Collins_Grammar_for_IELTS

Формат документа: pdf
Размер документа: 2.95 Мб




Прямая ссылка будет доступна
примерно через: 45 сек.



  • Сообщить о нарушении / Abuse
    Все документы на сайте взяты из открытых источников, которые размещаются пользователями. Приносим свои глубочайшие извинения, если Ваш документ был опубликован без Вашего на то согласия.


English for Exam sW ith CD
Grammar
fo r IELTS
Fiona Aish &
Jo Tomlinson
■L&
11 *\
. ■ j u t ; j
B P H
; POWERED BY COBUILD

#
Unit TopicG ra m m a r
focus
G ra m m a rExam
practice S u b -s k illPage
n u m b er
1
OHolidays and
tr a v e lS im p le
te n s e sP re s e n t s im p le ,
past s im p le and
p re s e n t p e rfe c tS peaking
P a rt 1W ritin g
Task 26
2
Free tim eC o n tin u o u s
te n s e sPast c o n tin u o u s ,
p re s e n t c o n tin u o u s ,
p re s e n t p e rfe c t
c o n tin u o u sW ritin g
Task 1Reading 10
3
o
•1 I 1FamePast
N a rra tiv e te n s e s :
past p e rfe c t and
used to /w o u ldReading
L is te n in g
S ection 214
4
OEducationF u tu re 1
Witt and going toL is te n in g
S e ctio n 1S peaking
P a rt 318
5
OThe In te rn e tF u tu re 2
P re s e n t c o n tin u o u s
f o r fu tu r e and fu tu r e
p e rfe c tL is te n in g
S ection 2Reading 22
6
OThe fa m ilyWord
o rd e r and
p u n c tu a tio nS u b je c t + v e rb
+ o b je c t and
p u n c tu a tio nW ritin g
Task 2S peaking
P a rt 226
7
The
e nviro n m en tS u b je c t/v e rb
a g re e m e n tS in g u la r + p lu r a l
n o u n s /v e rb s and
d e te r m in e r sReading
W ritin g
Task 130
8
o
*1 1*FoodC o u n ta b le /
u n c o u n ta b le
nounsC o u n ta b le and
u n c o u n ta b le n o un sS peaking
P a rt 2L is te n in g
S ection 134
9
Em ploym ent
and financeA r tic le s
U sing a, the o r no
a r tic leW ritin g
Task 1Reading 38
10
oYouthL in k in g
w o rd s and
s ig n p o s tin gGiving a d d itio n a l,
o p po site ,
c o n tra s tin g
in fo r m a tio nReading L is te n in g
Section 442

      
      
      !
    
11
OPeople and
placesC om p a ra tiv e s
and
s u p e rla tiv e sC om p a ra tive
s tr u c tu r e sL is te n in g
S ection 3S peaking
P a rt 146
12
OC rim eM o d als 1 P re s e n t m o d a ls
can /m a y/sh o uld etc.Speaking
P a rt 3W ritin g
Task 250
13
QThe plan etM odals 2 Past m o d a l v e rb s L is te n in g
S ection 3Reading 54
14
OG lobalizationC o n d itio n a ls Zero, fir s t,
second and th ird
c o n d itio n a lsSpeaking
P a rt 3W ritin g
Task 258
15
OC u lture and
m odern
societyR eported
speechTense, tim e and
p ro no u n changesReading Speaking
P a rt 262
16
OH ealth and
fitnessP ronoun use
Using re fe re nce
w o rd s to m a in ta in
cohesion in w r it in gW ritin g
Task 2L is te n in g
S ection 266
17
FashionP a ra gra p h
and te x t
o rg a n iz a tio nU n d e rs ta n d in g
how te x ts and
p a ra g ra p h s are
o rganizedReading
W ritin g
Task 170
18
OFilm and
e n te rta in m e n tThe passive S im p le passive
S peaking
P art 2L is te n in g
S ection 374
19
OW ild lifeR elative
c la u s e sR elative cla u s e s L is te n in g
S ection 4Speaking
P a rt 378
20
Men and
w omenNoun p h rase s C o n s tru c tio n of
noun ph rase sW ritin g
Task 2Reading 82

0# 86
A n s w e r key103
G ra m m a r refe re n c e
Unit 11 U
Unit 2115
Unit 3116
Unit U117
Unit 5118
Unit 11119
Unit U120
Unit 15122
Unit 18123
IELTS in fo rm atio n124

!$%&
W ho is th is book fo r?
G ra m m a r fo r IELTS w i l l h elp im pro ve y o u r g r a m m a tic a l kn o w le d g e f o r a ll fo u r p apers of the
IELTS exam . As you know, g r a m m a t ic a l a c c u ra c y and ra n ge are p a rt of th e m a rk in g c r ite r ia fo r
th e IELTS W ritin g and S peaking papers. A lso , g r a m m a tic a l a c c u ra c y is im p o r ta n t in th e IELTS
L is te n in g and Reading papers. The book can be used fo r s e lf- s tu d y o r as s u p p le m e n ta ry m a te r ia l
fo r IELTS p re p a ra tio n classes. It is s u ita b le fo r le a rn e rs a t leve l 5.0-5.5 a im in g fo r band 6.0 o r
higher.
S u m m a r y
The G ram m ar fo r IELTS book and CD cover g r a m m a r and s k ills w hich are relevant to a ll fo u r exam
papers: L istening, Reading, W ritin g and Speaking. Each u n it begins w ith a g r a m m a r section
p re sen tin g the key g r a m m a r fo r the u n it w ith exam ple se ntences and exp la n a tion s. This g r a m m a r
section is fo llo w e d by exercises th a t help you develop the g ra m m a tic a l know ledge and s k ills
needed fo r the exam. At the end of each unit, th e re is an exam pra ctice section w hich is m o d elled
on th e a c tu a l IELTS exam. Tips th ro u g h o u t the book h ig h lig h t e s s e n tia l g r a m m a r-re la te d le a rn in g
s tra te g ie s and exam te ch niques.
C o n te n t
Units
Each u n it is divided into th re e pa rts.
The firs t p a rt in tro d u c e s key g r a m m a r using C o llin s COBUILD g r a m m a r e x p la n a tio n s and
e xam ple se n te n ces.
The second part, c o n ta in in g Practice exercises, provides a s tru c tu re d set of exercises w h ic h help
you develop th e s k ills to s u c c e s s fu lly apply g r a m m a tic a l k n o w le dg e to the exam. The exercises are
a com b in a tio n of tra d itio n a l g r a m m a r exercises and exercises based on the IELTS exam.
The third part, c o n ta in in g Exam practice, provides exam p ra c tic e exe rcise s in a fo r m a t th a t
fo llo w s th e a c tu a l exam giving you th e o p p o rtu n ity to fa m ilia r iz e y o u r s e lf w ith the k in d s of
q u e s tio n s you w i l l e n c o u n te r in th e exam. T his se ctio n fo c u s e s on a p a r t ic u la r exam p a pe r and is
h ig h lig h te d in grey f o r easy reference.
Exam tips
There are exam tip s and s tra te g ie s in each u n it. These are in boxes fo r easy reference.
Audio script
A ll audio f o r th e L is te n in g and S peaking p a pe rs has been re corded on th e CD using native
sp e a k e rs of E n g lish . A f u l l audio s c rip t, in c lu d in g m o d e l a n s w e rs f o r th e S peaking papers, is
provided at th e back of th e book so th a t you can ch eck th e lan g u a ge used in the lis te n in g and
sp e a k in g e xercises, if needed.
A n s w e r key
A co m p re h e n s iv e a n s w e r key is provided fo r a ll s e c tio n s of th e book in c lu d in g m o d e l a n s w e rs f o r
m o re o p e n -e n d e d w r it in g and s p e akin g ta s k s .
u

          
T h ere is a d e ta ile d g r a m m a r re fe re n c e s e c tio n at th e back o f th e book w h e re th e fo r m s o f th e
g r a m m a r p o in ts p re s e n te d in th e u n its are provided f o r y o u r re fe re n c e . T h ere is a note in th e u n it
t e llin g you w h ic h page to re fe r to in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e s e ctio n.
H ow to use th is book
The book is divided in to 20 u n its . Each u n it is s e lf- c o n ta in e d so th a t you can s tu d y th e u n its in
any order. You can choose th e u n it you w a n t to s tu d y e it h e r by s e le c tin g th e g r a m m a r you w a n t to
s tu d y o r s e le c tin g w h ic h exam p a pe rs you w a n t to p ra c tis e . A s u b - s k ill is a lso p ra c tis e d in each
u n it. As a re s u lt, o n ly th e u n its w ith p ra c tic e on S peaking and L is te n in g p a pe rs co n ta in audio.
The c o n te n ts pages at th e b e g in n in g of th e book provide an o v e rv ie w of w h a t is in each u n it so
you can use th is to choose w h ic h u n its you w o u ld lik e to s tu d y fir s t. These pages a ls o give you
in fo r m a tio n on w h ic h u n its c o n ta in audio.
You w i l l p ro b a b ly fin d it h e lp fu l to begin each u n it by re a din g th e g r a m m a r s e c tio n in th e f ir s t
p a rt, th e n w o r k in g th ro u g h th e e xe rc is e s in p re p a ra tio n f o r th e exam p ra c tic e e xe rcise at th e
end. Try to do th e exam e xe rcise s w it h in th e tim e l im i t to give y o u r s e lf r e a lis tic exam p ra c tic e .
G e tting w e ll- in fo r m e d fe e d b a ck on y o u r w r it in g and s p e a k in g exam p ra c tic e e xe rc is e s w o u ld also
be an advantage. However, if th is is not p ossible, it is s t i l l im p o r ta n t to do th e e xe rc is e s in fu ll.
S tudying m o d e l a n s w e rs can help you develop th e a b ility to assess y o u r own w o rk . If po ssib le,
re co rd y o u r s e lf w he n s p e a k in g and lis te n c a r e fu lly to y o u r p e rfo rm a n c e . Avoid m e m o riz in g
m o d e l a n s w e rs fo r th e W ritin g and S peaking p apers. R e m e m b e r th a t in th e a c tu a l exam , it is
im p o r ta n t to a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n and not ju s t sp e a k o r w r it e a b o u t th e topic.
As p a rt of y o u r f in a l p re p a ra tio n before th e exam , you c o u ld re -re a d th e exam tip s in th e boxes.
This w i l l re m in d you of th e s tra te g ie s fo r success in th e exam .

Holidays and travel
P r e s e n t s im p le te n s e I P a st s im p le t e n s e I P r e s e n t p e r f e c t s im p le te n s e
S im p le te n s e s
Present sim ple: The present simple is used to ta lk about:
1 P e rm anent situ a tion s
I w o r k in th e c ity b u t I live in th e c o u n try s id e .
Rome is th e c a p ita l of Italy.
2 Things which happen often o r repeatedly
I v is it my g ra n d p a re n ts in S co tla nd every
s u m m e r.People o fte n send p o s tc a rd s fro m in te re s tin a
places.
3 Facts o f nature o r science
T ra v e llin g by pla n e uses a lo t of enerqy.
B ird s m iq ra te in w in te r.
U Timetables
The bus d e p a rts at 9.10.
The t r a in to London leaves everv 30 m in u te s .
Past sim ple: The past simple is used to talk about:
1 C om pleted actions o r events in the past
I v is ite d th e m u s e u m s in N ew York.
I saw som e m o n u m e n ts on holiday.
2 A ctions o r events th a t happened a t a specific tim e in the p a s t (when)
Last m o n th I w e n t on h o lid a v fo r 2 w ee ks.
I tra v e lle d to Tokvo la s t year.
3 Things which happened often o r re g u la rly in the past
We alw ays w e n t on h o lid a v to France w hen I
w as a c h ild .Everv s u m m e r I s p e n t th e s c h o o l h olidavs
w ith my cousins.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

     7The present perfect sim ple is used to ta lk about:
1 A ctions which s ta rte d in the past and continue now
I've w o rk e d abroad f o r ten years.
He has lived in G e rm a n y since 2002.
2 A ctions in the p a st when the tim e is n o t finished.
I've v is ite d m any a r t g a lle r ie s th is year. (This
y e a r is not fin is h e d )He has lived in a lo t of d iffe r e n t p laces in his
life . (His life is not fin is h e d )
3 Recent events which are re la te d to the p re s e n t
W h e re ’s my c a m e ra ? Oh no, s o m e on e has
s to le n it.Is Sarah having d in n e r w ith us? No, she has
gone back to th e c a m p s ite to rest.
< ^ S e e page 114 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e f o r m o re in fo rm a tio n .
P ra c tic e e x e rc is e s
Decide on th e c o r r e c t te n s e (p re s e n t s im p le , past s im p le o r p re s e n t p e rfe c t s im p le ) and
fin is h th e se n te n c e s . Decide w h ic h r u le m a tc h e s th e m e a n in g o f each se n te n ce.
1 The sun o f t e n________ in M orocco, [shine] Tense: ________ Rule n u m b e r : ________
2 ‘ It's late. W h e r e ________ ?' [you/go] Tense: ________ Rule n u m b e r : ________
3 W hat t i m e ________ ? [the bus/leave) Tense: ________ Rule n u m b e r : ________
U J o h n ________ (go) to Finland la s t year, but h e ________ [like] it. Tense:_________
Rule n u m b e r :
________
5 The w o r l d ________ (see) a m assive s h if t in tr a n s p o r t and t o u r is m in th e la s t decade.
Tense:
________ Rule n u m b e r : ________
6 C ru is e s h ip s ________ [cross] th e A tla n tic w ith th e m a jo r ity o f people before a ir tra v e l
becam e so a ffo rd a b le . Tense:
________ Rule n u m b e r : ________
Exam tip: P ra c tis e lis te n in g to and saying th e c o n tra c te d fo r m of som e verbs, fo r
e xa m p le : he has taken = he's taken, I have been = I've been
Holidays and tr a v e l 7

  B  3                     3       =>& <     F       G
     9   3  9  9           
O@       9      $      $                  9   $      P
 9   $            F  GLLLLLLLLLLL Fim p ro v e) pe op le 's u n d e rs ta n d in g of
e n da n g e re d species. P r io r to m ass to u r is m , m any s o c ie tie s ( 2 )
___________ (d isre g a rd }
th e n a tu r a l life aro un d th e m . However, due to to u r is m m any c o u n trie s ( 3 )
___________
[invest] in c o n s e rv a tio n p ro g ra m m e s . E c o to u ris m is now a very p o p u la r and a lo t of to u r is ts
( 4 ) ____________[visit] A fric a , Asia and South A m e ric a and ( 5 )
____________ [partake] in
p ro je c ts w h ic h care fo r th e e n v iro n m e n t. A lth o u g h th e re are p o sitive p o in ts, to u r is m
(6 )
__________ (a/so have] a la rg e n u m b e r of negative e ffe c ts on the e n v iro n m e n t. These
(7 )
__________ (in c lu d e] an incre a se in a ir p o llu tio n fro m plane tra v e l, ru b b is h fro m
t o u r is ts in p a rk s and on beaches and th e d e s tru c tio n of m any of th e w o r ld 's rain fo re s ts .
There are advantages and d isa d va n ta g es fo r people too. D urin g the 1990s in m any
p a rts of th e w o r ld , such as Spain o r T h a ila n d , to u r is m ( 8 )
___________ [bring] e co n o m ic
d e v e lo p m e n t and [ 9 ]
___________ (c re a te] a range of new e m p lo y m e n t p o s s ib ilitie s fo r
lo c a l people. On th e o th e r hand, th e re s u lts of th is in c re a s e in to u r is m s o m e tim e s produce
negative e ffe c ts f o r p o p u la tio n s . Often a new h o te l o r re s o rt ( 1 0 )
_____________ (destroy]
t r a d itio n a l jo b s such as a g r ic u ltu r e , fis h in g and c ra fts .
3 Read th e f o llo w in g d ia lo g u e and c o m p le te th e te x t w it h th e c o r r e c t f o r m o f th e p re s e n t
s im p le , p a s t s im p le o r p re s e n t p e r fe c t s im p le . Use th e v e rb s in th e b ra c k e ts .
E x a m in e r : W here ( 1 )
________ [live]?
N ik o la s : I ( 2 )
________ [come] fro m Moscow. I ( 3 ) _________ [live] th e re fo r 6 years. My
fa m ily ( 4 )
________ [move] fro m th e c o u n try s id e w h e n I w as 12 ye a rs old.
E x a m in e r : ( 5 )
________ s t i l l ( 6 ) _________ [live] w ith y o u r fa m ily ?
N ik o la s : Yes, I (7 )
-------------- [do], I (8) _________ [live] w ith my parents and (9) (share)
a room w ith m y brother. My b ro th e r s t ill (1 0 )
________ [go] to school. He is only 8 years old.
E x a m in e r : ( 1 1 )
________ [lik e ] M oscow?
N ik o la s : Yes, I (12)
________ [love] Moscow. When I fir s t (13) _________ [arrive], I (14) _________
(not like) it m uch because it was so different, but I (15) _________ [grow] accustom ed to it. Now, I
(16)
-------------- [know]
my way around and (17) _________ [have]
lots of friends.
E x a m in e r : How (1 8 )
________ [Moscow/change] re c e n tly ?
N ik o la s : It ( 1 9 )
-------------- [become]
m o re in te r n a tio n a l, and m o re e xcitin g . In th e la s t fe w
years, a b o u t te n new in te r n a tio n a l re s ta u ra n ts (2 0 )
________ [open] in m y area alone
and I o fte n ( 2 1 )
_(eaf) in th e m now w ith m y frie n d s . I (2 2 ) ___________________ [have]
lo ts of
in t e r n a tio n a l fr ie n d s w ho (2 3 )
________ [come] to s tu d y at th e U n iv e rs ity in Moscow, and
we o fte n (2 4 )
___________ [m eet] in th e evenings.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn



01
Now listen and check your answers to Exercise 3.
i Speaking exam tip: Try to a n s w e r th e q u e s tio n th e e x a m in e r a sks you, and give m ore
i in fo r m a tio n . N ik o la s has ta lk e d a b o u t a change and th e n th e r e s u lt of th a t change.
4 A n s w e r these questions yo u rs e lf and tr y to give as much in fo rm atio n as possible.
1 W here do you liv e ?__________________________________________________________
2 How long have you lived th e r e ? _______________________________________________
3 W hat do you lik e about y o u r hom e to w n ? ______________________________________
U W hat o th e r c o u n trie s have you v is it e d ? ________________________________________
5 W here did you go on holid ay la s t y e a r ? ________________________________________
6 How often do you go to th e s e a s id e ? ___________________________________________
Exam practice: Speaking P a rt 1
L is t e n to t h e 5 q u e s t io n s o n t h e C D, a n d a n s w e r t h e m a s f u l l y a s p o s s ib le . You w i l l ha ve

02
3 0 s e c o n d s b e t w e e n q u e s t io n s to g iv e y o u r a n s w e r s .
Speaking exam tip: Try to m i r r o r th e e x a m in e r’s g r a m m a r in th e f ir s t se n te n ce of y o u r
a n s w e r and use the co n tra c te d fo rm in y o u r a n s w e r w h e re you can, e.g. ‘ Have you
lived...?’ - ' i ’ve liv e d ....’ ‘ Do you like...?' - ‘ I like ...'
£ " ' | j N ow lis te n to T ra ck 03 on th e CD and the m o d e l a n s w e rs given by th e s tu d e n t. How w e re they
03 b e tte r th a n o r d iffe re n t fr o m y o u r a n s w e rs?
Holidays and tra v e l

Cl i m a
rree ume
P r e s e n t c o n t in u o u s te n s e I P a st c o n tin u o u s te n s e I P r e s e n t p e r f e c t c o n t in u o u s te n s e
C ontinuous te n s e s
The c o n tin u o u s te n s e s h ig h lig h t th e d u ra tio n of the a c tiv ity so th a t th e re is a fo cus on th e a c tiv ity
in pro gre ss.
Present continuous: The present continuous is used to ta lk about:
1 S om ething that is happening / in progress now
Some people are s ittin g on th e gra ss and having a picnic.
2 Changes and developm ents
The n u m b e r of Web u s e rs w ho shop o n lin e is in c re a s in g ,
3 Temporary s itu a tion s
My frie n d is sta yin g in a h o lid a y cam p.
Past continuous: The past continuous is used to ta lk about:
1 Continuing pa st actions happening at the same tim e as a n o th e r event.
I w as s w im m in g in th e sea w he n th e ra in s ta rte d .
2 D escribing s itu a tio n s in the p ast
Some people w e re re la x in g by the pool and o th e rs w e re playing te n n is .
3 Temporary s itu a tio n s in the past
For th e f ir s t tw o days of m y h o lid a y I w as staving w ith frie n d s .
Present perfect continuous: The present perfect continuous is used to talk about:
1 A ctions th a t s ta rte d in the pa st and are continuing now
My best frie n d has been le a rn in g French since January.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 1When you m e ntion the re s u lts o f a re ce n t ac tiv ity
I'm so tire d . I’ve been w a itin g fo r th e tr a in f o r h o u rs.
3 When we w an t to emphasize the re p e titio n o r d u ratio n o f an action
T h e y’ve been th in k in g a b o u t w h e re to go th is w ee ke n d .
See page 115 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e f o r m o re in fo r m a tio n .
P rac tic e e xe rc ise s
Decide on the correct tense (present continuous, past continuous or present perfect
continuous) and complete the sentences 1 -6 using the verbs in the brackets. Decide
which rule matches the meaning of each sentence.
1 'W h a t________ (cfo)?’ You loo k e x h a u s te d !’
Tense:
_______________________________________________Rule n u m b e r : __
2 'Can you h e lp me w ith my h o m e w o rk ? ’ ‘ No, I ________ TV.’ [watch]
T ense:_______________________________________________Rule n u m b e r :
__
3 The n u m b e r of people ta kin g up e xtre m e s p o r t s ___ (increase) since th e e a rly 1990s.
Tense:
_______________________________________________Rule n u m b e r : __
U Last m o n th I ________ (have) a c tin g les s o n s b u t I had to stop w h e n I lo s t m y voice.
Tense:
_______________________________________________Rule n u m b e r : __
5 T h e y ________ [w alk] in th e c o u n try s id e w h e n s u d d e n ly it s ta rte d to ra in .
Tense:
_______________________________________________Rule n u m b e r : __
6 I d o n ’t lik e th e book th a t I ________ (read) at th e m o m e n t.
T ense:
_______________________________________________Rule n u m b e r : __
G ram m ar tip: Continuous verbs are u su ally active verbs (verbs such as to run), th a t re fe r to
an action). Stative verbs (such as to know], re fe r to a state, and are u su ally used in s im ple
tenses, e.g. I want a new bike not I am wanting a new bike as to want is a state, not an action.
Som e v e rb s such as to see have both an active and a s ta tiv e m e a nin g .
L o o k a t th e f o llo w in g s e n te n c e s 1 -5 and d e c id e if th e m a in v e rb s s h o u ld be in th e p re s e n t
c o n tin u o u s o r th e p re s e n t s im p le .
1 I am not agreeing / 1 don't agree th a t going to the cinem a is b e tte r than w atch in g f ilm s on TV.
2 I have / 1 am having a g re a t tim e in P a ris at th e m o m e n t, (m e an in g = to enjoy)
3 I like / 1 am lik in g stu d y in g S panish in m y fre e tim e .
A Do you m in d / Are you m ind in g if I s it here?
5 I t h i n k / I ' m th in k in g a b ou t le a rn in g to s a il next year, (m e an in g = to plan to do)L.22 fdS 2

# (       ( /! !   A#!
text, then complete the sum m ary below using continuous verbs from the text.
The a m o u n t of le is u re tim e a va ila b le to people has been in c re a s in g since th e e a rly
tw e n tie th c e n tu ry w he n m a c h in e s s ta rte d to be invented to do m a n y la b o u r inte nsive
ta s k s both at w o r k and in th e hom e. P reviously, people w ere s p e nd in g m any m o re h o u rs
doing basic m e n ia l ta s k s and as a r e s u lt had less tim e a va ila b le f o r hobbies and a c tiv itie s .
A lth o u g h re c e n tly m any people have been c o m p la in in g a b ou t t h e ir w o r k life balance,
s tu d ie s s h o w th a t th e a m o u n t of fre e tim e we have has been ris in g c o n tin u o u s ly fo r over
50 years. M ore people are playing s p o rt on a r e g u la r basis nowadays and young people
are ta k in g up t r a d itio n a l style hobb ie s such as k n ittin g and w a lk in g in th e c o u n try s id e .
T h e re has a lso been a larg e a m o u n t of g o v e rn m e n t in v e s tm e n t in le is u re fa c ilitie s in lo c a l
c o m m u n itie s , w h ic h has assiste d th e up ta ke of hobb ie s f o r a range of people in c lu d in g
c h ild re n and th e e ld e rly. A fe w ye a rs ago, v is ito r s to a lo c a l p a rk w o u ld see people w ho
w e re playing fo o tb a ll o r w a lk in g t h e ir dog. However, nowadays people are using th e gym o r
a c lim b in g w a ll as t h e ir w ay of s p o rtin g re c re a tio n .
S um m ary
Over the la s t h a lf c e n tu ry the a m o u n t of p e rs o n a l fre e tim e th a t people have
(1 )__________ D espite th e fa c t th a t th e g e n e ra l o p in io n of the p u b lic is th a t th e y have
less le is u re tim e th a n in th e past the re a lity is th e o p p o site . N ow adays m o re of us
(2 )
_________ s p o r t r e g u la r ly and th e y o u n g e r g e n e ra tio n ( 3 ) ___________ tr a d itio n a l
le is u re p u rs u its such as c ra fts and o u td o o r a c tiv itie s .
Look at the graphs below from an IELTS W riting Task 1 and complete the sentences with
the correct tense to describe the visual information.
J O
c 8
° 6
E 2
0
.... N ew York Times
— In te rn a tio n a l H era ld Tribune
■ - - Washington Post
1950 1970 1990 2012^ B B C 1
□ BBC2
□ ITV1
H IT V 2
a N u m b er of people buying newspapers daily in the USA
O verall, th e n u m b e r of people w ho buy one of the th re e m a jo r d a ily n e w s p a p e rs in th e USA
( 1 )
----------------- (r is in g) since th e 1950s. The la rg e s t in c re a s e in re a d e rs h ip has been f o r th e
New York Times. However, m o s t people ( 2 )
___________ [ s t ill buy} th e Washington Post m o re
th a n any o th e r d a ily newspaper.
b View ers of UK TV channels at 8 p.m. on 30 June 2011
The g ra ph s h o w s th e n u m b e r of people w ho ( 1 )
__________ [view] f o u r d iffe r e n t te le v is io n
c h a n n e ls on 30 Ju n e 2011 at 8.00 in th e evening. A lm o s t h a lf th e v ie w e rs ( 2 )
__________
[watch] BBC1 and th e re m a in in g 50 p e r ce n t w e re divided m o re o r less e q u a lly betw een th e
o th e r th re e c h a n n e ls .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

      7 -  !    1C  9        +    !       9      
The g ra ph b elow shows how e ld e rly people in Europe sp e n t th e ir free tim e between 1980 and 2010.
S um m arize the in fo rm a tio n by s e le c tin g and re p o rtin g the m a in features, and m ake com parisons
w here relevant.
W r ite a t le a s t 150 w o rd s .
W ritin g exam tip: W hen d e s c rib in g v is u a l in fo r m a tio n in Task 1, it is im p o r ta n t to
t h in k a b o u t w h a t te n s e s you w i l l need. If th e d ia g ra m in c lu d e s tim e re fe re n c e s (dates,
years) you w i l l need a range of past and p re s e n t te n s e s . If th e g ra p h has no past tim e
re fe re n c e , you w i l l need to use th e p re s e n t s im p le te n s e only.
Free tim e a c tiv itie s o f th e e ld e r ly in Europe fr o m 1980 to th e p re s e n t
%
-♦— Reading
■•— H ikin g
- • — T h e a tre
- * — P la yin g s p o rt
-#— S u rfin g th e In te rn e t
N ow c o m p a re y o u r a n s w e r w ith th e m o d e l a n s w e r and t h in k a b o u t how you c o u ld im p ro v e yo u rs.L .22 fdS 2 r U

2 &
P a st p e r f e c t t e n s e I P a st p e r f e c t c o n tin u o u s I u s e d to I w o u ld
The fo llo w in g fo r m s are used to t a lk a b o u t th e past in a d d itio n to th e past s im p le tense.
Past perfect: The past perfect is used to ta lk about:
One co m pleted action th a t happened before a n o th e r action in the past. The p a s t p e rfe c t is used fo r
the f ir s t action
Before he becam e the 2010 w o r ld s w im m in g
c h a m p io n nobody had heard of Ja m e s
C o llin s .Every n e w s p a p e r and TV c h a n n e l in th e USA
w a n te d to in te rv ie w N e il A r m s tr o n g a fte r he
had lan d e d on the m oon.
Past perfect continuous: The past perfect continuous is used to talk about:
Som ething th a t s ta rte d in the p a s t and continued up to a ce rta in p o in t in the p ast
The jo u r n a lis ts had been w a itin g fo r over an The B e a tle s had been playing to g e th e r fo r
h o u r by th e tim e th e P re s id e n t a rriv e d at th e ye a rs b e fo re th e y becam e fa m o u s,
palace.
Used to: Used to is used to ta lk about:
Past states and habits
The Spanish Royal fa m ily used to be m o re
rem oved fr o m p u b lic life th a n th e y are at
p re sen t.D ic k in s o n used to w o r k in a d e p a r tm e n t s to re
before he becam e th e o w n e r of a fa sh ion
chain in A u s tra lia .
Note: In the negative and q u e s tio n fo rm , used to becom es use to.
Would: Would is used to talk about:
The typical a ctivitie s o f a person o r people in the past. It s h o u ld be used fo r repeated actions and not
state and is a lm o s t always used in the positive form only
In th e 1930s H ollyw ood s ta rs w o u ld give
re g u la r in te rv ie w s in m agazin e s and
n e w s p a p e rs to p ro m o te new movies.B efore p u b lis h in g co m p an ie s, w r it e r s
w o u ld o fte n pay f o r t h e ir own p rin tin g and
d is t r ib u tio n costs.
See page 116 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e f o r m o re in fo rm a tio n .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 2         
Complete the sentences 1 -6 using the verbs in the brackets and decide on the correct
g ra m m a tic a l form from the altern atives given.
1 M anaging an a c to r's im age th o u g h m edia re la tio n s becom e p o p u la r in th e 1980s. Up
u n til th e n a c t o r s _________[not care) m u ch a b o u t t h e ir p u b lic im age.
Form : past p e rfe c t o r w o u ld?
2 N e w s p a p e rs and m a g a z in e s__________ (re s p e c t) th e p riva cy of c e le b r itie s m o re than
th e y do nowadays.
Form : used to o r past p e rfe c t?
3 As a c h ild I loved playing th e g u it a r and I
_________ [dream ] of being a w e ll- k n o w n
m u s ic ia n .
Form : w ou ld o r past p e rfe c t?
U U n til th e 1990s, f o o t b a lle r s
_________ [not e a rn) such la rg e s a la rie s and th e y d id n 't use
to be so fa m o u s .
Form : p ast p e rfe c t o r w o u ld?
5 B e fo re w o r k in g in te le v is io n I
___________ [always th in k} th a t c e le b r itie s w e re s p e c ia l
people, b u t now I kn o w m any of th e m are q u ite n o rm a l.
Form : past p e rfe c t o r past p e rfe c t c o n tin u o u s ?
6 The p h o t o g r a p h e r s _________[w ait] h o u rs fo r th e s ta rs to a rriv e at th e 2010 O scar
cerem ony.
Form :
past p e rfe c t c o n tin u o u s o r used to?
G ra m m a r tip: The past p e rfe c t is o fte n used w ith a tim e e xp re s s io n such as before,
when o r by the tim e.
U n lik e th e p re s e n t p e rfe c t, s p e c ific tim e s (e.g. in 1993} can be used w ith th e past
p e rfe c t.
0 2 Listen to a radio program m e about fam e and com plete the text with the correct verb
04 • forms.
In to d a y ’s p ro g ra m m e I’l l c o n tin u e e x a m in in g th e im p a c t of fa m e on life s ty le u sing th e
style icon G loria Van B ro n cken as an e xa m ple . B e fo re b e com in g fa m o u s in th e m o d e llin g
in d u s try , G loria (1 ]
___________ in a s m a ll v illa g e and ( 2 ] ____________ o u ts id e h e r own
c o untry. She [ 3 ]
___________ in a c lo th e s s to re and she enjoyed a ll th e u s u a l a c tiv itie s of
a te e n a g e r in h e r fre e tim e . She [U]
___________ in th e c lo th e s s to re f o r tw o y e a rs w h e n a
c u s to m e r w h o re p re s e n te d a m o d e l agency s p o tte d h e r and sign e d h e r up. By th e tim e she
w as 21 G loria ( 5 )
___________ round th e w o r ld s e v e ra l tim e s and ( 6 ) ____________ on the
co ver of m a n y in t e r n a tio n a l fa s h io n m a g azin e s. N ow th e im p a c t o f such d ra s tic life s ty le
chang e s can be v e ry s i g n i f i c a n t ... [fade]AedI a M

A# ( /!     / #  (   (
use of past perfect, past perfect continuous, used to and would. There are four mistakes.
M aking m oney o u t of o th e r people's fa m e is a h ig h ly s p e c ia lis e d s k ill, but one th a t can
b rin g g re a t re w a rd s to th o s e w ho p ra c tis e it p ro fic ie n tly . M a ria n n e B e re to li is one of
th o se people; she owns a co m p an y w h ic h s e lls in fo r m a tio n a b ou t c e le b ritie s to o th e r
c e le b ritie s as a kind of ca re e rs advice service. A lth o u g h she w as born in France, she
use to d re a m of m oving to th e USA, s p e c ific a lly H ollyw ood. W h ils t s tu d y in g b u sin e ss at
u n iv e rs ity B e re to li w as kn ow n f o r h e r innovative ap pro a ch to a p plying th e o ry to p ra c tic e
and she w o u ld to ofte n c h a lle n g e th e ideas of h e r tu to r s . When she had g ra du a te d ,
B e re to li w o rk e d in P aris and tr ie d u n s u c c e s s fu lly to set up h e r own m a rk e tin g agency.
Then she decided to move to the USA and w ith in m o n th s re a lis e d th a t she had been
m a k in g th e r ig h t decisio n. She moved fro m P a ris to Los A n g ele s in 1995 and a fte r she
had been w o rk in g as an a s s is ta n t fo r an a d v e rtis in g agency fo r a fe w years, she had set
up h e r own co m pany p roviding in fo rm a tio n s e rv ic e s to the ric h and fa m o u s.
4 Read the text again and the m ultiple-choice questions below. Decide which answ er A -D is
correct.
1 M a ria n n e B e re to li moved to the USA...
A im m e d ia te ly a fte r she had g ra d u a te d fro m university.
B a fte r she had tr ie d to s ta r t h e r own co m p a n y and not been su c c e s s fu l.
C a fte r she had been w o rk in g fo r an agency in th e a d v e rtis in g fie ld fo r se v e ra l years.
D b efore she s tu d ied business.
2 How did B e re to li behave w h ile stu d yin g b u s in e s s at u n iv e rs ity ?
A She used to be a ch a lle n g e .
B She w o u ld c h a lle n g e th e r e la tio n s h ip betw een th e o ry and p ra c tic e .
C She w o u ld q u e s tio n h e r le c tu re rs ' ideas.
D S h e i gnored the advice of h e r tu to rs .
j Exam Tip: It is not u s u a l f o r the Reading exam to te s t y o u r k n o w le d g e of te n se s
i d ire ctly. However, having a good u n d e rs ta n d in g of te n s e s w i l l he lp you u n d e rs ta n d a
i te x t m o re th o ro u g h ly and quickly.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 2        7 A#!        (     <
Look a t the passage below.
F or question 1, choose TWO le tte rs A-E.
F or questions 2 and 3, choose ONE a n s w e r fro m the le tte rs a-d.
1 W hat re a son s do s c ie n tis ts give to e x p la in w h y so m e people m ay w a n t to be fa m o u s ?
A B ecause th e y d id n ’t have m any fr ie n d s w h e n th e y w e re c h ild re n .
B They w a n t to copy c e le b ritie s th e y see in th e m edia.
C They did not receive enough a tte n tio n fr o m t h e i r p a re n ts in t h e i r youth.
D So th a t th e y can be ric h in th e fu tu re .
E They had a d e s ire to please t h e i r p a re n ts .
2 W h a t did th e s c ie n tis ts do in o r d e r to reach t h e i r c o n c lu s io n s ?
a They a nalysed th e incre a se in c e le b rity new s in th e m edia,
b They su rveyed c u lt u r a lly d iv e rs e s e c tio n s of p o p u la tio n .
c They in v e s tig a te d d iffe r e n t u n iv e rs itie s ,
d They in te rv ie w e d p s y c h o lo g is ts .
3 In th e study, ho w w e re th e people w h o w a n t to be ric h d iffe r e n t fr o m th o s e w h o w a n t to be
fa m o u s?
a T h e ir p a re n ts he lp e d th e m to be s u c c e s s fu l,
b People close to th e m had u rged th e m to do w e ll,
c T h e y m e a s u r e d t h e i r s u c c e s s by f o c u s in g on th e f u tu r e ,
d T h e ir p a re n ts ta u g h t th e m a b o u t b u sin e s s .
The Psychology of Fame
U n t il th e b e g in n in g o f th e 1990s w e s te r n p s y c h o lo g is ts had not s y s te m a tic a lly s tu d ie d th e h u m a n
d e s ire to be fa m o u s . H ow ever, in th e fe w y e a rs up to th is tim e th e a m o u n t o f c e le b r ity n e w s in
th e m e d ia had been in c re a s in g d r a m a tic a lly . S c ie n tis ts a t v a rio u s US u n iv e rs itie s th e n s ta rte d to
in v e s tig a te th e re a s o n s w h y so m e h u m a n s s e e m to be d riv e n to b e com e fa m o u s , w h ile o th e rs
have no in te r e s t in a ttr a c t in g th e lim e lig h t. Extensive research w ith people fro m d iffe re n t c u ltu re s
led to the conclusion th a t people w h o d e s ire fa m e are n o t th e s a m e people w h o w a n t to be ric h .
T he f o r m e r g ro u p m a y have s o m e d e s ire f o r s o c ia l a cce p ta n c e based on p re v io u s e x p e rie n c e s
in t h e i r lives, it seem s th a t many of th e s e p e o p le used to fin d it d if f ic u lt to m a k e fr ie n d s w h e n
th e y w e re y o u n g e r o r th e y d id n ’t use to receive p ra is e o r re c o g n itio n fr o m t h e i r p a re n ts . The
p s y c h o lo g is ts believe th a t it is lik e ly th a t th e s e pe op le w o u ld o fte n d e m a n d a tte n tio n fr o m o th e rs
as te e n a g e rs and t h is d e s ire has re m a in e d in a d u lth o o d and is n o w expresse d as a lo n g in g to be
fa m o u s . C on versely, th o s e w h o w a n t to be ric h a re m u c h m o re fo cu se d on th e fu tu r e th a n th e
past; in c o n tr a s t to th e f o r m e r gro u p , th e s tu d y fo u n d th a t m a n y o f th is g ro u p had le a rn e d fr o m
t h e i r p a re n ts th a t su c c e s s is g e n e ra te d by hard w o r k and t h a t t h e ir fr ie n d s and fa m ily had a lw a y s
e n c o u ra g e d th e m to s triv e f o r th e b e st in life . T h e se c o n c lu s io n s s u g g e s t th a t th e re is a lin k
b e tw e e n o u r u p b rin g in g and h o w w e m e a s u re o u r success.
Fame 17

       = 3   = 3   E
F u tu re fo rm s
Going to: Going to is used to talk about:
1 A decided plan o r intention
I am going to ask you so m e q u e s tio n s .
The h e a d m a s te r is going to re tire at the end of te rm .
2 A p re d ic tio n based on evidence
The s h o rta g e of m a th s te a c h e rs is going to
My g ra d e s have gone down th is year. I th in k
get w orse .
I'm going to fa il.
W ill: Will is used to ta lk about:
1 Facts a bout the fu tu re
We w i l l co ver th is to p ic in m o re d e ta il la t e r in
th e book.The u n iv e rs ity w i l l a d m it five h u nd re d m o re
s tu d e n ts next year.
2 Decisions about the fu tu re th a t we make a t the m o m e n t o f speaking
I ' l l tr v mv best to a n s w e r a ll th e q u e s tio n s .
'I need to go to th e lib r a r y la te r.' - 'Good idea.
I’ l l co m e w ith v o u .’
3 P redictions that are ind e fin ite
O nline le a rn in g w i l l becom e m o re p o p u la r in
A ll la rg e lib r a r ie s w i l l w a n t a copv of th is
th e fu tu re .
book.
U Prom ises and offers
I' l l de al w ith y o u r q u e s tio n in ju s t a m o m e n t.
Note: S h a ll is u s u a lly used in place of w ill in th e q u e s tio n fo rm .
S h a ll we s ta r t again fro m th e b e gin n in g ?
W on’t: Won't is the negative of will and it is also used to ta lk about:
Refusal
The te a c h e rs say th e y w o n 't a tte n d m e e tin g s o u t of s c h o o l h o u rs .
< ^ S e e page 117 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e f o r m o re i n f o r m a t i o n . ^* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 G           
Decide on the correct g ra m m a tic a l form [will or going to) and complete the sentences 1 -5 .
Decide which rule matches the meaning of each sentence.
1 'I've m ade a re visio n tim e ta b le f o r th e next m o n th . I____________ stu d y hard f o r th is
e x a m !’ F o r m :
____________ R u le : _____________
2 ‘ In th e fu tu re , I th in k m o re p e o p le ____________ s tu d y c o u rs e s o n lin e .'
F o r m :
____________ R u le : _____________
3 'A le ja n d ro has fa ile d m any of his exam s, so I d o n ’t th in k h e ____________ be able to go
to U n iv e rs ity th is year.’ F o r m :
____________ R u le : _____________
U 'N o I ____________ le t you b o rro w m y c a lc u la to r. I need it f o r th e next e xe rcise .'
F o r m :
____________
5 The next a c a d e m ic y e a r ____________ s t a r t in S e ptem ber. F o r m : _____________
R u le : ____________
j G ra m m a r tip: Going to and w/7/ are based on p e rs p e c tiv e w he n used f o r p re d ic tio n s , and
I can o fte n be in te rc h a n g e a b le . S o m e tim e s , w h e n a p e rson uses w ill th e y are not so sure,
i W hen a p e rson uses going to th e y are su rer. H owever, as p e rs p e c tiv e s are s u b je c tiv e ,

j
th e re is not u s u a lly one c o r r e c t answer.
! I ' l l go to one o f the best u n ive rsities in the country, (th is p re d ic tio n is p ro ba b ly based on
; w h a t th e s p e a k e r w a n ts and hopes)
I I'm going to go to one o f the best u n iv e rs itie s in the country, (th is p re d ic tio n is m o re
i lik e ly to be based on th e s tu d e n t's k n o w le d g e of t h e ir own a c a d e m ic a c h ie v e m e n t, fo r
| e xa m ple , if th e y a lw ays get th e top g ra d e s in t h e ir class]
2 Read the answers A -C to this Part 3 Speaking exercise and match them to the questions 1-3.
1 How do you th in k e d u ca tio n w i l l ch a ng e in th e fu tu re ?
2 W h a t are th e m a in a rg u m e n ts a b o u t e d u c a tio n in y o u r c o u n try at th e m o m e n t?
3 Do you th in k e d u c a tio n w i l l be a c c e s s ib le to a ll in fu tu re ?
A. W ell, th e g o v e rn m e n t is going to in tro d u c e c o m p u ls o ry tu itio n fees next a c a d e m ic year,
and th is has caused a lot of anger. S tu d e n ts have been p ro te s tin g a b ou t th e u n fa irn e s s
of th e s e fees. They th in k th a t p o o re r s tu d e n ts
w o n ’t be able to a ffo rd th e fees. The
g o v e rn m e n t w o n ’t back down th o u g h .
B. In one way, yes. I th in k m o re people w i l l be able to access basic e d u ca tio n a ro un d th e
w o r ld , lik e p r im a r y and s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls , and a ls o c o u rs e s o n lin e in p ra c tic a l s u b je c ts .
B u t I th in k u n iv e rs ity e d u ca tio n w i l l b e com e m o re exclusive. I read an a r tic le re c e n tly
a b o u t how th e In te rn e t is going to m ake e d u c a tio n a v a ila b le fo r th e w o rld , but I t h in k th a t
w i ll m ean th a t good u n iv e rs ity d e gre e s w i l l be m o re im p o rta n t.
C. I th in k a lo t of people w ill s tu d y o n lin e . The In te r n e t is going to be e a sily a c ce ssib le in
a ll c o u n tr ie s soon and o n lin e c o u rs e s are c h e a p e r and m o re co n ven ie nt th a n having to
t r a v e l to a c o lle g e o r ca m p us. I a lso th in k m o re and m o re people w i ll be able to study.lNgk1fdma r _

 !  ( <   1 # (  (/you would answ er them
using w ill and going to.
| Listening exam tip: In th e L is te n in g exam, people s o m e tim e s c o n tra d ic t each o th e r to
; d is tr a c t fr o m the c o rre c t answer. For e xa m ple :
Jo h n: I'm going to be at home later, so I can do som e research on the Internet.
B ill: No, I ' l l do it. There are com p uters I can use at the library. (In s ta n t decision)
I Here we can see th a t B ill o ffe rs to do the In te rn e t re s e a rc h , a lth o u g h John fir s t
I m e n tio n s it.
Look at these sentences 1 -3 and w rite answers th at contradict them . Use the verbs in the
brackets.
1 Alex: I’ l l p ic k you up fro m s c h o o l la t e r if you w o u ld like.
Paula: No, th a t's okay. I_________________ [w alk] hom e as I w a n t to get som e
sw ee ts fro m the shop. (Plan)
2 Philip: I’ m going to see Jane to n ig h t, so I can t e l l h e r a b ou t th e h o m e w o rk .
Fiona: D o n 't w o rry , I
________________ [c a ll] her, as I w a n t to sp e ak to h e r anyway.
(In s ta n t decision)
3 Mike: I m going to w a lk over to the lib r a r y to n ig h t and take m y book back.
Penny:
_________________[do] it? It's easy f o r me to drive down. (Offer)
Mike: Thanks!
4 Look at the audio script below and correct any m istakes in the future forms. There are five
mistakes.
L ibrarian: H ello th e re . How can I help you?
John: I w i l l do a p re s e n ta tio n on M ary Shelley, and I’d lik e to get som e books on her.
Librarian : Okay. The b io g ra p h ie s are on the th ird floor. I 'l l to w r ite the aisle n u m b e r
down fo r you.
John: T hanks. I m ig h t use the In te rn e t too and loo k fo r re so u rce s on th e re .
Librarian: That's a good idea. If yo u 're going use th e In te rn e t, have a loo k on the Great
B ritis h A u th o rs w eb site .
John: Thanks, I’ m going to. I h a ven 't heard of th a t site before. Thanks ve ry m uch fo r
the in fo rm a tio n .
Librarian : Th a t's q u ite a ll rig h t. Feel fre e to com e and ask me any q u e s tio n s and I w o n 't
do my best to help.
Listen to Track 05 on the CD and check your answers.G ra m m a r fo r IELTS

G        7 !     $!
Listening exam tip: C la s s ify in g q u e s tio n s ask you to choose ite m s fr o m a lis t of o p tio n s.
S o m e tim e s you have m o re o p tio n s th a n needed (see Q 1-3 below) and s o m e tim e s you
m u s t reuse o p tio n s (see Q 4-8 below).
L is te n to th e d is c u s s io n betw ee n a ne w s tu d e n t and so m e o n e in th e S tu d e n t A ffa irs Office and
a n s w e r q u e s tio n s 1 - 8 below :
06 W ho does w h a t?
W r ite th e c o rre c t le t t e r A, B, C, D o r E next to q u e s tio n s 1 - 3 .
1 A n d y ___________
2 C a r o l___________
3 A d m in is tr a tio n O f fic e ___________
A c o m p le te s th e N ew S tu d e n t Form .
B books th e lib r a r y in d u c tio n .
C s ta m p s th e p a p e rw o rk .
D fin d s th e c a m p u s map.
E pays the s tu d e n t fees.
W here s h o u ld Andy go f o r th e fo llo w in g th in g s ?
W rite th e c o rre c t le t t e r A, B o r C next to q u e s tio n s 4 - 8 .
4 F la t r e n t a l s ___________
5 Tenancy a g re e m e n t in f o r m a t io n ___________
6 D o c to r r e g is t r a t io n ___________
7 L o cal area i n f o r m a t io n ___________
8 C ourse fee p a y m e n t___________
A S tu d e n t S u p p o rt Service
B A d m in is tra tiv e D e p a rtm e n t
C S tu d e n t A ffa irslNgk1fdma A r

3 ( 
P r e s e n t c o n tin u o u s I F u tu re c o n tin u o u s I F u tu re p e r fe c t s im p le I F u tu r e p e r fe c t c o n tin u o u s
O th e r fu tu re fo rm s
Present continuous: The present continuous is used to ta lk about:
D efinite a rra n g e m e n ts in the fu tu re (with active verbs]
I’ m m e e tin g John la te r th is a fte rn o o n .
I'm playing a c o m p u te r gam e w ith him later.
Future continuous: The future continuous is used to talk about:
A situ a tio n that w ill be happening at a p a r tic u la r p o in t in the fu tu re
This tim e next year, m o s t people w i l l be using
th e In te rn e t every day.T o m o rro w a fte rn o o n , I ' l l be b u ild in g my new
w e b s ite .
Future perfect sim ple: The future perfect sim ple is used to talk about:
S om ething that happens before a certain p o in t o f tim e in the fu tu re
Everyone w i l l have le a r n t how to use th e
In te rn e t in 50 years' tim e .I w i l l have s p e n t over £200 on o n lin e
s h o p p in g by th e end of th e w ee k!
Future perfect continuous: The future perfect continuous is used to ta lk about:
S om ething th a t continues u n til a certain p o in t o f tim e in the fu tu re
N ext m o n th , I w i l l have been w o rk in g at th is
In te rn e t design co m p a n y f o r ten years.Come on, i t ’s m y tu r n ! Soon you w i l l have
been s u r fin g th e net fo r over tw o h o urs.
Note: The fu tu r e c o n tin u o u s , fu tu r e p e rfe c t s im p le and fu tu r e p e rfe c t c o n tin u o u s u s u a lly in c lu d e
a tim e re fe re nce , f o r e xa m ple by 2020, in 20 y e a rs ' time, by this tim e next year, next week.
See page 118 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e f o r m o re in fo rm a tio n .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 3           
Decide on the correct g ra m m a tic a l form (present continuous, fu tu re continuous, future
perfect sim ple or future perfect continuous) and com plete the sentences 1 -5 . Use the
verbs in the brackets. Then w rite the name of the tense.
1 I __________[w atch] th e c o n c e rt live o n lin e to n ig h t. Tense:_________________________
2 M edia e x p e rts p re d ic t th a t by 2020 th e m a jo r ity of n e w s p a p e r s _________ (moi^e)
o n lin e . Tense:
_________
3 I__________(change) m y In te rn e t s u p p lie r to n ig h t so I m ig h t not get y o u r e m a ils u n til
to m o rro w . T ense:
_________
U The I n t e r n e t ___________ (becom e} th e p r im a r y s o u rce of in fo r m a tio n by th e m id d le of
th e ce n tu ry. Tense:
_________
5 It is e s tim a te d th a t in five y e a rs ’ tim e 30% m o re people o ver th e age of 6 5 _________
[s ta rt] to use th e In te rn e t. Tense: _________
2 U nderlin e the exam ples of the future form s in the following text.
The Rise of Online Shopping
In th e la te 1990s e x p e rts p re d ic te d th a t o n lin e sh o p p in g w o u ld not be able to c o m p ete
w ith in - s to re sh o pp in g yet th e re c e n t ris e in o n lin e sales fig u re s s u g g e s ts th a t t h e ir
p re d ic tio n s w e re w ro n g . In fa c t a ll evidence p o in ts to th e fa c t th a t o n lin e s h o p p in g w i l l
have o u ts trip p e d in -s to re s h o p p in g w ith in th e next five years. T h is rapid in c re a s e has
been d riv e n by a n u m b e r of fa c to rs in c lu d in g p rice , convenience and choice. M ost o n lin e
re ta ile r s use a d e liv e ry se rvice and as a r e s u lt of tr a c k in g re ta ile r s s h o p p in g h a b its , m any
w i l l soon be in tro d u c in g s p e c ific d e liv e ry tim in g s so th a t c u s to m e rs can e n s u re th e ir
goods are d e liv e re d w hen th e y are at hom e. O nline c o m p a n ie s are a lre a d y w o r k in g on
innovative w ays to a t tr a c t c u s to m e rs . For e xa m p le , la t e r th is y e a r one of th e c o u n tr y ’s
la rg e s t e le c tro n ic s re ta ile rs , B ro w n s, is la u n c h in g a 2 4 - h o u r re p la c e m e n t p ro d u c ts
se rv ic e f o r c u s to m e rs w ho need to r e tu r n fa u lty goods. B ro w n s hopes th a t by 2015 over
90% of its c u s to m e r base w i l l have g ra d u a te d to o n lin e p u rc h a s in g .
As w e ll as c o n s u m e r goods a n o th e r g ro w th area is the tra v e l industry. Travel e xp erts e s tim a te
th a t in as little as five years' tim e tra v e l agencies w il l have disappeared fro m o u r shopping
ce n tre s and a lm o s t a ll tra v e lle rs w il l be buying hotels and flig h ts fro m on lin e agencies.tF2 pa f2 .a 2 f A U

" Look at the previous text again and match the sentence halves below using the
g ra m m a tic a l form s to help you understand when the actions happen.
1 B ro w n s w i l l be
2 In 5 years, tr a v e l a g en cie s w i l l have
3 B ro w n s c la im s th a t by 2015 c u s to m e rs w i l l have
4 In the fu tu r e th e m a jo r ity of c u s to m e rs w i l l be
5 In 5 ye a rs' tim e , s h o pp in g on c o m p u te rs w i l l have
A moved to o n lin e sho pp in g.
B s h o pp in g o n lin e fo r holidays.
C la u n c h in g a r e tu r n s service.
D o v e rta k e n p h y s ic a l sho pp in g.
E d is a p p e are d fro m sh o pp in g ce n tre s .
4 Listen to an in terview about online gaming and com plete spaces 1 - 4 in the table with
information from the recording. R em em ber that the answers w ill be factu al information
but the g ra m m a r form s w ill help you decide w hat information is needed.
Online gaming trends of the future
Year
now - 2015 2015 - 2017
2018 - 2020
Age group
13-19
30-40
1
Game type
p la tfo r m2
3D
World region
3
_ E a ste rn Europe
w o rld w id e
Competition
none4
u n k n o w n
5 Listen to the interview again and complete sentences 1 -4 below with the correct future form.
1 By 2020 th e ty p ic a l age of g a m e r s_____________________ to people over th e age of 50.
2 The over 50s age g r o u p
_____________________ th e sa m e g a m es fo r m o re th a n 50% of
th e ir live s by 2020.
3 C om p a n ie s th a t m ake c o m p u te r g a m e s
_____________________ a g lo b a l m a rk e tin g
s yste m f o r every gam e th e y produce by 2020.
4 By 2015 te c h n o lo g y f i r m s
_____________________ th e te c h n o lo g y needed to enable
people to in te ra c t w ith movies.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

      7 !         !     
Exam tip: R e m e m b e r th a t in th e IELTS L is te n in g exam you m ay h e a r th e c o n tra c te d
fo r m of a verb, e.g. it'll'v e s ta rte d r a t h e r th a n i t w ill have sta rte d .
L is te n to a m u s e u m c u r a t o r ta lk in g a b o u t th re e e x h ib itio n s on te c h n o lo g y and c o m p le te th e
ta b le below.
QUESTIONS 1 -6
W rite NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER f o r each answer.
Where 1 fln n r
th ir d flo o r fo u r th flo o r
Exhibition name
The In te rn e t: Past,
P re s e n t and F u tu re3
N e tw o rk in gP o rta b le Devices of
th e 21st C e n tu ry
Exhibition dates
2 J u lyA u g u s t 1st - 30th5
- A u g u s t 20th
What to see
3D to u c h scre e n sU w o r ld6 s ix th sense
te c h n o lo g y and
s a te lliteThe In te rn e t

= ($
W o rd o r d e r I P u n c t u a tio n
Basic w ord o rd e r
Word o r d e r is im p o r ta n t in E n glish. S entences u s u a lly fo llo w the p rin c ip le :
S u b je c t + Verb + O b je c t/C o m p le m e n t + F u r th e r in fo rm a tio n
My b r o th e r kic k e d th e ball.
Roles w ith in th e fa m ily are b e com in g fle x ib le in m o d e rn society.
S u b je c t = b ro th e r
S u b je ct = Roles w ithin the fa m ily
Verb = kick
Verb = are becoming-, A d je c tiv e = flexible
Object = bait
P re p o s itio n a l p h rase = in m odern society
The indirect object:
W ith o u t to: S + V + In d ire c t o b je c t + Object
The 1912 la w gave w o m e n th e r ig h t to vote.
W ith to: S + V + Object + to + In d ire c t o b je c t
The 1912 la w gave th e r ig h t to vote to w o m e n .
Tim e and place phrases:
[T im e ] + S u b je c t + Verb + (0 b je c t ] + Place + (T im e )
In th e tw e n tie th c e n tu r y , m o re w o m e n w e n t o ut to w o r k in o ffic e s .
OR
M ore w o m e n w e n t out to w o r k in o ffic e s in the tw e n tie th c e n tu ry .
Common word positioning:
A d jective + Noun He com es fro m a la rg e fa m ily .
Adverb + Main verb The s ib lin g s c o n tin u a lly a rg u e . They have alw ays a r g u e d .
A dverb + A d jective F a m ily s tr u c tu r e s can be e x tre m e ly c o m p le x .
Note: enough is an exception
Adverbs can be found at th e fro n t of a sentence w hen m a k in g a c o m m e n t on the sentence o r
lin k in g a previous sentence. There are many exceptions to adverb position, p a r tic u la r ly in speaking.
Note: A d ve rbs ofte n go a fte r the ve rb to be, e.g. My b ro th e r is often annoying.u se d d e s to s /wlWi

 =I # I <7
Questions are fo rm e d d iffe re n tly depending on w h e th e r the question is about the subject o r the object.
The n u c le a r fa m ily overtook the extended fa m ily in popularity.
A b o u t the s u b je c t:
W h a t o v e rto o k th e extended fa m ily in p o p u la rity ?
(Question w o rd + Verb + O b je c t/C o m p lim e n t? )A n sw er:
The n u c le a r fam ily.
A b o u t the o b je ct:
W h a t did th e n u c le a r fa m ily o v e rta ke in p o p u la rity ?
(Q uestion w o rd + A u x ilia r y verb + S u b je c t + Main verb?)A nsw er:
The extended fam ily.
Indirect questions:
In d ire c t q u e s tio n s are fo rm e d using th e w o rd o r d e r of a p o sitive se n te n ce.
DIRECT: What did the n u c le a r fa m ily overtake in p o p u la rity ?
INDIRECT: Do you k n o w what the n u c le a r fa m ily overtook in p o p u la rity ?
DIRECT; Are the ro le s o f husband and wife less tra d itio n a l than in the past?
INDIRECT: Can you t e ll m e i f the rotes o f husband and wife are less tra d itio n a l than in the past?
The Basic Rules of Punctuation:
C ap ital le t t e r (A) Used: at th e s ta r t of a s e n te n c e ; f o r n a m es; f o r a b b re v ia tio n s .
Comma (,) Used: f o r lis ts of ite m s ; to jo in tw o c la u s e s to g e th e r w ith a c o -o rd in a tin g c o n ju n c tio n ;
to sh o w e x tra in fo r m a tio n in a se n te n ce; to s e p a ra te d ire c t speech fr o m re p o rtin g e xp ressio n s.
Full Stop (.) Used: at the end of a sentence and fo r som e abbreviations, e.g. etc.-, fo r questions, replace
a f u l l stop w ith a question m a rk ; fo r exclam ations, replace a f u ll stop w ith an exclam ation m ark.
Quotation m a rk s (" ” ) Used: w he n using th e d ire c t w o rd s of a n o th e r person.
Apostrophe (’) Used: in contractions and to show possessive. Note: Its (=belonging to it) and it's (=it is).
Colon (:) Used: to s ta r t a g r a m m a t ic a lly co m p le x lis t and before long e x p la n a tio n s .
Sem i-C olon (;) Used: to s e p a ra te a g r a m m a t ic a lly co m p le x lis t; to s e p a ra te tw o s e n te n c e s w h ic h
have a c le a r lin k to each other.
P ra c tic e e xe rc is e s
Put the words in the correct o rd er to com plete the sentences 1 -7 .
1 / The m a le / th e m ain in c o m e e a r n e r / w as / in th e la s t c e n tu ry /
2 / are / extended fa m ilie s / Do you k n o w / t r a d itio n a l in Japan? / w h e t h e r /
3 / gives / b e n e fits / p o o re r fa m ilie s / The g o v e rn m e n t /
U / a lw ays / d o n ’t / get on w e ll / F a m ily m e m b e rs /
5 / b y m en and w o m e n / H ou se h o ld ta s k s / o fte n / sh a red / are /
6 / are / S in gle p a re n t fa m ilie s / b e com in g / in W e s te rn s o c ie ty / in c re a s in g ly / c o m m o n /
7 / There / th e fa m ily s tr u c tu r e / is less im p o r ta n t / u rg e n tly / on w h y / need to be s tu d ie s /tF2 i1 S duv A h

 Add the punctuation to the following passage,
how im po rtant is the family
it co uld be arg ue d th a t th e fa m ily is a s tr u c tu r e in d e c lin e yet m any s o c io lo g is ts now c la im
th a t we are b e g in n in g to see a re n e w a l in fa m ily v a lu e s and fa m ily s tr u c tu r e s jaso n lloyd
an e m in e n t s o c io lo g is t at th e u n iv e rs ity of s a lfo rd c la im s th a t today people are ye a rn in g f o r
th e days of tr a d it io n a l fa m ily v a lu e s he a s s e rts ... w e can see e x a m p le s of a re n aissa n ce
of fa m ily v a lu e s eve ryw h e re in th e tv a d v e rts th a t s e ll p ro d u c ts u sing happy fa m ilie s
in th e p ro m o tio n s of se a s o n a l fa m ily c e le b ra tio n s lik e C h ris tm a s even in the lan guage
of p o litic ia n s a b o u t s o c ia l cohesion llo yd s c la im s have re c e n tly been echoed by o th e r
s o c io lo g is ts a ro u n d th e globe w h ic h gives th e m even m o re w e ig h t so are we b e gin n in g to
see a r e tu r n to th e tr a d it io n a l fa m ily s tr u c tu r e only tim e w i l l t e ll
3 The following Speaking long turn has some m istakes in the word order. Correct the
mistakes and then listen and check. There are eight erro rs.
Describe a m e m b e r o f y o u r extended fa m ily who is im p o rta n t to you. You s h o u ld say:
• What they are like
• How often you see them
• Why they are p a r tic u la r ly im p o rta n t to you
And say in w hat ways you w ould like to be s im ila r to them.
I'm going to t a lk a b o u t my g r a n d m o th e r on my f a t h e r ’s side. She is lit t le q u ite and has
w h ite h a ir and gla sse s. I have g la s s e s too. We are th e o n ly people in th e fa m ily th a t w e a r
g la s s e s ! She is very old now and I d o n ’t get to see h e r ve ry o ften ... I th in k I maybe tw o
o r th re e tim e s a y e a r see her. She lives q u ite fa r away in th e c o u n try s id e . It ta ke s us
a b o u t th re e h o u rs to tra v e l th e re . W h e n e v e r we v is it, she a lw ays gives to me sw eets. She
is im p o r ta n t to me because she is so kind and so nice, and re a lly I love her. She is my
fa v o u rite fa m ily m e m b e r d e fin ite ly ! I th in k I take a ft e r h e r in som e ways. We lau g h at the
s am e th in g s and we both lik e re a ding. W hen we go and v is it, a lw ays we go o ut w a lk in g in
th e fie ld s and have a re a lly lovely tim e . My dad a lw a ys says th a t we are ve ry s im ila r. I w o u ld
lik e to be w h e n I am o ld e r as w is e as her. I w o u ld a lso lik e to have a s im ila r life. A ve ry
s u c c e s s fu l c a re e r she had. She w as a d o c to r and w o rk e d f o r c h a ritie s . She w as very m u ch
in love w ith m y g ra n d fa th e r, w h ic h I t h in k is lovely.
Exam tip: A lw a ys a llo w tim e to e d it y o u r w o rk , e s p e c ia lly in th e W ritin g exam. N o tic in g
and c o rre c tin g d e ta ils lik e p u n c tu a tio n and w o rd o r d e r (as w e ll as s p e llin g and
g r a m m a t ic a l s tru c tu re ) can im pro ve y o u r score d ra m a tic a lly .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 =G  + (    (/#  #  #   ( /!   $;
"Rich and fam ous people are in c re a s in g ly adopting c h ild re n fro m developing countries. This
has o ve rw h e lm in g ly negative e ffe c ts ." Do you agree w ith this s ta te m e n t? Why?
A d o p tio n has long been a c o m m o n th in g ye t th e re a re c e n t tre n d has been in a d o p tin g
c h ild re n fr o m overseas. This tre n d has been noted in th e m edia as m o re and m ore
c e le b r itie s have adopted c h ild re n fr o m o th e r c o u n trie s . Som e people th in k th is is a
negative th in g , b u t I th in k th a t on th e w h o le th e e ffe c ts p o sitive o f th is o u tw e ig h any
negative re p e rc u s s io n s as I s h a ll go on to show.
F irs tly , a d o p tin g fr o m o th e r c o u n trie s ra is e s th e a w a re n e s s of a c o u n try s p lig h t. Seeing
fa m o u s people a d o p tin g c h ild re n fr o m c o u n tr ie s lik e c a m b od ia m e a ns th a t c a m b o d ia is in
th e news m o re and people can fin d o u t w h a t th e re is going on. A lso, th e s e c h ild re n move
to r ic h e r c o u n tr ie s and can t e l l people a b o u t t h e ir native c o u n try ra is in g a w a re n e s s on a
s m a lle r scale.
S econdly, th e s e c h ild re n m ay w e ll not be adopted u n le s s people com e fr o m o ve rseas to do
it. A happy life in a n o th e r c o u n try is s u re ly b e tte r th a n an unha p p y life in th e c o u n try w h e re
a p e rson w a s b o rn . The new c o u n try w i l l give m o re o p p o r tu n ity th e c h ild and a fa m ily th a t
th e y m ay not get if th e y w e re to stay in th e o rp h a n a g e
H ow e ve r f o r th e c h ild re n to re ta in t h e i r c u lt u r e it is im p o r ta n t. T h ere is a d a n g e r th a t th is
m ig h t not happen if th e y move to a n o th e r co u ntry. T h e re fo re th e re s h o u ld be a r u le th a t
th e adop tive p a re n ts a llo w th e c h ild to re v is it t h e ir hom e c o u n try and re ta in t h e ir o r ig in a l
c u ltu re .
In c o n c lu s io n , I th in k th e p e rs o n a l a d o p tio n b e n e fits gives a c h ild and th e a w a re n e s s th a t
can be ra is e d fr o m th e s e a d o p tio n s f a r o u tw e ig h s any nega tive fa c to rs , such as ch a ng e of
c u ltu re .
Exam p ra c tic e : W ritin g T ask 2
You s h o u ld spend a b o u t 40 m in u te s on th is ta s k .
Exam tip: M anage y o u r tim e e ffe c tiv e ly in th e W ritin g exam . For th e essay you w i l l have
40 m in u te s to w r it e , so give y o u r s e lf tim e to plan before you begin w r it in g , and t r y to
a llo w five m in u te s at th e end to read th ro u g h y o u r w o r k and c h e c k f o r e rr o r s .
W rite a b o u t th e fo llo w in g to p ic :
" The education you receive fro m y o u r fa m ily is m ore im p o rta n t than the education you receive fro m
sch o ol." To w ha t e xtent do you agree w ith th is s ta te m e n t and why?
Give re a s o n s fo r y o u r a n s w e r and in c lu d e any re le v a n t e x a m p le s fr o m y o u r k n o w le d g e o r
e x p e rie n c e .
W rite at le a s t 250 w o rd s .
T h e re is a m o d e l a n s w e r in th e a n s w e r key.tF2 i1 S duv A _

9 ( %
S u b je c t + v e r b a g r e e m e n t I b o th , e it h e r , n e it h e r as a s u b je c t
Subject + verb agreem ent:
1 U nco u n ta b le n ouns ta ke s in g u la r verbs.
2 We use g ro u p s of people [the governm ent, the te a m) + s in g u la r OR p lu r a l verbs.
Clouds fo r m w he n w a te r m o le c u le s evaporate
The q o v e rn m e n t is /a re b u ild in a w in d fa r m s in
into th e air.
th e n o rth of the co untry.
T his /th a t, these/tho se
1 We use th is /th a t + s in g u la r nouns and ve rb s. We use these/those + p lu r a l nouns and verbs.
2 We use th is /th a t and these/those to r e fe r back to o b je c ts a lre a d y m e n tio n e d . They m u s t agree
w ith th e noun a lre a d y m e n tio n e d .
T ropical c lim a te s produce g re at biodiversity. These co n d itio n s are found m a in lv n e ar the equator.
In m v o p in ion th is q o v e rn m e n t's record on p ro te c tin a w ild lif e is not aood enouah.
B o th /e ith e r/n e ith e r as a subject
1 We use both... and... + p lu r a l verbs.
2 We use either... or... and neither... nor... + s in g u la r o r p lu r a l ve rb s. The ve rb fo rm a grees w ith
th e second noun.
Both w in d p o w e r and s o la r p o w e r are
E ith e r th e a o v e rn m e n t o r the c a r
a lte rn a tiv e fo r m s of energy.
m a n u fa c tu r e r s need to m ake carbon
e m is s io n re d u c tio n t h e ir p rio rity .
Each, every, a ll
1 We use each and every + s in g u la r noun and verb.
2 We use a ll + p lu r a l nouns and verbs.
A ll fo rm s of e n erg y cause som e dam aqe to
E a ch /e ve rv c o u n trv has to aaree on the
th e e n v iro n m e n t.
c lim a te change p e n a ltie s f o r o il co m p an ie s.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 9O$! 7The + g e n e ra l noun + o f + s p e c ific noun. The ve rb a g re e s w ith the
g e n e ra l noun NOT th e s p e c ific noun.
The a m o u n t of D o llu tio n has incre a se d
d ra m a tic a lly .The n u m b e r of p e s tic id e s in fa r m in q is
d e c lin in g .
The tvDes of p o llu tio n are m o re v a rie d now
c o m p a re d w it h th e 19th century.The q u a n titie s of c h e m ic a ls in riv e rs have
changed a c c o rd in g to e n v iro n m e n ta lis ts .
Exam tip: It is im p o r ta n t to m ake s u re you c h e c k s u b je c t + v e rb a g re e m e n t in y o u r
w r it in g f o r Tasks 1 and 2. M is ta k e s in s u b je c t + ve rb a g re e m e n t w i l l reduce y o u r w r it in g
s core so you s h o u ld leave tim e to c h e c k y o u r w o r k and m ake any n e ce s s a ry c o rre c tio n s
in th e exam .
P ra c tic e e x e rc is e s
Decide on the correct form (sing ular or p lu ral) of the verbs in brackets and complete the
sentences 1 -6 .
1 S c ie n tis ts at Oxford U n iv e r s it y________ [believe) th a t th e re are m any d iffe re n t
s o lu tio n s to th e w o r ld 's e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro b le m s .
2 S u n s h in e and w a t e r
________ (/be) both n e ce ssa ry f o r th e g ro w th of p la n ts .
3 T his new m e th o d o f b re ed in g dise a se re s is ta n t c r o p s
________ [have] been ve ry
s u c c e s s fu l.
U The fre q u e n c y of s to r m s on th e w e s t coast of S outh A m e r ic a
________ (change) w ith
th e m o v e m e n t o f th e G u lf S tre a m .
5 The v a rie tie s o f to m a to a v a ila b le as a r e s u lt of g e n e tic a lly m o d ifie d food p rocessing
[be] n u m e ro u s .
6 In m y o p in io n a ll th e s e c o n fe r e n c e s
________ [do] not help solve th e issues of c lim a te
change.
Match the sentence halves in boxes A and B so that the subjects and verbs agree and the
sentences are m eaningful. You must m ake sure the sentence halves agree gram m atically
as w e ll as in meaning.
AB
1 A va st s u m of m oney
2 B oth tim e and m oney
3 Those e n e rg y c o m p a n ie s
U Every e n e rg y c o m p a n y in
th e EUa w e re s p e n t on d e v elo p in g th e w in d tu r b in e s .
b is in c re a s in g th e cost of e le c t r ic it y and gas fo r
c o n s u m e rs ,
c w a s s p e n t on d e velo p in g th e w in d tu rb in e s ,
d are in c re a s in g th e c o s t of e le c t r ic ity and gas fo r
c o n s u m e rs .tF2 2a :d.m a S 2a f U r

  ( /! !( #  % I S%   (  / ;
Num ber of birds, butterflies and insects in UK city gardens
m illio n s
00 B irds__ W B u tt e r f lie s
|
__ □ Insects
The graph sh o w the a m o u n t of w ild life in gardens in citie s in the UK fro m th e 1980s to
2010s. Overall, the n u m b e r of b irds and inse cts have increased, w he re a s the n u m b e r of
b u tte rflie s has decreased. There w ere fo u r m illio n b u tte r flie s in UK city gardens in the
1980s. However, these n u m b e r decreased ra p id ly fro m 2000 to 2010 and now b u tte rflie s
is the least populous of the th re e g roups w ith only tw o m illio n in UK city gardens. Both
b irds and inse cts have increased ste a d ily in q u a n tity over the period. The q u a n tity of birds
have increased fro m 2.5 to 3.5 m illio n and inse cts has increased fro m 2.0 to 4.5 m illio n . In
g e n e ra l it can be said th a t each decade have seen a rise in bird and inse ct n u m be rs.
G ram m ar tip: When you have to co m p le te sentences, re m e m b e r th a t th e w o rd s you w r ite
in the spaces m u s t f it g ra m m a tic a lly . Check fo r a g re e m e n t betw een nouns and verbs.
4 Complete the sentences 1 - 4 with words from the following text.
The problem with clim ate change
In g e n e ra l s c ie n tis ts agree th a t c lim a te change is h a pp e n in g . However, th e p o in t th a t th e y
d is a g re e on is th e speed at w h ic h it is h a pp ening. F or e xam ple, P ro fe s s o r J e n k in s and D r
Brody at C olo m b ia U n iv e rs ity th in k th a t we are e n te rin g a pe rio d of ra p id c lim a te change,
w h e re a s so m e c lim a to lo g is ts fro m UCLA are of th e o p in ion th a t th e speed of c lim a te
change is lik e ly to peak by 2020 and th e n s lo w dow n fo r th e r e m a in d e r of th e 21st c e n tu ry
as e m is s io n s fro m developing n a tio n s s ta b ilis e . The fa c t th a t each g ro up of s c ie n tis ts has
a d iffe re n t o p in io n is d if f ic u lt fo r people to co m p re h e n d and has an e ffe c t on the g e n e ra l
p u b lic ’s re a c tio n s to ch a nges in the la w re la te d to c lim a te change. Both g o v e rn m e n ts and
s c ie n tis ts have trie d to m ake th e in fo rm a tio n on c lim a te change a cce ssible to everyone but
because of its c o m p le x ity th is has not been possible.
1 N e ith e r P ro fe sso r Je n k in s n o r D r B r o d y
__________ th a t c lim a te change is slow ing down.
2
__________ have th e v ie w th a t c lim a te change w i l l speed up over th e next fe w years.
3 D iffe re n c e of o p in io n
__________ fo r th e g e n e ra l p u b lic to u n d e rs ta n d .
U Due to th e fa c t th a t c lim a te change data is co m p le x, t h e
__________ have not been able
to m ake c lim a te change data a cce ssib le to people.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

  5  7A lw a ys do ub le c h e c k th e n o un s and v e rb s in y o u r a n s w e rs . If you w r it e a
s in g u la r noun w h e re th e a n s w e r is p lu r a l, y o u r a n s w e r w i l l be m a rk e d in c o rre c t.
Exam p ra ctic e : Reading - c o m p le tin g s e n te n c e s
Read the fo llo w in g passage and a n s w e r the questions below, using only words fro m the text.
Ocean biodiversity
Both th e levels of fish stocks and m a m m a l b io d iversity in the w o rld 's oceans have been d e clin in g in
recent years as a re s u lt o f overfishing and m a rin e p o llu tio n . Yet new e q u ip m e n t and a re tu rn to m ore
tr a d itio n a l ways of fis h in g have shown how th is tre n d can be reversed. An exam ple of th is can be
seen in the south Pacific w here tuna fis h e rm e n have sta rte d to use deep sea nets to tr a w l the depths
of th e oceans in o rd e r to avoid catching and k illin g s m a lle r fish . The a m o u n t of s m a ll fis h caught w ith
these nets has already been reduced in th e south Pacific and fis h e rm e n in o th e r oceans across the
w o rld are interested in e xp loring d iffe re n t te c h n iq u e s to m in im iz e th e ir im pa ct on ocean biodiversity.
T h is is e vid e n t in th e G u lf S tre a m w h e re th e s e a s o n a l w a r m th of th e sea is an im p o r ta n t fa c to r
in m a in ta in in g both q u a n tity and d ive rsity. A fe w fis h in g c o m p a n ie s have been e x p e rim e n tin g
w it h m o n ito r in g c h lo r o p h y ll levels of th e G u lf S tre a m to id e n tify are as w h ic h are lik e ly to a ttr a c t
fis h due to th e in c re a s e in p la n k to n g e n e ra te d by th e in c re a s e d c h lo r o p h y ll levels. T his m a ke s
th e fis h in g c o m p a n ie s m o re e ffic ie n t and re d uce s t h e ir e n v iro n m e n ta l im p a c t by re d u c in g
th e a m o u n t o f tra v e l. In a d d itio n , s c ie n tis ts have been w o r k in g on id e n tify in g th e s w im m in g
c h a n n e ls of w h a le s in th e A tla n tic to e n s u re th a t s h ip s do n o t c ro ss th e c h a n n e ls and in te r fe r e
w it h th e w h a le s ’ c o m m u n ic a tio n . These s c ie n tis ts have d iscovered th a t d is r u p tio n to th e w h a le s '
c o m m u n ic a tio n c h a n n e ls fr o m th e noise of s h ip s has a negative e ffe c t on t h e i r b re ed in g p a tte rn s .
Every in n o v a tio n in th is area is u s e fu l f o r p ro te c tin g th e d iv e rs ity o f th e oceans in th e fu tu re . W ith
s c ie n tis ts , c o n s e rv a tio n is ts and fis h e r m e n a ll w o r k in g to w a rd s s o lu tio n s , so m e p ro g re s s -is being
m ade in m a n ’s r e la tio n s h ip w ith th e o ce an s’ in h a b ita n ts .
QUESTIONS 1 -5
Complete the sentences with words from the passage. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS fo r each
answer.
1 P o llu tio n and excess fis h in g have caused a d e crea se in a m o u n ts o f ____________m a rin e
d iv e rs ity and s to c k s in th e w o r ld ’s seas.
2 The use o f ____________has caused a re d u c tio n in th e q u a n tity of s m a ll fis h rem oved fro m
th e sea by th e fis h in g ind u stry.
3 Ocean te m p e r a tu r e i s ____________in m a k in g s u re th a t th e sea c o n tin u e s to have both
v a rie ty and s u ffic ie n t s to c k s o f m a rin e life .
U A c c o rd in g to e x p e rts , t h e ____________is d a m a g in g to th e re p ro d u c tio n h a b its of w h a le s in
th e A tla n tic Ocean.
5 In o rd e r to s a fe g u a rd th e oceans of th e fu tu r e and th e v a rie ty o f m a rin e life th a t in h a b its
th e m , each c re a tiv e id e a____________tF2 2a:d.m a S 2a f U U

4 &#
C o u n ta b le and u n c o u n t a b le n o u n s I Q u a n t ifie r s w it h c o u n t a b le a n d u n c o u n ta b le n o u n s
Countable nouns:
O bjects, ideas and people th a t can be counted are ca lle d c o u n ta b le nouns. We can use a r tic le s
and n u m b e rs w ith co u n ta b le nouns. They can be s in g u la r o r p lu ra l.
A p p ro x im a te ly 2000 c a lo rie s p e r day are n e cessary
fo r w o m e n to give th e m enough energy.If you w a n t s p e c ia lis t advice on food, th e
p e rson you s h o u ld see is a n u tr itio n is t.
Uncountable nouns:
A b s tra c t ideas, q u a litie s and m a te r ia ls th a t ca n n o t be co u nte d are ca lle d u n c o u n ta b le nouns. We
ca n no t use th e in d e fin ite a r tic le o r n u m b e rs w ith u n c o u n ta b le nouns. They are u s u a lly s in g u la r.
Rice is th e m ain in g re d ie n t of m any
tr a d it io n a l Asian dishes.The d o c to r advised a g a in s t e a ting food such
as c h e e s e , w h ic h is high in fat.
Exceptions:
T h e re are e x c e ptio n s to th e ru le s above.
1 M aking u n c o u n ta b le nouns co u nta ble . By using a c o u n ta b le q u a n tify in g e xp ression we can
change a noun fr o m u n c o u n ta b le to c o u n ta b le : tea - a p o t o f tea, advice - a b it o f advice, rice - a
bowl o f rice, coffee - a cup o f coffee
She o rd ere d tw o cups of c o ffe e .
2 When a noun has tw o m e a nin g s. Som e n o uns have an u n c o u n ta b le and a co u n ta b le m e a nin g .
1. glass (m a te ria l) + 2. a glass o f w a te r (liq u id ), 1. business (general) + 2. a business (company)
The r e s ta u ra n t w a lls are made e n tire ly of g la s s .Could I have a glass of w a te r please?
3 P lu ra l u n c o u n ta b le nouns. Some u n c o u n ta b le nouns o n ly have a p lu r a l fo rm and ta k e a p lu r a l
ve rb , e.g. goods, clothes, trousers, s ta irs
My tr o u s e r s w e re c o m p le te ly ru in e d a ft e r I sat on th e c h e w in g gum .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

   O7
Q u a n tifie rs are used w ith co u n ta b le and u n c o u n ta b le n ouns as fo llo w s :
Countablef
Uncountable...
someS om e top chefs in th e w o r ld are
m en.Everyone needs to eat s o m e p ro te in
every day.
anyHave we q o t anv to m a to e s ?T h e re is n ’t anv s a la d le ft in th e frid q e .
m any/a lo t o fManv c h ild re n do n o t eat enouqh
ve g e ta b le s .-
m u ch /a lo t o f-
We d o n 't e a t m u c h m e a t th e s e days.
fewT h e re are fe w n u t r it io n a l b e n e fits in
fa s t food.-
a few
Eatina a fe w n u ts everv dav provides
v ita m in B.-
lit t le-
Teenaqers have l it t l e in te re s t in c o o kin q .
a lit t le-
A lit t le m ilk is qood f o r d iq e s tio n .
Note: Much is used in negative s e n te n c e s and q u e s tio n s . Much can be used in p o s itiv e s e n te n c e s
w he n th e re is a m o d ify in g adverb [such as too, so o r as] and w ith som e a b s tra c t nouns.
P ra c tic e e xe rc is e s
j G ra m m a r Tip: R e m e m b e r th a t a few and a lit t le are used in a p o s itiv e way, f o r e xa m ple :
i There are a few reasons fo r eating com plex fats, (there are som e reasons)
We have a lit t le evidence fo r consum ing m ore fa t in o u r diet, (there is som e evidence)
However, few and lit t le are used in a negative way, f o r e xa m p le :
There are few reasons fo r eating complex fats, (there are a lm o s t no reasons)
We have little evidence fo r consuming more fat in o u r diet, (there is a lm o s t no evidence)
1Complete the sentences 1 -8 using the words in the box.
a b o w l o f soup m uch soupm e a t som efew m e a ts
1 V e g e ta ria n is m is th e p ra c tic e of not e a t i n g
__________ f o r e it h e r e th ic a l o r h e a lth
reasons.
2 Many people th in k th a t th e re a r e
__________ a dvan tag e s to ta k in g v ita m in p ills as
v ita m in s are fo u n d in m o s t f r u i t and ve g e ta b le s.
3 The c o m p a n y m a k e s
__________ u sin g o n ly o rg a n ic in g re d ie n ts .
I» M a n y
__________ can be p a rt of th e B r itis h t r a d itio n a l ro a s t d in n e r, in c lu d in g beef,
p o rk o r ch ic k e n .
5 In th e w in t e r I u s u a lly h e a t
__________ and h a v e __________ bread w ith it f o r m y lu n c h .
6 I d o n ’t d r i n k
__________ w ate r. I s u p po se I s h o u ld d r in k m ore.LmmN U w

1 Listen to a student conducting a survey on eating habits and complete the notes below
using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER.
S tu d en t 1: eatin g habits
N a m e :.... J i m .....
Degree c o u r s e : .... B io lo g y .......
Eating h a b i t s : .... D o e s n 't eat ( 1 ) ____________ because it's too expensive.
R e g u la rly has v e g e ta b le -b a s e d ( 2 )
___________ f o r lu n c h and dinner.
T h in k s his d ie t is too high in ( 3 )
____________
Needs to re p la ce w ith ( 4 ) ___________ - c u r r e n tly o nly d r in k s
( 5 )
___________ g la s s e s daily.
3 There are seven e rro rs in the answ er below. Listen and correct the e rro rs in the text.
Describe a nice m eal th a t you remember. You s h o u ld say:
• What you ate
• Where you w ent
• What the occasion was
And say why you lik e d it.
Last y e a r I w e n t to a w o n d e r fu l r e s ta u ra n t o v e rlo o k in g th e r iv e r in m y city, M a rs e ille , w ith
a g ro up of frie n d s . The s p e c ia l occasion w as my f r ie n d ’s 21st b irth d a y and we decided to
go o u t fo r dinner. We w a n te d to eat a beef because th is r e s ta u ra n t is fa m o u s f o r m eat, b ut
as w e a rriv e d late th e y d id n ’t have m any beefs le ft. Instead we ate b o u illa b a is s e w h ic h is
a kind of seafood s te w c o n ta in in g a fis h and s h e llfis h . I had a co u ple of g la sse s of orange
ju ic e . For d e s s e rt w e each had a s lic e of b irth d a y cakes w h ic h th e r e s ta u ra n t had m ade
e s p e c ia lly f o r my frie n d . The cake had 21 candle and my frie n d b le w th e m a ll o u t in one go
so she made m uch w is h e s fo r th e fu tu re . We had so m a n y fu n th a t n ig h t.
Exam tip: In th e IELTS S peaking P a rt 2 you o ften need to be able to d e s c rib e people,
places, e x p e rie n c e s and ob je cts. U n d e rs ta n d in g th e c o rre c t use of c o u n ta b le and
u n c o u n ta b le nouns w i l l h elp y o u r fluency.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

       7      !    1 4A# ( / !         !     1; %$         
p re p a re and m ake notes. Then sp eak fo r one to tw o m inu tes on th e topic.
D e s c rib e a t r a d it io n a l d ish fro m y o u r co u n try . You s h o u ld say:
• W h a t it is m ade fro m
• How to cook it
• W hen people eat it
And say w h y you lik e o r d is lik e it.
O N ow lis te n to th e m o d e l answer.

12

Make so m e n o te s on ho w you c o u ld im p ro v e y o u r a n s w e r based on th e m o d e l answer.
E.g. I d id n 't have a ll the vocabulary f o r cooking th a t I needed - took i t up and le a rn m ore vocabulary
fo r key to p ics!Aoob ? H

L $# 
A r t i c l e s
The definite a rtic le (the): The is used mainly w ith sin g u la r nouns:
1 W hen th e lis t e n e r /r e a d e r kn o w s w h ic h noun we are t a lk in g about, e it h e r because it has been
m e n tio n e d before o r it is c le a r w h ic h one:
There is a new e m p lo y m e n t la w on r e tir e m e n t
ages. In m y o p in io n , the la w is unfair.I th in k th e g o v e rn m e n t needs to re n e w its
e c o n o m ic policy.
2 W hen th e s p e a k e r / w r ite r q u a lifie s a noun w ith in fo r m a tio n to m ake it d e fin ite :
You know, th e m in is t e r w ho w as sacked because he w a s ta k in g b rib e s.
3 W here th e re is only one of s o m e th in g :
The w o r ld is s u ffe r in g fro m th is e c o n o m ic d o w n tu rn .
U W ith 't h e ... o f .. .’ and ‘the ... o f a ... ’ (fo r d e fin ite noun phrases)
The ra te of in fla tio n is ris in g .
I n o ticed th e p a p e rs of a fe llo w c o m m u te r on th e tra in .
5 W ith s u p e rla tiv e s , w ith g e o g ra p h ic a l fe a tu re s and w e a th e r, and w ith w e ll- d e f in e d g ro up s:
He is th e h a rd e s t w o rk in g
em ployee in th e company.I c o u ld n 't get to w o r k
because of th e fog.The b a n k e rs have p u t th is
c o u n try into a sta te of c ris is .
The indefinite a rticle (a/an): A/an is used with s in g u la r nouns:
1 When th e lis t e n e r /r e a d e r does not k n o w th e th in g we are r e fe r r in g to because it is m e n tio n e d
f o r th e f i r s t tim e o r is u n s p e c ific /u n im p o r ta n t:
There is a new e m p lo y m e n t la w on r e tir e m e n t ages.
We need an a s s is ta n t.
2 When u sing a d je c tiv e s before a noun:
High ta x a tio n on th e ric h is a ve ry u n fa ir syste m .
3 When using q u a n titie s such as fr a c tio n s and larg e n u m b e rs to m ean 'o n e ':
a th ird , a m illio n , a hu nd re d
U W hen we ta lk a b o u t one m e m b e r of a g ro up o r class:
An e m p lo y e r m u s t be a w are of e m p lo y m e n t
law. (any e m p lo y e r)He's a banker, (one of a jo b type]* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 L:     is used:
1 W hen r e fe r r in g to a noun in g e n e ra l (th is is c o m m o n in a c a d e m ic w r it in g ) . U s u a lly th e noun is
in th e p lu r a l:
J obs are e s s e n tia l if vou w a n t to m ake money.E co n o m ics is an e s s e n tia l p a rt of p o litic s .
2 W ith u n c o u n ta b le nouns, w he n th e noun is not a s p e c ific g ro up :
Jobs are e s s e n tia l if vou w a n t to m ake monev.
3 W ith m o s t p ro p e r n ouns (nam es):
She w o r k s f o r Gooqle.I have a n o th e r ba nk a cco u n t in S w itz e rla n d .
Note: These ru le s c o ve r m o s t a r tic le usage, b u t as so o fte n in g r a m m a r , th e re are e xce ptio n s.
P ra c tic e e xe rc is e s
C o m p le te th e sp a ces w ith the, a, an o r no a r t ic le ( - ) and w r it e th e r u le n u m b e rs .
1 Economic advisors t o ______g o vern m e n t w arn e d against not re g ula tin g la rg e r businesses.
R u le :______
2 I believe th a t th e re s h o uld b e ______syste m to m anage e c o no m ic in s ta b ility .
R u le :______
3 ______in fla tio n is a c o n s ta n t w o r r y f o r
______ e m p lo y e rs . R u le : ______ R u le : ______
U _____ Toyota has one o f _______ h ig h e s t re ve nu e s fo r any co m p a n y in Japan.
R u le :
______R u le : ______
5 Every co m p a n y n e e d s ______ good staff. R u le : ______
6 My fa th e r i s ______e m p lo y m e n t lawyer. R u le : ______
7 ______w o r ld econom y, a lth o u g h p re s e n tly u n s ta b le , w i l l soon recover. R u le : ______
! G r a m m a r t i p : P ro p e r nouns o r nam es, can s o m e tim e s ta ke a r tic le s . The best w ay to
\ decide is to th in k of w h e t h e r th e p ro p e r noun is a p a rt of a group. If it is, th e n it m ay
| ta ke the, e.g. the UN (a g ro u p of n a tio n s), the U nited States (a g ro up of sta te s), the
\ Seychelles (a g ro u p of islands).
2 C o m p le te th e spaces in th e t e x t b e lo w w it h the, a, an o r no a r t ic le ( - ) .
( 1 )
___ th ir d of a ll em p lo ye e s in ( 2 ) ____ UK see 'ta k in g a s ic k ie ’ as an a c c e p ta b le p a rt of
( 3 )
___ w o rk , n o th in g m o re th a n lig h t- h e a r te d f le x ib ilit y w ith w o r k in g h o u rs, yet ta k in g
days o ff w he n not a c tu a lly s ic k is co stin g ( 4 )
____e conom y ( 5 ) ____ b illio n s o f pounds
( 6 )
___ y e a r in ( 7 ) ____ UK alone. As such, ( 8 ) ____ re a son s fo r th e s e days o ff of w o r k need
to be ad dre sse d to c o u n te ra c t ( 9 ) ____'s ic k c u lt u r e ’ e m b ra c in g society.
The re a son s f o r th e s e s ic k ’ days are q u ite co m p le x. One of ( 1 0 )
___ m a in re a son s f o r th is
kind of absence is 'w o r k fa tig u e ’ , (1 1 )
____fa c t th a t ( 1 2 ) ____ people are bored w ith t h e ir
jo b s . As one leading p ro fe s s o r sta te s, 'jo b s have becom e m o re fra g m e n te d and as such,
E m ploym ent and finance 39

        $        9  3                 9       9
 +    +< F " GLLLL       3 9          F ' GLLLL 3         $ <
<    $     9  9      , +  3 9  9     <               E B    
+ 9               3        +  F * GLLLL          3 9  9  < 
$  +  + 
D3 $  F   G
LLL           E <E  F . G LLLL    <        
9  9      3  9   F ) G
LLL  < 9   3 99  +   
3  9  9 9     F 0 G
LLL  :+ 3      9 9 3       9    < 
 +   +     3    9       9     9 <3    9    +  F ! G
LLL  
 +    9   
UExam tip: A r tic le s can give you a c lu e to a n s w e rs in se n te n ce c o m p le tio n /s u m m a r y
i c o m p le tio n q u e s tio n s .
3 Complete the sentences using words from the text in exercise 2.
1 B illio n s o f pounds are lo s t th ro u g h u n ju s tifie d s ic k ' days, a n d
______________ f o r th is
need to be looked at.
2 As m u ch as a
___________ of w o r k e r s see th e s e s ic k days as acceptable.
3 W o rk fa tig u e is w h e n
_w ith t h e ir w o rk .
4 C hanging p e o p le ’s p e rs p e c tiv e s of th e ir jo b s m ig h t be a
__
5 P ro b le m s w i t h i n ___________ are the m ost c o m m on reason fo r th is kind of lea ve -ta kin g.
4 Find and correct the mistakes in the following Part 1 W riting sample. There are eight
mistakes in the use of articles.
M illio n a ire s in the USA, by m ain profession
10% 2%5% □ S p o rts
15% T elevision and F ilm
■ P o litic s
4 % W B u sine ss
Hi M usic
□ O th e r
64%
The pie c h a rt shows the m ain care ers of m illio n a ire s in the United States in percentages. We
can see th a t a m a jo rity of m illio n a ire s are businesspeople, w h ile o th e r job s such as in the
e n te rta in m e n t o r the p o litic s only re p re s e n t s m a ll p ro p o rtio n of the to ta l. However, it could
be said th a t m illio n a ire s are m o s tly people in th e business and e n te rta in m e n t in d u s trie s .
In the USA, people w ho w o r k in a b u sin e ss a cco u n t f o r ju s t u n d e r tw o th ir d s of m illio n a ir e s .
N ext la rg e s t g ro up of m illio n a ir e s on th e c h a rt is people w ho w o r k in f ilm and te le v is io n .
They a cco u n t f o r 15% of th e to ta l. T h is g ro up is c lo s e ly fo llo w e d by people w ho w o r k in
m u s ic . This s e c to r a cco un ts fo r th e te n th of a ll m illio n a ir e s in th e USA.
The s m a lle r g ro u p s a ll m ake up fe w e r th a n ten p e r ce n t of m illio n a ir e s w h e n c o m b in e d .
These people are s p o rts p e o p le , p o litic ia n s and people in o th e r c a re e rs . The s m a lle s t g roup
is an ‘o t h e r ’ g ro up w ith tw o p e r cent.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

      7 -  !    L* (# #  1E    (;
The g raph b e lo w shows the percentage o f p a r t- tim e w o rk e rs in each c o u n try o f the United
Kingdom in 1980 and 2010.
S u m m a rize the inform ation by selecting and reporting the main featu res, and m ake
comparisons w h ere relevant.
W rite at least 150 words.
p e r cent
40
B 1 9 8 0
02010
E n g la n d N o r th e r n S cotland
Ire la n dW ales
The percentage of p a rt-tim e workers in each country of the United Kingdom
Exam tip: In W ritin g Task 1, it is e s s e n tia l to u n d e rs ta n d w h a t th e g ra p h o r c h a rt is
r e p re s e n tin g . Look c lo s e ly at th e in fo r m a tio n in th e in s t r u c tio n s as w e ll as a ll d e ta ils of
th e g ra p h o r c h a rt.
The g ra p h in th is ta s k sh o w s th e p e rc e n ta g e of p a r t - t im e w o r k e r s in each country of
th e UK. The fo llo w in g are incorrect s ta te m e n ts :
• Wales had m ore p a r t- tim e w o rk e rs than England. (The g ra p h is in p e rce n ta g e s, not
n u m b e rs )
• England had 25% o f p a r t- tim e w o rke rs in 1980. (The c o u n trie s do not add up to 100%
so E ngland did not have 25% of a ll p a r t - t im e w o r k e r s . The g ra p h sh o w s th a t 25% of
th e p o p u la tio n of England w o rk e d p a rt tim e .)
Now compare w h at you w rote with the m odel a n s w e r in the answ er key.
E m ploym ent and finance4 1

E *(
L in k in g I S ig n p o s tin g
Signposting: Signposting is seen in both speech and w riting as a way to organize
content and make it clear to the listener or reader where the content is going, for
example by:
Ordering main points: Use: firstly, secondly, next, finally, la s tly
Ordering a process or narrative: Use: firs t, then, a fte r that, a fte rw a rd s
Giving examples: Use: f o r instance, fo r example
Sum m arizing: Use: in conclusion, in s u m m a ry
A ll of th e s e s ig n p o s tin g w o rd s can be fo llo w e d by a c o m m a and a clau se .
F irs tly , th e re are m any a c tiv itie s y o u th s can becom e involved in.
In speech, m any can be fo llo w e d by a noun, v e rb o r a d jective.
Today I am going to loo k at yo u th p ro b le m s . F irs tly , a lie n a tio n . Then, p e e r p re ssure . And lastly.
a n ti- s o c ia l behaviour.
T h is ca n n o t be done in w r itin g .
Linking words and phrases: These words link ideas tog ether so that speech or
w ritin g can be followed clearly.
Positioning of linking words: L in k in g w o rd s can be p o s itio n e d in a v a rie ty of w ays w ith in a
sen te n ce. Here you can see a s im p lifie d guide to th e m a in c o n s tru c tio n s :
1L in k w ord + Noun, C lause OR
C lause + Lin k w ord + Noun
2L in k word, + C lause
3 C lause 1, L in k w ord + C lause 2
4L in k w ord + C lause 1, + C lause 2
D iffe re n t lin k in g w o rd s have d iffe r e n t fu n c tio n s and need d iffe r e n t c o n s tru c tio n s :
Addition: in addition (2), in addition to (1), m o reo ve r (2), fu rth e rm o re (2), and (3)
Contrast: however (2), in c o n tra s t (2), in c o n tra s t to (1), whereas (3/4), although (3/4),
even though (3/4), ye t (3), b u t (3)
Reasons: due to (1), because (3/4), because o f [ 1), as (3/4)
Results: therefore (2/3), so (1/3), as a re s u lt (2), as a r e s u lt o f (1)
Repetition: in o th e r words (2), by th a t I mean (2)
; G ra m m a r Tip: Using lin k in g w o rd s and p h ra s e s c o r r e c tly is e s s e n tia l. When le a rn in g a
; new lin k in g w ord , use a good d ic tio n a ry to loo k at how it s h o u ld be used w ith in a n d /o r
j a cro ss sen te n ces.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 E           
1 Decide on the correct linking or signposting word and finish the sentences. Then w rite the
function. There may be more than one correct answer.
Example: I w ill look a t the effects o f p e e r pressure, and how young people can avoid pe er pressure.
F unction: A d d itio n
1 T h e re are not enough a c tiv itie s f o r te e n a g e rs in th e a re a--------------- , m any te e n a g e rs
ju s t s o c ia liz e in th e s tre e ts in th e evenings. F u n c tio n :
________
2 ________ d e a lin g w ith th e re s u lts of yo u th c rim e , we m u s t a d d re s s th e causes.
F u n c tio n :
________
3 Today I am going to ta lk a b o u t yo u th p ro je c ts in th e lo c a l area. F irs tly , I w i l l ta lk a b ou t
th e s p o rts p ro je c ts . Then, I w i l l t a lk a b o u t th e c u lt u r a l p r o je c ts
--------------- , I w i l l ta lk
a b o u t th e v o lu n te e rin g o p p o r tu n itie s . F unction: --------------
4 M any s tu d e n ts ca n no t get a place at u n iv e r s it y
________ ris in g tu itio n fees. Function:
13
03
HT eenagers are th e fu tu r e o f th is c o u n try ,
Function:
________
m any people ig n o re t h e i r needs.
T his t a lk has looked at m any of th e p o s itiv e and negative a s p e c ts of v o c a tio n a l
c o u rs e s fo r te e n s
_________ _ a lth o u g h th e re are som e d ra w b a c k s to th e s e c o u rses,
o v e rw h e lm in g ly th e y are a good th in g . F u n c tio n :--------------
Listen to the lecture and com plete the gaps 1 -6 in the notes using no m ore than three
words in each space.
Youth initiatives in the UK
(1 ]
______________ schemes
1
cheap and (2)
Sports clubs
n u m e ro u s b u t (3)
3 (4)clubs
la c k o f n u m b e rs
expense
a c c o m m o d a tio n p ro b le m s
In s u m m a ry , (6]
_________
= (5) N o t.
need to be found
Below is the audio script for the second part of the lecture. Decide on approp riate linking
words to complete the spaces. There may be m ore than one possibility for each gap. Then
listen to Track 14 on the CD and check your answ ers.
So, w h a t o th e r in itia tiv e s could th e g o v e rn m e n t fo cu s on? W e ll, ( 1 )
---------
of th e s p o r ts c lu b s , ne w 'open sp a ces’ in itia tiv e s are being d iscu sse d , (2)th e success5mgfF ) U

  +                  <       9    <           9  
              3         $        <         3   
   +    < F " GLLLLLLLLLL <              $         ;    
                9      3             < 
F ' G
LLLLLLLLLL 9       9   9   9 +              $       9
E    3    E 9   3 9  9  $  <     9     3     :      
$   <  , +    9     9    9 < F * G
LLLLLLLLLL  9     9   9   3  9  99
                    3 9 9    9       3 <    $      3      +<
  9  =    = 9           < 9   9     9   3       <   3    
F G LLLLLLLLL 9          
F. G LLLLLLLLL 9    9   9   9   9 +          +    9    3    +
  $            5B1     9     9 9 +            <  9         
F)G
LLLLLLLLLL  6 :  B  ;   9    $  <        $  <     9
        9      <     ,<      F0G
LLLLLLLLL L 9   9 <   $    
9              :       $      +      
Read the following text and put the events 1 -7 in the correct order.
The History of BUNAC
BUNAC, the organization w hich sends young people overseas to live and w ork, w ill be
celebrating its 50th anniversary next year. It grew fro m N orth Am erican Clubs at London
Universities who wanted students from both countries to be able to live and w o rk in the
oth e r country fo r a sh o rt tim e. This became a reality as a re su lt of the introduction of the EVP
(Exchange Visa Programme) and subsequently the SEEP (Student Employment Exchange
Programme). Due to the massive rising popularity of the B ritish-A m e rica n scheme,
program m es started running firs tly in Canada and then in locations in the rest of the w orld.
1 The SEEP p ro g ra m m e sta rte d
2 The s ch e m e g re w in p o p u la rity
3 B r itis h and A m e ric a n s tu d e n ts w an ted to tra v e l m o re fre e ly in each o th e r's c o u n try
U
The EVP p ro g ra m m e began
5 B ritis h and A m e ric a n s tu d e n ts could tra v e l m o re fre e ly in each o th e r's c o u n try
6 The s ch e m e s ta rte d in Canada
7 The schem e s ta rte d in o th e r c o u n trie s
Exam practice: Reading - com pleting a ta b le
Complete the table opposite w ith words from the follo w ing text. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
fo r each answer.
The Life and Death of Punk
A lth o u g h th e p unk m o v e m e n t d id n 't gain c u lt u r a l p o p u la rity u n t il th e late 1970’s, th e o rig in s of
th e s u b c u ltu re s te m m e d fro m th e c u lt u r a l scenes in th e UK and USA e a r lie r in th e decade w ith* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 E             9  9  V $  2           3  9        6      6      1
3  9  <   +      9              +  9  +  9   9    +      3 9  9    +<      
    9            9   <    $    9  3   +        9    +      =
9          6      3 $ <    9  9   <    9                   9   9  
9                 +   
  +              9  0.! 3 9   9          ?   +  9         
 9                                       <          3      
   <  99 $        <                  +          9   
+ 9   9   :        +        $     _ 9    +        +     9  3 9   9 
  +                 <     +              <    
1    9   9    +         9 3 9     +     +               + c
    3 9  9       9  3<       9   $     +     9         
       =       9    +     9 9      6 93          <      
9   <              9$   <          3 9  9     9         
9       9        $        A          <   9    +       <    9      
          +   9   $ <      <     3  9   9    1          
  9       9        $    +       3 9  9         9         9   
  +            9  3  9   9   9        13      : 9 +       ?     
+ 9$ 9 <      9   $      9        +      +<          = 9       
    9           :    9   : 9 +       9   <        $    +     
9         9       3 9  3 9   9      +         9    9  9      
    9        $     ,   9   $   +          9  
1< 9  +         < 3<              +           ?
9 _  9   3 99 <     $     +  3  9  9  E  E   +      
  9      +<  3        ?    +      9         3
       +         3 99 3  9    9   + 9    +      
The Life Span of a Youth Subculture
StageDescriptionRelation to punk movement
1. subcu ltu re 1Styles and v a lu e s of s u b c u ltu re s
in itia te d by c u lt u r a l p io n e e rse.g. p io n e e rs lik e M a lc o lm
M cC laren
2. s u b c u l t u r a l 2
Often a re a c tio n to s o c io - p o litic a l
issuese.g. e c o n o m ic d e c lin e and
3
3. s u b c u ltu ra l plateauId e n tifie d in d e v e lo p m e n t of
sh ared b e h a v io u ra l, a ttitu d in a l,
fa sh io n , and m u s ic a l 4e.g. M ohaw ks, p ie rc in g s
creation of a deviant
s ubcultureOften c h a ra c te riz e d by
5 and m a in s u b c u ltu r e
re je c tio ne.g. s k in h e a d s
4 . 6Caused by ageing of the
s u b c u ltu ree.g. ris e of dance and new
r o m a n tic s5mgfF ) w

 # 
C o m p a r a tiv e s t r u c t u r e s
S tructures that show unequal comparisons:
1 m o re /le s s + a d je c tiv e /a d v e rb + than
Livinq in th e c o u n try s id e is h e a lth ie r th a n
T ra ffic in to w n s m oves m o re s lo w lv th a n in
liv in g in a city.
v illa g e s .
2 m o r e l fe w e r! less + n o u n /n o u n p h rase + than
There are m o re DeoDle in th is to w n th a n
th e re used to be.There are fe w e r s u p e r m a r k e ts in c o u n trv
v illa g e s th a n in re g io n a l to w n s.
3 not as + a d je c tiv e /a d v e rb + as
Th is to w n is not as p ro s p e ro u s as th e o th e rs in
th is region.The people in London a r e n 't as fr ie n d lv as
th o se in m y hom e tow n.
U n o t as + m u c h /m a n y + n o u n /n o u n p h rase + as
N ot as m anv people v is it N ew Zealand as
A u s tra lia .There is n 't as m u ch sun in th e n o rth of th e
c o u n trv as in th e so u th .
S tru ctu res that show equal comparisons:
1 as + a d je c tiv e /a d v e rb + as
The o ffice b u ild in q s in P a ris are as b e a u tifu l
as th e m o n u m e n ts .C o n tra ry to p o p u la r b e lie f life in a larg e
v illa q e m oves as q u ic k lv as in a tow n.
2 as + m u c h /m a n y + n o u n /n o u n p hrase + as
There are as m a n v im m iq r a n t s as t o u r is ts in
You can v is it as m anv h is to r ic c a s tle s in
London.
S co tla n d as in W ales
3 Me same + n o u n /n o u n p h rase + as
In every c o u n try you can fin d the sa m e type of I am in te re s te d in th e sam e life s ty le as my
people as in y o u r own. p a ren ts.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 .!  !7
Add m uch, far, a lot, considerably o r not n e a rly be fo re m o re /le s s o r before an a d je c tiv e /a d v e rb
I n t e r - c it v tr a v e l is fa r fa s te r th a n it w as ten
y e a rs ago.T h ere are c o n s id e ra b ly m o re people m oving
abroad fr o m th e UK to Spain th a n France.
Making comparisons w e a k e r:
Add a bit, a little , nearly, a lm o st, not m uch o r n o t a lo t before as o r an a d je c tiv e /a d v e rb
I t ’s n e a rlv as easv to tr a v e l bv tr a in as
by car.W a lk in g b r is k lv is a c tu a lly a lit t le q u ic k e r th a n
u sing p u b lic tr a n s p o r t in th e c ity c e n tre .
See page 119 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e f o r m o re in fo r m a tio n .
P ra c tic e e x e rc is e s
Decide if the following pairs of sentences have the sam e meaning or a d ifferent meaning.
W rite S (same) or D (different).
1The C o lis e u m is not n e a rly as old as S to n e h en g e .
S to n e h en g e is c o n s id e ra b ly y o u n g e r th a n The C o lis e u m . ______________
In Europe th e sa m e p e rcen ta g e of people live in fla ts as live in houses.
As m any people live in houses as live in f la ts in Europe.
______________
T h is v illa g e is n ’t n e a rly as p ic tu re s q u e as th e la s t one we v is ite d .
T his v illa g e is a lm o s t as p ic tu re s q u e as th e la s t one we v is ite d .
______________
U rb a n iz a tio n in Asia has been in c re a s in g m o re q u ic k ly th a n in Europe.
In Asia, u rb a n iz a tio n h a s n ’t been in c re a s in g as q u ic k ly as in Europe.
______________
Our new house in th e s u b u rb s has got as m uch space as o u r old house in th e c ity ce ntre.
Our new house in the su burbs is as spacious as o u r old house in the
city centre.
------------------------
You can w a lk betw een p laces in th e c ity c e n tre as e a s ily as ta k in g p u b lic tr a n s p o r t .
You can w a lk betw een p laces in th e c ity c e n tre m o re e a sily th a n ta k in g
p u b lic tr a n s p o r t .
------------------------
Read the e x am in e r questions from a Speaking P art 1 conversation and expand the answ er
notes into fu ll sentences. Try to use com parative stru ctu res w h ere possible. The first one
has been done as an exam ple.
1 E xam in er: How has the place you live in changed re cently?
Notes: m ore tra ffic nowadays, lots of people have moved here fo r w o rk, the city is ric h e r now
Exam ple: W e ll, in my c ity th e re is a lo t m o re t r a f f ic th a n th e re used to be. T h is is because
of th e new b u s in e s s ce n tre , w h ic h has b ro u g h t a lo t m o re people to th e c ity fo r w o r k . This
has m ade th e c ity r ic h e r th a n it w as. In fa c t t h a t ’s th e m o s t s ig n ific a n t d iffe re n c e - th e c ity
is not as p o o r as it w as 10 y e a rs ago.
People and places 4 7

1  7So, yo u 're studying here in Sydney. How is y o u r to w n /c ity d iffe re n t fro m Sydney?
Notes: d iffe r e n t shop o pening h o u rs , m o re e ffic ie n t t r a n s p o r t s yste m , sa m e w e a th e r
3 E xam in er: Is it a good place to live?
Notes: b e tte r th a n o th e r c itie s in m y c o u n try , m o re m o d e rn , lo ts of p a rk s , not crow ded
lik e o th e r c itie s
Now listen and read the audio script fo r Task 15. Compare your answers to the
suggested answers.
Exam tip: C om parative s tru c tu re s can be tested in th e IELTS L iste nin g exam by changing
positive and negative s tru c tu re s . For exam ple, in th e exam you m ig h t hear: In this town
there are fa r more visitors to the church than the town hall, and the q u estion o r c o rre c t
a n s w e r m ig h t be: Not nearly as many people visit the town h all as the church in this town.
3 Listen to th re e students discussing a presentation they have to give for th e ir social
studies class. Choose the correct answ er A, B or C to complete sentences 1 - 3 below.
1 J a m e s th in k s th a t th e to p ic of the p re s e n ta tio n s h o u ld be about
A w h y fa m ilie s w a n t to live in th e c o u n try s id e less th a n in th e past
B th e re a son s fa m ilie s are m oving to th e c ity m o re nowadays
C how re c e n tly c o u n try s id e liv in g has becom e m o re d e s ira b le
2 P ro fe s s o r Davies to ld th e s tu d e n ts th a t
A th e re are th e sam e n u m b e r of houses a v a ila b le in s u b u rb a n areas as 20 ye a rs ago
B m o re fa m ilie s have moved to c itie s over the la s t tw o decades
C the range of o p tio n s f o r fa m ilie s is less w id e nowadays
3 Suzanne a g rees w ith Helen because she th in k s th a t th e s tu d e n ts s h o u ld sh o w th a t
A they have re se arch e d m o re w id e ly th a n th e re a din g lis t
B they have done m o re re se arch th a n fo r t h e ir la s t p re s e n ta tio n
C they have done m o re re s e a rc h th a n necessa ry
i G ra m m a r tip: To s w itc h betw een p o sitive and negative c o m p a ris o n s you can change
! th e c o m p a ra tiv e s tr u c tu r e : a the verb, b th e n ouns o r c th e a d jective, fo r example.-
i a A city [s n o is ie r than a village. = A village isn 't as noisy as a city.
! b Villages are less in te re s tin g than to w n s. = Towns are m ore in te re s tin g than villa g es.
■ c A block o f fla ts is t a lle r than a house. = A house is s m a lle r than a block o f flats.u se d d e s to s /wlWi

 GNow re w rite the following sentences from the student conversation changing positive
sentences to negative and negative to positive. More than one correct an s w e r may be
possible.
1 The c o u n try s id e has becom e m o re a ttr a c tiv e to fa m ilie s nowadays.
2 You’ve th o u g h t a b o u t th e p re s e n ta tio n a lo t m o re c le a r ly th a n me.
3 We have done as m uch re s e a rc h f o r th e p re s e n ta tio n as we co u ld .
4 O ur fin a l g ra d e w o n ’t be n e a rly as high as o u r la s t p re s e n ta tio n .
Exam p ra ctic e : Listening - m u ltip le choice
i Exam tip: Make s u re you ch e ck th a t th e a n s w e r you choose m a tc h e s th e m eaning of
j w h a t you h e a r n o t ju s t th e words you hear.
\ QUESTIONS 1 - 4
17
A n s w e r the questions below. Choose the c o rre c t le t t e r A, B o r C.
1 A c c o rd in g to K irs ty , th e s tu d e n ts s h o u ld
A a p p ro a ch t h e ir p ro je c t fr o m th e p e rs p e c tiv e s u g g e s te d by Dr. Jones.
B m ake th e p ro je c t less g e n e ra l th a n Dr. J o n e s su g g e ste d .
C expand th e p ro je c t and m ake it m o re g e n e ra l.
2 H ow s c ie n tific w a s th e vo tin g sys te m f o r th e N ew Seven W o n d e rs of th e W o rld ?
A It w a s m o re s c ie n tific th a n a ta le n t sh o w because people voted m u lt ip le tim e s .
B Due to th e m u lt ip le vo tin g sys te m it w as n o t as s c ie n tific as v o tin g on th e In te rn e t.
C It w a s m u ch less s c ie n tific th a n th e v o tin g s y s te m s w h ic h are used in p o litic s .
3 W h a t do th e s tu d e n ts w a n t to s h o w in t h e ir p ro je c t?
A w h y so m e c o u n trie s re ly m o re h e avily on to u r is m
B th a t th e type of people w ho vote a ffe c ts th e v o tin g o u tc o m e
C th e advan tag e s of th e c o m p e titio n to fin d th e N ew Seven W o n d e rs o f th e W o rld
4 W hy does Greg th in k th e p ro je c t w i l l be good?
A B ecause th e s tu d e n ts w i l l have done a lo t o f re a din g .
B B ecause Dr. Jo n es is e xp e c tin g th e s tu d e n ts to p ro duce a b e tte r p ro je c t th a n th e la s t one.
C Because th e p ro je c t w i l l be d iffe r e n t fr o m th o s e o f t h e i r c la s s m a te s .
People and places 49

1Crime
U s in g m o d a ls f o r o b lig a t io n a n d a b il i t y
M o d al v e rb s can be used f o r p re s e n t and fu tu r e o b lig a tio n and a b ility in th e fo llo w in g ways:
Can is used:
1 to exp ress a b ility
I can d rive a car.
2 to re q u e s t and give p e rm is s io n
Can I use y o u r car? Yes, you c a n .
3 to say th a t s o m e th in g is a llo w e d
You can eat in th is room , (it is a llo w ed )
Cannot (Can’t) is used:
1 to e xpress in a b ility
I c a n 't fin d my keys.
2 to deny p e rm is s io n
Can I use y o u r ca r? No, you c a n ’t .
3 to say th a t s o m e th in g is not a llo w e d
You c a n 't take m oney! (it is not a llo w ed )
M ig h t/ May/Could is used:
1 to express p o s s ib ility in th e p re s e n t/fu tu r e
P ris o n s m ig h t becom e o ve rcro w d ed , (it is possible)
2 In the negative; it is m ore com m on to use m igh tn't/m a y not in o rd e r to express negative possibility.
Should is used:
1 to e xpress a re c o m m e n d a tio n
People s h o u ld t r y to be kind to o th e rs , (it is a good th in g to do)* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 1  9    $   :      $            
    9     H  +  9    +    9   F    + 9     G
Must is used:
fr o m th e s p e a k e r ’s p o in t of view to e xpress a s tro n g o b lig a tio n
He m u s t go to p ris o n ! (I th in k it is necessary)
Must not (M u s tn ’t) is used:
fr o m th e s p e a k e r ’s p o in t of view to say th a t s o m e th in g is not a llo w e d
You m u s tn 't ta k e m oney! (I th in k it is not a llo w e d )
A ll of th e se m o d a l v e rb s are used w it h a n o th e r m a in v e rb and w it h o u t to. T h ere is no th ir d
p e rson c o n s tru c tio n , e.g. He m ust ao to prison. NOT He m u s t to go to prison. OR He m u s ts go to
prison.
Modal constructions using ‘to ’ (s e m i-m o d a l verbs)
Ought to is used:
to exp ress a re c o m m e n d a tio n (like s h o u ld }
People ought to be k in d to others.
T h is c o n s tr u c tio n is less c o m m o n in th e negative.
Have to is used:
to e xpress a s tro n g o b je ctive o b lig a tio n
People have to fo llo w th e law. (it is re q u ire d )
Don’t have to is used:
to exp ress th a t s o m e th in g is a m a t te r of choice and not ne cessa ry
You d o n ’t have to pay th e fin e today, (you can pay to d a y if you w a n t, b u t it is n o t necessary)
P ra c tic e e xe rc is e s
1 Decide on the correct modal o r s e m i-m o d a l form and finish the sentences. There may be
more than one answer.
1 I believe it is b e tte r fo r c r im in a ls to go to p ris o n th a n to do c o m m u n ity w o rk .
C r im i n a l s________________ to p ris o n inste ad of doing c o m m u n ity w o rk .
2 It is n e ce ssa ry to fo llo w a ll th e la w s in a co untry.
Y o u
________________ a ll th e la w s in a co u ntry.b .dS 2
w r

" = 9       +  9   9        3             
= 9    9       LLLLLLLLLLL     
4 S o m e tim e s o ffe n d e rs can choose b e tw een paying a fin e o r doing c o m m u n ity se rvice .
S o m e tim e s o f f e n d e r s
_______ __________They can do c o m m u n ity se rv ic e instead.
5 P olice o ffic e rs are able to ta k e e a rly r e tir e m e n t because of th e d e m a n d s of t h e ir job .
Police o f f i c e r s
________________ e a rly r e tir e m e n t because of th e d e m a n d s of t h e ir job .
G ra m m a r tip: A lw ays use m o d a l v e rb s to exp ress p o s s ib ility and lik e lih o o d . Only use
w ill w h e n th e in fo rm a tio n is fa c tu a l and not y o u r o p in io n , fo r e xa m ple :
The c rim e ra te m ig h t decrease as a r e s u lt o f the new laws, (you ca n n o t be sure]
The g o vernm ent w i l l introduce new laws next m onth to help reduce crim e, (this is a fact)
2 Sentences 1 - 5 are from an IELTS W riting Task 2 essay. The student has used verbs that
are too strong (e.g. w ill) or incorrect. Decide on the correct modal form . There may be
more than one answer.
1 C r im in a ls w ho d o n 't have a s tro n g enough p u n is h m e n t w i l l re o ffe n d
----------------------
2 People w o n ’t pay a tte n tio n to the la w if it is not s t r ic t e n o u g h ----------------------
3 E uthanasia m u s t be lega lize d in a ll c o u n tr ie s ----------------------
4 People w ho c o m m it c rim e m u s t go to p riso n so they can le a rn good behaviour.
3 Below is a response to an IELTS Speaking Part 3 question. There are mistakes in some
of the sentences, both in term s of modal choice and construction. Correct the mistakes,
then listen to the recording and check your answers. There are six mistakes.
Exam iner: How can c rim e be prevented?
Student: C rim e p revention m u s ts s ta r t fro m e d uca tio n . If people are not raised w e ll,
then th e y w i l l c o m m it c rim e s in the fu tu re . I t ’s the re s p o n s ib ility of both
p a re n ts and s c h o ols to educate c h ild re n in th e d iffe re n c e betw een r ig h t and
w ro n g . This could be done in s p e c ia l e th ic s c lasse s in sch o ols, and p erhaps
p a re n tin g classe s m ig h tn 't be a good idea fo r p a re n ts w ho are u n sure of
how to raise c h ild re n w ith m ore m o ra l values. These classe s s h o u ld n ’t
be c o m p u ls o ry th o u g h as th is m ig h t to be too expensive and unnecessary.
However, a lth o u g h a ll paren ts m u s tn ’t go, it could be u s e fu l fo r those w ho are
s tru g g lin g . More in fo rm a tio n w i l l he lp th e se p arents.
4 In Part 3 of the Speaking exam, you need to talk about your ideas. You can often do this
using modal verbs to give recommendations.
Look at the following questions and answers. How could you continue the answers using
modals? The first one is done for you.
Exam iner: Do you th in k crim e is increasing nowadays ?
Student: / d o n 't th in k so. I th in k we j u s t see m ore about crim e on the TV and in newspapers.
I th in k we s h o u ld n ’t be too w orrie d about crime, otherw ise people m ig h t be scared
to do the things they n o rm a lly do in case s om ething happens.u se d d e s to s /wlWi

  7W hat are th e best w ays to p re v e n t c rim e s ?
S tudent: I th in k a c e rta in a m o u n t of c r im e c o u ld be pre ven te d w it h e d u c a tio n .
E xam in er: Are any c r im e s acce pta ble ?
S tudent: Yes, I th in k som e c r im e s are m o re a cc e p ta b le th a n o th e rs . For e x a m p le we
c a n 't co m p a re m u r d e r and d riv in g too fast.
E xam in er: A re th e re any c r im e s w h ic h you th in k s h o u ld n ’t be c rim e s ?
Student: Yes, I th in k som e s m a ll c rim e s , s h o u ld n 't be c rim e s .
Exam p ra c tic e : S p e ak in g P a rt 3
You w ill h ear five questions. A nsw er them as fu lly as possible. In this exam practice, you w ill
have 30 seconds between questions to give your answ ers.
Speaking exam tip: In S peaking P a rt 3 you s h o u ld t r y to develop y o u r a n s w e rs as m uch
as p o ssib le. A n s w e r th e q u e s tio n d ir e c tly in y o u r f i r s t s e n te n c e and th e n move on to do
one o r m o re of th e fo llo w in g :
- Give re a s o n s f o r y o u r a n s w e r
- Add m o re in fo r m a tio n / develop y o u r a n s w e r
- Give e x a m p le s of w h a t you m ean
Now listen to the m odel answ ers given by the student on Track 20 of the CD. How w e re they
b e tte r than or differen t from your answers?C rim e

2 ( 
M o d a l v e r b s in t h e p a s t
Past m o d a l v e rb s d if fe r g re a tly in use fro m th e p re s e n t m o d a l ve rb s, even th o u g h th e y look
s im ila r.
Modal verbs fo r deduction in the past:
M u s t/m u s tn ’t is used from the speaker's p o in t o f view to express a stro n g lik e lih o o d in the p ast
m u s t/m u s tn 't + have + past p a rtic ip le OR m u s t/m u s tn 't + have + been + past p a rtic ip le
The p rim e m in is te r m u s tn 't have kept his p ro m is e a b o u t in c re a s in g a lte rn a tiv e e n erg y fo rm s ,
as I've seen n o th in g in th e news a b o u t it. (I th in k it w as lik e ly he d id n ’t keep his p ro m ise )
Note: M u s tn 't can be rep la ce d by c o u ld n ’t f o r the sam e m e a nin g .
M ig h t/m a y/c o u ld is used to express p o s s ib ility in the p ast
m ig h t/m a y /c o u ld + have + past p a rtic ip le (Also m ig h t/m a y /c o u ld + have + been + verb(-/7ig))
A c u rb on th e use of fo s s il fu e ls m ig h t have c u rta ile d th e p o llu tio n p ro b le m , (it w as possible)
Note: M o d al v e rb s of d e d u c tio n [m u s t/c o u ld /m ig h t/m a y +be) can a lso be used in th e p re s e n t, b u t it
is u n lik e ly th a t you w i l l see th is in an IELTS exam .
Modal verbs fo r past ability:
Could is used:
1 To express a b ility
I co u ld s w im 100 m e tre s , b ut I c a n ’t now.
2 To say th a t s o m e th in g was a llow ed
People co uld tr a v e l w it h o u t a p a s s p o rt 200 ye a rs ago. (it w as a llo w ed )
Could not (couldn't) is used:
1 To express in a b ility
I c o u ld n ’t c o m p le te m y essay on g lo b a l w a rm in g .
2 To say th a t s o m e th in g was n ot a llo w ed
He c o u ld n 't go into th e m o n key e n c lo s u re , (it w as not a llo w e d )* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

"# is used to express a s tro n g objective ob lig atio n in the past,hcm a?nlT/wl Hhc WT Wa h C l w WT } S g Wah wth Ti h g H t/ [lmTal h ta W a h C l w M h g tiCliWlc, jtW M hg ilylggha8"
Didn’t have to is used to express th a t so m e th in g was n o t an obligation
I d id n ’t have to go to w o r k w hen I w as a c h ild .
N ote: M ust ca n n o t be used in the past to exp ress an o b lig a tio n o r choice.
Modal Verbs used fo r past regrets:
Should is used to express a recom m endation o r re g re t in the past
s h o u ld + have + past p a r tic ip le (Also s h o u ld + have + been + v e rb (-/n g )l
We should have gone on th a t Eco to u ris m trip . I’m s o rry th a t we d id n ’t, (we d id n ’t go and I re g re t it]
We s h o u ld n 't have gone on th a t Eco to u ris m trip . It was expensive and d u ll, (we w e n t and I re g re t it)
Ought to is a ls o used to express a re co m m endation o r re g re t in the p a st
ought to + have + past p a rtic ip le (Also o ught to + have + been + verb(-/ng))
We o u g h t to have th o u g h t m ore a b o u t th e p la n e t be fo re u sing so m u ch fu e l.
T h is c o n s tr u c tio n is less c o m m o n in th e negative.
P ra c tic e e x e rc is e s
Decide on an appropriate past m odal verb and the correct form of the verb in brackets to
finish the sentences. There may be more than one correct answer.
1 W hen fo s s il fu e ls w e re d iscovered, p e o p le____________ [know] th e negative e ffe c ts
th e y w o u ld e v e n tu a lly cause as no re s e a rc h had been done on th e m .
2 In e a rly c iv ilis a tio n s , p e o p le
____________ [h u n t] f o r t h e ir own m eat.
3 P e o p le _____________[take] m o re care of e n d a n g e re d species. Over a h u n d re d s p e cie s
have becom e e x tin c t in th e la s t 50 ye a rs and i t ’s a t e r r ib le sh a m e.
U I t
_____________ [be] d if f ic u lt to su rv iv e in th e days before m o d e rn m e d ic in e and
hygiene s ta n d a rd s .
5 A new liz a rd has been d iscovered in th e ra in fo r e s ts of S u m a tra . Som e e x p e rts say th e y
[inhabit] th e d e e p e r r a in fo r e s ts f o r up to a m illio n years.
6 P e o p le _____________[tra v e l] a cro ss b o rd e rs q u ite e a s ily in th e past. N ow adays th e re
are m any m o re im m ig r a tio n ru le s .
7 B e fo re o rg a n is e d fo r m s of ru le such as k in g d o m s o r g o v e rn m e n ts , people
[pay] taxes.
8 R e s e n tm e n t a m o ng th e c i t iz e n s
_____________ [develop] f o r a long tim e before th e
o v e rth ro w o f th e E m pire, because p o p u la r s u p p o r t f o r a re v o lt had been g ro w in g fo r
decades.tF2 c u1a 2f w w

 7In the IELTS L is te n in g P a rt 3 you o fte n need to u n d e rs ta n d if the s p e a k e rs
agree o r d is a g re e w ith each other. Past m o d a ls can be used to d is tr a c t you fro m the
c o rre c t a n s w e r because th e y are o ften a b ou t p o s s ib ility , b e lie f and e xp ecta tion .
2 Complete the spaces in the following text using the options in the box.
didn’t have to shouldn’t have could
might have had to couldn’t have
LIFE DURING THE ICE AGE
D urin g the Ice Age in Europe, a p p ro x im a te ly 15,000 ye ars ago, th e w in te r w e a th e r w as
bleak. However, m o d e rn h u m a n s fo u n d in g e n io u s m e th o d s f o r m a n ag in g th is e x tre m e
cold. In fa c t, th e s e h u m a n s ( 1 )________ been th e f ir s t to develop a ra nge of s k ills and
te c h n o lo g ic a l advances th a t are s t i l l w ith us today! Due to th e fre e z in g te m p e ra tu re s ,
th e s e h u m a n s ( 2 )
________ cre a te th in g s th a t c o u ld p ro te c t th e m fro m th e e n v iro n m e n t.
E a rly E uropeans used th e s k in and bones fro m w ild a n im a ls to m ake c lo th in g and s h e lte r.
T h a n k fu lly , th e y (3 )
________ w o rry so m uch about t h e ir food. They (4 ) _________ k ill th e ir
food e ffe ctive ly as they had developed s o p histica te d to o ls. When food w as abundant, they
bu rie d s u p p lie s in the p e rm a fro s t; an a n c ie n t fo rm of d e ep -fre e zing . The u n fo rtu n a te th in g
about th e ir h u n tin g and su rv iv a l s k ills w as th a t th e y sla u g h te re d m any of the a n im a ls to
e xtin ction . A ll we now have to re m e m b e r th e m by is the cave p a intings. P erhaps it could be
argued th a t they ( 5 )
________ k ille d these a n im a ls , but we cannot say w h a t we w ou ld have
done in the sam e s itu a tio n .
A lth o u g h life ( 6 )
________ been easy fo r th e se people, th e y m anaged to su rvive and
in tro d u c e a rt, lan g u a ge and b e h a v io u rs th a t c h a ra c te riz e people today; we owe a lot to
t h e ir d e v e lo p m e n ts .
3 Decide on the correct past modal verb and complete the gaps in the conversation. Then
listen and check your answers.
K e lly : Hi everyone. So, l e t ’s get s ta rte d on o u r essay. M ark, have you done the re se a rch
fr o m la s t w eek?
M a r k : W e ll, yes and no. I w as try in g to fo llo w up on th e s u g g e s tio n s fro m th e le c tu re
and I se a rche d the lib r a r y fo r books and jo u r n a ls . B ut 1 (1 )
___________ find
a n y th in g re le v a n t to o u r to p ic.
L o u is e : W e ll, m aybe you w ere too late. We got th e essay tit le tw o w e e k s ago so o th e r
s tu d e n ts ( 2 )
___________ ta ke n o ut a ll th e books already.
M a r k : Yes, I guess so.
K e lly : It d o e s n ’t sound lik e ly to me. A ll th e books ( 3 )
___________ been ta ken o ut -
t h e r e ’s lo ts of books a b ou t a s tro n o m y in th e m ain lib ra ry .
M a r k : W e ll, th e re w as one book b ut I ( 4 )
___________ b o rro w it because i t ’s a re fe re n ce
o n ly book.
K e lly : M m. We ( 5 )
___________ s ta rte d th is p ro je c t e a rlie r. W hat are we going to do now?
L o u is e : The o th e r s tu d e n ts ( 6 )
___________ been ve ry keen to s ta r t! W ell, d o n ’t w orry.
W hy d o n ’t we ju s t re se rve th e books we w a n t? I’ve found so m e a r tic le s we can
s t a r t reading now and th e n w e ’ l l be m o re focused f o r w hen th e o th e r s tu d e n ts
r e tu r n th e books we need.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 23Listen to th re e students prep arin g a p resen tation and com plete the notes below:
22 Expedition d etails
P roblem : O r ig in a lly s e ttin g th e cam p up a t th e ( 1 )________ because of th e ( 2 ) ---------
season.
S o lution: S e ttin g th e cam p up at th e ( 3 )
_________
Discoveries:
N ew ( 4 )
________ at th e b o tto m o f th e m o u n ta in .
H a lfw a y up th e m o u n ta in ( 5 )
________ w e re fo u n d and id e n tifie d c o r r e c t ly due to
( 6 )
________ e q u ip m e n t.
Timescale: A rriv e d a t th e top o f th e m o u n ta in w it h in ( 7 )
_________
Exam p ra c tic e : Listening - c o m p le tin g a ta b le
Exam tip: W hen c o m p le tin g a ta b le , lo o k a t th e h e a d in g s in th e ta b le to t r y to p re d ic t
w h a t in fo r m a tio n you are lo o k in g for. The n u m b e rs on th e a n s w e r spaces w i l l t e l l you
w h a t o r d e r th e in fo r m a tio n w i l l be p re s e n te d in.
o L is te n to th re e s tu d e n ts ta lk in g a b o u t t h e ir essays and c o m p le te th e ta b le . WRITE NO MORE
V THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER f o r each a n s w e r:
AndrewPennyTerry
TOPIC
In te re s tin g s u b je c t
choiceS h o uld have m ade it
m o re 1Agrppq w ith 2
WORK FOCUS Difficult tn find 3
C o n c e n tra te d onN n t A on fu tu re
ISSUES
on s ta tis tic sp la te m o v e m e n t p re d ic tio n s
RESEARCH
FINDINGSE a rth q u a k e s c o u ld have
been p re dicte dThe E arth is
5N eeds to re fo c u stF2 cu1a 2f w h

G ,
C o n d it io n a ls
C o n d itio n a l s tr u c tu r e s are used to ta lk a b o u t c o n d itio n s and r e s u lts . The c o n d itio n is s o m e th in g
th a t m u s t happen f ir s t in o r d e r fo r s o m e th in g else to happen as a r e s u lt o r consequence.
G ra m m a r tip: C o n d itio n a l s tr u c tu r e s are u s u a lly p re sen te d as types (zero, f ir s t, second,
th ird , m ixed] using s p e c ific s tr u c tu r e s . It is im p o r ta n t to re m e m b e r th a t th e s e s p e c ific
s t r u c tu r e s are a g e n e ra l guide and th a t d iffe r e n t te n s e s can be used in the co n d itio n
clau se . There are also a lte rn a tiv e s to w ill/w o u ld in th e r e s u lt clause.
Zero conditional is used to ta lk a b o u t fa c tu a l o r tr u e in fo rm a tio n . We can use /T or when to
in tro d u c e th e c o n d itio n .
Nowadays w he n we c o m m u n ic a te a cross c u ltu re s , we u s u a lly use E n glish.
F irst conditional is used to ta lk a b o u t fu tu r e s itu a tio n s based on c o n d itio n s .
j f the w o r ld c o n tin u e s to fo cu s on in t e r n a tio n a l tra d e , we w i l l need to m ake o u r ed uca tio n
s y s te m s m o re g lo b a l.
Second conditional is used to s p e c u la te on s o m e th in g th a t we th in k is im p o s s ib le .
j f we d id n ’t have cheap tr a n s p o r t , we w o u ld n ’t have g lo b a l p ro d u c ts .
Third conditional is used to s p e c u la te a b ou t past events. It is ofte n used to express re g re t o r to
im a g in e a d iffe r e n t r e s u lt of a past s itu a tio n .
People w o u ld have exchanged ideas m u ch e a r lie r j f th e g o v e rn m e n t had changed th e law s on
in fo rm a tio n p ro te c tio n d u rin g the 1990s.
Mixed conditional is used to express the p re s e n t re s u lt of a past s itu a tio n o r explain how a pre sen t
s itu a tio n affected a past action. To do th is we use a c o m b in a tio n of second and th ird co n d itio n a ls.
T ra n s n a tio n a l c o rp o ra tio n s w o u ld n ’t e xist if
g lo b a liz a tio n h a d n ’t becom e th e d o m in a n t
fo r m of tra d e in m o d e rn society.j f c a p ita lis m w a s n ’t so p o p u la r, g lo b a liz a tio n
may n o t have happened so quickly.
O th er conditional s tru c tu re s /fo rm s : There are o th e r w o rd s and p h ra s e s w h ic h have a s im ila r
m e a nin g to i f and are used to express c o n d itio n s . Some o f th e se are suppose/supposing [that],
provided/providing (that], on condition (that), as/so long as, untess (m e an in g i f not].
P roviding te c h n o lo g ic a l p ro g re s s c o n tin u e s at its
c u r r e n t speed, w e ' l l be in te ra c tin g w ith a m uch
w id e r range of n a tio n a litie s in th e n e a r fu tu re .U nless w e c o n tr o l g lo b a liz a tio n , n a tio n a l
id e n tity w i l l d e c lin e sharply.
< ^ S e e page 120/1 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e f o r m o re in fo rm a tio n .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

  G           
Decide on the correct conditional form and finish the sentences using the verbs in
brackets. Decide which conditional from page 58 m atches the meaning of each sentence.
1 The r e s t a u r a n t __________(n o t go] o u t of b u s in e s s if th a t in t e r n a tio n a l b u rg e r
c o m p a n y__________ (n o t open) la s t year. C o n d itio n a l:___________
2 W hen t e e n a g e r s
__________ [buy) te c h n o lo g y , th e y u s u a lly ___________[want) th e sam e
p ro d u c ts as a ll t h e ir frie n d s . C o n d itio n a l:
-----------------
3 As long as in te r n a tio n a l t r a v e l ----------------- [continue), p e o p le ___________[stay) c lo s e ly
c o n ne cted . C o n d itio n a l:
-----------------
U W e __________ (not com m unicate) so s u c c e s s fu lly now adays if t e c h n o lo g y ___________
(developed) m ore slowly. C o n d itio n a l:
-----------------
5 If m o re p e o p le __________ [be connected) via th e In te rn e t, c o m m u n ic a tio n ___________
[be) easier. C o n d itio n a l: -----------------
Complete the spaces in this student essay with conditional clauses. You can com plete the
spaces in any way using your own ideas. The first one has been done for you.
i Exam tip: C o n d itio n a l s tr u c tu r e s can be u s e fu l f o r th e IELTS W r itin g Task 2 to
j e xp re s s fa c ts o r u n re a l s itu a tio n s based on c o n d itio n s o r to s p e c u la te on re s u lts o r
i co n seq u e n ces in th e fu tu re o r past.
"Globalization is creating a w o rld o f one c u ltu re and destroying n a tion a l id e n tity ."
To w hat e xte n t do you agree w ith this s ta te m e n t?
G lo b a liz a tio n has had a c o n s id e ra b le e ffe c t on th e w o r ld in th e la s t fe w decades.
W h ile s o m e people believe th a t th e s e e ffe c ts are a ll p o s itiv e it can a ls o be a rg ue d th a t
g lo b a liz a tio n is d e stro yin g th e id e n tity of m a n y c o u n trie s in th e w o r ld . T his is because
a s p e c ts of o u r lives such as e n te r ta in m e n t, c o m m u n ic a tio n , p ro d u c ts and b u s in e s s are
s im ila r in m any p a rts of th e w o r ld . T h is essay w i l l a rg ue th a t g lo b a liz a tio n is d e s tro y in g
n a tio n a l id e n tity f o r th re e reasons.
F irs tly , in te r m s of e n te r ta in m e n t young people are less in te re s te d in t h e ir lo c a l c u lt u r e
and th is c o u ld have da ng e ro us co n seq u e n ces. If young people do not k n o w a b o u t t h e ir
c u lt u r a l h e rita g e (1) they w i l l not u n d e rs ta n d th e o ld e r g e n e r a tio n . As a re s u lt, th e re could
be s e rio u s c o m m u n ic a tio n b re a k d o w n s w ith in c u ltu re s .
In a d d itio n , g lo b a liz a tio n has pro du ce d la rg e c o rp o r a tio n s w h ic h o fte n p re v e n t lo c a l
b u s in e s s e s fro m m a kin g money. M any people o n ly w a n t to buy b ra nd e d p ro d u c ts fr o m
th e s e in t e r n a tio n a l com panies. U nle ss g o v e rn m e n ts do s o m e th in g to l im i t th e in flu e n c e of
th e s e c o m p a n ie s , ( 2 )
-------------------------------
Finally, th e re is the problem of language. Due to globalization English has become the m ost
im p o rta n t language in the w o rld and m any languages are beginning to die out. This is a
negative aspect of globalization and could have se rio u s consequences in the fu tu re . If everyone
has to speak English in the fu tu re and not th e ir own native language (3 )___________________
In c o n c lu s io n , g lo b a liz a tio n is having negative e ffe c ts on n a tio n a l id e n tity and people
s h o u ld fo cu s m o re on th e ir loca l c u ltu re . If we a llo w g lo b a liz a tio n to c o n tin u e to d o m in a te
lo c a l c u ltu r e s , in th e fu tu re ( 4 ) --------------------------------*um61udj1fdma w _

&(   !,6 #  !  2 <; / 
have been done for you.
1 How has g lo b a liz a tio n a ffe c te d th e w ay w e c o m m u n ic a te ?
2 As a r e s u lt of g lo b a liz a tio n , E n g lish has becom e th e w o r ld lan g u a ge . Do you th in k th is
is a p o sitive o r negative re s u lt?
3 ______________________________________________________________________________
Now listen to the questions on Track 2U of the CD and note them down. Are any s im ila r to
your questions?
E xam t ip : F o r th e S peaking exam it is a good idea to p ra c tis e p re d ic tin g q u e s tio n s fo r
ty p ic a l IELTS to p ic s to he lp you th in k a b ou t how to use high level g r a m m a r in y o u r
a n s w e rs . U sing m o re co m p le x s tr u c tu r e s such as c o n d itio n a ls w i l l incre a se y o u r
c hances of g e ttin g a h ig h e r band score.
Read the ex am in e r questions below and think about how you could answ er them using
a conditional. Then answ er the questions using conditional structures. W rite down the
type(s) of conditional you used in your answer. The first exam ple has been done fo r you.
1 E x a m in e r q u e s tio n : How do you th in k globalization m ig h t change the w o rld in the fu tu re ?
S tu d e n t a n s w e r : I th in k th a t i f g lo b a liza tio n continues to develop, young people o f the
fu tu re w ill have a d iffe re n t understanding o f th in gs like n a tio n a lity and culture.
______________________________________________________ y
C onditional: F irs t c o n d itio n a l* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

1  <7Has g lo b a liz a tio n caused young people to care less a b o u t t h e ir
c o u n trie s ?
C o n d itio n a l:____________________
3 E xam in er question: W hat w o u ld you say to s o m e o n e w ho th in k s th a t g lo b a liz a tio n is
ru in in g th e w o rld ?
C o n d itio n a l:
____________________
4 E xam iner question: Can g lo b a liz a tio n m ake th e w o r ld a m o re e q u a l place?
C o n d itio n a l:
____________________
Now listen to Track 25 on the CD and the m odel answ ers given by the student.
Exam p ra c tic e : S p e ak in g P a rt 3
A n s w e r the questions on g lo b a liza tio n b e lo w using the techniques fro m U nit 12 (giving
reasons fo r y o u r answer, adding m o re in fo rm a tio n , giving exam ples o f w h a t you mean).
Try to use co n d itio n a l s tru c tu re s where possible.
1 W h a t are th e m a in d is a d v a n ta g e s of g lo b a liz a tio n ?
2 Do you th in k g lo b a liz a tio n has m ade th e w o r ld a b e tte r place?
3 H ow has g lo b a liz a tio n changed th e w ay we t r a v e l and c o m m u n ic a te ?
U How has g lo b a liz a tio n b e n e fite d people in y o u r c o u n try ?
5 W h a t are th e co n s e q u e n c e s o f a llo w in g targe c o m p a n ie s to s e ll t h e i r p ro d u c ts a ll o ve r th e
w o r ld ?
Now listen to the m odel answ ers on Track 26 of the CD. How w e re they b e tte r or differen t to
your answers?G lobalization

3 +# #
society
R e p o r te d s p e e c h
R eported o r in d ire c t speech is used to re p o r t th e w o rd s of a n o th e r pe rson . For e xa m ple :
'/ am an a r t i s t . ' = She said th a t she was an a rtis t.
In o r d e r to re p o rt a n o th e r p e rs o n 's w o rd s we need to change th e te n s e , p ro n o u n and t im e w o r d s
and use a r e p o r t in g v e r b such as say o r te ll.
Say and te ll:
Say and te ll are th e m o s t c o m m o n re p o rtin g v e rb s. Say n e v e r has an in d ire c t o b je c t and uses a
th a t clau se . Tell a lw ays has an in d ire c t o b je c t and uses a v a rie ty of s tr u c tu r e s .
He said th a t he w a s in te re s te d in philosophy.
He to ld me th a t he was interested in philosophy.
(see g r a m m a r re fe re n c e f o r o th e r te ll s tru c tu re s )
Tense changes:
Some of th e te n s e s of th e o r ig in a l d ire c t speech have to be changed in re p o rte d speech are as
fo llo w s :
P resent s im p le : ‘ I lik e o p e ra .’
- > past sim p le : She said th a t she like d opera.
Past s im p le : 'We w e n t to th e th e a tr e .'
- > past perfect: He said th a t thev had qone to th e th e a tre .
Past p e rfe c t: ‘ I had read th e n o v e l.’
past p e rfe c t: She said th a t she had read th e novel.
P resent m odals [can, may, m ust, w ill):
‘ IJ1 s ta r t p h o to g ra p h y clas s e s s o o n .’- > p a s t m odals [could, m ight, had to, would):
He said th a t he w o u ld s ta r t o h o to a ra o h v clas s e s soon.
See page 122 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re nce f o r m o re in fo rm a tio n .
Reporting questions:
Wh- q u estio n s use a re p o rtin g verb such as ask o r enquire + w h- question w ord (no a u x ilia ry verb).
'When are you going to th e g a lle ry ? '
She asked w hen I w as going to the g a lle ry
Yes/no q u e s tio n s use a r e p o rtin g ve rb such as ask o r enquire + if/w h e th e r (no a u x ilia ry verb).
'Do you th in k c h ild re n s h o u ld be m o re
He asked me w h e t h e r I th o u q h t c h ild re n
c re a tiv e ? ’
s h o u ld be m o re creative.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 3  #  /#7In re p o rte d speech p ro n o u n s and tim e w o rd s change.
T i l qive vou m y la te s t p a in tin g t o m o r r o w .’ She said she w o u ld give m e h e r la te s t
p a in tin g th e fo llo w in g dav.
‘ I w e n t to an in te re s tin g e x h ib itio n y e s te rd a y .’He to ld m e th a t he had been to an in te re s tin g
e x h ib itio n th e p re vio u s dav.
Reporting verbs (advice, requests, orders, promises): T h ere are m a n y re p o rtin g v e rb s th a t
exp ress in t e r p r e ta tio n o r ju d g m e n t such as advise, deny, recom m end, argue, p rom ise, warn, claim .
These v e rb s a lw ays have a s p e c ific s tr u c tu r e th a t is n e ce s s a ry to le a rn .
'D o n 't see th a t f i l m . ’She w a rn e d m e not to see
th e film .to w arn + in d ir e c t o b je c t + not
+ in fin itiv e
‘We t h in k s c h o o ls s h o u ld
teach m o re s o c io lo g y 'Thev a rg ue d th a t s c h o o ls
s h o u ld te ach m o re sociology.to argue + th a t + c lau se
Note: In m a n y r e p o rtin g s tr u c tu r e s you can o m it that.
G ra m m a r tip: R e p o rtin g v e rb s h e lp you to u n d e rs ta n d th e o p in io n of th e speaker. Make
su re you k n o w th e d iffe re n c e in m e a n in g of c o m m o n re p o rtin g v e rb s such as argue,
claim , deny, order, prom ise, recom m end, suggest, warn. For e xa m ple , argue and o rd e r
are m u c h s tr o n g e r th a n cla im o r suggest.
P ra c tic e e xe rc is e s
For questions \ - U re w rite the sentences using reported speech. For questions 5 - 8
complete the sentence with the correct reporting verb stru ctu re. There may be more than
one correct answer.
I w e n t to th e opera y e s te rd a y and re a lly enjoyed it.' She said t h a t_____
The g o v e rn m e n t has to inve st m o re m o n ey in th e a r t s . ’ He a rg ue d th a t
T h is m u s e u m h a s n ’t had any in te r n a tio n a lly re cognized e x h ib itio n s f o r s e v e ra l y e a r s .’
The c r it ic a n no u n ce d t h a t
___________________
W h a t does th e th e a tre d ir e c t o r in te n d to do to in c re a s e tic k e t s a le s ? ’ The r e p o r t e r
a s k e d
___________________
If th e cinem a does not receive fu n d in g , it w il l have to close d o w n .’ The m a n a g e r
___________________ if the cinem a did not receive fun d in g , it w ou ld have to close down.GT h ere has been a rapid ris e in th e n u m b e r of people en ga g ing in c u lt u r a l a c tiv itie s o ver
th e la s t d e c a d e .’ The p o li t i c i a n
___________________ th e re had been a rapid ris e in the
n u m b e r of people engaging in c u lt u r a l a c tiv itie s o ver th e pre vio u s decade.
'The d e c lin e in in te re s t in a r t is not due to a la c k of p riv a te in v e s tm e n t in g a lle r ie s .’ The
a r t i s t
___________________ th e d e c lin e in in te r e s t in a r t w as due to a la c k of p riv a te
in v e s tm e n t in g a lle rie s .
'I th in k it w o u ld be a good idea to read An In tro d u ctio n to Sociology to begin w it h . ’ The
t e a c h e r
___________________ re a din g An In tro d u ctio n to Sociology to begin w ith .
C u ltu re and m odern society 6 3

0 / ( < / ! # (; % $     6
then ta lk fo r one or two minutes.
: Describe a piece o f advice that someone gave you. You sh o uld say:
j • Who gave you the advice
j • What the advice was
\ • I f you fo llo w e d the advice and w hat happened
! A nd say i f it was advice you w ould give to someone else.
Now listen to the model answ er on Track 27 of the CD and compare it with your answer.
How many reporting verbs and reported speech stru ctu res did you use?
Read the text below and then complete the sentences with the correct verb forms.
The decline o f p o e try in the m o d ern age
The d e c lin e of p o e try re a din g s as a fo r m of m ass e n te r ta in m e n t in m o d e rn s o cie ty has
been w e ll d o c u m e n te d by a c a d e m ic s and c r itic s a lik e and th e re are v a rio u s th e o rie s
w h ic h m ay a cco u n t fo r it. A cco rd in g to P ro fe s s o r J a c k s o n at B a rn e s State U nive rsity, the
ris e of v a rio u s fo r m s of p o p u la r c u ltu r e such as m u s ic fe s tiv a ls , com edy and m u s ic a l
th e a tre m e a ns th a t it is not s u r p ris in g th a t p o e try is in d e clin e. However, he also believes
th a t ‘th e speed w ith w h ic h it has d e c lin e d o v e ra ll is s u r p r is in g ’ . P ro fe s s o r Jackso n has
been c ritic iz e d by D r A r u n d e ll fro m C livedale U n iv e rs ity w ho th in k s th a t his re se arch is
m is le a d in g . 'P ro fe s s o r J a ckso n has m is re p re s e n te d a change as a d e c lin e .' D r A ru n d e ll's
view is s u p p o rte d by th e poet and w r it e r , Sam H en d e rso n, w ho s ta te s th a t ‘ people who
a tte n d p o e try re a d in g s also fre q u e n t th e cine m a , m u s ic a l th e a tre and c la s s ic a l c o n c e rts
nowadays so the d e c lin e is not in th e n u m b e r of people but in th e n u m b e r of tim e s
th e s e people a tte n d p o e try re a d in g s .' T his s u b tle d iffe re n c e is the m ain co n c lu s io n of D r
A r u n d e ll's study. She w o u ld lik e poets and spoken w o rd p e r fo r m e r s to use th is in fo rm a tio n
as th e basis of w id e n in g th e ir au die n ce; as she a rg u e s , ‘ If p o e try lovers have a w id e range
of c u lt u r a l in te re s ts , th e n cine m a o r th e a tre g o e rs w i l l a lso have a w id e range of in te re s ts .'
She c o n c lu d e s th a t 'th e re is no reason w hy th e se people c a n 't be urged to tr y p o e try
re a d in g s to o .'
1 P ro fe s s o r J a ckso n said th a t th e speed w ith w h ic h p o e t r y___________ o v e ra ll
___________ s u rp ris in g .
2 D r A r u n d e ll said th a t P ro fe s s o r J a c k s o n
____________ a change as a de clin e.
3 Sam H en d e rso n stated th a t th e d e c lin e
___________ in th e n u m b e r of people but in th e
n u m b e r of tim e s p e o p le
___________ p o e try re a din g s.
U D r A r u n d e ll arg ue d th a t if p o e try lo v e r s
___________ a w id e range of c u lt u r a l in te re s ts ,
th e n cin e m a o r th e a tre g o e r s
___________ also have a w id e range of in te re s ts .
j Exam t ip : In th e IELTS Reading, s p e a k e rs ' o p in io n s are ofte n in tro d u c e d w ith a
j re p o rtin g verb, f o r e xa m ple : M r Stevenson c la im e d that.... Doctors advised that....
j Make su re you id e n tify th e se re p o rtin g ve rb s to h e lp you u n d e rs ta n d th e o p in ion s better.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

      7 A#!      Q&     Q:    !% 3  9    3    :      3  9  A       + 3
       9 3    H     ?  9          
(      < 9         <      9$  +                                  
     9    9   3              9    + ,   3 9  9                
$   9$  +  +   9                   $   <                3  9  3  
:                $ < +   9  A         3   9           
9   3   9         9 3 3          3 9  9                 9 
 9        9     9 3 9             9$       <    9    + ,    
+  +         $  +<3 ?               $          9     9 
             9   9 < 9     +    3       + ,    +      + 1
  9       =   D$    E 9          9$  9       9       :    
      9          + ,       $              H =        9    , 3    
            <              3 9  9        $     +         >$  
                            3       $                       
  9 ?        9 +                            9        
9        $  3      9                       3 9        9      9  
        9                       9      <         9   9     ;       
    9   1 @   9            2  $   <    O9$                   
         :   3 <             +    9    <           < H D 
+  $  9          9$     <          + ,      9       <                  3 
    9   +        3  9         D       9   M         9    <      
       9           +   9 <      <     + ,              3 9  9  9 <    
     H D 3 $  =   D $        9    <  + ,                 9   9 < 
 9       < +  9     +< :      :     1 9      E 9  $     9    + ,    
            :     9$         +   <         9      H
=          9            <                                  
    :                                    9     <          
     
QUESTIONS 1-5
Do th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n ts agree w ith th e in fo r m a tio n given in th e re a din g passage?
W rite :
TRUE i f the s ta te m e n t agrees w ith the passage
FALSE i f the s ta te m e n t c o n tra d ic ts the passage
NOT GIVEN i f there is no in fo rm a tio n on this in the passage
1 M u s e u m s in developed c o u n trie s have b e tte r fin a n c ia l re s o u rc e s f o r p re s e rv in g c u lt u r a l
o b je c ts_______
2 The m a jo r ity of to u r is ts v is it m u s e u m s in fa m o u s c a p ita l c it ie s -----------
3 Som e a c a d e m ic s believe th a t c u lt u r a l a r tifa c ts s h o u ld be given b ack to t h e i r c o u n try o f o rig in
f o r e d u c a tio n a l p u rp o s e s
-----------
U D r P h ilip s said th a t re s e a rc h e rs a lw a ys m is u n d e rs to o d fo re ig n c u lt u r e s ------------
5 A ccording to Irene Havers, only e x p e rts are able to cate g o rize a ncient, v a lu a b le o b je c ts
-----------
C u ltu r e and m o d e r n s o c ie ty
6 5

= "( # 
P r o n o u n use
When we speak o r w r ite we o fte n w a n t to give m o re in f o r m a tio n a b ou t s o m e th in g th a t w e have
a lre a d y m e n tio n e d . It is im p o r ta n t th a t th e lis te n e r o r re a d e r a lw ays kn o w s w h a t we are sp e a k in g
o r w r it in g about, so we use re fe re n c e w o rd s such as he, it, them.
Personal pronouns:
We use p e rs o n a l p ro n o u n s to r e fe r back to a p e rson o r th in g w h ic h has a lre a d y been m e n tio n e d .
S u b je c t p ro n o u n s are: /, you, she, he, it, we, they
O bject p ro n o u n s are: me, you, her, him, it, us, them
My m o th e r phoned to say she w as ill. have a ve ry good p e rs o n a l t r a in e r and I lik e h im .
Note: It is a c o m m o n pro no u n to use in w r it in g and can be used in place of o th e r p ro n o u n s such
as this o r th a t fo r ideas o r s e n te n ces (w ith no noun fo llo w in g ).
Possessive pronouns:
We use possessive p ro n o u n s to re fe r back to a possession of a p e rson o r th in g w h ic h has a lre a d y
been m e n tio n e d .
Possessive p ro n o u n s are: mine, yours, hers, his, ours, th e irs
Note: We do not use its as a possessive p ro noun.
Your e ye sig h t is m uch b e tte r than
m in e . (=my eyesight)I did a fitn e s s te s t w ith my frie n d s , Anna and C h a rlo tte .
I passed m ine b u t th e y fa ile d t h e ir s . (= fitness test)
T h is /th a t and these/those:
This u s u a lly re fe rs to s o m e th in g close to you in dista nce o r tim e ; th a t is g e n e ra lly th o u g h t of as
f u r t h e r away. S o m e tim e s th e s e w o rd s can be used inte rc h a n g e a b ly .
R e g u la r e xercise is e s s e n tia l in b u rn in g c a lo rie s . T h is /T h a t m eans people m u s t e xercise if
th e y w a n t to lose w e ig h t.
We use this o r th a t to r e fe r back to s in g u la r nouns o r o b je c ts w h ic h have a lre a d y been m e n tio n e d .
We use these o r those to re fe r back to p lu r a l nouns o r o b je c ts w h ic h have a lre a d y been
m e n tio n e d .
‘The s p o rts c e n tre has a new c lim b in g w a l l :' -
'T hat s o u nd s in te r e s t in g .’The body has c le a r d a ily r h y th m s and th ese
are d is ru p te d by s h iftw o r k .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 =   th is and th a t to r e fe r back to ideas o r w h o le s e n te n c e s th a t have a lre a d y been
m e n tio n e d . We can a lso use th is /th a t + noun such as p ro b le m , issue, aspect, view, event to give
m o re in fo rm a tio n .
H e a lth c a re is d ir e c tlv re la te d to people's
a b ility to w o rk . This issue s h o u ld be
dis c u s s e d m o re by th e g o v e rn m e n t.A l l c h ild re n s h o u ld do s p o r t at s c h o o l. That
w o u ld h e lp a lle v ia te o b e s ity levels.
Such (such + noun):
We use such to r e fe r back to s o m e th in g s im ila r th a t has a lre a d y been m e n tio n e d .
The com Danv’s c h o le s te r o l-lo w e r in q d ru q m ade it th e p r e m ie r m a r k e te r of such m e d ic in e s .
Tim e and place:
We use then and there to r e fe r back to a tim e o r place th a t has a lre a d y been m e n tio n e d .
I go to th e gym on W ednesdays and I m e e t m y
fr ie n d th e re .People used to be h e a lth ie r 50 y e a rs ago
because jobs w e re m o re p h y s ic a l then.
P rac tic e e xe rc ise s
D ecide on the correct reference word to com plete the sentences. T h ere may be more than
one correct answer.
1 You s h o u ld e xercise th re e tim e s a w e e k to m a in t a in________ fitn e s s .
2 Long d is ta n c e r u n n e rs fo c u s on b u ild in g u p
________ sta m in a so th e y can run
m a ra th o n s .
3 H e a rt disease is one of th e m o s t s e rio u s d ise a se s in th e w o r l d
________ can be
p revented by a d op tin g a h e a lth ie r life s ty le .
U M u s c le in ju r ie s are very c o m m o n in a t h le t e s
_________ s o m e tim e s end an a th le te 's
career.
5 V ita m in C is e s s e n tia l f o r o p tim a l h e a lth . We can f i n d
________ in f r u i t and veg eta ble s.
6 The g o v e rn m e n t spends a c o n s id e ra b le a m o u n t of m oney on s m o k in g re la te d diseases.
m o n ey s h o u ld be s p e n t on p re v e n tin g s m o k in g .
7 My boss has asked th e e m p lo ye e s to c re a te a co m p a n y fo o tb a ll t e a m
_________ th in k s
t h a t
_____ w i l l h e lp b u ild te a m w o rk .
8 Many s p o rts people tu rn e d p ro fe s s io n a l at th e t u r n of th e tw e n tie th ce n tury. However,
fitn e s s w as not a focus of e a rly p ro fe s s io n a l s p o rts p e o p le
________
j Listening tip: It can be d if f ic u lt to h e a r re fe re n c e w o rd s because th e y are s h o rt, b u t th e y
I are o fte n im p o r ta n t to u n d e rs ta n d how in fo r m a tio n a b o u t a to p ic is connected.
H e a lth an d f itn e s s 6 7

+ (   (  //( (  ! /#; (  #
check your answers.
J e a n e tte : Good m o rn in g everyone and w elco m e to my w e e k ly show about fitn e s s . Today I
w a n t to ta lk about ways you can im prove ( 1 )________ fitn e s s w ith o u t having to jo in a gym o r
s p o rts centre. Now f ir s t of a ll, it is im p o rta n t to decide w h a t you w a n t to achieve. Many people
w a n t to im prove (2 )
________ h e alth in general, but o th e r people w a n t to focus on losing
w e ig h t. I use a co m b in a tio n of both s tre n g th b u ild in g and w e ig h t loss exercise to m a in tain
(3 )
_______ fitn e s s level but I know a couple w ho go w a lk in g tw ice a w ee k to m a in tain
(4 )
_______ The m o st im p o rta n t th in g is to do s o m e th in g you like, fo r exam ple, m a r tia l
a rts, h iking, te n n is o r w a te rs p o rts . (5 )
________ are a ll good as c a rd io v a s c u la r exercise and
s tre n g th tra in in g . One exce lle nt way is to jo in a lo ca l club because you w i l l m eet o th e r people
w ith the sam e in te re s ts as (6 )_________It is also im p o rta n t to keep up m o tiva tion levels and
exercising w ith o th e r people can be a good way to do (7 )_________And d o n 't fo rg e t about
the loca l park. (8 )
________ is a great place to exercise fo r free. S o m e tim e s p a rk s provide a
ru n n in g tra c k o r o th e r c o m m u n a l fa c ilitie s , a ll of w h ic h are free to use.
3 Read the following extracts from student essays for W riting Task 2 and correct the
mistakes in the use of reference words.
1 In m y o p in io n p o litic ia n s s h o u ld lis te n to th e people th a t vote fo r they. People w a n t to
buy h e a lth y food but it is expensive so th e m buy fa s t food instead w h ic h is not good fo r
his h e a lth . P o litic ia n s s h o u ld change it s itu a tio n .
2 D ieticians suggest v ita m in s are necessary to co m b at a lle rg ie s . It view has been c ritic iz e d
by s c ie n tis ts w ho say th a t th is n u trie n ts do not always help to reduce a lle rg ie s. Therefore,
because th e m d o n 't agree, people d o n ’t kn o w w h a t advice to follow .
3 O rganic food is not a s o lu tio n to th e h e a lth p ro b le m s of the w o rld . Its is less e ffic ie n t
th a n o th e r m e th o d s of food p ro d u c tio n . In a d d itio n , th a t p ro b le m s are m o re ofte n
re la te d to less w e a lth y fa m ilie s in developing c o u n trie s . F a m ilie s w ho live th e n ca n n o t
a ffo rd to buy o rg a n ic produce so th e y is not u s e fu l f o r us.
4 Read the paragraphs from an IELTS W riting Task 2 and w rite the noun, sentence or idea
that the underlined reference word matches. The first one has been done for you.
What are the causes and effects of obesity and how does it affect society?
One of th e la rg e s t causes of o b e s ity is th e ris in g cost of food over the years. A lth o u g h
nowadays m a n y s u p e r m a r k e ts c la im th a t (1) th e y provide low cost food, f r u i t and
ve g e ta b le s have incre a se d c o n s id e ra b ly in price. (2) T h is m eans th a t it is m o re d if fic u lt f o r
lo w inco m e fa m ilie s to feed t h e ir c h ild re n fre s h , h e a lth y food. As a re s u lt, we have seen a
ris e in o b e s ity and o th e r h e a lth re la te d p ro b le m s . (3) These issues have negative e ffe c ts on
h e a lth c a re and e d uca tio n . For e xam ple, m y m o th e r w o r r ie s th a t (4) she w i l l not be able to
cook h e a lth y m e a ls f o r h e r fa m ily if food costs c o n tin u e to increase.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 =1   9     9     9    <<          3  93     9       
9$       9  F*G 9   9  +             &      FG 9   3     9     $ 
<   E    3                          F.G    +    U
1  9           3 9  <    $  9    R)Q 9 <       
    F0G 9            9         9$     9     
2       <   <              <  9$  +          F!G 9  
1th e y = s u p e r m a r k e ts6th e s e =
2This7it
3These issue s =8th e y
Ushe9These =
5th e m =10th e m =
Exam p ractice: W ritin g Task 2
Exam tip: In th e IELTS W ritin g Task 2, re fe re n c in g w o rd s are im p o r ta n t to m ake y o u r
w r it in g c le a r fo r th e reader. Make s u re you c h e c k th a t y o u r re fe re n c e w o rd s r e fe r to th e
c o rre c t n ouns o r ideas in y o u r w r it in g so th a t th e re a d e r can u n d e rs ta n d y o u r m e a n in g .
You s h o u ld spend a b o u t 40 m in u te s on th is ta s k .
W rite a b o u t th e fo llo w in g to p ic.
People who cause th e ir own illn e sse s th rough u n he a lth y life s ty le s and p o o r diets s h o u ld have to
pay m ore fo r he alth care.
To w ha t e xtent do you agree o r disagree w ith th is opinion?
Give re a s o n s f o r y o u r a n s w e r and in c lu d e any re le v a n t e x a m p le s fro m y o u r own k n o w le d g e o r
e x p e rie n c e .
W r ite at le a s t 250 w o rd s .
T h ere is a m o d e l a n s w e r in th e a n s w e r key.
H ealth and fitness 69

9 &(
P a r a g r a p h a n d t e x t o r g a n iz a tio n
A te xt contains p a rag ra p hs and a paragraph contains sentences. In English a te xt is divided into
p a rag ra p hs and each p aragraph focuses on one m ain idea. A ll the sentences in a paragraph re la te
to th is m ain idea. In fo rm a tio n in a text and a paragraph is organized as fo llo w s : g e n e r a l s - sp e cific
Types of text organization
Text is o rganized a cc o rd in g to its p u rpo se . For exam ple, if you are d e s c rib in g a process, you w i l l
s ta r t at th e b e g in n in g of th e process and exp la in it step by step. If the te x t is d e s c rib in g p ro b le m s
and s o lu tio n s it is u s u a l to exp la in th e p ro b le m s f ir s t th e n provide th e s o lu tio n s . There are a
ra nge of te x t o rg a n iz a tio n types used in IELTS, f o r e xa m ple :
For and against discussion:
a p re s e n ta tio n of both sides of a c o m m on a rg u m e n t o r s itu a tio n
Cause and effect:
an explanation of the causes and effects of a problem o r situ a tio n
Advantages and disadvantage:
a d is c u s s io n of the good and bad p o in ts of an issue o r s itu a tio n
Giving an opinion:
a p re s e n ta tio n of y o u r o p in io n s on a p ro b le m o r s itu a tio n
Paragraph organization
A topic sentence e x p la in s th e m ain idea of a p a ra g ra p h , it u s u a lly co m e s at th e b e g in n in g of a
p a ra g ra p h so th a t re a d e r kn o w s w h a t th e p a ra g ra p h is ab ou t. The to p ic se n te n ce gives g e n e ra l
in fo rm a tio n on th e m ain idea. The to p ic s e n te n c e does NOT c o n ta in d e ta ils .
The o th e r sentences in a paragraph add extra in fo rm a tio n to the m ain idea presented in the topic
sentence. These sentences can be: explanations, details, reasons, contradictions, problem s, solutions,
opposite views etc. These se n te n ces contain d e ta ils and exte n d th e m ain idea in th e to p ic sentence.
The function of sentences
Each sentence in a p a rag ra p h has a fu n c tio n . It m u s t be connected to th e sentence before and
th e sentence a fte r and add in fo rm a tio n about th e m ain idea in th e to p ic sentence. L in kin g w o rd s
(U nit 10) and re fe re nce w o rd s (U nit 16) h elp to connect s e n te n ces to g e th e r and h ig h lig h t t h e ir role.
1 C e le b ritie s have had a la rg e im p a c t on th e fa sh ion in d u s try . 2 T his is due to the fa c t th a t th e y
m ake s u c c e s s fu l a d v e rtis in g ca m p a ig n s . 3 S p o rts s ta rs , pop s ta rs and a cto rs , f o r e x a m p le ,
are o fte n co n ne cted w ith a p a r t ic u la r p ro d u c t. 4 C on se q u en tly, fa n s of the c e le b rity buy the
p ro d u c t and co m p an y p ro fits increase. 5 However, u sing c e le b ritie s m akes people w a n t
p ro d u c ts th e y do not w a n t o r need.
1 Topic sentence 3 Example 5 Problem
2 Reason/explanation U R esultu se d d e s to s /wlWi

 9      
M atch fo llo w in g p a ra g ra p h s e n te n c e s to t h e i r fu n c tio n s .
1 D u rin g th e 1960s fa s h io n in th e W est w e n t th ro u g h an extensive tr a n s fo r m a tio n .
2 M ost of th e chang e s w e re due to th e in flu e n c e of p o p u la r m u s ic and th e ideas of young
people.
3 The new less tr a d it io n a l view s of life s ty le w e re seen in ite m s of c lo th in g such as th e
m in is k ir t and th e choice o f b r ig h t c o lo u rs , w h ic h becam e p o p u la r w ith young people.
U In c o n tra s t, people fro m th e o ld e r g e n e ra tio n sa w th is new fa s h io n as u n d e rm in in g
t r a d itio n a l values.
5 T h is c o n flic t o v e r fa s h io n betw ee n th e y o u n g e r and o ld e r g e n e ra tio n s has co n tin u e d
s ince th e n .
A R e s u lt C O pposite v ie w E E xam ple
B Reason D Topic se n te n ce
2 The t e x t b e lo w is fr o m an IELTS W r it in g Task 1. L o o k a t th e g ra p h , d iv id e th e te x t in to
th r e e p a ra g ra p h s and th e n la b e l th e fu n c tio n o f each p a ra g ra p h .
p e r cent
50
40
30
20
10
0
USA Japan B ra z il Russia
Percentage of yearly income spent on the clothes by age group and nationality.
The b a r c h a r t sh o w s th e p e rc e n ta g e of t h e i r in c o m e t h a t d iffe r e n t age g ro u p s spend on
c lo th in g in a year. The age g ro u p s are c h ild re n and te e n a g e rs , young a d u lts and m id d le
aged people, and th e data is fr o m f o u r c o u n trie s . O ve ra ll, we can see th a t th e 2 0 -3 9 age
g ro u p s p e nd s th e la rg e s t p a rt of t h e ir inco m e , betw ee n 35 and 40 p e r ce n t on c lo th e s . In
c o n tra s t, th e g ro u p w h ic h sp e nd s th e le a s t on c lo th e s is th e o ld e s t g ro u p w ho are betw een
40 and 60 y e a rs old except f o r in B ra z il w h e re th is age g ro up s p e nd s th e m o s t on c lo th in g .
R egarding n a tio n a lity , in th e USA it can be seen th a t th e e x p e n d itu re on c lo th e s decrea se s
w ith age, w h e re a s in B ra z il th is tre n d is re versed. In Japan and Russia th e d is tr ib u tio n
of s p e n d in g a cro ss th e age g ro u p s is p ro p o r tio n a lly s im ila r but fo r a ll age g ro u p s th e
Jap an e se spend m o re th a n th e R ussians.
Functions
A Gives an o v e r a ll tre n d and a d d itio n a l d e ta ils on age g roups.
B P rovides an in tro d u c tio n to w h a t in fo r m a tio n is in th e g ra ph .
C Gives th e o v e ra ll tre n d s f o r d iffe r e n t n a tio n a litie s .L1WFdma h r

     7A lw a ys m ake su re th a t any p a ra g ra p h you w r ite has one m a in idea o r
fu n c tio n .
3 Decide w h ic h h e ad in g A, B o r C c o r r e c t ly d e s c rib e s th e m a in idea in each p a ra g ra p h .
Exam tip: When you are m a tc h in g h e adings to p a ra g ra p h s in the IELTS Reading exam,
m ake s u re th a t the heading m a tc h e s th e main idea of the p a ra g ra p h not the d e ta ils .
1 Fashion is o fte n d e s c rib e d as a s ta te m e n t of in d iv id u a lity . D espite th e fa c t th a t m a n y
people believe th a t th e y have a n e u t r a l a p pro a ch to fa sh io n , th e s e le c tio n of b ra n d s and
s p e c ific ite m s of c lo th in g can re veal a lot a b o u t a p e rs o n 's im age. An e xa m ple of th is is
people w ho do not buy d e s ig n e r c lo th e s b u t p u rc h a s e d e s ig n e r glasses. As a fu n c tio n a l
a cce ssory it s e e m s u n n e c e s s a ry to p u rch a se d e s ig n e r glasses. Fashion e x p e rts c la im
th a t th is o c c u rs p r im a r ily because th e s e people have to w e a r g la s s e s so th e y w a n t to
m ake th e m s e lv e s stand o ut th ro u g h t h e ir g la s s e s choice a lth o u g h they do not apply
th is to t h e ir c lo th in g choices.
A Why d e s ig n e r g la s s e s are m o re im p o r ta n t th a n d e s ig n e r c lo th e s .
B E xp e rt advice fo r choosing d e s ig n e r g lasses.
C How exclusive ite m s can be used as a p e rs o n a l fa s h io n s ta te m e n t.
2 There are m any b e n e fits to th e w e a rin g of u n ifo r m s at sch o ol. F irs tly , it reduces the
lik e lih o o d of c h ild re n being able to guess th e s o c ia l and fin a n c ia l sta n d in g of th e ir
c la s s m a te s . This can h elp m anage b u lly in g in s c h o o ls , w h ic h is o fte n d ire c te d at
c h ild re n fro m lo w e r incom e fa m ilie s . By w e a rin g u n ifo r m s c h ild re n are less able to
d is p la y t h e ir w e a lth o r a b ility to p u rcha se fa s h io n a b le c lo th in g . As a re s u lt, th e re is
m o re chance of c h ild re n re ce ivin g m o re e q u a l tr e a tm e n t fro m t h e ir p eers and staff.
A S ch o ol u n ifo r m s m ake d iffe re n c e s in fa m ily incom e less n o tic e a b le
B The w e a rin g of u n ifo rm s re d uce s som e c o m m o n p ro b le m s in sch o ol.
C W e aring u n ifo r m s stops c h ild re n buying fa s h io n a b le c lo th e s .
3 N ow adays ve ry fe w of the c lo th e s a va ila b le in sh o ps are hand m a d e. This is p r im a r ily
because of th e incre a se d la b o u r costs a sso cia te d w ith m a n u a l w o r k co m p are d to th e
e ffic ie n t processin g and p ro d u c tio n of m o d e rn m a ch in e ry. The average fa c to ry m a c h in e
can p ro duce fift y tim e s m o re g a rm e n ts th a n a h u m a n in th e sam e le n g th of tim e . T hat
is w hy th e q u a n tity of h a nd m a d e c lo th e s has d e creased c o n sid e ra bly. However, m a k in g
c lo th e s by hand can be p ro fita b le since the e x p e rtis e of d e s ig n e rs , d re s s m a k e rs and
p a tte rn c u tte r s is re fle c te d in the p ric e of the goods.
A The s u rv iv a l of h a nd m a d e goods in the face of technology.
B How th e e ffic ie n c y of m o d e rn fa c to rie s has h a rm e d handm ade p ro d u c tio n .
C The ris in g p ro d u c tio n costs of hand m a d e and fa c to ry goods.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

       7 A#!      (  !  (# ! 99  9       9            1 ? >      9         +    9      +  3  9 
  3      
   9          +    ? $   :         1 ?> 
Section A_____________
Fashion is said to have a lan g u a ge th a t can be read lik e a te x t. It se rve s as an e x p la n a tio n of
p e op le 's c h a ra c te r, p e rs o n a lity , life s ty le and va lu e s . It w o r k s by u s in g s ig n s and codes w h ic h
are re c o g n is a b le to o th e rs and t r a n s m it m e ssages. These sign s, codes and m e ssa ge s are ca lle d
s e m io tic s and in flu e n c e a ll a s p e c ts o f o u r d a ily lives. S e m io tic s in fa s h io n w o r k s to convey o u r
id e n tity and in th is w ay m e ssa ge s can be p ro je c te d to th e o u ts id e w o rld .
Section B
_____________
The e a rlie s t types of c loth in g w ere body p a in tin g and a d o rn m e n ts . A ccording to e xp erts it is
g e n e ra lly believed th a t the aim of these a lte ra tio n s w as to m o d ify th e body in som e w ay in o rd e r
to co m m u n ica te a sp e cific message. In m o d ern tim e s th e aim is la rg e ly th e sam e, a lth ou g h the
m essages are m o re varied, com plex and w ide ranging. Nowadays it is co m m on fo r people to use
c loth in g , colour, fabric, je w e lle ry , h a irstyle s and even ta tto os. D r W a lk e r fro m The Centre fo r Fashion
S tudies a s s e rts th a t how we style o u r bodies is one of the m o st im p o rta n t fa c to rs in de finin g the self.
Section C
_____________
Fashion is not o n ly used to d efine th e s e lf b u t a ls o is a p o w e r fu l to o l f o r g ro u p id e n tity . T h is can
be m o s t c le a rly seen in yo u th fa s h io n w h ic h is o fte n given a nam e to h e lp convey th e m e ss a g e s of
its m e m b e rs . Fashion s ty le s such as goth, m od and e m o have s e m io tic s ig n s and s y m b o ls w h ic h
can re p re s e n t va lu e s, b e lie fs and p o litic a l ide o lo g ie s . Often th e s e v a lu e s and ideas b rin g young
people to g e th e r w h o use c lo th in g as a w a y to id e n tify o th e rs w ho sh a re t h e ir p h ilo s o p h y of life .
S e c tio n D
________________
On the o th e r hand the sem iotics of fashion can be seen as a product of a consum er-based society w here
appearance, especially through clothing, is valued and judged. This leads to people m aking conclusions
about others on the basis of what they wear. These conclusions are often incorrect and damaging as
they attach values and characteristics to people w hich they may not actually believe in o r possess.
Section E
_____________
In c o n c lu s io n fa s h io n can be a u s e fu l w ay to a n alyse an in d iv id u a l, g ro up , s o c ie ty o r tim e p e rio d .
C lo th in g and body a d o rn m e n t can h ig h lig h t s ta tu s , m ood, ideas and va lu e s . A lth o u g h s e m io tic s
has s o m e tim e s been c ritic iz e d as a to o l o f ju d g m e n t f o r a p pe a ra nce , it has g e n e ra lly o ffe re d a
v a lu a b le in s ig h t in to h u m an th o u g h t and b e h a v io u r th r o u g h o u t h istory.
i C o n n e ctin g fa s h io n and c h a ra c te r
ii Fashion as a to o l f o r u n ify in g people
iii Fashion is a lik e a language
iv The e ffe c t o f c o n s u m e ris m on fa s h io n
v U sing fa s h io n to develop c u lt u r a l k n o w le d g e
vi E x p la in in g fa s h io n w ith signs
vii The d iffe re n c e betw een in d iv id u a l and g ro u p id e n tity in fa sh ion
viii F a sh ioning th e body f o r c o m m u n ic a tio nL1WFdma h U

4 & # 
T h e p a s s iv e
A c a d e m ic lan g u a g e o ften uses the passive voice. The passive is used fo r th e fo llo w in g reasons:
To focus on w ho /w h a t receives the action
ACTIVE SENTENCE:Elton John p a rtlv w ro te The Lion Kinq s o u n d tra c k .
PASSIVE SENTENCE:
The Lion Kino s o u n d tra c k w as o a rtlv w r it te n bv E lton John.
In th e passive s e n te n ce th e im p o r ta n t fo cu s is on The Lion King. Here, th e te x t aro un d th is
s e n te n ce is m o re lik e ly to be a b ou t The Lion King. In th e f i r s t sen te n ce, th e te x t is m o re lik e ly
a b ou t Elton John.
When w ho/w hat does the action is u n im p o rta n t o r irre le v a n t
ACTIVE SENTENCE:
The f ilm co m o an v rele a se d S ta r W ars in 1977.
PASSIVE SENTENCE:
S ta r W ars w as released in 1977.
Who released the f ilm is u n im p o r ta n t and irre le v a n t to th e m essage.
To avoid saying who is doing the action
ACTIVE SENTENCE:
In The Bank Robber. H a rrv F lin t s to le $2 bn d o lla r s fro m a bank.
PASSIVE SENTENCE:
In The Bank Robber. $ 2bn d o lla r s are sto le n fro m a bank.
Here, if th e active s u b je c t is used [H a rry Flint), we w i l l reveal th e p lo t of the film .
Forming the passive
Only ve rb s w ith an o b je ct can be tu rn e d into th e passive.
An active sentence:
The film producers invested $20 million in the promotion of the film.
= a subject [The film producers) + a verb [invested) + an object [$ 2 0m illion)
The subject does th e a c tio n and th e object receives th e a ctio n .
A passive sentence:
If we w a n t to fo cu s on th e a m o u n t of money, th e passive s e n te n ce is as fo llo w s :
$20million was invested in the promotion of the film (by the film producers).
Here th e o b je c t b ecom es the s u b je c t and we add a fo r m of th e ve rb to be + past p a rtic ip le (fo r th e
c o n tin u o u s fo r m : to be + being + past p a rtic ip le ). See th e g r a m m a r re fe re nce f o r a ll fo rm s .
O ften the active s u b je c t becom es unnecessary.
Here you can see th e changes:
The film producers invested $ 2 0 m illio n in the promotion of th e film .
IT
wasG ra m m a r fo r IELTS

5 9  $             F $         9    + ,  G
 9  3     E 3     <   ou r opinion, w h ic h is a c o m m o n te c h n iq u e in a c a d e m ic w r it in g ,
we o fte n use th e passive. A d d itio n a lly , to avoid u sin g they o r people th e passive can be used w ith
r e p o rtin g ve rb s.
ACTIVE SENTENCE:People say th a t film m a k in g is a lu c ra tiv e ind u stry.
PASSIVE SENTENCE:F ilm m a k in g is said to be a lu c ra tiv e ind u stry.
Note: It is sa id th a t film m a k in g is a luc ra tiv e industry, is a lso possible.
See page 123 in th e G ra m m a r re fe re n c e f o r m o re in fo r m a tio n .
P ra c tic e Exercises
Change th e fo llo w in g a c tiv e s e n te n c e s in to p a ssive s e n te n c e s . Leave o u t th e a ctive
s u b je c t if p o s s ib le .
1 To a c e rta in e xte n t, the e n te r ta in m e n t in d u s tr y is d ic ta tin g p o p u la r c u ltu re .
2 People s h o u ld avoid the new B ro a dw a y play S ta r Mem ories.
3 In th e USA, people have voted c in e m a -g o in g as th e m o s t p o p u la r w e e ke n d hobby.
4 People k n o w th a t th e e n te r ta in m e n t in d u s tr y is v e ry c o m p e titiv e .
5 People re g ard H ollyw ood as th e m o s t in f lu e n tia l to w n f o r film m a k in g .
6 A t th e b e g in n in g of th e 20th c e n tu ry , la rg e f ilm c o m p a n ie s c o n tr a c tu a lly r e s tric te d
fa m o u s a c to rs and a ctre s s e s .
7 In re la tio n to th e p lo t of th e book, so m e o n e had changed th e en din g of th e film .
8 S om eone to ld us to s it in se a ts 4a and 4b.
2 L is te n to th e le c t u r e on th e A u s tr a lia n F ilm In s titu te . C o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s 1-5 w it h no
m o re th a n th r e e w o r d s a n d / o r a n u m b e r fr o m th e re c o rd in g .
1 The A u s tr a lia n F ilm I n s t i t u t e________________ in 1958.
2 The AFI i s
________________ f o r its p re s tig io u s a w a rd s cerem ony.
3 The a w a rd s have been r a is i n g
________________ of th e f ilm In d u s try in A u s tra lia since
th e 1960s.
4 In 1 9 8 6 ,
________________ in c lu d e d in th e AFI a w a rd s.
5 T h e
________________ w as held a t M e lb o u rn e 's P rin c e s s T h e a tre .
; G ra m m a r tip: W hen ta lk in g a b o u t th e p lo t of a s to ry o r film , use th e p re s e n t tense.LduS 1aN 2 a f2 .f1 da S 2 a f

2 In th is S p e a k in g P a rt 2 long tu r n a n s w e r, th e s tu d e n t is s p e a k in g a b o u t h e r fa v o u r ite
book. She has m ade so m e m is ta k e s in h e r g ra m m a r. Read th e s c r ip t and c o r r e c t th e
m is ta k e s . Then lis t e n to T ra c k 30 on th e CD and c h e c k y o u r a n s w e rs .
‘ My fa v o u rite book is ca lle d th e H un g e r Games. It w a s w ro te by Suzanne C o llin s I th in k
and it is a re a lly good book. The s to ry is set in N o rth A m e ric a , b ut at a tim e w he n th in g s
are v e ry bad. I t ’s a s to ry of a t e r r ib le society, w h ic h s e p a ra te d into d is t r ic ts . A boy and g ir l
fr o m each d is t r ic t send to ta ke p a rt in th e H u n g e r Games. These g a m es are te le vise d fo r
everyone to see. The g a m es are b a s ic a lly a fig h t to th e death f o r th e c h ild re n ta k in g p a rt.
The s to ry fo llo w s a g ir l ca lle d Katniss, w ho forced to ta ke p a rt in th e g am es w hen she
o ffe rs h e r s e lf up instead of h e r sister. I lik e th e s to ry so m u ch because it is ve ry e xcitin g .
A t fir s t, I fo u n d it re a lly h o rrify in g , b ut the m o re I read it, the m o re I c o u ld n 't put th e book
down. I re a lly cam e to lik e th e m ain c h a r a c te r too. She is so s tro n g . I w as re c o m m e n d th is
book by so m e fr ie n d s and it d id n 't d is a p p o in t m e .’
4 B e lo w is th e p r o m p t f o r th e P a rt 2 S p e a k in g above. W h ich p a r t o f th e p r o m p t did th e
s tu d e n t n o t a n s w e r ?____________________________________________
T h in k a b o u t y o u r o w n a n s w e r s to th e p r o m p t a n d n o te d o w n s o m e ide a s.
Describe a book that you’ve particularly enjoyed. You should say:
- What the book is about
- The main themes in the book
- What the characters are like
and explain why you liked the book.
W h a t is y o u r fa v o u r it e book?
W h a t is th e book a b ou t?
W h a t a re th e m a in th e m e s in th e book?
W h a t a re th e c h a r a c te r s lik e ?
W hy did you lik e th e book?
E xam t ip : Make su re you a n s w e r aU p a rts of th e P a rt 2 p ro m p t th a t you receive.
T his m e a n s you w i l l c o m p le te th e ta s k p ro p e rly and m ake b e tte r use of th e tim e .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 4      7      !     1
Read th e fo llo w in g p ro m p t f o r an IELTS S p e akin g exam P a rt 2. Give y o u r s e lf one m in u te to
p re p a re and m ake n otes. Then sp e ak f o r tw o m in u te s on th e to p ic.
Describe a film th a t you p a r tic u la r ly liked. You s h o u ld say:
- What i t is ca lle d
- What i t is about
- Why you lik e it
and explain w ha t types o f people w ou ld lik e the film .
ON ow lis te n to T ra c k 31 on th e CD f o r th e m o d e l answ er.
31 M ake som e n o te s on ho w you could im p ro v e y o u r a n s w e r based on th e m o d e l answer.LduS 1aN 2 a f2 .f1 da S 2 a f h h

L -#
R e la tiv e c la u s e s
T h e z e b r a s w h ic h a r e next to the la k e a re a
n e w a d d itio n to o u r s a f a r i p a rk.T h e z e b r a s , w h ic h a re next to the lake, a re a
n e w a d d itio n to o u r s a f a ri park.
Defining relative clauses
A d e fin in g re la tiv e c lau se is used to give e s sential in fo r m a tio n a b ou t th e p erson, place o r th in g .
W ith o u t th e d e fin in g re la tiv e c lau se th e se n te n ce does n ot have enough m e a nin g , f o r e xa m ple :
A n im a ls are ca lle d w ild animals.
Th is s e n te n ce does not have enough in fo rm a tio n because not a ll a n im a ls are ca lle d w ild a n im a ls .
A n im a ls w h ic h live in a n o n -d o m e s tic a te d e n v iro n m e n t are ca lle d w ild a n im a ls .
The re la tiv e c la u s e here gives the se n te n ce m e a n in g . We now k n o w which a n im a ls .
D efin in g re la tiv e c la u s e s are o ften used in d e fin itio n s (fo r e xa m ple th e c la u s e above d e fin e s w ild
a n im a ls ).
Relative pronouns for defining relative clauses: who (person, subject), whom (person, object) which
(thing), whose (possessive). Also when (time), where (place), why (after the w ord reason) can be used.
That can be used in place of th e above re la tive pronouns (except whose} in d e finin g relative clauses.
Non-defining relative clauses
A n o n -d e fin in g re la tiv e c la u s e is used to give extra in fo r m a tio n a b ou t a pe rson , place o r th in g .
The s e n te n ce w o u ld have enough m ea nin g w ith o u t th e c la u s e and the c la u s e is not necessary.
A n o n -d e fin in g re la tiv e c la u s e is en clo se d by com m as.
P e n g u in s , w h ic h have tig h t ly packed fe a th e rs to keep th e m w a rm , live in cold c lim a te s .
The c la u s e does n o t q u a lify w h ic h p e n g u in s ; it ju s t gives m o re in fo rm a tio n a b ou t peng u ins. The
se n te n ce Penguins live in cold clim ates, is a cce pta ble alone.
Relative pronouns for non-defining relative clauses: who (person, s u b je c t), whom (person, object)
which (thing), whose (possessive). A ls o when (tim e), where (place) can be used.
Note: That ca n n o t be used as a re la tiv e pro no u n fo r n o n -d e fin in g re la tiv e clau se s.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 LI # I % 
R elative c la u s e s u s u a lly begin w ith a re la tiv e p ro n o u n . The re la tiv e p ro no u n a cts as th e s u b je c t
o r o b je c t of th e clau se .
Subject relative clauses do not need a new s u b je c t as th e p ro n o u n a cts as th e s u b je c t:
Jacob is th e o n ly p e rson w ho can feed th e lio n s .
Who is th e s u b je c t of th e re la tiv e clau se . (Jacob can feed th e lions)
Object relative clauses need a new s u b je c t as th e p ro no u n reDresents th e o b je ct:
The p e n g u in s w e re th e best a n im a ls th a t I sa w a t th e zoo.
That re fe rs to penguins, so we m u s t add a s u b je c t (/) f o r th e re la tiv e c la u s e (I saw th e p e n g u in s at
th e zoo).
Shortening relative clauses
The fo llo w in g are w ays in w h ic h a re la tiv e c la u s e can be re duced:
1 A re la tiv e p ro no u n + ve rb can be re p la ce d w ith a p a r tic ip le :
The cat s p its at anyone w ho a p p ro a c h e s it. = The cat s p its a t anyone a p p ro a c h in g it.
2 For passive c o n s tru c tio n s , the re la tiv e p ro no u n + ve rb to be can be rem oved to leave th e past
p a rtic ip le :
The m an w ho w as in ju re d in the t ig e r a tta c k w e n t to h o s p ita l.
3 W ith defining re la tiv e clau se s, th e re la tiv e p ro n o u n can be rem oved if it is an o b je c t p ro n o u n :
Som e b io lo g is ts begin to love th e a n im a ls th e y study.
P ra c tic e Exercises
L o o k a t th e fo llo w in g s e n te n c e s and add r e la tiv e p ro n o u n s and p u n c tu a tio n i f needed.
1 The a n im a l lib e r a tio n le a g u e______ o p in io n w as c ritic iz e d by s e n io r p o litic ia n s fa ile d
to get t h e ir view s acted upon.
2 W ild life in M e x ic o
__________ has flo u r is h e d f o r m any ye a rs is no w u n d e r a tta c k by th e
in d u s tr ia liz a tio n of n a tu r a l h a b ita ts .
3 F lig h tle s s b ird s are b ir d s
______ ca n n o t fly.
4 Dian F o s s e y
______ died in 1985 he lp e d save th e m o u n ta in g o r illa fr o m e x tin c tio n .
5 L o n d o n
______ a th ird of the city is a ctually open space is home to a w ide variety of w ild life .
6 An a n i m a l
______ s leeps d u rin g th e day is ca lle d 'n o c t u r n a l’ .
7 The w ild life p h o to s
_______ my s is te r to o k in Borneo w ere the best photos I had ever seen.
8 E v o lu t io n
______ is the g e n e ra lly accepted th e o ry of how life on e a rth developed is s t i l l
d is p u te d by som e.
W h ich one of th e above s e n te n c e s c o u ld have th e r e la t iv e p ro n o u n o m it t e d ?
____________+ duN udi2 h _

1Look at the following questions which may be asked in an IELTS Part 3 Speaking exam.
Complete the spaces with the clauses below.
that have no laws to protect th e ir
anim als
which don’t have shops to buy food
that keep anim als in s m all cages
which have been destroyed by industries
Are zoos c ru el to animals?
I d o n 't know. I th in k so m e zoos are c ru e l, f o r e xa m p le zoos ( 1 )_______________________
B ut th e re are a lso zoos ( 2 ) _______________________ T h is I th in k is good. Zoos can also
help p ro te c t e n da n g e re d species, and th is is a r e a lly g re a t th in g . There are som e c o u n trie s
( 3 )
________________________ - t h a t ’s a re a l p ro b le m . So o v e ra ll I d o n ’t th in k zoos are as
bad as people th in k .
Do you think we could do more to protect our w ildlife?
Yes, we co uld do a lit t le m o re. I th in k m any a re as of r a in fo re s t ( 4 ) _______________________
re a lly need to be re ju ve n a te d. L ots of w ild lif e live th e re and if th e y d o n ’t have th e se fo re s ts ,
th e y w o n 't be able to su rvive . G o rilla s ( 5 ) _______________________ are dying o u t rapidly.
Do you think hunting is justified?
I th in k h u n tin g s o m e tim e s is a n e cessa ry th in g . B u t I th in k h u n tin g as a s p o rt
( 6 )
______________________________ is a lit t le c ru e l. We a ll need to eat, and s o c ie tie s ( 7 ) _
_______________________ need to be able to h u n t f o r food. This is necessary fo r th e m to
be able to live.
Listen and check your answers. Can you think of any additional points to add to these
answers?
| G ra m m a r tip: It is im p o rta n t to kn o w w h ic h type of re la tive clau se to use (defining o r
i n o n -d e fin in g ). This t e lls you w h e th e r you need to p u n c tu a te th e clause, w h a t p ro no u n s

j
you can use, and if the clau se can be s h o rte n e d . R em e m b e r, s p e a k e rs w i l l pause at
| co m m a s in n o n -d e fin in g re la tiv e clau se s. This m eans th a t you can id e n tify a d e finin g
I and n o n -d e fin in g re la tiv e clau se by th e way it is said.
3 Using the tip above, listen to the sentences below and decide w h eth er they contain
defining or non-defining relative clauses. Punctuate the non-defining relative clauses.
1 Owls are divided into tw o g ro up s w h ic h are c la s s ifie d ‘ty p ic a l o w ls ’ and ‘ barn ow ls'.
2 B arn o w ls w h ic h are n o c tu rn a l fly s ile n tly ________________________
3 Owls w h ic h are nom ad ic re a r a g re a t n u m b e r of y o u n g
_______________________
U L o n g -e a re d o w ls w h ic h live in the n o rth m ig ra te to Europe f o r w in te r.th at give the anim als space to move and look
a f te r them w e ll
, which are one of the most endangered
rainforest species,
, when the main purpose is enjoyment,G ra m m a r fo r IELTS

 L= > :    %   9  < 9      $                       +   F  
       ?  +    A     G < 3        <                   9
, 3       <    9   9         <  :    < $ +         
Now listen to Track 34 on the CD and com plete the diagram with no more than three words
34 and/or a number. Notice how the inform ation is given in varied form s of relative clause.
Exam p ra c tic e : Listening - la b e llin g a d ia g ra m
Complete the diagram below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each
35 answer.: ubK bus[$ l

1EMen and women
N o u n p h r a s e s
A noun p h rase gives e xtra in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e s u b je c t o r o b je c t of a sen te n ce. The e xtra
in fo rm a tio n in a noun p h rase can com e before a n d /o r a ft e r th e m ain noun as fo llo w s :
D e t e r m in e r /q u a n tifie r + adjective(s) + NOUN + p re p o s itio n a l p h ra s e + re la tiv e clause
The re c e n t increase of fe m a le g ra d u a te s w ho have s tu d ie d te c h n ic a l su b je cts...
The = d e te r m in e r / recent = a d je ctive / increase = noun / in female graduates = p r e p o s itio n a l
p h rase / who have studied technical subjects = re la tiv e c lau se
Noun p h ra s e s can c o n ta in one, som e o r a ll of th e se p a rts .
It is im p o r ta n t to notice w h e re th e noun p h ra s e begins and ends in a s e n te n ce to h elp you
u n d e rs ta n d w h a t th e se n te n ce m eans. The w ay to do th is is to fin d th e ve rb in th e sen te n ce;
e v e ry th in g before th e ve rb is th e s u b je c t noun p h rase and e v e ry th in g th a t co m e s a ft e r th e v e rb is
th e o b je c t noun ph rase .
The re c e n t in c re a s e in fe m a le g ra d u a te s w h o have s tu d ie d te c h n ic a l s u b je c ts has changed th e
m o d e rn jo b m a rk e t.
(noun p h rase & s u b je c t) + (verb in th e s in g u la r fo rm because it a g ree s w ith increase) + (noun
ph rase & o b je ct]
T h e /a n + g e n e ra l noun + specific noun
The g e n e ra l noun d e s c rib e s th e c a te g o ry and th e s p e c ific noun te lls us m o re a b o u t th e category.
th e d e v e lo p m e n t of s c ie n tific a n alysis
th e p a tte rn of m a rria g e s ta tis tic s
an ap pro a ch of p r im a r y s c h o o l te a c h e rs
th e n u m b e r of m a le a r ts s tu d e n ts
Relative clauses
The re la tiv e c la u s e provides d e ta ils w h ic h fo cu se s th e s u b je c t/n o u n . In th e p h rase the men who
make the operational decisions w e k n o w e xa ctly w h ic h g ro u p of m en.
th e e x p e rts w ho advised th e g o v e rn m e n t fig u re s th a t s u p p o rt th e d o c to rs ’ c la im s
M ultiple nouns
Some noun p h ra s e s are com posed of a s e rie s o f tw o o r m o re nouns. In th e noun p h rase female
business owners a ll the w o rd s are n o uns w h ic h to g e th e r fo r m one s p e c ific m e aning.
c o m m u n ity s u p p o rt w o r k e r s
w o m e n g o v e rn m e n t o ffic ia ls* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 1E           
U nderlin e the noun phrase in the following sentences and name the elem en ts
(d e te rm in e r/q u a n tifie r, adjective, noun, prepositional phrase, relative clause) in it.
Example: The / latest / statistics / on gender equality / in the workplace show that in general
women receive lower pay than men. = d e te r m in e r + a d je c tiv e + noun + p re p o s itio n a l
p h rase + p re p o s itio n a l p h rase
1 A la rg e a u die n ce of dedicated fans w e n t to th e w o r ld c h a m p io n s h ip s .
2 The p o litic ia n w ho had proposed new la w s on p a te r n ity r ig h ts w on th e e le c tio n .
3 The d e v e lo p m e n t of lan g u a ge s k ills in boys and g ir ls in te re s ts p s y c h o lo g is ts .
I* The la te s t fig u re s fro m th e D riving S ta n d a rd s A gency s ta te th a t w o m e n cause fe w e r
a c c id e n ts .
5 G e n d e r in te llig e n c e s te re o ty p e s have changed in re c e n t decades.
6 Men w h o decide to give up w o r k to b rin g up t h e ir c h ild re n are in th e m in o rity .
2 Put the noun phrases from the brackets into the correct o rd er to fit the following text.
T h ro u g h o u t h is to ry th e re have been m any fa m o u s m a le in v e n to rs b u t less is know n
a b o u t fe m a le in v e n to rs . In te re s tin g ly , w o m e n have played an in c re a s in g ly im p o r ta n t role
in in v e n tio n as th e y have had w id e r access to e d u c a tio n and e m p lo y m e n t. In fact, (1) [of
household products / that we use in our daily li v e s /a large quantity) has been invented by
w o m e n . Som e e xa m p le s in c lu d e d isp o s a b le d ia p e rs , (2) [a / computers / for programming /
language] and w in d s c re e n w ip e rs . In th e past (3) [of women/scientific/th e /e d u c a tio n/
and technical} w a s lim ite d com p are d to m en b u t (4) [who are studying and working in science
and technology /in the number of w o m e n /a dramatic rise} has o c c u rre d in re c e n t years.
T h e re fo re it can be argued th a t (5) [the importance o f/w h ic h allows people to develop their
s k i l l s / a focused education) s h o uld not be u n d e re s tim a te d in th e fie ld of inv e n tio n .
j G ra m m a r tip: M u ltip le nouns such as female business owners can be d if f ic u lt to order.
| W hen tr y in g to o rd e r th e se types of n ouns re m e m b e r th a t th e f i r s t noun w i l l d e s c rib e o r
i c a te g o riz e th e n ouns th a t fo llo w . In th is case business owners is a noun p h ra s e and we
I use female business owners to s ta te w h a t type of b u s in e s s o w n e rs .
3 In the following paragraph, rew rite the underlined sections as noun phrases. Use the
stru ctu re the + g e n eral noun + specific noun. You may need to think of a suitable g e n eral
noun. The first one has been done for you.
P a re n ts can have d iffe re n t view s a b ou t (1) how t h e ir c h ild re n are e d uca ted at p r im a r y
s c h o o l d e p e n d in g on w h e t h e r the c h ild is a boy o r g ir l. Men o fte n th in k a b o u t a s p e c ts such
as (2) w h a t d iffe r e n t a c tiv itie s th e boys and g ir ls w i l l d o . o r (3) w h a t space is a v a ila b le f o r
d oing p h y s ic a l exercise in th e s ch o ol g ro u n d s , w h e re a s w o m e n can be m o re c o n cern e d
a b o u t (4) how m any c h ild re n w il l be in th e sam e c la s s as t h e i r c h ild and (5) w h a t kind
of p e rson th e te a c h e r is. However, th e re are m any p o in ts w h ic h co n c e rn both p a re n ts
irre s p e c tiv e of g e nd e r, fo r exam ple, (6) how m uch m oney a s c h o o l sp e nd s on f a c ilitie s and
th e q u a lity of care w h ic h is provided by th e staff.
Men and w o m en 8 3

 th e e d u c a tio n of t h e ir c h ild re n
2 _________________________
3
U _________________________________________________________________________________
5 ______________________________________________________________________________
6 _______________________________________________________________________
4 Choose some of the following noun phrases and use them to w rite a short one-paragraph
answ er for the essay title below. You can adapt the noun phrases to fit your ideas.
Men are m ore su ite d to w orking in fields such as engineering and business whereas women
are m ore su ite d to the caring professions, fo r example, n u rsin g o r teaching.
How fa r do you agree w ith this s ta te m e n t?
Noun phrases
th e types of jo b w h ic h are m ore su ite d to
men
w o m e n w ho w o r k in th e c a rin g p ro fe ssio n s
the am ount of wom en w orkin g in engineering
men w ho chooses to becom e a te a c h e r
th e range of e m p lo y m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s fo r
w om e nw o m e n w ho hold s e n io r p o s itio n s in
business
th e incre a se in fe m a le e n g in e e rs
p ro fe s s io n s w h ic h re q u ire a caring
p e rs o n a lity
th e s k ills needed f o r w o r k in g in b usiness
th e type of person
Compare your paragraph with the model answ er in the answ er key.
Exam tip: Noun phrase s are w id e ly used in w r it te n te x ts so you need to be able to
recognize th e m in the reading te x ts and you s h o u ld t r y to w r ite th e m in Tasks 1 and 2 of
th e W ritin g exam.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

      7 -  !   1
You have 40 m inutes to an s w e r the following essay question.
W rite about the following topic:
\ Women are b e tte r a t ch ild ca re than m en th e re fo re they s h o u ld focus m ore on ra isin g
I c h ild re n and less on th e ir w orkin g life. j
| To w hat e xte n t do you agree o r disagree w ith th is s ta te m e n t? j
Give reasons fo r your an s w e r and include any relevant exam ples from your own knowledge or
experience.
W rite at least 250 words.
Compare your essay with the model an s w e r in the a n s w e r key.Men and women

%& $' 
Unit 1 Holidays and travel
Track 01
E xam iner: W h e re do you live?
Nikolas: I com e fro m Moscow. I have lived th e re f o r 6 years. My fa m ily moved fr o m th e
c o u n try s id e w hen I w as 12 ye a rs old.
E xam iner: Do you s t i l l live w ith y o u r fa m ily ?
Nikolas: Yes, I do. I live w ith m y p a re n ts and s h a re a room w ith m y b ro th er. My b r o th e r s t i l l
goes to sch o o l. He is only 8 ye a rs old.
E xam iner: Do you lik e M oscow?
Nikolas: Yes, I love Moscow. When I f ir s t a rriv e d , I d id n 't lik e it m uch because it w as so
d iffe re n t, but I have g row n a ccu sto m e d to it. Now, I k n o w m y w ay aro un d and have
lo ts of frie n d s .
E xam iner: How has M oscow changed re ce ntly?
Nikolas: It has becom e m o re in te rn a tio n a l, and m o re e xcitin g . In th e la s t fe w years, a b o u t
te n new in te r n a tio n a l re s ta u ra n ts have opened in m y area alone and I o fte n eat in
th e m now w ith m y frie n d s . I have lo ts of in te r n a tio n a l fr ie n d s w ho have com e to
s tu d y at th e U n iv e rs ity in Moscow, and we o ften m e e t in th e evenings.
Track 02
1 W hat k in d s of ho lid ays do you like ?
2 W hat w as th e la s t place you v is ite d on holiday?
3 W hat k in d s of tr a n s p o r t do you use re g u la rly ?
U How long have you lived in y o u r hom e tow n?
5 Have you tra v e lle d to m any d iffe re n t p laces in y o u r co u n try ?
Track 03
Exam iner:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:
Exam iner:
Student:W hat k in d s of ho lid ays do you like ?
I lik e beach h o lid ays because w e ll, I enjoy re la x in g and I love th e sun. I d o n 't re a lly
lik e city b re a k s o r a c tiv ity holid ays. T h e y 're too t ir in g fo r me. I w o r k so hard th a t I
lik e to ju s t do n o th in g w he n I'm away. I u s u a lly go to Italy on holiday, w h ic h is re a lly
nice but q u ite expensive!
W h a t w as the la s t place you v is ite d on h o liday?
I w e n t to one of th e Greek is la n d s la s t year. I w as th e re fo r tw o w ee ks. I fle w th e re
b u t to o k the boat back, w h ic h w as a re a l tre a t. I love tr a v e llin g by boat! W hen I w as
th e re I saw a fe w s ig h ts and ate so m e of th e lo c a l food, but m a in ly I ju s t stayed by
th e p ool and s u n ba the d .
W h a t k in d s of tr a n s p o r t do you use re g u la rly ?
I live in a big city, Shanghai, and so I o fte n use p u b lic tr a n s p o r t. I go to w o r k by bus
w h ic h u s u a lly ta k e s a b ou t t h ir t y m in u te s . L o ts of people in Shanghai tra v e l by bike,* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 E   E 3+  =E$   $      +<  +   =E     U =                 +   H
  U =     $     <       +<     +      3   9   3            =    
9  +
E xam in er: How long have you lived in y o u r ho m e to w n ?
S tudent: I’ve lived here a ll my life. A lth o u g h I’ve w o rk e d in lo ts of d iffe r e n t c itie s , I've never
stayed th e re f o r m ore th a n a fe w m o n th s . I w a s bo rn in S h anghai and have lived
here now f o r tw e n ty one years. I lived w ith m y p a re n ts w he n I w a s y o u n g e r b u t now
I’ve got a f la t on my own in th e c ity c e n tre ! It's not v e ry big but it s u its me.
E x am iner: Have you tra v e lle d to m any d iffe r e n t p laces in y o u r c o u n try ?
Student: Yes, I've tra v e lle d to lo ts of d iffe r e n t c itie s in China. I've been to B e ijin g, G uangzhou,
N an jing , H arb in and K u n m in g . My fa v o u rite one w as B e ijin g . I w e n t th e re a couple
of y e a rs ago and it w a s re a lly fa n ta s tic . I d id n 't re a liz e how cold it w a s in B e ijin g . I
w as am azed. A p p a re n tly , it is re a lly hot in th e s u m m e r b u t re a lly cold in th e w in t e r
tim e . U n fo rtu n a te ly , I w e n t in th e w in te r !
Unit 3 Fame
Track 04
P re s e n te r: In to d a y ’s p ro g ra m m e I’ l l c o n tin u e e x a m in in g th e im p a c t of fa m e on life s ty le using
th e style icon G loria Van B ro n c k e n as an e xa m ple . B efore b e com in g fa m o u s in
th e m o d e llin g in d u s try , G loria had lived in a s m a ll v illa g e and had ne ver tra v e lle d
o u ts id e h e r own co u ntry. She used to w o r k in a c lo th e s s to re and she enjoyed
a ll th e u s u a l a c tiv itie s of a te e n a g e r in h e r fre e tim e . S h e ’d been w o r k in g in th e
c lo th e s s to re f o r tw o years w h e n a c u s to m e r w ho re p re s e n te d a m o d e l agency
s p o tte d h e r and signed h e r up. By th e tim e she w as 21 G loria had tra v e lle d round
th e w o r ld s e v e ra l tim e s and had a p peared on th e cover of m any in te r n a tio n a l
fa s h io n m ag azin e s. N ow th e im p a c t of such d ra s tic life s ty le chang e s can be ve ry
s i g n i f i c a n t ... [fade]
Unit U Education
Track 05
L ib raria n : H ello th e re . How can I h e lp you?
John: I’ m going to do a p re s e n ta tio n on M ary Shelley, and I’ d lik e to get s o m e books on
her.
L ib raria n : Okay. The b io g ra p h ie s are on th e th ir d flo o r. I’ l l w r it e th e a is le n u m b e r down fo r
you.
John: T h a n k s . I m ig h t use th e In te rn e t too and loo k f o r re s o u rc e s on th e re .
L ib raria n : T h a t’s a good idea. If y o u ’ re going to use th e In te rn e t, have a loo k on th e Great
B r itis h A u th o rs w e b s ite .
John: T h a n ks, I w ill. I h a v e n 't heard of th a t s ite before. T h a n k s ve ry m uch fo r the
in fo r m a tio n .
L ib raria n : T h a t's q u ite a ll rig h t. Feel fre e to com e and ask me any q u e s tio n s and I w i l l do m y
best to help.9gNdm Wk.dcf

E=
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:Hi, is th is the S tu d e n t A ffa ir s Office?
Yes, it is. I'm C arol. How can I he lp you?
Hi, I’ m Andy. W ell, I’ m new a t th e U n iv e rs ity and I w as to ld I needed to com e here to
c o m p le te my r e g is tra tio n ?
You’ re in th e r ig h t place yes.
G reat!
F irs tly , do you k n o w y o u r w ay a ro un d th e cam pus?
No, i t ’s my f i r s t day. I’ m going to exp lo re later.
W e ll, hold on, I’l l give you a m ap of th e U nive rsity. E rrm m ... th e y ’ re ju s t...
T h e re are so m e o ve r th e re on th e w a ll. I’ l l g ra b one.
T h a n k s , s o r r y a b o u t th a t. Have you o rg a n iz e d y o u r t o u r a ro u n d th e m a in
lib r a r y ?
No, not yet. I’ m going to go to th e lib r a r y la t e r to do it.
I’ l l do it f o r you here. There is a t o u r at 4.30 today. S h a ll I p ut you on th a t?
Yes, please t h a t ’ d be g re a t! I’ m going to c o m p le te th e N ew S tu d e n t Form la t e r on
today. Do I b rin g th a t to you?
You c a n ’t c o m p le te it y o u rs e lf. You’ l l need to go to th e m ain a d m in is tr a tio n o ffice
as one of th e s ta ff m e m b e rs th e re needs to f i l l th e fo r m o u t f o r you. I t ’s ju s t by the
m a in h a ll, you c a n 't m iss it. You can get a visa fo rm fro m th e m too, b u t y o u ’ l l need
to send th e c o n firm a tio n y o u r s e lf once y o u ’ve c o m p le te d th e fo rm .
I d o n ’t need a visa, so I s h o u ld be okay w ith th a t, b ut th a n k s .
Okay, can I he lp you w ith a n y th in g else?
Yes, please. T h e re ’s ju s t so m u c h to do, and I d o n ’t k n o w w h e re to go f o r so m e
th in g s . Could you he lp me?
Yes, of co u rse. I t ’s a b it d a u n tin g w he n i t ’s a ll new.
W e ll, at th e m o m e n t I’ m staying in a bed and b re a k fa s t. I le ft it a b it late to get
s o m e a c c o m m o d a tio n ! B ut I’d lik e a place of m y own. Do you k n o w w h e re I can fin d
in fo r m a tio n a b ou t places I could rent?
Good jo b you a s k e d ! L o ts o f p e o p le go to th e A d m in is tr a t iv e D e p a r tm e n t
and th e n g e t s e n t b a c k h e re to S tu d e n t A f f a ir s ! H e r e ’s th e la t e s t l is t of
a c c o m m o d a tio n !
W ow th a t w as easy. And w h e re can I get in fo r m a tio n on my r e n ta l a g re e m e n t?
W e ll you need to fin d a place f ir s t before you get it checked, b ut I’ l l do it w hen
y o u ’ve found s o m e w h e re .
Great. I’ m going to r e g is t e r w ith th e d o c to r la t e r on at th e A d m in D e p a rtm e n t. Do
th e y a lso have in fo rm a tio n on th e area?
You’ l l need to go to S tu d e n t S u p p o rt to g et a d o c to r, not A d m in . They a ls o have
e v e ry th in g you need to k n o w a b o u t th e to w n . T h e y're re a lly h e lp fu l. The A d m in
D e p a rtm e n t is re a lly o nly th e re f o r o ffic ia l th in g s such as visa re g u la tio n s , loans
and paying f o r y o u r course.
Okay. Great. T h e re ’s so m u ch to r e m e m b e r!
T h e re c e r ta in ly is, b u t once y o u ’ re s e tt le d in it w i l l a l l be m u c h e a sie r. Good
lu c k !
T h a n k s fo r y o u r help.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 3 (  E =  E 4 E9
In te rv ie w e r: W e lcom e to th e p ro g ra m m e , Bob L a m o n t. N ow y o u 're going to t a lk to us a b o u t
th e o n lin e g a m in g in d u s try . W e’ve had m any lis te n e rs , e s p e c ia lly p a re n ts of young
c h ild re n , e m a il q u e s tio n s a b o u t th e fu tu r e o f th e g a m in g in d u s tr y and how i t ’s going
to develop.
Bob Lam ont: W e ll, h o p e fu lly I ' l l be able to a n s w e r s o m e o f t h e ir q u e s tio n s . F irs tly , i t ’s im p o r ta n t
to re m e m b e r th a t th is is an in d u s tr y th a t develops in c re d ib ly ra p id ly and so i t ’s
d if f ic u lt to m ake d e fin ite p re d ic tio n s . So, in t e r m s of s ig n ific a n t d e v e lo p m e n ts th a t
people w o r k in g in th e in d u s tr y are p re p a rin g fo r, th e m o s t in te re s tin g is th e fa c t
th a t th e age g ro up of g a m e rs (people w ho play o n lin e and video gam es) w i l l change
d ra m a tic a lly . We p re d ic t th a t by 2020 th e average age ra n ge w i l l have s h ifte d
fr o m te e n a g e rs to th e o ve r 50s. T h is is because in th e fu tu r e young people w i l l be
u sing new fo r m s of e n te r ta in m e n t b u t th o s e w ho are young now are m o re lik e ly
to c o n tin u e u sin g th e fo r m s of e n te r ta in m e n t th e y are a lre a d y used to in la t e r life .
By 2020 th is age g roup w i l l have been pla yin g th e s a m e type of gam e f o r h a lf t h e ir
lives and are u n lik e ly to change.
The typ e s of g a m es w i l l p ro g re s s too fr o m th e p la tfo r m - b a s e d g a m e s we have
now, w h ic h w e expect people to be u sin g u n til 2015, to 3D g a m e s to w a rd s th e
end of th e decade. H owever, before everyone is using 3D g a m e s th e re w i l l be a
p e rio d w he n n e tw o rk e d g a m e s w i l l becom e th e d o m in a n t fo r m a t. This is m o s tly
to do w ith th e te c h n o lo g y a v a ila b le and th e fa c t th a t g a m in g c o m p a n ie s w o n ’t have
invested enough m oney to m a ke 3D cheap enough f o r th e m ass m a r k e t u n t il at
le a s t 2018. Now, as you w o u ld expect, th e g a m in g m a r k e t w i l l spread so th a t by
2020 c o m p a n ie s w i l l have cre a te d a w o r ld w id e m a r k e tin g s tra te g y f o r every gam e,
th e re fo re re d ucin g th e need to c re a te ne w g a m es f o r d iffe r e n t re g io n a l m a rk e ts .
T h is is d iffe r e n t fro m to d a y w h e re we see th a t th e o n lin e g a m in g in d u s tr y is m u ch
m o re fo cu se d on the re gion o f Asia and th is is lik e ly to c o n tin u e f o r a fe w m o re
years.
One fin a l p o in t to m e n tio n here is th e c o m p e titio n fro m o th e r fo rm s of
e n te rta in m e n t. Over th e next decade very fe w fo rm s of e n te rta in m e n t w i l l be able
to co m p ete w ith the gam in g industry. However, th e re is ta lk of m ovies becom ing
in te ra c tiv e in the fu tu re . This is a re a l th re a t. Tech co m p an ie s w il l have developed the
necessary te ch n o lo g y fo r in te ra c tiv e m ovies by 2015 and th is m ay a ttr a c t g a m e rs w ho
lik e c h a ra c te r-b a s e d gam es in larg e n u m b e rs .
In te rv ie w e r: F a s c in a tin g , Bob. I d id n ’t re a liz e it w a s such a co m p le x b u sin e ss. T h a n k you v e ry
m u ch f o r y o u r i n s i g h t ... [fade]
Track 08
C u rato r: Good m o rn in g lad ie s and g e n tle m e n and w e lc o m e to th e M u se u m of Technology.
W e’ l l be ta k in g a to u r a ro u n d th e th re e flo o rs , w h ic h w i l l la s t a p p ro x im a te ly one
h o u r and th e n a fte r th a t y o u ’ l l be able to e x p lo re th e m u s e u m on y o u r own.
N ow , l e t ’s begin w it h The In te r n e t: Past, P re s e n t and F u tu re on th e f i r s t flo o r.
By th is F rid a y th e e x h ib itio n w i l l have been open f o r tw o w e e k s , it s ta r te d on9gNdm Wk.dcf

N  <  ! 9   E            9       3            <        <
 9  3    H    +  + <  9$    9   +< 9    < 9     +          +  U
9      <  9  : 9 +      "  N < 9                 9       
  9          +    9  =      9      1 < 3          <   H   
       "@    9        3 9  9   9  3  93 3 E    +  + <  +              
  +    $  <    9              <  9  +        9      <  
   9    <      
6$   9  9        9  : 9 +     9       +               $
9  =     E         # 3      9 : 9 +        9    9   
1            "! 9 9                  9  : 9 +     3 9  9     < 
3   9                +   9   =      93  93
3 E  +          3       9      1                 +< 9 
     9      < 3  3   9$  +                       9    9 
      3         9  9     +   9  3   9$  +    +  U 6 
   <         9  3            3 9  9  9  3  9  $    <    E  A   
  ;
9     : 9 +         9     9                 9    c
9   $  9           3   9$              9 +< 9   
 : <  =   < < 9$      <       9   +    $      V
9     9         E    +  @ $   9       < E   H      
      3   N  <   3   +       1      ! 9  9      9       
  +     : 9     9 < 9  9     < 3   9$  +          
    +   $      +   9          <  3  9   9   <    
=      93   :                  <    3 9  9  3  3   +   
9            < $  9   3                   =        
<       $ 3    + 9
 E      9   =<        3   [fade]
Unit 6 The family
Track 09
I ’ m g o in g to t a l k a b o u t m y g r a n d m o t h e r on m y f a t h e r ’s s id e . She is q u ite l i t t l e and has w h ite
h a ir and g la s s e s . I have g la s s e s to o . W e ’ re th e o n ly p e o p le in th e f a m ily t h a t w e a r g la s s e s !
She is v e ry o ld n o w and I d o n ’t g e t to see h e r v e ry o fte n ... I t h in k I see h e r m aybe tw o o r
th r e e t im e s a year. She liv e s q u ite f a r a w a y in th e c o u n t r y s id e . It ta k e s us a b o u t th r e e h o u rs
to t r a v e l th e r e . W h e n e v e r w e v is it , she a lw a y s g ive s s w e e ts to m e. S h e 's im p o r t a n t to me
b e c a u s e s h e ’s so k in d and so nice, and I r e a lly love her. S h e 's d e f in ite ly m y fa v o u r ite f a m ily
m e m b e r ! I t h in k I ta k e a f t e r h e r in s o m e w a y s . We la u g h at th e s a m e th in g s and w e b o th lik e
r e a d in g . W h e n w e go and v is it , we a lw a y s go o u t w a lk in g in th e f ie ld s and have a r e a lly lo v e ly
tim e . My dad a lw a y s says t h a t w e 'r e v e ry s im ila r . I ’ d lik e to be as w is e as h e r w h e n I am
o ld e r. I ’ d a ls o lik e to have a s i m i l a r life . She had a v e ry s u c c e s s fu l c a re e r. She w a s a d o c t o r
and w o r k e d f o r c h a r it ie s . She w a s v e ry m u c h in love w it h m y g r a n d f a t h e r , w h ic h I t h i n k is
lovely.* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

E L  1 4 &# E
Simon:
Jim:
Simon:
Jim :
Simon:
Jim :
Simon:
Jim:
Simon:
Jim :
Simon:
Jim :
Simon:
Jim:
Simon:
Jim :
Track 11
Last y e a r I w e n t to a w o n d e r fu l r e s ta u ra n t o v e rlo o k in g th e r iv e r in m y city, M a rs e ille , w ith a
g ro up of frie n d s . The s p e c ia l occasion w as m y fr ie n d 's 21st b irth d a y and we decided to go o u t
f o r dinner. We w a n te d to eat beef because th is re s ta u r a n t is fa m o u s f o r m e a t, b u t as we a rriv e d
la te th e y d id n 't have any beef le ft. Instead we ate b o u illa b a is s e w h ic h is a kind of seafood s te w
c o n ta in in g fis h and s h e llfis h . I had a couple of g la s s e s of o ra ng e ju ic e . For d e s s e rt w e each had
a s lic e of b irth d a y cake w h ic h th e r e s ta u ra n t had m ade e s p e c ia lly f o r m y frie n d . The cake had 21
c a n d le s and m y frie n d b le w th e m a ll o u t in one go so she m ade m any w is h e s f o r th e fu tu r e . We
had so m uch fu n th a t n ig h t.
Track 12
I’ m g oing to t a lk a b o u t an E n g lis h d e s s e r t c a lle d t r i f l e . T h is is a d ish th a t pe op le u s u a lly eat
in s u m m e r and i t ’s been v e ry p o p u la r s in c e th e 1950s. I t ’s m a d e fr o m f r u i t , cake, c u s ta rd9gNdm Wk.dcfExcuse me, m y n a m e ’s S im on and I'm a d ie tic ia n w o r k in g here at th e U niversity.
W ould you m in d if I asked you som e q u e s tio n s ? I’ m doing a su rve y f o r th e S tu d e n ts ’
Union on s tu d e n t e a ting h a bits.
Oh really.
Yes, w e ’ re tr y in g to fin d o u t how w e can im p ro v e th e m e a ls served in th e u n iv e rs ity
c a n te e n s and cafes based on w h a t s tu d e n ts lik e to cook f o r th e m s e lv e s .
R ight. W e ll, I’ve a fe w m in u te s before c la s s so yes, I can a n s w e r som e q u e s tio n s .
T h a n k s a lot. F irs tly , w h a t's y o u r n a m e and w h a t co u rse are you stu d y in g ?
I’ m J im and I'm doing Biology.
Okay. N ow can you t e l l me how o fte n you eat m eat?
A b o u t once a w eek. The cost is re a lly high th e s e days so I c a n ’t a ffo rd to eat m uch
m eat.
R ight. And w h a t a b ou t fis h and ve g eta ble s?
I d o n ’t lik e fis h so th a t h a rd ly fe a tu re s in m y d ie t at a ll, but I o fte n eat ve g eta ble s.
In fa c t both a t lu n c h tim e and f o r m y evening m e a l I u s u a lly m ake m e a ls fro m
v e g e ta b le s as th e y ’ re q u ic k and easy.
M m m , t h a t ’s a good idea. Do you th in k we s h o u ld have m o re v e g e ta b le d is h e s in th e
S tu d e n ts ’ Union canteens?
I th in k so because p ric e is a big fa c to r f o r s tu d e n ts d e c id in g to be v e g e ta ria n . If the
u n iv e rs ity served good q u a lity v e g e ta ria n food th e y could m ake it c h e a p e r and th is
m ig h t a ttr a c t m o re s tu d e n ts .
Yes, I see y o u r point. Now, how w o u ld you e v a lu a te y o u r diet?
T h a t’s a good q u e s tio n ! I k n o w m y d ie t c o n ta in s fa r too m u ch sugar. The p ro b le m
is th a t I love fizzy d r in k s lik e coke and le m o n a d e . I’ m p re tty s u re th a t t h a t ’s w h e re
m o s t of th e s u g a r co m e s fro m . W h a t I re a lly have to do is to t r y to fin d a w ay to stop
th is and d r in k som e kind of ju ic e o r w a t e r instead.
Yes, y o u ’ re rig h t, t h a t ’s w h a t a d ie tic ia n , n u t r it io n is t o r d o c to r w o u ld re c o m m e n d .
I know , I know. A t th e m o m e n t I d o n ’t d r in k enough w a t e r - on an average day I o n ly
have a co u ple of g lasses.

 , <   3          3  9                <  <      +         E 
    <           2         <                  9   <    9 
           +  3            $  9      9   <   9  3       
+   9   # :  <    9           +   <    H    ,   <     _        +  +     
 9      3 +          +         +    +      1     $    9    3  9  +    <
          , <       9    $  9         9  9 , <  9    H    
      C              +    H +        <     3 ?       3  <   
9        (   <   9       = E  +      <            +        A   
 9  1 9        3      +       9                = $    +    9   :  
       3       
Unit 10 Youth
Track 13
As p a rt of th is m o d u le on yo uth, today we are going to loo k at c u r r e n t yo u th in itia tiv e s in th e UK.
Some of w h ic h are m o re s u c c e s s fu l th a n o th e rs , I m u s t say. The la s t g o v e rn m e n t sp e n t a lot of
m oney on s e ttin g up in itia tiv e s th a t s a d ly have been le ft in d e s p e ra te need of fu n d in g since the
new g o v e rn m e n t has com e into power.
F irs tly , v o lu n te e rin g s c h e m e s are in c re d ib ly s u c c e s s fu l in th e UK. These sc h e m e s are cheap to
ru n , w h ic h is a huge b e n e fit. In a d d itio n to th is , th e s c h e m e s are c o m m u n ity based. This m e a ns
th a t th e b e n e fits are spread w id e ly th ro u g h o u t each lo c a l c o m m u n ity . The u p ta ke has doubled in
th e la s t ten ye a rs and I believe th is is an area w h e re m o re fo cu s s h o u ld be placed.
Secondly, s p o rts c lu b s are a huge yo u th in itia tiv e , w ith m o re th a n 20,000 e m e rg in g in the
la s t ten ye a rs in E ngland alone. A lth o u g h th e n u m b e rs are ve ry positive, th e s e s c h e m es are
expensive to staff. If th e se are to co n tin u e to flo u r is h , th is area w i l l need a s ig n ific a n t cash
in je c tio n .
Lastly, th e re are a c e rta in n u m b e r of d ra m a c lu b s t h a t have e m e rg e d in th e la s t ten years.
A lth o u g h it w as th o u g h t th a t th e se w o u ld be h u ge ly p o p u la r, th e y have a c tu a lly a ttra c te d only
s m a ll n u m b e rs of s tu d e n ts . M oreover, th e y are costly, and fin d in g a venue f o r such c lu b s has
proved d if f ic u lt as m any lo c a l h a lls are ru n n in g at capacity. As a r e s u lt of th e s e fa c to rs , th e se
c lu b s are not lik e ly to c o n tin u e in th e long te r m .
To co n c lu d e , as we can see, som e of th e s c h e m e s are flo u r is h in g , yet m any are s h o rt of m oney
and o th e r e s s e n tia l re s o u rc e s . In o r d e r to enhance th e yo u th e xp erie n ce, th e g o v e rn m e n t m u s t
id e n tify new s c h e m e s w h ic h are cost e ffe ctive , yet e n joyable to teens.
Track K
So, w h a t o th e r in itia tiv e s co uld th e g o v e rn m e n t fo cu s on? W ell, due to th e success of the s p o rts
clu b s , new ‘open sp a ces’ in itia tiv e s are being d iscu sse d , f o r e xa m p le fo o tb a ll to u rn a m e n ts in
lo c a l playing fie ld s o r a th le tic s days in lo c a l p a rk s . This co uld re g e n e ra te lo c a l areas and re n e w
in te re s t in a c tiv itie s fo r young people. S ta ffin g w o u ld s t i l l be necessary, a lth o u g h young people
could ta k e an active role in o rg a n iz in g and m a n ag in g c o m p e titio n s . T his co u ld cut down s ta ff
costs s ig n ific a n tly .
In a d d itio n to th e open spaces sch e m e, th e re has been d is c u s s io n of re in v ig o ra tin g the 'ta s te of
w o r k ' sch e m e, w h ic h gives young people a chance to g e t w o r k e xp e rie n c e in a v a rie ty of jo b s in
t h e ir s c h o o l holid ays. However, th is s c h e m e has m e t w ith h a rs h c r itic is m fro m som e p o litic ia n s* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

  2   =3 9  9    9    H  3 <    $      3       +<   9  =   = 9           <
9   9     9   3       <   3      +    9          
& < 9  9   9   9   9 +         +   9    3   +   $      
  5B1     9    9 9 +            < 9         9   6 :
 B  ;  9    $  <     $ <     9         9      <    
,<    1       9   9 <  $    9              :   
$      +     
Unit 11 People and places
Track 15
Exam iner:
Student:
Exam iner:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:
Track 16
Jam es:
Suzanne:
Helen:
Jam es:
Helen:
Suzanne:
Jam es:How has th e place you live in changed re c e n tly ?
W e ll, in m y c ity th e re is a lo t m o re t r a ff ic th a n th e re used to be. This is because
of th e new b u sin e ss c e n tre , w h ic h has b ro u g h t a lo t m o re people to th e c ity f o r
w o rk . T h is has made th e c ity r ic h e r th a n it w as. In fa c t t h a t ’s th e m o s t s ig n ific a n t
d iffe re n c e - th e city is not as p o o r as it w a s 10 ye a rs ago.
So, y o u 're s tu d ying here in Sydney. How is y o u r to w n o r c ity d iffe r e n t fr o m Sydney?
M m , th e re are q u ite a fe w d iffe re n c e s such as th e shop o p en in g h o u rs - th e shops
in Tokyo stay open m u ch la t e r th a n th o s e here in Sydney. Then th e re 's th e tr a n s p o r t
sys te m w h ic h is m o re e ffic ie n t and c o n v e n ie n t. B u t th e w e a th e r is th e sam e as here
in A u s tra lia .
Is it a good place to live?
Yes, it's re a lly nice. I th in k i t ’s c o n s id e ra b ly b e tte r th a n o th e r c itie s in m y c o u n try
because i t ’s m o re m o d e rn . I t ’s a lso got a lo t of p a rk s w h ic h I re a lly lik e and th is
m e a n s th a t i t ’s not n e a rly as c ro w d e d as s o m e places.
I th in k o u r p re s e n ta tio n s h o u ld fo cu s on w h y liv in g in th e c o u n try s id e has becom e
m o re a ttr a c tiv e to fa m ilie s nowadays th a n in th e past.
I’ m not so sure. A lth o u g h th e s ta tis tic s P ro fe s s o r Davies show ed us in th e le c tu re
gave th e im p re s s io n th a t th e re are m o re fa m ilie s m oving to th e c o u n try now th a n
a t any tim e d u rin g th e la s t 20 years, he a lso m e n tio n e d th a t th e re a r e n ’t as m any
a v a ila b le houses in s u b u rb a n are as so m any fa m ilie s d o n 't have as m u ch ch oice as
before.
Yes, Suzanne, y o u 're rig h t. P e rh a p s th a t's a c tu a lly m o re im p o r ta n t. People th in k
t h a t th e s a m e housing s to c k e x is ts as in th e past, b u t th a t's not tru e . How a b ou t
w e fo cu s o u r p re s e n ta tio n on th e fa c t th a t th e choice of lo c a tio n f o r fa m ilie s is not
as w id e as d u rin g th e 1980s and th is is w h a t is a ffe c tin g th e tre n d of m oving to the
c o u n try s id e .
Okay. I th in k y o u ’ve th o u g h t a b o u t th e p re s e n ta tio n a lo t m o re c le a r ly th a n me.
T h a nks.
I th in k H e le n ’s rig h t. We w a n t P ro fe s s o r Davies to th in k th a t w e have done as m uch
re s e a rc h f o r th e p re s e n ta tio n as we could and not o n ly used th e re a d in g lis t.
Yes, y o u ’ re rig h t. O th e rw is e o u r f in a l g ra de w o n ’t be n e a rly as good as o u r la s t
p re s e n ta tio n - so we need to read as w id e ly as p ossible.9gNdm Wk.dcf

 9
Alison:
Greg:
Kirsty:
Greg:
Kirsty:
Alison:
Greg:
Kirsty:
Alison:
Greg:
Alison:
Kirsty:
Greg:So, Greg, K irsty, have you done m u ch re s e a rc h f o r o u r p ro je c t yet?
I h a v e n 't done as m u ch re a din g as I’ d pla n n e d to b u t I've got q u ite a lo t of books
and jo u r n a l a r tic le s th a t m ig h t be re le va n t.
Good w o r k Greg! I th in k I m ig h t have w o rk e d o u t how we can ap pro a ch th e p ro je c t
and give it a m o re s p e c ific fo c u s th a n th e t it le th a t D r Jo n e s su g ge sted , w h ic h is too
vague.
Oh re a lly - h o w ’s th a t?
W e ll, we k n o w th a t th e N ew Seven W o n d ers of th e W o rld w e re chosen a fe w ye a rs
ago b u t I th in k th a t how th e y w e re chosen and w h a t th is says a b ou t p e o p le ’s
r e la tio n s h ip s to t h e ir a r c h it e c tu r a l and n a tu r a l n a tio n a l h e rita g e is f a r m o re
in te re s tin g th a n ju s t doing a p ro je c t th a t d e s c rib e s w h a t th e y are and w hy th e y w e re
chosen. W hat do you th in k A lis o n ?
You k n o w I th in k you could be r ig h t th e re . D id n ’t D r Jo n es m e n tio n s o m e th in g in
o u r la s t le c tu re a b o u t how m a n y m o re people voted f o r so m e of th e w o n d e rs th a n
th e to ta l n u m b e r of people in th e c o u n try ?
M m m , th a t did happen. In a sense it w a s n ’t re a lly a v o tin g sys te m at a ll - m o re lik e
a TV ta le n t show. It w a s n ’t n e a rly as s c ie n tific as p o litic a l vo tin g s y s te m s because
people co uld vote as m a n y tim e s as th e y w a n te d and it w as a ll done via th e In te rn e t
so it o nly a p p lie d to people w ith access to a co m p u te r. And m o s t of th e votes f o r th e
w o n d e rs cam e fr o m th e c o u n tr y ’s own citiz e n s .
M m m , t h a t ’s in te re s tin g . I th in k th e re fo re th a t we can s h o w how the m o d e rn
c h o ice s w e re d iffe r e n t fro m th e o r ig in a l Seven W o n d ers of the A n c ie n t W orld
because th e o r ig in a l w o n d e rs w e re chosen by tr a v e lle r s w h ile th e la te s t lis t w as
chosen by people fro m th e sa m e c o u n try as th e w o n d e r its e lf. From th is we can
analyse th e ch oices and how having a b u ild in g o r s ite on th is lis t co uld be m ore
advan tag e o us to som e c o u n trie s th a n o th e rs . For e xam ple, c o u n trie s w h ic h re ly
less heavily th a n o th e rs on to u r is m m ay n o t have been n e a rly as in te re s te d in th e
w h o le c o m p e titio n as th o s e w ho w a n te d to boost v is it o r n u m b e rs . Then we could
c o m p a re th is w ith how tr a v e lle r s chose th e p re vious w o n d e rs .
Okay, now I u n d e rs ta n d and yes I th in k i t ’s a g re a t idea. L e t’s do it!
Yes, I t h in k t h a t ' l l r e a lly give us an edge c o m p a re d to th e o t h e r s tu d e n ts . I t ’ l l
m a k e th e f in a l p r o je c t c o n s id e r a b ly m o re o r ig in a l. R e m e m b e r, D r J o n e s is n ’ t
e x p e c tin g m u c h fr o m us g iven th e r e s u lt f o r o u r la s t p r o je c t! B u t I ’ m ju s t
s l ig h t l y w o r r ie d th a t w e m ig h t n o t have as m u c h t im e as w e ’ d lik e to do th e
re a d in g .
M m m .... I see w h a t you m ean. W ell, w hy d o n ’t we do as m u ch re a din g o f th e se
books and jo u r n a ls as we can and th e n m e e t again on Friday to m ake a fin a l
d e c is io n on c o n te n t?
T h a t’s a good idea A lis o n .
A b s o lu te ly , th e n we can m ake su re we w o n ’t read too m u c h and w i l l s t i l l have
enough tim e fo r th e a c tu a l p ro je c t w r itin g .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

  9  1 E 1 +  4
E xam in er: How can c r im e be prevented?
S tudent: C rim e p re ven tio n m u s t s t a r t fr o m e d u c a tio n . If people are not ra ise d w e ll, th e n
th e y m ig h t c o m m it c r im e s in th e fu tu r e . It's th e r e s p o n s ib ility of both p a re n ts and
s c h o o ls to educate c h ild re n in th e d iffe re n c e betw ee n r ig h t and w ro n g . This could
be done in s p e c ia l e th ic s clas s e s in s c h o o ls , and p e rh a p s p a re n tin g c la s s e s m ig h t
be a good idea f o r p a re n ts w h o are u n s u re of how to ra is e c h ild re n w ith m o re
m o r a l values. These c la s s e s s h o u ld n 't be c o m p u ls o ry th o u g h as th is m ig h t be too
expensive and unnecessary. How ever, a lth o u g h a ll p a re n ts m ig h t not go, it could be
u s e fu l f o r th o s e w ho are s tr u g g lin g . M ore in fo r m a tio n c o u ld h e lp th e s e p a ren ts.
Track 19
1 W hy do you t h in k people becom e c r im in a ls ?
2 W hat do you th in k th e ro le of p ris o n s s h o u ld be: p u n is h m e n t o r r e h a b ilita tio n ?
3 W hat do you th in k is th e best w ay to d e a l w it h ju v e n ile c rim e ?
U Do you th in k people c o m m it c r im e s because of viole n ce on TV o r in video gam es?
5 Is c r im e a lw a ys lin k e d to poverty?
Track 20
E xam iner:
Student:
E xam in er:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:W hy do you th in k people becom e c r im in a ls ?
E rrr... because life can be d if f ic u lt f o r som e people. C rim e can p re s e n t an easy
w ay to g e t th in g s they w a n t in life . Even th o u g h people k n o w th e y s h o u ld n ’t do it,
th e te m p ta tio n could be very s tro n g , e s p e c ia lly if th e y are in a d e s p e ra te s itu a tio n .
A lth o u g h th e y o u g h t to w o r k hard o r get help, s o m e tim e s th e y ju s t c a n ’t.
W h a t do you th in k th e role of p ris o n s s h o u ld be: p u n is h m e n t o r re h a b ilita tio n ?
I th in k p ris o n s s h o u ld fo cu s on r e h a b ilita tio n m o re. T h is is because th o s e p ris o n e rs
w i l l one day be back on th e s tre e ts , and so e d u c a tio n m ig h t m ake th e m b e tte r in
society. P ris o n s o u g h t to h e lp solve th e p ro b le m of c rim e . I th in k being in p ris o n is
p u n is h m e n t enough and so w h ile people are in p ris o n s , th e re s h o u ld be s o m e kind
of c o n s tru c tiv e e ffo r t to change t h e ir behaviour.
W h a t do you th in k is th e best w ay to d e a l w ith ju v e n ile c rim e ?
Young people m u s t have ro le m o d e ls . T h is m ig h t pre ven t som e young people
g e ttin g involved in c rim e in th e f ir s t place. P a re n ts have to ta k e r e s p o n s ib ility fo r
t h e i r c h ild re n too. In fact, I th in k p a re n ts s h o u ld be fin e d if t h e ir c h ild re n c o m m it
a c rim e . I th in k th is m ig h t be q u ite a good a n s w e r, as c h ild re n c a n ’t a lw ays k n o w
r ig h t o r w ro n g w ith o u t t h e ir p a re n ts te llin g th e m .
Do you th in k people c o m m it c r im e s because o f v iole n ce on TV o r in video gam es?
No, I d o n ’t. People d o n ’t have to do w h a t th e y see on a s cre e n. People have t h e ir
own m in d s and can t e l l th e d iffe re n c e betw ee n re a lity o r fic tio n . People can see
v io le n c e on th e news. It d o e s n ’t m ake everyone w h o w a tc h e s th e new s a p o te n tia l
c r im in a l. People w ho are in flu e n c e d by g a m e s and TV in th is w ay p ro b a b ly have an
u n d e rly in g p ro b le m .9gNdm Wk.dcf

 7Is c r im e alw ays lin k e d to poverty?
Student: N ot alw ays. A lth o u g h I th in k th a t som e c r im e is because of poverty, th e re are o th e r
fa c to rs w h ic h we o u g h t to consider. F or e xa m ple , p la in greed, laziness, m e n ta l
illn e s s and p e rs o n a l p ro b le m s could a lso c o n trib u te to so m e c rim e s . We can loo k
at th in g s lik e c r im e s of passion o r fra u d w h ic h are not a lw ays c o m m itte d due to
po verty as e xam ples.
Unit 13 The planet
Track 21
Kelly:
M ark:
Louise:
M ark:
Kelly:
M ark:
Kelly:
Louise:
Track 22
Dave:
Abi:
Helen:
Abi:
Helen:
Dave:
Abi:
Dave:Hi everyone. So, le t’s get started on o u r essay. Mark, have you done the research fro m
last week?
W e ll, yes and no. I w as try in g to fo llo w up on th e s u g g e s tio n s fro m th e le c tu re and I
s e a rche d th e lib r a r y f o r books and jo u r n a ls . B u t I c o u ld n ’t fin d a n y th in g re le v a n t to
o u r to pic.
W e ll, m aybe you w e re too late. We got th e essay t it le tw o w e e k s ago so o th e r
s tu d e n ts m ig h t have ta ke n o u t a ll th e b ooks already.
Yes, I guess so.
It d o e s n ’t sound lik e ly to me. A ll the books c o u ld n ’t have been ta ke n o u t - th e re 's
lo ts of books a b ou t a s tro n o m y in the m a in lib ra ry .
W e ll, th e re w as one book b ut I c o u ld n ’t b o rro w it because i t ’s a re fe re nce only book.
M m . We s h o u ld have s ta rte d th is p ro je c t e a rlie r. W hat are we going to do now?
The o th e r s tu d e n ts m u s t have been ve ry keen to s ta r t! W e ll, d o n ’t w o rry . Why d o n ’t
we ju s t reserve th e books we w a n t? I’ve fo u n d so m e a r tic le s w e can s ta r t reading
now and th e n w e 'll be m o re focused f o r w h e n th e o th e r s tu d e n ts re tu r n th e books
we need.
So Abi, can H elen and I sh o w you o u r p re s e n ta tio n to see if you th in k it's okay?
Of c o u rse, no p ro b le m .
T h a n k s a lot. Okay f i r s t of a ll, w e 're going to s h o w the e x p lo re rs ’ ro u te on the m ap
here and exp la in w h a t happened on th e e x p e d itio n by h ig h lig h tin g so m e key events.
Right.
And we th in k it's im p o r ta n t to m e n tio n th a t the e xp e d itio n s ta rte d q u ite badly. You
see th e o r ig in a l base cam p had to be moved. The o r ig in a l plan w as to s ta r t fro m
th e tre e lin e at th e b o tto m of th e m o u n ta in b u t th e e x p lo re rs c o u ld n ’t s e t up cam p
th e r e because of th e ra in so th e y moved h ig h e r up.
The idea is to h ig h lig h t th e im p o rta n c e of p la n n in g in e x p lo ra to ry e x p e d itio n s . The
R ob e rtso n te a m s h o u ld have kn ow n th a t th e y c o u ld n ’t have s ta rte d fro m th e tre e
lin e in th e ra in y season.
Yes, th e y re a lly s h o u ld have checked th a t!
In th e end the cam p w as s e t up on the edge of th e s n o w lin e . Okay, so m oving on,
Joan R ob e rtso n and h e r te a m found s e v e ra l new p la n t sp ecies on th e lo w e r s lop e s
of th e peak and w hen th e y w e re h a lfw a y up th e m o u n ta in th e y cam e a cro ss som e
fo s s ils w h ic h th e y w o rk e d o u t w e re fr o m d in o s a u rs .* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 1   1 207
"7
07
>%7
07
>%7
Track 23
A ndrew:
Penny:
T erry:
Penny:
A ndrew :
Penny:
A ndrew :
Penny:
T erry:
Penny:
Andrew :
T erry:
Andrew :
Penny:
T erry:
A ndrew :
T erry:How did th e y kn o w th e fo s s ils w e re fr o m d in o s a u rs ? S u re ly th e y c o u ld n 't have
id e n tifie d th e m so e a s ily w h ils t on th e e x p e d itio n ?
B u t th a t's th e im p o r ta n t p o in t. T h is te a m w e re not ju s t e x p lo re rs but a lso s c ie n tis ts .
In o rd e r to m ake th e t r ip m o re u s e fu l, th e y to o k s c ie n tific e q u ip m e n t to analyse
a n y th in g th e y found so th e y w e re able to id e n tify th e d in o s a u r fo s s ils c o rre c tly .
It's good to m ake th is c le a r if y o u r p ro je c t is supposed to be a b o u t th e im p o rta n c e
of s c ie n tific e x p e d itio n s r a th e r th a n e x p lo ra to ry ones.
A b s o lu te ly .
So am I r ig h t to th in k th a t th e R ob e rts o n e x p e d itio n to o k lo n g e r as a r e s u lt o f th e
re se arch ?
W e ll, th e y s h o u ld have ta ke n lo n g e r because th e y w e re c o n d u c tin g a lo t of
e x p e rim e n ts but m o d e rn te c h n o lo g y e nabled th e m to do th e e x p e rim e n ts and reach
th e s u m m it in u n d e r fo u r w e e k s . In fa c t th e y a rriv e d at th e to p on day 26 of th e t r ip .
Hi Penny. Hi Terry. [H e llo s ] How are you both g e ttin g on w ith y o u r n a tu r a l d is a s te r
essays? I c a n ’t believe we a ll chose th e sa m e s u b je c t of e a rth q u a k e s ! I've fo u n d it
re a lly in te re s tin g .
Yes, it is in te re s tin g A n d re w , but I could have m ade th e to p ic n a rro w e r. T h ere is so
m uch to cover. It's re a lly hard to o rg a n iz e th e in fo r m a tio n I’ve found.
Ah, b u t th a t ju s t gives you m o re to w r it e a b out. I’d r a th e r have too m u ch m a te r ia l
th a n not e n ough! I t h in k A n d re w is r ig h t. I’ve fo u n d th e to p ic fa s c in a tin g too!
Maybe. I'm not so sure Terry. A n d re w , how have you done on th e s ta tis tic s
re s e a rc h ? T h a t’s w h a t you w e re re s e a rc h in g w h e n I la s t sa w you.
I t ’s been in te re s tin g , b u t I had to lo o k re a lly hard f o r re le v a n t in fo r m a tio n .
B u t you fo u n d som e in th e end?
Yes, I’ve got lo ts of s ta tis tic s on past e a rth q u a k e s and w h e re th e p la te s are m o re
u n s ta b le .
T h a t’s g re a t! I've been w o r k in g on p la te m o v e m e n t. I th in k by ad din g th is to my
essay I’ l l have a re a lly good fo u n d a tio n of ho w e a rth q u a k e s com e about.
I w as lo o k in g at fu tu re e a rth q u a k e p re d ic tio n s , b u t I d id n ’t fin d m u ch in fo r m a tio n
a c tu a lly . I s h o u ld have focu se d m o re on how e a rth q u a k e s are s c ie n tific a lly
id e n tifie d and m e a su re d . I th in k th a t w o u ld have been m o re re le va n t.
T h a t's a sh a m e. W ell, w h y d o n 't w e c o m p a re s o m e of th e in fo r m a tio n w e've found?
It m ig h t a ll give us s o m e ideas of w h a t to read next!
W ell, it tu r n s o u t th a t m any e a rth q u a k e s c o u ld have been p re d ic te d a c c o rd in g to
th e fre q u e n c y of past e a rth q u a k e s in th e area.
Really, t h a t ’s not w h a t I fo u n d o u t at a ll. I th in k you s h o u ld go back and c h e c k th a t.
I d o n ’t k n o w - maybe I s h o u ld .
W e ll, my re se arch lo o k s p a r tic u la r ly at how co n verg e n ce and dive rg e n ce of the
p la te s causes m o v e m e n t of th e E a rth . We s o m e tim e s fo rg e t th a t th e p la n e t is
not a s t i l l o b je c t but a c tu a lly it is c o n s ta n tly m oving. T his causes th in g s lik e new
seas, m o u n ta in s , and e a rth q u a k e s . The w h o le w o r ld is m o v in g ! Terry, d id n ’t y o u r
re s e a rc h fin d a n y th in g ?
U n fo rtu n a te ly not. I th in k I need to re s e a rc h a n o th e r area as I c o u ld n ’t see any
evidence of e a rth q u a k e s being p re d ic ta b le .
W ell, I can a lso sh o w you w h a t I’ve g o t and m aybe th a t w i l l help.
T h a n k s9gNdm Wk.dcf

 G , 2U
3 Does g lo b a liz a tio n re p re s e n t a change in th e w ay people v ie w th e w o rld ?
U S hould g lo b a liz a tio n be c o n tro lle d by g o v e rn m e n ts ?
5 M ost g lo b a l co m p a n ie s are fro m th e W est - is th is a good o r a bad th in g ?
6 Do you th in k th a t g lo b a liz a tio n h e lp s us to u n d e rs ta n d d iffe r e n t people and c u ltu re s ?
Track 25
E xam iner:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:
Track 26
E xam iner:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:
E xam iner:
Student:How do you th in k g lo b a liz a tio n m ig h t change the w o r ld in th e fu tu re ?
I th in k th a t if g lo b a liz a tio n c o n tin u e s to develop, young people of th e fu tu r e w il l
have a d iffe r e n t u n d e rs ta n d in g of th in g s lik e n a tio n a lity and c u ltu re .
Has g lo b a liz a tio n caused young people to care less a b o u t t h e ir c o u n trie s ?
I d o n 't th in k so. If g lo b a liz a tio n had caused young people to care less a b o u t t h e ir
c o u n trie s , we w o u ld n 't see so m u ch n a tio n a l p rid e in s p o rtin g c o m p e titio n s lik e
th e O lym pics o r th e W o rld Cup.
W h a t w o u ld you say to so m e o n e w ho th in k s th a t g lo b a liz a tio n is r u in in g th e w o rld ?
I w o u ld say th a t th e y s h o u ld be m o re positive. If g lo b a liz a tio n d id n 't exist, we
w o u ld n 't have so m any o p p o r tu n itie s f o r w o r k o r tr a v e l and we w o u ld n ’t be able to
buy so m any d iffe r e n t p ro d u c ts .
Can g lo b a liz a tio n m ake th e w o r ld a m o re e q u a l place?
I th in k th is depends on w h a t you m ean by e q ua l. If people in a c o u n try have the
sa m e o p p o rtu n itie s in life, th e n g lo b a liz a tio n is good and can he lp the w o r ld b u t
th is is not alw ays w h a t happens.
W hat are th e m ain d isa d va n ta g es of g lo b a liz a tio n ?
In m y o p in io n th e m ain d isa d va n ta g es are f o r c u ltu r e s w h ic h a r e n 't p a r tic u la r ly
s tro n g . I th in k g lo b a liz a tio n c o u ld in fa c t d e s tro y so m e s m a ll, lo c a l c u ltu re s . When
my p a re n ts w e re young, th e lo c a l d ia le c t in o u r to w n w as sp oken a ll th e tim e , b u t
now m o re and m o re people in th e to w n are fro m o th e r c o u n trie s and o u r d ia le c t
is n 't spoken so m u ch . If g lo b a liz a tio n h a d n 't tr a n s fo r m e d th e w ay people move
a ro un d th e w o r ld , o u r to w n w o u ld n 't have changed so m uch, and we m ig h t s t i l l be
u sing o u r lo c a l d ia le c t!
Do you th in k g lo b a liz a tio n has m ade th e w o r ld a b e tte r place?
W e ll, in m any w ays yes. I th in k in g e n e ra l people have m o re k n o w le d g e a b ou t the
w o r ld due to g lo b a liz a tio n . For e xam ple, if I h a d n ’t s tu d ie d in A u s tra lia , I w o u ld n ’t
s p e a k E n g lish as w e ll as I do and I w o u ld n ’t have lo ts of fr ie n d s fro m aro un d th e
w o rld .
How has g lo b a liz a tio n changed th e w ay we tr a v e l and c o m m u n ic a te ?
I th in k it has changed th in g s greatly. The w o r ld is a m u ch s m a lle r place th a n it
w as, say, 50 ye a rs ago. If I w a n te d to go to th e o th e r side of th e w o r ld , I could get
th e re in a day! T h a t’s in c re d ib le !... And n o t o n ly is it e a s ie r to tra v e l, we can now
c o m m u n ic a te w ith people on th e o th e r side of th e w o r ld in s ta n tly th ro u g h th in g s
lik e v ir tu a l m e ssa gin g and w e b c a m s . If w e d id n ’t have th is kind of p ro g re s s in tr a v e l* .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 1 G  1 4            3  3        3      +     9          = 9    9  
3     +    <
E xam in er: How has g lo b a liz a tio n b e n e fite d people in y o u r c o u n try ?
S tudent: It's m ade a re a lly big d iffe re n c e to how people in m y c o u n try see th e m s e lv e s in
re la tio n to o th e r c o u n trie s . And I th in k th a t people w i l l see m o re b e n e fits in the
fu tu r e if th e y c o n tin u e to be o p e n -m in d e d a b o u t it.
Exam in er: W h a t are th e c o n seq u e n ces of a llo w in g la rg e c o m p a n ie s to s e ll t h e i r p ro d u c ts a ll
o v e r th e w o rld ?
Student: I t h in k it's g re a t. I k n o w so m e pe op le t h in k th a t it's n e g a tiv e b u t I d o n ’t. I th in k
t h a t e ve ryon e s h o u ld have th e o p p o r tu n ity to g ro w t h e i r com pany. A l l c o m p a n ie s
s ta r te d s m a ll b u t if you m a ke good p ro d u c ts , pe op le w i l l buy th e m . If t h e r e ’ d been
s t r i c t la w s a g a in s t in t e r n a t io n a l tra d e , th e w o r ld e c o n o m y w o u ld n ’t have g ro w n
as m u c h and everyone w o u ld ’ve s u ffe re d .
Unit 15 Culture and modern society
Track 27
W e ll, m y best fr ie n d once gave me so m e re a lly good advice w h e n I w a s younger. I used to w o r r y a
lo t a b o u t m y a p pe a ra n c e w he n I w as a te e n a g e r and it m ade me fe e l u n c o n fid e n t. I o fte n th o u g h t
people w e re s ta rin g at me and th in k in g th a t I looked bad. Once, one of m y c la s s m a te s asked me
w h e re I had b o u g h t m y c lo th e s and I th o u g h t it w as a c r itic is m . My fr ie n d to ld me not to w o r r y
a b o u t th e w ay I looked. She said th a t a ll te e n a g e rs f e lt th a t w ay and re c o m m e n d e d c o n c e n tra tin g
on having fu n ins te a d . It w as q u ite d if f ic u lt b u t I tr ie d to fo c u s m o re on s tu d y in g and m y hobbies.
A ft e r a w h ile I f e lt b e tte r and my p a re n ts said th a t I had changed and becom e m o re o u tg o in g . I
w a s re a lly pleased w ith th is and as a r e s u lt m y co n fid e n c e in cre a se d even m o re. So, I th in k yes
I w o u ld give th is advice to o th e r te e n a g e rs . A lth o u g h i t ’s d if fic u lt advice to fo llo w , I th in k it can
re a lly h e lp young people w ho are going th ro u g h a hard tim e . I t ’s re a lly im p o r ta n t to be p o sitive
and u n d e rs ta n d th a t th is p e riod of y o u r life involves lo ts o f c h a ng e s in y o u r p e rs o n a lity but th a t in
th e end you w i l l fe e l fine.
Unit 16 Health and fitness
Track 28
J e a n e tte : Good m o rn in g everyone and w e lc o m e to m y w e e k ly s h o w a b o u t fitn e s s . Today I
w a n t to ta lk a b ou t w ays you can im p ro v e y o u r fitn e s s w it h o u t having to jo in a gym
o r s p o rts c e n tre . N ow f i r s t of a ll, it is im p o r ta n t to decide w h a t you w a n t to achieve.
Many people w a n t to im p ro v e t h e ir h e a lth in g e n e ra l, but o th e r people w a n t to
fo c u s on losin g w e ig h t. I use a c o m b in a tio n of both s tre n g th b u ild in g and w e ig h t
loss e xercise to m a in ta in my fitn e s s level b u t I k n o w a couple w ho go w a lk in g tw ic e
a w e e k to m a in ta in th e ir s . The m o s t im p o r ta n t th in g is to do s o m e th in g you like ,
f o r e xa m ple , m a r t ia l a rts , h ik in g , te n n is o r w a te r s p o r ts . These are a ll good as
c a rd io v a s c u la r exercise and s tr e n g th tr a in in g . One e x c e lle n t w ay is to jo in a lo c a l
c lu b because you w i l l m e e t o th e r people w ith th e sam e in te re s ts as you. It is also9gNdm Wk.dcf

             $     $   :    3  9   9       + 
  3 <   9   1    H      +    9         =           
:                   $                 9          
          3 9  9        
Unit 18 Film and entertainment
Track 29
T h a n k you f o r co m in g to th is ta lk on the A u s tra lia n F ilm In s titu te , o r AFI as m o s t of us kn o w it.
We p rid e o u rs e lv e s on th e w o r k we have done over th e la s t 50 years, and I hope to let you k n o w
how we w i l l keep p ro m o tin g and developing th is g re a t c o u n try 's f ilm in d u s try . I’ m going to s ta r t
by giving you a lit t le b it of h is to ry a b ou t th e AFI, th e n I’ l l go on to t e l l you a b ou t the w o r k w e ’ re
involved in at th e m o m e n t, and th e n t e l l you a lit t le b it a b o u t w h a t th e fu tu r e h o ld s f o r th e AFI.
So, l e t ’s s ta r t a t th e b e g in n in g . 1958 is an im p o r ta n t date in o u r h is to ry , as it w as w he n the
In s titu te w as fo u n d ed . Since th e n , we have been w o r k in g c o n tin u o u s ly fo r th e fo llo w in g p u rp o se ;
to p ro m o te f ilm and te le v is io n in A u s tra lia . I th in k h o w e v e r o u r ce le b ra te d f ilm and te le v is io n
a w a rd s are w h a t we at th e AFI are m o s t w e ll know n fo r, w h ic h do indeed f u l f i l l o u r a im s of
p ro m o tio n of th e in d u s try . In fa ct, we th in k th e s e a w a rd s have also elevated th e s ta n d a rd s of
A u s tr a lia n f ilm since t h e ir in c e p tio n in th e s ix tie s . W e 're in c re d ib ly proud of th e m .
The a w a rd s becam e so p o p u la r th a t we expanded th e m . In 1986, TV c a te g o rie s w ere added
to th e lis t of p re s tig io u s a w a rd s we o ffe re d . The a w a rd s have g row n in p o p u la rity and s ta tu s
ove r th e years, and th e re is no d o u b t th a t we are one of the leading film and te le v is io n a w ard
c e re m o n ie s in th e co u ntry. We have ju s t re c e n tly held o u r 50th a n n iv e rs a ry , w h ic h to o k place at
M e lb o u rn e 's P rin c e s s T h e a tre . Som e big n a m es in th e f ilm and te le v is io n in d u s try w e re th e re
and it w as a re a l c e le b ra tio n of success.
Now, th is leads me up to o u r p re s e n t w o rk ...
Track 30
My fa v o u rite book is ca lle d th e H un g e r Games. It w as w r it t e n by Suzanne C o llin s I th in k and it is
a re a lly good book. The s to ry is set in N o rth A m e ric a , b u t at a tim e w he n th in g s are ve ry bad. I t ’s
a s to ry of a t e r r ib le society, w h ic h is s e p a ra te d into d is t r ic t s . A boy and g ir l fro m each d is t r ic t
are s e n t to take p a rt in th e H u n g e r Games. These g a m e s are te le v is e d fo r everyone to see. The
g a m es are b a s ic a lly a fig h t to th e death f o r th e c h ild re n ta k in g p a rt. The s to ry fo llo w s a g ir l
c a lle d K atniss, w ho is fo rce d to take p a rt in th e g a m es w h e n she o ffe rs h e r s e lf up inste ad of h e r
sister. I lik e th e s to ry so m u ch because it is v e ry e x c itin g . A t fir s t, I found it re a lly h o rrify in g , b ut
th e m o re I read it, th e m o re I c o u ld n ’t p u t th e book down. I re a lly cam e to lik e th e m a in c h a r a c te r
too. She is so s tro n g . I w as re c o m m e n d e d th is book by so m e fr ie n d s and it d id n ’t d is a p p o in t me.
Track 31
A film I sa w re c e n tly w h ic h I p a r tic u la r ly lik e d w as Toy S to ry 3. I t ’s th e th ir d of a tr ilo g y of Toy
S to ry film s , and I th in k i t ’s th e best, b u t sa d d e st one. These f ilm s are m ade by P ix a r and they
are c a rto o n film s , b ut I th in k th e y are fo r a d u lts as w e ll as c h ild re n ! The film is a b ou t toys th a t
g e t th ro w n o u t as t h e ir o w n e r is too old to p lay w ith th e m a n ym ore . T hey’ re given to a n u rs e ry
s ch o ol, b u t th e n u rs e ry s c h o o l c h ild re n are h o r rib le and th e toys are tre a te d r e a lly badly. So, th e
s to ry fo llo w s t h e i r jo u r n e y to get back to t h e ir o r ig in a l owner. The m a in c h a ra c te rs in th e film
are Woody, w ho is voiced by Tom H anks, and Buzz L ig h tye a r. I lik e th is f ilm so m u ch because ther ' ' * .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

 1 L  2 G  <  9             =      9   $  9    9   E           3    <  <
   $ $   9   9       3 9   3  9         9   = 9    =         9     9  
9      9     +    E       + <  9   3            +    $       9   = 3    
        9        < 3 9  ,< + 9    9     +<         9  3    
Unit 19 Wildlife
Track 32
E x am iner: A re zoos c r u e l to a n im a ls ?
Student: I d o n ’t know. I t h in k som e zoos are c ru e l, f o r e x a m p le zoos th a t keep a n im a ls
in s m a ll cages. B u t th e re are a ls o zoos th a t give th e a n im a ls space to move and
lo o k a f t e r th e m w e ll. T h is i th in k is good. Zoos can a lso h e lp p ro te c t e n d a n g e re d
species, and th is is a re a lly g re a t th in g . T h ere are som e c o u n tr ie s th a t have no law s
to p ro te c t t h e ir a n im a ls - t h a t ’s a re a l p ro b le m . So, o v e ra ll I d o n 't th in k zoos are as
bad as people th in k .
E xam in er: Do you th in k we could do m o re to p ro te c t o u r w ild life ?
Student: Yes, we c o u ld do a lit t l e m o re. I th in k m any areas of r a in fo r e s t w h ic h have been
d e stro yed by in d u s tr ie s re a lly need to be re ju v e n a te d . L o ts of w ild life live th e re and
if th e y d o n ’t have th e se fo re s ts , th e y w o n ’t be able to s u rvive . G o rilla s , w h ic h are
one of th e m o s t en da n g e re d ra in fo r e s t sp e cie s, are dying o u t rapidly.
E x am in er: Do you th in k h u n tin g is ju s tifie d ?
Student: I th in k h u n tin g s o m e tim e s is a n e ce s s a ry th in g . B u t I th in k h u n tin g as a s p o rt, w hen
th e m a in p u rp o s e is e n jo y m e n t, is a lit t le c ru e l. We a ll need to eat, and tr a d it io n a l
s o c ie tie s w h ic h d o n ’t have sh o ps to buy food need to be able to h u n t fo r th e th in g s
th e y need. T h is is n e ce ssa ry f o r th e m to be able to live.
Track 33
1 Owls are divided in to tw o g roups, w h ic h are c la s s ifie d 'ty p ic a l o w ls ’ and ‘ ba rn o w ls'.
2 B arn o w ls , w h ic h are n o c tu rn a l, fly s ile n tly .
3 Owls w h ic h are n o m a d ic re a r a g re a t n u m b e r of young.
U L o n g -e a re d o w ls w h ic h live in th e n o rth m ig ra te to Europe f o r w in te r.
Track 34
H e llo everyone. As you know, th is w e e k ’s le c tu re s are on w ild lif e in B rita in , and today w e ’ re going
to lo o k at th e ba rn ow l, w h ic h is a c o m m o n n o c tu r n a l c re a tu re a ro u n d th e B r itis h Isles. Now,
if you have a lo o k a t page th re e o f y o u r h a nd o u t, you w i l l see an o u tlin e of a ba rn owl. Now, it
lo o k s lik e a h a rm le s s c re a tu re , but th is a c tu a lly c o u ld n ’t be f u r t h e r fr o m th e t r u t h . They m ay be
re la tiv e ly h a rm le s s to you and me, b u t to th e B r itis h ro d e n t, th e y are a k ille r ! Now, w h y is th is ?
W e ll, f ir s t ly it has a lo t to do w ith t h e i r s w iftn e s s and sile n c e . Look, f o r e xa m ple , at th e w in g s ,
w h ic h can v a ry fr o m 80cm to 95cm . T h a t’s a lm o s t a m e tre ! W in g s th a t la rg e have a g re a t d e a l
of power. Now, m o s t people th in k th a t beaks are p ro b a b ly th e w ay m o s t b ird s h u nt. B u t th e se
beaks, w h ic h are curved d o w n w a rd s , are not used to h u n t prey. W hen o w ls h u n t prey, th e y have
tw o m assive a n a to m ic a l advantages. F irs tly , t h e ir fe a th e rs , w h ic h have s e rra te d edges, can
s e p a ra te fr o m each other. T his m a ke s t h e i r f lig h t a b s o lu te ly s ile n t, so th e y can ap pro a ch t h e ir9gNdm Wk.dcf

 <        =   9     3  3 9  9        9  < 5  9 <     9   < 9 
:   <    3      3             <   E    9 <        <    3 E  9 <  U
#3 9   9 +  
Track 35
In th is m o d u le , w e 're going to be e x p lo rin g th e n a tu r a l h a b ita ts th a t th e p la n e t E arth provides,
s ta r tin g w ith p ro b a b ly one of th e m o s t fa m o u s , ra in fo re s ts . Now, ra in fo re s ts are e xa ctly th a t:
fo re s ts w h ic h see a g re a t a m o u n t of ra in . The reason th e y are so im p o r ta n t is th a t th e y provide
e x c e lle n t c o n d itio n s fo r m any sp e cie s to su rvive in. L e t’s loo k at how th is is by e x p lo rin g e xa ctly
w h a t th e r a in fo re s t is m ade up of.
Now, s ta r tin g fr o m th e b o tto m of th e ra in fo re s t, we can fin d th e fo re s t floor. Or r a th e r we c a n ’t
fin d it, as it is litte r e d w ith leaves and b ra n c h e s w h ic h co ve r the g ro u n d ! T h is area is a haven fo r
c re a tu re s lik e s p id e rs and a ll k in d s of w ild life . Now, th is fo re s t flo o r o c c a s io n a lly has a s h ru b
layer. T h is laye r, w h ic h is o n ly located n e a r riv e rs , c o n ta in s s m a ll tre e s and w e ll, s h ru b b e ry , as
th e nam e s u g g e s ts . It is a p o p u la r area fo r a ll m a n n e r of a m p h ib ia n s .
The next area w it h in th e r a in fo re s t is g e n e ra lly w ith o u t lig h t and e x tre m e ly hot and dam p.
This area, w h ic h is ca lle d th e u n d e rs to ry , w h ic h by th e w ay is a ll one w ord - u n d e r - sto ry , is a
p o p u la r hom e f o r c re a tu re s w h ic h d w e ll in th e b ra n c h e s , lik e snakes, liz a rd s , and s o m e tim e s
even ja g u a rs !
The m o s t w e ll- k n o w n area, ca lle d th e canopy, is p o p u la te d by so m e b ird s and s m a ll in s e c ts .
The canopy is b a s ic a lly th e tre e -to p s . It is th e d e n s e ly -p a c k e d canopy th a t b lo c k s th e lig h t to the
lo w e r areas of ra in fo re s t. Not m u ch re a che s above th e canopy, b ut th e re are a few e x c e p tio n a l
tre e s th a t c lim b m u ch f u r t h e r into th e sky. These tre e s g ro w in areas ca lle d e m e rg e n t zones.
These zones, w h ic h are a p e rfe c t e n v iro n m e n t fo r b ird s and o th e r s m a ll c re a tu re s , lie at the very
to p o f th e ra in fo re s t, and in d iv id u a l tre e s can s tre tc h up to 50 m e tre s in th e air.
Now, as we can see, th is m e a ns th a t ra in fo re s ts have a m u lt itu d e of u n u s u a l c o n d itio n s ,
p e rfe c t f o r m a n y c re a tu re s . B ut w h y are such c o n d itio n s p e rfe c t? W e ll, le t's go on to look....r ' A * .1 S S 1 . im . pletn

   1   ( # $)#*
1 People and relationships
Exercise 1
1 s h i n e s Tense: P re se n t sim p le
Rule num ber: 2
2 have you been Tense: P re se n t perfect s im p le
Rule n u m b e r: 3
3 d o e s the b u s leave Tense: P re se n t s im p le
Rule num ber: U
U went/didn't like Tense: P a st s im p le
Rule num ber: 2
5 h a s s e e n Tense: P re se n t perfect sim ple
Rule num ber: 1
6 c ro s se d Tense: P a st sim p le
Rule num ber: 3
Exercise 2
1h a s im proved
2d isre g a rd e d
3have invested
Uvisit
5partake
6a ls o had
7include
8
brought
9
created
10
d e stro y s
Exercise 3
1do you live
2com e
3have lived
Umoved
5Do you
6live
7do
8live
9s h a re
10g o e s
11Do you like
12love
13arrived
Udidn't like
15have grow n
16k no w
17have
18h a s M o s c o w ch a n g e d
19h a s becom e
20have opened21 eat
22 have
23 ca m e OR have com e
2 4 meet
Exercise U
Own a n s w e r s
2 Free time
Exercise 1
1 have you been doing Tense: P re se n t
perfect c o n tin u o u s Rule n um ber: 2
2 a m w a tch in g Tense: P re se n t
c o n tin u o u s Rule num ber: 1
3 h a s been in c re a sin g Tense: P re se n t
perfect c o n tin u o u s Rule n um ber: 1
U w a s having Tense: P a st c o n tin u o u s Rule n um ber: 3
5 w ere w a lk in g Tense: P a st c o n tin u o u s Rule num b e r: 1
6 am reading Tense: Present continuous Rule number: 3
Exercise 2
1 I d o n 't a gree
2 I am having
3 I like
U Do you mind
5 I'm th ink ing
Exercise 3
T he a m o u n t of leisu re time available to people h a s
been in c re a sin g sin c e the e a rly twentieth century
w h e n m a c h in e s started to be invented to do m any
la b o u r intensive t a s k s both at w o rk and in the home.
Previously, people w ere s p e n d in g m a n y m ore h o u r s
doing ba sic m e n ia l t a s k s and a s a re su lt had le s s
tim e available for h o b b ie s and activities. A lt h o u g h
recently m a n y people have been c o m p la in in g about
th eir w o rk life balance, s tu d ie s s h o w that the a m o u n t
of free time we have h a s been r isin g co n tin u o u sly
for over 50 years. M o re people are playing s p o rt on a
r e g u la r b a s is n o w a d a y s and y o u n g people are ta king up
traditional style h o b b ie s s u c h a s knitting and w a lk in g
in the countryside. There h a s a ls o been a la rge a m o u n t
of g o v e rn m e n t in vestm ent in leisu re facilities in local
co m m u n itie s, w hich h a s a ss is t e d the uptake of h o b b ie s
for a ra n g e of people in clud ing children and the elderly.
A few y e a rs ago, v is ito rs to a local p a rk w o uld see
people w ho w ere playing football o r w a lk in g th eir dog.
However, n o w a d a y s people are u s in g the gym o r a
c lim b in g w a ll a s their w ay of sp o rtin g recreation.I y 2 O C n TCu

   $
1 h a s been in c re a sin g
2 are playing
3 are taking up
Exercise U
a 1 h a s been ris in g
2 are still buying
(Note: the n u m b e r + s in g u la r verb)
b 1 were viewing
2 w ere w a tching
Exam practice m odel an s w e r
This graph sh o w s the kinds of activities done by old people
in their spare time, covering a period from the 1980s to
now in Europe. We can see that generally the activities
listed have been increasing in popularity a m o n gst the
elderly, with hiking increasing steadily throughout the
years, and playing sport being the m ost popular overall.
In the 1980s, nearly a ll activities w ere gro w in g in
popularity. The only activity w hich w a s b ecom ing le s s
p o p u la r over th ese y e a rs w a s go in g to the theatre.
G oing to the theatre declined steeply from 5 0 % to 3 0 % .
T h is ch a n g e d in the 1990s, and g o in g to the theatre
b ecam e m ore popular, w h e re a s reading s a w a
d ram atic drop in popularity. The n u m b e r of people
doing all o ther activities increased.
T his century, hiking, reading, going to the theatre
and surfing the Internet have all been increasing in
popularity. However, playing sport ha s been decreasing
in popularity. Despite this, playing sport is still the second
m ost po pular activity now adays a m o n g st this group. M ost
elderly people are hiking now adays in their spare time.
(173 w ords)
Note the t e n s e s in both the c o n tin u o u s and sim ple.
3 Fame
Exercise 1
1 h a d n 't cared Form : past perfect
2 u se d to respect Form : u sed to
3 w ould drea m Form : w ould
4 h a d n 't earned Form : past perfect
5 had a lw a y s th ou gh t Form: past perfect
6 had been waiting Form: past perfect co n tin u o u s
Exercise 2
1 had lived
2 had never travelled
3 u sed to w o rk
U ‘d been w o rk in g
5 had travelled
6 had appearedExercise 3
M a k in g m oney out of other people's fame is a highly
specialized skill, but one that can bring great rewards
to those who practise it proficiently. M arianne Beretoli
is one of those people; s h e o w n s a com pany which
s e lls information about celebrities to other celebrities
a s a kind of careers advice service. Although she w a s
born in France, she used to dream of moving to the
USA, specifically Hollywood. W hilst studying b u sin e ss
at university Beretoli w a s known for her innovative
approach to applying theory to practice and she
would
te often challenge the ideas of her tutors. W hen she
had graduated, Beretoli worked in P a ris and tried
u n successfully to set up her own marketing agency.
Then she decided to move to the U S A and within m onths
realised that s he had boon m aking made the right
decision. S h e moved from P a ris to L o s A n g e le s in 1995
and after she had been w orking a s an assistant for an
advertising agency for a few years, she h a d set up her
own com pany providing information services to the rich
and famous.
Exercise U
1 B
2 C
Exam practice
1 A, C
2 b
3 b
U Education
Exercise 1
1 'm go in g to Form: go in g to Rule num ber: 1
2 w ill Form: w ill Rule num ber: 3
3 's g o in g to Form: go in g to Rule num ber: 2
U w o n 't Form : w o n 't
5 w ill Form: w ill Rule num ber: 1
Exercise 2
1 C
2 A
3 B
Exercise 3
1 I'm g o in g to w a lk
2 I'll call he r
3 S h a l l I do it?
Exercise 4
Lib rarian : Hello there. H ow can I help y o u ?
John: j-witi: I’m going to do a presentation on
M a r y Shelley, and I'd like to get s o m e
b o o k s on her.H - ’ E ng l l g n is n hforx

 2  =   7Okay. T he b io g ra p h ie s are on the third
floor. I'll te write the a isle n u m b e r down
for you.
John: T h a n k s. I m ight u s e the Internet too and
look for r e s o u r c e s on there.
L ib rarian : T h a t 's a good idea. If y o u 're g o in g to u se
the Internet, have a look on the Great
B rit is h A u t h o r s website.
John: T h a n k s. I w ill I'm g o ing te . I ha ven 't
heard of that site before. T h a n k s very
m u ch for the information.
L ib rarian : T h a t 's quite all right. Feel free to com e
and a s k m e any q u e s tio n s and I wornfe-
w ill do my best to help.
Exam practice
8 B
5 The Internet
Exercise 1
1 'I I be w a tch in g Tense: Future c o n tin u o u s OR
’m w a tch in g Tense: P re se n t co n tin u o u s
2 w ill have m oved Tense: Future perfect
3 "m c h a n g in g Tense: P re se n t c o n tin u o u s
U w ill have becom e Tense: Future perfect sim p le
5 w ill have started Tense: Future perfect sim p le
Exercise 2
In the late 19 9 0 s e x p e rts predicted that online
s h o p p in g w o u ld not be able to com pete with in -sto re
s h o p p in g yet the recent rise in online s a l e s fig u re s
s u g g e s t s that their pred iction s w ere w ron g. In fact all
evidence points to the fact that online sh o p p in g will
have outstrippe d in -sto re s h o p p in g within the next
five years. T h is rapid in c re a se h a s been driven by a
n u m b e r of factors in clud ing price, conven ien ce and
choice. M o s t onlin e retailers u s e a delivery s e rvic e and
a s a re su lt of tra c k in g retailers sh o p p in g habits, m a n y
w ill s o o n be in troducing specific delivery t im in g s so
that c u s t o m e r s can e n s u re their g o o d s are delivered
w h e n they are at home. Online c o m p a n ie s are a lready
w o rk in g on innovative w a y s to attract c u st o m e rs . For
example, later th is y e a r one of the c o u n t ry 's la rge st
e le c tro n ics retailers, B ro w n s, is la u n c h in g a 2 4 - h o u r
replace m e n t p ro d u c ts servic e for c u s t o m e r s w h o need
to return faulty go o ds. B r o w n s h o p e s that by 2015 over
9 0 % of its c u s t o m e r b a se w ill have gra du ate d to online
p u rch a sin g .A s w e ll a s c o n s u m e r g o o d s a n o th e r grow th area
is the travel industry. Travel exp e rts estim a te that in
a s little a s five y e a r s ’ tim e travel a g e n c ie s w ill have
d isa p p e a re d from o u r s h o p p in g c e n tre s and a lm o s t all
tra v e lle rs w ill be buying ho tels and flig h ts from online
a genc ies.
Exercise 3
1 C
E
A
B
D
Exercise 6
1 o ver 5 0 s
2 netw orked
3 A s ia
U (interactive) m o vie s
Exercise 5
1 w ill have shifted
2 w ill have been playing
3 w ill have created
U w ill have developed
Exam practice
1 first
2 10th- 3 1 st
3 S o c ia l
U digital m ap
5 J u ly 22nd
6 tra c k in g s y s t e m s
6 The family
Exercise 1
1 The m ale w a s the m ain incom e
e a r n e r in the last century.
2 Do you k n o w w h e t h e r extended
fa m ilie s are traditional in J a p a n ?
3 The g o v e rn m e n t give s p o o re r fa m ilie s benefits.
U Fam ily m e m b e r s d o n 't a lw a y s get on well.
5 H o u s e h o ld t a s k s are often sh a re d
by m en and w om en.
6 S in g le parent fa m ilie s are b ec om ing
in c re a sin g ly c o m m o n in W e ste rn society.
7 There urgently need to be s t u d ie s on w hy
the fam ily stru c tu re is le s s im portant.
Exercise 2
H o w im portant is the fa m ily ?
It could be a rgu e d that the fam ily is a stru c tu re in
d e c lin e jye t m a n y s o c io lo g is t s now claim that we are
be g in n in g to se e a rene w al in fam ily v a lu e s and fam ily
stru c tu re s. J a s o n Lloyd1 an em inen t s o c io lo g is t at
the U niversity of S a lf o rd 1 c la im s that today people areI y 2 O C n TCu

                 $ 
      & H  ! "        %          "   
   $     ! 4   J      
% $" $     %%  >   %     
        "      #     K  
    $      % " $ ""  )K
B   G  "      "  "    
 "        $      &! "     
 !A &  !           $   
       $ "  $  C / ! 
Exercise 3
I'm go in g to talk about m y g r a n d m o t h e r on m y fath er’s
side. S h e is quite little and h a s white hair and g la s s e s .
I have g l a s s e s too. We are the only people in the family
that w e a r g la s s e s ! S h e is very old now and I d o n 't get
to see h e r very often... I think I se e h e r m aybe two
o r three tim e s a year. S h e lives quite far aw ay in the
countryside. It ta k e s u s about three h o u r s to travel
there. W h e n e v e r we visit, s h e a lw a y s g ive s s w e e t s to_
m e . S h e is im portant to me b e c a u se sh e is s o kind
and s o nice, and I really love her. S h e is definitely my
favourite fam ily m e m b e r! I think I take after h e r in
s o m e ways. We la u g h at the s a m e th in g s and we both
like reading. W h e n w e go and visit, we a lw ay s go out
w a lk in g in the fields and have a really lovely time. M y
dad a lw a y s s a y s that we are very similar. I w ould like
to be a s w ise a s h e r w h e n I a m older. I w ould a ls o like
to have a s im ila r life. S h e had a very s u c c e s s f u l career.
S h e w a s a do cto r and w o rk e d for charities. S h e w a s
very m u ch in love with m y grandfather, w hich I think is
lovely.
Exercise 4
Adoption h a s long been a c o m m o n thing, yet there h a s
been a recent trend in adopting children from o verseas.
T h is trend h a s been noted in the m edia a s m ore and
m ore celebrities have adopted children from other
countries. S o m e people th ink this is a negative thing,
but I th ink that on the w hole the positive effects of this
outw eigh any negative r e p e r c u s s io n s a s I s h a ll go on
to show.
Firstly, adopting from o ther co u n trie s r a is e s the
a w a r e n e s s of a c o u n try ’s plight. S e e in g fa m o u s people
adopting children from co u n trie s like C a m b o d ia m e a n s
that C am b o d ia is in the n e w s m ore and people can find
out w hat is g o in g on th e re . Also, th ese children move to
rich e r co u n trie s and can tell people about th eir native
c o u n try, r a ising a w a r e n e s s on a s m a lle r scale.
Secondly, these children m ay well not be adopted
u n le ss people com e from o ve rse as to do it. A happy life
in another country is surely better than an unhappy life in
the country where a perso n w a s born. The new country
will give the child m ore opportunity and a family that they
may not get if they were to stay in the orphanage.
H o w e v e r. it is im portant for the children to retain
th eir c u ltu re . T here is a d a n g e r that this m ight nothappe n if they move to a n o th e r country. T herefore
there s h o u ld be a rule that the adoptive p a re n ts a llow
the child to revisit th eir h o m e country and retain their
o rig in a l culture.
In co nclu sion , I think the p e rso n a l benefits adoption
give s a child and the a w a r e n e s s that can be ra ise d from
th e se a d o p tio n s far o u tw e ig h s any negative factors,
s u c h a s c h a n g e of culture.
Exam practice m odel a n s w e r
Ed ucation c o m e s from m a ny places, not just fo rm a l
sc h o o lin g . People learn from their family, their friends,
the television and p e rs o n a l experience a m o n g m a n y
other ways. A lth o u g h th ese a v e n u e s of le a rn in g are
certainly im portant, I believe that education within
s c h o o ls is m u ch m ore im portant, a s it la ys the
fo u n d a tio n s for future achie vem en t and w id e r s u c c e s s
a s I s h a ll show.
Firstly, fo rm a l qualification s w hich are earned at
s c h o o l are often the entry points to certain c a re e rs
and jobs. In o rd e r to be a law yer o r doctor, you need
to do w ell at s c h o o l s o you can go on to stu d y for
p ro fe ss io n a l qualifications. Additionally, m a n y jo b s
a s k for basic q ualifications in m a th s and E n g lis h w hen
you apply. W ithout th e se qualifications, an individual
could becom e limited in w hat they can do with their
p ro fe ss io n a l lives.
In addition to this, s c h o o l a ls o p re p a re s you for
re la tio n sh ip s outsid e y o u r family, w hich is an im portant
a sp e ct of life. S c h o o l is a good soc ia lisa tio n tool
be c a u se a stu dent n e e d s to deal with re la tio n s h ip s on
m a n y different levels, for exam p le with te a c h e rs and
s c h o o l friends, and they a ls o need to deal with th reats
to h a p p in e s s s u c h a s bullying o r w o rk lo a d s.
F a m ilie s are im portant a s often children gain their
m o ra l outlook and a sp ira tio n a l g o a ls from their
parents. However, children can succe ed without a
favourable family setting to a certain extent. It is
doubtful w h e th e r they could succe ed without sch o o lin g .
In co nclu sion , a lth o u g h there are m a ny beneficial
f o rm s of education, I believe s c h o o lin g is m ore
im portant than education w ithin the family. T h is is
b e c a u s e fo rm a l education g iv e s you q ualifications and
s o c ia lisa tio n that the fam ily cannot offer.
7 The environment
Exercise 1
1believeCM are
3
h a s
Uc h a n g e s
5
are
6
doH - BE ng l l g n is n hforx

 9  L  1
1 c
2 a
3 d
4 b
Exercise 3
The graph shows the a m o u n t of wildlife in g a rd e n s in
cities in the U K from 19 8 0 s to 201 Os. Overall, the n u m b e r
of birds and in sects has increased, w h e re a s the n u m b e r
of butterflies h a s decreased. There were four million
butterflies in U K city g a rd e n s in the 1980s however, this
n u m b e r decreased rapidly from 2000 to 2010 and now
butterflies a re the least p o p u lo u s of the three g ro u p s
with only two m illion in U K city gardens. Both birds
and in sects have increased steadily in quantity over the
period. The quantity of birds has increased from 2.5 to
3.5 million and in se cts have in creased from 2.0 to 4.5
million. In g e n e ra l it can be said that each decade has
se e n a rise in bird and insect num bers.
Exercise U
1 th in k s
2 S o m e c lim a to lo g ists
3 is difficult
U g o v e rn m e n t and sc ie n tist s
Exam practice
1 both
2 (deep sea] nets
3 an im portant factor
U n o ise of s h ip s
5 is u se fu l
8 Food
Exercise 1
1 m eat
2 few
3
so u p
U m e a ts
5 a bowl of soup, s o m e
6 m u ch
Exercise 2
1 m u ch m eat
2 m e a ls
3 s u g a r
U juice o r w a ter
5 a couple of
Exercise 3
L a st y e a r I w ent to a w o n d e rfu l restaurant o verlo ok in g
the river in my city, M a rseille, with a g ro u p of friends.
The s p e c ia l o cca sio n w a s m y frie n d 's 21 st birthday and
we decided to go out for dinner. We wanted to eat a_beef b e c a u se th is re sta u ra n t is f a m o u s for meat, but
a s we arrived late they did n't have m any beefs left.
In stead we ate b o u illa b a is se w hich is a kind of seafood
stew containing -a- fish and sh e llfish . I had a couple
of g l a s s e s of o ra n g e juice. Fo r d e s s e rt we each had a.
slice of birth day cakes w hich the re sta u ra n t had m ade
e sp e c ia lly for m y friend. The cake had 21 candles and
my friend blew th em all out in one go so s h e m ade
frwefr a lot of w is h e s for the future. We had so m a n y
much fun that night.
For Exam practice m odel an s w e r see audio script
Track 12.
9 Employment and finance
E x e r c is e 1
1 the Rule: 1
2 a Rule: 1
3 - Rules: 1 and 2, - Rule: 1
U - Rule: 3, the Rule: 5
5 - Rule: 2
6 an Rule: U
7 the Rule: 3
E x e r c is e 2
1 A
2 the
3 -
U the
5 -
6 a
7 the
8 the
9 the
10 the
11 the
12 -
13 the
K a
15 a
16 the
17 -
18 the
19 -
20 the
E x e r c is e 3
1 the r e a s o n s
2 third
3 people are bored
U difficult ta sk
5 the fam ilyI y 2 O C n TCu H - W

U
T he pie ch a rt s h o w s the m a in c a r e e r s of m illio n a ir e s
in the U nited S t a t e s in p e rc e n ta g e s. We can s e e that
th e m a jo rity of m illio n a ir e s are b u s in e s s p e o p le ,
w h ile o th e r jo b s s u c h a s in t h e e n te rta in m e n t o r
tfre p o litic s o n ly re p r e s e n t a s m a l l p ro p o rtio n of the
total. H ow ever, it co u ld be s a id that m i llio n a ir e s are
m o s t ly peo ple in the b u s i n e s s and e n te rta in m e n t
in d u s t rie s.
In the U SA, people w h o w o rk in §; b u s i n e s s account
for just u n d e r two th ird s of m illionaires. The next
la rge st gro up of m illio n a ire s on the chart is people w ho
w o rk in film and television. They account for 1 5 % of
the total. T h is g ro u p is c lo se ly followed by people who
w o rk in m usic. T h is s e c to r a c c o u n ts for a tenth of all
m illio n a ire s in the U SA .
The s m a lle r g r o u p s all m ake up few er than 1 0 %
of m illio n a ire s w h e n com bined. T h e s e people are
sp o rtsp eo p le , politicians and people in o ther careers.
The s m a lle s t gro u p is the 'o t h e r ' gro u p with two per
cent.
Exam practice m odel a n s w e r
The bar chart s h o w s the percentage of people w ho
have part-tim e jo b s in the co u n trie s that m ake up the
United K in g d o m , both in 1980 and in 2010. T h e r e 'h a s
ge n e ra lly been a s m a l l in cre a se in part-tim e w o rk e r s
from 1980 to 2010, except in N o rth e rn Ireland. The
gra p h a ls o s h o w s that E n g la n d and W a le s have far
m ore part-tim e w o rk e r s than N o rth e rn Ireland and
Scotland.
In 1980, 2 5 % of people in E n g la n d w o rked part time.
T he only country with a gre a te r percentage of part-tim e
w o rk e r s w a s W ales, with aroun d 3 3 % w o rk in g part
time. Both c o u n trie s s a w an in cre a se in the percentage
of people w o rk in g part time in 2010. In En gland, the
percentage rose to over 3 0 % and in W a le s percentage
ro se to just over 3 5 % .
Scotland had the sm a lle st percentage of part-time
w o rk e rs in 1980, with just over ten per cent. However,
this rose to alm ost 2 0 % in 2010 which is a large increase.
Lastly, N orthern Ireland w a s the only country which had
a decreasing percentage of part-time workers. In 1980,
it had around 1 5 % of people in part-time work. This
decreased by a couple of per cent in 2010.
10 Youth
Exercise 1
1 A s a re su lt OR T herefore Function: R e su lt
2 In addition to Function: Addition
3 Thirdly, Lastly, Finally Function: O rd ering
U due to OR b e c a u se of Function: R e a so n
5 but OR yet Function: C o n tra st
6 In c o n c lu sio n OR In s u m m a r y Function: S u m m a r iz in gExercise 2
1 V olu nte ering
2 c o m m u n ity based
3 exp ensive (to staff)
U D ra m a
5 likely to continue
6 new s c h e m e s
Exercise 3
1 due to
2 for exam ple
3 a lth o u g h
U In addition to
5 H ow ever
6 b e c a u s e of
7 La stly
8 s u c h a s
9 A s a result of
Exercise U
3 4 1526 7
Exam practice
1 birth
2 e m b rac e
3
u n e m p lo y m e n t
4 s u b - n o r m s
5 a n ti-so c ia l beh aviou r
6 (eventual) rejection
11 People and places
Exercise 1
1 D
2 S
3 D
U D
5 S
6 D
Exercise 3
1 C
2 C
3 A
Exercise U
1 T he co u n try sid e h a s n 't becom e more
attractive to fa m ilie s now adays. OR The
c o u n try sid e h a s becom e le s s attractive to
fa m ilie s now adays. OR The city h a s becom e
m o re attractive to fa m ilie s nowadays.
2 You've th ou ght about the presentation a
lot le s s clearly than me. OR You haven't
th ou ght about the p resentation a s
clea rly a s me. OR I’ve th ou ght about the
presen tatio n a lot m ore clearly than you.H - : E ng l l g n is n hforx

  E   G 9           "    %  
 ! " $ / Q9     *       $ "
   "    %      ! " $
U O u r final g ra d e w ill be a s high a s o u r last
presentation. OR O u r final gra d e will be
(much) h ig h e r than o u r last presentation.
Exam practice
1 B
2 C
3 B
U C
12 Crime
Exercise 1
1 s h o u ld go O R o ugh t to go
2 have to follow OR m u s t follow
3 m ight O R m a y O R could
U d o n 't have to pay a fine
5 can take
Exercise 2
1 m ight O R could O R may
2 m ight not O R m a y not
3 sh o u ld
U s h o u ld OR o ugh t to
Exercise 3
C rim e prevention musts start from education. If people
are not raised well, then t h e v wtU m iaht/m av/could
com m it c rim e s in the future. It's the responsibility of
both parents and s c h o o ls to educate children in the
difference between right and wrong. T his could be
done in special ethics c la s s e s in sch o o ls, and p e rh ap s
parenting c la s s e s mightfHt be a good idea for parents
w ho are u n su re of how to raise children with m ore m o ra l
values. T h e se c la s s e s s h o u ld n 't be c o m p u lso ry though
a s th is might te be too expensive and unnecessary.
However, a lthough all parents m u s t n ’t might not go,
it could be useful for those w ho are stru ggling. M ore
information wtU m ight/m av/could help these parents.
For Exam practice m odel answ ers see audio script
Track 20.
13 The Planet
Exercise 1
1 c o u ld n 't have kn o w n O R m u s t n 't have know n
2 had to hunt
3 s h o u ld have taken O R o ugh t to have taken
U
m u st have been
5 m ight/could/m ay have been inhabiting
O R m ight/could/m ay have inhabited6 could travel
7 did n't have to pay
8 m u s t have been developing O R m u st have developed
Exercise 2
1 m ight have
2 had to
3 did n't have to
U could
5 s h o u ld n 't have
6 c o u ld n 't have
Exercise 3
1 c o u ld n 't
2 could have O R m ight have
3 c o u ld n 't have
U c o u ld n 't
5 s h o u ld have O R o ugh t to have
6 m u s t have
Exercise U
1 tree line
2 rainy
3 s n o w line
U plant s p e c ie s
5 (dino saur) f o s s ils
6 scientific
7 U w e e k s
Exam practice
1 na rrow
2 A n d re w
3 relevant inform ation
U m u c h inform ation
5 co nsta ntly m oving
14 Globalization
Exercise 1
1 w o u ld not have gone, had not
opened Conditional: third
2 buy, w ant Conditional: zero
3 continues, w ill stay Conditional: first
U w o uld not com m unicate, had developed
Conditional: mixed (second + third)
5 w ere connected, w ould be Conditional: s e co n d
Exercise 2 Suggested answ ers
2 local b u s i n e s s e s w ill continue to disappear.
3 the w a y we co m m u n ic a te could start
to ch a n g e in a negative way.
U we w ill have a better world.
E x e rc is e d Model answ ers
2 Student: I d o n ’t think so. if globalization had c a u se d
y o u n g people to care le s s about th eir countries, we
w o u ld n 't se e so m u ch na tion al pride in sp o rtin gI y 2 O C n TCu

"  %   #  /   % " 9   $%
Conditionai: third or mixed
3 Student: I w o uld s a y that they s h o u ld be more
positive. Jf globalization didn't exist, we w o u ld n 't
have s o m a n y o pp o rtu n itie s for work, travel and we
w o u ld n 't be able to buy s o m a n y different products.
Conditional: first o r seco nd
U Student: I think th is d e p e n d s on what
you m ean by equal, jf people in a country
have the s a m e o ppo rtun ities in life, then
globalization is good and can help the w orld
but this is not a lw a y s w hat happens.
Conditional: any
For Exam practice m odel answ ers see audio script
Track 26.
15 Culture and modern society
Exercise 1
1 sh e had been to the opera the day
before and had really enjoyed it.
2 the g o v e rn m e n t had to invest
m ore m o n e y in the arts.
3 the m u s e u m h a d n ’t had a ny internationally
recognized exh ibitions for s e v e ra l years.
U w hat the theatre director intended
to do to in cre a se ticket sale s.
5 w a rn e d that
6 said OR cla im ed that
7 denied OR a rgu e d that
8 re co m m e n d e d
Exercise 3
1 had declined, w a s
2 had m isre p re se n te d
3 w a s not, attended
U had, w ould OR have, w ill (if still true now)
Exam practice
1 True
2 Not given
3 True
U Fa lse
5 Not given
16 Health and fitness
Exercise 1
1 y o u r
2 their
3 It OR T h is
U They OR T h e se
5 it OR this6 T h is OR That
7 He OR She, it
8 then
Exercise 2
1y o u r
2th eir
3my
4th e irs
5T h e s e
6you
7 t h is / t h a t
8 It / T h i s / T h a t
Exercise 3
1 In m y opinion po liticia ns s h o u ld listen to the
people that vote for th ey th e m . People want
to buy healthy food but it is exp ensive s o they
buy fast food instead w h ich is not good for h+s
t h e ir health. P o liticia n s s h o u ld ch a n g e this
situation.
2 D ieticia ns s u g g e s t v ita m in s are n e c e s s a ry
to com bat allergies. This view h a s been
criticized by s c ie n tist s w h o s a y that th ts such/
these nu trie n ts do not a lw a y s help to reduce
allergies. Therefore, b e c a u se thorn they d o n ’t
agree, people d o n ’t k n o w what advice to follow.
3 O rg a n ic food is not a so lu tio n to the health
p ro b le m s of the world. t e ] t is le s s efficient
than other m e th o d s of food production. In
addition, that th ese/th o se p ro b le m s are
m o re often related to le s s w ealthy fam ilies
in developing countries. F a m ilie s w ho live
theft th e re cannot afford to buy organ ic
produce s o they this is not u s e fu l for us.
Exercise 4
1 s u p e r m a r k e t s
2 fruit and ve g e ta b le s have in crease d
c o n sid e ra b ly in price
3 a rise in o besity and o ther health related p ro b le m s
4 m y m o th e r
5 [many) y o u n g people
6 the basic co o k in g s k il l s
7 co okin g
8 y o u n g people
9 p ro c e ss e d m e a ls
10 p ro c e sse d m e a ls
Exam practice m odel essay
H ea lthca re c o sts all over the w o rld are risin g due
the ris e in m o d e rn d is e a s e s w hich are a product of
un h e a lth y lifestyles. T h e se lifestyles include po o r diet,
s m o k in g and lack of exercise. W hile m a n y people do
not need to u s e m e dica l servic es, there are o th e rs who
co nsta ntly need m edication due to th eir un hea lth y dailyH H - E ng l l g n is n hforx

 0  !% %!     %       
!        $      "   $ !    " 
     "  
?   &    %           "
    "       "$ 0      $  
      !           $  
#  !    #            
  $  & $ " "  $       $          
? $     &    !        %    "   
!  "  % % " "   $  "   %     
    "      %         "
( %!   " $    $         
 % "    "        "  %      
  $     "   $" "     " 
 "  
A" &   "   "  %   
  %                " 
%    %      0  % %
!        F$   &   #
    !        %&!    %  
       " & $ "    
 " $      $        # % % %   
   !    "      0  
  % &   % " $  $"
0 "  "$   &   #    % % "   $  !   
"     "     E "        
" $ % $"  %          #   
         % %
(275 w o rd s)
17 Fashion
Exercise 1
1 D
2 B
3 E
4 C
5 A
Exercise 2
P a ra g ra p h 1, b e g in n in g The b a r chart... = B
P a ra g ra p h 2, b e g in n in g Overall... = A
P a ra g ra p h 3, b e g in n in g Reqarding... = C
Exercise 3
1 C
2 B
3 A
Exam practice
A vi
B viii
C ii
D i
E v18 Film and entertainmentUnits 1 5 - 1 8Exercise 1
1 To a certain extent, p o p u la r culture is being
dictated by the en terta in m en t industry.
2 T he new B ro a d w a y play, S ta r
M em ories, s h o u ld be avoided.
3 In the U SA, c in e m a -g o in g h a s been voted
a s the m o st p o p u la r w e e k e n d hobby.
4 T he en terta in m en t in d u stry is know n
to be very competitive. OR
It is kn o w n that the en tertainm ent
in d u stry is very competitive.
5 H ollyw ood is rega rd ed a s the m o st
in fluential town for film m ak in g.
6 At the b e g in n in g of the 20th Century, f a m o u s
a c to rs and a c t r e s s e s w ere co ntractually
restricted [by large film com panies).
7 In relation to the plot of the book, the
en d in g of the film had been changed.
8 We w ere told to sit in s e a t s 4a and 4b.
Exercise 2
1 w a s founded
2 m o st w e ll know n
3 the s ta n d a rd s
4 TV c a te g o rie s were
5 50th/fiftieth a n n iv e rsa ry
Exercise 3
'M y favourite book is called the H u nger Games. It w a s
w re te w ritte n by S u z a n n e C o llin s I th ink and it is a
really good book. The sto ry is set in N o rth A m erica ,
but at a tim e w h e n th in g s are very bad. It's a sto ry of
a terrible society, w hich is se p a rate d into districts. A
boy and g irl from each district s e nd a re sent to take
part in the H u n g e r G am es. T h e se g a m e s are televised
for everyone to see. The g a m e s are b a sica lly a fight to
the death for the children taking part. The sto ry follow s
a g irl called K atn iss, w h o is forced to take part in the
g a m e s w h e n s h e offers h e rse lf up instead of h e r sister.
I like the sto ry s o m u ch b e c a u se it is very exciting. At
first, I found it really horrifying, but the m ore I read it,
the m ore I c o u ld n 't put the book down. I really cam e
to like the m ain ch a ra c te r too. S h e is s o strong. I w a s
recom m ended th is book by s o m e frie n d s and it didn't
d isa p p oint me.'
Exercise 4
The stu d ent did n't talk about the m ain th e m e s in the
book.
For Exam practice m odel answ ers see audio script
Track 31.A n s w e r key

L -#
Exercise 1
1 The a n im a l Liberation League, w h o s e opinion w a s
criticized by s e n io r politicians* failed... (no n -d e fin in g)
2 Wildlife in Mexico, w hich h a s flo u rish e d for
m a n y y e a r s j s now.... (n o n -d e fin in g)
3 w hich OR that (d e fin in g)
U Dian Fossev. w h o died in 1985, helped...[non-defining]
5 London, w here a third of the city is actually
open s p a c e j s home... (n o n -d e fin in g)
6 w hich OR that (d e fin in g)
7 w hich OR that [defining]
8 Evolution, w hich is the ge n e ra lly accepted theory
of how life on earth developed* is... [non-defining]
S e n te n c e 7 can have the relative pro no un omitted.
Exercise 2
1 that keep a n im a ls in s m a ll c a g e s
2 that give the a n im a ls sp a c e to move
and look after th em w ell
3 that have no la w s to protect th eir a n im a ls
U w hich have been destroyed by in d u strie s
5 , w hich are one of the m o st
e n d a n g e re d rainforest species,
6 , w hen the m ain p u rp o s e is enjoyment,
7 w hich d o n 't have s h o p s to buy food
Exercise 3
1 ...two gro up s, which... (n o n -d e fin in g]
2 ...owls, w hich are nocturnal, fly... (n o n -d e fin in g)
3 [defining - there are resident o w ls
w hich produce only 2 offspring)
U [defining - there are so u th e rn lo n g ­
eared o w ls w hich do not migrate)
Exercise U
1 W in g s
2 to hunt prey
3 (can) sepa rate
U catch prey
Exam practice
1 leaves and b ra n c h e s
2 n e a r rive rs
3 U n d e rsto ry
U (perfect) en viro n m e n t for
20 Men and women
E x e r c is e 1
1 A large a udience of dedicated fa n s = d e te rm in e r
+ adjective + noun + prep ositio na l p h ra se2 The politician w h o had p ro po sed new la w s on
paternity rig h ts = d e te rm in e r + noun + relative
c la u s e
3 The developm ent of la n g u a g e s k ills in boys
and g i r ls = d e te rm in e r + g e n e ra l noun +
specific noun + p re p o sitio n a l p h ra se
U The latest fig u re s from the Driving
S t a n d a r d s A g e n c y = d e te rm in e r + adjective
+ n o un + prep ositio na l p h ra se
5 G e n d e r intelligence stere otyp es
= n o un + noun + noun
6 M e n w ho decide to give up w o rk to bring up
th e ir children = noun + relative c la u se
Exercise 2
1 a large quantity of h o u s e h o ld products
that we u se in o u r daily lives
2 a la n g u a g e for p ro g ra m m in g c o m p u te rs
3 the scientific and technical education of w o m e n
U a d ra m a tic rise in the n u m b e r of w o m e n w h o are
stu d y in g and w o rk in g in scie n c e and te chno lo gy
5 the im po rta nce of a focu se d education which
a llo w s people to develop th eir s k ills
Exercise 3 Suggested answ ers
2 the range/type of activities for boys and g ir ls
3 the availability/am ount of s p a c e for p h ysical exercise
U the a m o u n t/ n u m b e r of children in a
c la s s OR the size of c l a s s e s
5 the perso na lity/ cha racter of the te ach er
6 the su m / a m o u n t of m o ne y sp e n t on facilities
Exercise U m odel a n sw er
S o m e people a rg u e that the types of jobs w hich are
m ore suited to m en are in m o re technical fields
s u c h a s e n gin e e rin g or construction. However, this
is not a lw a y s true a s can be se e n in the in cre a se in
fem ale e n g in e e rs over recent decades. The ra n g e
of em p lo ym e n t o ppo rtun ities for m en and w o m e n
h a s c h a n g e d d ra m a tic ally over the last twenty years.
N ow a da ys, for example, the s k il l s needed for w o rk in g
in b u s i n e s s are taught at s c h o o l and un iversity and
w o m e n are just a s capable a s m en in a cq u irin g th ese
sk ills. In fact, w o m e n w ho hold s e n io r p o sitio n s in
b u s i n e s s are excellent role m o d e ls for both g i r ls and
boys.
Exam practice m odel a n s w e r
A lt h o u g h the care of children h a s traditionally been
the role of w om en, n o w a d a y s m a n y m en have decided
to stay at h o m e to ra ise children while the w o m a n in
the fam ily g o e s to work. However, s o m e people believe
that w o m e n have a n a tu ral ability for childcare and this
role s h o u ld be left to them. I d isa g re e with this for the
follow ing re a so n s.H H A E ng l l g n is n hforx

  L  1 E? &      !     F$ ! "
   %        $%  $" " 
     F$      %" "    !  &
                 " 
 $ ""  $   =        ""    %" "
  & " !  "        ! "
%    !        "      ? %&  $
   !    $      %" !    
                  "  $ D"
!  "          &  $ "     ""
A" &   !      ! # %  "     
"         "        '    
!      !         %              
 %   9     "   $       #   ! # %  "  ! "    $      %  0
 % & !       $   " $  " $    
"       $       $         !   
 % % $   !  "          
'      $      #        %     
""   "         $ 
   "      !   !  
0 "  "$   &    %    !    
     ""   $  "  $           
 %  F$    #   ! &!     
    $        !    " $    "    
 %            " 
[287 words)= h r ' I s TIC a a ?

+ $  $$#,#$#&#
Unit 1 Simple tenses
Present sim ple - s u b je c t + p re s e n t verb
+
-?
1 live
1 do n 't live
do 1 live?
h e /s h e /it lives
h e /s h e /it doesn't live
does h e /s h e /it live?
we live
we d o n 't live
do we live ?
you live
you d o n 't live
do you live ?
they live
they d o n 't live
do they live ?
Past sim ple - s u b je c t + past verb
+
-?
1 lived
1 didn 't live did 1 live ?
h e /s h e /it lived
h e /s h e /it d id n 't live did h e /s h e /it live?
we lived
we d id n 't live
did we live ?
you lived
you d id n 't live
did you live ?
they lived
they d id n 't live
did they live?
Present perfect - s u b je c t + has/have + p a st p a rticip le
+
-?
1 have lived
h e /s h e /it has lived
we have lived
you have lived
they have lived1 haven't lived
h e /s h e /it h a s n 't lived
we haven't lived
you haven't lived
they haven't livedhave 1 lived?
has h e /s h e /it lived?
have we lived?
have you lived?
have they lived?a a " u se d d e s to s /wlWi

 1 +  - s u b j e c t +to be + (v e rb)ing
+-?
1 am watching
h e /s h e /it is watching
we are watching
you are watching
they are watchingI ’m not watching
h e /s h e /it is n 't w atching
we a re n ’t watching
you a re n 't watching
they a re n 't watchingam 1 w atching?
is h e /s h e /it watching?
are we watching?
are you watching?
are they watching?
Present continuous - su b j e c t +was/were + (verb )ing
+
-?
1 was w atching
h e /s h e /it was watching
we were watching
you were watching
they were watching1 w a sn 't w atching
h e /s h e /it w a sn 't watching
we w e re n 't watching
you w e re n 't watching
they w e re n 't watchingwas 1 watching?
was h e /s h e /it watching?
were we w atching?
were you watching?
were they w atching?
P resen t P e rfect Continuous -S u b je c t + has/have + been + (verb)/ng
+-?
1 have been w atching
h e /s h e /it has been watching
we have been watching
you have been w atching
they have been watching1 h aven't been w atching
h e /s h e /it h a s n 't been w atching
we haven't been watching
you h a ven’t been w atching
they haven't been watchinghave 1 been watching?
has h e /s h e /it been w atching?
have we been w atching?
have you been w atching?
have they been w atching?u se d d e s sI tI sI h U I 115

 2   - subject + had + past participle
+
-?
1 had played
h e /s h e /it had played
we had played
you had played
they had played1 hadn 't played
h e /s h e /it h a d n 't played
we h a d n 't played
you ha d n 't played
they h a d n 't playedhad 1 played?
had h e /s h e /it played?
had we played?
had you played?
had they played?
Past perfect continuous - subject + had + been + (verb)ing
+
-?
1 had been playing
h e /s h e /it had been playing
we had been playing
you had been playing
they had been playing1 h a d n 't been playing
h e /s h e /it h a d n ’t been playing
we h a d n 't been playing
you w e re n 't playing
they w e re n 't playinghad 1 been playing?
had h e /s h e /it been playing ?
had we been playing?
had you been playing?
had they been playing?
Used to - subject + used to + verb
+
-?
1 used to play
h e /s h e /it used to p lay
we used to play
you used to p lay
they used to play1 didn 't use to p lay
h e /s h e /it d id n 't use to play
we d id n 't use to pla y
you d id n 't use to play
they d id n 't use to playdid 1 use to play?
did h e /s h e /it use to play?
did we use to play?
did you use to play?
did they use to play?
Would - subject + w ould + verb
+
I w ould p lay
h e /s h e /it w ould p lay
we w ould play
you w ould play
they w ould playaa0 G ra m m a r fo r IELTS

U Future 1
G oing to - Subject + to be + going to + infinitive
+-?
1 am going to learn
h e /s h e /it is going to learn
we are going to learn
you are going to learn
they are going to learnI'm not going to learn
h e /s h e /it isn 't going to learn
we a re n 't going to le arn
you a re n 't going to learn
they a re n 't going to learnam 1 going to learn?
is h e /s h e /it going to learn?
are we going to learn?
are you going to learn ?
are they going to learn?
W i l l - Subject + w ill + infinitive
+-?
1 w ill learn
h e /s h e /it w ill learn
we w ill learn
you w ill learn
they w ill learn1 w o n 't learn
h e /s h e /it w o n 't learn
we w o n 't learn
you w o n 't learn
they w o n 't learnw ill/s h a ll 1 learn?
w ill h e /s h e /it learn ?
w ill/s h a ll we learn?
w ill you learn?
w ill they learn?u se d d e s sI tI sI h U I a a H

3 & 1& - s u b je c t + will + be + (verb)/ng
+
-?
1 w ill be waiting
h e /s h e /it w ill be w aiting
we w ill be waiting
you w ill be waiting
they w ill be w aiting1 w o n 't be waiting
h e /s h e /it w o n 't be waiting
we w o n 't be waiting
you w o n ’t be waiting
they w o n 't be w aitingw ill/s halt 1 be waiting ?
w ill h e /s h e /it be waiting?
w ill/s h a ll we be w aiting?
w ill you be w aiting?
w ill they be w aiting?
Future p erfect sim ple - s u b je c t + will + have + p a s t p a rtic ip le
+
-?
1 w ill have waited
h e /s h e /it w ill have waited
we w ill have waited
you w ill have waited
they w ill have waited1 w o n 't have w aited
h e /s h e /it w o n 't have waited
we w o n 't have waited
you w o n 't have waited
they w o n ’t have waitedw ill/s h a ll 1 have waited?
w ill h e /s h e /it have waited?
w ill/s h a ll we have waited?
w ill you have waited?
w ill they have waited?
Future p erfect continuous - su b je c t + will + have + been + p a s t p a rtic ip le
+
-?
1 w ill have been waiting
h e /s h e /it w ill have been waiting
we w ill have been waiting
you w ill have been waiting
they w ill have been waiting1 w o n 't have been waiting
h e /s h e /it w o n 't have been waiting
we w o n 't have been waiting
you w o n 't have been waiting
they w o n 't have been w aitingw ill/s h a ll 1 have been waiting?
w ill h e /s h e /it have been waiting?
w ill/s h a ll we have been w aiting?
w ill you have been w aiting?
w ill they have been waiting?aaD G ra m m a r fo r IELTS

  +%# %+% # % #I%
adjectivecomparative
superlative
s m a ii (e n d s in double co nso nan t)s m a lle r (+er)
the s m a lle s t
big (ends in c o n so n a n t +
vow el + co nso nan t)b ig g e r (+ final c o n so n a n t + er)
the biggest
late [en ds in e)la te r (+ r)the la te s t
early (en ds in y)e a rlie r [y + i + er)
the e a rlie s t
Irre g u la r comparative and superlative adjectives
adjectivecomparative
superlative
goodb e tte rbest
badworsew o rst
fa rfa r th e r /fu r th e rthe fa rth e s t/fu rth e s t
oldo ld e r/e ld e rthe o ld e s t/e ld e s t
Comparative and superlative adverbs
adverb comparativesuperlative
fast (sa m e form a s adjective)fa s te r (+ er)the fa ste st (+ esf)
q uietly (adjective + ly)m ore q u ie tly (+ m ore]the m ost q u ie tly (+ the m ost]
Irre g u la r com parative and superlative adverbs
adverbcomparative superlative
w ellb e tte rbest
badlyworsew o rs t
fa rf a r t h e r / fu r th e rthe fa rth e s t/fu rth e s tu se d d e s sI tI sI h U I a a ‘

 G +#X #
if /w h e n + presen t sim p le + presen t sim p le
O ther possible structures:
l f + m o d a l verb + m o d a l verb
+
-?
If/w hen people have free time, they
enjoy life.If/when people d o n ’t have free
time, they do not enjoy life.If/w hen people have free time, do
they enjoy life ?
First conditional
i f + presen t s im p le + w ill + infinitive without ‘to ’
Other possible structures:
i f + presen t sim p le + ca n /co u ld /m a y/m ig h t
i f + presen t s im p le + im perative
i f + presen t c o n tin u o u s + w ill + infinitive w ithout 'to'
i f + presen t perfect + w ill + infinitive without ‘ to ’
+
-?
I f people have free time, they w ill
enjoy life.I f people d o n ’t have free tim e, they
w o n ’t enjoy life.I f people have free time, w ill they
enjoy life?
Second conditional
i f + past s im p le + w ould + infinitive without 'to '
Other possible structures:
i f + past s im p le + c o u ld /m ig h t
i f + were to + w ould + infinitive without 'to'
i f + past s im p le + sh o u ld + infinitive without ‘ to ’
+
-?
I f people had free time, they w ould
enjoy life.I f people d id n 't have free time, they
w o u ld n 't enjoy life.I f people had free time, w ould they
enjoy life ?a } - u se d d e s to s /wlWi

(# #
i f + past perfect s im p le + w ould have + past participle
Other possible structures:
i f + past perfect s im p le + c o u ld /m ig h t
i f + were to + w ould + infinitive without 'to '
i f + past sim p le + s h o u ld + infinitive without 'to '
+
-?
I f people had had free time, they
w ould have enjoyed life.I f people hadn ’t had free time, they
w o u ld n 't have enjoyed life.I f people had had free time, would
they have enjoyed life?
Mixed conditional
i f + past perfect sim p le + w ould + infinitive w ithout 'to '
i f + past s im p le + w ould have + past participle
+-?
I f people had had free time, they
w ould enjoy life.
I f people had free time, they would
have enjoyed life.I f people h a d n 't had free time, they
w o u ld n 't enjoy life.
I f people d id n 't have free time, they
w ould enjoy life.I f people h a d n 't had free time,
w ould they enjoy life ?
I f people had free time, w ould they
have enjoyed life ?u se d d e s sI tIsIh UI

 3 A# (  (!
Direct s p e e c h
R eported /in direct sp e e c h
P re se n t sim ple:
7 lik e o p e ra 'P a st sim ple:
She said Ith a tl she like d opera.
P re se n t sim p le co ntinuous:
'I'm studvina Japanese flo w e r a rra n a in a .'P a st co ntinuo us:
He said Ith a tl he was studvina Japanese flo w e r
arranging.
P re se n t perfect sim ple:
7 have never been to the N ational M useum .'Pa st perfect:
He said Ith a tl he had never been to the N ational
Museum.
P re se n t perfect co ntinuous:
‘We've been oaintina fo r manv vears. ’P a st perfect co ntinuous:
He said Ith a t] they had been oaintina fo r m any years.
Pa st sim ple:
‘We went to the th e a tre .'P a st perfect:
He said I th a tl they had aone to the theatre.
Pa st c o ntinuo us:
'Yesterday 1 was lis te n in a to the lecture on the radio
show. ’P a st perfect co ntinuous:
She said that the previous day she had been liste n in a
to the le ctu re on the radio show.
P a st perfect:
7 had read the n o v e l.'P a st perfect:
She sa id Ith a tl she had read the novel.
Going to (present):
'I'm aoina to v is it the local c r a ft shoD.'G oing to (past):
She sa id Ith a tl she was aoina to visit the local c ra ft
s h o p .'
Will:
‘I ' l l s ta rt photography classes so o n .'Would:
He said Ith a tl he w ould s ta r t photoaraphv classes
soon.
Can:
7 can d ra w w e ll.'Could:
She said Ith a tl she could d ra w well.
May:
7 th in k young people may not be in te re ste d in
re a d in g .'Might:
The te a c h e r said she thought Ith a tl young people
m ia h t n o t be in te re ste d in readinq.
M ust:
7 m u s t a ttend m y son's school orchestra c o n c e rt.'Had to:
My boss said I th a tl he had to a tte n d his son's school
o rchestra concert.
T im e /p la c e word changes
today —> that day
to m o rro w — » the n e x t/fo llo w in g day
yesterday — > f/?e day before/the previous day
3 days ago — » 3 days b e fo re /e a rlie r
now — > f/ien
here — > f/?ereH A A E ng l l g n is n hforx

 4 % + ( %  $  # /( % ( I;
Present sim plea m /is /a re + past participle
Present continuousa m /is /a re + being + past participle
Past sim plewas/w ere + past participle
Past continuousw as/were + being + past participle
Present perfecthave/has + been + past participle
Present perfect continuous (un usua l]have/has + been + being + past participle
Past perfecthad + been + past participle
Past perfect continuous (u n usua l)had + been + being + past participle
Used toused to + be + past participle
Wouldwould + be + past participle
W illw ill + be + past participle
Going tois /a re + going to + be + past participle
Modal constructions - p resent/futuree.g. sh o u ld + be + p ast participle
Modal constructions - paste.g. sh o u ld have + been + past participle
S em i-m o d al constructionse.g. had to + be + past participle
Other Passive Constructions (avoiding using the subject)
A common w ay to use most reporting verbs in th e passive is:
to be + past participle of the reporting verb + to + past participle
Active: People say th a t film s d is to rt real life.
Passive: Film s are said to d is to rt re a l life.
Active: They advise parents to m o n ito r the pro g ra m m e s th e ir children watch.
Passive: Parents are advised to m o n ito r the p ro g ra m m e s th e ir children watch.
Some v erb s (e.g. say, know, believe, understand, find) can also be used in th e following structure:
It is/w as/has been + past participle of the reporting verb + th a t + c la u s e
Active: People say th a t film s d is to rt re a l life.
Passive: It is said th a t film s d is to r t re a l life.
Active: Researchers have found th a t too many hours watching television can be d etrim ental.
Passive: It has been found th a t too m any hours w atching television can be d etrim ental.u se d d e s sItI sI h U I a } ?

 # !#$  .   "..#
#./*#  0! "  / 1 #
IE L T S is jointly m a n a ge d by the B ritish Council, C a m b rid g e E S O L E x a m in a tio n s and ID P Education, Australia.
T here are two v e r s io n s of the test:
• A ca d e m ic
• G enera l Training
A c a d e m ic is for stu d e n t s w is h in g to stu d y at u n d e rgra d u a te o r p o stgra d u ate levels in an E n g lis h - m e d iu m
environm ent.
G e n e ra l T raining is for people w h o w ish to m igra te to an E n g li s h - s p e a k in g country.
T h is book is prim a rily for stu d e n ts taking the A c a d e m ic version.
The Test
There are four m o d u le s:
Listening 30 m inutes, p lu s 10 m in u te s for tra n s fe rrin g a n s w e r s to the a n s w e r sheet
N B : the audio is heard on ly once.
Approx. 10 q u e s tio n s pe r section
Section 1: two s p e a k e r s d i s c u s s a so c ia l situation
Section 2: one s p e a k e r ta lk s about a n o n -a c a d e m ic topic
S e ctio n 3: up to fo u r s p e a k e r s d i s c u s s an e d u catio na l project
Se c tio n 4: one s p e a k e r g ive s a talk of g e n e ra l acad e m ic interest
Reading 60 m in u te s
3 texts, taken from authentic so u rc e s, on ge neral, a ca d e m ic topics. They m ay contain d ia g ra m s,
charts, etc.
40 questions: m ay include multiple choice, sentence completion, completing a diagram, gra ph or
chart, c ho o sing headings, yes/no, true/false questions, classification and matching exercises.
W riting T a sk 1: 20 minutes: description of a table, chart, graph or diagram (150 w o rd s m inim um )
T a sk 2: 40 m inutes: an e s s a y in re sp o n se to an a rgu m e n t o r problem (250 w o rd s m inim um )
Speaking 1 1 -1 4 m in u te s
A th ree-pa rt face-to-face o ral interview with an examiner.
T he interview is recorded.
Part 1: in tro ductio ns and g e n e ra l q u e stio n s (4 - 5 m ins)
P art 2: individual long turn (3 -4 m ins! - the candidate is given a task, h a s one m inute to prepare,
then ta lk s for 1 -2 minutes, with s o m e q u e stio n s from the examiner.
Part 3: tw o-w ay d isc u ss io n (4-5 mins): the e xa m iner a s k s further q u e stio n s on the topic from Part 2,
and gives the candidate the opportunity to d i s c u s s more abstract is s u e s or ideas.
Tim etabling Listening, R e a d in g and W ritin g m u st be taken on the s a m e day, and in the o rd e r listed above.
S p e a k in g can be taken up to 7 d a y s before o r after the o ther m odu les.
Scoring E a ch section is given a band score. The a v e ra g e of the fo u r s c o r e s p ro d u c e s the O verall B a n d
Score. You do not p a s s o r fail IE LT S; you receive a score.
IELTS and th e Common European F ra m e w o rk of R eference
The C E F R s h o w s the level of the le a rn e r and is u sed for m a ny E n g lish a s a Foreign L a n g u a g e examinations. The
table below s h o w s the approxim ate C E F R level and the equivalent IE L T S Overall Band Score:
I CEFR d e s c rip tio n
C E F R c o d e IELTS Band S core 1
Proficient user
C2
9
(Advanced)
C1
7-8
Independent user
B2
5-6.5
(Intermediate - Upper Intermediate)
B1
4-5H A ’

(              (   !        #              (      #          L 7  H#
Scores
Expert user
Very good user
Good user
Competent user
Modest u se r
Limited user
Extremely limited
user
Intermittent user
Non user
Did not attempt
the testHas fully operational com m and of the language: appropriate, accurate and fluent
with complete understanding.
Has fully operational com m and of the language, with only occasional unsystematic
inaccuracies and inappropriacies. M isun d ersta nd ings may occur in unfamiliar
situations. Handles complex detailed argumentation well.
Has operational comm and of the language, though with occasional inaccuracies,
inappropriacies and m isund erstandin gs in som e situations. Generally handles
complex language w ell and understands detailed reasoning.
H as generally effective comm and of the language despite som e inaccuracies,
inappropriacies and m isunderstandings. Can use and understand fairly complex
language, particularly in familiar situations.
Has partial comm and of the language, coping with overall meaning in most
situations, though is likely to make many mistakes. Should be able to handle basic
communication in own field.
Basic competence is limited to familiar situations. H as frequent problems in
understanding and expression. Is not able to use complex language.
Conveys and understands only general meaning in very familiar situations.
Frequent breakdowns in communication occur.
No real communication is possible except for the most basic information using
isolated words or short formulae in familiar situations and to meet immediate
needs. H as great difficulty understanding spoken and written English.
Essentially has no ability to use the Language beyond possibly a few isolated words.
No a sse ssa b le information provided.
M arkin g
The L iste n in g and R e a d in g p a p e rs have 40 items, each w orth one m a r k if correctly a nsw ered. Here are s o m e
e x a m p le s of how m a r k s are tra nsla ted into band sc o re s :
Liste n in g: 16 out of 40 correct a n s w e rs: band sc o re 5
23 out of 40 correct a n s w e rs : band sc o re 6
30 out of 40 correct a n s w e rs : band sc o re 7
R e a d in g 15 out of 40 correct a n s w e rs : band sc o re 5
23 out of 40 correct a n s w e rs : band sc o re 6
30 out of 40 correct a n s w e rs : band sc o re 7
W riting and S p e a k in g are m a rk e d accord ing to p e rfo rm a n c e d e sc rip to rs.
W ritin g: e x a m in e rs aw ard a band sco re for each of fo u r a re a s with e q u al w eighting:
• T a sk achie vem en t (Task 1)
• T a s k r e s p o n s e ( T a s k 2)
• C o h e re n ce and c o h e sio n
• Lexical re so u rc e and g ra m m a t ic a l ra n ge and accu ra cy
S p e a k in g : e x a m in e rs aw ard a band sco re for each of fo u r a re a s with e q u al w eighting:
• Flu e n c y and coheren ce
• Lexica l re so u rce
• G ra m m a tic a l ra nge
• A c c u ra c y and p ronu nciation
Fo r full details of ho w the exam ination is s c o re d and m arked, go to: www.ielts.orgHAN


English for ExamsIELTS Test preparation
covered by Collins
Skills for IELTS
The only series o f topic-based IELTS test preparation books fo c u sin g on each skill.
IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+
978-O -OO-742327-9IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+
978-O-OO-742324-8IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+
978-O -OO -742326-2IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+
978-O-OO-742325-5
Vocabulary for IELTS
Key vocabulary practice
to succeed in all four IELTS
test papers.
IELTS 5.0-6+
C E F Level: B2+
978-O -OO -745682-6Available internationally fro m all
g o o d b o o k sh o p s.
I f you need help f in d in g y o u r local
stockist, please e m ail us, te llin g u s
where you live, at
c o llin s.e lt@ h a r p e r c o lIin s .c o .u k .
V is it co llin se lt.c o m to see o th er titles
in o u r ELT range, an d s ig n up to
receive IE L T S la n g u a g e u pdates.
Key W ord s for IELTS
Three graded reference books providing the vocabulary
students need to succeed in the IELTS test.
IELTS 4.0-5.5
CEF Level: B 1-B 2
978-O-OO-736545-6Price:
£7-99
IELTS 5.5-6.5
CEF Level: B 2 -C 1
978-O -OO-736546-3IELTS 7.0+
CEF Level: C 1 -C 2
978-O-OO-736547-O
1P O W E R E D BY C O B U IL D
X