Complete English Tenses Fit for IELTS and TOEFL

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TA BLE O F C O NTEN T

U nit 1 P rese n t t e n se s

S im ple p rese n t t e n se -------------------------------------3 - 5
P rese n t c o n tin uou s---------------------------------------5 - 6


U nit 2 P ast t e n se s

P ast s im ple -------------------------------------------------7 – 8
P rese n t p erfe ct--------------------------------------------8 – 9
P rese n t p erfe ct c o n tin uou s-----------------------------1 0
P ast p erfe ct------------------------------------------------1 1
P ast co n tin uou s-------------------------------------------1 1 –
1 2


U nit 3 F utu re t e n se s

F utu re s im ple ---------------------------------------------1 3 – 1 4
F utu re co n tin uou s----------------------------------------1 4 –
1 5
F utu re perfe ct---------------------------------------------1 5 –
1 6
F utu re perfe ct co n tin uou s------------------------------1 6 –

17


Ir reg u la r verb lis t----------------------------------------1 8 –
23

Answ er key ------------------------------------------------2 6 –
27

U nit 1 P rese n t t e n se s





S im ple P rese n t

F orm :

W e f o rm th e p re se n t te n se u sin g th e b ase f o rm o f th e in fin itiv e. R un, c o m e,
b uy, l e arn .
I n g en era l, w e a d d '
S ' i n t h e t h ir d p ers o n.
S ubje ct
Verb
The Rest of th e
se n te n ce
I / y ou / w e /
t h ey
sp eak /
le arn
Englis h a t h om e
h e / s h e / i t
sp eak
s /
le arn
s Englis h a t h om e
T he s p ellin g f o r th e v erb in th e th ir d p ers o n d if fe rs d ep en din g o n th e e n din g
o f t h at v erb :
1 . F or v erb s t h at e n d i n
-O , - C H , - S H , - S S, - X ,
o r
-Z
w e a d d
-E S
in th e th ir d
p ers o n.
go – g oes
catc h – c atc h es
wash – w ash es
kis s – k is se s
fix – f ix es
buzz – b uzzes
2 . F or v erb s t h at e n d i n a
co n so n an t + Y
, w e r e m ove t h e
Y a n d a d d
-I E S
.
marry – m arrie s

stu dy – s tu die s
carry – c arrie s
worry – w orrie s
NOTE: F or v erb s t h at e n d i n a
vow el + Y
, w e j u st a d d
-S
.
pla y – p la y s
en jo y – e n jo ys

Use
The s im ple p re se n t te n se is u se d to d esc rib e a n a ctio n th at is r e g ula r, tr u e o r
norm al.
We u se t h e p re se n t t e n se :
1. F or r ep ea te d o r r eg u la r a ctio n s i n t h e p rese n t t im e p erio d .
I
ta k e
t h e t r a in t o w ork e v ery day .
The t r a in t o L ondon
le a ves
e v ery h our.
Prin ce
sle ep s
e ig ht h ours e v ery n ig ht d urin g t h e w eek .

2. F or f a cts .
The P re sid en t o f T he U SA
liv es
i n T he W hite H ouse .
A C at
has
f o ur l e g s.
We
co m e
f ro m G erm an y.
3. F or h ab it s .
I
get u p
e arly e v ery d ay .
Sunny
bru sh es
h is t e eth t w ic e a d ay .
They
tr a vel
t o B och um e v ery w eek en d.
4. F or t h in gs t h at a re a lw ays / g en era lly t r u e.
It
ra in s
a l o t i n w in te r.
The Q ueen o f E ngla n d
liv es
i n B uck in gham P ala ce.
They
sp ea k
S pan is h a t w ork .
Neg ativ e S en te n ces i n t h e S im ple P rese n t T en se
To m ak e a n eg ativ e s e n te n ce in E nglis h w e n orm ally u se D on't o r D oesn 't
with a ll v erb s E X CEPT
To B e
a n d
Mod al v erb s
( c an , m ig ht, s h ould e tc .) .
Affir m ativ e: Y ou s p eak F re n ch .

Neg ativ e: Y ou
don 't
s p eak F re n ch .
You w ill se e th at w e a d d
don 't
b etw een th e su bje ct a n d th e v erb . W e u se
Don 't
w hen t h e s u bje ct i s
I ,
you
,
we
o r
th ey
.
Affir m ativ e: H e s p eak s G erm an .
Neg ativ e: H e
doesn 't
s p eak G erm an .
When t h e s u bje ct i s
he
,
sh e
o r
it
, w e a d d
doesn 't
b etw een th e s u bje ct a n d th e
verb to m ak e a n eg ativ e s e n te n ce. N otic e th at th e le tte r
S a t th e e n d o f th e
verb in th e a ffir m ativ e s e n te n ce (b ecau se it is in th ir d p ers o n) d is a p pears in
th e n eg ativ e s e n te n ce. W e w ill s e e t h e r e aso n w hy b elo w .
Neg ativ e C on tr a ctio n s
Don 't
Doesn 't
=
Does n ot

Isn 't = I s n ot
Aren 't = A re n ot
I
don 't
l ik e m eat = I
do n ot
l ik e m eat.
You
don 't
s p eak A ra b ic .
Jo hn
doesn 't
s p eak I ta lia n .
We
don 't
h av e t im e f o r a r e st.
It
doesn 't
m ove.

Questio n s i n t h e S im ple P rese n t T en se
1 .
With b e, p ut
am / a re / i s
fir s t
Are
y ou S w ed is h ?
2 .
With a ll o th er v erb s, u se
do/d oes

Does
i t c o st a l o t?
3 .
With q uestio n w ord s ( w ho, w hat, w here , h ow , e tc .) , a d d
do/d oes
to
th e q uestio n w ord
Where
does
he w ork ? H ow
do
t h ey g et t o w ork ?
4 .
If t h e q uestio n w ord i s t h e s u bje ct, d o n ot u se
d o / d oes.

Who
work s
f o r a m ultin atio nal?
5 .
In dir e ct q uestio ns c an s ta rt w ith e x pre ssio ns s u ch a s,

Can i a sk ...? , D o y ou k now ...? , C ould y ou t e ll m e...?
Do y ou k now
w here t h e r e p ort i s ?

Exam ple s o f Q uestio n s w it h D o a n d D oes:
Do
y ou n eed a d ic tio nary ?
Does
M ary n eed a d ic tio nary ?
Do
w e h av e a m eetin g n ow ?
Does
i t r a in a l o t i n w in te r?
Do
t h ey w an t t o g o t o t h e p arty ?
Does
h e l ik e p iz za?

Prese n t C on tin uou s
Form :
Prese n t c o n tin uou s p osit iv e:
a m / i s / a re + - in g f o rm
Ken ny
i s e m ailin g
h er b usin ess p artn er. ( T he a ctio n i s t a k in g p la ce n ow )
Prese n t c o n tin uou s n eg ativ e:
a m / i s / a re + n ot + - in g f o rm
I a m n ot s in gin g, I a m d an cin g
Use
1 .
To ta lk ab out situ atio ns hap pen in g at or aro und th e tim e of
sp eak in g.
Sorry , I c an 't h elp y ou.
I a m w rit in g
a v ery i m porta n t e m ail
now
.
2 .
To t a lk a b out t e m pora ry s itu atio ns o r a ctiv itie s.
We'
re d oin g
m ore a n d m ore w ork i n A fric a a t t h e m om en t.
I u su ally s le ep a t 9 :0 0 b ut t o day , I
am s le ep in g
at 1 1:0 0

Questio n s
1 .
To m ak e q uestio ns w ith th e p re se n t c o ntin uous, p ut
am / is / a re
befo re t h e s u bje ct.
Are
y ou
work in g
o vertim e
th is w eek
?
H ow
are y ou g ettin g
on?
Language tip : S ta te v erb s a re n ot u se d in th e p re se n t c o ntin uous, e .g . k n ow ,

belie ve, lik e, lo ve hate , fo rg et, notic e, re m em ber. Verb s th at desc rib e
em otio ns a nd fe elin gs, th ey r e m ain in th e p re se n t te n se . e .g .
I a m k n ow in g
yo u

I k n ow y o u

She i s l ik in g m e

sh e l ik es m e

E xercis e 1 01

Com ple te th e se n te n ces wit h th e prese n t sim ple or th e prese n t
co n tin uou s f o rm o f t h e v erb s i n b ra ck ets .
1 .
Gee u su ally _ _____ (s it) in th e m ain o ffic e, b ut to day h e _ _____
(w ork ) a t h om e.
2 .
What t im e _ _____ ( y ou / h av e t o ) l e av e h om e t o g et t o w ork ?
3 .
__________ (y ou/k now ) Efa ? He ______ (w ork ) in th e IT
dep artm en t t o o.
4 .
'W hat _ _____ C aro _ _____ ( d o)? '
'I _ ______ ( th in k) s h e _ _____ ( b e) o n th e p hone. M ay be s h e _ _____ ( m ak e)
an a p poin tm en t w ith o ne o f t h e s u pplie rs .'
5 .
More a n d m ore c u sto m ers _ _____ (b uy) e n vir o nm en ta lly frie n dly
pro ducts t h ese d ay s.
6 .
I o fte n _ _____ (h av e) lu nch ju st a fte r n oon, b ut to day w e _ _____
(h av e) a v ery l a te l u nch b ecau se t h ere i s s o m uch t o d o.
7 .
I u su ally _ _____ ( s ta rt) w ork a t 9 :3 0. B ut th is w eek I _ _____(s ta rt)
half a n h our e arlie r b ecau se m y c o lle ag ue _ _____ (b e) o n h olid ay
an d I _ _________ ( d o) s o m e o f h is w ork t o o.
8 .
Look a t th e m an o ver th ere . W hy _ _________ (h e / s it) a t J o hn's
desk ?
9 .
How m uch ___________ (a su ccessfu l sa le sp ers o n / earn ) each
year?
10
.
Whose brie fc ase is th is ? I __________ (th in k) it ___________
(b elo ng) t o o ne o f o ur c lie n ts

G ra d uate , n ot lik e, m ove . T ak e . W ork . G et . G o . N ot h av e .
L iv e . S tu dy


U nit 2 P ast t e n se s

P ast s im ple
F orm :
verb + - e d

I
sp ok e
t o t h e m an ag er y este rd ay .

W e
fle w
t o J a p an
la st m onth .

K eyw ord s: y este rd ay, l a st m onth , i n 2 017, t h re e y ea rs a go.
F or i r re g ula r v erb f o rm s, s e e t h e e n d o f t h e b ook.
U se
1 .
to t a lk a b out p ast a ctio ns o r e v en ts t h at t o ok p la ce i n a f in is h ed t im e
perio d, e .g . y este rd ay , l a st y ear.
S he
work ed
here f o r f iv e y ears , f ro m 1 999 t o 2 004.
I
le ft
s c h ool i n 2 004
T he c o ncert
was
in te re stin g.
2 .
To ta lk ab out fin is h ed actio ns o r ev en ts w hen th e sp eak er sa y s,
ask s, o r k now s w hen s o m eth in g h ap pen ed .
I
m et
him
yeste rd ay.

D id
th ey
go
t o U niv ers ity ?
Y es, t h ey
did
. / N o, t h ey
did n't .


E xercis e 1 02
C om ple te t h e t e x t w ith t h e s im ple p ast f o rm o f t h e v erb s i n t h e b ox


'I w as born
i n d re sd en a n d I a ls o _ _____
1 to s c h ool th ere . A fte r s c h ool, I _ _____
2 fo r
f o ur y ears a t th e T ech nic al U niv ers ity in M unic h a n d _ _____
3
in 2 004. A fte r
t h at, I _ _____
4 a jo b w ith a c o m pan y c alle d T an gelo in E rla n gen w here I

______
5 in th e m ark etin g d ep artm en t. I _ _____
6 in N ure m berg a t th at tim e
an d I _ _____
7 a c ar s o I _ _____
8 th e tr a in to w ork . T hen , in 2 008, I _ _____
9
to a c o m pan y c alle d P T C in A nsb ach . I _ _____
10
P T C a t fir s t, b ut n ow I'm
re ally h ap py h ere .'



Exercis e 1 03
Com ple te t h e d ia lo gu e w it h t h e c o rrect f o rm o f t h e p ast s im ple .
Dele :
H ello , B ukky. H ow _ _____
1 ( b e) t h e m eetin g? _ _____
2 (y ou / a b le t o )

optim iz e t h e o rd erin g p ro cess?
Bukky: N o, w e __________
3 (n ot / hav e ) tim e, unfo rtu nate ly . B ut w e
______
4
(b eg in ) d is c u ssin g o ptio ns, a n d th e te am _ ________
5 (m ak e) s o m e
good s u ggestio ns. W hy _ ___________
6 ( y ou / n ot / b e) a t t h e m eetin g, b y t h e
way ?
Dele : O h, I _ ________
7 (n ot / c an ) m ak e it a fte r a ll, m y a ssis ta n t _ _______
8
(h av e) a p ro ble m t h at h e _ _______
9
(n ot / c an ) h an dle b y h im se lf .


Prese n t p erfe ct
Form : h as / h av e + p ast p artic ip le
I
have w ork ed
h ere f o r f iv e y ears .

S he
has b ook ed
t h e h ote l.

Key w ord s: f o r, s in ce, y et, j u st, n ev er, r e cen tly , a lr e ad y.
Use
1 .
To ta lk a b out a ctio ns o r e v en ts th at to ok p la ce in a tim e p erio d th at
has n ot f in is h ed e .g . u p t o n ow , t o day , t h is y ear.
We'
ve m an ufa ctu red
t h is p ro duct f o r o ver t h re e y ears .

Anna
has w ork ed
h ere f o r a g es.

How l o ng
have
y ou b een h ere ?

2 .
To ta lk a b out f in is h ed a ctio ns o r e v en ts w hen th e s p eak er d oes n ot

sa y , a sk , o r k now w hen i t h ap pen ed .
We'
ve
a lr e ad y
dis c u sse d
th is .

I h ave l e a rn t
th re e l a n guag es
so f a r.


Pre se n t p erfe ct p ositiv e: W e
have m ad e
e x celle n t p ro gre ss.
Pre se n t p erfe ct n eg ativ e: W e
haven 't m ad e
ex celle n t p ro gre ss
Pre se n t p erfe ct q uestio n:
Have
we
mad e
ex celle n t p ro gre ss?




Prese n t p erfe ct v s p ast s im ple
1 .
My c o lle ag ue
has l iv ed
i n m an y c o untr ie s. ( p re se n t p erfe ct
She
liv ed
i n I n dia f ro m
2010 t o 2 017 (
past s im ple
)
Have
y ou
met
t h e n ew H ead o f H R? ( p re se n t p erfe ct)
- Y es, I
met
h er
y este rd ay
even in g. (
past s im ple
)
N/B
The p ast s im ple re fe rs to a s p ecif ic p oin t in th e p ast w hile th e p re se n t
perfe ct d oes n ot re fe r to a s p ecif ic p oin t, a ctiv ity o r e v en t. I
have b een
to
Sin gap ore s o
many t im es.
I
w as
i n S in gap ore
l a st y ea r.

Exercis e 1 04
Com ple te t h e s e n te n ces u sin g t h e p rese n t p erfe ct
1._ _________ ( M ary / e v er/ w ork ) i n H R?
2 .
Hilla ry __________ ( n ev er/ b e) t o T urk ey , b ut s h e'd l ik e t o g o.
3 .
She _ _________ ( ju st/u plo ad ) a v id eo o nto t h e i n tr a n et.
4 .
You _ _________ ( n ot / a tte n d) a t r a in in g c o urs e r e cen tly , h av e y ou?
5 .
______________ ( w e/b e a b le t o ) c o nta ct S ey i y et?
6 .
They _ ________ ( n ot/te st) t h e p ro to ty pe y et.
7 .
I _ ____________ ( tr a v el) a l o t i n m y l if e .
8 .
He _ __________ ( h av e/n ot/c o nfir m ) t h e a p poin tm en t y et.
9 .
She _ __________ ( h av e/b e) t h e C EO s in ce d ecem ber 2 016.

10
.
Mir ia m _ __________(h av e/n ev er/m eet) P atr ic k .
Exercis e 1 05
Choose t h e c o rrect a n sw ers f r o m t h e w ord s i n i t a lic s.
1 .
I
booked / h ave b ooked
t h e h ote l y este rd ay .
2 .
Have y o u e ver b een / d id y o u e ver g o
to i n dia

3 .
I liv e in L ondon n ow , b ut I
h ave liv ed / liv ed
in P aris f ro m 2 000 to
2003.

4 .
I
haven 't s e en / d id n't
se e h im r e cen tly .

5 .
Last y ea r I
have c h anged / c h anged
jo bs.

6 .
Did y o u g o / h ave y o u b een
to t h e m eetin g l a st w eek?

7 .
He h as w ork ed h ere
sin ce / f o r
eig ht y ears .

8 .
I h ave b een / w en t
to d if fe re n t c o untr ie s.

9 .
The new pro ducts
were alr e a dy la unch ed / have alr e a dy been
la unch ed
; t h ey
were / h ave b een
on s a le f o r f iv e m onth s n ow .

10
.
We
h ad/h ave h ad
o ur fir s t m eetin g th e d ay b efo re y este rd ay . It
wen t/h as g one
v ery w ell.

Prese n t p erfe ct c o n tin uou s
Form
: h av e / h as + b een + - in g f o rm
I
have b een w ait in g
f o r h im f o r o ver t h re e h ours .
Use
1 .
Use th e p re se n t p erfe ct c o ntin uous fo r a ctiv itie s th at b eg an in th e
past a n d a re s till c o untin g, w hen y ou w an t t o e m phasiz e
th e a ctiv ity i ts e lf
They '
ve b een d ev elo p in g
a n ew p ro duct.
The d ura tio n o f t h e a ctiv ity i n to t h e p re se n t t im e.
I 'v e b een s a yin g
we s h ould d o t h is s in ce t h e p ro je ct b eg an .
2 .
Use th e p re se n t p erfe ct s im ple to e m phasiz e th e r e su lt o f a n a ctio n,
or th e n um ber o f tim es it h as o ccu rre d , u se th e p re se n t p erfe ct
co ntin uous to em phasiz e th e dura tio n. C om pare th e fo llo w in g
se n te n ces.
I 'v e b een
w ork in g o n a r e p ort. ( a ctio n o r e v en t)

I'
ve c h air ed
th e t e am m eetin g t h re e t im es. ( n um ber o f t im es)
I'
ve j u st f in is h ed
t h e r e p ort ( e n d r e su lt)
I'
ve b een s it tin g
in t h is m eetin g a ll d ay . ( d ura tio n)
I'
ve b een w ait in g
fo r R onald o a ll d ay ( d ura tio n)

Prese n t p erfe ct c o n tin uou s v s p rese n t p erfe ect s im ple
I 'v e b een a tte n din g
t r a in in g p ro gra m mes f o r y ears , b ut t h is t r a in in g
has c h an ged
my l if e !
We'
ve b een r ea d in g
th e n ew sle tte r sin ce Ja n uary , b ut
I h aven 't
rea d
t h e m ost r e cen t o ne y et.
Exerecis e 1 06
Choose th e b est v erb fo rm : P rese n t p erfe ct sim ple o r p rese n t p erfe ct
co n tin uou s.
1 .
A: H
ave y o u w ritte n / H ave y o u b ee
n
writin g
t h e r e p ort?
B: Y es, b ut i t i s n 't f in is h ed y et.
2 .
A: H ow m any re p orts
h ave yo u w ritte n
/
have yo u b een w ritin g
to day?
B: T hre e a n d a h alf , b ut
I'v e n early f in is h ed t h e l a st o ne n ow , l u ck ily .
3 .
A:
H ave y o u s e en / H ave y o u b een s e ein g
Tim ?
B: N o, I h av en 't . I s h e e v en i n t h e o ffic e t o day ?
4 .
A: S o, h ow lo ng
h ave y o u b een / h ave y o u b een b ein g
here th is
morn in g?
B: F or a b out tw o h ours . I th in k th e a la rm
has r in ged / h as b een r in gin g
a ll
nig ht.
5 .
Why h av e y ou n ot
sw itc h ed / b een s w itc h in g
i t o ff y et.
Past P erfe ct
Form
: h ad + p ast p artic ip le
The m eetin g
had e n ded
when h e a rriv ed .
Use
1 .
To sa y th at one ev en t hap pen ed befo re an oth er co m ple te d past
ev en t.

The
meetin g h ad e n ded
w hen
he a rriv ed
.
Fir s t c o m ple te d e v en t S eco nd c o m ple te d e v en t
.
The s a le s r e p
had l e ft
th e s ta n d
by t h e t im e
I
got
th ere .
They
had
a lr e a dy
unpack ed
t h e e q uip m en t
when
I
arriv ed .

The p ast p erfe ct o fte n a p pea rs in s e n te n ces w it h c o n ju nctio n s,
s u ch a s,
when , b y th e tim e, b eca u se , s o a lr e a dy.
T he o th er v erb in th e s e n te n ce is
alw ays i n t h e p ast s im ple .

Exercis e 1 07
Com ple te th e se n te n ces w it h th e past perfe ct fo rm of th e verb s in
bra ck ets .
1 .
It's b een a b usy d ay . I th in k I _ ____________(a lr e ad y/ re ad ) 1 00
em ails b y n in e o 'c lo ck t h is m orn in g.
2 .
They _ _______________ (s e e) o ur w eb site o n th e in te rn et b y th e
tim e t h ey c o nta cte d u s.
3 .
Why _ _____________(h is b oss / n ot / b e) i n t o uch b efo re t o day ?
4 .
How m an y re p orts ___________ (y ou/w rite ) by th e en d of la st
week ?
5 .
We _ ________ ( tr y ) to s o lv e th e p ro ble m s m an y tim es b efo re , s o it
was a r e lie f w hen w e f in ally f o und t h e p ro ble m .

Past C on tin uou s
Form
: w as / w ere + - in g f o rm

S he a p plie d f o r t h e j o b w hile s h e
was s tu dyin g
a t U niv ers ity .

Use
1 .
To ta lk a b out s o m eth in g in p ro gre ss a t a p artic u la r tim e in th e p ast.
It o fte n a p pears w ith t h e p ast s im ple i n t h e s a m e s e n te n ce.
We
were d an cin g
w hen S heila
arriv ed
.
Note th at th e p ast a ctio n m ig ht h ap pen w hils t th e c o ntin uous a ctio n is in
pro gre ss o r i t m ig ht i n te rru pt a n d s to p t h e c o ntin uous a ctio n.

2 .
To g iv e b ack gro und i n fo rm atio n i n t h e p ast.
We
were w ork in g
all d ay .


Exercis e 1 08
Com ple te th is in te rv ie w w it h th e p ast p erfe ct o r th e p ast co n tin uou s
fo rm o f t h e v erb i n b ra ck ets .
Jou rn alis t
Y ou o pen ed y our fir s t c lo th s to re in 2 001, d id y our in te re st in
fa sh io n b eg in t h ere o r _ ________________
1 (y ou/a lw ay s/b e) i n te re ste d ?

TuT u
I _ _____________
2 ( h av e) a n um ber o f jo bs in th e h ong K ong
fa sh io n in dustr y lo ng b efo re I o pen ed m y o w n s h op. A nd th at w as a ll th e
tim e w hen clo th es w ith a C hin ese lo ok _______
3 quic k ly ___________
4
(b eco m e) v ery f a sh io nab le a ro und t h e w orld .

Alth ough, e v en a s a c h ild , w hile I _ ___________
5 (g ro w ) u p in A m eric a, I
knew t h at w as s o m eth in g I w an te d t o d o.
Jou rn alis t
s o w hy d id n't y ou s ta y i n t h e U S?

TuT u
Well, m y b oyfrie n d , n ow m y h usb an d, w as o ffe re d a jo b in H ong
Kong, I _ _______
6 j u st_ _____
7 ( g ra d uate ), s o I w as f re e t o g o a n yw here .

U nit 3 F utu re t e n se s

F utu re s im ple
W ill
F orm :
will + v erb I t h in k I
will e a t
o ut t o nig ht.

U se
1 .
To m ak e p ro m is e s / r e q uests / o ffe rs
I 'll
d efin ite ly
f in is h
i t t o m orro w .
W e'
ll s ta rt
t h e i n sta lla tio n t o m orro w a s p la n ned .
2 .
To t a lk a b out f u tu re f a cts .
N ex t y ear, t h e n ew f a cto ry
will b e
i n H ong K ong.
3 .
To m ak e d ecis io ns a t t h e m om en t o f s p eak in g.
A : C an I c all f o r a t a x i? I n eed t o g et t o t h e a ir p ort.
B : D on't d o t h at. I
'll d riv e
you t h ere m yse lf .
4 .
To t a lk a b out p re d ic tio ns.
T he p ric e o f g old
will
co n tin ue
t o r is e .

T here
will b e
m ore f ly in g c ars i n t h e n ex t f iv e y ears




Goin g t o
F orm
:
am / i s / a re +
g oin g t o + v erb
I
am g oin g t o w ork
l a te t o day .

U se
:
1 .
To t a lk a b out i n te n tio ns o r p la n s.
W e
a re g oin g t o d riv e
to B erlin f o r t h e h olid ay .

I
am g oin g t o l e a rn
a l a n guag e w hen I g et m arrie d .

2 .
To t a lk a b out p re d ic tio ns w ith a p re se n t e v id en ce.

It i s c lo udy! I t'
s g oin g t o r a in .
Watc h o ut! Y ou
'r e g oin g t o h it
y our h ead o n t h e d oor.



Exercis e 1 09
Com ple te t h e g ap s w it h ' w ill' a n d ' g oin g t o '
1 .
We _ ________ ( h av e) a re g oin g to h av e d in ner a t a n ic e r e sta u ra n t
on S atu rd ay , b ut w e h av e't b ooked a t a b le y et.
2 .
My sk i in str u cto r b elie v es it_ ________ (s n ow ) in th e m ounta in s
to m orro w e v en in g.
3 .
Wait! I _ ________ ( d riv e) y ou t o t h e s ta tio n.
4 .
I _ ________ ( s e e) m y s is te r i n A pril.
5 .
Look a t t h e c lo uds - i t _ ________ ( ra in ) i n a f e w m in ute s.
6 .
Lis te n ! T here 's s o m eo ne a t th e d oor. I _ _______(o pen ) th e d oor f o r
you.

Futu re c o n tin uou s
Form
: w ill + b e + - in g
I
will b e d riv in g
to M ad rid n ex t w eek .

Use
1 .
Activ itie s t h at w ill b e i n p ro gre ss a t a c erta in t im e i n t h e f u tu re .
I c an 't s e e y ou a t 1 1:0 0 o n M onday b ecau se
I'll b e v is it in g
t h e f a cto ry .

2 .
Rep eate d o r c o ntin uous a ctiv itie s o ver a p erio d o f tim e, o fte n w ith
th e p re p ositio ns
fo r
a n d
until

I
will b e m eetin g
S an dra r e g ula rly u ntill t h e p ro je ct i s c o m ple te d .

(re p eate d m an y t im es i n t h e f u tu re )
We'
ll b e l iv in g
i n W upperta l f o r 6 m onth s.
(c o ntin uous o ver a p erio d o f t im e)
Neg ativ e
I w ill n ot b e w ork in g ( I w on't b e ..)

you w ill n ot b e r e ad in g ( y ou w on't b e ..)
he w ill n ot b e c o okin g ( h e w on't b e ..)
Exercis e 1 10
Fill i n t h e g ap s w it h t h e f u tu re c o n tin uou s

1. T his tim e nex t year I_ ___________ (liv e) in
Ita ly .
2. A t 8 P M to nig ht I _ __________(e at) d in ner w ith
my f a m ily .
3. They __________(ru n) fo r ab out fo ur hours .
Mara th ons a re i n cre d ib ly d if fic u lt!
4. U nfo rtu nate ly , I _ _______(w ork ) o n m y e ssa y s o
I w on’t b e a b le t o w atc h t h e m atc h .
5. S he_ ___________ ( s tu dy) a t t h e l ib ra ry t o nig ht.
6. _ ___________(y ou/w ait) a t th e s ta tio n w hen s h e
arriv es?
7. I _ __________ (d rin k) a t th e p ub w hile y ou a re
ta k in g y our e x am !
8. _ ___________(s h e/v is it) h er G ra n dm oth er a g ain
th is w eek ?
9. A t 3 P M I _ ___________(w atc h ) th at m ovie o n
ch an nel f o ur.
10. ___________(th ey /a tte n d) your co ncert nex t
Frid ay ? I t w ould b e l o vely t o s e e t h em .


Futu re p erfe ct

Form
: w ill+ hav e+ p ast p artic ip le
By th is tim e in th re e y ears , I
will h ave co m ple te d
my
stu die s.
Use
1 .
To ta lk ab out an actio n th at w ill be co m ple te d
befo re a p oin t o f t im e i n t h e f u tu re .
A: H ow 's t h e r e p ort?
B: I t's g oin g w ell. I '
ll
defin ite ly
have f in is h ed
i t b y F rid ay .

By s ix p m t o nig ht:
I
will h ave f in is h ed
t h is b ook.
You
will h ave s tu die d
th e E nglis h t e n se s.
She
will h ave c o ok ed
din ner.

By n ex t w eek ,
I
will n ot h ave f in is h ed
th is b ook
You
will n ot h ave s tu die d
th e E nglis h t e n se s
She
will n ot h ave c o ok ed
din ner
Note t h e k ey w ord s: b y o r b efo re


Exercis e s 1 11
Fill i n t h e g ap s w it h t h e f u tu re p erfe ct
1 .
She _ ________ (fin is h ) h er e x am s b y th en so w e

can g o o ut f o r d in ner.
2 .
They _ _______(a rriv e) fo r d in ner b efo re th b ab y
wak es u p.
3 .
Celin e _ _______ ( b e) in C hin a f o r th re e y ears n ex t
week .
4 .
By D ecem ber, I _ __________(s tu dy) f o r f iv e y ears .
5 .
__________ (h e/f in is h ) h is e x am s w hen w e g o o n
holid ay ?
6 .
He _ _________ ( n ot / c o m ple te ) h is t h esis b y J u ly .


Futu re p erfe ct c o n tin uou s
Form
: w ill + h av e + b een + v erb (in g)
P hilo s ta rts w aitin g a t 9 am . I a m la te a n d c an not
arriv e b efo re 1 0am . P hilo
will h ave b een w ait in g
fo r an
hour b y t h e t im e I m eet h er
.
Use
Futu re C ontin uous e m phasiz es in te rru pte d a ctio ns, w here as
Futu re P erfe ct C ontin uous e m phasiz es a d ura tio n o f tim e
befo re s o m eth in g in th e fu tu re . S tu dy th e e x am ple s b elo w
to u nders ta n d t h e d if fe re n ce.
Exam ple s:
He w ill b e tir e d b eca use h e
will b e e x erc is in g
so
hard .
This se n te n ce em phasiz e s th at he w ill be ti r e d

beca use h e w ill b e e xerc is in g a t th at e xa ct m om en t
in t h e f u tu re
.
He will be tir e d beca use he
will have been
ex erc is in g
s o h ard .
This se n te n ce em phasiz e s th at he w ill be ti r e d
beca use h e w ill h ave b een e xerc is in g f o r a p erio d o f
tim e. I t is p ossib le th at h e w ill s till b e e xerc is in g a t
th at m om en t O R t h at h e w ill j u st h ave f in is h ed
.
How lo ng
will
K en
have b een w ork in g
when h e
re tir e s
?
Nex t m onth I
'll h ave b een s tu dyin g
Chin ese f o r t w o
years
.
He
wo
n't
have been stu dyin g
lo ng en ough to
qualif y
.
Nex t w eek J a n e is g oin g to s w im fro m E ngla n d to
Fra n ce. B y th e tim e s h e g ets to F ra n ce, s h e
'll
have
been s w im min g
non-s to p f o r o ver t h ir te en h ours
.

1: J u st lik e w ith th e o th er p erfe ct c o ntin uous te n se s w e c an
use th e fu tu re p erfe ct c o ntin uous to s a y 'h ow lo ng' fo r a n
actio n th at c o ntin ues u p to a n oth er p oin t in th e f u tu re . T he
se co nd p oin t c an b e a t im e o r a n oth er a ctio n.
In A pril, sh e
will h ave b een te a ch in g
fo r tw elv e
years .
By th e tim e y ou a rriv e, I
'll h ave b een c o ok in g
fo r
hours !

In th e s a m e w ay a s w ith th e f u tu re p erfe ct s im ple , w e o fte n
use th e fu tu re perfe ct co ntin uous becau se w e lik e easy
num bers . It's als o possib le to use th e pre se n t perfe ct
co ntin uous, but th en w e w ill get a m ore co m plic ate d
num ber.
I'
ve b een w ork in g
here fo r 1 1 m onth s an d th re e
week s. (T his is c o rre ct, b ut th e tim e is n ot a n e asy
num ber.)
On T uesd ay , I
will h ave b een w ork in g
h ere f o r o ne
year. ( A m uch e asie r n um ber.)
2: W e c an u se th e f u tu re p erfe ct c o ntin uous, lik e th e o th er
perfe ct co ntin uous te n se s, to ta lk ab out so m eth in g th at
fin is h es ju st b efo re a n oth er tim e o r a ctio n (in th is c ase , in
th e fu tu re ). It's o fte n u se d b ecau se th ere w ill b e a re su lt a t
th e s e co nd p oin t in th e f u tu re . ( A gain , if w e u se 'w hen ' w e
usu ally n eed t h e p re se n t s im ple )
When I s e e y ou, I'
ll h ave b een s tu dyin g
, s o I'l l b e
tir e d

Exercis e s 1 12
Com ple te th e g ap s w it h th e c o rrect fo rm o f th e fu tu re
perfe ct c o n tin uou s
1 .
Will _ ___________ ( s h e / w ait) l o ng b y t h e t im e w e
get t h ere ?
2 .
I __________ (w ait) here fo r th re e hours by six
o'c lo ck
.

3 .
By 2018, I _____________ (liv e) in L ondon fo r
six te en y ears
.
4 .
When I fin is h th is c o urs e , I_ ____________ (le arn )
Englis h f o r t w en ty y ears
.
5 .
Nex t year I ____________ (w ork ) here fo r fo ur
years
.
6 .
When I c o m e a t 6 :0 0, _ _____________ (p ra ctic e)
lo n
g

ANSW ER K E
Y

Exercis e 1 01
1.S its , i s w ork in g 2 . d o y ou h av e t o 3 . d o y ou k now ,
w ork s 4 . i s C aro d oin g, t h in k, i s ,i s m ak in g 5 . b uy 6 .
hav e, a re h av in g 7 s ta rt, a m s ta rtin g 8 . i s h e s ittin g 9
does a s u ccessfu l s a le sp ers o n e arn 1 0. t h in k, b elo ngs

Exercis e 1 02
1.w en t 2 . s tu die d 3 . g ra d uate d 4 . g ot 5 . w ork ed 6 .
liv ed 7 . d id n't h av e 8 . t o ok 9 . m oved 1 0.d id n't l ik e

Exercis e 1 03
1.w as 2 . w ere y ou a b le to 3 . d id n ot h av e 4 . b eg an 5 .
mad e 6 . w ere y ou n ot 7 . c o uld n ot 8 . h ad 9 . c o uld n ot

Exercis e 1 04
1.h as M ary e v er w ork ed 2 . h as n ev er b een 3 . h as ju st
uplo ad ed 4 . h av e n ot a tte n ded 5 . h av e w e b een a b le to
6 . h av e n ot te ste d 7 h av e tr a v elle d 8 .h as n ot
co nfir m ed 9 . h as b een t h e 1 0. h as n ev er m et

Exercis e 1 05
1.b ooked 2 . h av e y ou e v er b een 3 . liv ed 4 . h av en 't
se en 5 . c h an ged 6 . d id y ou g o 7 . f o r 8 . h av e b een
9 . h av e a lr e ad y b een l a u nch ed , h av e b een 1 0. h ad , w en t

Exercis e 1 06
1.h av e y ou w ritte n 2 . h av e y ou b een w ritin g 3 . h av e y ou
se en 4 . h av e y ou b een , h as b een r in gin g 5 . s w itc h ed


Exercis e 1 07
1.h ad a lr e ad y r e ad 2 . h ad s e en 3 . h ad h is b oss n ot b een
4 . h ad y ou w ritte n 5 . h ad t r ie d

Exercis e 1 08
1.h ad y ou a lw ay s b een 2 . h ad h ad 3 . w as 4 . b eco m in g
5 . w as g ro w in g 6 . h ad 7 . g ra d uate d

Exercis e 1 09
1. a re g oin g to h av e 2 . w ill s n ow 3 . w ill d riv e 4 . a m
goin g t o s e e 5 . i s g oin g t o r a in 6 . w ill o pen

Exercis e 1 10
1.w ill b e liv in g 2 . w ill b e e atin g 3 . w ill b e r u nnin g 4 .
will b e w ork in g 5 . w ill b e stu dyin g 6 . y ou w ill b e
waitin g 7 . w ill b e d rin kin g 8 . s h e w ill b e v is itin g 9 .
will b e w atc h in g 1 0. w ill t h ey b e a tte n din g

Exercis e 1 11
1.s h e w ill h av e f in is h ed 2 . w ill h av e a rriv ed 3 . w ill h av e
been 4 . w ill h av e s tu die d 5 . w ill h e h av e f in is h ed 6 . w ill
not h av e c o m ple te d

Exercis e 1 12
1. s h e h av e b een w aitin g 2 . w ill h av e b een w aitin g 3 . w ill
hav e b een liv in g 4 . w ill h av e b een le arn in g 5 . w ill h av e
been w ork in g 6 . I w ill h av e b een p ra ctic in g

B IB LIO GRA PH Y
E ile rts o n, Caro le an d H ogan , M ik e (2 015) Basis fo r
B usin ess. C orn els e n . B erlin
H ughes, Jo hn an d N au nto n Jo n (2 007) B usin ess R esu lt.
O xfo rd U niv ers ity P re ss
X