IELTS_Band_9_Grammar_Secrets

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IE LT S B A N D 9
GRAM MAR S E C RET S

Im pro ve y o ur A cad em ic E nglis h
To G et
Ban d 9 in I E LT S

Publi s h ed b y C am brid ge I E LT S C onsu lt a n ts
Cam brid ge, U nite d K in gd om

Copyrig h t © C am brid ge IE LT S C onsu lt a n ts a n d Je ssic a A lp ern e, P ete r S w ire s 2 014.
All rig h ts a re re se rv ed , in clu din g re sa le rig h ts.
This e -b ook is so ld su bje ct to th e c o nditio n th at it w ill n ot b e c o pie d ,
dupli c ate d , sto re d o r d istrib ute d fo r a n y p urp ose o r in a n y fo rm .
No p art o f th is b ook m ay b e re p ro duced o r tra n sm itte d in a n y fo rm o r b y a n y m ean s,
ele ctro nic o r m ech an ic al, o r b y a n y in fo rm atio n sto ra ge a n d re trie val sy ste m w ith out w ritte n p erm issio n
fro m th e a u th ors.
2

On A m azo n f ro m t h e s a m e p ublis h er:


Pack ed w it h a d vic e, e x am ple s a n d B an d 9 m odels f o r y o u t o f o llo w !
3

Tab le o f C onte n ts
In tro ductio n f ro m t h e a u th ors
Fre q uen tly A sk ed Q uestio ns a b out A cad em ic E nglis h
Module 1 : ( 1 .1 ) S tru ctu re ( 1 .2 ) C onju nctio ns ( 1 .3 ) I m perso nal s ty le
Module 2 : ( 2 .1 ) T he in tro ductio n ( 2 .2 ) U sin g c o ndit io nals ( 2 .3 ) T en ta tiv e p hra se s
Module 3 : ( 3 .1 ) C oncessio n ( 3 .2 ) L in kin g t h e s e n te n ces ( 3 .3 ) A cad em ic v o cab
Module 4 : ( 4 .1 ) P ara g ra p h s tru ctu re ( 4 .2 ) U sin g e v id en ce ( 4 .3 ) R ep ortin g v ie w s
Module 5 : ( 5 .1 ) P assiv es ( 5 .2 ) C om ple x a d je ctiv es ( 5 .3 ) C au se a n d e ffe ct
Module 6 : ( 6 .1 ) A vo id in g e m otio n ( 6 .2 ) E valu atin g e v id en ce ( 6 .3 ) N oun p erso ns
Module 7 : ( 7 .1 ) R eje ctin g a rg u m en ts ( 7 .2 )T opic -sp ecif ic v o cab ula ry ( 7 .3 ) C onclu sio ns
Module 8 : ( 8 .1 ) P ro ble m s ( 8 .2 ) S olu tio ns ( 8 .3 ) T im e & p ro bab ilit y q ualif ie rs
Module 9 : ( 9 .1 ) P re se n tin g d is a d van ta g es ( 9 .2 ) P re se n tin g a lt e rn ativ es ( 9 .3 ) C ollo catio ns
Module 1 0: ( 1 0.1 ) C om ple x s e n te n ces ( 1 0.2 ) A cad em ic p hra se s ( 1 0.3 ) B ala n ced c o nclu sio ns
The 1 0 m ost c o m mon m is ta k es in I E LT S a cad em ic w rit in g
Help f ro m t h e e x p erts

4

In tr o ductio n f r o m t h e a u th ors

It is s u rp ris in g h ow m an y p eo ple t a k e t h e I E LT S a cad em ic e x am w it h out s tu dyin g h ow t o w rit e
gra m matic ally in A cad em ic E nglis h . T his is r is k y, b ecau se t h e e x am in ers e x p ect y o u t o u se t h e p rin cip le s o f t h is
ty p e o f E nglis h . B y p ra ctis in g t h e g ra m mar o f A cad em ic E nglis h , y o u w ill h av e a m uch h ig h er c h an ce o f
ach ie v in g t h e b an d y o u n eed , e v en if y o ur E nglis h is n ot p erfe ct.

In t h is b ook, w e h av e 1 0 M odule s w hic h e x p la in t h e k ey c o ncep ts o f A cad em ic E nglis h . E ach m odule
has a n I E LT S T ask 2 q uestio n, id en tic al t o t h e o nes y o u w ill m eet in t h e e x am . E ach m odule h as a m odel
essa y w rit te n t o B an d 9 s ta n dard , a n d t h en t h re e k ey g ra m mar p oin ts t o e x p la in w hy t h e e ssa y d em onstra te s a
go od u se o f A cad em ic E nglis h . F or e x am ple , M odule 1 t e ach es y o u a b out: ( 1 .1 ) s tru ctu re ( 1 .2 ) c o nju nctio ns
an d ( 1 .3 ) im perso nal s ty le .

Each M odule t h en h as a p ra ctic e T ask f o r y o u t o t ry u sin g t h e m eth ods y o u le arn . T ry t o d o t h ese
Task s a s y o u f in is h e ach M odule , w rit in g a n e ssa y o f 2 50 w ord s in 4 0 m in ute s. B ecau se I E LT S is s till a p ap er-
base d e x am , y o u s h ould p ra ctic e w rit in g t h ese e ssa y s b y h an d o n p ap er, r a th er t h an o n a c o m pute r.

By u sin g a ll o f t h e k ey p oin ts f ro m t h ese M odule s, y o u w ill m ak e a h uge d if fe re n ce t o t h e I E LT S
ex am in er’s im pre ssio n o f y o ur E nglis h g ra m mar, y o ur w rit in g, a n d t h us y o ur f in al r e su lt .

Rem em ber – y o u s h ould a ls o u se t h ese m eth ods w hen y o u a re w rit in g y o ur e ssa y s a n d r e p orts a t
co lle g e, U niv ersit y o r a t w ork in a n y E nglis h -sp eak in g s it u atio n.

If y o u n eed a d ic tio nary w hile r e ad in g t h is b ook, w e r e co m men d t h e f re e
Cam brid ge D ic tio n arie s
Onli n e
f ro m C am brid ge U niv ersit y P re ss.

Don’t ju st t ru st t o lu ck in y o ur I E LT S e x am – t h e k ey is e x p ert a d vic e!

Jessic a A lp ern e & P ete r S w ir e s
Cam brid ge I E LT S C onsu lt a n ts
cam brid geie lt s@ outlo ok.c o m


5

Fre q uen tly A sk ed Q uestio ns a b out A cad em ic E nglis h

What is A cad em ic E nglis h a n d w hy is it im porta n t?
This is t h e t y p e o f E nglis h u se d in f o rm al w rit in g f o r e x am s a n d e ssa y s e v ery w here in t h e E nglis h -
sp eak in g w orld .

How is it d if fe re n t f r o m n orm al, d ay -to -d ay E nglis h ?
The v o cab ula ry t e n ds t o b e m ore f o rm al, a n d t h e g ra m matic al s tru ctu re s a re m ore a d van ced . T here a re
als o h ig h e x p ecta tio ns o f h ow y o u s h ould p re se n t a n d e x p la in y o ur id eas, a n d t h e w ay t h at p ara g ra p hs a n d
se n te n ces a re o rg an is e d . T his b ook e x p la in s t h ese p rin cip le s a n d s h ow s y o u a w id e r a n ge o f e x am ple s.

What h ap pen s if I d on’t u se A cad em ic E nglis h in m y I E LT S A cad em ic W rit in g
te st?
Unfo rtu nate ly , it w ill b e im possib le t o a ch ie v e o ver a B an d 6 u nle ss y o u s h ow a r e aso nab le c o m man d
of A cad em ic E nglis h . R em em ber, y o ur e ssa y d oes n ot h av e t o b e p erfe ct, b ut y o u m ust s h ow t h e e x am in er t h at
yo u u ndersta n d t h e p rin cip le s o f A cad em ic E nglis h a n d y o u h av e t rie d t o u se t h em .

Do I h av e t o u se A cad em ic E nglis h in t h e I E LT S S peak in g t e st t o o?
This q uestio n s o m etim es c au se s c o nfu sio n. I n t h e S peak in g t e st, y o u s h ould u se t h e m ost a d van ced
vo cab ula ry y o u c an , a n d g iv e s tru ctu re d a n sw ers (
se e o ur ‘B an d 9 S peak in g’ b ook f o r f u ll in fo rm atio n a b out
th is .
) H ow ev er, y o u d o n ot n eed t o ‘s p eak lik e a n e ssa y ’ o r u se f o rm al w ord s s u ch a s ‘n ev erth ele ss’ o r
‘m ore o ver.’

6

Module 1 : ( 1 .1 ) S tr u ctu re ( 1 .2 ) C onju nctio ns ( 1 .3 ) I m perso nal s ty le

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

Som e p eo p le b eli e v e th at a ll c h ild ren sh ou ld h ave a p et o r a n a n im al to lo ok a fte r. O th er
peo p le d isa gree, h ow ev er, sa yin g th at th is d ep en ds o n a c h ild ’s c ir cu m sta n ces. C on sid er th ese o p posin g
vie w s, a n d g iv e y ou r o w n o p in io n .

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n O pin io n>D is c u ssio n t y p e T ask . Y ou s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic , d is c u ss b oth s id es o f t h e
arg u m en t, a n d g iv e y o ur o pin io n in t h e c o nclu sio n.

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

It is o fte n s a id t h at c h ild re n b en efit f ro m c arin g f o r d om estic a n im als , e sp ecia lly in t o day ’s t e ch nolo gy-
fo cu sse d w orld . H ow ev er, t h e is su e is n ot e n tir e ly s tra ig h tfo rw ard , a n d a rg u m en ts c an a ls o b e m ad e a g ain st t h e
id ea. T his e ssa y w ill d is c u ss t h e d eb ate , a n d g iv e a c o nclu din g v ie w .
On t h e o ne h an d, t h ose w ho s u pport t h e o w nersh ip o f p ets c it e t h e v ario us b en efit s t h at t h e a ctiv it y
can b rin g t o a c h ild . T hese r a n ge f ro m u ndersta n din g n utrit io n, t o le arn in g a b out b io lo gy a n d d aily r o utin es.
For e x am ple , f o od s e le ctio n a n d e x erc is e a ctiv it ie s c o ntrib ute t o t h is s tra n d o f d ev elo pm en t, w hic h a d ds g re atly
to a c h ild ’s a ll- ro und e d ucatio n. A noth er a rg u m en t is t h e e m otio nal s u pport t h at c h ild re n r e ceiv e f ro m p ets,
mean in g t h at t h e c h ild f e els m ore s e cu re a n d t h us m ore c o nfid en t.
By c o ntra st, o pponen ts o f t h is v ie w p oin t o ut t h at n ot a ll c h ild re n liv e in a s it u atio n w here p et
keep in g is a d vis a b le , o r e v en p ossib le . E xam ple s c an b e s e en in le ss a fflu en t c o untrie s, w here t h e e x p en se o f
main ta in in g a p et m ay b e p ro hib it iv e. I n a d dit io n, m an y c h ild re n liv e in u nsta b le f a m ily e n vir o nm en ts, d ue t o
su ch is su es a s u nem plo ym en t o r p olit ic al t u rb ule n ce. F or t h ese f a m ilie s, p ets w ould p ro bab ly s u ffe r n eg le ct,
mean in g t h at it w ould b e u nfa ir t o k eep t h em , o r p ossib ly e v en d an gero us. F in ally , it m ust b e s a id t h at n ot a ll
yo ung p eo ple a ctu ally w an t t o k eep a p et, b ecau se t h eir in te re sts lie e ls e w here . F or t h ese y o ungste rs, a n im al
ow nersh ip s h ould n ot b e e n co ura g ed .
Overa ll, it s e em s a d vis a b le t h at t h e d ecis io n t o k eep a p et s h ould b e b ase d o n a c h ild ’s in te re st, a b ilit y
an d f a m ily c ir c u m sta n ces, r a th er t h an o n a g en era l v ie w t h at ‘a ll c h ild re n ’ s h ould h av e a n im als . I t w ould a p pear
th at t h is s e rv es t h e in te re sts o f b oth t h e c h ild re n a n d t h e p ets in vo lv ed .

(2 78 w ord s)

Module 1 .1
Stru ctu re

This e ssa y f o llo w s a c la ssic A cad em ic E nglis h s tru ctu re f o r O pin io n>D is c u ssio n T ask s, a n d t h e
ex am in ers w ill e x p ect y o u t o u se s o m eth in g s im ila r t o t h is .
The in tro ductio n p ara g ra p h g iv es s o m e b ack gro und t o t h e t o pic , a n d e m phasis e s t h at t h is is a n is su e
wit h d if fe rin g a rg u m en ts w hic h t h e e ssa y w ill c o nsid er. B ecau se t h is is a n O pin io n>D is c u ssio n t y p e e ssa y , t h e
can did ate d oes n ot g iv e a n o pin io n in t h e f ir st p ara g ra p h. R em em ber t h at in a n y T ask 2 e ssa y , t w o o r t h re e
7

se n te n ces a re s u ffic ie n t f o r t h e in tro ductio n.
The m ain b ody is d iv id ed c le arly in to t w o la rg e p ara g ra p hs, e ach o ne p re se n tin g o ne s id e o f t h e d eb ate .
Each p ara g ra p h h as t w o o r t h re e id eas t o s u pport t h e v ie w b ein g p re se n te d . T here is c o ntin uit y b etw een t h e
se co nd m ain b ody p ara g ra p h ( w hic h is a g ain st t h e u niv ersa l k eep in g o f p ets) a n d t h e c o nclu sio n ( w hic h is a ls o
ag ain st t h is .) B ecau se t h is is a n O pin io n>D is c u ssio n t y p e e ssa y , t h e c an did ate o nly g iv es h is o pin io n in t h e
fin al c o nclu sio n.
In t h e I E LT S A cad em ic t e st, t h is T ask t y p e is t h e m ost c o m mon, s o y o u s h ould p ra ctic e f o llo w in g
th is m odel s tru ctu re .

Module 1 .2
Conju nctio ns

Conju nctio ns a re lin kin g w ord s o r p hra se s w hic h c o nnect id eas a n d s e n te n ces. T his e ssa y u se s s o m e o f
th e m ost im porta n t a cad em ic c o nju nctio ns t o in fo rm t h e r e ad er t h at t h e id eas a re c h an gin g:

How ev er
On th e o n e h an d
Anoth er a rg u m en t is
By c o n tr a st
In a d ditio n
Fin ally
Overa ll

There a re a ls o c o nju nctio ns t o s h ow t h at t h e id eas a re b ein g illu stra te d w it h e x am ple s:

These r a n ge fr o m . . . to . . .
For e x am ple
Exam ple s c a n b e se en in

When w rit in g t h is t y p e o f e ssa y , t ry t o k eep t h ese w ord s a n d p hra se s in m in d, a n d u se t h em in t h e w ay
th at t h is m odel e ssa y u se s t h em .

Module 1 .3
Im perso nal s ty le

In A cad em ic E nglis h , it is p ossib le t o s a y ‘I t h in k/I b elie v e/I f e el’ e tc t o g iv e y o ur o pin io n, if t h e T ask
ask s f o r y o ur v ie w . H ow ev er, y o u w ill in cre ase y o ur s c o re if y o u s h ow t h at y o u c an u se im perso nal w ay s t o
ex p re ss a v ie w in t h e c o nclu sio n. ‘I m perso nal’ m ean s t h at y o u d on’t r e fe r t o ‘I ’ b ut y o u u se a lt e rn ativ es. T his
essa y u se s:

Overa ll, it se em s a d visa ble th at
It w ou ld a ppea r th at

The e x am in er w ill r e co gn is e t h at y o u a re g iv in g a n o pin io n in a n a cad em ic , im perso nal w ay , a n d w ill
be im pre sse d b y t h is . I n O pin io n t y p e e ssa y s, t ry t o u se o ne o f t h e f o llo w in g p hra se s a t le ast o nce, t o e x p re ss
yo ur v ie w :
8

It se em s th at
It w ou ld se em th at
It a ppea rs th at
It w ou ld a ppea r th at
It is lo gic a l to c o n clu de th at
It is se n sib le to c o n clu de th at

Module 1 p ra ctic e T ask

The f o llo w in g p ra ctic e T ask is a n oth er O pin io n>D is c u ssio n t y p e T ask , lik e t h e e x am ple w e s a w in
Module 1 . T ry t o w rit e a n e ssa y f o r it in 2 50 w ord s in a b out 4 0 m in ute s, u sin g t h ese M odule 1 le arn in g
poin ts a b out s tru ctu re , c o nju nctio ns a n d im perso nal s ty le .

Som e p eo p le fe el th at b oa rd in g sc h ools ( w here stu den ts o r p u pils li v e a t th e sc h ool d urin g th e
te rm ) a re a n e x celle n t o p tio n fo r c h ild ren , w hile o th er p eo p le d isa gree fo r a n um ber o f r ea so n s.
Con sid er b oth sid es o f th is d eb ate a n d r ea ch a c o n clu sio n .

***

9

Module 2 : ( 2 .1 ) T he in tr o ductio n ( 2 .2 ) U sin g c o ndit io nals ( 2 .3 )
Ten ta tiv e p hra se s

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

Man y p eo p le to d ay fin d th at th e c o st o f a tta in in g a U niv ersity -le v el e d uca tio n is e x tr em ely
hig h fo r th e stu den ts a n d th eir fa m ili e s. W hat a re th e c a u se s o f th is situ atio n , a n d h ow c a n
gov ern m en ts, U niv ersitie s a n d th e stu den ts th em se lv es o v erco m e th e p ro b le m ?

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n I d eas> M ix ed T ask , a sk in g f o r s o m e id eas a b out t h e c au se s o f a p ro ble m a n d a ls o p ossib le
so lu tio ns. I t d oes
not
a sk f o r y o ur o pin io n ( fo r e x am ple , if y o u t h in k t h at U niv ersit y is u se fu l o r w orth t h e
co st.) Y ou s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic , s u ggest t w o o r t h re e c au se s, t h en t w o o r t h re e s o lu tio ns, a n d t h en
su m maris e .
The T ask r e fe rs t o s o lu tio ns f ro m “
gov ern m en ts, U niv ersitie s a n d th e stu den ts th em se lv es”
an d s o
yo u s h ould t h in k o f a n id ea f o r e ach o f t h ese a re as.

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

While m an y y o ung p eo ple a sp ir e t o a tte n din g U niv ersit y , t h e e x p en se in vo lv ed c an b e p ro hib it iv e in
so m e c ase s. T he c au se s o f t h is a p pear t o b e f o cu sse d o n t h re e a re as, a n d a n um ber o f s o lu tio ns a ls o a p pear t o b e
possib le .
Perh ap s t h e m ajo r f a cto r h ere is t h e r e d uctio n in g o vern m en t s u bsid y f o r U niv ersit y c o urse s. F or
in sta n ce, in t h e U K, s u ch c o urse s w ere v ir tu ally f re e t o t h e s tu den t u ntil r e cen tly , b ut n ow c o st a ro und
£30,0 00 p er y ear. T his p atte rn a p pears t o b e g lo bal, w it h t h e r e su lt t h at s tu den ts a n d t h eir f a m ilie s n eed t o
meet t h e c o sts d ir e ctly . A noth er c au se is t h e in cre asin g c o st o f liv in g in m an y c o untrie s, m ean in g t h at t h e c o st
of d ay t o d ay lif e ( in a d dit io n t o f e es) c an b e a lm ost o verw helm in g f o r s tu den ts. A t h ir d f a cto r is t h e d if fic u lt y
in f in din g p art-tim e w ork w hile a s tu den t is s tu dyin g. S uch w ork t e n ds t o b e p oorly p aid , w hile t a k in g u p
tim e t h at s tu den ts s h ould u se f o r t h eir s tu die s.
Turn in g t o p ossib le s o lu tio ns, a n o bvio us s te p w ould b e t o r e sto re s o m e e le m en t o f s ta te f u ndin g t o
co urse s. A lt h ough p ublic b udgets a re u nder p re ssu re t h ese d ay s, if w e t o ok t h is s te p it w ould g re atly e n han ce
access t o c o urse s f o r p eo ple o n lo w er in co m es. A s e co nd r e m ed y m ig h t b e f o r t h e U niv ersit ie s t o o ffe r s h orte r
co urse s, o r m ore c o urse s w it h a n e le m en t o f p ro fe ssio nally p aid w ork e x p erie n ce in clu ded . I f s u ch c o urse s w ere
more a v aila b le , it w ould r e d uce t h e is su e o f liv in g e x p en se s t o s o m e e x te n t. F in ally , s tu den ts t h em se lv es s h ould
perh ap s b e m ore f le x ib le in t h eir a ttit u de t o e d ucatio n, a n d c o nsid er a tte n din g U niv ersit y a t a la te r s ta g e, o r
possib ly o nly w hen t h ey h av e a ccu m ula te d s u ffic ie n t f u nds t o s u pport t h em se lv es.
In s u m mary , t h e f a cto rs o f f u ndin g a n d c o st o f liv in g a p pear t o b e t h e m ain c au se s. A c o ord in ate d
re sp onse b y t h e s ta te , t h e in stit u tio ns a n d t h e in div id uals m ay w ell le sse n t h e s e v erit y o f t h e s it u atio n.

(2 98 w ord s)

Module 2 .1
The in tro ductio n
10

In a n y e ssa y , t h e f ir st s e n te n ce o f t h e in tro ductio n p ara g ra p h s h ould g iv e s o m e g en era l b ack gro und
in fo rm atio n a b out t h e t o pic , a n d if p ossib le s a y w hy t h e t o pic is im porta n t. T he s e co nd s e n te n ce s h ould m ak e
it c le ar t o t h e e x am in er t h at y o u u ndersta n d t h e t y p e o f e ssa y t h e T ask r e q uir e s. T he s im ple st w ay t o d o t h is is
to o utlin e t h e c o nte n t o f t h e m ain b ody, s o t h at t h e r e ad er k now s e x actly w hat t o e x p ect n ex t.
This e ssa y s a y s:

The c a u se s o f th is a ppea r to b e fo cu sse d o n th ree a rea s, a n d a n um ber o f so lu tio n s a ls o a ppea r
to b e p ossib le .

This e m phasis e s t o t h e r e ad er t h at t h e m ain b ody w ill d eal w it h c au se s a n d s o lu tio ns. A noth er w ay t o
do t h is , u sin g t h is T ask , w ould b e:

The o rig in s o f th is situ atio n se em to ste m fr o m th ree fa cto rs, w hile se v era l r em ed ie s a ppea r to
be o p en to u s.

Notic e t h at t h e c an did ate is u sin g im perso nal p hra se s h ere (
se em /a ppea r
a n d n ot
I th in k
) a n d a ls o
th at t h e s e n te n ce d oes n ot t a k e v o cab ula ry d ir e ctly f ro m t h e T ask q uestio n. I t is im porta n t t o p ara p hra se a s
much v o cab ula ry a s p ossib le , t o a v o id d uplic atin g f ro m t h e T ask .
Use fu l w ord s t o t a lk a b out c au se s o f a s it u atio n a re :

Orig in s
Roots
Facto rs
Underly in g fa cto rs/c a u se s
The fa cto rs ste m fr o m /d eriv e fr o m /flo w fr o m

Use fu l w ord s f o r s o lu tio ns in clu de:

Rem ed ie s
Ways to so lv e
Meth od s to a d dress/d ea l w ith
Answ ers to a p ro b le m

At t h e e n d o f y o ur in tro ductio n ( a m ax im um o f t h re e s e n te n ces) t h e e x am in er s h ould p erc eiv e t h at
yo u u ndersta n d t h e t o pic , a n d y o u h av e c o m munic ate d w hat t o e x p ect in t h e m ain b ody.

Module 2 .2
Usin g c o ndit io nals

When p re se n tin g p ossib le s o lu tio ns, it is t ra d it io nal in A cad em ic E nglis h t o u se t h e t h ir d c o ndit io nal
stru ctu re ( If + s im ple p ast + w ould + v erb .) T his e ssa y s a y s:

If w e to ok th is ste p it w ou ld g rea tly e n han ce . . .
If su ch c o u rse s w ere m ore a vaila ble , it w ou ld r ed uce . . .

This s h ow s t h at t h e w rit e r u ndersta n ds t h at s h e is d is c u ssin g a h yp oth etic al s it u atio n, a n d n ot a c ase
11

th at e x is ts a t t h e m om en t. O th er e x am ple s o f t h is a re :

If g ov ern m en ts w ere to b an sm ok in g, th is w ou ld a ffe ct . . .
If h ea lt h ca re w as c h ea per, p eo p le c o u ld a ffo rd to . . .

When p re se n tin g s o lu tio ns o r r e co m men datio ns, t ry t o u se t h is t h ir d c o ndit io nal s tru ctu re .

Module 2 .3
Ten ta tiv e la n gu ag e

‘T en ta tiv e’ m ean s t h at y o u s a y t h at s o m eth in g m ig h t b e t ru e, o r m ig h t h ap pen , r a th er t h an s a y in g t h at
so m eth in g is a lw ay s t ru e o r a lw ay s h ap pen s. T his is im porta n t in A cad em ic E nglis h b ecau se it s h ow s y o u
understa n d t h at s it u atio ns a re c o m ple x a n d t h ere t e n d t o b e e x cep tio ns r a th er t h an 1 00% c erta in ty in lif e .
There a re m an y e x am ple s o f t e n ta tiv e la n gu ag e in t h is e ssa y (
underlin ed
h ere ):

th e e x pen se in volv ed
ca n b e
p ro h ib itiv e

Perh aps
th e m ajo r fa cto r

th e c o st o f d ay to d ay li fe ( in a d ditio n to fe es)
ca n b e
a lm ost o v erw helm in g

Su ch w ork
te n ds to b e

A se co n d r em ed y
mig h t b e

stu den ts th em se lv es
sh ou ld p erh aps b e

an d
co n sid er
atte n din g U niv ersity a t a la te r sta ge

A c o ord in ate d r esp on se . . .
may w ell le sse n
th e se v erity

These e x p re ssio ns w ill a ch ie v e a m uch h ig h er s c o re t h an if y o u s a y
The e x pen se is p ro h ib itiv e/T he
majo r fa cto r is/S u ch w ork is
a n d s o o n. T his w ould b e t o o s im ple t o g ain a v ery h ig h s c o re in I E LT S.
In y o ur e ssa y s, t ry t o u se t h is t y p e o f t e n ta tiv e la n gu ag e a t le ast t w ic e, t o s h ow t h e e x am in er t h at y o u
understa n d it . F or e x am ple , in ste ad o f:

The p oli c e sh ou ld h ave g u ns, b eca u se th is p ro te cts th em

Try t o s a y :

The p oli c e sh ou ld c o n sid er h avin g g u ns, b eca u se th is te n ds to p ro te ct th em .

Pra ctic e T ask

Crim e a ppea rs to b e r isin g in m ost c o u ntr ie s in th e w orld , e sp ecia lly a m on g y ou ng p eo p le .
Id en tify th e p ossib le c a u se s o f th is tr en d, a n d p ro p ose so m e so lu tio n s y ou th in k w ou ld b e e ffe ctiv e.

12

When w rit in g t h is e ssa y , t ry t o u se t h e le arn in g f ro m t h is M odule a b out t h e in tro ductio n, u sin g
co ndit io nals a n d t e n ta tiv e la n gu ag e.

***
13

Module 3 : ( 3 .1 ) C oncessio n ( 3 .2 ) L in kin g t h e s e n te n ces ( 3 .3 ) A cad em ic
vo cab

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

It is o fte n sa id th at r etir em en t is th e h appie st tim e o f a p erso n ’s li fe . H ow fa r d o y ou a gree
with th is v ie w ?

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n O pin io n>P erso nal V ie w poin t T ask , a sk in g if y o u s u pport a g iv en p oin t o f v ie w . T he
stru ctu re is d if fe re n t f ro m a n O pin io n>D is c u ssio n T ask . Y ou s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic ,
giv e y ou r o p in io n
in th e in tr o d uctio n
, a n d t h en e x p la in y o ur v ie w . Y ou s h ould b rie fly c o nsid er t h e o pposin g v ie w ( th is is c alle d
‘m ak in g a
co n cessio n
’) a n d t h en r e sta te y o ur o pin io n in t h e c o nclu sio n.

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

In m an y c o untrie s, t h e p opula tio n is a g ein g c o nsis te n tly , a n d t h is p re se n ts t h e o ld er p eo ple t h em se lv es
wit h c h alle n ges a s w ell a s o pportu nit ie s. I t s e em s t o m e t h at r e tir e m en t is n ot in f a ct t h e m ost c o nte n te d p erio d
of lif e , a n d I w ill e x p la in w hy in t h is e ssa y .
Fir stly , r e tir e d p eo ple h av e t o c o nte n d w it h t h e m ajo r is su e o f h ealt h . N o m atte r h ow o ptim is tic a
perso n is , a n d h ow c o nsc ie n tio usly t h ey t ry t o k eep f it , t h eir h ealt h w ill in ev it a b ly d eclin e a s t h ey g ro w o ld er.
This a ffe cts t h eir m obilit y , t h eir a b ilit y t o in te ra ct w it h p eo ple , a n d t h eir p hysic al c o m fo rt w hen c o m pare d t o
th e e arlie r s ta g es o f t h eir lif e . A s e co nd n eg ativ e f a cto r is t h e w hole q uestio n o f f in an ce. B y t h is w e m ean t h at
ev en p eo ple w ho h av e s a v ed o r in veste d c are fu lly d urin g t h eir w ork in g liv es w ill f in d t h eir in co m e in
re tir e m en t r e d uced c o nsid era b ly , f o r e x am ple b y r e ly in g o n s a v in gs. T his r e su lt s in t h eir le is u re o ptio ns b ein g
more r e stric te d t h an in t h eir y o unger y ears, e v en t h ough t h ey h av e m ore t im e t o f ill. T his le ad s u s o n t o t h e
fin al, a n d p erh ap s m ost s ig n if ic an t d ra w back t o r e tir e m en t, w hic h is is o la tio n. T his h ap pen s w hen d eclin in g
healt h a n d lim it e d r e so urc es m ak e p eo ple in cre asin gly c u t-o ff, e v en if t h ey h av e s u rv iv in g f a m ily m em bers w ho
se ek t o c are f o r t h em . H ow ev er m uch t h e f a m ily ( o r n eig h bours a n d s o cia l s e rv ic es) m ay o ffe r s u pport, t h is
la ck o f c o nta ct w ill le ad p ro gre ssiv ely t o a le ss c o nte n te d f ra m e o f m in d.
It is t ru e t h at t h ere a re s o m e p osit iv es t o r e tir e m en t, m ost n ota b ly t h e t im e t o p ursu e p erso nal in te re sts
an d t h e p re se n ce o f g ra n dch ild re n in m an y c ase s. D esp it e t h is , it s e em s t h at f o r m an y o ld er p eo ple , t h ese
ple asu re s a re o utw eig h ed b y is su es w hic h c an c au se s tre ss a n d d ep re ssio n.
To c o nclu de, t h e p ro ble m s o f h ealt h , f in an cia l c o ncern s a n d is o la tio n c o m bin e t o geth er t o m ak e
re tir e m en t a c h alle n gin g a n d p ote n tia lly d if fic u lt t im e f o r m an y, e sp ecia lly w hen c o m pare d t o t h e p rim e p erio d
of lif e . T his is n ot t o s a y t h at a ll r e tir e d p eo ple s u ffe r in t h is w ay , b ut it a p pears t o b e t h e c ase v ery f re q uen tly .

(3 43 w ord s)

Module 3 .1
Concessio n

In t h is O pin io n>V ie w poin t t y p e T ask , y o u s h ould g iv e y o ur o pin io n in t h e in tro ductio n. M ost o f t h e
14

main b ody is t h en u se d t o e x p la in t h e r e aso ns f o r y o ur o pin io n. N otic e t h at t h ere is o ne la rg e p ara g ra p h in t h e
main b ody w hic h d oes t h is .
Afte r t h is la rg e p ara g ra p h, t h ere is t h en a s m alle r p ara g ra p h w hic h d esc rib es t h e o pposin g p oin t o f
vie w , a n d t h en r e je cts it . T his s m alle r p ara g ra p h is c alle d a c o ncessio n. I t is im porta n t t o m ak e c o ncessio ns in
Acad em ic E nglis h , b ecau se w it h out t h is t h e e ssa y w ould b e t o o u nbala n ced a n d o ne-sid ed .
This e ssa y m ak es t h e c o ncessio n b y s a y in g:

It is tr u e th at
. . . ( to d esc rib e t h e o pposin g v ie w ) . . .
Desp ite th is
( to r e je ct t h e v ie w , g iv in g a r e aso n
fo r r e je ctin g it .)

Oth er u se fu l p hra se s f o r m ak in g c o ncessio ns a n d t h en r e je ctin g t h e v ie w poin t a re :

Adm itte d ly . . . N ev erth ele ss . . .
It m ig h t b e sa id th at . . . H ow ev er . . .
I a ccep t th at . . . I n sp ite o f th is . . .
While it m ay b e c o rrect th at . . . I t still a ppea rs to b e th e c a se , h ow ev er, th at .
. .

In t h is t y p e o f e ssa y , r e m em ber t o h av e a s m all c o ncessio n p ara g ra p h o f t w o o r t h re e s e n te n ces a fte r t h e
la rg e m ain b ody p ara g ra p h, u sin g p hra se s s im ila r t o t h ese .

Module 3 .2
Lin kin g t h e s e n te n ces

IE LT S e x am in ers o fte n s a y t h at a c o m mon w eak ness in T ask 2 e ssa y s is t h at s e n te n ces b eg in w it h out
an y c o nnectio n t o t h e p re v io us s e n te n ce. T his m ak es t h e e ssa y d if fic u lt t o f o llo w . I n A cad em ic E nglis h , it is
im porta n t t o lin k y o ur s e n te n ces t o geth er. I f y o u r e ad t h e e ssa y a g ain , y o u w ill s e e s o m e e x am ple s o f h ow t h is
is d one:

decli n e a s th ey g ro w o ld er.
This
a ffe cts th eir m ob ili ty

th e w hole q u estio n o f fin an ce.
By th is w e m ea n th at

by r ely in g o n sa vin gs.
This
r esu lt s in

more tim e to fill.
This
le a d s u s o n to

iso la tio n .
This
h appen s w hen

gra n dch ild ren in m an y c a se s.
Desp ite th is

th e p rim e p erio d o f li fe .
This is n ot to sa y th at

In t h ese e x am ple s, t h e c an did ate u se s t h e w ord ‘
th is’
(o r p hra se s w it h ‘
th is
’) t o r e fe r b ack t o t h e
pre v io us s e n te n ce, h elp in g t h e r e ad er f o llo w t h e p ro gre ss o f t h e a rg u m en t. T he s e n te n ces b eg in nin g w it h ‘t h is ’
usu ally g iv e a d efin it io n, a n e x p la n atio n o r a d ev elo pm en t o f t h e p re v io us id ea.
In y o ur e ssa y s, e sp ecia lly in t h e m ain b ody, t ry t o u se ‘t h is ’ p hra se s in t h is w ay . T his a p plie s t o a ll t y p es
of O pin io n a n d I d eas e ssa y s, b ecau se in a ll o f t h em y o u n eed t o g iv e d efin it io ns, e x p la n atio ns o r d ev elo pm en ts
15

of y o ur id eas.

Module 3 .3
Acad em ic v o cab ula ry

In E nglis h , t h ere a re o fte n t w o p ossib le w ord s f o r t h e s a m e id ea: a n in fo rm al o r n eu tra l w ord ( w hic h is
mostly A nglo S ax o n in o rig in , s u ch a s ‘o fte n ’) a n d a m ore f o rm al w ord ( w hic h is m ostly L atin o r F re n ch in
orig in , s u ch a s ‘f re q uen tly .’) I n A cad em ic E nglis h , w e t e n d t o u se t h e m ore f o rm al w ord s, b ecau se t h ey g iv e t h e
im pre ssio n o f p ro fe ssio nalis m a n d a u th orit y .
In t h is e ssa y , t h e c an did ate h as u se d a w id e v arie ty o f f o rm al/ a cad em ic w ord s. H ere a re t e n o f t h em ,
wit h t h e le ss f o rm al a lt e rn ativ e a lo ngsid e:

Con siste n tly
( a ll t h e t im e = le ss f o rm al)

Majo r
(b ig )

Con te n te d
(h ap py)

Con sc ie n tio u sly
( w it h a lo t o f c are )

Decli n e
(g et w orse )

Neg a tiv e
(b ad )

Con sid era bly
(a lo t)

Sig n ific a n t
(b ig )

Pursu e
(g o a fte r)

Prim e
(b est)

The I E LT S e x am in ers e x p ect y o u t o u se t h is f o rm al t y p e o f v o cab ula ry r a th er t h an t h e v ery s im ple ,
le ss f o rm al w ord s s u ch a s ‘b ig ’ o r ‘s m all.’ T he lis t o f t e n w ord s a b ove s h ow s y o u s o m e o f t h e m ost f re q uen t
fo rm al/ a cad em ic w ord s. Y ou s h ould d efin it e ly t ry t o u se m ost o f t h ese w ord s in a n y T ask 2 e ssa y .

Pra ctic e T ask

‘E very b od y sh ou ld d on ate a fix ed a m ou nt o f th eir in co m e to su pport c h arity .’
How fa r d o y ou sh are th is v ie w poin t?

Rem em ber t o u se t h e p oin ts in t h is M odule a b out c o ncessio n, lin kin g y o ur s e n te n ces a n d a cad em ic
vo cab ula ry .

***
16

Module 4 : ( 4 .1 ) P ara g ra p h s tr u ctu re ( 4 .2 ) U sin g e v id en ce ( 4 .3 )
Rep ortin g v ie w s

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

Som e p eo p le su pport th e id ea o f im posin g ta xes o n fo ssil fu els ( o il, c o a l a n d g a s) in o rd er to
red uce e n erg y c o n su m ptio n . O th ers d isa gree w ith th is a ppro a ch .
Con sid er th e d eb ate a n d its a rg u m en ts, a n d c o m e to y ou r o w n c o n clu sio n .

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n O pin io n>D is c u ssio n t y p e T ask . Y ou s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic , d is c u ss b oth s id es o f t h e
arg u m en t, a n d g iv e y o ur o pin io n in t h e c o nclu sio n.

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

Most p eo ple a g re e t h at t h e u se o f f o ssil f u els s h ould b e r e d uced t o s o m e e x te n t. H ow ev er, im posin g
ta x es is a c o ntro versia l t a ctic w hic h a p pears t o h av e a n um ber o f c o ntra d ic to ry e ffe cts. W e w ill c o nsid er b oth
sid es o f t h e d is c u ssio n in t h is e ssa y .
On t h e o ne h an d, t h ose w ho s u pport t a x atio n o f f o ssil f u els p ro m ote t h e id ea t h at h ig h er p ric es w ill
le ad t o lo w er c o nsu m ptio n a n d t h us lo w er e m is sio ns. T hey p oin t t o e v id en ce f ro m c o untrie s s u ch a s S w ed en
where t h is a p pears t o b e t h e c ase , a n d u rg e o th er n atio ns t o f o llo w s u it . F urth erm ore , p ro ponen ts o f f u el t a x es
cla im t h at t h e f u nds r a is e d c an t h en b e u se d t o s u bsid is e r e n ew ab le e n erg y p ro je cts s u ch a s s o la r a n d lo calis e d
bio fu el r e acto rs. T o t h e s u pporte rs o f t h e id ea, t h ese b en efit s a re c o nvin cin g.
How ev er, o pponen ts o f f u el t a x a re a b le t o c it e e v id en ce f ro m o th er c o untrie s ( in clu din g F ra n ce a n d
Ita ly ) w here h ig h er t a x h as a p pare n tly n ot r e d uced d em an d f o r s u ch f u els . I n t h ese c ase s, t h e e ffe ct h as b een t o
fo rc e p eo ple t o p ay m ore f o r t h e s a m e v o lu m e o f e n erg y, w hic h a p pears t o p en alis e t h ose w ho c an le ast a ffo rd
it . M ore o ver, c rit ic s o f f u el t a x a ls o h ig h lig h t t h e d if fic u lt y in g o vern m en ts p ro m is in g r e n ew ab le s c h em es
wit h out in te rfe rin g in t h e e n tir e e n erg y m ark et. I f t h e s ta te w as t o c o ntro l t h e e n tir e m ark et f o r f u els , t h ey s a y ,
th is w ould f o rc e s u pplie rs t o le av e t h e m ark et, t h us r e d ucin g c o m petit io n a n d e ffic ie n cy . T his a rg u m en t a ls o
ap pears t o b e q uit e p ow erfu l.
Overa ll, I w ould t e n d t o s id e w it h t h e o pponen ts o f f u el t a x atio n. I t s e em s t o b e u nre aso nab le t o f o rc e
vu ln era b le c o nsu m ers t o p ay m ore f o r a c o m modit y w hic h is e sse n tia l t o t h em , w it h out a r e al in fra stru ctu re
fo r r e n ew ab le e n erg y b ein g in p la ce. I t w ould b e m ore lo gic al t o im pro ve a v aila b ilit y o f r e n ew ab le s f ir st, w hic h
would a llo w c o nsu m ers t o m ak e a g en uin e c h oic e.

(2 97 w ord s)


Module 4 .1
Para g ra p h s tru ctu re

In a n y I E LT S e ssa y , t h e m ain b ody p ara g ra p hs m ust b e c are fu lly o rg an is e d . T he c la ssic p atte rn is t o
hav e t w o o r t h re e id eas in e ach p ara g ra p h. I f y o u h av e m ore t h an t h re e id eas in e ach p ara g ra p h, y o u w ill
17

pro bab ly n ot b e a b le t o f in is h t h e e ssa y in f o rty m in ute s. T his a p plie s t o a ll t y p es o f e ssa y , b oth O pin io n a n d
Id eas t y p es. I n t h is e ssa y , t h e c an did ate h as u se d t w o id eas in e ach m ain b ody p ara g ra p h, t o p re se n t t h e p ossib le
arg u m en ts o n e ach s id e.
Notic e h ow t h e id eas a re p re se n te d : t h e w rit e r u se s a c o nju nctio n t o in tro duce e ach id ea ( e g
On th e
on e h an d
o r
Moreo v er
) a n d t h en s ta te s t h e id ea, f o llo w ed b y a s im ple e x am ple a n d/o r a n e x p la n atio n o f t h e
id ea. E ach id ea is g en era lly p re se n te d a n d/o r e x am ple d / e x p la in ed in t w o o r t h re e s e n te n ces:

On th e o n e h an d, th ose w ho su pport ta xatio n o f fo ssil fu els p ro m ote th e id ea th at h ig h er
pric es w ill le a d to lo w er c o n su m ptio n a n d th us lo w er e m issio n s. T hey p oin t to e v id en ce fr o m c o u ntr ie s
su ch a s S w ed en w here th is a ppea rs to b e th e c a se , a n d u rg e o th er n atio n s to fo llo w su it.

When y o u a re w rit in g y o ur m ain b ody p ara g ra p hs, t ry t o o rg an is e t h em lik e t h is . H av e t w o o r t h re e
id eas, e ach id ea b ein g p re se n te d a n d/o r e x am ple d /e x p la in ed in t w o o r t h re e s e n te n ces. R em em ber t o u se
co nju nctio ns t o in tro duce t h e id eas.


Module 4 .2
Usin g e v id en ce

In t h e T ask 2 in stru ctio ns o n t h e I E LT S e x am p ap er, t h e t e st t e lls y o u t o ‘u se e x am ple s a n d e v id en ce
fro m y o ur o w n k now le d ge a n d e x p erie n ce’ ( th e e x act w ord s m ay v ary , b ut t h e g en era l in stru ctio n is a lw ay s t h e
sa m e.) R em em ber t h at ‘y o ur o w n k now le d ge a n d e x p erie n ce’ d oes n ot m ean e v en ts t h at h av e h ap pen ed t o y o u
perso nally o r y o ur f rie n ds a n d f a m ily . I t m ean s f a cts t h at y o u h av e r e ad a b out in t h e m ed ia , o r t h at y o u k now
fro m y o ur o w n e d ucatio n.
In t h is e ssa y , t h e c an did ate h as u se d e v id en ce f ro m S w ed en , F ra n ce a n d I ta ly , b ut s h e h as n ot g iv en lo ts
of s ta tis tic s o r n um bers, w hic h w ould b e t o o d eta ile d . I n a n y T ask 2 e ssa y , t ry t o u se e v id en ce in t h is w ay : r e fe r
to f a cts t h at y o u k now a b out ( n ot p erso nal s to rie s) a n d d o n ot g iv e t o o m an y s ta tis tic s. I n t h is w ay , y o ur e ssa y
will b e c o nvin cin g a n d s till e asy f o r t h e e x am in er t o r e ad .

Module 4 .3
Rep ortin g v ie w s

When y o u a re d is c u ssin g d if fe re n t s id es o f a n a rg u m en t, it is a g o od id ea t o im ag in e h ow t h e
su pporte rs o f o ne s id e w ould ju stif y t h eir v ie w s:

On th e o n e h an d, th ose w ho su pport ta xatio n o f fo ssil fu els p ro m ote th e id ea th at . . .
Furth erm ore, p ro p on en ts o f fu el ta xes c la im th at . . .
How ev er, o p pon en ts o f fu el ta x a re a ble to c ite e v id en ce . . .
Moreo v er, c ritic s o f fu el ta x a ls o h ig h li g h t th e d iffic u lt y . . .

By r e p ortin g o th er p eo ple ’s o pin io ns in t h is w ay , y o ur e ssa y w ill b e m ore in te re stin g a n d t h e e x am in er
will f e el t h at y o u a re a b le t o b ala n ce a rg u m en ts w ell.

Use fu l p hra se s t o r e p ort v ie w s a re :

Su pporte rs o f/ P ro p on en ts o f/ T hose w ho su pport
x
18

Oppon en ts o f/ C ritic s o f/ T hose w ho o p pose
x

Supporte rs e tc
cite /r efe r to /h ig h li g h t/p oin t to
x

Supporte rs e tc
cla im th at/ sa y th at/ in sist th at
x is c o rre ct

Supporte rs e tc
den y th at/ r eje ct th at/ d o n ot a ccep t th at
x is c o rre ct

In y o ur e ssa y s, t ry t o u se t h is t y p e o f ‘r e p ortin g’ m eth od a t le ast o nce in t h e m ain b ody.

Pra ctic e T ask

Som e c o u ntr ie s to d ay h ave p asse d la w s a ga in st sm ok in g to b acco in p u bli c b u ild in gs su ch a s
offic es a n d r esta u ra n ts. O th er c o u ntr ie s h ave n o in te n tio n o f d oin g th is.
Con sid er th e p ossib le a rg u m en ts o n b oth sid es o f th is d eb ate , a n d r ea ch y ou r o w n c o n clu sio n
on w hic h sid e y ou fa vou r.

Rem em ber t o u se t h e p oin ts w e s tu die d in t h is M odule a b out p ara g ra p h s tru ctu re , u sin g e v id en ce a n d
re p ortin g v ie w s.

***
19

Module 5 : ( 5 .1 ) P assiv es ( 5 .2 ) C om ple x a d je ctiv es ( 5 .3 ) C au se a n d e ffe ct

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

Man y c o u ntr ie s to d ay a re e x perie n cin g p ro b le m s a sso cia te d w ith n oise p ollu tio n ( ex cessiv e
noise a bov e a n orm al b ack gro u nd n oise .) W hat a re th e c a u se s o f th is p h en om en on , a n d w hat e ffe cts
does it h ave o n th e p eo p le a ffe cte d ?

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n I d eas> C au se /E ffe ct e ssa y . Y ou s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic , t h en s u ggest t w o o r t h re e c au se s,
plu s t w o o r t h re e e ffe cts, a n d t h en s u m maris e in t h e c o nclu sio n. R em em ber t h at t h is t y p e o f T ask is n ot a sk in g
fo r y o ur
op in io n
( e g w heth er y o u t h in k n ois e p ollu tio n is im porta n t o r n ot) b ut f o r s o m e
id ea s
a b out c au se s
an d e ffe cts. N otic e t h at t h is p artic u la r T ask d oes n ot a sk y o u t o s u ggest a n y s o lu tio ns.

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

Nois e p ollu tio n is a le ss-d is c u sse d f o rm o f p ollu tio n, b ut o ne w hic h c an h av e d ep re ssin g e ffe cts o n t h e
peo ple c o ncern ed . T here s e em t o b e t w o m ain c au se s, a n d a n um ber o f e ffe cts, w hic h w e w ill d is c u ss h ere .
Possib ly t h e m ain c au se is t h e in cre ase d v o lu m e o f t ra ffic m ovin g t h ro ugh a n d o ver o ur c o untrie s,
esp ecia lly t h e u rb an a re as. T he e v er-ris in g u se o f r o ad v eh ic le s a n d a ir c ra ft le ad s t o h ig h n ois e le v els t h ro ugh out
th e d ay a n d n ig h t, w hic h c an b e e x acerb ate d b y p oor le v els o f s o und in su la tio n in h om es, s c h ools a n d o th er
build in gs. A f u rth er w ell- k now n c au se is t h e a m ount o f c o nstru ctio n t a k in g p la ce, w here r o ad s a n d o th er
fa cilit ie s a re b uilt in r a p id t im esc ale s. T he u se o f m ach in ery f o r t h is p urp ose r e su lt s in d ecib el le v els w hic h c an
be d an gero usly h ig h .
The e ffe cts o f t h is p ro ble m o n p eo ple c an b e q uit e s e rio us. F ir stly , in cre ase d s tre ss le v els a re
ex p erie n ced b ecau se o f t h e d if fic u lt y in t h in kin g p ro perly w it h h ig h b ack gro und n ois e . T his c an b e e sp ecia lly
dam ag in g f o r c h ild re n , w hose a cad em ic p erfo rm an ce c an b e a ffe cte d in s o m e c ase s. A f u rth er w id ely -o bse rv ed
im pact is la ck o f s le ep , w hic h c an b e s e en in c it ie s w hic h s u ffe r n ois e p ollu tio n, s u ch a s L ondon o r M osc o w . I n
th ese c ase s, lo cal p eo ple s ta rt w ork t ir e d a n d d em otiv ate d , w hic h , in t h e c ase o f w ork ers w ho n eed h ig h le v els
of c o ncen tra tio n, c an b e d an gero us f o r p eo ple a ro und t h em . F in ally , t h ere is t h e lo ng-te rm im pact o f
dep opula tio n, a s p eo ple m ove a w ay f ro m f lig h t p ath s a n d b usy r o ad s. P ro pertie s in t h ese a re as a re o fte n le ft
dere lic t, o r a re t a k en o ver b y s q uatte rs w ho t h en liv e in u ndesir a b le c o ndit io ns.
Overa ll, t ra ffic a n d c o nstru ctio n s e em t o b e t h e m ain c au se s, a n d t h ey a ffe ct b oth in div id uals a n d t h e
movem en t o f p opula tio n in t h e a re as a ffe cte d .

(2 90 w ord s)

Module 5 .1
Passiv es

. . . r o a d s a n d o th er fa cili tie s a re b u ilt in r a pid tim esc a le s.

In A cad em ic E nglis h , t h e u se o f p assiv e s tru ctu re s lik e t h is is e x tre m ely im porta n t. T he e x am in er w ill
20

lo ok f o r p assiv es in y o ur e ssa y , a n d y o u w ill n ot b e a b le t o a ch ie v e o ver B an d 7 u nle ss y o u s h ow t h at y o u c an
use t h em p ro perly .
As a g en era l r u le , t ry t o u se a p assiv e s tru ctu re a t le ast o nce in e ach p ara g ra p h o f y o ur m ain b ody, f o r
ev ery t y p e o f e ssa y . I t is n ot a m is ta k e t o s a y ‘c o m pan ie s b uild r o ad s’ o r ‘p eo ple b uild r o ad s’ p ro vid ed t h at y o u
als o
s h ow u se o f t h e p assiv e.
Rem em ber t h at y o u c an u se t h e p assiv e in a n y t e n se :

Roa d s w ere b u ilt in th e n in ete en th c en tu ry .

Roa d s h ave b een b u ilt sin ce th e 1 800’s .

Roa d s a re b ein g b u ilt th ese d ays.

Roa d s w ill b e b u ilt to m eet d em an d.

And s o o n.


Module 5 .2
Com ple x a d je ctiv es

Com ple x a d je ctiv es h av e a n a d je ctiv e p lu s a n oth er w ord ( fre q uen tly a n a d verb ), s u ch a s in t h is e ssa y :

A
le ss- d isc u sse d
fo rm

The
ev er-risin g
u se

A
well- k n ow n
c a u se

A
wid ely -o b se rv ed
im pact

A
lo n g-te rm
im pact

These p hra se s a re u su ally w rit te n w it h a h yp hen ( -) a lt h ough y o u m ay r e ad s o m e b ooks o r a rtic le s
where t h e w rit e r d oes n ot u se a h yp hen . U sin g c o m ple x a d je ctiv es lik e t h is s h ow s t h e e x am in er t h at y o ur
Acad em ic E nglis h is a d van ced a n d y o u h av e a w id e r a n ge o f v o cab ula ry .
Oth er u se fu l c o m ple x a d je ctiv e p hra se s
are :

There sh ou ld b e a
wid e-ra n gin g
d isc u ssio n a bou t . . .
(= a d is c u ssio n c o verin g m an y t o pic s)

The
ev er-p rese n t
d an ger o f . . .

X is a
much -d isc u sse d
p ro b le m .

X is a
co n sta n tly -ev olv in g
fie ld o f r ese a rch .

There is a
wid ely -h eld
c o n cern th at . .
.( = m an y p eo ple s h are t h is c o ncern )
21

Man y
lo n g-esta bli sh ed
tr a d itio n s h ave b een lo st.

You d o n ot n eed t o u se t h ese c o m ple x a d je ctiv es a ll t h e t im e, o f c o urse , b ut t ry t o u se a t le ast o ne in
yo ur T ask 2 e ssa y .


Module 5 .3
Cau se a n d e ffe ct

You w ill n eed t o d is c u ss c au se s a n d e ffe cts in a n I d eas> C au se /E ffe ct t y p e e ssa y , b ut t h e la n gu ag e
in vo lv ed is u se fu l f o r a ll t h e o th er e ssa y t y p es a s w ell. T his e ssa y s h ow s y o u s o m e o f t h e m ost c o m mon
phra se s. S om e o f t h e o th er u se fu l w ay s t o d esc rib e c au se s a n d e ffe cts in A cad em ic E nglis h a re :

X c a u se s Y

X le a d s to Y

X r esu lt s in Y

X b rin gs a bou t Y

X c o n tr ib u te s to Y
(= it is n ot t h e o nly c au se )

X a ffe cts Y

X h as a n e ffe ct o n Y
( re m em ber t h at
an e ffe ct/to a ffe ct
a re s p elle d d if fe re n tly )

X im pacts ( o n ) Y / X h as a n im pact o n Y

X e x acerb ate s Y
(= m ak es a p ro ble m w orse )

X u nderm in es/w ea ken s Y
(= m ak es it w eak er)

X d am ages Y

X le sse n s Y
(= m ak es it s m alle r o r le ss f re q uen t)

X im pro v es Y

X a m eli o ra te s Y
(= m ak es a p ro ble m b ette r f o r t h e v ic tim )

These a re a ll f o rm al, a cad em ic p hra se s w hic h t h e I E LT S e x am in ers w ill b e p le ase d t o s e e in y o ur T ask
2 e ssa y .

Pra ctic e T ask

22

Illi te ra cy c o n tin ues to b e a c o n cern fo r m an y c o u ntr ie s in th e w orld to d ay. W hat a re th e
ca u se s o f illi te ra cy in th e m od ern w orld , a n d w hat e ffe cts d oes it h ave o n th e p eo p le c o n cern ed a n d o n
so cie ty a s a w hole ?

Rem em ber t o p ra ctis e t h e la n gu ag e w e h av e s tu die d in t h is M odule , a n d u se p assiv es, c o m ple x
ad je ctiv es a n d p hra se s f o r c au se a n d e ffe ct.

***
23

Module 6 : ( 6 .1 ) A vo id in g e m otio n ( 6 .2 ) E valu atin g e v id en ce ( 6 .3 ) N oun p erso ns

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

‘H ea lt h ca re sh ou ld a lw ays b e fu nded b y g ov ern m en ts, a n d it sh ou ld a lw ays b e fr ee fo r p eo p le
to u se .’ T o w hat e x te n t d o y ou a gree o r d isa gree w ith th is id ea ?

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n oth er O pin io n>P erso nal V ie w poin t T ask .
You s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic a n d g iv e y o ur o pin io n in t h e in tro ductio n. T he m ain b ody s h ould
ex p la in y o ur v ie w , g iv in g t w o o r t h re e r e aso ns. Y ou s h ould b rie fly c o nsid er t h e o pposin g v ie w ( ‘m ak in g a
co ncessio n’) a n d t h en r e sta te y o ur o pin io n in t h e c o nclu sio n.

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

Few t o pic s a re m ore im porta n t t h an a n atio n’s h ealt h care , a n d t h e is su e o f p ay m en t w ill p ro bab ly
alw ay s b e c o ntro versia l. I t s e em s t o m e t h at t h e s h eer c o st o f u niv ersa l, f re e h ealt h care m ak es t h is a n im pra ctic al
asp ir a tio n, n o m atte r h ow m uch w e m ig h t a d m ir e t h e id ea.
The m ain o bsta cle w ould a p pear t o b e t h e n um ber o f r e cip ie n ts o f h ealt h care c o m pare d t o t h e
ta x p ay ers a re w ho n eed t o f u nd it . E sp ecia lly in c o untrie s w it h a g ein g p opula tio ns s u ch a s E uro pe, t h e t a x
burd en o n w ork ers b eco m es in to le ra b ly h ig h , a n d c an e v en tu ally s tif le e co nom ic g ro w th . T hese p ain fu l le sso ns,
sh ow n b y s ta te s s u ch a s F ra n ce, s e em t o d em onstra te t h at c o m ple te ly f re e h ealt h care is e co nom ic ally
unsu sta in ab le . A f u rth er is su e r e la te s t o t h e c o st o f m odern m ed ic in es, w hic h c an b e e x tre m ely h ig h if t h e la te st
dru gs a re u se d b y h ealt h p ro vid ers. T his m ean s t h at t h e c o st o f p ro vid in g t re atm en t r is e s a lm ost w it h out
lim it s, m ak in g t h e p erm an en t s u pply o f f re e t re atm en ts u naffo rd ab le . O ne f in al p oin t a g ain st t h is p ro posa l is
th e a d ded is su e o f g lo balis a tio n, b y w hic h p eo ple m ove in cre asin gly f re ely b etw een c o untrie s. I f t h is m ean s t h e
ta x p ay ers o f o ne n atio n a re n ow o blig ed t o f u nd t h e h ealt h care o f u se rs f ro m m an y o th er n atio ns, t h is is s u re ly
a f u rth er s ig n if ic an t f a cto r w hic h c le arly m ak es a u niv ersa l h ealt h s e rv ic e im pra ctic al.
Adm it te d ly , I a g re e w it h t h ose w ho a rg u e t h at f re e a h ealt h s e rv ic e is a w orth y a m bit io n f o r a c o untry
to h av e, a n d t h at w e s h ould a ll c o ntrib ute s o m eth in g t o t h e w elf a re o f o ur f e llo w c it iz en s. H ow ev er, t h is
asp ir a tio n s u ffe rs s ig n if ic an tly w hen c o nfro nte d w it h f in an cia l r e alit y .
To s u m maris e , it s e em s r e aso nab le f o r t h e s ta te t o f u nd a s m uch a s p ossib le o f t h e n atio n’s h ealt h care .
How ev er, d ue t o d em ogra p hic s a n d c o sts, t h is n eed s t o b e s u pple m en te d b y o th er m eth ods, s u ch a s p riv ate
in su ra n ce.

(2 88 w ord s)


Module 6 .1
Avo id in g e m otio n

It is a n im porta n t f e atu re o f A cad em ic E nglis h t h at t h e w rit e r d oes n ot u se e m otio n o r h um our. E ven
if t h e t o pic is o ne t h at y o u f e el s tro ngly a b out, t h ere a re w ay s t o s h ow h ow y o u f e el w it h out u sin g e m otio n.
24

For e x am ple , it w ould b e w ro ng t o w rit e s o m eth in g s u ch a s:

Free h ea lt h ca re is a w on derfu l/ b rilli a n t id ea

Free h ea lt h ca re is a te rrib le /lu dic ro u s id ea

Word s s u ch a s t h is a re t o o e m otio nal a n d s h ould n ev er b e u se d in I E LT S a cad em ic w rit in g, e v en
th ough w e m ay u se t h em in c o nversa tio n.
In t h is e ssa y , t h e w rit e r s h ow s h is s tro ng f e elin g f o r o r a g ain st a n id ea b y u sin g u nem otio nal p hra se s
su ch a s:

th e
sh eer
c o st
(=
th e c o st is v ery h ig h a n d is a f a cto r b y it se lf )

an
im pra ctic a l
asp ir a tio n
(= w ould n ot w ork in r e alit y )

th e ta x b u rd en o n w ork ers b eco m es
in to le ra bly
h ig h
(= p eo ple w ould n ot a ccep t it )

These
pain fu l
le sso n s
(= c au sin g s e rio us p ro ble m s)

unaffo rd able
(= c an not b e a ffo rd ed )

th is is
su rely
a fu rth er sig n ific a n t fa cto r
(= m ost p eo ple w ould a g re e w it h m e)

If y o u u se v o cab ula ry s u ch a s t h is , t h e I E LT S e x am in er w ill r e co gn is e t h at y o u h av e a s tro ng o pin io n
an d y o u a re e x p re ssin g it in a p ro fe ssio nal, a cad em ic w ay . O th er u se fu l a cad em ic p hra se s t o e x p re ss a s tro ng
opin io n in clu de:

This id ea w ou ld
su rely
b e
unaccep ta ble
to m ost p eo p le
(= m ost p eo ple w ould d is a g re e s tro ngly )

It
ca n not b e d en ie d
th at/ I t is
unden ia ble
th at . .
.
th is id ea is p ositiv e/h elp fu l/ im agin ativ e e tc
(= I t h in k t h is a n d m ost p eo ple w ould a g re e.)

It is a n
in esc a pable
fa ct th at . . .
(n obody c an s a y t h is is n ot t ru e.)

The b en efits o f th is a ppro a ch a ppea r to b e
ov erw helm in gly
p ositiv e
. ( = s o p osit iv e t h at m ost
peo ple w ould s u pport it .)

This c o n cep t se em s to b e
so m ew hat in ad eq u ate
. ( = n ot r e ally g o od e n ough f o r it s p urp ose .)

It is
alm ost u niv ersa lly a ccep te d
th at . . .

There is
an a lm ost u niv ersa l c o n se n su s
th at . . .

In O pin io n t y p e e ssa y s, t ry t o u se v o cab ula ry s u ch a s t h is a t le ast o nce w hen y o u g iv e y o ur o pin io n.
The e x am in er w ill g iv e y o u m ark s f o r a v o id in g e m otio n a n d u sin g a d van ced a cad em ic la n gu ag e.

25

Module 6 .2
Evalu atin g e v id en ce

In M odule 5 , w e s a w t h e m eth od o f p re se n tin g a n id ea a n d t h en g iv in g a n e x am ple o r e x p la n atio n a s
ev id en ce. I n t h is e ssa y , lo ok a g ain a t t h e w ay t h e w rit e r e v alu ate s t h e e v id en ce. ‘T o e v alu ate ’ m ean s t o g iv e a
ju dgem en t o n s o m eth in g c o m pare d t o o th er t h in gs. S om e e x am ple s f ro m t h is e ssa y a re :

These p ain fu l le sso n s, sh ow n b y sta te s su ch a s F ra n ce, se em to d em on str a te th at c o m ple te ly fr ee
hea lt h ca re is e co n om ic a lly u nsu sta in able .

The c an did ate u se s ‘s e em t o d em onstra te ’ t o e m phasis e t h at t h e e v id en ce s u pports h is v ie w .

This m ea n s th at th e c o st o f p ro v id in g tr ea tm en t r ise s a lm ost w ith ou t li m its, m akin g th e
perm an en t su pply o f fr ee tr ea tm en ts u naffo rd able .

The c an did ate u se s ‘T his m ean s t h at . . . m ak in g . . . + a d je ctiv e’ t o e x p la in h ow t h e e v id en ce is
an oth er e x am ple o f h is a rg u m en t.

. . . th is is su rely a fu rth er sig n ific a n t fa cto r w hic h c le a rly m akes a u niv ersa l h ea lt h se rv ic e
im pra ctic a l.

The c an did ate u se s ‘c le arly m ak es’ t o e v alu ate ( = g iv e a ju dgem en t o n) t h e e v id en ce h e p re se n ts.

How ev er, th is a sp ir a tio n su ffe rs sig n ific a n tly w hen c o n fr o n te d w ith fin an cia l r ea li ty .

In t h is c o ncessio n p ara g ra p h, t h e c an did ate u se s ‘H ow ev er’ t o in tro duce a r e je ctio n o f t h e o pposin g
id ea.

Try t o u se
dem on str a te s/m ea n s th at . . . m akin g/c le a rly m akes
a n d s u it a b le c o nju nctio ns t o
co m men t o n t h e e v id en ce y o u p re se n t a n d e x p la in h ow a n d w hy t h e e v id en ce s u pports y o ur a rg u m en t.


Module 6 .3
Noun p erso ns

‘N oun p erso ns’ a re n ouns u se d t o id en tif y p eo ple b y t h eir r o le in a s it u atio n. F or e x am ple in t h is e ssa y ,
we h av e:

ta xpayers
work ers
hea lt h p ro v id ers
th ose w ho a rg u e th at

This is a f re q uen t m eth od in A cad em ic E nglis h , b ecau se it a v o id s t h e u se o f ‘p eo ple ’ ( ‘
peo p le w ho p ay
ta x/w ork /p ro v id e h ea lt h / p eo p le w ho a rg u e th at’
e tc )
26

Oth er v ery f re q uen t n oun p erso ns u se fu l f o r I E LT S e ssa y s a re :

Those w ho su pport x /T hose w ho o p pose x

Those w ho a ccep t x /T hose w ho r eje ct x

The a u th oritie s
( = t h e g o vern m en t, p olic e a n d c o urts)

Con tr ib u to rs to x

Recip ie n ts o f x

Obse rv ers
( = jo urn alis ts a n d a n aly sts w ho c o m men t o n s it u atio ns)

Rese a rch ers

It is n ot a m is ta k e t o s a y ‘p eo ple w ho + v erb .’ H ow ev er, a s a lw ay s in I E LT S a cad em ic w rit in g, t o
ach ie v e a h ig h s c o re y o u m ust s h ow t h at y o u c an u se a t le ast s o m e o f t h e n oun p erso ns e x p la in ed h ere .

Pra ctic e T ask

‘A ll c h ild ren sh ou ld le a rn to sp ea k a fo reig n la n gu age a s so on a s th ey sta rt sc h ool. ’ H ow fa r d o
you a gree w ith th is p ro p osa l? H ow im porta n t is it fo r a c h ild to le a rn a fo reig n la n gu age?

Rem em ber t o p ra ctis e u sin g t h e la n gu ag e f o r a v o id in g e m otio n, e v alu atin g e v id en ce a n d t h e n oun
perso ns t h at w e h av e s e en in t h is M odule .


***
27

Module 7 : ( 7 .1 ) R eje ctin g a rg u m en ts ( 7 .2 )T opic -sp ecif ic v o cab ula ry ( 7 .3 )
Conclu sio ns

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

Sh ou ld c o m pan ie s ( b u sin esse s) e n su re th at th ey e m plo y a q u ota ( o r fix ed p ercen ta ge) o f w om en
in a ll jo b s, o r is th is a n im pra ctic a l c o n cep t?
Disc u ss b oth sid es o f th is d eb ate , a n d r ea ch a c o n clu sio n b ase d o n y ou r o w n o p in io n .

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n O pin io n>D is c u ssio n t y p e T ask . I t a sk s y o u t o f o cu s in p artic u la r o n t h e k ey w ord
‘im pra ctic al’ a n d t o c o nsid er w heth er o r n ot t h e ‘q uota /fix ed p erc en ta g e’ id ea is im pra ctic al (
im pra ctic a l
= it
would n ot w ork in r e alit y .)
You s h ould k eep t h is in m in d w hen d is c u ssin g b oth s id es in t h e m ain b ody.

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

Work pla ce q uota s h av e b een s u ggeste d f o r s o m e t im e n ow , in a n a tte m pt t o e n co ura g e g en der e q ualit y
in t h e w ork fo rc e. T he id ea p ro vo kes s tro ng a rg u m en ts, w hic h I w ill c o nsid er h ere .
On t h e o ne h an d, it c an b e s a id t h at q uota s w ould a llo w w om en t o e n te r t ra d it io nally m ale
pro fe ssio ns, r a n gin g f ro m s u rg eo n t o a ir lin e p ilo t. T his , it is a rg u ed , w ould e x p an d t h e p ool o f p eo ple a v aila b le
to d o t h ese jo bs, a n d r e d uce in eq ualit y b etw een t h e s e x es. F urth erm ore , s u pporte rs o f q uota s c la im t h at t h e
pro ced ure w ould e n co ura g e w om en in to t h e w ork fo rc e g en era lly , t h us in cre asin g f a m ily in co m es a n d
im pro vin g t h e s ta n dard o f liv in g o f m an y p eo ple a n d f a m ilie s.
The o th er s id e o f t h is d eb ate is t h at g en der q uota s m ay s im ply b e u nen fo rc eab le in p ra ctic al t e rm s.
This is b ecau se t h e n um ber o f w om en w ho w is h t o b e ( fo r in sta n ce) a ir lin e p ilo ts o r s u rg eo ns a p pears t o b e
su bsta n tia lly lo w er t h an t h e n um ber o f m en . T his b ein g t h e c ase , it w ould a p pear t o b e im possib le t o e n fo rc e a
quota in m an y a re as. A s e co nd p oin t is t h at a q uota s h ould lo gic ally w ork f o r b oth g en ders, a n d t h us m en
would h av e t o b e e m plo yed in t ra d it io nally f e m ale r o le s s u ch a s p rim ary t e ach in g o r n ursin g. A gain , w e w ould
fin d o urse lv es a sk in g m en t o t a k e o n jo bs w hic h t h ey a re n ot in clin ed t o d o. A f in al p oin t is t h at t h e r e d uctio n
of in eq ualit y s h ould s ta rt a t a n e arly a g e, w it h e q ualit y o f q ualif ic atio ns, c are er a n d lif e c h oic es, r a th er t h an
bein g e n fo rc ed r e tro sp ectiv ely b y e m plo yers o r t h e s ta te .
To c o nclu de, it a p pears t h at t h e a im o f t h ese q uota s is a d m ir a b le , b ut t h ey a re u nw ork ab le in r e alis tic
te rm s d ue t o t h e d if fe rin g w is h es o f t h e e x is tin g w ork fo rc e. A lo nger-te rm a n d m ore t h ough tfu l p ro gra m me is
su re ly n eed ed .

(2 84 w ord s)

Module 7 .1
Reje ctin g a rg u m en ts

In t h e f ir st m ain b ody p ara g ra p h, t h e c an did ate p re se n ts s o m e id eas in f a v o ur o f t h e ‘q uota ’ id ea. I n
th e s e co nd m ain b ody p ara g ra p h, t h e c an did ate a d dre sse s t h e p oin t a b out t h e ‘im pra ctic al’ in stru ctio n in t h e
28

Task . H e p re se n ts t h re e id eas a g ain st t h e ‘q uota ’ a n d t h en g iv es e x am ple s a n d e x p la in s w hy e ach id ea m ean s
th at t h e id ea is n ot r e ally p ra ctic al. H e u se s t h e t h ir d c o ndit io nal t o
im agin e th e c o n se q u en ces
o f
im ple m en tin g t h e id ea:

. . . m en w ou ld h ave to b e e m plo yed . . .
. . . w e w ou ld fin d o u rse lv es a sk in g m en to ta ke o n jo b s . . .

He a ls o u se s t h e t e n ta tiv e la n gu ag e w hic h w e s tu die d in M odule 2 in o rd er t o s h ow t h at h e
understa n ds t h e s it u atio n is c o m ple x , a n d h e is b asin g h is a rg u m en ts o n c are fu l e v id en ce:

qu ota s m ay sim ply b e u nen fo rcea ble

appea rs to b e su bsta n tia lly lo w er th an

it w ou ld a ppea r to b e im possib le to e n fo rce

it a ppea rs th at th e a im o f th ese q u ota s is a d m ir a ble

Notic e a ls o t h at h e u se s ‘s u re ly ’ t o s h ow t h at h e h as a s tro ng o pin io n w it h out u sin g e m otio n:

. . . p ro gra m me is su rely n eed ed .

In a ‘D is c u ssio n’ t y p e e ssa y s u ch a s t h is , y o u m ay f in d it u se fu l t o u se t h e s e co nd m ain b ody p ara g ra p h
to r e je ct t h e a rg u m en t in t h e f ir st m ain b ody p ara g ra p h, u sin g t h e t y p e o f la n gu ag e e x p la in ed h ere .
Rem em ber t h at y o ur v ie w in t h e s e co nd m ain b ody p ara g ra p h s h ould c o nnect w it h y o ur v ie w in t h e
co nclu sio n. F or e x am ple , if t h is c an did ate f e lt t h at q uota s a re in f a ct
pra ctic a l
, h e w ould h av e t h is a rg u m en t in
th e
se co n d
m ain b ody p ara g ra p h, c o nnectin g w it h h is c o nclu sio n w hic h w ould b e in f a v o ur o f q uota s.


Module 7 .2
Topic -sp ecif ic v o cab ula ry

All I E LT S T ask 2 A cad em ic T ask s r e la te t o a s m all n um ber o f t o pic s w hic h a p pear t h ro ugh out t h e
IE LT S e x am . T hese t o pic s a re :

Work

Educatio n

Child re n a n d f a m ilie s

The e n vir o nm en t a n d e n erg y

Cult u re , a rt a n d t r a d it io ns

Healt h a n d s p ort
29

Glo bal a n d s o cia l p ro ble m s

Cit ie s a n d t h e c o untr y sid e, in clu din g in fr a str u ctu re a n d a g ric u lt u re

Govern m en t a n d t h e a u th orit ie s

Task 2 w ill n ev er a sk y o u t o c o m men t o n s p ecif ic ally d eta ile d s c ie n tif ic o r t e ch nic al is su es ( e x cep t
is su es w hic h a re o f g en era l in te re st, s u ch a s s p ace e x p lo ra tio n o r G M c ro ps.)
It is u se fu l f o r y o u t o h av e in m in d ju st a f e w w ord s a n d p hra se s r e le v an t t o e ach o f t h ese t o pic s, s o
th at y o u c an s h ow t h e e x am in er y o u h av e a s tro ng r a n ge o f t o pic v o cab ula ry .

In t h is e ssa y ( w hic h is o n t h e
Work
t o pic ) t h e c an did ate u se s:

Work pla ce
Work fo rce
Pro fe ssio n s
Role s
Equ ali ty /in eq u ali ty

Usin g t h is s m all n um ber o f t o pic -sp ecif ic w ord s in T ask 2 w ill im pro ve t h e c re d ib ilit y o f y o ur e ssa y
co nsid era b ly . H ere a re s o m e o th er k ey t o pic -sp ecif ic w ord s w hic h a re v ery u se fu l f o r T ask 2 :

Educatio n:
f o rm al e d ucatio n, h ig h er e d ucatio n, s y lla b us, c u rric u lu m , t e stin g

Child re n a n d f a m ilie s
: n ucle ar f a m ily , e x te n ded f a m ily , r o le m odel, u pbrin gin g, c h ild
dev elo pm en t

The e n vir o nm en t a n d e n erg y
: e m is sio ns, f o ssil f u els , g re en house g ase s, r e n ew ab le e n erg y,
su bsid ie s

Cult u re , a rt a n d t r a d it io ns
: f o lk lo re , h an dic ra fts, f in e a rt, m yth olo gy, r it u als

Healt h a n d s p ort
: o besit y , s e d en ta ry lif e sty le , f it n ess, s p ecta to r s p orts, c o m petit iv en ess

Glo bal a n d s o cia l p ro ble m s
: u nem plo ym en t, e n dan gere d s p ecie s, e ro sio n, d efo re sta tio n, n atu ra l
hab it a t

Cit ie s a n d t h e c o untr y sid e, in clu din g in fr a str u ctu re a n d a g ric u lt u re
: u rb an s p ra w l,
dep opula tio n, r u ra l m ig ra tio n, t ra n sp ort h ubs, f a cilit ie s

Govern m en t a n d t h e a u th orit ie s
: t h e c o urts, s e n te n cin g, p olic y , in it ia tiv e, p ro gra m me

Of c o urse , t h ere a re m an y m ore w ord s a n d p hra se s r e le v an t t o t h ese I E LT S t o pic s. A s y o u a re r e ad in g
IE LT S p ra ctic e p ap ers o r t h e g en era l m ed ia , m ak e a n ote o f v o cab ula ry r e le v an t t o t h ese t o pic s a n d t ry t o
re m em ber t h em . I f y o u c an u se ju st a s m all n um ber in y o ur e ssa y , t h e e x am in er w ill r a is e y o ur s c o re .
30

Module 7 .3
Conclu sio ns

In a n y T ask 2 a cad em ic e ssa y , t h e c o nclu sio n p ara g ra p h s h ould b e a m ax im um o f t h re e s e n te n ces ( tw o
se n te n ces a re u su ally e n ough .)
You s h ould t ry t o s u m maris e t h e m ain id eas f ro m t h e m ain b ody, b ut y o u s h ould p ara p hra se ( = u se
word s w hic h m ean t h e s a m e) s o t h at y o u d o n ot r e p eat v o cab ula ry . I n t h is e ssa y , t h e c an did ate h as
para p hra se d
fro m t h e m ain b ody
(m ain b ody w ord s in b ra ck ets
):

To c o n clu de, it a ppea rs th at th e
aim
( an a tte m pt
)
of th ese q u ota s is a d m ir a ble , b u t th ey a re
unw ork able in r ea li stic te rm s
(u nen fo rc eab le in p ra ctic al t e rm s
)
due to th e
diffe rin g w ish es
of th e e x istin g
work fo rce.
(
jo bs w hic h t h ey a re n ot in clin ed t o d o.
) A
lo n ger-te rm
( sta rt a t a n e arly a g e
) a n d m ore
th ou gh tfu l p ro gra m me is su rely n eed ed .

When w rit in g y o ur c o nclu sio n, r e m em ber t h at y o u s h ould
not
in clu de a n y n ew id eas o r e v id en ce, b ut
only s u m maris e a n d p ara p hra se t h e m ain b ody id eas.

Pra ctic e T ask

In m an y c o u ntr ie s, o ld o r tr a d itio n al la n gu ages a re d yin g o u t o r b ein g fo rg otte n , e sp ecia lly b y
you nger p eo p le . I s th is a n a ccep ta ble d ev elo p m en t w hic h o ccu rs in ev ita bly , o r is it so m eth in g w hic h
we sh ou ld tr y to p rev en t?

Pra ctic e u sin g t h e id eas f ro m t h is M odule a b out r e je ctin g a rg u m en ts, t o pic -sp ecif ic v o cab ula ry a n d
co nclu sio ns.

***
31

Module 8 : ( 8 .1 ) P ro ble m s ( 8 .2 ) S olu tio ns ( 8 .3 ) T im e & p ro bab ilit y
qualif ie rs


Exam ple w rit in g T ask

Man y p eo p le to d ay fin d th ey h ave in su ffic ie n t tim e to sp en d w ith th eir fa m ili e s, b eca u se o f
pressu res o f w ork . W hat p ro b le m s d oes th is c rea te fo r in div id uals a n d th eir fa m ili e s? W hat so lu tio n s
ca n y ou p ro p ose ? W hic h w ou ld b e th e m ost e ffe ctiv e so lu tio n , in y ou r v ie w ?

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n I d eas> P ro ble m /S olu tio n t y p e e ssa y . Y ou s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic , t h en g iv e t w o o r t h re e
pro ble m s, t w o o r t h re e s o lu tio ns, a n d t h en s u m maris e in t h e c o nclu sio n. N otic e t h at t h e T ask a sk s y o u t o
th in k a b out
in div id uals a n d th eir fa m ili e s
, a n d a ls o t o id en tif y
th e m ost e ffe ctiv e so lu tio n .

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

Excessiv e t im e s p en t a t w ork c an u lt im ate ly t a k e a s e rio us t o ll o n w ork ers a n d t h eir f a m ilie s in v ario us
way s. W e w ill d is c u ss t h e m ost s e rio us p ro ble m s a ris in g, a n d a ls o t w o w ay s in w hic h t h e s it u atio n c an b e
im pro ved .
Arg u ab ly t h e g ra v est p ro ble m c au se d b y o verw ork is t h e s tre ss t h at t h e w ork ers t h em se lv es s u ffe r f ro m .
When a p erso n is w ork in g lo ng h ours, a n d t h in kin g a b out w ork e v en o utsid e t h at t im e, t h e a b ilit y t o r e la x is
se v ere ly c u rta ile d . T his c an r a p id ly le ad t o p hysic al e x h au stio n a n d m en ta l a n xie ty , w hic h e v en tu ally u nderm in e
th e v ic tim ’s o vera ll w ellb ein g. A f u rth er s e rio us im pact is t h e d is ru ptio n t o f a m ily r e la tio nsh ip s, e sp ecia lly w it h
a s p ouse a n d c h ild re n . F am ily m em bers m ay s o on b eco m e a ccu sto m ed t o t h e a b se n ce o f a f a th er o r m oth er,
dam ag in g t h e n atu ra l b onds w hic h b in d a f a m ily t o geth er a n d p ote n tia lly e ro din g t h e s e cu rit y o f t h e f a m ily
unit it se lf . T he lo ng t e rm c o nse q uen t p ro ble m s o f f a m ily b re ak dow n m ay in clu de d ep re ssio n, p oor s e lf -e ste em
an d a cad em ic u nderp erfo rm an ce.
To c o unte ra ct t h ese d an gers, p erh ap s t h e m ost e ffe ctiv e a n d m ost im med ia te s o lu tio n w ould b e f o r
em plo yers t o in co rp ora te a f ix ed a m ount o f f re e t im e in to t h eir w ork ers’ s c h ed ule s. F or e x am ple , c o m pan ie s
mig h t c o m mit t o a ‘n o w ork , p hone c alls o r e m ails a fte r f iv e p m ’ p olic y , a s is b ein g s u ggeste d in G erm an y a t
pre se n t. T his w ould le sse n t h e a n xie ty o f h ig h w ork lo ad s a n d p re se rv e f a m ily t im e. A noth er r e m ed y m ay b e t o
pro m ote t h e u se o f r e la x atio n t e ch niq ues a m ong w ork ers, s o t h at t h ey m ak e t h e m ost o f t h e f re e t im e t h at
th ey h av e. A ctiv it ie s r a n gin g f ro m s p ort t o y o ga o r f a m ily e v en ts c an b e u se d t o m ax im is e a n y o pportu nit ie s
fo r d e-stre ssin g t h at a lr e ad y e x is t.
In c o nclu sio n, t h e m ain p ro ble m s s e em t o b e s tre ss a n d p ote n tia l f a m ily b re ak dow n. T he k ey s o lu tio n
would b e t h e f o rm al p ro te ctio n o f le is u re t im e, t o geth er w it h b ette r u se o f it b y w ork ers t h em se lv es.

(3 02 w ord s)


Module 8 .1
Pro ble m s v o cab
32

You m ay n eed t o e x p la in t h e p ro ble m s in a s it u atio n in a n y T ask 2 e ssa y . T his e ssa y s h ow s s o m e o f
th e c la ssic A cad em ic E nglis h w ay s t o d esc rib e p ro ble m s:

. .
. th e
gra vest
p ro b le m
. . . ( = m ost s e rio us)

. . .
th e a bili ty to r ela x is se v erely
cu rta ile d
( = r e stric te d , lim it e d )

This c a n r a pid ly
le a d to
. . .

. . .
underm in e
th e v ic tim ’s o v era ll w ellb ein g
. ( = m ak e w eak er)

A fu rth er
se rio u s im pact
is . .
.

.
. .
disr u ptio n
to
. . . ( = b re ak in g u p a n o rd ere d s y ste m )

. .
.
dam agin g
th e
n atu ra l b onds . . .

. . .
pote n tia lly
ero d in g
th e se cu rity
. . . ( = g ra d ually r e m ovin g)

The
lo n g te rm c o n se q u en t p ro b le m s
. .
. m ay in clu de . .
.


Oth er u se fu l p hra se s t o d is c u ss p ro ble m s a re :

X d estr o ys Y
X e li m in ate s Y
X m akes Y d ete rio ra te ( = b eco m e w orse )
X d ilu te s Y ( = m akes it w ea ker, le ss fo cu sse d )

Oth er w ord s w hic h c an b e u se d t o p ara p hra se p ro ble m in clu de:

Crisis
Issu e
Questio n
Con cern
Anxie ty
Challe n ge

Alm ost a n y T ask 2 e ssa y w ill n eed t o u se s o m e o f t h ese p hra se s, e sp ecia lly f o r T ask s w hic h a sk a b out
sit u atio ns w hic h c o uld b e n eg ativ e f o r p eo ple o r s o cie ty .


Module 8 .2
Solu tio ns v o cab

33

The s e co nd m ain b ody p ara g ra p h in t h is e ssa y s h ow s s o m e u se fu l w ay s t o p re se n t a n d e x p la in
so lu tio ns:

To
co u nte ra ct
th ese d an gers
( = f ig h t a g ain st)

This w ou ld
le sse n
th e a n xie ty o f
( = r e d uce)

Anoth er
rem ed y
m ay b e to
( = s o lu tio n o r s te p )

To
maxim ise
op portu nitie s
( = t o m ak e t h e m ost o f)


Oth er u se fu l w ord s w hic h c an b e u se d t o p ara p hra se
so lu tio n s
a re :

Mea su res
Ste p s
In itia tiv es
( = a n ew id ea, u su ally f ro m t h e a u th orit ie s)
Poli c ie s
Pro gra m mes

Use fu l p hra se s t o t a lk a b out h ow s o lu tio ns w ork in clu de:

To
pen ali se
p eo p le fo r d oin g X
( = t o m ak e t h em p ay a p en alt y f o r it )
To b an o r o u tla w X
( = t o m ak e it ille g al)
To c u rb /r estr ic t X
To
prev en t
p eo p le fr o m d oin g X
To p ro m ote o r e n co u ra ge X
To r a ise a w aren ess o f X
To
fo rce/o b li g e
p eo p le to d o X

Try t o u se t h ese a cad em ic w ord s, r a th er t h an s a y
We sh ou ld sto p p eo p le d oin g X
o r
We sh ou ld g et
peo p le to d o X
, w hic h is t o o s im ple t o a ch ie v e a h ig h s c o re .


Module 8 .3
Tim e a n d p ro bab ilit y q ualif ie rs

This e ssa y u se s s o m e e ffe ctiv e la n gu ag e t o t a lk a b out t h e p ro bab ilit y o f s o m eth in g o r t h e t im esc ale s in
whic h t h in gs h ap pen :

ult im ate ly
( = e v en tu ally , f in ally )
ra pid ly
so on
pote n tia lly
lo n g te rm
im med ia te
34

It is e asy t o in clu de s o m e o f t h e q ualif ie rs in y o ur id eas, t o s h ow t h at y o u h av e t h ough t a b out t h e
pro bab ilit y a n d/o r t im esc ale s o f t h e e v en ts.
Oth er t y p ic al e x am ple s o f t h ese w ord s a re :

X m ay p ossib ly h appen

X w ill in ev ita bly h appen
( = it c an not b e p re v en te d )

X w ill u ndou bte d ly h appen

X w ill g ra d ually /ste a d ily h appen

X w ill h appen ste p b y ste p

X w ill su dden ly h appen

X w ill sp on ta n eo u sly h appen
( = w it h out o utsid e h elp )

In y o ur e ssa y s, t ry t o in clu de s o m e o f t h ese q ualif ie rs; t h is is a s tra ig h tfo rw ard w ay t o im pro ve t h e
ex am in er’s p erc ep tio n o f y o ur w rit in g.

Pra ctic e T ask

The u se o f v io le n ce in m usic ly ric s, v id eo g a m es a n d film s se en b y c h ild ren is c a u sin g c o n cern
in m an y so cie tie s. W hat p ro b le m s m ay b e c a u se d b y th is ty p e o f v io le n t im agery , a n d w hat ste p s c o u ld
be ta ken to le sse n th e im pact o n y ou ng p eo p le ?

Rem em ber t o in clu de t h e la n gu ag e in t h is M odule f o r p ro ble m s, s o lu tio ns a n d t im e/p ro bab ilit y
qualif ie rs.

***
35

Module 9 : ( 9 .1 ) P re se n tin g d is a d van ta g es ( 9 .2 ) P re se n tin g a lt e rn ativ es ( 9 .3 )
Collo catio ns

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

‘T he k ey to r ed ucin g c rim e is to h ave m ore p oli c e p atr o lli n g th e str eets.’ H ow fa r d o y ou
su pport th is p ro p osa l? W hat o th er w ays o f r ed ucin g c rim e m ay b e e ffe ctiv e?

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n oth er O pin io n>P erso nal v ie w poin t T ask . I t a sk s y o u t o a g re e o r d is a g re e w it h t h e p ro posa l,
an d a ls o t o s u ggest s o m e a lt e rn ativ e m eth ods. T he I E LT S w rit in g t e st s o m etim es a d ds a n e x tra e le m en t t o t h e
Opin io n T ask s in t h is w ay .
You s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic , s ta te y o ur v ie w , e x p la in y o ur v ie w a n d t h en s u ggest s o m e a lt e rn ativ es,
fin is h in g w it h a s u m mary c o nclu sio n t h at r e sta te s y o ur v ie w .
Becau se o f t h e e x tra e le m en t in t h e T ask , t h e e x am in er w ill n ot o bje ct if y o u d o n ot h av e a c o ncessio n
para g ra p h in t h is p artic u la r e ssa y .

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

We a re a ll c o ncern ed a b out h ig h c rim e le v els a n d p ossib le w ay s t o r e d uce c rim e, e sp ecia lly in c it ie s.
The id ea o f h av in g h ig h n um bers o f v is ib le p olic e o ffic ers m ay b e in it ia lly a p pealin g, b ut s o m e a n aly sis w ill
sh ow t h at it is n ot t h e k ey m eth od a n d t h at o th er o ptio ns a re p re fe ra b le .
Fir stly , w e s h ould a sk w hat t h e p urp ose o f e x tra p olic e in p ublic w ould b e. I t is p ro bab ly t ru e t h at t h is
ta ctic w ould r e d uce m in or c rim e s u ch a s lit te rin g a n d u nso cia l b eh av io ur, b ut d ete rm in ed c rim in als s u ch a s
th ie v es a n d m uggers w ill in ev it a b ly f in d w ay s t o o pera te d esp it e t h e p olic e p re se n ce. T he e x am ple o f N ew Y ork
sh ow s t h at p olic e p atro ls in it ia lly r e d uce c rim e t o s o m e e x te n t, b ut c rim e t h en le v els o ff a n d p ersis ts a t t h e
lo w er r a te , n o m atte r h ow m an y m ore p olic e a re a d ded . S eco ndly , it m ust b e s a id t h at m an y c rim es w hic h
worry t h e p ublic t o day , s u ch a s id en tit y t h eft o r f in an cia l h ack in g a n d f ra u d, a re n ot c arrie d o ut o n s tre ets a n d
th us w ould b e in vis ib le t o p olic e p atro ls a n yw ay . T his m ean s t h ere is a d an ger t h at w e w ould b e r e sp ondin g t o
a c u rre n t t h re at w it h a n o utd ate d t a ctic .
Turn in g t o p ossib le a lt e rn ativ es, p ro bab ly t h e m ost e ffe ctiv e w ould b e t o im pro ve t h e e ffic ie n cy o f
ex is tin g p olic e r a th er t h an in cre ase t h eir n um bers, f o r in sta n ce b y b ette r t ra in in g in c o m pute r-b ase d c rim e. T his
would g en era te im pro ved r a te s o f d ete ctio n f o r c rim es a n d m ore e ffic ie n t u se o f t h e v ast a m ount o f t e ch nolo gy
av aila b le . A noth er v ia b le o ptio n w ould b e t o in cre ase p en alt ie s f o r c rim in als , w hic h w ould h av e t h e b en efit o f
dete rrin g t h em f ro m c o m mit tin g c rim e a t a ll. B oth t h ese a lt e rn ativ es w ould b e c o m para tiv ely c h eap , a n d
would a d dre ss t h e r o ot o f t h e p ro ble m r a th er t h an s e ek in g t o s u ppre ss t h e s y m pto m s.
Overa ll, w e h av e s e en t h at in cre ase d p atro ls a re o f lim it e d e ffe ctiv en ess b ecau se t h ey a re s u perfic ia l in
natu re . B ette r t ra in in g a n d s tro nger s e n te n cin g w ould a p pear t o b e f a r m ore r o bust a lt e rn ativ es t h ese d ay s.

(3 14 w ord s)


Module 9 .1
36

Pre se n tin g d is a d van ta g es

In t h is e ssa y , t h e c an did ate p oin ts o ut t h e d is a d van ta g es o f s o m e id eas:
It is p ro b ably tr u e th at . . . b u t . . .

Seco n dly , it m ust b e sa id th at . . . a n d th us w ou ld b e . . .

This m ea n s th ere is a d an ger th at w e w ou ld . . .

Oth er w ay s t o p re se n t t h e d is a d van ta g es o f a n id ea a re :

It m ay b e tr u e th at X is c h ea per; n ev erth ele ss, in th e lo n g te rm it w ou ld b e a m ore e x pen siv e
op tio n .

While X m ay h ave so m e a d van ta ges, th ese a ppea r to b e o u tw eig h ed b y th e c o sts . . .

It m ig h t in itia lly a ppea r d esir a ble to d o X , b u t o n c lo se r in sp ectio n th e id ea su ffe rs fr o m
se v era l p ro b le m s.

There se em to b e a n um ber o f d ra w back s a sso cia te d w ith X , th e m ost sig n ific a n t o f w hic h is .
. .

Notic e t h at w hen w rit e rs d is c u ss d is a d van ta g es, t h ey o fte n b eg in b y c o nced in g t h at t h ere a re s o m e
sm all a d van ta g es (
It m ay b e tr u e th at
. . . f o r e x am ple .) T his h elp s t h e e ssa y a p pear v ery b ala n ced a n d
obje ctiv e, e sp ecia lly in t h is e x am ple w here t h ere is n o c o ncessio n p ara g ra p h. T ry t o d o t h is a t le ast o nce w hen
yo u a re e x p la in in g t h e d is a d van ta g es o f a n id ea o r p ro posa l.


Module 9 .2
Pre se n tin g a lt e rn ativ es

Task 2 f re q uen tly a sk s y o u t o s u ggest s o m e a lt e rn ativ e w ay s o f a ch ie v in g s o m eth in g. I t is b est t o
pre se n t t h ese a lt e rn ativ es in a s m alle r, s e lf -c o nta in ed p ara g ra p h a fte r t h e m ain b ody. I f y o u t ry t o p ut y o ur
alt e rn ativ es in t h e m ain b ody id eas, t h e e ssa y w ill p ro bab ly b eco m e c o nfu sin g f o r t h e r e ad er.
This e ssa y s h ow s y o u t h e im porta n ce o f u sin g a c o nju nctio n p hra se t o in tro duce t h e p ara g ra p h
pre se n tin g t h e a lt e rn ativ es:

Turn in g to p ossib le a lt e rn ativ es
, p ro b ably th e m ost e ffe ctiv e w ou ld b e . . .

This h elp s t h e e x am in er t o e x p ect w hat is c o m in g n ex t. O th er w ay s t o in tro duce a p ara g ra p h g iv in g
alt e rn ativ es a re :

Reg a rd in g o th er p ossib le o p tio n s, . . .

If w e n ow c o n sid er o th er w ays to d o th is, . . .

On th e su bje ct o f a lt e rn ativ es, . . .
37

Of c o u rse , th ere a re a ls o a lt e rn ativ es, in clu din g . . .

You s h ould t h en g iv e e x am ple s a n d e x p la in t h e a lt e rn ativ es, a s y o u w ould d o w it h id eas in t h e m ain
body. S om e u se fu l w ay s t o in tro duce t w o o r t h re e p ossib le a lt e rn ativ es a re :

Anoth er p ossib le o p tio n w ou ld b e to d o X , w hic h w ou ld a ch ie v e . . .

A fu rth er p ossib ili ty se em s to b e X , w hic h m ig h t a ch ie v e . . .

Alt e rn ativ ely , w e c o u ld a ls o d o X , w hic h w ou ld h ave th e e ffe ct o f a ch ie v in g . . .

In t h e e x am , m ak e s u re y o u r e ad t h e T ask in stru ctio n c are fu lly t o c h eck w heth er it is a sk in g y o u t o
su ggest a lt e rn ativ e w ay s o f d oin g s o m eth in g. T his m ig h t b e in clu ded a t t h e e n d o f t h e in stru ctio ns f o r b oth
Id eas a n d O pin io ns t y p e e ssa y s.


Module 9 .3
Collo catio ns

A ‘c o llo catio n’ is a s e t o f w ord s w hic h t ra d it io nally a re u se d t o geth er. E xam ple s f ro m g en era l E nglis h
are ‘e x tre m ely h ap py’ a n d ‘d eep ly d is a p poin te d .’ I n I E LT S w rit in g, y o u w ill in cre ase y o ur s c o re if y o u c an u se
so m e o f t h e A cad em ic E nglis h c o llo catio ns w hic h a re u se d in f o rm al w rit in g. T his e ssa y h as s o m e g o od
ex am ple s:

min or c rim e
to so m e e x te n t
cu rren t th rea t
possib le a lt e rn ativ es
im pro v ed r a te s
via ble o p tio n
su ppress th e sy m pto m s
li m ite d e ffe ctiv en ess
ro b u st a lt e rn ativ es

By u sin g t h ese c o lo catio ns, t h e w rit e r s h ow s t h at s h e c an w rit e in t h e f o rm al, a cad em ic s ty le u se d in
busin ess, c o lle g es a n d u niv ersit ie s. S om e o f t h e o th er v ery f re q uen t a cad em ic c o llo catio ns w hic h y o u s h ould u se
in y o ur I E LT S e ssa y s a re :

There is w id esp rea d c o n cern a bou t . . .
It is v ir tu ally c erta in th at . . .
It is b arely c o n ceiv able th at . . .
(= it is v ery h ard t o im ag in e t h is h ap pen in g)
There is u niv ersa l c o n se n su s th at . . .
(= e v ery b ody a g re es o n t h is )
It is o f p ara m ou nt im porta n ce th at . . .
(= m ax im um im porta n ce)
It se em s h ig h ly li k ely /u nli k ely th at . . .
It is g en era lly a ccep te d th at . . .

38

Try t o u se t h ese c o lo catio n p hra se s w here v er p ossib le in y o ur e ssa y s, a n d t h e e x am in er w ill r e co gn is e
th at y o u a re u sin g a d van ced A cad em ic E nglis h .

Pra ctic e T ask

‘T he b est w ay to e d uca te c h ild ren is b y u sin g th e I n te rn et in e v ery le sso n .’
To w hat e x te n t d o y ou sh are th is o p in io n ? W hat o th er w ays a re th ere o f m akin g le sso n s
effe ctiv e fo r c h ild ren ?

Try t o p ra ctic e t h e le sso ns f ro m t h is M odule r e g ard in g p re se n tin g d is a d van ta g es, a lt e rn ativ es a n d u sin g
co llo catio ns.

***

39

Module 1 0: ( 1 0.1 ) C om ple x s e n te n ces ( 1 0.2 ) A cad em ic p hra se s ( 1 0.3 ) B ala n ced
co nclu sio ns

Exam ple w rit in g T ask

It m ig h t b e sa id th at p ro te ctin g th e e n vir o n m en t is th e m ost im porta n t c h alle n ge fa cin g
gov ern m en ts to d ay. H ow im porta n t d o y ou fe el th is issu e is? A re th ere o th er c h alle n ges w hic h a re o f
eq u al o r g rea te r im porta n ce?

Exp la n atio n o f t h e T ask

This is a n O pin io n>E valu ate t y p e e ssa y . Y ou s h ould in tro duce t h e t o pic , s a y h ow im porta n t t h e t o pic
is su e is , a n d t h en e x p la in w hy y o u t h in k t h at o th er is su es a re m ore ( o r le ss) im porta n t. T he c o nclu sio n s h ould
be a b rie f s u m mary o f t h e m ain p oin ts.

Ban d 9 m odel e ssa y

Envir o nm en ta l is su es a re a c o ncern f o r a lm ost e v ery o ne t o day , a s w e s e e t h e n atu ra l w orld s u ffe rin g
in cre asin g d am ag e f ro m p ollu tio n, c o nstru ctio n a n d o th er h um an a ctiv it y . H ow ev er, t o s a y t h at g o vern m en ts
sh ould r e g ard t h is o ne is su e a s t h eir m ain p rio rit y m ay b e a r a th er s im plis tic v ie w .
Adm it te d ly , it is c o rre ct t h at e n vir o nm en ta l p ro te ctio n s h ould b e a m ong o ur g re ate st c o ncern s.
Wit h out c o ord in ate d m easu re s f ro m n atio nal a n d g lo bal o rg an is a tio ns, t h e e n vir o nm en t w ill c o ntin ue t o
dete rio ra te , le ad in g t o a m ore u nsta b le w orld f o r u s a ll. H ow ev er, b y f o cu ssin g o n t h is t o pic t o t h e e x clu sio n o f
oth ers w e r u n t h e r is k o f n eg le ctin g a r a n ge o f o th er, e q ually g ra v e c h alle n ges.
Fore m ost a m ong t h ese o th er c h alle n ges a p pears t o b e t h e q uestio n o f o verp opula tio n, b y w hic h I
mean t h e g ro w th o f h um an n um bers b ey o nd t h e a b ilit y o f t h e h um an r a ce t o s u pport it se lf . I f t h is p ro ble m is
not a d dre sse d , w e p ote n tia lly f a ce t h e c o lla p se o f m odern h um an s o cie ty , a n d c o nse q uen tly t h e a b ilit y o f t h e
hum an r a ce t o c o m bat t h e e n vir o nm en ta l d am ag e w hic h h as a lr e ad y t a k en p la ce. A noth er c h alle n ge w hic h is a t
le ast e q ual t o t h e e n vir o nm en t is t h e n eed t o r e d uce p overty a n d d is e ase in le ss d ev elo ped c o untrie s, w hic h
ag ain w ould e n ab le t h ose p opula tio ns t o p la y a la rg er p art in a tte m pts t o p re se rv e n atu re . F in ally , t h ere is t h e
questio n o f u nem plo ym en t a n d t h e n eed t o f in d w ay s t o r e d uce t h is p ro ble m . B y in cre asin g t h e n um ber o f
peo ple in w ork t h ro ugh out t h e w orld , g o vern m en ts w ould c re ate t h e r e v en ues a n d e co nom ic s ta b ilit y r e q uir e d
to m ak e e n vir o nm en ta l p ro te ctio n m ore v ia b le .
Overa ll, t h e e n vir o nm en t is c erta in ly a m ajo r p rio rit y . H ow ev er, it s h ould b e s e en a s o ne a m ong a
ra n ge o f is su es t o b e s o lv ed , a n d t h e s o lu tio ns t h em se lv es c o uld le ad t o b ette r p re se rv atio n o f n atu re .

(2 84 w ord s)

Module 1 0.1
Com ple x s e n te n ces

A c o m ple x s e n te n ce s im ply m ean s a s e n te n ce w it h t w o o r m ore id eas c o nta in ed in it . O ne o f t h e m ost
co m mon w eak nesse s w hic h I E LT S e x am in ers s a y t h ey f in d in e ssa y s is t h at
all
t h e s e n te n ces a re t o o s h ort o r
to o b asic . I n t h is e ssa y , t h e c an did ate h as s h ow n s e v era l t im es t h at, a lt h ough s o m e o f h is s e n te n ces a re q uit e
40

sh ort, h e c an a ls o u se c o m ple x s e n te n ces s u ch a s t h ese :

With ou t c o ord in ate d m ea su res fr o m n atio n al a n d g lo b al o rg a n isa tio n s, th e e n vir o n m en t w ill
co n tin ue to d ete rio ra te , le a d in g to a m ore u nsta ble w orld fo r u s a ll.

Forem ost a m on g th ese o th er c h alle n ges a ppea rs to b e th e q u estio n o f o v erp op u la tio n , b y w hic h
I m ea n th e g ro w th o f h um an n um bers b ey on d th e a bili ty o f th e h um an r a ce to su pport itse lf .

Usin g
le a d in g to
a n d
by w hic h I m ea n
a re g o od w ay s t o s h ow t h e e x am in er t h at y o u c an w rit e
co m ple x s e n te n ces.
Oth er u se fu l w ay s t o b uild t h ese s e n te n ces a re :

While X m ay b e p ositiv e in so m e r esp ects, w e sh ou ld a ls o c o n sid er its n eg a tiv e a sp ects, n am ely
A, B a n d C .

We fa ce a n um ber o f c h alle n ges in th is fie ld , r a n gin g fr o m A to B a n d e v en , in th e lo n g te rm ,
C.

We sh ou ld n ot o n ly d o X , b u t a ls o c o n sid er d oin g Y a s w ell.

Alt h ou gh it m ay b e u se fu l to d o X , th is w ou ld r esu lt in Y , c a u sin g . . .

In a n y I E LT S e ssa y , t ry t o m ak e s u re t h at t h e
majo rity
o f y o ur s e n te n ces a re c o m ple x o nes.
Rem em ber t h at u sin g
le a d in g to /c a u sin g/r esu lt in g in
is o fte n t h e e asie st w ay t o d o t h is .

Module 1 0.2
Acad em ic p hra se s

Ju st a s a cad em ic c o llo catio ns ( se ts o f w ord s w hic h t ra d it io nally g o t o geth er) s h ow t h at y o ur w rit in g is
ad van ced , t h ere a re a ls o s o m e a cad em ic p hra se s w hic h a re w id ely u se d . T his e ssa y u se s:

It is c o rrect th at . . .

. . . b y fo cu ssin g o n th is to p ic to th e e x clu sio n o f o th ers . . .

. . . w e r u n th e r isk o f . . .

Forem ost a m on g th ese o th er c h alle n ges . . .
(= t h e m ost im porta n t)

. . . o n e a m on g a r a n ge o f issu es . . .

Oth er u se fu l a cad em ic p hra se s f o r y o u t o u se in clu de:

By n o m ea n s
(= c erta in ly n ot)
Eg P ollu tio n is b y n o m ea n s th e o n ly c h alle n ge th at w e fa ce
(= p ollu tio n is c erta in ly n ot t h e o nly
one)

41

Abov e a ll
(= t h e m ost im porta n t o r m ost u rg en t t h in g)
Eg
Abov e a ll, w e m ust tr y to r ed uce c rim e, b eca u se . . .

Reg a rd le ss o f
( = it d oes n ot m atte r)
Eg
Gov ern m en ts sh ou ld c rea te a h ig h q u ali ty tr a n sp ort in fr a str u ctu re, r eg a rd le ss o f th e c o st
( =
th e in fra stru ctu re is s o im porta n t t h at t h e c o st d oes n ot m atte r)

By th is w e m ea n th at . . .

This is n ot to sa y th at . . .
( = t h is d oes n ot n ecessa rily m ean t h at . . .)
Eg
Crim e is a m ajo r c o n cern , b u t th is is n ot to sa y th at it sh ou ld b e th e o n ly fo cu s fo r th e
au th oritie s.

Try t o r e m em ber t h ese p hra se s, a n d u se t h em a t le ast t w ic e in y o ur T ask 2 e ssa y . I f y o u u se t h em
co rre ctly , t h e e x am in er w ill g iv e y o u c re d it f o r u sin g A cad em ic E nglis h .


Module 1 0.3
Bala n ced c o nclu sio ns

A b ala n ced c o nclu sio n m ean s t h at y o ur s u m mary o r c o nclu sio n r e co gn is e s t h at a s it u atio n is c o m ple x ,
an d t h at a n um ber o f f a cto rs a re in vo lv ed :

Overa ll, th e e n vir o n m en t is c erta in ly a m ajo r p rio rity . H ow ev er, it sh ou ld b e se en a s o n e
am on g a r a n ge o f issu es to b e so lv ed , a n d th e so lu tio n s th em se lv es c o u ld le a d to b ette r p rese rv atio n o f
natu re.

This is m ore in t h e t ra d it io n o f A cad em ic E nglis h t h an s a y in g ‘T he e n vir o nm en t is c erta in ly t h e m ajo r
prio rit y ’ o r s im ila r.
Anoth er u se fu l w ay t o w rit e a b ala n ced c o nclu sio n is t o u se
Pro v id ed th at
o r
As lo n g a s
t o s e t a
co ndit io n o n y o ur c o nclu sio n. F or e x am ple :

Overa ll, it se em s th at v id eo g a m es c a n b e a u se fu l p art o f a c h ild ’s e d uca tio n , p ro v id ed th at
th e c o n te n t is m on ito red b y p aren ts a n d te a ch ers.

To su m u p, it a ppea rs th at to u rism is a b en efit to le ss d ev elo p ed c o u ntr ie s, a s lo n g a s so m e o f
th e p ro fits a re r ein veste d in th e lo ca l in fr a str u ctu re.

In a n y c o nclu sio n t o a T ask 2 e ssa y , t ry t o h av e a b ala n ced c o nclu sio n. T he s im ple st w ay t o d o t h is is
to u se
on e a m on g a r a n ge o f/a s lo n g a s/p ro v id ed th at
.

Pra ctic e T ask

Som e p eo p le fe el th at p u bli c m on ey sh ou ld n ot b e sp en t o n c u lt u ra l a m en itie s su ch a s
muse u m s, th ea tr es a n d a rt fe stiv als . H ow im porta n t d o y ou th in k th ese th in gs a re to so cie ty a s a
whole ? A re th ere a n y a rea s w hic h a re m ore im porta n t fo r th e g ov ern m en t to fu nd?
42

Rem em ber t o p ra ctis e t h e p oin ts w e h av e s tu die s a b out c o m ple x s e n te n ces, a cad em ic p hra se s a n d
hav in g a b ala n ced c o nclu sio n.

***
43

The 1 0 m ost c o m mon m is ta k es in I E LT S a cad em ic w rit in g

Usin g c o ntr a ctio ns
( fo r e x am ple
‘I d on ’t th in k’
o r ‘
We c a n ’t sa y’
)
in ste ad o f t h e f u ll f o rm
(‘
I d o n ot th in k’
o r ‘
we c a n not sa y.’
) N ev er u se c o ntra ctio ns in a cad em ic w rit in g.

Writ in g t o o f e w w ord s.
I f y o u w rit e m uch le ss t h an t h e r e q uir e d w ord c o unt, t h e e x am in er h as t o
re d uce y o ur s c o re , e v en if y o ur e ssa y is g o od q ualit y . Y ou s h ould c o unt t h e n um ber o f w ord s in y o ur
essa y a fte r e ach p ara g ra p h a n d k eep a c o ntin uous t o ta l; t h is w ay , y o u c an b e s u re o f r e ach in g a t le ast 2 50
word s in 4 0 m in ute s.

Writ in g t o o m an y w ord s.
T he e x am in er is p aid t o m ark o n a n ‘e ssa y p er h our b asis ,’ a n d s o w ill
not r e ad t h e e n d o f a n e ssa y if it e x ceed s t h e m in im um w ord c o unt b y m ore t h an a b out 1 00 w ord s. T his
mean s h e o r s h e w ill n ot s e e t h e e n d o f y o ur a rg u m en t, a n d y o ur s c o re w ill r e d uce c o nsid era b ly .
Rem em ber: 2 50 w ord s m in im um , a n d a b out 3 50 w ord s m ax im um in A cad em ic T ask 2 w rit in g.

Hav in g h an dw rit in g t h at is d if fic u lt t o r e ad .
I E LT S is s till a h an dw rit te n e x am , a n d t h e
ex am in ers w ill n ot s p en d t im e t ry in g t o u ndersta n d y o ur w rit in g. Y ou m ust m ak e s u re t h at y o ur
han dw rit in g c an b e r e ad q uic k ly . Y ou s h ould f o cu s o n w rit in g c le arly w hen y o u d o y o ur p ra ctic e e ssa y s.
Ask f rie n ds o r o th er s tu den ts t o g iv e y o u a n h onest o pin io n a b out w heth er y o ur w rit in g is e asy t o r e ad .

Usin g in fo rm al w ord s
( fo r e x am ple ‘a
nic e
id ea’ o r ‘a
silly
t h in g t o d o’)
in ste ad o f a cad em ic
word s
( fo r e x am ple ‘a
positiv e
id ea’ o r ‘a
reg retta ble
t h in g t o d o.’) R em em ber t h at a cad em ic v o cab ula ry
is d if fe re n t f ro m t h e la n gu ag e y o u w ould u se in E nglis h w hen t a lk in g t o f rie n ds.

Giv in g p erso nal o pin io n in a n I D EAS t y p e T ask .
Check if t h e T ask is a sk in g f o r y o ur
opin io n o r n ot. T he f ir st q uestio n y o u s h ould a sk y o urse lf is ‘
Is th is a n O PIN IO N o r a n I D EA S
Task ?


Tellin g s to rie s a b out y o ur p erso nal h is to ry , f r ie n ds o r f a m ily .
T he T ask t e lls y o u t o u se
‘ ex am ple s fr o m y ou r o w n e x perie n ce
,’ b ut t h is d oes
not
m ean d esc rib in g s to rie s f ro m y o ur lif e o r
peo ple y o u k now . I t m ean s d esc rib in g e x am ple s o f t h in gs in t h e w orld t h at y o u k now a b out, h av e
stu die d o r h av e le arn ed a b out in t h e m ed ia .

Giv in g e v id en ce w hic h is t o o d eta ile d o r s p ecif ic t o a s u bje ct.
You m ay b e a n e x p ert in a
partic u la r s o cia l o r s c ie n tif ic f ie ld , b ut t h e e x am in er p ro bab ly h as a d if fe re n t s p ecia lt y . Y ou n eed t o m ak e
yo ur id eas a n d e x am ple s a ccessib le t o a g en era l r e ad er. F or e x am ple , if t h e T ask t o pic is a b out m oney a n d
yo u a re a n a cco unta n t, d o n ot u se s p ecia liz ed a cco untin g t e rm s.

Bein g e m otio nal o r t o o d ra m atic w hen g iv in g y o ur o pin io n in a n O PIN IO N T ask .
You m ay f e el s tro ngly a b out is su es s u ch a s a n im als o r c rim e, b ut a cad em ic w rit in g m ust b e u nem otio nal.
So a v o id p hra se s s u ch a s ‘
a d isg u stin g id ea ’
o r ‘
I d ete st th is c o n cep t
.’ I t is m uch b ette r t o s a y ‘
an
unaccep ta ble id ea ’
o r ‘
I d isa ppro v e o f th is c o n cep t
,’ w hic h is m ore im perso nal a n d a cad em ic ; s im ila r
to t h e t y p e o f w rit in g t h at p eo ple u se in b usin ess r e p orts o r u niv ersit y e ssa y s.

44

Not f o llo w in g t h e b asic s tr u ctu re s p re se n te d in t h is b ook.
The e x am in ers w an t t o s e e a
cle ar, w ell- stru ctu re d e ssa y t h at is e asy t o r e ad . T hey a re a ccu sto m ed t o s e ein g t h e s tru ctu re s w e h av e
pre se n te d in t h is b ook, a n d t h ey w ill f e el m ore p osit iv e a b out y o ur e ssa y if t h ey c an r e co gn iz e t h ese
stru ctu re s in w hat y o u w rit e . R em em ber: t h e
to p ic
u nder d is c u ssio n w ill b e d if fe re n t e v ery t im e, b ut t h e
basic c o ncep t b eh in d t h e T ask a n d t h e e ssa y w ill b e t h e s a m e. G iv e t h e e x am in ers w hat t h ey w an t, a n d
th ey w ill r e w ard y o u w it h a h ig h s c o re , e v en if t h ere a re s o m e g ra m matic al m is ta k es in y o ur E nglis h .
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Help f r o m t h e e x p erts

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offe rs? C onta ct u s a t
cam brid geie lt s@ outlo ok.c o m
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lis t. W e w ill n ot c o m munic ate y o ur e m ail a d dre ss t o a n yo ne e ls e .
We h ope y o u f o und t h is b ook u se fu l. P le ase a ls o s e e o ur A m azo n a u th or p ag e f o r o ur o th er I E LT S p re p ara tio n
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