abazar_alizadeh_jump_ielts

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JUMP IELTS

IELTS ESSAYS

ABAZAR ALIZADEH
LETTERS, GRAPHS, DIAGRAMS & MAPS

Whatever you do,
do it heartily, as for the Lord
and not for the Man

Acknowledgements

I would like to appreciate all those who provided me with enlightening
suggestions by reading the manuscript.
I would like to thank Mr. Ashk zari who helped me immeasurably to publish
this book.
Finally I would like to extend my heartf elt appreciation to my wife without
whose patience and support writing this book would have been impossible.

Abazar Alizadeh
Tehran, December 2009

About the Author
Abazar Alizadeh specialized in ELT (English Language Teaching) from the University of Allameh
Tabatabaee, and started his professional teaching career as a TOEFL (Pbt) instructor in 1998
and in 2000, he began to teach IELTS, GRE and GMAT preparation courses.
In 2002, he was awarded a prize by the University of Allameh Tabatabaee for wining third place
in Iran's nationwide MA examination.
He also has taught "Contrastive Analysis", "Language Teaching Methodology", "Advanced Essay
Writing" and many other courses at various universities in Tehran.
He published his first book entitled "New IELTS Strategies" in 2004 and from 2004 to 2007 he
wo rked as an IELTS supervisor and syllabus designer for various IELTS Centers in Iran.
In 2008, he published his speaking book entitled "New IELTS Interview Samples" which is widely
used by candidates in Iran and many other countries in the world including Georgia, Armenia,
the UAE and Turkey.
In 2009, he published his writing book "IELTS Essays" to give a chance to IELTS candidates to
read as many samples as they wish to prepare themselves for the writing test.

Author's Guide to the Book
IELTS Writing Tasks
For the first task of the Academic Module , you need to describe a graph; a diagram or a map
and you are required to write at least 150 words in 20 minutes. The second task requires you to
write an essay with at least 250 words within 40 minutes.
For the first task of the General Module , you need to write a letter and you are required to
write at least 150 words in 20 minutes. The second task requires you to write an essay with at
least 250 words within 40 minutes.

Essay Samples
IELTS Essays provides numerous essay samples in both the academic and the general modules
of the test. There are precisely 30 academic essays and 30 general essays.
There are five essay question types in the IELTS writing test and the book provides essay
samples on all question type s. Candidates should note that even though academic essay
questions need you to discuss more complicated issues than the general essay questions, there
is no difference in the essay formats. As a result candidates can benefit from all sixty essays
regardless of the module they intend to take.
In addition to practicing the essay formats by analysing the sample essays, you can have access
to a plethora of ideas on various issues along with topical words used to discuss the idea.
After each essay sample, a question is provided to let you practice writing an essay on your
own. Hence in total the book provides 60 different essay questions for the candidates.

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
Graphs are far more frequent than diagrams ; accordingly, the book contains 20 graph
descr iptions and 6 diagram descriptions.
Maps are rarely given in IELTS task 1; hence, only two map descriptions are provided in order to
give you the chance to familiarize yourself with such tasks and not to deviate your attention
away from the main task which is the graph.

The graph, diagram and the map samples not only let you get familiarized with various task
types but also provide many of the words needed to pull off each task.

Letter Samples
There are formal letter questions, semi- formal letter questions and informal letter questions in
IELTS writing task 1 and so the book contains letter samples of all types. The letters are written
according to standard letter formats and include all the various part s of a standard letter.
The letter samples give you enough ideas, expressions and w ords to handle sample questions
provided after each letter sample.

Appendix
To ace your writing test, you need to know numerous expressions and st ructures for different
purposes. I have included useful connectives, words and structures for 27 different functions.
Learning these useful words and structures can help you with various language functions .

Table 


Ta

Ge n
Let
Th
Yo
Yo
Yo
Yo
In


Y
o
Yo
W
Yo
W
W
Yo
W
A
W
W
Yo


Ge n
Do
W
A
W
Ca
Su
D
W
Ca
of Content s
ble of C o
neral Mo d
ter Samp l
hey broke th e
ou are dissati s
ou were disr e
ou have rece n
ou recently h e
n response to 
letter to so
m
resignation l e
ou want to s e
ou borrowed 
Write a compl a
ou have just  b
Write a compl a
Write a letter  t
ou saw a job  a
Write a letter  t
sk someone t
Write a farew e
Write a letter  t
ou cannot att
neral Ess a
o animals ha v
What are the  a
re comic boo k
Why are teena
an they remo
uggest some  s
oes playing g a
What are the  a
an the gover n
s                   
ontents  
dule
les ..........
e front windo w
sfied with yo u
espected by a n
ntly moved to
eard about th
a job adverti
s
meone you m e
etter to your  m
ell some of yo u
some books  f
aint letter to  a
been qualifie d
aint letter to  a
to a magazine
advertisemen
to a friend yo u
o act as a ref e
ell letter to on
to a colleague
end the class 
ays ..........
ve rights? ...... .
advantages a n
ks trash? ....... .
gers becomi n
ve all the un h
solutions in o r
ames teach u s
advantages a n
nment set a h i
                    
 
.............. .
w of your car  .
ur grade ........ .
n employee .. .
 a new comp a
e pass‐away  o
sement of a c o
et  .................. .
manager  ..... .
ur furniture  . .
from a library 
abank  .......... .
d for a positio n
a telephone c o
 about a pro b
t on a websit e
u haven't me t
erence  ......... .
e of your coll e
 who is hospi t
for some rea s
.............. .
..................... .
nd disadvanta g
..................... .
ng addicted? . .
healthy foods 
rder to preve n
s about life? . .
nd disadvanta g
igher driving  a
 
i
.............. .
......................
......................
......................
any  ...............
of your collea
ompany  .......
......................
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......................
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......................
n  ..................
ompany  .......
blem ..............
e  ..................
t for some ti m
......................
eagues  .........
talized  ..........
sons  .............
.............. .
......................
ges of being r
......................
......................
from school 
c
nt people fro m
......................
ges of studyi n
age? ..............
...............
..................... .
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gue’s father   .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
me .................. .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
...............
..................... .
ich? .............. .
..................... .
..................... .
canteens? ..... .
m getting ob e
..................... .
ng abroad? .... .
..................... .
.............. .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
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..................... .
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ese ................ .
..................... .
..................... .
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...............
......................
......................
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......................
......................
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......................
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... 1 
...... 2 
...... 3 
...... 4 
...... 5 
...... 6 
...... 7 
...... 8 
...... 9 
.... 10 
.... 11 
.... 12 
.... 13 
.... 14 
.... 15 
.... 16 
.... 17 
.... 18 
.... 19 
.... 20 
.... 21 
.. 22 
.... 23 
.... 24 
.... 25 
.... 26 
.... 27 
.... 28 
.... 29 
.... 30 
.... 31 

W
H
W
Sh
H
W
W
Is
Sh
Sh
W
Su
W
W
W
W
D
W
D
W
D

Ac a
Gr a
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Fo
Th
H


What are the  b
ow can the g o
Why are scho o
hould huntin g
ow can recyc
Why do you th
What are the  m
speople’s ch o
hould studen t
hould police  f
What are the  a
uggest some  g
What are the  m
What are the r
What are the  n
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iscuss the ad v
What are the  a
iscuss the ca u
What are the  c
iscuss the ad v
ademic  M
aphs, Dia g
he different l e
he proportio n
he amount o f
he rate of fis h
he trends in t
he causes of  d
he forms of e
he average m
our different  c
he factors aff e
ow much coa


benefits of ex e
overnment h e
ol classes bori n
g animals as a 
ling save the 
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ink people at t
most importa n
oice of leisure 
ts spend thei r
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advantages of 
good places t o
major effects  o
easons for sc h
negative effec
problems ass o
vantages and 
advantages a n
uses of longe v
causes of stre s
vantages and 
 M odule 
grams &  m
evels of post‐ s
nof different  c
fmoney per  w
hcatches in t h
he Australian 
diseases in de
nergy used t
o
onthly temp e
cars manufac t
ecting studen
l it would tak
e



ercise? .......... .
elp reduce th e
ng and useles s
sport be ille g
environment 
tend college  o
nt reasons fo r
activities aff e
r free time le a
urity camera s
attending sc h
o obtain info r
of getting ex e
hool drop‐ou t
ts of televisio
ociated with T V
disadvantag e
nd disadvanta g
vity? .............. .
ss and how c a
disadvantag e
m aps ....... .
school qualifi c
categories of 
week spent o n
he USA and C a
immigration 
veloping and 
ogenerate el e
eratures in th r
tured in thre e
ts' decisions  w
eto make all 


ii
......................
e number of c
s? ..................
galized? .........
and help the 
or university? 
rgetting divo r
ected by fashi o
arning their sc
s in public pla c
hool before t h
rmation for a  r
ercise?  ..........
t and what ar e
n? how can  w
Vaddiction a n
es of building  a
ges of living i n
......................
an we solve it ?
es of studying 
.............. .
cations in Aus
families livin
g
n fast foods in 
anada  ...........
from 1992 to 
the develop
e
ectricity in the
ree African co
e different co u
when choosin
the energy  ...


..................... .
ar accidents? 
.....................
.
..................... .
people on Ea r
 .................... .
rced? ............. .
ons ............... .
hool lessons ?
ces?  ............. .
he age of 7?  . .
research. ...... .
..................... .
e the solutio n
we minimize t h
nd what solu t
a company in 
na big city? .. .
..................... .
?  ................... .
abroad? ....... .
...............
tralia  ........... .
g in poverty  .. .
Britain  ........ .
..................... .
2002 ............ .
ed countries  . .
 USA  ............ .
untries  ........ .
untries  ......... .
g a universit y
..................... .
T

..................... .
 ................... .
..................... .
..................... .
rth? .............. .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
? .................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
ns?  ................ .
hem?   .......... .
tions can you 
your commu
n
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
.............. .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
y  ................... .
..................... .
Table of Co
......................
......................
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......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
offer?  ..........
nity. ..............
......................
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...............
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
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ntents 
.... 32 
.... 33 
.... 34 
.... 35 
.... 36 
.... 37 
.... 38 
.... 39 
.... 40 
.... 41 
.... 42 
.... 43 
.... 44 
.... 45 
.... 46 
.... 47 
.... 48 
.... 49 
.... 50 
.... 51 
.... 52 
.. 53 
.... 54 
.... 55 
.... 56 
.... 57 
.... 58 
.... 59 
.... 60 
.... 61 
.... 62 
.... 63 
.... 64 

Table 


Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
Th
H
H
T
h
Th


Ac a
Sh
M
M
W
w
W
W
W
W
M
W
D
D
W
H
W
Is
of Content s
he incidence  o
he US spendi n
he percentag e
he literacy ra t
he percentag e
he amount o f
he number o f
he oil produc t
he number o f
he typical sta g
he process b y
he process b y
he process b y
ow a central  h
ow olive oil i s
he map show s
he map show s
ademic E s
hould the soc i
Must capital p u
Must capital p u
Why are the m
what are the h
Would they lik e
Why should w e
Will violence o
Will internet u s
Must the gove r
Why is it hard  t
iscuss views  f
oes space ex p
What are the  m
ow can peop l
What are som e
s children’s m i
s                   
of injuries ca u
ng patterns in
e of the inter n
tes of six diff e
e of obese pe
f meat consu m
f London Und e
tion capacity  i
fchildren kill e
ges of consu m
y which bricks 
ywhich exam s
y which plasti c
heating syste m
s produced  ... .
s the site of a
s the city of  N
ssays .......
iety ban viole
unishment b e
unishment b e
ain reasons f o
armful effect s
e to live in a  m
eavoid racis m
n Television  u
sers finally en
rnment ban h
to define hap
for and again s
ploration ma k
main sources  o
le save energ y
e of the facto r
isbehaviour i n
                    
used in differ e
 two differen t
net users  ..... .
erent countri e
ople in 12 dif f
med in the US A
erground sta t
in six differen
ed in road acc i
mer goods ma
are manufac
t
s are taken in 
cpaper clips  a
min a house  w
..................... .
 shopping ce n
New Townsvill
.............. .
nt and porno g
e banned? ..... .
e banned? ..... .
or advertise m
s of body pie r
multicultural  s
mand how ca n
ultimately res u
d up addicte d
and guns?  ... .
piness? and  h
st human clon
ke any sense?
of environme
y in their ho m
rs affecting s e
n life due to t h
          
iii
ent sports  .....
t years  .........
......................
es  ..................
ferent countr i
A  ..................
tion passenge
t Persian Gul
f
idents  ...........
nufacturing  .
tured  ............
a computer r
are manufact u
works  ...........
......................
nter  ..............
e   .................
.............. .
graphic scen e
......................
......................
ment? .............
rcing on our h
society?  ........
n we solve it?
ult in more vi o
d to the net? 
......................
how can we a c
ing and give  y
.....................
ntal pollution
mes? ...............
elf‐esteem? ...
heir genetic c h
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
ies ................ .
..................... .
rs  ................. .
f countries  ... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
oom  ............ .
ured  ............. .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
...............
es from being 
.....................
.
..................... .
..................... .
ealth? ........... .
..................... .
..................... .
olence?  ........ .
..................... .
..................... .
chieve it?  ..... .
your opinion   .
..................... .
? ................... .
..................... .
..................... .
haracteristics ?
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
.............. .
broadcast?  .. .
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?  .................. .
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.... 65 
.... 66 
.... 67 
.... 68 
.... 69 
.... 70 
.... 71 
.... 72 
.... 73 
.... 74 
.... 75 
.... 76 
.... 77 
.... 78 
.... 79 
.... 80 
.... 81 
.. 82 
.... 83 
.... 84 
.... 85 
.... 86 
.... 87 
.... 88 
.... 89 
.... 90 
.... 91 
.... 92 
.... 93 
.... 94 
.... 95 
.... 96 
.... 97 
.... 98 
.... 99 

M
H
A
D
M
D
I
s
W
W
W
W
A
D
Ap p
Ap
A
T
r
Su
A
R
I
n
R
R
C
o
Co
A
L
o
Co
A
Q
D
E
x
C
C
o
Ca



Must violent a n
ow can tech n
re welfare pa
iscuss the ad
v
Must the gove r
o patients ha v
s spanking chi l
What are the  e
What are the r
Why do peopl e
What are the  p
re there bett e
iscuss the vie
pendix ... .
ppendix 1  co n
ddition .........
ransition .......
ummation .....
pposition ......
esult .............
nference ........
eformulation 
eplacement ..
ontrast .........
oncession   ...
ppendix 2 Str
ocation .........
omposition ...
pproximatio
n
Qualification ...
efinition .......
xemplificatio n
lassification  .
omparison  ...
ause and Eff e



nd pornogra p
nology help e d
yments a wa s
vantages and 
rnment ban d
ve the right t o
ldren cruel?  . .
effects of alco
easons for th
e
e produce mo
problems cau s
er ways of en c
ws for and a g
...............
nnectives ..... .
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ucture and V o
..................... .
..................... .
n  ................... .
..................... .
..................... .
n ................... .
..................... .
..................... .
ect. ................ .



phic scenes b e
ducation?  ..... .
ste of the soci
disadvantag
e
angerous sp o
o choose bet w
..................... .
holism?  ....... .
e increasing  d
re trash thes e
sed by drug a b
couraging em
gainst first im p
.............. .
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..................... .
ocabulary Aid
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..................... .



iv
e censored?  ..
......................
ety's financia
es of forced r e
orts?  .............
ween life and 
......................
......................
drug use and  w
edays? and h o
buse and wha
ployees to w
o
pressions and 
.............. .
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..................... .
..................... .
l resources?   .
etirement and
.....................
.
death?  ........ .
..................... .
..................... .
what are the  s
ow can we re d
t are some s o
ork hard?  ..... .
give your opi
...............
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
..................... .
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..................... .
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T

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 give your op i
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solutions?. .... .
duce it? ........ .
olutions?   ..... .
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nion? ........... .
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Table of Co
......................
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inion. ............
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ntents 
.. 100 
.. 101 
.. 102 
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.. 110 
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.. 112 
113  
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.. 121 

Table 


Sc
Ca
R
D
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n
Su
U
R
A
R
A
D
R
B
C
a
St
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A
A
F
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Si


of Content
s
cale ...............
aution  ..........
eferring to a 
d
escribing cha
ntroducing a  p
ummarizing a
seful words ..
eporting  ......
ppendix 3 Ho
eason  ...........
dvantage  .....
isadvantage  .
esult  ............
ecause  .........
ause  .............
top  ...............
isagreement  
greement  ....
llow  .............
orbid  ............
ontrast .........
imilarity  .......
s                   
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diagram, cha r
nge  .............. .
point of view.  .
nd concludin g
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w to Express 
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.
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rt etc.   .......... .
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g ................... .
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Essential Wo r
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.. 123 
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.. 137 
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.. 142 
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.. 150 

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 1








G
G EE NN EE RR AA LL

MM OO DD UU LL EE



writing task 1 (
letter)

Letter Samples

2 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

1- One of your neighbor’s children hasaccidentally broken the front
window of your car.
You should write a letter to his/her parents and in Rurletter you should
• introduce yourself
• explain how it happened
• and what they should do.
Dear Ms. Grimes,
I am RXUQH[WGRRUQHLJKERUDQG,DPZULWLQJWRLQIRUPou that RXU
daughter, Sarah, broke the front passenger window of m&KHYUROHW&DSULFe
while playing softball HVWHUGD afternoon. The car is brand new. As RXNQRZ
it is winter now and this also aggravates the situation since I am not able to
use the car. Hopefully, RXUKRPHRZQHU
VLQVXUDQFHZLOOFRYHUWKLVNLQGRI
damage. Please check with them to see if it is covered. If theGRQRWSD for
it, I will get two repair estimates for RXVRWKDWou can determine how RX
will paIRr the repair.
Perhaps we could meet this SaturdaDIWHUQRRQWRGLVFXVVRXURSWLRQV,Q
case RXDUHQRWDYDLODEOHDWWKDWWLPHSOHDVHOHWPHNQRw so that we would
be able to make an appointment for some other time.
Thank RXLQDGYDQFHIRUour kind and considerate attention towards the
matter.
Yours sincerel
Ms. Green
(163 words)



Letter Practice
You recentlKDGour car repaired and now it is not working properl:ULWHD
letter to RXUPHFKDQLFDQGLQou r letter,
• Introduce RXUVHOf
• Explain the problem
• And saZKDWou need him to do

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 3
2-You recently received your grade from RXULQVWUXFWRUDQG\RXDUH
dissatisfied with your score.
Write a letter to your instructor and
•introduce yourself.
• let him know that you are dissatisfied with your grade.
• mention the reasons to convince him that you deserve a better
grade.
Dear Mr. Sockman,
This letter is to express mGLVVDWLVIDFWLRQZLWKWKHJUDGHWKDW,UHFHLYHGIRUP
class project. I know RXPDGHLWFOHDUWKDWLQGLYLGXDOVLQHDFKJURXSZRXOGDOO
receive the same grade; but I would like to ask RXWRUHFRQVLGHUour
decision about mJUade.
I put a lot of effort into this project. I spent numerous hours in the librarDQGDW
the computer working on mUHVHDUFK0 project partner, Jack, apparentl
did not approach the project with the same dedication as I. Enclosed, RXZLOO
find copies of mQRWHVDQGVRXUFHVWKDW,XVHGLQP research.
You encouraged us to speak with RXLIZHHQFRXQWHUHGDQ problems within
our groups, and I made two appointments with RXWRGLVFXVVWKHVLWXDWLRQ
Unfortunatelou were unable to attend either one. Considering that I did
attempt to contact RXDQGWKDW,SXWDORWRIHIIRUWLQWRWKLVSURMHFW,KRSHWKDW
RXZLOOEHJHQHURXVHQRXJKWRUDLVHP project grade.
I would like to thank RXIRU\RXUFRQVLGHUDWHDWWHQWLRQLQDGYDQFH
Yours sincerel
S. D ent
(189 words)
Letter Practice
One of RXUIULHQGVKDVMXVWKDGDWZLQDQGIRUVRPHUHDVRQou cannot go visit
them in their town.
You should write a letter to RXUIULHQGDQGLQour letter RXVKRXOG
•congratulate them on the new -born babies
• explain whou cannot go visit them
• offer to help in case theQHHGKHOp

Letter Samples

4 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

3-You recently went shopping at a department store and you were
disrespected by one of the employees.
Write a complaint letter to the sales manager of the department store In
your letter you should
•let him/her know about the rude behavior of the clerk
• clearly state how it happened
• and tell the manager about the bad behaviour.
Dear Sales Manager,
This letter is a complaint concerning the actions of one of RXUVDOHVSHUVRQV
On Tuesda0D 1, 2009 , around 3 PM. I went to RXUVWRUHWRORRNIRUDQ
outfit. When I asked an available salesperson, Ms. Maria Johnson, for help in
finding mVL]HVKHLQIRUPHGPHWKDWVKHZDVEXV and that I would have to
find it mVHOI,H[SODLQHGWKDWWKHUHDVRQ,FDPHWRKHUZDVEHFDXVH,FRXOGQ
W
find it. She then said in a rude tone that if I couldn't find it, it means that o ur
store did not have it, and that I needed to look somewhere else.
I felt that Ms. Johnson was rude and unnecessarilFXUWZLWKPH,IVKHZDV
busVKHFRXOGKDYHVLPSO and politelWROGPHWKDWVKHZRXOGEHDEOHWR
help me in a moment. I hope that RXZLOOFRQIURQW0V-RKQVRQDERXWKHU
behavior. I shop frequentlDW\RXUVWRUHDQG,ORRNIRUZDUGWRDPRUH
pleasurable shopping experience next time.
I appreciate RXUZKROHKHDUWHGFRQFHUQZLWKUHJDUGWRWKLVLVVXHLQDGYDQFH
Regards,
Mrs. Bett Arthur
(190 words)


Letter Practice
Write a letter to one of RXUFROOHDgu es has recentlEHHQ appointedas the new
manager of the compan,Qour letter RXVKRXOG,
• introduce RXUVHOf
• congratulate him/her on the promotion
• and ask for an appointment to discuss the problems in RXUVHFWLRn

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 5
4-You have recently moved to a new company and you want to write to
the manager . In your letter,
• introduce yourself,
• mention what you have done since you moved to the company
• and a sk to meet the manager to discuss yourneeds and
concerns.
Dear Mr. Stevenso n,
The purpose of this letter is to brieflLQWURGXFHPself as DQDWHN
VQHZ6DOHV
Representative, Business Accounts. I verUHFHQWO\MRLQHGWKHFRPSDQ and
am taking over RXUDFFRXQWIURP-DFN:LQWHUVZKRKDVPRYHGRQWRRWKHU
challenges in this industr .
I have just completed DQDWHN
VPDQDJHPHQWRULHQWDWLRQSURJUDPDQGDP
now keen to meet face -to -face with all of mNH customers.
AccordinglDVWKHILUVWVWHSLQP customer familiarization process, I would
like to meet with RXSHUVRQDOO, for about an hour or so, to discuss Office -
Tech's needs and concerns.
To set up a meeting at RXUFRQYHQLHQFH,SURSRVHWRFDOO\RXURIILFHE the
end of this week. It is mKRSHWKDWZHZLOOEHDEOHWRDUUDQJHWRPHHWDWour
office before the end of the month.
I look forward to meeting with RXDQGOHDUQLQJPRUHDERXWour companLQ
the near future.
Sincerely,
Jim O'Malley
(158 words)
Letter Practice
You just used a website to gain some information about an issue; write an email
to the institute and in RXUOHWWHU,
•appreciate the institute for the informative website
• ask if theFDQKHOSou with RXUSUREOHPLQRWKHUZDs
• make some recommendations in order to improve the website

Letter Samples

6 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

5-You recently heard about the pass- away of your colleague’s father.
Write to your colleague and in your letter
• offer your condolences,
• mention how honorable his father was
• mention the reasons to let your friend know that you understand
the situation.
Dear Robert,
I would like to express mVLQFHUHFRQGROHQFHVRQWKHUHFHQWSDVVLQJRIour
father. Pamela and the children also send the ir thoughts and praHUVWR\RX
and RXUIDPLO at this difficult time.
Although I didn't know RXUGDGWKDWZHOORQWKHKDOIGR]HQRUVRRFFDVLRQV
that I spent time in his companRYHUWKHears, I did come to realize his great
kindness and compassion towards those less fortunate than him. And I do
know that he was verKLJKO respected throughout this communitDQG
profession, and his good works changed the lives of man<RXZHUHWUXO
fortunate to have such a man as a model in your life.
As RXNQRZLt was not that long ago that mRZQIDWKHUSDVVHGDZD, so I
have some idea of what RXDQG\RXUIDPLO are going through. No comfort is
quite enough to replace the loss.
Please pass mGHHSHVWVmpathies on to RXUPRWKHUDQGEURWKHUDQG
sister, and to all of your father's grandchildren.
Yours sincerel,
Gord Henderson
(178 words)
Letter Practice
Last night RXDWWHQGHGDSDUW thrown by RXUPDQDJHU:ULWHDOHWWHUWRKLP
and in RXUOHWWHr
•appreciate for the party
• saWKDWou particularlHQMRed the party
• and apologize for arriving late at the party

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 7
6-Write a letter in response to ajob advertisement of a company, in RXr
letter,
•let them know that their advertisement has interestedRu,
• tell them about your qualifications
• and try to convince them that you fit in the position.
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to apply for the position RXDGYHUWLVHGLQWRGD’s newspaper. I
found the wording of RXUDGYHUWLVHPHQWZLWKHPSKDVLVRQOHDGHUVKLS
innovation and change quite intriguing. It is in response to such challenges
that I have excelled during mFDUHHU.
Most recentl,ZDVWKH3UHVLGHQWRIDWURXEOHGFRPSDQ which I turned
around and led to the best performance in its histor%HIRUHWKDW,KDG
worked successfully in a varietRIXQXVXDOVLWXDWLRQVLQFOXGLQJWKHVWDUWXSRI
a significant division of a large insurance companLQ/RQGRQ,QHDFKRIWKHVH
situations, the problems (or opportunities) differed widel7KH had in
common, though, a requirement of an abilitWRVL]HXSWKHVLWXDWLRQDVVHVV
the reasonable alternatives and execute a plan of action. I have also worked
14 HDUVLQPLQLQJDQGPLOOLQJRSHUDWLRQVZKHUH,REWDi ned an in-depth
exposure to production problems.
I am free to travel and open to relocation. I would welcome the opportunitWR
meet RXDQGWRIXUWKHUGLVFXVVour requirements. Thank RXIRUou
interest.
Sincerely,
Robert S. Rosenthal
(182 words)
Letter Practice
You just saw the advertisement of a course in anewspaper and RXDUHZLOOLQJWR
attend the course. Write a letter to the institute; in RXUOHWWHUou should
•introduce RXUVHOf
• saZK RXDUHLQWHr ested in the course
• and ask for some more information about the course

Letter Samples

8 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

7-Write a letter to someone you met at your company’smeeting. In your
letter you should
•thank him for taking part in thecompan
V meeting.
• try to elaborate on the importance of his role in the meeting
• and let him know about another meeting to be held next month.
Dear David,
I would like to take this opportunitWRH[SUHVVP heartfelt thanks to RXIRU
RXUYHU\DFWLYHDQGLQIOXHQWLDOSDUWLFi pation in our recent meetingin Montreal.
Your skill in chairing the controversial panel was verPXFKDSSUHFLDWHGE
those representing all sides of that extremelVHQVLWLYHWRSLF$VZHOOZHKDYH
received numerous post -conference requests for the paper that you delivered
in the beginning of the conference.
On both a professional and a personal level, I reallDSSUHFLDWHGWKHWLPHWKDW
the two of us were able to spend together for fun and reflection during
conference down times. I certainlOHDUQHGDORt about the unique aspects of
RXUSURIHVVLRQ QRWWRPHQWLRQWKHWKLQJVou taught me about the backhand
on the squash court!).
I would also like to let RXNQRZWKDWDQRWKHUPHHWLQJLVJRLQJWREHKHOGQH[W
month in New York and I would be glad to see Ru at the meeting.
I am looking forward to hearing from RXDVVRRQDVSRVVLEOH
Ver6LQFe rel,
Peter Smithfield (176 words)
Letter Practice
You just received a product RXKDGRUGHUHGDIHZGDs ago. You just found out
the product does not work properl:ULWHDOHWWHUWRWKHFRPSDQ and in RXU
letter
•introduce RXUVHOf
• saZKDWWKHSUREOHPLs
• and mention what action RXQHHGWKHFRPSDQ\WRWDNe

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 9
8-Write a resignation letter to your manager to lethim know that you
have started to cooperate with another company. In your letter,
• Let him know the exact time that you are leaving
• the actions you took in order not to cause the company any
problems
• and a lso let him know that you appreciate the time you
cooperated with the company.
Dear Mr. Hopkins,
This is to advise RXWKDW,KDYHDFFHSWHGWKHSRVLWLRQRI0DUNHWLQJ0DQDJHU
with an oil companEDVHGLQ%XIIDOR1HZ York. AccordinglSOHDVHUHJDUG
this as mRIILFLDOOHWWHURIUHVLJQDWLRQ.
MODVWGD of work here will be June 28, 200 8. This will give me three full
weeks from next MondaWRFRPSOHWHWKHFXUUHQWPDUNHWLQJSURJUDPGHVLJQ
that I have recentlEHHQSXWWLQJWKHILQLVKLQJWRXFKHVRQ,QDGGLWLRQGXULQJ
this period I will be able to bring RXDOORIWKHRSHUDWLRQVDQGRXWVWDQGLQJ
issues in the department.
In closing, I would like to express mVLQFHUHDSSUHFLDWLRQWRou as m
manager, as well as to mPDQy friends and colleagues. I have trulHQMRed
mears working with all of RXDQGDPJUDWHIXOIRUWKHPDQ learning and
growth opportunities I was given over the years.
I wish all of RXVXFFHVV.
Sincerely,
RDQ$OH[DQGHU
(156 words)
Letter Practice
You are going to throw a birthdaSDUW for RXUQHw -born son and RXDUH
writing to invite RXUIULHQGV:ULWHDOHWWHUWRDQROGIULHQGRIours and in RXU
letter
•have a warm greeting
• invite him to the party
• give him the direction so as to find RXUQHZKRXVe

Letter Samples

10 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

9-You want to sell some of your furniture. You think a friend of yours
might like to buy it from you.
Write a letter to your friend, In your letter
• explain why you are selling
• describe the furniture
• and suggest a date when your friend can come and see the
furniture.
Dear Jane,
As RXNQRZZHOOEHPRYLQJWRDQHZKRXVHVRRQDQGWKHUHDUHDIHZWKLQJV
that I won’t be able to take with me. The new house is a bit smaller so I have
to sell some furniture and I was wondering if you might be interested.
In particular I want to sell mELJGLQLQJWDEOH'Rou remember it -the one in
the living room? It has wooden legs and a greJODVVWRSDQGLWVELJHQRXJK
for six people. There are six matching chairs to go with it. I know RXYH
alwaVOLNHGWKLVIXUQLWXUHVR,FRXOGOHWou have it at a good price. I’d rather
sell it to RXWKDQDVWUDQJHU!
WhGRQWou come around and take another look at them on Saturday? We’ll
be here all daVRPDbe we could have some lunch together?
Give me a ring and let me know,
Love,
Katherine
(159 words)
Letter Practice
You are going to take a tour of a historic place. Write an email to a travel agenc
RXXVXDOO travel with and in RXUOHWWHr
•introduce RXUVHOIDVDQUHJXODUFXVWRPHr
• ask fo r more infor mation about the cit
• ask them for more information about the tour ( e.g.price, dates etc.)

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 11
10-You borrowed some books from your school or college library.
Unfortunately you have to go away to visit a sick relative and cannot
return t he books in time.
Write a letter to the library.
•introduce yourself
• explain what has happened
• and tell them what you want to do about it.
Dear Sir or Madam,
I am writing this letter to explain wh,KDYHEHHQXQDEOHWRUHWXUQWKHWKUHH
books I have out on athree -day loan, which are now overdue.
After taking the books out on 16
thMarch, I had an urgent call from mHOGHUO
aunt’s neighbor to saWKDWP aunt had had a fall and had been taken into
hospital. I am her onlVXUYLYLQJUHODWLYHLQWKLVFRXQWU, so I felt I had to go
and see her immediatel,WUDYHOHGGRZQWR'DOODVWKHIROORZLQJPRUQLQJ
thinking I would staIRURQO two or three days. UnfortunatelP aunt’s
condition has onlLPSURYHGYHU slowlVR,KDYHKDGWRVWD here longer
than Iexpected. However, the hospital saVWKDWLIDOOJRHVZHOOVKHVKRXOGEH
able to go home in two or three daVWLPHLQZKLFKFDVH,ZLOOEHEDFNDWWKH
beginning of the next week.
Bearing in mind the circumstances, I trust RXZLOONLQGO waive anILQHVWKDW
maKDv e accumulated.
I would like to apologize for the inconvenience that I have caused RX$QG,
trust that RXXQGHUVWDQG
Yours sincerel,
Thomas Anderson (199 words)
Letter Practice
You have alreadERRNHGDWRXURI/RQGRQDQGIRUVRPHUHDVRQou are not able
to take the tour. Write an email to the travel agencDQGLQour letter
•introduce RXUVHOf
• saZK RXFDQQRWWDNHWKHWRXr
• apologize for the inconvenience caused.

Letter Samples

12 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

11-You ha ve had a bank account for a few years. Recently you received
a letter from your bank stating that you raccount is $240 overdrawn and
that you will be charged $70 which will be taken directly from your bank
account. You know that this information is incorrect.
Write a letter to the bank. In your letter
•introduce yourself
• explain what has happened
• and say what you would like them to do about it.
Dear Sir or Madam ,
I am RXUEDQNFXVWRPHUDQG,DPZULWLQJLQUHSO to a letter I received from
RXDIHZGDs ago. In RXUOHWWHUou state that I am $240 overdrawn and that
RXZLOOEHFKDUJLQJPH.
I wou ld like to point out that the reason I am overdrawn is because of a
mistake made bour bank. If RXORRNWKURXJKour records RXZLOOVHHWKDW
I wrote several weeks ago explaining the situation. For the last twelve months,
I have been paying $300 a month for a car I bought last summer. The monthl
paPHQWVZHUHWDNHQGLUHFWO from mEDQNDFFRXQW+RZHYHr ,two months
ago I sold the car and I wrote to RXLQVWUXFWLQJou to stop paying the monthl
installments. I received a letter from RXDFNQRZOHGJLQJP request, but for
some reason, nothing was done about it. Another $300 installment has been
paid this month and this is the reason wh,DPRYHUGUDZQ
I would like RXWRFRQWDFWWKHJDUDJHZKHUH,ERXJKWWKHFDUH[SODLQLQJ\RXU
error. I would also like RXWRDVNWKHPWRUHWXUQWKHPRQH.
I am looking forward to hearing from RXDVVRRQDVSRVVLEOH.
Yours Faithfully,
P. Stoft
(212 words)
Letter Practice
You recentlWUDYHOOHGWR1HZ<RUNDQGou were completelGLVVDWLVILHGZLWK
the hotel service RXVWDed at. Write a letter to the hotel manager, in RXUOHWWHr
• introduce RXUVHOf
• mention the problems RXKDGDWWKHKRWHOGXULQJour stay
• saZKDWDFWLRQou need the hotel manager to take

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 13
12-You have just been qualified for a position in a company. Writea
letter to the manager, in your letter you should
•show your willingness to accept the job
• mention when you can start the new job
• ask for an opportunity to discuss your employment terms.
Dear Mr. Happ,
I am pleased to inform RXWKDW,ZLOODFFHSWWKHJUDSKLFGHVLJQHUSRVLWLRQou
have offered. Thank you for choosing me.
I will follow up with a phone call to discuss other issues related to the job,
including when RXZLOOQHHGPHWRVWDUWVDODU, and accommodations while I
am relocating. Please keep in mind that I will need adequate time to resign
from mFXUUHQWMRE$V,VDLGEHIRUH,KDYHEHHQZRUNLQJWKHUHIRUTXLWHD
long time and I definitelKDYHWRWDNHFDUHRIDIHZLVVXHVEHIRUHOHDYLQJ
I am excited about starting at RXUFRPSDQ and I look forward to talking to
RXDJDLQ,Iou need to contact me for anUHDVRQSOHDVHIHHOIUHHWRFDOO
me, fax me, or send me an email.
I would like to thank RXDJDLQIRUour offer and I hope to have great
cooperation with RXUFRPSDQ.
Yours sincerel
Marisa Bookman (162 words)


Letter Practice
As a public relations manager of RXU companytrLQJGRDSXEOLFVXUYH on
RXUFRPSDQ’s public image, write a letter to your customers. In RXUOHWWHU
•introduce RXUVHOI
• saZKDWou are trLQJWRGo
• and ask what RXUFXVWRPHUVVXJJHVWWKHFRPSDQ should do to better
satisfWKHFXVWRPHUs

Letter Samples

14 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

13- Write a complaint letter to a telephone company and let them know
how their services failed to fulfill your expectations.
In your letter you should
•introduce yourself
• mention what the main problem is
• and say what you want them to do
Dear Sir or Madam ,
I am writing this letter to complain in the strongest terms about the poor
service that I have received from RXUFRPSDQ.
We signed up to RXUWHOHSKRQHDQGLQWHUQHWVHUYLFHSDFNDJHWZRPRQWKVDJR
because RXUDGYHUWLVLQJVXJJHVWVWKDWou are better than Telco. In addition,
RXSURPLVe dto deal with problems quicklDQGHIILFLHQWO, something that
Telco was unable or unwilling to do. However, in the first month of service RX
managed to cause me to lose two daVZRUWKRIEXVLQHVVEHFDXVHRISRRU
administ ration. The main problem was that RXIDLOHGWRSURYLGHPHZLWKWKH
correct telephone number, 9818 8747, that RXKDGSURPLVHGZKHQ,
completed the contract. This phone number was an established business line
which I had been using for the last three HDUV2EYLRXVO this meant that m
clients were unable to contact me and it cost me manKRXUVRISKRQHFDOOVWR
resolve the matter with RXUVXSSRUWFHQWUH.
I would appreciate it if this situation could be resolved and a substantial rebate
offered on mILUVt three month's account.
I look forward to hearing from RXVRRQ.
Yours Faithfully ,
Charlie Williams (197 words)
Letter Practice
Your father underwent a medical operation and now he has completel
recove red. Wr ite aletter to RXUIDWKHUVVXUJHRQDQGLQour letter
• appreciate the surgeon
• and explain some of the post -operation complications RXUIDWKHUKDV
been facing
• ask the surgeon what action RXVKRXOGWDNe

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 15
14-Write a letter to a magazine and express your opin ion about a
problem you are faced with in your neighborhood. In your letter
• introduce yourself
• sa what the problem is
• and recommend a solution to the problem
Dear Sir or Madam ,
I am one of the senior citizensand I have lived in the citRI3HUWVKLUe since I
was born. I would like to give mRSLQLRQRQWKHHQYLURQPHQWDOLPSDFWRI
tourism as someone who has traveled throughout Asia on business and
holida+DYLQJYLVLWHG,QGRQHVLD7KDLODQGDQG0DODsia I understand that
tourism can bring moneWRGHYHORSLQJFRXQWULHV+RZHYHU I cannot ignore
the environmental problems that are affecting mKRPHWRZQVHFRVstem.
UnfortunatelWKHGHSDUWPHQWRIWRXULVPKDVQRWWDNHQDQ effective measures
to counteract the adverse effects of tourism in our town.
I would like to warn the local people of the possible dangers and I want to
urge them to check that anWRXUVRUH[FXUVLRQVZH offerhave minimal effect
on the natural surroundings. Besides, we even need to attempt to change the
behavior of tourists bVKa ring our environment -friendl opinions with them .If
we follow these simple steps we can be sure that our businessis not causing
anKDUPWRRXUWRZQVHFRVstem .
I would like to appreciateRXUFRQFHUQLQWKLVUHJDUG.
Yours faithfully ,
Charlie Williams
( 187 words)

Letter Practice
You have been working for a companIRUVRPHWLPHDQGRWKHUULYDOFRPSDQLHV
are willing to emploou with a higher salarIRUDOOWKHSUDFWLFDO experienceRX
have gained. Write a letter to RXUFRPSDQ manager and in RXUOHWWHr
•Explain the situation
• SaZKDWou would like the manager to do (increase the salarHWF)
• saZKDWDFWLRQou would take in case the manager fails to meet RXU
demands

Letter Samples

16 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

15-You sa w a job advertisement on a website. Write a letter and apply
for the job;
• let them know your qualifications for the job.
• also mention the places you have worked for
• and try to convince them that you are the one they are looking for.
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing this letter to applIRUWKHSRVLWLRQRIVWXGHQWDVVLVWDQWWKDW,VDZ
advertised on RXUZHEVLWH,DPLQWHUHVWHGLQZRUNLQJLQWKHWHDFKHUV

resource library, or in the accommodation department.
I have recentlJUDGXDWHGIURPWKHW SB Business Sch ool in Warsaw and
received high grades in both m(QJOLVKDQG%XVLQHVV&RXUVHV,QDGGLWLRQ
we had to use all of the Microsoft Office programs in the preparation of our
finished assignments, so I am able to do most things with computers.
Since I was 15 HDUVROG,KDYHKHOSHGP father to run his small import -
export business. I have been involved in helping a varietRIFOLHQWVDQGDOVR
the general administration of the business. In the past 2 years I have worked
in the W SB librarKHOSLQJWHDFKHUVDQGVWXGHQWVWRILQGDQGXVHWKH
resources there. This experience has given me the abilitWRGHDOZLWKWKH
needs of all tSHVRISHRSOH.
I look forward to hearing from RX.
Yours faithfull,
Powel Herbert
(174 words)

Letter Practice
You are facedwith an increasing workload in your companGXHWRDJURZWKLQ
the number of orders placed dail:ULWHDOHWWHUWRWKHFRPSDQ manager and in
RXUOHWWHr
•introduce RXUVHOf
• explain the problem RXDUHIDFLQg
• and ask if the companFRXOGKLUHDQHZHPSORee to help RXZLWh the
job

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 17
16-Write a letter to afriend whom you haven’t met for some time.
• let your friend know what is going on to you.
• also ask your friend to tell you about himself /herself
• and ask him the questions you want to know.
Dear Leo,
It's been a while since we wrote, so I thought I'd drop RXDOLQHWREULQJou
up to date with what's been happening here.
I suppose the most important thing is that Jane's job is more secure than we
thought. At the beginning of the HDUZKHQVKHJRWWKHMREZHWKRXJKWLW
might onlEHIRURQHVHPHVWHUEXWZHMXVWIRXQGWKDWVKHKDVDSHUPDQHQW
contract. ObviouslWKLVLVJUHDWDVLWPHDQVZHFDQUHOD[DOLWWOH,VWLOOGRQ
W
have the job I really want, but it will happen soon. You have to staSRVLWLYH
don't RX?
So, what about RXWKHVHGDs? Are RXVWLOOVWXFNLQWKDWROGMRE"6LQFH,
YH
been having so much trouble getting a job I understand RXUUHOXFWDQFHWR
change. There's nothing worse than filling in endless application forms, with
no idea of what it will lead to.
AnZD, I've got another form to fill in so I'll love RXDQGOHDYHou.
Best wishes ,
John (173 words)
Letter Practice
You have been faced with an increasing number of wild animals in RXU
neighborhood. Writea letter to the editor of RXUORFDOQHZVSDSHUDQGLQour
letter
•introduce RXUVHOf
• sa what the problem is
• and mention what RXZRXOGOLNH the citDXWKRULWLHVWo do

Letter Samples

18 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

17-There is an institution that is offering a freejournalism course and
you have applied for it . They want to talk to one of your friends who
knows you well as a reference.
Write a letter to your friend in your letter,
• explain the situation
• sa why you chose him as a reference
• ask him if you can give them his/her name as a reference
Dear mark,
I'm writing this letter because I reallQHHGour help. You're the only person
who knows me well enough to give me a reference for a course I want to do.
I saw an advertisement in a paper recentlRIIHULQJDIUHHMRXUQDOLVPFRXUVHWR
successful applicants. I sent in an article I wrote for the student newspaper,
RXNQRZWKHRQHDERXWOHJDOL]LQJGUXJV"$QwaWKH really liked it, but as
there are onlILYHSODFHVWKH want a reference as well. I haven’t given them
RXUQDPHet, as I expect this would be the first reference you've been asked
to give. Is it OK if I send them RXUSKRQHQXPEHU",WKLQNWKH want to phone
Ru so theFDQKDYHDSURSHUFRQYHUVDWLRQZLWK\RXDQGUHDOO check me out.
I know it's been a while but if you could do it ,it'd really help me out. I've got a
new phone number, 09957 234 563, so RXFDQJHWPHRQWKDWDQGP
address is still the same.
Hop e to hear from RXVRRQ.
Regards,
Patrick
(185 words)
Letter Practice
As a teacher, RXZRXOGOLNHWRWDNHour students on a field trip to a museum.
Write a letter to the museum manager and in your letter
•introduce RXUVHOf
• saZKDWou are planning to do and why
• and finall ask for a discount

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 19
18-You are about to leave your company. Write a farewell letter to one of
your colleagues, in your letter, you should write
•lethim know that you are leaving
• also let him know how much you appreciate the time RXKDYH
been working together
• let him/her how he/she can contact you at your new place
Dear John,
I wanted to take a moment to let RXNQRZWKDW,DPOHDYLQJP position at
Simpson's Corporation. I will be starting a new position at Newville Compan
next month.
I have enjoHGP tenure here and I appreciate having had the opportunitWR
work with RX7KDQNou for the support, guidance and encouragement RX
have provided me during mWLPHDW6LPSVRQ
V&RUSRUDWLRQ(YHQWKRXJK,
will miss mFROOHDJXHVDQGWKHFRPSDQ, I am looking forward to this new
challenge and to starting a new phase of mFDUHHU,WKLQNWKHSRVLWLRQWKH
are offering at this new CompanLVZKDW,KDYHEHHQORRNLQJIRUVLQFHWKH
beginni ng of mFDUHHU.
Please keep in touch; I can be reached at mSHUVRQDOHPDLODGGUHVV
(Sama13@gmail.com) or at mQHZSODFe, 555-121- 2222.
I would like to hear from RXDQGRQFHDJDLQ,ZRXOGOLNHWRWKDQNou.
Yours trul,
Samantha
(158 words)
Letter Practice
You have recentlRSHQHGXSDVKRSLQour area and as an advertisement
campaign RXZRXOGOLNHWRVHQGDOHWWHUWRDOOSRWHQWLDOFXVWRPHUs
•introduce RXUVKRp
• introduce RXUVHUYLFHV
• and offer aspecial discount for the new customers

Letter Samples

20 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

19-Write a letter to a colleague who is hospitalized at the moment.
In your letter you should
•ask about his/her health
• let him/ her know what changes occurred since he/she has been
hospitalized
• also try to make him/her happy in some ways
Dear Jane,
I hope RXDUHIHHOLQJEHWWHU$UHou able to sit in the garden and enjoWKH
sunshine?
We all miss RXLQWKHRIILFHDQGORRNIRUZDUGWRour return. There have been
a few changes since RXZHQWLQWRKRVSi tal. Eric Johnson has now retired
(lucky man) and Matthew has taken over Eric's job. He is struggling at the
moment. As RXNQRZKHLVQRWDVH[SHULHQFHGDV0DWKHZZDV+HKRSHV
RXZLOOUHWXUQVRRQWRUHVFXHKLPIURPWKHPXGGOH
I thought RXZRXOGOLNHWKHERRN,
PVHQGLQJou with this letter I saw it in the
bookshop and thought it would make RXODXJK,NQRZou’ve alwaVZDQWHG
to live in Greece. AnZD, I hope RXHQMR it and find time to read it before
RXUHWXUQWRZRUN
Take it easy and look aft er RXUVHOI,
OOZULWHDJDLQVRRQ
Best regards,
Sheila (153 words)
Letter Practice
You live on the fourth floor of a five -storeEXLOGLQJZKLFKLVQRW equippedwith
an elevator (lift). Write a letter to RXUQHLJKERUVDQGLQour letter
•introduce RXUVHOf
• saZKDWWKHSUREOHPLs
• ask the neighbors to agree on the installation of an elevator.

Letter Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 21
20-You recently registered for a course, and you cannot attend the cl ass
for some reasons.
Write a letter to your course instructor and in your letter
•introduce yourself
• explain the situation
• and say what action you would like to take.
Dear professor Moss,
I am Sand/HHDQXQGHUJUDGXDWHVWXGHQWRIWKHGHSDUWPHQWRf Electrical and
Computer Engineering. At the beginning of this semester, I registered for one
of RXUFRXUVHV$IULFDQ/LWHUDWXUHDQG&XOWXUH,WLVDWZo- hour course held on
ever7KXUVGD\DIWHUQRRQ<HVWHUGD\,UHFHLYHGDQRWLFHIURPP department
that a major course, Computer Principle, would be changed to Thursda
afternoon. This major course conspicuouslLQIOXHQFHVP credits and it is
verLPSRUWDQWWRPH8QIRUWXQDWHO, I can not studour course this
semester.
Because of RXUUHSXWDWLRQDQGP enthusiasm in literature, I hope I could
studWKLVFRXUVHLQ the next semester. I also heard that another course of
RXUV&KLQD/LWHUDWXUHLVKHOGHYHU FridaDIWHUQRRQ,IWKHUHJLVWUDWLRQRI
this course has not closed HW,ZLOOEHVRJODGWRSDUWLFLSDWHLQ\RXUFODVV
SorrWRERWKHU\RXour help will be greatlDSSUHFLDWHG.
Sincerely RXUV,
Sand/He
(157 words)
Letter Practice
You and classmates have been trLQJWRILQGDERRNIRUDZKi le and the book is
out of stock . Write a letter to the publisher . Write a letter and in RXUOHWWHr
• saZK RXQHHGWKHERRk
• mention what the problem is
• and ask the publisher to republish the book or provide RXZLWKFRSLHVRI
the book

General Essay Samples

22 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps







G
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MM OO DD UU LL EE



writing task 2 (essay)

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 23
1- Some people believe that we can use animals the way we want while
others believe animals have rights and we must respect their rights.
What is your opinion?
Use specific reasons o support your point of view.
Animal rights is a topic that is verLPSRUWDQWWRPH,VLPSO think that everRQH
should have the decencWRWUHDWDQLPDOVZLWKNLQGQHVVDQGUHVSHFWDQGQRW
make them suffer in anZD. I believe that animals deserve to live according to
their own natures, without harm, abuse or exploitation.
It has been shown that animals are capable of feeling pain, hunger, thirst,
loneliness, and kinship. It breaks mKHDUWZKHQ,VHHSHRSOHZHDULQJIXU)XU
belongs to its original owner. Some fur comes from anim als caught in horrific
traps called leg holds. Leg holds are spring- loaded steel jaws that clamp shut on
an animal’s foot once it is sprung. It causes injuries and blood loss. Animals are
stuck in these traps for hours and even daVEHIRUHWKHWUDSSHUFRPes to pick
them up. Some animals trWRFKHZDQGELWHWKHLURZQOLPEVRIIMXVWWRJHWRXWRI
it.
Fur also comes from ‘fur farms’. Millions of animals are killed each year in these
farms. The farms force them to live in extremelFORVHFRQWDFWZLWKWKHRWher
animals, which is completelDJDLQVWWKHLULQVWLQFWV7KLVOLIHVW\OHFDXVHVVHYHUH
stress that can lead to cannibalism and self -mutilation. TheDUHNLOOHGE
poisonous gasses, electrocution, suffocation, and neck breaking.
Then there is also the subject of animal testing. Humans are important, but that
does not give anRQHWKHULJKWWRLQIOLFWHQGOHVVSDLQDQGVXIIHULQJRQWKHDQLPDO
especially for stupid reasons like makeup testing. If animal testing were to stop
now, the progress of medical progress would speed up, because the
alternatives such as in -vitro techniques are less time- consuming, more accurate,
and less expensive than using animals
In conclusion, I believe that we are not allowed to make animals suffer. Animals
have rights and we must protect them under anFLUFXPVWDQFHV (307 words)
Essay Practice
Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more
important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or d isagree with this
point of view? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

General Essay Samples

24 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

2- Nowadays many people are trying to earn more and more and to get
rich.
In your opinion what are the advantages and disadvantages of being rich
and what’s your opinion?
EverERG wants to be rich; that is a fact. People trKDUGWRHDUQDVPXFK
moneDVWKH can in order to be affluent and powerful; and they believe wealth
can benefit them in manGLIIHUHQWZDs.
First of all, RXFDQHQMR a lot of things that moneFDQEX; RXGRQRWKDYHWR
worrDERXWPDWWHUVUHODWHGWRPRQH such as controlling your expenses, etc.
Also, RXGRQRWKDYHWRZRUU about RXUOLYLQJIRUH[DPSOHou will neither
experience the fear of losing RXUMREQRr do Ru need to save moneWRUDLVH
RXUFKLOGUHQ,QDGGLWLRQou can choose to studZKHUHou want, get a
bachelor’s or mast er’s degree without having to worrDERXWWKHWXLWLRQIHHVDQG
paPHQWV
However, being rich does have some disadvantages, perhaps when RXDUH
rich, RXDQGour familPHPEHUVDUHDOZDs in danger. I mean there are
people who maSODQWRNLGQDSour relatives in order to earn some mone
Clearly, the accounting sVWHPLQour head tells RXWKDW\RXVKRXOGVDYHVRPH
moneIRUVRPHIXWXUHSXUSRVHVEXWWKHWHPSWDWLRQWRVSHQGPRQH
immediatelLVVRRYHUZKHOPLQJWKDWou can’t resist and actuallou go on a
shopping spree and possiblou will become materialistic. As a matter of fact,
things will get boring, since RXFDQDIIRUGHYHUthing that moneFDQEX, so
RXZLOOWDNHXSDFWLYLWLHVWKDWFDQHQWHUWDLQou, for example, riskDFWLYLWLHV
such as gambling. That’s whWKHUHDUHSHRSOHZKRJHWDGGLFWHGWRJDPEOLQJ
In conclusion, I prefer to live a poor but a happOLIHEHFDXVHPRQH does not
create happiness. Money does not bu\RXORYH0RQH does not solve RXU
problems. The more moneou have, the more things you have to worrDERXW
so, just treasure what RXKDYH. (308 words)




Essay Practice
People work because they need money to live. What are some other reasons that people
work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and details to
support your answer.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 25
3- Some people believe that comic books are trash and they waste o ur
children’s time and energy.
What is your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
Comic books are cheap entertainments that trash the minds of our children. I
have seen this manWLPHVDQGHDFKWLPH,KDYHGLVDJUHHGZLWKLW,ISHRSOH
we re willing to go beRQGWKDWROGVWHUHRWpe, theZRXOGVHHWKDWFRPLFERRNV
are not that much different from other books.
First, let us all remember that the authors, regardless of what tSHRIZULWLQJWKH
do, can alwaVLQIOXHQFHWKHPLQGVRIWKHLUo ung readers. So if it is true that
some comic books are sexist or violent, it is also true that some of them are, to
put it simplILQH,WZRXOGEHZURQJWRDFFXVHDOOFRPLFERRNVRISUHMXGLFHDQG
violence, as it would be wrong to do the same with novels .
In the same line of thought, one of the great things about books is that theFDQ
teach RXDORWRIWKLQJVWKH teach RXIDFWVWKDWou did not know; the
broaden RXUKRUL]RQ:HOOWKDWLVDOVRWUXHRIVRPHFRPLFERRNV$QGLWLVQRW
so surprising, when RXWKLQNDERXWLW)RUH[DPSOH,KDGQHYHUKHDUGRIWKH
countrRI7DQ]DQLDEHIRUH,UHDGDFRPLFERRNLQZKLFK itwas the birth place of
one of the main characters. Even you can find more complicated and
philosophical concepts being taught in some comic books, even though it is less
obvious. For instance I read a particular comic book titled “understanding those
who are born different from us”; It can easilEHUHODWHGWRUDFLVPDQGLWV
disadvantages. Thus, comic books, like books, can teach us gr eat lessons.
On a different note, it has often been said that literature is a form of art and that
the writer is an artist and should be looked upon as such. What about comic
books? Shouldn’t the writers of comic books also be praised for their work? At
least because it demands a lot of talent and hard work. After all, how manRIXV
could write good dialogues and scripts to keep the reader hanging month after
month or pencil the characters so well?
In the end, comic books can help us learn things in their own waDQGWKH as
well require hard work and talent. So, if RXFRXOGIRUJHWWKHROGVWHUHRWpe for a
minute, RXPLJKWZDQWWRWU and read one. (396 words)

Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with th e following statement? People should read only those
books that are about real events, real people, and established facts. Use specific reasons
and details to support your opinion.

General Essay Samples

26 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

4- Nowadays more and more teenagers are becoming addicted to drugs or
alc ohol.
In your opinion what are the reasons?
And how can we prevent them from becoming addicted?
EverGD more and more teens are turning to drugs and there is no simple
answer to whDWHHQPLJKWEHJLQXVLQJGUXJVRUDOFRKRO0DQ times, it is a
combinat ion of se veral things.
ThePD turn to drugs to escape stress or loneliness or to overcome shQHVV
in social situations. ThePD want to be seen as grown up, or thePD simpl
be curious. Teens often want to be like their role models as well; so, if t heir
favorite music group or a "cool" friend at school uses drugs or alcohol, thePD
also use drugs or alcohol to be like them. Adolescence is often a time of low
self- esteem, which can develop as a result of not being able to grow and change
as quickl as desired. A RXQJSHUVRQZLWKORZVHOf -esteem maIHHOWKH\DUH
not as smart, attractive, talented or popular as their friends. ThePD also feel
pressured bSDUHQWVWHDFKHUVRURWKHUVWRDFKLHYHJRDOV7RKHOSGHDOZLWKWKH
pressure, a RXQJSHUVRQw ith low self-esteem maEHPRUHOLNHO to put aside
his/her good judgment and turn to drugs or alcohol to escape.
If some parents suspect that their teen is using drugs thePD feel the need to
catch them. So, theVHDUFKWKHLUURRPRUFRQWUROWKHLUDc tivities and friends.
These areall normal feelings, afterallparents want their kids to be safe.
However, it might be more helpful to talk with them and let them know about the
changes theKDYHREVHUYHGDQGZKDWWKHFDXVHLV3UHYHQWLQJWHHQGUXJXVHLs
possible; parents and guardians need to learn the warning signs and dangers;
therefore, parents must be aware of its sPSWRPV
In conclusion, I think that everVLQJOHLQGLYLGXDOPXVWWU to avoid drugs for the
simple reason that it ruins our lives and societ
(309 words)

Essay Practice
In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is
a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 27
5- As t h e first step to combat obesity among students, Health authorities
intend to remove all the unhealthy foods from school canteens and
introduce new kinds.
To what extent do you agree with this scheme?
NowadaVWKHQXPEHURIVWXGHQWVVXIIHULQJIURPREHVLW and obesity -related
diseases is increasing at an astonishing rate and I think it is a good idea to
promote healthOLYLQJDQGHDWLQg habitsamong students todaEXWLQP
opinion removing the food most children love from school canteens is not going
to wo rk.
Would children want to buVRPHWKLQJWKH have never heard of? Most of the
items that maEHLQWURGXFHGDUHVWUDQJHWRVWXGHQWV,IWKHJRYHUQPHQWIRUFHV
schools to provide this kind of food, most children will definitelQRWEX them. It
is not the g overnment’s business what students eat. Education is the best wa
to promote healthOLYLQJQRWSURKLELWLRQ7KHUHIRUHLQVWHDGRIVWDUWLQJZLWK
schools and banning the school canteens from selling the unhealthIRRGV
authorities must inform the students of the harmful effects of such foods.
Furthermore, the ill -conceived plan could wipe out a great deal of moneDear
from school revenues and force schools to close canteens. Therefore, school
communities and parents should as well choose what is bes t for their students.
Hence, abandoning the foods most children are fond of is not an alternative.
However I do believe that canteens should graduallWU to provide foods suited
to students’ ethnic and religious backgrounds and trWRLPSURYHWKHLUKHDOWh and
reduce alarming rates of obesitDPRQJWKHVWXGHQWV
In conclusion, serving nutritious food might improve children’s health and reduce
obesit%XWWKHPRYHWREDQVXFKIRRGVIURPFDQWHHQVZLOOKDYHDQHJDWLYH
feedback.
(253 words)


Essay Prac tice
People do many different things to stay healthy. What do you do for good health? Use
specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

General Essay Samples

28 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

6- Obesity is turning into a serious national program.
Suggest some s olutions in order to prevent people from getting obese?
ObesitLVRQWKHULVHDQGLWLVEHFRPLQJPRUHDQGPRUHRIDQDWLRQDOKHDOWK
concern. It affects more than 1/3 of the population, and an additional 1/3 is
overweight. With obesitEHFRPLQJPRUHDQGPRUHRIDSUREOHPHDFKear, the
people in Iran are going to suffer from a catastrophic health problem.
I believe that the Iranian Government should take action to manage its people’s
diets because theZLOOQRWGRLWRQWKHLURZQ,IWKH,UDQLDQJRYHUQPHQWVWHSSHG
up its campaign on obesitPDQ of the countrVREHVHSHRSOHFRXOGVWRS
getting heavier and will shed pounds.
I think that the problem with people in our countrLVWKHODFNRIPRWLYDWLRQWRGLHW
and exercise. I believe that the public policy for people would be suchthat
people who exercise regularlVKRXOGEHUHZDUGHG,EHOLHYHWKDWSHRSOHZKRSXW
forth effort in an exercise program should be rewarded with tax deductions. This
would bring a lot more people into the world of exercise.
The next most -important solution is education. Education is the keLIORZHULQJRI
the people’s weight is wanted. Providing them with the knowledge of what foods
do what, how, and whZRXOGDOORZWKHSXEOLFWREHPRUHHGXFDWHGRQKRZWR
lose weight properly. Habits are established at a RXQJDJHDQGLIKHDOWK
habits can be established, then the countrFDQEHPXFKEHWWHURII
And the final step is to pass laws requiring fast food and chain restaurants to
post nutrition information such as caloric, fat and sugar content on menus . After
being thoroughlHGXFDWHGDERXWGLHWLQJ,UDQLDns must have access to the
information to be able to know what foods are good or bad and wh.QRZLQJ
how to read is not relevant if there is nothing to read.
(303 words)




Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the
same amount of money to their students' sports activities as they give to their university
libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 29
7- Many people believe that playing games teaches us about life while
others believe that children waste their time by playing games.
What’s your opinion?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
No one can denWKHLPSRUWance of playing games in our lives. Some people
argue that playing games teaches us manYDOXDEOHWKLQJVDERXWOLIHZKLOH
others believe that playing games teaches us nothing about life. I strongl
support the idea that plaLQJJDPHVLVEHQHILFLDOLQRXUOLIHIRUWKHIROORZLQJ
reasons.
One reason wh,EHOLHYHVRLVWKDWSOD\LQJJDPHVWHDFKHVXVWHDPZRUN
especially in team games. In team games, the individual team members should
not onlSOD for personal achievements but for the sa ke of theteam as well.
Moreover , playing games teaches us cooperation, organization and loDOW to
our team, which in turn affects positivelRXUUHODWLRQVKLSVZLWKRWKHUSHRSOH.
Another reason that can make playing games valuable is that it teaches
participants to have goals and to work very hard to accomplish these goals. In
life, everRQHKDVPDQ goals and he/she puts them in front of his/her eHVDQG
tries daDQGQLJKWWRDFKLHYHWKHP7KXVWKHUHLVDVWURQJUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQ
playing games and learning about life. In addition, when people practice team
sports they come into contact with people who have different characteristics and
personalities.
However, I much acknowledge that children must not spend all their time playing
games. ThePXVWQRWLJQRUHWKHLUVFKRROOHVVRQVDQGWKHLUUHVSRQVLELOLWLHVLQ
life; thePXVWFHUWDLQO have a program and trWRDELGHE their programs in
order to succeed in life.
To sum up, I still believe that playing games teaches us manXVHIXOWKLQJV
about life such as cooperation, loDOW, organization, and achievement of goals
in life.
(267 words)
Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games are as important for
adults as they are for children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your
answer.

General Essay Samples

30 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

8- Nowadays an increasing number of studentsprefer to extend their
studies abroad.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad? Use
specific reasons to support your opinion.
Educati on is essential in order to secure as good an emploPHQWSRVLWLRQDV
possible. Studying abroad is a popular choice among students todaKRZHYHr ,
is it the best choice? Studying abroad has both its advantages and
disadvantages.
There are several advantages to studying abroad. FirstlRQHFDQKDYHPRUH
knowledge about different cultures. It is also the best waWROHDUQIRUHLJQ
languages since one has the chance to speak with the native speakers. In
addition, one can learn about various traditions and customs. And all these can
help one to have better emploPHQWSRVLWLRQVEHFDXVHIRUHLJQODQJXDJHVNLOOV
and knowledge of foreign traditions are important when working with foreigners.
Besides , it can help one become more organized and self -confident. There are
manJRRGDQGEDGWKLQJVLQHYHU societ/LYLQJDEURDGLVOLNHOHDUQLQJZKDW
the big world is like. And finall6WXGHQWVOHDUQWRWDNHJRRGFDUHRIWKHPVHOYHV
and learn what theVKRXOGGRIRUDOLYLQJLQGLIIHUHQWVLWXDWLRQV.
On the other hand, one of the main disadvantages of studying abroad is living in
a different place and culture. When students go to studDEURDGWKH are living
somewhere verGLIIHUHQWDQGLWLVQRWHDV to do so. ThePD come across
manSUREOHPVHJVWUDQJHIRRGEDGZHDWher and no friends. Also when the
go back to their countries theQHHGWRJHWXVHGWRWKHFXOWXUHDJDLQ,WFDQ
become a big problem if the cannot, because thePLJKWQRWEHDEOHWRZRUN
with others. Another disadvantage of studying abroad is selfishness. Self-
confidence could be self -destructive. Almost all students that studDEURDGDUH
verFRQILGHQW It is good to be self -confident but at times it maEHFRPHVHOf -
destructive, sincethese students will not hear the ideas of others and believe in
onlw hat they think which might make working with other people hard.
In conclusion, studying abroad is a good opportunitEXWWKHDGYDQWDJHVDQG
disadvantages must first be considered verFDUHIXOO before deciding whether
or not to enter foreign universities .
(340 words)
Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid
according to how much their students learn. Give specific reasons and examples to
support your opinion.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 31
9- The government is planning to set a higher driving age. The law will not
allow young people below 21 to drive.
Do you agree or disagree with this scheme? Use specific reasons to
support your opinion.
The media seem to have developed a grudge against teenage drivers recentl
TheFODLPWKDWWKHVHoung people should not be allowed on the road because
theFDXVHDFFLGHQWVZKLOHWHHQVFDXVHQRPRUHDFFLGHQWVWKDQDGXOWVGR
IncrediblWKHJRYHUQPHQWVHHPVWRVKDUHWKLVEOLQGSUHMXGLFHDQGLVJRLQJWRVHW
a n unacceptablKLJKGULYLQJDJH(YHQLIWHHQVFDXVHDVPXFKPDhem as the
government claims theGRWKH should be given a chance to improve on
themselves, not wait for themselves to become safer.
An extremelREYLRXVIDFWWKDWERWKWKHJRYHUQPHQWDQGWKHPHGLDKDYH
overlooked is that age does not make a person safe. This is whDGXOWVFDXVH
just as manDFFLGHQWVDVWHHQDJHUVGR+RZHYHr ,the government refuses to
see what is plainlXQGHULWVQRVHDQGLVJRLQJWRVHWDQXQMXVWGULYLQJDJHLQWKH
hope that it will reduce the countrVQXPEHURIURDGDFFLGHQWV%HDULQPLQGWKDW
adults, who have the exact same rate of accidents, are allowed to roam freel
on the road. This shows how biased the government is.
The high driving age also creates problems for all the RXQJSHRSOHZKRZLOOQRW
be allowed to drive on their own, especiallXQLYHUVLW\VWXGHQWV7KH are usuall
forced to take the highlXQUHOLDEOHDQGPLVPDQDJHGSXEOLFWUDQVSRUW$VWKH
services are usuallGHODed or overloaded, it causes the young people to be
late for their dailFRPPLWPHQWV7KH also have to paPRUHDQGVXIIHUWKH
added frustration.
In conclusion, I believe instead of taking the easZD out, the government
should tackle the problem at its roots. Young people usuallFDXVH accidents
because of the lack of experience or awareness, or both. So the government
should provide education of some sort to help RXQJSHRSOHEXLOGWKHVHWKLQJV
(303 words)

Essay Practice
A fr iend o f y o ur s has received some money and plans to use all o f it either o to go on
vacation o rto buy a car .Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend's
two c ho ices and e xplain which one you t hink your friend s hould c hoose. Use specific
reasons and details t o support your choice.

General Essay Samples

32 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

10- Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of
every school day. Other people believe that students should spend the
whole school day on academic studies.
What are the benefits of exercise? Use specific reasons to support your
opinion.
Most people need some motivation to get off the couch and begin exercising.
TheKDYHVWDUWHGWRZRUNRXWDQGWKHQVWRSSHGWKHLUZRUNRXWURXWLQHVRPDQ
times that theFDQQRWNHHSWUDFNRIWKHQXPEHURISURJUDPVWKH have tried. In
fact, bVWDWLVWLFVWKHVHSHRSOHDUHDPRQJWKHDYHUDJH,UDQLDQV7KHUHDUHPDQ
benefits that arrive from the presence of exercise in our daily routine. Improved
strength, improved cardiovascular fitness, and an improved immune sVWHPDUH
just three of the manEHQHILWVWKDWFRPHIURPH[HUFLVH.
First, strength is the power to resist strain or stress. Strength training, also
known as resistance training, has manEHQHILWV% training over a regular
period of time RXUPXVFOHWRQHZLOOLQFUHDVHWKHm uscle's readiness for work.
Increased muscle tone improves posture, which can help lead to a better -
developed phVLTXH)ROORZLQJDUHVLVWDQFe -training program RXFDQH[SHFWWR
find changes in RXUERG shape.
Another benefit might also be the cardiovascular fitness. The heart is a muscle
that responds to exercise bEHFRPLQJVWURQJHUDQGPRUHHIILFLHQW7KHPXVFOHV
demand more energDQGR[gen due to the increased workload that comes
from exercise. This causes the heart rate and respiratorUDWHWRLQc rease in
order to provide the required additional fuel to the muscles. In addition, the
entire circulatorVstem works more efficientlGXHWRYDVFXODUGLODWLRQDQG
cholesterol reduction. BLPSURYLQJWKHFRQGLWLRQRIour cardiovascular fitness
RXDUHa lso helping RXUVHOIOLYHORQJHUGHFUHDVHWKHULVNRIKHDUWGLVHDVHV
lower theblood pressure, strengthen RXUFDUGLRYDVFXODUVstem, and the list
goes on.
Regular phVLFDODFWLYLW appears to improve the functioning of the immune
sVWHP5HFHQWUHVHDUFKVXJJHVWVWKDWSHRSOHZKRH[HUFLVHUHJXODUO come
down with fewer colds and flues than their sedentarIULHQGV5HJXODUSKsical
activitVHHPVWRVWUHQJWKHQWKHLPPXQHVstem so that it is better able to fight
the foreign germs that make our bodies sick .
In conclusion, exercise can be verEHQHILFLDOLISHUIRUPHGFRUUHFWO\DQG
efficientl (331 words)
Essay Practice
Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous
activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 33
11- Despite all the government’s efforts to decrease the number of car
accidents, this number is still on the rise.
In your opinion, how can the government help reduce the number of car
accidents?
U se specific reasons to support your opinion.
The number of vehicles on freewaVDQGVWUHHWVLVLQFUHDVLQJDWDQDODUPLQJ
rate. This influx of motor vehicles is creating hazardous conditions. Moreover,
drivers are in such a rush to get to their destinations that manEHFRPHDQJU or
impatient with other motorists who are too slow andalthough law enforcement
authorities warn motorists against aggressive driving, the number of drivers who
act out their angrLPSXOVHVKDVQRWGHFOLQHG
The first reason indeed is not legislating serious punishments for aggressive
driving. Legislating punishments for foolish behaviors is verFUXFLDOLQRUGHUWR
decrease the number of such accidents. At the same time police officers, who
have the right to arrest anGULYHUZKo is drunk, should also have the right to
capture aggressive drivers as both drunk and foolishlEHKDYLQJGULYHUVWKUHDWHQ
the safetRIPRWRUZDs. In mRSLQLRQWKHJRYHUQPHQWVKRXOGSOD its role in
controlling this phenomenon.
Besides, ignoring the traffic laws and regulations leads to more road accidents
and to decrease the number of road accidents, our drivers should be more
accurate in obeying these rules. For instance, theVKRXOGORRNDQGVLJQDO
before overtaking other cars. TheVKRXOGDOVRVWRSZKHQWKH come to a
junction. This, consequentlZRXOGUHGXFHWKHQXPEHURIDFFLGHQWVZKLFKWDNH
place dailRQRXUPRWRUZDs.
To conclude, careless and irresponsible drivers are endangering everRQH
because theFUHDWHKD]DUGRXVFRQGLWLRQVE acting and driving foolishlWKH
drivers should control their anger and learn to drive safel$IWHUDOOWKHOLYHV
theVDYHFRXOGEHWKHLURZQ.
(258 words)


Essay Practice
Should go vernments spe nd more moneo n improvi ng roads and highways, or should
go vernments spend more moneo n improving pu blic t ranspo rtation ( buses, t rains,
subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

General Essay Samples

34 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

12- Many students think school classes are boring and useless.
What a re the factors leading to this problem?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
Students often remark that school is boring. This remark could be fueled bD
lackadaisical and trulLQDSSURSULDWHVHWRIPDQGDWRU credits, lack of interest
towards subjects and an extremelERULQJPHWKRGRIWHDFKLQJ
The main problem, Mandator&UHGLWVVWDUWVULJKWDWWKHWRSRIWKHODGGHU
Students are forced into classes theZLOOQRWQHHGDQGDUHWDXJKWVNLOOVWKDWZLOO
never be used. If a child is to become a mathematician whLVKHVKHIRUFHGWR
sit through classes where a teacher rambles on and breaks down a storWKDW
will never be picked up in life again? Once this problem is figured out, students
will be more interested and encouraged in classes.
The second problem, lack of interest, is fueled bWKHVDPH
mandatorFUHGLWV:K should a student be forced into taking a class where
theZLOOVLPSO be caught "snoozing" due to lack of interest. BWKLVWLPHD
student has given up and starts to hate school i n general.
The third problem, drilling students, is found with the teachers themselves. A
student has to sit in class with his books open rewriting the same words being
said bWKHWHDFKHUV:K cannot they make it more hands -on, keep the
students into i t? If teachers want results theVKRXOGLQYROYHWKHLUVWXGHQWVLQWKH
learning process and avoid promoting passive leaning bXVLQJPRUHSUDFWLFDO
and interesting teaching methods.
In conclusion, I think in order to interest the students in school, the s chool
principles need to make significant changes in their education programs.
(258 words)



Essay Practice
It has r ecent lEHHQa nno unced that a new high s choo l maEHEXLOWLQ\RXUFRPPXQLt 
Do you support or oppose this plan? Wh"8VHVSHFLILFUHDVRQVDQGGHWDLOVLQ\RXU
answer.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 35
13- Some people believe hunting animals as a sport should not be
illegalized while others disagree.
What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
How manDQLm als will be slaughtered before it is decided too manDUHGHDG"
Will species die out and fade into obscurit":LWKWKHODUJHSUHYDOHQFHRI
hunters in today's world, it is time to define what hunting is. Hunting is not a
sport due to its inability to follow the definition of a sport, the waste of precious
animal lives, and moral ethics.
ManSHRSOHWKLQNWKDWDVSRUWVKRXOGEHIDLUWRERWKVLGHV7KHUHVKRXOGDOZDs
be a chance for the other team to win; otherwise there would not be a point.
Also, a sport should be fun for both sides. If it is not, then the sport stops being
recreational. A third reasonis the fact that people participate in sports bFKRLFH
An animal does not choose to be hunted, it is chosen bWKHKXQWHU,WZRXOG
seem that hunting is no longer a sport: it is unfair to the animal, the animal is
definitelQRWKDYLQJIXQDQGWKHDQLPDOKDVDEVROXWHO no choice about
participating.
In addition, when People in the past hunted an animal, theZRXOGKRQRXULWV
spirit. This was done because t heEHOLHYHGWKDWDOOFUHDWXUHVLQFOXGLQJ
humans, were equal in life. One of the waVWKH honoured the animal's spirit
was to use everSRUWLRQRIWKHERG. TheZRXOGXVHWKHVNLQIRUFORWKLQJRU
shelter, the stomach for cooking, the meat for eating and manRWKHUSRUWLRQVIRU
various uses. This practice continued for hundreds of HDUV,WVWLOOH[LVWVWRGD.
ManPRGHUQGD sport hunters do not follow this ideal. A lot of hunters stuff
and mount their kills as trophies, or decorations. This is a waste o f the animal.
And finallLISHRSOHEHOLHYHWKDWNLOOLQJKXPDQVLVZURQJZK do they not
believe the same about wild animals? If a person walked into a gun store and
told the clerk that he/she was going to go hunting, the clerk would start setting
up the license. If the same person told the clerk that he/she was going to hunt
humans, the clerk would immediatelVHWRIIWKHDODUPDQGVXPPRQWKHSROLFH
Then If it is wrong to kill humans in this manner, then it must be wrong to kill
animals in the same way .
In conclusion I believe to kill an animal out of necessitLVXQGHUVWDQGDEOHEXWWR
kill an animal for sport! That is unjust and should never occur. (408 words)
Essay Practice
Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals,
or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be
saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

General Essay Samples

36 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

14. Humans are producing an increasing amount of trash everyday and the
world is becoming full of the landfills we use to get rid of our trash.
In your opinion, h ow can recycling save the environment and help the
people on Earth?
Use specific reasons t o support your opinion.
RecFOLQJPHDQVWRXVHDJDLQ andagain. RecFOLQJKHOSVWKHZRUOGEHFDXVHZH
are reusing things instead of using energWRPDNHPRUHWKLQJV3DSHUWLQ
metals, plastic, glass & miscellaneous items can be recFOHG
Paper is cellu lose, which is in plant fibers. The cellulose is made bFXWWLQJGRZQ
trees, grinding them up, and dumping the wood pulp in acid. Paper can also be
recFOHGIURPRWKHUSDSHU2OGSDSHULVVHQWWRIDFWRULHVZKHUHLWLVVKUHGGHG
and mashed into pulp, which is then turned back into paper. RecFOLQJXVHV
cellulose over and over again, this saves trees from being cut down. RecFOLQJ
can also save energEHFDXVHPDNLQJUHFcled paper uses 30% to 40% less
energWKDQSURGXFLQJSDSHUIURPQHZZRRGSXOS
Tin is a metal and is mostlLQWKHIRUPRIFDQV andtin foil. Tin cans are actuall
99% steel, with a thin laHURIWLQDGGHGWRSUHYHQWUXVWLQJ,Q,UDQWKH throw
awaHQRXJKPHWDOV LQFOXGLQJWLQ WREXLOGQHZFDUV$OXPLQXPFDQUHFcling
saves 95% of the energQHHGHGWRPDNHDOXPLQXP$OVRLWZLOOVDYHRXU
mineral resources from depletion. And finall3ODVWLFLVWKHPDWHULDOWKDWPDNHV
up manWKLQJV%RWWOHV&XSVFHOOSKRQHV andmanRWKHULWHPVDUHPDGHRI
plastic. Plastic is used so much, and recFOLQJLWFDQVDYHRXURLOUHVRXUFHVDV
well as the energXVHGWRSURGXFHSODVWLF
There are manPRUHWKLQJVZKLFKFDQEHUHFcled. RecFOLQJLVJRRGIRUXV
because we reuse products andwe do not waste energZKLFKZHFDQXVHLQ
the future. RecFOLQJLVJRRd andRXVKRXOGUHFcle as much as RXFDQ.
(279 words)



Essay Practice
A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the
environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and
examples to support your answer.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 37
15- Nowadays almost every student who graduates from high school tries
to attend college or university.
Why do you think people attend college or university?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Entering higher education is nowadaVUHJDUGHGDVRQHRIWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQW
aims of most teenagers in Iran, it is indeed considered so essential that most
teenagers, upon graduation from high school, take the universitHntrance
examination which is administered annuallLQWKHKRSHWKDWWKH can pass it and
enter universit2IFRXUVHWKH have manGLIIHUHQWUHDVRQVIRUVLWWLQJWKHWHVW
manRIZKLFKDUHQRWHGXFDWLRQDOSXUSRVHV.
I believe most students struggle for success for occupational purposes. I mean
theZRXOGOLNHWRKDYHEHWWHUHPSORment opportunities with a higher salar
consequently, their favorite field of studLVXVXDOO based on market demand.
TheDUHIRQGRIWKHVSHFLDOWLHVWKDWDUHLQKLJKHUGHPDQGLn societ$QRWKHU
reason for entering college and universitLVDFKLHYLQJDKLJKHUVRFLDOVWDWXV
Holding a universitGHJUHHLVWKHVHGDs associated with a relativelVXSHULRU
status.
There are also some teenagers who trWRNHHSXSZLWKWKH-RQHVHVWheGRQRW
have anMXVWLILable reason for their decisions; however,theGRVRVLQFHWKH
do not want to fall behind others. Some other teenagers studWKHLUOHVVRQVKDUG
to pass the university entrance exam since theDUHIRUFHGWR,WLVDQREOLJDWLRQ
im posed on them bWKHLUSDUHQWVWRZKLFKWKH have to conform.
On the other hand, there are manRWKHUVZKRSUHIHUWRH[WHQGWKHLUHGXFDWLRQ
for some better reasons. There are teenagers who continue their studies in
order to broaden their knowledge; theWU to obtain academic, professional
knowledge in their favorite fields, theORYHWKHLUPDMRUDQGWU to obtain as much
information in the field as possible.
In conclusion, I believe each single teenager maKDYHKLVRUKHUUHDVRQIRU
entering college or universitDQGDUHDVRQWKDWPDy or maQRtseem
convincing for others.
(303 words)

Essay Practice
You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two
students. Would you rather hav e the university assign a student to share a room with
you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details
to explain your answer.

General Essay Samples

38 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

16- In the modern world today the rate of divorce is rising dramatically in
most societies.
In your opinion what are the most important reasons for getting divorced?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
Marriage is known to be a lifetime commitment towards love andcaring among
people. However ,most marriages these daVVHHPWREHIDLOLQJGXHWRWKH
increasing number of problems with the modern world.
WhGRSHRSOHJHWPDUULHG":HOOLWLVDNQRZQWUDGLWLRQLQKXPDQLW that a
woman and man will come together and live their lives as one. The most
important element that seems to have dis appeared is love not just anORYHEXW
true, deep- feeling love. To keep a relationship clear, the love itself should be
clear, not artificiallSODFHG,IWKHUHLVQRZHOl -defined understanding of love,
then it should obviouslQRWEHDPDUULDJH,QVRPHWUDGLWLRQVWKH have what is
known as an arranged marriage. This is the process where love is somewhat
“forced” to exist between twopeople.
DisloDOW is another reason leading to divorce. NowadaVDGXOWHU is one of the
most popular reasons for most divorces and it usually has the worst outcome as
well. These include phVLFDODQGYHUEDOILJKWVVSOLWWLQJRf a familLQFOXGLQJ
children, law suits, and much more.
Financial problems can also end a good marriage. This cause leads to fights on
spending too much monePDNLQJDEDGLQYHVWPHQWDQGSXUFKDVLQJXVHOHVV
things. Being stingy can also be another bad reason. No matter what the reason
is, the causes of failing marriages are practicallHQGOHVV
U nexpected health deterioration is still another problem . In the Modern world
women or men would rather get a new life than staZLWKDKXVEDQGWKDWZLOO
sooner or later die. PhVLFDOLOOQHVVLVSUHWW\EDGDVZHOO,IDPDQLVLPSRWHQWRU
a woman is infertile, this means that theFDQQRWFRQFHLYHDFKLOG6RPHSHRSOH
believe that the main reason for marriage is to have children, and if there is no
potential of having children, then whVKRXOGWKH staWRJHWKHU?
Finall,EHOLHYHWKDWWKHoung people must change their attitudes towards
manWKLQJVVXFKDs love, life, loyaltDQGVRRQEHIRUHWKey end up in divorce
themselves.
(341 words)
Essay Practice
Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults.
Other pe ople t hink that friend s are the most important influence on young adults. Which
view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 39
17- Some people believe that people’s choice of leisure activities is to a
great extent affected by fashions, while others believe that people still
choose their favorite leisure activities regardless of fashions.
With which opinion do you agree? Use specific reasons to support your
opinion.
BFRPSDULVRQZLWKHYHQWKHUHFHQWSDVWWKHFKRLFHRIOHLVXUHDFWLYLWLHVRQRIIHU
todaLVYDs t, but while it maVHHPUHDVRQDEOHWRDUJXHWKDWVRPHRIWKHVH
activities reflect the trends and fads of the day ,I believe the majoritVWLOOFKRRVH
to take up their hobbies out of interest.
While some maIDOOYLFWLPWRIDVKLRQLQWKHPRGHUQZRUOGPDQ people of all
ages and backgrounds take up hobbies for social reasons. Traditional hobbies
range from participation in active sports like tennis to old favorites such as chess
and stamp collecting, and these continue to be popular. There are still people
who collect shells as a hobbDQGWKH eagerlSXUVXHWKHLUKREELHVLUUHVSHFWLYH
of the fashions that catch on and fall out daLQGD out.
Where sports is concerned, most people know what theOLNHDQGSDUWLFLSDWHRXW
of love of the game, rather than because it is currentlIDVKLRQDEOH3HRSOHKDYH
been interested in a particular sport during their whole life and changes in
fashion have rarelDIIHFWHGWKHLULQWHUHVWV,WLVZRUWKPHQWLRQLQJWKDWFKLOGUHQV
games such as hide and seek and tag are still widelDSSUHFLDWHGE most
children all around the world regardless of the new games that are being
introduced on a dailEDVLV
However ,for some people as new hobbies and activities are introduced, other
hobbies are histor)RUH[DPSOHVSRUWVVXFKa s r ollerblading lose their
fascination after a few months. Current trends are alwaVRYHUVKDGRZHGE the
new ones being promoted through massive advertisement. Electronic games go
out of date almost as soon as RXKDYHERXJKWWKHPDQGWKLVLVVREHFDXVH
ma nufacturers promote the fact that only the latest version is worth having, and
so ensure continued sales.
Therefore, I feel that while fashions have an influence, particularlDPRQJWKH
RXQJWKHPDMRULW of people enjoWKHLUKREELHVIRUWKHLURZQVDNe .
(317 words)
Essay Practice
Some people prefer to plan act ivities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not
to make any plans at all for their free t ime. Compare the benefits of planning free- time
activit ies w it h t he be nefits o f not making plans. Which do you prefer -planning or not
planning for your leisure t ime? Use specific r easons and examples t o explain your
choice.

General Essay Samples

40 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

18- Some parents believe that students must work hard at school and
spend their free time learning their school lessons, while others believe
that students need to spend their free time playing and developing other
skills.
With which opinion do you agree? Use specific reasons to support your
opinion.
TodaHGXFDWLRQKDVEHFRPHDSULRULW for manSDUHQWVVHHNLQJWRVHFXUHD
good future for their children in this rapidlFKDQJLQJZRUOG0RVWSDUHQWVEHOLHYH
that if their children work hard at school, then theZLOOLQFUHDVHWKHLU
opportunities for going to higher education and eventuallJHWWLQJDJRRGMRE2I
course theDUHULJKW+RZHYHr ,thePXVWNQRZWKDWWKHUHDUHRWKHUWKLQJVWR
learn except the academic skills at schools.
The parents, who do not allow their children sufficient free time for leisure
activities outside school hours, are misguided. Such activities are far from being
a waste of time for the children for the simple reason that they are not academic.
It is important to remember that children need to develop skills other than
intellectual ones, and the best waWRd o this is through activities such as sports,
games and playing with other kids.
Moreover children must develop their imagination; make -believe games can
help children to inspire their imagination. Besides ,thePXVWOHDUQSKsical
coordination through the games theyplaZLWKWKHLUSHHUV7KH must taste
victorDQGIDLOXUHKRZFDQWKH learn important social lessons about winning
and losing if theGRQRWSUDFWLFHDQ sports? ManFKLOGUHQIRUPVWURQJ
personal relationships with the irfriends they pla with, and without the
opportunitWRGRWKLVWKH could grow up emotionallLPPDWXUHDQGXQIRUPHG
However, In the world todaVWXGHQWVQHHGWREHHGXFDWHGLQRUGHUWRVXUYLYHLQ
this world; thePXVWEHVNLOOHGDQGNQRZOHGJHDEOHWKHUHIRUHDOORZLQJc hildren
to ignore these fundamental needs and waste their time will not help them, so as
access to the best education and best jobs is becoming more competitive, then
it is true that children have to make the best of their study time when theDUH
RXQJ.
Finall,WKLQNLWLVLPSRUWDQWWRUHPHPEHUWKDWFKLOGUHQQHHGWRUHOD[DVZHOODV
work. If everWKLQJWKH do must have educational or academic relevance, then
theZLOOVRRQJHWWLUHGRIVWXG\LQJDOWRJHWKHUZKLFKLVWKHODVWWKLQJSDUHQWV
would want. (344 words)
Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required
to study art and music in secondary school. Use specific reasons to support your answer.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 41
19- In the fi ght against crime, police forces and governments are
increasingly using security cameras in public places. Some people are
opposed to this, saying that it invades our privacy.
Discuss both these views and finally give your opinion.
Security cameras have become ubiquitous in manFRXQWULHV:KHUHDVEHIRUH
theDSSHDUHGRQO in banks and at high -securitDUHDVWKH are now entering
public places such as malls, streets, stadiums and transport. ManSHRSOHIHHO
the intrude on citizens’ privacy while others believe thePD help increase
social security.
Some people believesecuritFDPHUDVDUHIDUIURPEHLQJDSHUIHFWVROXWLRQ7KH
biggest objection they can lodge concerns privac0DQ people feel that the
should be free to travel or move around a shop, mall, street or countrZLWKRXW
being photographed or recorded. TheIHHOWKDWEHLQJZDWFKHGFRQVWDQWO is like
being in a jail, and that ordinarSHRSOHDUHORVLQJWKHLUIUHHGRPEHFDXVHRI
these securitGHYLFHV Another point is that although the police saWKDWRQO
criminals have something to fear from the cameras, manSHRSOHGRQRWWUXVW
governments with too much information. Corrupt authorities could use the
information in the wrong waRUWZLVWLWWRYLFWLPL]HVRPHJURXSVDQGILQDOO I
think cameras and computers can make mistakes.
However, others believe that surveillance cameras have several benefits. An
obvious benefit is that the police can catch criminals in the act, and reduce
crime. This will make the streets safer for ordinarSHRSOH. Catching a criminal
red handed will also greatlUHGXFHWKHSROLFHFRVWs as the police do not need to
conduct large scale investigation to prove a criminal guilt$PRUHLPSRUWDQW
point is that criminals, particularloung offenders or pettFULPLQDOVZLOOEe
deterred. TheZLOOQRWEHWHPSWHGWRFDUU out crimes, and thus societZLOOEHD
lot safer. Cameras are also cost -effective and unobtrusive. Authorities do not
need to spend large amounts of moneRQSROLFH.
In conclusion, although there are definite disadvantages to using surveillance
devices such as cameras, but considering the rapidlLQFUHDVLQJFULPHUDWe in
our society and the critical need for enhancing our social security ,I think the
merits waRXWZHLJKLWVGHPHULWV
(327 words)
Essay Pra ctice
Some people believe citizens should be allowed to carry handguns in or der to protect
themselves, w hile others think this can lead to many social security problems in the
society. What’s your opinion? Use spe cific reasons to support your answer.

General Essay Samples

42 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

20- Some people believe that starting school at an earlier age is very
beneficial for children, while others believe that children must stay home
and attend school at the age of 7.
In your opinion, what are the advant ages of attending school before the
age of 7?
In manSODFHVWRGD, children start primarVFKRRODWDURXQGWKHDJHRIVL[RU
seven; however, because it is more likely now that both parents work, there is
little opportunitIRUFKLOGUHQWRVWD home up to that age. Instead they will
probablJRWRDQXUVHU school when theDUHPXFKounger. While some
people think this maEHGDPDJLQJWRDFKLOG
VGHYHORSPHQWRUWRDFKLOG
V
relationship with his or her parents, in fact there are manDGYDQWDJHVWRKDYLQg
school experience at a RXQJDJH
FirstlDFKLOGZLOOOHDUQWRLQWHUDFWZLWKDORWRIGLIIHUHQWSHRSOHDQGVRPH
children learn to communicate verHDUO because of this. TheDUHJHQHUDOO
more confident and independent than children who staDWKRPe with their
parents and who are not used to strangers or new situations. Such children find
their first daDWVFKRRODWWKHDJHRIVL[YHU frightening and this maKDYHD
negative effect on how theOHDUQ
Another advantage of going to school at an ear lDJHLVWKDWFKLOGUHQ sociall
develop faster. ThePDNHIULHQGVDQGOHDUQKRZWRJHWRQZLWKRWKHUFKLOGUHQRI
a similar age. This is often not possible at home because theDUHWKHRQO
child ren, or because their brothers or sisters are older or RXQJe r.
So overall, I believe that attending school from a RXQJDJHFDQEHQHILWFKLOGUHQ
in manGLIIHUHQWZDs. Moreover ,theVWLOOKDYHSOHQW time to spend at home
with their parents, so theFDQEHQHILWIURPERWKHQYLURQPHQWV
(260 words )


Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self -confidence is the most
important factor for success in school or at work. Use specific reasons and examples to
support your opinion.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 43
21- Research is an essential part of completing assignments.
Write a report for a course tutor suggesting some good places to obtain
useful information. Give reasons for your choices.
The most important step in the completion of a class assignment is researching
the topic. Some assignments require RXWRJLYHZULWWHQDQVZHUDQGRWKHUV
require spoken presentation. However, finding useful information is onl
possible if RXNQRZZKHUHWRORRN
To begin with, there is the reading list that the tutor gives students in class.
Reading lists show the essential book titles RXVKRXOGUHDGWRFRPSOHWHD
written task, and are useful because theFRQWDLQWKHERRNVWKDWWKHWXWRU
recommends.
Secondly , there is the librarLQWKHVFKRROZKHUHou are studying. Most good
co lleges have libraries containing a wide range of books, newspapers,
magazines and reference material. These days, modern well -equipped libraries
have banks of computers with CD -ROM disks on a varietRIVXEMHFWV
AlternativelLIou are researching information for a spoken presentation, you
might borrow a video to show RXUFODVV,I\RXFDQQRWILQGWKHERRNVou need
in the school or college librarou can go to the local librarDQGDVNWKH
librarian there to help you.
AdditionallWKHLQWHUQHWDOORZVXVWRREWDLQLQIRUPDWLRQIURPDKXJHQXPEHURI
sources all over the world. It might take a long time to search for what RXZDQW
but once you find it you can print out onlWKHSDJHVou require.
FinallSHRSOHFDQEHJRRGVRXUFHVRILQIRUPDWLRQ too. BLQWHUYLHZLQgpeople
with particular knowledge, or conducting surveVou can obtain information
that is the most current and suitable for RXUQHHGV
(253 words )

Essay Practice
A university plans to develop a new research center in your country. Some people want
a center for business research. Other people want a center for research in agriculture
(farming). Which of these two kinds o f research centers do you recommend for your
country? Use specific r easons in your recommendation.

General Essay Samples

44 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

22- Nowadays more and more research results show the positive effects of
sports in our life, and people are strongly advised to take up a sport as
soon as possible.
What are the major effects of getting exercise?
Practicin ga sport is much more than the sole act of pushing RXUERG through
exhaustion or using RXUVNLOOVWRUHDFKour goal. There are manHIIHFWVWKDW
show after RXJHWLQYROYHGLQDVSRUW.
The first major effect of practicing a sport is that RXZLOOGHYHORSSKsical
abilities. Your bodZLOOEHLQEHWWHUVKDSHDQGou will be able to achieve things
that phVLFDOO RXFRXOGQRWDFFRPSOLVKEHIRUH)RULQVWDQFH\RXUVSHHG
muscular mass, stamina, lung capacity, and elasticitZLOODOOLQFUHDVH
enormousl BH[HUFLVLQJRQDUHJXODUEDVLVour body will be healthier, which
means fewer diseases and fewer injuries. People with a healthOLIHWHQGWROLYH
longer and more happil.
The second effect has to do with your personal life. Yes, sports will get very
deep into your life. Practicing a sport requires some time, so RXZLOOEH
entertained for a while everGD instead of watching television or surfing on the
internet. BSUDFWLFLQJDVSRUWou will get the chance to travel to new places
where competitions are held. And that’s not all because once RXHQWHUDEHWWHU
level of competition; RXPD compete in national or international tournaments,
attract sponsors, and even make a profit out of it!
Practicing a sport affects RXDVDSHUVRQDVZHOODV\RXUVRFLDO life. You will
meet a lot of people in the business, from beginners to professionals; however,
onlDVPDOOJURXSRILQGLYLGXDOVZLOOEHFRPH\RXUIULHQGVWRWKHSRLQWRIWXUQLQJ
into RXUVHFRQGIDPLO. That is having a team. As an athlete RXZLOOGHYHORp a
strong character and a competitive spirit. Besides RXZLOOEHFRPHPRUH
disciplined and responsible, which will certainlKHOSou in your professional
life.
In conclusion, sports can shape RXUERG, your life, and RXUPLQGLQJRRG
waV3UDFWLFLQJa sport keeps RXHQWHUWDLQHGDQGIDUDZD from boredom. In
addition RXZLOOKDYHWKHFKDQFHWRH[SHULHQFHWKHDPD]LQJIHHOLQJRIEHDWLQJ
all RXURSSRQHQWVGRZQIURPWKHTXDUWHUILQDOVRUFURVVLQJWKHILQLVKOLQHDKHDG
of everRQHHOVH.
(350 words)
Essay Practice
People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some
read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways
of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 45
23- Unfortunately nowadays many school students drop out of school
before they graduate.
In your opinion what are the reasons for school drop- out?
And what ways can you suggest in order to solve the problem?
TodaDOWKRXJKPRVWVWXGHQWVLQ,UDQFRPSOHWHWKHLUHGXFDWLRQDODUJHQXPEHU
still drop out because of familVRFLDODQGZRUNSUHVVXUHV7KLVSUREOHP
requires serious action from both individuals and the government.
Most students who do not complete school do so because of family problems.
Girls, especiallZDQWWRJHWPDUULHGDQGVWDUWDIDPLO. Some parents are not
interested in education and do not support their children in studying. Social
problems are also a contributing factor. Education is compulsorEXWGHVSLWH
this, some people do not take it seriousl)XUWKHUPRUHMREVDUHDYDLODEOHHYHQ
if students do not have a good education. The third reason is work pressure.
Some families are poor and need their children to work in order to increase the
income. All these problems will create RXQJSHRSOHZKRGRQRWKDYHDQ skills
and who will not be able to improve their lives for the familDQGWKHFRXQWU.
There are several things that can be done about these problems. Parents
should be encouraged to send their children to school. Schools with baby -
minding facilities should be opened speciallIRUPDUULHGVWXGHQWV7KH
government needs to stress the importance of education and even offer financial
support to students to continue. This will encourage students to staDWVFKRRO
rather than start working.
In conclusion, there are several things that the government can do to allow more
people to finish school. However, a number of societDWWLWXGHVDOVRKDYHWR
change if the countrVoung people are to achieve the ir full potential.
(256 words)


Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students
to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mat hemat ics. Use
specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

General Essay Samples

46 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

24- Television is now widespread in all communities. Almost everyone has
access to this medium on a daily basis. However, the effects of television
are not always positive.
What are some of the negative effects of television?
What can be done to minimize these bad effects? Give reasons for your
answer.
One can saWKDWWHOHYLVLRQLVRQHRIWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWWHFKQRORJLFDO
developments and nowadaVDOPRVWHYHUone in the world has ac cess to TV.
Television has caused significant changes in familOLIHDQGHGXFDWLRQVRPHRI
which have been negative.
Certainl79FDQEHDSRZHUIXOHGXFDWLRQDOWRROZKLFKFDQEHQHILWWKHSHRSOH
however, the effect that TV has had on our lives have not all been positive.
Before television was widelDYDLODEOHIDPLOLHVVSHQWPRUHWLPHWRJHWKHUWDONLQJ
and playing games. TheVHHPHGPXFKFORVHUWRHDFKRWKHUWKDQPRGHUQ
families. Now manFKLOGUHQHYHQKDYHWKHLURZQ79LQWKHEHGURRPVRWKH
spend very little time with their parents or brothers and sisters. Some people
might argue that this helps RXQJSHRSOHWREHLQGHSHQGHQWEXW,WKLQNWKLVLVD
negative effect because theZLOOEHXQDEOHWRFRPPXQLFDWHHIIHFWLYHO or relate
to others emotionall$OVRWKHIDFWLVWKDWPDQ people waste a lot of time
watching poor qualitSURJUDPVZKLFKGRQRWKDYHDSRVLWLYHLQIOXHQFH
Advertising, too, can have very negative effects. Furthermore TV is sometimes
used to deliberately misinform people, for example when it is used as a
propaganda tool bJRYHUQPHQWV
I am sure there are some verSUDFWLFDOZDs in order to reduce the negative
effects of TV in societ)LUVWRII,WKLQNWKHJRYHUQPHQWPXVWOHJLVODWHUXOHV
according to the religious beliefs of the nation preventing the people in charge
from broadcasting poor qualitSURJUDPV$QRWKHUWKLQJWKHJRYHUQPHQWFDQGR
is to provide education programs for parents and children instructing them about
the negative effects of TV. And finall,WKLQNHYHU single indivi dual must
understand that it is time to kick the habit of watching TV and take up a more
beneficial and active hobb
In conclusion even though it can benefit the members of the societ,EHOLHYH
the one -eHGPRQVWHULVGRLQJDJUHDWKDUPZKLFKZHPXVWQRWLJQRUH
(326 words)
Essay Practice
In the future, students may have the choice of studLQJDWKRPHE\XVLQJWHFKQRORJ\
such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you
prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 47
25- Addiction to TV is becoming more and more common worldwide. What
are some of the problems associated with this and what recommendations
can you offer?
The word television comes from Greek and means "seeing far awa+RZHYHU
the more we watch it, the more short -sighted and narrow -minded we become.
Unfortunatel79LVIDVWEHFRPLQJDVSRSXODUDQGGDQJHURXVDVGUXJV,QWKLV
essa,ZLOORXWOLQHVRPHSUREOHPVOLQNHGWR79DGGLFWLRQDQGVXJJHVWVRPH
viable solutions.
Starting with the dangers, health is one of the biggest. To clarifSHRSOHZKR
watch too much TV frequentlGHYHORSSUREOHPVZLWKWKHLUHes and back and,
too, manEHFRPHREHVH$IXUWKHUQHJDWLYHHIIHFWLVWKDWDORWRIWLPe is wasted.
In fact, statistics show that frequent viewers watch TV for an average of three or
more hours daily . A final issue is that TV addicts maEHFRPHDQWLVRFLDO
spending little qualitWLPHZLWKIDPLO and friends. Indeed, this is particularl
detrimental tochildren who need to learn good social skills.
FortunatelWKHUHDUHUHPHGLHVIRUWKLVGDQJHURXVDGGLFWLRQ2QHDQVZHULVWR
budget the amount of time spent watching TV For example, people can set
aside one hour a daDQGVFKHGXOHRWKHUDFWLYLWLHVVXFKDVVSRUWVRUUHDGLQJLQ
their leisure time. Yet another alternative is to limit the number of televisions in
the household, even covering screens with a sheet or blanket when they are not
in use. Last, the best solution of all could be to kill the contraption! If RXGRQ
W
have a TV, you won't watch one!
To conclude, addiction to TV is a widespread disease, but with the right
medicine, it can be cured. Individuals must take a long view towards the future,
recognizing that short -term actions h ave long-term consequences.
(271 words)

Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers,
magazines, and other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous
people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain
your opinion.

General Essay Samples

48 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

26- A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near
your community.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your
community. Do you support or oppose the factory?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
These daV,KHDUQHZVDERXWDELJFRPSDQ which intends to build a large
factorLQWKHSUR[LPLW of mQHLJKERUKRRG,WKLQNOLYLQJFORVHWRDODUJH
manufacturing firm certainlKDVDORWRIFRQVLGHUDEOHPHULWVHYHQWKRXJKLW
might cause some problems for the residents of the neighboring communities.
The factorFDQKHOSGHFUHDVHWKHUDWHRIXQHPSOR\PHQWLQWKLVDUHD
UnfortunatelUHFentlWKHUHKDYHEHHQIHZHPSOR\PHQWRSSRUWXQLWLHVLQP
communitDQGPRVWSHRSOHJRGRZQWRZQLQVHDUFKRIHPSORment; therefore,
the construction of a large factorFDQVDYHSHRSOHIURPFRPPXWLQJWRDQGIURP
work in the citFHQWHr . The factorZLOODl so place more importance on our town.
I mean more people will be traveling to our neighborhood and therefore the local
businesses will flourish as well.
However ,there will be some problems for the residents too; For example, if
accurate measures to combat pollution are not taken the area maEH
threatened bSROOXWLRQ. Chemical wastes produced bWKHIDFWRU will
contaminate the water resources and maHQGDQJHUWKHOLYHVRISHRSOHDVZHOO
as the ecosVWHP7KHSHRSOHPD as well facemore traffic jams in t he
neighborhood as more people rush into the town in the morning.
On the whole, I believe we need this factorSHRSOHKDYHEHHQVXIIHULQJIURP
financial problems in recent HDUVDQGWKHORZXQHPSORment has led to an
increasing rate of crime and violence among the RXWK0DQ people spend
several hours commuting to and from work and manSHRSOHKDYHHPLJUDWHGWR
other cities and have settled down there. Ourtown is disappearing and we need
this factorWRVDYH it.
(277 words)

Essay Practice
Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines. Which do you
prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 49
27- Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big
city.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city? Which
place would you prefer to live in?
Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
Most people live in places where theFDQHQMR their lives; even though s ome
people like living in small rural areas, some people prefer to live in large modern
cities and while the wide range of facilities available in a large modern city can
benefit its inhabitant sin so manGLIIHUHQWZDs, it certainlFDXVHVVRPH
problems for them.
Most people prefer to live in a large modern citVLQFHWKHUHLVDZLGHUDQJHRI
facilities in a large modern citLQFOXGLQJWUDQVSRUWIDFLOLWLHVVRFLDODQG
recreational facilities, educational facilities and a lot more, such as medical
facili ties; there are large up -to -date hospitals and schools and other communit
facilities most of which are not available in a small town. Public facilities existing
in alarge modern citDOVRLQFOXGHGLVDEOHGIDFLOLWLHVDQGVSRUWVIDFLOLWLHVZKLFh a
small to wn lacks.
Nevertheless one can’t ignore the disadvantages either, consider the hustle and
bustle of a large modern citIRULQVWDQFHPRVWODUJHFLWLHVDUHFURZGHGQRLV
and at times polluted, and RXFDQQHYHUILQGWKHSHDFHDQGTXLHWRIDVPDOO
town in a large cit7KHUHLVDOVRXVXDOO a higher cri me rate in large modern
cities. Living expenses are also much higher in large cities and this forces the
residents to work harder in order to earn a living.
In conclusion, I do prefer to live in a large modern citRIFRXUVH,UHDOL]HWKH
fact that there are some disadvantages in living in a large modern cit+RZHYHU
RXFDQQRWFRPSDUHWKHIDFLOLWLHVDYDLODEOHLQVPDOOWRZQVDQGPRGHUQFLWLHVWKH
existing facilities in a modern citDUHIDUPRUHH[WHQVLYHWKDWWKRVHLQDVPDOO
town. There are enough emploPHQWRSSRUWXQLWLHVLQDVPDOOWRZQDQGILQDOO I
cannot extend mHGXFDWLRQLQDVPDOOWRZQVLQFHWKHUHDUHQRWHQRXJK
universities and colleges.
(309 words)

Essay Practice
It is better for children t o grow up in t he count ryside t han in a bi g cit y. Discuss both
views and give your opinion. Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay.

General Essay Samples

50 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

28- In general, people these days live longer in most countries of the
world.
Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details
to develop your essay.
Living longer has alwaVEHHQDGUHDPIRUPRVWKXPDQEHLQJVDQGWKH have
tried throughout historWRILQGZDs to achieve longevitOXFNLOy their efforts
have led to some good results and now according to official figures, average life
expectancLQPDQ countries of the world has increased. In mRSLQLRQWKH
most important reason for this phenomenon is adequate healthcare and better
hJLHQH.
In the past most people who contracted the formerlIDWDOGLVHDVHVZRXOGGLHLQ
no time. There were no remedies for such diseases and onlDYHU small
proportion of the people afflicted with a fatal disease would survive. Infant
mortalitUDWHZDVWKHUHIRUHH[WUHPHO high since children were more
vulnerable and their immune sVWHPZDVWKHZHDNHVW%XWWKHVHGDy smost
children are vaccinated against most fatal diseases and their immune sVWHPLV
stronger. NowadaVWKHUHDUHWUHDWPHQWVIRUPRVWGLVHDVHVRUDWOHDVWSHRSOH
can take preventive measures against most of them.
Furthermore, nowadaVWKHIRRGWKDWZHHDWDQGWKHZDWHUWKDWZHGULQNDUH
hJLHQLF0RVWSHRSOHLQWKHSDVWGLGQRWKDYHDFFHVVWRFOHDQZDWHUUHFRXUVHV
In areas where people were not close to mountainous areas, theKDGWR
consume even dirtZDWHU1RZDGDs people carrWKHLUIRRGVLQVWHULOL]HG
packages and keep them in their fridges; hence the chances of contamination
are low. People nowadaVFDQXVHIUXLWVDQGYHJHWDEOHVIURPIDr -awaSODFHV
transported in refrigerated containers and can take in a range of vitamins and
minerals therefore theDUHKHDOWKLHU
In conclusion, I think the technological advances in different fields have helped
people live longer than before and theZi ll certainlSDYHWKHZD for still a
higher average life expectancDQGSHRSOHZLOOOLYHDORQJHUOLIHSURYLGLQJWKH\
paDWWHQWLRQWRWKHLUOLIHVW\OHVKHDOWKFDUHDQGKgiene.
(301 words)

Essay Practice
Some people be lieve t hat the E arth is being harmed bKXPDQDFt ivit y. Others feel t hat
human act ivity makes the Earth a better place to live. Discus s bo th vi ews a nd give your
opinion. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

General Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 51
29- It is said that people’s life now is becoming more and more stressful.
What are the causes and how can we solve it?
The acceleration of industrialization and the prosperitRIHFRQRP benefit our
society a great deal. But with the speeding up of economic development, peop le
are facing more and more pressure fr om various aspects of their lives. This
essaZLOOH[SORUHWKHFDXVHVIRUWKHKHDY pressure and put forward some
feasible solutions.
One of the major causes is that people’s living rhWKPKDVEHHQSURPRWHG
immensel ZLWKWKHXSJUDGLQJRIQHo- knowledge and hi-tech. To keep abreast
with the societSHRSOHKDYHWRZRUNLQWHQVLYHO on the one hand and improve
their knowledge on the other. The economic globalization strengthened
international cooperation and expanded people’s scope of activit7KHILHUFH
social competition deprives people of their spare time and makes their life more
stressful.
Another factor comes from the pressure of people’s famil3HRSOHLQWKHFXUUHQW
society have to shoulder the responsibilit of familPDLQWHQDQFH2QWKHRQH
hand, people have to care for their parents, creating for them a happDQG
comfortable life. On the other hand, theKDYHWR provideagood education for
their children. To earn more moneSHRSOHKDYHWRZRUNYHU hard to finance
their famil
If people live in heavSUHVVXUHWKH will have problems both phVLFDOO and
psFKRORJLFDOO. To relieve the pressure, I think the following suggestions are
feasible and practical. FirstlSHRSOHDUHVXJJHVWHGWRJRLQIRUVRPHs ports
games in their spare time or at the weekend. Sports can build up people’s
phVLTXHDQGPDNHWKHPYLJRURXV6HFRQGO, people should communicate with
others frequentlDQGFRQIHVVWKHLUWURXEOHDQGGLIILFXOW to others, which is a
verPDJLFZD to rel ease ones pressure. FinallSHRSOHKDYHWRILQGDEDODQFH
between moneDQGKHDOWK2WKHUZLVHRQe’ s health will be overdrawn and
spoiled bHDUQLQJPRQH.
In brief, good life should not be obtained at the price of the deterioration of one ’s
health. People should improve their lifestyles and lead a life of high qualit
(324 words)
Essay Practice
Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances. Others
believe that success results fro m careful planning. In your opinion, what does success
come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

General Essay Samples

52 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

30- Most students upon graduation from high school choose to study
abroad.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of studying a broad for a
period of time and give your own opinion .
With the rapid development of societies, we have entered an era of information
explosion. In order to acquire more knowledge, more and more people decide to
further their studDEURDG6WXG\LQJDEURDG brings about manDGYDQWDJHV,W
widens students' knowledge and horizons, and meanwhile cultivates their
independence and personalities.
Students can learn advanced knowledge and experience abroad. Since the
reform and the policRIRSHQLQJWRWKHRXWVLGe world, China has strengthened
cooperation with manFRXQWULHV$VDUHVXOWWKHVFLHQWLILFDQGWHFKQRORJLFDO
level has been improved verUDSLGO. However, compared with the developed
countries in the world, we still have a verORQJZD to go. Studying a broad
provides opportunities to students, who can learn advanced knowledge and
management experience so as to enhance the scientific level in our countr
Besides, studying abroad can enhance students' abilitWROLYHLQGHSHQGHQWO.
Students have to deal w ith manSUREOHPVZKHQWKH studDEURDG7KH have
to learn how to be accustomed to a new environment and how to get along with
the teachers and classmates. During their studWKH can acquire some
interpersonal skills.
However, "EverFRLQKDVLWVWZo sides". StudLQJDEURDGDOVREULQJVDERXW
manGLVDGYDQWDJHV)LUVWO\VWXGHQWVZLOOEHFRQIURQWHGZLWKVRPDQ
psFKRORJLFDOSUREOHPVDQGPRVWVWXGHQWVJHWKRPHVLFNDIWHUDVKRUWWLPH7KH
often feel lonelDQGKHOSOHVVLQDQHZHQYLURQPHQW)XUWKHUPRUe, the tuition fee
is verKLJKZKLFKLVDYHU heavILQDQFLDOEXUGHQWRWKHDYHUDJHSHRSOH.
FinallPRVWVWXGHQWVDUHIDFHGZLWKFULSSOLQJFRPPXQLFDWLRQSUREOHPVVLQFH
there are not proficient enough at the target language.
To sum up, the advantages of studying abroad outweigh the disadvantages
greatl Iencourage students to studDEURDG. In spite of all the problems one
maIDFH studLQJDEURDGFDQSDYHWKHZD for future progress and when
students complete their curriculum, theFDQPDNHPRUHFRQWr ibutions to the
construction of our societ (316 words)
Essay Practice
Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all
stude nts. Others be lieve t hat higher educ ation s hould be available only to good students.
Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with? Explain why.

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 53


IELTS PROGRESS
0 1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8
F irst
Then NextAfterward Finally
B ands core


A
A CC AA DD EE MM II CC

MM OO DD UU LL EE



writing task 1
(graph, diagram & map description)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

54 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

1- The bar graph below shows the different levels of post -school
qualifications in Australia and the proportion of men and women who
held them in 1999.
Su mmarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
Post-school qua lifica tion i n Austra lia a ccording to ge nde r 1999
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Mas ter's degree
Pos tgraduate di ploma Bac helor's degree
undergraduate di ploma
Sk illed voc ational di ploma
Perc entage of M ales and F emales
Females
Males
The chart gives information about post-school qualifications in terms of the
different levels of further education reached bPHQDQGZRPHQLQ$ustralia in
1999. We can see immediately that there were substantial differences in the
proportion of men and women at different levels.
The biggest gender difference is at the lowest post -school level, where 90% of
those who held a skilled vocational diploma were men, compared with onl
10% of women. BFRQWUDVWPRUHZRPHQKHOGXQGHUJUDGXDWHGLSORPDV
(70%) and marginallPRUHZRPHQUHDFKHGGHJUHHOHYHO  
At the higher levels of education, men with postgraduate diplomas clearly
outnumbered their female counterparts (70% and 30% respectivel DQGDOVR
constituted 60% of master's degree.
Thus we can see that more men than women hold qualifications at the lower
and the higher levels of education, while more women reach undergraduate
diploma level than men. The gender difference is smallest at the level of
Bachelor’s degree, however.
(155 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 55
2-The table below shows the proportion of different categories of
families living in poverty in Australia in 1999.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
Famil7\SH Proportion of people from each
household type living in poverty
Si ngle aged person
Aged couple
Single, no children
Couple, no children
Sole parent
Couple with children
All households
6% (54,000)
4% (48,000)
19% (359,000)
7% (211,000)
21% (232,000)
12% (933,000)
1 1 % (1,837,000)
The table gives a breakdown of the different tSHVRIIDPLO who were living in
povertLQ$XVWUDOLDLQ$VLWFDQEHVHHQIURPWKHJUDSKWKHUDWHRI
povertDPRQJFRXSOHVLVORZHUWKDQVLQJOHV
On average, 11% of all households, comprising almost two million people,
were in the state of povert+RZHYHUWKRVHFRQVLVWLQJRIRQO one parent or a
single adult had almost double this proportion of poor people, with 21% and
19% respectivel.
Couples generallWHQGHGWREHEHWWHURIIZLWKORZHUSRYHUW levels of couples
without children (7%) than those with children (12%). It is noticeable that for
both tSHVRIKRXVHKROGZLWKFKLOGUHQDKLJKHUWKDQDYHUDJHSURSRUWLRQZHUH
living in poverty at this time.
Older people were generallOHVVOLNHO to be poor, though once again the
trend favoured elderly couples (onl UDWKHUWKDQVLQJOHHOGHUO\SHRSOH
(6%).
Overall the table suggests that households of single adults and those with
children were more likelWREHOLYLQJLQSRYHUW than those consisting of
couples.
(174 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

56 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

3- The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast
foods in Britain. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast
foods.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the informat ion shown
below.
Expenditure on fast food by income groups
0
10 20 30 40
50
High Inc ome Average Inc ome Low Inc ome
Hamburgers
Fis h and C hips
Pizza
Consumption of fast foods 1970-1990
0
100 200 300
400 500 600
G rammes
Fis h and C hips
Hamburgers
Pizza
1970
1975 1980
The charts show the sum of moneVSHQWRQIDVWIRRGVDPRQJWKUHHLQFRPH
groups as well as the consumption rate of fast foods in Britain from 1970 to
1990.
The first chart shows that high income earners consumed considerablPRUH
fast foods than the other income groups, spending more than twice as much
on hamburgers (43 pence per person per week) than on fish and chips or
pizza (both under 20 pence). Average income earners also favoured
hamburgers, spending 33 pence per person per week, followed bILVKDQG
chips at 24 pence, then pizza at 11 pence. Low income earners spent less
than other income groups on fast foods, though fish and chips remains their
most popular fast food, followed bKDPEXUJHUVDQGWKHQSL]]D
From the graph we can see that in 1970, fish and chips were twice as popular
as burgers, pizza was at that time the least popular fast food. The
consumption of hamburgers and pizza has risen steadilRYHUWKH0 -year
period to 1990 while the consumption of fish and chips has been in decline
over the same period with a slight increase in popularitVLQFH
(193 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 57
4-The graph shows the rate of fish catches in the USA and Canada over
a period of 30 years.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
Annual Fish Catch: North America
0 1
2
3 4 5
6
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
Millions of tonnes
US
Canada
The graph shows changes in fish catches for the US and Canada over the last
30 HDUV7KHPRVWVLJQLILFDQWIHDWXUHLVWKDWILVKFDWFKHVKDYHGHFOLQHG
drasticallLQERWKWKH86DQG&DQDGDVLQFHWKHPi d-1980s. Although
Canadian production is much lower, it echoes US figures, declining or
increasing at the same rate.
Between 1972 and 1977, US fish catches averaged between 2.5 and 2.75
million tonnes per year, while Canadian landings fluctuated between 80 0,000
and 1.1 million tonnes. In 1997, however, there was a big increase in fish
caught in the US, and this rise continued up to a peak of 5.5 million tonnes in
1987. During the same period, Canada's catch increased from 1 million
tonnes to 1.5 million tonnes, an increase of 50%.
From 1987 onwards, there was a sudden decline in both countries. US figures
tumbled to 4 million tonnes in 1995, a drop of 28%, and Canadian catches
plunged to 0.5 million tonnes, a drop of 66%. In the following four years, US
catches fluctuated around the 4 million tonne mark, while Canadian catches
rose very slightl
In general, both Canadian and the much larger US catch have declined
dramaticallVLQFHWKHLUSHDNLQWKHPLd- 1980s.
(202 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

58 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

5- The pie charts show the trends in the Australian immigration from 1992 to
2002.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and
make comparisons where relevant.
1992
Europe & form er USSR
24%
Southeas t As ia 21%
Northeas t As ia 20%
India, Sri Lanka, Pakis tan10%Oceania
10%
Middle Eas t & North Africa 7%
Africa (excl. Nth Africa)3% North Am erica
2%
South &
Central Am erica 3%
2002
Southeas t A s ia16%
Northeas t A s ia 12%
India, S ri
Lank a,
Pak is tan
Oc eania 22% Europe &
former USSR 20%
South &
Central
Americ a 1% North A meric a
2%
Africa (excl. Nth A fric a)10%
Middle E as t & Nort h A fric a 7%
The pie charts show changes in Australian immigration between 1992 and 2002.
Overall, immigr ation dropped, and the number of immigrants from Europe and Asia
declined.
The biggest single group of immigrants in both years is from Europe. In 1992, almost
27,000 Europeans moved to Australia. This represented 25 of all immigrants to
Australia, but this figure dropped to just 17,000, or 20% in 2002. Immigrants from
Northeast and Southeast Asia accounted for 41% of new citizens in 1992, but this
figure plunged to just 28% in 2002, with just 25,000 people. There was also a drop in
the number and proporti on of immigrants from North and South America and from the
Middle East.
However, the number of immigrants from Africa went up sharpl,QRQO\RI
immigrants to Australia were African. BWKLVILJXUHKDGVKRWXSWRRU
10%. Another large increase was in immigration from Oceania, the islands
neighbouring Australia. BWKH made up the largest single group, at 19,000, or
22%.
In conclusion, although Europe is still an important source of people seeking to live in
Australia, immigration dropped overall, and applicants from regions such as Africa
and Oceania bec ame more numerous.
(200 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 59
6-The pie charts show the causes of diseases in developing and the developed
countries.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the m ain features, and
make comparisons where relevant.
Developing Countries
Inf ec tious &
Par as itic
Dis eas es 46%
Canc er
9% Other
2%
Heart Dis eas e 43%
Industrializ ed/
Developed Countries
Canc er21%
Other
54% Heart Dis eas e
24%
Inf ec tious &
Par as itic
Dis eas es 1%
The two pie charts show differences in the causes of diseases in rich
countries and in the developing world. The biggest difference is that infectious
diseases still kill millions of people in poorer countries, whereas in the wealth
nations, theDFFRXQWIRURQO 1% of the deaths.
In both rich and poor countries heart disease is the biggest single killer. It
accounts for almost a quarter of deaths in the affluent countries, at 24%, but
almost double that in the poorer countries, at 43%. Cancer is also a major
cause of death. In the industrial countries, 21% of deaths are due to cancer.
However, in third world countries, it only makes up 9% of fatalities. The
greatest difference however, is infectious d iseases. These make up almost
half of all deaths in poorer countries, but onlRIGLVHDVHVLQGHYHORSHG
countries. In contrast, over half of deaths in the developed world are the result
of other diseases. This compares to just 2% of deaths in poorer cou ntries.
In summarPRVWSHRSOHLQSRRUHUFRXQWULHVGLHEHFDXVHRIVLPSOHUPRUH
treatable infectious and parasitic diseases. TheDOVRVXIIHUEHFDXVHRI a lack
of resources to treat heart disease, whereas people in richer countries die due
to cancer, heart disease, and a wider range of other illnesses.
(215 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

60 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

7- The pie charts below show the forms of energy used to generate
electricity in the USA in two years.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
1970 Natural G as
24.3%
Hy dro-elec tric Power
16.2%
Nuc lear 1.4%
Oil
12.1%
Coal
46.0%
1984 Natural G as 12.3%
Hy dro-elec tric Power
13.7%
Nuc lear 13.5%
Oil
Coal
55.5%
The two pie charts illustrate the production of electricitLQWKH86E source in
1970 and 1984. In general, it can be said that coal was the most important
source of electrical power in both HDUVDOWKRXJKQXFOHDUSRZHUJUHZLQ
im portance.
In 1970, coal -powered stations were the main source of electricitLQWKH86
producing 46% of electricitDQGWKLVILJXUHLQFUHDVHGWRLQ7KH
second most important source of power in 1970 was the natural gas, with
almost 25%. However, bWKLVKDGGHFOLQHGWRMXVW+droelectric
power also declined over the same period, from 16% to less than 14%. In
contrast, nuclear energJDLQHGLQLPSRUWDQFH,WURVHIURPMXVWRI
production in 1970 to almost 14% in 1984, showing a t en-fold increase.
In summarPRUHHOHFWULFLW was produced from coal and nuclear energ
while natural gas, hGURHOHFWULFSRZHUDQGRLOGHFOLQHGLQLPSRUWDQFH. (153 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 61
8-The graph shows the average monthly temperaturesin three African
countries.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
The line graph gives information about the average monthlWHPSHUDWXUHVLQ
three African cities -Mombasa, Cairo, and Cape Town. Overall, each c itKDV
its own different climate, with verGLIIHUHQWFKDUDFWHULVWLFV
The hottest place shown on the graph is Cairo. In JulDQG$XJXVWDYHUDJH
temperatures rise to over 80º Fahrenheit. However, Cairo also has the biggest
variation in climate, being both the hottest and coldest place shown in the
graph. Temperatures drop to as low as 55 degrees in Cairo’s winter, during
JanuarDQG)HEUXDU. This is equal to Cape- Town’s lowest temperature in
Jul
In fact Cairo and Cape Town are almost opposites in tem perature. Cairo is
hottest when Cape Town is coldest. Cape Town does not have the range that
Cairo has. Its maximum temperature is 70º F from November to Februar
after which it drops graduallWRDERXWGHJUHHVLQLWVZLQWHU
In contrast to Cairo or Cape Town, Mombasa is warm all HDUURXQG,WV
temperature fluctuates verOLWWOHUDQJLQJIURPDORZRIWRDPD[LPXPRI
in March.
In conclusion, location is verLPSRUWDQWLQGHFLGLQJFOLPDWH:KHQLWLVZLQWHU
in Cairo, it is summer in Cape Town, but Mombasa is warm all HDUURXQG.
(206 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

62 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

9- The table below shows four different cars manufactured in three
different countries.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
Make Price Co untry of
origin
Engine size Miles per
gallon
ToRWD
Corolla
$15,550 Japan 1400cc 48
Volkswagen
Golf
$18,250 Germany 1600cc 40
Ford
Focus
$15,800 USA 1400cc 50
Nissan
Micra
$15,500 Japan 1200cc 52
The table compares the price, the power and the fuel consumption of four
different models of cars produced in three different countries.
The ToRWD&RUROODDQGWKH1LVVDQ0LFUDDUHERWKPDGHLQ-DSDQDQGKDYH
almost similar prices. The former costs $15,550 while the latter is $50
cheaper. The Corolla has a bigger engine but the Micra does more milesto
the gallon. The Volkswagen Golf is made in GermanDQGLVWKHPRVW
expensive of the four cars as it is priced at $18,250. The Golf has the biggest
engine size at 1600cc and is the least economical as it on lGRHVPLOHVWR
the gallon. The Ford Focus is in the same price range as the Corolla and the
Focus at $15,800, although it does more miles to the gallon than either of
them.
In conclusion, the table shows that as the engine of the cars get bigger, th e
are more expensive and also consume more fuel.
(161 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 63
10-The bar graph below shows some information gathered from a 1,000
first year overseas students about the factors affecting their decisions
when choosing a university.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
Reasons for Choosing a University
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Reputation
Good preparation f or w ork Quality of teac hers
Cos t of ac c ommodation etc
Modern teac hing methods Good language s upport
Up-to-date teac hing f ac ilities Language of tuition Loc ation
Cos t of tuition Friendlines s
%
The chart shows 11
reasons wh first- HDUVWXGHQWVIURPRYHr seas chose a
particular universit7KHVXUYH of 1,000 first HDURYHUVHDVVWXGHQWV was
carried out at universities in the UK.
The top three reasons are language of tuition, up -to -date teaching facilities,
and the qualitRIWHDFKHUV respectively. Language of tuition comes top of the
surveDW$QRWKHULPSRUWDQWUHDVRQLVWHDFKLQJIDFLOLWLHV$ERXWRI
students mentioned this as a reason. The third top reason was the quality of
the staff. This also accounted for 90% of student choices. The reputation of
the university was also a crucial factor. About 70% of the respondents picked
this as a reason for their choice of school.
Non -teaching related reasons were also important. Cost was a major factor .
More than three quarters of the students said that cost of tuition was an
important reason for choosing a college. A similar number picked a college
based on accommodation costs. The friendliness of a universit was given as
a reason b two-thirds of students.
Some factors were relativelXQLPSRUWDQt . These included good language
support, at onlRIVWXGHQWVDQGPRGHUQWHDFKLQJPHWKRGVDW.
In conclusion, the reasons for choosing a particular universitFDQEHGLYLGHG
into teaching related reasons and non -teaching reasons, but the most
important f actors are language, the qualitRIWKHVWDIIDQGIDFLOLWLHVDQGFRVW.
(226 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

64 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

11- The following table shows how much coal it would take to make all
the energy that people use in different countries.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
The table gives us information regarding the amount of coal which is required
to meet the energGHPDQGVRIILIWHHQVHOHFWHGFRXQWULHV7KHILJXUHV
mentioned are in kilograms.
The countries with the highest energUHTXLUHPHQWVDUHWKH86$*HUPDQ,
the UK, Russia and France. Of these the USA has bIDUWKHKLJKHVWUDWHRI
energFRQVXPSWLRQZLWKNLORJUDPV7KLVLVWZLFHDVKLJKDVWKHRWKHU
countries in this group. The next group of fi ve countries has energQHHGV
ranging from 3,839 kg in Japan to 646 in Brazil. In the last group TurkeLVDW
the top with 628 kg. EgSWWKH3KLOLSSLQHVDQG7KDLODQGKDYHVLPLODU
requirements ranging from 322 down to 33.
In conclusion, the table shows that the energy requirements of the USA are
much higher than anRIWKHRWKHUFRXQWULHV7KHHQHUJ needed for the
top group is higher than the other two groups combined.
(154 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 65
12-The table below shows the incidence of injuries caused in different
sports.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown
below.
Sport Number of sports injuries % of sports injuries % admitted to Hospital % of injuries during competition or practice
Australian football 10,122 24.5 7.5 83
Soccer 3777 9.2 7.1 84
Rugby 3636 8.8 10.9 95
Cricket 3408 8.3 5.4 83
Basketball 3228 7.8 4.1 83
Netball 3098 7.5 2.5 95
Hockey 1219 3.0 3.2 95
M artial Arts 882 2.1 5.6 71
Squash 787 1.9 6.4 91
Volleyball 776 1.9 2.2 79
This table presents some information regarding the number of sporting injuries
which leads to emergencKRVSLWDOWUHDWPHQW,WLVREYLRXVWKDWZKLOH
Australian football causes more injuries than all the other sports, Rugb
seems to be the most dangerous sport.
The highest number of injuries occurs in Australian football with over 10,000
reported cases. This is a quarter of all the injuries reported. Soccer, rugb
cricket, basketball and netball have similar numbers ranging from 3,777 in
soccer to 3098 in netball. RugbKDVWKHKLJKHVWQXPEHUDPRQJVWDOOWKHRWKHU
sports in the number of people admitted to hospital with almost 11%
Basketball, bFRPSDULVRQRQO has 4% hospital cases and netball 2.5%..
HockePDUWLDODUWVVTXDVKDQGYROOH\EDOODOOKDGVLJQLILFDQWO\ORZHUn umbers
of injuries compared to the other sports mentioned. The vast majoritRIDOO
sports injuries happened during practice or competition with the lowest figure
being just over 70% for martial arts up to over 95% for hockey.
In conclusion, the table shows that Australian football had the most injuries
with rugbKDYLQJWKHKLJKHVWSHUFHQWDJHRILQMXULHVHQGLQJXSLQKRVSLWDO.
(185 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

66 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

13- The pie charts below show the US spending patterns in two different
years. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information
shown below.
The pie charts show changes in American spending patterns between 1966
and 1996. As it can be seen clearlIURPWKHFKDUWVVSHQGLQJKDELWVRI86
families changed remarkablRYHUWKH0- HDUSHULRG.
Food and cars made up the two biggest items of expenditure in both years.
Together the comprisedover half of household spending. Food accounted
for 44% of spending in 1966, but this dropped bWZRWKLUGV to 14% in 1996.
However, the outlaRQFDUVGRXEOHG rising from 23% in 1966 to45% in 1996.
Other areas changed significantl6SHQGLQJRQHDWLQJRXWGRXEOHGFOLPELQJ
from 7% to 14%. The proportion of salarVSHQWRQFRPSXWHUV increased
dramatically , up from 1% in 1996 to 10% in 1996. However, as computer
exp enditure rose, the percentage of outlay on books plungedfrom 6% to 1%.
Some areas remained relativelXQFKDQJHG$PHULFDQVVSHQW approximatel
the same amount of salarRQSHWURODQGIXUQLWXUHLQERWKears.
In conclusion, moneVSHQton cars, computers, and eating out accounted for
most of the expenditure of the American people.
(176 words)
1996
1966

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 67
14-The table below gives information about the percentage ofthe
internet users according to age?
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown
below.
Who Uses the Internet?
2 8
910
53
4544
41 3937
8
4
0
10 20
30
40
50
60
1998 1999 2000
Percent
Less than 15
16 - 30 years
31 to 50 years
50 or more
%
The graph shows changes in the age profile of Internet users in Taiwan
between 1998 and 2000.
The main users of the Internet in Taiwan are young adults between 16 and 30
HDUVROG,QWKH accounted for more than half of all users. In 1999 the
number dropped slightly to 45%, but even in 2000 theZHUHWKHELJJHVW
group.
The second biggest group of users is aged between 31 and 50. ThePDGHXS
41% in 1998, falling slightlWRLQ:KHQFRPELQHGZLWKWKH6 -30
age group, over 94% of users in 1998 were between 16 and 50.
However ,this number dropped steadily as more children and older users log
on. In 1999, the number of children online quadrupledfrom 2% to 8%, and it
continued to increase in 2000. There were similar increase s for ol der users,
rising from 4% in 1998 to 10% in 2000.
In summarZKLOHDGXOWVEHWZHHQDQG representedthe great majorit
of Internet users in Taiwan, their share declinedas more children and older
users joined the web.
(181 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

68 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

15- The c hart below shows the literacy rates of six different countries in
1990 and 2000.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown
below.
Literac5DWHVE CountrDQG0
0
10 20 30 40 50
60 70 80 90
100 Banglades h
BrazilChina Egypt Kuwait Pakis tan
Male 1990
Male 2000
Fem ale 1990
Fem ale 2000
The graph shows changes in literacUDWHVLQGLIIHUHQWFRXQWULHVEHWZHHQ
and 2000, for men and women. Overall more and more people are able to
read, and there have been significant improvements for women, although the
lag behind men in literac
The most obvious trend in the graph is that women have lower illiteracUDWHV
in most of the countries in the graph. For example, in Bangladesh in 1990,
45% of men could read and write, but onlRIZRPHQ7KHGLIIHUHQFHZDV
even bigger in Pakistan, with 50% of men being literate but only 20% of
women. Even in Kuwait and China, slightlPRUHPHn than women could read
and write.
The second biggest trend in the graph is the improvement in literacEHWZHHQ
1990 and 2000. In all countries shown, figures for both men and women
improved. The biggest change was in Pakistan, from 49% of men in 1990 to
5 7% over the ten HDUSHULRG(YHQLQFRXQWULHVZLWKUHODWLYHO high literac
rates, such as China or Brazil, there were significant increases for men.
However, the increases in literacUDWHVIRUZRPHQZHUHPXFKKLJKHU,Q
EgSWWKHSHUFHQWDJHRIQRn- illiterate women jumped from 35% to 44%and in
Pakistan from 20% to 28% over the decade.
In conclusion, almost all the countries in the graph have a long waWRJR
before achieving 100% literacUDWHVDQGZRPHQLQSDUWLFXODUQHHGVXSSRUWLQ
order to increas e their reading abilit+RZHYHUDOOFRXQWULHVLPSURYHGRYHU
the ten HDUVDQGZRPHQDSSHDUWREHFDWFKLQJXSHYHQLQWKHORZHVW
countries.
(265 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 69
16-The chart below shows the percentage of obese people in 12
different countries.
Write a report f or a university lecturer describing the information shown
below.
Obe sity: Pe rce nta ge of Popula tion
0 5
10
15
20
25 30 35
40
Franc e
Netherlands Russia
Finland
Canada UK
G ermany
Aus tr alia
USA - White USA - Blac k
Cz ec h Republic USA - Mex ic an
Country
% of obese people
Me n
Women
The graph shows the percentage of obese men and women in different
countries. There are two trends in the graph. First of all, rates varJUHDWO
between countries. SecondlWKHREHVLW rate among women tends to be
much higher.
The USA, Australia, and the Czech Republic, have the highest rates of
obesitDWDQDYHUDJH7KHORZHVWUDWHVRIREHVLW are found in France,
Netherlands and Finland, at less than 15% of the population. America is the
countrZLWKWKHKLJKHVWUDWHRIREHVLW. However, the rate differs for different
groups inside each population. White males, at 20% have a lower rate of
obesitWKDQ0H[LFDn- American males, at 24%.
There are also huge differences between the sexes. Although the figure for
men is onlWKHUDWHRIREHVLW for Russian women is over 25%. Black
American women, at 37%, are the most obese, but the black males are onl
slightlIDWWHUWKDQZKLWH86PDOHVDW
In other countries, however, the difference can hardlEHQRWLFHG,Q)UDQFH
the percentage of obese men is about 9%, which is onlKLJKHUWKDQWKH
figure for women. The figures for Canadian males and females, at 15%, are
identical. In Finland, France and the Netherlands, there are slightlPRUH
obese men than women.
In conclusion, there are significant differences between countries, but females
are more obese than males in most countries. (232 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

70 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

17- The graph below shows the amount of meat consumed in the USA
between 1950 and 2000.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown
below.
Meat Consumption, USA, 1950-2000,
per person per HDULQNLORJUDPs
0
10 20
30 40 50
60
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Kilograms
Poultry
Beef
The graph shows changes in the amount of chicken and beef eaten in the
USA over the last 50 HDUV2YHUDOOEHHIFRQVXPSWLRQLVGHFOLQLQJZKLOH
Americans are eating more and more chicken.
The biggest change in the graph is the increase in poultry consumption. This
soared from just 12 kilograms per person per HDULQWRDOPRVW
kilograms in 2000, increasing four times. The biggest increase was between
1990 and 2000, when it jumped almost bKDOIIURPMXVWNLORVWRDOPRVW
50kg. That was the period when poultry consumption overtook beef for the
first ti me.
The other trend in the graph is the decline in beef consumption. Although
more beef was eaten in 2000 than in 1950, at 40 kilos per person per HDU
compared to 32 kilos in 1950, there has been a big drop since 1970. Sales of
beef peaked in 1970 at almost 50kg and have declined steadily since then.
In conclusion, Americans are eating much more meat overall than theZHUH
in 1950, but the proportion of chicken and turkeSURGXFWVKDVLQFUHDVHG
sharplZKLOHEHHIFRQVXPSWLRQLVGHFOLQLQJLQLPSRUWDQFH
(190 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 71
18-The graph below shows the number of London Underground station
passengers from 6 am to 22 pm.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown
below.
London Underground station passengers
0
100 200 300 400
500
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
Time
Number of people
The graph shows the fluctuation in the number of people at a London
underground station over the course of a daIURPDPWRSP
The busiest time of the daLVLQWKHPRUQLQJ7KHUHLVDVKDUSLQFUHDVH
between 06:00 and 08:00, with 400 people using the station at 8 o'clock. After
this the numbers drop quicklWROHVVWKDQDWR
FORFN%HWZHHQDP
and 3 pm the number rises, with a plateau of just under 300 people using the
station.
In the afternoon, numbers decline, with less than 100 using the station at 4
pm. There is then a rapid rise to a peak of 380 at 6pm. After 7 pm, numbers
fall significantlZLWKRQO a slight increase again at 8pm, tailing off after 9 pm.
Overall, the graph shows that the station is most crowded in the earlPRUQLQJ
and earlHYHQLQJSHULRGV.
(153 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

72 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

19- The graph below shows the oil production capacity in six different
Persian Gulf countries.
Write a report for a universit y lecturer describing the information shown
below.
Oil Production Capacity
(estim ated)
0 2
4 6 8
10
12 14 16
Iran Iraq Kuwait
Qa ta r Saudi
Arabia U AE
Millions of VBarrels per Day
1990
2000
2005
2010
The graph shows Oil Production CapacitLQPLOOLRQVRIEDUUHOVSHUGD\IRU
selected Gulf countries. There are several features in this graph.
The most significant feature is that oil production will inc
rease sharplLQ
almost all the countries shown. Kuwait and Iraq are both expected to double
their output between 1990 and 2010, with Kuwait's production rising from 1.8
million barrels per da ESG LQWRLQ,UDQZLOODOVRLQFUHDVHLWV
output bDVOLJKWO smaller amount. After remaining steady at 2.5 million bpd
from 1990 to 2000, the UAE's output is expected to approach 4.0 million bpd
in 2010. Only Qatar's production is predicted to fall, back to 0.8 million bpd
after a slight rise in 200 0.
However, the greatest increase will be from Saudi Arabia. In 1990, its output
capacitDWPLOOLRQESGH[FHHGHGWKHFRPELQHGSURGXFWLRQRI,UDQ,UDT
and Kuwait. This lead is expected to continue with a 75% increase in
production to 14.5 million bpd 2010.
In summarZKLOHPRVWRIWKHFRXQWULHVDUHH[SHFWHGWRVKRZLQFUHDVHV
Saudi Arabia will maintain and strengthen its position as the major producer. (191 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 73
20-The table below gives information about the number of children
killed in road ac cidents in a 3-month period in 2004 in USA
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown
below.
The table shows the number of road accidents which involved children in
1995. Five age groups were mentioned.
The highest number of accidents involved children playing in the street with
214 out of a total of 370. The vast majoritRIWKHVHLQYROYHGFKLOGUHQEHWZHHQ
2 and 7. The number dropped in each age group and there were only 2 of this
tSHRIDFFLGHQWDPRQJVWWR\HDUROGV6KRSSLQJIRUSDUHQWVDFFRXQWHG
for 52 accidents, with the highest figure being in the 5 to 7 group. CFOLQJLQ
the street came next with the most accidents amongst children aged between
5 and 13. JourneVWRDQGIURPVFKRROZHUHWKHOHDVWQXPEHURIDFFLGHQWV
although RXQJHUVFKRROFKLOGUHQZHUHPRUHOLNHO to be involved.
The table shows that the highest number of accidents involved younger
children. Children aged between 2 and 7 accounted for 260 accidents which is
around two thirds of the total .
(157 words)
Where
accidents
occurred
Age
2 -4
Age
5 -7
Age
8 -11
Age
12 -14
Age
15 - 16
Total
Going to school 2 12 8 2 1 25
Returning from
school 2 17 10 3 2 34
Playing in t he
street 98 81 28 5 2 214
CFOLQJLQWKH
street 1 10 25 8 1 45
Shopping for
their parents 5 32 12 2 1 52
TOT AL 108 152 83 20 7 370

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

74 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

The diagram below shows the typical stages of consumer goods
manufacturing, including the process by which information is fed back to
earlier stages to enable adjustment.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the process show n.
Most consumer goods go through a series of stages before theHPHUJHDVILQLVKHGSURGXFWV
readIRUVDOH.
Raw materials and manufactured components comprise the initial phVLFDOLQSXWLQWKH
manufacturing process. Once obtained, these are stored for later assembly. But assembly
first depends upon the production planning stage, where it is decided how and i n what
quantities the stored materials will be processed to create sufficient quantities of finished
goods. The production planning stage itself follows the requirements of the goods' design
stage that proceeds f rom extensive research. After assemblWKHSURGXFWVDUHLQVSHFWHGDQG
tested to maintain quality control. Those units that pass the inspection and testing stages are
then packaged, dispatchedand offered for sale in retail outlets. The level of sales, which is
the end poi nt of the manufacturing process, helps determine production planning.
A product's design is not only the result of product research, but is also influenced bWHVWLQJ
and market research. If the testing stage (after assemblDQGLQVSHFWLRQ UHv eals
unacceptable problems in the finished product, then adjustments will have to be made to the
product's design. Similarly, market research, which examines the extent and nature of the
demand for products, has the role of guiding product design to suit consumer demands which
may change with time. Market research, while influenced bSURGXFWVDOHVDOVRVHUv es to
foster future sales bGHYLVLQJVXLWDEOHDGYHUWLVLQJIRUWKHJRRGV.
Thus the reality of consumer goods manufacturing goes well beRQGDVLPSOHOLQHDU
production process.
(249words )

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 75
The diagram below shows the process by which bricks are
manufactured for the building industry.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
The process bZKLFKEULFNVDUHPDQXIDFWXUHGIRUWKHEXLOGLQJLQGXVWU\FDQEH
outlined in seven consecutive steps.
First the raw material, claZKLFKZDVMXVWEHORZWKHVXUIDFHRIVRLOLQc ertain
cla- rich areas, has to be dug up bDGLJJHU Then the lumps of claDUH
placed on a metal grid in order to break up the big chunks of claLQWRPXFK
smaller areas, which fall through the metal grid onto a roller, whose motion
further segregates the bits of cla6DQGDQGZDWHUDUHDGGHGWRPDNHD
homogenous mixture, which is then either formed in moulds orcut into brick -
shaped pieces bPHDQVRIDZLUHFXWWHU.
Those fresh bricks are then kept in a drying oven for at least 24 and a
maximum of 48 hours, several dozens if not hundreds of bricks at a time. The
dried bricks are then transferred to a so -called kiln, another tSHRIKLJK
temperature oven. First theDUHNHSWDWDPRGHUDWHWHPSHUDWXUHRI0
degrees Celsius which is then raised to the maximum temperature of 1300
degrees Celsius. This process is followed bFRROLQJGRZQWKHILQLVKHGEULFNV
for 48 to 72 hours in a cooling chamber.
Once the bricks have cooled down and have become hard, theJHWSDFNDJHG
and delivered to their final destination, be it a building site orstorage.
(228 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

76 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

The diagram below shows the process by which exams are taken in a
computer room.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features.
The diagram shows the various stages of an exam administration. As we can
the exam is taken in a computer room.
The test consists of three sections, namelWKHVHOf -corrected test, the written
composition and the oral test. T he student has to complete two sections
devoted to use of language: theco mp uter corrected test and thewritten
composition. As shownin the diagram ,after completing these two sections,
the student will take the third section of the test that is the oral test .
Afterwards, the data is stored and transferred to the raters section in the back
office .The first section of the test is corrected bERWKWKHFRPSXWHUDQGWKH
rater. The raters will be able to retrieve the information and plaWKHVWXGHQWV

recordings as manWLPHVDVQHFHVVDU. Then the scores are transferred to
the database and thengrouped and analVHGDFFRUGLQJO. Finallyif the results
are verified bWKHH[DPFRPPLWWHHWKH are announced to the test takers .
(163 words)
Grouping and Analysing
Score verification

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 77
The diagram below shows the process by which plastic paper clipsare
manufactured.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
The diagram illustrates the manufacturing process of plastic paper clips.
There are four main stages in the production of plastic paper clips from this
small factory. Two of these stages involve actual preparation of the clips,
while the other two consist of qualitFRQWUROEHIRUHWKHFOLSVDUHVHQWRXWIURP
t he factorWRWKHUHWDLOHUVWREHVROGWRWKHSXEOLF.
To begin with, molten plastic is poured into three different moulds depending
on the colour required; the colours are red, blue and HOORZ2QFHWKHVHFOLSV
emerge from the moulds ,a qualitFRQWUROPDFKLQHFKHFNVWKHPIRUVWUHQJWK
UnsatisfactorFOLSVDUHUHMHFWHG,QWKHWKLUGVWDJHLQWKHSURFHVVWKHFOLSVDUH
stored bKDQGLQWRWZRJURXSVPL[HGDQGVLQJOHFRORXUV:KHQWKLVVWDJHLV
complete the groups are checked a second time to ensure that the colour
mixtures are divided correctlLQWRVLQJOHFRORXUVDQGPL[HGFRORXUEDWFKHV
FinallWKHFOLSVDUHSDFNHGDQGGLVSDWFKHGWRWKHPDUNHWV.
(162 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

78 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

The diagram below shows how a central heating system in a house
works.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
This diagram provides an overview of a domestic central heating sVt em. It
shows how the tank, boiler and pipes ensure a constant flow of hot water to
both the radiators and the taps.
The cold water enters the house and is stored in a water storage tank in the
roof. From there itflows down to the boiler, located on the ground floor of the
house.
The boiler, which is fuelled bJDVRURLOKHDWVXSWKHZDWHUDVLWSDVVHV
through it. The hot water is then pumped round the house through a sVWHPRI
pipes and flows into the radiators, located in different rooms. The water
ci rculates through the radiators, which have small tubes inside them to help
distribute the heat, and this warms each of the rooms. Some of the water is
directed to the taps to provide hot water for the house.
Once the water has been through the pipes and r adiators, it is returned to the
boiler to be re -heated and circulated round the house again.
(172 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 79
The diagram below shows how olive oil is produced.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
The diagram provides a step -by -step overview of olive oil production process.
At first olives are collected and then they are milled in a milling machine. The
milled olives are then pressed and the oil is extracted. The extracted oil is
then either prepared to be refined or is cold-pressedto produce cold- pressed
olive oil .
Having been prepared, the oil is then refined and finall the product is
combined with virgin olive oil to produce a tSHRIROLYHRLOZLWKOHVVWKDQ
acidit
Still , the cold -pressed olive oil maXQGHUJRVRPHRWKHUVWDJHV7KHSURFHVV
maUHVXOWLQHLWKHUH[WUDYLUJLQROLYHRLOZLWKRUOHVVDFLGLW or virgi n olive
oil with more than 1% or less than 3% acidit$VGHVFULEHGEHIRUHFROd-
pressed olive oil maEHFRPELQHGZLWKUHILQHGROLYHRLOWRSURGXFHDWKLUGWpe
of olive oil with less than 1.5% acidity.
FinallDVVKRZQLQWKHGLDJUDPWKHUHDUH varioustSHVRIROLYHRLO
depending on the aciditOHYHO
(166 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

80 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

The map below shows three possible sites for the construction of a
shopping center (A,B and C)
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
The map shows the potential siteswhere a new shopping center maEH
constructed in the citRI3HOOLQJWRQ
Site A is located in the residential area near the traffic -free zone which ma
make it difficult for people to drive to the shopping center .Yet, people can
easilFRPPXWHIURPDQGWRWKHVKRSSLQJFHQWHUYLDWKHUDLOZD. As it is
located in the residential area, parking space maEH still another problem and
the area on which the shopping center is going to be built maEHOLPLWHG
Unlike site A, s ite B is located in the countrVLGHWRWKHQRUWKHDVW of the cit
and people can easilGULYHWRWKHVKRSSLQJFHQWHUDVLWLVFORVHWRWKH
motorwa3DUNLQJVSDFHZLOOQRWEHDSUREOHPLQVLWH%DVWKHFRXQWUside is
quite empt
Site C is also located is the countrVLGHWRWKHVRXWKRIWKHFLW; however since
it is surrounded bWKHUHVLGHQWLDODQGLQGXVWULDODUHDVGULYLQJWRWKHVKRSSLQJ
center is still a problem. But RXFDQXVHWKHUDLOZD to get to the shopping
center.
In conclusion, I think site B is the best as it is close to the motorwaDQGDZD
from the residential and the industrial areas.
(208 words)

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples
I ELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 81
The map below shows three differentresidential areas in the city of New
Townsville.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
New Townsville
0
10 20
30
40
50 60 70
80
90 1st Qtr
2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
East
West
North
The map shows the various residential areas in the citRI1HZ7RZQVYLOOH
According to the map, residential area A is located to the southeast of the cit
and it has a population of 90,000 people. It is not a crowded citLQ
comparison with its area; however, as there is no access to the subwa
commuting from and to the city center which is atraffic -free zone is not eas
Moreover, it is far awaIURPWKHDLUSRUWDQGWKHSDUN
The resident ial area B which is the least populated area is located in the
southwest of the citDQGLWKDVDFFHVVWRWKHVXEZD as well. It is also in the
proximitRIWKHDLUSRUW1HYHUWKHOHVVWKHUHLVQRDFFHVVWRWKHKLJKZDy which
makes it difficult to commute from and to the neighboring residential areas as
well as the park in one's private car.
The residential area C which is located to the northwest of the city is the most
populated and the smallest area in the city of New Townsville. However, it is
close to the airport and the park andit has access to both the subwaDQGWKH
highwa
On the whole, considering the public facilities in theresidential area C, it is the
most convenient residential area in the cit (218words)
Airport
Park
A: population
90,000
B
: population
80,000
C: population 160,000
Residential
Industrial
Traffic -free Zone
Countryside
Highway
Subway

Academic Essay Samples

82 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps









A
A CC AA DD EE MM II CC

MM OO DD UU LL EE



writing task 2 (essay)

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 83
1- Some people believe that the society must ban violent and
pornographic scene sfrom being broadcast on TV, while others believe
in order to have a nopen society, the law of censorship must be totally
abolished.
What is your opinion?
Use specific reasons o support your point of view.
Censorship is widelSUDFWLFHGDOORYHUWKHZRUl d, as it is supposed to protect
people against the harm caused bWKHYLROHQWDQGSRUnographic scenes
broadcast on TV; however, i n mRSLQLRnprobablWKHPRVWREYLRXVH[DPSOH
of intolerance in our society todaLVWKHH[LVWHQFHRIFHQVRUVKLS
First, I h ave HWWRHQFRXQWHUDYDOLGDUJXPHQWIRUDQ form of censorship.
Such arguments as are presented invariablWDNHWKHIRUPRIFRQFHUQIRUWKH
well -being of others, children frequentlEHLQJWKHDOOHJHGYLFWLPVTXRWHG7KH
arguments are specious and shallow and constitute nothing more than the
imposition of one group’s moralitRQDQRWKHU
Furthermore, as it stands, the current position is farcical. A small group of
officials, comprising customs clerks, policemen and arbitrarily -appointed
members of various tribunals, are, to take one example, apparentlGHHPHG
bODZWREHLQYXOQHUDEOHWRWKRVHVXSSRVHGO corrupting influences of
pornographDQGYLROHQFH+RZHYHr ,should these people retire or change
their emploPHQWWKH suddenlMRLQWKHPDVVHVEHFRPLQg corruptible like the
rest of us and must now be protected
However, I much acknowledge that the violence and pornographVKRZQRQ
TV maLQIOLFWVRPHKDUPRQWKHouth and teenagers in our societ,WPD
increase the rate of sex crime or violence in our communit,EHOLHYHWKH
harmful effects of these scenes can never be denied.
In conclusion, censorship is an all or nothing situation and even if proof can be
made of harm to some through the absence of censorship, it is a price well
worth paLQJWRHQVXUHDQRSHQVRFLHW in which each of us determines our
own behaviour. (270words)

Essay Practice
How do movies or television influence people's behavior? Use reasons and specific
examples to support your answer.

Academic Essay Samples

84 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

2- Some people believe capital punishment must be banned while others
think in order to protect individuals; criminals committing certain crimes
must be executed.
What is your opinion?
Use specific reasons to support your point of view.
The death penaltLVWKHPRVWVHYHUHIRUPRISXQLVKPHQWLQWKHZRUOGWRGD.
Once the jurKDVSURYHGDFULPLQDOJXLOWy ,theJRWRWKHVHFRQGSDUWRIWKH
trial –the punishment phase. Lethal injection is the most common form of
death. Capital Punishment is a difficult issue and there are as manGLIIHUHQW
opinions as there are people; nevertheless,I think that Capital Punishment
should be made illegal.
FirstlLWLVSRVVLEOHWRH[HFXWHVRPHRQHZKRLVLQQRFHQW,IWKLVGRHVKDSSHQLW
cannot be undone, whereas if the wereput in jail theFRXOGEHUHOHDVHGDQG
given compensation. Secondl,WKLQNWKDW the death penaltLVDOPRVWQRWD
punishment because RXDUHQRWDURXQGWREHSXQLVKHGOLNHLIou were in jail
with the poor living conditions and no freedom.
Another reason I think that Capital Punishment should be made illegal is that
life imprisonment without parole serves the same purposes as capital
punishment at less cost. Right now, to execute a person in the U.S costs
approximatelWKUHHWLPHVWKHDPRXQWLWZRXOGWRKDYHWKHPVHUYHDOLIH
sentence in prison. The moneXVHGWRSD for the death row (including court
appeals) comes out of the taxpaHUVZDOOHWV,I&DSLWDO3XQLVKPHQWZHUH
made illegal, this moneFRXOGJRWRRWKHUSURMHFWVLQQHHGRIWKHIXQGVOLNH
building new prisons.
Nevertheless, I still believe that some criminals are just incorrigible and
insane; they also cause a lot of problems in jail and do not seem to be
lamenting the crime theKDYHFDUULHGRXWDJDLQVWRWKHULQGLYLGXDOV&DSLWDO
punishment in this situation maVHHPWREHWKHRQO solution.
In conclusion, I hope we understand that it is all too easWRWDNHDSHUVRQV
life, however we must be verVXVSLFLRXVRIWKHGHFLVLRQZHPDNH (306words)

Essay Practice
Some people believe environmental factors are more important than a person’s free
will in determining whetheror not he/she may t urn to crime ; however others think
fre e w ill is t he mo st impo rtantfactor in o ne’s life . Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 85
3- Some people believe capital punishment must be banned while others
think in order to protect individuals; criminals committing certain crimes
must be executed.
What is your opinion?
Use specific reasons o support your point of view.
Hanging, firing squad, electrocution, gas, and lethal injection are all methods
of execution used all around the world to punish murderers. And most
countries around the world have the death penalty as a method of
punishment. The subject of capital punishment has been under debate for a
long time. Some believe it is a good waWRSXQLVKPXUGHUHUV2WKHUVFDOOLW
immoral and unethical. I personallEHOLHYHWKDWLWVKRXOGEHXVHGDVD
punishment bRXUJRYe rnment.
I have manIDFWVWRVXSSRUWP opinion. Statistics saWKDWRYHURI
people around the world believe in using the death penalt7KDWLVDOPRVWD
two -to -one ratio. Also, it is legal in almost two- thirds of the countries including
our own countr&RQVHTXHQWO a smost nations agree with this method and I
think we should keep it. Furthermore, if a mother can have an abortion, killing
an unborn child, innocent of anFULPHWKHQZK can the societQRWXVHWKH
death penaltWRSXQLVKPXUGHUHUVZho have been tried and convicted of their
cr i me?
In addition, the scripture clearlDSSURYHVRIWKHGHDWKSHQDOW by saying that
"if he strikes him with an iron implement, so that he dies, he is a murderer; the
murderer shall surelEHSXWWRGHDWK,QDoung mother was rendered
helpless and made to watch as her babZDVH[HFXWHG7KHPRWKHUZDVWKHQ
mutilated and killed. The killer should not lie in some prison with three meals a
daFOHDQVKHHWVFDEOH79IDPLO visits and endless appeals. In my opinion
for justice to prevail, some killers just need to die.
However, we must remember that not everNLOOHULVDVEUXWDODVWKHNLOOHULQ
the above -mentioned case. There are certainlSHRSOHZKRXQLQWHQWLRQDOO kill
a person, in mRSLQLRQWKHMXU before issuing its verdict must consider ever
single aspect and then make a decision.
In conclusion, I believe a person who dares kill another human being with no
mercPXVWEHH[HFXWHG
(336words)
Essay Practice
Some people believe drug addicts arepatients and they s hould not be treated as
criminals; others believe drug addicts threaten the citizens’ social s ecur it y just like
crimina ls and they need to be punished. Discuss both these view sand fina lly g ive
your own opinion.

Academic Essay Samples

86 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

4- Nowadays companies spend a lot of money on advertisement, what
are the main reasons for advertisement.
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
Higher sales figures and production rate is one of the most important goals of
everFRPSDQ and in order to achieve this goal companies trWRKHDYLO
advertise their products. Therefore, the primarSXUSRVHRIDQDGYHUWLVHPHQW
is to sell a certain product; butadvertising has manRWKHUSXUSRVHVWRR
Therefore, I believe each advertising campaign is based on a particular
purpose, or to help meet specific goals.
First of all companies would like to increase their sales figures bDGYHUWLVLQJ
their products on a dailEDVLV7KH alwaVDOORFDWHDJUHDWSHUFHQWDJHRI
their annual income to press and TV advertisement. In addition through
advertising, a companRUDQLQGLYLGXDOWULHVWRFRPPXQLFDWHWKHEUDQG
personalit,PHDQWKH trWRHQKDQFHWKHFRPSDQ’s image and make
people trust the brand when theZDQWWRSXUFKDVHDSURGXFWDQGILQDOO
conveWKHW\SHRIFRPSDQ that is selling the product.
Another reason for advertising is indicating the brand’s place in the
communit,WLVLPSRUWDQWWKDWWKHFRQVXPHr ssee how theFDQILWWKHVH
products o r services into their dailOLYHVDQGLQZKDWZDs theFDQEHQHILW
from those certain product s.
The final reason whPRVWILUPVVSHQGVXFKYDVWVXPVRIPRQH on
advertising campaigns is building up a brand name. It is decisive to make the
brand recognizable through a logo or reputation so that people can easil
recall them.
In conclusion, companies regard advertisement as one of the best waVWR
introduce and promote their products and this is because nowadaVSHople
are greatlLQIOXHQFHGE the advertisement broadcaston TV and radio.
(268words)

Essay Practice
Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need.
Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives.
Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support
o ur answer.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 87
5- Nowadays body piercing is turning into a popular method for makeup,
and more and more people pierce their body for beauty purposes. In
your opinion what are the harmful effects of body piercing on our
health?
BodSLHUFLQJLVFRPPRQO done all over the world. EverWKLQJIURPHDUV
nose, eHEURZVWRQJXHJHQLWDOVOLSVQDYDODQGQLSSOHVDUHEHLQJSLHUFHG
People are mostlXQDZDUHRIWKHGLUHFRQVHTXHQFHVRIERG piercing and
theGRQRWUHDOL]HWKHFRPSOLFDWLRQVWKDWFDQRFFXU
Depending on where and who pierces a person's bodFHUWDLQFRPSOLFDWLRQV
can occur. If the piercer is not experienced, thePD not know or understand
the necessarKHDOWKDQGVDIHW precautions needed to avoid infections.
Adolescents and young adults under the age of 18 are piercing each other
without this knowledge because most places will not pierce them without a
parental consent. If instruments are not properlVWHULOL]HGRUWKHHQYLURQPHQW
is not clean, infection maRFFXU,QIHFWLRQVWKDWFDQDULVHDUH+,9Ke patitis
and manRWKHUV
Another complication that can arise is scarring. Piercing a certain part of the
bodIRUPDQ times ultimatelUHVXOWVLQPXWDWLRn of the skin cells which in
turn will lead to an ugly growth of skin cells distorting the shape of the skin.
UnfortunatelVXFKVFDUVQHYHUJHWKHDOHG Moreover, thequalitRIWKH
jewelrVXFKDVEUDVs -plated costume jewelrFDQFDXVHFRPSOLFDWLRQVVXFh
as an allergic reaction or infection. These reactions and infections can later
lead to severe skin problems resulting in skin cancer.
Besides there maEHSVchological complications. if a person has a negative
experience with bodSLHUFLQJWKH maDl so suffer from psFKRVRFLDO
problems. In most cases as people grow older, theUHJUHWKDYLQJSLHUFHG
their body; however, since removing a tattoois costlDQGPRVWSHRSOHFDQQRW
afford the medical operations, theKDYHWRSXWXSZLWKLW forever.
In co nclusion, I believe one can enhance one’s beautXVLQJPDQ other
methods which are less harmful. I think considering the complications which
can result from bodSLHUFLQJWHHQDJHUVPXVWDYRLGVXFKFUXHOPHWKRGV
(310 words)

Essay Practice
Nowadays teenagers try to improve their beauty bDQ\ meansavailable to t he m.
What are some of the harmful beautymethods teenager s use these da ys?
Why do teenagers use such harsh methods to add to their beauty?

Academic Essay Samples

88 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

6- Multiculturalism is a recent phenomenon. While many people would
like to live in a multicultural society others prefer to live in a society with
their own culture and disrespect people from other nation.
With which opinion do you agree? Use specific reasons to support your
opinion.
Racism is a certain kind of prejudice, based on faultUHDVRQLQJDQGLQIOH[LEOH
generalizations toward a specific group. FortunatelWKURXJKPXOWLFXOWXUDOLVP
people recognize the diversitRIFXOWXUHVDQGWKHLUELDVDJDLQVt a certain race
is removed. In multicultural societies all those individuals have their own
culture, religion, morals and standards.
Humans are not perfect species ;we all have our flaws. Human’s greatest flaw
is fear. Humans fear everWKLQJWKDWLVXQIamiliar and strange to them such as
foreigners and their cultures. In multicultural societies that fear is automaticall
eliminated as a result of familiarization with the “stranger”.
In addition, it provides people with the opportunitRIXQGHUVWDQGLQJDn d
accepting one another. People usuallWU to change a culture or a religion to
fit their own views, instead of accepting it and its diversit$FFHSWLQJWKH
individualitDQGGLv ersitRISHRSOHDQGWKHLUFXVWRm sindicates that theDUH
equal in RXUHes and that forms respect. In manZDs humans are equal
because theyall have the same necessities and theyall get hurt the same
wa2QFHZHDFFHSWVRPHRQHVUHOLJLRQDQGQDWLRQDOLW we accept them as
human beings.
Furthermore, there is an advantage inliving in a country that contains a
varietRIFXOWXUHV3HRSOHJHWDWDVWHRIHDFKFXOWXUHWKXVJDLQDJUHDWHU
understanding of its c ustoms and histor)RUWKDWPDWWHUSHRp le living in a
multicultural country are endowed with extraordinarSRZHUVRINQRZOHGJH$V
a great man once said “Knowledge is Power”. Countries with multicultural
societies have the power to revolutionize the world and create unitDQG
diversitDWWKHVDPHWLPH.
In summation, in order to reduce racism multiculturalism is a neces sit$VD
result of multiculturalism fear of the unknown is eliminated and instead of it
respect and understanding for one another steps in.
(301 words)
Essay Practice
When people move to another country, some of them decide to follow the customs o f
the new country. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two
choices. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 89
7- Racism is becomin g a widespread phenomenon and some people
take pride in their racist views.
Why should we avoid this problem?
How can we help solve the problem?
Racism denies human beings the basic equalitDQGGLJQLW\ZKLFKDVFKLOGUHQ
of God we deserve. While there are people who think theDUHVXSHULRUWR
other human beings, I think racism is a sin and we must completelDYRLGLW
Racism is a sin. It is a sin because it divides our communitEORWVRXWWKH
image of God among the inhabitants of the planet and violates basic human
pride. Racism is the sin that saVVRPHKXPDQEHLQJVDUHLQQDWHO superior
and others basicallLQIHULRUEHFDXVHRIWKHFRORXURIWKHLUVNLQ2XUKRO\ERRN
clearlVWDWHVWKDWDOOKXPDQEHLQJVDUHHTXDOLQWKHHes of God and that the
ones wi th a stronger faith are better valued; therefore, if we consider
ourselves as the followers of our holy prophet, we must not judge a person
based on his or her colour or race.
In order to solve the problem of racism, we must be aware of its numerous
for ms. I have alwaVYLHZHGUDFLVPDVEHLQJZKLWHVDJDLQVWEODFNVEHFDXVH
that is what I was taught bWKRVHLQDXWKRULW , the media and societRYHUDOO
even mKLVWRU classes at school have caused me to have this narrow -
minded view. Research, however has caused me to think differentl,KDYH
read stories, newspaper articles and watched interviews on television,
regarding racism, and I have discovered that racism is not a “white thing”,
instead, it is a “human thing. Therefore, to address racism, we need to
recognize two things: that it exists in a varietRIIRUPVVRPHPRUHVXEWOHDQG
others more obvious; and that there is something we can do about it even if
we realize that what we saDQGWKHVWHSVZHWDNHZLOOQRWUHVXOWLQDQ
immediate solution to a problem that spans generations.
In conclusion I believe that we must tacklethis issue with certaintDQGRXU
small contributions will ultimatelKHOSHOLPLQDWe the problem.
(325 words)


Essay Practice
Some people believe wo men a nd men s hould not have e xact lt he same r ights since
they are d ifferent in manZDs . What’s your opinion? Support your answer with
specific de tails.

Academic Essay Samples

90 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

8- Many people believe that violence on Television will ultimately result
in m ore violence among the youth.
Do you agree with this opinion? Why?
What has our societFRPHWRWKHVHGDs? EverZKHUHZHORRNYLROHQFHLV
present; on the streets, back alleVVFKRRl s, and even at home. Even if one
might be a pacifist, violence will seep its waLQWRRXUKRPHVWKURXJKWKH
television. Some children that see violence on television are pulled into its
harmful deceptions of problem solving and choose violent solutions to their
problems.
Scientists have tried to explain whFKLOGUHQDUHVRDPXVHGE a big glowing
box and the action that takes place within it. Research shows that television is
a major source of violence for children. This research shows us that violence
appeals to everDXGLHQFHLQFOXGLQJFKLOGUHQ7KHHIIHFWVKDYHEHHQVHHQi n
a number of cases. It must be pointed out that mostchildren who commit a
crime are claimed to have seen a similar act on television. Even though w e
should not hold television directlUHVSRQVLEOHIRUWKHVHDFWVZHQHHGWRDGPLt
that it is television th at plants a violent seed in the minds of these children.
Furthermore, some psFKRORJLVWVDQGSVchiatrists feel that continued
exposure to such violence might unnaturallVSHHGXSWKHLPSDFWRIWKHDGXOW
world on the child. This can force the child into a kind of prematurity. As the
child matures into an adult, he can become bewildered, have a greater
distrust towards others, a superficial approach to adult problems, and even an
unwillingness to become an adult.
In conclusion, violence on television proves to be a root of violence among the
RXQJSHRSOH7KHUHDUHPDQ examples and proven research that shows
how violence viewed on television takes rootall over our countr2QO when
we decide to put an end to this problem as an individual will we begin to see a
more peaceful world.
(300 words)



Essay Practice
Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. What have you
learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and details
to support your response.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 91
9- Some people believe that internet users may finally end up addicted
to the net.
Do you agree with this opinion? Why?
Some time ago I heard that an "internet -crazed" woman was arrested for
neglecting her three RXQJFKLOGUHQ7KHZRPDQUHSRUWHGO spent 12 hours
straight online, while her hungrNLGVZHUHORFNHGDZD in one room so she
could be online without interruption. The three kids were placed in count
custodZKLOHWKHPRWKHUZDVWRVVHGLQMDLO
The Internet is rapidlEHFRPLQJDQDGGLFWLYHVRXUFHWRDORWRILWVXVHUV
Users of the Internet include students, housewives, and business
professionals. Some of these Internet users spend a minimum of thirty -eight
hours per week on the "net"; hence, losing touch with realitDQGUHHNLQJ
havoc on their studies, familOLYHVRUFDUHHUV,QGLYLGXDOVVXFKDVWKHVHDUH
classified as "Internet Addicts.
First they turn to use rs who trWRFRQYLQFHWKHPVHOYHVWKDWWKH are not
addicted to the Internet. Next, theFKDQJHLQWRXVHUVZKRPDNHFRQYHQLHQW
excuses to use the Internet like motherswho claim theKDYHWRYLVLW the
website of their children’s school in order to read the highlights of the last PTA
meeting. And finallWKH\EHFRPHWKH,QWHUQHWMXQNLHV7KHVHXVHUVQHLWKHU
sneak online nor make excuses to get online. TheSXWWKHLUOLYHVRQKROGWR
get online. The mother I mentioned at the beginning of the essaLVDQ
ex ample of an Internet junk7KHVHWKUHHVWDJHVDOOKDSSHQVXUUHSWLWLRXVO\
without us sensing their occurrence and we onlILQGRXWDIWHUZHKDYH
become addicted to the internet.
In conclusion, I believe we must be warRIWKHSUREOHm sthat the I nternet can
cause; therefore, we must avoid indulging ourselves in browsing the World
Wide Web. (273 words)


Essay Practice
The internet has recent ly t urned into an inseparablepart of our lives and we are
increasingly beco ming dependento n it .
What are some of the reasons for the widespread use of the internet?
And do you think this dependence on the internet is acceptable?

Academic Essay Samples

92 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

10. Some people believe that the government must ban hand guns sin ce
they are dangerous while others believe that hand guns have many
advantages if handled wisely.
What is your opinion?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
Hand guns; are theDJRRGWKLQJRUDEDGWKLQJ",WLVVWLOODQLVVXHRI
controversDQd most people still have mixed feelings about people owning
them. However, hand guns are a great thing when handled responsibl
People seem to think that hand guns todaDUHMXVWZHDSRQVRIGHVWUXFWLRQ
used for harm, or to kill. On the contrarJXQs have much more of a purpose
tha n to cause harm, theFDQSURYLGHJUHDWRSSRUWXQLWLHV+HUHDUHDIHZ
reason to own a hand gun, if RXDUHUHVSRQVLEOH)LUVt ly, it can be an
interesting item to collect, from old tSHVXVHGLQWKH&LYLO:DUWRWKHPRGHUQ
h igh -tech ones. TheGRQRWGHSUHFLDWHLQYDOXHXQOHVVPLVWUHDWHGDQG
scratched up.
Secondly , RXFDQXVHLWWRGHIHQGourself and RXUORYHGRQHVDWKRPHDQG
when RXDUHRXW7KHUHDUHFULPLQDOVHYHUwhere and to protect oneself
against them, one needs to be armed at times. Third ly, it can make a good
recreational activitIRUPXOWLSOHUHDVRQV,WFDn be a great competitive sport,
and a good stress relief
There are manJRRGDQGYDOLGUHDVRQVIRURZQLQJDKDQGJXQKRZHYHUou
alwaVKDYHWR remember to be responsible. If RXDEXVHWKHULJKWLWWDNHVLW
awaIRURWKHUVZKRXVHLWZLVHO.
In conclusion, I believe everWKLQJFDQFDXVHKDUPLIKDQGOHGLUUHVSRQVLEO,
and hand gun is no exception. So people need to be taught how and when to
use their hand guns.
(250 words)

Essay Practice
Accordingto figures, the rate of crime is rising rapidly in most countries in the world
and many sociologists are worried about the future of human societies.
In o ur opinion, what are the many causesleading to t he increasingcrime rate?

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 93
11- Happiness is certainly the most important element in one’s life.
Why is it hard to define happiness?
How can we achieve true happiness?
Though it is defined as the condition of being content, different people ma
have their own ideas of happiness. It is commonlWKRXJKWRIDVKDYLQJDORWRI
moneSRZHURUIDPH%XWFDQWKHVHWKLQJVDFWXDOO\PDNHSHRSOHKDSS?
For some people happiness means moneDQGIDPHPRVWZRXOGDJUHHWKDW
familDQGIULHQGVDOVREULQJJUHDWMR and happiness. FrequentlSHRSOHKDYH
the wrong idea of happiness. TheEHOLHYHLWDULVHVIURPMXVWPDWHULDO
ephemeral objects. However, for others, happiness maFRPHf rom things as
simple as hanging out with friends or reading a good book. Therefore,
Happiness can come from manGLIIHUHQWVRXUFHVEXWSHUKDSVWKHPRVW
ubiquitous ones are friends and famil6RPHEHOLHYH+DSSLQHVVUHVLGHVQRW
in transient possessions or gold, but instead in the conviction that we are
loved.
Happiness is actually more than what most people think it is. It can be
mVWHULRXVDQGHOXVLYHVRXJKWDIWHUE manEXWQRWJDLQHGE all.
Happiness, which is often thought of as a fairlVLPSOHFRQFHSWLVDFWXDOO\
more than what people assume it is. Although this natural mood or feeling is
desired bQXPHURXVSHRSOHLWLVYHU elusive and therefore, for some,
extremelGLIILFXOWWRREWDLQ7UXHKDSSLQHVVDULVHVIURPWKHHQMR\PHQW
experienced following divine satisfaction with who we are and what we hav e
done.
In conclusion the majoritRISHRSOHDUHQRWWUXO happ+RZHYHURWKHU
people assert that friends and familDUHWKHPDLQVRXUFHVWKDWEULQJDERXW
happiness. But, whatever the source, happiness is definitelDQHVVHQWLDOLW
and anecessitRIl ife.
(264words)

Essay Practice
"When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to do with
success." Do you agree or disagree with the quot ation above? Use specific reasons
and e xamples to e xplain your po sit ion.

Academic Essay Samples

94 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

12- Human cloning is today turning into one of the hotte st issues in the
world and while it has attracted many supporters, there are still people
who disapprove of this modern science.
Discuss both these views and give your opinion
Science fiction authors have for manears instilled in us the fantastic idea of
great armies of cloned men and women, fighting mindless battles for the
betterment of human kind. Perfect beings created under the microscope of
fantasWRDFFHOHUDWHWKHHYROXWLRQDU process, a brave new world, of identical
people. But is there trulDQDSSOLFDWLRQIRUKXPDQFORQLQJLQRXUVWFHQWXU
society?
Some people’s answer to the question is a simple “NO”. MoneDQGSRZHU
have plaHGODUJHUROHVLQVRFLHWDOGHYHORSPHQWDQGGHVWUXFWLRQWKURXJKRXW
histor7KHFRQFHUQVWKDWIDFHVRFLetZLWKt he onslaught of cloned humans
lie in a similar vain. Those who can afford the perfect child, will have a perfect
child, and will still serve it caviar for breakfast. This could cause an ever
greater rift in the current class structure that the western world currentl
adheres to. Furthermore, thePDLQWDLn that there will be people who will
abuse the cloned human beings theRZQ7KH will use them to achieve their
goals and will try to dominate the world using the clones theKDYH
However, there are peoplein the business world whowould much prefer an
emploHHWKDWLVQHYHULOO toan emploHHWKDWPLJKWFDWFKIOXHWKHZHHNRIWKH
first cricket world cup match. Clones could verZHOOEHEHWWHUVXLWHGWRWKH
working world, than the working class that d rives the economWRGD. There
are also people who are suffering from a chronic lack of free time and the
would prefer to have their tiring dailFKRUHVGRQHE a clone in order to save
up some time.
In conclusion, considering the fact that the cloned h umans are more likelWR
be abused bWKHSHRSOHLQSRZHr in todaVZRUOG,I believe we’d better put
up with our dailFKRUHVDQG so before legalizing anIRUPRIFORQLQJZHPXVW
give it a second thought.
(317 words)

Essay Practice
Genetically modified foods are becoming very widespread these days. While many
believe they can help feed the world’s growing population; others are skeptical of
their be nefits.
Discuss both these views and give you r opinion.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 95
13- Does space exploration make any sense in a world where so many
people live in abject poverty?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion?
Space exploration has advanced a lot especiallGXULQJWKH&ROG:DUZKHUH
the United States and the Soviet Union competed against each other and
invested huge sums of moneLQWKLVILHOG6LQFHWKHQ86$KDVNHSWRQZLWK
the project of sending ships into outer space and exploring the endless
universe waiting hopefullIRUVRPHWKLQJWRDSSHDU0LOOLRQVRIGROODUVDUH
spent on these projects, but are theUHDOO worth it? I mean, millions of people
are living in abject povertVWDUYLQJWRGHDWKDQGWKHVHLPSHULDOLVWFRXQWULHV
could not care less for them.
These countries should reconsider their policy. TheRQO\ZDQWWREHWKHEHVW
and if the rest is worse, even better. MaEHWKHLUFRXQWU is fine, there is a low
rate of unemploPHQWSHRSOHDUHKDSS and proud of being part of this
developed power of the first world, but, while theVHQGVSDFHVKLSVWR-XSLWHU
there are other countries whichcannot even have access to the Internet, and
there are millions of people who cannot take home a piece of bread to feed
their starving famil7KHFDSLWDOLVWZRUOGLQZKLFKZHOLYHKDVPDGHWKHJDS
between the rich and the poor even wider, and it will continue to be like this as
long as the sVWHPUHPDLQVWKHVDPH,IRQO the people in developed
countries could experience the problems that millions of children face ever
single daWKH would think twice about space exploration.
ManSHRSOHVD that space exploration has advanced a lot and that soon
theZLOOEHKDYLQJWKHLUYDFDWLRQVRQWKHPRRQ7KLVLVEHFDXVHWKH onl
take the opinion of people who have all what theQHHGVRWKH have to give
sense to their lives with these tSHVRIWKLQJV+DYHou ever seen a poor
person talking about astronom"7KHLURQO preoccupation in life is to survive,
to make the pain lessharsh, and to try to avoid suffering.
In conclusion, I believe If the developed world spentless moneRQVSDFH
exploration and more on fighting povertLWZRXOGPDNHDJUHDWHU sense.
(350 words)

Essay Practice
Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring
outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people
disagree and t hink go vernments should s pe nd t his mo neIRURXUEDVLFQe eds on
Earth. Which o f these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and
details to support your answer.

Academic Essay Samples

96 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

14- What are the main sources of environmental pollution?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the
environment. It is a major problem in the world. Pollution damages the
environment. I believe the most important sources of pollution are the
automobiles, the waste produced and dumped bSHRSOHDQGEXVLQHVVHV
Automobiles are undeniablWKHJUHDWHVWVRXUFHRISROOXWLRQ7KHQRLVH
pollution created by cars is immense. Another polluting effect of cars is the
heat it creates. This heat makes it unpleasant to be near the car while it is
running. The toxic fumes given off as a bSURGXFWRIWKHFRPEXVWLRQHQJLQH
are slowlGHWHULRUDWLQJRXUOXQJVDQGRXUDWPRVSKHUH7KHH[KDXVWLV
extremelWR[LFWRKXPDQEHLQJV
Another popular source of pollution is the post -consumer market. People
around the world especiallLQGHYHORSHGFRXQWULHVWKURZDZD millions of tons
of garbage each HDUDQGWKLVWUDVKKDVWRJRVRPHZKHUH:KLOHWKHUHDUH
projects underwaWRFOHDQDQGUHXVHWKLVUHIXVHPRVWRILWJHWVGXPSHGLQWR
huge landfills. These landfi lls are disgusting festering blisters on our country's
landscape.
The last great source of pollution liesin the businesses. Although not
common, businesses have been known to dump their waste into streams,
lakes, and rivers. This maVHHPOLNHDUHODWLv elVPDOORFFXUUHQFHWKDWUHDOO
is not RXUFRQFHUQEXW\RXDUHZURQJ(DFKWLPHRQHRIWKHVHFRPSDQLHV
pollutes the environment; there are horrible consequences to pa0XWDWLRQV
destroHGHFRVstems, and human death have all occurred as a direct resul t
of illegal dumping. It contaminates our drinking water and soil. It causes entire
communities of humans (not to mention animals) to move on to new places
and not to return for at least a centur7KHSROOXWDQWVGXPSHGE industry are
so concentrated that a single barrel can destroDQHQWLUHODNH
VHFRVstem.
In conclusion, pollution like anRWKHUSUREOHPFDQEHVROYHGEXWWKLVLVDORQJ
process. Individuals can do their part to save the environment as well as
themselves.
(328 words)


Essay Practice
Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests,
animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it
needs to be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 97
15- Conside ring our depleting energy resources, conservation of energy
is a necessity.
How can people save energy in their homes?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
Since the beginning of time, energKDVSHUYDGHGRXUHDUWK7KHVHGDs we
rely on it to advance in our technological developments. We also need energ
for a varietRIRWKHUWKLQJVVXFKDVWRNHHSRXUERGLHVDOLYHDQGKHDOWK, to
run our machines and other technical devices, and also to keep warm in
winter and cool in summer. However, People and other things can run out of
energLQZKLFKFDVHWKH can no longer have the abilitWRGRZRUN
Therefore, energFRQVHUYDWLRQLVRISDUDPRXQWLPSRUWDQFH
Conservation of energPHDQVWRVDYHHQHUJ. As the natural energ
sources become increasinglVFDUFe it is important to learn how to save
energ2QHZD of doing this is to create an energHIILFLHQWKRPH7RFUHDWH
an energHIILFLHQWKRPHWKHUHDUHPDQ measures that can be taken to save
energy including the installation of solar energypanels;as the sun is a
constant natural energUHVRXUFHZHFDQVWRUHWKDWHQHUJ and use it to heat
out water.
We can also save energE using the ‘Sleep mode’ on most modern
household appliances including computers. C omputers are definitel
becoming more and more popular in homes, if and onlLIWKHFRPSXWHUQHHGV
to be on at all times RXVKRXOGXVHWKHVOHHSPRGHZKLFKOHWVWKHFRPSXWHU
run on the minimum amount of energQHHGHG
Last but not least, energFDQEHFRQVHUYHGE doing the simple things ar ound
the home to lessen the usage of the machines that do work: for example,
turning appliances off at the power point instead of just at the switch on the
appliance and shutting all windows and doors and closing all curtains to keep
the heat in the house instead of relying on the heater to do all the work, and
vise- versa in the summer, openingall the windows and doors to let the cool
air in instead of relLQJRQWKHDLUFRQGLWLRQHU
In conclusion, it is important for all people to realize the need for c onserving
energ,WLVLPSRVVLEOHIRUDOOWKHQDWXUDOUHVRXUFHVWRNHHSXSZLWKRXU
forever advancing civilization, and supplXVZLWKWKHHQHUJ that we need.
(365 words)
Essay Practice
Massive consumpt ion o f fossil fue ls is causing various types o f environmental
pollution upsetting the ecosyste m.
How can the go vernments and the people help to reduce the destructive effects of
fossil fuel consumption?

Academic Essay Samples

98 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

16- In order to achieve success, self-esteem is considered to be very
necessary.
What are some of the factors affecting self -esteem?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
People’s motivations, goals, inspirations, loves, and health are profoundl
affected by an important machine inside themselves called self -esteem. This
machine enables the person to keep going in life and answers the question
“WhDP,KHUH"6HOf -Esteem can be called “the motivator.” It’s a drive to do
well, succeed in life, and represent the “natural selected” group of societWKDW
will survive and reproduce.
Self -Esteem is influenced primarilE\VRFLDODFWLYLW with others. If a group of
friends wanted to do things and one of the boVNHSWEULQJLQJXSLGHDVEXW
was alwaVSXWGRZQE his cohorts, it would bring down his self -esteem from
ever saying anWKLQJDJDLQ7KLVZRXOGKDYHDKDUPIXOHIIHFWRQFKLOGUHQDQG
their progression towards high goals in life. The lack of self -esteem in earl
childhood could lead them towards a swamp of depression, lack of motiva tion,
and loneliness. Instead of achieving a job or extending their education, the
might be stuck in jail for drugs or robber.
However, self -esteem is not completelEDVHGRQDSSUDLVDOVE others. The
person might have a familEDFNJURXQGRUVXFFHVVIXOMREVDQGKLJKSRVLWLRQV
This might turn on the machine towards higher self -esteem. It is true that
experiences with others will increase or decrease self -esteem; however, the
importance of staLQJVWURQJDQGEHOLHYLQJLQRQHVHOIZLOODOVRFRQWULEXWHWRD
higher self -esteem.
In conclusion, without self -esteem inside the person, the road would have
dead- ends, bumps, and other obstacles. And parents and individual
themselves must care about the self -esteem issue so that theZLOODFKLHYH
happiness and succes s in life.
(263 words)



Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self -confidence is the most
important factor for success in school or at work. Use specific reasons and examples
to support your opinion.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 99
17- Some people have come to believe that children’s misbehavi our in
life is due to their genetic characteristics, while others believe their
misbehaviour is the direct result of ineffective upbringing.
What’s your opinion?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
Children misbehave because something vital is missing in their nurturing.
Genetics is not the onlYDOLGH[FXVHIRUDFKLOGVPLVEHKDYLRXU7KHVH
mothers and fathers allow RXQJFKLOGUHQWRVWUD from moral equity, challenge
authoritDQGXVHYLROHQFHDVa resolution for anger. Nurturing should include
deterrence from wickedness and inducement of morality.
When a child does something wrong it is the parents’ responsibilitWR
discourage the repetition of bad conduct and encourage the understanding
that the action committed was wrong. Parental guidance is necessarIRUD
child’s survival because children are born into the world knowing nothing, and
thus, adapt to the world’s surroundings with the help of these great leaders.
However, telling a child what is wrong is not enough. A RXQJSHUVRQQHHGV
an explanation for the mistakes that he/she makes and must be given a
reason not to repeat it otherwise, he or she is prone to believe one can do
anWKLQJRQHZDQWV
A child misbehaves because he/she does not comprehend that certain actions
are wrong. As parents neglect to make children aware of these errors, elders
in turn become guiltRIWKHFKLOGVWUDQVJUHVVLRQV&LYLOL]DWLRQWUXVWVLQSDUHQWV
to raise the RXQJWRUHFRJQL]HOLHVLQVXERUGLQDWLRQDQGDJJUHVVLRQIRUZKDWLW
is: misbehaviour. Grown- ups must help kids see deceit as a form of
misbehaviour. Parents should reiterate that the right waWRWUHDWKLVKHU
mother and father is with respect.
Ultimatel,EHOLHYHWKDWJHQHWLFFKDUDFWHULVWLFVLQKHULWHGIr om parents can not
be a good excuse for the misconduct of a child and the societVKRXOGVHH
parents as the root of a child’s misbehavior.
(270 words)

Essay Practice
Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early
age and should spe nd most of t heir t ime o n school studies. Others be lieve t hat young
children should spend most of their time plaLQJ&RPSDUHWKHVHWZRYLHZV:KLFK
view do you agree with? Why?

Academic Essay Samples

100 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

18- Many people believe violent and pornographic scenes must be
censored, while others believe that people must be able to choose what
they view.
What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
In a world in which acts of heinous violence, murder, or crude and shocking
behavior seem to be a normal occurrence, it may lead one to wonder what has
put society onto this slippery slope. How did this type of behavior come to be so
acceptable and in some cases even glorifiable? A careful study of society ma
lead to mass media as being the main cause. The modern world has become
desensitized to the acts shown on television, movies, and video games or printed
in newspapers and magazines. Censorship must be employed if morals and
decency are to be preserved.
One of the culprits of criminal behavior is T.V. violence. Violent programs may
have a negative influence on those individuals who are already violence -prone, or
children who are living through vulnerable periods of their development. Adult
violent offenders claim to have viewed violence on television. Furthermore, the
amount of violence on television continues to grow. A typical child watched eight
thousand murders and one hundred thousand acts of violence before finishing
elementary school. In such an environment, how can people not become
desensitized to criminal acts? By allowing this tSHRIPDWHULDOWREHRSHQO\
exposed to the public we are endangering our safety and the society’s values.
Without c ontrol of what material is delivered to the masses, we cannot expect
people to have a proper sense of right and wrong.
More evidence that shows censorship may be positive is explained when we
examine what leads todelinquent activity. To see this we must take a look at
what is inside the mind of a criminal. Eighty -one percent of criminals rate
pornography as their highest sexual interest. This means that a clear majoritRI
criminals like pornography and find it highly interesting. While normal people
pro bably rank their spouses as their highest sexual interest. Further evidence of
the relation between pornography and crime is seen when an adult bookstore is
closed; the crime rate in the surrounding areas falls significantly. Taking awa
pornography from c riminals maDOORZWKHLUPLQGVWRIRFXVRQRWKHUWKLQJVDQG
could prove to be an important tool in the reform of hardened criminals.
To conclude, when these points are taken into account we can see that
censorship is a necessity in thesocietWRGD\,W will giveour children a better
chance to develop in a healthy way. Without crime being pushed onto oursociety
everyday, deviant thoughts might not be so deeplVHWLQWRLPSUHVVLRQDEOH
individuals.
( 413 words)
Essay Practice
Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on
developing or buying computer technology. Other people disagree and think that this
mo nes hould be spe nt on more basic needs. Which o ne o f these opinions do you
agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 101
19- TechnologLVDGYDQFLQJDWDUDWHIDVWHUWKDQHYHUEHIRUHDQGLV
revolutionizing many fields. In your opinion how can technology help
education?
What’s your opinion?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
The best method for improving educational standards is to utilize every tool
available, including state-of -the-art technology. Computers and the Internet have
expanded the way in which information can be delivered to the students of today.
Today's networking technologies provide a valuable opportunity to practice new
learning techniques. Educators are discovering that computers are facilitating
learning. Computer-based communications, or telecommunications, can offer
many educational opportunities; therefore, educators will need to adapt current
teaching methods to incorporate this new media into the classroom.
Computers have made a fundamental impact in most industries, providing a
competitive advantage that has come to be essential to manEXVLQHVVHV
Th erefore, schools must also use technology to improve the educational process.
School systems often consider purchasing a computer network, and justify its
purchase by applying it to routine administrative tasks, such as attendance
records and grading. Whil e these tasks are very important, theRQO show a
small part of what technology can do for a school. Technology must go further
than simplNHHSLQJDWWHQGDQFHLWPXVWIRFXVRQNHHSLQJVWXGHQWVLQWHUHVWHGDQG
productive.
It is currently possible to engage in "distance education through the Internet.
Since computers and the Internet have expanded in such a waLQZKLFK
education can be delivered to students living far away from education centers,
Distance education involves audio and video links between t eachers and
students in remote areas. Video conferencing allows groups to communicate with
each other. Desktop video conferencing promises to bring students together from
geographic and cultural distances, face to face via computer. Not only will the
teach er talk to the students, but the students will be able to interact with each
other. This will make students more interested and fascinated with learning.
In conclusion I believe educational boards should be open to any new idea that
technology has to offer. It would not be fair for a student in a particular city to
receive a better education than another student in a different city. Technology is
not meant to replace teachers, but is there to serve students to make tedious
tasks easier.
( 344 words)
Essay Practice
Many believe trying to preserve traditional customs and skills is unnecessary in the
modern technological world; others disagree and call for the preservation of such
customs and traditions.
Discussboth t hese views and give your opinion.

Academic Essay Samples

102 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

20- Some people believe that welfare payments are a waste of the
society's financial resources, while others believe that welfare payments
are needed to support certain members of the society.
What is your opinion?
Social welfare is an essential element of an advanced societ*RRGVstems
are alwaVDEXVHGEXWWKLVGRHVQRWPHDQWKH are fault,QP opinion,
there are two main reasons whZHOIDUHSDments are necessarWRSURWHFW
the rights of citizens.
First of all, critics forget that there are manIRUPVRIZHOIDUHSDments
besides paPHQWVWRWKHXQHPSORed. Their negative opinions harm those
who are not capable of earning a wage, such as single- parent mothers, the
disabled, and the sick. Moreover, the unemploHGKDYHWKHULJKWWRDQ
income, too. TheDUHDOZDs at fault for not having a job, and in most cases
the tax theKDYHSDLGLQWKHSDVWHQWLWOHVWKHPWRDVVLVWDQFH
The second reason is that crime increases when people have no means of
support. The desperatelSRRULQHYLWDEO turn to crime, which is not onl
dangerous but costl3ROLFLQJWKHVWUHHWVLVPRUHH[SHQVLYHWKDWSURYLGLQJ
welfare. A policeman’s wage is four or five times higher than a dole paPHQW
However, we must be careful while we let the jobless join the dole queue, I
mean this must not increase their dependency on others; the relief paPHQWV
in the case of the unemploHGPXVWEHWHPSRUDU. And the go vernment must
trWRFUHDWHHPSORment and help them to set up their small businesses and
go off the dole. It is surely the government’s fault if there are long- term
unemploHd people.
To conclude, it is vital to understand the need for welfare in a modern
democratic societ:LWKRXWZHOIDUHSDments the poor are destined to
become poorer. The first dutRIDJRYHUQPHQWLVWRSURYLGHDILQDQFLDOVDIHW\
net for all disadvantaged persons, and that includes those without work.
(287 words)


Essay Prac tice
Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should
go vernments spend more moneo n improving pu blic t ranspo rtation ( buses, t rains,
subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 103
21- Some people believe that old people must be forced to retire in their
60s, while others believe they must have the right to work until they
prefer to retire.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both views and give your
personal opinion.
ManROGSHRSOe are allowed towork well into their 70s and 80s, running
families, countries or corporations. Other people, however, despite being fit
and highlWDOHQWHGDUHIRUFHGWRUHWLUHLQWKHLUVRUHYHQHDUOLHUEHFDXVHRI
companRUQDWLRQDOUHJXODWLRQV
There are several arguments for allowing older people to continue working as
long as they are able. First of all, older emploHHVKDYHDQLPPHQVHDPRXQW
of knowledge and experience which can be lost to a business or organization
if theDUHPDGHWRUHWLUH2OGHUSHRSOHDUe well-experienced, and their
experience can help companies reduce their expenses and increase their
efficiency .Another point is that older emploHHVDUHRIWHQH[WUHPHO loDO
emploHHVDQGDUHPRUHZLOOLQJWRLPSOHPHQWFRPSDQ policies than younger
and less committed staff. Finall,WKLQNROGHUHPSORees are more
conservative in general; theDUHDOVRPRUHSUDFWLFDOWKDQDPELWLRXV\RXQJ
emploHHVZKRZRXOGQRWPLQGOHDGLQJWKHFRPSDQ to failure in order to
assert their abilities.
Allowing older people to work indefinitelKRZHYHULVQRWDOZDs a good polic
Age alone is no guarantee of abilit6RPHounger emploHHVKDYHPRUH
experience or skills than older staff, who maKDYHEHHQVWXFNLQRQHDUHDRU
unit for most of their working lives. Having compulsorUHWLUHPHQWDOORZVQHZ
ideas in an organization. In addition, without age limits, however arbitrar
manSHRSOHZRXOGFRQWLQXHWRZRUk ,merely because theGLGQRWKDYHDQ
other plans or roles. Besides, old staff maQRWKDYHHQRXJK motivation and
stamina to brush up on theirtechnical knowledge and hence maQRWEHDEOH
to improve the companV efficiencyand competitiveness.
In conclusion, with manoung people unemploHGRUIUXVWUDWHGLQORw -level
positions, there are often calls to compulsorily retire older workers. However,
this can affect the older individual’s freedom -and right -to work and can
deprive societRIYDOXDEOHH[SHULHQFHDQGLQVLJKWV,IHHOWKDWJLYLQJZRUNHUV
more flexibilitDQGFKRLFHRYHUWKHLUUHWLUHPHQWDJHZLOOEHQHILW societDQGWKH
individual.
(337 words)
Essay Practice
Old people have always been important for the family in every culture. In your
opinion how can we respect the elderly in the best way?

Academic Essay Samples

104 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

22- Some people believe the government must ban dangerous sports
such as boxing or motor -racing, other sbelieve people must have the
right to play these sports.
Discuss both view sand give your opinion.
Millions of people plaVSRUWVHYHU day, and, inevitablVRPHVXIIHULQMXU or
pain. Most plaHUVDQGVSHFWDWRUVDFFHSWWKLVULVN+RZHYHUVRPHSHRSOH
would like to see dangerous sports such as boxing banned.
Some sports are nothing but an excuse for violence. Boxing is a perfect
example. The last thing an increasinglYLROHQWZRUOGQHHGVLVPRUHYLROHQFH
on our television. The sight of two men (or even women) bleeding, with faces
ripped open, trying to obliterate each other is barbaric. Other sports, such as
American football or rugby, are also barely -concealed violence. Some people
argue that the plaHUVFDQFKRRVHWRSDUWLFLSDWH+RZHYHUWKLVLVQRWDOZDs
the case. ManER[HUVIRUH[DPSOHFRPHIURPGLVDGYDQWDJHGEDFNJURXQGV
TheDUHOXUHGE money or bVRFLDORUSHHUSUHVVXUHDQGWKHQFDQQRW
escape. Even in richer social groups, schools force unwilling students to pla
aggressive team sports, claiming that playing will improve the students'
character (or the school's reputation).
However, manZould not opt for the illegalization of violent sports. They
believe, being a couch potato and growing obese has certainlPRUHULVNIRU
the person than participating in some violent sport competitions. As man
people choose to turn into slothful people suffering from a wide range of
chronic diseases caused bREHVLW such as cardiovascular diseases and
diabetes; for justice to prevail, athletes must be given the freedom to choose
their favorite field of sport. As we never prevent the lazIURPJHWWLQJREHVH in
spite of the health risks involved, we should not boFRWWVRPHVSRUWVIRUWKH
violence thePDy contain.
In conclusion, I believe banning a certain sport immediatelDIWHUZHGLVFRYHU
it is dangerous is not a practical solution. Some sports are really ver
interesting and popular. I believe we can have a new version of some sports.
Most sports can be moderated bVHWWLQJVRPHQHZUXOHVDQGUHJXODWLRQVIRU
instance, experts have alreadFKDQJHGPRVWRIWKHUXOHVDQGUHJXODWLRQVLQ
boxing and now the new form is approved of bPDQ countries.
(341 words)
Essay Practice
Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous activities suc h a s bu ngee
jumping and s ky -diving ? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 105
23- Euthanasia means mercy -killing and recently has become an issue of
controversy. While some people believe that patients have the right to choose
between life and death. Others believe it is cruel to kill a person who has an
incurable disease.
What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
A doctor’s function has changed over time. In the past, the doctor was a person who
besides being RXUIULHQGWUHDWHGWKHGLVHDVHV1RZDGRFWRULVDVWUDQJHUZKR
combats diseases, but he/she is not alwaV\RXUIULHQG:KDWZLOOQHYHUFKDQJHLV
their constant struggle against death. However, their job is not onlWRSUHYHQWGHDWK
but also to improve their patient’s quality of life. ManWLPHVWKHUHLVQRWKLQJDGRFWRU
can do to prevent a patient f rom dLQJLIWKHSDWLHQWKDVDWHUPLQDOGLVHDVHDOOKHVKH
can do is to wait for death to arrive. This waiting time can be verSDLQIXOIRUERWKWKH
patients and the people who surround them. Not practicing euthanasia at the request
of the dLQJSHUVRQLs violating a person’s rights, creating an economic burden,
interfering with a doctor’s job, and increasing suffering.
First of all, deciding if RXZDQWWREHDOLYHRUQRWLVDSHUVRQDOGHFLVLRQ1HLWKHUWKH
doctors nor the government has the power to decide if RXVKRXOGOLYHRUQRW6LQFHLW
is not their life and theDUHQRWLQ\RXUVLWXDWLRQWKH cannot make that kind of
decision for you. It might sound like suicide, but again, that is our problem, not theirs.
TheJLYHXVWKHOLEHUW to choose our job, our familRXUUHOLJLRQDQGHYHQRXUVH[
preference. WhVKRXOGWKH not give us the right to decide if we want to live or not?
Next comes the economic factor. ManWLPHVZHGRQRWKDYHHQRXJKPRQH to pa
for the necessarPHGLFDOFDUH,QDZD, we are just wasting time and moneRQD
situation that won’t get better. If the patient wants euthanasia, whVKRXOGZHDYRLGLW
if we cannot end the huge amount of money wasted on a treatment that won’t help?
FinallWKHEDVLFUHDVRQZK euthanasia should be practiced is because it stops the
person from having a bad qualitRIOLIH$V,VDLGDGRFWRUVIXQFWLRQVKRXOGQRWRQO
be the one of curing diseases but also providing the patients with a better qualitRI
life. Having a patient suffering is not giving him a better qualitRIOLIH:KHQGRFWRUV
reach this point, then theVKRXOGEHDOORZHGWRJUDQWWKHSDWLHQWZKDWHYHUKHZDQWV
since he or she cannot offer something better. Even if theFRXOGRIIHUWKHSDWLHQWDQ
kind of treatment or options, it is the patient who should decide how he wants to live
his life.
In conclusion, I have never been in a situation where I have to decide whether
euthanasia should be applied to someone or not. However if I ever see mVHOILQWKDW
kind of situation, I would have no doubt of agreeing with it.
(466 words)

Essay Practice
While ma nypeoplemay easily tolerate the unfavorableliving circumstances, some
prefer to commit suicide to end the suffering.
Why do some people co mmit suicide? Use specific reasons and examples to support
your answer.

Academic Essay Samples

106 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

24. Some parents believe spanking children is cruel while others believe
at times it can be a good form of punishment.
What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.
The term corporal punishment means the intentional infliction of pain on the
bodIRUSXUSRVHVRISXQLVKPHQW Spanking can be defined as the use of
phVLFDOIRUFHDLPHGDWFDXVLQJFKLOGUHQWRH[SHULHQFHSDLQEXWQRWLQMXU, for
the purposes of correction and control of RXWKIXOEHKDYLRU6SDQNLQJLVD
controversial topic and should not be taken lightl
As a child I was spanked when I did something wrong. MSDUHQWVQHYHUOHIWD
mark on me whatsoever. Being spanked taught me respect and kept me in
line. The waP parents disciplined me, I think is an accepted method of
punishment. I believe what parents do to their kids at home is their business
as long as it is not a cruel or anunusual form of punishment. I find that
RXQJHUNLGVWKHVHGDs are not disciplined enough bWKHLUSDUHQWVWKHVH
kids do not respect their parents or other adults.
Spanking can be a practical form of punishment if first RXWHOOWKHFKLOGWKDWKH
o r she is going to be spanked. Spanking should never be spontaneous.
Parents must also tell the child the reason for the spanking, he or she ma
alreadNQRZZK, but it's best that you verballWHOOWKHFKLOG3DUHQWVPXVW
also let the child know that even though theDUHJLYLQJWKHLUFKLl dren a
spanking theVWLOOORYHWKHLUFKLOGUHQ$QGILQDOO parents must take the child
into a private room such as a bathroom or bedroom, and close the door. A
spanking should never be administered in front of other siblings or onlookers.
However the child's personality directlLQIOXHQFHVWKHIRUPRIWKHSXQLVKPHQW
that works best for him or her. Some children will onlUHVSRQGWRSKsical
punishment and others will respond to verbal punishment. So before deciding
on the form of punishment, RXPXVWNQRZour child well.
In conclusion, I believe spanking can be regarded as an acceptable form of
punishment as long as RXGRQRWKXUW\RXUFKLOGDQd follow the rules stated
above. (340 words)

Essay Practice
Nowadays the rate of school drop-out is increasing rapidly. Many educators blame
this on the characteristics of the new generation while others think the de motivat ing
education system is the culprit.
What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 107
25- Alcoholism has turned into a serious problem in the world and in
particular in western countries.
What are the effects of alcoholism?
How manWLPHVKDYHou heard about the consequences of alcoholism?
Have RXWDNHQWKHPLQWRDFFRXQW"$OFRKROLVPLVRQHRIWKHPDMRUSUREOHPV
in most societies. The effects of this disease are reallVHULRXV0DQ people
get used to drinking alcohol, and theFDQHDVLO abuse it .Alcoholism has
manVLGHHIIHFWVDQG,ZLOORQO discuss the most important ones.
The first effect of alcoholism is phVLFDO,WLVWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQW effect
because it can cause death. For example, alcoholism causes cancer in the
neurons, so it causes problems in the bodPRYHPHQWVORVVRIDSSHWLWHDQG
depression . All these phVLFDOFRQVHTXHQFHVFRXOGFDXVHGHDWKLI\RXGULQN
alcohol.
The second effect caused bDOFRKROLVPLVSVchological. At the beginning,
alcohol maPDNHou feel relaxed, but if RXGULQNLWDJDLQLWLQFUHDVHV
anxietDQGFDXVHVGHSUHVVLRQI t also causes familDQGOHJDOSUREOHPV
violence, changes of behavior, suicide, among others. Alcohol is verSRZHUIXO
and affects all RXUQRUPDOEHKDYLRUV
The third effect of alcoholism is economic. Alcohol is not cheap. If RXGULQN
two or three times in a week, it could cost RXDORW3HRSOHGRQRWWKLQNDERXW
the moneDQGVSHQGDOPRVWHYHUthing when theDUHGUXQN.
In conclusion, the effects of alcoholism can cause manSUREOHPVZKLFK
would affect all aspects of RXUOLIH$OFRKROGDPDJHVour br ain, muscles,
digestion process, and other organs. It also can cause depression or changes
in RXUEHKDYLRUZKLFKZLOOFRQVHTXHQWO result in problems with RXUIDPLO\
and friends, and finallLWZLOOOHDYHou in povertEHFDXVHLWFRVWVDORW
(269 word s)




Essay Practice
Some people believ e smoking and sale of cigarettesmust be banned totally; others
think people should be free to choose whether t o smoke o r not .
Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

Academic Essay Samples

108 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

26- Nowadays the rate of drug abuse among the youth is on the
increase.
What are the reasons for the increasing rate of drug abuse among the
youth?
How can we solve this problem?
Youth drug abuse is a serious problem nowadaVLQPDQ cultures. Not onl
is illegal drug use on the rise, but children as RXQJDVears old are
experimenting with alcohol and tobacco. The reasons for this behavior are
unclear, but certain sociologists blame the examples set b ythe elders.
Parents who drink and smoke to excess are, in effect, telling their children that
it is acceptable to abuse their bodies with drugs. ConsequentlFKLOGUHQPD
have a similar view towards illegal drugs even if their parents are against their
use. In addition, drug use shown on television and in films can onlFRQIXVH
children who are also taught at school that drug abuse is wrong. The pressure
on RXQJFKLOGUHQWRSHUIRUPZHOODWVFKRROLQRUGHUWRFRPSHWHIRUMREVLVD
possible cause for the problem. ManEHOLHYHWKH cannot live up to their
parents’ expectations and feel a sense of hopelessness. Also, the widespread
availabilitRIGUXJVPHDQVWHHQDJHUVDUHIDFHGZLWKWKHWHPSWDWLRQWR
experiment. Drugs are used as a means of expressing dissatisfaction wit h the
pressures theIDFHLQVRFLHW\
The rate of drug abuse is increasing and it is high time we took action to
tackle the problem. I recommend that in order to solve the problem; the first
step to be taken is to educate RXQJSHRSOHDQGWKHLUSDUHQWVDERXWWKH
dangers of drug abuse. Parents must also set a good example for their
children to follow; parents need to know that children are influenced more b
the waWKH behave rather than bZKDWWKH saDVWKHROGVD\LQJJRHV
“actions speak louder than words”. The government must also severelSXQLVK
drug traffickers who either produce or smuggle drugs into the countr,WPXVW
be extremelLPSRVVLEOHIRUDWHHQDJHUWRSXUFKDVHLOOHJDOGUXJV
In conclusion, I believe it is possible to eliminate the problem of RXWKGUXJ
abuse providing that we discover its causes. Then it is high time we took
action to save our children who maJHWDGGLFWHGWRQDUFRWLFVLQWKHQHDU
future. (349 words)
Essay Practice
Addictionmeans dependency on a certain habit and addict is a person who is
dependent on a certain habit.
In your opinion what are different forms of addiction?
And how can one recognize whether one is addicted to a certain habit or not?

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 109
27- These days, people are producing more and more trash, and
unfortunately the rate is increasing.
In your opinion why do people produce more trash these days?
What actions can we take in order to reduce the amount of trash that
people produce?
Each familLQWKHZRUOGSURGXFHVDFHUWDLQDPRXQWRIUXEELVKHYHU\GD and
the governments allocate a huge sum of moneIRUFROOHFWLQJDQGGXPSLQJ
trash. Producing trash is inevitable however what looks unacceptable is that
families these daVDUHSURGXFLng much more than theVKRXOGDQGWKLVLV
causing manSUREOHPVIRUWKHSHRSOHDQGWKHJRYHUQPHQWV
The first reason whZHSURGXFHVRPXFKUXEELVKLVRXUPRGHUQOLIHVW\OH
These daVZHDUHFRQVXPLQJWKLQJVZKLFKDUHSDFNDJHG0RVWRIRXU
garbage comes from packaging, we are consuming a lot of convenience food
and we are throwing awaORWVRIFDQVERWWOHVDQGSDFNDJHV:HDUHDOVR
discarding manSODVWLFEDJVDQGER[HVXVHGWRFDUU things around. We are
accustomed to using disposable products, we use them once and then we
dispose of them. And unfortunately we forget that manRIWKHWKLQJVZHWU to
get rid of are non- biodegradable and difficult to dispose of. Another reason is
our interest in mass consumerism. In the modern world todaPDQ people
cons ume more than theUHDOO\QHHGDQGWKHUHIRUHZDVWHDORWZKLFKLQWXUQ
results in the production of trash.
In mRSLQLRQWKHIXWXUHJHQHUDWLRQPXVWEHDZDUHRIWKHFRQVHTXHQFHVRI
this trend therefore thePXVWEHHGXFDWHGDERXWWKHHQYLURQPHQWLVVXHVat
school now. The governments must urge upon industrWKHLPSRUWDQFHRI
applying reusable packaging, such as glass bottles instead of plastic bottles.
People must be informed of the damage to the environment caused by trash
and encouraged to use recFOHGPDWHULDOVVLQFHPRVWRIWKHWKLQJVWKDWZH
consider as being trash can be used to produce other things. And finall,
think People must learn not to waste anWKLQJ8QIRUWXQDWHO a considerable
amount of the rubbish we produce comes from things we have wast ed.
To conclude, I think we cannot help producing trash and the earth and the
ecosVWHPFDQWDNHLQRQO a certain amount of trash; therefore, people must
reduce the amount of rubbish theSURGXFHEHIRUHLWLVWRRODWH (343 words)
Essay Practice
Most companies these days promote the habit of consumerismamong people thinking
it can boost the world economy. While others think the so-called benefits of
consumerism are elusive.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of consumerismand finally give your own
opinion.

Academic Essay Samples

110 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

28- Drug abuse is becoming a problem in our society.
What are the problems caused by drug abuse and what are some
solutions?
Drug abuse is rife in manFRXQWULes. And the rate of drug abuse is rising
dramaticallDOODURXQGWKHZRUOGHYHQWKRXJh Billions of dollars are spent
internationallSUHYHQWLQJGUXJXVHWUHDWLQJDGGLFWVDQGILJKWLQJGUXg -related
cr i me. Drugs threaten families as well as the societies, and their effects can
be combated successfull
Drug abuse causes multiple problems for countries and communities. The
medical and psFKRORJLFDOHIIHFWVDUHYHU obvious. Addicts cannot function
as normal members of societ7KH neglect or abuse their families, and
eventuallUHTXLUHH[SHQVLYHWUHDWPHQWRUKRVSLWDOL]DWLRQ7KHVHFRQGHIIHFWLV
on crime. Huge police resources are needed to fight smuggling and dealing.
Criminal gangs and mafia underworlds develop with the moneIURPGUXJV.
However, the menace of drugs can be fought. Education is the first battle.
Children need to be told at home and in school about drugs. People need to
be aware of the effects so that theFDQDYRLGWKLVSUREOHP$VHFRQG
approach is to increase police manpower and powers to stop dealers and to
enforce the law. However the main target should be the user. Families and
counselors need to talk to children and people at risk. Parents need to look at
their children and help them
In conclusion, although the problem of drugs maVe em impossible to
eliminate, there are concrete steps that can be taken to weaken the hold of
drugs on societ. Drug addiction is jeopardizing our societDQGLJQRULQJLWLV
the biggest mistake we can ever make.
(250 words)



Essay Practice
“Drug t raffic kers are more dangerous than murderers and they deserve a more severe
fo r m o f punishment”.
Do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to
support your answer.

Academic Essay Samples
IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 111
29- Some employers reward members of the staff or their exceptional
contributions to the company by giving them extra money. This practice
can act as an incentive for some but may also have a negative impact on
others.
To what extent is this style of management effective?
Are there better ways of encouraging employees to work hard?
In times of high unemploPHQWHPSORers need to do verOLWWOHWRHQFRXUDJH
their staff to work hard, but when job vacancies are galore, theKDYHWRILQG
effective waVRIUHZDUGLQJWKHLUVWDIILQRUGHUWRVWRSWKHPIURPJRLQJ
elsewhere.
One obvious waRIGRLQJWKLVLVWRRIIHUH[WUDPRQH to emploHHVZKRDUH
seen to be working exceptionally hard and this is done in companies with a
product to sell. For example, real estate agencies or department stores can
offer a simple commission on all sales. This stOHRIPDQDJHPHQWIDYRXUVWKH
ones who can demonstrate their contributions through sales figures, but does
not take into account the work done bSHRSOHEHKLQGWKHVFHQHVZKRKDYH
little contact with the public.
A better approach is for management to offer a bonus to all the staff at the
end of the HDULIWKHSURILWVDUHKHDOWK, this however does not allow
management to target individuals who have genuinelZRUNHGKDUGHUWKDQ
others. Another possibilitLVWRLGHQWLI excellent staff through incentiv e
schemes such as ‘EmploHHRIWKHPRQWKRUZRUNHURIWKHZHHNWRPDNH
people feel recognized. Such people are usuallVLQJOHGRXWZLWKWKHKHOSRI
clients. Hotels, restaurants and tour operators maDOVRDOORZVWDIIWRDFFHSW
tips offered bFOLHQWVZKRDUHSOHDVHGZLWKWKHVHUYLFH+RZHYHUWLSSLQJLVD
highlXQUHOLDEOHVRXUFHRIPRQH and does not favour everyone.
BasicallHPSORees want to be recognized for their contribution –whether
through receiving more moneRUVLPSO some encouraging words. TheDOVR
need to feel that their contribution to the whole organization is worthwhile.
Good management recognizes this need and responds appropriately.
(280 words)
Essay Practice
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should sometimes do
things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to support
your answer.

Academic Essay Samples

112 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

30- Some people trust their first impressions about a person’s character
becau se they believe these judgments are generally correct. Other
people do not judge a person’s character quickly because they believe
first impressions are often wrong.
Discuss both these views and give your opinion.
Leaving a good impression upon the people we meet especiallWKHRQHVZH
meet for the first time is now common practice, but judging a person by his or
her appearance or the impression theFUHDWHFDQQRWEHFRQVLGHUHGD
sensible policKRZHYHUWKHUHDUHSHRSOHZKRWUXVWWKHLUMXGJPHQWVDERut a
person’s character based ontheir first impressions.
S ome people know that people might not be what theSUHWHQGRUFODLPWREH
as a result, theWKLQNILUVWLPSUHVVLRQVDUHDOZDs wrong. TheWU not to
evaluate people merelEDVHGRQKRZWKH appear or how theWU to assert
themselves, rather they trWREDVHWKHLUHYDOXDWLRQRQRWKHUYDULDEOHVVXFKDV
people’s thoughts, achievements in life, relations with others, their friends,
their beliefs etc. Hence, even though these people have taken the issue to an
extreme, I think theZLOOPDNHIHZHUPLVWDNHVWKDQWKRVHZKRWUXVWWKHLUILUVW
impressions since theDSSHDUWREHLQWHOOLJHQWRUWKH might deign to speak
with a person who appears to be below par.
However, Others believe one must not adopt a radical approach to the
problem; for them, appearance is verLPSRUWDQWWRR$SHUVRQFDQQRWKDYHDQ
unkempt and disheveled appearance and advise others about cleanliness. In
fact such a person is a hSRFULWH GenerallWDNLQginto account man
variables before making a decision about a person’s character and
appearance is definitelRQHRIWKe important variables.
In conclusion, I believe that human beings are more complex than we could
make up our mind about their character bVLPSO looking at them; therefore,
people must trWRSD attention to manYDULDEOHVDIIHFWLQJDSHUVRQV
character before making a judgment.
(283 words)
Essay Practice
We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. In your
opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co -worker (someone you work
closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics
are important.

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A
A
P
P
P
P
E
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N
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1
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C
C
O
O
N
N
N
N
E
E
C
C
T
T
I
I
V
V
E
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S
S

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114

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Appendix 1 Connectives
1 - Enumeration:
First, … Furthermore, … Finally, …
Firstly, … Secondly, …. Thirdly, …

Above all
Last but not least

First and foremost
First and most importantly

To begin, … In the second place, … Moreover, … And to conclude, …
To start with, … Next, … Then, … Afterward, … Lastly/Finally, …
2- Addition: to what has been previously indicated
A. R einforcement (includes confirmation) :

Al so
Furthermore
Further
Moreover
What is more
Then
In addition
Above all
Too
As well (as)

B . Equation (similarity with what has preceded):

Equally
Likewise
Similarly
Correspondingly
In the same way
3- T ransition can lead to a new stage in the sequence of thought
Now
With reference/ respect/ regard to
Regarding
Let us (now) turn to

Appendix 1: Connectives

IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 115


often used when discussing something briefly




spoken

language




4 - Summation indicates a generalization or summing -up of what
has preceded

In conclusion
To conclude
To sum up briefly
In brief
To summarize
Altogether
Overall
Then
Therefore
Thus
5- Apposition is used to refer back to previous sentences or to
parallel or related references

i.e., that is, that’s to say
vis., Namely
in other words
or, or rather, or better
and
as follows
mostly (of)

The relationship that these phrases can express include:
reformulation, exemplification and particularization

As for
As to
Incidentally
By the way
Come to think of it
Talking/speaking of … (informal)
Apropos of … (formal)
That reminds me …
Indicates a
digression and an
afterthought


To introduce a
digression

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IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

6- Result expresses the consequences or result of what was said
before:

So
Therefore
As a result/consequence
The result/consequence is/was
Accordingly
Consequently
Now
Then
Because of this/that
Thus
Hence
For this/that reason

7 - Inference indicates a deduction from what is implicit in the
preceding sentences:

Then
In other words
In that case

Or e lse
Otherwise


If so/not
That implies
My conclusion is

8 - Reformulation to express something in another way:
Or b etter
Or r ather
In other words
In that case
To put it (more ) simply

9 - Replacement
to express an alternative to what has
preceded

Or a lternatively
O r rather
Or b etter/worse (still) …
Equivalent to a negative condition

Appendix 1: Connectives

IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 117

On the other hand
The alternative is
Another possibility would be


10- Contrast, with what has preceded
Instead
Conversely
Then
On the contrary
By (way of) contrast
In comparison
(On the one hand) … on the other hand …


11- concession indicates the unexpected, surprising nature of
what is being said in view of what was said before:

or (else)
however
nevertheless
nonetheless
notwithstanding
only
still
while
al(though)
even if/though

yet
in any case
at any rate
for all that
in spite of/despite
that
after all
at the same time
on the other hand
all the same

Appendix 1: Connectives



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A
A
P
P
P
P
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2
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S
S
T
T
R
R
U
U
C
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T
T
U
U
R
R
E
E




&
&


V
V
O
O
C
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A
A
B
B
U
U
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L
A
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Y
Y




A
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Appendix 1: Connectives

IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 119

Appendix 2 Structure and Vocabulary Aid
1- Location
X is situated/located in/to/on
X is in the south of the country
X is to the north of the country
The north of the country is on/near the equator/the coast/sea
The north of the country is inland
X is a neighboring country


2 - Composition

X

3 - Approximation
X has just/a little over/under (a figure, measurement, etc.)
X has about/approximately (a figure, measurement, etc.)
4- Qualification
X is predominately/mainly/generally …
The majority of/most of the X is …
5 - Definition

X


X is concerned with/deals with/relates to/involves

comprises …
consists of …
constitutes …
is composed of …


is …
means …
describes …
is defined as …
is used …

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6- Exemplification
Shown/exemplified/illustrated by …
X shows/exempify/illustrates …
The following are examples of X
A and b are examples of X
Writes such as Dickens and Hardy …
Such writers as Dickens and Hardy …
7- C lassification
Useful nouns
Criterion/criteria
Basis/bases
Features
Characteristics
Categories
Classes
Groups
Types
Kinds
Sorts
speacies
Useful verbs
To
Classify
Categorise
Group
Divide into
Arrange in
Put into
Fall into
X consists of … according to whether or not … there is X …
comprises

X may be classified

The classification is based (up)on …

Breeds
Orders
Divisions
Families
Members
Sub -categories
Sub -classes
Sub -groups
Sub -orders
Sub -divisions
according to …
on the basis of …
depending (up)on…

Place in
Distinguish
Differentiate
Sub -classify
Sub -categorise
Sub -group
Sub -divide

Appendix 1: Connectives

IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 121

Note the possible sequences:




8 - Comparison

X is than










X is the same as






X is not exactly/entirely/quite the same as
X is totally/completely/entirely/quite different from Y
X is not quite as/so big/expensive etc. as …

X and Y are different/dissimilar in every way/respect
X and Y are totally/completely/entirely/quite different

9 - Cause & Effect
the cause of higher prices was an increase in demand
the one effect/consequence/result of an increase in demand is
higher prices
… may be divided
… may be sub -divided …
… may be further sub -divided …
considerably
A great deal
(very ) much
(quite ) a lot
rather
somewhat
a little
slightly
scarcely
hardly
only just




smaller
bigger
cheaper
etc.

exactly
precisely
just
virtually
practically
more or less
almost
nearly
approximately
about

Appendix 1: Connectives



122

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps



the demand has increased (:) the prices are higher


because/as/since/now that the demand has increased, the prices
are higher
an increase in demand often causes/results in/leads to/produces higher prices
higher prices are (often) caused by/due to/because of an increase in demand

an increase in demand

the prices are higher
there is an increase in demand

when/if there is an increase in demand (then) prices rise


therefore,
so,
as a result,
as a consequence,
accordingly,
consequently,
because of this,
thus,
hence,
for this reason,


because of
as a result of
on account of
owing to
through


because
since
as

Appendix 1: Connectives

IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 123

10- Scale
Percentage
guide

QUAN TI TY FREQUENC
Y
PROBABILITY
ADVERBS ADJECTIVES VERBS





0%


all /every/each
most
a majority (of)
many/much
a lot (of)
enough

some
a number of
several

a minority (of)

a few/a little

no/none/not any
always

usually
normally
generally
on the whole
regularly
often
frequently
sometimes
occasionally
rarely
seldom
hardly ever


never

certainly
definitely
undoubtedly
clearly
presumably
probably

conceivably
possibly
perhaps
maybe
uncertainly


certain
definite
undoubted
clear
(un)likely
probable



possible


uncertain

will
is/are
must/have to
should
would
ought to


may
might
can
could

will
is/are
can
could

it is fairly certain/likely that …
it is very/quite probable/possible/likely/unlikely that …
it is rather unlikely that …
it is almost/quite certain that …

in the (vast) majority of cases
in a (large) number of cases
in most cases
in some cases
in a few cases

11- Caution:
impersonal verbs phrases
it appears to/that
it would appear to/that
it seems to/that
it would seem to/that
it tends to be
there is a tendency to/for
it is said that
some of the evidence shows that
some writers say that
100
%
not

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124

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

it has been suggested that
it is generally agreed that
it is widely accepted that
it is now generally recognized that
it is very doubtful if
some adverbs and nouns
adverbs nouns
Apparantly
Approximately
Hardly
Practically
Presumably
Relatively
Scarely
Seemingly
Slightly
virtually
Assumption
Claim
Estimate
Evidence
Possibility
Presumption
Chance
Likelihood


12- referring to a diagram, chart etc.
as it can be seen from/in the chart …
according to table …
as (is) shown in the diagram …
it can be seen from the graph that …



from the table, it can be that …


seen
concluded
shown
estimated
calculated
inferred

Appendix 1: Connectives

IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 125

13- Describing change
Direction Verbs Nouns






Rose (to )
Increased (to)
Went up (to)
Climbed (to )
Boomed

A rise
An increase
A growth
An upward trend
A boom
(a dramatic rise)





Fell (to)
Declined (to)
Decreased (to)
Dipped (to)
Dropped (to)
Went down (to)
Slumped (to)
Reduced (to)
Plummeted (to)


A decrease
A decline
A fall
A drop
A slump
(a dramatic fall)
A reduction









Leveled out (at)
Did not change
Remained stable (at)
Remained steady (at)
Stayed constant (at)
Maintained the same
level
Plateaued (at)
Reached a plateau

A leveling out
No change

A plateau






Fluctuated (around)
Peaked (at)
Bottomed out at
Stood at (we use this
phrase to focus on a
particular point, before
we mention the
movement, for example:
In the first year,
unemployment
stood at … )

A fluctuation

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126

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Adjectives Adverbs
dramatic dramatically
sharp sharply
huge
enormous enormously
steep steeply
substantial substantially
considerable considerably
significant significantly
marked markedly
moderate moderately
slight slightly
small
minimal minimally

Adjectives Adverbs
rapid rapidly
quick quickly
swift swiftly
sudden suddenly
steady steadily
gradual gradually
slow slowly

14- introducing a point of view
the first thing/first of all we have/I should like to consider …
the first thing to be considered is …
it is a fact that …
there is no doubt that …
I believe that …
one of the main arguments in favor of/against X is that…
15- Summarising and concluding
in short, … in conclusion, …
in a word, … on the whole, …
in brief, … altogether, …
to sum up, … in all, …
therefore/thus/on this basis/ given this, it can/may be
concluded/deduced/inferred

Appendix 1: Connectives

IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 127

16- useful words
Stating the topic
Concept
To consist
Factor
Hypothesis
Hypothesise
Issue
to predict
prem ise
Proposition
To specul ate
Thesis
topic
General research vocabulary
Academ ic
Anecdotal
Anom aly
Argum ent
Assimilate
Cogent
Conform
Consequent
Controversy
Debate
Empirical
To equate
Evidence
Exception
Explicit
Feasible
Findings
Homogeneus
Implicit
Issue
Norm
Pertinent
Priniciple
Rel evance
Rel iable
Research
Source
Study
Subsequent
Survey
Tentative
Theory
Trend
Val id

17- Reporting
as X implies …
X implies that …
as noted by X …
it has been argued by X that …

Ad d
Affirm
Agree
Ar gu e
Assert
Assume
Challenge
Claim
Clarify
C omment
Consider
Contend
Contradict
demonstrate
Deny
Describe
Determine
Disagree
Discern
Discuss
Dispute
Emphasise
Enumerate
Explain
Imply
Infer
Maintain
Point out
Postulate
Querry
Question
Recommend
Refute
Reject
Remark
Report
Repudiate
Say
Suggest
Stipulate
V iew
note

other reporting structures:
according to X, …
for exam ple, X argued that …
writing in 1979, X commented that …
to quote X: '… '
recent research by X shows that …

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas



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A
A
P
P
P
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3
3


H
H
O
O
W
W




T
T
O
O


E
E
X
X
P
P
R
R
E
E
S
S
S
S


E
E
S
S
S
S
E
E
N
N
T
T
I
I
A
A
L
L


I
I
D
D
E
E
A
A
S
S

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

IELTS Essays,
Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 129

Reason

1 - to be the reason why something happened or why someone
does something

Be the reason
Nick's teachers think that problems at home are the reason for his poor schoolwork.
Be the reason why
He borrowed too much money, and that's the reason why his business failed.
Be the reason (that)
I knew that I had my weaknesses. Perhaps that is the reason that I was not more
successful.
Explain something
We were all puzzled: what could explain his sudden change of mind?
Explain why/what/how
She couldn't sleep last night, which explains why she was in such a bad mood this
morning.
Account for
If it's true that he was taking drugs that would account for his strange behavior .
Lie behind
I wonder what lies behind Arthur's sudden interest in golf.
I think that behind Tania's aggression lay a deep insecurity about her.

2 - why something is right or should be done
Reason (why/that)
The reason why we need these laws is to protect children from violent adults.
Reason to do something
I can think of lots of reasons to get married.
You may be dissatisfied, but is that sufficient reason to resign?
Have every reason to do something
We have every reason to believe he is guilty.

Argument that
Do you agree with the argument that violence on TV makes people behave violently?
Argument for/against
What are the arguments for the legalization of cannabis?
The main argument against smoking is that it 's bad for
Justification for
There's no justification for cruelty.
Justification for doing something
What justification can there be for paying women lower
Grounds for
Is mental cruelty sufficient grounds for divorce?
On the grounds of something
(=for this reason)
He had been fired from his job on the grounds of incompetence.
On what grounds are you claiming compensation?
On the grounds that

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas



130

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

She was prohibited from speaking to the students on the grounds that it would stir
up trouble.
Cause to do something
I've never had any cause to complain about my doctor.
With good/just cause
He no longer loved her, and with just cause, because she had betrayed him.
Without good/just cause
We have little sympathy for people who leave their jobs without just cause.
Cause for complaint/alarm/concern etc
The child's behavior is giving us cause for concern.
There is no cause for alarm about the safety of drinking water.
Rationale for/behind
In the document he explains the rationale for his plan to build a car for the African
market.
If you do not understand the rationale behind any action you are asked to take, be
sure to find out.

3 - to tell someone the reason for something
Provide an explanation is more formal than come up with an explanation
In an attempt to provide an explanation she said she thought I had given her
permission to be absent.
After failing to come up with an adequate explanation, Jones was arrested for
robbery.
Justify Something
How can you justify the expense?
Justify doing something
How can you possibly justify charging four pounds for a glass of beer?
Account for
If you walked home, how do you account for the fact that a witness said he saw you
driving your van?
It is difficult to account for the big differences in their scores.
Provide an explanation/come up with an explanation
In an attempt to provide an explanation she said she thought I had given her
permission to be absent.
After failing to come up with an adequate explanation, Jones was arrested for
robbery.

4 - when there is no reaso n for someone's behaviour
Be no reason to do something
I know I'm late, but that's no reason to lose your temper.
There is no reason for something
Please remain calm everyone. There is no reason for panic.
Be no excuse/justification to do something
Ron may not be the most pleasant person to work with, but that's no justification to
fire him.
There's no excuse/justification for something

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There's no excuse for such childish behaviour from a grown man.
Groundless
Fleury dismissed our fears as groundless, though he was secretly alarmed.
A message from Interpol confirmed that our Inspector's suspicions were far from
groundless.
Unfounded
I am going to prove to you that your suspicions are entirely unfounded.
All the signs indicate that the general's optimism is unfounded.

Advantages
1- the good and bad features of something
Have both advantage and disadvantages
Being an only child has both advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages and disadvantages of something
The advantages and disadvantages of owning a car in the city
Weigh the advantages and disadvantages of something
(=to consider the advantages and disadvantages of something)
Politicians should carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of committing US
troops to this conflict.

The pros and cons of
There has been a lot of discussion about the pros and cons of making certain types of
drugs legal.
Your doctor should explain the pros and cons of the different treatments available.
Weigh up the pros and cons
(=think about the advantages and disadvantages)
Karen and David weighed up the pros and cons of having another child and decided
against it.
The pluses and minuses of
She talked about some of the pluses and minuses of being self- employed.

2- a good feature o f something
Advantage of
The advantage of walking to work is that I get some exercise.
Big advantage
One of the big advantages of the course is that it helps students develop their writing
skills in English.
Benefit to
Tourism has brought many benefits to the area.
Benefit of
The benefits of a healthy lifestyle
What are the benefits for Britain of belonging to the European Union?
Merit
The merits of the new health programmed are gradually being recognized.
The committee is still considering the merits of the new proposals.
Be a plus
The hotel's closeness to the beach is definitely a plus.
Plus point

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The plus point of this area is its school system, which is considered one of the best in
the city.

3- something that makes you more likely to be successful
Have an advantage
People who have been to university have a big advantage when it comes to finding
jobs.
Advantage over
I had already lived in France for a year, so I had a big advantage over the other
students.
Give somebody an advantage
Taxes on imports gave Japanese companies an unfair advantage.
An asset for somebody
A sense of humour is an important asset for any teacher.
Be an asset to something
Laney continues to be a great asset to the company.
Have a privilege/grant a privilege
Foreign diplomats have all kinds of special privileges.
Countries within the European Community grant certain commercial privileges to
each other.
The privilege of something
Not everyone has the privilege of a private education.

4 - the only good feature of something
Saving grace
I can't really play baseball. My one saving grace is that I can pitch.
I hate this house. Its only saving grace is that it's near the centre of town.
Redeeming feature
The heroine of the novel is cruel and evil, with no redeeming features.
Coal is relatively expensive but its redeeming feature is that it is in plentiful supply.


Disadvantage

1- a bad feature of something
Have a disadvantage
The proposal has some major disadvantages.
Disadvantage of
The main disadvantage of being a nurse is working irregular hours.
Drawback of
One of the major drawbacks of being famous is the lack of privacy.
Drawback to
High house prices are one drawback to economic growth.
Liability to
The product that was once so popular is now a liability to the company.
Serious liability

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The bank realized that the dispute was becoming a serious liability in doing business
Limitations
I think we've done a wonderful job, considering the limitations we've had to work
under.
We made an inspection of the building's resources and limit ations.
The downside of
The downside of the New Economy is the forced resettlement of villagers.

2 - to have a disadvantage compared to other people or things
Be at a disadvantage
Women are still at a disadvantage when it comes to getting jobs in the military.
People with previous convictions are always at a disadvantage when on trial in a
court of law.
Put/place somebody at a disadvantage
The test put candidates whose first language was not English at a disadvantage.
The disadvantaged
(=disadvantaged people)
Booth invented schemes to help the disadvantaged in the community.
Be against
Time is against us. The longer we wait to find a solution to the crisis, the worse it will
get.
He wanted to become a pilot but his bad eyesight was against him.
Count against
We believe Caroline Connely is innocent, but her silence could count against her in a
court.
He was a child when he committed the crime. Should that count against him as an
adult with a clean record?

Result

1- something that happens or exists because of something else
Result of
Her constant cough is the result of many years of smoking.
The results of the attack included two helicopters burnt out, and three groundcrew
wounded.
With the result that
More and more people are using cars, with the result tha t towns are much more
polluted.
As a result
Jobs are hard to get and, as a result, more young people are continuing their
education.
A direct result of something
(=caused by only one thing even if people think there may be other causes)
Her parents believe that her death was a direct result of medical error.
Effect of
The effects of the oil spill were devastating for wildlife.
The harmful effects of radiation

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Have an effect/have no effect
All my efforts to persuade them were beginning to have an effect.
I've been taking these pills for three days, but so far they've had no effect.
Effect on
The death of a parent can have very serious and long -lasting effects on a child.
Have a bad/good effect (on something/somebody)
Any increase in fuel costs could have a bad effect on business.
Consequence of
Pain and illness are sometimes thought to be the unavoidable consequences of
growing old.
Consequence for
If river levels continue to rise, it will have very serious consequences for many
people's homes.
Take/face th e consequences
(=accept the bad results of something you do)
People who run up big debts eventually have to face the consequences.
Damaging/dire/disastrous etc consequences
Safety procedures had been ignored, with disastrous consequences.
Implications of
T he legal implications of the case are extremely significant.
Implications for
Any change in interest rates has important implications for most people's financial
situation.
Important/significant/profound etc implications
The discovery of planets orbiting o ther suns has profound implications.
Outcome of
It's impossible to say for sure what the outcome of the election will be.
Affect/influence the outcome
The patient's general health and fitness can also affect the outcome of the disease.
Predict the outcome
At this point, I wouldn't even try to predict the outcome, but we're hoping for the
best.
Upshot of
What was the upshot of the trial?
The upshot is that
The upshot of that experience was that I decided I didn't want to study medicine
after all.
The end res ult is that
If students constantly fail, the end result is that they switch off any interest in
learning.
The net result/effect is that
The new system is designed to spread payments over several months but the net
effect is that people pay more in total.
A ftereffect of
A large number of working days are lost through the aftereffects of alcohol abuse.
Psychological aftereffects

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The psychological aftereffects of a tragedy like the Zeebrugge disaster can stay with
the survivors for years.

2 - a result that happens in addition to the intended result
Have side effects
The drug can have side effects such as headaches and sickness.
Transplanting genes from one plant to another may have unintended side effects for
the environment and the food supply.
Side effect of
One of the side effects of chemotherapy is hair loss.
Dangerous/nasty/unpleasant etc side effects
These pills don't normally have any unpleasant side -effects.
Indirect result of
The job losses were an indirect result of lower cost imports.
The increase in greenhouse gases is the direct result of pollution, and the indirect
result of a reduction in the atmosphere's ability to absorb them.
By -product of
One of the by -products of the peace treaty was the growth of trade between the two
nations.
Another by-product of space exploration is a growing awareness of this planet's
fragile environment.
Corollary of
Huge increases in unemployment were the corollary of the government's economic
policy.
A logical/natural/necessary etc corollary (of something)
A rapi d increase in population would be a natural corollary of any such changes in
the birth control program.
The corollary of this is that
The government has promised tax cuts, but the corollary of this is that there will be a
reduction in public services.
Spin -off for
One of the main spin- offs for countries that host the Olympic Games is increased
business for hotels, restaurants, and theatres.
Have a spin -off
Research into lasers has had important spin -offs for eye -surgery.
Ramifications of
The ramifications o f the decision whether to build a new airport or not are
enormous.
Ramifications for
The course that people choose to do at university can have ramifications for the rest
of their lives.
Economic/legal/political etc ramifications
Whatever the judges decide , the legal ramifications of the case will be with us for
many years to come.
Wider ramifications
(=more complicated results)

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The introduction of national testing in schools had wider ramifications than people
realized.
Repercussions of
The psychological r epercussions of the accident might affect her for the rest of her
life.
Have repercussions (on something)
The transport strike had all sorts of repercussions on other industries.
Important/profound/serious etc repercussions
A scandal like this could have serious repercussions on his political career.
Economic/legal/political etc repercussions
Even the possibility of a war in the Middle East has important political repercussions.

3 - when one thing happens because of another
Because of
Sampras seemed likely to miss the US Open because of a back injury.
Because of problems with the fuel system, the launch has been put back a week.
She was chosen for the Peace Prize because of her courageous fight for democracy.
Be a result of/result from
Our success is the resul t of a great deal of hard work.
The big population increase in the US was partly the result of immigration.
It is thought that the train crash resulted from a fault on the line.
When one thing happens because of another
Be the product of
When one thing happens because of another
The agreement was the product of 21 months of negotiations.
Saturday's goal was the product of some poor defending by the opposing team.
When one thing happens because of another
Stem from from (doing) something
Many of my patients' anxieties stem from experiences in their childhood.
The dog's aggression stemmed from being kept locked up all day.
Stem from the fact that
Part of the education problem stems from the fact that class sizes have increased
dramatically in the last 5 years.
When one thing happens because of another
Arise from the fact that
Lung cancer is just one of the many diseases that arise from smoking too many
cigarettes.
The difficulty arises from the fact that there has been insufficient time to train new
staff.
As a result of
He died as a result of cold and exhaustion.
Over 60 drugs have been removed from sale as a result of recent tests.
Resulting/consequent
Burrows took the resulting penalty kick.
Without government support the factory would be forced to close, with the
consequent loss of thousands of jobs.

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Britain's resulting debt burden was greater than that of the French.

4 - to think that something happens because of something else
To put something down to
When Charlie became ill, I was inclined to put it down to the pressures of his job.
No one was injured, and US officials put the incident down to "high spirits".
To attribute something to
The management attributed the success of the company to the new Marketing
Director.
1150 deaths a year can be attributed to drunk driving.

Because

1. what you say when you are giving the reason for something
Because
She's in a bad mood because her father won't let her go to the party tonight.
"This photograph doesn't look like you." "That's because it isn't me - it's my sister" .
Because you've done such a good job, I'm giving everyone a 10% bonus.
Just because
(=used when you think an explanation is not a good enough reason for something)
You mean you dumped him just because he forgot your birthday?
Simply because
(=used when there is a very simple reason for something)
We're not going on holiday this year, simply because we can't afford it.
Because of something
I had to move because of my job.
Because of the increase in street crime, many old people are afraid to leave their
homes.
Since
Also as British [conjunction] use this to give the reason why someone decides to do
something
We had planned to play tennis but since it was raining we decided to go swimming
instead.
Since you're going to be in the area anyway, you can pick up the order for me.
As he wasn't well, I offered to do the shopping.
Owing to
Owing to circumstances beyond our control, we regret to inform customers that this
store will close early.
In the end I was unable to attend the conference, owing to financial di fficulties.
Be due to
The accident was due to a concrete block thrown from a bridge.
Thanks to
Today thanks to the Internet, you can do all your Christmas shopping from home.
The play was a great success thanks to the effort and commitment of everyone
invo lved.
As a result of
Many people are now homeless as a result of the civil war.

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As a direct result of
Mr Logan died as a direct result of the injuries he received in the accident.
The reason … is
The reason we didn't consider her for the job was that she didn't have enough
experience.
The reason we are here this evening is to say thank you to Brian for all his hard work.
Through
We succeeded through sheer hard work.
Hundreds of working days have been lost this year through illness.
The Community Association collapsed through lack of support.
Out of interest/curiosity/desperation etc
She opened the letter, just out of curiosity.
I came to you out of desperation - you've got to help me.
On account of
We had to move to London on account of my job.
They're called the Black Hills on account of their color.
Seeing as
Spoken informal use this to give a reason for what you are suggesting or deciding
Seeing as it's your birthday, why don't we go out for a meal?
I'd better do it myself, seeing as no one else wants to do it.


Cause
1. to make something happen
To make something happen
I wish you wouldn't slam the door. It makes the floor shake.
Accidents don't always just happen - people can make them happen.
Gravity is the force that makes the planets move around the sun.
Cause something
Heavy traffic is causing long delays on the roads.
About half of the chemicals that were tested caused cancer in rats.
The autopsy showed that her death was caused by liver failure.
Cause somebody trouble/problems/anxiety etc
As children we were always causing our parents trouble.
Try to isolate the problems that are causing you the most difficulty.
Cause something to do something
The power failure caused the whole computer system to shut down.
To make something happen
Be the cause of
It's too early to say whether this virus is actually the cause of the disease.
An explosion on board appears to be the cause of the crash.
Be the leading/main cause of something
The study showed that drug use is the leading cause of crime and violence.
Be responsible for
Heart disease was responsible for most of the deaths.
He was clearly responsible for the deaths and must be punished.
Be largely/mainly responsible for something
Inflation was largely responsible for the economic crisis.
Resul ts in something

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Workers fear that the company's reorganization will result in layoffs.
Months of secret talks with the rebels finally resulted in the release of the hostages.
If left untreated, the condition will eventually result in blindness.
Lead to som ething
His research eventually led to the development of a vaccine.
The new regulations should lead to an improvement in our water supply.
The bank has offered a reward for information leading to the arrest of the robbers.
Give rise to something
The canal project gave rise to a malaria epidemic in the region.
The President's frequent cancellations have given rise to concerns about his health.
Create / creation
The white walls and mirrors helped to create an illusion of space.
Margot's outburst created an un pleasant atmosphere and most of the guests left early.
The end of the cold war helped create a situation in which more countries than ever have
access to nuclear weapons.
The government's main economic aim has been the creation of wealth.

2 . to make someone do something
Make
Sarah's very funny. Her jokes always make me laugh.
The things she said make me wonder if she is in some kind of trouble.
The smell was so bad it almost made me throw up.
Be made to do something
I was made to wait for over an hour.
Cause somebody to do something
A dog ran into the road, causing the cyclist to swerve.
The parents' fear of gang activity caused them to move the family to a safer neighborhood.
No -one understands what could have caused her to hate him so much.
Lead somebody to do something
What led you to take up teaching as a career?
It was my interest in gardens that led me to study biology.
Lead somebody to believe
The negative publicity has already led many to believe that Tompkins is guilty.
Motivate somebody t o do something
I don't know what motivates people to commit such crimes.
Be motivated by something
He was motivated by a desire to help his fellow man.
Many in the Asian community feel that the police actions were motivated by racial bias.
To induce someon e do something
Whatever induced her to buy such an expensive car?
The state advertises a great deal to induce its citizens to buy lottery tickets.
To prompt someone do something
It was reading his book that prompted me to write to him.
What exactly prompted him to call you in the middle of the night?

3 . to make something bad suddenly happen
Set off something
The army's invasion set off a major international crisis.
Set something off
Nobody knows what set the riot off.
Spark/trigger something

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Even the smallest diplomatic incident can trigger a major international conflict.

The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand sparked the First World War.
Trigger/spark off something
Riots, sparked off by the arrest of seven student leaders, have spread to other universities.
Precipitate
The 1929 stock market crash precipitated the collapse of the American banking system.
Both countries claimed the same area, precipitating a border war.

4 . to be the first or basic cause of something
Be at the root/bottom of
Simple greed is at the root of most white -collar crime.
At the bottom of the country's economic problems is its overwhelming debt.
Lie at the root/bottom of something
Difficulties with the company's overseas subsidiaries lie at the root of last year's losses.
Underlying cause/reason/factor etc
A cause, reason etc that is one of the most basic and important, but which is not easy to
notice
They were treating only the symptoms of the disease rather than its underlying cause.
Climate and geography are the underlying reasons for the region's low level of economic
development.

5 . to cause someone or something to be in a particular
situation or condition
To cause someone or something to be in a particular situation or condition
Make somebody late/ill etc
Hurry up - you're going to make me late for work.
Something I ate last night really made me sick.
Make something safe/interesting/dirty etc
He could make things very difficult for us.
Engineers have been working throughout the night to make the bridge safe.
We g ave the house a coat of paint to make it more attractive.
Make it easy/impossible/necessary etc (for somebody) to do something
The regulations should make it easier for patients to receive the treatment they need.
The increased costs made it impossible to continue producing the computers in the U.S.
Have something ready/organized/prepared etc
We'll have your car ready by 3 o'clock.
I'm going to have the roof fixed as soon as I can afford it.
My parents had the little train all laid out under the tree on Chr istmas morning.
Render something useless/impossible/harmless etc
Both runways have been rendered useless by enemy bombings.
The angry exchange rendered future compromise impossible.
Render somebody unconscious/helpless etc
Suddenly Packer struck a blow that rendered his victim unconscious.

6 . to be one of the causes of something
Play a part
Many cases of breast cancer have genetic causes, but environmental substances may also
play a part.
Play a part in

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It is not yet known if weather conditions played a part in the accident.

The genius of the two designers has played a big part in the company's recent success.
Contribute to
An increase in the price of drugs has contributed to the rising cost of medical care.
It is thought that the pilot's negligence may have contributed to the disaster.
Contributory cause/factor
One of several causes of something that happens, but not the main cause
Malnutrition was considered to have been a contributory cause of death.
Alcohol is a contributory factor in at least 50% of the violent crimes reported.

7 . something that makes something else happen
Cause
Something that makes something else happen
Doctors cannot find a cure for the illness until they have identified the cause.
Cause of
Investigators are still trying to determine the cause of the accident.
Root cause
(=basic cause)
The root cause of the current energy crisis is that we simply use too much energy.
Factor
The price of insurance depends on several factors, including the age of the car.
Factor in
His girlfriend lives in London and I'm sure that was a factor in his decision to move there.
Key factor
(=very important factor)
Money will be the key factor when we decide to buy a new house.
Deciding/determining factor
(=the thing that finally makes something happens )
Race s hould never be a deciding factor in a hiring decision.
Reason
"Why are you helping her?" "She asked me to. That's the only reason."
The main reason she quit is that she was not being paid enough.
Reason for/behind
Can anyone explain the reason for the delay?
There were two reasons behind the company's failure.
Reason why/ (that)
The reason why the economy is growing more slowly is a lack of workers.
Reason to do something
There's no reason to doubt what she says.
Origins of
The origins of the crisis wer e very complex.
Other cultures' beliefs about the origins of disease often differ from our own.
Have origins in
Many of our attitudes to the issue of race have their origins in the colonialism of days gone
by.
Root of
The roots of the wars in the Balkans go back hundreds of years.
Get to the root of something
(=discover the most important cause)
We need to get to the root of the problem.

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Stimulus
The appointment of a new director gave the project immediate stimulus.
Stimulus to
The surge in new housing con struction ought to provide a stimulus to the economy.
Impetus for/behind
The impetus for change in the industry was provided by a new management team.
Press criticism has been the main impetus behind the government reforms.
Give impetus to something
The Su rgeon General's speech will give new impetus to the anti -smoking campaign.

Stop

1. to prevent someone from doing what they want to do
To prevent someone from doing what they want to do
Prevent somebody from doing something
A leg injury may prevent Shearer from playing in tomorrow's game.
There were reports that some people had been prevented from voting in the election.
Stop somebody (from) doing something
My parents tried to stop me seeing Anne.
The government has taken legal action to stop the BBC from broadcasting a documentary
about the Secret Service.
Keep somebody from doing something
Staying busy kept her from thinking about her illness.
It was all I could do to keep myself from hitting him.
Restrain yourself
She wanted to ask him all about his private life, but wisely restrained herself.
Restrain somebody from doing something
His arm was hurting him and he had to be restrained from doing too much
Discourage somebody from doing something
Higher cigarette prices do not seem to discourage people from smoking.

2 . a problem that prevents you from achieving something
Obstacle to
The greatest obstacle to economic progress has been mass unemployment.
Overcome an obstacle
(=deal with it successfully)
She had to overcome a lot of obstacles to finally make it to Drama College.
A bar to something
His disability was no bar to his entry into the profession.
Differences in religious beliefs are not necessarily a bar to a good relationship.
Limiting
I found the lack of available reference books very limiting.
There is a lot of research that still needs to be done, but money is an important limiting
factor.

3 . intended to prevent something happening
Preventive/preventative
We should spend more money educating people about preventive medicine.
Schools must take preventative measures so that this type of tragedy never happens again
Preventative action can easily be taken to avoid damp occurring in your house.

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Pre -emptive strike/action/attack
An action that is done to harm someone before they can harm you - use this especially about
official or military actions
The US says it is prepared to launch a pre -emptive strike with nuclear weapons if it is
threatened.

4 . something that can be prevented
Preventable
Whooping cough and measles are both preventable diseases.
Many of these deaths each year are preventable.
Avoidable
Running out of gas is annoying and easily avoidable.
Too many children are still injured in avoidable accidents.

5 . to stop happening
Come to an end
When we had children, all our trips to theatres and cinemas came to an end.
Research at the college came to an end in 1870.
All good things must come to an end.
Cease
Hostilities between the two countries have now ceased.
Presently, the rain ceased and the sun came out.
Cease altogether
(=stop completely)
The sound of gunfire gradually receded and then ceased altogether.

6 . to gradually stop happening
Wears off
The effects of the anesthetic will wear off within a few hours.
The shock has not worn off yet and he seems to be walking around in a daze.
The novelty wears off
(=when you stop feeling interested or excited about something because it is no longer new)
The kids spent hours on the computer at first, but the novelty soon wore off.
Fade away
He waited until the sound of the engines had faded away.
As the music faded away the audience broke into enthusiastic applause.

D isagreement
1. when people disagree
Disagreement about/over
Disagreement over who should produce the next album caused the band to split.
Disagreement between/among
There is some disagreement among medical experts about the best treatment for back pain.
Difference of opinion about/over
There were major differences of opinion over who should command the UN forces.
Difference of opinion between/among
There is a difference of opinion between the chairman and the board as to the best way to
handle the takeover.

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Controversy
Controversy surrounds the TV show, which many consider to be racist, sexist, and
homophobic.
Controversy over
There has been a huge controversy over where to put the city's new sports stadium and who
should build it.
Deadlock/stalemate over
The political deadlock over allowable levels of greenhouse emissions
Break the deadlock/stalemate
(=end the situation)
US negotiators met with representatives from both countries today in an attempt to break
the deadlock.
Discord over
There has always been discord over NATO's role in world conflict.

2 . causing disagreement
Controversial
A recent government paper on education contains some controversial new ideas.
Rossellini's controversial film, "The Miracle"
The decision to use the bomb remains the most controversial question of the Second World
War.
Causing disagreement
Contentious issue/subject/problem etc
One that is likely to cause a lot of disagreement and argument
Abortion has always been a contentious subject.
The contentious issue of arms sales to non -democratic countriesone that is likely to cause a
lot of disagreement and argument
Abortion has always been a contentious subject.
The contentious issue of arms sales to non -democratic countries

3 . to have a different opinion from someone else
Disagree with
I showed my article to the editor. He disagreed with almost everything I'd written.
Disagree about
Thro ughout their marriage my parents disagreed about whether to stay in their hometown
or not.
Disagree that
The company's lawyers disagreed that the complaint was a criminal matter.
Strongly disagree
The court decision represents an issue on which the preside nt and the Justice Department
strongly disagree.
Take issue with somebody over something
I took issue with Meeker over the way he was running the company.
Differ about/over
Critics differed about the importance of Osborne's new play.
All politicians agree that inflation must be beaten but they differ over methods of achieving
this.
Differ widely
(=differ a lot)
Scholars differ widely about when the two manuscripts were written.

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4 . a person or group that opposes something
Opponent of
In some countries, any oppo nent of the government is likely to lose their job.
One notable opponent of the proposal was the mayor.
Opposition
Opinion polls showed the opposition pulling ahead in some areas.
Newspapers must reflect the views of the opposition as well as those of the government.

5 . words or behavior that show that you oppose something
Have an objection
If anyone has any objections, please let us know as soon as possible.
Raise an objection
(=state an objection)
When I told him about my plans, my father raised one objection after another.
Have no objection
If you have no objection, I would like to use your name as a reference when I start applying
for jobs.
Opposition to
Opposition to the war grew rapidly.
Face opposition
Plans for the new stadium will no doubt face a lot of opposition.
Express opposition
Thousands of people plan to gather on Sunday to express their opposition to the
government's handling of the crisis.
Strong opposition
Despite strong opposition, the law was passed.
Hostility to/towards
Recently there has been hostility towards the Prime Minister from members of his own
party.
Open hostility
(=obvious or public hostility)
Given his open hostility, it seemed pointless to try and continue to persuade him.
Antagonism to/towards
Hines made no effort to conceal his antagonism towards his supervisor.
Antagonism between
Mitchell sees no clear way to end the antagonism between the two groups.

A greement
1. to have the same opinion as someone else
Agree with
Mr. Johnson thinks it's too risky, and I tend to agree with him.
Lee agreed with Jackson that more opportunities should be created for minorities in film.
Agree that
Most experts agree that drugs like heroin can cause permanent brain damage.
Agree on/about
I agree with you about the color -- it looks awful.
The one thing all the parties agreed on was the need for fair elections.
Be in agreement on
The two sides are in agreement on the need for arms reduction.
Be in agreement with

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I found myself in agreement with the lawyer, for once.
Share somebody's view
Many people shared Duvall's view, and thought the plan should be stopped.
Share this/that view
This view is shared by many doctors.
Concur with
He resigned three years later, because he did not concur with t he division of the country into
separate republics.

2 . to agree by accepting less than you originally wanted
Compromise
The employers will have to be ready to compromise if they want to avoid a strike.
Critics accused the mayor of compromising too easily.
Compromise on
Stalin refused to compromise on any of his demands.
The President might be willing to compromise on defense spending.
Make concessions on
The government has already made significant concessions on pay and conditions.
Make concessions to
Our policy of not making concessio ns to terrorists remains intact.

3 . when people have the same opinion about something
Agreement that
There is general agreement among doctors that pregnant women should not smoke.
Agreement on
Officials said there was widespread agreement on the need to promote growth by cutting
government spending.
In agreement
Tara nodded her head in agreement.
Consensus on/about
There is still no general consensus on what our future policy should be.
Consensus of opinion
The consensus of opinion seems to be that the Prime Minister should resign.
Reach a consensus
(=achieve agreement)
The delegates will continue to meet until a consensus is reached.
Unanimous
The decision of the committee was unanimous.
Unanimous agreement/choice/decision/vote etc
Mr . Harada was elected by a unanimous vote.
Ryan needed unanimous agreement to bring his proposal up for a vote.
Unanimously
The union members voted unanimously for a strike.

Allow
1. to let someone do something
Let somebody do something
Sue doesn't let her kids eat candy.
Thanks for letting me spend the night at your place.

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Allow somebody to do something
We do not allow people to smoke anywhere in the buildin g.
Under federal law, Indian nations are allowed to operate casinos on their reservations, with
the state's permission.
Allow somebody something
(=allow them to have it)
Paul's bank now allows him £35 a week, and Geoff can withdraw no more than £40.
Agree to
The rebels finally agreed to a ban on terrorist activity.
McCaskill left the California Angels on Saturday and agreed to a three -year contract with the
Chicago White Sox worth over $6 million.
Permit somebody to do something
The law permits foreign investors to own up to 25% of British companies.
Permitted
The water contained six times the permitted level of chlorine.
Authorize
Who authorized the decision to close the factory?
Among other matters, the city council authorized more funds for additional police officers.
Authorize somebody to do somet hing
Only Congress can authorize the President to declare war.
Have no objection to somebody doing something
They said they had no objection to us leaving a little early.
Give your consent to something
In September, he gave Dr. Arming his consent to conduct the experiment.

2 . to be allowed to do something
Be allowed to do something
Are we allowed to use calculators on the test?
Something is allowed
Lanterns and heaters are allowed on Forest Service lands if they are fueled by propane.
Be allowed in/out/off/on etc
(=be allowed to go in, out, off etc)
Several international relief organizations had been allowed into the area to determine what
help was needed.
Be permitted to do something
Residents were not even permitted to fish in the reservoir.
Something is permitted
Smoking is only permitted in the public lounge.

Forbid

1. to tell someone that they must not do something
Not let somebody do something
My parents won't let me stay out after 11 o'clock.
Not allow somebody to do something
The university does not allow athletes to work during the school year.
Not allow something
Joan and Bill don't allow smoking in their house.
Forbid somebody to do something
The management forbids employees to accept tips from customers.
Forbid somebody (fr om) doing something

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They were forbidden from entering the sacred chamber.
Ban
Many doctors now say that boxing should be banned.
A new international treaty banning all nuclear tests
Ban somebody from (doing) something
Relatives of the prisoners were banned from visiting them.
Prohibit
International Law prohibits the use of chemical weapons.
The U.S. prohibited all flights to the country while the war was in progress.
Prohibit somebody from doing something
Mexican law prohibits the clergy from teaching in un iversities and schools.

Contrast

1 . when one thing is being compared with another
Compared to/with
The British are good drivers compared to those in the rest of the EU.
Statistics show that there has been a 20% reduction in burglary compared with last
year.
Women visit their doctors six times a year compared to the three or so visits that
men make.
In comparison/by comparison with
We employ far fewer staff in comparison with similar -sized companies.
Pale in/by comparison
(=to look worse or much less imp ortant in comparison)
Forecasters say this year's drought could make that of 1991 pale by comparison.
The Yankees' problems pale by comparison with those of the Dodgers.
In contrast
I read a lot as a child, but my daughter, by contrast, just seems interest ed in
television.
In contrast to
In contrast to the hot days, the nights are bitterly cold.
Besides
Tom's efforts seemed so weak beside Martin's.
Delhi is so old that many European cities actually look young beside it.
As against
Last year there were 443 industrial accidents as against 257 in 1985.
With only 57 inhabitants per square mile, as against a world average of over 70, the
country is far from overcrowded.
In proportion to
Ricky's head is small in proportion to the rest of his body.
I've always thought that my problems were very minor in proportion to those of
many other people.
Relative strength/weakness
The relative strength of the dollar against the Mexican peso
Relative advantages (and disadvantages)

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She was terrified of flying. The relative advantages of air travel didn't tempt her at
all.
Relative merits
(=what is good about them compared with each other)
The two men stood at the bar discussing the relative merits of various sports cars.
It is all relative
(=it cannot be judged on its own, but must be compared with others)
It's all relative, isn't it? Someone who is poor in this country might be considered
well off in another.
Relatively
Once you've mastered the basic strokes of squash, the rest is relatively simple.
Comparative happiness/co mfort/safety etc
Happiness, comfort, safety etc that is fairly satisfactory when compared to another
After a lifetime of poverty, his last few years were spent in comparative comfort.
Fresh fruit and vegetables have become a comparative rarity in the regio n.
During the bombings, families sheltered in the comparative safety of the
underground rail stations.
Comparatively
We were absolutely broke in those days. Now we're comparatively well off.
More/less/bigger etc than
Geographically, Canada is bigger than the US.
My sister earns a lot more than I do.

2 . To compare things
Compare something/somebody with
I hate the way you always compare me with your ex -boyfriend.
If you compare rents in London with those in New York, you'll find they are about the
same.
You can't compare Charlie Parker with John Coltrane. They were completely different
musicians.
Liken somebody/something to
Critics have likened the new city hall building to a barn.
Morris has often been likened to Bobby Kennedy.
He likened today's stock marke t to that of the 1920s.
Make a comparison between
The article makes a comparison between the novels 'Anna Karenina' and 'Madame
Bovary'.
Draw an analogy between
He drew an analogy between mathematics and language.
Joe drew an analogy between the Soviet Uni on of 1946 and Germany of 1938
Draw a parallel between/with
One could draw a parallel between the professions of acting and politics.
He was drawing parallels between events leading up to the last war and current
political problems.
You could draw parallels with the old Samson and Delilah story.
Contrast with

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In the film, the peaceful life of a monk is contrasted with the violent life of a
murderer.
It is interesting to contrast life in Spain now with what it was like prior to 1975.
Compare and contrast
(=show the similarities and differences)
The book compares and contrasts the various methods used in language teaching.

Similarity
1. the quality of being similar
Similarity between
The author notes the similarity between Western and Chinese principles and sees
them as having a common basis in science.
Similarity with/to
We were able to tell the date of the statue because of its similarity with other
statues of that period.
The similarity of something (to something)
For generations, scientists and science -fi ction writers talked about the similarity of
Mars to Earth.
Resemblance to
Although the fish have little external resemblance to each other, skeletally they are
quite similar.
Family resemblance
(=a resemblance between members of the same family)
When he m et Francesca's aunt he was instantly struck by the family resemblance.
Striking resemblance
(=extremely strong resemblance)
The Japanese maple leaf bears a striking resemblance to a marijuana leaf.

2. a particular way in which things or people are similar
Similarity in
The book classifies cheeses by similarities in flavour, rather than by ingredients.
Similarity between
There is one important similarity between the two political systems.
Parallel between
There are certain parallels between the situation in Europe today and that which
existed 90 years ago.
Kakar finds parallels between the Hindi film and popular myths.
X