IELTS_band_9_task 2

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GET I E LT S B AN D 9
In A ca d em ic W rit in g


15 M ODEL E SSA Y S S H OW IN G Y O U H OW T O G ET B AND 9
IN A CADEM IC W RIT IN G T A SK 2


Publis h ed b y C am brid ge I E LT S C onsu lt a nts
Cam brid ge, U nit e d K in gdom


Cop yrig h t © C am brid ge I E LT S C onsu lt a n ts a n d J essic a A lp ern e, P ete r S w ir e s 2 014.
All r ig h ts a re r e serv ed , in clu din g r e sale r ig h ts .
This e -b ook is s o ld s u bje ct t o t h e c o ndit io n t h at it w ill n ot b e
co p ie d , s to re d o r r e d is trib ute d in a n y f o rm .

Als o o n K in dle f r o m t h e s a m e p ublis h er:


.


Pack ed w it h a dvic e , e xam ple s, m odels t o f o llo w a nd r e al B and 9 e ssa ys
to h elp y ou g et t h e b est p ossib le r e su lt .

Get I E LT S B and 9 I n A cad em ic W riti n g
Conte nts
In tr o ducti o n f r o m th e a uth o rs
Exp la nati o n o f th e d iffe re nt ty p es o f A cad em ic T ask 2 e ssa y
OPIN IO N ty p e ta sk s: M odel e ssa ys
ID EA S ty p e ta sk s: M odel e ssa ys
Sum mary o f th e m odel e ssa ys
Task s f o r y o u to p ra cti c e
Key to p ra cti c e ta sk s
The 1 0 m ost c o m mon m is ta kes i n I E LT S a cad em ic w riti n g
Help f r o m th e e xp erts

In tr o d uctio n f r o m t h e a u th ors

For m any p eo ple , th e m ost d iffic ult p art o f th e I E LT S A cad em ic e xam i s th e T ask 2 e ssa y i n
th e w riti n g te st. T his i s b ecause f e w p eo ple u nd ers ta nd th e d iffe re nt ty p es o f T ask 2 e ssa y, a nd f e w
peo ple ta ke th e ti m e to r e ad e xam ple s o f h ig h q uality T ask 2 e ssa ys b efo re th ey ta ke th e e xam .
We a re h ere to h elp !
In th is b ook w e s h o w y o u h o w to a naly ze th e T ask 2 q uesti o n, a nd w e e xp la in th e d iffe re nt
ty p es o f e ssa y y o u m ay b e a sk ed to w rite . M ost i m porta ntl y , th is b ook p ro vid es y o u w ith f ifte en
exam ple s o f T ask 2 e ssa ys, a ll w ritte n to B and 9 s ta nd ard . E ach e ssa y a ls o h as e xam in er’s c o m ments ,
whic h e xp la in w hy th e w riti n g i s B and 9 l e v el.
At th e e nd o f th e b ook, th ere a re a n um ber o f p ra cti c e ta sk s f o r y o u to u se . Y ou s h o uld a naly ze
th e ta sk s a nd d ecid e o n w hic h ty p e th ey a re . T hen tr y to w rite y o ur o w n e ssa y i n f o rty m in ute s, a s y o u
would i n th e e xam . T here i s a k ey to th e p ra cti c e ta sk s, a nd a ls o a s u m mary o f th e te n m ost c o m mon
mis ta kes i n I E LT S a cad em ic w riti n g. M ake s u re y o u a v oid th ese m is ta kes!
If y o u n eed a d ic ti o nary w hile r e ad in g th is b ook, w e r e co m mend th e f r e e
Cam brid ge
Dic tio narie s O nlin e
f r o m C am brid ge U niv ers ity P re ss.

Don’t j u st tr u st to l u ck i n y o ur I E LT S e xam – th e k ey i s e xp ert a d vic e!

Je ssic a A lp ern e & P ete r S w ir e s
Cam brid ge I E LT S C onsu lta nts
cam brid geie lts @ outl o ok.c o m

Exp la n atio n o f t h e d if fe re n t t y p es o f A ca d em ic T ask 2 e ssa y

There a re tw o p ossib le ty p es o f I E LT S A cad em ic T ask 2 w riti n g ta sk s: O PIN IO N ta sk s a nd
ID EA S ta sk s. L et’ s e xp la in th e d iffe re nce, b ecause th is i s v ery i m porta nt.
Fir s tl y , th ere a re O PIN IO N ta sk s, w hic h a sk f o r y o ur o pin io n o n a to pic , s u ch a s w heth er y o u
th in k s o m eth in g i s g o od o r b ad . T hese O PIN IO N ta sk s ta ke tw o f o rm s.

Som e o f th ese a re O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N ta sk s, w hic h ty p ic ally s a y
‘S om e p eo ple t h in k
th at X i s a g ood t h in g, w hile o th er p eo ple d is a gre e. D is c u ss b oth s id es a nd g iv e y o ur o w n v ie w .’
Rem em ber th at th e e xact w ord s u se d c o uld b e d iffe re nt ( fo r e xam ple , i t m ig ht s a y
‘c o nsid er b oth
asp ects ’
o r s im ila r) b ut th e c o ncep t w ill b e th e s a m e. I n th ese O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N ta sk s, y o u
sh o uld w rite a b out e ach s id e o f th e d is c ussio n, a nd f in ally g iv e y o ur o pin io n a t th e e nd o f y o ur e ssa y.

The o th er ty p e o f O PIN IO N ta sk i s th e O PIN IO N > P E R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T ta sk . T hese
ta sk s ty p ic ally s a y
‘X i s a g ood t h in g. T o w hat e xte n t d o y o u a gre e w ith t h is s ta te m en t? ’
A gain , th e
exact w ord s w ill o fte n v ary ( fo r e xam ple , i t m ig ht s a y
‘M any p eo ple s u pport t h e s u ggestio n o f X .
How f a r d o y o u s u pport t h is p ro posa l? ’
) b ut th e c o ncep t w ill b e th e s a m e. I n th ese O PIN IO N >
PE R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T ta sk s, y o u s h o uld s ta te y o ur p ers o nal v ie w poin t a t th e
beg in nin g
o f th e
essa y, a nd th en e xp la in w hy y o u h av e th is o pin io n.

The s e co nd ty p e o f ta sk a re I D EA S ta sk s, w hic h a sk y o u to th in k o f s o m e i d eas o n a to pic
(s u ch a s th e r e aso ns f o r a p ro ble m o r s o m e w ays to s o lv e i t) o r to e v alu ate a s itu ati o n. I n th ese
ID EA S ta sk s, y o u w ill g et h ig h m ark s f o r th in kin g o f a n um ber o f i d eas o n th e to pic , b ut y o u w ill l o se
mark s i f y o u g iv e a s tr o ng p ers o nal o pin io n.
The c o m mon I D EA S ta sk s a re I D EA S > P R O BLE M /S O LU TIO N, I D EA S > C A USE /E FFE C T
and I D EA S > E VA LU ATE. T his b ook h as e xam ple s a nd e xp la nati o ns o f a ll th ese ty p es.

In th e e xam , y o u s h o uld a naly ze th e ta sk c are fu lly
befo re
y o u s ta rt w riti n g, to m ake s u re y o u
und ers ta nd w hic h ty p e y o u n eed to w rite . A sk y o urs e lf: i s th is a n O PIN IO N o r a n I D EA S ta sk ? I s i t
ask in g m e to g iv e m y p ers o nal v ie w , o r i s i t a sk in g m e to th in k o f s o m e i d eas o n a to pic ? W hic h ty p e
of O PIN IO N o r I D EA S ta sk i s i t? T hen y o u s h o uld s p end a f e w m in ute s p la nnin g y o ur e ssa y w ith
so m e s im ple n o te s.

Don’t tr y to w rite a nyth in g v ery d iffe re nt i n s tr u ctu re f r o m th e m odels i n th is b ook. T hese
model e ssa ys a re e xactl y w hat th e e xam in ers w ant to s e e f r o m y o u. R ead o ur m odel e ssa ys, a nd th en
use o ur p ra cti c e ta sk s to p ra cti c e w riti n g y o ur o w n e ssa ys i n a s im ila r w ay.

OPIN IO N t y p e t a sk s: M od el e ssa ys

Exam ple T ask 1

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is q uestio n.
Som e p eo ple b elie ve t h at s p ort i s a n e sse n tia l p art o f s c h ool l if e f o r c h ild re n , w hile
oth ers f e el i t s h ou ld b e p u re ly o ptio n al. D is c u ss t h ese o pposin g v ie w s a n d g iv e y o u r o w n o pin io n .
You s h ould g iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd in clu de id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
know le dge a nd e xperie nce .
Writ e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a n O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N ty p e ta sk . I t a sk s y o u to c o nsid er b oth s id es o f a n
arg um ent, a nd th en g iv e y o ur o pin io n. Y ou s h o uld d is c uss b oth s id es o bje cti v ely , d esc rib in g tw o o r
th re e p oin ts o n e ach s id e, a nd th en g iv e y o ur p ers o nal v ie w i n th e c o nclu sio n. R em em ber, y o ur
pers o nal v ie w s h o uld b e e xp re sse d w ith o ut e m oti o n o r h um our.

Model E ssa y 1

Sport c o nti n ues to b e a c o ntr o vers ia l to pic i n th e s c ho ol c urric ulu m , j u st a s s p ort i ts e lf h as
beco m e a c o ntr o vers ia l i n d ustr y i n s o m e r e sp ects . T here a re v alid o pin io ns o n b oth s id es, w hic h I
will c o nsid er n o w .
On th e o ne h and , s o m e p eo ple f e el th at s p ort u se s u p ti m e w hic h c o uld b e b ette r s p ent o n
acad em ic s u b je cts s u ch a s e xam p re p ara ti o n. I n a d diti o n, i t m ig ht b e s a id th at i t i s u nw is e to f o rc e
child re n to d o a cti v iti e s w hic h th ey h av e n o i n te re st i n . A fte r a ll, s o m e y o ungste rs a re j u st n o t s p orty ,
and s h o uld b e a llo w ed to s tu d y i n ste ad . F in ally , th ere a re q uesti o n m ark s o ver th e w ho le so m eness o f
sp ort i ts e lf, w ith d ru ggin g a nd c o rru p ti o n s c and als i n cre asin gly c o m mon, a s w e s e e i n c yclin g a t
pre se nt. S om e p eo ple b elie v e th at th is l a ck o f m ora ls s e ts a p oor e xam ple to y o ung p eo ple .
On th e o th er h and , th o ugh, o ne m ajo r b enefit o f s p ort i s th at i t h elp s c hild re n’s p hysic al
dev elo pm ent a t a n i m porta nt s ta ge. I f a ll th eir ti m e w as s p ent s tu d yin g, th ey w ould b eco m e u nfit a nd
th eir m in d s w ould e v entu ally s u ffe r. F urth erm ore , s u p porte rs o f s c ho ol s p ort e m phasiz e th e
im porta nce o f te am b uild in g i n s p orts s u ch a s f o otb all o r h o ckey, w hic h i s o fte n f e lt to b e a n e xcelle nt
pre p ara ti o n f o r a d ulth o od. F in ally , m any p eo ple f e el th at a c o m peti ti v e s p ir it, s o i m porta nt to day, i s
fo ste re d b y s p orts a t a n e arly a ge. I t i s n o ta b le , f o r e xam ple , th at m any s u ccessfu l b usin ess p eo ple
excelle d i n s p ort a t s c ho ol.
Overa ll, I f e el th at s p ort s h o uld b e c o m puls o ry f o r s c ho ol c hild re n, b ecause th e p ositi v e e ffe ct
on th eir m enta l a nd p hysic al d ev elo pm ent o utw eig hs th e n egati v es. T his i s a s l o ng a s c hild re n a re
giv en a w id e r a nge to c ho ose f r o m , to e nsu re th eir i n te re st i s h ig h, a nd th at th e s p orts i n d ustr y i ts e lf
main ta in s th e h ig hest s ta nd ard s o f c o nd uct.

(2 93 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This e ssa y w ould r e ceiv e B and 9 . I t e xceed s th e m in im um w ord r e q uir e m ent a nd i s c le arly
org aniz e d i n to i n tr o ducti o n, m ain b ody d is c ussio n, a nd c o nclu sio n w ith o pin io n. T he c and id ate h as
in tr o duced th e to pic , a nd th en g iv en s e v era l r e le v ant p oin ts o n e ach s id e o f th e d is c ussio n. T here a re
su ita b le e xam ple s a t ti m es, w ith o ut to o m uch d eta il. T he c o nclu sio n h as a c le ar a nd r e le v ant o pin io n.
The E nglis h u se d i s c le ar a nd u nco m plic ate d , w ith g o od u se o f c o m mon a cad em ic w ord s ( e .g .
co ntr o versia l, e m phasiz e , e xcel
.) T he i d eas a nd p ara gra p hs a re c o nnecte d b y g o od u se o f c o m mon
lin kin g p hra se s ( e .g .
on t h e o ne h and, f u rth erm ore , o vera ll.)

Exam ple T ask 2

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is q uestio n.
Som e p eo ple f e el t h at i t i s a lw ays w ro n g t o k eep a n im als i n c a ptiv ity , f o r i n sta n ce i n z o os.
Oth er p eo ple s a y t h at t h ere a re b en efits f o r t h e a n im als a n d f o r h um an s. D is c u ss b oth s id es o f
th is d eb ate , a n d g iv e y o u r p erso n al v ie w .
You s h ould g iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd in clu de id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
know le dge a nd e xperie nce .
Writ e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a no th er O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N ty p e ta sk . A lth o ugh th e to pic a nd th e w ord s u se d i n
th e i n str u cti o ns a re d iffe re nt to th e p re v io us ta sk , y o u s h o uld f o llo w th e s a m e b asic s tr u ctu re . Y ou
sh o uld d is c uss b oth s id es o bje cti v ely , d esc rib in g tw o o r th re e p oin ts o n e ach s id e, a nd th en g iv e y o ur
vie w i n th e c o nclu sio n.

Model E ssa y 2

Zoos c o nti n ue to b e c o ntr o vers ia l, e v en n o w th at th ey h av e e v olv ed i n to ‘ a nim al p ark s’ o r
sim ila r f a ciliti e s. M ost p eo ple l o ve a nim als , a nd th ere a re s tr o ng v ie w s o n b oth s id es, w hic h I w ill
dis c uss n o w .
Peo ple o ppose d to z o os h ig hlig ht th e u nnatu ra l w ay i n w hic h a nim als l iv e i n s u ch p la ces. F or
exam ple , c ap ti v e a nim als d o n o t n eed to h unt o r r a is e o ffs p rin g, a nd th is m eans th at th ey a re n o t l iv in g
as n atu re i n te nd ed . F urth erm ore , th e a nti - z o o l o bby p oin t o ut th at a nim als p ro bab ly s u ffe r m enta lly
when k ep t i n c ap ti v ity , e v en i f th eir s u rro und in gs a re s p acio us a nd s im ila r to th e n atu ra l h ab ita t.
Sym pto m s o f m enta l i s su es r a nge f r o m r e p eti ti v e b ehav io ur to e ati n g d is o rd ers , a nd th ese a re o fte n
se en i n c ap ti v e a nim als . L astl y , i t i s o fte n s a id th at z o os a d d l ittl e to a nim al c o nse rv ati o n, w hic h i s
bette r s e rv ed b y p re se rv in g th eir h ab ita t.
Conv ers e ly , th o se w ho s u p port z o os s a y th at i n m ost c ase s th ey o ffe r a s e cure a nd p eacefu l
se tti n g f o r a nim als , f o r e xam ple i n h ig h q uality w ild life p ark s o r r e se rv es. T hey a d d th at i n m any
case s, th e a nim als w ould s u ffe r f r o m l o ss o f h ab ita t o r p oachin g i n th e w ild , a nd i n c ap ti v ity th ey a re
at l e ast s a fe a nd a b le to b re ed s u ccessfu lly . F in ally , z o o e nth usia sts f e el th at z o os a nd a nim al p ark s
are p art o f a n i n te gra te d s y ste m o f p ro te cti n g a nim als , i n v olv in g h ab ita t p ro te cti o n, b re ed in g
pro gra m mes a nd d is e ase c o ntr o l. T his a ll h elp s to s a fe guard e nd angere d s p ecie s a nd th us p re se rv e
th e g lo bal e co sy ste m f o r th e f u tu re b enefit o f a ll l ife f o rm s.

Overa ll, I f e el th at z o os p ro vid e a v alu ab le s e rv ic e to s o cie ty a nd th e a nim al w orld , a s th ey
help to p ro te ct m any s p ecie s. T his o utw eig hs th eir p ossib le d is a d vanta ges, a s l o ng a s th ey a re
pro perly s ta ffe d a nd m ain ta in ed .

(2 81 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This w ould b e a b and 9 e ssa y. T he s ty le i s a cad em ic b ut n o t e xcessiv ely f o rm al, a nd th e
write r g iv es a p ers o nal o pin io n w ith o ut e m oti o n o r h um our. B oth s id es o f th e to pic a re d is c usse d ,
usin g c le ar e xam ple s to i llu str a te th e p oin ts . T here i s a l o gic al f lo w f r o m th e p oin ts s u p porti n g z o os
in to th e c o nclu sio n, w hic h a ls o s u p ports th e z o os. T he l a nguage u se d i s a cad em ic ( e .g .
co nverse ly ,
th us
) w ith o ut b ein g te chnic al o r a rc haic . L in kin g p hra se s a re u se d to g uid e th e r e ad er h elp fu lly ( e .g .
fu rth erm ore , o vera ll
.) T he c o nclu sio n i n clu d es a p ro vis o (
as l o ng a s t h ey a re . . .
) w hic h i s a s tr o ng
fe atu re i n a cad em ic w riti n g.
Exam ple T ask 3

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is t a sk .
Som e p eo ple b elie ve t h at a g ap y e a r b etw een s c h ool a n d u niv e rsity i s a g ood i d ea , w hile
oth ers d is a gre e s tr o n gly . C on sid er b oth s id es o f t h is d eb ate a n d p re se n t y o u r o w n o pin io n .
You s h ould g iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd in clu de id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
know le dge a nd e xperie nce .
Writ e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a no th er O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N ty p e ta sk . Y ou s h o uld f o llo w th e s a m e b asic
str u ctu re a s f o r e xam ple s 1 a nd 2 .

Model E ssa y 3

While g ap y ears a re i n cre asin gly p opula r, th ey c o nti n ue to b e r a th er c o ntr o vers ia l b ecause th e
benefits a re h ard to q uanti fy e xactl y . T here a re a rg um ents o n b oth s id es o f th is v ery to pic al d eb ate ,
and I w ill d is c uss th em n o w .
On th e o ne h and , o pponents o f g ap y ears p oin t to th e c o st i n v olv ed i n a re as s u ch a s a ir f a re s,
acco m modati o n a nd l iv in g e xp ense s. A ll th is m oney h as to c o m e f r o m th e s tu d ent’ s f a m ily , o r e v en
fr o m b orro w in g to b e p aid l a te r. S eco nd ly , i t i s o fte n s a id th at g ap y ears ta ke a y o ung p ers o n’s f o cus
aw ay f r o m s tu d yin g, a nd a llo w s th em to g et i n v olv ed i n d is tr a cti o ns s u ch a s tr a v ellin g. T his c an m ake
it h ard to a d ju st to u niv ers ity l ife , d am agin g th e s tu d ent’ s p erfo rm ance. F in ally , th ere i s a c o ncern
over th e s a fe ty o f y o ung p eo ple i f th ey a re tr a v ellin g to r e m ote p la ces. B ein g k id nap ped o r m ugged i s
a p oor s ta rt to a n a cad em ic c are er, a fte r a ll.
On th e o th er h and , s u p porte rs o f g ap y ears s a y th at th e s k ills l e arn ed o utw eig h th e
dis a d vanta ges. T hey h ig hlig ht th e i n d ep end ence a nd a sse rti v eness th at a s tu d ent w ill a cq uir e , i n a re as
su ch a s ti m e m anagem ent a nd i n te rp ers o nal s k ills . T hey a ls o s a y th at th ese s k ills l e ad to g re ate r
care er s u ccess l a te r i n l ife , th us c ancellin g o ut th e c o sts i n v olv ed . F urth erm ore , th ere a re m any

exam ple s o f y o ung p eo ple u sin g g ap y ears to a chie v e s o m eth in g s ig nific ant, w heth er i n v olu nta ry
work o r i n a s e cto r o f b usin ess th at i n te re sts th em .
In c o nclu sio n, m y o w n f e elin g i s th at a y ear o ff c an i n d eed b e a u se fu l a cti v ity , w ith th e
exp erie nce l e ad in g to i m pro ved s k ills th at a re i n v alu ab le i n th e f u tu re . O f c o urs e , th is i s p ro vid ed th at
th e y ear i s p la nned c are fu lly a nd u se d f o r s o m eth in g g enuin ely w orth w hile .

(2 81 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments
This i s a g o od e xam ple o f a B and 9 e ssa y. T he w rite r d is c usse s e ach s id e o f th e d eb ate ,
giv in g tw o o r th re e p oin ts to s u p port e ach s id e. T he p oin ts a re r e le v ant a nd c le ar, w ith o ut b ein g to o
sp ecific o r p ers o nal. T he l in kin g w ord s u se d (
e.g . O n t h e o th er h and, f u rth erm ore , i n c o nclu sio n
)
sh o w th e r e ad er h o w th e e ssa y d ev elo ps a nd w hat to e xp ect a t e ach s ta ge. T he l a nguage i s a cad em ic
but u nd ers ta nd ab le to a g enera l r e ad er. T he o pin io n i n th e c o nclu sio n i s e xp re sse d w ith o ut e m oti o n o r
atte m pts a t h um our.

Exam ple T ask 4

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is t a sk .
Som e p eople t h in k t h at it is b est t o s a ve m oney, f o r e xam ple in a b ank o r s a vin gs
sc h em e. O th er p eople f e el t h at m oney s h ould b e s p ent w henever it is a vaila ble . D is c u ss t h ese
vie w s a nd r e ach a n o pin io n o n t h is d ebate .
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd s u pport y our e ssa y w it h id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our
ow n e xperie nce .
You s h ould w rit e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s o ur f in al e xam ple o f a n O PIN IO N>D IS C USSIO N ty p e ta sk .


Model E ssa y 4

The q uesti o n o f w heth er to s a v e o r s p end m oney i s v ery to pic al to day, a s s o m any p eo ple a re
str u gglin g w ith f in ancia l w orrie s. T here a re v alid a rg um ents o n b oth s id es, w hic h I w ill d is c uss n o w .
On th e o ne h and , i t i s o fte n s a id th at s p end in g m oney i s o ne w ay to r e la x a nd e njo y l ife , f o r
in sta nce b y s h o ppin g o r ta kin g h o lid ays, a nd th ere i s c erta in ly s o m e tr u th i n th is . I n a d diti o n, w e
usu ally h av e n o c ho ic e b ut to s p end q uite a l a rg e p ro porti o n o f o ur a v aila b le s a la ry o n d ay to d ay
exp ense s s u ch a s f o od, h o usin g a nd tr a nsp ort, a nd s o th ere i s s u rp ris in gly l ittl e r e m ain in g to s a v e
anyw ay. F in ally , s p end in g m oney o n p ro ducts a nd s e rv ic es b oosts th e e co no m y a nd c re ate s
em plo ym ent, a nd i n th is s e nse i s a w orth w hile a cti o n.
On th e o th er h and , o th er p eo ple p oin t o ut th e d angers o f r e ckle ss s p end in g, f o r e xam ple o n
fr iv olo us o r u nnecessa ry i te m s, w hic h i s o fte n e nco ura ged b y a d verti s in g. Y oung p eo ple i n p arti c ula r
are v uln era b le to b ein g i n flu enced l ik e th is . F urth erm ore , a d vocate s o f s a v in g o fte n p oin t o ut th at,
with o ut a r e se rv e o f f u nd s f o r e m erg encie s, u nem plo ym ent o r i lln ess, p eo ple a re p utti n g th em se lv es a t

ris k o f h ard sh ip o r e v en b ankru p tc y. T his i s e sp ecia lly tr u e i n th e c urre nt e co no m ic s itu ati o n. L astl y
on th is s id e o f th e d eb ate , p eo ple e m phasis e th e n eed to a ccum ula te w ealth d urin g o ne’s l ife ti m e, s o
th at o ne’s c hild re n c an i n herit m oney o r p ro perty w hic h w ill i n cre ase th eir s e curity a nd s ta nd ard o f
liv in g.
Overa ll, I te nd to a gre e th at i t i s w is e r to s a v e m oney w here v er p ossib le , f o r r e aso ns w hic h
benefit b oth i n d iv id uals to day a nd f u tu re g enera ti o ns.

(2 63 w ord s.)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This i s a B and 9 e ssa y. A s th e e xam in er, i t i s i m med ia te ly c le ar to m e i n th e f ir s t p ara gra p h
th at th e w rite r i s i n tr o ducin g a n O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N e ssa y, w hic h th e ta sk r e q uir e s. T he tw o
sid es o f th e to pic a re th en d is c usse d i n l o gic al p ara gra p hs, w ith a s e rie s o f s im ple e xam ple s to
su p port e ach s id e. T he l in kin g p hra se s h elp to i n tr o duce e ach e xam ple ( E .g
. O n t h e o ne h and, i n
additio n, f in ally ,)
and th ey a ls o s h o w m e th e s ta ges o f th e e ssa y ( E .g
Overa ll
to i n tr o duce th e
co nclu sio n.) T he E nglis h u se d i s r e aso nab ly a cad em ic ( E .g .
Larg e p ro portio n, e m phasiz e t h e n eed )
and th e s e nte nces a re g enera lly c le ar. T he r e ad er g ets th e i m pre ssio n th at th e w rite r i s r a ti o nal a nd
well- in fo rm ed , a nd a b le to d is c uss a to pic o bje cti v ely .

Exam ple T ask 5

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is q uestio n.
It i s b ette r t o s a ve m on ey t h an t o s p en d i t.
How f a r d o y o u a gre e w ith t h is s ta te m en t? I s s a vin g m ore i m porta n t t h an s p en din g i n
to day’s w orld ?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd p ro vid e id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
experie nce . Y ou s h ould w rit e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a n O PIN IO N > P E R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T ty p e ta sk . I t a sk s y o u to s a y h o w m uch y o u
agre e w ith a n i d ea. Y ou s h o uld s ta te y o ur o pin io n a t th e s ta rt, a nd th en e xp la in w hy y o u h av e th is
opin io n, g iv in g s e v era l l o gic al r e aso ns. Y ou s h o uld b rie fly m enti o n th e o pposin g v ie w a s w ell. T he
co nclu sio n s h o uld b e a s u m mary o f y o ur v ie w poin t.
Note th at th is ty p e o f e ssa y i s d iffe re nt f r o m th e O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N ty p e.

Model E ssa y 5

With th e w orld i n s u ch e co no m ic tu rm oil, m any o f u s f a ce d iffic ult c ho ic es i n m anagin g o ur
money. P ers o nally , I f e el th at s a v in g i s p re fe ra b le to h ig h s p end in g, a nd I w ill e xp la in w hy.
Fir s tl y , s a v in g m oney i s a s e nsib le p re cauti o n i n a w orld w here th e f u tu re i s u ncerta in . I t i s
possib le , f o r e xam ple , th at a p ers o n m ig ht m eet u nem plo ym ent, i ll h ealth o r o th er c ris e s a t s o m e p oin t
in l ife . I t i s e sse nti a l to h av e s o m e f u nd s i n r e se rv e f o r th ese s itu ati o ns, a nd s a v in g i s f o r m ost p eo ple
th e o nly w ay to a chie v e th is . F urth erm ore , I b elie v e th at s a v in g i s i ts e lf a g o od d is c ip lin e f o r p eo ple

to d ev elo p, a s i t b uild s s k ills o f p la nnin g a nd r e achin g ta rg ets . W e c an s e e th is i n th e w ay th at
dis c ip lin ed p eo ple b uild u p q uite l a rg e s u m s th ro ugh s m all m onth ly c o ntr ib uti o ns to s a v in gs p la ns. I n
many c ase s th is m eets i m porta nt o bje cti v es i n th eir l iv es, i n clu d in g l a rg e p urc hase s s u ch a s c ars o r
pro perty . F in ally , w e h av e to r e m em ber th e r e aso ns f o r th e c urre nt e co no m ic p ro ble m s b ese tti n g th e
world . T he c ris is w as c ause d b y e xcessiv e s p end in g a nd i n su ffic ie nt s a v in g – n o t j u st b y i n d iv id uals ,
but b y c o rp ora ti o ns a nd e v en g o vern m ents th em se lv es. I f e el th at a n e m phasis o n s e nsib le s a v in g
sh o uld b e a u niv ers a l s tr a te gy n o w .
I d o a p pre cia te th at s o m e p eo ple th in k d iffe re ntl y , s a yin g th at i t i s b ette r to l iv e f o r th e m om ent
and s p end a cco rd in gly . W hile s o m e d aily s p end in g i s e sse nti a l, o f c o urs e , I f e el th is i s a p ote nti a lly
unw is e v ie w poin t, e sp ecia lly c o nsid erin g r e cent g lo bal e v ents .
To c o nclu d e, I b elie v e th at s a v in g i s th e w is e r c o urs e , n o t j u st f o r f in ancia l b ut a ls o f o r
pers o nal a nd p oliti c al r e aso ns. S ensib le s a v in g i s a n i n v alu ab le s k ill a nd a b uffe r a gain st u ncerta in ty .

(2 79 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This w ould b e a B and 9 e ssa y. I t e xceed s th e m in im um w ord c o unt a nd i s o rg aniz e d i n c le ar
para gra p hs. T he w rite r i n tr o duces th e to pic b rie fly , a nd th en s ta te s h is /h er v ie w poin t i n th e
in tr o ducti o n. T here a re th en th re e c le ar a nd l o gic al r e aso ns to j u sti fy th e v ie w poin t, w ith s o m e s im ple
exam ple s th at c an b e u nd ers to od b y a nyo ne w ith a g enera l a w are ness o f th e w orld . T he o pposin g
vie w i s m enti o ned b rie fly , a nd th en r e je cte d , s o th e e ssa y i s n o t c o m ple te ly o ne-s id ed . T he c o nclu sio n
re -s ta te s th e w rite r’s o pin io n a nd s u m mariz e s w ith o ut r e p eati n g d eta ils . T he E nglis h i s
fo rm al/a cad em ic , b ut n o t c o m plic ate d . T he c ho ic e o f w ord s i s a cad em ic ( e .g .
tu rm oil, i n su ffic ie n t,
in va lu able
) b ut s ti ll c le ar. T here a re c le ar l in kin g p hra se s to g uid e th e r e ad er th ro ugh th e s ta ges o f th e
essa y ( e .g .
fir stly , f in ally , t o c o nclu de.
)

Exam ple T ask 6

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is t a sk .
‘T ou ris m i s a lw ays a f o rc e f o r g ood w hic h e n able s p eo ple o f d if fe re n t c o u ntr ie s t o
understa n d e a ch o th er.’
To w hat e xte nt d o y ou a gre e w it h t h is id ea?
You s h ould g iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd in clu de id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
know le dge a nd e xperie nce .
Writ e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a no th er O PIN IO N > P E R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T ty p e ta sk . ‘
To w hat e xte n t d o y o u
agre e . . .?
’ i s th e k ey p hra se th at te lls y o u th is . Y ou s h o uld s ta rt b y s a yin g h o w m uch y o u a gre e w ith
th e s ta te m ent, a nd th en e xp la in w hy y o u th in k th is . Y ou s h o uld b rie fly c o nsid er th e o pposin g v ie w ,
ev en th o ugh y o u th en r e je ct i t.

Model E ssa y 6

The r o le o f to uris m i n th e w orld to day i s w id ely d eb ate d , w ith s o m e p eo ple c la im in g th at i t i s
in d eed a f o rc e f o r i n te rn ati o nal u nd ers ta nd in g. H ow ev er, I p ers o nally d o n o t e nti r e ly a ccep t th is , a nd I
will e xp la in w hy i n th is e ssa y.
Fir s tl y , w e m ust c o nsid er th e p ote nti a l n egati v es o f c o nta ct b etw een c ultu re s. F or e xam ple ,
when w este rn to uris ts v is it u nto uched p arts o f th e w orld , th eir s ta y c ause s p ollu ti o n f o r l o cal
so cie ti e s. W e s e e th is i n th e l itte r l e ft a t M achu P ic chu i n P eru , a nd i n th e d am age to e co lo gy c ause d
by s a fa ri to uris m i n A fr ic a. F urth erm ore , th ere a re n um ero us e xam ple s o f te nsio n b etw een to uris ts a nd
lo cal c ultu re s, r a ngin g f r o m d ru nken B riti s h to uris ts i n E uro pe to A meric an ‘ s p rin g b re akers ’ i n
Canad ia n o r L ati n A meric an r e so rts . I n th ese c ase s, to uris m a ctu ally l e ad s to r e se ntm ent a nd d is tr u st
betw een n ati o naliti e s, n o t b ette r u nd ers ta nd in g.
A f u rth er r e aso n to b e w ary o f th is i d ea i s th e e co no m ic a sp ect. I t i s s o m eti m es s a id th at
to uris m i m pro ves i n te rn ati o nal r e la ti o ns b ecause i t e nco ura ges th e f lo w o f m oney f r o m w ealth y to
le ss d ev elo ped c o untr ie s. I n r e ality , h o w ev er, th e w ealth g enera te d u su ally s ta ys i n th e h and s o f
priv ate c o m panie s o r l o cal o ffic ia ls , a nd r a re ly d rip s d ow n i n to th e p opula ti o n. M any o f u s h av e
vis ite d l e ss d ev elo ped n ati o ns a s to uris ts , a nd h av e w itn esse d a t f ir s t h and th e p overty th at e xis ts
outs id e th e c o nfin es o f th e r e so rt h o te ls . W e l e av e w ith th e i m pre ssio n th at o ur s ta y h as c o ntr ib ute d
no th in g to th e l iv es o f th o se w e h av e o bse rv ed .
This i s n o t to s a y th at to uris m i s e nti r e ly b ad , o f c o urs e . T here a re b enefits i n te rm s o f
im pro vin g l o cal i n fr a str u ctu re s u ch a s r o ad s a nd a ir p orts . B ut to s a y th at i t i s ‘ a lw ays a f o rc e f o r
go od’ i s to i g no re th e v ario us p ro ble m s i t c ause s.

(2 89 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

I w ould c erta in ly g iv e th is e ssa y a b and 9 s c o re . T he w rite r a nsw ers th e ta sk c o m ple te ly , a nd
makes h is /h er o pin io n c le ar i n th e i n tr o ducti o n. T he m ain b ody c o nta in s a s e rie s o f c le ar r e aso ns to
ju sti fy th is o pin io n, u sin g e xam ple s w hic h a re r e le v ant a nd a ccessib le to th e g enera l r e ad er. T he
write r m enti o ns th e o pposin g v ie w b rie fly
(‘ T here a re b en efits i n t e rm s o f i m pro vin g l o ca l
in fr a str u ctu re s u ch a s r o ads a nd a ir p orts ’
) s o th at th e e ssa y h as s o m e b ala nce.


Exam ple T ask 7

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is t a sk .
‘W e s h ou ld i n tr o du ce l a w s t o m ake b u sin esse s a n d s ta te s e rvic es e m plo y e q u al n um bers
of m ale a n d f e m ale w ork ers i n e ve ry d ep artm en t o r a re a o f t h e c o m pan y.’
How f a r d o y ou s u pport t h is id ea? G iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd s u pport y our e ssa y
wit h id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n e xperie nce .
You s h ould w rit e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a no th er O PIN IO N > P E R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T ty p e ta sk . T he i n str u cti o n ‘
How f a r d o

yo u s u pport t h is i d ea ’
te lls y o u th is .

Model E ssa y 7

The i s su e o f e q uality f o r m en a nd w om en a t w ork i s s ti ll w id ely d eb ate d , d esp ite th e
exte nsiv e l e gis la ti o n th at n o w e xis ts i n m any c o untr ie s. P ers o nally , I d o n o t f e el th at i m posin g a
num eric al ta rg et f o r g end er i s a s e nsib le i d ea, a nd I w ill e xp la in w hy.
Fir s tl y , w e h av e to c o nsid er w heth er e q ual n um bers o f m en a nd w om en r e ally w is h to d o
ev ery j o b w hic h i s a v aila b le . F or e xam ple , f e w w om en w is h to b e a ir lin e p ilo ts , a nd o nly a m in o rity
of s c ho ol te achers a re m ale . I f w e i m pose a l a w o n a ir lin es o r s c ho ols , w here w ill th ey f in d th e
peo ple to f ill th ese p osts w illin gly ? F urth erm ore , th ere i s th e h uge i s su e o f th e e xis ti n g w ork fo rc e.
Would i t b e r ig ht to d is m is s a w ork er b ecause h e o r s h e i s o f a c erta in g end er, i n o rd er to c re ate a
sta ti s ti c ally p erfe ct b ala nce? T he e ffe cts w ould b e d is a str o us f o r m any h ard -w ork in g p eo ple . F in ally ,
I b elie v e w e s h o uld f in d w ays to e nco ura ge e q uality o f o pportu nity th ro ugh s u p port a nd g uid ance,
ra th er th an to p-d ow n l e gis la ti o n. F or i n sta nce, i m pro ved c hild c are f a ciliti e s a nd s u b sid ie s w ould
pro bab ly e nco ura ge m ore w om en i n to p arts o f th e w ork fo rc e w hic h m ay c urre ntl y b e d iffic ult to
ente r.
I d o u nd ers ta nd th e o pposin g v ie w , w hic h i s th at l e gis la ti o n i s th e q uic kest a nd m ost e ffe cti v e
way to a chie v e g end er e q uality . N ev erth ele ss, I f e el th at th e d is ru p ti v e e ffe cts o f ‘ o vern ig ht’
le gis la ti o n w ould d esta b ilis e s o cie ty a nd h in d er m any p eo ple ’s p ro sp ects .
Overa ll, I b elie v e th at e q uality i s a n e xcelle nt g o al f o r s o cie ty to s tr iv e f o r. A bove a ll, th o ugh,
I th in k th at th is n eed s to b e a g ra d ual p ro cess, b ase d o n c are fu l s u p port r a th er th an s u d den l e gis la ti o n.

(2 67 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This e ssa y w ould a chie v e B and 9 . I t i s p re se nte d i n a c le ar f o rm , w ith o bvio us p ara gra p hs to
se p ara te th e i n tr o ducti o n, m ain b ody, c o ncessio n a nd c o nclu sio n. T he w rite r s h o w s th at th is i s a n
OPIN IO N > P E R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T e ssa y b y i n tr o ducin g th e to pic a nd th en g iv in g h is o pin io n i n
th e f ir s t p ara gra p h. T he w rite r e xp la in s th e o pin io n b y g iv in g th re e c le ar r e aso ns, e ach o ne s u p porte d
by a n e xam ple w hic h i s r e ad ily u nd ers ta nd ab le to a g enera l r e ad er.

Exam ple T ask 8

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is t a sk .
“P ris o n i s t h e o n ly t r u ly e ffe ctiv e f o rm o f p u nis h m en t, b eca u se i t s e p ara te s c rim in als
fr o m s o cie ty .” T o w hat e x te n t d o y o u s u pport t h is v ie w ?
You s h ould g iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd in clu de id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
know le dge a nd e xperie nce .
Writ e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a no th er O PIN IO N > P E R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T e ssa y. T he ta sk m ay b e p hra se d a s

‘H ow f a r d o y o u s u pport x / T o w hat e xte n t d o y o u s u pport x / I n w hat w ays d o y o u a gre e w ith x ’
or
any s im ila r w ord in g. B e a le rt to th e d iffe re nt p ossib le w ays th at th is c an b e e xp re sse d , a nd r e m em ber
th e d iffe re nce b etw een th is ty p e a nd th e O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N ty p e ta sk .

Model E ssa y 8

There i s n o d oub t th at w e n eed to f in d e ffe cti v e f o rm s o f p unis h m ent f o r c rim in als , a nd a ls o
fin d w ays to p ro te ct c iti z e ns f r o m th e th re at o f c rim e. I p ers o nally f e el th at p ris o n i s o nly o ne o f a
ra nge o f o pti o ns w e s h o uld u se , a nd i s n o t a lw ays th e m ost e ffe cti v e.
Fir s tl y , I d o n o t a ccep t th at a ll c rim in als n eed to b e s e p ara te d f r o m s o cie ty . J u v enile a nd
min o r o ffe nd ers c an b e p unis h ed th ro ugh f in es, c o m munity s e rv ic e o r o th er n o n-c usto dia l m eans. T his
is c heap er th an p ris o n, a nd p re v ents th e d am age to th e c rim in al’s f a m ily w hic h i n i ts e lf c o uld g enera te
fu rth er s o cia l p ro ble m s. F urth erm ore , b y k eep in g th ese s m all- s c ale c rim in als i n s o cie ty , w e c an tr y to
re hab ilita te th em , f o r e xam ple th ro ugh tr a in in g o r e d ucati o n p ro gra m mes. T his w ill h elp to r e d uce r e -
offe nd in g i n f u tu re .
Besid es th is , i f o ffe nd ers a re b elie v ed to b e a th re at to th eir f e llo w c iti z e ns, th ere a re w ays o f
co nta in in g th em s u ch a s e le ctr o nic ta ggin g, c urfe w s o r r e gula r r e p orti n g to th e p olic e. S uch m eth o ds
hav e b een s h o w n to b e e ffe cti v e i n r e d ucin g c rim in al b ehav io ur a nd a re th em se lv es q uite a s tr o ng
punis h m ent, a s th ey r e str ic t a n o ffe nd er’s f r e ed om g re atl y . F in ally , w e s h o uld r e m em ber th at p ris o ns
are to s o m e e xte nt ‘ s c ho ols o f c rim e’ a nd i n m any c ase s p ris o ners e nd th eir j a il te rm s a s m ore
cap ab le a nd d ete rm in ed c rim in als th an w hen th ey e nte re d .
Of c o urs e , i t i s tr u e th at i n c erta in c ase s w e n eed to b oth p unis h c rim in als a nd i s o la te th em
fr o m o th er p eo ple . I r e co gnis e th at v io le nt o r d angero us p eo ple n eed to b e i m pris o ned – y et I b elie v e
th is a p plie s to a s m all m in o rity o f i n sta nces.
To c o nclu d e, I f e el th at p ris o n i s a l a st r e so rt i n c ase s w here th ere i s n o a lte rn ati v e. T his d oes
no t m ake i t th e o nly e ffe cti v e p unis h m ent, b ut r a th er th e m ost s e v ere a m ong a v arie ty o f p ossib iliti e s.

(2 90 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This m eets th e s ta nd ard f o r a b and 9 e ssa y. T he w rite r i n tr o duces th e to pic a nd th en m akes
his /h er o pin io n c le ar. T he m ain b ody th en c o nta in s a s m all r a nge o f r e aso ns e xp la in in g th is o pin io n,
sig np oste d w ith l in kin g w ord s (
e.g . F ir stly , f u rth erm ore b esid es t h is , f in ally
) w hic h g uid e th e r e ad er
th ro ugh th e s ta ges. T he E nglis h u se d i n th e e ssa y i s a cad em ic b ut c le ar a nd m odern . T he w rite r s h o w s
th at h e h as c o nsid ere d th e o pposin g v ie w b rie fly
(‘ I r e co gnis e t h at v io le n t o r d angero us p eo ple n eed
to b e i m pris o ned . . .’ )
so th at th e e ssa y h as s o m e b ala nce. T he r e ad er f e els th at th e w rite r i s a l o gic al
th in ker, a b le to o rg anis e i d eas i n s u p port o f h is o pin io n.

ID EA S t y p e t a sk s: M od el e ssa ys

Exam ple T ask 9

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is q uestio n.
Man y p eo ple t o day a re w orrie d a bou t ‘ c yb erc rim e’ s u ch a s h ack in g a n d i d en tity t h eft.
What p ro ble m s d oes ‘ c yb erc rim e’ c a u se , a n d w hat s o lu tio n s c a n y o u s u ggest f o r o rd in ary p eo ple
an d b u sin esse s t o t a ke?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd p ro vid e id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
experie nce . Y ou s h ould w rit e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a n I D EA S > P R O BLE M /S O LU TIO N ty p e e ssa y. I t d oes
not
a sk f o r y o ur o pin io n
ab out a to pic , s u ch a s w heth er y o u th in k c yb erc rim e i s g o od o r b ad , o r i f y o u th in k i t i s i m porta nt o r
no t.
It a sk s y o u to th in k o f s o m e
pro ble m s
i n a s itu ati o n, a nd s u ggest s o m e
so lu tio ns
to th ese
pro ble m s. I n ta sk s s u ch a s th is , y o u s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , d esc rib e tw o o r th re e p ro ble m s, th en
offe r tw o o r th re e s o lu ti o ns, a nd th en s u m mariz e i n th e f in al p ara gra p h.
Rem em ber, th is i s
not
a n O PIN IO N ty p e ta sk . Y ou w ill l o se m ark s i f y o u g iv e a s tr o ng
pers o nal o pin io n i n th is e ssa y.

Model E ssa y 9

Cyb erc rim e i s a c ause o f w id esp re ad c o ncern to day, a s s o m any p eo ple u se te chno lo gy to
sto re a nd tr a nsm it s e nsiti v e d ata . T here a re a n um ber o f p ro ble m s th at p eo ple s u ffe r a s a r e su lt o f
th ese c rim es, b ut a ls o s o m e s tr a ig htf o rw ard m easu re s w e c an ta ke to p ro te ct o urs e lv es.
Perh ap s th e w ors t p ro ble m s te m min g f r o m th is i s th e f in ancia l i m pact. I f s o m eo ne h as h is o r
her b ank a cco unt e m pti e d , o r h as f a ls e c re d it l in es c re ate d u nd er th eir n am e, th ey a re p ote nti a lly
lia b le f o r l a rg e s u m s o f m oney. E ven i f th ey c an a v oid th e c o nse q uences, th eir b ank o r f in ance
co m pany h as to c o ver th e l o sse s, w hic h c an d am age th eir p erfo rm ance. A f u rth er p ro ble m i s th e w ay
in w hic h th ese s to le n f u nd s a re u se d to s u b sid iz e o th er c rim es, s u ch a s d ru g d is tr ib uti o n o r e v en
te rro ris m . O nce th e m oney e nte rs th e c rim in al n etw ork s, w e h av e n o w ay o f k no w in g h o w i t w ill b e
use d . F in ally , th ere i s th e p ro ble m o f a nxie ty a nd s tr e ss c ause d to th e i n no cent v ic ti m s o f th ese c rim es.
The i n iti a l s h o ck i s o fte n f o llo w ed b y m onth s o r y ears o r l e gal w ra nglin g, p ap erw ork a nd a s e nse o f
in se curity .
Turn in g to p ossib le s o lu ti o ns, p ro bab ly th e m ost e ffe cti v e m easu re i s to i m pro ve p ers o nal
se curity , r a ngin g f r o m p assw ord s to th e s h re d din g o f d ocum ents . T his d enie s th e c rim in als th e r a w
mate ria ls to w ork w ith . S eco nd ly , w e s h o uld r a is e a w are ness o f th e r is k s a m ong th e e ld erly o r th e
very y o ung – tw o g ro up s w ho a re o fte n s p ecific ally ta rg ete d – v ia p ub lic ity a nd p ub lic e d ucati o n.
Ulti m ate ly , h o w ev er, i t i s th e f in ancia l c o m panie s w ho c an m ake th e g re ate st c o ntr ib uti o n, b y
in cre asin g th eir s e curity a nd d ete cti o n s y ste m s – i d eally i n p artn ers h ip w ith th e p olic e.
Overa ll, th e p ro ble m s c ause d a re b oth f in ancia l a nd s o cia l, a nd th e s o lu ti o ns s h o uld i n v olv e
co ord in ate d a cti o n b y i n d iv id uals , c o rp ora ti o ns a nd th e s ta te .

(2 88 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This w ould r e ceiv e a B and 9 s c o re . T he e ssa y i s c le arly o rg aniz e d i n to s e cti o ns, w ith in w hic h
th ere a re l in kin g w ord s ( e .g
. a f u rth er p ro ble m , T urn in g t o , u ltim ate ly , o vera ll
) w hic h s ig np ost th e
id eas. T he w rite r d esc rib es th re e p ro ble m s a nd th en th re e s o lu ti o ns, u sin g r e le v ant e xam ple s th at d o
no t r e ly o n te chnic al k no w le d ge. T he e xam ple s a re p re se nte d i n a v arie ty o f w ays ( e .g
. s u ch a s,
ra ngin g f r o m /to
.) T he E nglis h i s f a ir ly f o rm al ( e .g .
pote n tia lly l ia ble , c o nse q uen ces, i n itia l s h ock
)
but a lw ays m odern a nd c le ar. T he e ssa y d esc rib es a c o ntr o vers ia l s u b je ct w ith o ut a ny b ia s o r
em oti o n, a nd n o p ers o nal o pin io n i s g iv en.

Exam ple T ask 1 0

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is t a sk .
Man y p eo ple t o day a re w orrie d a bou t y o u ng c h ild re n u sin g v id eo g am es. W hat p ro ble m s
mig h t t h ese g am es c a u se , f o r c h ild re n a n d s o cie ty a s a w hole ? H ow c o u ld t h ese p ro ble m s b e
re d u ced ?
You s h ould g iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd in clu de id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
know le dge a nd e xperie nce .
Writ e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a n I D EA S > P R O BLE M /S O LU TIO N e ssa y. I t u se s th e w ord ‘ p ro ble m s’ c le arly , a nd
th en a sk s f o r s o lu ti o ns i n a p ara p hra se d w ay ( ‘
How c o uld t h ese p ro ble m s b e r e d uced ?’)
Rem em ber th at th e e xact w ord s ‘
pro ble m ’
a nd ‘
so lu tio n
’ m ay n o t b e u se d i n th e ta sk ; y o u m ust
be a le rt to s y no nym s s u ch a s ‘
ch alle n ge
’ a nd ‘
answ er.


Model E ssa y 1 0

The a lm ost u niv ers a l a v aila b ility o f v id eo g am es a m ong c hild re n h as p re se nte d u s w ith a
num ber o f c halle nges a nd d ecis io ns, n o ne o f w hic h a re s tr a ig htf o rw ard . I b elie v e th ere a re th re e m ain
pro ble m s a sso cia te d w ith th ese p ro ducts , a nd a ls o th re e r e m ed ie s w e c an a d opt.
Perh ap s th e m ajo r p ro ble m w e n eed to d eal w ith i s th e l e v el o f v io le nce f o und i n th ese g am es.
Many o f th em f e atu re a ggre ssiv e o r w arlik e c hara cte rs , r a ngin g f r o m s o ld ie rs to c rim in als a nd k ille rs .
This i n ev ita b ly l e ad s c hild re n to b elie v e th at s u ch b ehav io ur i s n o rm al, o r e v en d esir a b le . A s e co nd
is su e i s th e o bse ssiv e w ay th at s o m e c hild re n u se th e g am es – f o r e xam ple , p re fe rrin g th eir c o m pute rs
to r e al f r ie nd sh ip s, m akin g th ese c hild re n i s o la te d a nd s o cia lly n aïv e. F in ally , th ere a re p hysic al
effe cts f r o m e xcessiv e g am in g, i n clu d in g e ye s tr a in , i n so m nia a nd d am age to p ostu re . T hese c an b e
diffic ult to r e v ers e o nce th ey h av e ta ken h o ld .
Turn in g to p ossib le s o lu ti o ns, o ne k ey s te p w ould b e to l e gis la te m ore s tr ic tl y to c o ntr o l th e
co nte nt o f th ese g am es. T hey c o uld , f o r i n sta nce, b e r e v ie w ed b y c enso rs i n th e s a m e w ay th at f ilm s
are . T his w ould p re v ent u nsu ita b le m ate ria l i n flu encin g y o ung m in d s. T o ta ckle th e p ro ble m o f
obse ssiv e u se , w e c o uld m ake m ore c o unse llin g a nd a d vic e a v aila b le th ro ugh s c ho ols . O n th e s u b je ct

of p hysic al s id e e ffe cts , a d vic e o n s a fe u se c o uld b e i n clu d ed a s p art o f th e p ackagin g o r e v en th e
gam e i ts e lf, s o th at y o ungste rs a re c o nsta ntl y a w are o f th e r is k s.
To s u m u p , th is i s a p ro ble m th at h as b oth s o cia l a nd p hysic al e ffe cts , a nd th e s o lu ti o n w ill
re q uir e c o m bin ed a cti o n b y m anufa ctu re rs , s c ho ols a nd a uth o riti e s.

(2 61 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This e ssa y w ould b e m ark ed a t B and 9 . T he w rite r i n tr o duces th e to pic w ell, a nd m akes i t
cle ar i n th e f ir s t p ara gra p h th at th is w ill b e a n I D EA S > P R O BLE M /S O LU TIO N e ssa y. T he i d eas
desc rib ed a re r e le v ant a nd c le ar, w ith o ut to o m uch d eta il o r te chnic al d esc rip ti o n. T he E nglis h u se d
fe atu re s s o m e s tr o ng a cad em ic v ocab ula ry ( E .g
. d esir a ble , o bse ssiv e, u nsu ita ble )
and i s c le ar to th e
genera l r e ad er. T he w rite r u se s c o nd iti o nals e ffe cti v ely (
co uld , w ould
) to p ro pose i d eas, s h o w in g
th at h e h as c o nsid ere d th e o utc o m es o f h is s u ggesti o ns.

Exam ple T ask 1 1

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is t a sk .
In m any c o untr ie s to day, th ere a re c o ncern s a b out th e u nhealth y l ife sty le s th at p eo ple l e ad .
What h ealth i s su es a re l in ked to m odern l ife sty le s? W hat a nsw ers to th ese p ro ble m s c an y o u s u ggest?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd s u pport y our e ssa y w it h id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our
ow n e xperie nce .
You s h ould w rit e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a no th er I D EA S > P R O BLE M /S O LU TIO N ty p e ta sk . ‘
Is su es’
a nd
‘a nsw ers’
a re
co m mon s y no nym s f o r
‘p ro ble m s’
a nd
‘s o lu tio ns.
’ Y ou s h o uld th in k o f tw o o r th re e p ro ble m s, a nd
th en a s im ila r n um ber o f s o lu ti o ns. R em em ber, y o u d o n o t n eed to h av e a ny s p ecia lis t k no w le d ge to
dis c uss th is to pic . ‘
Yo ur o w n e xp erie n ce’
m eans th in gs y o u h av e r e ad o r s e en i n th e m ed ia , w heth er i n
yo ur o w n c o untr y o r a ro und th e w orld .


Model E ssa y 1 1

Most p eo ple a gre e th at m odern l ife sty le s c an b e u nhealth y, b oth p hysic ally a nd m enta lly . I
belie v e th ere a re th re e m ain p ro ble m s, b ut a ls o s o m e p ra cti c al s te p s w e c an ta ke.
Perh ap s th e l a rg est p ro ble m i s th e i s su e o f o besity , w hic h i s g ro w in g d ra sti c ally i n m ost
Weste rn c o untr ie s. W ith p eo ple w ork in g a t d esk s a nd u sin g tr a nsp ort r a th er th an w alk in g, w eig ht g ain
se em s i n ev ita b le , a nd b ein g o verw eig ht c ause s v ario us m ed ic al i s su es i n clu d in g h eart tr o ub le a nd
str o kes. A no th er m ajo r p ro ble m l in ked to l ife sty le i s p oor d ie t, w ith p eo ple w ho a re s h o rt o f ti m e
eati n g j u nk f o od r a th er th an p ro per n utr ie nts . R esu lta nt h ealth p ro ble m s r a nge f r o m o besity to h ig h
cho le ste ro l a nd e v en o rg an f a ilu re . F in ally , w e m ust c o nsid er th e i s su e o f m enta l h ealth . M odern
life sty le s a re h ig hly p re ssu ris e d , w ith p eo ple e xp ecte d to w ork a t a f a st p ace f o r e xte nd ed p erio ds,

and l ittl e s c o pe f o r f a m ily l ife o r r e la xati o n, l e ad in g to e no rm ous s tr e ss a nd a nxie ty .
Turn in g to p ossib le s o lu ti o ns, th e b ig gest s te p w ould b e to i m pro ve th e l e v el o f e d ucati o n
re gard in g h ealth i s su es c o nnecte d to l ife sty le , e sp ecia lly o besity . T he g o vern m ent, m ed ia a nd s c ho ols
sh o uld w ork to geth er to r a is e a w are ness o f th e d angers a nd to p ro m ote s p orts a nd o th er p ositi v e
pra cti c es. A f u rth er s te p w ould b e to u se l e gis la ti o n to c urb th e c o nsu m pti o n o f u nhealth y f o ods, f o r
exam ple b y i m posin g h ig her s a le s ta xes o r b y r e str ic ti n g a v aila b ility i n r e ta il o utl e ts . F urth erm ore , to
deal w ith th e p sy cho lo gic al i m pacts , w e s h o uld e nco ura ge e m plo yers to a d opt m ore f le xib le w ork in g
pra cti c es, a llo w in g w ork ers to l e ad a f u lle r p riv ate l ife w ith l e ss s tr e ss.
Overa ll, th e k ey p ro ble m s o f o besity a nd s tr e ss c an b e a d dre sse d th ro ugh a c o m bin ati o n o f
aw are ness, ta rg ete d l e gis la ti o n a nd b ette r e m plo ym ent p ra cti c es.

9271 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This e ssa y d ese rv es a B and 9 s c o re . T he w rite r g iv es a b rie f i n tr o ducti o n to th e to pic , a nd
th en g iv es th re e r e le v ant e xam ple s o f th e p ro ble m s, u sin g g enera lly a v aila b le e v id ence. E ach i d ea i s
in tr o duced w ith a h elp fu l l in kin g p hra se (
E.g . ‘ T urn in g t o , f u rth erm ore .’ )
T he w rite r s u ggests th re e
se nsib le s o lu ti o ns, a nd c o nsid ers th eir i m pact o n th e s itu ati o n. T he s u m mary i s b rie f b ut
co m pre hensiv e, a nd p ara p hra se s th e m ain i d eas w ell. T he v ocab ula ry u se d th ro ugho ut th e e ssa y i s
modern a nd f o rm al/a cad em ic i n to ne (
E.g . ‘ s c o pe, i n evita ble , l e g is la tio n.’ )

Exam ple
Task 1 2

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is q uestio n.
Havin g p olic e o ffic ers p atr o llin g t h e s tr e ets i s o fte n c o n sid ere d a n e sse n tia l w ay t o
re d u ce c rim e. H ow e ffe ctiv e d o y o u t h in k p olic e s tr e et p atr o ls a re ? W hat o th er w ays o f r e d u cin g
crim e c a n y o u p ro pose ?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd p ro vid e id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
experie nce . Y ou s h ould w rit e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a n I D EA S > E VA LU ATE ty p e e ssa y. I t d oes n o t a sk y o u to g iv e a n o pin io n a b out th e
prin cip le o f p olic e p atr o ls , b ut to c o nsid er h o w e ffe cti v e th ey a re , a nd to s u ggest o th er w ays to
re d uce c rim e. Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , th en d esc rib e h o w e ffe cti v e y o u th in k p atr o ls a re , th en
pro pose tw o o r th re e a lte rn ati v es, th en s u m mariz e .

Model E ssa y 1 2

We a re a ll k een to r e d uce c rim e w here v er p ossib le , a nd th e r o le o f v is ib le p olic in g i s a h o tl y
deb ate d p art o f th is . P ers o nally , I f e el th at s tr e et p atr o ls a re h ig hly e ffe cti v e, a lth o ugh th ere a re
se v era l s u p ple m enta ry m eth o ds to o.
Regard in g th e e ffe cti v eness o f p atr o ls , e v id ence s u ggests th at a n i n cre ase i n p olic e o n th e
str e ets l e ad s d ir e ctl y to a d ro p i n c rim e, e sp ecia lly c rim es o f v io le nce a nd r o bbery . T his w as th e

exp erie nce o f N ew Y ork w hen i t a d opte d th e ‘ z e ro to le ra nce’ p olic y i n th e 1 990s, a h ig h-p ro file
polic in g ta cti c w hic h h as b een e xte nd ed s u ccessfu lly to m any o th er c iti e s w orld w id e. W hen
co m pare d to o th er ta cti c s th at h av e b een tr ie d , r a ngin g f r o m c iti z e n p atr o ls to C CTV, th ere i s l ittl e
doub t th at a sse rti v e p olic e p atr o llin g i s th e m ost e ffe cti v e r e so urc e w e h av e.
Turn in g to o th er m eth o ds, w e s h o uld s u p ple m ent p olic e p atr o ls w ith c o ord in ate d a cti o n
els e w here i n th e s ta te . F or i n sta nce, th e c o urts s h o uld b e p re p are d to i s su e d ete rre nt s e nte nces a nd
pris o ns s h o uld b e r u n s tr ic tl y . T his w ould h elp to d ete r p eo ple f r o m c o m mitti n g c rim es i n th e f ir s t
pla ce. S eco nd ly , w e s h o uld i n cre ase th e r e so urc es a v aila b le to th e p olic e a w ay f r o m th e s tr e ets a s
well, f o r i n sta nce i n d ete cti v e a nd f o re nsic d ep artm ents , h o pefu lly e nsu rin g th at d ete cti o n r a te s a re
hig h w hen c rim es d o o ccur. M ore o ver, i n d iv id uals a nd b usin esse s s h o uld s te p u p th eir o w n s e curity
arra ngem ents to c o m ple m ent th e p olic e p re se nce. F or e xam ple , i m pro ved l o cks a nd l ig hti n g a re
sim ple m easu re s w hic h c an r e d uce th eft a nd b urg la ry .
All i n a ll, I f e el th at v is ib le p olic e p atr o ls h av e b een p ro ved to b e th e m ost e ffe cti v e w ay to
re d uce c o m mon c rim es. T heir e ffe cti v eness c an b e m axim iz e d b y s u p porti n g a cti o n f r o m e ls e w here i n
th e p olic e a nd j u sti c e s y ste m , a nd b y p riv ate c iti z e ns d oin g th eir p art a s w ell.

(2 85 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This w ould b e a B and 9 e ssa y. T he w rite r i n tr o duces th e to pic i n a n i m pers o nal w ay, th en
giv es h is e v alu ati o n w ith r e fe re nce to c re d ib le e v id ence a nd e xam ple s w hic h s u p port h is a sse ssm ent.
The w rite r th en d esc rib es s e v era l o th er m easu re s a nd s u m mariz e s b rie fly . T he E nglis h i s a cad em ic
and f a ir ly f o rm al, b ut th e s e nte nces a re c le ar a nd th e v ocab ula ry i s n o t o ver s p ecia liz e d . T here a re
cle ar p ara gra p hs f o r e ach s e cti o n, a nd g o od u se o f l in kin g w ord s to m ove b etw een p oin ts .

Exam ple T ask 1 3

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is q uestio n.
Man y c o u ntr ie s t o day a re e x perie n cin g h ig h l e ve ls o f m ig ra tio n f r o m r u ra l a re a s t o
citie s. W hat a re t h e c a u se s o f t h is t r e n d, a n d w hat e ffe cts d oes i t h ave o n t h e e x is tin g c ity
dw elle rs?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd p ro vid e id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
experie nce . Y ou s h ould w rit e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk :

This i s a n I D EA S > C A USE /E FFE C T ty p e e ssa y. I t a sk s y o u to th in k o f s o m e c ause s o f th e
situ ati o n, a nd a ls o s o m e e ffe cts . I t d oes n o t a sk f o r y o ur o pin io n a b out w heth er s o m eth in g i s g o od o r
bad . Y ou s h o uld i n tr o duce th e to pic , th en d esc rib e tw o o r th re e c ause s, th en tw o o r th re e e ffe cts .
There s h o uld b e a s h o rt s u m mary a t th e e nd .

Model E ssa y 1 3

Mig ra ti o n f r o m th e c o untr y sid e to c iti e s i s c erta in ly a to pic al i s su e, a s s o m any n ati o ns a re

se ein g th is p atte rn to day. T here a re th re e m ain c ause s, a nd tw o k ey i m pacts , w hic h I w ill o utl in e n o w .
The m ain c ause i s p ro bab ly th e l a ck o f e m plo ym ent a v aila b le to r u ra l p eo ple . R ura l
in d ustr ie s, r a ngin g f r o m a gric ultu re to f o od p ro ducti o n a nd a nim al b re ed in g, h av e a ll b een
ra ti o naliz e d a nd m ad e f a r m ore e ffic ie nt i n r e cent y ears , m eanin g th at f e w er p eo ple a re n eed ed to
sta ff th em . F urth erm ore , th e g ro w th o f e m plo ym ent o pportu niti e s i n th e c iti e s m eans th at p eo ple ,
esp ecia lly y o ungste rs , a re te m pte d to m ove th ere b y h ig her w ages a nd th e p ro sp ect o f r e lia b le w ork .
Fin ally , m any c o untr ie s s ti ll h av e a w eaker i n fr a str u ctu re i n r u ra l a re as, e sp ecia lly i n te rm s o f
tr a nsp ort a nd e co no m ic a cti v ity . F or e xam ple , i f a c o untr y d w elle r i s u nab le to f in d p ub lic tr a nsp ort
to g et to w ork l o cally , th at p ers o n w ill i n ev ita b ly c o nsid er m ovin g to a c ity w here th e i n fr a str u ctu re i s
fa r b ette r e sta b lis h ed .
Regard in g th e e ffe cts f e lt b y th e u rb an r e sid ents , p erh ap s th e m ain i m pact i s o n
acco m modati o n. A n i n cre ase d u rb an p opula ti o n d riv es u p th e c o st o f b uyin g o r r e nti n g a h o m e,
le ad in g to p ossib le h ard sh ip f o r p eo ple w ho h ad a ssu m ed th at p ric es w ould r e m ain s ta b le . W e c an
se e th is c le arly i n m ajo r c o nurb ati o ns s u ch a s L ond on, S ao P ao lo o r D elh i, w here p ro perty p ric es a re
extr e m ely h ig h a nd c o nti n ue to r is e . T he o th er m ain e ffe ct o n th e e xis ti n g c ity p opula ti o n i s th e v astl y
in cre ase d c o m peti ti o n f o r j o b o pportu niti e s, e sp ecia lly a t a l e ss s k ille d l e v el. F or i n sta nce, d riv ers ,
sh o p w ork ers a nd h o sp ita lity s ta ff f in d th em se lv es c o m peti n g f o r w ork w ith n ew a rriv als w ho a re
ofte n p re p are d to w ork f o r l e ss. T his c an l e ad to a r e d ucti o n i n w ages a nd c o nse q uent d eclin e i n
sta nd ard o f l iv in g, e sp ecia lly w hen c o m bin ed w ith th e i n cre ase d c o st o f h o usin g.
To s u m u p , th e c ause s o f th is tr e nd a re p rim arily to d o w ith e m plo ym ent, a nd th e e ffe cts a re
fe lt i n te rm s o f w ages a nd a cco m modati o n.

(3 12 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This i s a B and 9 e ssa y. T he w rite r i n tr o duces th e to pic , a nd d esc rib es th re e c ause s u sin g
cle ar, a cad em ic l a nguage ( e .g .
ra tio naliz e d , e m plo ym en t o pportu nitie s, i n fr a str u ctu re .)
The
exam ple s g iv en a re c le ar a nd r e le v ant, a nd d o n o t r e ly o n s p ecia liz e d k no w le d ge. T he w rite r u se s a
varie ty o f s tr u ctu re s a nd m ark s e ach p oin t w ith l in kin g w ord s ( e .g .
fu rth erm ore , f in ally , r e g ard in g, t o
su m u p
.) T he w ord c o unt i s th e m axim um th at a n e xam in er w ould b e p re p are d to r e ad .

Exam ple T ask 1 4

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is q uestio n.
In m an y c o u ntr ie s, f in an cia l c rim e i n vo lv in g i d en tity t h eft i s i n cre a sin g. W hat a re t h e
ca u se s o f t h is t r e n d, a n d w hat e ffe ct d oes i d en tity t h eft h ave o n t h e v ic tim s i n vo lv e d ?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd p ro vid e id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
experie nce . Y ou s h ould w rit e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

This i s a no th er I D EA S> C A USE /E FFE C T ty p e e ssa y. Y ou s h o uld tr y to u se e xam ple s a nd
ev id ence th at y o u k no w a b out f r o m th e m ed ia , p re ss o r I n te rn et, b ut d o n o t g iv e p ers o nal s to rie s a b out
yo urs e lf o r p eo ple y o u k no w .

Model E ssa y 1 4

There i s n o d oub t th at i d enti ty f r a ud i s a g re at c o ncern , e sp ecia lly i n w este rn c o untr ie s w here
peo ple a re m ost a t r is k . I th in k th ere a re tw o m ain c ause s, a nd a n um ber o f d am agin g e ffe cts .
The m ajo r c ause i s p ro bab ly th e a lm ost u niv ers a l u se o f d ig ita l te chno lo gy to s to re f in ancia l
data a nd u nd erta ke f in ancia l tr a nsa cti o ns. I t i s s u rp ris in gly e asy f o r c rim in als to o bta in p ers o nal
in fo rm ati o n a b out a p ossib le v ic ti m , a nd th en to u se th is i n fo rm ati o n to i m pers o nate th e ta rg et.
Because b ank a cco unts a nd l o ans c an b e a p plie d f o r d ig ita lly , w ith o ut th e n eed f o r f a ce-to -fa ce
co nta ct, th e c rim in als a re a b le to a p ply f o r f in ancia l p ro ducts r e m ote ly , o fte n b efo re th e v ic ti m i s e v en
aw are o f th e a tta ck. T he s e co nd k ey c ause i s , I b elie v e, th e i n cre asin g p ro bab ility o f ‘ tr a d iti o nal’
crim es ( s u ch a s a rm ed r o bbery , m uggin g o r b urg la ry ) b ein g d ete cte d . W hen c rim in als s e e th e
wid esp re ad u se o f C CTV, D NA p ro filin g a nd f in gerp rin ti n g, th ey a re l e ss i n clin ed to i n d ulg e i n s u ch
old -fa sh io ned c rim es. R ath er, th ey p re fe r th e l o w er r is k a nd m ore p ro fita b le u se o f d ata -b ase d
crim es.
The e ffe cts o n th e u nfo rtu nate v ic ti m s c an b e q uite d ev asta ti n g. F ir s tl y , th ere i s th e l o ss o f
money f r o m b ank a cco unts o r b y b ein g c o nnecte d to a f r a ud ule nt l o an. I n s o m e c ase s, th is c an ta ke
years f o r th e v ic ti m to p ay b ack o r r e so lv e w ith th e b anks a nd th e a uth o riti e s. S eco nd ly , th ere i s th e
dam age to th eir c re d it r a ti n g, w hic h m eans th ey m ay f in d i t i m possib le to o bta in l e giti m ate c re d it i n
fu tu re . I n e xtr e m e c ase s, p eo ple ’s e m plo ym ent p ro sp ects c an e v en b e d am aged a s w ell, a s th ey f in d
th em se lv es p ro file d a s a f in ancia l r is k .
Overa ll, th e p re se nce o f te chno lo gy a nd th e d eclin e o f ‘ tr a d iti o nal’ c rim es a re th e k ey c ause s
behin d th is tr e nd . T he e ffe cts o n th e v ic ti m s i n v olv e l o ng-te rm f in ancia l h ard sh ip i n m any i n sta nces.

(2 93 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

We w ould g iv e th is e ssa y a B and 9 g ra d e. T he w rite r p ro vid es th re e c ause s o f th e s itu ati o n
and d esc rib es th re e e ffe cts , w hic h i s a s u ita b le n um ber o f i d eas i n th is ty p e o f e ssa y. T he e ssa y i s
cle arly a nd l o gic ally o rg aniz e d i n to p ara gra p hs, a nd l in kin g p hra se s a re e ffe cti v e (
E.g . ‘ F ir stly ,
se co ndly , o vera ll.’
) T he w rite r u se s v ocab ula ry w hic h s h o w s a g enera l u nd ers ta nd in g o f th e to pic
( E.g . ‘ F in ancia l t r a nsa ctio ns, f r a udule n t l o an’
) a nd th e e xam ple s g iv en a re n o t e xcessiv ely r e gio nal
or d eta ile d . T he r e ad er f e els th at th e w rite r c an g enera te a nd p re se nt i d eas c le arly a nd l o gic ally .

Exam ple T ask 1 5

You s h ould s p end a bout 4 0 m in ute s o n t h is t a sk .
Man y p eo ple t o day f in d i t d if fic u lt t o b ala n ce t h e d em an ds o f t h eir w ork a n d p erso n al
lif e . W hat a re t h e c a u se s o f t h is s itu atio n , a n d w hat c a n i n div id u als a n d e m plo ye rs d o t o r e d u ce
th e p ro ble m ?
You s h ould g iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a nsw er, a nd in clu de id eas a nd e xam ple s f r o m y our o w n
know le dge a nd e xperie nce .
Writ e a t le ast 2 50 w ord s.

Exp la nati o n o f th e ta sk

Occasio nally , a n I D EA S ta sk m ay b e a m ix o f P R O BLE M /S O LU TIO N a nd C A USE /E FFE C T
ty p es. I n th is e xam ple , y o u a re a sk ed to th in k o f s o m e i d eas a b out th e c ause s o f a s itu ati o n, a nd th en
pro pose s o lu ti o ns. Y ou s h o uld f o llo w th e s a m e s tr u ctu re a s f o r o th er I D EA S ta sk s, a nd g iv e tw o o r
th re e c ause s, th en tw o o r th re e i d eas a b out s o lu ti o ns ( w ays to ‘
re d uce t h e p ro ble m ’
) a nd th en
su m maris e .
Note th at th e ta sk r e q uir e s y o u to ta lk a b out s o lu ti o ns f r o m i n d iv id uals a nd a ls o f r o m
em plo yers . Y ou s h o uld c heck th e ta sk c are fu lly to m ake s u re y o u h av e u nd ers to od a ny ‘ e xtr a ’
re q uir e m ents s u ch a s th is . T hey a re q uite c o m mon i n I D EA S ty p e ta sk s.

Model E ssa y 1 5

Fin d in g a c o m pro m is e b etw een o ne’s j o b a nd o ne’s p riv ate l ife i s p ro bab ly h ard er th an e v er
th ese d ays, e sp ecia lly i f o ne h as a f a m ily . T here a re s e v era l r e aso ns f o r th is , b ut a ls o a n um ber o f
measu re s w e c an ta ke.
Possib ly th e m ajo r f a cto r i s th e i n cre ase d w ork lo ad th at m any p eo ple h av e to d eal w ith . T he
pre d om in ance o f th e s e rv ic e s e cto r m eans th at m ost p eo ple w ork i n o ffic e-re la te d j o bs, a nd th ey f in d
th at e m plo yers e xp ect th em to s ta y l o nger o r b e a v aila b le o uts id e tr a d iti o nal o ffic e h o urs . O n to p o f
th is , th e r is e o f c o m munic ati o n to ols – r a ngin g f r o m s m art p ho nes to l a p to ps a nd te le co nfe re ncin g
eq uip m ent – h as a ccele ra te d th e tr e nd , b ecause p eo ple a re a lw ays c o nta cta b le . F urth erm ore , th e
eco no m ic r e cessio n h as m ad e th e l a b our m ark et i n cre asin gly c o m peti ti v e, a nd s o w ork ers a re u nd er
pre ssu re to c o opera te i n th is p ro cess, f e arin g l o ss o f p ro m oti o n o r e v en r e d und ancy i f th ey r e sis t.
How ev er, th ere a re v ario us s te p s th at c an b e ta ken to l e sse n th e p ro ble m . F ir s tl y , i n d iv id uals
sh o uld c la rify w ith th eir e m plo yer th e ti m es w hen th ey e xp ect to b e f r e e o f w ork a nd o ut o f c o nta ct,
th us e nsu rin g p riv ate ti m e. A no th er p ositi v e d ev elo pm ent w ould b e f o r e m plo yers to a llo w m ore
fle xib le w ork in g h o urs , s o th at s ta ff c an ta ke ti m e o ff f o r i m porta nt f a m ily e v ents d urin g th e w ork in g
day. L astl y , e m plo yers c o uld o ffe r a d vic e a nd c o achin g to s ta ff i n a re as s u ch a s ti m e m anagem ent,
str e ss c o ntr o l a nd r e la xati o n te chniq ues. T his w ould h elp to r e d uce th e a nxie ty th at s te m s f r o m h eav y
work lo ad s a nd l o ng h o urs .
In s u m mary , w e c an s a y th at te chno lo gy a nd e co no m ic s a re c re ati n g th is s itu ati o n, b ut a ls o th at
em plo yees a nd c o m panie s to geth er c an r e d uce th e i m pact.

(2 68 w ord s)

Exam in er’s c o m ments

This e ssa y r e aches th e c rite ria f o r b and 9 . T he ta sk i s a nsw ere d f u lly , w ith c ause s a nd
so lu ti o ns b ein g d esc rib ed , a nd th e w rite r d is c usse s s o lu ti o ns r e gard in g b oth i n d iv id uals a nd
em plo yers . T here a re th re e i d eas i n e ach s e cti o n, s o th e e ssa y f e els c o m ple te b ut n o t to o d eta ile d . T he
in tr o ducti o n g uid es th e r e ad er i n w hat to e xp ect, a nd th e c o nclu sio n h as a b rie f b ut e ffe cti v e s u m mary .
The l a nguage u se d i s a v ery h ig h q uality a cad em ic s ty le ( E .g .
Possib ly t h e m ajo r f a cto r, v a rio us
ste p s, h as a ccele ra te d t h e t r e n d.)
The to ne i s i m pers o nal a nd u nem oti o nal, w hile a ls o b ein g
pers u asiv e.

Sum mary o f t h e m od el e ssa ys

This c o m ple te s th e 1 5 m odel e ssa ys i n th is b ook. P le ase g o b ack a nd r e ad th em a gain w hen
yo u h av e ti m e, p ayin g s p ecia l a tte nti o n to th e E xam in er’s C om ments w hic h s h o w h o w th e e xam in ers
will r e act to th e e ssa y y o u w rite . R em em ber th at th e e xam in ers c an o nly g iv e y o u a h ig h m ark i f y o u
sh o w th e f o llo w in g i n y o ur e ssa y:

You h av e
analy se d a nd u ndersto od t h e t a sk
i ts e lf

You m ake i t c le ar
what t y pe o f e ssa y
y o u a re g o in g to w rite

You
org anis e
th e e ssa y i n to l o gic al
para gra phs

You
avoid
p ers o nal
em otio ns
a nd p ers o nal
sto rie s

Your
Englis h is m odern a nd a ca dem ic
, b ut n o t to o te chnic al o r s p ecia lis e d

You u se
lin k in g p hra se s
to c o nnect th e s ta ges o f th e e ssa y

When y o u p ra cti s e w riti n g e ssa ys, a sk y o urs e lf i f y o u a re d oin g th ese th in gs a ll th e ti m e. B y
doin g th is , y o u c an b e s u re o f i n cre asin g y o ur c hances o f a h ig h g ra d e.

Task s f o r y o u t o p ra ctic e

Here a re s o m e a re f u rth er e xam ple s o f I E LT S A cad em ic T ask 2 q uesti o ns. T ry to a naly ze e ach
one, d ecid e w hic h ty p e o f e ssa y i t i s , a nd th en p ra cti c e w riti n g a n e ssa y i n 4 0 m in ute s. T here i s a k ey
on th e n ext p age o f th is b ook w hic h e xp la in s w hic h ty p e e ach e ssa y i s .

Pra cti c e T ask 1

Som e p eo ple b elie ve t h at a p erso n’s i n te llig en ce i s i n herite d f r o m t h e p are n ts , w hile o th ers
belie ve t h at t h eir e n vir o nm en t i s t h e m ain f a cto r. D is c u ss t h ese v ie w s. W hic h f a cto r d o y o u t h in k i s
mostly r e sp onsib le f o r i n te llig en ce?

Pra cti c e T ask 2

Pla yin g a m usic a l i n str u m en t i s o ne o f t h e m ost i m porta nt a ch ie vem en ts f o r a ny c h ild .
To w hat e xte n t d o y o u a gre e w ith t h is s ta te m en t?

Pra cti c e T ask 3

Analy sts t e ll u s t h at m any p eo ple t o day f e el s tr e sse d a nd t h in k t h ey h ave i n su ffic ie n t
co ntr o l o ver t h eir l iv es. W hat p ro ble m s d o s u ch f e elin gs c a use f o r p eo ple ? W hat r e m ed ie s c o uld
yo u s u ggest?

Pra cti c e ta sk 4

It i s g en era lly a gre ed t h at f e w er p eo ple t o day w rite l e tte rs ( th ro ugh t h e m ail o r p ost)
co m pare d w ith t h e t w en tie th c en tu ry. W hat f a cto rs h ave l e d t o t h is s itu atio n? W hat w ill t h e i m pact
be o n t h e l iv es o f f u tu re g en era tio ns?


Pra cti c e T ask 5

Govern m en ts i n m any c o untr ie s a re u rg en tly s e ekin g w ays t o r e d uce u nem plo ym en t i n r u ra l
are a s. W hat a re t h e m ost e ffe ctiv e w ays t o d o t h is ? W hic h m ea su re d o y o u t h in k w ould b e t h e
sin gle m ost e ffe ctiv e s te p t h at g overn m en ts c o uld t a ke?

Key t o p ra ctic e t a sk s

Pra cti c e T ask 1 K ey: T his i s a n O PIN IO N > D IS C USSIO N ty p e ta sk .

Pra cti c e T ask 2 K ey: T his i s a n O PIN IO N > P E R SO NAL V IE W PO IN T ty p e ta sk .

Pra cti c e T ask 3 K ey: T his i s a n I D EA S > P R O BLE M /S O LU TIO N ty p e ta sk .

Pra cti c e ta sk 4 K ey: T his i s a n I D EA S > C A USE /E FFE C T ty p e ta sk .

Pra cti c e T ask 5 K ey: T his i s a n I D EA S > E VA LU ATE ty p e ta sk .

The 1 0 m ost c o m mon m is ta kes in I E LT S a ca d em ic w rit in g

Usin g c o ntr a ctio ns
( fo r e xam ple
‘I d on’t th in k’
o r ‘
We c a n’t s a y’
)
in ste ad o f t h e fu ll fo rm
( ‘
I d o n ot th in k’
o r ‘
we c a nnot
sa y.’
) N ever u se c ontr a ctio ns in a cadem ic w rit in g.

Writ in g t o o fe w w ord s.
I f y ou w rit e m uch le ss th an th e r e quir e d w ord c ount, th e e xam in er h as to r e duce y our s c ore , e ven if y our
essa y is g ood q ualit y . Y ou s h ould c ount th e n um ber o f w ord s in y our e ssa y a fte r e ach p ara gra ph a nd k eep a c ontin uous to ta l; th is
way, y ou c an b e s u re o f r e achin g a t le ast 2 50 w ord s in 4 0 m in ute s.

Writ in g t o o m an y w ord s.
T he e xam in er is p aid to m ark o n a n ‘ e ssa y p er h our b asis ,’ a nd s o w ill n ot r e ad th e e nd o f a n e ssa y if it
exceeds th e m in im um w ord c ount b y m ore th an a bout 5 0 w ord s. T his m eans h e o r s h e w ill n ot s e e th e e nd o f y our a rg um ent, a nd
your s c ore w ill r e duce c onsid era bly . R em em ber: 2 50 w ord s m in im um , a nd a bout 3 00 w ord s m axim um in A cadem ic ta sk 2 w rit in g.

Hav in g h an dw rit in g t h at is d iffic u lt t o r e ad .
I E LT S is s till a h andw rit te n e xam , a nd th e e xam in ers w ill n ot s p end tim e tr y in g to
unders ta nd y our w rit in g. Y ou m ust m ake s u re th at y our h andw rit in g c an b e r e ad q uic kly . Y ou s h ould f o cus o n w rit in g c le arly w hen
you d o y our p ra ctic e e ssa ys. A sk f rie nds o r o th er s tu dents to g iv e y ou a n h onest o pin io n a bout w heth er y our w rit in g is e asy to
re ad.

Usin g in fo rm al w ord s
( fo r e xam ple ‘ a
nic e
id ea’ o r ‘ a
silly
th in g to d o’)
in ste ad o f a cad em ic w ord s
( fo r e xam ple ‘ a
positiv e
id ea’ o r ‘ a
re g re tta ble
th in g to d o.’ ) R em em ber th at a cadem ic v ocabula ry is d if fe re nt f ro m th e la nguage y ou w ould u se in E nglis h
when ta lk in g to f rie nds.

Giv in g p ers o nal o pin io n in a n I D EA S t y p e t a sk .
Check if th e ta sk is a sk in g f o r y our o pin io n o r n ot. T he f ir s t q uestio n y ou
sh ould a sk y ours e lf is ‘
Is th is a n O PIN IO N o r a n I D EAS ta sk ?


Tellin g s to rie s a b out y o ur p ers o nal h is to ry, fr ie nds o r fa m ily .
T he ta sk te lls y ou to u se ‘
exa m ple s f ro m y o ur o w n
exp erie n ce
,’ b ut th is d oes
not
m ean d esc rib in g s to rie s f ro m y our lif e o r p eople y ou k now . I t m eans d esc rib in g e xam ple s o f th in gs
in th e w orld th at y ou k now a bout, h ave s tu die d o r h ave le arn ed a bout in th e m edia .

Giv in g e vid ence w hic h is t o o d eta ile d o r s p ecific t o a s u bje ct.
You m ay b e a n e xpert in a p artic ula r s o cia l o r s c ie ntif ic f ie ld ,
but th e e xam in er p ro bably h as a d if fe re nt s p ecia lt y . Y ou n eed to m ake y our id eas a nd e xam ple s a ccessib le to a g enera l r e ader. F or
exam ple , if th e T ask to pic is a bout m oney a nd y ou a re a n a ccounta nt, d o n ot u se s p ecia liz e d a ccountin g te rm s.

Bein g e m otio nal o r t o o d ra m atic w hen g iv in g y o ur o pin io n in a n O PIN IO N t a sk .
You m ay f e el s tr o ngly a bout is su es s u ch
as a nim als o r c rim e, b ut a cadem ic w rit in g m ust b e u nem otio nal. S o a void p hra se s s u ch a s ‘
a d is g ustin g id ea ’
o r ‘
I d ete st th is
co ncep t
.’ I t is m uch b ette r to s a y ‘
an u naccep ta ble id ea ’
o r ‘
I d is a ppro ve o f th is c o ncep t
,’ w hic h is m ore im pers o nal a nd
academ ic ; s im ila r to th e ty pe o f w rit in g th at p eople u se in b usin ess r e ports o r u niv ers it y e ssa ys.

Not fo llo w in g t h e b asic s tr u ctu re s p re se nte d in t h is b ook .
The e xam in ers w ant to s e e a c le ar, w ell- s tr u ctu re d e ssa y th at is
easy to r e ad. T hey a re a ccusto m ed to s e ein g th e s tr u ctu re s w e h ave p re se nte d in th is b ook, a nd th ey w ill f e el m ore p osit iv e a bout
your e ssa y if th ey c an r e cogniz e th ese s tr u ctu re s in w hat y ou w rit e . R em em ber: th e
to pic
u nder d is c ussio n w ill b e d if fe re nt e very
tim e, b ut th e b asic c oncept b ehin d th e ta sk a nd th e e ssa y w ill b e th e s a m e. G iv e th e e xam in ers w hat th ey w ant, a nd th ey w ill
re w ard y ou w it h a h ig h s c ore , e ven if th ere a re s o m e g ra m matic al m is ta kes in y our E nglis h .

Help f r o m t h e e xp erts

Would y o u l ik e to r e ceiv e n ew s o f o ur o th er I E LT S p ub lic ati o ns, i n clu d in g n ew b ooks, s e rv ic es a nd
sp ecia l o ffe rs ? C onta ct u s a t
cam brid geie lts @ outl o ok.c o m
a nd w e w ill b e p le ase d to a d d y o u to o ur
re gula r m ailin g l is t. W e w ill n o t c o m munic ate y o ur e m ail a d dre ss to a nyo ne e ls e .
We h o pe y o u f o und th is b ook u se fu l. P le ase a ls o s e e o ur o th er I E LT S p re p ara ti o n b ooks a v aila b le o n
Amazo n, b ase d o n o ur y ears o f e xp erie nce i n I E LT S s u ccess:
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