity w ill b enefit i f c iti e s a re … …

Sta te m ent E nd in gs
1 … d angero us e nv ir o nm ent.
2 … m odifie d .
3 … o n r e sid enti a l s tr e ets .
4 … m odi c iti e s.
5 … n eig hb orh o ods.
6 … s o cia liz in g.

7 … i n b ackyard s.
8 … f o r c ars .
9 … tr a ffic c alm in g.
10 … r e sid enti a l.

Answ ers
10. 7
11 . 3
12. 6
13. 9
14. 2

REA DIN G P A SSA G E 2

RIS IN G S E A

Para gra p h 1
I N CREA SE D T EM PE R ATU RE
The a v era ge a ir te m pera tu re o n th e s u rfa ce o f th e e arth h as r is e n th is c entu ry , a s h as th e te m pera tu re o f
ocean s u rfa ce w ate rs . B ecause w ate r e xp and s a s it h eats , a w arm er o cean m eans h ig her s e a le v els .
We c anno t s a y d efin ite ly th at th e te m pera tu re r is e s a re d ue to th e g re enho use e ffe ct; th e h eati n g m ay b e
part o f a ‘ n atu ra l’ v aria b ility o ver a l o ng-ti m e s c ale th at w e h av e n o t y et r e co gniz e d i n o ur s h o rt 1 00
years o f r e co rd in g. H ow ev er, a ssu m in g th e b uild -u p o f g re enho use g ase s is r e sp onsib le a nd th at th e
warm in g w ill c o nti n ue, s c ie nti s ts - -a nd in hab ita nts o f lo w -ly in g c o asta l a re as-- w ould lik e to k no w
th e e xte nt o f f u tu re s e a l e v el r is e s.

Para gra p h 2
Calc ula ti n g th is i s n o t e asy. M odels u se d f o r th e p urp ose h av e tr e ate d th e o cean a s p assiv e, s ta ti o nary
and one-d im ensio nal. Scie nti s ts hav e assu m ed th at heat sim ply diffu se d in to th e se a fr o m th e
atm osp here . U sin g b asic p hysic al l a w s, th ey th en p re d ic t h o w m uch a k no w n v olu m e o f w ate r w ould
exp and f o r a g iv en i n cre ase i n te m pera tu re . B ut th e o ceans a re n o t o ne-d im ensio nal, a nd r e cent w ork
by o ceano gra p hers , u sin g a n ew m odel w hic h ta kes in to a cco unt a n um ber o f s u b tl e fa cets o f th e s e a
— in clu d in g v ast a nd c o m ple x o cean c urre nts — s u ggest th at th e r is e in s e a le v el m ay b e le ss th an
so m e e arlie r e sti m ate s h ad p re d ic te d .

Para gra p h 3
An in te rn ati o nal fo ru m o n c lim ate c hange, in 1 986, p ro duced fig ure s fo r lik ely s e a- le v el r is e s o f 2 0
cm a nd 1 .4 m , c o rre sp ond in g to a tm osp heric te m pera tu re in cre ase s o f 1 .5 a nd 4 .5 d egre e c enti g ra d e
re sp ecti v ely . S om e sc ie nti s ts esti m ate th at th e ocean w arm in g re su lti n g fr o m th o se te m pera tu re
in cre ase s b y th e y ear 2 050 w ould r a is e th e s e a l e v el b y b etw een 1 0 c m a nd 4 0 c m . T his m odel o nly
ta kes in to a cco unt th e te m pera tu re e ffe ct o n th e o ceans; it d oes n o t c o nsid er c hanges in se a le v el
bro ught a b out b y th e m elti n g o f i c e s h eets a nd g la cie rs , a nd c hanges i n g ro und w ate r s to ra ge. W hen w e
ad d on esti m ate s of th ese , w e arriv e at fig ure s fo r to ta l se a-le v el ris e s of 15 cm and 70 cm
re sp ecti v ely .



Para gra p h 4
It’ s n o t e asy tr y in g to m odel a ccura te ly th e e no rm ous c o m ple xiti e s o f th e e v er- c hangin g o ceans, w ith
th eir gre at volu m e, m assiv e curre nts and se nsiti v ely to th e in flu ence of la nd m asse s and th e
atm osp here . F or e xam ple , c o nsid er h o w h eat e nte rs th e o cean. D oes i t j u st ‘ d iffu se ’ f r o m th e w arm er
air v erti c ally i n to th e w ate r, a nd h eat o nly th e s u rfa ce l a yer o f th e s e a? ( W arm w ate r i s l e ss d ense th an
co ld , s o it w ould n o t s p re ad d ow nw ard s). C onv enti o nal m odels o f s e a-le v el ris e h av e c o nsid ere d
th at th is i s th e o nly m eth o d, b ut m easu re m ents h av e s h o w n th at th e r a te o f h eat tr a nsfe r i n to th e o cean
by v erti c al d iffu sio n i s f a r l o w er i n p ra cti c e th an th e f ig ure s th at m any m odele rs h av e a d opte d .

Para gra p h 5
Much o f th e e arly w ork , fo r sim plic ity , ig no re d th e fa ct th at w ate r in th e o ceans m oves in th re e
dim ensio ns. B y m ovem ent, o f c o urs e , s c ie nti s ts d on’t m ean w av es, w hic h a re to o s m all in d iv id ually
to co nsid er, b ut ra th er m ovem ent o f v ast v olu m es o f w ate r in huge curre nts . T o und ers ta nd th e
im porta nce o f th is , w e n o w n eed to c o nsid er a no th er p ro cess — a d vecti o n. Im agin e s m oke ris in g
fr o m a c him ney. O n a s ti ll d ay i t w ill s lo w ly s p re ad o ut i n a ll d ir e cti o ns b y m eans o f d iffu sio n. W ith a
str o ng dir e cti o nal w in d , ho w ev er, it w ill all sh ift dow nw in d , th is pro cess is ad vecti o n — th e
tr a nsp ort o f p ro perti e s ( n o ta b ly h eat a nd s a lin ity in th e o cean) b y th e m ovem ent o f b odie s o f a ir o r
wate r, r a th er th an b y c o nd ucti o n.

Para gra p h 6
Massiv e o cean c urre nts c alle d g yre s d o th e m ovin g. T hese c urre nts h av e fa r m ore c ap acity to s to re
heat th an d oes th e a tm osp here . J u st th e to p 3 m o f th e o cean c o nta in s m ore h eat th an th e w ho le o f th e

atm osp here . T he o rig in o f g yre s lie s in th e fa ct th at m ore h eat fr o m th e S un r e aches th e E quato r th an
th e P ole s, a nd n atu ra lly h eat te nd s to m ove f r o m th e f o rm er to th e l a tte r. W arm a ir r is e s a t th e E quato r,
and d ra w s m ore a ir b eneath it in th e fo rm o f w in d s ( th e “ T ra d e W in d s” ) th at, to geth er w ith o th er a ir
movem ents , p ro vid e th e m ain f o rc e d riv in g th e o cean c urre nts .
Para gra p h 7
Wate r its e lf is heate d at th e E quato r and m oves p ole -w ard , tw is te d b y th e E arth ’s ro ta ti o n and
affe cte d b y th e p ositi o ns o f th e c o nti n ents . T he r e su lti n g b ro ad , c ir c ula r m ovem ents b etw een a b out 1 0
and 4 0 N orth a nd S outh a re c lo ckw is e in th e S outh ern H em is p here . T hey flo w to w ard s th e e ast a t
mid -la ti tu d es in th e e q uato ria l re gio n. T hey th en flo w to w ard th e P ole s, a lo ng th e e aste rn s id es o f
co nti n ents , a s w arm c urre nts . W hen tw o d iffe re nt m asse s o f w ate r m eet, o ne w ill m ove b eneath th e
oth er, d ep end in g o n th eir r e la ti v e d ensiti e s i n th e s u b ducti o n p ro cess. T he d ensiti e s a re d ete rm in ed b y
te m pera tu re a nd s a lin ity , th e c o nv erg ence o f w ate r o f d iffe re nt d ensiti e s fr o m th e E quato r a nd th e
Pole s d eep in th e o ceans c ause s c o nti n uo us s u b ducti o n. T his m eans th at w ate r m oves v erti c ally a s
well a s h o riz o nta lly . C old w ate r fr o m th e P ole s tr a v els a s d ep th — it is d ense r th an w arm w ate r—
unti l i t e m erg es a t th e s u rfa ce i n a no th er p art o f th e w orld i n th e f o rm o f a c o ld c urre nt.

Para gra p h 8
H OW T H E G REEN H OUSE E FFE C T W IL L C H ANGE O CEA N T EM PE R ATU RES
Ocean c urre nts , in th re e d im ensio ns, fo rm a g ia nt ‘c o nv eyo r b elt’ , d is tr ib uti n g h eat fr o m th e th in
su rfa ce l a yer i n to th e i n te rio r o f th e o ceans a nd a ro und th e g lo be. W ate r m ay ta ke d ecad es to c ir c ula te
in th ese 3 D gyre s in th e lo p kilo m ete r o f th e o cean, and centu rie s in th e d eep w ate r. W ith th e
in cre ase d a tm osp heric te m pera tu re s d ue to th e g re enho use e ffe ct, th e o ceans c o nv eyo r b elt w ill c arry
more heat in to th e in te rio r. T his su b ducti o n m oves heat aro und fa r m ore effe cti v ely th an sim ple
diffu sio n. B ecause w arm w ate r e xp and s m ore th an c o ld w hen it is h eate d , s c ie nti s ts h ad p re su m ed
th at th e s e a le v el w ould ris e u nev enly a ro und th e g lo be. It is n o w b elie v ed th at th ese in eq ualiti e s
canno t p ers is t, as w in d s w ill act to co nti n uo usly sp re ad o ut th e w ate r exp ansio n. O f co urs e , if
warm in g c hanges th e s tr e ngth a nd d is tr ib uti o n o f th e w in d s, th en th is ‘ e v enin g p ro cess’ m ay n o t o ccur,
and th e s e a l e v el c o uld r is e m ore i n s o m e a re as th an o th ers .


QUEST IO NS

Questio n s 1 5-2 0
M ATC H IN G H EA DIN G S

There are 8 para gra p hs num bere d 1-8 in R ead in g P assa ge 2. T he fir s t para gra p h and th e la st
para gra p h h av e b een g iv en h ead in gs. F ro m th e lis t b elo w n um bere d A th ro ugh I, c ho ose a s u ita b le
head in g f o r th e r e m ain in g 6 p ara gra p hs. W rite y o ur a nsw ers A -I, i n th e s p aces n um bere d 1 5-2 0 o n th e
answ er s h eet.

There a re m ore h ea din gs t h an p ara gra phs, s o y o u w ill n ot u se a ll t h e h ea din gs.

Lis t o f h ead in gs
A T H E G YRE P R IN CIP LE
B T H E G REEN HOUSE E FFE C T
C H OW O CEA N W ATER S M OVE
D S TA TIS T IC A L E V ID EN CE
E T H E A DVEC TIO N P R IN CIP LE
F D IF FU SIO N V ER SU S A DVEC TIO N
G F IG URIN G T H E S E A L E V EL C H ANGES
H E ST IM ATED F IG URES
I T H E D IF FU SIO N M ODEL



Lis t o f P ara gra p hs
15. P ara gra p h 2 __________
16. P ara gra p h 3 __________
17. P ara gra p h 4 __________
18. P ara gra p h 5 __________
19. P ara gra p h 6 __________
20. P ara gra p h 7 __________

Answ ers
15. H
16. D
17. F
18. E

19. A
20. C


Questio n s 2 1 a n d 2 2
C O M PL ETIN G S E N TE N CES

Answ er q uesti o ns 2 1 a nd 2 2 b y s e le cti n g th e c o rre ct a nsw er to c o m ple te e ach s e nte nce a cco rd in g to
th e i n fo rm ati o n g iv en i n th e r e ad in g p assa ge. W rite y o ur a nsw ers A -D i n th e s p aces n um bere d 2 1 a nd
22 o n th e a nsw er s h eet.


21. S cie nti s ts d o n o t k no w f o r s u re w hy th e a ir a nd s u rfa ce o f o cean te m pera tu re s a re r is in g b ecause :
A. th ere i s to o m uch v aria b ility
B. th ere i s n o t e no ugh v aria b ility
C. th ey h av e n o t b een r e co rd in g th ese te m pera tu re s f o r e no ugh ti m e
D. th e c hanges h av e o nly b een n o ti c ed f o r 1 00 y ears

22. N ew r e se arc h l e ad s s c ie nti s ts to b elie v e th at:
A. th e o ceans a re l e ss c o m ple x
B. th e o ceans a re m ore c o m ple x
C. th e o ceans w ill r is e m ore th an e xp ecte d
D. th e o ceans w ill r is e l e ss th an e xp ecte d

Questio n 2 3
C O M PL ETIN G N O TE S

Look a t th e f o llo w in g l is t o f f a cto rs A -F a nd s e le ct T H REE th at a re m enti o ned i n th e r e ad in g p assa ge
whic h m ay c o ntr ib ute to th e r is in g o cean le v els . W rite th e T H REE c o rre sp ond in g le tte rs A -F , in th e
sp ace n um bere d 2 3 o n th e a nsw er s h eet.

Lis t o f f a cto rs
A. th erm al e xp ansio n
B. m elti n g i c e
C. i n cre ase d a ir te m pera tu re
D. h ig her r a in fa ll

E. c hanges i n th e w ate r ta b le
F. i n cre ase d o cean m ovem ent

Questio n s 2 4-2 8
T R UE o r F A LSE o r N I

Read e ach o f th e f o llo w in g s ta te m ents , 2 4-2 8. A cco rd in g to th e i n fo rm ati o n i n th e r e ad in g p assa ge i f
th e s ta te m ent i s tr u e, w rite
T , i s f a ls e , w rite
F a nd i f th ere w as n o i n fo rm ati o n a b out th e s ta te m ent i n
th e r e ad in g p assa ge, w rite
NI
. W rite y o ur a nsw ers i n th e s p aces n um bere d 2 4-2 8 o n th e a nsw er s h eet.

24. T he s u rfa ce l a yer o f th e o ceans i s w arm ed b y th e a tm osp here .
25. A dvecti o n o f w ate r c hanges h eat a nd s a lt l e v els .
26. A g yre h o ld s l e ss h eat th an th ere i s i n th e a tm osp here .
27. T he p ro cess o f s u b ducti o n d ep end s o n th e w ate r d ensity .
28. T he s e a l e v el i s e xp ecte d to r is e e v enly o ver th e E arth ’s s u rfa ce.

Answ ers
21. C
22. D
23. B , C , E
24. N I
25. F
26. T
27. F
28. F



REA DIN G P A SSA G E 3

NEW R U LE S F O R T H E P A P ER G AM E

Para gra p h 1
Com pute riz e d d ata sto ra ge and ele ctr o nic m ail w ere to hav e hera ld ed th e p ap erle ss o ffic e. B ut,
co ntr a ry to e xp ecta ti o ns, p ap er c o nsu m pti o n th ro ugho ut th e w orld s h o w s n o s ig n o f a b ati n g. In fa ct

co nsu m pti o n, e sp ecia lly o f p rin ti n g a nd w riti n g p ap ers , c o nti n ues to in cre ase . W orld d em and fo r
pap er a nd b oard is n o w e xp ecte d to g ro w fa ste r th an th e g enera l e co no m ic g ro w th in th e n ext 1 5
years . S tr o ng d em and w ill b e u nd erp in ned b y th e g ro w in g i n d ustr ia liz a ti o n o f S outh -E ast A sia ; th e r e -
em erg ence of pap er packagin g; gre ate r use of fa csim ile m achin es and pho to co pie rs ; and th e
popula rity o f d ir e ct- m ail a d verti s in g. I t i s p ossib le th at b y 2 007, w orld p ap er a nd b oard d em and w ill
re ach 4 55 m illio n to ns, c o m pare d w ith 2 41 m illio n to ns i n 1 991.

Para gra p h 2
The p ulp a nd p ap er i n d ustr y h as n o t b een b ad ly a ffe cte d b y th e e le ctr o nic te chno lo gie s th at p ro m is e d
a p ap erle ss s o cie ty . B ut w hat h as r a d ic ally a lte re d th e in d ustr y ’s s tr u ctu re is p re ssu re fr o m a no th er
fr o nt— a m ore env ir o nm enta lly -c o nsc io us so cie ty , driv in g an ir re v ers ib le m ove to w ard cle aner
in d ustr ia l pro ducti o n. The env ir o nm enta l co nse q uences of anti q uate d pulp m ill pra cti c es aid
te chno lo gie s h ad m ark ed th is in d ustr y a s o ne in n eed o f re fo rm . G ra p hic d esc rip ti o ns
of d efo rm ed
fis h a nd th in nin g a quatic p opula tio ns,
p arti c ula rly in th e B alti c S ea w here o ld p ulp m ills had
dis c harg ed u ntr e ate d e fflu ents f o r 1 00 y ears , h av e d is tu rb ed th e i n te rn ati o nal c o m munity .

Para gra p h 3
Unti l th e 1 950s, i t w as c o m mon f o r p ulp m ills a nd o th er i n d ustr ie s to d is c harg e u ntr e ate d e fflu ent i n to
riv ers a nd s e as. T he e nv ir o nm enta l e ffe cts w ere a t th e ti m e e ith er n o t u nd ers to od, o r r e gard ed a s a n
accep ta b le co st of eco no m ic pro sp erity in an in cre asin gly im port- o rie nte d w orld eco no m y. B ut
gre ate r e nv ir o nm enta l a w are ness h as s p urre d a fu nd am enta l c hange in a tti tu d e in th e c o m munity , in
go vern m ent a nd i n i n d ustr y i ts e lf.

Para gra p h 4
Sin ce th e e arly 1 980s, m ost o f th e w orld -s c ale p ulp m ills in S cand in av ia a nd N orth A meric a h av e
modern iz e d th eir o pera ti o ns, o utl a yin g s u b sta nti a l a m ounts to im pro ve p ro ducti o n m eth o ds. C hanges
in m ill d esig n a nd p ro cesse s h av e b een a im ed a t m in im iz in g th e e nv ir o nm enta l e ffe cts o f e fflu ent
dis c harg e, w hile a t th e s a m e ti m e p ro ducin g p ulp w ith th e w hite ness a nd s tr e ngth d em and ed b y th e
in te rn ati o nal m ark et. T he e nv ir o nm enta l im petu s is ta kin g th is in d ustr y e v en fu rth er, w ith th e fo cus
no w o n d ev elo pin g p ro cesse s th at m ay e v en e lim in ate w aste -w ate r d is c harg es. B ut th e g ho st o f th e
old m ills c o nti n ues to h aunt th e in d ustr y to day. In E uro pe, c o m panie s fa ce a flo od o f e nv ir o nm ent-
re la te d l e gis la ti o n. I n G erm any, c o m panie s a re n o w b ein g h eld r e sp onsib le f o r th e w aste th ey c re ate .

Para gra p h 5

Pulp is th e p orrid ge-lik e m ass o f p la nt fib ers fr o m w hic h p ap er is m ad e. P ap er m akers c ho ose th e
ty p e o f p la nt fib er a nd th e p ro cessin g m eth o ds, d ep end in g o n w hat th e e nd p ro duct w ill b e u se d fo r:
wheth er i t i s a s tu rd y p ackin g b ox, a s m ooth s h eet o f w riti n g p ap er o r a f r a gile ti s su e. I n w ood, w hic h
is th e so urc e o f a b out 9 0% o f th e w orld ’s p ap er p ro ducti o n, fib ers a re b ound to geth er b y lig nin ,
whic h g iv es th e u nb le ached p ulp a b ro w n c o lo r. T he p ulp in g s ta ge s e p ara te s th e w ood i n to f ib ers s o
th ey a re su ita b le fo r p ap er m ak in g. P ulp in g c an b e d one b y m echanic al g rin d in g, o r b y c hem ic al
tr e atm ent i n w hic h w oodchip s a re ‘ c o oked ’ w ith c hem ic als , o r b y a c o m bin ati o n o f b oth m eth o ds.



Para gra p h 6
Kra ft p ulp in g i s th e m ost w id ely u se d c hem ic al p ro cess f o r p ro ducin g p ulp w ith th e s tr e ngth r e q uir e d
by th e h ig h-q uality p ap er m ark et. It is n o w u su ally c arrie d o ut in a c o nti n uo us p ro cess in a la rg e
vesse l c alle d a d ig este r. W oodchip s a re f e d f r o m a p ile i n to th e to p o f th e d ig este r. I n th e d ig este r, th e
chip s a re c o oked in a s o lu ti o n c alle d w hite liq uo r, s m ellin g o f c austi c s o da ( s o diu m h yd ro xid e) a nd
so diu m s u lfid e. T he c hip s a re c o oked a t h ig h te m pera tu re s o f u p to 1 700 d egre es f o r u p to th re e h o urs .
The p ulp is th en w ash ed a nd r a ked fr o m th e s p ent c o okin g liq uo r, w hic h h as tu rn ed d ark a nd is n o w
ap pro pria te ly c alle d ‘b la ck liq uo r’. A n im porta nt fe atu re o f K ra ft p ulp in g is a c hem ic al re co very
sy ste m w hic h r e cycle s a b out 9 5% o f th e c o okin g c hem ic als a nd p ro duces m ore th an e no ugh e nerg y to
ru n th e m ill. I n a s e rie s o f s te p s i n v olv in g a f u rn ace a nd ta nks, s o m e o f th e b la ck l iq uo r i s tr a nsfo rm ed
in to e nerg y, w hile s o m e i s r e genera te d i n to th e o rig in al w hite c o okin g l iq uo r. T he r e co very s y ste m i s
an i n te gra l p art o f p ro ducti o n i n th e p ulp a nd p ap er i n d ustr y . T he p ulp th at c o m es o ut h as l ittl e l ig nin
le ft in th e fib ers . B le achin g re m oves th e la st re m ain in g lig nin a nd b rig hte ns th e p ulp . M ost m odern
mills h av e m odifie d th eir p ulp in g p ro cesse s to r e m ove a s m uch o f th e lig nin a s p ossib le b efo re th e
pulp m oves to th e b le achin g s ta ge.

QUEST IO NS

Questio n s 29-3 2
ID EN TIF IC ATIO N OF TE X T
IN FO RM ATIO N
Belo w i s a l is t o f p ossib le f a cto rs , A th ro ugh G , w hic h w ill i n flu ence th e a m ount o f p ap er b ein g u se d
in fu tu re . F ro m th e lis t, c ho ose F O UR fa cto rs w hic h a re m enti o ned in
Para gra p h 1
o f th e re ad in g

passa ge. W rite y o ur a nsw ers A - G , i n th e s p aces n um bere d 2 9-3 2 o n th e a nsw er s h eet.
Lis t o f f a cto rs
A. m ore p eo ple r e ad n ew sp ap ers
B. i n cre ase d u se o f p ap er b ags
C. i n cre ase d b ook p ro ducti o n f o r e d ucati o n
D. w id er u se o f s ig n p ost a d verti s in g
E. i n cre ase d u se o f f a x m achin es
F. w id er u se o f l e afle t a d verti s in g
G. g re ate r u se o f d up lic ati n g m achin es

Questio n s 3 3-3 5
C O M PL ETIN G A S U M MARY

The fo llo w in g T H REE s ta te m ents a re s u m marie s o f P ara gra p hs 2 , 3 a nd 4 re sp ecti v ely . H ow ev er,
th ey a re in co m ple te . C om ple te e ach o f th e sta te m ents u sin g N O M ORE T H AN T H REE W ORD S
FR O M T H E T EX T. W rite y o ur a nsw ers i n th e s p aces n um bere d 3 3-3 5 o n th e a nsw er s h eet.

33. T he i n te rn ati o nal c o m munity h as b egun to d em and … …
34. I n th e p ast, th e e nv ir o nm enta l e ffe cts o f p ulp m ill p ra cti c es w ere p ro bab ly a p ric e to p ay f o r… …
35. S om e p ap er m ills h av e r e centl y m odern iz e d th eir m ill d esig n i n o rd er to d ecre ase ......

Questio n s 3 6-4 0
I D EN TIF IC ATIO N O F I N FO RM ATIO N

Belo w is a lis t o f p ossib le s te p s in th e K ra ft p ro cess o f tu rn in g w ood c hip s in to p ap er. T hey a re
num bere d 1 -8 . O nly F IV E o f th e s te p s lis te d b elo w a re m enti o ned in th e p assa ge. T he s te p s a re n o t
lis te d in th e c o rre ct o rd er. D ecid e w hic h s te p s a re m enti o ned a nd w rite th em in th e c o rre ct o rd er.
Write th e a p pro pria te n um ber f o r e ach s te p i n th e c o rre ct o rd er i n th e s p aces n um bere d 3 6-4 0 o n th e
answ er s h eet.

1. th e c hip s a re c o oked
2. th e f ib ers a re b ound b y l ig nin
3. th e p ulp i s b le ached
4. w oodchip s a re p ut i n to a p ile
5. th e p ulp i s d rie d
6. th e p ulp i s r e m oved f r o m th e b la ck l iq uo r

7. th e c hip s a re p ut i n to th e w hite l iq uo r
8. th e p ulp i s w ash ed

Answ ers
(A nsw ers 2 9 th ro ugh 3 2 c an b e g iv en i n a ny o rd er)
29. B
30. E
31. F
32. G
33. c le aner i n d ustr ia l p ro ducti o n
34. e co no m ic p ro sp erity
35. e nv ir o nm enta l e ffe cts
36. 4
37. 7
38. 1
39. 8
40. 6

7 .4 W RIT IN G
T here a re tw o s e cti o ns o n th e w riti n g ta sk . O n th e fir s t ta sk y o u a re a sk ed to d esc rib e a g ra p h, a p ie
c hart, a ta b le , a d ia gra m o r a p ro cess. Y ou h av e to m ake a w ritte n r e p ort b ase d o n th e in fo rm ati o n
p re se nte d to y o u. M ake y o ur w ritte n r e p ort o bje cti v ely b ase d o n th e g iv en i n fo rm ati o n. Y our o pin io n
i s n o t n eed ed o n th is k in d o f ta sk . F ocus o nly o n th e i n fo rm ati o n a nd d esc rib e th e g ra p hs, p ie c harts o r
d ia gra m s th e w ay y o u s e e th em . W hen d esc rib in g g ra p hs m ake s u re y o u d esc rib e th e tr e nd s o n e ach
g ra p h a nd d ra w y o ur c o nclu sio n b ase d o n th e tr e nd s p re se nte d o n th e g ra p h. W hen m akin g r e p orts o n
p ie c harts a nd ta b le s y o u s h o uld k no w w hen to c o m pare a nd w hen to c o ntr a st to m ake a d eta ile d
r e p ort. W hen w riti n g a r e p ort a b out a p ro cess o r d ia gra m y o u n eed to m ake s u re y o u d esc rib e th e
d iffe re nt s ta ges a b out th e p ro cess o r th e d ia gra m .

T he m ain s tr a te gy i n w riti n g ta sk o ne i s to d esc rib e w hat y o u s e e b ase d o n th e g iv en i n fo rm ati o n o nly
a nd y o u a re n o t b ein g a sk ed to s ta te a ny o pin io n. M ake s u re y o u s ti c k to th ese r u le s a nd y o u a re w ill
b e r ig ht o n tr a ck.

T he s e co nd ta sk o n th e w riti n g te st w hic h c arrie s m ore w eig ht i s w here y o u n eed to e xp re ss y o ur o w n
o pin io ns. B efo re w riti n g y o ur w ritte n e ssa y b e s u re to u nd ers ta nd w hat is b ein g a sk ed fo r o r w hat
k in d o f e ssa y y o u n eed to w rite ; w heth er y o u a re a sk ed to w rite a w ritte n a rg um ent o r y o u a re a sk ed
t o d esc rib e a c erta in a cti v ity . M ake su re y o u a re a b le to a nsw er th e q uesti o ns g iv en a s w ell a s
s u p porti n g th em w ith r e le v ant e v id ences. T he b asic th in g y o u s h o uld r e m em ber in d oin g th e w riti n g
t a sk s is to m ake s u re y o u m eet th e n um ber o f w ord s r e q uir e d o r y o u w ill g et a le sse r s c o re if th is is
n o t m et.

The w riti n g p art o f th e IE LT S la sts fo r o ne h o ur a nd is c o m pris e d o f tw o s e p ara te ta sk s. In th e fir s t
ta sk , y o u w ill b e a sk ed to e xam in e a g ra p hic q uesti o n a nd c o m pose a 1 50-w ord r e p ort th at e xp la in s
th e i n fo rm ati o n g iv en. T he g ra p hic q uesti o n m ig ht b e a ny o f th e f o llo w in g:
Ø a l in e g ra p h
Ø a b ar g ra p h
Ø a p ie c hart
Ø a ta b le
Ø a d ia gra m

You w ill h av e 2 0 m in ute s to w rite y o ur r e p ort.

In th e s e co nd ta sk , y o u w ill b e g iv en a to pic to w rite a b out i n a 2 50-w ord e ssa y. T he s u b je ct m atte r i s
usu ally o f g enera l i n te re st a nd y o u m ay h av e to
Ø giv e a nd j u sti fy y o ur o pin io n
Ø giv e a p ossib le s o lu ti o n to a p ro ble m
Ø co m pare d iffe rin g i d eas o r v ie w poin ts

You w ill h av e 4 0 m in ute s to w rite y o ur e ssa y.
Rem em ber to m onito r y o ur u se o f ti m e c are fu lly s in ce th e s e co nd ta sk c arrie s m ore w eig ht th an d oes
yo ur f ir s t ta sk .

In T ask 1 , y o u m ay b e g iv en e ith er a s in gle l in e g ra p h; a d oub le l in e g ra p h; a h o riz o nta l o r v erti c al b ar
gra p h; a p ie c hart; a ta b le ; o r a d ia gra m o f a p ro cess, s u ch a s a f lo w c hart. Y ou s h o uld s p end n o m ore
th an 2 0 m in ute s in te rp re ti n g a nd r e p orti n g o n th e in fo rm ati o n g iv en b y th e g ra p hic . Y our o bje cti v e is
to c o nv ert th e v is u al d ata i n to a 1 50-w ord d esc rip ti o n.

What i s t h e e x am in er l o ok in g f o r?

Ø The e ffe cti v eness o f y o ur w ord c ho ic es:
Are y o u c ho osin g w ord s th at a d eq uate ly d esc rib e th e
in fo rm ati o n th at th e g ra p hic is s h o w in g? D oes y o ur v ocab ula ry c ap tu re th e m ovem ent, tr e nd s,
perc enta ges a nd s te p s th at m ay b e d ep ic te d ?

Ø The o bje cti v ity o f yo ur w riti n g:
Are yo ur exp la nati o ns and d esc rip ti o ns fr e e o f yo ur o w n
pers o nal o pin io n? D oes y o ur re p ort a llo w th e re ad er to fo rm h is o r h er o w n o pin io n o f th e
in fo rm ati o n?

Befo re y o u t a ke t h e t e st
Pra cti c e e xam in in g a v arie ty o f g ra p hic s a nd a sk y o urs e lf th e f o llo w in g ty p es o f q uesti o ns:

Ø What i s th is g ra p h a b out?
Ø What a re th e p arts o f th e g ra p h?
Ø Are d iffe re nt th in gs b ein g c o m pare d ?
Ø Is th e i n fo rm ati o n b ein g p re se nte d i n c hro no lo gic al o rd er?
Ø Is th ere m ovem ent b ein g e xp re sse d i n th e g ra p hic ?
Ø If s o , a re th e tr e nd s u p o r d ow n?
Ø Is th e i n fo rm ati o n b ein g d iv id ed i n to p arts ?

SA M PL E G RAPH IC S

Lin e
gra p hs c o m pare tw o v aria b le s: o ne is p lo tte d a lo ng th e x -a xis ( h o riz o nta l) a nd th e o th er a lo ng
th e y -a xis (v erti c al) . T he y -a xis in a lin e g ra p h u su ally in d ic ate s q uanti ty (e .g ., d olla rs , g allo ns) o r
perc enta ge, w hile th e h o riz o nta l x -a xis o fte n m easu re s u nits o f ti m e. A s a re su lt, th e lin e g ra p h is
ofte n v ie w ed a s a ti m e s e rie s g ra p h. F or e xam ple , if y o u w ante d to g ra p h th e h eig ht o f a b ase b all

pitc h o ver ti m e, y o u c o uld m easu re th e ti m e v aria b le a lo ng th e x -a xis , a nd th e h eig ht a lo ng th e y -a xis .
Alth o ugh th ey d o no t p re se nt sp ecific d ata as w ell as ta b le s d o, lin e gra p hs are ab le to sh o w
re la ti o nsh ip s m ore c le arly th an ta b le s d o. L in e g ra p hs c an a ls o d ep ic t m ulti p le s e rie s a nd h ence a re
usu ally th e b est c and id ate f o r ti m e s e rie s d ata a nd f r e q uency d is tr ib uti o n.

Bar
a nd
co lu m n
g ra p hs a nd l in e g ra p hs s h are a s im ila r p urp ose . T he c o lu m n g ra p h, h o w ev er, r e v eals
a c hange i n m agnitu d e, w here as th e l in e g ra p h i s u se d to s h o w a c hange i n d ir e cti o n.

In s u m mary , l in e g ra p hs
Ø sh o w s p ecific v alu es o f d ata w ell
Ø re v eal tr e nd s a nd r e la ti o nsh ip s b etw een d ata
Ø co m pare tr e nd s i n d iffe re nt g ro up s o f a v aria b le

Gra p hs c an g iv e a d is to rte d i m age o f th e d ata . I f i n co nsis te nt s c ale s o n th e a xes o f a l in e g ra p h f o rc e
data to a p pear i n a c erta in w ay, th en a g ra p h c an e v en r e v eal a tr e nd th at i s e nti r e ly d iffe re nt f r o m th e
one i n te nd ed . T his m eans th at th e i n te rv als b etw een a d ja cent p oin ts a lo ng th e a xis m ay b e d is sim ila r,
or th at th e s a m e d ata c harte d i n tw o g ra p hs u sin g d iffe re nt s c ale s w ill a p pear d iffe re nt.

Exam ple 1 – P lo ttin g a t r e nd o ver t im e
Fig ure 1 s h o w s o ne o bvio us tr e nd , th e f lu ctu ati o n i n th e l a b or f o rc e f r o m J a nuary to J u ly . T he n um ber
of s tu d ents a t th e lo cal h ig h s c ho ol w ho a re m em bers o f th e la b or fo rc e is s c ale d u sin g in te rv als o n
th e y -a xis , w hile th e ti m e v aria b le i s p lo tte d o n th e x -a xis .

The n um ber o f s tu d ents p arti c ip ati n g in th e la b or fo rc e w as 2 52 in J a nuary , 2 52 in F eb ru ary , 2 55 in
Marc h, 2 56 in A pril, 2 82 in M ay, 2 90 in J u ne a nd 3 19 in J u ly . W hen e xam in ed fu rth er, th e g ra p h
in d ic ate s th at th e l a b or f o rc e p arti c ip ati o n o f th ese s tu d ents w as a t a p la te au f o r th e f ir s t f o ur m onth s
co vere d b y th e g ra p h (J a nuary to A pril) , a nd fo r th e n ext th re e m onth s (M ay to Ju ly ) th e n um ber
in cre ase d s te ad ily .

Exam ple 2 –
Com parin g t w o r e la te d v aria ble s
Fig ure 2 is a s in gle lin e g ra p h c o m parin g tw o ite m s; in th is in sta nce, ti m e is n o t a fa cto r. T he g ra p h
co m pare s th e n um ber o f d olla rs d onate d b y th e a ge o f th e d ono rs . A cco rd in g to th e tr e nd i n th e g ra p h,
th e o ld er th e d ono r, th e m ore m oney h e o r s h e d onate s. T he 1 7-y ear-o ld d ono rs d onate , o n a v era ge,
$84. F or th e 1 9-y ear-o ld s, th e a v era ge d onati o n in cre ase d b y $ 26 to m ake th e a v era ge d onati o n o f
th at a ge g ro up $ 11 0.


Exam ple 3 – U sin g c o rre ct s c a le
When d ra w in g a lin e, it is im porta nt th at y o u u se th e c o rre ct s c ale . O th erw is e , th e lin e's s h ap e c an
giv e r e ad ers th e w ro ng i m pre ssio n a b out th e d ata . C om pare F ig ure 3 w ith F ig ure 4 :

Usin g a s c ale o f 3 50 to 4 30 (F ig ure 3 ) fo cuse s o n a s m all ra nge o f v alu es. It d oes n o t a ccura te ly
dep ic t th e tr e nd i n g uilty c rim e o ffe nd ers b etw een J a nuary a nd M ay s in ce i t e xaggera te s th at tr e nd a nd
does n o t re la te it to th e b ig ger p ic tu re . H ow ev er, c ho osin g a sc ale o f 0 to 4 50 (F ig ure 4 ) b ette r
dis p la ys h o w s m all th e d eclin e i n th e n um ber o f g uilty c rim e o ffe nd ers r e ally w as.

Exam ple 4 –
Mult ip le lin e g ra phs

A m ulti p le lin e g ra p h c an e ffe cti v ely c o m pare sim ila r ite m s o ver th e sa m e p erio d o f ti m e. (S ee
Fig ure . 5 )

Fig ure 5 i s a n e xam ple o f a v ery g o od g ra p h. T he m essa ge i s c le arly s ta te d i n th e ti tl e , a nd e ach o f th e
lin e g ra p hs i s p ro perly l a b ele d . I t i s e asy to s e e f r o m th is g ra p h th at th e to ta l c ell p ho ne u se h as b een
ris in g s te ad ily s in ce 1 996, e xcep t fo r a tw o-y ear p erio d (1 999 a nd 2 000) w here th e n um bers d ro p
slig htl y . T he patte rn of use fo r w om en and m en se em s to be quite sim ila r w ith very sm all
dis c re p ancie s b etw een th em .

Bar g ra phs
are a v ery c o m mon ty p e o f g ra p h b est s u ite d f o r a q ualita ti v e i n d ep end ent v aria b le . S in ce
th ere is no unifo rm d is ta nce b etw een le v els o f a q ualita ti v e v aria b le , th e d is c re te natu re o f th e
in d iv id ual b ars a re w ell s u ite d fo r th is ty p e o f in d ep end ent v aria b le . T ho ugh y o u c an e xtr a ct tr e nd s
betw een b ars ( e .g ., th ey a re g ra d ually g etti n g l o nger o r s h o rte r), y o u c anno t c alc ula te a s lo pe f r o m th e
heig hts o f th e b ars .


One I n dep en den t a n d O ne D ep en den t V aria b le

1 .
Sim ple B ar G ra ph

Here th e F acto ry i s o ur i n d ep end ent v aria b le , s in ce th ere i s n o u nit o f m easu re m ent f o r f a cto rie s a nd
no 'o rd er' to th e fa cto rie s, th e in d ep end ent v aria b le is n o m in al. T he d ep end ent v aria b le is sc ala r,
measu re d in d efe cts /1 ,0 00 c ars . S in ce th e s c ala r d ep end ent v aria b le h as a n atu ra l z e ro p oin t (i.e .,
ab so lu te o r ra ti o ), a ll o f th e b ars a re a ncho re d to th e h o riz o nta l a xis , g iv in g a c o m mon p oin t o f
measu re m ent.

2 .
Horiz onta l B ar G ra ph

Bar g ra p hs c an b e s h o w n w ith th e d ep end ent v aria b le o n th e h o riz o nta l s c ale . T his ty p e o f b ar g ra p h
is ty p ic ally r e fe rre d to a s a h o riz o nta l b ar g ra p h. O th erw is e th e la yo ut is s im ila r to th e v erti c al b ar
gra p h. N ote in th e e xam ple a b ove, th at w hen y o u h av e w ell- d efin ed z e ro p oin t (ra ti o a nd a b so lu te
valu es) a nd b oth p ositi v e a nd n egati v e v alu es, y o u c an p la ce y o ur v erti c al (in d ep end ent v aria b le )
axis a t th e z e ro v alu e o f th e d ep end ent v aria b le s c ale . T he n egati v e a nd p ositi v e b ars a re c le arly
diffe re nti a te d f r o m e ach o th er b oth i n te rm s o f th e d ir e cti o n th ey p oin t a nd th eir c o lo r.


3. R ange B ar G ra ph

Each o f th e ta sk s is a sse sse d se p ara te ly b y a tr a in ed a nd q ualifie d e xam in er a nd g iv en a sc o re .
Writi n g T ask 2 i s w orth m ore m ark s th an W riti n g T ask 1 , s o y o u s h o uld b e s u re to l e av e p le nty o f ti m e
to c o m ple te W riti n g T ask 2 . D o n o t w aste ti m e s tr u gglin g to w rite y o ur re p ort, s im ply fo llo w th e
su ggesti o ns g iv en i n R EPO RT W RIT IN G a nd d ev ote th e m ajo rity o f y o ur e nerg y to p erfe ct th e e ssa y
in T ask 2 .

Your p rim ary o bje cti v e in T ask 1 is to fa ctu ally d esc rib e th e g ra p hs. Y ou d on't n eed to a naly ze th e
data , fo r e xam ple y o u d on't n eed to g iv e r e aso ns fo r w hy fig ure s a re h ig h o r lo w . S om eti m es, w hen
th ere is m ore th an 1 gra p h, th ere is a re la ti o nsh ip b etw een th e tw o and yo u can b rin g in so m e
co m paris o n b ut m ore th an th is is n o t n ecessa ry . In th e s a m e w ay, n o s p ecia liz e d k no w le d ge o f y o ur
ow n i s n eed ed o r w ante d n o r y o ur o pin io ns.
Rem em ber th e f u ncti o n o f m any g ra p hs i s to d esc rib e a tr e nd s o b e s u re th at y o u d esc rib e th e tr e nd s.
A tr e nd is h o w v alu es c hange g enera lly o ver ti m e a nd it is im porta nt to d esc rib e th e c hanges a lo ng
with s o m e o f th e i n d iv id ual v alu es.

One im porta nt is su e w ith th e W riti n g T ask 1 is h o w m uch d eta il to in clu d e in y o ur re p ort. T his
dep end s r e ally o n h o w m uch d eta il th ere is in th e q uesti o n. If th ere is o nly o ne g ra p h a nd it d oesn 't
hav e m uch n um eric al d ata i n i t, th en y o u w ill b e e xp ecte d to i n clu d e a ll o r n early a ll o f th e n um eric al
deta il. I f, h o w ev er, y o u h av e tw o g ra p hs, b oth o f w hic h a re v ery c o m plic ate d w ith l o ts o f v alu es, y o u
will n o t b e e xp ecte d to in clu d e e v ery th in g a s y o u o nly h av e 1 50 w ord s to d o th e jo b. W hat y o u w ill
hav e to d o is to in clu d e a s e le cti o n o f w hat y o u fe el is th e m ost im porta nt a nd s ig nific ant d eta il th at
need s to b e i n clu d ed to a ccura te ly d esc rib e th e g ra p h.


4. P ie G ra ph

The a b ove p ie g ra p h is d iv id ed u sin g c o lo rs to re p re se nt e ach s a le s q uarte r. G iv en th at th e s e co nd
quarte r ( in r e d ) a p pears to c o m pris e 5 0% o f th e p ie , y o u c an m ake th e r e aso nab le a ssu m pti o n th at th e
th ir d q uarte r ( in g re en) c o m pris e s 2 5% o f th e y ear’s s a le s a nd th e fir s t a nd fo urth q uarte rs ( in b lu e
and p urp le r e sp ecti v ely ) to ta l 2 5% b etw een th em . Y ou c an n o t o nly m ake o bje cti v e s ta te m ents a b out
th e c o m positi o n o f th e p ie its e lf, b ut a ls o s u ggest r e aso ns fo r th e d is tr ib uti o n o ver th e c o urs e o f th e
year.

5. F lo w C hart

The a b ove flo w c hart is a d ia gra m th at s h o w s a p ro cess. B egin nin g a t th e to p, y o u c an fo llo w th e
arro w s to c o m ple te a m ulti - s te p p ro cess. R ead th e te xt w ith in th e s h ap es to id enti fy w hat ty p e o f
pro cess is b ein g e xp la in ed . W hen th ere is m ore th an o ne o pti o n, th at is , th e a rro w s g o in tw o
dir e cti o ns; th is sig nifie s th at a cho ic e can b e m ad e at th at ju ncti o n. B e su re th at yo ur o bje cti v e
sta te m ents i n clu d e s te p s th at h av e m ore th an o ne o pti o n.

6. T able

The ab ove gra p hic is th e P erio dic T ab le . In it are th e nam es and sy m bols fo r all th e chem ic al
ele m ents . O bje cti v e sta te m ents c an b e m ad e a b out th e n um berin g o f th e e le m ents , a s w ell a s th e
parti c ula r i n iti a ls u se d to r e p re se nt th em .

When y o u t a ke t h e t e st

Check y o ur r e p ort f o r th e f o llo w in g:

Ø Does y o ur r e p ort h av e th e p ro per s tr u ctu re ?
It s h o uld h av e a n in tr o ducti o n, b ody a nd c o nclu sio n. E ach p ara gra p h s h o uld tr a nsiti o n in to
th e n ext u sin g w ord s th at c o nnect.

Ø Does y o ur re p ort u se o bje cti v e v ocab ula ry th at is a p pro pria te fo r th e ty p e o f g ra p hic b ein g
desc rib ed ?
It s h o uld u se w ord s th at s im ply c o m munic ate th e fa cts , n o t y o ur o pin io n o f th e p arti c ula r
gra p hic o r th e s u b je ct m atte r b ein g d is p la yed .

Ø Does y o ur r e p ort a d here to th e ta sk s p ecific ati o ns?
It s h o uld b e a s c lo se to 1 50 w ord s a s p ossib le a nd b e w ritte n le gib ly . It s h o uld b e d eta ile d
eno ugh to e xp la in to th e r e ad er th e c o nte nts , m ovem ent a nd a ny tr e nd s th at a re a p pare nt.

REPO RT W RIT IN G

When w riti n g a T ask 1 r e p ort, i n clu d e:
Ø in tr o ducto ry s e nte nce
Ø body p ara gra p hs ( 1 -3 )
Ø co nclu d in g s e nte nce ( o pti o nal)
In tr o d ucto ry s e n te n ce
The i n tr o ducto ry s e nte nce e xp la in s w hat y o u a re d esc rib in g, f o r e xam ple :
‘T he ta b le c o m pare s th e p opula ti o n g ro w th a nd in te rs ta te m ig ra ti o n in e ach A ustr a lia n s ta te fo r 1 2
month s to th e e nd o f 1 994.'
‘T he g ra p h s h o w s th e g ro w th o f c o m pute rs i n A ustr a lia b etw een 1 975 a nd 1 995.'
‘T he p ie c hart r e p re se nts th e p ro porti o n o f g ase s c o nta in ed i n n atu ra l g as.'
Bod y p ara gra p hs

When d is c ussin g th e d ata p re se nte d in th e ta sk , id enti fy sig nific ant tr e nd s a nd g iv e e xam ple s th at
re la te d ir e ctl y to th e g iv en in fo rm ati o n to s u p port y o ur s ta te m ents . If y o u a re e xp la in in g a p ro cess o r
an o bje ct a nd h o w it w ork s, y o u n eed to g ro up y o ur in fo rm ati o n s o th at it fo llo w s a d efin ite lo gic al
ord er.
Rem em ber th at th e u se o f v erb s e xp re sse d in th e p re se nt p assiv e v oic e is o fte n a p pro pria te w hen
giv in g a d esc rip ti o n o f a p ro cess o r p ro ced ure , f o r e xam ple :
‘C offe e b eans a re p ulp ed to re m ove th eir c asin g. T hey a re th en s o aked in w ate r, rin se d th o ro ughly
and d rie d . A fte r th e b eans a re s o rte d , th ey a re r o aste d in a k iln a nd b le nd ed . N ext, th ey a re p acked

and d is p atc hed to s h o ps a nd s u p erm ark ets .'
 
Con clu din g s e n te n ce ( o p tio n al)
A s im ple c o nclu d in g s ta te m ent c o uld i n clu d e a ny o f th e f o llo w in g, w here r e le v ant:
sig nific ant c o m ments
a p ote nti a l s o lu ti o n
an o vera ll s u m mary o f th e i d eas
fu tu re i m plic ati o ns.
In T ask 2 , y o u w ill b e g iv en a d is c ussio n to pic o n w hic h y o u m ust w rite a 2 50-w ord e ssa y. Y ou w ill
hav e 4 0 m in ute s to c o m ple te th is ta sk . Y ou s h o uld u se y o ur k no w le d ge a nd e xp erie nce to ju sti fy a nd
su p port y o ur p ositi o n o n th e to pic , u sin g d esc rip ti v e a nd e ffe cti v e l a nguage.


What i s t h e e x am in er l o ok in g f o r?

Ø Arg um ents , Id eas a nd E vid ence
: T hese a re th e th re e e le m ents th at m ake u p y o ur c o nte nt. T he
arg um ent is h o w y o u p re se nt y o ur c ase a s it r e la te s to y o ur to pic . T he id eas p art is h o w m any
and h o w g o od a re y o ur i d eas i n h elp in g y o ur a rg um ent. T he e v id ence i s th e f a cts th at y o u u se to
back u p y o ur i d eas. E vid ence i s i m porta nt i n T ask 2 . B rin g i n f a cts f r o m y o ur o w n e xp erie nce to
su p port y o ur i d eas.

Ø Com munic ati o n Q uality a nd S ty le
: T his i s h o w c le ar y o u a re i n e xp la in in g y o urs e lf a nd w heth er
or n o t th e r e ad er i s a b le to u nd ers ta nd y o ur i d eas.

Ø Vocab ula ry a nd S ente nce S tr u ctu re
: T his a re a i s a ll a b out y o ur w ord c ho ic es a nd g ra m mar. Y ou
will b e e v alu ate d o n w heth er th e r ig ht g ra m mar a nd w ord s a re u se d a nd w heth er th ey a re u se d
at th e r ig ht ti m e, in th e r ig ht p la ce a nd in th e r ig ht w ay. A lth o ugh m ost w rite rs a re c o ncern ed
ab out th eir g ra m mar, o n th is te st, i t c o unts f o r o nly o ne h alf o f o ne o f th e th re e m ark in g c rite ria .

Befo re y o u t a ke t h e t e st

1 .
Pra cti c e ti m ed w riti n g o n a v arie ty o f te st- re le v ant to pic s to im pro ve y o ur c o nstr u cti o n a s w ell
as y o ur s e nsiti v ity to ti m e c o nstr a in ts . S am ple to pic s w ill f o llo w .
2 .
Pra cti c e w riti n g u sin g a p arts fo rm ula . It is im porta nt to p la n w hat y o u w ant to e xp re ss w ith a
writi n g s k ele to n a nd th en f ill i n w ith y o ur e v id ence a nd i d eas.

EX AM PLE :

Topic
Para gra p h 1 I n tr o ducti o n a nd e xp la nati o n o f th e to pic
Para gra p h 2 S up porti n g I d ea 1 + E vid ence
Para gra p h 3 S up porti n g I d ea 2 + E vid ence
Para gra p h 4 S up porti n g I d ea 3 + E vid ence
Para gra p h 5 C onclu sio n


Sam ple T op ic s f o r T ask 2

Do y o u th in k it is rig ht fo r ric h c o untr ie s to p ollu te th e e nv ir o nm ent a nd sim ply p ay p enalti e s a s
punis h m ent?

Do y o u b elie v e th at m en a nd w om en a re e q ual?

Do y o u th in k th at p eo ple s h o uld h av e th e r ig ht to h av e a g un i n th eir h o use ?

Do y o u th in k i t i s i m porta nt to p re se rv e l o cal l a nguages a nd d ia le cts ?

Pare nts s h o uld lim it c hild re n’s ti m e fo r w atc hin g T V a nd p la yin g c o m pute r g am es. D o y o u a gre e o r
dis a gre e?

What s h o uld g o vern m ents d o a b out s m okin g-re la te d d is e ase s?

Do y o u th in k a d verti s in g e nco ura ges p eo ple to b uy th in gs th at th ey d on’t w ant o r n eed ?

Young p eo ple s h o uld tr a v el o r w ork f o r o ne y ear a fte r h ig h s c ho ol a nd b efo re u niv ers ity s tu d ie s. W hat
are th e a d vanta ges a nd d is a d vanta ges o f th is ?

Educati o n i s o fte n c o nsid ere d s o m eth in g f o r y o uth . S om e p eo ple , h o w ev er, c o nsid er i t a l ife lo ng ta sk .
What i s y o ur o pin io n?

Som e a rg ue th at g o vern m ents s h o uld s p end m oney o nly o n m ed ic in e a nd e d ucati o n, ra th er th an o n
th eate rs a nd s p orts s ta d iu m s. D o a gre e o r d is a gre e?
MORE S am ple W rit in g T op ic s f o r T ask 2

Do y o u th in k th at th e c o st o f m eat i s m ore i m porta nt th an a nim al w elfa re ?

Do yo u th in k th at peo ple fr o m certa in eth nic backgro und s sh o uld be giv en gre ate r access to
ed ucati o n?

Do y o u a gre e w ith c ap ita l p unis h m ent?

Because o f d ev elo pm ents in c o m munic ati o n a nd tr a nsp orta ti o n, c o untr ie s a re b eco m in g m ore a nd
more a lik e. H ow i s y o ur c o untr y b eco m in g m ore s im ila r to o th er p la ces i n th e w orld ?

Do y o u b elie v e th at g o vern m ents s h o uld c enso r th e I n te rn et?

What r ig hts d o y o u b elie v e c hild re n s h o uld h av e i n e v ery c o untr y ?

Every g enera ti o n o f p eo ple i s d if fe re nt i n i m porta nt w ays. H ow i s y o ur g enera ti o n d iffe re nt f r o m y o ur
pare nts ’ g enera ti o n?

When y o u t a ke t h e t e st

Begin y o ur e ssa y w riti n g w ith o ne to tw o m in ute s o f p la nnin g. O n a s c ra p p ie ce o f p ap er, b ra in sto rm
all o f th e id eas th at c o m e to m in d r e gard in g th e to pic y o u w ere g iv en. Y ou m ay n o t u se a ll o f th ese ,
but d oin g s o w ill l im ber u p y o ur m in d a nd p re p are i t f o r th e w riti n g e xerc is e . I t i s b est to w rite a d ra ft
fir s t a nd th en c o py i t a gain i n y o ur n eate st h and w riti n g.

TH E I N TR O DUCTIO N

Do n o t r e p eat a ny p art o f th e q uesti o n in y o ur in tr o ducti o n. T he q uesti o n is n o t in y o ur o w n w ord s
th ere fo re th ey w ill b e d is re gard ed b y th e e xam in er a nd d ed ucte d fr o m th e w ord c o unt. Y ou c an u se
in d iv id ual w ord s b ut b e c are fu l o f u sin g l a rg e p ie ces o f th e q uesti o n te xt.

Your in tr o ducti o n s h o uld fir s t s a y w hat y o u u nd ers ta nd b y th e q uesti o n o r to pic . T hen g iv e th e m ain
is su e o r i s su es th at y o u i n te nd to b rin g i n to y o ur a nsw er. D on’t g iv e a ny d eta ils - -- s a v e th at f o r y o ur
body p ara gra p hs.
Som eti m es th e q uesti o n o r to pic a sk s y o u to ta ke a p ositi o n o r s ta te y o ur o pin io n. T here i s n o r ig ht o r
wro ng a nsw er fo r y o ur v ie w s; it is h o w y o u e xp la in a nd d ev elo p y o ur p ositi o n th ro ugho ut th e e ssa y
th at c o unts .

TH E B O DY

You h av e o nly 4 0 m in ute s to e xecute th is ta sk , so it is w is e to a im fo r a b ody c o nta in in g 3 o r 4
para gra p hs. T he b ody m ust c o nta in c erta in th in gs. F ir s t, y o u n eed to e xam in e a ll p arts o f th e q uesti o n
or to pic . R em em ber th ere i s o fte n m ore th an o ne q uesti o n e m bed ded i n th e to pic . N ot o nly s h o uld y o u
be s u re to e xam in e a ll p arts o f th e to pic , b ut a ls o a ll s id es. If it is a n o pin io n-b ase d q uesti o n w here
th ere a re o bvio us p ro s a nd c o ns, b e c erta in th at y o u a ckno w le d ge b oth s id es. Y ou m ust c ho ose o ne
sid e to d efe nd , b ut a lw ays n o te th e o pposin g v ie w poin t.

Evid ence i s v ery i m porta nt i n s u p porti n g y o ur p ositi o n o r e xp la in in g y o ur o pin io n. F or e v ery i d ea th at
yo u p re se nt, y o u sh o uld h av e a c o rre sp ond in g e xam ple --- w heth er it is e v id ence fr o m y o ur o w n
pers o nal e xp erie nce o r f r o m y o ur c o untr y ’s n ew s o r f r o m h is to ry .

TH E C O NCLU SIO N

This d oes n o t n eed to b e a lo ng p ara gra p h. Y ou s im ply n eed to s u m u p y o ur p oin ts p ro vid in g a fin al
pers p ecti v e o n y o ur to pic . A ll th e c o nclu sio n n eed s is th re e o r fo ur s tr o ng s e nte nces w hic h d o n o t
need to fo llo w a ny s e t fo rm ula . S im ply re v ie w th e m ain p oin ts a nd b rie fly d esc rib e y o ur fe elin gs
ab out th e to pic --- th is p ro vid es answ ers to all p arts o f th e q uesti o n. A w ell- s e le cte d q uo te o r
anecd ote c an e nd y o ur e ssa y i n a m eanin gfu l w ay.


USE FU L E X PR ESSIO NS

1 .
It m ay i n d eed b e tr u e to s a y th at… ( s ta te m ent f r o m th e q uesti o n); w hat, h o w ev er, a re th e f a cto rs
in v olv ed ?
2 .
It m ay in d eed b e th e c ase th at… ( s ta te m ent fr o m th e q uesti o n); th is s u b je ct, h o w ev er, r e q uir e s
fu rth er a naly sis .
3 .
…Noun… . h as/h av e b een… .v erb + in g fo r m any y ears n o w . H as th is h ad g enera lly b enefic ia l
effe cts , o r h av e th ey b een l a rg ely n egati v e?
E.g . G overn m ents h av e b een s e nd in g c rim in als to p ris o n e tc … …
4 .
You c an a ls o u se a p assiv e s tr u ctu re :
Noun h as/h av e b een + p ast p arti c ip le fo r m any y ears n o w . H as th is h ad g enera lly b enefic ia l
effe cts , o r h av e th ey b een l a rg ely n egati v e?
E.g . C rim in als h av e b een s e nt to p ris o n e tc … .
5 .
At fir s t s ig ht, n o un/v erb + in g a p pear/a p pears to b e e nti r e ly p ositi v e/b enefic ia l. H ow ev er fu rth er
analy sis r e v eals d ra w backs to th is w ay o f th in kin g.
6 .
When a ll i s s a id a nd d one, th ere a re n o c le ar s o lu ti o ns to th is p ro ble m a nd i t i s f o r g o vern m ents /
in d iv id uals / th e p ub lic / stu d ents /e tc , to w eig h b oth sid es o f th e c ase a nd c o m e to th eir o w n
co nclu sio ns.
7 .
Noun/v erb + in g i s o ne o f th e m ost c o ntr o vers ia l i s su es o f o ur ti m es. W hat a re th e a rg um ents th at
need to b e c o nsid ere d ?
8 .
Noun/V erb + in g, a s i s th e c ase w ith m any i s su es, h as b oth n egati v e a nd p ositi v e a sp ects .
9 .
On b ala nce, i t i s m y o w n p ers o nal v ie w th at th e a d vanta ges o f n o un/v erb + in g f a r/h eav ily /s lig htl y
outw eig h th e d is a d vanta ges.
10. O ver r e cent y ears , a tti tu d es to n o un/v erb + in g h av e c hanged c o nsid era b ly . W hat a re th e r e aso ns
fo r th is c hange a nd w hat a re th e i m plic ati o ns f o r th e f u tu re ?
11 . N oun/v erb + in g h as/h av e b een a n im porta nt p art o f m any c ultu re s/W este rn c ultu re s/ d ev elo pin g
co untr ie s/ s c ho ol- life / w ork in g l ife /e tc . f o r m any y ears n o w . W hat a re th e r e aso ns f o r th is a nd w hat

changes a re l ik ely o r p ossib le i n th e f u tu re ?

SA M PL E E SSA Y C O M PO NEN TS

Ø It m ay in d eed b e tr u e to s a y th at ( s ta te m ent fr o m th e q uesti o n); h o w ev er, w hat a re th e fa cto rs
in v olv ed ?
Begin nin g
- th is w ould b e a g o od f ir s t s e nte nce f o r y o ur T ask 2 , f o r e xam ple :
It m ay i n deed b e
tr u e to sa y th at yo uth crim e and dru g abuse is ris in g; how ever, w hat are th e fa cto rs
in vo lv ed ?
Ø It m ay in d eed b e th e c ase th at (s ta te m ent fr o m th e q uesti o n); th is s u b je ct, h o w ev er, re q uir e s
fu rth er a naly sis .
Begin nin g
- th is w ould b e a g o od f ir s t s e nte nce f o r y o ur T ask 2 .
Ø …Noun… .h as/h av e b een … .v erb + in g fo r m any y ears n o w . H as th is h ad g enera lly b enefic ia l
effe cts , o r h av e th ey b een l a rg ely n egati v e?
Begin nin g
- th is w ould b e a g o od fir s t s e nte nce fo r y o ur T ask 2 . It is s u ita b le fo r a ny T ask 2
questi o ns a sk in g y o u to d is c uss a d vanta ges a nd d is a d vanta ges. I t i s a ls o u se fu l i n q uesti o ns th at
ask " T o w hat e xte nt d o y o u a gre e?" T his m eans- h o w m uch d o y o u a gre e?
Mid dle
- to s ta rt th e n ext p ara gra p h a b out d is a d vanta ges.
Ø When all is sa id and done, th ere are no cle ar so lu ti o ns to th is pro ble m and it is fo r
go vern m ents / i n d iv id uals / th e p ub lic / s tu d ents /e tc . to w eig h b oth s id es o f th e c ase a nd c o m e to
th eir o w n c o nclu sio ns.
End
- a u se fu l g enera l c o nclu sio n.
"w eig h " m eans " c o nsid er c are fu lly "
Ø Noun/v erb + in g i s o ne o f th e m ost c o ntr o vers ia l i s su es o f o ur ti m es. W hat a re th e a rg um ents th at
need to b e c o nsid ere d ?
Begin nin g
- th is w ould b e a g o od f ir s t s e nte nce f o r y o ur T ask 2 .
Ø Noun/V erb + in g, a s i s th e c ase w ith m any i s su es, h as b oth n egati v e a nd p ositi v e a sp ects .
Begin nin g
– th is w ould b e a g o od fir s t s e nte nce fo r y o ur T ask 2 . It is s u ita b le fo r a ny T ask 2
questi o ns a sk in g y o u to d is c uss a d vanta ges a nd d is a d vanta ges.
Ø On b ala nce, it is m y o w n p ers o nal v ie w th at th e ad vanta ges o f no un/v erb + in g fa r/h eav ily
/s lig htl y o utw eig h th e d is a d vanta ges.
End
- a u se fu l g enera l c o nclu sio n f o r a d vanta ges/ d is a d vanta ges T ask 2 q uesti o ns.
Ø Over r e cent y ears , a tti tu d es o n n o un/v erb + in g h av e c hanged c o nsid era b ly . W hat a re th e r e aso ns
fo r th is c hange, a nd w hat a re th e i m plic ati o ns f o r th e f u tu re ?

Begin nin g
- th is w ould b e a g o od fir s t s e nte nce fo r y o ur T ask 2 . It is s u ita b le fo r a ny T ask 2
questi o ns a sk in g y o u to d is c uss c hanges a nd th e f u tu re r e su lts o f th o se c hanges.
Ø Noun/v erb + in g h as/h av e b een a n im porta nt p art o f m any c ultu re s/W este rn c ultu re s/d ev elo pin g
co untr ie s/s c ho ol- life /w ork in g life /e tc . fo r m any y ears n o w . W hat a re th e r e aso ns fo r th is , a nd
what c hanges a re l ik ely o r p ossib le i n th e f u tu re ?
Begin nin g
- th is w ould b e a g o od fir s t s e nte nce fo r y o ur T ask 2 . It is s u ita b le fo r a ny T ask 2
questi o ns a sk in g y o u to d is c uss p re se nt s itu ati o ns/is su es a nd p ossib le f u tu re c hanges.

8 . T he W in nin g a p pro a ch


T he k ey to g o od te st p re p ara ti o n is to s ta rt e arly , s tu d y a nd d o p ra cti c e te sts c o nsis te ntl y o ver a n
e xte nd ed p erio d o f ti m e. I t i s th e s a m e a s tr a in in g f o r a m ara th o n— th e e arlie r y o u b egin , th e s tr o nger
y o ur b ase w ill b e. A r e alis ti c tr a in in g p erio d f o r a m ara th o n i s s ix m onth s. L uckily f o r y o u, y o u d on’t
h av e to tr a in s ix m onth s i n a d vance. I w ould r e co m mend a nyw here f r o m th re e to s ix m onth s f o r y o u to
p re p are f o r th e I E LT S. A nd i f y o u a re e v en m ore p re sse d f o r ti m e, y o u c an ‘ a ccele ra te ’ y o ur tr a in in g
b y f o cusin g o n th e a re as o f w eakness f ir s t ( m ore o n th is l a te r).

T here i s n o s p ecific ti m e w hen y o u w ant to d o y o ur p ra cti c e te sts f o r I E LT S. T he b est ti m e y o u s h o uld
t a ke a p ra cti c e te st i s w hen y o u h av e n o th in g e ls e to d o. I t i s n o t a d vis a b le to ta ke p ra cti c e te sts w hen
y o u h av e o th er ta sk s i n y o ur m in d . I t w ill ta ke o ff y o ur c o ncentr a ti o n w hen d oin g y o ur p ra cti c e te st.

A re la xed m in d and a q uie t env ir o nm ent are m ost help fu l w hen ta kin g yo ur p ra cti c e te sts . It is
a d vis a b le to d o y o ur p ra cti c e te sts e arly in th e m orn in g w hen y o ur m in d is s ti ll fr e sh fr o m a g o od
n ig ht’ s s le ep a nd th e a tm osp here d urin g th is ti m e is v ery q uie t a llo w in g y o u to c o ncentr a te o n w hat
y o u a re d oin g.

Y ou c an d o a t le ast o ne p ra cti c e te st a d ay. D o n o t s tr e ss o ut y o urs e lf in d oin g m ore . It w ill b eco m e
t o o s tr e ssfu l f o r y o u. D is tr ib ute y o ur ti m e f o r e ach o f th e I E LT S c o m ponents w ith in th e d ay. T his w ill
h elp y o u f r e sh en o ut y o ur b ra in a nd r e lie v es y o u o f th e te st p re ssu re .
Y ou c an d o o ne s tr e tc h o f ta kin g th e p ra cti c e te st ju st lik e th e w ay y o u w ill b e ta kin g it d urin g th e
e xam s o nce a w eek. G et a p artn er w henev er y o u a re d oin g a n o vera ll p ra cti c e o f th e IE LT S e xam .
T his is m ost h elp fu l e sp ecia lly d urin g th e s p eakin g p ra cti c e. It is a ls o o ne w ay o f d is c ussin g y o ur
m is ta kes a nd e v alu ati n g y o ur w ritte n p ra cti c e te sts .

T here i s n o p arti c ula r o rd er o n h o w y o u s h o uld g o o ver y o ur I E LT S p re p ara ti o n b ook. T he f ir s t th in g
y o u s h o uld d o is to k no w y o ur s tr e ngth a nd w eakness. Y ou c an d o th is b y ra nd om ly p ic kin g u p a

pra cti c e te st f r o m y o ur I E LT S b ook. D o th e w ho le e xam e xcep t f o r th e s p eakin g te st. C ho ose y o ur b est
fr e e ti m e w hen d oin g th is ra nd om p ra cti c e te st. A fte r ta kin g y o ur p ra cti c e te st c heck y o ur a nsw ers .
Resu lts o n th is r a nd om p ra cti c e te st w ill d ete rm in e y o ur s tr e ngth s a nd w eakness. K no w in g th ese y o u
can g iv e m ore ti m e p ra cti c in g w here y o u f a ll s h o rt to i m pro ve y o urs e lf.

Read o n th e s tr a te gie s a nd ti p s o n h o w y o u s h o uld a nsw er a p arti c ula r q uesti o n d urin g y o ur f r e e ti m e
and k eep th em i n m in d . W henev er y o u ta ke y o ur p ra cti c e te sts a p ply w hat y o u h av e r e ad a nd s e e h o w
it w ork s f o r y o u.

W hat k in d o f s c h ed ule s h ou ld I u se ?

W ell, th at w ould a ll d ep end o n h o w m uch ti m e y o u h av e o n y o ur h and , r ig ht? T ake a c ale nd ar, c ir c le
y o ur te st d ate , c ir c le to day— whic h i s y o ur s ta rt d ate f o r te st p re p . T hen c o unt th e w eeks ( o r d ays) y o u
h av e to w ork w ith . T he o nly effe cti v e sc hed ule is th e o ne th at yo u w ill use co nsis te ntl y . S in ce
e v ery o ne is h as d iffe re nt b io rh yth m s a nd d iffe re nt s tu d y h ab its , y o u h av e to b e h o nest w ith y o urs e lf.
Y ou m ay d ecid e w hat w ork s b est fo r y o u is 4 h o urs e v ery S atu rd ay m orn in g a t th e lo cal lib ra ry . O r
m ayb e a n h o ur e ach d ay o ver th e c o urs e o f 4 d ays w ould b e m ore s u sta in ab le . O r m ayb e y o u n eed to
s tu d y 2 h o urs p er d ay e v ery d ay. B asic ally , a sk y o urs e lf, h o w m uch a re y o u w illin g to d o?

B efo re y o u th in k y o u h av e to s tu d y lo nger a nd h ard er to r e ap a ll th e b enefits , I w ould r a th er s a y y o u
s tu d y w is e r. S tu d yin g w is e r m eans s tu d yin g m ore e ffic ie ntl y , th us s a v in g y o u ti m e in th e lo ng ru n.
A gain , th is a ll c o m es b ack to f o cusin g o n th e a re as o f w eakness.

H ow i s s tu dyin g y ou r a re a o f w ea k n ess a b ette r s tr a te g y?

T hat’ s rig ht— fo cus o n yo ur are a o f w eakness. T oo o fte n, p eo ple w aste ti m e b y d oin g p ra cti c e
p ro ble m s o n th e s e cti o ns o f th e te sts th at c o ver th eir s tr e ngth s. S o, i d eally , th e v ery f ir s t ti m e y o u d o a
f u ll- le ngth p ra cti c e te st, s e t a sid e a n h o ur, tw o o r th re e a nd d o o ne p ra cti c e te st f o r e ach s e cti o n. S et
u p a m ock te sti n g s itu ati o n — ti m e y o urs e lf a nd m ake s u re y o u a re fr e e fr o m a ll d is tr a cti o ns. If y o u
t h in k y o u c an’t d o i t, h av e a f r ie nd o r f a m ily m em ber ‘ p ro cto r’ th e te st to k eep y o u o n tr a ck.

W hy g o th ro ugh th is tr o ub le ? B ecause w hen y o u s c o re y o urs e lf o n th e p ra cti c e te st a fte rw ard s, y o u
c an i m med ia te ly s e e w hic h y o ur a re a o f w eakness i s . T his m ay o r m ay n o t b e a s u rp ris e to y o u. I n m y
c ase , e v en th o ugh I n ev er lik ed s p eakin g, I te nd ed to s c o re h ig hly in th e s p eakin g s e cti o n — a t le ast
h ig h e no ugh to k no w th at I n eed ed to f o cus o n th e o th er s e cti o ns. T here ’s n o a d vanta ge f o r m e to s tu d y
h ard er to g et a h ig her s c o re i n s p eakin g i f I a lr e ad y h av e a n a d eq uate s c o re to p ass i t w ith o ut s tu d yin g
a ny fu rth er. H ow ev er, s tu d yin g h ard er to b one u p m y w riti n g, re ad in g, a nd lis te nin g s e cti o ns m ig ht
v ery w ell b eco m e th e d iffe re nce b etw een a g re at sc o re a nd a n a v era ge sc o re . T his se cti o n a ls o
a nsw ers th at in ev ita b le q uesti o n o f “ W hat o rd er o r w hic h s e cti o ns s h o uld I s tu d y fir s t? ”
Stu dy y o ur
a re a s o f w ea kn ess f ir st.


W hat if y o u p ass th e p ra cti c e te st w ith fly in g c o lo rs ? If y o u a re o ne o f th o se p eo ple w ho sc o re
p assin g in a ll se cti o ns w ith a w id e m arg in to sp are , y o u m ay o nly n eed to d o o ne o r tw o m ore
p ra cti c e te sts . If y o u c an r e p lic ate th e s a m e s te lla r r e su lts e ach ti m e, th en it’ s o kay to p ut d ow n th e
p encil a nd c o ngra tu la te y o urs e lf w ith a p at o n th e b ack. M ore p ra cti c e te sts c an’t h urt a nd m ay g iv e
y o u a b oost o f s e lf- c o nfid ence, w hic h o ne c erta in ly c an’t a rg ue w ith h av in g. If y o ur s c o re s in d ic ate
y o u h av e o ne o r m ore s e cti o ns y o u n eed to w ork o n, th en f o llo w th e a d vic e a b ove a nd s tr a te giz e y o ur
s tu d y p la n.

8 .1 T im e M an ag em en t

J o hn r e co unts h is e xp erie nce a t h is f ir s t a tte m pt.

‘ The fir st tim e I s tu die d fo r th e IE LTS, I d id n ot p ra ctic e a ny ‘tim in g’ d is c ip lin e in d oin g th e
q uestio ns. T hen , o n m y fir st I E LTS, I p anic ked a nd r a n o ut o f tim e. T he I E LTS is n ot o nly a bout
k n ow in g t h e c o ncep ts a nd d oin g t h e q uestio ns, b ut d oin g t h em i n l e ss t h an t w o m in ute s e a ch , o n
a vera ge
.’

- J o hn ( I E LTS: 7 .5 a t s e co nd a tte m pt)

T im e c an b e p erh ap s y o ur b ig gest a d vers a ry o n th e I E LT S. W ith th e a v era ge ti m e p er q uesti o n b ein g a
l ittl e m ore th an o ne m in ute , a nd th e f a ct th at th e s o m eti m es y o u n eed to r e check th e a nsw ers , i t i s q uite
u su al to f in d y o urs e lf i n a ti m e p ro ble m h alf w ay th ro ugh th e te st.

T he t y p ic a l I E LT S w in ner u se s t h e f o llo w in g t e ch niq ues.

Ø Abso lu te m aste ry o ver a t l e ast s o m e a re as o f th e e xam .
Here i s w here th e i m porta nce o f n o t i g no rin g y o ur s tr o ng a re as c o m es i n . Y ou c an e asily d o th ese
questi o ns i n a m in ute a nd s a v e ti m e to b e s p ent o n a re as y o u a re n o t s tr o ng i n .

Ø Sti c kin g to ti m e l im its w hile p ra cti s in g.
This w ill g iv e y o u a g o od i d ea o f w hat to e xp ect a t th e a ctu al te st.

Ø The f o llo w in g ti m in g s tr a te gy h as b een f o und u se fu l b y q uite a f e w h ig h s c o re rs .
When y o u p ra cti c e fu ll- le ngth te sts o r s e cti o n te sts , a fte r e v ery fifth Q uesti o n, m ake a n o te o f th e
ti m e ta ken. K eep d oin g th is u nti l y o u r e ach th e e nd o f th e te st.

This w ill h elp y o u i n :
Ø Pacin g y o urs e lf, s o th at y o u k no w w hen to s p eed u p o r w hen y o u c an s lo w d ow n.
Ø Id enti fy in g th e ty p e o f q uesti o ns th at y o u s p end th e m axim um ti m e o n, s o th at y o u c an p ra cti c e
more .
Ø A s e nse o f c o ntr o l a nd th ere b y g re ate r c o nfid ence.

8 .2 D o I E LT S W in ners w ork i n g ro u ps?

W ell, w hile it d oes m ake s e nse to s ta y in to uch w ith o th er p eo ple ta kin g th e IE LT S, s tu d yin g in a
g ro up h as i ts o w n p ro ble m s.

Y ou f ir s t n eed to f in d s o m eo ne a t a s im ila r l e v el to y o urs e lf; o th erw is e , y o u m ig ht b e d oin g th e h ig hest
d iffic ulty p ro ble m s, w here as y o ur p artn er w ould b e b usy r e fr e sh in g h is /h er f u nd am enta ls .

T hen y o u n eed to m ake s u re th at y o ur p artn er’s c o m mitm ent i s a s h ig h a s y o ur o w n.

T he b est stu d y p artn er w ould b e so m eo ne w ho c an c o m ple m ent y o u, i.e ., h is w eaknesse s sh o uld
m atc h y o ur s tr e ngth s a nd v ic e v ers a .

O th erw is e , i t j u st e nd s u p b ein g a w aste o f ti m e.

8 .3 W hy t h e w in ners i g n ore s e le cte d ‘ D if fic u lt ’ P ro b le m s

A s a fin al p oin t, I w ould lik e to sa y w hat I fin d th e m ost im porta nt th in g a bout IE LTS is
C O NCEN TR ATIO N
a nd
men ta l p re p ara tio n
.
Don 't m ake th e m is ta ke o f g oin g to o d eep ly in to
to u gh -q u estio n s-th at- e ve n -th eir -a u th ors-c a n 't- s o lv e a n d fo rsa kin g yo u r m en ta l p re p ara tio n .
W hen y o u fe el y o u'r e re a dy, ju st g o th ere , d o y o ur b est a nd m ove o n. G ood c o ncen tr a tio n a nd
s u ccessfu l a lle via tio n o f n erv o usn ess ca n m ake m ore d iffe re n ce th an m onth s o f p re p ara tio n,
e sp ecia lly i f y o u a re a im in g h ig h.
- J eet ( I E LTS: 8 )

T here is a lo t o f m ate ria l a v aila b le in th e m ark et a nd s o m e o f th e m ore a m biti o us s tu d ents e nd u p
s tu d yin g m ate ria l th at i s w ay b eyo nd th e I E LT S l e v el.

A ls o s o m e o f th e r e gula r ‘ T ough’ b ooks g iv e h ig hly c o nv olu te d q uesti o ns. S om e o f th ese a re s im ply
b eyo nd th e s c o pe o f th e I E LT S.

I f y o u c o m e a cro ss a ny su ch p ro ble m s, th e b est ru le o f th um b is to c o m pare it w ith th e O ffic ia l
q uesti o ns a nd i g no re th em i f th ey s e em to o m uch o ut o f l e ague.

T he id ea is
not
to b eco m e a n E xp ert in W riti n g o r S peakin g, b ut to fo cus o n a re as a nd s y lla b us th at
t h e I E LT S te sts .

8 .4 W hy y o u s h ou ld r e a d t h e N ew sp ap ers

O ne o f th e m ost c o nsis te nt tr a its o f IE LT S w in ners is th at th ey a re v ora cio us r e ad ers . In fa ct w hile
d oin g y o ur s tu d ie s, y o u w ill n eed to r e ad r e am s o f p ap er a nd a b so rb a g re at a m ount o f i n fo rm ati o n i n
a s h o rt ti m e.

B ein g a b le to r e ad f a ste r i s a q uality th at w ill n o t o nly b e h ig hly b enefic ia l f o r th e I E LT S b ut a ls o l ife
b eyo nd i t.

I f y o u c an r e ad a fo ur-lin e q uesti o n a nd th e fiv e a nsw er c ho ic es in 1 0 s e co nd s le ss th an th e a v era ge
J o e, th is w ill g iv e y o u a n i m mense a d vanta ge.

O ne o f th e b est w ays to i m pro ve y o ur r e ad in g s p eed i s to a ctu ally r e ad a l o t! !

R ead in g th e n ew sp ap ers /jo urn als w ill n o t o nly h elp y o u in im pro vin g y o ur re ad in g s p eed b ut w ill
a ls o f a m ilia ris e y o u w ith th e i s su es o f th e d ay a nd m ake y o ur w riti n g & s p eakin g w eig hti e r.

8 .5 H ow t o f in d o u t y o u r f u tu re I E LT S s c o re w it h ou t
t a k in g t h e I E LT S

T he o ffic ia l te sts a re th e m ost r e lia b le in d ic ato r o f y o ur a ctu al IE LT S s c o re , a s th ese te sts c o nsis t o f
r e al ‘ re ti r e d ’ q uesti o ns.

O f c o urs e it is a d vis e d to ta ke th e te st o nly a fte r y o u h av e d one y o ur s tu d y r o und s, p re fe ra b ly a fe w
d ays b efo re th e a ctu al I E LT S.

8 .6 W hen S hortc u ts /E duca te d G uesse s a re i m porta n t

W hile s u ch c re atu re s d o e xis t, th ere a re n o t m any w ho h av e n o t ta ken a s in gle g uess a t th e I E LT S.

A fte r y o u h av e d one y o ur fir s t ro und o f s tu d ie s, y o u s h o uld b e a w are o f w hat th e p ossib iliti e s o f
t a kin g a n e d ucate d g uess a re .

S ooner o r l a te r, y o u w ill n eed to ta ke a n e d ucate d G uess i n th e I E LT S.

T hat s a id , it is w ell n o t to fo cus o n to o m any s h o rtc uts s in ce th at c an m ud dle u p y o ur m in d a s th e
e xp erie nces o f B ra d a nd K ath y s h o w s

I f y o u s e e s o m eth in g c ra zy...c h ances a re th at it is ju st a p atte rn r e co gnitio n ty p e q uestio n. Y o u
c a nnot p ossib ly e xp ect to r e ta in a ll th e little b its o f fa cts y o u'v e r e a d flo atin g a ro und fo r th ese .
G iv e e very q uestio n a tr y... a s y o u w ork th em o ut, th ese ty p es o f q uestio ns w ill c lic k in to p la ce.
R em em ber...t h ere a re o nly s o m any c o ncep ts th at a re c o vere d . A s lo ng a s y o u k n ow e n ough to
b uild o n f o r m ost o f t h ese c o ncep ts , y o u d o n ot n eed t o l e a rn a ll t h e " ea sy -s o lv e" n ote s. –
Bra d ( I E LTS: 8 )

T he in gen io us tip s s u ch a s 'g uess w hen u nsu re ', o r th e s u per-a dva nced 'e lim in ate + guess' c a n
le a d y o u a str a y - I f y o u'r e c o m fo rta ble w ith t im e m anagem en t I a dvis e a gain st g uessin g - t h ere i s
e n ough t im e, i f y o u'v e b ro ught y o ur s p eed u p w ith p ra ctic e. –
Kath y ( I E LTS: 7 )

8 .7 W hy M en ta l F it n ess i s K ey

I c anno t o vers tr e ss th e im porta nce o f c o nfid ence a nd r e m ain in g c alm . T he a b so lu te w ors t th in g y o u
c an d o i s to p anic d urin g th e te st.

T here a re i n num era b le e xam ple s o f p eo ple w ho h av e d one f a r w ors e th an th ey e xp ecte d a nd th e m ost
c o m mon c ause i s a p sy cho lo gic al m eltd ow n d urin g th e te st.

9 . H ow t o g et ‘ L uck y’ i n I E LT S

I h av e n o ti c ed th at s tu d ents w ith s im ila r a b ility s o m eti m es e nd u p w ith w id ely d iffe re nt s c o re s o n th e
I E LT S. T he m ost c o m mon e xp la nati o n f o r th is i s l u ck.

H ow ev er, lu ck is o nly a p art o f th e s to ry . W hen y o u in te rv ie w th e s o -c alle d ‘ lu cky’ a p plic ants , y o u
w ill a lw ays f in d th e f o llo w in g tr a its .

Ø That t h ey w ere w ell p re p are d .

Ø That t h ey h ad a b ack u p p la n i f t h e r e su lt w as n ot a s e x pecte d .

Ø That t h ey h ad c o n fid en ce i n t h eir a bilitie s t o d o w ell.

Ø They f a ced th e I E LTS a s a c h alle n ge – a c h alle n ge th at g ot th eir a dre n alin e f lo w in g, a n d
bro u gh t o u t t h e b est i n t h em .

Ø And a bove a ll, t h ey h ad t h e W in nin g M in d S et.

1 0. T he W in nin g M in d S et

P ro b ab ly t h e s in gle m ost im porta n t f a cto r is t h e ‘
Burn in g D esir e to
E xcel’


1 0.1 B urn in g D esir e t o E xcel

T his is th e fir s t a nd th e m ost im porta nt tr a it o f a n IE LT S W in ner. T his d esir e is n o t H ope, it is n o t a
W is h , b ut i s a d eep p uls a ti n g d esir e th at tr a nsc end s e v ery th in g e ls e .

D urin g a f e w m onth s p re ced in g th e a ctu al T est, th e W in ners th in k o f n o th in g b ut a g re at I E LT S s c o re .

‘ B urn in g y o ur B rid ges’* i s a p ath th at th o usa nd s o f s u ccessfu l a rm ie s h av e f o llo w ed . I t i s a w ay o f th e
I E LT S w in ner. If y o u h av e te n d iffe re nt w ays y o u c o uld p ossib ly g o , y o ur fo cus w ill n ev er b e s in gle
m in d ed . I t i s b est to c lo se y o ur m in d to a ll o th er a lte rn ati v es, a nd f o cus s o le ly o n th e I E LT S.

* In m ed ie va l tim es, th ere w as a G en era l w ho h ad to fig ht a m uch p ow erfu l e n em y. T he g en era l
k n ew t h at i f h is m en h ad t h e o ptio n t o r u n a w ay t h ey w ould . H e t h en m ade h is m en m arc h f o rw ard ,
a nd b urn ed t h e b rid ge, w hic h w ould h ave b een t h eir o nly e sc a pe r o ute .

T he m en h ad n o o ptio n b ut t o f ig ht. T hey k n ew i t w as a d o o r d ie s itu atio n a nd t h ey f o ught w ith a ll
t h eir h ea rt, e ven tu ally w in nin g t h e b attle .

M ere ly w is h in g f o r a g re at I E LT S s c o re w ill n o t b e e no ugh.

Y ou m ust h av e a d efin ite ( o r n early d efin ite ) s c o re in m in d . It is n o t g o od e no ugh ju st to s a y th at ‘ I
w ant a h ig h s c o re ’. Y ou m ust ta lk i n te rm s o f 8 o r 7 .5 o r a no th er d efin ite n um ber.

You m ust th en s ta te c le arly w hat y o u a re w illin g to s a crific e i n th e s h o rt te rm to g ain th is s c o re . W ith
so m any p re ssu re s o n o ur ti m e, it is a lm ost im possib le to p urs u e th e d esir e to b e a n IE LT S w in ner
with o ut s a crific in g s o m eth in g, b e i t ti m e w ith f r ie nd s/fa m ily , ti m e o ff w ork , e nte rta in m ent… …… y o u
nam e i t!

I k no w o f N O p ers o n, w ho h as s u cceed ed in th e IE LT S, w ho h ad b eco m e a n IE LT S W in ner, w ith o ut
to ta l d ed ic ati o n.

A b urn in g d esir e w ith a s ta te o f m in d s u ch th at i t b eco m es a n o bse ssio n, f o llo w ed b y a w ell l a id o ut
str a te gy b acked b y p ers is te nce th at d oes n o t r e co gniz e f a ilu re , i s w hat c an c hange y o ur ‘ L uck’.

A p uls a ti n g, b urn in g d esir e h as tr e m end ous p ow er. It c an s u rm ount th e m ost u nfa v oura b le o dds a nd
brin g s u ccess to y o ur f e et.

Popula r b ooks lik e ‘S uccess is an In sid e Jo b’ and ‘B attl in g th e In sid e D um my’ are fu ll o f case
his to rie s o f p eo ple w ho h av e c hanged th eir c ir c um sta nces b y th e p ow er o f th eir D esir e .

Med ic al h is to ry h as w ell d ocum ente d s tu d ie s o n ‘ s u ggesti v e s u ic id e’, w here in p eo ple a ctu ally k ille d
th em se lv es w ith th e p ow er o f th eir th o ughts .
And w e a ll k no w th e sto rie s o f p eo ple lik e W ash in gto n, E dis o n, F ord a nd o th ers w ho ro se fr o m
hum ble b egin nin gs, fo ught in su rm ounta b le o dds yet achie v ed gre atn ess b y th eir d re am s and th eir
burn in g d esir e to f u lfil th at d re am .

1 0.2 H ow W in ners o verc o m e l im it in g b elie fs

‘ W heth er y o u t h in k y o u c a n o r y o u c a n’t , y o u a re r ig ht e ith er w ay’
Anonym ous

W e a s h um an b ein g h av e, w ith in re aso n, u nlim ite d p ote nti a l! H ow ev er w e ra re ly u se it. W e h av e
b een to ld to o m any ti m es, ‘ T his w on’t w ork ’, ‘ Y ou c anno t d o it’ , o r ‘ If n o o ne h as b een a b le to g o
f r o m 5 to 8 , w hat m akes y o u th in k y o u c an’.

T his b rin gs to m in d th e c ase o f th e
4-m in ute m ile .

F or d eca des, i n f a ct f o r a s l o ng a s r e co rd s b eg an, n o a th le te w as a ble t o r u n a m ile i n u nder f o ur
m in ute s. T here w ere s e vera l a th le te s w ho c o uld c o nsis te n tly d o it in 4 :0 3, 4 :0 4 a nd e ven 4 :0 1
m in ute s, b ut n o o ne c o uld b re a k t h e f o ur-m in ute b arrie r.
I t w as w id ely b elie ved t h at t h e h um an b ody w as i n ca pable o f e n durin g t h e m ile i n l e ss t h an f o ur
m in ute s.
T hen i n 1 954, R oger B annis te r b ro ke t h e b arrie r a nd c o vere d t h e d is ta nce i n l e ss t h an 4 m in ute s.
I n t h e f o llo w in g m onth , A ustr a lia n J o hn L andy b ette re d t h e r e co rd w ith a t im e o f 3 m in ute s 5 7.9
s e co nds.
W ith in 1 8 m onth s, a noth er 1 6 a th le te s b ea t t h e 4 -m in ute t im e
.

W hat d oes th is s h ow ?

That th e h um an p erfo rm ance is O NLY lim ite d b y th e h um an b elie f a nd
n oth in g e ls e .

T he b est w ay to b re ak y o ur l im iti n g b elie fs i s to s ta rt q uesti o nin g th eir v alid ity , th eir b asis . T his w ill
t e ll y o u i f th ey a re i n d eed tr u e o r i t i s a r e su lt o f n egati v e f e ed back y o u h av e h ad o ver th e y ears .
O ne o f th e m ost c o m mon l im iti n g b elie fs i n th e I E LT S i s :
‘I a m a n on n ativ e E nglis h s p ea ker, s o i t
i s n atu ra l t h at I w ill n ot d o w ell o n t h e I E LTS’.
I t s e em s to m ake s e nse to
NO T
d o w ell i n I E LT S
i f y o ur s p oken E nglis h i s n o t a s g o od a s a n ati v e s p eaker’s .

How ev er, th e f o llo w in g f a cts c an e asily o verc o m e th is b elie f:
IE LT S E nglis h is q uite d iffe re nt fr o m s p oken c o llo quia l E nglis h . T he R ead in g s e cti o n c an b e b eate n
by w ork in g o n y o ur R ead in g s k ills a nd b eco m in g a n A cti v e r e ad er. A ls o , s ta ts in d ic ate th at th e fir s t
genera ti o n A meric ans w ho se n ati v e l a nguage i s n o t E nglis h , te nd to d o ‘ s ig nific antl y ’ b ette r th an o th er
nati v e s p eakers a t th e I E LT S.

Ano th er c o m monly h eld ‘ lim iti n g b elie f’ is :
‘O h! I a m n o g ood in s p ea kin g, I c a n n eve r c o m pete
with t h ose ‘ C on ve n t E du ca te d l o t’ , I a m b ou nd t o s c o re l o w . O oh ! I t i s m y d estin y!’

The
sto ry o f X in
a nd h o w s h e c o nq uere d h er m ath fe ar w ith in ju st a fe w h o ur s p ent o n a c o urs e in
math s tu d y s k ills , i s i llu str a ti v e h ere .

This c la ss w as q uite h elp fu l, b ut it w as n o t a t a ll w hat I e xp ecte d w hen I re gis te re d . I w as
orig in ally u nd er th e i m pre ssio n th at th is w as g o in g to b e a c la ss o n m ath a nd h o w to u nd ers ta nd i t. I
was p le asa ntl y s u rp ris e d to fin d o ut th at w e d ove m uch d eep er th an th is . I n o t o nly le arn ed ti p s o n
stu d yin g a nd l e arn in g te chniq ues, b ut I a ls o l e arn ed a b out m yse lf a nd h o w m y m in d l e arn s. P rio r to
ta kin g th is c o urs e , I th o ught I w as le arn in g d is a b le d in s p eakin g. I th o ught I w ould n ev er e xcel in
IE LT S. T his te rm h as p ro ved m e w ro ng. I h av e n o w m ad e m y fir s t 1 00% o n a s p eakin g te st a nd I
hav e a “ B ” a v era ge in L is te nin g. T he m ost im porta nt th in g I le arn t w as th at it w asn ’t a le arn in g
dis a b ility th at w as h o ld in g m e b ack — i t w as f e ar! W hen I r e le ase d m y f e ar, I f o und I w as a ctu ally
enjo yin g i t. I a m r e co m mend in g th is c la ss to s e v era l p eo ple .

The n ext s te p in o verc o m in g th e fe ar o f s p eakin g is th at y o u m ust r e aliz e th at th e m ain in gre d ie nt in
sp eakin g a nxie ty i s th e f e ar o f th e u nkno w n. Y ou a re a fr a id o f s p eakin g b ecause y o u d on’t k no w h o w
to d o i t. T o o verc o m e th is p ro ble m , y o u
must s p end t im e w it h it .
P erh ap s y o u n eed to b ud get y o ur
ti m e m ore c are fu lly , c hange y o ur p rio riti e s o r d o s o m eth in g to h av e m ore ti m e to s p end o n s p eakin g
pra cti c e.

The I E LT S i s n o t a b out c o m plic ate d c o ncep ts b ut th e c o m plic ate d a p plic ati o n o f s im ple c o ncep ts th at
are e asy to m aste r.

1 0.3 H ow W in ner ’s m an ag e t h eir S elf I m ag e t o s u cceed

O ur b elie fs a b out th e e xte rn al w orld a re c lo se ly r e la te d to o ur b elie fs a b out o urs e lv es.

P eo ple alw ays act and fe el acco rd in g to th e m enta l p ic tu re th ey hav e o f th em se lv es. If yo u se e
y o urs e lf a s a w in ner ‘in y o ur m in d ’ y o u w ill fe el lik e o ne a nd so oner ra th er th an la te r, y o u w ill
a ctu ally b eco m e o ne.

I r re sp ecti v e o f th e e xte rn al c ir c um sta nces, y o ur
behav io r
is d ic ta te d b y th e e nv ir o nm ent w ith in y o u
m in d .

T his i s b est i llu str a te d b y th e f o llo w in g:

In a h yp no ti c e xp erim ent, th e s u b je ct w as
to ld h e w as a t th e N orth P ole . T he s u b je ct a ctu ally s ta rte d
s h iv erin g e v en th o ugh th e r o om te m pera tu re w as a t h ig h tw enti e s.

T he h um an n erv ous s y ste m c anno t te ll th e d iffe re nce b etw een a r e al e xp erie nce a nd a n i m agin ed o ne.
I t a cts o n th e i m puls e s i t g ets f r o m th e m in d , w heth er r e al o r i m agin ed .

P ro fe sso r P re sc o tt L ecky o f th e U niv ers ity o f C olu m bia c o nceiv ed o f th e P ers o nality a s a s y ste m o f
c o nsis te nt i d eas. H e c alle d th is s y ste m o f I d eas th e
‘S elf -Im age’
.

T his s e lf Im age is o ur o w n c o ncep ti o n o f th e ‘T yp e o f P ers o n w e a re ’. M ost o f th ese id eas a b out
o urs e lv es h av e b een fo rm ed a s p art o f o ur e xp erie nces, o ur s u ccesse s a nd fa ilu re s, a nd h o w o th er
p eo ple h av e r e acte d to u s.

L ecky o bse rv ed th at if s tu d ents h ad le arn in g d is a b iliti e s o f s o m e fo rm o r o th er, it c o uld b e th at th e
s u b je ct w as i n co nsis te nt w ith th eir s e lf- im age.
C hange th e s y ste m o f b elie f a nd y o u c hange th e s e lf- im age. C hange th e s e lf- im age a nd y o u c hange th e
l e arn in g p ro cess.

T his i n d eed p ro ved to b e tr u e w hen L ecky te ste d h is th eo ry o n th o usa nd s o f s tu d ents .

One stu d ent, w ho d ro pped fr o m c o lle ge b ecause o f p oor g ra d es, e v entu ally e nte re d H arv ard a nd
becam e a S tr a ig ht ‘ A ’ s tu d ent.

Ano th er s tu d ent w ho h ad b een r e p eate d ly to ld th at h e h ad n o a p ti tu d e fo r E nglis h w ent o n to w in a
Lite ra ry P riz e a t c o lle ge.

The pro ble m w ith th ese stu d ents w as th eir in ad eq uate se lf- im age. T hey in te rn aliz e d th eir past
fa ilu re s. I n ste ad o f s a yin g ‘ I f a ile d th e E nglis h T est’ , th ey c o nclu d ed ‘ I a m n o g o od a t E nglis h ’. O nce
th eir f a ilu re s w ere d e-lin ked f r o m th eir s e lf- im age, th eir g ra d es s ta rte d to i m pro ve d ra m ati c ally .

Your s u b je ct i s th e I E LT S.

If
YO U
te ll y o urs e lf th at y o u a re n o t a m ongst th e b est i n th e W orld , y o ur s u b co nsc io us b elie v es i t a nd
yo u r e m ain th ere a t th e b elo w 7 l e v els .

If y o u te ll y o urs e lf th at y o u a re n o g o od a t S ta nd ard iz e d te sts b ecause y o u h av e n ev er d one w ell in
th em , y o u a re d esti n ed f o r a m ed io cre s c o re .

On th e o th er h and
if y our s e lf -im age is t h at o f a W in ner y our a ctio ns a nd h ence y our r e su lt s w ill
be lik e t h ose o f a W in ner.

In d iv id uals s tr iv e to b ehav e in w ays th at a re in k eep in g w ith th eir s e lf- im age, n o m atte r h o w h elp fu l
or h urtf u l to o nese lf o r o th ers .
Thankfu lly , s e lf- im age is n o t r ig id a nd c an b e c o nsc io usly m odifie d . Its d ev elo pm ent is a c o nti n uo us
pro cess. In th e h ealth y p ers o nality th ere is c o nsta nt a ssim ila ti o n o f n ew id eas a nd e xp uls io n o f o ld
id eas th ro ugho ut l ife .

If y o u h av e a b urn in g d esir e , i t i s b e p ossib le to s ta rt r e in v enti n g r e le v ant p arts o f y o ur S elf I m age i n
weeks o r e v en d ays.

It i s m ost e ffe cti v e to d elv e d eep a nd tr y to f in d o ut th e e xp erie nces th at c o ntr ib ute d to th o se p arts o f
th e s e lf- im age th at a re p re v enti n g y o u f r o m s e ein g y o urs e lf a s a n I E LT S W in ner.

1 0.4 T he M en ta l P ic tu re P rin cip le

‘ I n ever h it a g olf s h ot w ith out h avin g a s h arp p ic tu re o f i t i n m y h ea d. F ir st I ‘ s e e’ w here I w ant
th e b all to fin is h . T hen I ‘ s e e’ it g oin g th ere , its tr a je cto ry a nd la ndin g. T he n ext ‘ s c en e’ s h ow s
m e m akin g t h e s w in g t h at w ill t u rn t h e p re vio us i m ages i n to r e a lity ’.
J a ck N ic kla us ( G olfe r o f th e C entu ry )


T his m enta l p ic tu re p rin cip le i s n o t j u st l im ite d to G olf, o r s p orts f o r th at m atte r. T his i s a U niv ers a l
P rin cip le a nd a n o verw helm in g m ajo rity o f W in ners fr o m v ario us fie ld s u se th is p rin cip le , e ith er
c o nsc io usly o r s u b c o nsc io usly .

I m yse lf a p plie d it b efo re m y IE LT S e xam a nd c o nti n ue to s u ccessfu lly a p ply it in m y p ro fe ssio nal
l ife .

T hin k c le arly
why y ou w ant t o t a k e t h e I E LT S
.

C re ate a c le ar p ic tu re i n y o ur m in d o f y o ur
fin al g oal
. I m agin e y o urs e lf w ork in g w ith s tu d ents i n y o ur
c ho se n c o lle ge. S ee y o urs e lf r e ceiv in g th at ‘ b est- s tu d ent’ a w ard . S m ell th e flo w ers in th e r o om . S ee
t h e c o lo urs o n th e w all w hen y o u g et th at s ta nd in g o vati o n.
Sav or
th e jo y o n y o ur lo ved o ne’s fa ce
w hen th ey g et th e n ew s.

C re ate a v iv id , l ife lik e i m age w ith a ll th e c o lo urs , s o und s a nd f e elin gs.

E very d ay
befo re s le ep in g a nd a fte r g etti n g u p , s p end fiv e m in ute s th in kin g a b out th is im age.
Act &
F eel
a s i f y o u a re a lr e ad y th ere . P ic tu re y o urs e lf r e ceiv in g th at e nv elo pe c o nta in in g th e a w ard l e tte r,
h ear th e s o und a s y o u o pen it, fe el th e c ris p ness o f th e le tte r c o nta in in g th e d eta ils , d elig ht in jo y a s
y o u r e ceiv e i t.

A v iv id , c le ar p ic tu re o f y ourse lf a s a W in ner, r e peate dly r e gula rly g ets in to y our s u bco nsc io us
m in d.

This i s V ery P ow erfu l.

A b urn in g d esir e c o up le d w ith b elie f a nd c le ar i m agin ati o n c an o utw it M oth er N atu re . A v ast m ajo rity
of IE LT S w in ners b ehav e a s if th ey a re w in ners e v en b efo re th ey h av e ta ken th e te st, o r e v en b efo re
th ey h av e s ta rte d p re p arin g. T hey h av e a c le ar p ic tu re o f w hat th ey w ant to d o a fte r th eir I E LT S.

Afte r v is itin g th e te st c en tr e th e w eek b efo re th e D -d ay, I d id a fe w m in ute s o f v is u aliz a tio n
ea ch d ay - ju st c lo se d m y e yes a nd s a w m yse lf s ittin g a t th e w ork sta tio n, d oin g w ell, m ovin g
co nfid en tly th ro ugh e a ch s e ctio n, r e la xin g d urin g b re a ks, fin ally g ettin g th at 8 s c o re . A nd o n
D-d ay, t h at's a lm ost e xa ctly h ow i t w en t d ow n, e xcep t t h at t h e 8 t u rn ed i n to a n 8 .5 .
- Z ia ( I E LTS: 8 .5 )

When th e a tti tu d e is p ositi v e w e e nte rta in p le asa nt fe elin gs a nd c o nstr u cti v e im ages, a nd s e e in o ur
min d 's e ye w hat w e r e ally w ant to h ap pen. T his b rin gs b rig htn ess to th e e yes, m ore e nerg y a nd f o cus.
The w ho le th in g b ro ad casts go od w ill, hap pin ess and su ccess. E ven th e health is affe cte d in a
benefic ia l w ay. W e w alk ta ll a nd th e v oic e i s m ore p ow erfu l.

If y ou c u lt iv ate th ese tr a it s fo llo w in g th e g uid elin es in th is b ook , y ou w ill so on sta rt g ettin g
‘L uck y’.

In f a ct th is i s tr u e n o t o nly f o r I E LT S b ut f o r a ny E xam o r I n te rv ie w y o u m ig ht f a ce i n l ife .

Cre ati n g th ese m enta l im ages m ay s o und tr ic ky fo r a p ers o n w ho is n o t in iti a te d w ith h o w th e h um an
min d w ork s, b ut th e p ow er o f ‘ A ct a s if y o u a lr e ad y h av e it’ h as b een a ckno w le d ged b y th e lik es o f
Ein ste in , H enry F ord , L in co ln , a nd o th ers .

It is n o t a s d iffic ult a s y o u m ig ht im agin e. M ost p eo ple d o it o n a r e gula r b asis . W hat h ap pens w hen
yo u w orry a b out p ossib le fu tu re s e tb acks? W hat h ap pens w hen y o u th in k a b out it d eep ly ? Y ou a re
overc o m e b y fe elin gs o f a nxie ty , lo ss, h um ilia ti o n a nd s a d ness. T hese a re th e e xact s a m e fe elin g th at
yo u w ould e xp erie nce i f th e e v ent a ctu ally h ap pened .

Acti n g a s i f y o u h av e a lr e ad y a chie v ed a g re at s c o re a cti v ate s y o ur s u b c o nsc io us m in d . T he p ow er o f
th e h um an m in d is s o g re at a nd m yste rio us th at it c an tr a nsm ute a B urn in g, a ll c o nsu m in g th o ught,
backed b y
str o ng B elie f a nd v iv id im agin atio n
, i n to i ts p hysic al e q uiv ale nt.

Any th o ught th at is r e p eate d ly p asse d o n to th e s u b c o nsc io us m in d w ill b e a ccep te d a s tr u e a nd th e
su b c o nsc io us m in d w ill p ro ceed to tu rn th at th o ught i n to r e ality b y th e m ost s u ita b le m eans.

The S ub C onsc io us m in d
ca nnot d is tin guis h b etw een ‘ G ood’ a nd ‘ B ad’ t h oughts
. T his is p ro bab ly
what a cco unts f o r w hat p eo ple g enera lly c all ‘ b ad l u ck’.

There a re h und re d s o f b rillia nt s tu d ents , w ho o fte n s h o w g re at p ote nti a l, b ut d ue to o ne re aso n o r
ano th er, n o rm ally a ttr ib ute d to ‘b ad lu ck’, fa il to ris e to th e o ccasio n a t th e a ctu al IE LT S. T his is
because th ey ‘ s e e’ th em se lv es a s ‘ a v era ge’ i n th eir m in d ’s e ye a nd s o th e c ir c um sta nces b eco m e s u ch
th at th ey g et w hat th eir s u b c o nsc io us m in d s e es a s th e tr u th .


Actu aliz a ti o n o f th o ughts is a w ell- k no w n a nd w ell- d ocum ente d p heno m eno n. T here a re a s y et n o
co m ple te s c ie nti fic e xp la nati o ns fo r it. H ow ev er, b ra nches o f s tu d ie s lik e P sy cho -C yb ern eti c s a nd
NLP (N euro L in guis ti c P ro gra m min g) h av e sh o w n th at a p ers o n’s in ner re ality c an c hange h is /h er
oute r re ality , and m ore im porta ntl y , a p ers o n can co nsid era b ly in flu ence his /h er in ner re ality to
achie v e th e g o al h e s e eks.

The m ost e ffe cti v e w ay to d o th is is to r e gula rly b rin g u p y o ur m ost v iv id a nd m oti v ati n g W in ner’s
pic tu re i n y o ur m in d , p la y th e s c ene o ver a nd o ver a nd s e e, f e el a nd h ear a s i f y o u a re a lr e ad y th ere .

If y o u s p ur y o ur i m agin ati o n w ith b elie f, d esir e , a nd e xp ecta ncy, a nd tr a in i t to v is u aliz e y o ur g o als s o
th at y o u se e, fe el, h ear, ta ste , a nd to uch th em , y o u w ill g et w hat y o u w ant.
Evokin g a fe elin g o f
win nin g gears up yo ur su b co nsc io usn ess to w ard s su ccess. Y ou can m ake no m is ta kes.
You get
‘L uck y’
.

I lik e m ost o th ers, w as fin din g th e g oin g to o to ugh. It w as g ettin g to o m uch to b ala nce
co lle g e, f a m ily , f r ie n ds a nd t h e I E LTS. I d ecid ed t o s te p b ack a nd t a ke a h ard l o ok a t w hy I
was d oin g a ll th is . W as it ju st to g et a n 8 in th e IE LTS? C erta in ly n ot, m y p urp ose w as
much g re a te r t h an t h at. I w ante d t o g o t o a T o p M ed s c h ool, s ta rt m y o w n c o nsu lta ncy a nd
beco m e f in ancia lly i n dep en den t.

I h ave a c o uple b ooks th at I r e a d w hic h a re (fo r m e) h ig hly m otiv a tin g a nd b rin g b ack m y
Big P ic tu re i n f o cu s. O ne o f t h em i s a w ate rsh ed b ook i n m y l ife : T he F ounta in hea d b y A yn
Rand. E very p age o f t h at b ook i s a bout p eo ple s a crific in g a ll e ls e t o a ch ie ve t h eir d re a m ...
it i n sp ir e s m e.

The o th er o ne is R ic h D ad, P oor D ad, o r o ne o f h is s e rie s. M y w hole r e a so n fo r s tu dyin g
fo r th e I E LTS is fa r g re a te r th an ju st g ettin g a g ood s c o re … it r e -m otiv a te s m e... g ets m e
back in to th e b ig ger p ic tu re . K eep in g th is b ig p ic tu re in fo cu s h elp s m e g et in th e ‘flo w ’
and t h in gs j u st s e em t o g o b rillia ntly f r o m t h ere .
Thelm a S w een ey ( I E LTS 8 )

1 1 . T he W in nin g T ra it s

1 1 .1 H ow W in ners P la n
G etti n g a g o od I E LT S s c o re i s v ita l to y o u a nd y o u m ust h av e i m peccab le p la ns to a chie v e th is G oal.

K eep in m in d th at n o o ne p ers o n h as e no ugh k no w le d ge, e xp erie nce o r w is d om to b eco m e a w in ner
o n h is o w n. In to day’s s p ecia liz e d w orld , w e a ll n eed e xp ert in p uts to b eco m e ‘ W in ners ’. T his is a s
t r u e o f th e I E LT S a s a ny o th er f ie ld .

I n o rd er to tu rn y o ur b urn in g d esir e i n to r e ality , y o u m ust m ake a s o lid ‘ b ulle t- p ro of’ p la n. I t d oes n o t
m atte r i f y o ur i n iti a l p la n i s n o t s u ccessfu l. Y ou c an a lw ays l e arn f r o m y o ur e xp erie nce a nd r e -p la n.

R em em ber,
‘A W in ner n ever Q uit s a nd a Q uit te r n ever W in s’

W in ners p la n th eir w ork a nd w ork th eir p la ns ti ll th ey a chie v e th eir g o als .

A s m enti o ned els e w here in th e book, yo u pla n need s to ta ke in to acco unt yo ur str e ngth s and
w eaknesse s, th e k in d o f b ooks y o u n eed to p re p are , th e tr a in in g/c o achin g y o u m ay r e q uir e e tc .

1 1 .2 B ew are o f y o u r B ig gest E nem y

P ro cra sti n ati o n i s th e g ra v e i n w hic h o pportu nity i s b urie d .
- A no nym ous

O ne o f th e b ig gest e nem ie s o f a n IE LT S W in ner is ‘ P ro cra sti n ati o n’. T here a re p eo ple w ho a lw ays
w ait f o r th in gs to b e ‘ ju st r ig ht’ b efo re th ey s ta rt a n ew p ro je ct, n ew j o b o r s o m eth in g w orth w hile .

W in ners a re d ecis iv e
. T hey k no w th at th ere w ill n ev er b e th at
elu siv e, E xa ctly R ig ht m om en t.
T hey
s ta rt w here th ey sta nd , w ith w hate v er to ols th ey hav e at th eir d is p osa l, kno w in g th at th ey w ill
i m pro ve th eir p la ns a s th ey g o a lo ng.

A q uic k a naly sis o f th e IE LT S W in ners s h o w s th at a lm ost a ll o f th em a re q uic k in ta kin g d ecis io ns,
a nd v ery s lo w in c hangin g th em , b e it b ig ger d ecis io ns a s to w heth er to ta ke th e IE LT S a t a ll a nd if
y es, w hen? O r s m alle r d ecis io ns a s to w heth er to c hange a n a nsw er c ho ic e b ecause th ey w ere n’t s u re
o f th e a nsw er.

1 1 .3 H ow P ersis te n ce p ays

I f I h ad to se le ct o ne q uality , o ne p erso nal c h ara cte ris tic th at I re g ard a s b ein g m ost h ig hly
c o rre la te d with su ccess, whate ver th e fie ld , I would pic k th e tr a it of persis te n ce and
d ete rm in atio n. T he w ill to e n dure to th e e n d, to g et k n ocked d ow n s e ven ty tim es a nd g et u p o ff
th e f lo or s a yin g, “ H ere c o m es n um ber s e ven ty -o ne!”
Ric h ard M . D eV os


T he f o llo w in g i s a n o utl in e o f o ne o f th e m ost w ell k no w n p ers o naliti e s i n H is to ry . T his i s p ro bab ly
t h e g re ate st e xam ple o f h o w p ers is te nce c an f a ce a ll o dds.

Ø 1831: F aile d i n b usin ess.

Ø 1832: D efe ate d f o r S ta te L egis la tu re

Ø 1832: C ould n o t g et i n to l a w s c ho ol

Ø 1833: F aile d i n b usin ess

Ø 1836: H ad n erv ous b re akd ow n

Ø 1838: D efe ate d f o r S peaker

Ø 1843: D efe ate d f o r C ongre ss n o m in ati o n

Ø 1848: L ost r e -n o m in ati o n


Ø 1849: R eje cte d f o r l a nd O ffic er

Ø 1854: D efe ate d f o r U S S enate

Ø 1856: D efe ate d f o r v ic e P re sid ent N om in ati o n

Ø 1858: R an f o r U .S . S enate a gain - a gain h e l o st.

Ø 1860: E le cte d p re sid ent o f th e U nite d S ta te s.

Yes, th e a b ove l is t o f f a ilu re s i s th e s to ry o f n o ne o th er th an
Abra h am L in co ln
.

Lin co ln w as b orn in to a p oor fa m ily , fa ced d efe ats a nd s e tb acks th ro ugho ut h is life , y et d id n o t g iv e
up . A nd b ecause h e d id n o t g iv e u p , h e b ecam e o ne o f th e g re ate st s ta te sm en th at e v er liv ed a nd le ft
an i n d elib le i m pre ssio n o n th e r e st o f m ankin d .

Of c o urs e , th e fa ilu re th at y o u m ig ht e nco unte r o n y o ur r o ad to th e IE LT S w ould b e tr iv ia l c o m pare d
to th e o nes a b ove.

Hard ly a nyo ne h as a chie v ed s u ccess w ith o ut f a cin g s e tb ack. W hat s e p ara te s th e W in ners f r o m th e r e st
is th eir i n d om ita b le c o ura ge a nd p ers is te nce i n th e l ig ht o f u nre le nti n g h ard sh ip s & f a ilu re s.

In th e w ord s o f R oy w ho se p ers is te nce f in ally p aid o ff w ith a s c o re o f 7 …

I a m p le a se d t o a nnounce t h at I s c o re d 7 i n t h e I E LTS.
One th in g th at c le a rly c o m es o ut o f m y p erfo rm ance is th at a nyo ne w illin g to w ork h ard
ca n g et a g ood s c o re . I a m n o e xcep tio n to th is r u le . It’s ju st th at s o m e h ave w ork ed o n
th eir s k ills b efo re a nd o th ers h ave t o d o N O W.
My p re vio us s c o re s:
1 st
A tte m pt: 5
2 nd
A tte m pt: 6
Fin al A tte m pt: 7
All t h ese w ere o ver a t im e s p an o f 1 y ea r a nd 3 m onth s.
Afte r m y la st te st in O ct, I w as r e a lly in th e d um ps. I d esp era te ly w ante d a s c o re o f 7 + in
ord er to s ta nd a c h ance a t th e to p s c h ools I w ante d to g et to . I d id (a noth er!) th oro ugh
analy sis a nd r e a liz e d t h at m y m ajo r w ea k a re a w as w ritin g. S o t h is t im e I r e a lly w ork ed o n
it. A t th e s a m e tim e I p ra ctic ed m uch to ugher q uestio ns. I c a n te ll y o u if y o u h ave d one

th em , understa ndin g and develo pin g str a te g ie s how to atta ck th em , u w ill be very
co m fo rta ble w ith t h e q uestio ns o n a ctu al t e st.
At m y t h ir d a tte m pt, I g ot s o m e t r ic ky q uestio ns i n t h e b eg in nin g. U w ill s e e t h e d iffic u lty o f
questio ns j u m p u p a nd d ow n… s o m e t o ugh f o llo w ed b y p re tty e a sy. S o d on’t p anic a nd j u st
fo cu s o n q uestio n r ig ht in fr o nt o f y o u. In th e m id dle I n eed ed s c ra tc h p aper, r a is e d m y
hand a nd n o o ne c a m e… th e p ro cto r g uy w as str o llin g in th e c o rrid or. I g ot u p, w en t
outs id e, c u rse d h im (m en ta lly ...) a nd b ro ught th e n ew s c ra tc h p aper. B e c o ol a nd fo cu sse d
th ro ughout t h e t e st.

Writin g h as b een m y w ea k a re a . B ut th is tim e I h ad p ra ctic ed e n ough to b e s u re to c ra ck
every q uestio n
Fin ally , if u b elie ve th at u c a n s c o re g ood a n d p re se n tly h ave a b ad s c o re ... D on ’t g iv e
up...
R oy ( I E LTS: 7 )

1 2. H ow B urn ou ts ca n ru in y ou p re p & h ow
y ou c a n a void t h em
B urn O ut
o ccurs w here p eo ple w ho hav e b een hig hly co m mitte d lo se in te re st and m oti v ati o n.
T yp ic ally it w ill o ccur in h ard w ork in g, h ard tr a in in g, h ard d riv en p eo ple , w ho b eco m e e m oti o nally ,
p sy cho lo gic ally o r p hysic ally e xhauste d . T hese a re ty p ic al c hara cte ris ti c s o f th e IE LT S w in ners a nd
s o th ey n eed to b e e v er m ore w atc hfu l f o r th e f ir s t s ig ns o f a n i m min ent b urn o ut.
W hen d oes i t h ap pen ?

Y ou a re to o n ic e a nd s im ply c anno t s a y ‘N O’, b e it a t c o lle ge, h o m e o r w ith fr ie nd s. T his e nd s u p
w ith fu rth er c o m mitm ents a nd r e sp onsib iliti e s o n y o ur ti m e a nd c o ncentr a ti o n, a nd y o u fin d y o urs e lf
u nab le to d o a nyth in g to y o ur s a ti s fa cti o n.

Y ou a re tr y in g to a chie v e to o m uch to o q uic kly .

Y our s o urc e o f e m oti o nal s u p port ( P are nts /fr ie nd s) h as s u d denly g o ne a w ay f r o m y o u.

Y ou h av e a p erfe cti o nis t T uto r.

T his w ill o fte n m anife st its e lf in co m ple te d is in te re st in yo ur w ork , lo w m oti v ati o n le v els and
p erh ap s q uitti n g y o ur p re p c o m ple te ly .


I n th e w ord s o f H em ant, w ho h ad a ty p ic al c ase o f p re p b urn o ut, b ut fin ally m anaged to r e co ver a nd
g et a s c o re o f 7 .5

I am em otio nally and psy ch olo gic a lly dra in ed afte r ju st about a m onth in IE LTS
pre p ara tio n. I d o n ot k n ow w hy, b ut I a m t a kin g t h ese t h in gs t o o s e rio usly a nd p erso nally .

Ju st l a st w eek I s ta rte d s o lv in g C am brid ge. I t r y t o t o uch R ea din g a nd W ritin g f o r a t l e a st
25 q uestio ns. B ut, th ere is a bso lu te ly n o c o nsis te n cy. O ne d ay, I w ill h ave 8 0% a ccu ra cy,
th e n ext d ay I w ill b e j u st a bout 5 0% r ig ht. T his g ets m e d ep re sse d a nd I f in d m yse lf l o st i n

pre p str a te g ie s. I a ls o tr ie d to cre a te a n erro r lo g, b ut every tim e erro r is so m ew hat
diffe re n t t h an b efo re .

This h as s ta rte d a ffe ctin g m y d ay to d ay life . I d o n ot k n ow w hen to fin d m ore tim e fo r
pre p ara tio n. T he w hole d ay I w ill b e t h in kin g a bout I E LTS, I E LTS a nd o nly I E LTS.
May b e I s h ould s ta rt m ed ita tin g e very d ay ju st to g et m e o ut o f th is s ta te . M y w ife h as
sta rte d w orry in g a bout m e.
I h ope th in gs w ill fa ll in p la ce s o on. O th erw is e I a m a fr a id th at I m ay ju st lo se in te re st in
IE LTS.

………………………..S o I le ft stu dyin g fo r 2 -3 d ays a nd ju st h ad fu n.... A fte r th at - I
fo cu sse d o n t h e C am brid ge b ook...m ade a s c h ed ule ...a nd m anaged t o g et i t r ig ht.

Hem ant ( I E LTS 7 .5 )

1 2.1 R eco gn iz in g t h e S ym pto m s

B urn O uts c an b e M enta l o r P hysic al, h o w ev er i n e ith er c ase , b oth y o ur b ody a nd y o ur m in d w ill f e el
t h e p ain .

S om e o f th ese s y m pto m s c an o ccur a s a O ne O ff. Y ou n eed to w orry a b out a b urn o ut O NLY if th ese
s y m pto m s a p pear r e p eate d ly a nd w ith i n te nsity .

Ø Feelin gs o f i n te n se f a tig ue

Ø Vuln era bility t o i n fe ctio ns

Ø Feelin g o f a l a ck o f c o ntr o l o ver c o m mitm en ts

Ø An i n co rre ct b elie f t h at y o u a re a cco m plis h in g l e ss

Ø Loss o f e n erg y a nd s e n se o f p urp ose

Ø In cre a sin g d eta ch m en t f r o m r e la tio nsh ip s

Ø Fru str a tio n w ith y o u s c o re s

Ø Rep ea tin g t h e s a m e m is ta kes a gain a nd a gain

Ø Erra tic p erfo rm ance o n t e sts

1 2.2 G ettin g o u t o f i t

C ut a w ay th e l o w y ie ld in g w ork .

R e-e v alu ate a nd p rio riti z e y o ur g o als . A ccep t th at y o u w ill h av e to g iv e y o u s o m e o f th e th in gs y o u
l ik e, a t l e ast te m pora rily .

I f p eo ple /ta sk s d em and to o m uch ti m e a nd e nerg y, b eco m e l e ss s y m path eti c a nd l e ss a p pro achab le .
G et i n v olv ed w ith o th er p eo ple w ho a re p re p arin g f o r th e I E LT S w hile h av in g o th er c o m mitm ents .

G et s u p port o f f r ie nd s a nd f a m ily i n r e d ucin g S tr e ss

P ro te ct yo urs e lf fr o m exhausti o n, get quality sle ep , hav e a health y bala nced die t, and re la xin g
h o bbie s.

F or a m ajo rity o f th e I E LT S W in ners , th ere c o m es a p oin t i n th eir p re p ara ti o n w hen th eir p erfo rm ance
g o es s te ep ly d ow nw ard s. T his c an b e v ery f r u str a ti n g a nd h ig hly u nnerv in g.

I n th e w ord s o f T in a:
’ For m e th e B urn out p oin t c a m e w hen le ss th an a w eek b efo re th e e xa m , I to ok a P ra ctic e
Test a nd g ot o nly a 5 . T he s tr e ss y o u fe el is k ille r e sp . a fte r a ll th e p re p ara tio n y o u'v e p ut
in . A nd t h e w orst p art i s t h at o n a naly zin g y o ur p erfo rm ance t h ere i s s o m uch t h at h its y o u
th at's s o s im ple . W hile d oin g t h e t e st, y o u a re a ls o t h in kin g a bout t w en ty o th er t h in gs.
Yo u w ere t o o w orrie d a bout t h e t im e y o u h ad l e ft. Y o u w ere n ot c o ncen tr a tin g f o r t h at s p lit
se co nd.
Yo u d id n't r e a d th e q uestio n p ro perly - y o u tr ie d to n erv o usly s c a n it a nd im med ia te ly p ut
so m eth in g d ow n o n p aper.
Yo u w ere w orrie d a bout h ow t h is t e st s c o re w ill r e la te w ith y o ur a ctu al I E LTS s c o re .
Yo u w orry a bout w hat y o ur f r ie n ds w ill t h in k i f y o u d o b adly , a ll o f t h em k n ow y o u'r e g iv in g
th is e xa m , a nd y o u b eg in to w onder w heth er a ll th e s a crific es o f p artie s a nd o utin gs y o u

made w ere a ctu ally w orth i t.
Yo u b eg in t o w onder i f t h is w as a ll a b ig m is ta ke a nd y o u s h ould j u st s tic k w ith y o ur p la in -
Ja ke r o utin e a nd f o rg et a bout t h at c a re er t h at's w aitin g f o r y o u.
It's p erh aps a t th ese tim es th at y o u ju st n eed to r e g ain c o ntr o l o f y o ur life a nd k n ow th at
ultim ate ly y o u'r e in c o m mand. T he IE LTS is ju st a noth er e xa m (a lth ough it se em s lik e
yo u'v e b een p re p arin g f o r i t s in ce y o u w ere i n y o ur d ia pers) a nd t h at n um ber y o u g et i s n 't
goin g t o t e ll y o u h ow i n te llig en t y o u a re o r h ow w ell y o u'r e g oin g t o d o i n l ife o r e ven h ow
nic e a p erso n y o u a re . A fte r a ll i t i s o ne o f t h e t h in gs y o u'r e g oin g t o h ave t o d o t o g et i n to
a T o p S ch ool. T hat's i t.
So w hen ever th e IE LTS g ets to y o u (a nd it w ill) - p ut a w ay y o ur b ooks, g o fo r a d riv e,
sp en d tim e w ith y o ur fr ie n ds, w atc h a s o ppy m ovie b ut g et s o m e tr u e R & R a nd D ON'T
th in k a bout th e M -w ord . R em em ber y o ur m en ta l p ea ce is m ost im porta nt. If y o u h ave a
su perio r f o rc e o f n atu re t o p ra y, t h ere i s n oth in g l ik e i t!’
Tin a ( I E LTS 9 )

1 3. H ow W in ners a void t h e ‘ A vera ge’ M in d se t

G iv en th e d iffic ulti e s & h urd le s o f th e IE LT S, it is o nly to o e asy to fa ll in th e a v era ge m in d se t a nd
s ta rt w ork in g to w ard s a n a v era ge s c o re . H ow ev er, e v ery W in ner h as l e arn ed to c o pe e ffe cti v ely w ith
p re ssu re , a nd w in th e b attl e o f th e m in d .

A void in g th e a v era ge M in d se t m eans th e w illin gness to b lo ck o ut n egati v e th o ughts & e v ents a nd to
“ tr u st th e so urc e“. It im plie s le arn in g to em bra ce nerv ousn ess, unfa m ilia r su rro und in gs and to
r e ap pra is e th em a s s ig ns o f r e ad in ess a nd p re p ara ti o n f o r th e b ig e v ent.

T he m ed io cre m in d se t is m enta lly a nd e m oti o nally v ery c o m fo rta b le . It m eans y o u w ill n ev er fa ce
f a ilu re . I t m eans y o u n ev er s e t u p y o urs e lf f o r h earta che a nd d is a p poin tm ent.

W in ners s e p ara te th em se lv es f r o m th e p ack b y g o in g a fte r y o ur q uest. T hey n ev er g iv e u p th eir d re am
b ecause it is n o t “ co m fo rta b le ” o r “ re alis ti c ”. R em em ber a nd ta ke n o te th at 9 8% o f th e o th ers d id
t h at. A re y o u g o in g to f o llo w th em ?

T he “ av era ge m in d s e t” s tu d ent is th e o ne w ho s a ys h e w ill T RY r a th er th an h e w ill D O. “ O h w ell I
w ill T RY i t b ut i t p ro bab ly w on’t w ork “ . T he w ord T RY i s a w eak m oti v ati o nal w ord . Y ou m ust g et
i n to a “ D O“ m ode a nd th en c re ate a m in d se t i n w hic h y o ur c o m mitm ent l e v el i s m ore e nhanced a s a re
y o ur d ete rm in ati o n a nd p ers is te nce. If y o u c o m mit y o urs e lf to th is “ D O” m ode a nd fa il, it m ere ly
m eans th at y o u d id n o t d o it th is ti m e, b ut w ill d o it n ext ti m e. T he “ D O” m in d se t is n o t e asily
i n ti m id ate d b y th e “ T RY ” m in d se t.

D ev elo p in g t h e W in nin g M in dse t

H ere a re
fo ur s te ps
to w ard s d ev elo pin g a g re at m in d se t.
1 . T ru st th e p ow er o f y o ur p uls a ti n g, th ro bbin g d esir e a nd h av e s tr o ng b elie f in y o ur d re am s. If y o u
c anno t b elie v e i n y o ur d re am , th en n o o ne e ls e w ill. Y ou a re r e sp onsib le f o r y o ur o w n s u ccess.
2 . C om ple te , co m pre hensiv e co m mitm ent. A chie v in g yo ur fu ll p ote nti a l is
only e arn ed th ro ugh
e ffo rt
. I f y o u a re n o t to ta lly c o m mitte d to a chie v in g y o ur d re am , th en y o u p ro bab ly d id n’t w ant i t v ery

much a nyw ay.

This is m y c u rre n t I E LTS s tu dy s c h ed ule : I w ake u p a t 5 a m a nd s tu dy fo r a bout 2 h ours,
th en l e a ve f o r c o lle g e a t a ro und 8 . T hen I w hen I g et b ack, I s ta rt s tu dyin g a gain a t 8 pm t o
aro und 1 1 pm . I t's s o d ra in in g!!! A lth ough I d o g et t o p ra ctic e/ s tu dy m ore n ow c o m pare d t o
my s tu dy s c h ed ule a y ea r a go w hen I w ould o nly s tu dy fo r a bout a n h our w eekd ays a nd
weeken ds. I c a n o nly h ope t h at a ll m y h ard w ork p ays o ff t h e s e co nd t im e a ro und.
Jeet ( I E LTS 7 : S eco nd A tte m pt)
3. A void p eo ple w ho h av e a n egati v e/a v era ge m in d se t. Q uite o fte n n egati v e c o m ments c o m e fr o m
fa m ily o r c lo se fr ie nd s. It is n o t th at th ey m ean a ny h arm ; th ey p ro bab ly a re tr y in g to s lo w y o u d ow n
so th at y o u d on’t g et o ver str e sse d o r fa ce d is a p poin tm ents . N ev er a llo w th ese to in filtr a te y o ur
th in kin g w ith n egati v e th o ughts .

Rem em ber th at is it a ll r ig ht to fe el g o od a b out y o ur p re p w hen th in gs a re g o in g w ell, b ut it is e v en
more i m porta nt w hen th ey a re n o t g o in g s o w ell.
4. G et th e B ig pic tu re ; ask yo urs e lf w hy yo u are doin g th is . D efin e w hat yo u fin ally w ant to
acco m plis h .

Tra in th e B ra in fo r su ccess, a nd n ev er e v er g iv e u p o n y o ur d re am . T he u lti m ate m in d se t is th e
sa ti s fa cti o n th at y o u a re g iv in g i t a ll i n g o in g a fte r y o ur d re am .

1 4. I E LT S W in ners c o u ntd ow n t o t h e D D ay…

I E LT S W in ners , lik e m ost te st ta kers a re n o t im mune fr o m a nxie ty . H ow ev er w ell p re p are d y o u a re ,
t h e f a ct i s th at y o u a re c o m peti n g a gain st th e B est i n th e W orld .

A lth o ugh, th ere is a w id e v aria ti o n in th e p re -te st b ehav io ur, a m ajo rity o f th e IE LT S w in ners d o th e
f o llo w in g.

1 4.1 A W eek b efo re t h e T est

1 .
Evalu ate th o ro ughly w here y o u s ta nd . U se th e ti m e r e m ain in g b efo re th e te st to s h o re u p y o ur w eak
p oin ts . B ut m ake s u re n o t to n egle ct y o ur s tr o ng a re as; a fte r a ll, th is is w here y o u'l l r a ck u p m ost o f
y o ur p oin ts .

2 . W ork o n a s m any q uesti o ns a s y o u p ossib ly c an. K eep th at e rro r lo g a nd re v ie w it re lig io usly .
W hen s o lv in g th e p ro ble m s, tr y a nd f ig ure o ut w hat i s b ein g a sk ed f o r a nd w hat a p pro ach i s th e b est.
R ev ie w c o rre ct a nd i n co rre ct a nsw ers .
3 . R ep lic ate te st c o nd iti o ns a t a ll ti m es. T hat m eans ti m in g a ll y o ur p ro ble m s, u sin g o nly p encils a nd
lim ite d s c ra tc h p ap er, r e -d ra w in g a ll f ig ure s, a nd w ork in g a t l e ast i n 7 0 m in ute s b lo cks to e nsu re th at
y o ur e nd ura nce i s b uilt u p .
4 . D o a t l e ast a f e w f u ll- le ngth p ra cti c e te sts b efo re ta kin g th e r e al o ne. Y ou m ust a ls o d o th e W riti n g
p orti o n a s i t w ill c o ntr ib ute to m enta l f a ti g ue to a c erta in d egre e.

5 . P ra cti c e w ork in g o n te st m ate ria l, p re fe ra b ly a f u ll- le ngth te st, a t th e
sa m e t im e o f d ay t h at y our
t e st is s c h edule d f o r
, a s i f i t w ere th e r e al T est D ay.
6 . T IM E Y O URSE LF A CCURATE LY , W IT H T H E S A M E
D EV IC E A ND I N T H E S A M E M ANNER I N W HIC H Y O U P L A N
T O K EEP T R ACK O F T IM E O N T E ST D AY . ( T H E C O M PU TE R
H AS A C LO CK O N T H E S C REEN T H AT Y O U'L L S E E
D URIN G T H E T E ST, B UT I T 'S G OOD T O T R ACK Y O UR O W N

TIM E A S W ELL.)
7. V IS IT T H E T E ST IN G C EN TR E I F Y O U C AN. S O M ETIM ES
SE EIN G T H E A CTU AL R O OM W HER E Y O UR T E ST W IL L B E
ADM IN IS T E R ED A ND T A K IN G N O TIC E O F L IT TL E T H IN G S
– S U CH A S T H E K IN D O F D ESK Y O U'L L B E W ORK IN G O N,
WHETH ER T H E R O OM I S L IK ELY T O B E H OT O R C O LD ,
ETC . – M AY H ELP T O C ALM Y O UR N ERV ES. A ND I F
YO U'V E N EV ER B EEN T O T H E T E ST C EN TR E, V IS IT IN G
BEFO REH AND I S A G OOD W AY T O E N SU RE T H AT Y O U
DO N'T G ET L O ST O N T E ST D AY .

1 4.2 T he D ay b efo re t h e T est

T ake a fin al fu ll le ngth te st to b uild y o ur c o nfid ence a nd th en tr y to r e la x a nd g et a g o od n ig ht’ s r e st.
T ry to a v oid d oin g i n te nsiv e s tu d yin g th e d ay b efo re th e te st. T here 's l ittl e y o u c an d o to h elp y o urs e lf
a t th is l a te d ate a nd y o u m ay j u st w in d u p e xhausti n g y o urs e lf a nd b urn in g o ut.

R ev ie w a fe w k ey c o ncep ts , g et to geth er e v ery th in g y o u'l l n eed fo r th e T est D ay a nd th en ta ke th e
n ig ht o ff e nti r e ly . G o to s e e a m ovie , r e nt a v id eo , o r w atc h s o m e T V. T ry n o t to th in k to o m uch a b out
t h e te st.
G et e no ugh s le ep . A void c affe in e.

1 4.3 T he T est D ay

Ø Here a re s o m e l a st- m in ute r e m in d ers to h elp g uid e y o ur w ork o n T est D ay:
Ø Read e ach q uesti o n s te m c are fu lly , a nd r e re ad i t b efo re m akin g y o ur f in al s e le cti o n.
Ø Don't g et b ogged d ow n i n th e m id dle o f a ny s e cti o n. Y ou m ay f in d q uesti o ns th at a p pear l a te r to
be m ore to y o ur l ik in g. S o d on't f r e ak. E lim in ate a nsw er c ho ic es, g uess, a nd m ove o n.
Ø Sta rt s tr o ng. T he fir s t fe w q uesti o ns a re im porta nt fo r y o ur c o nfid ence, s o s p end a s m uch ti m e
as n ecessa ry o n th e e arly o nes.
Ø Drin k a lo t o f w ate r a nd e at lig ht o n th e te st d ay. S om eti m es, it h elp s to g o to th e G ym a s
exerc is e in cre ase s th e a b ility to th in k a nd c o ncentr a te . Y ou c an a ls o ta ke lig ht fo od o r s n acks
with y o u f o r th e b re aks.
Ø Confid ence i s th e k ey. A ccentu ate th e p ositi v es, a nd d on't d w ell o n th e n egati v es! Y our a tti tu d e
and o utl o ok a re c ru cia l to y o ur p erfo rm ance o n te st d ay.

1 4.4 T hose F iv e H ou rs

Ø Tru st i n y o urs e lf a nd y o ur p re p ara ti o n. S ta y c alm a t a ll ti m es, a nd n ev er, u nd er a ny c ir c um sta nce
panic . B e a w are o f y o ur p ace, b ut d on't o bse ss o ver ti m e to th e p oin t th at y o u c an't f o cus o n th e
pro ble m a t h and , th is w ill o nly r u sh y o ur a nsw ers a nd c lo ud y o ur n atu ra l r e aso nin g.

Ø Giv e e ach q uesti o n a g o od h o nest e ffo rt a nd d on't c o m ple te ly g iv e u p o n a ny q uesti o n if y o u
th in k y o u c an s o lv e i t w ith a l ittl e m ore ti m e. T his i s a d iffic ult b ala ncin g a ct, a s y o u d on’t w ant
to s p end to o m uch ti m e o n a ny g iv en q uesti o n, b ut th o se fe w q uesti o ns th at y o u a re c lo se to
so lv in g m ay m ake th e d iffe re nce b etw een a h ig h a nd l o w s c o re .

Ø Focus o nly o n th e q uesti o n in fr o nt o f y o u. D on’t w orry a b out p re v io us q uesti o ns o r tr y in g to
ju d ge h o w y o u'r e d oin g.

Ø T ake a ll y o ur b re aks a nd u se th at ti m e to c le ar y o ur h ead a nd to p sy che y o urs e lf u p f o r th e n ext
se cti o n.

Ø I f y o u f e el y o urs e lf s tr a yin g to w ard s th e e nd o f th e te st, ta ke a s h o rt m enta l b re ak, o r o th erw is e
dig d eep fo r th o se la st re se rv es to p ull y o u th ro ugh. It’ s n o ti m e to b e th ro w in g in th e to w el
when y o u'r e s o c lo se to th e f in is h .

Ø R ealiz e th at y o ur fin al s c o re is N OT a re fle cti o n o f y o ur in te llig ence. A lo w s c o re d oes n o t
make y o u a l o se r o r a nyth in g l e ss th an y o u a ctu ally a re . T he I E LT S i s n o t l ife o r d eath . I t’ s o ne
te st o f m any " te sts " th at y o u'l l e nco unte r i n l ife . B ut d o b e h o nest w ith y o urs e lf. I f y o u f e el th at
yo u c an r e ally d o b ette r a s r e fle cte d i n y o ur p ra cti s e e xam s th en d efin ite ly g iv e th e te st a no th er
ho nest s h o t. N erv es p la y a c riti c al r o le , b ut a re l e ss o f a f a cto r th e s e co nd ti m e a ro und .

Ø Pla n o n s p end in g a t l e ast 5 h rs a t th e c entr e . D on't g et i n to th e m ood o f f in is h in g th e te st q uic kly ,
esp ecia lly a s y o u r e ach th e l a st f e w q uesti o ns.

Ø Focus y o ur a tte nti o n o n th e te st. D on't w aste ti m e a nd e nerg y w orry in g, th in kin g a b out th e
co nse q uences o f n o t d oin g w ell, o r w ond erin g w hat o th ers a re d oin g.

Ø If y o u d on't k no w a n a nsw er, ta ke a r e aso nab le g uess a nd m ove a lo ng.

If y o u s ta rt to f e el a nxio us, p ra cti c e y o ur r e la xati o n te chniq ues. U se a nxie ty a s a
cue
to r e la x. C lo sin g
yo ur e yes, ta ke th re e d eep b re ath s a nd g o b ack to th e ta sk .

Durin g th e e xam , tr y n o t to th in k a b out h o w y o u'r e d oin g. It's lik e a b ase b all p la yer w ho 's th in kin g
ab out th e c ro w d's c heers a nd th e s p orts w rite rs a nd h is c o ntr a ct a s h e s te p s u p to th e p la te : T here 's n o
su re r w ay to s tr ik e o ut. In ste ad , fo cus o n th e q uesti o n-b y-q uesti o n ta sk o f p ic kin g a n a nsw er c ho ic e.
The c o rre ct a nsw er is th ere : Y ou d on't h av e to c o m e u p w ith it; it's s itti n g r ig ht th ere in fr o nt o f y o u!
Concentr a te o n e ach q uesti o n, e ach p assa ge, e ach p ro ble m a nd y o u'l l b e m uch m ore lik ely to h it a
ho m e r u n.

Afte r a ll th e h ard w ork y o u'v e d one p re p arin g fo r a nd ta kin g th e IE LT S, y o u w ant to m ake s u re y o u
ta ke ti m e to c ele b ra te a fte rw ard s. P la n to g et to geth er w ith fr ie nd s th e e v enin g a fte r th e te st. R ela x,
hav e f u n, l e t l o ose . A fte r a ll, y o u h av e l o ts to c ele b ra te : Y ou p re p are d f o r th e te st a head o f ti m e. Y ou
did y o ur b est. Y ou'r e g o in g to g et a g o od s c o re . T he a b ove ti p s s h o uld e nsu re th at y o u h av e a S up er
Successfu l T est D ay. H ow ev er, i f y o u a re a n e sp ecia lly n erv ous d urin g te st, th e f o llo w in g c hap te r o n
Managin g T est A nxie ty s h o uld h elp .

1 5. M an agin g T est A nxie ty
1 5.1 W hat d oes t e st a n xie ty f e el l ik e?
Ø Som e stu d ents e xp erie nce m ain ly p hysic al sy m pto m s, su ch a s h ead aches, n ause a, fa in tn ess,
fe elin g to o h o t o r to o c o ld , e tc .
Ø Oth ers e xp erie nce m ore e m oti o nal s y m pto m s, s u ch a s c ry in g e asily , fe elin g ir rita b le , o r g etti n g
fr u str a te d q uic kly .
Ø The m ajo r p ro ble m o f te st a nxie ty is u su ally its e ffe ct o n th in kin g a b ility ; it c an c ause y o u to
bla nk o ut o r h av e r a cin g th o ughts th at a re d iffic ult to c o ntr o l.
Ø Alth o ugh m any s tu d ents f e el s o m e l e v el o f a nxie ty w hen w riti n g e xam s, m ost c an c o pe w ith th at
anxie ty a nd b rin g i t d ow n to a m anageab le l e v el.

1 5.2 W hat c a n y o u d o t o c o n tr o l t e st a n xie ty ?
Be
well p re pare d
f o r th e te st.
In clu d e a s m uch
se lf -te stin g
i n y o ur r e v ie w a s p ossib le .
Main ta in a
healt h y lif e sty le
: g et e no ugh s le ep , g o od n utr iti o n, e xerc is e , s o m e p ers o nal " d ow n"
ti m e, a nd a r e aso nab le a m ount o f s o cia l i n te ra cti o n.
As y o u a nti c ip ate th e e xam ,
th in k p osit iv ely
, e .g ., " I c an d o O K o n th is e xam . I 'v e s tu d ie d a nd I
kno w m y s tu ff."
Engage in
"th ought sto ppin g"
if yo u fin d th at yo u are w orry in g a lo t, m enta lly co m parin g
yo urs e lf to y o ur p eers , o r th in kin g a b out w hat o th ers m ay s a y a b out y o ur p erfo rm ance o n th is
exam .
Befo re y o u g o to b ed o n th e n ig h t b efo re th e e xam , m ake s u re to
co lle ct t o geth er a nyth in g t h at
you w ill n eed
f o r th e e xam - - p en, p encil, r u le r, I D , e tc . D oub le -c heck th e ti m e o f th e e xam a nd
th e l o cati o n.
Set th e a la rm c lo ck a nd th en g et a
good n ig ht's s le ep
b efo re th e e xam .
Get to th e e xam
on t im e - n ot t o o la te b ut n ot t o o e arly
.
As y o u w ork o n th e e xam ,
fo cu s o nly o n t h e e xam
, n o t o n w hat o th ers a re d oin g o r o n th in kin g
ab out p ast e xam s o r f u tu re g o als .
If y o u fe el v ery a nxio us in th e e xam , ta ke a fe w m in ute s to
ca lm y ourse lf d ow n
. S tr e tc h y o ur
arm s a nd le gs a nd th en re la x th em a gain . D o th is a c o up le o f ti m es. T ake a fe w slo w d eep
bre ath s. D o s o m e p ositi v e i n te rn al s e lf- ta lk ; s a y to y o ur-s e lf, " I w ill b e O K, I c an d o th is ." T hen
dir e ct y o ur f o cus o n q uesti o ns; l in k q uesti o ns to th eir c o rre sp ond in g l e ctu re a nd /o r c hap te r.
If th e e xam i s m ore d iffic ult th an y o u a nti c ip ate d , tr y to
fo cu s a nd j u st d o y our b est
. I t m ig ht b e
eno ugh to g et y o u th ro ugh.
When th e e xam i s o ver,
tr e at y ourse lf
. I f y o u d on't h av e a ny o th er c o m mitm ents , m ayb e y o u c an
go to a m ovie w ith a fr ie nd . If y o u h av e to s tu d y fo r o th er e xam s, y o u m ay h av e to p ostp one a
la rg er b re ak, b ut a b rie f b re ak c an b e th e p ic k u p th at y o u n eed .

1 5.3 S o H ow D o Y ou G et T o B e S elf -C on fid en t?

S elf ta lk .
Rese arc h sh o w s th at th e se lf- ta lk o f te st- a nxio us stu d ents alm ost alw ays te nd s to b e
n egati v e a nd s e lf- d efe ati n g. " E very o ne in th is c la ss is s m arte r a nd fa ste r th an I a m ." " I a lw ays m ess
u p o n te sts ." " If I d on't d o w ell o n th is e xam , th en I'l l flu nk th e c o urs e ." " T hese a re tr ic k q uesti o ns."
" T his i s a w eed -o ut c o urs e ."
B eco m e a w are o f w hat y o u s a y to y o urs e lf. T ry w riti n g y o ur n egati v e th o ughts a nd th en d is p uti n g e ach
o ne w ith a p ositi v e sta te m ent. S ta rt to e nco ura ge y o urs e lf a s y o u w ould a fr ie nd . R ep eati n g y o ur
p ositi v e s ta te m ents to y o urs e lf w ill h elp r e p ro gra m y o ur m in d f o r s u ccess i n ste ad o f f o r f a ilu re .

1 6. S hou ld y ou e v er c a n cel y ou r s c o re ?

I t is v ery im porta nt to r e m ain c a lm d urin g th e e xa m . I p erso nally d id n ot fe el th at I w as d oin g
to o w ell d urin g t h e e xa m . I n f a ct, m ost p eo ple w ho a ch ie ved h ig h s c o re s f e lt t h ey u nderp erfo rm ed
d urin g t h e e xa m . R em ain c a lm a nd f o cu s o n c o m ple tin g t h e e xa m i n t h e a llo tte d t im e.
N o m atte r h ow b ad y o u fe el its g oin g, d o n ot c a ncel th e s c o re s. I th ought lis te n in g w en t v ery
b adly , a nd f e lt I m is se d a f e w q uestio ns, e sp . s in ce I t o ok a g uess o n t h e t h ir d q uestio ns.
B y th e e n d o f th e te st, I w as in a g ood m in d to c a ncel th e s c o re . H ow ever, s o m eth in g w ith in m e
fo rc ed m e t o g o a hea d a nd I w as S H OCKED t o g et a s c o re o f 7 .
- K eith ( I E LTS: 7 )


N obody h as a g o od e xp la nati o n f o r th is , b ut a m ajo rity o f h ig h s c o re rs a lw ays f e el th at th ey h av e n o t
d one w ell e no ugh a t th e te st, e sp ecia lly b y th e ti m e th ey r e ach th e e nd .

I t i s b est n o t to c ancel y o ur s c o re u nle ss y o u h av e a n a b so lu te ly s o lid r e aso n to d o s o .
T he w ors e th at c o uld h ap pen is th at y o u w ill n eed to ta ke th e IE LT S a gain , b ut th at is s o m eth in g y o u
w ould n eed to d o i n a ny c ase .

I f y o u h av e d one r e ally b ad ly , a t l e ast y o u w ill k no w th e s e cti o n w is e s p lit o f w here th in gs h av e g o ne
w ro ng a nd y o u c an a lw ays p ut m ore e ffo rt i n th at d ir e cti o n.
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