Check_Your_English_Vocabulary_for_IELTS_2017_-304p

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C H EC K Y OUR E N GLIS H V O CA BU LA RY
FO R
IE LT S
by
Raw don W yatt
Blo om sb ury I n fo rm atio n
An i m prin t o f B lo om sb ury P ublis h in g P lc

Abou t t h is w ork book
I n tr o d uctio n
T his w ork b ook h as b een w ritte n f o r s tu d ents w ho a re p la nnin g to s it e ith er th e
A cad em ic o r G enera l T ra in in g m odule s o f th e I E LT S e xam in ati o n. I t c o vers
s o m e o f th e m ain v ocab ula ry a re as th at y o u w ill n eed f o r, o r c o m e a cro ss i n ,
t h e L is te nin g, R ead in g, W riti n g a nd S peakin g s e cti o ns o f th e e xam .
W e h o pe th at y o u f in d th e e xerc is e s i n th is b ook u se fu l, a nd th at th e v ocab ula ry
y o u a cq uir e w ill h elp y o u to a chie v e th e g ra d e y o u w ant i n th e I E LT S.
G ood l u ck!
S tr u ctu re o f t h e b ook
E ach v ocab ula ry a re a i s p re se nte d i n th e f o rm o f a s e lf- c o nta in ed m odule w ith
t a sk -b ase d a cti v iti e s w hic h p re se nt e ach v ocab ula ry i te m i n c o nte xt.
• Pages 1 – 5 7 f o cus o n g enera l v ocab ula ry i te m s. S om e o f th ese a re r e le v ant
to sp ecific ta sk s or questi o ns in th e IE LT S exam in ati o n (fo r exam ple ,
desc rib in g h o w s o m eth in g w ork s, ta lk in g a b out c hanges s h o w n in a g ra p h
or ta b le , s a yin g w here th in gs a re a nd f o llo w in g d ir e cti o ns).
• Pages 5 8 – 1 04 fo cus o n to pic -s p ecific v ocab ula ry a re as w hic h m ay b e
re q uir e d in th e e xam in ati o n (fo r e xam ple , e d ucati o n, a rc hite ctu re , fa m ily
matte rs a nd s c ie nce a nd te chno lo gy). E ach m odule c o nsis ts o f th re e ta sk s:
th e fir s t tw o p re se nt v ocab ula ry ite m s in c o nte xt, e ach w ith a p ra cti c e o r
re co gniti o n e xerc is e , a nd th e th ir d g iv es y o u th e o pportu nity to r e v ie w th e
vocab ula ry i n a g ap -fill e xerc is e .
• Pages 1 05 – 1 1 9 c o nta in so m e p ro ducti v e p ra cti c e e xerc is e s w hic h w ill
giv e y o u th e o pportu nity to p ra cti s e u sin g y o ur v ocab ula ry in s o m e IE LT S-
sty le s p eakin g a nd w riti n g ta sk s. T hese ta sk s a re f o llo w ed b y s o m e s a m ple
answ ers . N ote th at th ese s a m ple a nsw ers a re th ere o nly to g iv e y o u s o m e
guid ance a s to h o w th e ta sk s m ig ht b e a nsw ere d . T here a re n o ‘rig ht’ o r
‘w ro ng’ a nsw ers .

• Pages 1 20 – 1 39 co nta in a co m pre hensiv e key so yo u can check yo ur
answ ers . T he a nsw er k ey a ls o g iv es a d diti o nal in fo rm ati o n a b out s p ecific
vocab ula ry ite m s or genera l vocab ula ry are as, as w ell as oth er use fu l
word s o r p hra se s.
Usin g t h e w ork book
You s h o uld n o t w ork th ro ugh th e b ook m echanic ally f r o m b egin nin g to e nd . I t i s
bette r to c ho ose a re as th at y o u a re u nfa m ilia r w ith , o r a re as th at y o u f e el a re o f
sp ecific i n te re st o r i m porta nce to y o urs e lf.
Reco rd in g, r e v ie w in g a n d e x te n din g y ou r v oca b u la ry
Rem em ber th at y o u s h o uld k eep a r e co rd o f n ew w ord s, p hra se s a nd
exp re ssio ns th at y o u a cq uir e , a nd r e v ie w th ese o n a r e gula r b asis s o th at th ey
beco m e p art o f y o ur a cti v e v ocab ula ry . A ls o r e m em ber th at th ere a re o th er
ways o f a cq uir in g n ew v ocab ula ry . F or e xam ple , y o u s h o uld r e ad a s m uch a s
possib le f r o m a v arie ty o f a uth enti c r e ad in g m ate ria ls ( b ooks, n ew sp ap ers ,
magazin es, w eb -b ase d a rti c le s, e tc .) .
Usin g a n E nglis h d ic tio n ary
To h elp y o u d ev elo p y o ur v ocab ula ry m ore e ffe cti v ely , y o u s h o uld u se a g o od
mono lin gual E nglis h d ic ti o nary . T his s h o uld c le arly e xp la in w hat th e w ord s
mean, s h o w y o u h o w th ey a re p ro no unced , s h o w y o u th eir v ario us f o rm s w here
re le v ant ( e .g ., w hat th e n o un f o rm o f a n a d je cti v e i s ), te ll y o u w hic h w ord s o r
phra se s th ey c o llo cate w ith , a nd g iv e s a m ple s e nte nces to s h o w y o u h o w th e
word s a re u se d . W e p arti c ula rly r e co m mend th e
Macm illa n E nglis h
Dic tio nary f o r A dva nced L ea rn ers
( IS B N 9 78-1 405026284). A f r e e o n-lin e
vers io n o f th is c an a ls o b e f o und a t w ww.m acm illa nd ic ti o nary .c o m .
The I n te rn atio n al E nglis h L an gu age T estin g S yste m
(I E LT S)
The I E LT S i s a d m in is te re d b y th e U niv ers ity o f C am brid ge L ocal E xam in ati o ns
Synd ic ate ( U CLE S), th e B riti s h C ouncil a nd I D P E ducati o n A ustr a lia . F or
fu rth er i n fo rm ati o n, v is it w ww.u cle s.o rg .u k. N ote th at th is b ook i s n o t
end ors e d b y a ny o f th ese o rg anis a ti o ns.

C on te n ts
G en era l v oca b u la ry
A dditi o n, e q uati o n a nd c o nclu sio n
A ro und th e w orld
C hanges 1
C hanges 2
C ond iti o n
C onfu sin g w ord s & f a ls e f r ie nd s 1
C onfu sin g w ord s & f a ls e f r ie nd s 2
C onte xt & m eanin g 1
C onte xt & m eanin g 2
C onte xt & m eanin g 3
C ontr a st a nd c o m paris o n
E m phasis & m is u nd ers ta nd in g
F ocusin g a tte nti o n
G enera lis a ti o ns & s p ecific s
G ro up s
H ow s o m eth in g w ork s
J o in in g o r b eco m in g p art o f s o m eth in g b ig ger
L ik es & d is lik es
L ocati o n & d ir e cti o n
M odifie d w ord s
O bje cts & a cti o ns
O blig ati o n & o pti o n

Opin io n, a tti tu d e & b elie f
Opposite s: a d je cti v es
Opposite s: v erb s
Ow ners h ip , g iv in g, l e nd in g & b orro w in g
Phra sa l v erb s 1
Phra sa l v erb s 2
Phra sa l v erb s 3
Phra sa l v erb s 4
Pre se nti n g a n a rg um ent
Reaso n & r e su lt
Shap e & f e atu re s
Siz e , q uanti ty & d im ensio n
Spellin g
Sto ppin g s o m eth in g
Success & f a ilu re
Task c o m mand s
Tim e
Use fu l i n te rv ie w e xp re ssio ns
Top ic -s p ecif ic v oca b u la ry
Arc hite ctu re
The a rts
Busin ess & i n d ustr y
Child re n & th e f a m ily
Crim e & th e l a w
Educati o n

The e nv ir o nm ent
Food & d ie t
Geo gra p hy
Glo bal p ro ble m s
Health care
The m ed ia
Men & w om en
Money & f in ance
On th e r o ad
Scie nce & te chno lo gy
Sport
Tow n & c o untr y
Tra v el
Work
Pro d u ctiv e p ra ctic e
Pra cti c e ta sk s 1
Pra cti c e ta sk s 1 : S am ple a nsw ers
Pra cti c e ta sk s 2
Pra cti c e ta sk s 2 : S am ple a nsw ers
Pra cti c e ta sk s 3
Pra cti c e ta sk s 3 : S am ple a nsw ers
Pra cti c e ta sk s 4
Pra cti c e ta sk s 4 : S am ple a nsw ers
Pra cti c e ta sk s 5
Pra cti c e ta sk s 5 : S am ple a nsw ers

Answ ers

Additio n , e q uatio n & c o n clu sio n
1 P ut t h e f o llo w in g w ord s a nd p hra se s in to t h eir c o rre ct p la ce in t h e t a ble
d ependin g o n t h eir f u nctio n.
a lo ng w it h   als o  
an d
 as w ell a s  besid es 
c o rre sp ondin gly
eq ually
 fu rth erm ore   in a d dit io n  in
b rie f 
in c o nclu sio n
in th e s a m e w ay   lik ew is e  
m ore o ve r  sim ila rly   th us  th ere fo re
to c o nclu de  to
su m maris e   to s u m u p b rie fly   to o w e c an c o nclu de
th at  what’s m ore
2 C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r p hra se s f r o m a bove.
I n m ost c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
1 .
Touris m b rin gs m uch-n eed ed m oney to d ev elo pin g c o untr ie s.
..................................................., i t p ro vid es e m plo ym ent f o r th e l o cal
popula ti o n.

2.
................................................... b rin gin g m uch-n eed ed m oney to
dev elo pin g c o untr ie s, to uris m p ro vid es e m plo ym ent f o r th e l o cal
popula ti o n.
3.
Touris ts s h o uld r e sp ect th e l o cal e nv ir o nm ent.
................................................... th ey s h o uld r e sp ect th e l o cal c usto m s.
4.
................................................... i n d ustr ia l w aste , p ollu ti o n f r o m c ar
fu m es i s p ois o nin g th e e nv ir o nm ent.
5.
In o rd er to tr a v el, y o u n eed a p assp ort. ................................................... ,
yo u m ig ht n eed a v is a , i m munis a ti o n j a b s a nd w ritte n p erm is sio n to v is it
certa in a re as.
6.
Dru gs a re b anned i n B rita in - ................................................... w eap ons
su ch a s g uns a nd k niv es.
7.
All p ow er c o rru p ts . ................................................... , a b so lu te p ow er
co rru p ts a b so lu te ly .
8.
You s h o uld n’t s m oke, d rin k, ta ke d ru gs o r e at u nhealth y f o od.
................................................... , y o u s h o uld l iv e a m ore h ealth y l ife sty le .
9.
The o zo ne l a yer i s b eco m in g d ep le te d , th e a ir i n th e c iti e s i s b eco m in g to o
dir ty to b re ath e a nd o ur s e as a nd r iv ers a re n o l o nger s a fe to s w im i n .
................................................... p ollu ti o n i s s lo w ly d estr o yin g th e p la net.
10.
Your g ra d es h av e b een v ery p oor f o r th e p ast tw o y ears .
................................................... y o u n eed to w ork r e ally h ard i f y o u w ant
to p ass y o ur e xam s n ext m onth .

A ro u nd t h e w orld
1 C hoose t h e c o rre ct w ord o r p hra se in b old t o c o m ple te t h ese s e nte nce s.
1 .
Ja p an, K ore a a nd T aiw an a re a ll i n
th e N ear E ast / t h e M id dle E ast /
th e F ar E ast
.
2 .
The S outh P ole i s s itu ate d i n th e
Arc tic / A nta rc tic / A nta rc tic a
.
3 .
New Z eala nd i s p art o f
Austr ia / A ustr a lia / A ustr a la sia
.
4 .
Bangla d esh i s p art o f
th e I n dia n s u bco ntin ent / I n dia / I n dia na
.
5 .
Guate m ala i s a c o untr y i n
North A m eric a / S outh A m eric a / C entr a l
Am eric a
.
6 .
Arg enti n a, B ra zil, C olo m bia , P anam a a nd H ond ura s a ll f o rm p art o f w hat
is o fte n r e fe rre d to a s
Latin A m eric a / S outh A m eric a / S panis h
Am eric a
.
7 .
Bots w ana i s i n
South A fr ic a / s o uth ern A fr ic a / C entr a l A fr ic a
.
8 .
Engla nd , S co tl a nd , W ale s a nd N orth ern I r e la nd a re k no w n c o lle cti v ely a s
Brit a in / G re at B rit a in / t h e U nit e d K in gdom
.
9 .
The U nite d K in gd om a nd th e R ep ub lic o f I r e la nd a re p art o f
Contin enta l
Euro pe / M ain la nd E uro pe / E uro pe
.
1 0.
Kuw ait, O man a nd th e U nite d A ra b E m ir a te s f o rm p art o f w hat a re k no w n
as
th e W est I n die s / t h e G ulf S ta te s / t h e E uro pean U nio n
.
1 1 .
Denm ark , F in la nd , N orw ay a nd S w ed en a re k no w n c o lle cti v ely a s
th e
Balt ic R epublic s / t h e C arib bean / S ca ndin avia
.
1 2.
Bangko k, L im a a nd T unis a re e xam ple s o f
ca pit a l / c a pit o l / c a pit a lis m
citi e s.
2 W hat a re t h e n atio nalit ie s o f t h e p eople w ho c o m e f r o m t h ese c o untr ie s?
1 .
Afg hanis ta n
Afg han
2.
Arg entin a ..........................
3.
Austr a lia ..............................
4 .
Bangla desh .................
5.
Belg iu m .............................
6.
Bra zil ....................................
7 .
Canada ........................
8.
Denm ark ...........................
9.
Egypt ....................................

10.
Engla nd .....................
11 .
Fin la nd ............................
12.
Gre ece ................................
13.
In dia ..........................
14.
Ira n ..................................
15.
Ira q .....................................
16.
Ire la nd .......................
17.
Is ra el ................................
18.
Ja pan...................................
19.
Kuw ait ......................
20.
Lebanon ..........................
21.
Mala ysia .............................
22.
Mexic o ......................
23.
Moro cco ..........................
24.
th e N eth erla nds .................
25.
Norw ay .....................
26.
Pakis ta n ...........................
27.
Peru ....................................
28.
th e P hilip pin es .........
29.
Pola nd .............................
30.
Portu gal .............................
31.
Russia ........................
32.
Saudi A ra bia ...................
33.
Scotla nd .............................
34.
Spain .........................
35.
Sw eden ...........................
36.
Sw it z e rla nd.........................
37.
Thaila nd ....................
38.
Turk ey .............................
39.
Wale s ..................................
40.
Yem en .......................
Is y o ur c o untr y o n th is l is t? I f n o t, h o w d o y o u s a y y o ur n ati o nality i n E nglis h ?
.................

Chan ges 1
1 L ook a t t h e g ra ph, a nd c o m ple te t h e s e nte nce s w it h t h e c o rre ct f o rm o f
t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b ox. I n m ost c a se s, m ore t h an o ne o ptio n is
p ossib le .
d eclin e  decre ase   dro p  fa ll  flu ctu ate   go d ow n g o
u p 
in cre ase
 peak a t  re ach a p eak o f  re m ain
c o nsta n t r e m ain s te ad y  ris e
E nglis h s c h ool s tu den t n um bers: M ay –
A ugu st.
B etw een M ay a nd A ugust

1 .
… stu d ent n um bers a t th e B ria rw ood S cho ol o f E nglis h
in cre a se d
/
................. / ..................
2 .
… stu d ent n um bers a t th e W in d so r L anguage C entr e ................. /
................. / ................. / ................. / ..................
3 .
… stu d ent n um bers a t th e S peakeasy S cho ol o f L anguages ................. /
................. .

4.
… stu d ent n um bers a t H are fie ld C olle ge ................. . T hey ................. /
................. 1 20 i n J u ne.
2 L ook a t t h is t a ble , a nd c o m ple te t h e s e nte nce s o n t h e n ext p age w it h
word s a nd p hra se s f r o m t h e b ox. I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is
possib le . T here is o ne w ord o r p hra se t h at y ou d o n ot n eed.
dow nw ard tr e n d  dra m atic ally   gra d ually   sh arp ly  
slig h tly
  ste ad ily
upw ard tr e n d
Chan ges 1
1.
Betw een J a nuary a nd A pril, p etr o l p ric es i n cre ase d ................. /
................. .
2.
In M ay, p etr o l p ric es f e ll ................. .
3.
In J u ne, p etr o l p ric es r o se ................. / ................. .
4.
Overa ll, th ere h as b een a n ................. i n p etr o l p ric es
3 L ook a t t h e t a sk in t h e b ox, t h en c o m ple te t h e s a m ple a nsw er w it h
word s a nd p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne
answ er m ay b e p ossib le .
The g ra ph b elo w s h ow s t h e n um ber o f v is ito rs t o t h re e s e a sid e t o w ns o ver
a f iv e-m onth p erio d.
Sum maris e t h e i n fo rm atio n b y s e le ctin g a nd r e p ortin g t h e m ain f e a tu re s,
and m ake c o m paris o ns w here r e le va nt.

Sam ple a nsw er
The g ra p h s h o w s h o w m any p eo ple v is ite d th re e s e asid e to w ns b etw een A pril
and A ugust.
The n um ber o f v is ito rs to S eahav en ( 1 )
in cre a se d
( 2 ) ................. b etw een
April a nd J u ne, th en ( 3 ) ................. ( 4 ) ................. i n J u ly , a nd c o nti n ued to ( 5 )
................. i n A ugust. F or th e f ir s t f o ur m onth s, v is ito r n um bers to B rid gep ort
(6 ) ................. , b ut th en ( 7 ) ................. ( 8 ) ................. i n th e f in al m onth .
Westh am pto n v is ito r n um bers ( 9 ) ................. f r o m A pril to J u ne, th en ( 1 0)
................. ( 1 1 ) ................. i n J u ly a nd f in ally ( 1 2) ................. 1 1 ,0 00 i n
August.
Overa ll, th ere w as a n ( 1 3) ................. i n th e n um ber o f v is ito rs to S eahav en
and W esth am pto n, b ut a ( 1 4) ................. i n th e n um ber o f p eo ple v is iti n g
Brid gep ort.

Chan ges 2
1 C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h t h e c o rre ct f o rm o f o ne o f t h e v erb s in
t h e b ox. B oth s e nte nce s in e ach s e nte nce p air s h ould u se t h e s a m e v erb . I n
s o m e c a se s, t h e m eanin g o f t h e v erb m ay c h ange s lig htly .
a d ju st 
alt e r
 dete rio ra te   ex ch an ge  fa d e  re d uce 
re n ova te
sw ell  sw it c h   va ry
1 .
Movin g to th e c ountr y sid e r a dic ally
alte re d
o ur
lif e sty le .
Som e p eople c hoose to
alte r
th eir a ppeara nce w it h
su rg ery .
2 .
By ................. to a d if fe re nt p ro vid er, it c an b e
possib le to p ay m uch le ss f o r y our m obile
phone b ills .
I c hose d ra m a a s a n e xtr a -c urric ula r a ctiv it y , b ut
................. to p hoto gra phy a f e w w eeks la te r.
3 .
It c an ta ke tim e to ................. to liv in g in a
dif fe re nt c ountr y .
Pric es s e em lo w , b ut w hen y ou ................. th em to
allo w f o r ta x, th ey a re c onsid era bly h ig her.
4 .
The n ois e b uilt u p r a pid ly , a nd th en ju st a s
quic kly it ................. in to th e d is ta nce.
As th e a ppla use ................., th e s p eaker s ta rte d
ta lk in g.
5 .
The a m ount o f ta x y ou p ay o n a c ar
................. a ccord in g to th e a m ount o f c arb on
dio xid e it e m it s .
People ’s r e actio ns to th e m edic in e ................. a lo t,
wit h s o m e p eople c om pla in in g it h as n o e ffe ct a t a ll.
6 .
Every one s h ould tr y to ................. th e a m ount
of f a t in th eir d ie t.
Many c om panie s w ere f o rc ed to ................. th eir
work fo rc e d urin g th e r e cessio n.
7 .
Econom ic c ris e s o fte n ................. in to s o cia l
unre st.
The w eath er ................. r a pid ly w hen it s ta rte d
ra in in g a nd th e w in ds p ic ked u p.
8 .
Ankle s a nd o th er jo in ts o fte n ................. w hen
people tr a vel b y a ir .
The to w n is h om e to 3 ,0 00 p eople , b ut th is f ig ure
................. to 1 2,0 00 in th e s a m e s u m mer.
9 .
The to kens c an b e ................. f o r f o od in th e
stu dent c ante en.
Shops w ill n orm ally ................. d am aged g oods if
you h ave a r e ceip t.

10.
Busin esse s in th e c it y c entr e w ere o ffe re d
fu ndin g s o th ey c ould ................. th eir
pre m is e s.
In s o m e c ase s it c an b e m ore e xpensiv e to
................. a n o ld b uild in g th an k nock it d ow n a nd
build a n ew o ne.
Chan ges 2
2 N ow d o t h e s a m e w it h t h ese .
ad ap t  cu t  declin e  dis a p pear  ex pan d  im pro ve  
pro m ote   re la x   re p la ce  tr a n sfo rm
1.
Em ail h as la rg ely ................. th e tr a dit io nal
le tte r a s a m eans o f w rit te n b usin ess
com munic atio n.
The p la n is to ................. a ll th e o ld d esk to p
com pute rs in th e lib ra ry w it h n etb ooks.
2.
Som e c om panie s a re s lo w to ................. to
a c hangin g m ark et.
Cours e s c an b e ................. to s u it th e n eeds o f
in div id ual s tu dents .
3.
The s y m pto m s o f illn esse s lik e m easle s
are n’t u su ally s e rio us, a nd .................
wit h in a f e w d ays.
As th e s u n ................. b ehin d th e c lo uds, th e
te m pera tu re q uic kly d ro pped.
4.
A c olle ge c ours e c an h elp y ou to f in d a jo b
or g et ................. a t w ork .
The ‘ P ete r P rin cip le ’ is a th eory w hic h s a ys th at in a
big c om pany, e very one e ventu ally g ets ................. to
a jo b th at is b eyond th eir a bilit y .
5.
Som e p eople th in k th at th e g overn m ent
sh ould ................. th e r u le s r e gard in g
build in g o n p ro te cte d la nd.
For th e f in al p art o f th e e xerc is e , y ou n eed to
re peate dly tig hte n, th en ................. y our s to m ach
musc le s.
6.
The g overn m ent’s a im in th e n ext f iv e y ears
is to ................. e ducatio nal s ta ndard s.
The b est w ay o f ................. y our E nglis h is to p ra ctis e
usin g it a s m uch a s p ossib le .
7.
Wate r f re eze s in th e p ip es, f o rc in g th em to
................. a nd b urs t.
Brit a in ’s u niv ers it ie s ................. a t a n u npre cedente d
ra te a t th e e nd o f th e tw entie th c entu ry .
8.
Superm ark ets ................. p ric es o n m any
basic it e m s to a ttr a ct m ore c usto m ers .
I b elie ve th at g overn m ents s h ould in cre ase s p endin g o n
th e a rts in ste ad o f ................. it .

9.
Em ail a nd s o cia l n etw ork in g w ebsit e s h ave
................. th e w ay p eople c om munic ate .
When it w as c lo se d d ow n, th e o ld f ir e s ta tio n w as
................. in to a n a rt g alle ry .
10.
House p ric es a re s o h ig h th at th e n um ber o f
people b uyin g th eir o w n h om e h as
................. in th e la st f iv e y ears .
Because s o m any p eople a re o ut o f w ork , liv in g
sta ndard s a re ................. r a pid ly .

Con ditio n
1 C om ple te t h e s e co nd s e nte nce in e ach p air s o t h at it h as t h e s a m e o r a
s im ila r m eanin g t o t h e f ir st s e nte nce . U se t h e w ord s o r p hra se s in b old ,
a nd a ny o th er w ord s t h at a re n ece ssa ry .
1 .
You c an b orro w m y d ic ti o nary i f y o u r e tu rn i t b efo re y o u g o h o m e.
pro vid in g t h at
You c an b orro w m y d ic ti o nary
pro vid in g t h at y o u r e tu rn
i t b efo re y o u g o
ho m e.
2 .
I s h o uld g et m y a ssig nm ent f in is h ed th is w eekend i f I h av e e no ugh ti m e.
pro vid ed t h at
I s h o uld g et m y a ssig nm ent f in is h ed th is w eekend ..................................
eno ugh ti m e.
3 .
You c an’t g o to u niv ers ity i f y o u d on’t g et g o od e xam g ra d es a t s c ho ol.
unle ss
You c an’t g o to u niv ers ity .................................. g o od e xam g ra d es a t
sc ho ol.
4 .
Stu d ents c an u se th e c o m mon r o om i n th e e v enin g i f th ey ti d y u p a ny m ess
th ey m ake.
on c o ndit io n t h at
Stu d ents c an u se th e c o m mon r o om i n th e e v enin g .................................. u p
any m ess th ey m ake.
5 .
Pollu ti o n w ill g et w ors e i f w e c o nti n ue to l iv e i n a th ro w aw ay s o cie ty .
as lo ng a s
Pollu ti o n w ill g et w ors e .................................. to l iv e i n a th ro w aw ay
so cie ty .
6 .
Child re n w ill a lw ays p re fe r f a st f o od to f r e sh f r u it a nd v egeta b le s, e v en i f
yo u te ll th em h o w u nhealth y i t i s .
no m atte r h ow

Child re n w ill a lw ays p re fe r f a st f o od to f r e sh f r u it a nd v egeta b le s,
.................................. te ll th em i t i s u nhealth y.
7.
Com pute r p ro gra m min g i s c o m plic ate d , e v en i f y o u r e ad a l o t o f b ooks
ab out i t.
how ever m any
Com pute r p ro gra m min g i s c o m plic ate d , .................................. r e ad a b out i t.
8.
Crim e i s a p ro ble m , e v en i f y o u l iv e i n a s m all to w n o r i n th e c o untr y sid e.
where ver
Crim e i s a p ro ble m , .................................. l iv e.
2 C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s u sin g a n a ppro pria te w ord o r p hra se f r o m
above a nd y our o w n id eas.
1.
Briti s h u niv ers iti e s w ill a ccep t s tu d ents f r o m a b ro ad
..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.
2.
Work in g f o r a l a rg e c o m pany c an b e a f u lfillin g e xp erie nce
................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.
3.
The e nv ir o nm enta l s itu ati o n w ill c o nti n ue to w ors e n
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.
4.
Tra v ellin g h elp s y o u u nd ers ta nd m ore a b out th e w orld a ro und y o u
................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.

C on fu sin g w ord s & f a ls e f r ie n ds 1
C on fu sin g w ord s
a re t w o o r m ore w ord s w hic h :
( a ) h ave a s im ila r m eanin g t o e ach o th er b ut w hic h a re u se d in a d if fe re nt
w ay
o r
( b ) a re r e la te d t o t h e s a m e t o pic , b ut h ave a d if fe re nt m eanin g
o r
( c ) lo ok s im ila r, b ut h ave a d if fe re nt m eanin g.
F als e f r ie nds
a re w ord s in E nglis h w hic h h ave a s im ila r-lo ok in g w ord in
a noth er la nguage, b ut w hic h h ave a d if fe re nt m eanin g.
C om ple te t h e f o llo w in g s e nte nce p air s w it h t h e a ppro pria te w ord .
1 .
aboard / a bro ad
More a nd m ore p eo ple g o
abro ad
f o r th eir h o lid ay.
In 2 002, s h e b ecam e th e f ir s t w om an to tr a v el
aboard
th e s p ace s h uttl e
Dis c o very.
2 .
actio n / a ctiv it y
We d ecid ed to ta ke i m med ia te ................. w hen w e r e alis e d th ere w as a
pro ble m .
The e nv ir o nm enta l c hanges i n th e a re a a re th e r e su lt o f h um an ................. .
3 .
advic e / a dvis e
Can y o u ................. m e o n th e b est c o urs e o f a cti o n to ta ke?
He o ffe re d m e s o m e e xcelle nt ................. .
4 .
affe ct / e ffe ct
Div erti n g th e c o urs e o f th e r iv er w ill h av e a m ajo r ................. o n th e l o cal
eco sy ste m .
Fre q uent tr a ffic j a m s i n th e s u b urb s s e rio usly ................. j o urn ey ti m es i n to
th e c ity .

5.
appre cia ble / a ppre cia tiv e
Wid enin g th e r o ad m ad e a n ................. d iffe re nce to th e f lo w o f tr a ffic .
The a p pla use a t th e e nd o f th e c o ncert w as w arm a nd ................. .
6.
avoid / p re vent
Rap id i n te rn ati o nal a cti o n m anaged to ................. a n e nv ir o nm enta l d is a ste r
fr o m ta kin g p la ce.
There a re a re as i n th e c ity th at a re w is e to ................. a fte r d ark .
7.
besid e / b esid es
The c o m pany’s m ain o ffic e i s ................. th e r a ilw ay s ta ti o n.
................. th eir r e gula r d ayti m e j o b, m any p eo ple d o e xtr a w ork i n th e
ev enin g.
8.
brie fly / s h ortly
................. b efo re th e e arth q uake b egan, m any a nim als w ere s e en to b e
behav in g i n a n u nusu al m anner.
She s p oke ................. b ut p assio nate ly a b out th e n eed to h elp th o se i n
dev elo pin g c o untr ie s.
Con fu sin g w ord s & f a ls e f r ie n ds 1
9.
ca nal / c h annel
A ................. s y ste m j o in ed th e tw o m ain r iv ers , w hic h m ad e tr a nsp orti n g
go ods m uch q uic ker.
When te le v is io n f ir s t b ecam e p opula r i n th e e arly 1 950s, th ere w as o nly o ne
................ .
10.
co nsc ie ntio us / c o nsc io us
Most p eo ple a re ................. o f th e n eed to p ro te ct th e e nv ir o nm ent.
................. w ork ers s h o uld b e r e w ard ed f o r th eir h ard w ork .
11 .
co nsid era ble / c o nsid era te
In m y o pin io n, s o m e p eo ple a re n o t v ery ................. o f th o se a ro und th em .
A ................. a m ount o f m oney w as s p ent o n d ev elo pin g th e p ro duct.
12.
co ntin ual / c o ntin uous

The c o m pute r s y ste m h as g iv en u s ................. p ro ble m s e v er s in ce w e
in sta lle d i t. S om e d ays i t w ork s, o th er d ays i t d oesn ’t.
The ................. n o is e f r o m th e n ew m oto rw ay h as f o rc ed m any p eo ple to
move.
13.
co ntr o l / in sp ect
New te achers o fte n f in d i t d iffic ult to ................. th eir c la sse s.
Env ir o nm enta l h ealth i n sp ecto rs r e gula rly ................. c o m merc ia l k itc hens
fo r c le anlin ess, e sp ecia lly th o se i n r e sta ura nts .
14.
crit ic is m / o bje ctio n
I h av e n o ................. to p eo ple u sin g th eir m obile p ho nes o n b use s o r tr a in s.
Pla ns f o r th e n ew s ta d iu m h av e a ttr a cte d f ie rc e ................. f r o m l o cal
peo ple .
15.
dam age / h arm / in ju ry
He s u ffe re d a s e rio us ................. w hic h n eed ed i m med ia te h o sp ita l
tr e atm ent.
The l o w l e v els o f d angero us c hem ic als i n th e r iv er w ere e no ugh to c ause
................. to a q uati c l ife .
A l o t o f ................. w as c ause d to b uild in gs a lo ng th e c o ast d urin g th e
sto rm .
16.
durin g / f o r / w hile
The c o lle ge c lo se s ................. tw o w eeks a t th e e nd o f D ecem ber.
He d ie d ................. tr y in g to c ro ss th e d ese rt a lo ne.
Many c re atu re s s ta y u nd erg ro und ................. d aylig ht h o urs .
17.
how ever / m ore over
The p la n w as g o od i n th eo ry . ................., i n p ra cti c e i t w as e xtr e m ely
diffic ult to i m ple m ent.
The p la n w as e xcelle nt. ................., i t w as c le ar f r o m th e b egin nin g th at i t
was g o in g to a ttr a ct a l o t o f i n te re st.
18.
in ju re d / w ounded
I b elie v e th at w e s h o uld d o m ore to h elp a nd s u p port s o ld ie rs w ho h av e
been ................. i n c o m bat.

Sev era l w ork ers w ere ................. w hen th e d rillin g p la tf o rm c o lla p se d .

C on fu sin g w ord s & f a ls e f r ie n ds 2
C om ple te t h e f o llo w in g s e nte nce p air s w it h t h e a ppro pria te w ord o r
p hra se .
1 .
jo b / w ork
Every b ody h as th e r ig ht to a d ecent ................. w ith g o od p ay.
Durin g th e e co no m ic r e cessio n, a l o t o f p eo ple f o und th em se lv es o ut o f
................. .
2 .
la y / lie
If y o u’re s u ffe rin g f r o m d ehyd ra ti o n, y o u s h o uld d rin k p le nty o f w ate r a nd
sit o r ................. d ow n f o r a w hile .
Befo re y o u b egin th e e xp erim ent, y o u s h o uld ................. a l a rg e p la sti c
sh eet o n th e g ro und .
3 .
lo ok a t / w atc h
We n eed to ................. th e s itu ati o n c are fu lly o ver th e n ext f e w w eeks a nd
se e h o w th in gs d ev elo p.
We n eed to ................. th e p ro ble m c are fu lly a nd d ecid e i f th ere i s a nyth in g
we c an d o a b out i t.
4 .
lo ose / lo se
Som e p eo ple a re v ery c o m peti ti v e a nd h ate to ................. a g am e o r
co m peti ti o n.
The s u rfa ce i s m ain ly c o m pose d o f ................. s o il a nd s m all s to nes.
5 .
mak e / c a use
The n o is e f r o m tr a ffic o uts id e th e s c ho ol c an ................. i t h ard to h ear w hat
th e te acher i s s a yin g.
Hurric anes ................. w id esp re ad d am age i n u rb an a re as.
6 .
natu re / c o untr y sid e
Tho usa nd s o f ................. l o vers h ead f o r th e n ati o nal p ark s e v ery w eekend .
I’ d r a th er l iv e i n th e ................. th an i n a c ity .

7.
per c e nt / p erc e nta ge
It i s a m yth th at o nly te n ................. o f A meric ans h o ld a p assp ort.
Only a s m all ................. o f l a nd i s p riv ate ly o w ned .
8.
perm is sio n / p erm it
I’ m a fr a id w e c an’t ................. p ho to gra p hy i n th e m use um .
We r e ceiv ed ................. to a tte nd th e m eeti n g, a s l o ng a s w e d id n’t i n te rru p t.
9.
perso nal / p erso nnel
My o w n ................. v ie w i s th at p ro fe ssio nal f o otb all p la yers a re p aid f a r
to o m uch.
The c o m pany w as i n tr o ub le u nti l th ere w as a c hange o f ................. o n th e
managem ent te am .
10.
possib ilit y / c h ance
We m ig ht g o to S pain f o r o ur f ie ld tr ip . A no th er ................. i s th at w e’ll g o
to I ta ly i n ste ad .
If w e a ct n o w , w e h av e a g o od ................. o f f in d in g a c ure f o r th e d is e ase .

Con fu sin g w ord s & f a ls e f r ie n ds 2
1 1 .
pra ctic e / p ra ctis e
It’ s i m porta nt to ................. y o ur E nglis h w henev er p ossib le .
I th in k I n eed m ore ................. b efo re I ta ke th e e xam .
1 2.
pric e le ss / w orth le ss
................. p ain ti n gs b y a rti s ts l ik e V an G ogh a nd R em bra nd t s h o uld n o t b e
in th e h and s o f p riv ate c o lle cto rs .
As i n fla ti o n s p ir a lle d o ut o f c o ntr o l, p ap er m oney s u d denly b ecam e a lm ost
................. .
1 3.
prin cip al / p rin cip le
Many p eo ple r e fu se to e at m eat o n ................. .
She w as a p poin te d U niv ers ity ................. i n 2 009.
The c o untr y ’s ................. f o od p ro ducts a re c o ffe e a nd s u gar.
I b elie v e i n th e ................. th at h ealth care s h o uld b e f r e e f o r e v ery o ne.
1 4.
pro ble m / t r o uble
At n ig ht, th e s tr e ets a re f u ll o f p eo ple f ig hti n g a nd g enera lly c ausin g
................. .
I w as w ond erin g i f y o u c o uld h elp m e w ith a l ittl e ................. I ’ m h av in g.
1 5.
pro ce ss / p ro ce ssio n
The h ig hlig ht o f th e c arn iv al i s a h uge ................. a lo ng th e to w n’s m ain
str e et.
In s o m e c ase s, a p ply in g f o r a v is a c an b e a l o ng a nd f r u str a ti n g ................. .
1 6.
ra is e / r is e
As p ric es ................., d em and u su ally d ro ps.
In r e sp onse to th e o il c ris is , m ost a ir lin es h ad to ................. th eir f a re s.
1 7.
re m em ber / r e m in d
I c an ................. m y f ir s t d ay a t s c ho ol r e ally w ell.
Language te achers o fte n ................. th eir s tu d ents th at th e b est w ay to
re m em ber n ew w ord s i s to u se th em a s m uch a s p ossib le .

18.
re sp ecta ble / r e sp ectfu l
We a ll l is te ned i n ................. s ile nce a s s h e o utl in ed h er p la ns f o r th e
muse um ’s f u tu re .
Every b ody w ants to b rin g th eir c hild re n u p i n a ................. n eig hb ourh o od.
19.
to le ra ble / t o le ra nt
Peo ple n eed to b e m ore ................. o f th eir n eig hb ours , a nd n o t c o m pla in
ev ery ti m e th ey m ake to o m uch n o is e .
The l o cal a uth o riti e s s a y th at th e n o is e f r o m p assin g tr a in s i s ................., b ut
many l iv in g n ear th e r a ilw ay l in es d is a gre e.
20.
tr e at / c u re
Many h o sp ita ls a re s o u nd ers ta ffe d th at th ey a re r e fu sin g to .................
pati e nts w ith m in o r i n ju rie s.
The n ew d ru g w as u nab le to ................. th e d is e ase , a nd h und re d s d ie d a s a
re su lt.

C on te x t & m ea n in g 1
W hen w e s e e a n ew w ord ( in a r e ad in g p assa ge, f o r e xam ple ), w e c an o fte n
w ork o ut w hat i t m eans, o r g et a n
id ea
o f w hat i t m eans, b y l o okin g a t th e
co nte xt i n w hic h i t a p pears ( fo r e xam ple , w hat i s th e
passa ge
a b out, w hat i s
th e
se n te n ce
a b out a nd w hat i n fo rm ati o n c o m es b efo re a nd a fte r th e w ord ?).
Id enti fy in g th e m eanin g o f a w ord f r o m i ts c o nte xt i s a n e sp ecia lly u se fu l
sk ill i n th e I E LT S R ead in g T est.
1 L ook a t t h ese w ord s, a nd a nsw er t h e q uestio ns w hic h f o llo w .
n octu rn al  cit e s  co here n tly   fe at
1 .
With o ut s e ein g th em i n a s e nte nce, d o y o u k no w ( o r c an y o u g uess) w hat
th e w ord s i n th e b ox m ean?
2 .
Now l o ok a t th e w ord s i n th e p assa ge. C an y o u g uess w hat th ey m ean
no w ? I n y o ur o w n w ord s, e xp la in w hat th ey m ig ht m ean.
T he r e m ark ab le s u ccess o f S im on W eb er’s b ook o n o w ls , b ats , f o xes a nd
oth er
noctu rn al
c re atu re s,
A C all i n t h e D ark ,
i s p ro bab ly n o t s u rp ris in g i n
vie w o f th e p opula rity o f h is r e cent te le v is io n s e rie s, ’ N ig ht P ro w le rs ’. I t i s
a v ery th o ro ugh b ook b y a n a uth o r w ho i s a n e xp ert i n h is f ie ld a nd w ho h as
cle arly d one a l o t o f r e se arc h. I n a d diti o n to d esc rib in g h is o w n f in d in gs, h e
cit e s
th e r e se arc h c arrie d o ut b y o th ers , i n clu d in g W rig ht a nd L aw so n i n th e
1990s, a nd d is c usse s w here th ey m ig ht h av e g o ne w ro ng w ith s o m e o f th eir
assu m pti o ns. H e w rite s
co here ntly
o n th e s u b je ct, b egin nin g b y l o okin g a t
basic f a cts b efo re d is c ussin g p ro gre ssiv ely c o m ple x th eo rie s, w ith o ut o nce
co nfu sin g h is r e ad ers . T his i s a r e m ark ab le
fe at,
c o nsid erin g th e c o m ple xity
of th e s u b je ct a nd th e s c ie nce th at i s o fte n i n v olv ed .

noctu rn al:
................................................................................................................................................
cit e s:
................................................................................................................................................
cohere ntly :
................................................................................................................................................
fe at:
................................................................................................................................................
2 L ook a t t h e w ord s in b old in s e nte nce s 1 – 1 5, a nd t r y t o d ecid e w hat
th ey m ean.
1.
The j o urn ey a cro ss th e h ills w as l o ng a nd
ard uous,
m uch o f i t h av in g to b e
done o n f o ot i n te m pera tu re s o f o ver 4 0
° C.
2.
Foxes a re a c o m mon s ig ht i n o ur to w ns a nd c iti e s, w here th ey
fo ra ge
i n
dustb in s, i n g ard ens a nd o n w aste g ro und .
3.
The c ucko o i s a r a re a nd
elu siv e
b ir d w hic h i s o fte n h eard b ut r a re ly s e en.
4.
The r e se arc h th ey c arrie d o ut w as
exhaustiv e,
s o b y th e ti m e th e p ro je ct
was c o m ple te , th ey k new e v ery th in g th ey h ad to k no w a b out th eir s u b je ct.
5.
The h o te l w e s ta yed i n w as a
medio cre
p la ce, w ith s m all r o om s, r a th er
dull f o od a nd a n u nin sp ir in g v ie w o f a c ar p ark .

Con te x t & m ea n in g 1
6 .
Rese arc h s u ggests th at c hild re n a re m ore
re silie nt
th an a d ults w hen i t
co m es to g etti n g o ver a n i lln ess.
7 .
The r o om w as e xtr e m ely u nti d y, w ith
sta ck s
o f b ooks a nd p ile s o f p ap er
all o ver th e f lo or, a nd u nw ash ed c o ffe e c up s o n th e ta b le s.
8 .
He w as a n e xtr e m ely
pro lif ic
a uth o r, w riti n g th re e o r f o ur n o vels a y ear a s
well a s m any s h o rt s to rie s.
9 .
Wate r i s e sse nti a l f o r h um an l ife , s o i t i s
im pera tiv e
w e m ake s u re th at i n
th e f u tu re th ere i s e no ugh f o r e v ery o ne.
1 0.
Atte m pts to
im ple m ent
c hange m et w ith s tr o ng r e sis ta nce a t f ir s t, b ut
gra d ually p eo ple r e alis e d th at th is c hange w as n eed ed .
1 1 .
Many m en s a y th at th ey a re w illin g to s h are th e
burd en
o f d om esti c d uti e s
lik e w ash in g a nd c o okin g, b ut I d oub t th at th ey m ean i t.
1 2.
The b uild in g i s d esig ned to
sw ay
s lig htl y i n s tr o ng w in d s, b ut i t’ s s ti ll a
ra th er f r ig hte nin g s e nsa ti o n w hen y o u a re o n th e u p per f lo ors .
1 3.
Many p eo ple w ould l ik e to o w n a h o use i n th e c ity c entr e , b ut
pro hib it iv e
pro perty p ric es m ean th at v ery f e w o f th em w ould e v er b e a b le to b uy s u ch
a p la ce.
1 4.
The c ity c entr e h as s o m e b eauti fu l o ld b uild in gs, b ut th ere a re s o m e
extr e m ely u gly i n d ustr ia l e sta te s o n th e
fr in ge.
1 5.
Em plo yees a re e nco ura ged to u se th eir
in it ia tiv e
w hen th ey a re f a ced w ith
a p ro ble m a nd th ere i s n o body m ore s e nio r th ere to h elp th em .
3 N ow m atc h t h e w ord s in b old in s e nte nce s 1 – 1 5 a bove w it h t h eir
d efin it io ns ( a ) – ( o ) b elo w .
( a )
A s e rio us o r d iffic ult r e sp onsib ility th at y o u h av e to d eal w ith
burd en
( b )
Pro ducin g a l o t o f th in gs, i d eas, e tc . .................
( c )
The a b ility to d ecid e w hat to d o i n a n i n d ep end ent w ay. .................
( d )
Able to q uic kly b eco m e h ealth y, h ap py o r s tr o ng a gain . .................
( e )
Move o r s w in g s lig htl y f r o m s id e to s id e. .................

(f)
Diffic ult o r i m possib le to c atc h o r f in d . .................
(g )
Make s o m eth in g s u ch a s i n i d ea, p la n, s y ste m , e tc ., s ta rt to w ork .
.................
(h )
Extr e m ely d iffic ult a nd i n v olv in g a l o t o f e ffo rt. .................
(i)
The o ute r e d ge o f s o m eth in g. .................
(j)
So e xp ensiv e th at n o body c an a ffo rd i t. .................
(k )
Tho ro ugh a nd c o m ple te . .................
(l)
To s e arc h i n a w id e a re a f o r s o m eth in g, e sp ecia lly f o od. .................
(m )
Pile s o f th in gs p la ced o ne o n to p o f a no th er. .................
(n )
Extr e m ely i m porta nt a nd u rg ent. .................
(o )
Avera ge o r b elo w a v era ge. .................

C on te x t & m ea n in g 2
1 R ead t h ese s e nte nce s c a re fu lly , a nd d ecid e if t h e d efin it io ns in
ita lic s
o f
t h e w ord s in b old a re
co rre ct
o r
in co rre ct
. I f t h ey a re in co rre ct, t r y t o g iv e
a c o rre ct d efin it io n. T he f ir st o ne h as b een d one a s a n e xam ple .
1 .
I’ m w orrie d th at a l a ck o f s u ita b le q ualific ati o ns w ill
hin der
m y s e arc h
fo r a j o b.
Help s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g, o r m ake s o m eth in g e a sie r.
C orre ct /
In co rre ct
Hin der m ea ns t o s to p s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g f r o m m akin g p ro gre ss o r
develo pin g.
2 .
Rese arc h w as g o in g w ell, b ut th ere w as a r is k th at c uts in fu nd in g w ould
je opard is e
th e e nti r e p ro je ct.
Ris k d am agin g o r d estr o yin g s o m eth in g i m porta nt.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
3 .
When y o u
addre ss
a m eeti n g, it is im porta nt to s p eak c le arly , c o nfid entl y
and a t a g o od p ace.
Write a l e tte r t o s o m eo ne.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
4 .
The v illa s w ere b asic ally
flim sy
w ooden h uts th at s h o ok e v ery ti m e th ere
was a b it o f w in d .
Str o ng a nd w ell b uilt o r m ade.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
5 .
Alth o ugh se v era l sp ecie s o f tu rtl e c an b e fo und in re la ti v ely c o ol se as,
warm w ate r p ro vid es th e
optim al
c o nd iti o ns f o r b re ed in g.
The b est o r m ost s u ita ble w ith in a r a nge o f p ossib ilitie s.
C orre ct /
In co rre ct
6 .
It can b e v ery d iffic ult fo r im mig ra nts to
in te gra te
in to lo cal so cie ty ,
esp ecia lly i f th ere a re m ark ed c ultu ra l d iffe re nces.
Meet p eo ple o r m ake u se fu l c o nta cts .
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
7 .
Fro m th e
outs e t
o f th e exp ed iti o n th ey knew th ey w ere go in g to hav e
pro ble m s, s o i t w as n o s u rp ris e w hen o nly tw o d ays l a te r th in gs s ta rte d to

go v ery w ro ng.
The e n d o f s o m eth in g.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
8.
He w as a ta le nte d y o ung film d ir e cto r w ho se u niq ue a nd
in novativ e
s ty le
in sp ir e d g enera ti o ns o f f ilm s tu d ents .
Diffic u lt t o u ndersta nd.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
9.
The b uild in g is 2 00 m etr e s ta ll a nd
ta pers
g entl y to a p oin t, g iv in g it th e
ap peara nce o f a th in , g la ss p yra m id .
Gra dually b eco m es w id er t o w ard s o ne e n d.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
10.
There a re o ne o r tw o s im ila riti e s b etw een m y c o untr y a nd th e U K , b ut o n
th e w ho le th ey a re so
dis p ara te
th at it is d iffic ult to fin d a ny c o m mon
gro und .
Havin g m any d iffe re n ces.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
11 .
Most modern fu rn itu re is fu ncti o nal but no t esp ecia lly
aesth etic ,
esp ecia lly w hen c o m pare d w ith s o m e o f th e b eauti fu l a nd e le gant d esig ns
of th e p ast.
Chea p b ut c o m fo rta ble .
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
12.
Sho ps k no w th at th ey c an a ttr a ct m ore c usto m ers i f th ey h av e a l a rg e
arra y
of c o lo urfu l p ro ducts o n d is p la y b y o r n ear th e m ain e ntr a nce.
A l a rg e g ro up o f p eo ple o r t h in gs.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct

Con te x t & m ea n in g 2
2 N ow d o t h e s a m e w it h t h ese .
1 .
The tr a ck h as a
co arse
s u rfa ce, p ro vid in g b ette r g rip f o r b ic ycle ty re s a nd
makin g th em l e ss l ik ely to s k id o n ti g ht c o rn ers .
Soft a nd s m ooth .
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
2 .
The id ea o f a tu nnel u nd er th e s e a w as fir s t
pro pagate d
b y e ngin eers in
th e n in ete enth c entu ry , b ut it w as a lm ost 2 00 y ears b efo re it b ecam e a
re ality .
Desig ned a nd b uilt.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
3 .
Every o ne w as in fa v our o f m akin g th e c ity c entr e tr a ffic fr e e, b ut p ub lic
opin io n
sh if te d
w hen lo cals re alis e d th at vehic le s w ould need to be
div erte d th ro ugh r e sid enti a l a re as.
Changed o r m oved .
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
4 .
Peo ple lik e th e n ew s y ste m , b ut b ecause o f th e c o sts in v olv ed w e d o n o t
belie v e i t i s
via ble ,
a nd w e n eed to l o ok f o r o th er o pti o ns.
Popula r w ith p eo ple .
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
5 .
Som e of Shakesp eare ’s pla ys are ofte n
attr ib ute d
to oth er w rite rs ,
alth o ugh m ore r e cent r e se arc h s u ggests th at th ey w ere a ll h is o w n w ork .
Giv en t o s o m eo ne e ls e a s a g ift, d onatio n, e tc .
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
6 .
Alth o ugh th e in v ento r h ad a
pate nt
fo r h is n ew p ro duct, o th er c o m panie s
ra p id ly b egan c o pyin g a nd s e llin g i t, a nd h e w as f o rc ed to ta ke l e gal a cti o n
again st th em .
An a w ard o r p riz e .
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
7 .
Spid ers u su ally tr a p th eir
pre y
i n w eb s, b ut o th ers a cti v ely h unt f o r i t.
An a nim al t h at i s c a ught a nd e a te n b y a noth er a nim al.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
8 .
Som e illn esse s a re se rio us e no ugh to re q uir e m ed ic al tr e atm ent, b ut fo r
min o r h ealth p ro ble m s, a v is it to th e d octo r i s u su ally n o t
warra nte d.

To b e u nable t o d o s o m eth in g.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
9.
We n eed to c o m e u p w ith a
ra dic a l
s o lu ti o n to th e p ro ble m o f c rim e i n o ur
to w ns a nd c iti e s, s in ce e v ery th in g e ls e s e em s to h av e f a ile d .
New a nd v ery d iffe re n t f r o m t h e u su al w ay.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
10.
Durin g th e meeti n g, w e mad e pro gre ss on
perip hera l
is su es, but
unfo rtu nate ly w e f a ile d to d eal w ith th e i s su es th at h ad b een c ausin g u s th e
most p ro ble m s.
The m ain o r m ost i m porta nt p art o f s o m eth in g.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
11 .
I h ate f ly in g, a nd n o th in g c o uld
in duce
m e to g et o n a n a ero pla ne.
Sto p o r p re ven t s o m eth in g.
C orre ct / I n co rre ct
12.
There w ere s e v era l s m all p ro ble m s w ith th e o rig in al d ev ic e, a nd i t n eed ed
to b e
re fin ed
s lig htl y b efo re i t c o uld g o o n s a le .
Turn ed o ff a nd t h en o n a gain .
C orre ct / I n co rre ct

C on te x t & m ea n in g 3
Som eti m es, i n a d diti o n to i ts c o nte xt, w e c an w ork o ut w hat a w ord m eans
fr o m ‘ c lu es’ i n th e w ord i ts e lf. T hese c lu es a re u su ally i n th e f o rm o f o ne o r
tw o w ord s ( o r p arts o f w ord s) th at w e a lr e ad y k no w , o fte n w ith th e a d diti o n
of p re fix es a nd / o r s u ffix es.
For e xam ple :
H ealt h ca re
= h ealth + c are
The t o w n l a cks b asic
hea lth ca re
f a cilitie s, s o p eo ple h ave t o t r a vel m any
m ile s t o s e e a d octo r.
D efo re sta tio n
= d e + f o re st + a ti o n.
D efo re sta tio n
h as r e su lte d i n t h e d estr u ctio n o f t h ousa nds o f a cre s o f
tr o pic a l f o re st.
Facia l
= f a ce + i a l ( th e e i s r e m oved )
The c o m pany s ta rte d o ff p ro ducin g a r a nge o f
fa cia l
c le a nse rs a nd
m ois tu ris e rs w hic h h ad n ot b een t e ste d o n a nim als .
1 C an y ou w ork o ut w hat t h e w ord s in b old in t h ese s e nte nce s m ean?
C heck y our a nsw ers a t t h e b ack o f t h e b ook .
1 .
The c o untr y i s v ery p oor, a nd o ne i n s e v en c hild re n d ie s i n
in fa ncy.
2 .
All th e e m plo yees a re a sk ed to p ro duce a w ritte n e v alu ati o n o f th eir
perfo rm ance a nd h and i t to th e
perso nnel
m anager.
3 .
The n ew d ru g d oes n o t c ure th e i lln ess, b ut c an
pro lo ng
th e p ati e nt’ s l ife
by u p to f iv e y ears .
4 .
The f a rm w as o n to p o f a
win dsw ept
h ill, m ile s f r o m th e n eare st to w n.
5 .
Oil p ric es i n cre ase d
th re efo ld
o ver a f iv e-y ear p erio d.
6 .
The h is to ric al d ocum ent h as b een e xam in ed b y s e v era l d is ti n guis h ed

sc h ola rs,
b ut n o ne o f th em c an te ll i f i t i s g enuin e o r f a ke.
7.
When y o u d eliv er th e p ackage, m ake s u re th at th e
re cip ie nt
s ig ns f o r i t.
8.
The
ce ntr e pie ce
o f th e n ew m use um i s a H enry M oore s c ulp tu re th at w as
bought f r o m a p riv ate c o lle cto r.
9.
The c ity o ffe rs a
mult it u de
o f i n te re sti n g a nd e xciti n g a cti v iti e s f o r p eo ple
of a ll a ges.
10.
Govern m ent s ta ti s ti c s o n th e
num era cy
s k ills o f te n-y ear-o ld s s u ggests
th at m ore e m phasis n eed s to b e p la ced o n th e te achin g o f m ath em ati c s i n
sc ho ol.
11 .
The a v era ge
lif e sp an
o f a n e le p hant i s 6 0 – 7 0 y ears .
12.
Sev era l i n te re sti n g o bje cts w ere f o und d urin g th e a rc haeo lo gic al d ig , b ut
no ne o f th em w ere o f a ny g re at
moneta ry
v alu e.

Con te x t & m ea n in g 3
1 3.
Fro m th e to p o f th e to w er, w e l o oked o ut o ver a c ity o f i n cre d ib le
gra ndeur.
1 4.
Fro m a tr a v elle r’s
sta ndpoin t,
th e c o m peti ti o n b etw een a ir lin es to w in
custo m ers i s a g o od th in g.
2 N ow d o t h e s a m e w it h t h ese .
1 .
The c ity w as o ver 6 0 m ile s f r o m th e
epic e ntr e
o f th e e arth q uake, b ut s ti ll
su ffe re d s u b sta nti a l d am age.
2 .
In s o m e c ase s, h o sp ita l
outp atie nts
h av e to w ait o ver th re e h o urs to s e e a
docto r.
3 .
To m any, th e e v id ence h e p ro vid ed d id n o t
valid ate
h is c la im th at th e
Earth m oved a ro und th e S un.
4 .
Many m ed ic al p ro fe ssio nals a re c o ncern ed a b out th e
wid esp re ad
u se o f
anti b io ti c s to tr e at m in o r m ed ic al c o nd iti o ns.
5 .
Modern
se afa re rs
r e ly o n m odern te chno lo gy to h elp th em n av ig ate th e
oceans.
6 .
Afte r th e a ccid ent, h e te m pora rily l o st
sp atia l
a w are ness, a nd c o uld o nly
pic k u p o bje cts w hen h e c lo se d o ne e ye.
7 .
A
monora il
c o nnects th e a ir p ort w ith th e c ity , ta kin g v is ito rs i n to th e h eart
of th e c ity i n l e ss th an 2 0 m in ute s.
8 .
A n ew d ev ic e w hic h s ti m ula te s th e
audit o ry
a re as o f th e b ra in o ffe rs h o pe
to th o se w ho h av e s e rio us h earin g p ro ble m s.
9 .
I d on’t c o nsid er m yse lf to b e p arti c ula rly
in dustr io us,
b ut w hen I ’ m g iv en
a j o b, I m ake s u re i t g ets d one.

10.
When, o n h is 1 04
th
b ir th d ay, h e w as a sk ed a b out th e s e cre t to h is
lo ngevit y ,
h e r e p lie d th at h e o nly e v er a te r a w v egeta b le s a nd h ad n ev er
sm oked .
11 .
The n ew a ir lin er i s m ore e nv ir o nm enta lly -fr ie nd ly th an o th er a ir c ra ft, i ts
only
dra w back
b ein g i ts l im ite d f ly in g r a nge.
12.
The M use um o f C onte m pora ry A rt
sh ow ca se s
a ll th at i s b est a b out m odern
art.
13.
The A la sk an
wild ern ess
i s n o t a p la ce y o u w ant to b e w hen w in te r c o m es.
14.
In th is r e m ote , p overty -s tr ic ken a re a, o nly a f e w c hild re n g o to s c ho ol, a nd
co nse q uentl y a b out a q uarte r o f th e c o untr y ’s p opula ti o n i s
illit e ra te .

C on tr a st & c o m paris o n
C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h t h e m ost a ppro pria te w ord o r p hra se f r o m
A , B o r C .
1 .
The tw o m achin es
diffe r
c o nsid era b ly . O ne h as a n e le ctr ic m oto r, th e o th er
ru ns o n o il.
A. d if fe r
B. d if fe re n tia te
C. d if fe re n tia l
2 .
The ........................................ in w eath er b etw een th e n o rth a nd th e s o uth
of th e c o untr y i s v ery n o ti c eab le .
A. c om paris o n
B. c on tr a st
C. c om pare
3 .
Many p eo ple c anno t ................................ b etw een le m on ju ic e a nd lim e
ju ic e.
A. d if fe r
B. d if fe re n tia te
C. c on tr a st
4 .
Child re n m ust b e ta ught to ................................ b etw een r ig ht a nd w ro ng.
A. d if fe r
B. c on tr a st
C. d is tin guis h
5 .
There is a ................................ b etw een b ein g in te re ste d in p oliti c s a nd
jo in in g a p oliti c al p arty .
A. d is tin guis h
B. d is tin ctiv e
C. d is tin ctio n
6 .
Can y o u te ll th e ................................ b etw een a g o od b oss a nd a b ad o ne?
A. d if fe re n ce
B. d if fe re n tia te
C. c on tr a st
7 .
The m anagem ent m ust n o t ................................ b etw een m ale a nd fe m ale
ap plic ants .
A. d if fe r
B. c on tr a st
C. d is c rim in ate
8 .
Asia c o vers a h uge a re a. ................................, E uro pe i s v ery s m all.
A. B y w ay o f c on tr a st
B. B y w ays o f c om parin g
C. B y s im ila r m ea ns
9 .
The n ew m odel o f c ar i s v ery ................................ to th e o ld o ne.
A. s a m e
B. s im ila r
C. c om mon
1 0.
Her p oliti c al o pin io ns a re ................................ to m in e.
A. s a m e
B. e x actly
C. id en tic a l
1 1 .
Som e p oliti c al p arti e s h av e s u ch s im ila r m anife sto es th at th ey a re d iffic ult
to .................................

A. te ll a part
B. s a y a part
C. s p ea k a part
12.
My fr ie nd s a nd I e njo y d oin g m any o f th e s a m e th in gs. In th at r e sp ect, w e
hav e a l o t .................................
A. in s im ila r
B. in p artic u la r
C. in c om mon
13.
There se em s to b e a la rg e ................................ b etw een th e num ber o f
peo ple e m plo yed i n s e rv ic e i n d ustr ie s, a nd th o se e m plo yed i n th e p rim ary
se cto r.
A. d is c rim in ate
B. d is c re tio n
C. d is c re p ancy
14.
The n ati o n’s e co no m y i s l a rg ely b ase d o n i ts i n d ustr y , ................................
a f e w h und re d y ears a go i t w as a n a gra ria n c o untr y .
A. w hile
B. w here a s
C. w here by
15.
Briti s h and A ustr a lia n peo ple sh are th e sa m e la nguage, but in oth er
re sp ects th ey a re a s d iffe re nt a s .................................
A. c a ts a nd d og s
B. c h alk a nd c h eese
C. s a lt a nd p ep per

Em phasis & m is u nders ta n din g
1 ( E m phasis ) M atc h t h e s e nte nce s o n t h e le ft w it h a n a ppro pria te
s e nte nce o n t h e r ig ht.
1 .
The c om mit te e’s
em phasis
o n th e w ord
‘re cyclin g’ w as n otic eable .
A.
Som e, h ow ever, a re
em phatic
th at m ore
re se arc h n eeds to b e c arrie d o ut.
2 .
Our g uid e
acce ntu ate d
th e im porta nce o f
re m ain in g c alm if th ere w as tr o uble .
B.
She
em phasis e d
th e f a ct th at p anic kin g
would o nly m ake m atte rs w ors e .
3 .
Our te acher e xpla in ed th at it w as
cru cia lly
im porta n t
to p ace o urs e lv es w hile r e vis in g f o r
th e e xam .
C.
The m ain s p eaker
gav e p ro m in ence
in h is
sp eech to th e n eed f o r b ette r jo b
opportu nit ie s.
4 .
At th e c onfe re nce, th e
acce nt
w as o n
unem plo ym ent.
D.
We c onsid er p ro gre ss in th is f ie ld to b e
extr e m ely im porta n t.
5 .
Pro m in ent
s c ie ntis ts h ave s ta te d th at g enetic ally
modif ie d f o od is p ro bably p erfe ctly s a fe .
E.
He
put g re at s tr e ss
o n th e m axim th at ‘ A ll
work a nd n o p la y m akes J a ck a d ull b oy’.
6 .
It is
of c ru cia l im porta n ce
th at w e m ake m ore
use o f te chnolo gy if w e a re to m ake p ro gre ss.
F.
They
str e sse d
a gain a nd a gain th e
im porta nce o f r e usin g th in gs a s m uch a s
possib le .
2 ( E m phasis ) C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a w ord o r p hra se in b old f r o m
e xerc is e 1 . Y ou m ay n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f t h e w ord o r p hra se . I n
s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
1 .
Pain ti n g th e b uild in g w hite d id n o t m ake i t l o ok a ny b ette r. I n f a ct, i t o nly
.................................. i ts u glin ess.
2 .
The r u gged h ills a re a ................................................... f e atu re o f th e
la nd sc ap e
3 .
At th e m eeti n g o f th e S tu d ents ’ C ouncil, th e
................................................... w as o n b ette r s ta nd ard s o f
acco m modati o n.
4 .
The M in is te r o f T ra nsp ort ................................................... o n th e n eed f o r
an i n te gra te d tr a nsp ort p olic y.
5 .
It i s ................................................... th at w e tr y to i m pro ve r e la ti o ns

betw een o ur c o untr ie s.
6.
She b anged th e ta b le f o r ................................................... a s s h e s p oke.
3 ( M is u ndersta ndin g) C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a n a ppro pria te w ord
or e xpre ssio n f r o m t h e b ox. I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is
possib le .
assu m ed   co nfu se d   co nfu sio n  im pre ssio n 
mis a p pre h en sio n  mis ta k en   mix -u p  obsc u re
1.
I w as c o m ple te ly .................................. b y h is e xp la nati o n, a nd h ad to a sk
so m eo ne e ls e w hat h e m eant.
2.
There w ere s c enes o f ............................... a t th e a ir p ort w hen th e
sn o w sto rm s to pped a ll th e f lig hts .
3.
We n early d id n’t c atc h o ur f lig ht b ecause o f a .................................. o ver
th e ti c kets .
4.
There a re s e v era l .................................. p oin ts i n y o ur e ssa y. I t’ s n o t v ery
cle ar.
5.
He w as u nd er th e .................................. th at s o cia lis m a nd c o m munis m
were th e s a m e th in g.
6.
We a ll .................................., w ro ngly a s i t tu rn ed o ut, th at w e w ould b e
in te rv ie w ed i n d iv id ually .
7.
Many p eo ple a re .................................. i n th e b elie f th at o rg anic f o od i s
bette r f o r y o u th an c o nv enti o nally -g ro w n f o od.
8.
She g av e u s th e .................................. th at w e h ad d one s o m eth in g to u p se t
her, a lth o ugh w e h ad d one n o th in g o f th e s o rt.

F ocu sin g a tte n tio n
1 R earra nge t h e le tte rs in b old t o f o rm w ord s w hic h a re u se d t o f o cu s
a tte ntio n o n s o m eth in g. T hey a ll e nd w it h t h e le tte rs - ly . W rit e t h e w ord s
i n t h e g rid u ndern eath . I f y ou d o it c o rre ctly , y ou w ill f in d a noth er w ord
u se d t o f o cu s a tte ntio n in t h e b old v ertic a l b ox.
1 .
They r e d uced p ollu ti o n
psim ly
b y b annin g c ars f r o m th e c ity c entr e d urin g
th e r u sh h o ur.
2 .
I c o m e f r o m a
gale rly
r u ra l c o m munity w here l ife m oves a t a s lo w er p ace.
3 .
We’re
iim pra rly
e xam in in g th e f in ancia l a sp ects o f th e c ase .
4 .
Peo ple
in am ly
g o o n h o lid ay i n th e s u m mer.
5 .
The c o lle ge l ib ra ry i s
ve ceslx u ily
f o r th e u se o f s tu d ents a nd s ta ff.
6 .
It’ s a
ila pta rrc u ly
d iffic ult p ro ble m w hic h w e h o p e to r e so lv e a s s o on a s
possib le .
7 .
The a d verti s e m ent i s
elc if ip csa ly
a im ed a t p eo ple o ver 5 0.
8 .
Som e w este rn c o untr ie s,
otb an ly
C anad a a nd th e U nite d S ta te s, h av e a
very h ig h s ta nd ard o f l iv in g.
9 .
The to uris ts w ho v is it m y to w n a re
sto m ly
A ustr a lia n.
1 0.
Our tr ip to P ola nd w as
rp eu ly
a n e d ucati o nal v is it.
1 1 .
My h o m e to w n i s f a m ous
hfie cly
f o r i ts l a rg e n um ber o f s c ho ols a nd
co lle ges.

The w ord i n th e i n th e b old v erti c al b ox f its i n to th is s e nte nce:
The c o m pany t r a des ................................................... in t h e F ar E ast.
2 D iv id e t h e w ord s a bove in to t w o g ro ups, o ne g ro up b ein g t h e w ord s
whic h m ean
on ly
o r
so le ly ,
a nd o ne g ro up b ein g t h e w ord s w hic h m ean
in
most c a se s
, norm ally
o r
th e m ain r e a so n f o r s o m eth in g
.

Gen era lis a tio n s & s p ecif ic s
1 M atc h t h e s e nte nce s in t h e f ir st lis t b elo w w it h a n a ppro pria te s e nte nce
i n t h e s e co nd lis t o n t h e n ext p age. T he
underlin ed w ord s a n d p h ra se s
in
t h e f ir st lis t s h ould h ave a s im ila r m eanin g t o t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old
i n t h e s e co nd lis t. W rit e t h e s e nte nce le tte r ( A , B , C , e tc .) f r o m t h e s e co nd
l is t a fte r t h e r e le vant s e nte nce in t h e f ir st lis t.
F IR ST L IS T
1 .
Sm all i te m s o f i n fo rm atio n
a re v ery i m porta nt i n a c urric ulu m v ita e
D
2 .
I n eed to h av e
pre cis e i n fo rm atio n
a b out y o ur n ew p ro posa ls . …
3 .
The p la n w as u nab le to g o a head b ecause o f a
sm all i m porta n t d eta il
whic h i s i m porta n t i n o rd er t o m ake s o m eth in g h appen
. … .
4 .
He d em and ed to k no w th e
sm all, p re cis e a n d s o m etim es u nim porta n t
deta ils
. … .
5 .
When y o u r e ad a p ie ce o f te xt i n th e e xam , y o u s h o uld r e ad i t q uic kly f ir s t
to g et th e
gen era l i d ea
. … .
6 .
Befo re y o u w rite a n e ssa y, y o u s h o uld p la n i t f ir s t a nd g iv e a b ro ad
desc rip tio n w ith ou t g iv in g m uch d eta il
. …
7 .
Odd f e a tu re s o r d eta ils w hic h m ake s o m eth in g d if fe re n t
m ake th e
world a m ore i n te re sti n g p la ce. … .
8 .
Sayin g th at a ll y o ung p eo ple s p end to o m uch ti m e o n th e I n te rn et i s a b it o f
a
gen era l s ta te m en t
. … .
9 .
Many c ars h av e v ery s im ila r
ty p ic a l f e a tu re s
. … .
1 0.
The h uge r is e i n c o m pute r s a le s i s a g o od
ex am ple
o f th e d ir e cti o n i n

whic h te chno lo gy i s h ead in g. … .
11 .
Norm ally ,
m ost s tu d ents s itti n g th e e xam m anage to p ass w ith a g o od
gra d e. … .
12.
The n ew l ib ra ry
sh ow s a g ood e x am ple o f
B riti s h a rc hite ctu re a t i ts b est.
….
13.
Befo re y o u tr a v el s o m ew here , i t i s i m porta nt to
make a d eta ile d l is t o f
th in gs th at y o u n eed to ta ke. … .
14.
Fre nch f r ie s w ith m ayo nnais e i s a d is h w hic h i s
an o dd f e a tu re o r d eta il
of
B elg ia n c uis in e. … .
15.
The a rti c le
sh ow s a s a n e x am ple
h is v ie w s o n th e w ay th e c o m pany
sh o uld d ev elo p. … .

G en era lis a tio n s & s p ecif ic s
S E CO ND L IS T
A .
Ple ase l e t m e h av e
th e s p ecif ic s
a s s o on a s p ossib le .
B .
It’ s v ery f r u str a ti n g w hen a m in o r
te ch nic a lit y
p uts a s to p to y o ur p la ns.
C .
In th e s a m e w ay, k im chii i s a c o nco cti o n o f c ab bage, c hilli a nd g arlic
whic h i s
pecu lia r t o
K ore a.
D .
You s h o uld i n clu d e f u ll
deta ils
o f y o ur p ast e xp erie nce.
E .
Once y o u h av e a n
outlin e,
y o u w ill d is c o ver th at y o ur w ork i s e asie r to
org anis e .
F .
We m ust b e c are fu l n o t to m ake th is k in d o f
genera lis a tio n
.
G .
Ite m is e
e v ery th in g i n o rd er o f i m porta nce, b egin nin g w ith y o ur p assp ort
and v is a .
H .
As f a r a s h e w as c o ncern ed , th e
min utia e
c o uld n o t b e o verlo oked .
I .
Most m anufa ctu re rs a re a w are th at th ese
ch ara cte ris tic s
a re w hat h elp s e ll
th eir p ro duct.
J .
It a ls o p ro vid es u s w ith a n a ccura te
illu str a tio n
o f th e a d vances w e h av e
mad e i n th e l a st 2 0 y ears .
K .
It
illu str a te s
h is p re fe re nce f o r i n cre ase d a uto m ati o n.
L .
Once y o u h av e th e
gis t
, i t s h o uld b e e asie r to u nd ers ta nd i t.
M .
It
exem plif ie s
th e s ty le th at i s b eco m in g i n cre asin gly p opula r w ith to w n
pla nners .

N.
In
genera l
, th e a v era ge r e su lt i s a B o r C .
O.
For e xam ple , i t i s o ne o f th e
pecu lia rit ie s
o f th e B riti s h s y ste m th at j u d ges
and l a w yers w ear w ig s i n c o urt.
2 P ut t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s a bove in to t h e t a ble b elo w , b ase d o n w heth er
th ey a re t a lk in g a bout
sp ecif ic
t h in gs o r
gen era l
t h in gs. T hen t r y t o u se
th e w ord s in s e nte nce s o f y our o w n.

Gro u ps
1 P ut t h ese w ord s in to t h e t a ble b ase d o n t h e t h in gs t h ey u su ally r e fe r t o .
b atc h    bunch    bundle    cast   co m pan y   
c re w    
cro w d
  flo ck   gan g   gro up   
h erd    huddle    pile    lit te r   pack    
p la to on   se t  sh oal   sta ck    sta ff    
sw arm    te am    th ro ng
2 C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s u sin g o ne o f t h e w ord s f r o m E xerc is e 1 . Y ou
m ay n eed t o m ak e y our a nsw er p lu ra l, a nd in s o m e c a se s m ore t h an o ne
a nsw er is p ossib le .
1 .
A ................. o f ju st 2 5 d air y c o w s c an p ro duce o ver a th o usa nd litr e s o f
milk a d ay.
2 .
Ju st b ecause a film h as a ........ ......... o f w ell- k no w n a cto rs , it d oes n o t
necessa rily m ean i t w ill b e s u ccessfu l.
3 .
Durin g th e ra in y se aso n, h uge ................. o f m osq uito es m ake life v ery
unco m fo rta b le f o r th e l o cal r e sid ents .
4 .
Shelf s p ace in th e lib ra ry is s o lim ite d th at th ere a re ................. o f b ooks
all o ver th e f lo or.
5 .
The c o ra l r e ef i s h o m e to ................. o f c o lo urfu l f is h .

6.
Air lin e c ab in ................. d o m uch m ore th an j u st s e rv e f o od to p asse ngers .
7.
A s im ple ................. o f to ols c an c o st th e e q uiv ale nt o f a m onth ’s w ages
fo r s o m e.
8.
The c o lle ge e m plo ys a ................. o f a b out 2 00.
9.
A ................. o f f lo w ers i s a lw ays a n a ccep ta b le g ift i f y o u v is it s o m eo ne.
10.
Durin g N ati o nal D ay cele b ra ti o ns, an eno rm ous ................. of peo ple
desc end ed o n th e c ity ’s m ain s q uare .
11 .
In s o m e a re as o f th e c ity , ................. o f w ild d ogs r o am th e s tr e ets a t n ig ht
12.
A s m all ................. o f p eo ple s a t u nd er th e tr e e, tr y in g to k eep w arm a nd
dry .
13.
You k no w w in te r is a rriv in g w hen h uge ................. o f g eese a nd o th er
bir d s c an b e s e en h ead in g s o uth .
14.
The b re ad o ven c an p ro duce a ................. o f 2 00 l o av es e v ery h o ur.
15.
Hund re d s o f m ig ra nt w ork ers a rriv e in th e c ity e v ery d ay, m any c arry in g
no m ore th an a s m all ................. o f c lo th es a nd o th er p ers o nal p osse ssio ns.
16.
................. o f y o uth s c an o fte n b e s e en h angin g a ro und o n s tr e et c o rn ers
lo okin g f o r tr o ub le .

H ow s o m eth in g w ork s
1 C om ple te t h e d esc rip tio ns o f h ow t h ese o bje cts w ork w it h t h e c o rre ct
f o rm o f t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b oxes. I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne
a nsw er m ay b e p ossib le .
1 .
A th erm osta t
ad ju st  ben d  co nnect  co nta in   co ntr a ct  co ol
dow n d is c o nnect  ex pan d  heat u p  tu rn o ff
A th erm osta t
co nta in s
a s tr ip o r c o il o f s te el a nd a s tr ip o r c o il o f c o pper,
one o n to p o f th e o th er. A s th e s tr ip / c o il ................., th e m eta ls .................,
but o ne d oes i t f a ste r th an th e o th er. T he s tr ip / c o il ................. a nd
................. w ith a s w itc h, w hic h ................. th e p ow er s u p ply . W hen th e
str ip / c o il ................., th e m eta ls ................. a nd th e s w itc h i s .................
The th erm osta t i s ................. u sin g a d ia l o r o th er c o ntr o l.
2 .
A d is c p la yer
co nve rt  decre ase   hear  in cre ase   in se rt 
re p la ce  sp in s tr ik e  vie w
A d is c p la yer ( fo r e xam ple , i n a c o m pute r) h as s e v era l c o m ponent p arts . A
dis c i s ................. i n to th e p la yer a nd b egin s to .................. A t th e s a m e
ti m e, a th in b eam o f l ig ht c alle d a l a se r ................. th e d is c a nd .................
dig ita l s ig nals i n to s o und s o r i m ages, w hic h c an b e ................. th ro ugh
sp eakers o r ................. o n a s c re en. V olu m e o r b rig htn ess c an b e .................
or ................. b y m eans o f a b utto n, k no b o r o th er c o ntr o l. N ow ad ays, d is c s
are l a rg ely b ein g ................. b y s to ra ge d ev ic es l ik e m em ory s ti c ks, w hic h
hav e n o m ovin g p arts .
3 .
An a ero so l
co m pre ss  ex pan d  le ave   mix   open   push  

re le ase
In a n a ero so l, l iq uid a nd g as a re ................. i n a m eta l a nd / o r h ard p la sti c
tu b e. T his c an b e ................. f r o m th e tu b e b y ................. a b utto n, w hic h
................. a v alv e. W hen th e l iq uid -g as c o m bin ati o n ................. th e tu b e
and ................. w ith o xygen, i t r a p id ly ..................
4.
An a ir c ra ft
accele ra te   cre ate   flo w   fo rm   mad e  move  
pull  pro duce
Most a ir c ra ft a re ................. o f a lu m in iu m , a nd r e q uir e tw o f o rc es to a llo w
th em to f ly : th ru st a nd l ift. A s th e a ir c ra ft ................. f o rw ard o n th e g ro und
und er th e p ow er o f i ts e ngin es, a ir ................. o ver th e w in gs. A s i t
................. f a ste r, ................. m ore th ru st, a v acuum i s ................. o ver th e
win gs. T his ................. l ift. T he a ir c ra ft i s ................. i n to th e a ir b y th e
fo rc e o f th is l ift.
5.
A d ig ita l c am era
ad ju st  co nsis t  co ntr o l  dow nlo ad   en te r  hit  
open   pre ss
re co rd   sto re
A d ig ita l c am era ................. o f tw o m ain p arts : a b ody a nd a l e ns. W hen a
butto n i s ................. o n th e b ody, a w in d ow i n th e l e ns c alle d a
sh utte r
................. a nd l ig ht ................. th e c am era . T he a m ount o f l ig ht g o in g i n to
th e c am era i s ................. b y b oth th e s p eed o f th is s h utte r, a nd a s m alle r
win d ow c alle d a n
apertu re .
B oth th e s h utte r s p eed a nd th e s iz e o f th e
ap ertu re c an b e ................. b y th e p ers o n u sin g th e c am era . T he l ig ht
................. a s e nso r i n th e b ody o f th e c am era , w hic h ................. th e l ig ht a s
a d ig ita l i m age. T he i m age i s ................. o n a m em ory c ard i n th e c am era ,
and th is c an l a te r b e ................. o n to a c o m pute r.

J o in in g / b eco m in g p art o f s o m eth in g
b ig ger
T he s e nte nce s b elo w a ll c o nta in a w ord o r p hra se in
it a lic s
w hic h is r e la te d
t o t h e id ea o f t w o o r m ore t h in gs j o in in g t o geth er, s o m etim es w it h t h e
r e su lt t h at t h ey b eco m e p art o f s o m eth in g b ig ger. H ow ever, t h e w ord s a nd
p hra se s h ave a ll b een p ut in to t h e w ro ng s e nte nce . P ut t h em in to t h eir
c o rre ct s e nte nce . I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
1 W rit e t h e c o rre ct v erb a t t h e e nd o f e ach s e nte nce .
1 .
His s a la ry i s
merg ed
diffe r
2 .
The I n te rn ati o nal B ook A sso cia ti o n
ble nded
w ith U niv ers a l P re ss i n 2 010
to f o rm th e I n te rn ati o nal P re ss. .................
3 .
To g et a b ette r f in is h , h e
sw allo w ed u p
th e tw o p ain ts to geth er. .................
4 .
The fir m
in te gra te d
w ith its m ain c o m peti to r in th e b attl e to w in m ore
custo m ers . .................
5 .
The su ggesti o ns fr o m a ll th e c o m mitte es w ere
to ok o ver
in to th e m ain
pro posa l. .................
6 .
The im mig ra nts fa ced h o sti lity w hen th ey w ere fir s t
in co rp ora te d
in to th e
co m munity . .................
7 .
A l o t o f s tu d ents h ad p ro ble m s b efo re th ey
am alg am ate d
i n to c o lle ge l ife .
.................
8 .
When th e l a rg e i n te rn ati o nal c o lle ge
got t o geth er
th e s m alle r s c ho ol, a l o t
of p eo ple l o st th eir j o bs. .................
9 .
The stu d ents
lin k ed
one ev enin g and decid ed to pro te st ab out th eir
situ ati o n. .................
1 0.
A la rg e in te rn ati o nal c o m pany
assim ila te d
o ur fir m la st m onth a nd s ta rte d
makin g i m med ia te c hanges. .................
2 W rit e t h e c o rre ct n oun a t t h e e nd o f e ach s e nte nce .

1.
The
allo y
b etw een E ngla nd a nd F ra nce c am e c lo se to b re akin g d ow n m any
ti m es d urin g th e n in ete enth c entu ry . .................
2.
The
syn th esis
b etw een E ngla nd a nd S co tl a nd i s o ver 3 00 y ears o ld .
.................
3.
Last y ear, th e th re e r e gio nal o rg anis a ti o ns r e sp onsib le f o r h elp in g
ho m ele ss p eo ple f o rm ed a n ati o nal
ble n d
to h elp a nd s u p port o ne a no th er.
.................
4.
Bra ss i s a w ell- k no w n
allia n ce
o f c o pper a nd z in c. .................
5.
Wate r i s a
co alitio n
o f h yd ro gen a nd o xygen. .................
6.
The p la n i s a
unif ic a tio n
o f s e v era l e arlie r p ro posa ls . .................
7.
The
merg er
o f I ta ly d id n o t o ccur u nti l th e s e co nd h alf o f th e n in ete enth
centu ry . .................
8.
The c o m pany m ad e i ts f o rtu ne b y s e llin g a p opula r
unio n
o f c o ffe e.
.................
9.
The p ro pose d
fe d era tio n
o f th e L ib era l a nd L ab our P arti e s i n th e e le cti o n
was c ause f o r m uch r id ic ule . .................
10.
As a r e su lt o f th e
co m pou nd
w ith th e o th er c o m pany, F la x I n te rn ati o nal
becam e th e l a rg est i n i ts f ie ld . .................

L ik es & d is lik es
D ecid e if t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old in t h ese s e nte nce s h ave a
positiv e
c o n nota tio n
( fo r e xam ple , t h ey t e ll u s t h at s o m ebody lik es o r w ants
s o m eth in g) o r a
neg ativ e c o n nota tio n
( fo r e xam ple , t h ey t e ll u s t h at
s o m eone d is lik es s o m eth in g).
Underlin e
t h e c o rre ct a nsw er.
1 .
The i d ea o f tr a v ellin g a ro und th e w orld r e ally
appeals t o
m e.
Positiv e
/
Neg ativ e
2 .
Rese arc h s u ggests th at s h o ppers a re
attr a cte d t o
b rig htl y -lit, c o lo urfu l
dis p la ys.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
3 .
I l ik e h im , b ut u nfo rtu nate ly h e
ca n’t s ta nd
m e.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
4 .
I c an n ev er u nd ers ta nd w hy p eo ple a re s o
ca ptiv ate d b y
r o yal w ed din gs.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
5 .
A l o t o f p eo ple
dete st
s e afo od, a nd s o m e a re e v en a lle rg ic to i t.
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
6 .
Big o te d p eo ple
dis g ust
m e w ith th eir s m all- m in d ed a tti tu d es.
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
7 .
He’s a v ery p unctu al p ers o n, a nd
dre ads
b ein g l a te f o r a nyth in g.
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
8 .
My b ro th er
fa ncie s
s p end in g s o m e ti m e w ork in g a b ro ad .
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
9 .
I’ m
fa sc in ate d b y
n ew te chno lo gy, a nd s p end a l o t o f m oney o n th e l a te st
ele ctr o nic g ad gets .
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
1 0.
She’s
fo nd o f
c la ssic al m usic , a nd w ould l ik e to b e a c la ssic al p ia nis t.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e

11 .
A l o t o f p eo ple a re
keen o n
f o otb all, b ut i t d oesn ’t i n te re st m e.
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
12.
We w ere c o ld a nd w et, a nd
lo nged f o r
a h o t d rin k.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
13.
I d on’t l ik e e arly m orn in g s ta rts , a nd a b so lu te ly
lo ath e
h av in g to g et o ut o f
bed e arly .
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
14.
I a lw ays
lo ok f o rw ard t o
m y E nglis h l e sso ns.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
15.
I’ m
passio nate a bout
f ly in g, b ut r a re ly g et th e c hance to g o a nyw here b y
pla ne.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
16.
She’s a v egeta ria n, a nd th e th o ught o f e ati n g m eat
re pels
h er.
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
17.
Sup erm ark ets k no w th at c usto m ers w ho c o m e i n f o r e sse nti a l i te m s l ik e
milk a nd b re ad a re o fte n
te m pte d b y
s p ecia l o ffe rs o n o th er p ro ducts .
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
18.
We h ad b een w ork in g v ery h ard , a nd w ere
yearn in g f o r
a h o lid ay.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e

Loca tio n & d ir e ctio n
1 L ook a t t h e m ap a nd t o w n g uid e, a nd c o m ple te t h e s e nte nce s w it h t h e
w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b ox.
at r ig ht a ngle s to
to th e e ast o f
on th e n orth s id e o f
dia gonally o pposit e
in th e m id dle o f
on th e s o uth s id e o f
dir e ctly o pposit e
on
para lle l to
half w ay a lo ng
on th e c orn er o f
su rro unded b y
half w ay b etw een
on th e le ft- h and s id e o f
to th e w est o f
1 .
The l ib ra ry i s ................................. th e p olic e s ta ti o n.
2 .
The a ir p ort i s 8 km ................................. th e to w n.
3 .
The s ta ti o n i s ................................. E lm S quare .
4 .
Chestn ut P ark i s ................................. th e to w n.
5 .
The T ow n H all i s ................................. E lm S quare .
6 .
The c af
é i s ................................. C hestn ut P ark .
7 .
The m use um i s ................................. L in co ln S tr e et.

8.
Wellin gto n R oad i s ................................. M ill R oad .
9.
Sw an S tr e et i s ................................. L in co ln S tr e et.
10.
The s h o ppin g c entr e i s ................................. S w an S tr e et.
11 .
Weste rn A venue i s ................................. E lm S quare a nd M ill R oad .
12.
The c o lle ge i s ................................. th e m use um .
13.
The m ark et i s ................................. s h o ps.
14.
The h ealth c lu b i s ................................. G re en S tr e et.
15.
The a rt g alle ry i s ................................. W este rn A venue a nd G re en S tr e et.

L oca tio n & d ir e ctio n
2 N ow lo ok a t t h is m ap a nd g uid e. F in d w here y ou a re o n it , t h en f o llo w t h e
d ir e ctio ns t o f in d o ut w here y ou a re g oin g.
D ir e cti o ns
: G o a lo ng th e H ig h S tr e et, a nd tu rn l e ft a t th e c ro ssro ad s. C arry o n
a nd tu rn r ig ht a t th e e nd o f th e r o ad . G o p ast th e c in em a a nd ta ke th e s e co nd
r o ad o n y o ur l e ft. T he p la ce y o u w ant i s th e th ir d b uild in g o n y o ur r ig ht.
Y ou a re g o in g to .................
Loca tio n & d ir e ctio n
3 C om ple te t h ese d ir e ctio ns u sin g t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b ox. I n

each c a se , b egin f r o m t h e p la ce la belle d ‘ Y ou a re h ere ’. Y ou w ill n eed t o
use s o m e w ord s / p hra se s m ore t h an o nce .
cro ssro ads
on y our r ig ht
fir s t
se cond
go a lo ng
ta ke th e f ir s t
go p ast
ta ke th e s e cond
go to th e e nd
th e e nd
la st
tu rn le ft
on y our le ft
tu rn r ig ht
Dir e cti o ns to th e s u p erm ark et
(1 ) ................................. o f th e H ig h S tr e et a nd ( 2 ) .................................. G o
alo ng th is r o ad a nd ( 3 ) ................................. r o ad ( 4 ) ..................................
The s u p erm ark et i s th e ( 5 ) ................................. b uild in g ( 6 )
..................................
Dir e cti o ns to th e l a nguage s c ho ol
(7 ) ................................. th e H ig h S tr e et, a nd ( 8 ) ................................. a t th e
(9 ) ................................. . ( 1 0) ................................. r o ad ( 1 1 )
................................. a nd th e l a nguage s c ho ol i s th e ( 1 2) .................................
build in g ( 1 3) ..................................
Dir e cti o ns to th e b ook s h o p
(1 4) ................................. th e H ig h S tr e et a nd ( 1 5) ................................. a t th e
(1 6) .............................. . G o to ( 1 7) ................................. o f th is r o ad a nd ( 1 8)
................................. a gain , th en ( 1 9) ................................. r o ad ( 2 0)
.................................. ( 2 1) ................................. th e l ib ra ry , a nd th e b ook s h o p
is th e ( 2 2) ................................. b uild in g ( 2 3) .................................
4 C hoose t h re e o th er p la ce s o n t h e m ap a nd w rit e y our o w n d ir e ctio ns.
1. ........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
2. ........................................................................................................

........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
3. ........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................

M od if ie d w ord s
1 M odif y ( c h ange) e ach w ord in b old in t h e s e nte nce s b y a ddin g a p re fix
f r o m t h e b ox, s o t h at t h e w ord is c o rre ct in t h e c o nte xt o f t h e s e nte nce .
U se e ach p re fix o nce o nly .
a u to   bi  cir c u m   co   in te r  mic ro   mono  ove r 
p ost  pre s e m i  su b  te le   tr a n s  under  uni
1 .
Thanks to I n te rn et te chno lo gy, c o m panie s c an h o ld .................
co nfe re nce s
with th eir a gents a nd c usto m ers a ro und th e w orld w ith o ut l e av in g th e
offic e.
2 .
The c o nfe re nce i s a .................
annual
e v ent, a nd u su ally ta kes p la ce i n
Marc h a nd S ep te m ber.
3 .
In h er n ew .................
bio gra phy,
th e tr a v el w rite r a nd b ro ad caste r L ucy
Apps tr e ats h er r e ad ers to s o m e f a sc in ati n g ta le s a b out h er l ife o n th e o pen
ro ad .
4 .
Em ail a nd s o cia l n etw ork in g w eb site s h av e .................
fo rm ed
th e w ay
peo ple c o m munic ate .
5 .
Unfo rtu nate ly , th e p ro je ct te am e xceed ed i ts .................
dete rm in ed
l e v el
of s p end in g, a nd h ad to b orro w m ore m oney.
6 .
Desp ite b ein g k no cked o ut o f th e W orld C up i n th e .................-
fin al,
th ere
was a g re at s e nse o f e la ti o n, a nd th e c erta in ty th at w e w ould g o a ll th e w ay
th e n ext ti m e.
7 .
Only a s m all p erc enta ge o f s tu d ents w ho d o a u niv ers ity d egre e g o o n to
do .................
gra duate
s tu d ie s.
8 .
Peo ple e njo y th eir j o bs m uch m ore i f th ey g et o n w ith th eir .................-

work ers.
9.
If y o u k new a b out a ll th e p ote nti a lly d angero us .................-
org anis m s
th at
liv e o n a n a v era ge d is h clo th , y o u w ould p ro bab ly n ev er u se o ne a gain !
10.
.................
se x
f r a gra nces a re b elie v ed to b e a m odern i n v enti o n, b ut a
centu ry a go a ll p erfu m es w ere f o r m en a nd w om en a lik e, a nd p eo ple j u st
cho se th e o ne th ey l ik ed th e m ost.
11 .
If y o u f e el th at y o u h av e r e ceiv ed .................
sta ndard
s e rv ic e, y o u s h o uld
co m pla in to th e m anager o r m ost s e nio r e m plo yee i m med ia te ly r a th er th an
wait u nti l l a te r.
12.
In 1 929, th e G ra f Z ep pelin b ecam e th e f ir s t a ir s h ip to .................
navig ate
th e w orld .
13.
Astr o nauts s ta rte d l iv in g o n th e .................
natio nal
S pace S ta ti o n i n 2 000.
14.
I h av e tw o d ic ti o narie s: a n E nglis h -F re nch o ne, a nd a .................
lin gual
Englis h o ne.
15.
I w as a n .................
ach ie ver
a t s c ho ol, a lw ays g etti n g l o w g ra d es i n te sts
and p oor m ark s i n m y h o m ew ork .
16.
The c ity i s s o .................
popula te d
th at i t i s a lm ost i m possib le to f in d
anyw here to l iv e.

Mod if ie d w ord s
2 N ow d o t h e s a m e w it h t h ese . U se t h e s a m e p re fix es f r o m t h e b ox in
E xerc is e 1 .
1 .
.................
waves
w ork b y p assin g e le ctr ic ity th ro ugh f o od r a th er th an b y
heati n g i t.
2 .
The l a te tw enti e th c entu ry s a w e no rm ous a d vances i n
.................
co m munic a tio ns,
w ith th e d ev elo pm ent o f th e I n te rn et b ein g o f
parti c ula r i m porta nce.
3 .
In 1 986, a gain st e v ery b ody e ls e ’s w is h es, th e r u lin g g o vern m ent m ad e th e
.................
la te ra l
d ecis io n to c lo se h alf th e c o untr y ’s c o al m in es.
4 .
The s u b urb s c o nsis t o f n o th in g b ut m ile a fte r m ile o f .................-
deta ch ed
ho use s a nd a p artm ent b lo cks.
5 .
On l o ng-d is ta nce f lig hts , th e a ir c ra ft i s f lo w n b y .................
pilo t
m ost o f
th e ti m e, w ith th e r e al p ilo ts o nly a ssu m in g o ccasio nal c o ntr o l.
6 .
I s p eak E nglis h a nd S panis h , b ut m y S panis h i s q uite l im ite d , s o
unfo rtu nate ly I w ould n’t s a y I ’ m .................
lin gual.
7 .
There a re s tr ic t l a w s a gain st a d verti s in g to bacco p ro ducts , b ut w ith a b it
of i m agin ati o n, m any o f th ese c an b e e asily .................
vente d.
8 .
A l o t o f th e c ity w as d estr o yed d urin g th e w ar, s o d urin g th e i m med ia te
.................
-w ar
y ears , th e g o vern m ent e m bark ed o n a m assiv e
re co nstr u cti o n p ro gra m me.
9 .
I th in k I p asse d m y e xam s, b ut i t w ould b e .................
matu re
to s a y th at
I’ v e d one w ell i n a ll o f th em .
1 0.
A th ir d o f th e c hild re n w ere f o und to b e .................
weig ht
a s a r e su lt o f a
hig h-fa t, h ig h-s u gar d ie t.

11 .
It i s b elie v ed th at m any p eo ple w ho d is lik e w ate r h av e a
.................
co nsc io us
f e ar o f d ro w nin g.
12.
Most o f th e s c ho ols i n m y c o untr y a re .................
educa tio nal,
a lth o ugh
th ere a re a f e w b oy-o nly a nd g ir l- o nly i n sti tu ti o ns.
13.
We r a n o ut o f m oney b ecause w e h ad
estim ate d
h o w m uch th e tr ip w ould
co st.
14.
The a v ia to r C harle s L in d berg h m ad e th e f ir s t s o lo .................
atla ntic
flig ht i n 1 927.
15.
Part o f o ur c o urs e w as to s tu d y th e .................
re la tio nsh ip
b etw een s tr e ss
and i lln ess, a nd e sp ecia lly to w hat e xte nt o ne r e su lte d i n th e o th er.
16.
He k new a l o t a b out h is s u b je ct, b ut h e s p oke i n s u ch a d ull
.................
to ne
th at h is s tu d ents w ould o fte n f a ll a sle ep .

O bje cts & a ctio n s
1 T he v erb s in t h e b ox d esc rib e t h e a ctio ns o f t h e t h in gs in 1 – 1 8. M atc h
e ach v erb w it h t h e t h in g it d esc rib es.
c o ngeal  cra ck   ero de  eva p ora te   ex pan d 
e x plo de  fa d e 
fr e eze
 le ak   ris e   ro ta te   slid e 
sm ould er  sp ill  sp in   str e tc h   vib ra te   wobble
1 .
Wate r c hangin g f r o m a l iq uid to a s o lid s ta te b ecause o f th e c o ld .
diffe r
2 .
The d ru m i n a w ash in g m achin e m ovin g v ery q uic kly i n i ts f in al s ta ge o f a
wash . .................
3 .
The d is c tr a y o penin g a nd c lo sin g o n a c o m pute r. .................
4 .
Wate r s lo w ly tu rn in g i n to v ap our. .................
5 .
Cookin g f a t o r o il b eco m in g s o lid o n a n u nw ash ed p la te . .................
6 .
The p la net E arth m ovin g a ro und o n i ts a xis . .................
7 .
A l o ose w heel o n a c ar. .................
8 .
Gas c o m in g o ut o f a f a ulty v alv e. .................
9 .
A p ane o f g la ss in a w in d ow fr a m e w hen a la rg e v ehic le p asse s n earb y.
.................
1 0.
A T-s h ir t w hic h has been w ash ed so ofte n it is lo sin g its co lo ur.
.................
1 1 .
The s u n c o m in g u p i n th e m orn in g. .................
1 2.
Cliffs b ein g s lo w ly d estr o yed b y th e s e a. .................
1 3.
Slig htl y d am p w ood o n a f ir e g iv in g o ff s m oke b ut n o f la m es. .................
1 4.
Cold m eta l a s i t g ets h o tte r. .................
1 5.
A p ie ce o f e la sti c b ein g p ulle d s o th at i t b eco m es l o nger. .................
1 6.
A w in d ow b ein g h it b y a s to ne s o th at a l o ng, th in b re ak f o rm s i n th e g la ss.
.................

17.
Coffe e f a llin g o ut o f a c up b y m is ta ke. .................
18.
A b om b s u d denly b lo w in g u p . .................
2 N ow d o t h e s a m e w it h t h ese .
bounce  burn   co nden se   co ntr a ct  cru m ble   eru pt 
flo at  flo w g ro w   mean der  melt   re vo lv e   rin g 
se t  sin k  sp re ad   su bsid e  tr ic k le
1.
The E arth m ovin g a ro und th e S un. .................
2.
A h o use s lo w ly s in kin g i n to s o ft g ro und . .................
3.
Tra ffic m ovin g s m ooth ly a lo ng a m oto rw ay. .................
4.
Gla ss c hangin g f r o m a s o lid to a l iq uid i n v ery h ig h h eat. .................
5.
A r u b ber b all h itti n g th e g ro und a nd g o in g b ack i n to th e a ir. .................
6.
The p opula ti o n o f a to w n b eco m in g b ig ger. .................

Obje cts & a ctio n s
7 .
The s u n g o in g d ow n i n th e e v enin g. .................
8 .
Gas o r s te am c hangin g i n to a l iq uid . .................
9 .
A w id e r iv er g o in g th ro ugh th e c o untr y sid e i n b ig c urv es. .................
1 0.
Docum ents b ein g l a id o ut o n a ta b le . .................
1 1 .
Wate r c o m in g v ery s lo w ly o ut o f a ta p . .................
1 2.
A s lic e o f b re ad i n a to aste r tu rn in g b la ck a nd b egin nin g to g iv e o ff s m oke.
.................
1 3.
A l u m p o f d ry e arth b ein g r u b bed b etw een s o m eb ody’s f in gers . .................
1 4.
Hot m eta l a s i t g ets c o ole r. .................
1 5.
An o ld -fa sh io ned a la rm c lo ck s u d denly g o in g o ff. .................
1 6.
A b oat g o in g to th e b otto m o f a r iv er. .................
1 7.
Dead f is h l y in g o n th e s u rfa ce o f a p ollu te d l a ke. .................
1 8.
A v olc ano th ro w in g o ut l a v a a nd a sh . .................
3 S om e o f t h e w ord s in E xerc is e 1 a nd 2 c a n b e u se d in m ore t h an o ne w ay,
o fte n w it h a d if fe re nt m eanin g. C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a n
a ppro pria te w ord ( th e d efin it io n o f t h e w ord y ou n eed in
ita lic s
a fte r e ach
s e nte nce w ill h elp y ou). Y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f s o m e o f t h e
w ord s.
1 .
The c o m pany
fr o ze
its e m plo yees w ages u nti l th e e nd o f th e y ear. (
to s a y
offic ia lly t h at t h e r a te o r l e vel o f s o m eth in g m ust s ta y t h e s a m e a nd n ot
in cre a se
)
2 .
Som e p eo ple ................. th ro ugh life w ith o ut re ally k no w in g w hat th ey
want to d o. (
to b eh ave i n a w ay t h at s h ow s y o u d o n ot h ave a c le a r p la n
fo r w hat y o u w ant t o d o
)
3 .
Food pric es hav e been ................. ste ad ily all year. (
to in cre a se in
am ount
)
4 .
As th e lig ht ................. in th e e v enin g, p eo ple s ta rt c o m in g o ut o nto th e

str e et. (
to b eco m e l e ss b rig ht
)
5.
He m anaged to ................. a tw o-h o ur p re se nta ti o n in to 3 0 m in ute s. (
to
make s o m eth in g s h orte r o r s m alle r
)
6.
As th e s to rm s s lo w ly d ie d o ut, th e flo odw ate rs g ra d ually .................. (
to
beco m e l o w er
)
7.
The d is c ussio n w e h ad l a st n ig ht ................. a ro und th e p ro ble m o f f in d in g
affo rd ab le acco m modati o n. (
to have so m eth in g as th e m ain or m ost
im porta nt p art o f a s u bje ct
)
8.
You c an ................. th e m achin e to tu rn i ts e lf o n o r o ff a t a p arti c ula r ti m e.
( to m ake a p ie ce o f e q uip m en t r e a dy t o o pera te
)
9.
As s o on th e c o m pany’s w eb site w ent o n-lin e, o rd ers b egan to .................
in . (
to a rriv e o r l e a ve i n s m all a m ounts o r n um bers
)
10.
The q ueue fo r ti c kets w as so lo ng it ................. a ll th e w ay d ow n th e
str e et. (
to c o ntin ue f o r a l o ng d is ta nce
)
11 .
Once a w eek w e get to geth er and ................. id eas o ff each o th er.
(to
dis c u ss i d ea s w ith o th er p eo ple i n o rd er t o g et t h eir o pin io n a nd m ake a
decis io n)
12.
They w ante d to k eep th e sto ry se cre t, b ut so m eo ne ................. it to th e
pre ss.
(to g iv e p riv a te o r se cre t in fo rm atio n to jo urn alis ts o r to th e
public )

O blig atio n & o p tio n
1 L ook a t s e nte nce s 1 – 1 0 a nd d ecid e if t h e e xpla natio n w hic h f o llo w s
e ach o ne is t r u e o r f a ls e .
Underlin e
t h e c o rre ct a nsw er. U se t h e w ord s a nd
p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou d ecid e.
1 .
Durin g th e e xam , a p encil a nd e ra se r a re
re q u ir e d
.
The p eo ple o rg anis in g t h e e xa m w ill p ro vid e y o u w ith a p en cil a nd a n
era se r.
Tru e /
Fals e
2 .
Pare nts c an b e m ad e
lia ble f o r
th eir c hild re n’s d eb ts .
Pare n ts m ay b e l e g ally r e sp onsib le f o r t h e m oney t h eir c h ild re n o w e.
Tru e
/ F als e
3 .
He w as
oblig ed t o
p ay b ack th e m oney th at h e h ad w on.
He h ad t h e c h oic e w heth er o r n ot t o p ay b ack t h e m oney t h at h e h ad w on.
Tru e / F als e
4 .
Stu d ents d oin g h o lid ay j o bs a re
exem pt f r o m
p ayin g i n co m e ta x.
Stu den ts d oin g h olid ay j o bs p ay a s m alle r a m ount o f i n co m e t a x t h an
oth er p eo ple .
Tru e / F als e
5 .
The U nite d N ati o ns v ote d to i m pose
mandato ry
s a ncti o ns o n th e c o untr y .
The U nite d N atio ns i m pose d l e g ally -b in din g s a nctio ns w hic h h ad t o b e
obeyed b y e very o ne, w ith out e xcep tio n.
Tru e / F als e
6 .
Som e c o m panie s
fo rc e
th eir e m plo yees to w ork l o ng h o urs f o r l o w p ay.
A l o t o f c o m panie s a sk t h eir e m plo yees t o w ork l o ng h ours.
Tru e / F als e
7 .
It w as a n e m erg ency a nd s h e p re sse d th e r e d b utto n; th ere w as
no
alt e rn ativ e.
There w as n oth in g e ls e s h e c o uld d o; s h e h ad t o s e t o ff t h e a la rm b y
pre ssin g t h e r e d b utto n.
Tru e / F als e

8.
Cla sse s o n W ed nesd ay a fte rn o ons a re
optio nal
.
It i s n ecessa ry t o a tte n d c la sse s o n W ed nesd ay a fte rn oons.
Tru e / F als e
9.
It i s
co m puls o ry
to w ear a c ra sh h elm et o n a m oto rc ycle .
It i s y o ur c h oic e w heth er o r n ot t o w ea r a c ra sh h elm et w hen y o u r id e a
moto rc ycle .
Tru e / F als e
10.
The m use um i s a sk in g v is ito rs f o r a
volu nta ry
£ 2.
Yo u d on’t n eed t o p ay
£ 2 t o v is it t h e m use u m .
Tru e / F als e
2 C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a n a ppro pria te w ord o r p hra se f r o m t h e
exerc is e a bove. I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er m ay b e p ossib le .
1.
Vis ito rs to th e c o untr y a re ................................................... to d ecla re a ny
excess to bacco o r a lc o ho l i m ports to th e c usto m s o ffic er.
2.
I’ m a fr a id I h av e ................................................... b ut to r e sig n f r o m th e
co m mitte e.
3.
If y o u a re c aught s p eed in g, y o u w ill b e ...................................................
th e p aym ent o f th e f in e.
4.
Atte nd ance a t a ll c la sse s i s ..................................................., o th erw is e
yo u m ay n o t g et a c erti fic ate a t th e e nd o f th e c o urs e .
5.
Many r e ti r e d p eo ple d o ................................................... w ork i n th eir
lo cal c o m munity .
6.
In s o m e c o untr ie s, th ere i s a ................................................... d eath
se nte nce f o r a ll d ru g tr a ffic kers .
7.
For v is ito rs to B rita in f r o m o uts id e th e E uro pean U nio n, a v is a m ay b e
....................................................
8.
I h ate i t w hen p eo ple tr y to ................................................... m e to d o
so m eth in g I d on’t l ik e.
9.
Most n ew c ars c o m e w ith ................................................... a ir -
co nd iti o nin g.
10.
Child re n’s c lo th es a re ................................................... f r o m V A T.

O pin io n , a ttitu de & b elie f
1 T he w ord s in
ita lic s
in t h e f o llo w in g s e nte nce s a re a ll g ra m matic a lly
i n co rre ct ( fo r e xam ple , a n oun h as b een u se d in ste ad o f a n a dje ctiv e, o r a
v erb h as b een u se d in ste ad o f a n oun, e tc .) . D ecid e w hat t h e c o rre ct f o rm
o f t h e w ord s h ould b e in e ach s e nte nce , a nd w rit e y our a nsw ers in t h e
c ro ssw ord o n t h e n ext p age.
1 .
I th in k th at p eo ple n eed to s h o w g re ate r
to le ra te
o f e ach o th er.
2 .
Som e m ajo r c o m panie s a re
obse ssio n
w ith s e cre cy.
3 .
I
re ck onin g
th at g lo bal w arm in g i s h av in g m ore o f a n e ffe ct th an w e th in k.
4 .
We s tr o ngly
su sp ic io us
th at th e p ro posa l to d ev elo p th e c o m pute r f a ciliti e s
will b e r e je cte d .
5 .
Som e p eo ple a re e xtr e m ely
big otr y
, e sp ecia lly r e gard in g th in gs l ik e r a ce
or r e lig io n.
6 .
I v ery m uch
doubtfu l
th at th e s itu ati o n w ill i m pro ve i n th e n ear f u tu re .
7 .
A l o t o f p eo ple a re
fa natic
a b out s p ort i n g enera l a nd f o otb all i n
parti c ula r.
8 .
He w as v ery h ard -w ork in g a nd
dedic a tio n
to h is r e se arc h.
9 .
In m y
opin io nate d
, p eo ple d on’t ta ke e no ugh e xerc is e .
1 0.
I c o nsid er m yse lf to b e a
pra gm atis t
p ers o n, a nd b elie v e th at r e su lts a re
more i m porta nt th an th eo rie s o r i d eas.
1 1 .
Team m em bers n eed to b e c o m ple te ly
co m mit m ent
, a nd p re p are d to w ork
fo r l o ng h o urs .
1 2.
The g o vern m ent i s
re gard le ss
f o re ig n d eb t, e sp ecia lly i n d ev elo pin g

co untr ie s, a s a m ajo r b arrie r to g lo bal e co no m ic d ev elo pm ent.
13.
Peo ple o fte n i n d ic ate th eir
dis a ppro ve
o f s o m eth in g th ro ugh th eir b ody
la nguage r a th er th an w ord s.
14.
I
main te nance
th at m any y o ung p eo ple w ould r a th er w ork th an c o nti n ue
with th eir s tu d ie s.
15.
As f a r a s I a m
co nce rn in g
, h ap pin ess i s m ore i m porta nt th an m oney.
16.
Unhap py p eo ple o fte n h av e a
cy nic
v ie w o f l ife .
17.
I ta ke s tr o ng
exce ptio nal
to p eo ple c o m in g l a te o r c ancellin g a p poin tm ents
at s h o rt n o ti c e.
18.
Many s c ie nti s ts a re
co nvin cin gly
th at h um an a cti v ity i s th re ate nin g th e
fu tu re o f m any a nim al a nd p la nt s p ecie s.
19.
My p are nts a re
tr a dit io n
p eo ple w ho b elie v e th at c hild re n s h o uld n o t h av e
to o m uch f r e ed om .
20.
He h ad v ery
co nse rv atis m
v ie w s a nd d id n o t l ik e c hange o f a ny s o rt.

O pin io n , a ttitu de & b elie f
2 C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h t h e w ord s f r o m E xerc is e 1 . Y ou w ill
e it h er n eed a w ord f r o m t h e s e nte nce s
or
f r o m t h e c o m ple te d c ro ssw ord .
I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er m ay b e p ossib le .
1 .
Peo ple a re o fte n ................. o f s tr a ngers , a nd r e fu se to tr u st a nyo ne u nle ss
th ey k no w th em v ery w ell.
2 .
She’s v ery w ell o rg anis e d , a nd a lw ays ta kes a ................. a p pro ach to
pro ble m s o lv in g.
3 .
I’ m a b so lu te ly ................. a b out k eep in g f it, a nd g o to th e g ym a t l e ast o nce
a d ay.
4 .
I s tr o ngly ................. o f s m okin g, a nd r e fu se to l e t p eo ple s m oke i n m y
ho m e.

5.
My ................. i s th at p eo ple w ho r e ad a l o t a re m ore i n te re sti n g th an
peo ple w ho d on’t.
6.
To s u cceed i n l ife , y o u n eed a m biti o n a nd ..................
7.
My f a th er w on’t ................. a nyo ne w ho q uesti o ns h is d ecis io ns.
8.
Sm all f a rm c o m muniti e s a re p re d om in antl y ................. i n th eir o utl o ok a nd
behav io ur.
9.
Som e p eo ple ................. m y a b ility to s u cceed , b ut I a m d ete rm in ed to
pro ve th ey a re w ro ng.
10.
A l o t o f p eo ple i n m y c o untr y ................. th at th e c urre nt e co no m ic c ris is
will g et w ors e b efo re i t g ets b ette r.

Opposite s: a d je ctiv es
R epla ce t h e a dje ctiv es in b old in t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a w ord f r o m t h e b ox
w hic h h as a n o pposit e m eanin g in t h e c o nte xt o f t h e s e nte nce .
a p pro xim ate  
cle ar
 ch ro nic   co stly   cru de 
d elic ate   detr im en ta l d im   easy   eve n   fle x ib le  
g ra cefu l  in nocen t  mark ed   oblig ato ry   re lu cta n t 
sc arc e  wid esp re ad
1 .
The te rm s a nd c o nd iti o ns o n th e c o ntr a ct a re
am big uous.
cle a r
.
2 .
Acco rd in g to th e p eo ple w ho k new h im , h e w as a v ery
aw kw ard
p ers o n to
work w ith . .................
3 .
I h ad n ev er s e en a d ancer w ho w as s o
clu m sy .
.................
4 .
The c hanges h e m ad e w ere
benefic ia l
to th e o rg anis a ti o n a s a w ho le .
.................
5 .
We n eed
exact
f ig ure s b efo re w e d ecid e i f w e c an g o a head w ith th e
pro je ct. .................
6 .
Follo w in g a l e ngth y i n v esti g ati o n, th ey d ecid ed th at th e c o m pany w as
guilt y .
.................
7 .
What d o y o u g et i f y o u a d d u p a ll th e
odd
n um bers b etw een 1 a nd 1 00?.
.................
8 .
Desp ite th e w eath er, s u p plie s o f f o od a fte r th e h arv est w ere
ple ntif u l.
.................
9 .
There a re v ery
rig id
l a w s r e gard in g b uild in g o n g re en b elts a ro und a c ity .

.................
10.
I’ v e n o ti c ed a
slig ht
d iffe re nce i n h is a tti tu d e o ver th e l a st f e w w eeks.
.................
11 .
The v illa gers h av e d esig ned a
so phis tic a te d
d ev ic e f o r tu rn in g d ir ty w ate r
in to c le an d rin kin g w ate r. .................
12.
The s p ic es u se d i n th e p ro ducti o n o f s o m e i n te rn ati o nal d is h es h av e a v ery
str o ng
f la v our. .................
13.
The b la ckness o f th e n ig ht w as b ro ken b y a
str o ng
o ra nge l ig ht w hic h w as
vis ib le o n th e h o riz o n. .................
14.
Stu d ent a tte nd ance a t e xtr a -c urric ula r a cti v iti e s i s
volu nta ry .
.................
15.
Most s tu d ents s a y th ey a re
willin g
to a tte nd c la sse s o n S atu rd ay m orn in g.
.................
16.
The to rn ad o c ause d
lo ca lis e d
d am age. .................
17.
He m ad e h is f o rtu ne b y i m porti n g
ch eap
p erfu m e a nd c lo th in g m ate ria l.
.................
18.
Peo ple w ith
mild
a lle rg ie s to d ust w ere a d vis e d to r e m ain i n d oors a nd
clo se th eir w in d ow s. .................

O pposite s: v erb s
R epla ce t h e v erb s o r v erb p hra se s in b old in t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a w ord
f r o m t h e b ox w hic h h as a n o pposit e m eanin g in t h e c o nte xt o f t h e
s e nte nce . Y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f m ost o f t h e v erb s.
a b an don  accele ra te  
accep t
 agre e  defe n d 
d em olis h   den y d ete rio ra te   fa ll  fo rb id   ig n ore  
lo ose n   lo w er  re ta in   re tr e at  re w ard   sim plif y  
w it h dra w
1 .
When o ur tr ip w as c ancelle d , w e
re je cte d
th e tr a v el c o m pany’s o ffe r o f a
parti a l r e fu nd .
accep te d
.
2 .
She
adm it te d
th at s h e h ad l e ft th e d oor u nlo cked w hen s h e l e ft th e h o use .
.................
3 .
Aeria l f o ota ge s h o w s h o w q uic kly th e f lo odw ate rs a re
advancin g.
.................
4 .
The c o m pany
re fu se d
to l e t m em bers o f th e p ub lic e nte r th e b uild in g.
.................
5 .
Many s h o pkeep ers
atta ck ed
th e d ecis io n to m ake th e s tr e et tr a ffic -fr e e.
.................
6 .
The f a cto ry w as
built
i n 2 004. .................
7 .
He
co m plic a te d
m atte rs b y r e w riti n g th e o rig in al p ro posa l. .................
8 .
When th e m oney r a n o ut, th ey h ad to d ecid e w heth er o r n o t to
co ntin ue
wit h
th eir r e se arc h. .................

9.
Rela ti o ns b etw een th e tw o c o untr ie s h av e
im pro ved
c o nsid era b ly i n th e
la st f e w y ears . .................
10.
Punis h in g
y o ung c hild re n i n o rd er to g et th em to w ork h ard i s , i n m y
opin io n, w ro ng. .................
11 .
He
ra is e d
th e o vera ll s ta nd ard s o f th e c o m pany w ith in tw o m onth s o f h is
ap poin tm ent. .................
12.
Sm okin g i s
allo w ed
i n m ost r e sta ura nt a nd c af
é s. .................
13.
Pric es
ro se
s h arp ly i n th e f ir s t th re e m onth s o f th e y ear. .................
14.
Befo re y o u d o a nyth in g e ls e , m ake s u re y o u
tig hte n
th e k no ts i n th e r o pe.
.................
15.
I w ent to th e b ank a nd
deposit e d
o ver
£ 5,0 00. .................
16.
He
lo st
h is p ositi o n a s h ead o f th e d ep artm ent. .................
17.
By p ush in g th e r e d b utto n, th e v ehic le
slo w s d ow n
r a p id ly . .................
18.
Every o ne
ack now le dged
a ll th e h ard w ork I h ad d one. .................

Owners h ip , g iv in g, l e n din g &
borro w in g
1 C om ple te t h e s e nte nce s w it h a n a ppro pria te n oun f r o m t h e b ox. I n s o m e
c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
b elo ngin gs  donatio n  esta te   la n dlo rd s  lo an  
m ortg age  ow ners   posse ssio ns  pro perty  
p ro prie to rs   re n t  te n an ts
1 .
The l a w e nsu re s th at ................. r e sp ect th e p riv acy o f th e p eo ple w ho
liv e i n th eir h o use s a nd f la ts .
2 .
................. o f r e sta ura nts a cro ss th e c o untr y p ro te ste d w hen th e
go vern m ent a nno unced i t w as g o in g to i m pose a ta x o n s o m e f o ods.
3 .
When p riv ate c ar ................. s e ll th eir v ehic le , th ey m ust p ro duce a
certi fic ate to p ro ve th e c ar h as b een p aid f o r i n f u ll.
4 .
The p ric e o f c o m merc ia l ................. i n th e c ity c entr e h as d oub le d i n th e
la st th re e y ears .
5 .
Morn in gto n P ark , a 2 50-a cre p riv ate ................. i n W enfo rd sh ir e , i s o pen
to m em bers o f th e p ub lic a t w eekend s.
6 .
Many f a m ilie s i n th e a re a l o st th eir h o m e a nd a ll o f th eir ................. w hen
th e r iv er f lo oded .
7 .
Ple ase p ut y o ur ................. i n th e l o ckers p ro vid ed , a nd h and y o ur k ey to
th e r e cep ti o nis t f o r s a fe keep in g.
8 .
We to ok o ut a ................. to h elp p ay f o r o ur tr ip .
9 .
A l o t o f p eo ple l o st th eir h o m es w hen i n te re st r a te s r o se s o h ig h th ey w ere
unab le to c o nti n ue p ayin g o ff th eir ................. .
1 0.
Only a f e w p eo ple i n th e a p artm ent b lo ck a ctu ally o w n th eir f la t. M ost o f
th em a re c o uncil ................. .

11 .
The l a w d oes v ery l ittl e to p ro te ct f a m ilie s w ho a re e v ic te d f r o m th eir
ho m es b ecause th ey a re u nab le to p ay th e m onth ly ................. .
12.
I m ake a s m all m onth ly ................. to a l o cal c harity f o r h o m ele ss p eo ple .
2 Most
o f t h e v erb s in b old b elo w a re in t h e w ro ng s e nte nce . I f t h e v erb is
co rre ct
, p ut a t ic k (
✓ ) a t t h e e nd o f t h e s e nte nce . I f t h e v erb is
wro n g
,
writ e t h e c o rre ct v erb a t t h e e nd o f t h e s e nte nce .
1.
Banks w ill u su ally r e fu se to
pre se nt
m oney to a nyo ne u nle ss th ey h av e a
re gula r j o b. .................
2.
The b est w ay to s e e th e c o untr y i s to a
pro vid e
c ar f o r a c o up le o f w eeks.
.................
3.
Com panie s w ho
allo ca te
h eav ily f r o m b anks to k eep th eir b usin ess g o in g
are r a re ly a b le to p ay i t b ack. .................
4.
If y o u w ant to
re nt
a r o om i n th e c ity c entr e , y o u s h o uld b e p re p are d to
pay a l o t o f m oney. .................
5.
Afte r h er s p eech, th e p rin cip al w ill
le nd
p riz e s to th e s tu d ents w ho h av e
mad e th e g re ate st c o ntr ib uti o n to th e s c ho ol. .................
6.
I b elie v e th at e v ery o ne s h o uld
donate
m oney to c hariti e s. .................
7.
Local c o uncils w ill
borro w
a cco m modati o n to th e m ost n eed y o n a f ir s t-
co m e, f ir s t- s e rv ed b asis . .................
8.
Many c harita b le o rg anis a ti o ns
hir e
f r e e m ed ic al h elp a nd s u p port to a re as
hit b y d is a ste rs . .................

P hra sa l v erb s 1
W rit e a p re posit io n(s ) o r p artic le (s ) f r o m t h e b ox a fte r e ach v erb in b old in
t h ese s e nte nce s t o m ak e p hra sa l v erb s. T he m eanin g o f e ach p hra sa l v erb
i s in it a lic s a t t h e e nd o f e ach s e nte nce .
b ack   beh in d  dow n  fo rw ard   in   in to   of  off  
o n  out  ove r  to   up  wit h
1 .
Som e p are nts a re c riti c is e d f o r th e w ay th ey
brin g
................. th eir
child re n.
(r a is e )
2 .
The c o m mitte e m em bers
fe ll
................. o ver p la ns f o r th e n ew h ealth
centr e .
(a rg ued )
3 .
They r e fu se d to
fa ce
................. ................. th eir r e sp onsib iliti e s, w ith
dis a str o us c o nse q uences.
(a ccep t a n u nple a sa nt s ta te o f a ffa ir s, a nd t r y
to d ea l w ith i t)
4 .
At th e l a st m in ute w e h ad to
ca ll
................. o ur v is it to th e m use um .
(n ot
to g o a hea d w ith s o m eth in g)
5 .
I c an a lw ays
co unt
................. m y b est f r ie nd to b e th ere w hen I n eed h im .
(r e ly / d ep en d)
6 .
Many d ev elo pin g c o untr ie s a re f a ilin g to
ca tc h
................. .................
th eir m ore d ev elo ped n eig hb ours .
(g et t o t h e s a m e l e vel)
7 .
As th e w in d
die s
................., th e h eat a nd h um id ity g ra d ually b egin to r is e .
(b eco m es l e ss s tr o ng)
8 .
An a la rm in g n um ber o f s tu d ents
dro p
................. ................. s c ho ol e arly
ev ery y ear.
(le a ve)
9 .
Majo r i n te rn ati o nal c o m panie s c an’t
fig ure
................. th e p opula rity o f
th e a nti - c ap ita lis t m ovem ent.
(fin d i t h ard t o u ndersta nd)
1 0.
If th ey e xam in ed th e i s su es m ore c lo se ly , th ey w ould
fin d
................. th e
re aso ns f o r th e c hanges.
(d is c o ver)

11 .
As w e
gro w
................. o ur p rio riti e s c hange.
(c h ange f r o m b ein g
ch ild re n t o b ein g a dults ),
12.
Stu d ents c an b e q uite c re ati v e w ith th e r e aso ns th ey g iv e f o r n o t
handin g
................. th eir h o m ew ork .
(g iv in g t h eir t e a ch ers)
13.
Sala rie s v ery r a re ly
keep
................. ................. th e c o st o f l iv in g.
(r is e a t
th e s a m e s p eed a s)
14.
The a rti c le i s v ery d eta ile d , b ut
le aves
................. th e r e aso ns f o r
dem ogra p hic c hange.
(d oes n ot i n clu de)
15.
The l e ctu re r
poin te d
................. a ll o f th e p la ces o n th e m ap w here s im ila r
in cid ents h ad o ccurre d .
(s h ow ed )
16.
Befo re y o u w rite y o ur e ssa y, y o u s h o uld
lo ok
................. th e P arty ’s
his to ry . (
re se a rc h )
17.
Many e m plo yees
ca rrie d
................. w ork in g d esp ite p re ssu re f r o m th e
unio ns.
(c o ntin ued )
18.
Once p eo ple
fa ll
................. w ith th eir m ortg age p aym ents , th ey c o m e
und er e xtr e m e f in ancia l p re ssu re f r o m th eir b ank.
(b eco m e l a te )
19.
The f ir s t s te p to a h ealth ie r l ife sty le i s to
cu t
................. .................
am ount o f s a lt y o u c o nsu m e. (
re d uce)
20.
It i s b eco m in g m ore c o m mon f o r p eo ple to
cu t
................. m eat f r o m th eir
die t.
(s to p e a tin g)
21.
In th e l a te 1 990s, a l o t o f l a rg e s u p erm ark et c hain s
to ok
.................
pre m is e s th at h ad p re v io usly b een r u n b y s m all, i n d ep end ent r e ta ile rs .
(a ssu m ed c o ntr o l)
22.
When c o m pute r te chno lo gy f a ils u s, w e h av e to
mak e d o
................. m ore
prim iti v e m eth o ds. T hey’re c alle d ‘ p en a nd p ap er’.
(u se s o m eth in g
beca use t h ere i s n oth in g e ls e a va ila ble )
23.
In th is e ssa y, I ’ d l ik e to
put
................. th e a rg um ents f o r a nd a gain st
glo balis m .
(s u ggest o r s ta te t h e c a se f o r s o m eth in g)
24.
When I
lo ok
................. ................. m y c hild ho od, I r e m em ber th e m any
sa crific es m y p are nts m ad e f o r m e.
(th in k a bout s o m eth in g t h at h appen ed
in t h e p ast)

Phra sa l v erb s 2
C om ple te t h e s e co nd s e nte nce in e ach p air w it h a p hra sa l v erb f r o m t h e
b ox s o t h at it h as t h e s a m e m eanin g a s t h e f ir st s e nte nce . Y ou w ill n eed t o
c h ange t h e v erb f o rm in m any o f t h e s e nte nce s.
b re ak d ow n  carry o ut  cu t b ack o n  cu t o ff   do a w ay
w it h   do u p
e n d u p  fa ll th ro ugh   hold u p  keep o n 
le t d ow n  le t o ff p ull o ut o f  pull th ro ugh   sh ow u p 
so rt o ut  sp lit u p  wear o ff w ear o ut  work o ut
1 .
Peace ta lk s b etw een th e tw o c o untr ie s c o lla p se d w hen n eith er s id e
re ached a n a gre em ent.
Peace ta lk s b etw een th e tw o c o untr ie s ................. w hen n eith er s id e r e ached
an a gre em ent.
2 .
I’ m tr y in g to c alc ula te i f w e’v e s o ld m ore th is y ear th an l a st y ear.
I’ m tr y in g to ................. i f w e’v e s o ld m ore th is y ear th an l a st y ear.
3 .
The e ffe cts o f th e d ru g d is a p pear a fte r a f e w h o urs .
The e ffe cts o f th e d ru g ................. a fte r a f e w h o urs .
4 .
A l o t o f p eo ple e xhaust th em se lv es th ro ugh o verw ork .
A l o t o f p eo ple ................. th em se lv es ................. th ro ugh o verw ork .
5 .
Desp ite th e s e v erity o f th e d is e ase , m any p eo ple r e co ver w ith th e h elp o f
ap pro pria te d ru gs.
Desp ite th e s e v erity o f th e d is e ase , m any p eo ple ................. w ith th e h elp o f
ap pro pria te d ru gs.
6 .
Thro ugh c are fu l n ego ti a ti o n, th ey w ere a b le to r e so lv e th e p ro ble m .
Thro ugh c are fu l n ego ti a ti o n, th ey w ere a b le to ................. th e p ro ble m .

7.
When p are nts s ta rt to l iv e a p art, i t c an b e p arti c ula rly d iffic ult f o r th eir
child re n to c o pe.
When p are nts ................., i t c an b e p arti c ula rly d iffic ult f o r th eir c hild re n to
co pe.
8.
At th e o penin g n ig ht, o nly a f e w a ud ie nce m em bers c am e.
At th e o penin g n ig ht, o nly a f e w a ud ie nce m em bers ................. .
9.
The A ustr a lia n p artn ers s to pped b ein g a p art o f th e d eal a t th e l a st
mom ent.
The A ustr a lia n p artn ers ................. th e d eal a t th e l a st m om ent.
10.
Peo ple c ele b ra te th e C hin ese N ew Y ear b y e xp lo din g f ir e w ork s i n th e
str e et.
Peo ple c ele b ra te th e C hin ese N ew Y ear b y ................. f ir e w ork s i n th e
str e et.

P hra sa l v erb s 2
1 1 .
It i s p oin tl e ss r e ly in g o n p eo ple to h elp y o u i f th ey d on’t d o a s th ey
pro m is e d .
It i s p oin tl e ss r e ly in g o n p eo ple to h elp y o u i f th ey ................. y o u
................. .
1 2.
New g o vern m ent p ensio n p la ns m ean th at m any p eo ple w ill c o nti n ue
work in g w ell i n to th eir s e v enti e s.
New g o vern m ent p ensio n p la ns m ean th at m any p eo ple w ill .................
work in g w ell i n to th eir s e v enti e s.
1 3.
The p la nned c hanges w ere d ela yed b ecause c o m mitte e m em bers a rg ued
am ong th em se lv es.
The p la nned c hanges w ere ................. b ecause c o m mitte e m em bers a rg ued
am ong th em se lv es.
1 4.
At th e l a st m in ute , th e p la ns f o r th e p ro pose d m oto rw ay d id n’t ta ke p la ce.
At th e l a st m in ute , th e p la ns f o r th e p ro pose d m oto rw ay ................. .
1 5.
Durin g th e r e cessio n, m any w ork ers i n th e p rim ary s e cto r b ecam e j o ble ss.
Durin g th e r e cessio n, m any w ork ers i n th e p rim ary s e cto r .................
jo ble ss.
1 6.
Docto rs d id s o m e te sts o n th e p ati e nts .
Docto rs ................. s o m e te sts o n th e p ati e nts .
1 7.
Min o r e co no m ie s, s u ch a s s p end in g l e ss o n s ta ff c o sts , c an o fte n p re v ent a
co m pany s lid in g i n to b ankru p tc y.
Min o r e co no m ie s, s u ch a s ................. s ta ff c o sts , c an o fte n p re v ent a
co m pany s lid in g i n to b ankru p tc y.
1 8.
We w ere a ccid enta lly d is c o nnecte d i n th e m id dle o f o ur p ho ne c all.
We w ere a ccid enta lly ................. i n th e m id dle o f o ur p ho ne c all.

19.
Once th e g o vern m ent r e m oved q uo ta s, th e m ark et w as f lo oded w ith c heap
fo re ig n i m ports .
Once th e g o vern m ent ................. q uo ta s, th e m ark et w as f lo oded w ith c heap
fo re ig n i m ports .
20.
It c o st a lm ost
£ 8 m illio n to r e no vate th e s ta d iu m , b y w hic h ti m e th e te am
was i n s e rio us f in ancia l d iffic ulti e s.
It c o st a lm ost
£ 8 m illio n to ................. th e s ta d iu m , b y w hic h ti m e th e te am
was i n s e rio us f in ancia l d iffic ulti e s.

Phra sa l v erb s 3
C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h
co m e, g et, g iv e , g o
or
lo ok
t o m ak e a
p hra sa l v erb w it h t h e p re posit io n o r p artic le in b old . M ak e s u re y ou u se
t h e c o rre ct f o rm o f t h e v erb in e ach o ne.
1 .
I l o ved s c ho ol a s a c hild , a nd n ev er r e ally
lo oked
fo rw ard t o
th e h o lid ays
as m uch a s th e o th er c hild re n.
2 .
In r u ra l d is tr ic ts , i t c an b e d iffic ult to .................
by
w ith o ut a c ar.
3 .
The ‘ d riv e s a fe ly ’ m essa ge i s f in ally .................
th ro ugh t o
p eo ple , a nd
th ere a re n o w f e w er a ccid ents o n th e r o ad s.
4 .
Afte r y ears o f d eclin e, g o vern m ent i n v estm ent i s r e v ita lis in g th e a re a, a nd
th in gs a re f in ally .................
up
f o r l o cal b usin esse s.
5 .
As ti c ket p ric es .................
up,
f e w er p eo ple g o to th e c in em a, p re fe rrin g
in ste ad to s ta y a t h o m e a nd d o o th er th in gs.
6 .
I b elie v e th at p eo ple w ho h av e to .................
afte r
e ld erly r e la ti v es o r
oth er d ep end ants s h o uld r e ceiv e f in ancia l s u p port.
7 .
Larg e c o m panie s c an n o l o nger .................
aw ay w it h
d um pin g i n d ustr ia l
waste i n r iv ers .
8 .
Even i f y o u f a il th e f ir s t ti m e, y o u s h o uld .................
on
tr y in g.
9 .
Scie nti s ts .................
acro ss
th e c ure b y a ccid ent w hile th ey w ere s tu d yin g
th e h ealth b enefits o f a r a re tr o pic al p la nt.
1 0.
The f ir s t s te p to a h ealth ie r l ife sty le i s to .................
up
s m okin g.
1 1 .
Alth o ugh m any c hild re n .................
up t o
th eir p are nts , m any r e b el a gain st
th eir v alu es a nd w ay o f l ife .

12.
Peo ple w ho w ant to k no w h o w to .................
about
s ta rti n g u p th eir o w n
web site s h o uld r e ad
Web site s M ade E asy.
13.
The g as f ir e h eati n g th e c o nta in er .................
out,
a nd th e a p para tu s s ta rte d
to c o ol d ow n r a p id ly .
14.
We d ecid ed n o t to .................
th ro ugh
w ith o ur p la ns u nti l w e h ad m ad e
eno ugh m oney.
15.
Som e p eo ple te nd to .................
dow n o n
th o se w ho a re l e ss f o rtu nate th an
th ey a re .
16.
Wealth y c o untr ie s a re u su ally a b le to .................
th ro ugh
a p erio d o f
re cessio n b y d ra w in g o n f in ancia l r e se rv es.
17.
In a ny d is p ute w ith a m ajo r c o m pany, i t i s u su ally th e c usto m er w ho
.................
off
th e w ors t.
18.
Befo re I h and ed m y e ssa y i n , I .................
th ro ugh
i t v ery c are fu lly ,
checkin g f o r m is ta kes.
19.
Peo ple w ho l iv e i n c lo se p ro xim ity to o ne a no th er m ust tr y to .................
on w it h
th eir n eig hb ours .
20.
When o ur l o cal c o uncil tr ie d to b uild a r in g r o ad a ro und th e to w n, th ey
.................
up a gain st
a l o t o f o ppositi o n.

P hra sa l v erb s 4
T he v erb s a nd p artic le s in t h e t w o b oxes c a n b e c o m bin ed t o m ak e p hra sa l
v erb s, w hic h c a n t h en b e u se d t o c o m ple te t h e s e nte nce s b elo w .
D ecid e w hic h p hra sa l v erb s g o in to e ach s e nte nce , a nd w rit e t h e a nsw ers
i n t h e c ro ssw ord g rid . I n m any c a se s, y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f
t h e v erb . T he m eanin g o f e ach p hra sa l v erb is in
ita lic s
a t t h e e nd o f e ach
s e nte nce .
D on’t f o rg et t h at s o m e p hra sa l v erb s n eed t w o p artic le s.
T he f ir st o ne h as b een d one a s a n e xam ple .
o pt  mak e  pic k   put  ru n  se t  sta n d  ta k e 
ta lk tu rn
a fte r  again st  asid e  dow n  fo r  in   off   on  out 
ro und  up  wit h
C lu es a cro ss (
)
1 .
Acco m modati o n i n s o m e c iti e s i s s o e xp ensiv e th at s o m e p eo ple c anno t
ev en a ffo rd to _ _________ th e e ig ht w eeks’ d ep osit th at i s r e q uir e d
(to
make a d ep osit)
Answ er = p ut d ow n
4 .
They w ere r e lu cta nt to m ake c hanges, b ut w e m anaged to _ _________
th em _ _________.
(to p ersu ade s o m eb ody)
5 .
Child re n o fte n _ _________ o ne o f th eir p are nts , e ith er i n th eir m anneris m s
or i n th e w ay th ey l o ok.
(to r e se m ble )
6 .
Afte r _ _________ a f e w u nexp ecte d d iffic ulti e s, th ey d ecid ed to s c ra p th e
pro je ct.
(to s to p b eca use s o m eth in g i s i n t h e w ay)
8 .
They w ere _ _________ o f th e a p artm ent b y th eir l a nd lo rd w hen th ey
co uld n o l o nger a ffo rd th e r e nt, a nd e nd ed u p l iv in g o n th e s tr e et.
(to b e

fo rc ed t o l e a ve)
11 .
When I w as a t s c ho ol, s o m e te achers u nfa ir ly _ _________ c hild re n w ho
av oid ed s p ort b ecause th ey p re fe re d m ore c re ati v e i n te re sts a nd p asti m es.
(to c h oose s o m eo ne t o a tta ck o r c ritic is e )
12.
Alth o ugh m any c o m panie s o ffe r th eir e m plo yees a p ensio n p ro gra m me,
many d ecid e to _ _________ o f th e p ro gra m me a nd m ake th eir o w n
arra ngem ents .
(to d ecid e n ot t o t a ke p art i n s o m eth in g)
16.
A l o t o f a p plic ants e xp re sse d a n i n te re st i n th e j o b, b ut o nly a h and fu l
__________ f o r th e i n te rv ie w .
(to a rriv e f o r a m eetin g, a ppoin tm en t,
etc .)
19.
Air p ollu ti o n c an _ _________ a sth m a a nd o th er c hest d is e ase s i n th o se
most v uln era b le .
(to s ta rt)
20.
Peo ple w ho u se c re d it c ard s u nw is e ly c an e asily _ _________ d eb ts o f
th o usa nd s o f p ound s e v ery m onth .
(to m ake d eb ts g o u p q uic kly )
21.
By th e ti m e h e w as 1 8, h e h ad _ _________ h is m in d th at h e w ante d to b e
fa m ous.
(to d ecid e o n s o m eth in g)
Clu es d ow n (
)
1.
It’ s o fte n a g o od i d ea to _ _________ s o m e m oney f o r a ‘ ra in y d ay’.
(to
sa ve m oney)
2.
Techno lo gy i s m ovin g a t s u ch a f a st p ace i t i s n o l o nger p ossib le to
__________ a ll th e l a te st d ev elo pm ents .
(to u ndersta nd o r a ssim ila te
in fo rm atio n)
3.
Nobody w as _ _______ b y th e g o vern m ent’ s f a ls e f ig ure s o n
unem plo ym ent.
(to b e f o ole d o r t r ic ked )
5.
He _ _________ th e j o b th at w as o ffe re d to h im , e v en th o ugh h e w as
desp era te f o r th e m oney.
(to r e fu se s o m eth in g w hic h i s o ffe re d )
7.
Most p eo ple w ill _ _________ a s tr e ssfu l j o b i f th e m oney i s g o od e no ugh.
(to t o le ra te s o m eth in g w hic h i s n ot v ery p le a sa nt)

Phra sa l v erb s 4
9 .
He w as u nab le to m ake th e s p eech, s o I w as a sk ed to _ _________ a nd
make i t o n h is b ehalf.
(to t a ke t h e p la ce o f s o m eo ne – o fte n a ls o u se d
with ‘ fo r’)
1 0.
A l o t o f p eo ple a re _ _________ th e i d ea o f w ork in g f o r th em se lv es
because o f th e l a ck o f a r e gula r s a la ry .
(to b e d is c o ura ged f r o m d oin g
so m eth in g, u su ally b eca use o f a p ote n tia lly n eg ativ e o utc o m e)
1 3.
Once b ad w eath er _ _________, p eo ple te nd to s ta y a t h o m e r a th er th an g o
out.
(to s ta rt a nd b eco m e p erm anen t)
1 4.
Docto rs a nd m ed ic al e xp erts w ere u nab le to _ _________ w hy s o m e
peo ple s u rv iv ed th e v ir u s a nd o th ers d id n’t.
(to u ndersta nd o r k n ow t h e
re a so n f o r s o m eth in g)
1 5.
She _ _________ a s to ry a b out g ho sts i n th e c ella r to s to p u s g o in g d ow n
th ere , b ut o f c o urs e w e d id n’t b elie v e h er.
(to i n ven t a s to ry )
1 7.
At th e a ge o f 3 8 h e _ _________ th e p ost o f P re sid ent, b ut l a cked s u ffic ie nt
exp erie nce to b e ta ken s e rio usly .
(to a pply f o r a j o b i n p olitic s, c o m petin g
again st o th er p eo ple f o r t h e s a m e j o b)
1 8.
Desp ite m assiv e p ro m oti o n b y th e to uris t b oard . i t to ok a l o ng ti m e f o r
to uris m to _ _________ a gain a fte r th e te rro ris t a tta cks.
(to i m pro ve, t o g et
bette r)

P re se n tin g a n a rg um en t
L ook a t t h is t y pic a l I E LT S W rit in g T est P art 2 q uestio n a nd t h e s a m ple
a nsw er w hic h f o llo w s it .
Underlin e
t h e m ost a ppro pria te w ord s a nd
p hra se s in b old in t h e a nsw er. I n s e vera l c a se s, b oth o ptio ns a re p ossib le .
W rite a b out th e f o llo w in g to pic :
S om e s a y th at y o ung p eo ple s h ould ta ke a b re a k b etw een
sc h ool a nd u niv ersity to g o tr a vellin g a nd l e a rn m ore
a bo ut th e w orld . O th ers s a y th at i t i s b ette r fo r th em to
g o s tr a ig ht to u niv ersity fr o m s c h ool, a nd th en g o
tr a vellin g w hen th ey h ave fi n is h ed th eir s tu die s.
D is c uss b oth th ese v ie w s a nd g iv e y o ur o w n o pin io n.
G iv e r e aso ns f o r y our a n sw er a n d in clu de a n y r e le va n t
e x am ple s f r o m y our o w n k now le d ge a n d e x perie n ce.
W rite a t l e ast 2 50 w ord s.
T hese d ays, i t i s v ery c o m mon f o r y o ung p eo ple to ta ke ti m e o ff s tu d yin g
b etw een s c ho ol a nd u niv ers ity . M any o f th em g o tr a v ellin g, a nd s p end a y ear o r
l o nger v is iti n g i n te re sti n g a nd e xo ti c p la ces. ( 1 )
But /
How ever
, i s i t b ette r to
d o th is , o r to c o nti n ue s tu d yin g w ith o ut a b re ak?
( 2 )
Fir st o f a ll / F ir stly ,
th ere a re s e v era l b enefits to ta kin g ti m e o ff to tr a v el.
( 3 )
As w ell a s / I n a ddit io n t o
m eeti n g l o ts o f i n te re sti n g p eo ple , y o u c an a ls o
e xp erie nce c ultu re s th at a re v ery d iffe re nt f r o m y o ur o w n. ( 4 )
I b elie ve / I
t h in k
th at f ir s t- h and k no w le d ge a nd e xp erie nce o f th e w orld a ro und y o u e arly
i n l ife a re u se fu l th in gs to h av e.

(5 )
More over / F urth erm ore ,
y o u l e arn to l o ok a fte r y o urs e lf i n d iffe re nt a nd
ofte n d iffic ult s itu ati o ns. ( 6 )
Alt h ough / W hile
f e w p eo ple h av e s e rio us
pro ble m s w hen th ey tr a v el, y o u w ill o ccasio nally e nco unte r s itu ati o ns w here
yo u n eed to th in k a nd a ct q uic kly w ith o ut h av in g f r ie nd s o r f a m ily to tu rn to .
Unfo rtu nate ly , tr a v ellin g h as i ts d is a d vanta ges ( 7 )
als o / a s w ell,
s u ch a s
ho m esic kness a nd c ultu re s h o ck. ( 8 )
Desp it e / N everth ele ss,
th ese
in co nv enie nces a re a n i n ev ita b le p art o f tr a v ellin g a nd a re g re atl y o utw eig hed
by th e a d vanta ges.
(9 )
The m ost im porta nt r e aso n / T he m ain r e aso n
f o r g o in g s tr a ig ht to
univ ers ity a fte r s c ho ol i s th e f a ct th at th e s o oner y o u g et q ualific ati o ns, th e
quic ker y o u c an g et a j o b a nd s ta rt e arn in g.
(1 0)
As f a r a s I a m c o nce rn ed / F or m e,
s ta rti n g w ork a nd m akin g m oney i s
one o f th e m ost i m porta nt th in gs i n l ife . I a m n o t a lo ne i n th is o pin io n. ( 1 1 )
Many c o nsid er / M any s a y
a s o und c are er a nd a g o od s a la ry to b e o ne o f
life ’s m ost i m porta nt g o als . ( 1 2)
Seco nd / S eco ndly ,
i f y o u g o s tr a ig ht to
univ ers ity , y o u l e arn s o m any th in gs th at w ill h elp y o u i n y o ur f u tu re l ife . ( 1 3)
Eventu ally / F in ally ,
g o in g s tr a ig ht to u niv ers ity f r o m s c ho ol m eans th at y o u
main ta in a m om entu m th at y o u m ig ht l o se i f y o u g o tr a v ellin g. ( 1 4)
I m ean / I n
oth er w ord s,
y o u r e m ain f o cuse d o n s tu d yin g.
(1 5)
In c o nclu sio n / T o s u m maris e ,
I w ould s a y th at s p end in g a y ear tr a v ellin g
betw een s c ho ol a nd u niv ers ity h as i ts a d vanta ges a nd d is a d vanta ges. ( 1 6)
On
th e o ne h and / T o b egin ,
y o u a re s e ein g s o m eth in g o f th e w orld . ( 1 7)
Afte r
th at / O n t h e o th er h and,
y o u a re d ela yin g y o ur e d ucati o n a nd c are er. ( 1 8)
In
my o pin io n / I o pin io n t h at,
i t i s b ette r to c arry o n w ith y o ur s tu d ie s, a nd l e av e
th e tr a v ellin g u nti l l a te r.

Rea so n & r e su lt
1 J oin t h e f ir st p art o f a s e nte nce in t h e le ft-h and c o lu m n w it h a s e co nd
p art f r o m t h e r ig ht-h and c o lu m n, u sin g a n a ppro pria te w ord o r p hra se
s h ow in g r e aso n o r r e su lt f r o m t h e c e ntr a l c o lu m n. I n s o m e c a se s, m ore
t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
2 N ow c o m ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a n a ppro pria te w ord o r p hra se f r o m
t h e c e ntr a l c o lu m n o f t h e t a ble a bove.
1 .
Panic b uyin g ................................................. w hen th e s to ck m ark et
cra sh ed .
2 .
Peo ple o fte n d o th in gs w ith o ut c o nsid erin g th e
................................................. th eir a cti o ns.

3.
The g o vern m ent r a is e d th e i n co m e ta x r a te .................................................
curb i n fla ti o n.
4.
The g o vern m ent r a is e d th e i n co m e ta x r a te .................................................
curb in g i n fla ti o n.
5.
The g o vern m ent r a is e d th e i n co m e ta x r a te ................................. th e
ra p id ly r is in g r a te o f i n fla ti o n.
6.
When q uesti o ned , m any r a cis ts c anno t g iv e a l o gic al .................................
th eir a tti tu d es to w ard s o th er r a cia l g ro up s.
7.
The s o arin g c rim e r a te a la rm ed th e p olic e s u p erin te nd ent a nd
................................................. a d opt a z e ro -to le ra nce p olic in g p olic y.
8.
He w as a rre ste d ................................................. h e w as a d anger to o th ers
and h im se lf.
9.
The f a m ily w as f o rc ed to e co no m is e ................................................. g o
heav ily i n to d eb t.
10.
The f u m es f r o m m oto r tr a ffic ................................................. p eo ple i n
many d iffe re nt w ays.

S hap e & f e a tu re s
1 ( S hape) M atc h t h e w ord s in t h e b ox w it h t h e s h apes. W rit e t h e w ord
n ext t o e ach s h ape.
a c re sc en t  a c ir c le   a c o ne  a c u be  a c y lin der  an
o va l  a p yra m id
a r e cta n gle   a s p here   a s p ir a l  a
sq uare   a tr ia n gle
2 ( S hape) C om ple te t h e c ro ssw ord w it h t h e a dje ctiv e f o rm o f t h ese
s h apes.
3 ( F eatu re s) M atc h t h e d esc rip tio ns 1 – 1 0 o n t h e le ft w it h t h e o bje cts ,
g eogra phic a l f e atu re s, e tc ( a ) – ( j) o n t h e r ig ht. U se y our d ic tio nary t o
c h eck t h e m eanin gs o f t h e w ord s in b old .
1 .
Sharp ,
w it h
ja g ged
te eth
(a )
A c ountr y r o ad in v ery p oor c ondit io n.

2.
Ste ep,
w it h a
poin te d
p eak.
(b )
Som ebody’s h air .
3.
Rollin g,
w it h
undula tin g
w heat f ie ld s.
(c )
A v ery o ld tr e e.
4.
Curv ed,
w it h a
sm ooth
s u rfa ce.
(d )
A k nif e .
5.
Thin
a nd
fla t,
w it h w ord s a nd
dotte d
lin es.
(e )
A s lo w -m ovin g r iv er.
6.
Wav y,
w it h a f e w
sp ik y
b it s s tic kin g u p.
(f)
A b ric k.
7.
Mean derin g,
w it h a
calm
s u rfa ce.
(g )
A m ounta in .
8.
Win din g
a nd
bum py,
w it h
deep
p oth ole s.
(h )
A b anana.
9.
Hollo w ,
w it h a
ro ugh
s u rfa ce.
(i)
Agric ult u ra l c ountr y sid e.
10.
Thic k , s o lid
a nd
heav y,
w it h
str a ig ht
e dges.
(j)
An a pplic atio n f o rm .

Siz e, q uan tity & d im en sio n
1 L ook a t t h e f o llo w in g lis t a nd d ecid e w heth er w e a re t a lk in g a bout
s o m eth in g
big
( in t e rm s o f s iz e, q uantit y o r d im ensio n) o r s o m eth in g
sm all
.
U nderlin e
y our a nsw ers
1 .
a
min ute
a m ount o f d ust
Big /
Sm all
14.
a
gia nt
b uild in g
Big / S m all
2 .
a
min usc u le
p ie ce o f c lo th
Big / S m all
15.
a
garg antu an
m eal
Big / S m all
3 .
an
en orm ou s
b ook
Big / S m all
16.
a
wid e
a venue
Big / S m all
4 .
a
mam moth
jo b
Big / S m all
17.
a
bro a d
r iv er
Big / S m all
5 .
a
huge
w aste o f tim e
Big / S m all
18.
a
ta ll
m an
Big / S m all
6 .
a
va st
r o om
Big / S m all
19.
a
hig h
m ounta in
Big / S m all
7 .
a
gig antic
w ave
Big / S m all
20.
a
deep
la ke
Big / S m all
8 .
a
tin y
c ar
Big / S m all
21.
a
sh allo w
p ool
Big / S m all
9 .
a
mon um en ta l
e rro r
Big / S m all
22.
a
lo n g-d is ta nce
jo urn ey
Big / S m all
1 0.
a
colo ssa l
s ta tu e
Big / S m all
23.
a
va st
c ro w d o f s u pporte rs
Big / S m all
1 1 .
ple n ty
o f f o od
Big / S m all
24.
to n s
o f w ork
Big / S m all
1 2.
lo a ds
o f tim es
Big / S m all
25.
a
gre a t d ea l o f
tim e
Big / S m all
1 3.
a
narro w
a lle yw ay
Big / S m all
2 N ow c o m ple te t h ese s e nte nce s u sin g o ne o f t h e e xpre ssio ns a bove. I n
s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
1 .
Befo re y o u e m bark o n ..................................................., i t i s e sse nti a l th at
yo u a re w ell p re p are d .
2 .
We s p ent ................................................... w ork in g o n th e p la ns f o r th e
new l ib ra ry .
3 .
I l o ve th e M use um o f M odern A rt, a nd h av e b een th ere
....................................................
4 .
There ’s a s m all g re y s p ot i n th e c o rn er o f a ll m y p ho to gra p hs, s o I g uess

................................................... m ust h av e g o t i n to th e c am era a nd e nd ed
up o n th e s e nso r.
5.
Villa ges a lo ng th e c o ast w ere d estr o yed w hen
................................................... c ause d b y th e e arth q uake s w ep t h o use s
in to th e s e a.
6.
In m y o pin io n, p la yin g c o m pute r g am es f o r h o urs o n e nd i s
....................................................
7.
................................................... o f th e G re ek g o d P ose id on s to od b y th e
entr a nce to th e h arb our.

S iz e, q uan tity & d im en sio n
8 .
Desp ite th e p oor h arv est, th ere w as ................................................... f o r
th e w ho le p opula ti o n.
9 .
................................................... c alle d th e T ham es s e p ara te s th e c ity o f
Lond on f r o m th e s u b urb s to th e s o uth .
1 0.
................................................... g ath ere d to s e e th eir f a v ourite f o otb all
te am .
1 1 .
We a te ................................................... a nd th en l a y d ow n to r e st.
1 2.
The m ost i m pre ssiv e p la ce i n th e b uild in g i s
................................................... c alle d th e G re at H all, w hic h c an h o ld
over 3 ,0 00 p eo ple .
1 3.
We h av e ................................................... to d o i n th e n ext f e w d ays, s o I
su ggest w e s ta rt a s s o on a s p ossib le .
1 4.
Loch N ess i s ................................................... i n th e H ig hla nd s o f
Sco tl a nd .
1 5.
The o nly e v id ence o f th e c rim e w as ...................................................
whic h w as s tu ck o n a b ra nch o f o ne o f th e tr e es i n th e g ard en.
1 6.
‘S um o’ i s ................................................... c o nta in in g a lm ost 1 ,0 00
pic tu re s b y th e c o ntr o vers ia l p ho to gra p her H elm ut N ew to n.
1 7.
I h ad ................................................... to d o, s o to ok th e p ho ne o ff th e
ho ok, m ad e m yse lf s o m e c o ffe e a nd s a t d ow n a t m y d esk .
1 8.
The M atte rh o rn , ................................................... i n S w itz e rla nd , h as
cla im ed th e l iv es o f m any w ho h av e tr ie d to c lim b i t.
1 9.
He m ad e ................................................... i n h is c alc ula ti o ns a nd h ad to

sta rt a ll o ver a gain .
20.
The m anufa ctu re rs h av e b uilt ................................................... w hic h i s
id eal f o r g etti n g a ro und th e c ity .
21.
The N EC i n B ir m in gham i s ................................................... w hic h i s u se d
fo r c o ncerts a nd e xhib iti o ns.
22.
The m ain f e atu re o f th e to w n i s ................................................... l in ed w ith
sh o ps a nd c af
é s.
23.
I c o uld s e e th e k ey g litte rin g a t th e b otto m o f
....................................................
24.
Early E uro pean s e ttl e rs i n C entr a l a nd S outh A meric a h eard l e gend s o f
................................................... c alle d E l D ora d o w ho c o vere d h im se lf i n
go ld d ust.
25.
................................................... r a n a lo ng th e s id e o f th e h o use to a
gard en a t th e r e ar.

Spellin g
E ach p assa ge b elo w c o nta in s 1 2 w ord s w hic h h ave b een s p elt in co rre ctly .
U nderlin e
t h e w ord s, t h en w rit e t h eir c o rre ct s p ellin g in t h e b ox b elo w .
1
D esp it e b an nin g to bacco
ad ve rtis e in g
a n d r is in g th e p ric e
o f c ig arre tte s, th e g o ve rm en t’s a n ti- s m okin g c am pain h as
fa ile d to h ave a n y lo ng-te rm a ff e cts . I t is n ow w id ely
b ele iv e d th at m ore d ra stic m easu re s a re n eccessa ry . A
n ew n atio nal c o m it te e, w hic h h as b een f o rm ed to ta ck le
th e p ro ple m , h as m ad e s e ve ra l r e cco m en datio ns. T hese
in clu de b an nin g s m okin g in a ll p ublic a re as, a n d d en yin g
h osp it a l tr e atm en t to p ers is ta n t s m okers w ho h ave b een
w arn ed b y th eir d octo rs to g iv e u p b ut f a ile d to d o s o .
2
It is
arg u eab le
w eth er g o od p ro nouncia tio n is m ore
im porta n t th an g o od g ra m mer a n d v o cab ule ry .
C onsie n tio us s tu den ts b ala n ce th eir a q uis it io n o f th ese
sk ills , h opein g to a ch eiv e b oth f lu en cy a n d a ccu ra cey.
E nglis h te ach ers s h ould e n co ura ge th ere s tu den ts to
p ra ctis e a ll th e r e le va n t la n gu age s k ills , a n d u se th eir
E nglis h a t e ve ry o portu nit y .

3
It is
beco m min g
in cre asin gly d if ic u lt f o r m an y p eo ple to
fin d d ecen t a cco m odatio n in th e c it y a t a p ric e th ey c an
aff o rd . T o p ut it s im ple y, th ere a re to m an y p eo ple a n d
not e n ough h om es f o r th em . L ocal c o m unit y c en tr e s a n d
ch arit a b le o rg an is e atio ns s u ch a s
Hom e F ro nt
c an o ff e r
ad vis e , b ut it is w id ely a gre ed th at th e s it u atio n is n o
lo nger m an agab le . T he f a ct th at s o m e c o uncils in th e c it y
are b uild in g c h eap , te m pory h ousin g f o r lo w er- p aid
pro fe sio nals is th e o nly o ff ic ia l a ck now le gem en t o f th is
pro ble m .

S to p pin g s o m eth in g
C hoose t h e b est w ord o r p hra se in b old t o c o m ple te e ach s e nte nce , u sin g
t h e d efin it io ns in
ita lic s
a fte r e ach s e nte nce t o h elp y ou.
1 .
To s to p y o ur h ard d is k b eco m in g to o f u ll, y o u s h o uld
dele te / d is su ade /
se ver
a ny u nw ante d p ro gra m mes. (
to c u t o ut p art o f a d ocu m en t, a
co m pute r f ile , e tc .
)
2 .
The n ew g o vern m ent p la ns to
back o ut o f / r e peal / s u ppre ss
th e e xis ti n g
le gis la ti o n. (
to o ffic ia lly e n d a l a w s o t h at i t i s n o l o nger v a lid
)
3 .
In cre asin g f u el p ric es d oes n o t u su ally
dete r / q uash / r e sc in d
p eo ple
fr o m u sin g th eir c ars . (
to d is c o ura ge p eo ple f r o m d oin g s o m eth in g
)
4 .
The c o lle ge tr ie s to
ca nce l / d is su ade / g iv e u p
s tu d ents f r o m ta kin g
exam s w hic h a re n o t s u ita b le f o r th em . (
to p ersu ade s o m eo ne n ot t o d o
so m eth in g
)
5 .
The c o m mitte e d ecid ed to
deny / r e m ove / r e sc in d
i ts e arlie r r e so lu ti o n
on th e u se o f i ts p re m is e s. (
to c a ncel a c o ntr a ct o r a gre em en t
)
6 .
Sta te m ono polie s o fte n
back o ut o f / s u ppre ss / s u sp end
a ll f o rm s o f
eco no m ic c o m peti ti o n. (
to s to p a n a ctiv ity , u su ally b y m akin g l a w s o r
usin g y o ur a uth ority
)
7 .
The C orn uco pia n g o vern m ent m ad e th e s u d den d ecis io n to
dis su ade /
re sc in d / s e ver
d ip lo m ati c r e la ti o ns w ith th eir n eig hb ourin g c o untr ie s. (
to
en d s o m eth in g s u ch a s a f r ie n dsh ip o r a c o nnectio n c o m ple te ly a nd
perm anen tly
)
8 .
You s h o uld n ev er
deny / p ut a n e nd t o / t u rn d ow n
a g o od j o b w hen i t’ s
offe re d to y o u. (
to r e fu se s o m eth in g w hic h i s o ffe re d
)
9 .
We d ecid ed to
pull o ut o f / r e m ove / r e sc in d
th e c o m peti ti o n w hen th re e

of o ur te am m em bers b ecam e i ll. (
to d ecid e n ot t o s u pport o r b e p art o f a
pro je ct o r a ctiv ity a fte r y o u h ave a gre ed t o
)
10.
Oil a nd p etr o le um c o m panie s
deny / s c ra p / r e peal
th at th ey a re h arm in g
th e e nv ir o nm ent. (
to s ta te t h at s o m eth in g s o m eo ne h as s a id i s n ot t r u e o r
co rre ct)
11 .
Tra v el c o m panie s d o n o t n o rm ally g iv e r e fu nd s i f th eir c usto m ers
ca nce l /
put a n e nd t o / s e ver
th eir h o lid ay a t th e l a st m om ent. (
to s to p s o m eth in g
whic h h as b een p la nned
)
12.
It’ s i m porta nt to
dete r / r e m ove / q uash
r u m ours b efo re to o m any p eo ple
hear th em . (
to s to p s o m eth in g f r o m c o ntin uin g, e sp ecia lly t h in gs p eo ple
sa y o r b elie ve: r u m ours, d oubts , s p ecu la tio n, e tc .
)
13.
You s h o uld
dele te / g iv e u p / s u ppre ss
f a st f o od a nd o th er f o ods th at h av e
a h ig h f a t c o nte nt i f y o u w ant to l o se w eig ht. (
to s to p d oin g s o m eth in g t h at
yo u h ave d one f o r q uite a l o ng t im e
)
14.
They f in ally a gre ed to
dis su ade / p ut a n e nd t o / q uash
th eir l o ng-
sta nd in g d is p ute a nd tr y to w ork to geth er i n ste ad . (
to s to p s o m eth in g
whic h h as b een g oin g o n f o r a l o ng t im e
)
15.
I w ould b e g ra te fu l i f y o u w ould
dete r / r e m ove / r e peal
m y n am e f r o m
yo ur m ailin g l is t. (
to t a ke s o m eth in g a w ay
)
16.
The f a cto ry m anagem ent h ad to
deny / s u sp end / t u rn d ow n
o pera ti o ns
because o f s o m e s e rio us h ealth a nd s a fe ty i s su es. (
to o ffic ia lly s to p
so m eth in g f o r a s h ort t im e
)
17.
We w ere f o rc ed to
giv e u p / r e sc in d / s c ra p
th e p la ns w hen w e r e alis e d
th ey w ould n o t w ork . (
to d ecid e n ot t o c o ntin ue w ith s o m eth in g s u ch a s a
pla n o r e ven t, o fte n b eca use t h ere i s a p ro ble m w ith s o m e a sp ect o f i t
)
18.
I b elie v e th at th e b est w ay to
dele te / c u rb / r e peal
i n fla ti o n i s to i n cre ase
in te re st r a te s o n b orro w in g. (
to c o ntr o l o r l im it s o m eth in g t h at i s
harm fu l
)

Success & f a ilu re
A rra nge t h e le tte rs in b old t o m ak e v erb s a nd p hra se s c o nnecte d w it h
s u cce ss a nd f a ilu re . T he f ir st le tte r is in it s c o rre ct p la ce , a nd t h e w ord s
y ou n eed c a n b e f o und in t h e g rid a t t h e b otto m o f t h e p age b y r e adin g
h oriz onta lly a cro ss (
⇨ ) o r v ertic a lly d ow n (
⇩ ).
S ucce ss
1 .
The tw o d ep artm ents
ra dheec
a c o m pro m is e o ver h o w to p ro ceed w ith
th e p ro je ct.
re a ch ed
2 .
Durin g h is f ir s t m onth a s h ead o f th e c o m pany, h e w as a b le to
aosp clim ch
more th an h is p re d ecesso r h ad i n th e p re v io us s ix . .................
3 .
Our te am p la yed w ell a nd
sc e rd eu
th eir s e co nd w in o f th e s e aso n.
.................
4 .
The f ir s t s ig ns th at a b re akth ro ugh h ad b een
aic e hdve
q uic kly b ecam e
ap pare nt. .................
5 .
Many p eo ple w ant to b e r ic h a nd f a m ous, b ut v ery f e w
rle sa ie
th eir
dre am . .................
6 .
Beco m in g a n O ly m pic a th le te r e q uir e s h ard w ork a nd d ed ic ati o n, b ut f e w
ath le te s
aatn it
th e r e q uir e d s ta nd ard o f p hysic al e xcelle nce. .................
7 .
His j o urn ey u p th e A mazo n
flf lu dle i
a l o ng-c heris h ed a m biti o n. .................
8 .
Afte r s e v era l a tte m pts , w e
mndagea
to s o lv e th e p ro ble m . .................
F ailu re
9 .
They h ad to
aadbnno
th eir i d ea o f tr a v ellin g b y b oat, a nd f le w i n ste ad .
.................

10.
Nego ti a ti o ns
cla edpso l
w hen n eith er s id e c o uld a gre e o n th e te rm s a nd
co nd iti o ns. .................
11 .
Pro gre ss o n th e r e se arc h p ro je ct
fr a le dte
w hen th e m oney b egan to r u n
out. .................
12.
Afte r a d is a str o us y ear, th e c o m pany
fd oedl,
w ith d eb ts o f o ver
£ 2 m illio n.
.................
13.
Our p la nned v is it to S ud an
flle t u ro hhg
w hen w e w ere u nab le to g et v is a s.
.................
2.
The c o m pany’s p la ns to d oub le p ric es
mefd ir is
w hen th e g o vern m ent
decla re d th eir a cti o ns i lle gal. .................

T ask c o m man ds
1 L ook a t t h e lis t o f t a sk s in s e nte nce s 1 – 8 . I n p artic u la r, lo ok a t t h e
w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old , w hic h a re t e llin g t h e w rit e r / s p eak er w hat h e /
s h e m ust d o. M atc h t h ese w ord s w it h a s u it a ble d efin it io n o f t h e t a sk
c o m mand in A – H .
1 .
Acco unt f o r
th e i n cre ase d u se o f s o cia l n etw ork in g o n th e I n te rn et.
F
2 .
Analy se
th e e ffe cts o f c lim ate c hange a ro und th e w orld . .................
3 .
Evalu ate
th e i m pro vem ents y o u h av e m ad e to y o ur E nglis h s in ce y o u
sta rte d u sin g th is b ook. .................
4 .
Com pare
a nd
co ntr a st
th e tw o m achin es. .................
5 .
Defin e
‘ h ap pin ess’, a nd s a y h o w i m porta nt i t i s . .................
6 .
Dem onstr a te
th e d iffe re nt f e atu re s o n th is m obile p ho ne. .................
7 .
Dis c u ss
th e a d vanta ges a nd d is a d vanta ges o f g ro w in g u p i n a b ig c ity .
.................
8 .
Ela bora te o n
y o ur f e elin gs a b out g lo bal c ap ita lis m . .................
A .
Giv e th e m eanin g o f s o m eth in g.
B .
Talk a b out s o m eth in g w ith s o m eo ne e ls e , o r w rite a b out i t f r o m d iffe re nt
vie w poin ts .
C .
Calc ula te th e v alu e, i m porta nce o r e ffe ct o f s o m eth in g.
D .
Exp la in s o m eth in g c lo se ly a nd s c ie nti fic ally .
E .
Exp la in s o m eth in g i n m ore d eta il th an y o u d id p re v io usly .
F .
Say w hy s o m eth in g h as h ap pened o r i s h ap penin g.
G .
Sho w h o w s o m eth in g w ork s, u su ally b y p hysic ally o pera ti n g i t s o th at th e
oth er p ers o n k no w s w hat i t d oes a nd h o w i t w ork s.
H .
Look a t tw o th in gs s id e b y s id e to s e e i n w hat w ay th ey a re s im ila r a nd /
or d iffe re nt.

2 N ow d o t h e s a m e w it h t h ese .
1.
Estim ate
th e c o sts o f s e tti n g u p a w eb site f o r th e s c ho ol. .................
2.
Exam in e
th e c ause s o f g lo bal w arm in g. .................
3.
Illu str a te
th e p ro ble m s c ause d b y th e i n cre ase d u se o f p riv ate v ehic le s.
.................
4.
Justif y
y o ur r e aso ns f o r o nly c o nsid erin g o ne a sp ect o f th e p ro ble m .
.................
5.
Outlin e
y o ur c o untr y ’s e nv ir o nm enta l p olic y. .................
6.
Pre dic t
th e c hanges th at w e a re g o in g to s e e i n i n fo rm ati o n te chno lo gy i n
th e n ext 1 0 y ears . .................
7.
Suggest
w ays i n w hic h f o od s h o rta ges i n s o m e c o untr ie s c o uld b e s o lv ed .
.................
8.
Tra ce
th e d ev elo pm ent o f s p ace tr a v el s in ce th e 1 960s. .................
A.
Exp la in , w ith r e al e xam ple s, w hy s o m eth in g h as h ap pened o r i s
hap penin g.
B.
Say w hat y o u th in k i s g o in g to h ap pen i n th e f u tu re .
C.
Desc rib e w hat y o u th in k c an b e d one i n o rd er to a chie v e s o m eth in g.
D.
Calc ula te ( b ut n o t e xactl y ) th e v alu e o r c o st o f s o m eth in g.
E.
Giv e th e m ain p oin ts o f s o m eth in g, o r a b ro ad d esc rip ti o n o f s o m eth in g,
with o ut g iv in g to o m uch d eta il.
F.
Giv e a b rie f h is to ry o f s o m eth in g, i n th e o rd er i n w hic h i t h ap pened .
G.
Write o r ta lk a b out th e d iffe re nt a sp ects ( e .g ., c ause s, r e su lts ) o f
so m eth in g.
H.
Sho w th at y o u h av e a g o od r e aso n f o r d oin g s o m eth in g, e sp ecia lly i f o th er
peo ple th in k y o u h av e d one s o m eth in g w ro ng o r b ad .

Tim e
1 U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b oxes t o c o m ple te t h e s e nte nce s. P ay
p artic u la r a tte ntio n t o t h e w ord s t h at c o m e b efo re o r a fte r t h e w ord s a nd
p hra se s.
P art 1 : O ne a ctio n o r s it u atio n o ccu rrin g b efo re a noth er a ctio n o r
s it u atio n
b y th e tim e  earlie r  fo rm erly   pre ced e  pre vio usly  
p rio r to
1 .
..................................th e a d vent o f th e I n d ustr ia l R ev olu ti o n, p ollu ti o n w as
vir tu ally u nheard o f.
2 .
..................................th e a rm y h ad r e sto re d o rd er, th e c ity h ad b een a lm ost
co m ple te ly d ev asta te d .
3 .
..................................k no w n a s B om bay, M um bai i s I n d ia ’s m ost v ib ra nt
and e xciti n g c ity .
4 .
A s u d den d ro p i n te m pera tu re w ill u su ally ..................................a
bliz za rd .
5 .
It w as m y f ir s t tr ip o n a n a ero pla ne. ..................................I ’ d a lw ays g o ne
by tr a in .
6 .
The P rim e M in is te r m ad e a s p eech p ra is in g c harity o rg anis a ti o ns w ork in g
in M oza m biq ue. ..................................th at d ay h e h ad p ro m is e d m assiv e
eco no m ic a id to s tr ic ken a re as.
P art 2 : O ne a ctio n o r s it u atio n o ccu rrin g a t t h e s a m e t im e a s a noth er
a ctio n o r s it u atio n
a t th at v e ry m om en t  durin g  in th e m ean tim e  while
1 .
..............................th e m in is te r w as m akin g h is s p eech, th o usa nd s o f

dem onstr a to rs to ok to th e s tr e ets .
2.
.................................. th e s p eech th ey j e ere d a nd s h o ute d s lo gans.
3.
The m in is te r c o nti n ued s p eakin g. .................................. th e p olic e w ere
ord ere d o nto th e s tr e ets .
4.
He f in is h ed th e s p eech w ith a w ord o f p ra is e f o r th e p olic e.
.................................. p eo ple b egan th ro w in g b ottl e s a nd b ric ks, a nd th e
rio t b egan.
Part 3 : O ne a ctio n o r s it u atio n o ccu rrin g a fte r a noth er a ctio n o r s it u atio n
afte rw ard s  as s o on a s  fo llo w in g
1.
.................................. th e e arth q uake, e m erg ency o rg anis a ti o ns a ro und th e
world s w ung i n to a cti o n.
2.
.................................. th e s to ck m ark et c o lla p se d , th ere w as p anic b uyin g
on a n u np re ced ente d s c ale .
3.
The K lo nd ik e g o ld r u sh l a ste d f r o m 1 896 to 1 910. ..................................,
th e a re a b ecam e p ra cti c ally d ese rte d o vern ig ht.
2 L ook a t t h ese w ord s a nd p hra se s a nd d ecid e if w e u su ally u se t h em t o
ta lk a bout ( 1 ) t h e p ast, ( 2 ) t h e p ast le adin g t o t h e p re se nt, ( 3 ) t h e p re se nt
or ( 4 ) t h e f u tu re . T ry t o w rit e a s e nte nce f o r e ach o ne.
a f e w d ecad es a go   as th in gs s ta n d  at th e tu rn o f th e
cen tu ry
at th at p oin t / m om en t in h is to ry   back in th e
1990s  betw een 2 003 a n d 2 005
b y th e e n d o f th is
year  eve r s in ce  fo r th e f o re se eab le f u tu re f o r th e n ex t
fe w w eek s  fo r th e p ast f e w m onth s  fr o m 2 006 to
2011 f r o m n ow o n  in a n oth er f iv e y ears ’ tim e  in
med ie va l tim es in m y c h ild hood / y outh   in th ose d ay s 
la st c en tu ry   la te ly   now ad ay s o ne d ay   ove r th e

co m in g w eek s a n d m onth s  ove r th e p ast s ix w eek s
so oner o r la te r  th ese d ay s

U se fu l i n te rv ie w e x p re ssio n s
1 H ere a re s o m e c o m mon s p ok en e xpre ssio ns t h at y ou m ig ht f in d u se fu l in
t h e I E LT S S peak in g T est. P ut e ach e xpre ssio n in to t h e c o rre ct b ox in t h e
t a ble a cco rd in g t o it s f u nctio n.
1 .
Could I j u st s a y th at...
2 .
What a re y o ur v ie w s o n
… ?
3 .
Do y o u a gre e th at...?
4 .
Sorry to i n te rru p t,

5 .
Excuse m e f o r i n te rru p ti n g,

6 .
I a gre e.
7 .
Well, a s a m atte r o f f a ct,

8 .
I c o uld n’t a gre e m ore .
9 .
That’ s m y v ie w e xactl y .
1 0.
What a re y o ur f e elin gs a b out
… ?
1 1 .
I d on't e nti r e ly a gre e.
1 2.
I s e e th in gs r a th er d iffe re ntl y m yse lf.
1 3.
Let m e i n te rru p t y o u th ere .
1 4.
What d o y o u th in k a b out
… ?
1 5.
Sorry to b utt i n ,

1 6.
That’ s j u st w hat I th in k.
1 7.
That’ s r ig ht.
1 8.
Well, a ctu ally ,

1 9.
What’ s y o ur o pin io n?
2 0.
I’ m a fr a id I d is a gre e / d on’t a gre e.

2 N ow d o t h e s a m e w it h t h ese .
1.
In o th er w ord s,. ...
11 .
I’m s o rry ?
2.
What I m ean is …
12.
To p ut it a noth er w ay…
3.
May I th in k a bout th at f o r a m om ent?
13.
Let m e th in k a bout th at f o r a m om ent.
4.
So, in c onclu sio n,…
14.
That’s a n in te re stin g q uestio n.
5.
Could y ou r e peat th e q uestio n?
15.
To s u m maris e ,…
6.
Perh aps I s h ould m ake th at c le are r b y s a yin g…
16.
What w as th at?
7.
Let m e s e e.
17.
What I ’m tr y in g to s a y is …
8.
In s h ort / b rie f,…
18.
Hmm, h ow c an I p ut / s a y th is ?
9.
To s u m u p,…
19.
So, b asic ally ,. ...
10.
I’m a fra id I d id n’t c atc h th at.
20.
Would y ou m in d r e peatin g th at?

Use fu l i n te rv ie w e x p re ssio n s
3 F ill in t h e g aps in t h ese e xtr a cts f r o m I E LT S-s ty le in te rv ie w s w it h a
s u it a ble e xpre ssio n f r o m E xerc is e 1 o r 2 . I n e ach c a se , m ore t h an o ne
a nsw er is p ossib le .
1 .
I n te rv ie w er:
Why a re s o m any p eople o bse sse d w it h c ele brit ie s?
S tu dent:
..............................................
I n te rv ie w er:
Why a re s o m any p eople o bse sse d w it h c ele brit ie s?
2 .
I n te rv ie w er:
A lo t o f p eople s a y th at w e’v e b ecom e to o r e lia nt o n te chnolo gy. W hat’s y our o pin io n?
S tu dent:
.............................................. I n f a ct, I th in k th at it ’s ta kin g o ver o ur liv es.
3 .
I n te rv ie w er:
Do y ou th in k th at p eople in p la ces lik e I n dia , B angla desh a nd o th er A fric an c ountr ie s w ork
hard er

S tu dent:
.............................................. b ut d on’t y ou m ean
Asia n
c ountr ie s?
I n te rv ie w er:
Of c ours e , y es, th at’s w hat I m eant.
4 .
I n te rv ie w er:
Som e p ro fe ssio nal s p orts p eople a re p aid f a r to o m uch. D o y ou a gre e?
S tu dent:
.............................................. F ir s t o f a ll, I th in k th at th ere a re tim es w hen th e s a la ry
th ey’re p aid is ju stif ie d, b ut th en a gain , a lo t o f th em

5 .

In te rv ie w er:
The w ay p are nts b ehave c an h ave a p ro fo und e ffe ct o n h ow th eir c hild re n d evelo p. D o
you a gre e?
Stu dent:
Yes I d o. C hild re n n eed p eople w ho c an in flu ence th em in a p osit iv e w ay, a nd w ho c an
sh ow th em th e d if fe re nce b etw een r ig ht a nd w ro ng. ......................................... th ey n eed
good r o le m odels .
6.
In te rv ie w er:
Som e p eople s a y th at p riv ate v ehic le o w ners h ip s h ould b e b anned, a nd w e s h ould a ll u se
public tr a nsp ort. A re th ey r ig ht, d o y ou th in k?
Stu dent:
.............................................. F ir s t o f a ll, p ublic tr a nsp ort c an’t a lw ays ta ke y ou e xactly
where y ou w ant to g o. S econdly , it ’s e xpensiv e a nd u nre lia ble . T hen th ere ’s th e p ro ble m
wit h
… .

A rc h ite ctu re
1 P ut t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b ox in to t h eir a ppro pria te c a te gory in
t h e t a ble b eneath . S om e w ord s o r p hra se s c a n g o in to m ore t h an o ne
c a te gory . T he m ate ria l in t h is m odule b asic a lly r e m ain s t h e s a m e, w it h t h e
e xce ptio n o f t h e f o llo w in g c h anges:
a rt d eco   co ncre te   co ntr o ve rs ia l  ele gan t  en erg y -
e ff ic ie n t a n e y eso re   fa
ç ad e  fo undatio ns  fu nctio nal 
g la ss h ig h -ris e a p artm en ts   hig h -te ch   in te rn atio nal s ty le
lo w -ris e a p artm en ts   modern is t  mult i- s to re y c ar
p ark   post- m odern p le asin g g eo m etr ic f o rm s  porc h  
p ra ctic al  re in fo rc ed c o ncre te s k ysc ra p er 
sta n dard is e d   ste el  sto ne  tim ber  tr a d it io nal  ugly
w alls   well- d esig n ed

Arc h ite ctu re
2 C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a n a ppro pria te w ord o r p hra se f r o m A , B
o r C .
1 .
The b uild in g i s .................................... I t’ s b een r u in ed a nd a b and oned f o r
years .
A. d esta bilis e d
B. d ere lic t
C. d efu nct
2 .
She liv es o n a la rg e h o usin g ................................... n ear th e c entr e o f th e
city .
A. e sta te
B. s ta te
C. e stu ary
3 .
There a re s e v era l r u n-d ow n d is tr ic ts in sid e th e c ity w here th e h o usin g is
in a b ad s ta te , a lth o ugh m ost o f th ese ................................... a re g o in g to b e
re p la ced b y h ig h-ris e a p artm ents .
A. s lu m ps
B. s c ru m s
C. s lu m s
4 .
The c ity c o uncil a re g o in g to ................................... th e o ld c hurc h a nd
built a n ew o ne i n i ts p la ce.
A. d em obilis e
B. d em ote
C. d em olis h
5 .
You c an’t k no ck d ow n th at h o use ; th ere ’s a ................................... o rd er o n
it w hic h m akes i t i lle gal to d estr o y i t.
A. p re se rv a tio n
B. p re se rv a tiv e
C. p re se n ta ble
6 .
Sir R ic hard R ogers is th e ................................... w ho d esig ned th e L lo yd s
build in g i n L ond on.
A. a rc h ite ct
B. a rc h ite ctu re
C. a rc h ite ctu ra l
7 .
Som e o f th e p ro ble m s i n o ur ................................... a re d ru g r e la te d .
A. in te r-c itie s
B. in te rn al c itie s
C. in ner c itie s
8 .
The co uncil ho pe to re d uce crim e in th e to w n by in tr o ducin g new
................................... f a ciliti e s s o th at p eo ple h av e s o m eth in g to d o i n th e
ev enin g.
A. s o cia ble
B. s o cia lis t
C. s o cia l
9 .
The cin em a is go in g to be clo se d fo r tw o m onth s w hile th e ow ners
................................... i t.
A. r e novate
B. r e m onstr a te
C. r e it e ra te

10.
If yo u w ant to ad d an exte nsio n to yo ur ho use , yo u w ill need
................................... p erm is sio n f r o m y o ur l o cal c o uncil.
A. p la nnin g
B. c on str u ctio n
C. p lo ttin g
11 .
In th e U S, th e g ro und f lo or i s c alle d th e ................................... f lo or.
A. b a se m en t
B. f ir st
C. b otto m
12.
One way of cre ati n g more sp ace in a ho use is to co nv ert th e
................................... i n to a n e xtr a r o om .
A. a ttic
B. c eilin g
C. r o of

A rc h ite ctu re
3 C om ple te t h is r e port w it h w ord s a nd p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n
s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le , a nd y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange
t h e f o rm o f o ne o f t h e w ord s.
R ep ort f r o m t h e d ir e cto r o f t h e W est T w yfo rd T ow n P la n nin g C om mitte e
T he l a st y ear h as b een a b usy o ne f o r th e W est T w yfo rd T ow n P la nnin g
C om mitte e. O utl in ed b elo w a re a f e w o f th e a re as w e h av e c o ncentr a te d o n.
1 .
Applic ati o ns fo r 1 ................................................... p erm is sio n fr o m h o m e
ow ners w ho w ant to d ev elo p th eir p ro perti e s h av e in cre ase d b y 5 0 p er
cent. H ow ev er, m any of th ese ho m es are his to ric build in gs and hav e
2.................................. ord ers w hic h pre v ent th em fr o m bein g alte re d
exte rn ally . At pre se nt, we can only allo w ow ners to
3................................................... th e in sid e of th eir ho m es (in clu d in g
in sta llin g c entr a l h eati n g a nd i m pro ved w all i n su la ti o n).
2 .
Last s u m mer w e i n v ite d s e v era l 4 ................................................. to d esig n
pla ns fo r th e n ew c o uncil o ffic es o n P each S tr e et. W e e v entu ally c ho se
Barn ard , J a ckso n a nd W illis , a l o cal c o m pany. I t w as g enera lly a gre ed th at
th eir desig n, whic h in clu d ed a gre y ti n te d
5................................................... 6 ................................................... a t th e
fr o nt of th e build in g, w as th e m ost aesth eti c ally ple asin g. T hey are
curre ntl y in th e p ro cess o f la yin g th e 7 .................................................. fo r
th e n ew b uild in g, w hic h w e u nd ers ta nd is ta kin g so m e ti m e a s th e la nd
must b e d ra in ed f ir s t.
3 .
In re sp onse to a lo t of co m pla in ts ab out th e la ck of
8................................................... fa ciliti e s in th e to w n, it w as a gre ed a t
la st m onth ’s m eeti n g th at f u nd s s h o uld b e s e t a sid e f o r th e c o nstr u cti o n o f a
new s p orts c entr e a nd y o uth c lu b .

4.
Sev era l 9................................................. build in gs whic h hav e been
ru in ed a nd a b and oned f o r o ver f iv e y ears a re to b e k no cked d ow n. I n th eir
pla ce, a n ew h o usin g 1 0................................................. w ill b e b uilt. T his
will p ro vid e 2 0 n ew h o m es w ith in th e n ext tw o y ears .
5.
Every b ody agre es th at th e new sh o ps on th e Hig h Str e et are
11 .................................................. It is certa in ly tr u e th at th ey are v ery
ugly a nd o ut o f k eep in g w ith th e o th er b uild in gs o n th e s tr e et. I n f u tu re , w e
must ensu re th at all new build in gs are built in a
12................................................... s ty le s o th at th ey fit in w ith th e o ld er
build in gs a ro und th em .
6.
There has been an in cre ase d crim e ra te in th e
13................................................... to th e east o f th e to w n. W e p la n to
dem olis h th ese r u n-d ow n a re as w ith in th e n ext e ig ht y ears a nd r e -h o use th e
re sid ents in new 14................................................... ap artm ents in th e
Berk ely H eath d is tr ic t.
7.
In a n a tte m pt to h elp th e e nv ir o nm ent, w e a re g o in g to m ake th e to w n h all
more 1 5................................................... W in d ow s w ill b e d oub le -g la ze d ,
walls and ceilin gs w ill be in su la te d and w e w ill re p la ce th e curre nt
centr a l h eati n g s y ste m .
My n ext r e p ort w ill b e i n tw o m onth s’ ti m e. A nyb ody w is h in g to d is c uss th ese
is su es c an c o nta ct m e o n e xte nsio n 2 87.

The a rts
1 L ook a t t h e e xtr a cts f r o m n ew sp aper r e vie w s, a nd d ecid e w hat is b ein g
t a lk ed a bout in e ach o ne. C hoose y our a nsw ers f r o m t h e b ox.
F in e / V is u al a rts
a b str a ct a rt  a la n dsc ap e  photo gra p hy  a p ortr a it   a
sc u lp tu re   a s till lif e
L it e ra tu re
a n a u to bio gra p hy  a b io gra p hy  a c o lle ctio n o f s h ort
sto rie s  dra m a a n ove l  poetr y
P erfo rm in g a rts
a b alle t  a c o ncert  a f ilm   a m odern d an ce p ie ce  a
m usic al  an o pera   a p la y
1 .
Mim i L ato uche i s g etti n g a l ittl e to o o ld f o r th is k in d o f th in g, a nd a s I
watc hed h er p ir o uette a cro ss th e s ta ge i n a tu tu tw o s iz e s to o s m all, s h e
re m in d ed m e n o t s o m uch o f a s w an a s a r a th er u ngain ly c ro w .
.................................
2 .
The s c enery w as w ond erfu l. T he c o stu m es w ere m arv ello us. T he c ast
were i n cre d ib le . I w is h I c o uld s a y th e s a m e a b out th e s c rip t. T he
pla yw rig ht s h o uld b e s h o t. .................................
3 .
In h is n ew b ook o n E rn est H em in gw ay, a ccla im ed w rite r M ic hael N orris
has b ro ught th e g re at m an to l ife i n a w ay n o body e ls e c o uld .
.................................
4 .
Move o ver M ic hela ngelo ! Y ou h av e a r iv al. V itto rio M anelle to ’s m arb le
pie ces e m body th e h um an f o rm i n a w ay th at h as n o t b een a chie v ed i n o ver
500 y ears . .................................

5.
I h ad to s tu d y th e p ic tu re f o r a lm ost tw o m in ute s b efo re I r e alis e d w ho i t
was. I t w as n o ne o th er th an o ur Q ueen. I d oub t s h e w ould h av e b een
am use d . .................................
6.
There a re n o g re at te no rs i n B rita in . T hat i s u nti l n o w . B ria n C la ck’s
perfo rm ance i n
La T ra via tta
s e nt s h ud ders d ow n m y s p in e. W hat a m an!
What a v oic e! W hat a s iz e ! .................................
7.
Herb ert v on E rd in g h as b een c o nd ucti n g n o w f o r a lm ost 4 0 y ears , a nd h is
fin al a p peara nce y este rd ay w as g re ete d w ith a s ta nd in g o vati o n f r o m b oth
music ia ns a nd m em bers o f th e a ud ie nce. .................................
8.
Sto ne A ngel
i s a n h ila rio us ta le a b out th e f a ll a nd r is e o f a n o pera s in ger. I
pic ked i t u p a nd d id n’t p ut i t d ow n u nti l I h ad f in is h ed . A f a nta sti c b ook.
.................................
9.
Dyla n T ho m as s h o w ed r e m ark ab le e lo quence, a nd th is l a te st c o m pila ti o n
of s o m e o f h is f in est p ro se w ill s u re ly b e a b ests e lle r.
.................................
10.
Bru sc hetta ’s s tu d ie s o f d ead a nim als m ig ht n o t b e to e v ery o ne’s ta ste , b ut
it i s i m possib le to d eny h is s k ill i n r e p re se nti n g i n anim ate o bje cts l ik e
th ese o n c anv as. .................................
11 .
He u su ally w ork s i n b la ck a nd w hite , a nd i n m y o pin io n th at’ s th e m ed iu m
he s h o uld s ti c k to . H is c o lo ur s h o ts a re to o s ta ti c a nd a re h eav ily o ver-
filte re d , th e s tr o ng l ig hti n g w ash es o ut a ny s u b tl e ty , a nd m uch o f i t i s o ut o f
fo cus. .................................

T he a rts
1 2.
Sho t e nti r e ly o n l o cati o n i n I r a n, th is i s p erh ap s th e d ir e cto r’s f in est h o ur.
A s tu nnin g s e tti n g, f in e p erfo rm ances f r o m th e l e ad s, a nd a c ast o f
th o usa nd s o f e xtr a s m ake th is a tr u ly v is u al f e ast. ................................
1 3.
The p ain ti n g s h o w s a l o t o f r e d c ir c le s a nd tr ia ngle s i n sid e s q uare s
flo ati n g i n th e s k y a b ove a y ello w s e a, a nd i s ti tl e d ‘ C ontr a ctu al
Oblig ati o n M eta m orp ho sis ’. ................................
1 4.
‘D aw n V ie w o f L ond on’ ta kes i n th e w ho le o f th e c ity a s s e en f r o m th e to p
of P arlia m ent H ill, a lth o ugh th e a rti s t h as r e m oved s o m e o f th e l e ss
attr a cti v e b uild in gs f r o m th e f o re gro und . ................................
2 T he w ord s in b old in t h ese s e nte nce s a re e it h er w ro ng, o r t h e w ro ng
w ord f o rm h as b een u se d. C hange t h em s o t h at t h ey a re c o rre ct.
1 .
Tonig ht’ s
perfo rm
o f
Rom eo a nd J u lie t
b egin s a t 7 .3 0.
perfo rm ance
2 .
Cam fo rd U niv ers ity P re ss h av e j u st r e le ase d a c o lle cti o n o f S hakesp eare ’s
work in gs.
.........................
3 .
A n ew l im ite d
edit o r
o f th e C D ‘ H ere w e g o !’ b y r o ck g ro up G la ss W ease l
co nta in s a D VD o f th eir l a te st to ur. ................................
4 .
His l a st b ook r e ceiv ed s o m e e xcelle nt
re vues
i n th e p ap ers .
................................
5 .
Tate M odern i s c urre ntl y r u nnin g a n
exhib it
o f T ra cey E m in ’s e arly w ork .
................................
6 .
The B riti s h N ati o nal O pera s a ys th at i t i s d elig hte d w ith th e g o vern m ent’ s
pro m is e o f a
£ 500,0 00
gra ntin g.
................................
7 .
Tic kets h av e a lr e ad y s o ld o ut f o r th e f ir s t d ay’s s h o w in g o f T om C artm ill’s
pain ti n gs a t th e N ati o nal A rt
Galle y.
................................
8 .
Ern est H em in gw ay w as o ne o f th e tw enti e th c entu ry ’s m ost f a m ous
novels .
................................
9 .
Fre nch
im pre ssio nis m ,
w hic h i n clu d ed M oney, M anet a nd D egas, h ad a

pro fo und i n flu ence o n n in ete enth -c entu ry a rt. ................................
10.
Appare ntl y , O ld hav en P re ss a re g o in g to
public a tio n
a c o lle cti o n o f s h o rt
sto rie s w ritte n b y s c ho olc hild re n. ................................
11 .
I l o ved th e f ilm ’s
atm osp here
m usic a nd u se o f v is u al m eta p ho r.
................................
12.
I’ v e a lw ays h ad a n
arty
e ye, a nd th in k I w ould m ake a g o od f a sh io n
pho to gra p her. ...........................
13.
I h ate r e ality s h o w s, ta le nt s h o w s a nd s im ila r te le v is io n p ro gra m mes th at
fo rm th e b ulk o f to day’s
popula rit y
c ultu re . ................................
14.
Ors o n W elle s’ f ilm
Citiz e n K ane
w as m ad e o ver 7 0 y ears a go , b ut
re m ain s a
cin em a
m aste rp ie ce. ................................
15.
And r
é B re to n i s w id ely r e gard ed a s th e f o und er o f th e
su rre al
a rt
movem ent. ................................
16.
The c o lle ge r u ns a v arie d p ro gra m me o f
cu lt u re d
a cti v iti e s w hic h a re
open to o rd in ary m em bers o f th e p ub lic . ................................

The a rts
3 C om ple te t h is e xtr a ct f r o m a r a dio p ro gra m me w it h t h e w ord s o r
p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is
p ossib le , a nd y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange s o m e o f t h e w ord f o rm s.
H ello , a nd w elc o m e to to day’s e d iti o n o f ‘ B ut i s i t A rt? ’
N ow , I d on’t u su ally e njo y 1 ................................................. – a ll th o se
p ir o uette s a nd p as d e d eux’s a nd d yin g s w ans u su ally s e nd m e to s le ep , b ut l a st
n ig ht’ s 2 ................................................. o f
Sle ep in g B ea uty
a t N ure yev H all
h ad m e o n th e e d ge o f m y s e at. A nd I ’ m n o t th e o nly o ne: r a v e
3 ................................................. i n th e n ati o nal p re ss p ra is e d th e e xcelle nt
c ho re o gra p hy a nd th e i n cre d ib le s ta ge s e t. I t’ s o n a gain to nig ht, b ut y o u’ll h av e
t o m ove f a st i f y o u w ant a ti c ket!
T he c urre nt 4 ........................................................ o f M onetto ’s p ain ti n gs a t th e
W heatl e y A rt 5 ...................................................... h as b een a d is a p poin tm ent.
T he p ic tu re s th em se lv es a re e xcelle nt, e sp ecia lly th e g re at a rti s t’ s
6 ................................................. o f f ilm s ta rs , a nd o f c o urs e h is s tu nnin g
7 ................................................. o f a v ase o f d affo dils , b ut th e l ig hti n g i n sid e
t h e r o om w as te rrib le . I w ould h av e th o ught th at, h av in g r e ceiv ed a g o vern m ent
8 ................................................. o f a lm ost
£ 100,0 00, th e W heatl e y A rts
C ouncil c o uld h av e i n v este d i t i n s o m e g o od l ig hts .
F ans o f th e g re at tw enti e th -c entu ry 9 ....................................................... G eo rg e
O rw ell w ill b e d elig hte d to h ear th at S w anso ng P re ss a re g o in g to r e le ase a
c o lle cti o n o f h is g re ate st 1 0..................................................., w hic h w ill o f
c o urs e i n clu d e
Anim al F arm
a nd
Nin ete en E ig hty F our.
A ls o i n clu d ed a re
s o m e r a re s h o rt s to rie s w hic h w ere n o t 1 1 ................................................. u nti l
a fte r h is d eath . L ook o ut f o r th e b ook, w hic h w ill b e i n th e s h o ps f r o m th e e nd
o f th e m onth .
O n th e s u b je ct o f b ooks, a n ew 1 2................................................. o f th e l ife o f
c o nd ucto r C harle s W ors e nm ost i s d ue to b e r e le ase d i n J a nuary . W ors e nm ost

co nd ucte d h is l a st 1 3................................................. i n 1 998 a fte r a l o ng a nd
ev entf u l c are er. T his i s h ig hly r e co m mend ed f o r a nyo ne w ho i s r e m ote ly
in te re ste d i n c la ssic al m usic .
Hav e y o u e v er w ante d to b e a n 1 4................................................. s in ger? W ell,
no w ’s y o ur c hance! T he N ati o nal M usic C om pany a re l o okin g f o r te no rs a nd
so pra no s to a ud iti o n f o r a n ew p ro ducti o n o f M oza rt’ s
Marria ge o f F ig aro .
I f
yo u’re i n te re ste d , w e’ll g iv e y o u th e n um ber to c all a t th e e nd o f th e
pro gra m me.
Pote nti a l M ic hela ngelo s a nd H enry M oore s c an tr y th eir h and a t
15................................................. th is w eekend . T he G le neagle s M use um i s
ho ld in g a s e rie s o f w ork sh o ps w hic h w ill g iv e y o u th e c hance to c hip a w ay a t
a l u m p o f s to ne to p ro duce a p ie ce o f th re e-d im ensio nal a rt. T here ’s n o n eed to
book – j u st tu rn u p a t th e d oor o n S atu rd ay a t n in e o ’c lo ck.
And n o w h ere ’s th at n um ber I p ro m is e d y o u… .

B usin ess & i n dustr y
1 L ook a t s e nte nce s 1 – 1 6, a nd r e pla ce t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old w it h
a w ord o r p hra se in t h e b ox w hic h h as a n o pposit e m eanin g.
c re d it   dem an d f o r  em plo yees  ex pen dit u re  
e x ports   le n din g lo ss  net  priv a te   re cessio n 
re ta il  sh op f lo or s ta te -o w ned in dustr ie s  ta k e o n 
u nsk ille d la b oure rs   whit e -c o lla r
1 .
We h av e a l im ite d
su pply o f
c o m pute r b ase u nits .
2 .
Last y ear, o ur c o m pany m ad e a h uge
pro fit
.
3 .
Our
gro ss
p ro fits a re u p b y a lm ost 1 50 p er c ent o n l a st y ear.
4 .
Banks a cro ss th e c o untr y a re r e p orti n g a s h arp d ro p i n
borro w in g
.
5 .
The c o m pany w ill
deb it
y o ur b ank a cco unt w ith
£ 528 e ach m onth .
6 .
The
whole sa le
m ark et h as e xp erie nced a d ow ntu rn s in ce th e r e cessio n
began.
7 .
The g o vern m ent i s e nco ura gin g s h o rt- te rm i n v esto rs to p ut th eir m oney i n to
th e
pu blic
s e cto r.
8 .
Priv a te e n te rp ris e s
a re u nd er a l o t o f f in ancia l p re ssu re .
9 .
Skille d w ork ers
a re d em and in g a 1 5 p er c ent p ay r is e .
1 0.
If th is c o nti n ues, w e w ill h av e to
la y o ff
m em bers o f s ta ff.
1 1 .
Blu e-c o lla r
w ork ers a cro ss th e c o untr y a re d em and in g i m pro ved w ork in g

co nd iti o ns.
12.
He w ork s f o r a c o m pany w hic h
im ports
c am era e q uip m ent.
13.
A l o t o f p eo ple h av e b enefite d f r o m th e r e cent
boom
i n th e e le ctr ic al
in d ustr y .
14.
The
man agem en t
r e fu se to c o m pro m is e o n th e q uality o f th eir p ro ducts .
15.
Overa ll
re ve n ue
i s d ow n b y a lm ost 1 5 p er c ent.
16.
A f ig ht b ro ke o ut i n th e
board ro om
o ver te rm s a nd c o nd iti o ns o f
em plo ym ent. ( N ote : y o u w ill h av e to c hange th e p re p ositi o n
in
to
on
)

Busin ess & i n dustr y
2 M atc h t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e f ir st b ox w it h a d ic tio nary d efin it io n
f r o m t h e lis t A – R b elo w .
1. a uto m atio n
7. in te re st r a te s
13. o utp ut
2. u nem plo ym ent
8. p rim ary in dustr y
14. in com e ta x
3. in fla tio n
9. s e condary in dustr ie s
15. V AT
4. b ala nce o f p aym ents
10. s e rv ic e in dustr ie s
16. d efic it
5. ta xatio n
11 . n atio nalis e d in dustr ie s
17. k ey in dustr y
6. G N P
12. m onopoly
18. s a la ry
A .
The p erc enta ge c harg ed f o r b orro w in g m oney.
(T he B ank o f E ngla nd h as
ra is e d ......................................................)
B .
In d ustr ie s i n v olv ed i n th e m anufa ctu re o f g o ods.
(
..................................................... r e ly o n t h e r e ady s u pply o f r a w
mate ria ls .)
C .
The v alu e o f g o ods a nd s e rv ic es p aid f o r i n a c o untr y , i n clu d in g i n co m e
earn ed i n o th er c o untr ie s.
(L ast y ear’s .....................................................
was c lo se t o £ 25 b illio n.)
D .
The a m ount w hic h a f ir m , m achin e o r p ers o n p ro duces.
(T he f a cto ry h as
double d it s ..................................................... in t h e la st s ix m onth s.)
E .
In d ustr ie s i n v olv ed i n th e p ro ducti o n o f r a w m ate ria ls .
(C oal m in in g is a n
im porta nt ......................................................)
F .
In sta llin g m achin ery i n p la ce o f w ork ers
(..................................................... c a n b e a m ix ed b le ssin g – m ach in es
usu ally t e nd t o b e o ut o f o rd er w hen y ou n eed t h em m ost.)
G .
In d ustr ie s w hic h d o n o t m ake p ro ducts b ut o ffe r a s e rv ic e s u ch a s b ankin g,
in su ra nce a nd tr a nsp ort.
(..................................................... h ave b eco m e
more im porta nt in t h e la st d eca de.)

H.
The d iffe re nce i n v alu e b etw een a c o untr y ’s i m ports a nd e xp orts .
(T he
govern m ent is t r y in g t o r e duce t h e .....................................................
defic it .)
I.
The a m ount b y w hic h e xp end itu re i s m ore th an r e ceip ts i n a f ir m ’s o r
co untr y ’s a cco unts .
(T he c o m pany a nnounce d a t w o m illio n p ound
..................................................... .)
J.
A s y ste m w here o ne p ers o n o r c o m pany s u p plie s a ll o f a p ro duct i n o ne
are a w ith o ut a ny c o m peti ti o n.
(T he s ta te h as a
..................................................... o f t h e t o bacco t r a de.)
K.
In d ustr ie s w hic h w ere o nce p riv ate ly o w ned , b ut n o w b elo ng to th e s ta te .
(W ork ers i n ..................................................... a re t o g et a 3 p er c en t p ay
ris e .)
L.
Lack o f w ork .
(T he f ig ure s f o r ..................................................... a re
ris in g.)
M.
The a cti o n o f i m posin g ta xes.
(M oney r a is e d b y
..................................................... p ays f o r a ll g overn m ent s e rv ic e s.)
N.
The m ost i m porta nt i n d ustr ie s i n a c o untr y .
(O il i s a
..................................................... w hic h i s e sse n tia l t o t h e c o u ntr y’s
eco n om y.)
O.
A s ta te i n a n e co no m y w here p ric es a nd w ages a re r is in g to k eep p ace
with e ach o th er.
(T he g overn m ent is t r y in g t o k eep
..................................................... d ow n b elo w 3 p er c e nt.)
P.
A ta x o n m oney e arn ed a s w ages o r s a la ry .
(S he p ays
........................................ a t t h e lo w est r a te .)
Q.
A ta x i m pose d a s a p erc enta ge o f th e i n v oic e v alu e o f g o ods o r s e rv ic es.
An i n d ir e ct ta x.
(..................................................... in B rit a in c u rre ntly
ru ns a t 2 0 p er c e nt.)
R.
A f ix ed a m ount o f m oney th at y o u e arn e ach m onth o f y ear f r o m y o ur j o b
(I
re ce iv e a n a nnual ..................................................... o f £ 30,0 00)

B usin ess & i n dustr y
3 C om ple te t h is e xtr a ct f r o m a b usin ess p ro gra m me w it h w ord s a nd
p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is
p ossib le , a nd y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange s o m e o f t h e w ord f o rm s.
1 ................................................................. r a te s a re to r is e b y a f u rth er h alf a
p er c ent n ext m onth , p utti n g f u rth er p re ssu re o n h o m eo w ners p ayin g m ortg ages.
I t w ill a ls o d is c o ura ge p eo ple f r o m 2 .................................................................
m oney f r o m th e h ig h s tr e et b anks, w ho a re a lr e ad y u nd er a l o t o f p re ssu re . L ast
y ear, th e N ati o nal B ank w as f o rc ed to
3 ................................................................. 2 ,0 00 m em bers o f s ta ff a cro ss th e
c o untr y , a d din g to th e c o untr y ’s r a p id ly r is in g r a te o f
4 ..................................................................
5 ................................................................. r o se i n th e l a st y ear b y a lm ost 6 p er
c ent, d esp ite th e g o vern m ent’ s p le d ge to k eep p ric e a nd w age r is e s n o h ig her
t h an 3 p er c ent. T his h as h ad a n egati v e i m pact o n
6 ................................................................., s in ce th e s tr o ng p ound c o up le d
w ith r is in g p ric es h as m ad e i t a lm ost i m possib le f o r f o re ig n c o m panie s to b uy
B riti s h g o ods a nd s e rv ic es. E sp ecia lly a ffe cte d a re th e
7 ................................................................. p ro ducin g p harm aceuti c als a nd
c hem ic als .
8 ........................................................................... w ork ers i n
9 ................................................................... i n d ustr ie s a cro ss th e c o untr y a re
d em and in g h ig her 1 0................................................................. . U nio ns a nd
w ork ers a re n ego ti a ti n g w ith 1 1 .................................................................
c hie fs f o r a n e ig ht p erc ent r is e . T his f o llo w s th e a nno uncem ent th at th e
g o vern m ent w ant m ore i n v esto rs to p ut th eir m oney i n to th e
1 2................................................................. s e cto r.
1 3................................................................................. f o r h o m e c o m pute rs h as
f in ally o verta ken th e 1 4................................................................., m akin g i t
o nce a gain a s e lle r’s m ark et. T here i s n o w a tw o-w eek w aiti n g l is t to r e ceiv e

a n ew c o m pute r. T his h as p ush ed p ric es u p b y a lm ost a th ir d .
Bra d fo rd A ero sp ace T echno lo gie s, w here o vera ll
15................................................................. f o r s a le s o f a ir c ra ft p arts h as
dro pped b y a lm ost 1 0 p er c ent i n th e l a st q uarte r, w ill s h o rtl y b eco m e a
16................................................................. i n d ustr y i n a f in al d esp era te
atte m pt to k eep i t o pen. T he g o vern m ent h as p ro m is e d i t w ill k eep o n th e
curre nt w ork fo rc e.
Bad n ew s to o f o r R anger C ars , w ho th is w eek a nno unced a
17................................................. o f a lm ost
£ 5 m illio n. A s p okesm an f o r th e
co m pany b la m ed h ig h l a b our c o sts a nd th e r e lu cta nce b y u nio n l e ad ers to
ap pro ve i n cre ase d 1 8................................................................. a t th e f ir m ’s
fa cto rie s. T hey i n sis t th at th e i n sta lla ti o n o f n ew m achin ery w ill l e ad to
re d und ancie s.

Child re n & t h e f a m ily
1 C om ple te t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a n a ppro pria te w ord o r p hra se f r o m A , B
o r C .
1 .
Mr a nd M rs S m ith l iv e a t h o m e w ith th eir tw o c hild re n. T hey a re a ty p ic al
exam ple o f a m odern ................................. f a m ily .
A. e x te n ded
B. n ucle a r
C. c om pact
2 .
Mr a nd M rs P opatl a l liv e a t h o m e w ith th eir a ged p are nts , c hild re n a nd
gra nd child re n. They are a ty p ic al exam ple of a tr a d iti o nal
................................. f a m ily .
A. n ucle a r
B. e n la rg ed
C. e x te n ded
3 .
Mrs J o nes liv es o n h er o w n a nd h as to lo ok a fte r h er tw o c hild re n. T here
are a l o t o f ................................. f a m ilie s l ik e h ers .
A. s in gle -p are n t
B. m oth er-o n ly
C. m on o-p are n t
4 .
Som e p are nts n eed to ................................. th eir c hild re n m ore s tr ic tl y .
A. b rin g d ow n
B. b rin g a bou t
C. b rin g u p
5 .
When I w as a c hild , I h ad a v ery tu rb ule nt ................................. .
A. u pbrin gin g
B. u pra is in g
C. u plif tin g
6 .
Mrs K elly is ................................. a nd fin d s it d iffic ult to lo ok a fte r h er
child re n o n h er o w n.
A. d iv orc ed
B. d iv id ed
C. d iv erg ed
7 .
Many m en belie v e th at ................................. is th e re sp onsib ility of a
wom an.
A. c h ild help
B. c h ild ca re
C. c h ild aid
8 .
................................. i s a p arti c ula rly d iffic ult ti m e o f l ife f o r a c hild .
A. C on va le sc en ce
B. A dole sc en ce
C. C on verg en ce
9 .
A pers o n’s behav io ur can so m eti m es be tr a ced back to his /h er
................................. .
A. c re a tiv e y ea rs
B. f o rm ula tin g y ea rs
C. f o rm ativ e y ea rs
1 0.
The c o untr y h as s e en a s h arp d ro p in th e ................................. in th e la st
fe w y ears .

A. b ir th r a te
B. b a by r a te
C. b orn r a te
11 .
She h as f iv e ................................. w ho r e ly o n h er to l o ok a fte r th em .
A. d ep en dants
B. d ep en ders
C. d ep en den ts
12.
................................. c rim e is o n th e r is e , w ith o ver 3 0 p er c ent o f th efts
bein g c o m mitte d b y y o ung p eo ple u nd er th e a ge o f e ig hte en.
A. J unio r
B. J uven ile
C. C hild re n
2 M atc h s e nte nce s 1 – 1 2 w it h a s e co nd s e nte nce A – M . U se t h e k ey
word s a nd p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou.
1.
Mr a nd M rs W hite a re v ery
auth orit a ria n
p are nts .
2.
Mr B ow le s i s c o nsid ere d to b e to o
le nie nt.
3.
Mr a nd M rs H arris l e ad
se para te liv es.
4.
Billy i s a
well- a dju ste d
k id .
5.
The M annin gs a re n o t v ery
re sp onsib le
p are nts .
6.
My p are nts a re
se para te d.
7.
Pare nts m ust l o ok a fte r th eir c hild re n, b ut th ey s h o uld n’t b e
over-
pro te ctiv e.
8.
Pro fe sso r M aynard h as m ad e a s tu d y o f th e
co gnit iv e p ro ce sse s
o f y o ung
child re n.

C hild re n & t h e f a m ily
9 .
I’ m a fr a id m y y o ungest c hild i s
ru nnin g w ild .
1 0.
She l o oks q uite d iffe re nt f r o m a ll h er
sib lin gs.
1 1 .
There a re s e v era l
dif fe re nt a nd d is tin ct s ta ges o f d evelo pm ent
i n a
child ’s l ife .
1 2.
Tony w as r a is e d b y a
fo ste r f a m ily
w hen h is o w n p are nts d ie d .
A .
They d on’t l o ok a fte r th eir c hild re n v ery w ell.
B .
He i s f a sc in ate d b y th e w ay th ey l e arn n ew th in gs.
C .
He v ery r a re ly p unis h es h is c hild re n.
D .
I l iv e w ith m y m oth er a nd v is it m y f a th er a t w eekend s.
E .
He n ev er l is te ns to a w ord I s a y, a nd i s a lw ays p la yin g tr u ant f r o m s c ho ol.
F .
Bro th ers a nd s is te rs u su ally b ear s o m e r e se m bla nce to o ne a no th er.
G .
Alth o ugh th ey a re m arrie d a nd l iv e to geth er, th ey r a re ly s p eak to e ach
oth er.
H .
They a re v ery s tr ic t w ith th eir c hild re n.
I .
Of a ll o f th ese , th e te enage y ears a re th e m ost d iffic ult.
J .
Child re n n eed th e f r e ed om to g et o ut a nd e xp erie nce th e w orld a ro und
th em .
K .
He’s h ap py a t h o m e a nd i s d oin g w ell a t s c ho ol.
L .
Many f a m ilie s ta ke i n c hild re n w ho a re n o t th eir o w n.
3 C om ple te t h is c a se s tu dy w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r p hra se s f r o m
E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . Y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange o ne o f t h e w ord f o rm s.
B ob’s p ro ble m s b egan d urin g h is 1 ................................................. y ears . H is
p are nts g o t 2 ................................................. w hen h e w as y o ung, a nd n eith er o f
t h em w ante d to r a is e h im o r h is b ro th er a nd s is te r, s o h e w as
3 ............................................ b y a 4 ............................................... c ho se n b y

his p are nts ’ s o cia l w ork er. U nfo rtu nate ly , h is f o ste r f a th er w as a s tr ic t
5.......................................... a nd o fte n b eat h im . B ob r e b elle d a gain st th is s tr ic t
6................................................., a nd b y th e ti m e h e w as e ig ht, h e w as a lr e ad y
7................................................., s te alin g f r o m s h o ps a nd p la yin g tr u ant. B y th e
ti m e h e r e ached 8 ................................................., s o m eti m e a ro und h is 1 3th
bir th d ay, h e h ad a lr e ad y a p peare d i n c o urt s e v era l ti m es, c harg ed w ith
9................................................. c rim e. T he j u d ge b la m ed h is f o ste r p are nts ,
exp la in in g th at c hild re n n eed ed 1 0................................. p are nts a nd g uard ia ns
who w ould l o ok a fte r th em p ro perly . T he f o ste r f a th er o bje cte d to th is , p oin ti n g
out th at B ob’s 1 1 ................................................. – h is tw o b ro th ers a nd s is te r –
were 1 2................................................. c hild re n w ho b ehav ed a t h o m e a nd
work ed w ell a t s c ho ol.
This h as r a is e d s o m e i n te re sti n g q uesti o ns a b out th e m odern f a m ily s y ste m .
While i t i s tr u e th at p are nts s h o uld n o t b e to o 1 3.................................................
with c hild re n b y l e tti n g th em d o w hat th ey w ant w hen th ey w ant, o r b e to o
14................................................. b y s h elte rin g th em f r o m th e r e aliti e s o f l ife ,
it i s a ls o tr u e th at th ey s h o uld n o t b e to o s tr ic t. I t h as a ls o h ig hlig hte d th e
dis a d vanta ges o f th e m odern 1 5................................................. f a m ily w here
th e c hild h as o nly i ts m oth er a nd f a th er to r e ly o n ( o r th e
16................................................. f a m ily , i n w hic h th e m oth er o r f a th er h as to
str u ggle p arti c ula rly h ard to s u p port th eir 1 7.................................................) .
In f a ct, m any b elie v e th at w e s h o uld r e tu rn to tr a d iti o nal f a m ily v alu es a nd th e
18................................................. f a m ily : e xte nsiv e r e se arc h h as s h o w n th at
child re n f r o m th ese f a m ilie s a re g enera lly b ette r b ehav ed a nd h av e a b ette r
chance o f s u ccess i n l a te r l ife .

Crim e & t h e l a w
1 M atc h t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b ox w it h t h eir c o rre ct d efin it io n 1 –
1 0.
b arris te r  bre ak th e la w   defe n dan t  ju dge  ju ry  
la w -a b id in g o ff e n der  so lic it o r  vic tim   wit n ess
1 .
A p ers o n a p poin te d to m ake l e gal d ecis io ns i n a c o urt o f l a w .
..................................
2 .
A g ro up o f 1 2 c iti z e ns w ho a re s w orn to d ecid e w heth er s o m eo ne i s g uilty
or i n no cent o n th e b asis o f e v id ence g iv en i n a c o urt o f l a w .
..................................
3 .
A p ers o n w ho s e es s o m eth in g h ap pen o r i s p re se nt w hen s o m eth in g
hap pens. ...............................
4 .
A p ers o n w ho a p pears i n a c o urt o f l a w a ccuse d o f d oin g s o m eth in g
ille gal. ..................................
5 .
A p ers o n w ho i s a tta cked o r w ho i s i n a n a ccid ent. ..................................
6 .
A q ualifie d l a w yer w ho g iv es a d vic e to m em bers o f th e p ub lic a nd a cts
fo r th em i n l e gal m atte rs . ..................................
7 .
A p ers o n w ho c o m mits a n o ffe nce a gain st th e l a w . ..................................
8 .
A l a w yer w ho c an p re se nt a c ase i n c o urt. ..................................
9 .
An e xp re ssio n u se d to d esc rib e s o m eo ne w ho o beys th e l a w .
..................................
1 0.
To d o s o m eth in g th at i s i lle gal. ..................................
2 T he f o llo w in g g ro ups o f s e nte nce s d esc rib e t h e le gal p ro ce ss w hic h
f o llo w s a c rim e. H ow ever, w it h t h e e xce ptio n o f t h e f ir st s e nte nce , t h e
s e nte nce s in e ach g ro up a re in t h e w ro ng o rd er. P ut t h em in to t h e c o rre ct
o rd er, u sin g t h e k ey w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou. S om e o f t h ese
w ord s a ppear in T ask A .

Part 1
A.
One n ig ht, J im S m ith
co m mitte d
a s e rio us c rim e. =
Sen te n ce 1
B.
Jim a sk ed th e o ffic er f o r a
so lic ito r
to h elp h im . ..................................
C.
At th e s a m e ti m e, th e p olic e a rra nged f o r a
barris te r
to
pro se cu te
h im .
..................................
D.
They to ok h im to th e p olic e s ta ti o n a nd f o rm ally
ch arg ed
h im w ith th e
crim e. ..................................
E.
When th e
tr ia l
b egan a nd h e a p peare d i n
co u rt
f o r th e f ir s t ti m e, h e
ple a ded
h is
in nocen ce
. ..................................
F.
The n ext m orn in g th e p olic e
arre ste d
h im . ..................................
Part 2
A.
His b arris te r a ls o s a id h e w as
in nocen t
a nd a sk ed th e c o urt to
acq u it
him . =
Sen te n ce 1
B.
While h e w as i n p ris o n, h e a p plie d f o r
paro le
. ..................................
C.
As a r e su lt, th e j u d ge
se n te n ced
h im to tw o y ears i n p ris o n.
..................................
D.
He w as
re le a se d
a fte r 1 8 m onth s. ..................................
E.
How ev er, th ere w ere s e v era l
witn esse s
, a nd th e
evid en ce
a gain st h im w as
overw helm in g. ..................................
F.
Hav in g a ll th e
pro of
th ey n eed ed , th e
ju ry
r e tu rn ed a
gu ilty v e rd ic t
.
..................................
Part 3
A.
Unfo rtu nate ly , p ris o n f a ile d to
re h abilita te
h im a nd a fte r h is
re le a se
h e
co nti n ued w ith h is
mis d eed s
, a tta ckin g a n o ld w om an i n th e s tr e et. =
Sen te n ce 1
B.
Jim p ro m is e d to
re fo rm
a nd th e p ensio ner w ith d re w h er c all f o r m ore
se v ere
re tr ib u tio n
. .........................

C rim e & t h e l a w
C .
With th is i n m in d , i n ste ad o f p assin g a
cu sto dia l s e n te n ce
, h e
fin ed
h im a
lo t o f m oney a nd o rd ere d h im to d o
co m munity s e rvic e
. .................
D .
He w as
re -a rre ste d
a nd r e tu rn ed to c o urt. .................
E .
His n ew
vic tim
, a p ensio ner, th o ught th at th e j u d ge w as b ein g to o
le n ie n t
on J im a nd c alle d f o r th e r e in sta te m ent o f
co rp ora l p u nis h m en t
a nd
ca pita l p u nis h m en t!
.................
F .
At h is s e co nd tr ia l th e j u d ge a gre ed th at p ris o n w as n o t a
dete rre n t
f o r
Jim . .................
3 . N ow lo ok a t t h is e xtr a ct f r o m a p olit ic ia n’s s p eech a nd c o m ple te t h e
g aps w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e
c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er m ay b e p ossib le .
A re y o u w orrie d a b out c rim e? I a m . W e r e ad i t e v ery d ay i n th e p ap ers . A
t e rrib le c rim e h as b een 1 ................................................., th e p olic e h av e
2 ................................................. s o m eo ne, h e h as a p peare d i n f r o nt o f a j u ry i n
a 3 ................................................. o f l a w , h e h as
4 ................................................. h is i n no cence b ut h as b een f o und
5 ................................................. o f h is c rim e a nd h e h as b een
6 ................................................. to 1 0 y ears i n p ris o n. W e a re a ll v ery r e lie v ed
t h at th e c rim in al i s b ein g p unis h ed f o r h is 7 ................................................., a nd
8 ................................................. c iti z e ns l ik e y o u a nd m e c an s le ep m ore
s a fe ly a t n ig ht.
B ut w hat h ap pens n ext? W e a ll h o pe, d on’t w e, th at th e p ris o ner w ill b enefit
f r o m s o cie ty ’s 9 ................................................., th at a s p ell i n p ris o n w ill
1 0...............................................
.. h im a nd m ake h im a b ette r p ers o n. W e a ll
h o pe th at h e w ill 1 1 ................................................. a nd b eco m e l ik e u s. W e a ll
h o pe th at w hen h e i s e v entu ally 1 2................................................. a nd l e t l o ose
o n th e s tr e ets , h e w ill b e a g o od c hara cte r, th e th re at o f a no th er s p ell i n j a il
b ein g a s u ita b le 1 3................................................. w hic h w ill s to p h im f r o m

bre akin g th e l a w a gain . O h y es.
But l e t’ s f a ce i t. T he r e ality i s u su ally v ery d iffe re nt. T he p ris o ner m ay b e
re le ase d o n 1 4........................................., b efo re th e e nd o f h is s e nte nce. H e
will tr y to r e -e nte r s o cie ty . B ut th en h e o fte n b eco m es a
15......................................... h im se lf, u nab le to f in d w ork a nd r e je cte d b y
so cie ty . I t i s n ’t l o ng b efo re h e’s b ack i n p ris o n a gain .
So w hat a lte rn ati v es a re th ere , I h ear y o u s a y. W hat c an w e d o to th e
16................................................. to m ake s u re h e d oesn ’t c o m mit a no th er
crim e? T here a re a lte rn ati v es to p ris o n, o f c o urs e , s u ch a s
17................................................. i n w hic h h e w ill p ro vid e a s e rv ic e to th o se
aro und h im . O r h e c an p ay a l a rg e 1 8..................................................
Alte rn ati v ely , w e c o uld e sta b lis h a m ore s e v ere s y ste m o f p unis h m ent,
in clu d in g 1 9................................................. a nd
20................................................., b ut w e l ik e to c o nsid er o urs e lv es c iv ilis e d ,
and th e i d ea o f b eati n g o r e xecuti n g s o m eo ne i s r e p elle nt to u s. O h y es.
The a nsw er, o f c o urs e , i s f a r s im ple r. W e n eed to b e to ugh n o t o n th e c rim in al,
but o n th e c ause o f th e c rim e. W e s h o uld s p end l e ss o f th e ta xp ayer’s m oney
fu nd in g th e 2 1................................................. a nd
22................................................. a nd a ll th e o th er p eo ple w ho w ork f o r th e
le gal s y ste m , a nd p ut th e m oney i n ste ad i n to s u p porti n g d ep riv ed a re as w hic h
are th e b re ed in g g ro und s f o r c rim e. W e i n th e C onL ab P arty b elie v e th at
ev ery b ody n eed s a g o od c hance i n l ife , a nd th is i s a g o od s te p f o rw ard . V ote
fo r u s n o w !

Educa tio n
1 L ook a t t h e s e nte nce s b elo w a nd f ill in t h e g aps u sin g t h e a ppro pria te
w ord f r o m A , B o r C .
1 .
He d id n’t get a go od gra d e th e fir s t ti m e he d id his IE LT S exam , so
decid ed to ........................ i t.
A. r e sit
B. r e m ake
C. r e p air
2 .
Peo ple w ho a tte nd u niv ers ity la te r in life a re o fte n c alle d ........................
stu d ents .
A. a g ed
B. m atu re
C. o ld
3 .
Alth o ugh sh e had le ft sc ho ol and w as w ork in g, sh e w ent to ev enin g
cla sse s a t th e l o cal C olle ge o f ........................ E ducati o n.
A. U pper
B. F urth er
C. H ig her
4 .
Afte r h e le ft s c ho ol, h e d ecid ed to g o o n to ........................ e d ucati o n a nd
ap plie d f o r a p la ce a t E din b urg h U niv ers ity .
A. f u rth er
B. u pper
C. h ig her
5 .
He re ceiv ed a lo cal g o vern m ent ........................ to h elp h im p ay fo r h is
co urs e .
A. f e e
B. f a re
C. g ra nt
6 .
Educati o n h elp s u s to a cq uir e k no w le d ge a nd l e arn n ew .........................
A. s k ills
B. p ow ers
C. a bilitie s
7 .
Alth o ugh s h e a lr e ad y h ad a fir s t d egre e fr o m u niv ers ity , s h e d ecid ed th at
sh e w ante d to w ork to w ard s a ........................ d egre e l a te r i n l ife .
A. f u rth er
B. s e n io r
C. h ig her
8 .
We s h o uld m ake th e b est o f e v ery ........................ to l e arn .
A. c h ance
B. o p portu nity
C. a va ila bility
9 .
Now ad ays, ........................ e d ucati o n i s p ro m ote d a l o t i n s c ho ols .
A. b od y
B. h ea lth
C. v ita lity
1 0.
A la rg e num ber of pare nts are dis sa ti s fie d w ith th e ........................
ed ucati o n s y ste m , a nd p ut th eir c hild re n i n to p riv ate s c ho ols i n ste ad .
A. g overn m en t
B. n atio n al
C. s ta te

11 .
Because so m any stu d ents fin d exam s str e ssfu l, so m e co lle ges o ffe r a
sy ste m o f ........................ a sse ssm ent i n ste ad .
A. c on tin ual
B. c on tin uou s
C. c on tin uin g
12.
He h as r e ad a l o t o f b ooks a nd ........................ a l o t o f k no w le d ge.
A. a cq uir e d
B. w on
C. a ch ie ved
13.
Univ ers ity stu d ents hav e a ........................ w ho th ey m eet o n a re gula r
basis to d is c uss th eir w ork .
A. te a ch er
B. tu to r
C. le ctu re r
14.
There w ere m ore th an 5 0 s tu d ents a t P ro fe sso r B ry ant’ s ........................ o n
city p la nnin g.
A. le ctu re
B. s e m in ar
C. tu to ria l
2 C om ple te t h e p assa ge o n t h e n ext p age w it h a s u it a ble w ord o r p hra se
fr o m t h e b ox.
co urs e   day r e le ase   degre e  dis c ip lin e  en ro l 
eve n in g c la ss g ra d uate   kin derg arte n   lit e ra cy  
num era cy   on-lin e  pass p rim ary   qualif ic atio ns 
se co ndary   sk ills

E duca tio n
W hen M ic hael w as th re e y ears o ld , h e s ta rte d g o in g to a l o cal
( 1 )..................................................., a nd tw o y ears l a te r b egan a tte nd in g h is
l o cal ( 2 )................................................... s c ho ol, w here h e l e arn ed b asic
( 3 )................................................... s u ch a s
( 4 )................................................... a nd ( 5 )....................................................
A t th e a ge o f 1 1 , h e s ta rte d a t ( 6 )................................................... s c ho ol. H e
w asn ’t a v ery k een p up il, a nd h is te achers o fte n c o m pla in ed th at h e l a cked
( 7 ).................................................... H ow ev er, w hen h e to ok h is s c ho ol-
l e av in g e xam s, h e ( 8 )................................................... th em a ll w ith g o od
g ra d es.
W hen h e l e ft s c ho ol a t th e a ge o f 1 8, h e d ecid ed h e w ante d to c o nti n ue h is
s tu d ie s. H e f o und a u niv ers ity w hic h o ffe re d a f u ll- ti m e
( 9 )................................................... i n M odern A rt a nd D esig n, a nd
( 1 0)................................................... o n i t a f e w d ays b efo re h is 1 9th b ir th d ay.
F or th re e y ears h e w ork ed h ard , a nd ( 1 1 )................................................... w ith
a ( 1 2)................................................... i n M odern A rt a nd D esig n. A fte r th at,
h e d id a n ( 1 3)................................................... c o urs e i n P ho to gra p hy f r o m a
c o lle ge i n th e U S.
T he ( 1 4)................................................... th at h e h ad g ain ed , c o m bin ed w ith
h is c re ati v e ta le nts , i m pre sse d a n a d verti s in g a gency th at h e w ante d to w ork
f o r, a nd th ey o ffe re d h im a j o b. T he a gency e nco ura ged h im to d ev elo p h is
p assio n f o r a ll th in gs c re ati v e, a nd w hile th ey w ere n’t p re p are d to o ffe r h im
( 1 5)................................................... to s tu d y d urin g w ork in g h o urs , th ey p aid
f o r h im to j o in a n ( 1 6)................................................... a t h is l o cal C olle ge o f
F urth er E ducati o n.
3 N ow r e ad t h is e ssa y a nd c o m ple te t h e g aps w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r
p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . Y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f s o m e
o f t h e w ord s.
‘ Y o u a re n ever t o o o ld t o l e a rn ’. D o y o u a gre e w ith t h is s ta te m en t?

Educati o n i s a l o ng p ro cess th at n o t o nly p ro vid es u s w ith b asic
(1 )................................................... s u ch a s
(2 )................................................... a nd ( 3 )...................................................,
but i s a ls o e sse nti a l i n s h ap in g o ur f u tu re l iv es. F ro m th e m om ent w e e nte r
(4 )................................................ a s s m all c hild re n, a nd a s w e p ro gre ss
th ro ugh ( 5 )............................................... a nd ( 6 )...............................................
ed ucati o n, w e a re l a yin g th e f o und ati o ns f o r th e l ife a head o f u s. W e m ust
(7 )................................................... o urs e lv es to w ork h ard s o th at w e c an
(8 )................................................... e xam s a nd g ain th e
(9 ).................................................................... w e w ill n eed to s e cure a g o od
jo b. W e m ust a ls o ( 1 0)................................................... v alu ab le l ife s k ills s o
th at w e c an f it i n a nd w ork w ith th o se a ro und u s. A nd o f c o urs e
(1 1 )................................................... e d ucati o n h elp s u s to u nd ers ta nd h o w w e
can s ta y f it a nd h ealth y.
For m ost p eo ple , th is p ro cess e nd s w hen th ey a re i n th eir m id -to -la te te ens.
For o th ers , h o w ev er, i t i s th e b egin nin g o f a l ife ti m e o f l e arn in g. A fte r th ey
fin is h s c ho ol, m any p ro gre ss to ( 1 2)............................................... e d ucati o n
where th ey w ill l e arn m ore u se fu l s k ills s u ch a s c o m pute r l ite ra cy o r b asic
busin ess m anagem ent. O th ers w ill ( 1 3)................................................ o n a
pro gra m me o f ( 1 4)................................................... e d ucati o n a t a u niv ers ity
where , w ith h ard w ork , th ey w ill h av e th e o pportu nity to
(1 5)................................................... a fte r th re e o r f o ur y ears w ith a w ell-
earn ed ( 1 6).................................................... A fte r th at, th ey m ay w ork f o r a
while b efo re o pti n g to s tu d y f o r a ( 1 7)................................................... d egre e
– a n M A, f o r e xam ple , o r a P hD . A lte rn ati v ely , th ey m ay c ho ose to a tte nd a n
(1 8)................................................... a fte r w ork o r, i f th ey h av e a s y m path eti c
em plo yer, o bta in ( 1 9)................................................... s o th at th ey c an s tu d y
durin g th e w eek. A nd i f th ey l iv e a l o ng w ay f r o m a c o lle ge o r u niv ers ity , th ey
mig ht f o llo w a n ( 2 0)................................................... c o urs e u sin g th e I n te rn et.
In f a ct, i t i s l a rg ely d ue to th e p ro life ra ti o n o f c o m pute rs th at m any p eo ple w ho
hav e n o t b een n ear a s c ho ol f o r m any y ears , h av e s ta rte d to s tu d y a gain a nd c an
pro ud ly c la ss th em se lv es a s ( 2 1)................................................... s tu d ents .
We l iv e i n a f a sc in ati n g a nd c o nsta ntl y c hangin g w orld , a nd w e m ust
co nti n ually l e arn a nd a cq uir e n ew k no w le d ge i f w e a re to a d ap t a nd k eep u p
with c hangin g e v ents . O ur s c ho old ays a re j u st th e b egin nin g o f th is p ro cess,

and w e s h o uld m ake th e b est o f e v ery ( 2 2) ................................................... to
dev elo p o urs e lv es, w heth er w e a re 1 8 o r 8 0. Y ou a re , i n d eed , n ev er to o o ld to
le arn .

The e n vir o n m en t
1 M atc h t h e f ir st p art o f e ach s e nte nce in t h e le ft-h and c o lu m n w it h it s
s e co nd p art in t h e r ig ht-h and c o lu m n. U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o
h elp y ou. C heck t h at e ach s e nte nce y ou p ut t o geth er is g ra m matic a lly
c o rre ct.
1 .
Som e m odern a gric ult u ra l m eth ods h ave b een
heavily c rit ic is e d,…
(A )
… in m any c ountr ie s
poa ch in g
is
consid ere d m ore s e rio us th an d ru g s m ugglin g.
2 .
If y ou w ear a f u r c oat in p ublic ,…
(B )
…and
ra re b re eds
p ark s a re v ery p opula r
wit h m any.
3 .
It is ille gal to k ill p andas, tig ers …
(C )
…in
wild life m an ag em ent.
4 .
If w e d on’t d o m ore to p ro te ct p andas,…
(D )
…th e g overn m ent’s
co nse rv atio n
pro gra m me
h as b een v ery s u ccessfu l.
5 .
A lo t o f B rit is h p eople a re in te re ste d in u nusu al
anim als ,…
(E )
…th ey’ll s o on b e
extin ct.
6 .
Natio nal p ark s in K enya a re c urre ntly r e cru it in g
experts …
(F )
…wit h
batte ry fa rm in g
in p artic ula r
re ceiv in g a lo t o f c ondem natio n.
7 .
In a n a tte m pt to p re se rv e f o re sts a ro und th e
countr y …
(G )
…it w as f a sc in atin g to o bse rv e th eir
natu ra l
behav io ur.
8 .
We w ould lik e to c arry o ut m ore s c ie ntif ic s tu dy
in to r a in fo re sts …
(H )
…on a s u ccessfu l p anda
bre edin g
pro gra m me.
9 .
I d on’t lik e z o os b ecause I th in k…
(I)
…keepin g a nim als in
cap tiv it y
is c ru el.
1 0.
I s a w a f a sc in atin g d ocum enta ry a bout th e w ay
anim als liv e in V enezu ela a nd th ought…
(J )
…or a ny o th er
endan gere d s p ecie s.
1 1 .
The C hin ese g overn m ent h as s p ent a lo t o f
money…
(K )
…but it is o fte n d if fic ult to g et p eople to
fu nd th e
re se arc h .
1 1 .
Hunte rs h ave k ille d s o m any a nim als th at…
(L )
…you r is k c om in g u nder a tta ck f ro m
an im al
rig hts a ctiv is ts .
2 R epla ce t h e p hra se s in b old in t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a w ord o r p hra se
f r o m t h e b ox s o t h at t h e s e nte nce s s o und m ore n atu ra l. T here a re t h re e
w ord s o r p hra se s t h at y ou d o n ot n eed.
a cid r a in   bio degra d ab le p ack agin g  co nta m in ate d  
d efo re sta tio n e co sy ste m   em is sio ns 

en vir o nm en ta lis ts   ero sio n  fo ssil f u els g en etic ally
modif ie d   glo bal w arm in g  gre en b elt   gre en house
org an ic   pestic id es  pollu tio n  ra in f o re st  re cy cle
th in gs  re n ew ab le
1.
In B rita in , b uild in g i s r e str ic te d o r c o m ple te ly b anned i n th e
are a o f
fa rm in g la nd o r w oods a nd p ark s w hic h s u rro unds a t o w n
. .................
2.
Many c o m panie s a re d ev elo pin g
boxes, c a rto ns a nd c a ns w hic h c a n
easily b e d eco m pose d b y o rg anis m s s u ch a s b acte ria , o r b y s u nlig ht,
se a, w ate r, e tc
. .................
3.
The b urn in g o f s o m e f u els c re ate s
ca rb on d io xid e, c a rb on m onoxid e,
su lp hur d io xid e, m eth ane a nd o th er
g ase s w hic h r is e i n to th e
atm osp here . .................
4.
Farm ers h av e c le are d h ecta re s o f
th ic k w ooded la nd in t r o pic a l r e gio ns
where t h e p re cip it a tio n is v ery h ig h
. .................
5.
Pla nti n g tr e es p ro vid es s o m e p ro te cti o n f r o m th e
gra dual w earin g a w ay
of s o il. .................
6.
We s h o uld a ll tr y to
pro ce ss w aste m ate ria l s o t h at it c a n b e u se d a gain
.
.................
7.
These p ota to es a re
cu ltiv a te d n atu ra lly , w ith ou t u sin g a n y c h em ic a l
fe rtilis e rs o r p estic id es
. .................
8.
This b re ad i s m ad e f r o m w heat w hic h h as b een
alt e re d a t a m ole cu la r
le vel s o a s t o c h ange c e rta in c h ara cte ris tic s w hic h c a n b e in herit e d
.
.................
9.
The p ro ce ss o f r e m ovin g t h e t r e es f r o m a n a re a o f la nd
i s d estr o yin g
millio ns o f a cre s o f w oodla nd e v ery y ear. .................

T he e n vir o n m en t
1 0.
Pollu te d p re cip it a tio n w hic h k ills t r e es
f a lls a l o ng d is ta nce a w ay f r o m
th e s o urc e o f th e p ollu ti o n. .................................
1 1 .
Hum an b ein gs h av e h ad a d ev asta ti n g e ffe ct o n th e
liv in g t h in gs, b oth
la rg e a n d s m all
, i n m any p arts o f th e w orld . .................................
1 2.
The
gase s a nd o th er s u bsta nce s
fu els w hic h a re t h e r e m ain s o f p la nts
and a nim als
c an c ause s e rio us d am age to th e e nv ir o nm ent. .................
1 3.
Don’t d rin k th at w ate r! I t’ s b een
made d ir ty b y s o m eth in g b ein g a dded t o
it
. .................................
1 4.
Frie nd s o f th e E arth , G re enp eace a nd o th er
people c o nce rn ed w it h
pro te ctin g t h e e nvir o nm ent a re h old in g a f o ru m in L ondon n ext m onth
.
.................................
1 5.
The h eatin g u p o f t h e e arth ’s a tm osp here b y p ollu tio n
i s th re ate nin g
life a s w e k no w i t. .................................
3 N ow lo ok a t t h is e ssa y a nd c o m ple te t h e g aps w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r
p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er w ill
b e p ossib le . Y ou m ay n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f s o m e o f t h e w ord s.
‘ E nv ir o nm enta l d egra d ati o n i s a m ajo r w orld p ro ble m . W hat c ause s th is
p ro ble m , a nd w hat c an w e d o to p re v ent i t? ’
T here i s n o d oub t th at th e e nv ir o nm ent i s i n tr o ub le . F acto rie s b urn
1 .................................. w hic h p ro duce 2 ..................................................., a nd
t h is k ills tr e es. A t th e s a m e ti m e, 3 ............................................... g ase s r is e
i n to th e a ir a nd c o ntr ib ute to 4 ................................................, w hic h th re ate ns
t o m elt th e p ola r i c e c ap . M eanw hile f a rm ers c le ar h uge a re as o f
5 .................................. i n p la ces s u ch a s th e A mazo n to p ro duce f e ed in g l a nd
f o r c attl e o r w ood f o r b uild in g. R iv ers a nd o ceans a re s o h eav ily
6 .................................. b y i n d ustr ia l w aste th at i t i s n o l o nger s a fe to g o
s w im min g. C ars p um p o ut p ois o no us 7 .................................. w hic h w e a ll
h av e to b re ath e i n . 8 ................................................... a nd o verfis h in g a re

killin g o ff m illio ns o f a nim als , i n clu d in g w hale s, e le p hants a nd o th er
9.................................................. I n f a ct, a ll a ro und u s, a ll l iv in g th in gs l a rg e
and s m all w hic h c o m pris e o ur f in ely b ala nced
10................................................... a re b ein g s y ste m ati c ally d estr o yed b y
hum an g re ed a nd th o ughtl e ssn ess.
There i s a l o t w e c an a ll d o, h o w ev er, to h elp p re v ent th is . T he e asie st th in g, o f
co urs e , i s to 1 1 ................................................... w aste m ate ria l s u ch a s p ap er
and g la ss s o th at w e c an u se i t a gain . W e s h o uld a ls o c heck th at th e th in gs w e
buy f r o m s u p erm ark ets a re p ackaged i n 1 2...................................................
packagin g w hic h d eco m pose s e asily . A t th e s a m e ti m e, w e s h o uld m ake a
co nsc io us e ffo rt to a v oid f o ods w hic h a re 1 3...................................................
(a t l e ast u nti l s o m eo ne p ro ves th at th ey a re s a fe b oth f o r u s a nd f o r th e
env ir o nm ent) . I f y o u a re tr u ly c o m mitte d to p ro te cti n g th e e nv ir o nm ent, o f
co urs e , y o u s h o uld o nly b uy 1 4................................................... f r u it a nd
vegeta b le s, s a fe i n th e k no w le d ge th at th ey h av e b een n atu ra lly c ulti v ate d .
Fin ally , o f c o urs e , w e s h o uld b uy a s m alle r c ar, a s th ese c ause l e ss
15................................................... th an l a rg e s a lo ons o r S U Vs. E ven b ette r,
we s h o uld tr y to m ake m ore u se o f p ub lic tr a nsp ort.
The s e rio us 1 6................................................... , h o w ev er, d o m uch m ore .
They a re a w are o f th e g lo bal i s su es i n v olv ed a nd w ill a cti v ely i n v olv e
th em se lv es i n 1 7................................................... b y m akin g s u re o ur f o re sts
are k ep t s a fe f o r f u tu re g enera ti o ns. T hey w ill o ppose a cti v iti e s w hic h a re
harm fu l to a nim als , s u ch a s 1 8................................................... . A nd th ey w ill
cam paig n to k eep th e 1 9................................................... a ro und o ur to w ns a nd
citi e s f r e e f r o m n ew b uild in g.
We c anno t a ll b e a s c o m mitte d a s th em , b ut w e c an a t l e ast d o o ur o w n l ittl e b it
at g ra ss r o ots l e v el. W e, a s h um ans, h av e i n herite d th e e arth , b ut th at d oesn ’t
mean w e c an d o w hate v er w e l ik e w ith i t.

Food & d ie t
1 L ook a t t h e d ic tio nary d efin it io ns, a nd a rra nge t h e le tte rs in b old t o f o rm
t h e w ord s t h ey a re d efin in g. T he f ir st le tte r o f e ach w ord is
underlin ed
.
W rit e y our a nsw ers in t h e c ro ssw ord o n t h e n ext p age. ( E ach d efin it io n is
f o llo w ed b y a s a m ple s e nte nce in
ita lic s
w it h t h e w ord r e m oved).
1 .
Natu ra l s u b sta nces f o und i n f o od th at a re n ecessa ry to k eep y o ur b ody
health y. E ach o ne i s g iv en a n am e u sin g a l e tte r o f th e a lp hab et.
aim
v is tn
( Apple s c o nta in s e vera l e sse n tia l
_ _________)
2 .
Of f o od: p ro vid in g th e s u b sta nces th at p eo ple n eed i n o rd er to b e h ealth y.
n it s o rtiu u
(
A h ea lth y, _ _________ m ea l
)
3 .
Som eo ne w ho c ho ose s n o t to e at m eat o r f is h .
geetr
v anai
(
I’v e b een a
__________ s in ce I w as 1 3
)
4 .
Sub sta nces f o und i n f o od th at s u p ply y o ur b ody w ith h eat a nd e nerg y.
bo
c ara ty desrh
(
Bre a d, p ota to es a nd r ic e a re a g ood s o urc e o f
__________)
5 .
A s u b sta nce f o und i n f o od s u ch a s m eat, e ggs a nd m ilk th at p eo ple n eed i n
ord er to g ro w a nd b e s tr o ng.
p ntir o e
(
Child re n w ho l a ck s u ffic ie n t
__________ i n t h eir d ie t a re o fte n i ll
)
6 .
A s u b sta nce i n y o ur b lo od th at c an c ause h eart d is e ase i f y o u h av e to o
much o f i t.
ero
c ls h tlo e.
(
There a re m any f o ods t h at c la im t o r e d uce
__________ l e vels
)
7 .
A s e rio us l a ck o f f o od th at c o nti n ues f o r a l o ng ti m e a nd c ause s m any
peo ple i n a c o untr y to b eco m e i ll o r d ie .
an
f eim
(
The c ro p f a ilu re c a use d
wid esp re a d _ _________ i n t h e r e g io n
)
8 .
A c o nd iti o n i n w hic h s o m eo ne i s to o f a t, i n a w ay th at i s d angero us f o r
th eir h ealth .
e o it b ys
(
The r e p ort h ig hlig hte d t h e p ro ble m s c a use d b y

ch ild hood
_ _________)
9.
Weak o r i ll b ecause y o u d o n o t e at e no ugh, o r b ecause y o u d o n o t e at
eno ugh o f th e r ig ht f o ods.
In o
m ais h eurd
(
24 p er c en t o f c h ild re n i n t h e
sc h ool w ere f o und t o b e
_ _________)
10.
Natu ra l s u b sta nces f o und i n s o m e f o ods th at y o u n eed f o r g o od h ealth .
a m erlin s
(
Milk c o nta in s c a lc iu m , o ne o f t h e m ost i m porta nt _ _________
fo r m ain ta in in g s tr o ng b ones
)
11 .
Oil f o und i n m eat.
ta
f . ( Y ou
sh ould t r im t h e _ _________ o ff m ea t b efo re
yo u c o ok i t
)
12.
The p arts o f f r u it, v egeta b le s a nd g ra in th at y o ur b ody c anno t d ig est.
br
f ie
( Die ta ry _ _________ h elp s p ro te ct u s f r o m d is e a se
)
13.
Heav ie r th an y o u s h o uld b e.
w o rig vehet
(
I’m a c o uple o f k ilo gra m mes
__________)
14.
Food th at h as r e centl y b een p ic ked , c aught o r p re p are d .
s f rh e
(_ _________
veg eta ble s a re m uch n ic er t h an f r o ze n o nes
)
15.
Units f o r m easu rin g h o w m uch e nerg y y o u g et f r o m f o od.
ri
c le sa o
(
There
are o ver 1 50 _ _________ i n a s m all p acket o f c ris p s
)
16.
Desc rib in g f o od th at h as h ad c hem ic als o r o th er s u b sta nces a d ded to i t.
p erc e dso s
( _ _________
mea t k eep s f o r l o nger t h an n atu ra l m ea t
)

F ood & d ie t
2 M atc h s e nte nce s 1 – 1 0 w it h a s e co nd s e nte nce A – J . U se t h e k ey w ord s
a nd p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou. I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is
p ossib le .
1 . A lo t o f p eople a re
alle rg ic
to n uts
A. T his is b ecause th ey a re c ult iv ate d n atu ra lly ,
wit h out u sin g a ny c hem ic al f e rtilis e rs o r p estic id es.
2 . M any p eople d o n ot tr u st
genetic ally m odifie d
f o ods.
B. A s a r e su lt , w e m ay h ave to im port a lo t o f
basic f o ods.
3 .
Org an ic
f ru it a nd v egeta ble s a re q uit e e xpensiv e,
b ut m ay b e b ette r f o r y ou.
C. T hey a re n ot s u re th at a lt e rin g th e c om posit io n
of c ells to c hange c erta in c hara cte ris tic s is s a fe .
4 . I r e fu se to e at e ggs f ro m
batte ry c h ic k ens.
D. I lik e to k now th at th e a nim als h ave e nough
sp ace to e xpre ss th eir n atu ra l b ehavio ur.
5 . I o nly e at m eat f ro m
fr e e r a n ge
a nim als .
E. T oo m uch r a in h as p re vente d c ro ps f ro m
rip enin g p ro perly .
6 . T he
harv est
h as b een v ery b ad th is y ear.
F. T his is in s p it e o f th e f a ct th at it is f a tte nin g a nd
unhealt h y.
7 . I f th e d ro ught c ontin ues, th ere w ill b e s e rio us f o od
s h orta g es.
G. I t c an b e d if fic ult to tr a ce th e s o urc es o f s o m e
of th ese .
8 . T here h as b een a n in cre ase in c ase s o f
salm onella ,
l is te ria , e .c o li
a nd o th er ty pes o f
fo od p ois o nin g.
H. T hey s h ould m ake a n e ffo rt to c onsu m e
su ffic ie nt q uantit ie s o f th e d if fe re nt f o od g ro ups.
9 . T oo m any p eople f a il to e at a
bala n ce d d ie t.
I. T hey h ave a b ad p hysic al r e actio n if th ey e at
th em .

10.
Fast fo od
is v ery p opula r.
J. A nim als s h ould n ot s p end th eir liv es c onfin ed in
sm all c ages.

Food & d ie t
3 C om ple te t h is a rtic le w it h t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 .
I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
C hild re n l o ve e ati n g ( 1 ) ..................................................., b ut b urg ers , c hic ken
n uggets a nd o th er h eav ily ( 2 ) ................................................... f o od p ro ducts
n o t o nly c o nta in a l a rg e n um ber o f u nhealth y c hem ic als a nd o th er a d diti v es, b ut
a ls o l a ck th e e sse nti a l ( 3 )................................................... a nd ( 4 )
. .................................................. th at a c hild n eed s. I n a d diti o n, th ey a ls o
c o nta in a l o t o f ( 5 ) ................................................... a nd ( 6 )
. .................................................. w hic h, i f e ate n i n q uanti ty , c an r e su lt i n
c hild ho od ( 7 )................................................... ( in f a ct, a r e cent s u rv ey s u ggests
t h at 3 9 p er c ent o f 8 – 1 5 y ear-o ld s a re s e rio usly o verw eig ht) .
M any c hild re n e nd u p ( 8 )..................................................., s in ce th ey e at to o
m uch o f th e w ro ng s o rt o f f o od. I n f a ct, i n m any p arts o f th e d ev elo ped w orld ,
a l o t o f c hild re n s h o w s im ila r s y m pto m s to th o se i n p oore r d ev elo pin g
c o untr ie s, w here f o od ( 9 )................................................... c ause th o usa nd s o f
d eath s f r o m s ta rv ati o n, e sp ecia lly i n th e w ake o f n atu ra l d is a ste rs w hic h r u in
c ro ps a nd i n s o m e c ase s to ta lly d estr o y th e a nnual
( 1 0).................................................... F urth erm ore , th e l a rg e a m ounts o f
( 1 1 )................................................... i n a nim al a nd d air y p ro ducts ( a c o m mon
f e atu re o f f a st f o od) a re b elie v ed to b e p artl y r e sp onsib le f o r i n cre ase d c ase s
o f h eart d is e ase i n y o ung p eo ple , a r e cent p heno m eno n th at i s c ausin g g re at
c o ncern .
I t i s th ere fo re i m porta nt c hild re n l e arn th e b enefits o f e ati n g a
( 1 2)..................................................., a s i t i s i m porta nt th ey c o nsu m e s u ffic ie nt
q uanti ti e s o f th e d iffe re nt f o od g ro up s. T hey s h o uld b e e nco ura ged to e at m ore
( 1 3)................................................... f r u it a nd v egeta b le s, a nd a ls o m ore f o od
t h at i s h ig h i n ( 1 4)................................................... T hey s h o uld s ti ll b e
a llo w ed th e o ccasio nal b urg er o r p iz za , b ut th ese s h o uld b e s e en a s a n
o ccasio nal tr e at r a th er th an f o rm in g th e m ain p art o f th eir d ie t.

G eo g ra p hy
1 P ut t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in e ach lis t in t h e f ir st b ox in o rd er a cco rd in g
t o t h eir s iz es. ( 1 = t h e s m alle st, 4 = t h e la rg est). I n e ach lis t, t h ere is o ne
w ord t h at d oes n ot b elo ng w it h t h e o th ers.
1 .
fo re st   •  tr e e   •  c o pse   •  b each   •  w ood
2 .
ro ad   •  p eak   •  f o otp ath   •  tr a ck   •  l a ne
3 .
mounta in   •  h illo ck   •  s h o re   •  h ill   •  m ounta in r a nge
4 .
go rg e   •  p la in   •  w ate rfa ll   •  h o llo w   •  v alle y
5 .
gulf   •  r id ge   •  i n le t   •  b ay   •  c o ve
6 .
cliff   •  b ro ok   •  r iv er   •  e stu ary   •  s tr e am
7 .
city   •  c o nti n ent   •  tr ib uta ry   •  c o unty   •  c o untr y
8 .
pond   •  o cean   •  s e a   •  c ap e   •  l a ke
2 P ut t h ese w ord s a nd p hra se s in to t h eir c o rre ct c a te gory in t h e b oxes
b elo w a nd o n t h e n ext p age. S om e c a n b e in clu ded in m ore t h an o ne
c a te gory .
b each   cap e  clif f   co ast  co astlin e  co nurb atio n 
d ep opula tio n d en se ly p opula te d   fe rtile   gla cie r 
h ig h la n ds  in dustr ia lis e d ir rig atio n  mounta in ous 

mouth   ove rc ro w din g  peak   pen in su la
pla te au  
rid ge  sh ore   so urc e  su m mit   tr ib uta ry   under-
deve lo ped
u rb an s p ra w l  ve geta tio n  wate rfa ll

G eo g ra p hy
3 C om ple te t h is r e port o f a j o urn ey w it h w ord s a nd p hra se s f r o m
E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
W e b egan o ur j o urn ey i n th e c ap ita l, T rin ifu ego s, a
1 ................................................... c o nurb ati o n o f a lm ost 1 0 m illio n. I t i s n o t a
p re tty p la ce; h eav ily 2 ..................................................., w ith h uge f a cto rie s
b elc hin g o ut b la ck f u m es, a nd m ile s o f 3 ................................................... a s
h o usin g e sta te s a nd s h o ppin g c entr e s s p re ad o ut f r o m th e
4 ................................................... c entr e f o r m ile s. I t w as a r e lie f to l e av e.
A s s o on a s w e g o t i n to th e c o untr y sid e, th in gs i m pro ved c o nsid era b ly . T he
c lim ate i s d ry a nd i t i s d iffic ult to g ro w a nyth in g, b ut th anks to
5 ..................................................., w hic h h elp s b rin g w ate r i n f r o m th e R io
C auto ( th e h uge r iv er w ith i ts 6 ................................................... h ig h u p i n th e
s n o w -c o vere d 7 ................................................... o f th e S ie rra M aestr a
8 ...................................................) , th e l a nd i s f e rti le e no ugh to g ro w th e s u gar
c ane o n w hic h m uch o f th e e co no m y i s b ase d . W e s a w f e w p eo ple , h o w ev er, a s
m any h av e m oved to th e to w ns a nd c iti e s to l o ok f o r m ore p ro fita b le w ork . I t i s
l a rg ely d ue to th is r u ra l 9 ................................................... th at th e s u gar-c ane
i n d ustr y i s s u ffe rin g.
F urth er s o uth a nd w e e nte re d th e H olg uin 1 0...................................................,
w ith m ounta in s r is in g h ig h a b ove u s o n b oth s id es. T he l a nd h ere d ro ps s h arp ly
t o th e s e a a nd th e s lo w -m ovin g w ate rs o f th e R io C auto g iv e w ay to

11 ................................................... w hic h tu m ble o ver c liffs , a nd s m all, f a st-
movin g 1 2................................................... w hic h a re n o t e v en w id e e no ugh to
ta ke a b oat. A t th is p oin t, th e r o ad w e w ere tr a v ellin g a lo ng b ecam e a
13................................................... w hic h w as o nly j u st w id e e no ugh f o r o ur
vehic le , a nd th en a n u np av ed 1 4................................................. w hic h a lm ost
sh o ok th e v ehic le to p ie ces.
And th en s u d denly , th e P acific 1 5.................................. w as i n f r o nt o f u s. O ur
desti n ati o n w as th e to w n o f S anti a go d e G ib ara , b uilt o n a
16.................................. s ti c kin g o ut i n to th e b lu e w ate rs . T he c o untr y sid e h ere
und ula te s g entl y , w ith l o w 1 7.................................. c o vere d i n r ic h tr o pic al
ju ngle . T he o pen 1 8.................................. s u rro und in g th e
19................................................... o f th e R io C auto a s i t r e aches th e o cean i s
ric h a nd 2 0..................................................., i d eal f o r g ro w in g th e to bacco
pla nts w hic h n eed a l o t o f w arm , d am p s o il.
That n ig ht I l a y i n m y c heap h o te l, l is te nin g to th e w av es g entl y l a p pin g th e
21.................................., a nd w hen I e v entu ally f e ll a sle ep , I d re am t o f th e
peo ple w ho h ad f ir s t i n hab ite d th is 2 2.................................. a lm ost 2 ,0 00 y ears
befo re .

G lo b al p ro b le m s
1 C om ple te s e nte nce s 1 – 1 5 w it h t h e c o rre ct w ord o r p hra se f r o m A , B o r
C . I n e ach c a se t w o o f t h e o ptio ns a re in co rre ctly s p elt .
1 .
Tho usa nd s of build in gs were fla tte ned in th e San Fra ncis c o
.............................................. o f 1 906.
A. e a rth quack
B. e a rth quake
C. e a rth quaik
2 .
The ................................................................ dam aged pro perti e s all
alo ng th e c o ast.
A. h urric a ne
B. h urric ca ne
C. h uric ca ne
3 .
A ................................................................ s tr u ck th e s o uth ern c o ast w ith
tr e m end ous f o rc e.
A. to rn adoe
B. to rn ado
C. to rn addo
4 .
The ............................................................ c ause d im mense d am age in th e
re gio ns a lo ng th e c o ast.
A. ta if u n
B. ty p hon e
C. ty p hoon
5 .
The .................................. h as b een d orm ant fo r y ears , b ut la st m onth it
sh o w ed s ig ns o f n ew l ife .
A. v olc a no
B. v u lc a no
C. v olc a noe
6 .
Sev era l ................................................ w ere h eard d urin g th e n ig ht a s th e
arm y o ccup ie d th e c ity .
A. e x plo ssio n s
B. e x plo sio n es
C. e x plo sio n s
7 .
The A meric an .................................... o f 1 861–1865 w as fo ught b etw een
th e s o uth a nd th e n o rth .
A. c iv il w ar
B. s iv il w ar
C. c iv vil w ar
8 .
There has b een a m ajo r ................................................................ o n th e
moto rw ay.
A. a cid en t
B. a ccid en t
C. a ccid den t
9 .
................................................................ ra in has bro ught se rio us
pro ble m s.
A. T orre n tia l
B. T ore n tia l
C. T orra ntia l

10.
The sto rm cause d w id esp re ad ................................................................
alo ng th e c o ast.
A. d evva sta tio n
B. d evu sta tio n
C. d eva sta tio n
11 .
The ................................. w ere c ause d b y h eav y r a in .
A. f lo od es
B. f lo od s
C. f lo u ds
12.
Relie f work ers are brin gin g fo od to
................................................................- s tr ic ken a re as.
A. d ra ught
B. d ro u ght
C. d ro u hgt
13.
................................. is w id esp re ad in parts of A fr ic a, w ith m illio ns
su ffe rin g f r o m m aln utr iti o n.
A. F am in e
B. F am min e
C. F am in ne
14.
The auth o riti e s are ta kin g ste p s to pre v ent an
................................................................ o f c ho le ra .
A. e p id em mic
B. e p id em ic
C. e p pid em ic
15.
The ................................................................ w as s p re ad f r o m r a ts to f le as
and th en o n to h um ans.
A. p la gue
B. p la que
C. p la ig ue
2 C om ple te t h e s e nte nce s w it h a n a ppro pria te w ord o r p hra se f r o m t h e
box. I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
bro ke o ut  casu alt ie s  dis a ste r  eru pte d   re fu gees 
re lie f  sh ook s p re ad   su ff e rin g  su rv iv o rs
1.
The d is e ase ................................................................ r a p id ly , k illin g
ev ery b ody i n i ts p ath .
2.
The f ir e ................................................................ th ro ugh th e s lu m s,
destr o yin g e v ery th in g.

Glo b al p ro b le m s
3 .
When th e v olc ano ..................................................., p eo ple p anic ked a nd
tr ie d to e sc ap e.
4 .
The g ro und ................................................... v io le ntl y w hen th e e arth q uake
began.
5 .
Fie rc e f ig hti n g ................................................... b etw een g o vern m ent
so ld ie rs a nd r e b el f o rc es.
6 .
A f u nera l w as h eld f o r th e ................................................... o f th e f ir e .
7 .
An a id c o nv oy w as s e nt to h elp ................................................... o f th e
hurric ane.
8 .
..................................................... f r o m th e c o nflic t i n M anta gua h av e b een
fle ein g a cro ss th e b ord er.
9 .
The p oor p eo ple i n th e c ity h av e e xp erie nced te rrib le
................................................... a s a r e su lt o f th e d is a ste r.
1 0.
In te rn ati o nal a id a gencie s a re tr y in g to b rin g
................................................... to th e s ta rv in g p opula ti o n.
3 C om ple te t h is r e port w it h w ord s a nd p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n
s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
R EPO RT F RO M T H E I N TE RN ATIO NAL C H ARIT IE S S U PPO RT
F O UNDATIO N ( I C SF )
T he l a st y ear h as b een a p arti c ula rly b usy o ne f o r th e I C SF. O utl in ed b elo w a re
a f e w o f th e a re as w e h av e b een b usy i n .
1 .
Follo w in g 1 ................................................... r a in i n e aste rn M oza m lu m bi
in J a nuary , m illio ns w ere m ad e h o m ele ss a s
2................................................... w ate rs r o se . T he w ate r a ls o b ecam e
pollu te d a nd th ere w as a c ho le ra 3 ...................................................a s
peo ple c o nti n ued to u se i t f o r d rin kin g a nd c o okin g. F urth erm ore , a s th e
harv est h ad b een d estr o yed a nd th ere w as n o t e no ugh f o od to g o r o und ,
4................................................... b ecam e a p ro ble m . C hariti e s a ro und th e

world w ork ed p arti c ula rly h ard to b rin g 5 ...................................................
to th e a re a.
2.
Mount E ts u v iu s, th e 6 ................................................... w hic h h ad b een
dorm ant s in ce 1 968, 7 ................................................... s u d denly i n A pril.
Tho usa nd s h ad to b e e v acuate d to c am ps 3 0 m ile s f r o m th e d is a ste r a re a.
They s ti ll h av e n o t b een r e ho use d .
3.
The 8 ................................................... i n th e C arib bean i n J u ly , w hic h s a w
win d s p eed s o f u p to 1 80 m ile s p er h o ur, c ause d i m mense
9................................................... o n m any i s la nd s. I s la nd s o ff th e
Ja p anese c o ast a ls o s u ffe re d th eir w ors t
10................................................... i n a lm ost 3 0 y ears , w ith p ro lo nged
win d s i n e xcess o f 1 50 m ile s p er h o ur. T here w ere m any
11 ................................................... w ho h ad to b e e v acuate d to h o sp ita ls
whic h w ere n o t p ro perly e q uip ped to d eal w ith th e d is a ste rs .
4.
The 1 2................................................... i n th e n o rth ern p art o f S om opia
co nti n ued i n to i ts s e co nd y ear, w ith m illio ns o f a cre s o f c ro ps d estr o yed
by l a ck o f r a in . M eanw hile , th e 1 3...................................................
betw een th o se l o yal to th e p re sid ent a nd th o se s u p porti n g th e r e b el l e ad er
co nti n ued i n to i ts f ifth y ear. 1 4................................................... f r o m th e
co nflic t h av e b een f le ein g a cro ss th e b ord er, w ith s to rie s o f a tr o citi e s
co m mitte d b y b oth s id es.
5.
In O cto ber, a f ir e 1 5................................................... th ro ugh L ond um , th e
ancie nt c ap ita l o f P era nia . T he 1 6........................................................,
whic h p ro bab ly s ta rte d i n a b akery , d estr o yed th o usa nd s o f h o m es. T here
were s e v era l 1 7................................................... w hen th e f ir e r e ached a
fir e w ork s f a cto ry , a nd a n um ber o f p eo ple w ere k ille d .
6.
An o utb re ak o f b ub onic 1 8................................................... w as r e p orte d
in th e e aste rn p ro vin ces o f I n d ocub a i n N ovem ber. I t i s b elie v ed to h av e
been c ause d b y a s u d den i n cre ase i n th e n um ber o f r a ts b re ed in g i n th e
se w ers .
A f u ll r e p ort w ill b e a v aila b le i n F eb ru ary , a nd w ill b e p re se nte d to th e
ap pro pria te d ep artm ents o f th e U nite d N ati o ns s h o rtl y a fte rw ard s.

H ea lth ca re
1 M atc h t h e s e nte nce in t h e le ft-h and c o lu m n w it h a s e nte nce in t h e r ig ht-
h and c o lu m n. U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou.
P R O BLE M S
1 .
Mrs B ra dy h as s u ffe re d f ro m
te rrib le
rh eu m atis m
f o r y ears .
(A )
Illn esse s w hic h a ffe ct th e
cir c u la tio n
o f b lo od a re
partic ula rly c om mon w it h p eople w ho a re o verw eig ht.
2 .
More w om en th an m en a re a ffe cte d
by
arth rit is .
(B )
This is d eposit e d o n th e w alls o f th e
arte rie s
a nd c an
blo ck th em .
3 .
Air c ondit io nin g u nit s a re o fte n
re sp onsib le f o r s p re adin g
in fe ctio n s
aro und a n o ffic e.
(C )
They c an e asily b e s p re ad f ro m o ne p ers o n to a noth er.
4 .
Card io vascu la r d is e ase
is
becom in g m ore c om mon in B rit a in .
(D )
Pain s o r s tif fn ess in th e
jo in ts
o r
musc le s
c an b e v ery
dif fic ult to liv e w it h .
5 .
Too m uch e xposu re to th e s u n c an
cause s k in
ca ncer
. (E )
They d on’t g et e nough e xerc is e .
(F )
This is b ecause th eir
im mune s yste m
is n ot p ro perly
develo ped.
6 .
It is im porta nt n ot to e at to o m uch
fo od w it h a h ig h
ch ole ste ro l
c onte nt.
(G )
Anyone w ho h as c aught th e
vir u s
is r e m in ded th at it
cannot b e tr e ate d w it h
antib io tic s,
a nd th ey s h ould s ta y
in sid e u ntil th e
sy m pto m s
h ave p asse d.
7 .
Too m any p eople th ese d ays liv e a
se denta ry life sty le .
8 .
People in p osit io ns o f r e sp onsib ilit y
ofte n h ave
str e ss-r e la te d
illn esse s.
(H )
The p ain fu l
in fla m matio n
o f a jo in t m ay r e quir e
su rg ery.
9 .
Pre m atu re b abie s a re
vu ln era ble
to
illn esse s.
(I)
How ever, th e g overn m ent d enie s it h as m ade
cu tb a ck s
to th e N atio nal H ealt h S erv ic e.
1 0.
Healt h care p ro fe ssio nals s a y th at
hosp it a ls a ro und th e c ountr y a re
su ffe rin g f ro m s e rio us
underfu ndin g.
(J )
How ever th ere a re d ru gs w hic h c an s lo w d ow n it s c ell-
destr o yin g p ro pertie s.
1 1 .
The A ID S
vir u s
is
in cu ra ble .
(K )
Once th e b ody’s
cells
s ta rt g ro w in g a bnorm ally , a c ure
can b e d if fic ult to f in d.
1 2.
The c ountr y is c urre ntly e xperie ncin g
it s w ors t
flu e p id em ic
f o r o ver 3 0
years .
(L )
The p re ssu re s o f a h ig h-p ow ere d jo b c an c ause
nerv ous
str a in ,
w hic h m ay r e quir e d ru gs.
2 R epla ce t h e w ord s o r p hra se s in b old in t h ese s e nte nce s w it h a w ord o r
p hra se f r o m t h e b ox s o t h at t h e s e nte nce s o unds m ore n atu ra l. T here a re
t h re e w ord s o r p hra se s t h at y ou d o n ot n eed.

CU RES
activ e   a d ie t  co nsu lt a n t  co nve n tio nal m ed ic in e 
deb ilit a tin g d ia gn ose   holis tic m ed ic in e  min era ls  
opera tio n  pro te in   su rg eo n th era p eu tic   tr a d it io nal
med ic in es  vit a m in s  welf a re s ta te
1.
If y o u s u ffe r f r o m a b ad b ack, a m assa ge m ay b e
able t o c u re o r r e lie ve
th e d is o rd er
.
2.
One o f th e s e cre ts o f r e m ain in g i n g o od h ealth i s to c ho ose
fo od t o e at
th at
is h ig h i n f ib re a nd l o w i n f a t.
3.
Most p eo ple , w hen th ey a re i ll, r e ly o n
modern p ills a nd t a ble ts
to c ure
th em .
4.
Som e
old -fa sh io ned c u re s f o r illn esse s
, s u ch a s h erb al ta b le ts a nd
re m ed ie s, a re b eco m in g i n cre asin gly p opula r.
5.
Many p eo ple a re tu rn in g to
tr e atm ents w hic h in volv e t h e w hole p erso n,
in clu din g t h eir m enta l h ealt h , r a th er t h an j u st d ealin g w it h t h e
sy m pto m s o f t h e illn ess
.

Hea lth ca re
6 .
Docto rs s o m eti m es r e fe r th eir p ati e nts to a
medic a l s p ecia lis t a tta ch ed t o
a h osp it a l
.
7 .
It ta kes m any y ears o f tr a in in g to b eco m e a
docto r s p ecia lis in g in s u rg ery
.
8 .
Meat, e ggs a nd n uts a re r ic h s o urc es o f
a c o m pound w hic h is a n e sse ntia l
part o f liv in g c e lls , a nd w hic h is e sse ntia l t o k eep t h e h um an b ody
work in g p ro perly
.
9 .
On h is h o lid ay, h e h ad to ta ke
esse ntia l s u bsta nce s w hic h a re n ot
sy nth esis e d b y t h e b ody b ut a re f o und in f o od a nd a re n eeded f o r
gro w th a nd h ealt h
, b ecause th e f o od h e a te l a cked th e B a nd C g ro up s.
1 0.
Calc iu m a nd z in c a re tw o o f th e m ost i m porta nt
su bsta nce s f o und in f o od
.
1 1 .
Most d octo rs r e co m mend a n
energ etic
l ife sty le , w ith p le nty o f e xerc is e .
1 2.
Briti s h p eo ple e njo y f r e e h ealth care th anks to th e
la rg e a m ount o f m oney
whic h is s p ent t o m ak e s u re t h ey h ave a dequate h ealt h s e rv ic e s
.
3 N ow lo ok a t t h is e xtr a ct f r o m a m agazin e a rtic le a nd c o m ple te t h e g aps
w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e c a se s,
m ore t h an o ne a nsw er m ay b e p ossib le .
A c u re f o r t h e f u tu re i n t h e p ast?
F or o ver 5 0 y ears , th e p eo ple o f B rita in h av e r e lie d o n th e
1 .................................. to m ake s u re th ey h av e a d eq uate h ealth s e rv ic es. B ut
n o w th e N ati o nal H ealth S erv ic e i s s ic k. G overn m ent 2 ............................... a nd
3 ................. a re f o rc in g h o sp ita ls to c lo se , a nd w aiti n g l is ts f o r tr e atm ent a re
g etti n g l o nger. U nd er s u ch c ir c um sta nces, i t i s n o s u rp ris e th at m ore p eo ple a re
t u rn in g to p riv ate ( b ut e xp ensiv e) h ealth care .
F or s o m e, h o w ev er, th ere a re a lte rn ati v es. T hey a re tu rn in g th eir b acks o n
m odern p ills , ta b le ts a nd o th er 4 ................................... I t s e em s p ara d oxic al,
b ut i n a n a ge o f m ic ro chip s a nd h ig h te chno lo gy, 5 .................................. ( th e
o ld -fa sh io ned c ure s th at o ur g ra nd pare nts r e lie d o n) i s m akin g a c o m eb ack.
C onsid er th ese c ase s tu d ie s:

Maud e i s 7 6 a nd h as b een s u ffe rin g f r o m 6 .................................. f o r a lm ost 1 0
years . “ T he i n fla m mati o n i n m y j o in ts w as a lm ost u nb eara b le , a nd m y d octo r
re fe rre d m e to a 7 .................................. a t th e L ond on H osp ita l. I w as to ld th at
I n eed ed 8 .................................., b ut w ould n eed to w ait f o r a t l e ast tw o y ears
befo re I c o uld h av e th e o pera ti o n. I n d esp era ti o n, I s ta rte d h av in g m assa ge
se ssio ns. T o m y s u rp ris e , th ese w ere v ery 9 .................................., a nd w hile
th ey d id n’t c ure th e d is o rd er, th ey d id r e lie v e i t to s o m e e xte nt.”
Ron i s 4 6. H is h ig h-p ow ere d c ity j o b w as r e sp onsib le f o r a s e rie s o f
10.................................. i lln esse s, a nd th e d ru gs h e to ok d id l ittl e to r e lie v e th e
nerv ous s tr a in . “ I r e ad a b out tr e atm ents w hic h i n v olv e th e w ho le p ers o n r a th er
th an th e i n d iv id ual 1 1 .................................., b ut I h ad a lw ays b een s c ep ti c al
ab out 1 2................................... H ow ev er, m y f r ie nd r e co m mend ed a d ie ti c ia n
who a d vis e d m e th at p art o f m y p ro ble m w as 1 3..................................- re la te d .
Basic ally , th e f o ods I w as e ati n g w ere c o ntr ib uti n g to m y d is o rd er. S he g av e
me a l is t o f f o ods th at w ould p ro vid e th e r ig ht 1 4.................................. a nd
15.................................. to k eep m e i n g o od h ealth . A t th e s a m e ti m e, s h e
re co m mend ed a m ore 1 6.................................. l ife sty le – r u nnin g, s w im min g,
th at k in d o f th in g. I ’ m a b it o f a c o uch p ota to , a nd th e 1 7..................................
life sty le I h ad l iv ed w as c o m pound in g th e p ro ble m . N ow I f e el g re at! ”
So i s th ere s ti ll a p la ce i n o ur l iv es f o r m odern m ed ic in e? W hile i t i s tr u e th at
so m e i n fe cti o ns a nd v ir u se s m ay b e p re v ente d b y r e so rti n g to a lte rn ati v e
med ic in e, m ore s e rio us i lln esse s s u ch a s 1 8.................................. n eed m ore
dra sti c m easu re s. W e d o n eed o ur h ealth s e rv ic e a t th ese ti m es, a nd w e
sh o uld n’t s to p i n v esti n g i n i ts f u tu re . B ut w e m ustn ’t f o rg et th at f o r s o m e
co m mon i lln esse s, th e c ure m ay l ie i n th e p ast.

T he m ed ia
1 M atc h t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b ox w it h t h eir d efin it io ns 1 – 1 2.
W rit e t h e w ord o r p hra se a fte r e ach d efin it io n.
b ro ad casts   bro ad sh eets   co ve ra ge  cu rre n t a ff a ir s  
d ow nlo ad in fo rm atio n o ve rlo ad   th e I n te rn et 
jo urn alis ts   lo g o n  re p orte rs ta b lo id s  web sit e
1.
Larg e-fo rm at q uality n ew sp ap ers .......................
2.
Sm all- fo rm at n ew sp ap ers .......................
3.
Peo ple w ho w rite f o r n ew sp ap ers o r p erio dic als .......................
4.
The a m ount o f s p ace o r ti m e g iv en to a n e v ent i n n ew sp ap ers o r o n
te le v is io n .......................
5.
Politi c al, s o cia l a nd e co no m ic e v ents th at a re h ap penin g n o w
.......................
6.
Rad io o r te le v is io n p ro gra m mes .......................
7.
To e nte r a p assw ord a nd s ta rt to a ccess a c o m pute r s y ste m
.......................
8.
Peo ple w ho w rite a rti c le s o r m ake b ro ad casts a b out e v ents i n th e n ew s
.......................
9.
To tr a nsfe r p ages f r o m a w eb site o n to y o ur o w n c o m pute r
.......................
10.
The i n te rn ati o nal n etw ork l in kin g m illio ns o f c o m pute rs .......................
11 .
An e xp re ssio n r e fe rrin g to th e i n ab ility o f a h um an to p ro cess
ev ery th in g h e o r s h e s e es o r h ears .......................
12.
A c o lle cti o n o f o n-lin e p ages c re ate d b y a c o m pany, o rg anis a ti o n o r
in d iv id ual .......................

2 C om ple te t h is e xtr a ct f r o m a t e le vis io n in te rv ie w w it h a n a ppro pria te
word o r p hra se f r o m t h e b ox.
cen so rs h ip   ch eq ueb ook jo urn alis m   en te rta in m en t 
ex plo it in g f r e ed om o f th e p re ss  gu tte r p re ss 
in fo rm atio n  in te grit y in va sio n o f p riv a cy   in ve stig ativ e
jo urn alis m   lib el  med ia ty co on p ap ara zzi 
re ad ers h ip   unsc ru pulo us
In te rv ie w er:
Welc om e to to day’s p ro gra m me. T oday w e w ill b e d is c ussin g th e
1.................................., a nd a sk in g th e q uestio n: S hould w e a llo w n ew sp apers a nd
te le vis io n c hannels to p rin t o r s a y w hate ver th ey lik e? I n th e s tu dio I h ave te le vis io n
pers o nalit y T im oth y B la ke a nd 2 .................................. R upert P oubelle , m ult i- m illio nair e
ow ner o f th e
Daily V ie w s
n ew sp aper. T im oth y, le t’s s ta rt w it h y ou.
T.B .:
Thank y ou. I n m y o pin io n, it ’s tim e th e g overn m ent im pose d s tr ic te r
3.................................................................... o f th e p re ss in o rd er to p re vent
4................................................... jo urn alis ts a nd r e porte rs f ro m m akin g m oney b y
5............................................... p eople . I h ave o fte n a ccuse d M r P oubelle ’s
org anis a tio n o f 6 .................................. – n ow adays I c an’t e ven s u nbath e in m y g ard en
wit h out b ein g p hoto gra phed b y h is h ord es o f 7 ....................................................
They’re lik e v ult u re s. A nd e very th in g th ey p rin t a bout m e is lie s, c om ple te r u bbis h .
In te rv ie w er:
But is n ’t it tr u e th at th e m edia p ro vid es u s w it h v alu able 8 .................................. a nd
9..................................................., a nd c enso rs h ip w ould d epriv e u s o f m uch o f th is ?
Rupert?

The m ed ia
R .P .:
Of c ours e , M r, B la ke’s a ccusa tio ns a re u nfo unded, a s a re th e a ccusa tio ns o f
10....................................... w e h ave r e ceiv ed. H ow ever, I c an s a fe ly s a y th at th e
Daily V ie w s
never p ays p eople h uge a m ounts o f m oney f o r s to rie s. W e h ave f a r to o m uch
11 ................................................... f o r th at. A nd d on’t f o rg et th at m y p aper a ls o h as a n e xcelle nt
re puta tio n f o r 1 2.................................................... R em em ber it w as u s w ho u ncovere d
corru ptio n in th e b ankin g s y ste m , a nd r a n a s e rie s o f a rtic le s o n c hild la bour in c lo th in g f a cto rie s.
We g iv e o ur 1 3................................................... w hat th ey w ant, a nd th at’s w hat r e ally c ounts .
T .B .:
But m ost o f w hat y ou r e port is n ’t r e ally n ew s. A nd a lo t o f it is ju st a b ig p ile o f lie s. S ensa tio nal
sto rie s m ade u p to e nte rta in p eople . T ypic al 1 4.................................. b ehavio ur, in o th er w ord s.
I’m a m aze d n obody h as s u ed y ou f o r 1 5................................................... y et.
3 N ow r e ad t h is e ssa y a nd c o m ple te t h e g aps w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r
p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . Y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f s o m e
o f t h e w ord s.
‘ T he m ed ia p la ys a v alu ab le r o le i n k eep in g u s i n fo rm ed a nd e nte rta in ed .
H ow ev er, m any p eo ple b elie v e i t h as to o m uch p ow er a nd f r e ed om .’ D is c uss
y o ur v ie w s o n th is , g iv in g e xam ple s a nd p re se nti n g a b ala nced a rg um ent b oth
i n f a v our o f, a nd a gain st, th e p ow er a nd f r e ed om o f th e m ed ia .
B are ly a h und re d y ears a go , i f w e w ante d to s ta y i n fo rm ed a b out w hat w as
g o in g o n i n th e w orld , w e h ad to r e ly o n w ord o f m outh o r, a t b est,
n ew sp ap ers . B ut b ecause c o m munic ati o n te chno lo gy w as v ery b asic , th e n ew s
w e r e ceiv ed w as o fte n d ays o r w eeks o ld .
W e s ti ll h av e n ew sp ap ers , o f c o urs e , b ut th ey h av e c hanged a lm ost b eyo nd
r e co gniti o n. W heth er w e c ho ose to r e ad th e 1 .................................................,
w ith th eir q uality 2 ............................................ o f n ew s a nd o th er
3 ........................................... b y to p 4 ................................................. a nd
a rti c le s b y a ccla im ed 5 ................................................., o r w e p re fe r th e
p opula r 6 ................................................., w ith th eir l iv ely g o ssip a nd c o lo urfu l
s to rie s, w e a re e xp ose d to a w ealth o f i n fo rm ati o n b are ly c o nceiv ab le a t th e
b egin nin g o f th e l a st c entu ry .
W e a ls o h av e te le v is io n a nd r a d io . N ew s 7 ................................................. l e t
u s k no w a b out w orld e v ents p ra cti c ally a s th ey h ap pen, w hile s itc o m s, c hat
s h o w s a nd d ocum enta rie s, e tc . k eep u s e nte rta in ed a nd i n fo rm ed . A nd th ere i s

als o 8 ................................................., w here w e c an a ccess i n fo rm ati o n f r o m
millio ns o f 9 ................................................. a ro und th e w orld w hic h w e c an
th en 1 0................................................. o n to o ur o w n c o m pute rs .
How ev er, th ese f o rm s o f 1 1 ................................................. a nd
12................................................. ( o r ‘ in fo rta in m ent’ a s th ey a re s o m eti m es
co lle cti v ely c alle d ) h av e th eir n egati v e s id e. F am ous p ers o naliti e s f r e q uentl y
accuse th e 1 3................................................. ( a nd s o m eti m es e v en r e sp ecta b le
pap ers ) o f 1 4................................................. b y g angs o f
15................................................. w ho f o llo w th em a ro und w ith th eir c am era s
and l o ng l e nse s. N ew sp ap ers a re o fte n a ccuse d o f
16................................................. b y a ngry p oliti c ia ns w ho h ate r e ad in g
dam agin g l ie s a b out th em se lv es, a nd th ere a re f r e q uent a ccusa ti o ns o f
17................................................., w ith 1 8.................................................
re p orte rs p ayin g p eo ple v ast s u m s o f m oney to te ll th em a b out th e c rim e th ey
co m mitte d o r w hat th eir f a m ous n eig hb our h as b een u p to . O f c o urs e , i t’ s n o t
ju st th e p ap ers w hic h a re to b la m e. T ele v is io n c o m panie s h av e c ast th eir
19................................................. a sid e to g et a g o od s to ry , a nd y o u c anno t
ev en 2 0................................................. to th e I n te rn et w ith o ut s e ein g s o m eth in g
sh o ckin g o r u naccep ta b le . 2 1................................................. a rg ue th at th ey a re
ju st g iv in g p eo ple w hat th ey w ant, b ut i n m y o pin io n, p eo ple s h o uld n o t a lw ays
get
w hat th ey w ant.
Many a rg ue th at th e g o vern m ent s h o uld i m pose s tr ic te r
22................................................. to p re v ent s u ch th in gs h ap penin g. B ut o th ers
arg ue th at 2 3................................................. i s th e k eysto ne o f a f r e e c o untr y .
Pers o nally , I ta ke th e v ie w th at w hile th e m ed ia m ay o ccasio nally a b use i ts
positi o n o f p ow er, th e b enefits g re atl y o utw eig h th e d is a d vanta ges. O ur l iv es
would b e m uch e m pti e r w ith o ut th e w ealth o f i n fo rm ati o n a v aila b le to u s
to day, a nd w e a re b ette r p eo ple a s a r e su lt.

M en & w om en
1 L ook a t t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old in t h ese s e nte nce s a nd d ecid e if
w e g enera lly c o nsid er t h em t o h ave a
posit iv e
c o nnota tio n o r a
negativ e
c o nnota tio n.
1 .
They w ould n ev er a d m it i t, b ut m en a nd w om en a re i n a c o nti n uo us
pow er
str u ggle
a t w ork .
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
2 .
Most m ajo r c o m panie s a re
male -d om in ate d
.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
3 .
It’ s a f a ct th at, w hen i t c o m es to p ro m oti n g th eir e m plo yees, s o m e
co m panie s s ti ll
dis c rim in ate
o n th e b asis o f s o m eo ne’s s e x.
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
4 .
A r e cent s u rv ey s u ggests th at m any p ro fe ssio nal w om en w ork in g f o r l a rg e
co m panie s a nd o rg anis a ti o ns o fte n h it a
gla ss c e ilin g
a t s o m e p oin t i n th eir
care er.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
5 .
Pro fe ssio nal b usin essw om en, e sp ecia lly th o se i n s e nio r m anagem ent
positi o ns, a re m ore
astu te
th an m en.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
6 .
In m y e xp erie nce, th ey a re a ls o m ore
versa tile .
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
7 .
What’ s m ore , th ey a re b ette r a t
mult i- ta sk in g.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
8 .
They c an a ls o b e m uch m ore
ru th le ss
w hen n ecessa ry .
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
9 .
My e ld er b ro th er i s s u ch a
male c h auvin is t!
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
1 0.
As f a r h e i s c o ncern ed , w om en a re l ittl e m ore th an
se x o bje cts .
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
1 1 .
He i s c o m ple te ly
unre co nstr u cte d.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
1 2.
Som e m ig ht s a y th at h e’s a b it o f a
din osa ur.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e

13.
My y o unger b ro th er, o n th e o th er h and , h as
egalit a ria n
v ie w s.
Positiv e /
Neg ativ e
14.
He b elie v es i n
equalit y
b etw een m en a nd w om en.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
15.
He d oesn ’t th in k th at w om en a re th e
weak er s e x.
Positiv e / N eg ativ e
2 U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in t h e b ox t o c o m ple te t h e c o nversa tio n.
battle o f th e s e x es  bre ad w in ner  ch ild r e arin g  gen der
ro le s h ouse h old m an agem en t  male c o unte rp arts  
pra ctic al  ro le d iv is io n S ex D is c rim in atio n A ct  so cia l
co nve n tio n  ste re o ty pes
Chris :
I th in k th at c le anin g a nd c ookin g a re a w om an’s jo b. A fte r a ll, m en a re n o g ood a t 1 ..................
Sam :
I d is a gre e.
Chris :
And in th e w ork pla ce, w om en a re n’t v ery 2 ................., a re th ey?.
Sam :
In w hat w ay?

Men & w om en
C hris :
In th e w ay th at th ere a re a lo t o f th in gs th ey c an’t d o a s w ell a s m en c an. S uch a s, e r, w ell, I c an’t
th in k o f a nyth in g in p artic ula r a t th e m om ent.
S am :
Exactly .
C hris :
Well, le t’s f a ce it , w om en n ever d o a s w ell a s th eir 3 ................. a t w ork .
S am :
I’v e n ever h eard s u ch u nre constr u cte d r u bbis h . T hank g oodness th e 4 ........................... e xis ts to
pre vent y our v ie w s b ein g p ut in to p ra ctic e. A nd I s u ppose y ou th in k th at w om en a re o nly g ood f o r
changin g b abie s’ n appie s, a nd o th er te dio us a sp ects o f 5 ..................
C hris :
No, b ut I d o b elie ve th at in a m odern h ouse hold , th ere s h ould b e a c le arly d efin ed
6................................................ M en a re g ood a t D IY , f o r e xam ple . M ost w om en a re n’t. A nd
I’ll a lw ays b elie ve th at it ’s th e m an w ho s h ould b e th e 7 ..............................................., p ro vid in g
fo od a nd s h elt e r f o r h is f a m ily .
S am :
Well, a ll I c an s a y is th at I ’m g la d y our id eas o f 8 ............................................... a re n ot s h are d
by m ost p eople .
C hris :
Nonse nse ! A lo t o f p eople b elie ve in tr a dit io nal 9 ...........................: th e m an g oes o ut to w ork , th e
wom an s ta ys a t h om e. I t’s a s s im ple a s th at.
S am :
Men a t w ork a nd w om en a t h om e? C om e o n, lo ve, th ose a re s u ch ty pic al 1 0.................. W it h
people lik e y ou a ro und, th e 1 1 ................. w ill c ontin ue to r a ge o n a nd o n.
C hris :
Oh g iv e it a r e st, D ad. I ’m r ig ht, a nd y ou k now I a m .
S am :
Sorry , C hris tin e, b ut w e’re in th e tw enty -fir s t c entu ry n ow . Y ou n eed to m ove w it h th e tim es.
3 C om ple te t h is e ssa y w it h w ord s a nd p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n
s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .
A to ta lly 1 ......................................................... s o cie ty , i n w hic h s e xual
2 ............................................... b etw een m en a nd w om en i s th e n o rm , i s s ti ll a
l o ng w ay o ff. T his i s c erta in ly th e c ase i f y o u w atc h c erta in te le v is io n
p ro gra m mes, w here m en a re o fte n p ortr a yed a s th e 3 .....................................,
b rin gin g m oney h o m e to th e w ife , w ho i s o fte n d ep ic te d a s th e
4 ....................................., p ro ne to e xtr e m e e m oti o ns a nd te m per ta ntr u m s. B ut
i s th is r e ally th e c ase ? I s i t s ti ll f a ir to c re ate 5 ...............................................
s u ch a s th is ? A fte r a ll, a s m ore w om en g o o ut to w ork , a nd m ore m en s ta y a t

ho m e to l o ok a fte r th e h o use a nd c hild re n, i t i s b eco m in g c le ar th at s o -c alle d
6............................................... a re m erg in g a nd d is a p pearin g.

M en & w om en
T ake th e o ffic e w ork p la ce a s a n e xam ple . F or y ears , b usin esse s a nd c o m panie s
w ere 7 ......................................................... T he d ir e cto rs , m anagers a nd o th er
s e nio r e xecuti v es w ere a lw ays m ale , th e s e cre ta rie s a nd p ers o nal a ssis ta nts
a lm ost a lw ays f e m ale . T his w as p ro bab ly b ecause m en w ere tr a d iti o nally s e en
a s m ore 8 ..............................................., m ore a b le to d eal w ith th e c ut- a nd -
t h ru st o f b usin ess. H ow ev er, n o w w om en a re p ro vin g th at th ey c an b e j u st a s
t o ugh, i f n o t to ugher, w hile s im ulta neo usly b ein g m ore
9 ............................................... a nd c arin g. I n f a ct, i n m any w ays, w om en a re
m uch b ette r a t 1 0..............................................., w hic h i s v ita l i n m odern
b usin ess w here y o u a re e xp ecte d to d o m ore th an o ne j o b. A nd th anks to th e
1 1 ....................................., w om en a re p aid th e s a m e a s m en. I t w ould a p pear
t h at, i n m any c ase s, th e 1 2............................................... i s a d yin g b re ed
( a lth o ugh, u nfo rtu nate ly , th ere a re s ti ll m any 1 3...............................................
m en i n th e w ork p la ce w ho th in k th ey c an d o e v ery th in g a nd a nyth in g b ette r th an
t h eir f e m ale c o lle agues, a nd th ere a re s ti ll c ase s w here w om en c lim bin g u p
t h ro ugh th e r a nks g et to a p oin t w here th ey h it a 1 4..................................... a nd
c anno t c lim b a ny h ig her).
A t h o m e, to o, th ere i s l e ss e v id ence o f 1 5................................................ I t i s
n o l o nger th e w om an w ho d oes a ll th e c o okin g, c le anin g a nd
1 6................................................ S uch 1 7..................................... i s n o w o fte n
s h are d e q ually . 1 8.......................................... n o l o nger e xp ects th e w om an to
s ta y i n d oors a ll d ay w hile th e m an s ta ys o ut u nti l a ll h o urs .
T he g o od n ew s, th ere fo re , i s th at w om en n o l o nger n eed to f e el th ey a re
r e gard ed a s m ere 1 9..............................................., o r th e u nd erd ogs i n a
2 0............................................... w ith th eir 2 1................................................ I n
f a ct, m any b elie v e th at i n th e 2 2..............................................., i t i s w om en
w ho h av e c o m e o ut o n to p.

Mon ey & f in an ce
1 U se a d ic tio nary t o f in d t h e d if fe re nce s b etw een t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s
i n b old in t h e f o llo w in g g ro ups.
1 .
make
a p ro fit a lo ss
2 .
ex tr a va gan t
&
fr u gal
/
eco n om ic a l
3 .
a
cu rre nt a cco unt
deposit a cco unt
4 .
a
lo an
& a
mortg age
5 .
to
dep osit
m oney & to
with dra w m on ey
6 .
a
wage
& a
sa la ry
7 .
bro ke & b an kru pt
8 .
sh are s, s to ck s, & d iv id en ds
9 .
in co m e t a x & e x cis e d u ty
1 0.
to
cre d it
& to
deb it
1 1 .
a
bank
build in g s o cie ty
1 2.
a
dis c o u nt
& a
re fu nd
1 3.
so m eth in g w hic h w as a
barg ain
, s o m eth in g w hic h w as
ove rp ric ed
a nd
so m eth in g w hic h w as
ex orb ita n t
1 4.
worth le ss & p ric ele ss
1 5.
sa ve m on ey & i n ve st m on ey
1 6.
in fla tio n & d efla tio n
1 7.
in co m e & e x pen ditu re
1 8.
to
le n d
& to
borro w
2 M atc h t h e s e nte nce s in c o lu m n A w it h t h e s e nte nce s in c o lu m n B . U se
t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou
.
Colu m n A
Colu m n B
1 .
The m anagin g d ir e cto r b elie ves th e c om pany
A.
I’m r e ally lo okin g f o rw ard to s p endin g m y

sh ould s ta rt p ro ducin g p ocket c om pute rs .
pen sio n .
2.
I a lw ays p ut m y m oney in a b uild in g s o cie ty a nd
not in a b ank.
B.
The
cost o f liv in g
s e em s to g o u p e very d ay.
3.
I c an’t a ffo rd to b uy a n ew c ar r ig ht n ow . I
don’t h ave e nough m oney.
C.
Of c ours e , it ’s a lw ays s o d if fic ult to
econ om is e .
4.
I a lw ays s p end a lo t o f m oney w hen I g o o n
holid ay.
D.
Shops a ll o ver th e c ountr y a re m akin g h uge
re d uctio n s
o n ju st a bout e very th in g.
5.
I c am e in to a lo t o f m oney r e cently w hen m y
uncle d ie d.
E.
Then I g et h om e to f in d o ut I ’v e
ru n u p
a
huge
overd ra ft
a t th e b ank.
6.
Look a t th is c heque th at c am e in th e p ost th is
morn in g f ro m R evenue a nd C usto m s.
F.
Of c ours e , th e p ote ntia l g lo bal
mark et
f o r
th em is e norm ous.
7.
I’v e b een s p endin g to o m uch r e cently .
G.
Fortu nate ly I r e ceiv e
unem plo ym en t
ben efit.
8.
In m y c ountr y , th ere a re a lo t o f v ery p oor
people a nd o nly a f e w r ic h o nes.
H.
There is a v ery u neven
dis tr ib u tio n o f
wea lth .
9.
I lo st m y jo b la st m onth .
I.
T he
in te re st
th ey p ay m e is m uch h ig her.
10.
I r e tir e n ext m onth .
J.
It’s th e f ir s t tim e I ’v e
in herite d
s o m eth in g.
11 .
Pric es a re r is in g q uic kly e very w here .
K.
It s e em s to b e s o m e k in d o f ta x
re ba te .
12.
The J a nuary s a le s s ta rt to m orro w .
L.
Maybe I s h ould c onsid er g ettin g o ne
on
cre d it.
3 N ow r e ad t h is p assa ge a nd c o m ple te t h e g aps w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r
phra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . Y ou m ay n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f s o m e
of t h e w ord s
.
Fin an cia l a dvic e f r o m a f a th er t o a s o n .
In th e p la y
Ham le t
b y W illia m S hakesp eare , a f a th er g iv es h is s o n s o m e
fin ancia l a d vic e. ‘ N eith er a b orro w er n o r a l e nd er b e’, h e s a ys. H e i s tr y in g to
te ll h is s o n th at h e s h o uld n ev er 1 ........................................................... m oney
fr o m a nyo ne b ecause i t w ill m ake i t d iffic ult f o r h im to m anage h is f in ances.
Lik ew is e h e s h o uld n ev er g iv e a f in ancia l 2 ............................................. to a
fr ie nd b ecause h e w ill p ro bab ly n ev er s e e th e m oney a gain , a nd w ill p ro bab ly
lo se h is f r ie nd a s w ell.

M on ey & f in an ce
T he p la y w as w ritte n o ver 4 00 y ears a go , b ut to day m any p are nts w ould g iv e
s im ila r a d vic e to th eir c hild re n. I m agin e th e c o nv ers a ti o n th ey w ould h av e
n o w :
S on:
Rig ht, D ad, I ’m o ff to u niv ers it y n ow .
F ath er:
All r ig ht, s o n, b ut le t m e g iv e y ou s o m e s o und f in ancia l a dvic e b efo re y ou g o.
S on:
Oh c om e o n, D ad.................
F ath er:
Now lis te n, th is is im porta nt. T he f ir s t th in g y ou s h ould d o is to m ake s u re y ou b ala nce y our
3............................... – th e m oney y ou r e ceiv e f ro m m e – a nd y our
4............................................. – th e m oney y ou s p end. I f y ou s p end to o m uch, y ou w ill e nd u p
wit h a n 5 ........................................... a t th e b ank. D on’t e xpect m e to p ay it f o r y ou.
S on:
But it ’s s o d if fic ult . T hin gs a re s o e xpensiv e, a nd th e 6 ............................................. g oes u p
all th e tim e. 7 ............................................. is r u nnin g a t a bout 1 0 p er c ent.
F ath er:
I k now , b ut y ou s h ould tr y to 8 .............................................. A void e xpensiv e s h ops a nd
re sta ura nts . A ls o , p ut y our m oney in a g ood 9 .............................................. T hey o ffe r a
much h ig her r a te o f 1 0............................................. th an b anks. A ls o , a void b uyin g th in gs
11 ..............................................
S on:
Why?
F ath er:
Because s h ops c harg e y ou a n 1 2............................................. a m ount o f m oney to b uy th in gs
over a p erio d o f tim e. I t’s m uch b ette r to 1 3............................................. a lit tle b it o f m oney
each w eek s o th at w hen y ou s e e s o m eth in g y ou w ant, y ou c an b uy it o utr ig ht. T ry to w ait f o r
th e s a le s, w hen s h ops o ffe r h uge 1 4............................................. a nd y ou c an p ic k u p a
15.............................................. A nd tr y to g et a 1 6..............................................
S on:
How d o I d o th at?
F ath er:
Easy. W hen y ou b uy s o m eth in g, a sk th e s h op if th ey’ll lo w er th e p ric e b y, s a y, 1 0 p er c ent.
Next, w hen y ou e ventu ally g et a jo b a nd a re e arn in g a g ood s a la ry , tr y to
17............................... th e m oney in a g ood c om pany. B uy 1 8............................................. in
govern m ent o rg anis a tio ns o r 1 9............................................. in p riv ate c om panie s.
S on:
OK, D ad, I ’v e h eard e nough.
F ath er:
One f in al p ie ce o f a dvic e, s o n.
S on:
What’s th at, D ad?

Fath er:
To th in e o w n s e lf b e tr u e.
Son:
You w hat?

On t h e r o ad
1 C hoose t h e m ost s u it a ble e xpla natio n o r in te rp re ta tio n, A o r B , f o r t h e
f o llo w in g s e nte nce s. U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou.
1 .
Peo ple e njo y th e
mobilit y
th at o w nin g a c ar g iv es th em .
A.
Peo ple e n jo y b ein g a ble t o t r a vel e a sily f r o m o ne p la ce t o a noth er.
B.
Peo ple e n jo y b ein g a ble t o d riv e v ery f a st.
2 .
What’ s y o ur
destin atio n
?
A.
Where h ave y o u c o m e f r o m ?
B.
Where a re y o u g oin g t o ?
3 .
Congestio n
i n th e c ity c entr e h as i n cre ase d d ra m ati c ally .
A.
It i s n ow e a sie r t o d riv e a ro und t h e c ity c en tr e t h an i t w as b efo re .
B.
It i s n ow m ore d iffic u lt t o d riv e a ro und t h e c ity c en tr e t h an i t w as
befo re .
4 .
The l o cal c o uncil w ants to r e d uce th e r is k s to
pedestr ia ns
.
A.
The l o ca l c o uncil w ants t o m ake i t s a fe r f o r p eo ple t o w alk a lo ng
th e s tr e et.
B.
The l o ca l c o uncil w ants t o m ake i t s a fe r f o r d riv ers a nd t h eir
passe n gers.
5 .
The
pollu tio n
i n m y c ity i s te rrib le .
A.
The a ir q uality i n m y c ity i s v ery p oor.
B.
There i s a l o t o f c rim e i n m y c ity .
6 .
Tra ffic -c a lm in g
m easu re s a re b eco m in g i n cre asin gly c o m mon th ro ugho ut
th e c o untr y .
A.
Peo ple h ave t o d riv e m ore s lo w ly b eca use o f t h e i n cre a se d n um ber o f
polic e i n v illa ges a nd t o w ns.
B.
Peo ple h ave t o d riv e m ore c a re fu lly t h ro ugh t o w ns a nd v illa ges

beca use o f s p ecia lly -b uilt o bsta cle s i n t h e r o ad.
7.
The c entr e o f C am fo rd h as b een d esig nate d a
tr a ffic -fr e e z one
.
A.
Yo u c a nnot t a ke y o ur c a r i n to t h e c en tr e o f C am fo rd .
B.
Yo u c a n p ark y o ur c a r f o r f r e e i n t h e c en tr e o f C am fo rd .
8.
Conta in er l o rrie s a nd o th er l a rg e v ehic le s
dom in ate
o ur r o ad s.
A.
There a re a l o t o f l a rg e v eh ic le s o n t h e r o ads.
B.
There a re n ’t m any l a rg e v eh ic le s o n t h e r o ads.
9.
Young d riv ers h av e a h ig her
accid ent r is k
th an o ld er d riv ers .
A.
Yo ung d riv ers a re m ore l ik ely t h an o ld er d riv ers t o b e i n vo lv ed i n a
cra sh .
B.
Yo ung d riv ers a re l e ss l ik ely t h an o ld er d riv ers t o b e i n vo lv ed i n a
cra sh .
10.
Pub lic tr a nsp ort i s h eav ily
su bsid is e d
i n m ost a re as.
A.
The g overn m en t h as m ade p ublic t r a nsp ort c h ea per t o u se b y g iv in g
money t o b us a nd t r a in c o m panie s.
B.
The g overn m en t h as m ade p ublic t r a nsp ort m ore e xp en siv e t o u se
by i n cre a sin g t h e p ric e o f r o ad t a x.
11 .
The j u ncti o n o f L ond on R oad a nd H olly S tr e et i s a n a ccid ent
bla ck s p ot
.
A.
A l o t o f t r a ffic a ccid en ts h appen h ere .
B.
Not m any a ccid en ts h appen h ere .
12.
The c ity c o uncil n eed s to a d opt a n e ffe cti v e
tr a nsp ort s tr a te gy
w ith in th e
next f iv e y ears .
A.
The c ity c o uncil n eed s t o f in d a b ette r w ay f o r p eo ple t o g et i n to ,
aro und a nd o ut o f t h e c ity .
B.
The c ity c o uncil n eed s t o e n co ura ge m ore d riv ers t o b rin g t h eir
ca rs i n to t h e c ity .

O n t h e r o ad
2 L ook a t s e nte nce s 1 – 1 0 a nd d ecid e w hat h as, o r h asn ’t, h appened
( s e nte nce s A – J ). U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou.
1 .
Ambula nce d riv er to p olic em an: ‘ T he
ped estr ia n ’s i n ju rie s
a re v ery
se v ere a nd h e h as to g o to h o sp ita l.’
2 .
Ju d ge to d riv er:
‘D rin k-d riv in g
i s a s e rio us o ffe nce a nd I th ere fo re b an
yo u f r o m d riv in g f o r a y ear.’
3 .
Driv in g i n str u cto r to s tu d ent d riv er: ‘ S to p! T hat’ s a
pedestr ia n c ro ssin g
!’
4 .
Exam in er to s tu d ent d riv er: ‘ Y ou d on’t k no w e no ugh a b out
th e H ig hw ay
Code
y et to p ass y o ur th eo ry te st.’
5 .
Polic em an to d riv er: ‘ D o y o u r e alis e y o u w ere
sp eedin g
b ack th ere , s ir ? ’
6 .
Driv er to a f r ie nd : ‘ I c an’t b elie v e i t! H e g av e m e a h eav y
fin e
a nd s ix
poin ts o n m y l ic ence.’
7 .
Polic e o ffic er to r a d io i n te rv ie w er:
‘J oyrid in g
h as i n cre ase d b y a lm ost 5 0
per c ent a nd I a m u rg in g e v ery o ne to th in k tw ic e b efo re th ey g et i n v olv ed
in th is s tu p id a cti v ity .’
8 .
Tele v is io n n ew s p re se nte r: ‘ S o f a r th is y ear th ere h av e b een 2 7
fa ta lit ie s
on O xfo rd sh ir e ’s r o ad s.’
9 .
City c o uncil o ffic er to j o urn alis t: ‘ A s p art o f o ur n ew tr a nsp ort s tr a te gy,
we a re g o in g to c o nstr u ct
cy cle la nes
i n a nd a ro und th e c ity .’
1 0.
City c o uncil o ffic er to j o urn alis t: ‘ T he
“P ark a nd R id e”
s c hem e h as b een
very s u ccessfu l o ver th e l a st y ear.’
A .
Som eb ody i s u nfa m ilia r w ith th e g o vern m ent p ub lic ati o n c o nta in in g th e
ru le s f o r p eo ple tr a v ellin g o n r o ad s.
B .
More p eo ple h av e b een l e av in g th eir c ars i n d esig nate d a re as o uts id e a
city a nd c atc hin g a b us i n to th e c ity c entr e .
C .
A l o t o f c ars h av e b een s to le n, m ain ly b y y o ung p eo ple w ho w ant s o m e
excite m ent.
D .
A p ers o n w alk in g i n th e s tr e et h as b een h it a nd b ad ly h urt b y a v ehic le .

E.
Som eb ody h as d ecid ed to m ake i t s a fe r to u se b ic ycle s.
F.
Som eb ody h as a lm ost d riv en th ro ugh a r e d l ig ht a nd h it a p ers o n w alk in g
acro ss th e r o ad .
G.
Som eb ody h as h ad to p ay m oney b ecause o f a d riv in g o ffe nce.
H.
Som eb ody h as c o nsu m ed a n i lle gal a m ount o f a lc o ho l b efo re d riv in g th eir
car.
I.
A l o t o f p eo ple h av e b een k ille d i n tr a ffic -re la te d a ccid ents .
J.
Som eb ody h as b een d riv in g to o f a st.
3. C om ple te t h is a rtic le w it h t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 .
In s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le , a nd y ou w ill n eed t o
ch ange s o m e o f t h e w ord f o rm s.
1........................... a nd 2 ........................... o n B rita in ’s r o ad s a re i n cre asin g
fr o m y ear to y ear: l a st y ear, 2 ,8 27 p eo ple w ere k ille d a nd a lm ost 3 00,0 00 h urt
in tr a ffic -re la te d a ccid ents . M ost o f th ese w ere c ause d b y d riv ers
3........................... i n b uilt- u p a re as, w here m any s e em to d is re gard th e 3 0m ph
lim it, o r 4 ..........................., e sp ecia lly a ro und C hris tm as, w hen m ore a lc o ho l
is c o nsu m ed th an a t a ny o th er ti m e. I n m any c ase s, i t i s 5 ........................... w ho
are th e v ic ti m s, k no cked d ow n a s th ey a re w alk in g a cro ss th e s tr e et a t
6........................... b y d riv ers w ho s e em to h av e f o rg o tte n th at th e r u le s o f th e
7........................... o rd er y o u to s to p a t r e d l ig hts .
But th ese i n no cent v ic ti m s, to geth er w ith th e h elp o f th e p olic e a nd l o cal
co uncils , a re f ig hti n g b ack. I n O xfo rd , a c ity p la gued b y 8 ........................... a nd
9........................... c ause d b y tr a ffic , a nd a n o to rio us a ccid ent
10........................... f o r p ed estr ia ns a nd c yclis ts , th e c ity c o uncil h as r e centl y
im ple m ente d i ts n ew 1 1 ..........................., w hic h h as i m pro ved th e f lo w o f
tr a ffic to th e b enefit o f th o se o n f o ot o r o n tw o w heels . 1 2...........................
measu re s s u ch a s b olla rd s a nd s p eed h um ps h av e s lo w ed tr a ffic d ow n.
13........................... s c hem es h av e h elp ed r e d uce th e n um ber o f c ars i n th e c ity ,
as o ffic e w ork ers a nd s h o ppers l e av e th eir c ars o uts id e th e c ity a nd b us i n
in ste ad . C orn m ark et S tr e et, th e m ain s h o ppin g th o ro ughfa re , h as b een
desig nate d a 1 4..........................., c lo se d to a ll v ehic le s d urin g th e d ay. T here
are m ore 1 5........................... o n m ain r o ute s i n to th e c ity , m akin g i t s a fe r f o r
th e h uge n um ber o f s tu d ents a nd r e sid ents w ho r e ly o n b ic ycle s to g et a ro und .
And 1 6........................... p ub lic tr a nsp ort h as h elp ed to k eep d ow n th e c o st o f

usin g b use s. M eanw hile , th e p olic e a nd th e c o urts a re c o m in g d ow n h ard o n
driv ers w ho m is u se th e r o ad s, h and in g d ow n l a rg e 1 7........................... o n
se lfis h , i n co nsid era te d riv ers w ho b elie v e i t i s th eir r ig ht to
18........................... th e r o ad s.

Scie n ce & t e ch nolo g y
1 . R epla ce t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old in t h e s e nte nce s w it h a s u it a ble
a lt e rn ativ e f r o m t h e b ox.
a d va n ces  an aly se d   bre ak th ro ugh   co m bin ed  
c y bern etic s d eve lo pm en t  dis c o ve re d   ex perim en te d  
g en etic e n gin eerin g in nova tio ns  in ve n te d   lif e
e x pecta n cy   mole cu la r b io lo gy n ucle ar e n gin eerin g 
p ro lif e ra te d   re act  re se arc h   sa fe gu ard s a
te ch nophile   a te ch nophobe
1 .
The c o m pany i s c arry in g o ut
sc ie ntif ic s tu dy
to f in d a c ure f o r A ID S.
..........................
2 .
The
pla nnin g a nd p ro ductio n
o f th e n ew c o m pute r s y ste m w ill ta ke s o m e
ti m e. ..........................
3 .
Modern h o m e e nte rta in m ent s y ste m s a nd o th er
modern in ventio ns
a re
changin g e v ery o ne’s l iv es. ..........................
4 .
Som e e le m ents
ch ange t h eir c h em ic a l c o m posit io n
w hen m ix ed w ith
wate r. ..........................
5 .
The s c ie nti s ts h av e
cre ate d
a n ew m achin e to a uto m ate th e p ro cess.
..........................
6 .
Who w as th e p ers o n w ho
fo und
p enic illin ? ..........................
7 .
When th e f o od w as
exam in ed c lo se ly a nd s c ie ntif ic a lly
, i t w as f o und to
co nta in h arm fu l b acte ria . ..........................

8.
Rain
jo in ed t o geth er
w ith C O
2 g ase s p ro duces a cid r a in .
..........................
9.
Ron i s
te rrif ie d o f m odern t e ch nolo gy
. ..........................
10.
Geo ff i s
very in te re ste d in m odern t e ch nolo gy
. ..........................
11 .
Pro te ctio n
a gain st a ccid ents i n th is l a b ora to ry a re m in im al.
..........................
12.
The c o m panie s
perfo rm ed s c ie ntif ic t e sts
w ith d iffe re nt ty p es o f g lu e
befo re th ey f o und o ne th at w ork ed p ro perly . ..........................
13.
Bria n i s s tu d yin g
th e t e ch niq ues u se d t o c h ange t h e g enetic
co m posit io n o f a c e ll s o a s t o c h ange c e rta in c h ara cte ris tic s w hic h c a n
be in herit e d
. ..........................
14.
Sara h i s s tu d yin g
th e t h in gs w hic h f o rm t h e s tr u ctu re o f liv in g m atte r
.
..........................
15.
Chris ti n e i s s tu d yin g
how in fo rm atio n is c o m munic a te d in m ach in es a nd
ele ctr o nic d evic e s in c o m paris o n w it h h ow it is c o m munic a te d in t h e
bra in a nd n erv ous s y ste m
. ..........................
16.
Neil i s s tu d yin g
th e d if fe re nt w ays o f e xtr a ctin g a nd c o ntr o llin g e nerg y
fr o m a to m ic p artic le s
. ..........................
17.
There h as b een a
su dden s u cce ss
i n th e s e arc h f o r a c ure f o r c ancer.
..........................
18.
The n um ber o f y ears a p erso n is lik ely t o liv e
h as i n cre ase d a g re at d eal
th anks to m odern m ed ic in e a nd te chno lo gy. ..........................
19.
The n um ber o f s c ho ols o ffe rin g c o m pute r p ro gra m min g c o urs e s h as
quic k ly in cre ase d
i n th e l a st te n y ears . ..........................
20.
In s p ite o f a ll th e
pro gre ss
i t h as m ad e i n th e l a st 5 0 y ears o r s o , m ed ic al

sc ie nce s ti ll k no w s l ittl e a b out th e b ra in . ..........................

S cie n ce & t e ch nolo g y
2 . T he p erso n d esc rib in g t h eir c o m pute r in t h is p assa ge is n ot v ery f a m ilia r
w it h c o m pute r t e rm in olo gy. R epla ce t h e p hra se s in b old w it h m ore
a ppro pria te w ord s a nd p hra se s f r o m t h e b ox.
b ase u nit   ch at r o om s  co m ponen ts   cra sh ed  
d ow nlo ad   em ail f ile s  gam in g  hard w are   In te rn et 
k ey board   la p to p  lo ad lo g o n  monit o r  mouse  
P C   prin te r  sc an ner  so ftw are   str e am v ir u s 
w eb sit e s  wir e le ss
O K, h ere ’s m y n ew d esk to p
co m pute r w hic h h as b een d esig ned t o b e u se d
b y j u st o ne p erso n
( 1 )..................................................... . A s y o u c an s e e, i t h as f iv e
parts w hic h
m ak e u p t h e w hole t h in g
( 2 ) ..................................................... . N ow , th e
l a rg e b ox w it h t h e s lo ts a nd s lid in g d is c c a rrie r
( 3 )
. .................................................... i s th e m ost i m porta nt p art. I t c arrie s a ll th e
s tu ff t h at m ak es t h e c o m pute r w ork
( 4 ) ............................................. Y ou
c an a ls o
put in
( 5 ) ............................................. y o ur o w n g am es a nd o th er
p ro gra m s u se d b y c o m pute rs f o r d oin g p artic u la r j o bs
( 6 )
. ..............................., l ik e p ho to p ro cessin g a nd o ffic e s u ite s. N ext to i t th ere i s
t h e
th in g t h at lo ok s lik e a s m all t e le vis io n
( 7 )
. .................................................... s o y o u c an s e e w hat th e c o m pute r i s d oin g.
T o th e r ig ht o f th at, th ere i s th e
mach in e t h at le ts y ou m ak e c o lo ur c o pie s o f
t h e d ocu m ents a nd o th er t h in gs t h at y ou c re ate o n t h e c o m pute r
( 8 )
. .................................................... ( th is p arti c ula r o ne i n co rp ora te s a
mach in e
y ou c a n u se t o c o py p ic tu re s o n t o y our c o m pute r, a b it lik e a p hoto co pie r
( 9 ) .....................................................) . Y ou c o ntr o l th e c o m pute r u sin g th e
r e cta ngula r f la t t h in g w it h a ll t h e le tte rs a nd n um bers o n
( 1 0)
. ...................................................., o r th e
obje ct w it h t h e lit tle w heel o n t h e
t o p w hic h y ou c a n m ove a cro ss t h e d esk
( 1 1 )

...................................................... T hese u su ally h av e a l e ad c o nnecti n g th em
to th e c o m pute r, b ut a s y o u c an s e e, m in e i s
not p hysic a lly c o nnecte d t o t h e
co m pute r, a nd in ste ad s e nds e le ctr o nic s ig nals t h ro ugh t h e a ir
( 1 2)
..................................................
It’ s a v ery u se fu l m achin e, o f c o urs e . O nce y o u
sta rt u sin g it b y e nte rin g a
passw ord
( 1 3) ....................................................., y o u c an c re ate
in fo rm atio n
th at y ou s to re u nder a p artic u la r n am e
( 1 4) ..................................................
and d ocum ents ,
move
( 1 5) .................................................. p ic tu re s f r o m y o ur
cam era a nd , w ell, l o ad s o f th in gs r e ally . T he b est th in g, h o w ev er, i s th at y o u
can a ccess th e
th in g t h at lin k s c o m pute rs f r o m a ro und t h e w orld
( 1 6)
...................................................... Y ou c an c heck o ut m illio ns o f
sp ecia l
co m pute r p ages c re ate d b y c o m panie s, o rg anis a tio ns a nd in div id uals a ll
over t h e w orld
( 1 7) ....................................................., g o s h o ppin g, p la y
gam es ( I r e ally e njo y
pla yin g g am es o n m y c o m pute r
( 1 8)
.....................................................) ,
pla y
( 1 9)
....................................................................... m usic a nd v id eo s, a nd
se nd
ele ctr o nic le tte rs t o
( 2 0) ....................................................................... y o ur
fr ie nd s a nd f a m ily . I t’ s a ls o g re at f o r c o nta cti n g p eo ple u sin g
onlin e p la ce s
where p eople c o m munic a te w it h e ach o th er in r e al t im e
( 2 1)
................................... a nd o th er s o cia l n etw ork in g s ite s.
Unfo rtu nate ly , I c an’t l e t y o u u se i t a t th e m om ent b ecause i t
sto pped w ork in g
(2 2) ..................................................... a t th e w eekend , a nd I c an’t g et i t to
work a gain . I ’ m r a th er w orrie d th at i t’ s g o t a
te ch nic a l f a ult t h at s o m eone
cre ate d o n p urp ose t o a ffe ct m y c o m pute r
( 2 3)
...................................................... H ow ev er, y o u c an h av e a g o o n m y
sm all
co m pute r t h at I c a n c a rry a ro und w it h m e
( 2 4)
..................................................... i f y o u l ik e. I f I c an f in d i t. T he l a st ti m e I
re m em ber s e ein g i t w as l a st n ig ht o n th e b us, w hen I w as c o m in g h o m e f r o m
my o ffic e a t th e M in is tr y o f D efe nce.

Scie n ce & t e ch nolo g y
3 N ow lo ok a t t h is e ssa y a nd f ill in t h e g aps w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r
p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er w ill
b e p ossib le . Y ou m ay n eed t o c h ange s o m e o f t h e w ord f o rm s.
‘ T ech nolo gy h as c o m e a l o ng w ay i n t h e l a st 5 0 y ea rs, a nd o ur l iv es h ave
b eco m e b ette r a s a r e su lt. O r h ave t h ey? ’
T he l a st 5 0 y ears h av e s e en m ore c hanges th an i n th e p re v io us 2 00. T here h av e
b een m any r e m ark ab le a d vances i n m ed ic in e a nd m ed ic al te chno lo gy th at h av e
h elp ed to i n cre ase o ur a v era ge 1 ................................................................. w ay
b eyo nd th at o f o ur a ncesto rs . I n cre d ib le
2 ................................................................. s u ch a s s a te llite te le v is io n h av e
c hanged th e w ay w e s p end o ur l e is u re h o urs . P erh ap s th e m ost i m porta nt
3 ................................................., h o w ev er, h as b een th e m ic ro chip . N obody
c o uld h av e i m agin ed , w hen i t w as f ir s t 4 ................................................., th at
w ith in a m atte r o f y ears , th is ti n y p ie ce o f s ilic o n a nd c ir c uitr y w ould b e f o und
i n a lm ost e v ery h o use ho ld o bje ct f r o m th e k ettl e to th e v id eo r e co rd er. A nd
n o body c o uld h av e p re d ic te d th e s u d den p ro life ra ti o n o f c o m pute rs th at w ould
c o m ple te ly c hange o ur l iv es, a llo w in g u s to a ccess i n fo rm ati o n f r o m th e o th er
s id e o f th e w orld v ia th e 5 ................................................. o r s e nd m essa ges
a ro und th e w orld b y 6 ................................................. a t th e to uch o f a b utto n.
M eanw hile , 7 ................................................................. i n to o th er a sp ects o f
i n fo rm ati o n te chno lo gy i s m akin g i t e asie r a nd c heap er f o r u s to ta lk to f r ie nd s
a nd r e la ti o ns a ro und th e w orld . G ood n ew s f o r
8 ................................................. w ho l o ve m odern te chno lo gy, b ad n ew s f o r
t h e 9 ................................................. w ho w ould p re fe r to h id e f r o m th ese
m odern m ir a cle s.
B ut e v ery th in g h as a p ric e. T he d ev elo pm ent o f
1 0................................................. l e d to m ass a uto m ati o n i n f a cto rie s, w hic h i n
t u rn l e d to m illio ns l o sin g th eir j o bs. T he g eniu s o f E in ste in l e d i n d ir e ctl y to
t h e th re at o f n ucle ar w ar a nd th e d angero us u ncerta in ti e s o f
1 1 ...................................... ( w e h ear o f a ccid ents a nd m is h ap s a t n ucle ar p ow er

sta ti o ns a ro und th e w orld , w here 1 2................................................. to p re v ent
accid ents w ere i n ad eq uate ). T he r e la ti v ely n ew s c ie nce o f
13................................................. h as b een s e en a s a m ajo r s te p f o rw ard , b ut
putti n g m odifie d f o ods o n to th e m ark et b efo re s c ie nti s ts h ad p ro perly
14................................................. th em w as p erh ap s o ne o f th e m ost
ir re sp onsib le d ecis io ns o f th e 1 990s. M eanw hile , p harm aceuti c al c o m panie s
co nti n ue to 1 5................................................. o n a nim als , a m ove th at m any
co nsid er to b e c ru el a nd u nnecessa ry .
Of c o urs e w e a ll r e ly o n m odern s c ie nce a nd te chno lo gy to i m pro ve o ur l iv es.
How ev er, w e n eed to m ake s u re th at w e c an c o ntr o l i t b efo re i t c o ntr o ls u s.

S port
1 L ook a t t h e d efin it io ns, a nd a rra nge t h e le tte rs in b old t o m ak e t h e
w ord s t h ey a re d efin in g. W rit e y our a nsw ers in t h e g rid ( th e f ir st le tte r o f
e ach w ord is a lr e ady in p la ce ). I f y ou d o t h is c o rre ctly , y ou w ill r e veal
a noth er w ord in t h e s h aded v ertic a l s tr ip .
1 .
Som eo ne w ho w atc hes a p ub lic a cti v ity o r e v ent, e sp ecia lly a s p orts
ev ent.
pate orsc t
2 .
Money g iv en to a n o rg anis a ti o n to h elp p ay f o r s o m eth in g, o fte n a n e v ent.
so rip onpsh s
3 .
A m an w ho p la ys s p ort.
masts n opr
4 .
To b e i n v olv ed i n a n a cti v ity w ith o th er p eo ple .
ate k r p ta n i
5 .
To s ta rt d oin g s o m eth in g r e gula rly a s a h ab it, j o b o r i n te re st.
etk a p u
6 .
A p ers o n, te am , b usin ess o r g ro up th at s o m eo ne i s c o m peti n g a gain st.
popit io ons
7 .
A l a rg e b uild in g, u su ally w ith o ut a r o of, w here p eo ple p la y a nd w atc h
sp orts e v ents .
utis m ad
8 .
To w in a gain st s o m eo ne i n a g am e, f ig ht o r e le cti o n.
efe td a
9 .
Som eo ne w ho l ik es to w atc h a p arti c ula r s p orts te am , a nd w ants th at te am
to w in .
pote sp rru
1 0.
A l a rg e b uild in g, u su ally w ith a r o of, w here s p orts e v ents ta ke p la ce i n a
centr a l a re a.
ra ane
1 1 .
Som eo ne w ho p la ys a s p ort o r d oes a n a cti v ity a s a j o b r a th er th an f o r
enjo ym ent.
nesp rsio alo f

2 I m agin e t h at y ou a re a p ro fe ssio nal s p orts p la yer a nd k een s p ecta to r.
How w ould y ou f e el in t h e f o llo w in g s it u atio ns, h appy (
☺ ) o r u nhappy
( ☹ )?
1.
Your te am h as b een
pro m ote d.


2.
You a re s e nt o ff
d urin g a g am e.


3.
Som eo ne b elie v es y o u h av e b een ta kin g
perfo rm ance -e nhancin g d ru gs.


4.
Peo ple s a y y o u a re
gro ssly o verp aid .


5.
Your te am h as
re ach ed t h e f in al.


6.
In a 1 00 m etr e r a ce, y o u
beat y our p erso nal b est.



Sport
7 .
You h av e b een
dis q ualif ie d
f r o m ta kin g p art i n a c o m peti ti o n.


8 .
You h av e f a ile d a
dope t e st.


9 .
Your te am h as b een
re le gate d.


1 0.
Your c o untr y ’s n ati o nal f o otb all te am
qualif ie s
f o r th e W orld C up .


1 1 .
Your f e el th at y o ur te am h as n o
te am s p ir it .


1 2.
There a re a l o t o f
hoolig ans
a t a m atc h y o u a tte nd .


1 3.
In a c yclin g r a ce, y o u
outd is ta nce
th e o th er c o m peti to rs .


1 4.
Peo ple s a y y o u a re a lw ays
co m mit tin g p ro fe ssio nal f o uls .


1 5.
When y o u w alk o n to th e p itc h to p la y a g am e, th e s p ecta to rs s ta rt
je erin g,
booin g
a nd
sh outin g a buse .


1 6.
The s p ecta to rs
ch eer
w hen y o u w alk o n to th e p itc h.


1 7.
You
outp la y
y o ur o pponent i n a g am e o f s q uash .


2 .
A n ew sp ap er a rti c le a ccuse s y o u o f
matc h f ix in g.


3 C om ple te t h is p assa ge w it h w ord s a nd p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 .
I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le , a nd y ou w ill n eed t o
c h ange s o m e o f t h e w ord f o rm s.
F or m any p eo ple , f o otb all i s m ore th an j u st a g am e. W heth er th ey’re
( 1 )..................................o n th e te rra ces, ( 2 ) .................................. o n th eir
f a v ourite te am , o r w heth er th ey’re ( 3 ) .................................. p la yers ( 4 )
. ................ a m ajo r m atc h, f o otb all i s a w ay o f l ife . T hey c o uld n o t c o nceiv e o f
a w orld i n w hic h th e ‘ b eauti fu l g am e’ d oes n o t e xis t. F or th em , n o th in g c an
m atc h th at m agic al m om ent w hen th eir te am ( 5 ) ............................... f o r a m ajo r
c o m peti ti o n l ik e th e W orld C up , ( 6 )..................................th en ( 7 )
. ................................. th e o ppositi o n i n a r e so und in g v ic to ry . A nd , a p art f r o m
s e ein g th eir te am l o se , n o th in g c an b e w ors e f o r th em th an s e ein g th eir
f a v ourite te am ( 8 ) .................................. a t th e e nd o f th e s e aso n: to s e e y o ur
t e am m oved d ow n f r o m th e f ir s t d iv is io n c an b e a h eartb re akin g e xp erie nce.

Anyo ne w ho h as e v er b een i n sid e a ( 9 ) .................................. d urin g a m ajo r
matc h c an te sti fy to th e p assio n p eo ple h av e f o r th e g am e.
How ev er, th ere i s a n u gly s id e to f o otb all. I t o nly ta kes a f e w ( 1 0)
.................................. th ro w in g b ottl e s, i n v ad in g th e p itc h a nd ( 1 1 )
.................................. a t th e p la yers to r u in a m atc h. T his h as b een a p ro ble m
fo r a l o ng ti m e, b ut e v id ence s u ggests th at i t i s g etti n g w ors e . T here i s
criti c is m , to o, th at m any to p p la yers a re ( 1 2) ................................... P eo ple
canno t u nd ers ta nd h o w th ey c an j u sti fy th eir h uge s a la rie s s im ply f o r k ic kin g a
ball a ro und a p itc h. T hey g et e v en a ngrie r w hen th ese e xtr e m ely w ealth y y o ung
men a re c aught u sin g ( 1 3) .................................., o r a re ( 1 4)
.................................. i n d is g ra ce d urin g a m atc h f o r ( 1 5) ..................................
again st o th er p la yers . T here i s a ls o th e m ore r e cent p ro ble m o f ( 1 6)
.................................. c o m mitte d b y p la yers , c o aches, o ffic ia ls a nd c o rru p t
re fe re es. A cti n g d is h o nestl y to g et th e r e su lt y o u w ant n o t o nly g o es a gain st th e
sp ir it o f th e g am e, p eo ple s a y, b ut a ls o g iv es th e g am e a b ad r e p uta ti o n.

T ow n & c o u ntr y
1 M atc h t h e s e nte nce s in t h e le ft-h and c o lu m n w it h t h e m ost a ppro pria te
s e nte nce in t h e r ig ht-h and c o lu m n. U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o
h elp y ou.
1.
Lond on i s a tr u ly
co sm opolita n
c ity .
2.
A m odern
metr o polis
n eed s a g o od i n te gra te d tr a nsp ort s y ste m .
3.
Lond on s u ffe rs a l o t f r o m tr a ffic
co n gestio n .
4.
Pove rty
i n th e
in ner-c it y
bre ed c rim e.
5.
Citi e s a ro und th e w orld h av e s e en a h uge
popu la tio n e x plo sio n .
6.
Bir m in gham h as p le nty o f
am en itie s.
7.
A l o t o f p eo ple v is it P aris f o r i ts
cu ltu ra l e ve n ts .
8.
Citi e s i n p oore r c o untr ie s o fte n l a ck b asic
in fr a str u ctu re s.
9.
The
pre ssu re s o f m odern c ity l if e
c an b e d iffic ult to d eal w ith .
10.
The
co st o f l iv in g
i n s o m e p la ces c an b e v ery h ig h.
11 .
A l o t o f p eo ple a p pre cia te th e
an on ym ity
o f l iv in g i n a l a rg e c ity .
12.
I l o ve th e
urb an l if e sty le
I l e ad .
13.
In S in gap ore , p riv ate c ars a re b anned f r o m th e
cen tr a l b u sin ess
dis tr ic t
peak p erio ds.
14.
Urb an s p ra w l
i s p re v ale nt i n m ost c iti e s.

A.
Dru g a bu se
i s a ls o a b ig p ro ble m .
B.
Sho ps, l ib ra rie s, h o sp ita ls a nd e nte rta in m ent c o m ple xes a re j u st a f e w
of th em .
C.
Chie f a m ong th ese a re c o ncerts a nd e xhib iti o ns.
D.
In p arti c ula r, I e njo y th e
atm osp h ere
th at i s u niq ue to th e c ity .
E.
Pric es i n L ond on a re p arti c ula rly e xo rb ita nt.
F.
With o ut th em , th ey a re u nab le to f u ncti o n p ro perly a s c iti e s.
G.
It i s e sp ecia lly b ad d urin g th e
ru sh h ou r,
co m mute rs
tr y to e nte r o r
le av e th e c ity .
H.
Str e ss-re la te d i lln esse s a re v ery c o m mon i n c iti e s l ik e N ew Y ork .
I.
Now ad ays th ere a re m ore
city d w elle rs
th an e v er b efo re .
J.
Every w here y o u g o th ere a re
bu ild in g s ite s, p ed estr ia n p re cin cts ,
blo ck s o f f la ts
a nd
hou sin g e sta te s
s p re ad in g i n to th e c o untr y sid e.
K.
They l ik e to f e el th at th ey c an d o s o m eth in g w ith o ut e v ery b ody
kno w in g a b out i t.
L.
Most p eo ple u se b use s a nd th e u nd erg ro und to g et to th e b anks a nd
offic es w here th ey w ork .
M.
Unfo rtu nate ly , th is i s s o m eth in g th at m ost l a rg e c ap ita l c iti e s l a ck.
N.
It’ s a
meltin g p ot
f o r p eo ple f r o m a ll p arts o f th e w orld .

Tow n & c o u ntr y
2 M atc h t h e s e nte nce s in t h e le ft-h and c o lu m n w it h a n a ppro pria te
r e sp onse in t h e r ig ht-h and c o lu m n. U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o
h elp y ou.
1.
I e njo y a
ru ra l
l ife sty le .
2.
There i s n ’t m uch
pollu tio n
i f y o u l iv e o uts id e a to w n.
3.
There i s a l o t o f
pro du ctiv e l a n d
i n th is a re a.
4.
In r e cent y ears , th ere h as b een a l o t o f
mig ra tio n
f r o m th e to w ns to th e
citi e s.
5.
The g o vern m ent h as p ro m is e d to l e av e th e g re en b elt a lo ne.
6.
There h as b een a h uge r e d ucti o n i n th e a m ount o f
ara ble l a n d
o ver th e
la st 2 0 y ears .
7.
My u ncle ’s f a rm c o vers a lm ost 8 00
hecta re s.
8.
What a re th e m ain
cro ps
g ro w n i n th is a re a?
A .
Really ? S o w hy a re w e s e ein g s o m uch
co n str u ctio n
i n th e c o untr y sid e
aro und L ond on?
B .
I’ m n o t s o s u re . A ll th o se
pestic id es
a nd
ch em ic a l
fe rtilis e rs
envir o nm ent
.
C .
That’ s p ro bab ly b ecause w e i m port m ore f o od f r o m a b ro ad .
D .
Mostl y
whea t, o ats
barle y.
E .
Really ? H ow m uch i s th at i n
acre s
?
F.
I’ m n o t s u rp ris e d . W ith s u ch te rrib le
pro sp ects
w ith in to w ns,
dep opu la tio n
i s i n ev ita b le .
G .
Well I c an’t s e e m uch e v id ence o f
cu ltiv a tio n .
H .
Do y o u? I a lw ays f in d th ere ’s n o th in g to d o i n th e c o untr y sid e.
3 C om ple te t h is a rtic le w it h w ord s a nd p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n
s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er is p ossib le .

For s e v en y ears I l iv ed i n S in gap ore , a 1 ................................ o f a lm ost th re e
millio n p eo ple . L ik e L ond on, P aris a nd N ew Y ork , S in gap ore i s a
2................................ c ity , w ith p eo ple f r o m d iffe re nt p arts o f th e w orld l iv in g
and w ork in g to geth er. I e njo yed th e 3 ................................ l ife sty le I l e d th ere ,
and m ad e th e m ost o f th e s u p erb 4 ................................, r a ngin g f r o m th e
excelle nt s h o ps to s o m e o f th e b est r e sta ura nts i n th e w orld . I n th e e v enin gs a nd
at w eekend s th ere w ere a lw ays 5 ................................; w ith s u ch d iv ers e
attr a cti o ns a s c la ssic al w este rn m usic , a n e xhib iti o n o f M ala y a rt o r a C hin ese
opera i n th e s tr e et, i t w as d iffic ult to g et b ore d . P erh ap s m ost i m pre ssiv e,
ho w ev er, w as th e r e m ark ab le tr a nsp ort 6 ................................, w ith e xcelle nt
ro ad s, a s w ift a nd e ffic ie nt b us s e rv ic e a nd a s ta te -o f- th e-a rt u nd erg ro und
sy ste m w hic h c o uld w his k 7 ................................ f r o m th e s u b urb s s tr a ig ht i n to
th e h eart o f th e c ity ( th is w as p arti c ula rly i m porta nt, a s th e g o vern m ent b anned
priv ate c ars f r o m e nte rin g th e 8 ................................ d urin g th e m orn in g a nd
afte rn o on 9 ................................ i n o rd er to r e d uce 1 0................................ o n
th e r o ad s a nd 1 1 ................................ f r o m th e e xhausts ).
Of c o urs e , l iv in g i n a c ity l ik e th is h as i ts d is a d vanta ges a s w ell. F or a s ta rt,
th e 1 2................................ c an b e v ery h ig h – r e nti n g a n a p artm ent, f o r
exam ple , i s v ery e xp ensiv e. A nd a s th e c ity i s e xp and in g, th ere a re a l o t o f
13................................ w here n ew a p artm ents a re c o nti n ually b ein g b uilt to
deal w ith th e 1 4................................ w hic h i s a d ir e ct r e su lt o f th e g o vern m ent
enco ura gin g p eo ple to h av e m ore c hild re n.
Fortu nate ly , S in gap ore d oesn ’t s u ffe r f r o m p ro ble m s th at a re c o m mon i n m any
citi e s s u ch a s 1 5................., w hic h i s p artl y th e r e su lt o f th e g o vern m ent
im posin g v ery s e v ere p enalti e s o n a nyo ne b rin gin g n arc o ti c s i n to th e c o untr y ,
so i t i s s a fe to w alk th e s tr e ets a t n ig ht. I n f a ct, th e 1 6................. h o usin g
esta te s th ere a re p ro bab ly th e s a fe st a nd m ost o rd erly i n th e w orld .
Sin gap ore w ould n’t b e i d eal f o r e v ery o ne, h o w ev er, e sp ecia lly i f y o u c o m e
fr o m th e c o untr y sid e a nd a re u se d to a 1 7................................ l ife sty le . T he
tr a d iti o nal v illa ges th at w ere o nce c o m mon h av e d is a p peare d a s th e r e sid ents
th ere r e alis e d th ere w ere n o 1 8................................ f o r th eir f u tu re a nd m oved
in to n ew g o vern m ent h o usin g i n th e c ity . N ow ad ays, th ere i s v ery l ittl e
19................................ a ro und th e c ity , w hic h m eans th at S in gap ore i m ports
alm ost a ll o f i ts f o od. A nd d esp ite a ‘ g re en’ a p pro ach to c ity p la nnin g, th e
20................................ w hic h h as e ate n i n to th e c o untr y sid e h as h ad a

detr im enta l e ffe ct o n th e 2 1.................................

T ra v el
1 L ook a t t h e f o llo w in g s e nte nce s a nd d ecid e if t h ey a re t r u e o r f a ls e . I f
t h ey a re f a ls e , e xpla in w hy.
1 .
A
tr a vel a gency
to ur o pera to r
. T ru e / F als e
2 .
A
pack age t o ur
T ru e / F als e
3 .
An
all- in clu siv e
Tru e / F als e
4 .
When p asse ngers
em bark
, off
a n a ero pla ne o r s h ip .
Tru e / F als e
5 .
When p asse ngers
dis e m bark
, on
a n a ero pla ne o r s h ip .
Tru e / F als e
6 .
The f ir s t th in g y o u d o w hen y o u g o to a n a ir p ort i s g o to th e
ch eck -in
.
Tru e / F als e
7 .
The f ir s t th in g y o u d o w hen y o u a rriv e a t y o ur h o te l i s
ch eck in
. T ru e /
Fals e
8 .
The o pposite o f a
pack age t o uris t
in dependent t r a velle r
. T ru e / F als e
9 .
Mass t o uris m
Tru e / F als e
1 0.
Eco to uris m
Tru e / F als e
1 1 .
The w ord s
tr ip , e xcu rsio n, j o urn ey
a nd
voyage
Tru e / F als e
1 2.
It i s a lw ays n ecessa ry to h av e a
vis a
Tru e / F als e
1 3.
A f lig ht f r o m L ond on to P aris c o uld b e d esc rib ed a s a
lo ng-h aul
f lig ht.
Tru e / F als e
1 4.
Fly in g
eco nom y c la ss
busin ess c la ss
. T ru e / F als e
1 5.
A C anad ia n c iti z e n f ly in g f r o m T oro nto to V anco uv er w ill h av e to f ill i n a n
im mig ra tio n c a rd
Tru e / F als e
1 6.
Cult u ra l t o uris m
su sta in able t o uris m
. T ru e / F als e
1 7.
The
peak s e aso n
Tru e / F als e
1 8.
A
cru is e
Tru e / F als e
1 9.
An
arm ch air t r a velle r
Tru e / F als e
2 0.
A
to uris t t r a p
Tru e / F als e

2 C om ple te t h e s e nte nce s w it h a s u it a ble w ord o r p hra se f r o m t h e b ox.
bord er c o ntr o ls   cu lt u re s h ock   dep orte d   eco nom ic
mig ra n ts e m ig ra tio n  ex patr ia te s  im mig ra tio n 
in te rn ally d is p la ced p ers o na n on g ra ta   re fu gees 
re p atr ia te d   UN HCR
1.
At th e b egin nin g o f th e w ar, th o usa nd s o f ................................. f le d o ver
th e b ord er to th e n ext c o untr y .
2.
Sin ce th e c iv il w ar b egan, a lm ost a m illio n p eo ple h av e b een f o rc ed to
move to a no th er p art o f th e c o untr y . T hese ................................. p ers o ns
are n o w w ith o ut f o od o r s h elte r.
3.
Nin ete enth -c entu ry g o vern m ents e nco ura ged ................................. to th e
co lo nie s.
4.
The g o vern m ent i s e nco ura gin g ........................... b ecause o f th e s h o rta ge
of w ork ers i n k ey i n d ustr ie s.
5.
Movin g f r o m a l a rg e E uro pean c ity to th e s m all v illa ge i n th e H im ala yas
was s o m eth in g o f a ..................................
6.
Tho usa nd s o f B riti s h ................................. l iv e i n th e G ulf S ta te s, w here
many o f th em h av e h ig h-p ow ere d j o bs.

Tra v el
7 .
The ................................. i s u nd er a l o t o f p re ssu re o w in g to th e h uge
num ber o f d is p la ced p ers o ns a ro und th e w orld .
8 .
He w as ................................. f r o m th e c o untr y w hen h is v is a e xp ir e d .
9 .
Because h e h ad a c rim in al r e co rd , th e g o vern m ent d id n’t w ant h im to e nte r
th e c o untr y , d ecla re d h im ................................. a nd a sk ed h im to l e av e
im med ia te ly .
1 0.
Afte r th e e co no m y c o lla p se d i n th e e ast, th o usa nd s o f .................................
head ed w est i n th e h o pe o f f in d in g a g o od j o b.
1 1 .
Peo ple w ho a re c aught tr y in g to e nte r th e c o untr y i lle gally a re u su ally h eld
in a d ete nti o n c entr e b efo re b ein g ..................................
1 2.
................................. w ere ti g hte ned i n o rd er to r e d uce th e n um ber o f
peo ple i lle gally e nte rin g th e c o untr y .
3 N ow lo ok a t t h is e ssa y a nd c o m ple te t h e g aps w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r
p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . I n s o m e c a se s, m ore t h an o ne a nsw er m ay
b e p ossib le . Y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f s o m e o f t h e w ord s.
‘ T ra ve l: t h e o th er s id e o f t h e c o in ’
M ost o f u s h av e, a t s o m e p oin t i n o ur l iv es, e xp erie nced th e j o ys o f tr a v el. W e
g o to a 1 ................................. to p ic k u p s o m e b ro chure s, o r l o ok o n th e
I n te rn et f o r a c heap h o lid ay d eal. W e b ook a tw o-w eek 2 .................................
w ith f lig hts a nd a cco m modati o n i n clu d ed ( o r i f w e a re 3 .................................,
w e m ake o ur o w n w ay to th e c o untr y a nd tr a v el a ro und f r o m p la ce to p la ce
w ith a r u cksa ck o n o ur b ack). W e m ake s u re w e h av e a ll th e r ig ht c urre ncy, o ur
p assp ort a nd a ny 4 ................................. th at a re n ecessa ry to g et u s i n to th e
c o untr y . W e g o to th e a ir p ort a nd 5 .................................. W e s tr a p o urs e lv es
i n to o ur ti n y 6 ................................. a ir c ra ft s e ats a nd a f e w h o urs l a te r w e
7 ................................. f r o m th e a ir c ra ft, s tr a nge n ew s ig hts , s m ells a nd s o und s
g re eti n g u s. N ow ad ays, i t s e em s, th e w ho le w orld g o es o n h o lid ay a t o nce: th e
a ge o f 8 ................................. i s i n f u ll s w in g!

But f o r th e g re at m ajo rity o f p eo ple a ro und th e w orld , tr a v el f o r th em i s d one
in th e f a ce o f g re at a d vers ity a nd h ard sh ip . T hey n ev er g et to i n d ulg e i n a n
9................................. h o lid ay i n a l u xury h o te l w ith a ll m eals a nd d rin ks
in clu d ed . T hey n ev er g et to e xp lo re th e l u sh A mazo n R ain F ore st o r th e f r o ze n
waste s o f th e A rc ti c o n a n 1 0................................. h o lid ay. F or th em , tr a v el i s
a m atte r o f l ife a nd d eath . I r e fe r, o f c o urs e , to a ll th e 1 1 .................................
esc ap in g f r o m th eir o w n c o untr ie s, o r th e 1 2................................., m oved f r o m
one p art o f th eir c o untr y to a no th er b y a n u ncarin g g o vern m ent, o r
13................................. f o rc ed to f in d a j o b a nd s e ek a l iv in g w here v er th ey
can.
Can y o u i m agin e a nyth in g w ors e th an th e m is e ry th ese p eo ple m ust f a ce? L et’ s
no t c o nfu se th em w ith th o se 1 4................................. w ho c ho ose to l iv e i n
ano th er c o untr y a nd o fte n h av e n ic e h o use s a nd h ig h s a la rie s. T hese p eo ple a re
sim ply d esp era te to s u rv iv e. A s w ell a s l o sin g th eir h o m es b ecause o f w ar o r
fa m in e o r o th er n atu ra l d is a ste rs , th ey m ust c o m e to te rm s w ith th eir n ew
env ir o nm ent: f o r m any, th e 1 5................................. c an b e to o g re at. A nd w hile
many c o untr ie s w ith a n o pen p olic y o n 1 6................................. w ill w elc o m e
th em i n w ith o pen a rm s, o th ers w ill s im ply tu rn th em a w ay. T hese p eo ple
beco m e 1 7................................., u nw ante d a nd u nw elc o m e. E ven i f th ey
manage to g et i n to a c o untr y , th ey w ill o fte n b e 1 8................................. o r
re p atr ia te d . T heir f u tu re i s u ncerta in .
Som eth in g to th in k a b out, p erh ap s, th e n ext ti m e y o u a re
19................................. to y o ur f iv e-s ta r h o te l b y a p alm -fr in ged b each o r
sitti n g i n a c o ach o n a n 2 0................................. to a p re tty c astl e i n th e
co untr y sid e.

W ork
1 H ow w ould y ou g enera lly f e el, h appy
☺ o r u nhappy
☹ , if y ou w ere in t h e
f o llo w in g s it u atio ns? U se t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou d ecid e.
1 .
The c o m pany y o u w ork f o r i s w ell k no w n f o r i ts
jo b s e cu rit y
. ☺

2 .
You a re s u d denly
made r e dundant
. ☺

3 .
You r e ceiv e a
pro m otio n
. ☺

4 .
You a re g iv en a n
in cre m ent
. ☺

5 .
You w ork
unso cia ble h ours
. ☺

6 .
You h av e a
ste ady j o b
. ☺

7 .
You h ad
adverse w ork in g c o ndit io ns
. ☺

8 .
You s u d denly f in d y o urs e lf
unem plo yed
. ☺

9 .
You n eed ti m e o ff w ork b ecause o f
re petit iv e s tr a in in ju ry
. ☺

1 0.
The o ffic e w here y o u w ork h as
sic k b uild in g s y ndro m e
. ☺

1 1 .
You r e ceiv e r e gula r
perk s


1 2.
Som eb ody c alls y o u a
work aholic
. ☺

1 3.
Your c o m pany g iv es y o u p le nty o f
in ce ntiv es
. ☺

1 4.
Your b oss a nno unces th at th ere i s g o in g to b e s o m e
dow nsiz in g


1 5.
You h av e a l o t o f
jo b s a tis fa ctio n
. ☺

1 6.
Your c o m pany h as a g enero us
in ce ntiv e s c h em e
. ☺

1 7.
You r e ceiv e a
co m mis sio n


1 8.
You r e ceiv e s u p port f r o m a
unio n
. ☺

1 9.
You a re u nd er
str e ss
. ☺

2 0.
You a re f o rc ed to
re sig n
. ☺

2 1.
You r e ceiv e a
cu t
sa la ry
. ☺

2 2.
Your c o m pany g iv es y o u
sic k ness b enefit
. ☺

2 3.
You f in d y o ur j o b v ery
dem andin g
. ☺


24.
Your b oss te lls y o u th at y o u h av e
pote ntia l


25.
Your b oss te lls y o u th at y o u
la ck in it ia tiv e
motiv atio n


26.
Every o ne a t w ork
ig nore s



Work
2 M atc h s e nte nce s 1 – 6 in b ox A w it h o ne o f t h e s e nte nce s A – F in b ox B .
W rit e t h e p erso n’s n am e a fte r e ach s e nte nce A – F . U se t h e w ord s a nd
p hra se s in b old t o h elp y ou.
B ox A .
1.
Sam anth a i s th e a ssis ta nt m anager o f a b ank a nd s h e w ork s f r o m 8 .3 0 to
5.3 0 e v ery d ay.
2.
Tra cy w ork s o n th e p ro ducti o n l in e o f a f a cto ry w hic h m akes c ars . S he
use s a m achin e to s p ra y p ain t o n to th e f in is h ed c ar p arts .
3.
Ja ne w ork s f o r h ers e lf. S he i s a p ho to gra p her. S he w ork s e v ery d ay f o r
ab out e ig ht o r n in e h o urs .
4.
Je anette i s a c le aner f o r a c o m pany i n B ir m in gham , b ut s h e o nly w ork s
th ere f o r a b out th re e o r f o ur h o urs a d ay.
5.
Cla ir e h as a p ow erfu l j o b i n th e p ers o nnel o ffic e o f a l a rg e
multi n ati o nal c o m pany. S he i s r e sp onsib le f o r e m plo yin g n ew p eo ple
and g etti n g r id o f th o se th at th e c o m pany d oesn ’t w ant to e m plo y a ny
more .
6.
Marie w ork s i n th e f in ance d ep artm ent o f a n i n te rn ati o nal c o lle ge i n
Oxfo rd .
B ox B .
A .
She i s a
se m i- s k ille d b lu e-c o lla r w ork er
i n a
man ufa ctu rin g
in du str y.
.............................
B .
She i s
se lf -e m plo ye d
fu ll- tim e.
S he l ik es to d esc rib e h ers e lf a s
fr e ela n ce.
.............................

C.
She i s r e sp onsib le f o r
hir in g a n d f ir in g.
.............................
D.
She c alc ula te s th e
wages, s a la rie s, p en sio n c o n tr ib u tio n s
a nd
med ic a l i n su ra n ce c o n tr ib u tio n s
o f a ll th e s ta ff. .............................
E.
She i s a
fu ll- tim e w hite -c o lla r w ork er
se rv ic e in dustr y .
.............................
F.
She i s a n
unsk ille d p art- tim e e m plo ye e.
.............................

W ork
3 N ow r e ad t h is e ssa y a nd c o m ple te t h e g aps w it h o ne o f t h e w ord s o r
p hra se s f r o m E xerc is e s 1 a nd 2 . Y ou w ill n eed t o c h ange t h e f o rm o f s o m e
o f t h e w ord s.
‘ S om e p eo ple l iv e t o w ork , a n d o th ers w ork t o l iv e . I n m ost c a se s, t h is
d ep en ds o n t h e j o b t h ey h ave a n d t h e c o n ditio n s u nder w hic h t h ey a re
e m plo ye d . I n y o u r o pin io n , w hat a re t h e e le m en ts t h at m ake a j o b
w orth w hile ? ’
I n a nsw erin g th is q uesti o n, I w ould l ik e to l o ok f ir s t a t th e e le m ents th at
c o m bin e to m ake a j o b u nd esir a b le . B y a v oid in g s u ch f a cto rs , p ote nti a l
1 ................................................... a re m ore l ik ely to f in d a j o b th at i s m ore
w orth w hile , a nd b y d oin g s o , h o pe to a chie v e h ap pin ess i n th eir w ork .
F ir s t o f a ll, i t d oesn ’t m atte r i f y o u a re a n 2 ...................................................
w ork er c le anin g th e f lo or, a 3 ...................................................
4 ................................................... w ork er o n a p ro ducti o n l in e i n o ne o f th e
5 ..................................................., o r a 6 ...................................................
w ork er i n a b ank, s h o p o r o ne o f th e o th er 7 ...................................................: i f
y o u l a ck 8 ..................................................., w ith th e k no w le d ge th at y o u m ig ht
l o se y o ur j o b a t a ny ti m e, y o u w ill n ev er f e el h ap py. E very b ody w ould l ik e a
9 ................................................... i n w hic h h e o r s h e i s g uara nte ed w ork .
N ow ad ays, h o w ev er, c o m panie s h av e a h ig h tu rn o ver o f s ta ff,
1 0................................................... n ew s ta ff a nd
1 1 ................................................... o th ers o n a w eekly b asis . S uch c o m panie s
a re n o t p opula r w ith th eir w ork ers .
T he s a m e c an b e s a id o f a j o b i n w hic h y o u a re p ut u nd er a l o t o f
1 2................................................... a nd w orry , a j o b w hic h i s s o
1 3................................................... th at i t ta kes o ver y o ur l ife , a j o b w here y o u
w ork 1 4................................................... a nd s o n ev er g et to s e e y o ur f a m ily o r
f r ie nd s, o r a p hysic al j o b i n w hic h y o u d o th e s a m e th in g e v ery d ay a nd e nd u p
w ith th e i n d ustr ia l d is e ase th at i s a lw ays i n th e p ap ers n o w ad ays –

15....................................................
With a ll th ese n egati v e f a cto rs , i t w ould b e d iffic ult to b elie v e th at th ere a re
any e le m ents th at m ake a j o b w orth w hile . M oney i s , o f c o urs e , th e p rim e
moti v ato r, a nd e v ery b ody w ants a g o od
16..................................................................... B ut o f c o urs e th at i s n o t a ll. T he
chance o f 1 7...................................................................., o f b ein g g iv en a
bette r p ositi o n i n a c o m pany, i s a m oti v ati n g f a cto r. L ik ew is e ,
18................................................... s u ch a s a f r e e l u nch o r a c o m pany c ar, a n
19................................................... s c hem e to m ake y o u w ork h ard s u ch a s a
re gula r 2 0................................................... a b ove th e r a te o f i n fla ti o n,
21................................................... i n c ase y o u f a ll i ll a nd a c o m pany
22................................................... s c hem e s o th at y o u h av e s o m e m oney w hen
yo u r e ti r e a ll c o m bin e to m ake a j o b w orth w hile .
Unfo rtu nate ly , i t i s n o t a lw ays e asy to f in d a ll o f th ese . T here i s , h o w ev er, a n
alte rn ati v e. F org et th e o ffic e a nd th e f a cto ry f lo or, b eco m e
23................................................... a nd w ork f o r y o urs e lf. Y our f u tu re m ay n o t
be s e cure , b ut a t l e ast y o u w ill b e h ap py.

Pra ctic e t a sk s 1
A rc h it e ctu re
I n a d diti o n to th e w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h a p pear i n th e G enera l V ocab ula ry
s e cti o n o f th is b ook, y o u m ay a ls o f in d s o m e u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s o n
p ages 5 8 a nd 5 9.
Y ou w ill f in d s o m e s a m ple a nsw ers o n th e f o llo w in g tw o p ages, b ut tr y to d o
t h e ta sk s f ir s t.
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
A nsw er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.
• What s o rt o f b uild in g d o y o u l iv e i n ?
• What d o y o u l ik e o r d is lik e a b out i t?
• Are th ere a ny w ays i n w hic h y o u w ould i m pro ve th e b uild in g y o u l iv e i n ?
• If y o u w ere to m ove, w hat s o rt o f b uild in g w ould y o u l ik e to m ove to ?
P A RT 2
L ook a t th is ta sk a nd s p end o ne m in ute th in kin g a b out w hat y o u a re g o in g to s a y
( y o u c an m ake n o te s i f y o u l ik e). T hen ta lk a b out th e to pic f o r b etw een o ne a nd
t w o m in ute s.
D esc rib e a b uild in g th at y o u k no w w ell.
Y ou s h o uld s a y:
where th e b uild in g i s
what i t i s u se d f o r
what th e b uild in g l o oks l ik e o n th e o uts id e
and e xp la in w hat y o u l ik e o r d is lik e a b out th is b uild in g.
P A RT 3
A nsw er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.

• Are th ere a ny a rc hite ctu ra l s ty le s w hic h a re p arti c ula rly c o m mon in y o ur
ho m e to w n o r c ity ?
• What c hanges in a rc hite ctu ra l s ty le h av e ta ken p la ce in y o ur c o untr y in th e
la st 2 0 o r 3 0 y ears ?
• Why do yo u th in k th at so m e peo ple pre fe r m odern build in gs to m ore
tr a d iti o nal o nes?
WRIT IN G
You s h o uld s p end a b out 4 0 m in ute s o n th is ta sk .
Write a b out th e f o llo w in g to pic :
Som e p eo ple s a y th at o ld er, m ore tr a d iti o nal b uild in gs i n c iti e s s h o uld b e
pre se rv ed . O th ers b elie v e th at th ese b uild in gs s h o uld b e d em olis h ed a nd
new o nes b uilt i n th eir p la ce.
Dis c uss b oth th ese v ie w s a nd g iv e y o ur o pin io n.
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y o ur a nsw er a nd i n clu d e a ny r e le v ant e xam ple s f r o m y o ur
ow n k no w le d ge o r e xp erie nce.
Write a t l e ast 2 50 w ord s.

P ra ctic e t a sk s 1 : S am ple a n sw ers
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
• What s o rt o f b uild in g d o y o u l iv e i n ?
I l iv e i n a n a partm en t i n a t o w er b lo ck o n a m odern e sta te . I t’s v ery
sm all, w ith j u st t w o b ed ro om s, a l iv in g r o om , a b ath ro om a nd a t in y
kitc h en . I t’s q uite s im ply f u rn is h ed , b ut i t’s v ery c o m fo rta ble a nd I ’v e
made i t l o ok n ic e w ith p ic tu re s a nd o th er t h in gs t h at I ’v e p ic ked u p i n
se co nd-h and s h ops. T he b est t h in g a bout i t i s t h e v ie w . W e’re o n t h e 1 5th
flo or, s o w e c a n s e e t h e w hole c ity f r o m o ur l iv in g r o om .
• What d o y o u l ik e o r d is lik e a b out i t?
Well, l ik e I s a id , i t i s r a th er s m all, a nd I w ould r e a lly l ik e m ore s p ace. I t
ca n b e a b it c la ustr o phobic a t t im es, e sp ecia lly w hen I h ave f r ie n ds o ver.
Anoth er p ro ble m i s t h at t h e w alls a re t h in , s o y o u o fte n h ea r y o ur
neig hbours, y o u k n ow , w hen t h ey h ave t h eir t e le vis io n o n o r w hen t h ey’re
havin g a n a rg um en t. A nd t h ere ’s n o o utd oor s p ace, l ik e a b alc o ny o r a
gard en . P erh aps t h e t h in g I d is lik e t h e m ost a bout i t i s t h at t h e b uild in g
its e lf i s a n e yeso re , a ll c o ncre te . H ow ever, b eca use w e l iv e i n i t, w e d on’t
have t o l o ok a t i t!
• Are th ere a ny w ays i n w hic h y o u w ould i m pro ve th e b uild in g y o u l iv e i n ?
I w ould c erta in ly d o s o m eth in g t o t h e w alls s o t h at I d on’t h ave t o l is te n
to m y n eig hbours a ll t h e t im e. I k n ow t h at y o u c a n g et s p ecia l m ate ria l
yo u p ut b etw een t h e w alls t o r e d uce n ois e , b ut i t’s v ery e xp en siv e t o g et
th is d one. I w ould a ls o l ik e a b alc o ny o r p erh aps a r o of g ard en ,
so m ew here t o s it o uts id e. T he o nly p la ce w e c a n g o a t t h e m om en t i s a
park n ea r t h e t o w er b lo ck, b ut i t’s n ot v ery n ic e.
• If y o u w ere to m ove, w hat s o rt o f b uild in g w ould y o u l ik e to m ove to ?
I w ould n’t w ant t o l iv e a nyw here t o o g ra nd. P erh aps a s m all t o w nhouse
in t h e s u burb s, w ith a g ard en w here I c a n r e la x o r g ro w f lo w ers o r

veg eta ble s. I t w ould n eed t o b e e n erg y e ffic ie n t t o c u t d ow n o n h ea tin g
bills , a nd i t w ould h ave t o b e f u nctio nal b ut a ls o a ttr a ctiv e. I l o ve w ood
as a b uild in g m ate ria l, s o p erh aps i t c o uld h ave s o m e w ooden f e a tu re s
lik e w ooden d oors a nd w in dow f r a m es, a nd p erh aps a w ooden t e rra ce i n
th e g ard en . S om eth in g l ik e t h at.
Desc rib e a b uild in g th at y o u k no w w ell.
You s h o uld s a y:
where th e b uild in g i s
what i t i s u se d f o r
what th e b uild in g l o oks l ik e o n th e o uts id e
and e xp la in w hat y o u l ik e o r d is lik e a b out th is b uild in g.
PA RT 2
A b uild in g I ’m v ery f a m ilia r w ith i s o ne t h at I p ass e very d ay o n m y w ay
here . I t’s o n t h e c o rn er o f H em in gw ay R is e a nd C ora l S tr e et, j u st o uts id e t h e
city c en tr e . I t’s a c o lle g e b uild in g, p art o f t h e u niv ersity , a nd i t h ouse s t h e
univ ersity ’s h is to ry d ep artm en t. H ow ever, i t a ls o h as a l a rg e h all a nd a
gard en , w hic h a re u se d f o r p ublic e ven ts l ik e c o nfe re n ces a nd s h ow s. E ach
su m mer, f o r e xa m ple , t h e g ard en i s u se d f o r o utd oor p ro ductio ns o f
Shakesp ea re p la ys. M ost o f t h e u niv ersity b uild in gs i n t h e c ity a re v ery o ld
and m ade o f t r a ditio nal y ello w s to ne, b ut t h is o ne i s m ore m odern a nd i s
made o f r e d b ric k w ith l o ts o f l a rg e w in dow s. I ’v e n ever b een i n sid e, b ut I
im agin e i t g ets l o ts o f l ig ht, w hic h m ust m ake i t a p le a sa nt p la ce t o s tu dy. I
lik e i t b eca use i t’s q uite g ra nd a nd h as a p le a sin g g eo m etr ic f a
ç ade, g iv in g
it a s e n se o f b ala nce. H ow ever, I k n ow t h at s o m e p eo ple r e a lly h ate i t
beca use i t’s o ut o f k eep in g w ith t h e o th er c o lle g e b uild in gs. A nd b eca use o f
its r e d b ric k f a
ç ade, i t’s k n ow n l o ca lly a s ‘ T o m ato K etc h up H ouse ’, w hic h i s
a b it u nfa ir, I t h in k.

Pra ctic e t a sk s 1 : S am ple a n sw ers
P A RT 3
• Are th ere a ny a rc hite ctu ra l s ty le s w hic h a re p arti c ula rly c o m mon in y o ur
ho m e to w n o r c ity ?
I l iv e i n a v ery l a rg e c ity w hic h h as d evelo ped o ver h undre d s o f y ea rs, s o
I d on’t t h in k t h ere ’s j u st o ne p artic u la r s ty le o f a rc h ite ctu re w hic h i s
co m mon. A nd I a ls o t h in k t h at i t d ep en ds o n w hic h a re a o f t h e c ity y o u’re
in . T he f in ancia l d is tr ic t i s v ery m odern , w ith l o ts o f s te el a nd g la ss
sk ysc ra pers h ousin g b ig o rg anis a tio ns. T hen t h ere ’s t h e e n te rta in m en t
and s h oppin g d is tr ic t, w hic h i s a m ix o f o ld er b uild in gs, m ostly f r o m t h e
la te n in ete en th c en tu ry, a nd t h is i s w here y o u’ll f in d t h e c in em as,
th ea tr e s a nd b ig d ep artm en t s to re s f o r w hic h m y c ity i s p artic u la rly
fa m ous. O n t h e o uts k ir ts , h ow ever, i n t h e r e sid en tia l d is tr ic ts , t h ere i s
more u nifo rm ity . T he b uild in gs t h ere a re m ostly 1 950s b ric k-b uilt s e m i-
deta ch ed h ouse s, w ith l a rg e b ay w in dow s a nd s m all f r o nt a nd b ack
gard en s. S o I s u ppose y o u c o uld s a y t h at t h is i s t h e m ost c o m mon
arc h ite ctu ra l s ty le , e ven t h ough m ost h ouse s a re n ’t b uilt l ik e t h is
anym ore .
• What c hanges in a rc hite ctu ra l s ty le h av e ta ken p la ce in y o ur c o untr y in th e
la st 2 0 o r 3 0 y ears ?
The o ld i n dustr ia l c itie s i n m y c o untr y s u ffe re d d urin g t h e e co nom ic
cris e s o f t h e 1 970s a nd 1 980s a nd m any o f t h e m anufa ctu rin g i n dustr ie s
were f o rc ed t o c lo se d ow n. A fte r a p erio d o f s ta gnatio n, t h e g overn m en t
decid ed t o a ttr a ct s e rv ic e i n dustr ie s t o t h ese c itie s, s o t h ey d em olis h ed
th e u gly f a cto rie s a nd w are h ouse s, a nd b uilt b usin ess a nd s c ie n ce p ark s
in t h eir p la ce. T he b uild in gs o n t h ese p ark s a re l o w -r is e a nd h ig h-te ch ,
with l o ts o f s te el, g la ss a nd b ru sh ed c o ncre te . A nd t h ey a ll l o ok v ery
gre en a nd e n vir o nm en ta lly f r ie n dly . F or e xa m ple , t h ey a re s u rro unded b y
gard en s a nd l a kes a nd h ave r o of g ard en s. A nd t h is h as c a ught o n i n o th er
to w ns a nd c itie s. T his h as b een t h e m ost n otic ea ble c h ange i n t h e l a st
co uple o f d eca des.

• Why do yo u th in k th at so m e peo ple pre fe r m odern build in gs to m ore
tr a d iti o nal o nes?
I t h in k t h at i n s o m e c a se s i t’s a m atte r o f p erso nal t a ste , i n t h e s a m e w ay
th at s o m e p eo ple p re fe r m odern a rt t o m ore t r a ditio nal a rt. H ow ever,
th ere a re a ls o p ra ctic a l c o nsid era tio ns, e sp ecia lly i f y o u’re l iv in g o r
work in g i n t h ose b uild in gs. M odern h ouse s a nd o ffic es, f o r e xa m ple , a re
desig ned n ot o nly t o l o ok a ttr a ctiv e b ut a ls o t o b e m ore c o m fo rta ble ,
more u se r f r ie n dly a nd m ore e n vir o nm en ta lly f r ie n dly t h an o ld b uild in gs
use d t o b e. T hey’re l ig ht, t h ey’re w ell- in su la te d a nd t h ey m ake b ette r u se
of t h e s p ace a va ila ble . P erso nally s p ea kin g, I ’d r a th er l iv e i n a m odern
house w ith a ll i ts b en efits t h an i n a n o ld b uild in g w ith a ll i ts
in co nven ie n ces.
WRIT IN G
There i s a n a re a i n m y h o m e c ity k no w n a s L ittl e M arlo w . I t u se d to h av e a l o t
of b eauti fu l o ld b uild in gs, s o m e d ati n g b ack to th e 1 600s, a nd a s a r e su lt i t
becam e o ne o f th e c ity ’s b ig gest to uris t a ttr a cti o ns. T hen, i n th e l a te 1 990s, th e
city c o uncil d ecid ed th at th e o ld b uild in gs w ere b eco m in g u nsta b le a nd
dangero us. T hey d em olis h ed th em a ll a nd r e p la ced th em w ith m odern h o use s,
offic e b lo cks a nd a l a rg e s h o ppin g c entr e .
These n ew b uild in gs w ere s a fe r, m ore p ra cti c al a nd m ore c o m fo rta b le f o r th e
peo ple w ho l iv ed a nd w ork ed i n th em . H ow ev er, th ey l a cked c hara cte r a nd
co uld h av e b een i n a ny c ity i n a ny p art o f th e w orld . T he c ity h ad l o st o ne o f i ts
most i n te re sti n g a re as, a nd f e w er to uris ts c am e a s a r e su lt.
This e xam ple i llu str a te s w hy i t i s i m porta nt to p re se rv e o ld b uild in gs.
How ev er, th ere i s a no th er s id e to th is a rg um ent. A t th e ti m e, a l o t o f p eo ple
obje cte d to th e d em oliti o n o f th ese o ld b uild in gs. T hey a rg ued th at w hile th ey
need ed to b e r e no vate d , th ey s h o uld o th erw is e h av e b een p re se rv ed a s th ey
were . U nfo rtu nate ly , th ese b uild in gs h ad b een i n s u ch b ad c o nd iti o n th at s o m e
were i n d anger o f c o lla p sin g. I t w ould h av e b een m ore e xp ensiv e to r e no vate
th em th an to k no ck th em d ow n a nd b uild s o m eth in g n ew i n th eir p la ce.
So i s i t b ette r to p re se rv e o ld b uild in gs o r to r e p la ce th em w ith s o m eth in g
new ? I b elie v e th at i f a b uild in g i s o f h is to ric al o r c ultu ra l i m porta nce, w e
sh o uld d o b oth . W e c an l o ok to P ola nd ’s c ap ita l W ars a w to s e e h o w th is h as
been a chie v ed . T he b eauti fu l m ed ie v al b uild in gs i n th e c ity c entr e w ere l a rg ely

destr o yed d urin g th e S eco nd W orld W ar. A rc hite cts th en r e fe rre d to o ld
pho to gra p hs to r e b uild th em e xactl y a s th ey w ere . T oday, m any v is ito rs to
Wars a w a d m ir e th ese ‘ m ed ie v al’ b uild in gs, n o t r e alis in g th at th ey w ere o nly
built i n th e 1 950s. C om pro m is e , th ere fo re , i s th e b est s o lu ti o n.

P ra ctic e t a sk s 2
T he a rts
I n a d diti o n to th e w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h a p pear i n th e G enera l V ocab ula ry
s e cti o n o f th is b ook, y o u m ay a ls o f in d s o m e u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s o n
p ages 6 1 a nd 6 2.
Y ou w ill f in d s o m e s a m ple a nsw ers o n th e f o llo w in g tw o p ages, b ut tr y to d o
t h e ta sk s f ir s t.
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
A nsw er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.
• Do y o u e njo y a tte nd in g c ultu ra l e v ents i n y o ur h o m e c o untr y ?
• Hav e y o u a tte nd ed a ny i n te re sti n g c ultu ra l e v ents r e centl y ?
• Are th ere any m use um s o r art galle rie s yo u’v e b een to th at yo u w ould
re co m mend to o th ers ?
• Would y o u c o nsid er y o urs e lf to b e a rti s ti c i n a ny w ay?
P A RT 2
L ook a t th is ta sk a nd s p end o ne m in ute th in kin g a b out w hat y o u a re g o in g to s a y
( y o u c an m ake n o te s i f y o u l ik e). T hen ta lk a b out th e to pic f o r b etw een o ne a nd
t w o m in ute s.
D esc rib e a b ook, f ilm o r p la y th at y o u p arti c ula rly e njo yed .
Y ou s h o uld s a y:
what i t w as c alle d a nd w ho w ro te o r d ir e cte d i t
what i t w as a b out
who th e m ain c hara cte rs w ere
and e xp la in w hy y o u p arti c ula rly e njo yed i t.

PA RT 3
Answ er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.
• Do y o u th in k th at le arn in g a b out th e a rts ( fo r e xam ple , p ain ti n g a nd m usic )
at s c ho ol i s a s i m porta nt a s l e arn in g o th er s u b je cts l ik e m ath s a nd s c ie nce?
Why / W hy n o t?
• How i m porta nt d o y o u th in k i t i s f o r m use um s a nd a rt g alle rie s to b e f r e e to
ente r?
• Do y o u th in k th at se ein g a p ain ti n g, sc ulp tu re o r o th er w ork o f a rt in a
muse um o r g alle ry is m ore re w ard in g th an se ein g it in a b ook o r o n th e
in te rn et?
WRIT IN G
You s h o uld s p end a b out 4 0 m in ute s o n th is ta sk .
Write a b out th e f o llo w in g to pic :
Govern m ents s h o uld s p end l e ss m oney o n s u b sid is in g th e a rts ( fo r e xam ple ,
th eatr e , c in em a a nd m usic ) a nd i n ste ad s p end m ore o n e sse nti a l th in gs l ik e
ed ucati o n, h ealth care a nd p ub lic tr a nsp ort.
To w hat e xte nt d o y o u a gre e o r d is a gre e w ith th is s ta te m ent?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y o ur a nsw er a nd i n clu d e a ny r e le v ant e xam ple s f r o m y o ur
ow n k no w le d ge o r e xp erie nce.
Write a t l e ast 2 50 w ord s.

Pra ctic e t a sk s 2 : S am ple a n sw ers
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
• Do y o u e njo y a tte nd in g c ultu ra l e v ents i n y o ur h o m e c o untr y ?
I l iv e i n a v illa ge w hic h , d esp ite i ts r e la tiv ely s m all s iz e , h as q uite a
liv ely c u ltu ra l s c en e. T here ’s a l o ca l d ra m atic s o cie ty w hic h p uts o n
pla ys t w o o r t h re e t im es a y ea r, a nd I e n jo y g oin g t o t h ose . T here ’s a ls o
an a rt s o cie ty , a p hoto gra phic c lu b a nd a f e w o th er c u ltu ra l g ro ups w ho
hold e xh ib itio ns a nd s h ow s o nce o r t w ic e a y ea r. H ow ever, f o r a nyth in g
els e I h ave t o g o t o t h e n ea re st c ity , w hic h i s t w o h ours a w ay b y b us. I g o
th ere w hen I c a n, i f t h ere ’s s o m eth in g I r e a lly w ant t o s e e, b ut g ettin g i n to
th e c ity t a kes t im e a nd o f c o urse c o sts m oney. S o y es, I d o e n jo y c u ltu ra l
even ts , b ut I d on’t d o s o a s o fte n a s I ’d l ik e.
• Hav e y o u a tte nd ed a ny i n te re sti n g c ultu ra l e v ents r e centl y ?
Last y ea r o ur l o ca l d ra m atic s o cie ty p ut o n a p erfo rm ance o f G oeth e’s
‘F aust’ . I t w as i n te re stin g a nd u nusu al b eca use i n ste a d o f p erfo rm in g t h e
pla y i n a t h ea tr e , t h ey d id i t o uts id e i n t h e v illa ge. E ach a ct t o ok p art
outs id e a d iffe re n t b uild in g i n t h e v illa ge, l ik e t h e t o w n h all, t h e c h urc h
and s o o n. S o i n ste a d o f s ittin g d ow n a nd w atc h in g t h e p la y, t h e a udie n ce
fo llo w ed t h e a cto rs a ro und t h e v illa ge a nd t h en s to od t h ere t o w atc h t h e
actio n. A ls o , i n ste a d o f b ein g s e t i n t h e s ix te en th c en tu ry o r w hen ever, t h e
pla y w as s e t i n t h e 1 920s, s o t h e a cto rs w ere d re sse d i n 1 920s c lo th es a nd
th ere w as a j a zz b and w hic h p la yed b efo re a nd a fte r e a ch s c en e. I t h ought
th at w as r e a lly c le ver a nd o rig in al.
• Are th ere any m use um s o r art galle rie s yo u’v e b een to th at yo u w ould
re co m mend to o th ers ?
I t h in k o ne m use u m I l o ve a nd w ould r e a lly r e co m men d i s t h e M us
é e
d’O rsa y i n P aris . I w as i n t h e c ity o n a w eeken d b re a k a c o uple o f y ea rs
ago a nd h adn’t a ctu ally p la nned o n g oin g t h ere , b ut t h e w ea th er w asn ’t
very g ood, s o i t s e em ed l ik e a g ood i d ea . A nyw ay, t h e M us
é e d ’O rsa y h as

th e b ig gest c o lle ctio n o f i m pre ssio nis t a nd P ost- im pre ssio nis t a rt i n t h e
world . A rtis ts l ik e M onet, M anet, R en oir, V an G ogh a nd D eg as a re a ll
re p re se n te d t h ere . H ow ever, o ne o f t h e b est t h in gs a bout t h is m use u m i s
th e b uild in g i ts e lf. I t’s a c o nverte d r a ilw ay s ta tio n, s till w ith m any o f t h e
orig in al f e a tu re s l ik e t h e g la ss c eilin g, t h e s ta tio n c lo ck a nd s o o n.
Vis u ally i t’s r e a lly q uite s tu nnin g.
• Would y o u c o nsid er y o urs e lf to b e a rti s ti c i n a ny w ay?
That’s a g ood q uestio n. I s u ppose i t d ep en ds o n w hat y o u m ea n b y
artis tic . I ’m n ot v ery g ood a t p ain tin g, b ut I c a n d ra w a l ittle , a nd I
esp ecia lly l ik e d ra w in g p ic tu re s o f m y f r ie n ds, u su ally e xa ggera tin g t h eir
fe a tu re s l ik e t h eir h air, n ose a nd m outh . A nd I ’m r e a lly k een o n
photo gra phy. N ot h olid ay p ic tu re s o r t h in gs l ik e t h at, b ut m ore a bstr a ct
th in gs t h at I s e e w hen I ’m o ut. S hapes, s h adow s a nd d eta ils o n b uild in gs,
th at k in d o f t h in g. D oes t h at c o unt a s b ein g a rtis tic ? I a ls o h ave a g uita r
whic h I ’v e s o rt o f t a ught m yse lf t o p la y. B ut n ot v ery w ell, I ’m a fr a id t o
sa y. A ctu ally , t h at’s o ne r e g re t o f m in e, n ot l e a rn in g h ow t o p la y a
music a l i n str u m en t. I h ave a f r ie n d w ho p la ys t h e p ia no a nd I ’m r e a lly
je a lo us o f h er!
PA RT 2
Desc rib e a b ook, f ilm o r p la y th at y o u p arti c ula rly e njo yed .
You s h o uld s a y:
what i t w as c alle d a nd w ho w ro te o r d ir e cte d i t
what i t w as a b out
who th e m ain c hara cte rs w ere
and e xp la in w hy y o u p arti c ula rly e njo yed i t.
I d on’t r e a lly e n jo y b ig H olly w ood f ilm s, y o u k n ow , w ith l o ts o f s p ecia l
effe cts a nd f a m ous a cto rs. I p re fe r w atc h in g f ilm s m ade b y s m all,
in dep en den t f ilm c o m panie s, w hic h a re m ore i n te re stin g, m ore u nusu al,
perh aps a b it m ore a dven tu ro us. A nyw ay, I r e cen tly s a w a w onderfu l c o m ed y
se t i n N ew Z ea la nd c a lle d ‘ W hat W e D o i n t h e S hadow s’. I c a n’t r e m em ber
th e n am e o f t h e p erso n w ho d ir e cte d i t, b ut h e’s q uite w ell k n ow n i n N ew

Zea la nd, I t h in k. A nd t h ere w ere n ’t a ny f a m ous b ig -n am e a cto rs i n i t.
Anyw ay, i t’s a s o rt o f d ocu m en ta ry, a f a ke d ocu m en ta ry, a bout a g ro up o f
va m pir e s w ho s h are a h ouse i n W ellin gto n. L ik e a r e a l d ocu m en ta ry t h ere
is n ’t r e a lly a s to ry. W e j u st s e e t h ese v a m pir e s s ittin g a ro und t h e k itc h en
ta ble a nd c h attin g, o r a rg uin g a bout w hose t u rn i t i s t o d o t h e w ash in g u p
and c le a nin g, j u st l ik e o rd in ary f la tm ate s d o. T he c a m era a ls o f o llo w s t h em
as t h ey g o o ut a t n ig ht t o l o ok f o r v ic tim s o r m eet u p w ith t h eir v a m pir e
fr ie n ds. T he m ain v a m pir e i n t h e h ouse i s c a lle d V ia go. H e’s a r e a lly f u nny
ch ara cte r, v ery u ptig ht a nd o bse sse d a bout k eep in g t h e h ouse c le a n. T he
oth er v a m pir e s a re c a lle d V la d, D ea co n a nd P ety r, a nd t h ey a ll h ave t h eir
ow n c h ara cte ris tic s. D ea co n, f o r e xa m ple , l ik es k n ittin g a nd d ancin g. I
partic u la rly e n jo yed t h is f ilm b eca use i t w as f u nny, c le ver a nd o rig in al. I n
fa ct, i t w as v ery d iffe re n t f r o m a nyth in g I ’v e e ver s e en b efo re .

P ra ctic e t a sk s 2 : S am ple a n sw ers
P A RT 3
• Do y o u th in k th at le arn in g a b out th e a rts ( fo r e xam ple , p ain ti n g a nd m usic )
at s c ho ol i s a s i m porta nt a s l e arn in g o th er s u b je cts l ik e m ath s a nd s c ie nce?
If a s c h ool’s r e sp onsib ility i s t o p re p are i ts s tu den ts f o r t h e r e a l w orld
th en , y es, I d o t h in k t h ey s h ould t e a ch a bout t h e a rts . T hin gs l ik e m ath s
and s c ie n ce a re i m porta nt b eca use t h ey’re p ra ctic a l, t h ey’re s k ills t h at
we m ig ht n eed w hen w e s ta rt w ork . H ow ever, l e a rn in g a bout t h e a rts
mea ns t h at w e c a n f u nctio n m ore e ffe ctiv ely w ith m ore p eo ple i n m ore
so cia l s itu atio ns. I f a ll y o u c a n t a lk a bout i s f o otb all o r l a st n ig ht’s
te le vis io n, t h en t h at’s g oin g t o l im it y o ur a bility t o i n te ra ct s o cia lly . I f
yo u c a n t a lk a bout t h e a rts , r e co gnis e p ain tin gs o r s c u lp tu re s o r c la ssic a l
music a nd s o o n, t h en t h at w ill w id en y o ur s o cia l s k ills . I t h in k t h at
mea ns t h at y o u’re m ore l ik ely t o s u cceed i n l ife .
• How i m porta nt d o y o u th in k i t i s f o r m use um s a nd a rt g alle rie s to b e f r e e to
ente r?
I t h in k t h at i f m use u m s a nd g alle rie s w ant t o e n co ura ge p eo ple t o l e a rn
about a nd e n jo y a rt a nd c u ltu re , t h en t h ey s h ould b e f r e e t o e n te r. M ost
peo ple I k n ow w ould p ay t o s e e a f ilm , a c o ncert o r a s p ortin g e ven t, b ut
th ey p ro bably w ould n’t p ay t o g o i n to a m use u m o r a n a rt g alle ry, s o t h ey
would n’t d o i t. H ow ever, t h ere ’s a p ro ble m . I f m use u m s d on’t c h arg e a n
en tr a nce f e e, h ow c a n t h ey o pera te ? I i m agin e t h ey c o st a l o t t o r u n, a nd
of c o urse t h e p ain tin gs a nd o bje cts c o st a l o t t o b uy. S om e m use u m s
co m pro m is e . T hey m ake e n tr y f r e e, b ut t h ey a sk v is ito rs f o r a v o lu nta ry
fin ancia l c o ntr ib utio n. I ’m n ot s u re h ow s u ccessfu l t h is i s , b eca use I
guess t h at n ot e very b ody w ould d onate .
• Do y o u th in k th at se ein g a p ain ti n g, sc ulp tu re o r o th er w ork o f a rt in a
muse um o r a g alle ry is m ore r e w ard in g th an s e ein g it in a b ook o r o n th e
in te rn et?

I’m n ot s o s u re a bout b ooks, b ut t h e i n te rn et i s a g re a t w ay o f l o okin g a t,
fo r e xa m ple , a f a m ous p ain tin g. Y o u c a n z o om i n o n t h e p ain tin g t o l o ok
at d eta ils , w hic h y o u c a n’t d o i n a g alle ry, a nd t h e p ic tu re s a re o fte n
acco m panie d b y a d eta ile d e xp la natio n o f w hat y o u’re l o okin g a t, o r
pro vid e l in ks s o t h at y o u c a n s e e o th er w ork s b y t h e s a m e a rtis t. O n t h e
oth er h and, t h ere ’s a c erta in f e elin g y o u g et w hen y o u s e e a f a m ous
pain tin g f o r r e a l i n a m use u m . I c a n’t e xp la in i t, b ut i t’s r e a lly q uite
excitin g. Y o u’re l o okin g a t t h e a ctu al w ork o f a rt, n ot i ts v ir tu al v ersio n,
and t h ere ’s a c o nnectio n, a f e elin g t h at y o u’v e s o m eh ow g ot c lo se r t o t h e
artis t. I t’s m uch m ore r e w ard in g.
WRIT IN G
The s u b je ct o f w heth er g o vern m ents s h o uld s u b sid is e th e a rts a t th e e xp ense o f
se rv ic es l ik e e d ucati o n, h ealth care a nd p ub lic tr a nsp ort i s c o ntr o vers ia l. S om e
sa y th ey s h o uld a nd s o m e s a y th ey s h o uld n’t, a nd b oth g ro up s h av e v alid
arg um ents .
Tho se w ho o ppose th e s u b sid is in g o f th e a rts i n f a v our o f e sse nti a l s e rv ic es
fo cus o n th e k ey w ord , ‘ e sse nti a l’ . H ealth care s a v es l iv es, e d ucati o n te aches
us i m porta nt s k ills w hic h w e w ill n eed th ro ugho ut o ur l iv es a nd p ub lic
tr a nsp ort h elp s u s g et a ro und w hile r e d ucin g o ur r e lia nce o n c ars , th us h elp in g
th e e nv ir o nm ent. I n m y c o untr y , th e g o vern m ent i s o fte n c riti c is e d f o r n o t
putti n g e no ugh m oney i n to th ese e sse nti a l s e rv ic es. F or e xam ple , o ur n ati o nal
health s y ste m i s s tr e tc hed to i ts l im it. T here a re n’t e no ugh d octo rs , o th er
health care w ork ers a re u nd erp aid a nd th e h o sp ita ls th em se lv es a re u nd er-
eq uip ped . S ure ly , p eo ple a rg ue, s a v in g a h um an l ife i s m ore i m porta nt th an
payin g a n o pera c o m pany to d o a w orld to ur.
Tho se w ho s u p port s u b sid is in g th e a rts a ls o h av e a c o m pellin g a rg um ent. O ur
film -m akin g i n d ustr y , o ur th eatr e s, o ur m use um s a nd g alle rie s a nd s o o n a re
part o f w hat w e a re , th ey a re p art o f o ur c ultu re a nd o ur h erita ge. F urth erm ore ,
th ey h elp to b rin g i n m oney. P eo ple w ill p ay to g o i n to a n a rt g alle ry o r s e e a
sh o w , th at m oney p ro vid es e m plo ym ent, a nd th e e m plo yees th en p ay ta x w hic h
go es b ack i n to th e e co no m y a nd u lti m ate ly m akes i ts w ay i n to th e h ealth care o r
ed ucati o n s y ste m . T his c ycle h elp s to k eep th e c o untr y r u nnin g.
Speakin g p ers o nally , I p ro bab ly a gre e m ore w ith th e f ir s t g ro up th an th e
se co nd . A fte r a ll, w hen I ’ m i ll, I d on’t g o to a n a rt g alle ry f o r a b it o f c ultu re . I

head to m y d octo r a nd h o pe s h e c an m ake m e w ell. O n th e o th er h and , I h ate to
th in k h o w e m pty m y l ife w ould b e w ith o ut a rt a nd c ultu re . I n c o nclu sio n, I
belie v e th at th ese s h o uld b e s u b sid is e d , b ut p erh ap s th e m oney c o uld c o m e
fr o m a no th er s o urc e, s u ch a s a n ati o nal l o tte ry .

Pra ctic e t a sk s 3
E duca tio n
I n a d diti o n to th e w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h a p pear i n th e G enera l V ocab ula ry
s e cti o n o f th is b ook, y o u m ay a ls o f in d s o m e u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s o n
p ages 7 1 a nd 7 2.
Y ou w ill f in d s o m e s a m ple a nsw ers o n th e f o llo w in g tw o p ages, b ut tr y to d o
t h e ta sk s f ir s t.
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
A nsw er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.
• What w as y o ur f a v ourite s u b je ct a t s c ho ol a nd w hy d id y o u e njo y i t?
• Were th ere a ny s u b je cts th at y o u p arti c ula rly d is lik ed a t s c ho ol?
• Did y o u h av e a te acher w ho y o u f o und p arti c ula rly i n sp ir in g o r i n flu enti a l?
• Whic h o f th e s u b je cts th at y o u le arn t a t s c ho ol w ill b enefit y o u m ost in th e
fu tu re ?
P art 2
L ook a t th is ta sk a nd s p end o ne m in ute th in kin g a b out w hat y o u a re g o in g to s a y
( y o u c an m ake n o te s i f y o u l ik e). T hen ta lk a b out th e to pic f o r b etw een o ne a nd
t w o m in ute s.
D esc rib e a p arti c ula rly m em ora b le d ay y o u h ad a t s c ho ol o r c o lle ge.
Y ou s h o uld s a y:
what h ap pened o n th at d ay
who e ls e w as w ith y o u w hen i t h ap pened
ho w y o u f e lt a t th e e nd o f th e d ay
and e xp la in w hy y o u th in k th is d ay w as p arti c ula rly m em ora b le
P art 3

Answ er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.
• Hav e s c ho olin g m eth o ds i n y o ur c o untr y c hanged s in ce y o ur p are nts w ere a t
sc ho ol?
• Do y o u th in k th at c o nti n uo us a sse ssm ent i s a l e ss s tr e ssfu l w ay o f g ra d in g a
stu d ent’ s p ro gre ss th an e xam s?
• How u se fu l d o y o u th in k c o m pute rs a re a s a te achin g r e so urc e?
WRIT IN G
A l o t o f p eo ple th in k th at th e th in gs y o u l e arn o uts id e s c ho ol a re m uch m ore
use fu l th an a nyth in g y o u l e arn i n s c ho ol. O th ers b elie v e th at s c ho ol te aches
yo u m ost o f th e e sse nti a l s k ills w hic h w ill b e u se fu l l a te r i n l ife .
Dis c uss b oth th ese v ie w s a nd g iv e y o ur o w n o pin io n.
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y o ur a nsw er a nd i n clu d e a ny r e le v ant e xam ple s f r o m y o ur
ow n k no w le d ge o r e xp erie nce.
Write a t l e ast 2 50 w ord s.

P ra ctic e t a sk s 3 : S am ple a n sw ers
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
• What w as y o ur f a v ourite s u b je ct a t s c ho ol a nd w hy d id y o u e njo y i t?
My f a vo urite s u bje ct a t s c h ool w as a lw ays h is to ry. I ’v e a lw ays b een
in te re ste d i n l e a rn in g a bout t h e p ast, a nd I ’m f a sc in ate d b y t h e w ay t h at
th in gs w hic h h appen ed h undre d s o f y ea r a go c a n s till b e r e le va nt t o day. I
partic u la rly l ik ed l e a rn in g a bout a ncie n t R om e a nd h ow i ts i n flu en ces
ca n s till b e f e lt. F or e xa m ple , t h eir p olitic a l s y ste m , m any o f t h eir l a w s,
th eir l a nguage a nd e ven t h eir a lp habet s till e xis t i n o ne f o rm o r a noth er
in d iffe re n t p arts o f t h e w orld . A nd o f c o urse I l ik ed l e a rn in g a bout a ll
th ose f a m ous p eo ple w hose n am es a re s till k n ow n t o day, l ik e C aesa r,
Cic ero a nd N ero .
• Were th ere a ny s u b je cts th at y o u p arti c ula rly d is lik ed a t s c ho ol?
There w ere n ’t r e a lly a ny s u bje cts t h at I d is lik ed a t s c h ool, a lth ough t h ere
were s o m e I w asn ’t e sp ecia lly k een o n, l ik e b io lo gy. I e n jo yed l e a rn in g
about n atu ra l h is to ry, b ut I r e a lly d id n’t e n jo y c u ttin g u p d ea d f r o gs a nd
mic e t o s e e h ow t h ey w ork ed . A nd t h ere w ere s u bje cts t h at, a lth ough I
lik ed t h em , I w asn ’t g ood a t. I l o ved a rt l e sso ns, b ut n o m atte r h ow h ard I
tr ie d , I c o uld n’t p ain t. A nd I a ls o l o ved m usic c la sse s, e ven t h ough I
co uld n’t s in g i n t u ne o r p la y a m usic a l i n str u m en t.
• Did y o u h av e a te acher w ho y o u f o und p arti c ula rly i n sp ir in g o r i n flu enti a l?
Well, I s a id t h at m y f a vo urite s u bje ct a t s c h ool w as h is to ry b eca use I ’v e
alw ays l ik ed l e a rn in g a bout t h e p ast. H ow ever, w hat m ade i t p artic u la rly
en jo ya ble f o r m e a t s c h ool w as m y t e a ch er. H e h ad a r e a l p assio n f o r h is
su bje ct, a nd h is e n th usia sm h ad a p ositiv e i n flu en ce o n m y d esir e t o
le a rn . H e a ls o h ad t h e a bility t o b rin g h is to ry t o l ife . H e d id n’t j u st s ta nd
th ere a nd t a lk t o y o u l ik e s o m e t e a ch ers. H e g ot h is s tu den ts a ctiv ely
in vo lv ed i n t h e s u bje ct. F or e xa m ple , h e o nce d iv id ed t h e c la ss i n to t w o

gro ups. O ne g ro up w ante d t h e e m pero r t o r u le R om e a nd o ne g ro up
wante d t h e s e n ate t o r u le . E ach g ro up h ad t o a rg ue i ts c a se t o h im , a nd
he h ad t o d ecid e w ho h ad t h e b est a rg um en t.
• Whic h o f th e s u b je cts th at y o u le arn t a t s c ho ol w ill b enefit y o u m ost in th e
fu tu re ?
That’s d iffic u lt, b eca use m ost o f t h em w ill b en efit m e i n o ne w ay o r
anoth er. I f I h ad t o m ake a c h oic e, h ow ever, i t w ould h ave t o b e
la nguages. I l e a rn t E nglis h , o f c o urse , a nd t h is w ill d efin ite ly b en efit m e
beca use E nglis h i s t h e l a nguage o f i n te rn atio nal b usin ess a nd p olitic s,
and i s p ro bably t h e m ost w id ely s p oken l a nguage i n t h e w orld . I a ls o
le a rn t S panis h , a noth er w id ely s p oken l a nguage. S in ce S panis h h as t h e
sa m e L atin r o ots a s l a nguages l ik e F re n ch a nd I ta lia n, i t w ill h elp m e
co m munic a te i n l o ts o f c o untr ie s.
Part 2
Desc rib e a p arti c ula rly m em ora b le d ay y o u h ad a t s c ho ol o r c o lle ge.
You s h o uld s a y:
what h ap pened o n th at d ay
who e ls e w as w ith y o u w hen i t h ap pened
ho w y o u f e lt a t th e e nd o f th e d ay
and e xp la in w hy y o u th in k th is d ay w as p arti c ula rly m em ora b le
It’s o fte n s a id t h at t h e s c h oold ays y o u r e m em ber t h e m ost a re y o ur f ir st d ay
and y o ur l a st d ay a t s c h ool. F or m e t h ey w ere b oth m em ora ble , b ut i t w as m y
la st d ay a t s e co ndary s c h ool t h at b rin gs b ack p artic u la rly v iv id m em orie s. I t
was a ls o t h e l a st d ay o f m y f in al s c h ool- le a vin g e xa m s, w hic h w as
geo gra phy. I t h ad n ever b een m y b est s u bje ct, a nd b eca use I r e a lly w ante d t o
get a g ood g ra de, I ’d b een u p r e a lly l a te t h e n ig ht b efo re r e vis in g. I t h in k I
fin ally g ot t o b ed a t a bout 2 o ’c lo ck i n t h e m orn in g. A nyw ay, I r e m em ber
wakin g u p f e elin g w orrie d a bout t h e e xa m b ut a ls o e xcite d b eca use o nce t h e
exa m w as o ver, I ’d b e l e a vin g s c h ool a nd b eg in nin g a w hole n ew c h apte r i n
my l ife . I ’d a rra nged t o m eet m y c la ssm ate s P aola a nd M erc ed es f o r a c o ffe e

befo re t h e e xa m , s o w e m et u p i n a c a f
é n ea r t h e s c h ool a nd t h en w alk ed i n to
th e e xa m h all t o geth er. I d on’t r e m em ber m uch a bout t h e e xa m i ts e lf, e xcep t
th at I f o und i t l e ss d iffic u lt t h an I h ad e xp ecte d , b ut I d o r e ca ll t h e m om en t
we w ere t o ld t o s to p w ritin g a nd h and i n o ur a nsw er s h eets . I t o ccu rre d t o
me t h at t h is w ould b e t h e l a st t im e I w ould b e t o ld w hat t o d o a s a c h ild .
Fro m t h at m om en t, a nd f r o m t h e m om en t I w alk ed o ut o f s c h ool l a te r t h at
day w ith m y c la ssm ate s, I w as e n te rin g a dulth ood f o r t h e f ir st t im e. I w as
both e xcite d a nd a ppre h en siv e a bout t h e f u tu re , b ut m ost o f a ll I f e lt f r e e.
That’s w hat m akes i t p artic u la rly m em ora ble f o r m e, I t h in k.

Pra ctic e t a sk s 3 : S am ple a n sw ers
P art 3
• Hav e s c ho olin g m eth o ds i n y o ur c o untr y c hanged s in ce y o ur p are nts w ere a t
sc ho ol?
I t h in k t h at t h ere h ave p ro bably b een a f e w c h anges i n t h e t h ir ty y ea rs o r
so s in ce m y p are n ts w ere a t s c h ool. F or a s ta rt, t h ere w as m uch m ore
dis c ip lin e a t s c h ool t h en , a nd y o u h ad t o f o llo w l o ts o f s tr ic t r u le s. I f y o u
bro ke t h ose r u le s, y o u w ere p unis h ed . T he t e a ch ers w ere e ven a llo w ed t o
hit y o u, w hic h w ould p ro bably b e i lle g al n ow . T ea ch in g m eth ods w ere
pro bably v ery d iffe re n t t o o. I n t h ose d ays, y o u s a t i n s ile n ce w hile t h e
te a ch ers t a ught y o u, a nd y o u w ould o nly s p ea k w hen y o u w ere a sk ed a
questio n. N ow adays, t h in gs a re d efin ite ly m ore r e la xed . P upils a re
en co ura ged t o g et m ore i n vo lv ed i n t h e l e a rn in g p ro cess, a nd a re a ctiv ely
en co ura ged t o q uestio n a nd c h alle n ge t h in gs i n t h e c la ssro om . T his i s
pro bably a m uch m ore e ffe ctiv e w ay o f l e a rn in g.
• Do y o u th in k th at c o nti n uo us a sse ssm ent i s a l e ss s tr e ssfu l w ay o f g ra d in g a
stu d ent’ s p ro gre ss th an e xam s?
I’v e a lw ays h ate d e xa m s, a nd f o und t h em r e a lly s tr e ssfu l. I n f a ct, I ’v e
never r e a lly s e en t h e p oin t o f t h em . I h ate t h e f a ct t h at e very th in g y o u’v e
le a rn t o ver t h e y ea r i s t e ste d u nder p re ssu re i n t h re e o r f o ur h ours. A nd
in a dditio n t o b ein g s tr e ssfu l, t h ey d on’t r e a lly s a y m uch a bout y o ur
kn ow le d ge o f t h e s u bje ct o r y o ur a bility a s a s tu den t. W ith c o ntin uous
asse ssm en t, y o ur s c h ool w ork i s g ra ded o ver a p erio d o f t im e. B eca use
yo u’re n ot u nder s o m uch p re ssu re , y o u c a n p la n y o ur e ssa y o r
assig nm en t o r w hate ver m ore t h oro ughly , a nd p re se n t a b ette r p ie ce o f
work a t t h e e n d. I w ould s a y t h at c o ntin uous a sse ssm en t i s f a r l e ss
str e ssfu l a nd a m uch b ette r i n dic a to r o f y o ur a bility i n a ny g iv en s u bje ct.
• How u se fu l d o y o u th in k c o m pute rs a re a s a te achin g r e so urc e?
Com pute rs h ave c erta in ly c h anged t h e w ay w e l e a rn o ver t h e l a st t h ir ty

yea rs o r s o . T hey’re i n va lu able a s a s o urc e o f r e fe re n ce, w hen w e’re
writin g a n e ssa y f o r e xa m ple , a nd t h ey c a n b e u se d a s a n e xa m r e so urc e
to t e st w hat w e’v e l e a rn t. A nd t h ey’re v ery u se fu l i f y o u w ant t o s tu dy o n
a c o urse b ut a re u nable t o g et t o a s c h ool o r c o lle g e. A fte r a ll, c o m pute r-
base d d is ta nce l e a rn in g m ea ns t h at m illio ns o f p eo ple a ro und t h e w orld
now h ave a n o pportu nity t o s tu dy o n a r e a l c o urse . H ow ever, i n m y
opin io n, a s a n a ctu al t e a ch in g r e so urc e, t h ey’re n o s u bstitu te f o r b ein g i n
a r e a l c la ssro om w ith a r e a l t e a ch er. Y o u d on’t h ave t h at s a m e l e vel o f
in te ra ctio n w ith t h e t e a ch er, f o r a s ta rt, w hic h I t h in k i s e sse n tia l f o r
effe ctiv e l e a rn in g. A nd y o u d on’t h ave o th er s tu den ts w ho y o u c a n
in te ra ct a nd w ork w ith .
WRIT IN G
When w e g o to s c ho ol, w e s tu d y a l o t o f s u b je cts . S om e o f th ese , s u ch a s
re ad in g, w riti n g a nd a rith m eti c , a re e sse nti a l s k ills w hic h w e w ill u se
th ro ugho ut o ur l iv es. O th ers m ay b e u se fu l i n c erta in c are ers o r o th er
cir c um sta nces, b ut i n m ost c ase s a re r a re ly i f e v er n eed ed i n o ur d ay-to -d ay
liv es. I n m y e xp erie nce, I h av e n ev er b een i n a s itu ati o n w here th e h is to ry ,
geo gra p hy, c hem is tr y a nd p hysic s I l e arn t a t s c ho ol h av e b enefite d m e i n a ny
way.
Outs id e o f s c ho ol I h av e a cq uir e d f a r m ore i m porta nt a nd u se fu l k no w le d ge
and s k ills . F or e xam ple , I h av e l e arn t h o w to d riv e a c ar, I h av e s tu d ie d th re e
la nguages, I h av e ta ught m yse lf th e i m porta nce o f c are fu l f in ancia l b ud geti n g
and I h av e tr a v elle d a nd l e arn t to a p pre cia te a nd a ccep t o th er p eo ple a nd
cultu re s. F urth erm ore , I h av e b eco m e m echanic ally a nd te chno lo gic ally
pro fic ie nt: s c ho ol n ev er ta ught m e h o w to f ix a c ar e ngin e, c hange a p lu g o r s e t
up a w eb site . O n th e s u rfa ce, th ere fo re , i t w ould a p pear th at a lm ost e v ery th in g
use fu l I h av e l e arn t h as b een o uts id e s c ho ol.
How ev er, i s th is e nti r e ly tr u e? W hen w e a re a t s c ho ol, w e te nd to l o ok a t e ach
day a s l ittl e m ore th an a s e rie s o f c la sse s b ro ken u p b y b re aks, m eals , s p orts
and o th er a cti v iti e s. W hat w e a re n o t r e ally a w are o f a t th e ti m e i s w hat I
would c all ‘ b etw een th e l in es l e arn in g’. I n c la ss, f o r e xam ple , w e a re l e arn in g
ho w to r e co rd , p ro cess a nd f ilte r i n fo rm ati o n. W e a re a ls o l e arn in g h o w to
work w ith o th ers . W hen w e p la y s p orts , w e a re l e arn in g a b out th e i m porta nce
of te am w ork a nd s tr a te gy. A t o th er ti m es w e a re l e arn in g h o w to b ehav e a nd

ho w to f o llo w r u le s ( o r, i f i t s u its u s, h o w to b end o r b re ak th e r u le s w ith o ut
getti n g c aught o ut) .
In c o nclu sio n, th ere fo re , I th in k th at w hile m ost o f th e p ra cti c al s k ills w e n eed
th ro ugho ut o ur l ife a re l e arn t
outs id e
s c ho ol, m ost o f th e f o rm ati v e s k ills w e
need to s u cceed i n l ife a re a cq uir e d
at
s c ho ol. I n o th er w ord s, s c ho ols te ach u s
much m ore th an j u st a s e rie s o f u nre la te d s u b je cts . I t i s j u st th at w e d on’t
re alis e th is a t th e ti m e.

P ra ctic e t a sk s 4
T he e nvir o nm ent
I n a d diti o n to th e w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h a p pear i n th e G enera l V ocab ula ry
s e cti o n o f th is b ook, y o u m ay a ls o f in d s o m e u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s o n
p ages 7 3 a nd 7 4.
Y ou w ill f in d s o m e s a m ple a nsw ers o n th e f o llo w in g tw o p ages, b ut tr y to d o
t h e ta sk s f ir s t.
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
A nsw er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.
• Are y o u i n te re ste d i n e nv ir o nm enta l i s su es?
• Hav e y o u e v er ta ken p art i n a n e nv ir o nm enta l e v ent?
• Do y o u d o a nyth in g to r e d uce y o ur i m pact o n th e e nv ir o nm ent?
• If y o u c o uld d o o ne th in g to h elp y o ur e nv ir o nm ent, w hat w ould y o u d o?
P A RT 2
L ook a t th is ta sk a nd s p end o ne m in ute th in kin g a b out w hat y o u a re g o in g to s a y
( y o u c an m ake n o te s i f y o u l ik e). T hen ta lk a b out th e to pic f o r b etw een o ne a nd
t w o m in ute s.
D esc rib e s o m eth in g th at i s h av in g a m ajo r a nd n egati v e i m pact o n th e
env ir o nm ent i n y o ur h o m e to w n o r c o untr y .
Y ou s h o uld s a y:
what th e p ro ble m i s a nd w hat i s c ausin g i t
where i t i s h ap penin g
what e ffe ct i t i s h av in g o n p eo ple a nd / o r w ild life
and e xp la in w hat y o u th in k c o uld ( o r s h o uld ) b e d one a b out i t.
P art 3

Answ er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.
• Do yo u th in k th at go vern m ents aro und th e w orld are doin g eno ugh to
pre v ent e nv ir o nm enta l p ro ble m s?
• What s te p s c o uld b ig b usin esse s a nd o rg anis a ti o ns ta ke i n o rd er to b e m ore
env ir o nm enta lly f r ie nd ly ?
• Do y o u th in k th at c la sse s o n e nv ir o nm enta l is su es s h o uld b e c o m puls o ry in
sc ho ols ?
WRIT IN G
You s h o uld s p end a b out 4 0 m in ute s o n th is ta sk .
Write a b out th e f o llo w in g to pic :
Govern m ents a lo ne s h o uld n o t b e r e sp onsib le f o r r e d ucin g g lo bal
env ir o nm enta l d am age. E very o ne, f r o m i n d iv id uals to m ajo r i n d ustr ie s,
sh o uld p la y th eir p art.
To w hat e xte nt d o y o u a gre e o r d is a gre e w ith th is s ta te m ent?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y o ur a nsw er a nd i n clu d e a ny r e le v ant e xam ple s f r o m y o ur
ow n k no w le d ge o r e xp erie nce.
Write a t l e ast 2 50 w ord s.

Pra ctic e t a sk s 4 : S am ple a n sw ers
P A RT 1
• Are y o u i n te re ste d i n e nv ir o nm enta l i s su es?
Most e n vir o nm en ta l i s su es i n te re st m e t o a g re a te r o r l e sse r d eg re e, b ut
I’m p artic u la rly i n te re ste d i n w ild life c o nse rv a tio n. T he d am age w e’re
doin g t o o ur e n vir o nm en t i s h avin g a m ajo r n eg ativ e i m pact o n w ild life
aro und t h e w orld , a nd a l o t o f e n dangere d s p ecie s a re f a cin g e xtin ctio n
as a r e su lt. I ’m p artic u la rly i n te re ste d i n t h e ‘ k eysto ne’ s p ecie s. T hat i s ,
th ose s p ecie s o n w hic h o ur e co sy ste m s r e ly . T a ke t h e b ee, f o r e xa m ple . I n
additio n t o p ro vid in g u s w ith h oney a nd w ax, b ees a re i m porta nt p la nt
pollin ato rs. I n f a ct, o ne t h ir d o f t h e f o od w e e a t w ould n’t b e a va ila ble i f
we d id n’t h ave b ees. H ow ever, m odern f a rm in g p ra ctic es a re c o ntr ib utin g
to t h eir d eclin e i n n um bers. I t h in k w e r e a lly n eed t o e n d t h is t h re a t t o
th em .
• Hav e y o u e v er ta ken p art i n a n e nv ir o nm enta l e v ent?
Last y ea r m y c o lle g e h eld a n i n te rn atio nal e n vir o nm en t a w are n ess d ay,
and I w as o n t h e c o m mitte e t h at o rg anis e d i t. M y j o b w as t o a rra nge f o r
so m e s p ecia lis ts t o c o m e t o t h e c o lle g e a nd g iv e a t a lk . O ne p erso n I
appro ach ed – a ctu ally a f r ie n d o f m in e w ho h ad w ork ed o n a t u rtle
sa nctu ary i n S ri L anka – c a m e a nd g ave a r e a lly i n te re stin g t a lk o n w hat
lo ca l p eo ple w ere d oin g t o s a ve t h ese m arin e a nim als . A noth er p erso n,
who w ork ed a t a l o ca l w ild life p ark , g ave a b rillia nt p re se n ta tio n o n t h e
se a o tte r, a n i m porta nt k eysto ne s p ecie s. T he e ven t w as a b ig s u ccess
excep t f o r o ne t h in g. T he s tu den ts w ho o rg anis e d t h e f o od a nd d rin k f o r
th e e ven t u se d e n vir o nm en ta lly u nfr ie n dly n on-re cycla ble p oly sty re n e
cu ps a nd p la te s. H ow i r o nic !
• Do y o u d o a nyth in g to r e d uce y o ur i m pact o n th e e nv ir o nm ent?
I s u ppose t h at l ik e m any o th er p eo ple I r e cycle w hen ever p ossib le . T here
are r e cyclin g b anks a cro ss m y h om e t o w n w here y o u c a n t a ke t h in gs l ik e
gla ss, t in f o il, p aper, p la stic s a nd o th er m ate ria ls . T he p ro ble m i s t h at

many p eo ple a re u nable o r u nw illin g t o d o t h is , s o t h ey j u st p ut
every th in g i n t h e b in . S om e c o untr ie s l ik e t h e U nite d K in gdom a ctu ally
have h om e c o lle ctio ns w here y o u c a n p ut o ut y o ur r e cycla ble m ate ria ls
with y o ur o th er r u bbis h a nd i t g ets t a ken a w ay. I t h in k t h at’s a r e a lly
good i d ea , a nd I w ould l o ve t o s e e i t i n m y c o untr y.
• If y o u c o uld d o o ne th in g to h elp y o ur e nv ir o nm ent, w hat w ould y o u d o?
Well, a ctu ally , t h ere a re a c o uple o f t h in gs I w ould d o. T he f ir st w ould b e
to s ta rt a h om e c o lle ctio n f o r r e cycla ble m ate ria ls s im ila r t o t h e o ne I ’v e
ju st d esc rib ed . P eo ple w ould h ave a s p ecia l b ox o r b in w here t h ey c o uld
put t h eir r e cycla ble m ate ria ls , a nd t h ese w ould b e c o lle cte d o n t h eir
usu al b in d ay. A noth er t h in g I w ould d o w ould b e t o i n tr o duce a p la stic
bag c h arg e i n s h ops a nd s u perm ark ets . S hops u su ally j u st g iv e t h ese f r e e
to t h eir c u sto m ers, s o p eo ple t a ke t h em a nd t h en t h ro w t h em a w ay. T hese
en d u p i n r iv ers a nd t h e s e a , c a usin g t e rrib le h arm t o w ild life . I t h in k
th ere a re a lr e a dy b ag c h arg es l ik e t h is i n p la ces l ik e t h e U nite d K in gdom ,
and I w ould l ik e t o s e e s o m eth in g s im ila r i n m y c o untr y.
PA RT 2
Desc rib e s o m eth in g th at i s h av in g a m ajo r a nd n egati v e i m pact o n th e
env ir o nm ent i n y o ur h o m e to w n o r c o untr y .
You s h o uld s a y:
what th e p ro ble m i s a nd w hat i s c ausin g i t
where i t i s h ap penin g
what e ffe ct i t i s h av in g o n p eo ple a nd / o r w ild life
and e xp la in w hat y o u th in k c o uld ( o r s h o uld ) b e d one a b out i t.
My c o untr y h as g one f r o m b ein g a m ostly a gric u ltu ra l c o untr y t o b ein g a
mostly i n dustr ia l c o untr y i n l e ss t h an f o rty y ea rs, a nd m any p eo ple h ave
beco m e w ea lth ie r a s a r e su lt. T here i s l e ss u nem plo ym en t, l e ss p overty a nd
le ss h om ele ssn ess, a nd m ost p eo ple n ow h ave a b ette r q uality o f l ife . T his i s
a p ositiv e t h in g i n m y o pin io n. H ow ever, t h ere h as b een a p ric e t o p ay,
beca use o f c o urse m ore i n dustr y m ea ns m ore p ollu tio n. F urth erm ore ,

in cre a se d w ea lth h as r e su lte d i n g re a te r o w nersh ip o f p riv a te v eh ic le s. I n
fa ct, c a r o w nersh ip h as r is e n b y a bout 1 0 p er c en t e very y ea r s in ce t h e e a rly
1990s, a nd l a st y ea r m y c o untr y g ain ed a n a dditio nal 1 7 m illio n n ew c a rs.
As a r e su lt, a ir p ollu tio n i n t h e b ig ger c itie s c a n g et r e a lly b ad. I n m y c ity i n
win te r, w e g et t h ic k s m og w hic h c a n l a st f o r d ays. T his h as a t e rrib le e ffe ct
on p eo ple ’s h ea lth , e sp ecia lly i f t h ey h ave e xis tin g c h est c o nditio ns. I n f a ct,
in m y c o untr y a s a w hole , a ir p ollu tio n k ills a bout t h ir ty t h ousa nd p eo ple
every y ea r. I t h in k t h at p eo ple n eed t o b e e n co ura ged , o r p erh aps c o m pelle d ,
to u se t h eir o w n v eh ic le s l e ss a nd u se p ublic t r a nsp ort i n ste a d. I m pro vin g
th e p ublic t r a nsp ort i n fr a str u ctu re a nd s u bsid is in g p ublic t r a nsp ort w ould
certa in ly h elp , b ut I t h in k t h at’s o nly p art o f t h e s o lu tio n. P eo ple , a fte r a ll,
lik e u sin g t h eir o w n c a r, h avin g t h eir o w n s p ace, n ot h avin g t o r e ly o n b us
and t r a in t im es a nd s o o n. P erh aps a m ore e ffe ctiv e s o lu tio n w ould b e t o
ch arg e p eo ple e a ch t im e t h ey u se t h eir c a r. S o, f o r e xa m ple , y o u p ay f o r e a ch
kilo m etr e y o u d riv e. I t h in k t h at w ould r e a lly h elp . P eo ple w ould c erta in ly
th in k t w ic e b efo re m akin g a c a r j o urn ey i f t h ey k n ew i t w ould c o st t h em
money.

P ra ctic e t a sk s 4 : S am ple a n sw ers
P A RT 3
• Do yo u th in k th at go vern m ents aro und th e w orld are doin g eno ugh to
pre v ent e nv ir o nm enta l p ro ble m s?
I t h in k t h at d ep en ds o n w here y o u a re . S om e g overn m en ts a re d oin g a l o t,
oth ers a re d oin g v ery l ittle o r n oth in g a t a ll. I n m y c o untr y, t h e
govern m en t a llo w ed i n dustr y t o d evelo p u nre g ula te d , a nd n ow w e a re a ll
payin g t h e p ric e b eca use o f t h e a ppallin g l e vels o f p ollu tio n. H ow ever,
all m y g overn m en t d oes i s t a lk a bout w hat i t s h ould d o, b ut d oesn ’t
actu ally d o a nyth in g. O th er g overn m en ts h ave t a ken f a r m ore p ositiv e
actio n. O ne e xa m ple t h at s p rin gs t o m in d i s S in gapore , w here c le a n a ir
la w s a nd r e g ula tio ns, t o geth er w ith a n e xcelle n t p ublic t r a nsp ort s y ste m
and p ro te cte d g re en s p aces, k eep t h is s m all b ut c ro w ded i s la nd
co m para tiv ely c le a n a nd g re en . I n f a ct, i n s o m e p arts o f t h e i s la nd, y o u
would f in d i t h ard t o b elie ve y o u w ere i n a c ity o f o ver 5 m illio n p eo ple .
• What s te p s c o uld b ig b usin esse s a nd o rg anis a ti o ns ta ke i n o rd er to b e m ore
env ir o nm enta lly f r ie nd ly ?
There a re s e vera l t h in gs t h at b usin esse s c o uld d o, a nd t h ey d on’t h ave t o
be e xp en siv e. F or e xa m ple , t h ey c o uld u se p ro ducts t h at r e d uce t h eir
re lia nce o n n atu ra l r e so urc es. S o i n ste a d o f u sin g o il o r g as f o r h ea tin g,
th ey c o uld u se s o la r p ow er. A nd i n ste a d o f u sin g t a p w ate r, t h ey c o uld
have r a in w ate r t a nks a nd u se t h at w ate r i n ste a d. T hey c o uld a ls o m ake
bette r u se o f r e cycle d p ro ducts . T hat w ould i n clu de e very th in g f r o m
offic e p aper t o o ffic e f u rn itu re . A dditio nally , i f t h eir e m plo yees h ave t o
tr a vel a l o t f o r c o nfe re n ces, t h ey c o uld p erh aps c o nsid er w ays i n w hic h
th is c o uld b e a vo id ed . F or e xa m ple , i n ste a d o f t r a vellin g t o a noth er
co untr y t o m eet t h eir c lie n ts , t h ey c o uld h old a c o nfe re n ce c a ll i n ste a d.
Little t h in gs l ik e t h at w ould r e a lly h elp , I t h in k.
• Do y o u th in k th at c la sse s o n e nv ir o nm enta l is su es s h o uld b e c o m puls o ry in
sc ho ols ?

I c o m ple te ly a gre e w ith t h is . I t h in k i t’s r e a lly i m porta nt t h at c h ild re n
le a rn f r o m a n e a rly a ge h ow i m porta nt t h e e n vir o nm en t i s , h ow f r a gile i t
is , w hat s o rt o f i m pact t h ey h ave o n i t a nd h ow t h ey c o uld r e d uce t h at
im pact. I r e m em ber t h at w hen I w as a t s c h ool w e h ad e n vir o nm en t d ays
where a w hole d ay e a ch t e rm w as d evo te d t o l e a rn in g a bout
en vir o nm en ta l i s su es. W e h ad v is itin g s p ea kers w ho g ave t a lk s a nd
pre se n ta tio ns, a nd w e w atc h ed v id eo s, d id q uiz ze s a nd p la yed g am es, a nd
we h eld c la ss a nd g ro up d is c u ssio ns a nd d eb ate s. T hose d ays w ere g re a t
fu n a nd r e a lly i n te re stin g, b ut m ost i m porta ntly t h ey m ade u s a w are h ow
im porta nt i t w as t o b e e n vir o nm en ta lly r e sp onsib le .
WRIT IN G
Our p la net’ s e nv ir o nm enta l s y ste m i s u nd er th re at l ik e i t h as n ev er b een b efo re .
Pollu ti o n i s k illin g l ife i n o ur r iv ers , s e as a nd o ceans, d efo re sta ti o n i s
destr o yin g th e n atu ra l h ab ita t o f m any s p ecie s o f l a nd a nim als a nd th e o veru se
of p esti c id es i s k illin g i n se cts , w hic h a re v ita l f o r th e w ell- b ein g o f o ur
eco sy ste m . O ur p la net’ s te m pera tu re i s r is in g to o a s a r e su lt o f p ollu ti o n. T his
has r e su lte d i n d eclin in g A rc ti c s e a i c e, a 1 7 c m s e a l e v el r is e i n th e l a st 1 00
years , a nd m ore e xtr e m e w eath er e v ents a ro und th e w orld .
These d ev asta ti n g c hanges s h o uld b e p ro m pti n g e v ery o ne – i n d iv id uals a nd
in d ustr ia l o rg anis a ti o ns a lik e – to ta ke i m med ia te a cti o n to r e d uce th eir i m pact
on th e e nv ir o nm ent. I n ste ad , h o w ev er, a p ath y a nd i n d iffe re nce s e em to p re v ail.
The g enera l a tti tu d e i s to k eep d oin g th in gs th e s a m e u nti l to ld to d o o th erw is e .
Afte r a ll, p eo ple s a y, i f th in gs w ere r e ally th at b ad , th e g o vern m ent w ould d o
so m eth in g a b out i t.
Many g o vern m ents a re d oin g s o m eth in g, o f c o urs e . I n f a ct, th anks to l e gis la ti o n
in m y c o untr y , l a rg e a re as o f n atu ra l l a nd a re n o w p ro te cte d f r o m d ev elo pm ent,
heav y f in es a re i m pose d o n i n d ustr ie s w hic h c ause e xcessiv e p ollu ti o n, a nd
ho m eo w ners a re g iv en s u b sid ie s to i n sta ll e nv ir o nm enta lly f r ie nd ly s o la r
panels to h eat a nd l ig ht th eir h o m es.
How ev er, i t i s a ls o th e d uty o f i n d iv id uals a nd o rg anis a ti o ns to ta ke
re sp onsib ility . I n d iv id uals c an r e cycle th eir h o use ho ld w aste , th ey c an tu rn
dow n th eir h eati n g, th ey c an tu rn o ff l ig hts w hen n o t u sin g th em a nd th ey c an
walk , c ycle o r ta ke th e b us i n ste ad o f d riv in g e v ery w here i n th eir c ars .
Com panie s a nd o rg anis a ti o ns c an l o ok a t th e w ay th ey o pera te to r e d uce th eir

im pact o n th e e nv ir o nm ent. F or e xam ple , th ey c an s w itc h to a g re en e nerg y
su p plie r, th ey c an u se r e cycle d p ro ducts , th ey c an u se v id eo -c o nfe re ncin g to
cut d ow n o n tr a v el, th eir e m plo yees c an s h are c ars o n th e j o urn ey to w ork a nd
so o n.
In c o nclu sio n, th ere fo re , I b elie v e th at w e s h o uld a ll p la y o ur p art a nd c o nsid er
ways o f r e d ucin g o ur i m pact o n th e e nv ir o nm ent. W e s h o uld n o t r e ly o n o ur
go vern m ents a lo ne to d o th is .

Pra ctic e t a sk s 5
F ood a nd d ie t
I n a d diti o n to th e w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h a p pear i n th e G enera l V ocab ula ry
s e cti o n o f th is b ook, y o u m ay a ls o f in d s o m e u se fu l w ord s a nd p hra se s o n
p ages 7 5 a nd 7 6.
Y ou w ill f in d s o m e s a m ple a nsw ers o n th e f o llo w in g tw o p ages, b ut tr y to d o
t h e ta sk s f ir s t.
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
• What a re y o ur f a v ourite f o ods?
• How h av e y o ur ta ste s i n f o od c hanged o ver th e y ears ?
• Are th ere a ny f o ods th at y o u d is lik e o r c anno t e at?
• Do y o u th in k th at y o u h av e a h ealth y d ie t?
P A RT 2
L ook a t th is ta sk a nd s p end o ne m in ute th in kin g a b out w hat y o u a re g o in g to s a y
( y o u c an m ake n o te s i f y o u l ik e). T hen ta lk a b out th e to pic f o r b etw een o ne a nd
t w o m in ute s.
D esc rib e a d is h th at i s p opula r i n y o ur c o untr y .
Y ou s h o uld s a y:
what th e d is h i s c alle d
what i t c o nta in s a nd h o w i t’ s m ad e
where a nd w hen y o u u su ally e at th is d is h
and e xp la in w hy i t i s s o p opula r
P A RT 3
A nsw er th ese q uesti o ns. T ry to s p eak f o r a b out 4 o r 5 m in ute s i n to ta l.

• How w ould y o u e nco ura ge p eo ple to h av e a m ore h ealth y d ie t?
• Do y o u th in k th at s c ho ols s h o uld te ach y o ung p eo ple h o w to c o ok?
• What e ffe cts h av e f a st- fo od r e sta ura nts h ad o n p eo ple ’s h ealth ?
WRIT IN G
You s h o uld s p end a b out 4 0 m in ute s o n th is ta sk .
Write a b out th e f o llo w in g to pic :
Modern k itc hen a p plia nces m ean th at i t h as b eco m e m uch e asie r to p re p are
go od f o od a t h o m e. H ow ev er, p eo ple a re e ati n g o ut i n r e sta ura nts m ore th an
ev er b efo re .
To w hat e xte nt i s th is tr u e i n y o ur c o untr y , a nd w hy d o y o u th in k th is i s th e
case ?
Giv e r e aso ns f o r y o ur a nsw er a nd i n clu d e a ny r e le v ant e xam ple s f r o m y o ur
ow n k no w le d ge o r e xp erie nce.
Write a t l e ast 2 50 w ord s.

P ra ctic e t a sk s 5 : S am ple a n sw ers
S P E A KIN G
P A RT 1
• What a re y o ur f a v ourite f o ods?
I d on’t r e a lly h ave a ny f a vo urite f o ods, a lth ough I a m f o nd o f s p ic y
dis h es. A nyth in g w ith a b it o f h ea t i n , r e a lly . S o I l ik e M exic a n, I n dia n
and S outh -E ast A sia n d is h es m ore t h an, s a y, E uro pea n o r N orth A m eric a n
dis h es. H ow ever, w hat I l ik e e a tin g a ls o o fte n d ep en ds o n t h in gs l ik e m y
mood, t h e w ea th er, w here I a m a nd w ho I ’m w ith . S o o n a c o ld d ay, I
pre fe r t h in gs l ik e s o up a nd c a sse ro le s, a nd o n h ot d ays I ’d r a th er h ave
so m eth in g l ik e a s a la d. I f I ’m a w ay f r o m h om e a nd f e elin g h om esic k, I ’ll
go f o r c o m fo rt f o ods. T he s o rt o f t h in g m y m oth er w ould c o ok. A nd i f I g o
out w ith f r ie n ds i n t h e e ven in g, I e n jo y m ea ls w here e very o ne s h are s a nd
gets t o t r y a l ittle b it o f e very th in g, l ik e i n a S panis h t a pas b ar.
• How h av e y o ur ta ste s i n f o od c hanged o ver th e y ears ?
I t h in k t h at m ost p eo ple ’s t a ste s i n f o od c h ange a s t h ey g et o ld er, d on’t
th ey? W hen I w as y o unger, I p re fe rre d s w eet t h in gs l ik e c h oco la te a nd i c e
cre a m . T hen a s I g ot o ld er I d evelo ped a p re fe re n ce f o r m ore s a vo ury
fo ods. I w en t t h ro ugh a s o rt o f p ro cess i n m y m id - a nd l a te -te en s o f t r y in g
as m any d iffe re n t t h in gs a s p ossib le , a nd i f I d id n’t l ik e t h em a t f ir st, I
would t r y t h em a gain a nd t r y t o d evelo p a t a ste f o r t h em . T he f ir st t im e I
tr ie d o liv es, f o r e xa m ple , I t h ought t h ey w ere d is g ustin g, b ut n ow t h ey’re
one o f m y f a vo urite t h in gs. A ls o , a s I s a id , I r e a lly l ik e s p ic y f o ods, b ut
th at w asn ’t a lw ays t h e c a se . W hen I w as y o ung, s a vo ury f o ods h ad t o b e
quite b la nd, o th erw is e I j u st w ould n’t t o uch t h em .
• Are th ere a ny f o ods th at y o u d is lik e o r c anno t e at?
There a re s o m e v eg eta ble s I r e a lly d is lik e, a lth ough I ’v e t r ie d m any t im es
to g et t o l ik e t h em . N o m atte r h ow h ard I ’v e t r ie d , I s till f in d b ro cco li a nd
co urg ette s u tte rly d is g ustin g. C ourg ette s e sp ecia lly . A nd t h ere a re s o m e

th in gs I w ould n’t e a t b eca use I d on’t l ik e t h e i d ea o f t h em . T hin gs l ik e
sn ails , f o r e xa m ple . T he v ery t h ought o f e a tin g a s n ail m akes m e f e el i ll.
There a re n ’t a ny f o ods I c a n’t e a t b eca use o f a lle rg ie s o r i n to le ra nces,
alth ough I ’v e g ot a f r ie n d w ho c a n’t e a t s e a fo od a nd a noth er w ho c a n’t
ea t w hea t. Y o u h ea r a l o t a bout f o od a lle rg ie s a nd i n to le ra nces t h ese
days, d on’t y o u? B ut I w onder i f s o m e p eo ple s a y t h ey h ave t h ese b eca use
it’s a lm ost f a sh io nable t o s a y y o u h ave a p artic u la r f o od a lle rg y o r
in to le ra nce.
• Do y o u th in k th at y o u h av e a h ealth y d ie t?
I l ik e t o t h in k t h at I e a t h ea lth ily . I c erta in ly h ave a r e a so nably w ell-
bala nced d ie t, a nd I t r y t o e a t l o ts o f t h in gs l ik e f r e sh f r u it a nd
veg eta ble s. I t’s n ot a lw ays e a sy, o f c o urse . I ’m v ery b usy m ost o f t h e t im e,
and w hen I g et h om e i n t h e e ven in g t h e l a st t h in g I w ant t o d o i s p re p are
and c o ok v eg eta ble s a nd m ea t. I t’s o fte n m uch e a sie r t o p ut a f r o ze n p iz za
in t h e o ven o r a r e a dy-m ade m ea l i n t h e m ic ro w ave. A nd o f c o urse i t’s
even e a sie r t o p ic k u p a b urg er o r p iz za f r o m a f a st- fo od r e sta ura nt a nd
ta ke t h at h om e t o e a t. S o I g uess t h ere a re t im es w hen p erh aps I d on’t e a t
as h ea lth ily a s I s h ould . O n t h e w hole , h ow ever, I r e cko n t h at m y d ie t i s
quite g ood.
PA RT 2
Desc rib e a d is h th at i s p opula r i n y o ur c o untr y .
You s h o uld s a y:
what th e d is h i s c alle d
what i t c o nta in s a nd h o w i t’ s m ad e
where a nd w hen y o u u su ally e at th is d is h
and e xp la in w hy i t i s s o p opula r
My c o untr y i s f a m ous f o r i ts f o od, a nd e sp ecia lly f o r w hat p eo ple n ow c a ll
‘fu sio n’ c o okin g, a lth ough i n m y c o untr y w e c a ll i t n onya c o okin g. T his i s
where y o u t a ke f o ods f r o m t w o o r m ore c o untr ie s, c o m bin e t h em a nd t h en
add l o ca l i n gre d ie n ts t o g iv e i t a l o ca l f la vo ur. O ne o f t h ese d is h es, a nd o ne

th at i s e sp ecia lly p opula r i n m y c o untr y, i s c a lle d n asi l e m ak. I n f a ct, y o u
co uld s a y i t’s o ne o f o ur n atio nal d is h es. B asic a lly i t’s r ic e a nd c o co nut t o
whic h a s p ic y f is h s a uce i s a dded . T o m ake i t, y o u s te a m r ic e w ith c o co nut
milk . A t t h e s a m e t im e, y o u m ake t h e s a uce, w hic h i s c a lle d s a m bal, b y f r y in g
sh rim ps w ith o nio ns, g arlic , c h illie s a nd o th er s p ic es. Y o u t h en p ut t h e r ic e
on a p la te , c o ver i t w ith t h e s a uce a nd t h en a dd e g gs, s m all c ris p y f r ie d f is h
ca lle d i k a n b ilis , c u cu m ber s lic es, p ea nuts a nd o th er t h in gs. I n m y c o untr y,
it’s a p opula r b re a kfa st d is h , a nd m ost p eo ple e a t i t a t o pen -a ir -c o oked f o od
mark ets o n t h eir w ay t o w ork , o r t h ey g et a t a kea w ay a nd b rin g i t t o t h e
offic e. I t h in k i t’s p opula r b eca use i t’s n ot o nly d elic io us a nd n utr itio us, b ut
it’s a ls o v ery c h ea p. I t’s a ls o q uite e a sy t o m ake. Y o u c a n m ake a l a rg e p ot o f
th e r ic e a nd a noth er o f t h e s a m bal a nd k eep i t i n t h e f r id ge. T hen i f y o u g et
hungry d urin g t h e d ay, y o u s im ply p ut a p ortio n o f e a ch o n a p la te a nd h ea t
it u p i n t h e m ic ro w ave. A nd o f c o urse , l ik e n atio nal d is h es a ro und t h e w orld ,
every o ne’s m oth er o r g ra ndm oth er m akes t h e b est n asi l e m ak!

Pra ctic e t a sk s 5 : S am ple a n sw ers
P A RT 3
• How w ould y o u e nco ura ge p eo ple to h av e a m ore h ealth y d ie t?
I w ould p ro bably d o t w o t h in gs h ere . T he f ir st w ould b e t o p oin t o ut t h e
im porta nce o f e a tin g h ea lth ily . T o b e m ore p re cis e , I w ould p oin t o ut t h e
dangers o f h avin g a n u nhea lth y d ie t a nd t h e b en efits o f e a tin g m ore
hea lth ily . A p oor d ie t c a n l e a d t o t h in gs l ik e m aln utr itio n, o besity a nd
re la te d h ea lth i s su es l ik e d ia bete s, w hile a h ea lth y d ie t m akes y o u l o ok
and f e el g ood. A fte r a ll, a s t h ey s a y, y o u a re w hat y o u e a t. I w ould t h en
sh ow p eo ple h ow e a sy i t c a n b e t o h ave a w ell- b ala nced d ie t, a nd a ls o
how t a sty h ea lth y f o od c a n b e. F or e xa m ple , a l o t o f p eo ple c o m pla in t h at
it t a kes t im e t o p re p are f r e sh v eg eta ble s, b ut y o u c a n b uy t h ese i n t h e
fr o ze n f o od s e ctio n o f a s u perm ark et, w ash ed , c u t a nd r e a dy t o c o ok. A nd
fo r p eo ple w ho s a y t h at h ea lth y f o od i s b orin g, I w ould s h ow t h em s o m e
delic io us r e cip es t h at w ould m ake t h em c h ange t h eir o pin io n.
• Do y o u th in k th at s c ho ols s h o uld te ach y o ung p eo ple h o w to c o ok?
In m y o pin io n, c o okin g i s a n e sse n tia l l ife s k ill, b ut i t a m aze s m e h ow f e w
peo ple c a n a ctu ally d o i t. S om e o f m y f r ie n ds h ave n ever e ven c o oked a n
eg g o r p re p are d a s im ple m ea l f r o m f r e sh i n gre d ie n ts , a nd m ost o f t h em
se em t o l iv e o n f a st f o od o r s o m eth in g t h ey c a n h ea t u p i n t h e m ic ro w ave.
They o fte n l o ok i ll o r t ir e d , a nd t h is c o uld b e a r e su lt o f t h eir d ie t. S o y es,
I t h in k s c h ools h ave a d uty t o t e a ch t h eir s tu den ts h ow t o c o ok. I b elie ve
th at t h is i s a n i m porta nt f ir st s te p o n t h e r o ad t o a h ea lth y l ife sty le . A nd
th ey s h ould a ls o s h ow t h eir s tu den ts t h at c o okin g c a n b e i n te re stin g a nd
fu n, a nd n ot a c h ore l ik e h ouse w ork .
• What e ffe cts h av e f a st- fo od r e sta ura nts h ad o n p eo ple ’s h ealth ?
Fast f o od h as b eco m e e xtr e m ely p opula r i n m y c o untr y i n t h e l a st f e w
yea rs, a nd b eca use s o m any f a st- fo od p la ces h ave o pen ed , i t’s n ow
beco m in g m ore d iffic u lt t o f in d t r a ditio nal f o ods. A nd t h is h as d efin ite ly

had a n i m pact o n p eo ple ’s h ea lth . T w en ty y ea rs a go o r s o , p eo ple w ere
not o nly e a tin g h ea lth ie r f o od, b ut t h ey w ere a ls o l e a din g a m ore a ctiv e
life sty le . H ow ever, t h e c o m bin atio n o f f a st f o od a nd a m ore s e d en ta ry
life sty le m ea ns t h at m ore p eo ple a re o verw eig ht o r e ven o bese , a nd o ur
hea lth s e rv ic e i s h avin g t o d ea l w ith a l o t o f r e la te d i lln esse s a nd
dis e a se s. I t’s b eco m e s o s e rio us t h at o ur g overn m en t i s e ven t a lk in g
about p uttin g s p ecia l t a xes o n f a st f o od l ik e b urg ers a nd f r ie d c h ic ken s o
th at p eo ple e a t l e ss o f i t, b ut I t h in k t h is p ro bably w ould n’t b e e n ough.
WRIT IN G
My p are nts ’ k itc hen w as f a ir ly s im ple . T here w ere o nly a f e w a p plia nces
whic h i n clu d ed a n o ven, a m ic ro w av e, a to aste r a nd a n e le ctr ic k ettl e , b ut w e
ate m ost o f o ur m eals a t h o m e. A m eal o ut w as a n o ccasio nal tr e at f o r
bir th d ays, a nniv ers a rie s a nd s o o n. I n m y k itc hen, I s ti ll h av e th e s a m e
ap plia nces th at m y p are nts h ad , b ut I a ls o h av e a f o od p ro cesso r, a f r u it j u ic er,
a c o ffe e m achin e, a s a nd w ic h to aste r a nd a h uge v arie ty o f i m ple m ents
desig ned to m ake c o okin g e asie r. Y et d esp ite th is , I n o w e at m ost o f m y m eals
in r e sta ura nts a nd c af
é s.
I k no w a m n o t a lo ne. O n m ost n ig hts , r e sta ura nts i n m y c ity a re p acked . N ew
re sta ura nts o pen e v ery w eek, a nd th e v arie ty o f f o od o n o ffe r i s a sto nis h in g. O n
ju st o ne s tr e et i n m y c ity , f o r e xam ple , y o u c an e at I ta lia n, F re nch, S panis h ,
Leb anese , C hin ese , J a p anese , M exic an, I n d ia n, N orth A fr ic an a nd T hai f o od,
no t to m enti o n a h uge v arie ty o f f a st- fo od o pti o ns l ik e b urg ers , s a nd w ic hes a nd
piz za s. E ati n g o ut i n m y c o untr y i s n o w c o nsid ere d th e n um ber tw o p asti m e
afte r w atc hin g te le v is io n.
I b elie v e th ere a re th re e m ain r e aso ns w hy th is i s th e c ase . T he f ir s t i s th at
peo ple h av e m ore d is p osa b le i n co m e, s o th ey c an a ffo rd to e at o ut m ore . A nd
as r e sta ura nts h av e to c o m pete w ith o ne a no th er f o r c usto m ers , th ey k eep th eir
pric es c o m para ti v ely l o w , s o e ati n g o ut h as b eco m e r e la ti v ely c heap . T he
se co nd i s th e ti m e f a cto r. P re p arin g a m eal i s ti m e-c o nsu m in g, a nd p eo ple
eith er d on’t h av e e no ugh ti m e o r w ant to u se i t i n o th er w ays. T he th ir d i s th at
te le v is io n c o okery p ro gra m mes h av e b eco m e v ery p opula r i n m y c o untr y , a nd
while th ey a re s u p pose d to e nco ura ge p eo ple to c o ok m ore , th e e ffe ct i s o fte n
th e o pposite . P eo ple s e e th e w ond erfu l d is h es th at o ur c ele b rity c hefs p re p are ,
and i n ste ad o f c o okin g th ese d is h es th em se lv es, th ey g o o ut to a r e sta ura nt

where s o m eo ne e ls e d oes a ll th e h ard w ork .
The r e su lt i s th at m any m odern k itc hen a p plia nces a re r a re ly u se d . T hey h av e
beco m e s o m eth in g y o u d eco ra te y o ur k itc hen w ith , o r u se a s a s ta tu s s y m bol.
The k itc hen i s n o l o nger a p la ce w here y o u w ork h ard to p re p are a m eal. I t h as
beco m e a p la ce to r e la x w hile y o u a d m ir e y o ur s h in y a p plia nces a nd th in k
ab out y o ur n ext m eal o ut.

A nsw ers
P age 1 A ddit io n, e quatio n & c o nclu sio n
1
2
1 . F urth erm ore / I n a d diti o n / I n M ore o ver / W hat’ s m ore ( th is i s l e ss f o rm al
t h an th e o th er e xp re ssio ns), 2 . A s w ell a s / B esid es (
no t
In a dditio n,
a s th is
w ould n eed
to
b efo re th e v erb ), 3 . L ik ew is e / S im ila rly / I n th e s a m e w ay ( th e
m ain v erb i n b oth s e nte nces i s th e s a m e (
re sp ect
), s o w e c an u se a w ord /
p hra se o f e q uati o n h ere ), 4 . A s w ell a s / A lo ng w ith , 5 . A ls o / F urth erm ore / I n
a d diti o n / M ore o ver / W hat’ s m ore , 6 . L ik ew is e / s im ila rly , 7 . L ik ew is e / I n
t h e s a m e w ay / S im ila rly , 8 . I n b rie f, 9 . I n b rie f / W e c an c o nclu d e th at, 1 0.
T here fo re (
to s u m u p, t o c o nclu de
a nd
to s u m maris e
a re u su ally u se d to
c o nclu d e a l o nger p ie ce o f w riti n g.
Thus
i s s lig htl y m ore f o rm al th an
th ere fo re ,
b ut h as th e s a m e m eanin g)
P age 2 A ro und t h e w orld
1
1 . th e F ar E ast, 2 . A nta rc ti c (
Anta rc tic a
i s th e n am e o f th e c o nti n ent, a nd i s n o t
p re ced ed b y
th e
), 3 . A ustr a la sia , 4 . th e I n d ia n s u b co nti n ent, 5 . C entr a l
A meric a, 6 . L ati n A meric a, 7 . s o uth ern A fr ic a (
South A fr ic a
i s th e n am e o f a
c o untr y ), 8 . th e U nite d K in gd om , 9 . E uro pe, 1 0. th e G ulf S ta te s, 1 1 .
S cand in av ia , 1 2. c ap ita l ( T ra d iti o nally , a c ap ita l c ity i s th e c ity i n a c o untr y

where th e g o vern m ent i s b ase d . C iti e s w hic h a re l a rg er th an th e c ap ita l c iti e s
of a c o untr y , f o r e xam ple , I s ta nb ul, a re o fte n k no w n a s
prin cip al c itie s
)
2
1. A fg han, 2 . A rg enti n e, 3 . A ustr a lia n, 4 . B angla d esh i, 5 . B elg ia n, 6 . B ra zilia n,
7. C anad ia n, 8 . D anis h , 9 . E gyp ti a n, 1 0. E nglis h / B riti s h , 1 1 . F in nis h , 1 2.
Gre ek, 1 3. I n d ia n, 1 4. I r a nia n, 1 5. I r a q i, 1 6. I r is h , 1 7. I s ra eli, 1 8. J a p anese , 1 9.
Kuw aiti , 2 0. L eb anese , 2 1. M ala y / M ala ysia n, 2 2. M exic an, 2 3. M oro ccan,
24. D utc h, 2 5. N orw egia n, 2 6. P akis ta ni, 2 7. P eru v ia n, 2 8. F ilip in o , 2 9.
Polis h , 3 0. P ortu guese , 3 1. R ussia n, 3 2. S aud i A ra b ia n, 3 3. S co tti s h / B riti s h ,
34. S panis h , 3 5. S w ed is h , 3 6. S w is s, 3 7. T hai, 3 8. T urk is h , 3 9. W els h /
Briti s h , 4 0. Y em eni
Pages 3 – 4 C hanges 1
⇨ The w ord s a nd p hra se s i n t h is m odule a re p artic u la rly u se fu l f o r P art 1 o f
th e I E LTS W ritin g T est, w here y o u m ay b e a sk ed t o w rite a bout c h anges
sh ow n i n t a ble s o r g ra phs.
1
1. i n cre ase d / r o se / w ent u p ( in a ny o rd er), 2 . f e ll / d ro pped / w ent d ow n /
declin ed ( in a ny o rd er), 3 . r e m ain ed s te ad y / r e m ain ed c o nsta nt ( in e ith er
ord er), 4 . f lu ctu ate d / p eaked a t / r e ached a p eak o f ( in e ith er o rd er)
2
1. g ra d ually / s te ad ily ( in e ith er o rd er), 2 . s lig htl y , 3 . d ra m ati c ally / s h arp ly ( in
eith er o rd er), 4 . u p w ard tr e nd
3
The n um ber o f v is ito rs to S eahav en ( 1 )
in cre a se d / r o se / w en t u p
( 2 )
gra dually / s te a dily
b etw een A pril a nd J u ne, th en ( 3 )
in cre a se d / r o se / w en t
up
( 4 )
dra m atic a lly / s h arp ly
i n J u ly , a nd c o nti n ued to ( 5 )
go u p / i n cre a se /
ris e
i n A ugust. F or th e f ir s t f o ur m onth s, v is ito r n um bers to B rid gep ort ( 6 )
flu ctu ate d ,
b ut th en ( 7 )
dro pped / f e ll / d eclin ed / d ecre a se d / w en t d ow n
( 8 )
dra m atic a lly / s h arp ly

A nsw ers
i n th e f in al m onth . W esth am pto n v is ito r n um bers ( 9 )
re m ain ed c o nsta nt /
r e m ain ed s te a dy
f r o m A pril to J u ne, th en ( 1 0)
in cre a se d / r o se / w en t u p
( 1 1 )
s lig htly
i n J u ly a nd f in ally ( 1 2)
pea ked a t / r e a ch ed a p ea k o f
1 1 ,0 00 i n
A ugust.
O vera ll, th ere w as a n ( 1 3)
upw ard t r e n d
i n th e n um ber o f v is ito rs to S eahav en
a nd W esth am pto n, b ut a ( 1 4)
dow nw ard t r e n d
i n th e n um ber o f p eo ple v is iti n g
B rid gep ort.
( R em em ber to v ary y o ur v ocab ula ry i n W riti n g ta sk s. T ry n o t to u se th e s a m e
w ord to o o fte n. I f, f o r e xam ple , y o u u se
in cre a se
i n o ne p art, u se
ris e
i n
a no th er, a nd
go u p
i n a no th er.)
P ages 5 – 6 C hanges 2
1
1 . a lte re d / a lte r, 2 . s w itc hin g / s w itc hed , 3 . a d ju st / a d ju st, 4 . f a d ed / f a d ed , 5 .
v arie s / v ary , 6 . r e d uce / r e d uce, 7 . d ete rio ra te / d ete rio ra te d ( w e c an a ls o s a y
w orse n
o r
get w orse
), 8 . s w ell / s w ells , 9 . e xchanged / e xchange, 1 0. r e no vate
/ r e no vate
2
1 . r e p la ced / r e p la ce, 2 . a d ap t / a d ap te d , 3 . d is a p pear / d is a p peare d , 4 .
p ro m ote d / p ro m ote d , 5 . r e la x / r e la x, 6 . i m pro ve / i m pro vin g, 7 . e xp and /
e xp and ed , 8 . c ut / c utti n g, 9 . tr a nsfo rm ed / tr a nsfo rm ed , 1 0. d eclin ed /
d eclin in g
P age 7 C ondit io n
1
1 . p ro vid in g th at
*
y o u r e tu rn , 2 . p ro vid ed th at
*
I h av e, 3 . u nle ss y o u g et (
unle ss
m eans th e s a m e a s
if y o u d on’t
), 4 . o n c o nd iti o n th at
*
th ey ti d y (
on c o nditio n
t h at
i s q uite f o rm al) , 5 . a s l o ng a s w e c o nti n ue, 6 . n o m atte r h o w m uch y o u, 7 .
h o w ev er m any b ooks y o u, 8 . w here v er y o u

*
W e c an o m it
th at
a fte r
pro vid in g, p ro vid ed
a nd
on c o nditio n.
W e c an a ls o
use
th e
b efo re
co nditio n.
Note : A ll o f th ese s e nte nces c an a ls o
begin
w ith th e c o nd iti o nal w ord o r
phra se . F or e xam ple :
Yo u c a n b orro w m y d ic tio nary p ro vid in g t h at y o u r e tu rn
it b efo re y o u g o h om e = P ro vid in g t h at y o u r e tu rn i t b efo re y o u g o h om e, y o u
ca n b orro w m y d ic tio nary.
W hen w e d o th is , w e a re s h ifti n g th e e m phasis o f
th e s e nte nce to th e c o nd iti o nal c la use .
Pages 8 – 9 C onfu sin g w ord s & f a ls e f r ie nds 1
1. a b ro ad / a b oard , 2 . a cti o n / a cti v ity , 3 . a d vis e / a d vic e, 4 . e ffe ct / a ffe ct, 5 .
ap pre cia b le / a p pre cia ti v e, 6 . p re v ent / a v oid , 7 . b esid e / B esid es, 8 . S ho rtl y /
brie fly , 9 . c anal / c hannel, 1 0. c o nsc io us / C onsc ie nti o us, 1 1 . c o nsid era te /
co nsid era b le , 1 2. c o nti n ual / c o nti n uo us, 1 3. c o ntr o l / i n sp ect, 1 4. o bje cti o n /
criti c is m , 1 5. i n ju ry / h arm / d am age, 1 6. f o r / w hile / d urin g, 1 7. H ow ev er /
More o ver, 1 8. w ound ed / i n ju re d
Pages 1 0 – 1 1 C onfu sin g w ord s & f a ls e f r ie nds 2
1. j o b / w ork , 2 . l ie / l a y, 3 . w atc h / l o ok a t, 4 . l o se / l o ose , 5 . m ake / c ause , 6 .
natu re / c o untr y sid e, 7 . p er c ent ( o fte n w ritte n a s o ne w ord :
perc en t
) /
perc enta ge, 8 . p erm it / p erm is sio n, 9 . p ers o nal / p ers o nnel, 1 0. p ossib ility /
chance, 1 1 . p ra cti s e / p ra cti c e ( n o te th at i n A meric an E nglis h ,
pra cti
c e i s b oth
a n o un a nd a v erb ), 1 2. P ric ele ss / w orth le ss, 1 3. p rin cip le / P rin cip al /
prin cip al / p rin cip le , 1 4. tr o ub le / p ro ble m , 1 5. p ro cessio n / p ro cess, 1 6. r is e /
ra is e , 1 7. r e m em ber / r e m in d , 1 8. r e sp ectf u l / r e sp ecta b le , 1 9. to le ra nt /
to le ra b le , 2 0. tr e at / c ure
Oth er c o nfu sin g w ord s o r f a ls e f r ie n ds i n clu de:
actu ally + n o w , a lr e ad y + y et, a fr a id o f + w orrie d a b out, b rin g + f e tc h, c o nd uct
+ d ir e ct, d is c o ver + i n v ent, d riv er + c hauffe ur, f o rm id ab le + w ond erfu l, f u n +
fu nny, g o + p la y ( fo r s p orts a nd g am es), c o m e a lo ng w ith + f o llo w , k in d +
sy m path eti c , l e nd + b orro w , o verc o m e + o verta ke, p ass + ta ke ( a n e xam ),
re ceip t + r e cip e, s c enery + v ie w , s e nsib le + s e nsiti v e, s p ecia l + e sp ecia lly ,
ta ke + b rin g
Pages 1 2 – 1 3 C onte xt & m eanin g 1

1
2 ( s u ggeste d a nsw ers ).
noctu rn al
: a cti v e a t n ig ht r a th er th an d urin g th e d ay. /
cite s
: m enti o ns s o m eth in g a s a n e xam ple o r e xp la nati o n o f s o m eth in g e ls e . /
co here n tly
: s p oken o r w ritte n s o th at a ll th e d iffe re nt p arts f it to geth er, a nd / o r
whic h a re e asy to u nd ers ta nd . /
fe a t
: s o m eth in g i m pre ssiv e th at s o m eo ne d oes.

A nsw ers
3
( a ) b urd en, ( b ) p ro lific , ( c ) i n iti a ti v e, ( d ) r e silie nt, ( e ) s w ays, ( f) e lu siv e, ( g )
i m ple m ent, ( h ) a rd uo us, ( i) f r in ge, ( j) p ro hib iti v e, ( k ) e xhausti v e, ( l) f o ra ge,
( m ) s ta cks, ( n ) i m pera ti v e, ( o ) m ed io cre
R em em ber th at s o m e w ord s c an h av e a d iffe re nt m eanin g d ep end in g o n th eir
c o nte xt. F or e xam ple ,
pro hib itiv e
c an a ls o m ean
lim itin g s o m eth in g, o r
p re ven tin g s o m eth in g f r o m b ein g d one
( e .g .,
pro hib itiv e a nti- p ir a cy l a w s
).
I n a d diti o n to l o okin g a t th e
co nte xt
i n w hic h a w ord a p pears i n o rd er to w ork
o ut i ts m eanin g, y o u s h o uld a ls o i d enti fy i ts
fu nctio n
( is i t a n o un, v erb ,
a d je cti v e, a d verb , e tc ?). S om e o f th e w ord s i n E xerc is e 2 c an h av e a d iffe re nt
f u ncti o n w ith o ut c hangin g th eir f o rm , d ep end in g o n h o w th ey a re u se d ( e .g .,
b urd en
c an b e a v erb a s w ell a s a n o un).
P ages 1 4 – 1 5 C onte xt & m eanin g 2
1
1 . I n co rre ct ( s to p s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g f r o m m akin g p ro gre ss o r d ev elo pin g),
2 . C orre ct, 3 . I n co rre ct ( s p eak p ub lic ly to a g ro up o f p eo ple ), 4 . I n co rre ct
( b ad ly b uilt o r m ad e, a nd s o l ik ely to b re ak e asily ), 5 . C orre ct, 6 . I n co rre ct
( b eco m e a f u ll m em ber o f a g ro up o r s o cie ty ), 7 . I n co rre ct ( th e s ta rt o f
s o m eth in g), 8 . I n co rre ct ( in v enti n g o r u sin g n ew i d eas), 9 . I n co rre ct ( g ra d ually
b eco m es n arro w er to w ard s o ne e nd ), 1 0. C orre ct, 1 1 . I n co rre ct ( n ic e to l o ok
a t) , 1 2. C orre ct
2
1 . I n co rre ct ( ro ugh a nd h ard ), 2 . I n co rre ct ( s p re ad i d eas, b elie fs , e tc ., to a l o t
o f p eo ple ), 3 . C orre ct, 4 . I n co rre ct ( a b le to b e d one, o r w orth d oin g), 5 .
I n co rre ct ( b elie v e o r s a y th at s o m eth in g w as w ritte n, s a id , p ain te d , e tc , b y a
p arti c ula r p ers o n), 6 . I n co rre ct ( a n o ffic ia l d ocum ent th at, a m ong o th er th in gs,
p re v ents s o m eo ne f r o m c o pyin g s o m eo ne e ls e ’s i n v enti o n), 7 . C orre ct, 8 .
I n co rre ct ( to b e r e aso nab le o r n ecessa ry ), 9 . C orre ct, 1 0. I n co rre ct ( c o nnecte d
w ith s o m eth in g, b ut n o t a n ecessa ry o r i m porta nt p art o f i t) , 1 1 . I n co rre ct ( to

make o r p ers u ad e s o m eb ody to d o s o m eth in g), 1 2. I n co rre ct ( h ad c hanges
mad e i n o rd er to i m pro ve i t)
Pages 1 6 – 1 7 C onte xt & m eanin g 3
1
1.
in fa ncy: th e ti m e w hen y o u a re a b ab y o r v ery y o ung c hild .
2.
pers o nnel: th e p eo ple w ho w ork f o r a c o m pany o r o rg anis a ti o n.
3.
pro lo ng: to m ake s o m eth in g l a st l o nger.
4.
win d sw ep t: h av in g a l o t o f w in d , a nd n o t m any b uild in gs o r tr e es to
pro te ct i t.
5.
th re efo ld : th re e ti m es a s m uch, o r th re e ti m es a s m any ( a ls o w ritte n
th re e-
fo ld .
O th er n um bers c an b e u se d :
tw ofo ld , t e n fo ld ,
e tc .) .
6.
sc ho la rs : p eo ple w ho s tu d y a p arti c ula r s u b je ct a nd k no w a l o t a b out i t,
esp ecia lly i f th e s u b je ct i s n o t s c ie nti fic .
7.
re cip ie nt: ( fo rm al) s o m eo ne w ho r e ceiv es s o m eth in g.
8.
centr e p ie ce: th e m ost i m porta nt o bje ct o r d eco ra ti o n i n a p arti c ula r p la ce.
9.
multi tu d e: a v ery l a rg e n um ber o f th in gs o r p eo ple .
10.
num era cy: b asic s k ills i n m ath em ati c s.
11 .
life sp an: th e l e ngth o f ti m e th at a n a nim al o r h um an l iv es.
12.
moneta ry : c o nsis ti n g o f m oney, o r a b le to b e m easu re d i n m oney.
13.
gra nd eur: a n i m pre ssiv e q uality th at a p la ce, o bje ct o r o ccasio n h as.
14.
sta nd poin t: a w ay o f c o nsid erin g s o m eth in g f r o m s o m eo ne’s p oin t o f v ie w .
2
1.
ep ic entr e : th e a re a o f l a nd d ir e ctl y o ver th e c entr e o f a n e arth q uake.
2.
outp ati e nts : p eo ple w ho r e ceiv e m ed ic al tr e atm ent a t a h o sp ita l, b ut d o n o t
sta y th ere f o r th e n ig ht.
3.
valid ate : to o ffic ia lly p ro ve th at s o m eth in g i s tr u e o r c o rre ct.
4.
wid esp re ad : h ap penin g o r e xis ti n g i n m any p la ces, o r a ffe cti n g m any
peo ple .

5.
se afa re rs : p eo ple w ho w ork o r tr a v el r e gula rly o n th e s e a, e sp ecia lly
sa ilo rs .
6.
sp ati a l: r e la ti n g to th e s iz e , s h ap e a nd p ositi o n o f th in gs ( th e ‘ ro ot’ w ord i s
sp ace
).
7.
mono ra il: a r a ilw ay s y ste m i n w hic h tr a in s tr a v el o n a s in gle m eta l tr a ck.
8.
aud ito ry : r e la ti n g to h earin g.
9.
in d ustr io us: a lw ays w ork in g v ery h ard .

Answ ers
1 0.
lo ngev ity : h av in g a l o ng l ife o r e xis te nce.
1 1 .
dra w back: a f e atu re o f s o m eth in g th at m akes i t l e ss u se fu l th an i t c o uld b e.
1 2.
sh o w case s: s h o w s s o m eo ne o r s o m eth in g i n a w ay th at a ttr a cts a tte nti o n
and e m phasis e s th eir g o od q ualiti e s.
1 3.
wild ern ess: a n a re a o f l a nd w here p eo ple d o n o t l iv e o r g ro w c ro ps, a nd
where th ere a re n o b uild in gs.
1 4.
illite ra te : u nab le to r e ad o r w rite .
P age 1 8 C ontr a st & c o m paris o n
1 . A , 2 . B , 3 . B , 4 . C (
diffe re n tia te
a nd
dis tin guis h
h av e e xactl y th e s a m e
m eanin g), 5 . C , 6 . A , 7 . C , 8 . A , 9 . B , 1 0. C , 1 1 . A , 1 2. C , 1 3. C , 1 4. B , 1 5. B
( th is i s a n i n fo rm al e xp re ssio n)
P age 1 9 E m phasis & m is u ndersta ndin g
1
1 . F , 2 . B , 3 . E , 4 . C , 5 . A , 6 . D
2
1 . a ccentu ate d / e m phasis e d , 2 . p ro m in ent, 3 . a ccent / e m phasis / s tr e ss, 4 . p ut
g re at s tr e ss, 5 . c ru cia lly i m porta nt / e xtr e m ely i m porta nt / o f c ru cia l
i m porta nce, 6 . e m phasis
3
1 . c o nfu se d , 2 . c o nfu sio n, 3 . m ix -u p ( th is i s a n i n fo rm al w ord ), 4 . o bsc ure , 5 .
m is a p pre hensio n, 6 . a ssu m ed , 7 . m is ta ken, 8 . i m pre ssio n
P age 2 0 F ocu sin g a tte ntio n
1
1 . s im ply , 2 . l a rg ely , 3 . p rim arily , 4 . m ain ly , 5 . e xclu siv ely , 6 . p arti c ula rly , 7 .
s p ecific ally , 8 . n o ta b ly , 9 . m ostl y , 1 0. p ure ly , 1 1 . c hie fly
T he w ord i n th e b old v erti c al b ox i s
prin cip ally .

2
Only o r s o le ly : s im ply , e xclu siv ely , p ure ly , s p ecific ally
In m ost c ase s, n o rm ally , o r th e m ain r e aso n f o r s o m eth in g: c hie fly , l a rg ely ,
main ly , m ostl y , n o ta b ly , p arti c ula rly , p rim arily .
Pages 2 1 – 2 2 G enera lis a tio ns & s p ecif ic s
1
1. D , 2 . A , 3 . B , 4 . H , 5 . L , 6 . E , 7 . O , 8 . F , 9 . I , 1 0. J , 1 1 . N , 1 2. M , 1 3. G , 1 4.
C, 1 5. K
2
Specific th in gs: th e s p ecific s, c hara cte ris ti c s, d eta ils , e xem plifie s, i llu str a te ,
illu str a ti o n, i te m is e , m in uti a e, p eculia r to , p eculia rity , te chnic ality
Genera l th in gs: g enera lis a ti o ns, o utl in e, g is t, i n g enera l
Oth er w ord s a nd p hra se s y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
f o r th e m ost p art,
genera liti e s, i n g enera l te rm s, o n th e w ho le , to g enera lis e , l is t ( a s a v erb ),
sp ecify
Page 2 3 G ro ups
1
Peo ple i n g enera l: c ro w d, g ang, g ro up , h ud dle , th ro ng A g ro up o f p eo ple
work in g to geth er: c ast, c o m pany, c re w , p la to on, s ta ff, te am A nim als : f lo ck,
herd , l itte r, p ack, s h o al ( o f f is h . W e c an a ls o s a y
sc h ool
), s w arm
*
O bje cts :
batc h
**
, b unch, b und le , p ile ( w e c an a ls o s a y
hea p
), s e t, s ta ck
*
s w arm c an a ls o b e u se d i n fo rm ally f o r a l a rg e g ro up o f p eo ple (
Sw arm s o f
polic e o ffic ers s u rro unded t h e b uild in g
)
**
batc h
c an a ls o b e u se d to ta lk a b out a n um ber o f p eo ple th at a rriv e o r a re
dealt w ith a t th e s a m e ti m e (
This n ew b atc h o f s tu den ts s e em s v ery n ic e
)

A nsw ers
2
1 . h erd , 2 . c ast, 3 . s w arm s, 4 . p ile s / s ta cks / h eap s, 5 . s h o als / s c ho ols , 6 .
c re w , 7 . s e t, 8 . s ta ff, 9 . b unch, 1 0. c ro w d / th ro ng ( o r, m ore i n fo rm ally ,
s w arm
), 1 1 . p acks, 1 2. g ro up / h ud dle , 1 3. f lo cks, 1 4. b atc h, 1 5. b und le , 1 6.
g angs / c ro w ds / g ro up s
P age 2 4 H ow s o m eth in g w ork s
⇨ The w ord s a nd p hra se s i n t h is m odule a re p artic u la rly u se fu l f o r t h e
I E LTS L is te n in g T est ( w here y o u m ay h ea r s o m eo ne d esc rib in g h ow
s o m eth in g w ork s) o r P art 1 o f t h e I E LTS W ritin g T est ( w here y o u m ay b e
s h ow n a p ic tu re o r d ia gra m o f s o m eth in g, a nd h ave t o e xp la in h ow i t w ork s).
1 . A th erm osta t
A th erm osta t
co nta in s
a s tr ip o r c o il o f s te el a nd a s tr ip o r c o il o f c o pper, o ne
o n to p o f th e o th er. A s th e s tr ip / c o il
heats u p,
th e m eta ls
expand,
b ut o ne
d oes i t f a ste r th an th e o th er. T he s tr ip / c o il
bends
a nd
co nnects
w ith a s w itc h,
w hic h
tu rn s o ff
th e p ow er s u p ply . W hen th e s tr ip / c o il
co ols d ow n,
th e m eta ls
c o ntr a ct
a nd th e s w itc h i s
dis c o nnecte d.
T he th erm osta t i s
adju ste d
u sin g a
d ia l o r o th er c o ntr o l.
2 . A d is c p la yer
A d is c p la yer ( fo r e xam ple , i n a c o m pute r) h as s e v era l c o m ponent p arts . A
d is c i s
in se rte d
i n to th e p la yer a nd b egin s to
sp in .
A t th e s a m e ti m e, a th in
b eam o f l ig ht c alle d a l a se r
str ik es
th e d is c a nd
co nverts
d ig ita l s ig nals i n to
s o und s o r i m ages, w hic h c an b e
heard
th ro ugh s p eakers o r
vie w ed
o n a
s c re en. V olu m e o r b rig htn ess c an b e
in cre ase d
o r
decre ase d
b y m eans o f a
b utto n, k no b o r o th er c o ntr o l. N ow ad ays, d is c s a re l a rg ely b ein g
re pla ce d
b y
s to ra ge d ev ic es l ik e m em ory s ti c ks, w hic h h av e n o m ovin g p arts .
3 . A n a ero so l
I n a n a ero so l, l iq uid a nd g as a re
co m pre sse d
i n a m eta l a nd / o r h ard p la sti c
t u b e. T his c an b e
re le ase d
f r o m th e tu b e b y
push in g
a b utto n, w hic h
opens
a
v alv e. W hen th e l iq uid –gas c o m bin ati o n
le aves
th e tu b e a nd
mix es
w ith

oxygen, i t r a p id ly
expands.
4. A n a ir c ra ft
Most a ir c ra ft a re
made
o f a lu m in iu m , a nd r e q uir e tw o f o rc es to a llo w th em to
fly : th ru st a nd l ift. A s th e a ir c ra ft
moves
f o rw ard o n th e g ro und u nd er th e
pow er o f i ts e ngin es, a ir
flo w s
o ver th e w in gs. A s i t
acce le ra te s / m oves
fa ste r,
cre atin g / p ro ducin g
m ore th ru st, a v acuum i s
cre ate d / f o rm ed
o ver
th e w in gs. T his
cre ate s / p ro duce s
l ift. T he a ir c ra ft i s
pulle d
i n to th e a ir b y
th e f o rc e o f th is l ift.
5. A d ig ita l c am era
A d ig ita l c am era
co nsis ts
o f tw o m ain p arts : a b ody a nd a l e ns. W hen a b utto n
is
pre sse d
o n th e b ody, a w in d ow i n th e l e ns c alle d a
sh utte r
opens
a nd l ig ht
ente rs
th e c am era . T he a m ount o f l ig ht g o in g i n to th e c am era i s
co ntr o lle d
b y
both th e s p eed o f th is s h utte r, a nd a s m alle r w in d ow c alle d a n
apertu re .
B oth
th e s h utte r s p eed a nd th e s iz e o f th e a p ertu re c an b e
adju ste d
b y th e p ers o n
usin g th e c am era . T he l ig ht
hit s
a s e nso r i n th e b ody o f th e c am era , w hic h
re co rd s
th e l ig ht a s a d ig ita l i m age. T he i m age i s
re co rd ed / s to re d
o n a
mem ory c ard i n th e c am era , a nd th is c an l a te r b e
dow nlo aded
o nto a c o m pute r.
Oth er w ord s a nd p hra se s y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
f o ld , r e fle ct, r e v ers e ,
re v olv e, s ta rt, s to p, tu rn , tu rn d ow n, tu rn u p , u nfo ld , u nw in d , u p lo ad , w in d
Note : W hen w e d esc rib e h o w a n o bje ct w ork s a nd th ere i s n o o th er p ers o n o r
agent i n v olv ed i n o ur d esc rip ti o n, w e u se th e
activ e v o ic e
( ‘
… lig ht
en te rs
th e
cam era
… ’, ‘
… th e m eta ls
exp and
… ’). W hen th ere i s a p ers o n i n v olv ed i n th e
pro cess, w e u su ally u se th e
passiv e v o ic e
(
is / a re
+ a p ast p arti c ip le : ‘ T he
th erm osta t
is a dju ste d
… ’, ‘
… liq uid a nd g as
are c o m pre sse d
… ’). W e u se th e
passiv e v oic e w hen w e d o n o t k no w w ho d oes th e a cti o n o r p ro cess, o r
because w e d o n o t n eed to s a y w ho d oes i t.
Page 2 5 J oin in g / b eco m in g p art o f s o m eth in g b ig ger
1
1. l in ked , 2 . a m alg am ate d / m erg ed , 3 . b le nd ed , 4 . m erg ed / a m alg am ate d , 5 .
in co rp ora te d , 6 . i n te gra te d / a ssim ila te d , 7 . a ssim ila te d / i n te gra te d , 8 . to ok
over / s w allo w ed u p (
sw allo w ed u p
i s l e ss f o rm al th an
to ok o ver.
W e c an a ls o
sa y
acq uir e d
), 9 . g o t to geth er ( a n i n fo rm al p hra se . W e c an a ls o s a y
met
o r
asse m ble d ,
w hic h a re s lig htl y l e ss i n fo rm al) , 1 0. to ok o ver / s w allo w ed u p

Answ ers
2
1 . a llia nce, 2 . u nio n, 3 . f e d era ti o n, 4 . a llo y, 5 . c o m pound , 6 . s y nth esis , 7 .
u nific ati o n, 8 . b le nd , 9 . c o aliti o n, 1 0. m erg er
P age 2 6 L ik es & d is lik es
1
1 . P ositi v e, 2 . P ositi v e, 3 . N egati v e, 4 . P ositi v e, 5 . N egati v e, 6 . N egati v e, 7 .
N egati v e, 8 . P ositi v e (
fa ncie s
i n th is c o nte xt i s a n i n fo rm al w ay o f s a yin g
w ould l ik e t o
), 9 . P ositi v e, 1 0. P ositi v e, 1 1 . P ositi v e, 1 2. P ositi v e, 1 3.
N egati v e, 1 4. P ositi v e, 1 5. P ositi v e, 1 6. N egati v e, 1 7. P ositi v e, 1 8. P ositi v e
a ttr a ct, c a ptiv a te , d is g ust, f a sc in ate , r e p el
a nd
te m pt
c an b e a cti v e (
New
t e ch nolo gy
fa sc in ate s
m e
), b ut a re m ore c o m monly p assiv e (
I am f a sc in ate d
b y
n ew t e ch nolo gy
)
P ages 2 7 – 2 9 L oca tio n & d ir e ctio n
⇨ Language o f l o ca tio n a nd d ir e ctio n i s p artic u la rly u se fu l f o r t h e I E LTS
L is te n in g T est, w here y o u m ay b e a sk ed t o l o ca te p la ces o r o th er t h in gs o n
m aps o r p la ns.
1
1 . d ir e ctl y o pposite , 2 . to th e w est o f, 3 . o n th e s o uth s id e o f, 4 . to th e e ast o f,
5 . o n th e l e ft- h and s id e o f ( w e c an j u st s a y
on t h e l e ft s id e o f
), 6 . i n th e m id dle
o f, 7 . h alfw ay a lo ng ( w e c an a ls o s a y
halfw ay u p
), 8 . p ara lle l to , 9 . a t r ig ht
a ngle s to ( w hen s o m eth in g i s a t a 9 0
° a ngle to s o m eth in g e ls e , w e c an a ls o s a y
t h at i t i s
perp en dic u la r t o
i t) , 1 0. o n th e n o rth s id e o f, 1 1 . h alfw ay b etw een,
1 2. d ia go nally o pposite , 1 3. s u rro und ed b y, 1 4. o n, 1 5. o n th e c o rn er o f
2
Y ou a re g o in g to A ( th e h o te l)
N ote : A
cro ssro ads
i s a p la ce w here o ne r o ad c ro sse s a no th er. A c ro ssro ad s i s
a ty p e o f
ju nctio n
( a p la ce w here o ne r o ad c ro sse s o r j o in s a no th er). T he
A meric an w ord i s
in te rse ctio n
).

3
To th e s u p erm ark et
1. G o to th e e nd , 2 . tu rn r ig ht, 3 . ta ke th e f ir s t, 4 . o n y o ur l e ft, 5 . s e co nd / l a st,
6. o n y o ur l e ft
To th e l a nguage s c ho ol
7. G o a lo ng, 8 . tu rn r ig ht, 9 . c ro ssro ad s, 1 0. T ake th e f ir s t, 1 1 . o n y o ur l e ft, 1 2.
fir s t, 1 3. o n y o ur r ig ht
To th e b ook s h o p
14. G o a lo ng, 1 5. tu rn l e ft, 1 6. c ro ssro ad s, 1 7. th e e nd , 1 8. tu rn l e ft, 1 9. ta ke
th e s e co nd , 2 0. o n y o ur r ig ht, 2 1. G o p ast, 2 2. l a st, 2 3. o n y o ur r ig ht
Pages 3 0 – 3 1 M odif ie d w ord s
1
1. te le co nfe re nces, 2 . b ia nnual ( s o m eth in g th at i s
bia nnual
o ccurs tw ic e a y ear,
so m eth in g th at i s
bie n nia l
o ccurs o nce e v ery tw o y ears
*
), 3 . a uto bio gra p hy, 4 .
tr a nsfo rm ed , 5 . p re d ete rm in ed , 6 . s e m i- fin al ( th is c an a ls o b e w ritte n a s o ne
word ,
se m ifin al,
o r tw o w ord s,
se m i f in al
), 7 . p ostg ra d uate , 8 . c o -w ork ers , 9 .
mic ro -o rg anis m s ( th is c an a ls o b e w ritte n a s o ne w ord ,
mic ro org anis m s,
o r
tw o w ord s,
mic ro o rg anis m s
), 1 0. u nis e x, 1 1 . s u b sta nd ard , 1 2. c ir c um nav ig ate ,
13. I n te rn ati o nal, 1 4. m ono lin gual, 1 5. u nd era chie v er, 1 6. o verp opula te d
*
R ath er c o nfu sin gly , s o m eth in g th at i s
biw eekly
o ccurs tw ic e a w eek
or
o nce
ev ery tw o w eeks ( e .g .,
A b iw eekly n ew sle tte r
). S om eth in g th at i s
bim onth ly
occurs tw ic e a m onth
or
o nce e v ery tw o m onth s ( e .g .,
a b im onth ly m eetin g
).
2
1. m ic ro w av es, 2 . te le co m munic ati o ns, 3 . u nila te ra l, 4 . s e m i- d eta ched , 5 .
auto pilo t, 6 . b ilin gual, 7 . c ir c um vente d , 8 . p ost- w ar ( th is c an a ls o b e w ritte n a s
one w ord ,
postw ar
), 9 . p re m atu re , 1 0. o verw eig ht, 1 1 . s u b co nsc io us, 1 2.
co ed ucati o nal ( w e c an a ls o w rite th is
co -e d uca tio nal
), 1 3. u nd ere sti m ate d , 1 4.
tr a nsa tl a nti c ( n o te th at
Atla ntic
d oes n o t b egin w ith a c ap ita l l e tte r i n th is
word , b ut w ould n eed to w hen u se d o n i ts o w n), 1 5. i n te rre la ti o nsh ip , 1 6.
mono to ne

A nsw ers
P ages 3 2 – 3 3 O bje cts & a ctio ns
1
1 . f r e eze , 2 . s p in , 3 . s lid e, 4 . e v ap ora te , 5 . c o ngeal ( fo r b lo od, w e w ould s a y
c lo t
), 6 . r o ta te , 7 . w obble , 8 . l e ak ( w e c o uld a ls o s a y
esc a pe.
T he n o is e i t
m akes i s a
his s
), 9 . v ib ra te ( if th e g la ss i s l o ose i n th e f r a m e, i t w ould a ls o
r a ttle
), 1 0. f a d e, 1 1 . r is e , 1 2. e ro de, 1 3. s m ould er, 1 4. e xp and , 1 5. s tr e tc h, 1 6.
c ra ck ( if th e g la ss b re aks c o m ple te ly , i t
sh atte rs
), 1 7. s p ill, 1 8. e xp lo de
2
1 . r e v olv e, 2 . s u b sid e, 3 . f lo w , 4 . m elt, 5 . b ounce, 6 . g ro w , 7 . s e t, 8 . c o nd ense ,
9 . m eand er, 1 0. s p re ad , 1 1 . tr ic kle ( if th e w ate r i s c o m in g o ut v ery s lo w ly i n
s m all d ro ps, w e s a y
drip
), 1 2. b urn , 1 3. c ru m ble , 1 4. c o ntr a ct, 1 5. r in g ( w e
a ls o u se th is w ord f o r th e n o is e a te le p ho ne m akes w hen s o m eo ne i s c allin g
y o u), 1 6. s in k, 1 7. f lo at, 1 8. e ru p t
3
1 . f r o ze , 2 . f lo at, 3 . r is in g, 4 . f a d es, 5 . c o nd ense , 6 . s u b sid ed , 7 . r e v olv ed , 8 .
s e t, 9 . tr ic kle , 1 0. s tr e tc hed , 1 1 . b ounce ( w e c an a ls o
bounce i d ea s a ro und.
T hese a re i n fo rm al e xp re ssio ns), 1 2. l e aked
P age 3 4 O blig atio n & o ptio n
1
1 . F als e ( y o u m ust ta ke y o ur o w n p encil a nd e ra se r), 2 . T ru e, 3 . F als e ( h e h ad
t o p ay th e m oney b ack), 4 . F als e ( th ey d on’t h av e to p ay a ny i n co m e ta x a t a ll) ,
5 . T ru e, 6 . F als e ( th e c o m panie s
make
th em w ork l o ng h o urs : th e e m plo yees
h av e n o c ho ic e), 7 . T ru e, 8 . F als e ( y o u c an a tte nd th e c la sse s i f y o u w ant to ), 9 .
F als e ( y o u
must
w ear a c ra sh h elm et. W e c an a ls o u se th e w ord
oblig ato ry
),
1 0. T ru e
2
1 . o blig ed / r e q uir e d , 2 . n o a lte rn ati v e, 3 . l ia b le f o r, 4 . c o m puls o ry , 5 .
v olu nta ry , 6 . m and ato ry , 7 . r e q uir e d , 8 . f o rc e, 9 . o pti o nal, 1 0. e xem pt

Pages 3 5 – 3 6 O pin io n, a ttit u de & b elie f
1
1. to le ra nce, 2 . o bse sse d , 3 . r e cko n ( th is i s q uite a n i n fo rm al w ord ), 4 . s u sp ect,
5. b ig o te d , 6 . d oub t, 7 . f a nati c al, 8 . d ed ic ate d , 9 . o pin io n, 1 0. p ra gm ati c , 1 1 .
co m mitte d , 1 2. r e gard in g, 1 3. d is a p pro val, 1 4. m ain ta in , 1 5. c o ncern ed , 1 6.
cynic al, 1 7. e xcep ti o n, 1 8. c o nv in ced , 1 9. tr a d iti o nal, 2 0. c o nse rv ati v e
2
1. s u sp ic io us, 2 . p ra gm ati c , 3 . f a nati c al, 4 . d is a p pro ve, 5 . o pin io n, 6 .
ded ic ati o n / c o m mitm ent, 7 . to le ra te , 8 . c o nse rv ati v e / tr a d iti o nal, 9 . d oub t, 1 0.
main ta in / r e cko n / s u sp ect / d oub t
Page 3 7 O pposit e s: a dje ctiv es
1. c le ar, 2 . e asy, 3 . g ra cefu l, 4 . d etr im enta l, 5 . a p pro xim ate , 6 . i n no cent, 7 .
ev en, 8 . s c arc e, 9 . f le xib le , 1 0. m ark ed , 1 1 . c ru d e, 1 2. d elic ate , 1 3. d im , 1 4.
oblig ato ry ( w e c an a ls o s a y
co m puls o ry
), 1 5. r e lu cta nt, 1 6. w id esp re ad , 1 7.
co stl y , 1 8. c hro nic
Page 3 8 O pposit e s: v erb s
1. a ccep te d , 2 . d enie d , 3 . r e tr e ati n g, 4 . a gre ed , 5 . d efe nd ed , 6 . d em olis h ed , 7 .
sim plifie d , 8 . a b and on, 9 . d ete rio ra te d , 1 0. R ew ard in g, 1 1 . l o w ere d , 1 2.
fo rb id den, 1 3. f e ll, 1 4. l o ose n, 1 5. w ith d re w , 1 6. r e ta in ed , 1 7. a ccele ra te s, 1 8.
ig no re d
Page 3 9 O wnersh ip , g iv in g, le ndin g & b orro w in g
1
1. l a nd lo rd s (
la ndla dy
= f e m ale . W e c an a ls o s a y
la ndow ner
), 2 . P ro prie to rs /
Ow ners , 3 . o w ners , 4 . p ro perty , 5 . e sta te / p ro perty , 6 . p osse ssio ns, 7 .
belo ngin gs (
posse ssio ns
u su ally r e fe rs to e v ery th in g w e o w n, f o r e xam ple , o ur
ho m es, f u rn itu re , e tc .
Belo ngin gs
u su ally r e fe rs to s m alle r th in gs, f o r e xam ple ,
brie fc ase , m obile p ho ne, e tc .) , 8 . l o an, 9 . m ortg age, 1 0. te nants , 1 1 . r e nt, 1 2.
donati o n
Mortg age, r e n t
a nd
lo an
c an a ls o b e v erb s.

Answ ers
2
1 . l e nd , 2 . h ir e , 3 . b orro w , 4 .
✓ , 5 . p re se nt, 6 .
✓ , 7 . a llo cate , 8 . p ro vid e
P age 4 0 P hra sa l v erb s 1
1 . u p , 2 . o ut, 3 . u p to , 4 . o ff, 5 . o n, 6 . u p w ith , 7 . d ow n, 8 . o ut o f, 9 . o ut, 1 0. o ut,
1 1 . u p , 1 2. i n , 1 3. u p w ith , 1 4. o ut, 1 5. o ut, 1 6. i n to , 1 7. o n, 1 8. b ehin d , 1 9.
d ow n / b ack o n, 2 0. o ut, 2 1. o ver, 2 2. w ith , 2 3. f o rw ard , 2 4. b ack o n
P ages 4 1 – 4 2 P hra sa l v erb s 2
1 . b ro ke d ow n, 2 . w ork o ut, 3 . w ear o ff, 4 . w ear
… o ut, 5 . p ull th ro ugh, 6 . s o rt
o ut, 7 . s p lit u p , 8 . s h o w ed u p , 9 . p ulle d o ut o f, 1 0. l e tti n g o ff, 1 1 . l e t
… d ow n,
1 2. c arry o n, 1 3. h eld u p , 1 4. f e ll th ro ugh, 1 5. e nd ed u p , 1 6. c arrie d o ut, 1 7.
c utti n g b ack o n, 1 8. c ut o ff, 1 9. d id a w ay w ith , 2 0. d o u p
P age 4 3 P hra sa l v erb s 3
1 . l o oked , 2 . g et, 3 . g etti n g, 4 . l o okin g, 5 . g o , 6 . l o ok, 7 . g et, 8 . g o , 9 . c am e, 1 0.
g iv e, 1 1 . l o ok, 1 2. g o , 1 3. w ent, 1 4. g o , 1 5. l o ok, 1 6. c o m e / g et, 1 7. c o m es,
1 8. l o oked / w ent, 1 9. g et, 2 0. c am e
P ages 4 4 – 4 5 P hra sa l v erb s 4
C lu es a cro ss
1 . p ut d ow n, 4 . ta lk
… ro und , 5 . ta ke a fte r, 6 . r u nnin g u p a gain st, 8 . tu rn ed o ut,
1 1 . p ic ked o n, 1 2. o pt o ut, 1 6. tu rn ed u p , 1 9. s e t o ff, 2 0. r u n u p , 2 1. m ad e u p
C lu es d ow n
1 . p ut a sid e (
se t a sid e
h as th e s a m e m eanin g, b ut d oes n o t f it i n th e c ro ssw ord ),
2 . ta ke i n , 3 . ta ken i n , 5 . tu rn ed d ow n, 7 . p ut u p w ith , 9 . s ta nd i n ( a ls o u se d
w ith
fo r: I w as a sk ed t o
sta nd i n f o r
h im
), 1 0. p ut o ff, 1 3. s e ts i n , 1 4. m ake
o ut, 1 5. m ad e u p , 1 7. r a n f o r, 1 8. p ic k u p
P age 4 6 P re se ntin g a n a rg um ent
⇨ Yo u w ill f in d t h e w ord s a nd p hra se s i n t h is m odule u se fu l i n P art 2 o f t h e

IE LTS W ritin g T est, a nd a ls o i n t h e S pea kin g T est ( e sp ecia lly P art 3 , w here
yo u a re a sk ed t o t a lk a bout a t o pic a nd s a y w hat y o u t h in k a bout i t) .
1. H ow ev er, 2 . F ir s t o f a ll / F ir s tl y , 3 . A s w ell a s / I n a d diti o n to , 4 . I b elie v e /
I th in k, 5 . M ore o ver / F urth erm ore , 6 . A lth o ugh / W hile , 7 . a s w ell, 8 .
Nev erth ele ss, 9 . T he m ost i m porta nt r e aso n / T he m ain r e aso n, 1 0. A s f a r a s I
am c o ncern ed / F or m e, 1 1 . M any c o nsid er, 1 2. S eco nd ly , 1 3. F in ally , 1 4. I n
oth er w ord s, 1 5. I n c o nclu sio n / T o s u m maris e , 1 6. O n th e o ne h and , 1 7. O n th e
oth er h and , 1 8. I n m y o pin io n
Note : T he s a m ple a nsw er i s l o nger th an y o u w ould n eed to w rite i n th e I E LT S.
When y o u a re a sk ed to p re se nt a n a rg um ent, y o u s h o uld a lw ays l o ok a t i t f r o m
tw o s id es, g iv in g r e aso ns w hy y o u a gre e a nd / o r d is a gre e b efo re r e achin g a
co nclu sio n. I t i s u su ally b est to p re se nt y o ur a rg um ent i n f a v our o f s o m eth in g
ju st b efo re th e c o nclu sio n.
Page 4 7 R easo n & r e su lt
1
1. T he p olic e a sk ed h im h is r e aso n f o r s p eed in g th ro ugh th e to w n, 2 . H e f a ile d
his e xam d ue to / o n a cco unt o f / o w in g to ( th ese p hra se s h av e th e s a m e
meanin g a s
beca use o f
) h is l a ck o f r e v is io n, 3 . A p ers is te nt c o ugh p ro m pte d
him to s e ek p ro fe ssio nal m ed ic al h elp , 4 . S he s ta rte d h ara nguin g th e c ro w d
with th e a im o f s ta rti n g a r io t, 5 . H e s p ent th e w ho le w eekend r e v is in g i n o rd er
to p ass h is e xam s, 6 . T hey c am e i n q uie tl y s o a s n o t to w ake a nyo ne, 7 . H e
re fu se d to l e nd a nyo ne m oney o n th e g ro und s th at p eo ple r a re ly r e p ay a l o an, 8 .
The b ank m anager r e fu se d to l e nd th e c o m pany m ore m oney o n a cco unt o f / d ue
to / o w in g to i ts l o w tu rn o ver a nd p oor s a le s h is to ry , 9 . T he s c ho ol w as f o rc ed
to c lo se d ue to / o n a cco unt o f / o w in g to p oor s tu d ent a tte nd ance, 1 0. W hat
were y o ur m oti v es f o r u p se tti n g m e l ik e th at? , 1 1 . W hat a re th e e ffe cts o f a
la rg e e arth q uake, 1 2. S tr e ss a nd o verw ork c an a ffe ct d iffe re nt p eo ple i n
diffe re nt w ays, 1 3. T he a rm y a tta cked w ith o ut c o nsid erin g th e c o nse q uences o f
/ e ffe cts o f i ts a cti o n, 1 4. H e f a ile d to s e nd o ff h is a p plic ati o n f o rm a nd a s a

A nsw ers
c o nse q uence w as u nab le to e nro l f o r th e c o urs e (
as a c o nse q uen ce
h as th e
s a m e m eanin g a s
as a r e su lt
), 1 5. R io ts a nd s tr e et f ig hti n g e nsu ed w hen th e
p olic e o ffic ers o n tr ia l w ere a cq uitte d .
2
1 . e nsu ed , 2 . c o nse q uence o f / e ffe cts o f, 3 . i n o rd er to , 4 . w ith th e a im o f, 5 . o n
a cco unt o f / d ue to / o w in g to , 6 . r e aso n f o r, 7 . p ro m pte d h im to , 8 . o n th e
g ro und s th at, 9 . s o a s n o t to , 1 0. a ffe ct
P age 4 8 S hape & f e atu re
1
1 . a p yra m id , 2 . a s p ir a l, 3 . a c ir c le , 4 . a n o val, 5 . a tr ia ngle , 6 . a c ub e, 7 . a
s p here , 8 . a c re sc ent, 9 . a s q uare , 1 0. a c ylin d er, 1 1 . a r e cta ngle , 1 2. a c o ne
2
1 . c ir c ula r, 2 . r e cta ngula r, 3 . o val, 4 . s p ir a l, 5 . s p heric al, 6 . tr ia ngula r, 7 .
c o nic al, 8 . c ylin d ric al, 9 . s q uare
F or w ord s l ik e p yra m id , c re sc ent a nd c ub e, w e a d d – sh ap ed (
a p yra m id -
s h aped b uild in g, a c u be-s h aped c o nta in er
)
3
1 . ( d ), 2 . ( g ), 3 . ( i) , 4 . ( h ), 5 . ( j) , 6 . ( b ), 7 . ( e ), 8 . ( a ), 9 . ( c ), 1 0. ( f)
P ages 4 9 – 5 0 S iz e, q uantit y & d im ensio n
1
1 . s m all ( n o te th e p ro nuncia ti o n o f
min ute
i n th is s e nse : /
mal’ n ju :t I
), 2 .
s m all, 3 . b ig , 4 . b ig ( th is i s a n i n fo rm al u se o f th e w ord
mam moth
), 5 . b ig , 6 .
b ig , 7 . b ig , 8 . s m all, 9 . b ig ( th is i s a n i n fo rm al u se o f th e w ord
monum en ta l
),
1 0. b ig , 1 1 . b ig , 1 2. b ig ( th is i s a n i n fo rm al u se o f th e w ord
lo ads
), 1 3. s m all,
1 4. b ig , 1 5. b ig , 1 6. b ig , 1 7. b ig , 1 8. b ig , 1 9. b ig , 2 0. b ig , 2 1. s m all, 2 2. b ig ,
2 3. b ig , 2 4. b ig ( th is i s a n i n fo rm al u se o f th e w ord
to ns
), 2 5. b ig
2

1. a l o ng-d is ta nce j o urn ey, 2 . a g re at d eal o f ti m e, 3 . l o ad s o f ti m es, 4 . a m in ute
am ount o f d ust, 5 . a g ig anti c w av e, 6 . a h uge w aste o f ti m e, 7 . A c o lo ssa l
sta tu e, 8 . p le nty o f f o od, 9 . A b ro ad r iv er, 1 0. A v ast c ro w d o f s u p porte rs , 1 1 .
a g arg antu an m eal / p le nty o f f o od, 1 2. a v ast r o om , 1 3. a m am moth j o b / to ns
of w ork , 1 4. a d eep l a ke, 1 5. a m in usc ule p ie ce o f c lo th , 1 6. a n e no rm ous
book, 1 7. a m am moth j o b / to ns o f w ork , 1 8. a h ig h m ounta in , 1 9. a
monum enta l e rro r, 2 0. a ti n y c ar, 2 1. a g ia nt b uild in g, 2 2. a w id e a v enue, 2 3. a
sh allo w p ool, 2 4. a ta ll m an, 2 5. A n arro w a lle yw ay
Page 5 1 S pellin g
The i n co rre ctl y -s p elt w ord s a re
und erlin ed
a nd c o rre cte d b elo w .
1
Desp ite b annin g to bacco
ad verti s in g
a nd
ra is in g
th e p ric e o f
cig are tte s,
th e
go vern m ent’ s
a nti - s m okin g
cam paig n
h as f a ile d to h av e a ny l o ng-te rm
effe cts .
It i s n o w w id ely
belie v ed
th at m ore d ra sti c m easu re s a re
necessa ry .
A n ew
nati o nal
co m mitte e,
w hic h h as b een f o rm ed to ta ckle th e
pro ble m
, h as m ad e
se v era l
re co m mend ati o ns.
T hese i n clu d e b annin g s m okin g i n a ll p ub lic a re as,
and d enyin g h o sp ita l tr e atm ent to
pers is te nt
s m okers w ho h av e b een w arn ed b y
th eir d octo rs to g iv e u p b ut f a ile d to d o s o .
2
It i s
arg uab le w heth er
g o od
pro nuncia ti o n
i s m ore i m porta nt th an g o od
gra m mar
a nd
vocab ula ry
.
Consc ie nti o us
s tu d ents b ala nce th eir
acq uis iti o n
o f
th ese s k ills ,
ho pin g
to
achie v e
b oth f lu ency a nd
accura cy.
E nglis h te achers
sh o uld e nco ura ge
th eir
s tu d ents to p ra cti s e a ll th e r e le v ant l a nguage s k ills , a nd
use th eir E nglis h a t e v ery
opportu nity .
3
It i s
beco m in g
i n cre asin gly
diffic ult
f o r m any p eo ple to f in d d ecent
acco m modati o n
i n th e c ity a t a p ric e th ey c an a ffo rd . T o p ut i t
sim ply ,
th ere a re
to o m any p eo ple a nd n o t e no ugh h o m es f o r th em . L ocal
co m munity
c entr e s a nd
charita b le
org anis a ti o ns
s u ch a s
Hom e F ro nt
c an o ffe r
ad vic e,
b ut i t i s w id ely
agre ed th at th e s itu ati o n i s n o l o nger
manageab le .
T he f a ct th at s o m e c o uncils
in th e c ity

Answ ers
a re b uild in g c heap ,
te m pora ry
h o usin g f o r l o w er-p aid
pro fe ssio nals
i s th e o nly
o ffic ia l
ackno w le d gem ent
o f th is p ro ble m .
P age 5 2 S to ppin g s o m eth in g
1 . d ele te , 2 . r e p eal ( w e c an a ls o s a y
abolis h
), 3 . d ete r, 4 . d is su ad e, 5 . r e sc in d ,
6 . s u p pre ss, 7 . s e v er, 8 . tu rn d ow n ( w e c an a ls o s a y
declin e
), 9 . p ull o ut o f, 1 0.
d eny, 1 1 . c ancel, 1 2. q uash , 1 3. g iv e u p , 1 4. p ut a n e nd to , 1 5. r e m ove ( le ss
f o rm ally , w e c an s a y
str ik e,
b ut o nly i f w e a re r e fe rrin g to s o m eth in g o n p ap er:
S tr ik e h is n am e f r o m t h e l is t
), 1 6. s u sp end , 1 7. s c ra p , 1 8. c urb
P age 5 3 S ucce ss & f a ilu re
1 . r e ached , 2 . a cco m plis h , 3 . s e cure d , 4 . a chie v ed , 5 . r e alis e , 6 . a tta in , 7 .
f u lfille d , 8 . m anaged
*
, 9 . a b and on, 1 0. c o lla p se d , 1 1 . f a lte re d , 1 2. f o ld ed , 1 3.
f e ll th ro ugh, 1 4. m is fir e d
*
W e
manage t o d o
s o m eth in g, o r w e
su cceed i n d oin g
s o m eth in g (
He
m anaged t o p ass
h is e xa m / H e
su cceed ed i n p assin g
h is e xa m
).
P age 5 4 T ask c o m mands
1
1 . F , 2 . D , 3 . C , 4 . H , 5 . A , 6 . G , 7 . B , 8 . E
2
1 . D , 2 . G , 3 . A , 4 . H , 5 . E , 6 . B , 7 . C
O th er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
c alc ula te ,
c hara cte ris e , c la ssify , c o m ment o n, c o nsid er, d ed uce, d esc rib e, d ete rm in e,
d iffe re nti a te b etw een, d is ti n guis h b etw een, e v alu ate , e xp la in , g iv e a n a cco unt
o f, i d enti fy , l is t, s h o w , s ta te , s u m maris e
P age 5 5 T im e
1
P art 1 :

1. P rio r to ( th is p hra se i s u su ally f o llo w ed b y a n o un o r b y a n - in g v erb . F or
exam ple :
Prio r t o m ovin g t o t h e c o untr y, h e h ad t o l e a rn t h e l a nguage
), 2 .
By th e ti m e, 3 . F orm erly ( w e c o uld a ls o u se
Pre vio usly ,
b ut
Form erly
w ork s
bette r i n th is c o nte xt) , 4 . p re ced e, 5 . P re v io usly . 6 . E arlie r ( w e c o uld a ls o u se
Pre vio usly
)
Part 2 :
1. W hile ( w e c an a ls o s a y
As
o r
Ju st a s.
N ote th at
while
i s u su ally u se d to ta lk
ab out l o ng a cti o ns. F or s h o rt a cti o ns, w e w ould u se
when
), 2 . D urin g ( w e c an
als o s a y
Thro ughout. D urin g
a nd
th ro ughout
a re f o llo w ed b y a n o un), 3 . I n
th e m eanti m e, 4 . A t th at v ery m om ent
Part 3 :
1. F ollo w in g ( th is w ord i s a lw ays f o llo w ed b y a n o un. W e c an a ls o s a y
Afte r
),
2. A s s o on a s ( w e c an a ls o s a y
Once
o r
The m om en t / m in ute t h at.
T hese
word s a nd p hra se s a re a lw ays f o llo w ed b y a n a cti o n:
Once t h e s h ow h ad
en ded , w e w en t h om e
), 3 . A fte rw ard s
2
(1 )
In th e p ast
: a f e w d ecad es a go , a t th at p oin t / m om ent i n h is to ry , a t th e tu rn
of th e c entu ry , b ack i n th e 1 990s, b etw een 2 003 a nd 2 005, f r o m 2 006 to 2 011 ,
in m ed ie v al ti m es ( n o te th at
med ie va l
c an a ls o b e s p elt
med ia eva l
), i n m y
child ho od / y o uth , i n th o se d ays, l a st c entu ry
(2 )
The p ast l e ad in g to th e p re se nt
: e v er s in ce, f o r th e p ast f e w m onth s, l a te ly ,
over th e p ast s ix w eeks
(3 )
The p re se nt
: a s th in gs s ta nd , n o w ad ays, th ese d ays
(4 )
The f u tu re
: b y th e e nd o f th is y ear, f o r th e f o re se eab le f u tu re , f o r th e n ext
fe w w eeks, f r o m n o w o n, i n a no th er f iv e y ears ’ ti m e, o ne d ay, o ver th e c o m in g
weeks a nd m onth s, s o oner o r l a te r

A nsw ers
P ages 5 6 – 5 7 U se fu l I n te rv ie w e xpre ssio ns
1
A gre ein g w ith s o m eb ody:
I a gre e. / I c o uld n’t a gre e m ore . / T hat’ s j u st w hat I
t h in k. / T hat’ s m y v ie w e xactl y . / T hat’ s r ig ht.
D is a gre ein g w ith s o m eb ody:
I d on’t e nti r e ly a gre e. / I ’ m a fr a id I d is a gre e /
d on’t a gre e. / I s e e th in gs r a th er d iffe re ntl y m yse lf. / W ell, a ctu ally
… / W ell, a s
a m atte r o f f a ct,

I n te rru p ti n g s o m eb ody:
C ould I j u st s a y th at
… ? / E xcuse m e f o r i n te rru p ti n g,

/ L et m e i n te rru p t y o u th ere . / S orry to b utt i n ,
… / S orry to i n te rru p t,
… (
Yo u
s h ould n’t i n te rru pt t h e e xa m in er t o o o fte n . I n a ny c a se , t h e e xa m in er w ill
l e a ve y o u t o d o m ost o f t h e t a lk in g
)
A sk in g s o m eb ody f o r th eir o pin io n:
D o y o u a gre e th at
… ? / W hat a re y o ur
f e elin gs a b out
… ? / W hat a re y o ur v ie w s o n
… ? / W hat d o y o u th in k a b out
… ? /
W hat’ s y o ur o pin io n? (
Yo u p ro bably w on’t n eed t o u se t h ese e xp re ssio ns
y o urse lf i n t h e S pea kin g T est, b ut y o u a re l ik ely t o h ea r t h e e xa m in er u se
t h em
)
2
A sk in g f o r c la rific ati o n o r r e p eti ti o n:
C ould y o u r e p eat th e q uesti o n? / I ’ m
a fr a id I d id n’t c atc h th at. / I ’ m s o rry ? / W hat w as th at? / W ould y o u m in d
r e p eati n g th at?
S ayin g s o m eth in g i n a no th er w ay:
I n o th er w ord s
… / P erh ap s I s h o uld m ake
t h at c le are r b y s a yin g
… / T o p ut i t a no th er w ay,
… / W hat I ’ m tr y in g to s a y i s

/ W hat I m ean i s

G iv in g y o urs e lf ti m e to th in k:
H mm, h o w c an I p ut / s a y th is ? / L et m e s e e. / L et
m e th in k a b out th at f o r a m om ent. / M ay I th in k a b out th at f o r a m om ent? /
T hat’ s a n i n te re sti n g q uesti o n.
S um min g u p w hat y o u h av e s a id :
S o, b asic ally ,
… / I n s h o rt / b rie f,
… / S o, i n
c o nclu sio n,
… / T o s u m maris e ,
… / T o s u m u p ,

3

1.
Any e xp re ssio n f r o m th e ‘ A sk in g f o r c la rific ati o n o r r e p eti ti o n’ b ox.
2.
Any e xp re ssio n f r o m th e ‘ A gre ein g w ith s o m eb ody’ b ox.
2.
Any e xp re ssio n f r o m th e ‘ In te rru p ti n g s o m eb ody’ b ox e xcep t
Could I j u st
sa y t h at
… ? ( w hic h w ould b e u se d b efo re g iv in g a n o pin io n r a th er th an
co rre cti n g a m is ta ke, a s th e s tu d ent i s d oin g h ere ).
2.
Any e xp re ssio n f r o m th e ‘ G iv in g y o urs e lf ti m e to th in k’ b ox e xcep t
May I
th in k a bout t h at f o r a m om en t?
( w hic h w ould r e q uir e a r e sp onse f r o m th e
in te rv ie w er b efo re th e s tu d ent c o nti n ues).
2.
Any e xp re ssio n f r o m th e ‘ S ayin g s o m eth in g i n a no th er w ay’ b ox.
2.
Any e xp re ssio n f r o m th e ‘ D is a gre ein g w ith s o m eb ody’ b ox.
Pages 5 8 – 6 0 A rc h it e ctu re
1
Build in g m ate ria ls : c o ncre te , g la ss, r e in fo rc ed c o ncre te , s te el, s to ne, ti m ber
Aesth eti c p erc ep ti o n: c o ntr o vers ia l, e le gant, a n e yeso re , p le asin g g eo m etr ic
fo rm s, u gly , w ell- d esig ned
Typ es o f b uild in g: h ig h-ris e a p artm ents ( in th e U K , th e w ord
fla t
i s u su ally
use d i n ste ad o f
apartm en t
), l o w -ris e a p artm ents , m ulti - s to re y c ar p ark ,
sk ysc ra p er
Arc hite ctu ra l s ty le : a rt d eco , i n te rn ati o nal s ty le , m odern is t, p ost- m odern ,
sta nd ard is e d , tr a d iti o nal (
hig h-te ch
c o uld a ls o b e i n clu d ed i n th is c ate go ry )
Parts o f a b uild in g: f o und ati o ns, f a
ç ad e, p orc h, w alls
Featu re s: e nerg y-e ffic ie nt, f u ncti o nal, h ig h-te ch, p ra cti c al
2
1. B , 2 . A , 3 . C , 4 . C , 5 . A , 6 . A , 7 . C , 8 . C , 9 . A , 1 0. A , 1 1 . B , 1 2. A ( w e c an
als o s a y
lo ft
)
3
1. p la nnin g, 2 . p re se rv ati o n, 3 . r e no vate , 4 . a rc hite cts , 5 . g la ss, 6 . f a
ç ad e, 7 .
fo und ati o ns, 8 . s o cia l, 9 . d ere lic t, 1 0. e sta te , 1 1 . a n e yeso re , 1 2. tr a d iti o nal,
13. s lu m s, 1 4. h ig h-ris e / l o w -ris e , 1 5. e nerg y-e ffic ie nt
Oth er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:

Oth er ty p es o f b uild in g: b ungalo w , c astl e , c o tta ge, d eta ched h o use , m ais o nette ,
mano r h o use , m ansio n, p ala ce, s e m i- d eta ched h o use , s h o ppin g c entr e / m all,
te rra ced h o use
Oth er p arts o f a b uild in g: b ase m ent / c ella r, c him ney, r o of, s ta ir c ase , w alls
Verb s: c o nstr u ct, d esig n, m odern is e , p la n
Oth ers : d ev elo pm ent, l o w -c o st, m ass-p ro duced , p re fa b ric ate d , s ta nd ard is e d

Answ ers
P ages 6 1 – 6 3 T he a rts
1
1 . a b alle t, 2 . a p la y, 3 . a b io gra p hy, 4 . a s c ulp tu re , 5 . a p ortr a it, 6 . a n o pera , 7 .
a c o ncert, 8 . a n o vel, 9 . a c o lle cti o n o f s h o rt s to rie s, 1 0. a s ti ll l ife , 1 1 .
p ho to gra p hy, 1 2. a f ilm , 1 3. a b str a ct a rt, 1 4. a l a nd sc ap e
2
1 . p erfo rm ance, 2 . w ork s ( o r
work
), 3 . e d iti o n, 4 . r e v ie w s ( a
re vu e
i s a ty p e o f
p erfo rm ance w ith s o ngs, d ances a nd h um our), 5 . e xhib iti o n ( a n
exh ib it
i n th e
c o nte xt o f a rt i s a n o bje ct th at f o rm s p art o f a n e xhib iti o n), 6 . g ra nt, 7 . G alle ry
( a
galle y
i s a ty p e o f s h ip o r a k itc hen o n a s h ip o r p la ne), 8 . n o velis ts ( w e c an
a ls o s a y
write rs
), 9 . I m pre ssio nis ts (
Im pre ssio nis m
i s th e s ty le o f p ain ti n g),
1 0. p ub lis h , 1 1 . a tm osp heric , 1 2. a rti s ti c , 1 3. p opula r, 1 4. c in em ati c , 1 5.
S urre alis t ( th e n o un i s
Surre a lis m
), 1 6. c ultu ra l
3
1 . b alle t, 2 . p erfo rm ance, 3 . r e v ie w s, 4 . e xhib iti o n, 5 . G alle ry , 6 . p ortr a its , 7 .
s ti ll l ife , 8 . g ra nt, 9 . n o velis t, 1 0. w ork s / n o vels , 1 1 . p ub lis h ed , 1 2. b io gra p hy,
1 3. c o ncert, 1 4. o pera , 1 5. s c ulp tu re
O th er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
a cto r, a rti s t, a uth o r, c o lle cti o n, e xhib it, p op a rt, p ro ducti o n, p ro duce, s c ulp to r
P ages 6 4 – 6 6 B usin ess & in dustr y
1
1 . d em and f o r, 2 . l o ss, 3 . n et, 4 . l e nd in g, 5 . c re d it, 6 . r e ta il, 7 . p riv ate , 8 . S ta te -
o w ned i n d ustr ie s, 9 . U nsk ille d l a b oure rs , 1 0. ta ke o n ( w e c an a ls o s a y
em plo y
o r
hir e
), 1 1 . W hite -c o lla r, 1 2. e xp orts , 1 3. r e cessio n, 1 4. e m plo yees ( w e c an
a ls o s a y
sta ff
o r
work ers
), 1 5. e xp end itu re , 1 6. s h o p f lo or (
… a f ig ht b ro ke
o ut
on
t h e s h op f lo or.
I n th is c o nte xt, th e
sh op f lo or
i s th e a re a i n a f a cto ry
w here p ro ducts a re m ad e. T his p hra se c an a ls o b e u se d to m ean th e w ork ers i n
a f a cto ry , n o t th e m anagers )

2
A. i n te re st r a te s, B . s e co nd ary i n d ustr ie s, C . G NP ( = G ro ss N ati o nal P ro duct) ,
D. o utp ut, E . p rim ary i n d ustr y , F . a uto m ati o n, G . s e rv ic e i n d ustr ie s, H . b ala nce
of p aym ents , I . d efic it, J . m ono poly , K . n ati o nalis e d i n d ustr ie s, L .
unem plo ym ent, M . ta xati o n, N . k ey i n d ustr ie s, O . i n fla ti o n, P . i n co m e ta x, Q .
VA T ( = V alu e A dded T ax), R . s a la ry
3
1. I n te re st, 2 . b orro w in g, 3 . l a y o ff, 4 . u nem plo ym ent, 5 . I n fla ti o n, 6 . e xp orts , 7 .
se co nd ary i n d ustr ie s, 8 . B lu e-c o lla r / W hite -c o lla r, 9 . s ta te -o w ned /
nati o nalis e d , 1 0. s a la rie s, 1 1 . m anagem ent, 1 2. p ub lic , 1 3. D em and , 1 4. s u p ply ,
15. r e v enue / i n co m e, 1 6. n ati o nalis e d , 1 7. d efic it, 1 8. a uto m ati o n
Pages 6 7 – 6 8 C hild re n & t h e f a m ily
1
1. n ucle ar, 2 . e xte nd ed , 3 . s in gle -p are nt, 4 . b rin g u p ( w e c an a ls o s a y
ra is e
o r
re a r
), 5 . u p brin gin g, 6 . d iv orc ed , 7 . c hild care , 8 . a d ole sc ence ( th e n o un i s
adole sc en t
), 9 . f o rm ati v e y ears , 1 0. b ir th r a te , 1 1 . d ep end ants ( th e a d je cti v e i s
dep en den t
), 1 2. J u v enile
2
1. H (
auth orita ria n
c an a ls o b e a n o un:
a s tr ic t a uth orita ria n
), 2 . C , 3 . G , 4 .
K, 5 . A , 6 . D , 7 . J , 8 . B , 9 . E , 1 0. F , 1 1 . I , 1 2. L
3
1. f o rm ati v e, 2 . d iv orc ed , 3 . b ro ught u p , 4 . f o ste r f a m ily ( a c hild w ho l iv es
with a f o ste r f a m ily i s a
fo ste r c h ild
), 5 . a uth o rita ria n, 6 . u p brin gin g, 7 . r u nnin g
wild , 8 . a d ole sc ence, 9 . j u v enile , 1 0. r e sp onsib le , 1 1 . s ib lin gs, 1 2. w ell-
ad ju ste d , 1 3. l e nie nt, 1 4. o ver-p ro te cti v e, 1 5. n ucle ar, 1 6. s in gle -p are nt, 1 7.
dep end ants , 1 8. e xte nd ed

A nsw ers
P ages 6 9 – 7 0 C rim e & t h e la w
1
1 . j u d ge, 2 . j u ry , 3 . w itn ess, 4 . d efe nd ant, 5 . v ic ti m , 6 . s o lic ito r ( c alle d a n
a tto rn ey
i n th e U S), 7 . o ffe nd er, 8 . b arris te r, 9 . l a w a b id in g, 1 0. b re ak th e l a w
2
P art 1 ( in o rd er): A , F , D , B , C , E
P art 2 ( in o rd er): A , E , F , C , B , D
P art 3 ( in o rd er): A , D , F , C , E , B
3
1 . c o m mitte d , 2 . a rre ste d / c harg ed , 3 . c o urt, 4 . p le ad ed , 5 . g uilty , 6 . s e nte nced ,
7 . m is d eed s, 8 . l a w -a b id in g / i n no cent, 9 . r e tr ib uti o n, 1 0. r e hab ilita te , 1 1 .
r e fo rm , 1 2. r e le ase d , 1 3. d ete rre nt, 1 4. p aro le , 1 5. v ic ti m , 1 6. o ffe nd er, 1 7.
c o m munity s e rv ic e, 1 8. f in e, 1 9. + 2 0. c o rp ora l p unis h m ent / c ap ita l
p unis h m ent ( in e ith er o rd er), 2 1. + 2 2. j u d ges / b arris te rs / j u rie s / s o lic ito rs
( a ny o f th ese i n a ny o rd er)
O th er w ord s a nd p hra se s y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
a ccuse , a d m it, c o nv ic t ( n o un + v erb ), c o nv ic ti o n, d eny, l a w yer, p ass a v erd ic t,
p unis h , p unis h m ent, r e v enge, s e nd to p ris o n, s ta te m ent, w ro ngd oer
D iffe re n t t y p es o f c rim e ( a nd t h e p eo ple w ho c o m mit t h em )
: b ig am y ( a
b ig am is t) , b urg la ry ( a b urg la r), e sp io nage ( a s p y), f o rg ery ( a f o rg er), h ija ck ( a
h ija cker), h o olig anis m ( a h o olig an), m urd er ( a m urd ere r), p ir a cy ( a p ir a te ),
r a p e ( a r a p is t) , r o bbery ( a r o bber), s h o plifti n g ( a s h o plifte r), te rro ris m ( a
t e rro ris t) , v and alis m ( a v and al)
P ages 7 1 – 7 2 E duca tio n
1
1 . A ( w e c an a ls o s a y
re ta ke
), 2 . B , 3 . B , 4 . C , 5 . C , 6 . A , 7 . C , 8 . B , 9 . B , 1 0.
C , 1 1 . B , 1 2. A , 1 3. B , 1 4. A

2
1. k in d erg arte n ( w e c an a ls o s a y
nurse ry
o r
nurse ry s c h ool
), 2 . p rim ary , 3 .
sk ills , 4 . + 5 . n um era cy / l ite ra cy ( in e ith er o rd er), 6 . s e co nd ary , 7 . d is c ip lin e,
8. p asse d ( T he o pposite o f
pass
i s
fa il
), 9 . c o urs e , 1 0. e nro lle d , 1 1 . g ra d uate d
(th is c an a ls o b e a n o un:
a g ra duate .
A g ra d uate i s a s tu d ent w ho h as f in is h ed a
co urs e a t u niv ers ity . A s tu d ent w ho i s s ti ll a t u niv ers ity i s c alle d a n
underg ra duate
), 1 2. d egre e, 1 3. o n-lin e, 1 4. q ualific ati o ns, 1 5. d ay r e le ase ,
16. e v enin g c la ss
3
1. s k ills , 2 . + 3 . l ite ra cy / n um era cy ( in e ith er o rd er), 4 . k in d erg arte n, 5 .
prim ary , 6 . s e co nd ary , 7 . d is c ip lin e, 8 . p ass, 9 . q ualific ati o ns, 1 0. a cq uir e , 1 1 .
health , 1 2. f u rth er, 1 3. e nro l, 1 4. h ig her, 1 5. g ra d uate , 1 6. d egre e, 1 7. h ig her,
18. e v enin g c la ss, 1 9. d ay r e le ase , 2 0. o n-lin e, 2 1. m atu re 2 2. g ra d uate
Oth er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
ad ult e d ucati o n, c am pus, c o -e d ucati o nal, c o m pre hensiv e s c ho ol, f a culty , i n fa nt
sc ho ol, j u nio r s c ho ol, p riv ate e d ucati o n, r e so urc es, s u b je ct, ta ke / s it a n e xam
Pages 7 3 – 7 4 T he e nvir o nm ent
1
1. F ( th e o pposite o f a n a nim al w hic h h as b een r a is e d o n a b atte ry f a rm i s a
fr e e-r a nge
a nim al, e .g ., a
fr e e-r a nge c h ic ken .
E ggs c an a ls o b e d esc rib ed a s
fr e e-ra nge:
I o nly e a t f r e e-r a nge e g gs
), 2 . L , 3 . J ( s o m e o f th ese a nim als a re
calle d
pro te cte d s p ecie s,
w hic h m eans i t i s u su ally i lle gal to k ill th em ), 4 . E ,
5. B , 6 . C , 7 . D , 8 . K , 9 . I , 1 0. G , 1 1 . H , 1 2. A ( w e c an a ls o s a y
huntin g,
alth o ugh th ere a re s o m e d iffe re nces. P oachin g m eans to
hunt i lle g ally
)
2
1. g re en b elt, 2 . b io degra d ab le p ackagin g, 3 . g re enho use , 4 . r a in f o re st ( o fte n
writte n a s o ne w ord ,
ra in fo re st
), 5 . e ro sio n, 6 . r e cycle , 7 . o rg anic , 8 .
geneti c ally m odifie d ( o fte n a b bre v ia te d to
GM
), 9 . D efo re sta ti o n, 1 0. A cid
ra in , 1 1 . e co sy ste m , 1 2. e m is sio ns + f o ssil f u els , 1 3. c o nta m in ate d ( w e c an
als o s a y
pollu te d
), 1 4. e nv ir o nm enta lis ts , 1 5. g lo bal w arm in g

Answ ers
3
1 . f o ssil f u els , 2 . a cid r a in , 3 . g re enho use , 4 . g lo bal w arm in g, 5 . r a in f o re st, 6 .
c o nta m in ate d , 7 . e m is sio ns / g ase s, 8 . P oachin g, 9 . e nd angere d s p ecie s, 1 0.
e co sy ste m , 1 1 . r e cycle , 1 2. b io degra d ab le , 1 3. g eneti c ally m odifie d , 1 4.
o rg anic , 1 5. p ollu ti o n, 1 6. e nv ir o nm enta lis ts , 1 7. c o nse rv ati o n p ro gra m mes,
1 8. b atte ry f a rm in g, 1 9. g re en b elts
O th er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
b ottl e b ank,
c arb on d io xid e, C FC g ase s, c lim ati c c hange, d egra d ati o n, d estr u cti o n, e nerg y-
e ffic ie nt, th e g re enho use e ffe ct, l e gis la ti o n, o ver-fis h in g, o verp opula ti o n, th e
o zo ne l a yer, r a d io acti v e w aste , r e cyclin g f a ciliti e s, r e -u se , r is in g s e a l e v els ,
t o xic w aste , w aste d is p osa l
P ages 7 5 – 7 7 F ood & d ie t
1
1 . v ita m in s, 2 . n utr iti o us ( th e n o un i s
nutr itio n
( g enera l) o r
nutr ie n t
( s p ecific ).
A p ers o n w ho s p ecia lis e s i n th e s tu d y o f n utr iti o n a nd a d vis e s o n d ie ts i s
c alle d a
nutr itio nis t
), 3 . v egeta ria n ( th is w ord c an a ls o b e a n a d je cti v e:
a
v eg eta ria n d ie t
), 4 . c arb ohyd ra te s, 5 . p ro te in , 6 . c ho le ste ro l, 7 . f a m in e, 8 .
o besity ( th e a d je cti v e i s
obese
), 9 . m aln o uris h ed ( th e n o un i s
maln utr itio n
),
1 0. m in era ls , 1 1 . f a t, 1 2. f ib re (
dig est
= c hange i n to s u b sta nces y o ur b ody c an
u se ), 1 3. o verw eig ht, 1 4. f r e sh , 1 5. c alo rie s ( th e a d je cti v e i s
ca lo rific
:
What i s
t h e c a lo rific c o nte n t o f a b ar o f c h oco la te ?
), 1 6. p ro cesse d ( th e c hem ic als
a nd o th er th in gs i n p ro cesse d f o od a re c alle d
additiv es
)
2
1 . I ( th e n o un f o r
alle rg ic
i s
alle rg y.
S om e p eo ple a ls o h av e a f o od
i n to le ra nce,
w hic h m eans th ey c anno t d ig est c erta in f o ods p ro perly :
Ja m es
h as a n i n to le ra nce t o w hea t
), 2 . C , 3 . A , 4 . J o r D , 5 . D o r J , 6 . E , 7 . B , 8 . G ,
9 . H , 1 0. F ( fa st f o od i s a ls o o fte n c alle d
ju nk f o od
)
3
1 . f a st f o od, 2 . p ro cesse d , 3 . v ita m in s / m in era ls , 4 . m in era ls / v ita m in s, 5 . f a t /

carb ohyd ra te s, 6 . c arb ohyd ra te s / f a t, 7 . o besity , 8 . m aln o uris h ed , 9 . s h o rta ges,
10. h arv est, 1 1 . c ho le ste ro l, 1 2. b ala nced d ie t, 1 3. f r e sh , 1 4. f ib re
Pages 7 8 – 7 9 G eogra phy
1
1.
tr e e, c o pse , w ood, f o re st (
bea ch
d oes n o t b elo ng i n th is g ro up )
2.
fo otp ath , tr a ck, l a ne, r o ad (
pea k
d oes n o t b elo ng i n th is g ro up )
3.
hillo ck, h ill, m ounta in , m ounta in r a nge (
sh ore
d oes n o t b elo ng i n th is
gro up )
4.
ho llo w , g o rg e, v alle y, p la in (
wate rfa ll
d oes n o t b elo ng i n th is g ro up )
5.
in le t, c o ve, b ay, g ulf (
rid ge
d oes n o t b elo ng i n th is g ro up )
6.
bro ok, s tr e am , r iv er, e stu ary (
cliff
d oes n o t b elo ng i n th is g ro up )
7.
city , c o unty , c o untr y , c o nti n ent (
tr ib uta ry
d oes n o t b elo ng i n th is g ro up )
8.
pond , l a ke, s e a, o cean (
ca pe
d oes n o t b elo ng i n th is g ro up )
2
Geo gra p hic al f e atu re s a sso cia te d w ith w ate r a nd th e s e a:
b each, c ap e, c liff,
co ast, c o astl in e, g la cie r, m outh ( o f a r iv er), p enin su la , s h o re , s o urc e ( o f a
riv er), tr ib uta ry , w ate rfa ll
Geo gra p hic al f e atu re s a sso cia te d w ith l a nd , h ills a nd m ounta in s:
c liff, g la cie r,
hig hla nd s, m ounta in o us, p eak, p la te au, r id ge, s u m mit
Word s / p hra se s a sso cia te d w ith a gric ultu re a nd r u ra l l a nd :
d ep opula ti o n,
fe rti le , i r rig ati o n, u nd er-d ev elo ped , v egeta ti o n
Word s / p hra se s a sso cia te d w ith to w ns a nd c iti e s:
c o nurb ati o n, d ense ly
popula te d , i n d ustr ia lis e d , o verc ro w din g, u rb an s p ra w l
3
1. d ense ly p opula te d , 2 . i n d ustr ia lis e d , 3 . u rb an s p ra w l, 4 . c ity , 5 . i r rig ati o n, 6 .
so urc e, 7 . p eaks, 8 . m ounta in r a nge, 9 . d ep opula ti o n, 1 0. V alle y, 1 1 . w ate rfa lls ,
12. b ro oks / s tr e am s, 1 3. l a ne, 1 4. tr a ck, 1 5. O cean, 1 6. c ap e / p enin su la , 1 7.
hills , 1 8. p la in , 1 9. d elta , 2 0. f e rti le , 2 1. s h o re / b each, 2 2. c o untr y

A nsw ers
P ages 8 0 – 8 1 G lo bal p ro ble m s
1
1 . B , 2 . A , 3 . B , 4 . C , 5 . A , 6 . C , 7 . A , 8 . B , 9 . A , 1 0. C , 1 1 . B , 1 2. B , 1 3. A ,
1 4. B , 1 5. A
N ote : A
hurric a ne
i s th e n am e w e g iv e to a tr o pic al s to rm w ith s tr o ng w in d s
a nd r a in w hic h o rig in ate s i n th e C arib bean o r E aste rn P acific . S im ila r s to rm s
w hic h o rig in ate i n th e F ar E ast a re c alle d
ty p hoons,
a nd th o se w hic h o rig in ate
i n th e I n d ia n O cean a re c alle d
cyclo nes.
2
1 . s p re ad , 2 . s p re ad / s w ep t ( in th is c o nte xt,
sw ep t
i s a lw ays f o llo w ed b y
t h ro ugh
), 3 . e ru p te d , 4 . s h o ok, 5 . b ro ke o ut, 6 . c asu alti e s, 7 . s u rv iv ors /
c asu alti e s, 8 . R efu gees / S urv iv ors , 9 . s u ffe rin g, 1 0. r e lie f
3
1 . to rre nti a l, 2 . f lo od, 3 . e p id em ic , 4 . f a m in e, 5 . r e lie f, 6 . v olc ano , 7 . e ru p te d ,
8 . h urric ane, 9 . d ev asta ti o n, 1 0. ty p ho on, 1 1 . c asu alti e s, 1 2. d ro ught, 1 3. c iv il
w ar, 1 4. R efu gees / S urv iv ors , 1 5. s w ep t / s p re ad , 1 6. a ccid ent, 1 7.
e xp lo sio ns, 1 8. p la gue
P ages 8 2 – 8 3 H ealt h ca re
1
1 . D , 2 . H ( a c o m bin ati o n o f 1 a nd 2 i s c alle d
rh eu m ato id a rth ritis
), 3 . C , 4 .
A , 5 . K , 6 . B , 7 . E , 8 . L , 9 . F ( w e c an a ls o s a y th at th eir b odie s l a ck
re sis ta nce
t o i lln ess
), 1 0. I ( T he
Natio nal H ea lth S erv ic e,
o fte n a b bre v ia te d to
th e N H S,
i s a s y ste m o f f r e e d octo rs , n urs e s, h o sp ita ls a nd c lin ic s s u p porte d b y th e
g o vern m ent i n th e U K . M any p eo ple p re fe r
priv a te h ea lth ca re
b ecause i t i s
g enera lly c o nsid ere d to b e m ore e ffic ie nt) , 1 1 . J , 1 2. G
2
1 . th era p euti c ( th e n o un i s
th era py.
A p ers o n w ho p ro vid es a th era p euti c
s e rv ic e i s c alle d a
th era pis t
), 2 . a d ie t ( in th is c o nte xt,
die t
r e fe rs to th e f o od

we e at. I f w e
go o n a d ie t,
w e e at l e ss i n o rd er to l o se w eig ht) , 3 . c o nv enti o nal
med ic in e, 4 . tr a d iti o nal m ed ic in es, 5 . h o lis ti c m ed ic in e ( a n e xam ple o f th is i s
aro m ath era py
), 6 . c o nsu lta nt ( w e c an a ls o s a y
sp ecia lis t
), 7 . s u rg eo n (
su rg ery
is th e tr e atm ent o f d is e ase w hic h r e q uir e s a n o pera ti o n to c ut i n to o r r e m ove
part o f th e b ody. D o n o t c o nfu se th is w ith
a s u rg ery,
w hic h i s a r o om o r
build in g w here a n o rm al d octo r
*
s e es th eir p ati e nts ), 8 . p ro te in , 9 . v ita m in s,
10. m in era ls , 1 1 . a cti v e ( th e o pposite o f th is i s
se d en ta ry
: s e e E xerc is e 1 ), 1 2.
welfa re s ta te ( o th er f e atu re s o f th e w elfa re s ta te i n th e U K i n clu d e p ro vid in g
citi z e ns w ith a d eq uate h o usin g, e d ucati o n a nd m oney i f th ey a re u nab le to
work )
*
C alle d a
fa m ily d octo r
o r
gen era l p ra ctitio ner
(
GP
) i n th e U K .
3
1. w elfa re s ta te , 2 . + 3 . c utb acks + u nd erfu nd in g ( in e ith er o rd er), 4 .
co nv enti o nal m ed ic in e, 5 . tr a d iti o nal m ed ic in e, 6 . a rth riti s , 7 . c o nsu lta nt, 8 .
su rg ery , 9 . th era p euti c , 1 0. s tr e ss-re la te d , 1 1 . s y m pto m s, 1 2. h o lis ti c m ed ic in e,
13. d ie t, 1 4. + 1 5. v ita m in s + m in era ls ( in e ith er o rd er), 1 6. a cti v e, 1 7.
se d enta ry , 1 8. a rth riti s / c ancer / c ard io vasc ula r d is e ase
Oth er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
b lo od
pre ssu re , c o nsu lt, c ura b le , c ure , m enta l h ealth , p hysic al h ealth , p re sc rip ti o n,
pre v enti o n, r e m ed y, r e se arc h, th e W orld H ealth O rg anis a ti o n ( th e W HO)
Pages 8 4 – 8 5 T he m edia
1
1. b ro ad sh eets , 2 . ta b lo id s, 3 . j o urn alis ts , 4 . c o vera ge ( fo r r a d io a nd
te le v is io n, w e o fte n u se th e w ord
air tim e
), 5 . c urre nt a ffa ir s , 6 . b ro ad casts , 7 .
lo g o n, 8 . r e p orte rs , 9 . d ow nlo ad , 1 0. th e I n te rn et, 1 1 . i n fo rm ati o n o verlo ad ,
12. w eb site
2
1. f r e ed om o f th e p re ss, 2 . m ed ia ty co on ( w e c an a ls o s a y
med ia m ogul
o r
pre ss b aro n
*
), 3 . c enso rs h ip , 4 . u nsc ru p ulo us, 5 . e xp lo iti n g, 6 . i n v asio n o f
priv acy, 7 . p ap ara zzi, 8 . + 9 . i n fo rm ati o n + e nte rta in m ent ( in e ith er o rd er), 1 0.
cheq ueb ook j o urn alis m , 1 1 . i n te grity , 1 2. i n v esti g ati v e j o urn alis m , 1 3.
re ad ers h ip , 1 4. g utte r p re ss, 1 5. l ib el

*
T his i s i n fo rm al a nd s lig htl y n egati v e, a s i t s u ggests th e p ers o n h as to o m uch
in flu ence.

Answ ers
3
1 . b ro ad sh eets , 2 . c o vera ge, 3 . c urre nt a ffa ir s , 4 . r e p orte rs , 5 . j o urn alis ts , 6 .
t a b lo id s, 7 . b ro ad casts , 8 . th e I n te rn et, 9 . w eb site s, 1 0. d ow nlo ad , 1 1 . + 1 2.
i n fo rm ati o n + e nte rta in m ent ( in e ith er o rd er), 1 3. g utte r p re ss / ta b lo id s, 1 4.
i n v asio n o f p riv acy, 1 5. p ap ara zzi, 1 6. l ib el, 1 7. c heq ueb ook j o urn alis m , 1 8.
u nsc ru p ulo us, 1 9. i n te grity , 2 0. l o g o n, 2 1. M ed ia ty co ons / J o urn alis ts /
R ep orte rs , 2 2. c enso rs h ip , 2 3. f r e ed om o f th e p re ss
O th er w ord s a nd e xp re ssio ns w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
T yp es o f
t e le v is io n p ro gra m me: c hat s h o w , c o m merc ia l
**
, d ocum enta ry , d ra m a, g am e
s h o w , m akeo ver s h o w , q uiz s h o w , r e ality s h o w , s itc o m , s o ap o pera , ta le nt
s h o w , v arie ty s h o w , w eath er f o re cast
P arts o f a n ew sp ap er: a d verti s e m ent
**
, c o lo ur s u p ple m ent, e d ito ria l,
e nte rta in m ent, f a sh io n, f in ancia l, h ead lin e, h o ro sc o pe, l e ad s to ry , l o cal n ew s,
n ati o nal n ew s, r e ad ers ’ l e tte rs ( a ls o c alle d
le tte rs t o t h e e d ito r
), s p ort, w hat’ s
o n
O th ers : d ow nm ark et, h ig hb ro w , j o urn al, l o w bro w , r e ad b etw een th e l in es,
s la nd er, s ta te -c o ntr o lle d , tu ne i n , u p beat, u p m ark et
* *
T ele v is io n a nd r a d io s ta ti o ns s h o w
co m merc ia ls ,
n ew sp ap ers a nd
m agazin es p rin t
advertis e m en ts .
H ow ev er, th e w ord
advertis e m en ts
( o fte n
s h o rte ned to
adverts
o r, m ore i n fo rm ally ,
ads
) i s o fte n u se d i n ste ad o f
c o m merc ia ls .
P ages 8 6 – 8 8 M en & w om en
1
1 . n egati v e, 2 . n egati v e, 3 . n egati v e, 4 . n egati v e ( a
gla ss c eilin g
i s a n u nfa ir
s y ste m th at p re v ents s o m e p eo ple , e sp ecia lly w om en, f r o m r e achin g th e m ost
s e nio r p ositi o ns i n a c o m pany o r o rg anis a ti o n), 5 . p ositi v e, 6 . p ositi v e, 7 .
p ositi v e ( if y o u a re g o od a t m ulti - ta sk in g, y o u a re g o od a t d oin g m ore th an o ne
t h in g a t th e s a m e ti m e), 8 . n egati v e ( th is c o uld a ls o b e p ositi v e, d ep end in g o n

yo ur p oin t o f v ie w ), 9 . n egati v e, 1 0. n egati v e, 1 1 . n egati v e (
unre co nstr u cte d
i n
th is c o nte xt i s a r e la ti v ely n ew w ord , o fte n u se d to d esc rib e a p ers o n, u su ally a
man, w ho h as o ld -fa sh io ned i d eas, e sp ecia lly a b out w om en a nd th eir r o le ), 1 2.
negati v e ( in fo rm al: i n th is c o nte xt, a
din osa ur
i s s o m eo ne w ho i s v ery o ld -
fa sh io ned a nd n o l o nger u se fu l o r e ffe cti v e), 1 3. p ositi v e, 1 4. p ositi v e, 1 5.
negati v e
2
1. h o use ho ld m anagem ent ( w e c an a ls o s a y
dom estic c h ore s
o r
house w ork
), 2 .
pra cti c al, 3 . m ale c o unte rp arts , 4 . S ex D is c rim in ati o n A ct ( a B riti s h l a w w hic h
sta te s th at m en a nd w om en s h o uld b e tr e ate d e q ually , w ith e q ual p ay, te rm s a nd
co nd iti o ns f o r d oin g th e s a m e j o b, e tc .) , 5 . c hild r e arin g, 6 . r o le d iv is io n, 7 .
bre ad w in ner ( w e c an a ls o s a y
fin ancia l p ro vid er
), 8 . s o cia l c o nv enti o n, 9 .
gend er r o le s, 1 0. s te re o ty p es, 1 1 . b attl e o f th e s e xes ( a r a th er o ld -fa sh io ned
phra se w hic h i s o fte n u se d h um oro usly )
3
1. e galita ria n, 2 . e q uality , 3 . b re ad w in ner, 4 . w eaker s e x, 5 . s te re o ty p es, 6 .
gend er r o le s, 7 . m ale -d om in ate d , 8 . r u th le ss, 9 . a stu te / v ers a ti le , 1 0. m ulti -
ta sk in g, 1 1 . S ex D is c rim in ati o n A ct, 1 2. m ale c hauv in is t, 1 3. u nre co nstr u cte d ,
14. g la ss c eilin g, 1 5. r o le d iv is io n, 1 6. c hild r e arin g, 1 7. h o use ho ld
managem ent, 1 8. S ocia l c o nv enti o n, 1 9. s e x o bje cts , 2 0. p ow er s tr u ggle / b attl e
of th e s e xes, 2 1. m ale c o unte rp arts , 2 2. b attl e o f th e s e xes / p ow er s tr u ggle
Pages 8 9 – 9 0 M oney & f in ance
1
1.
Pro fit
i s th e m oney y o u g ain f r o m s e llin g s o m eth in g, w hic h i s m ore th an
th e m oney y o u p aid f o r i t.
Loss
i s m oney y o u h av e s p ent a nd n o t g o t b ack.
2.
Extr a vagant
d esc rib es s o m eo ne w ho s p end s a l o t o f m oney.
Fru gal
desc rib es s o m eo ne w ho i s c are fu l w ith m oney.
Eco nom ic a l
d esc rib es
so m eth in g th at i s n o t e xp ensiv e to u se o r r u n.
3.
A
cu rre nt a cco unt
i s a b ank a cco unt f r o m w hic h y o u c an ta ke m oney a t
any ti m e. A
deposit a cco unt
i s a b ank a cco unt w hic h p ays y o u i n te re st i f
yo u l e av e m oney i n i t f o r s o m e ti m e ( w e c an a ls o s a y
sa vin gs a cco unt
o r
notic e a cco unt
).

4.
A
lo an
i s m oney w hic h y o u b orro w to b uy s o m eth in g. A
mortg age
i s a
sp ecia l k in d o f l o an u se d to b uy p ro perty ( a h o use , a f la t, e tc .) o ver a
perio d o f ti m e.
5.
To
deposit
m oney i s to p ut m oney i n to a b ank a cco unt. T o
wit h dra w
money i s to ta ke m oney o ut o f a b ank a cco unt (
dep osit
c an b e a n o un o r a
verb . T he n o un o f
with dra w
i s
with dra w al
).

A nsw ers
6 .
A
wage
a nd a
sa la ry
a re m oney y o u e arn f o r d oin g a j o b, b ut a w age i s
usu ally p aid d aily o r w eekly , a nd a s a la ry i s u su ally p aid m onth ly . W e a ls o
use s a la ry to d esc rib e th e a m ount o f m oney y o u e arn o ver a y ear (
He e a rn s
an a nnual s a la ry o f
£ 40,0 00
).
7 .
If y o u a re
bro k e
, y o u h av e n o m oney. T his i s a n i n fo rm al w ord . I f y o u a re
bank ru pt
, y o u a re n o t a b le to p ay b ack m oney y o u h av e b orro w ed . T his i s
a v ery s e rio us f in ancia l s itu ati o n f o r s o m eo ne to b e i n .
8 .
In th e U K ,
sh are s
a re o ne o f th e m any e q ual p arts i n to w hic h a c o m pany’s
cap ita l i s d iv id ed . P eo ple w ho b uy th em a re c alle d
sh are h old ers.
Sto ck s
are s h are s w hic h a re i s su ed b y th e g o vern m ent.
Div id ends
a re p arts o f a
co m pany’s p ro fits s h are d o ut a m ong th e s h are ho ld ers .
9 .
In co m e t a x
i s a ta x o n m oney e arn ed a s w ages o r a s a la ry .
Excis e d uty
i s
a ta x o n c erta in g o ods p ro duced i n a c o untr y , s u ch a s c ig are tte s o r a lc o ho l.
1 0.
To
cre dit
s o m eo ne’s b ank a cco unt i s to p ut m oney i n to th e a cco unt. T o
debit
s o m eo ne’s b ank a cco unt i s to ta ke m oney o ut. I n th e U K , m any
peo ple p ay f o r te le p ho ne b ills , e tc ., u sin g a s y ste m c alle d
dir e ct d eb it,
where m oney i s ta ken d ir e ctl y f r o m th eir b ank a cco unt b y th e c o m pany
pro vid in g th e g o ods o r s e rv ic es.
1 1 .
Tra d iti o nally , a
bank
i s a b usin ess o rg anis a ti o n w hic h k eep s m oney f o r
custo m ers a nd p ays i t o ut o n d em and , o r l e nd s th em m oney. A
build in g
so cie ty
i s m ore u su ally a sso cia te d w ith s a v in g m oney o r l e nd in g p eo ple
money to b uy p ro perty . T hese d ays, th ere i s v ery l ittl e d iffe re nce b etw een
th em .
1 2.
A
dis c o unt
i s th e p erc enta ge b y w hic h a f u ll p ric e i s r e d uced to a b uyer b y
th e s e lle r. A
re fu nd
i s m oney p aid b ack w hen, f o r e xam ple , r e tu rn in g
so m eth in g to a s h o p ( it c an a ls o b e a v erb :
to r e fu nd
).
1 3.
A
barg ain
i s s o m eth in g w hic h i s b ought m ore c heap ly th an u su al.
Som eth in g w hic h i s
overp ric e d
i s to o e xp ensiv e. S om eth in g w hic h i s
exorb it a nt
c o sts m uch m ore th an i ts tr u e v alu e (
£ 12 f o r a c h eese
sa ndw ic h ? T hat’s e xo rb ita nt!
).

14.
A
worth le ss
o bje ct i s s o m eth in g w hic h h as n o v alu e. A
pric e le ss
o bje ct i s
an e xtr e m ely v alu ab le o bje ct.
15.
If y o u
sa ve
m oney, y o u p ut i t to o ne s id e s o th at y o u c an u se i t l a te r. I f y o u
in vest
m oney, y o u p ut i t i n to p ro perty , s h are s, e tc ., s o th at i t w ill i n cre ase
in v alu e.
16.
In fla tio n
i s a s ta te o f e co no m y w here p ric es a nd w ages i n cre ase .
Defla tio n
i s a r e d ucti o n i n e co no m ic a cti v ity .
17.
In co m e
i s th e m oney y o u r e ceiv e f o r d oin g s o m eth in g.
Expendit u re
i s th e
money y o u s p end .
18.
If y o u
le nd
m oney, y o u l e t s o m eo ne u se y o ur m oney f o r a c erta in p erio d o f
ti m e. I f y o u
borro w
m oney f r o m s o m eo ne, y o u ta ke m oney f o r a ti m e,
usu ally p ayin g i n te re st (
Can y o u l e n d m e
£ 20 u ntil t h e e n d o f t h e
month ?
).
2
1. F , 2 . I , 3 . L , 4 . E , 5 . J , 6 . K (
Reven ue a nd C usto m s
– f u ll n am e:
Her
Maje sty ’s R even ue a nd C usto m s,
a b bre v ia te d to
HM RC
– i s th e B riti s h
go vern m ent d ep artm ent th at d eals w ith ta xes), 7 . C , 8 . H , 9 . G , 1 0. A , 1 1 . B ,
12. D
3
1. b orro w , 2 . l o an, 3 . i n co m e, 4 . e xp end itu re , 5 . o verd ra ft, 6 . c o st o f l iv in g, 7 .
In fla ti o n, 8 . e co no m is e , 9 . b uild in g s o cie ty , 1 0. i n te re st, 1 1 . o n c re d it, 1 2.
exo rb ita nt, 1 3. s a v e, 1 4. r e d ucti o ns, 1 5. b arg ain , 1 6. d is c o unt, 1 7. i n v est, 1 8.
sto cks, 1 9. s h are s
Oth er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
c ash , c heq ue,
co rp ora ti o n ta x, c re d it c ard , c urre ncy, d eb it c ard , d eb t, d is a b ility a llo w ance,
eq uity , i n herita nce ta x, i n v estm ent, n egati v e e q uity , o verd ra w n, r a te o f
exchange ( o r
exch ange r a te
), r e ceip t, s o cia l s e curity , s ta te m ent, u p w ard ly /
dow nw ard ly m obile , w ealth y
Pages 9 1 – 9 2 O n t h e r o ad
1
1. A , 2 . B , 3 . B , 4 . A , 5 . A , 6 . B , 7 . A , 8 . A , 9 . A , 1 0. A , 1 1 . A , 1 2. A

2.
1. D , 2 . H , 3 . F , 4 . A , 5 . J , 6 . G , 7 . C , 8 . I , 9 . E , 1 0. B
Note s:
Most l a rg e to w ns a nd c iti e s i n th e U K h av e ‘ P ark a nd R id e’ s c hem es. T hese
are l a rg e c ar p ark s o uts id e c ity c entr e s w here d riv ers c an p ark th eir c ars , o fte n
fo r f r e e. T hey c an th en ta ke a b us i n to th e c ity c entr e .

Answ ers
D is ta nces a nd s p eed l im its i n th e U K a re i n
mile s
( 1 m ile = a b out 1 .6
k ilo m etr e s) a nd
mile s p er h our
(
mph
). T he m axim um s p eed l im it i s 6 0m ph o n
s in gle -la ne r o ad s o uts id e to w ns, o r 7 0m ph o n d ual c arria gew ays a nd
m oto rw ays ( a lth o ugh th is m ay i n cre ase to 8 0m ph o n m oto rw ays i n th e n ear
f u tu re ). I n m ost b uilt- u p a re as, th e m axim um s p eed l im it i s u su ally 2 0 o r
3 0m ph. D riv ers w ho a re c aught s p eed in g c an f a ce p enalti e s r a ngin g f r o m a f in e
t o i m pris o nm ent, d ep end in g o n h o w f a st th ey w ere d riv in g a nd w here . T hey
a ls o r e ceiv e ‘ p enalty p oin ts ’ o n th eir d riv in g l ic ence, a nd c an h av e th eir
l ic ence s u sp end ed .
D rin k-d riv in g i s c o nsid ere d a s e rio us o ffe nce. O ffe nd ers a uto m ati c ally h av e
t h eir d riv in g l ic ence s u sp end ed f o r a t l e ast a y ear, w ill n o rm ally r e ceiv e a f in e
a nd i n e xtr e m e c ase s ( e sp ecia lly w here th ey c ause a n a ccid ent) , m ay g o to
p ris o n.
3
1 . + 2 . i n ju rie s + f a ta liti e s ( in e ith er o rd er), 3 . s p eed in g, 4 . d rin k-d riv in g, 5 .
p ed estr ia ns, 6 . p ed estr ia n c ro ssin gs, 7 . H ig hw ay C ode, 8 . + 9 . c o ngesti o n +
p ollu ti o n ( in e ith er o rd er), 1 0. b la ck s p ot, 1 1 . tr a nsp ort s tr a te gy, 1 2. T ra ffic
c alm in g, 1 3. P ark a nd R id e, 1 4. tr a ffic -fr e e z o ne, 1 5. c ycle l a nes, 1 6.
s u b sid is e d , 1 7. f in es, 1 8. d om in ate
O th er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
O bje cts i n th e
s tr e et: b olla rd , c o ntr a flo w , c ro ssro ad s, j u ncti o n, k erb , p elic an c ro ssin g,
p av em ent, s p eed c am era , tr a ffic c o nes, tr a ffic i s la nd , tr a ffic l ig hts , z e b ra
c ro ssin g
O th ers : a ccele ra te , b ra ke, c arria gew ay, c entr a l r e se rv ati o n, c ut i n , h ard
s h o uld er, h ig hw ay, m oto rw ay, o verta ke, s k id , s lip r o ad , s w erv e, ta ilg ate
P ages 9 3 – 9 5 S cie nce & t e ch nolo gy
1
1 . r e se arc h, 2 . d ev elo pm ent, 3 . i n no vati o ns, 4 . r e act, 5 . i n v ente d , 6 .
d is c o vere d , 7 . a naly se d , 8 . c o m bin ed , 9 . a te chno pho be, 1 0. a te chno phile

(in fo rm ally c alle d a
te ch ie
), 1 1 . s a fe guard s, 1 2. e xp erim ente d , 1 3. g eneti c
engin eerin g, 1 4. m ole cula r b io lo gy, 1 5. c yb ern eti c s, 1 6. n ucle ar e ngin eerin g,
17. b re akth ro ugh, 1 8. L ife e xp ecta ncy, 1 9. p ro life ra te d , 2 0. a d vances
2
1. P C ( =
perso nal c o m pute r
), 2 . c o m ponents , 3 . b ase u nit ( w e c an a ls o s a y
hard d riv e
o r
dis c
*
driv e
), 4 . h ard w are , 5 . l o ad ( w e c an a ls o s a y
in sta ll
), 6 .
so ftw are , 7 . m onito r, 8 . p rin te r, 9 . s c anner, 1 0. k eyb oard , 1 1 . m ouse , 1 2.
wir e le ss, 1 3. l o g o n, 1 4. f ile s, 1 5. d ow nlo ad , 1 6. I n te rn et, 1 7. w eb site s, 1 8.
gam in g, 1 9. s tr e am , 2 0. e m ail ( th is w ord c an a ls o b e a n o un:
se n d a n e m ail.
I t
can a ls o b e w ritte n w ith a h yp hen:
e-m ail
**
), 2 1. c hat r o om s, 2 2. c ra sh ed , 2 3.
vir u s, 2 4. l a p to p ( w e c an a ls o s a y
note b ook.
S m alle r l a p to ps a re c alle d
netb ooks.
S m all c o m pute rs w hic h y o u c o ntr o l u sin g y o ur f in gers o r a to ol l ik e
a p en a re c alle d
ta ble t P C s
)
*
A ls o o fte n s p elt
dis k
**
T he l e tte r
e i n
em ail
m eans
ele ctr o nic ,
a nd i s u se d a s a p re fix f o r m any
th in gs c o nnecte d w ith c o m pute rs , th e I n te rn et a nd m odern te chno lo gy:
e-b ook,
e-c o m merc e, e -le a rn in g, e -re a der, e -s h oppin g, e -tic ket,
e tc .
3
1. i n v ente d , 2 . l ife e xp ecta ncy, 3 . i n no vati o ns, 4 . b re akth ro ugh, 5 . i n v ente d , 6 .
In te rn et, 7 . e m ail, 8 . r e se arc h, 9 . te chno phile s, 1 0. te chno pho bes, 1 1 .
cyb ern eti c s, 1 2. n ucle ar e ngin eerin g, 1 3. s a fe guard s, 1 4. g eneti c e ngin eerin g,
15. a naly se d , 1 6. e xp erim ent
Pages 9 6 – 9 7 S port
1
1. s p ecta to r, 2 . s p onso rs h ip ( th e p eo ple o r o rg anis a ti o ns w ho p ro vid e th e
money a re c alle d
sp onso rs.
T he v erb i s
to s p onso r
), 3 . s p orts m an ( a w om an
who p la ys s p ort i s a
sp orts w om an
), 4 . ta ke p art i n , 5 . ta ke u p , 6 . o ppositi o n, 7 .
sta d iu m
*
, 8 . d efe at ( o fte n u se d i n th e p assiv e v oic e to d esc rib e th e l o sin g te am
or p la yer:
Once a gain , C hels e a
have b een b ea te n
i n t h e f in al.
W e c an a ls o
sa y
bea t
), 9 . s u p porte r ( T he v erb i s
to s u pport.
W e c an a ls o s a y
fa n,
w hic h
can b e u se d f o r o th er th in gs a s w ell, i n clu d in g m usic g ro up s, f ilm s ta rs , e tc .,

10. a re na
**
, 1 1 . p ro fe ssio nal ( th is c an b e a n a d je cti v e o r a n o un)
*
I m porta nt f o otb all m atc hes, b ase b all m atc hes, e tc ., a re o fte n p la yed o n a
pitc h
i n a
sta diu m .
**
I m porta nt b ask etb all m atc hes, v olle yb all m atc hes, e tc ., a re o fte n p la yed o n a
co urt
i n a n
are n a.

A nsw ers
T he w ord i n th e s h ad ed v erti c al c o lu m n i s
co m petito rs
( = th e s p orts m en a nd
s p orts w om en w ho ta ke p art i n a s p orts c o m peti ti o n).
2
1 . ☺ , 2 .
☹ , 3 .
☹ , 4 .
☹ , 5 . ☺ , 6 . ☺ , 7 .
☹ , 8 .
☹ , 9 .
☹ , 1 0. ☺ , 1 1 .
☹ , 1 2.
☹ , 1 3. ☺ ,
1 4.
☹ , 1 5.
☹ , 1 6. ☺ , 1 7. ☺ , 1 8.

3
1 . s p ecta to rs / s u p porte rs / f a ns, 2 . c heerin g, 3 . p ro fe ssio nal, 4 . ta kin g p art i n ,
5 . q ualifie s, 6 . r e aches th e f in al, 7 . d efe ats / b eats , 8 . r e le gate d , 9 . s ta d iu m , 1 0.
h o olig ans, 1 1 . s h o uti n g a b use / j e erin g, 1 2. g ro ssly o verp aid , 1 3. p erfo rm ance-
e nhancin g d ru gs, 1 4. s e nt o ff, 1 5. c o m mitti n g p ro fe ssio nal f o uls , 1 6. m atc h
f ix in g
P ages 9 8 – 9 9 T ow n & c o untr y
1
1 . N , 2 . M , 3 . G , 4 . A , 5 . I , 6 . B , 7 . C , 8 . F , 9 . H , 1 0. E , 1 1 . K , 1 2. D , 1 3. L
( c en tr a l b usin ess d is tr ic t
i s o fte n a b bre v ia te d to
CBD
), 1 4. J
2
1 . H , 2 . B , 3 . G , 4 . F , 5 . A , 6 . C , 7 . E , 8 . D
3
1 . m etr o polis , 2 . c o sm opolita n, 3 . u rb an, 4 . a m eniti e s, 5 . c ultu ra l e v ents , 6 .
i n fr a str u ctu re , 7 . c o m mute rs , 8 . c entr a l b usin ess d is tr ic t ( C BD ), 9 . r u sh h o ur /
p eak p erio ds, 1 0. c o ngesti o n, 1 1 . p ollu ti o n, 1 2. c o st o f l iv in g, 1 3. b uild in g
s ite s, 1 4. p opula ti o n e xp lo sio n, 1 5. d ru g a b use , 1 6. i n ner-c ity , 1 7. r u ra l, 1 8.
p ro sp ects , 1 9. p ro ducti v e l a nd / c ulti v ati o n / a ra b le l a nd , 2 0. u rb an s p ra w l, 2 1.
e nv ir o nm ent
O th er w ord s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
d ev elo pm ent, e m plo ym ent,
f a ciliti e s, o uts k ir ts , p ro perty p ric es, r e sid ents , r e sid enti a l, s u b urb s,
u nem plo ym ent
P ages 1 00 – 1 01 T ra vel

1
1.
Fals e ( a
tr a vel a gen cy,
s o m eti m es c alle d a
tr a vel a gen t’s ,
i s a p la ce
where y o u g o to b uy a h o lid ay o r ti c ket, a nd a
to ur o pera to r
i s th e
co m pany w hic h s e lls th e h o lid ay to y o u v ia th e tr a v el a gency)
2.
Tru e
3.
Tru e
4.
Fals e ( th ey g et
on
)
5.
Fals e ( th ey g et
off
)
6.
Tru e
7.
Tru e
8.
Tru e
9.
Tru e
10.
Fals e (
eco to uris m
i s s u p pose d to b e to uris m th at b enefits o r h as a n eutr a l
effe ct o n th e e nv ir o nm ent, a lth o ugh th is i s n o t a lw ays th e c ase )
11 .
Fals e ( th ey a ll h av e a s lig htl y d iffe re nt m eanin g: u se y o ur d ic ti o nary to
fin d o ut w hat th ese a re )
12.
Fals e ( it d ep end s o n th e c o untr y y o u a re f r o m a nd w here y o u a re g o in g.
Citi z e ns o f th e E uro pean U nio n, f o r e xam ple , d o n o t n eed a v is a i f th ey a re
fly in g to a no th er E U c o untr y )
13.
Fals e ( it i s a
sh ort- h aul
f lig ht)
14.
Fals e ( it i s c heap er. W e c an s a y
to uris t c la ss
o r
co ach c la ss
i n ste ad o f
eco no m y c la ss)
15.
Fals e ( y o u o nly n eed to f ill i n a n
im mig ra tio n c a rd
w hen y o u g o to a no th er
co untr y , b ut s e e n um ber 1 2 a b ove)
16.
Fals e (
cu ltu ra l t o uris m
i s a h o lid ay ta ken i n o rd er to v is it p la ces th at a re
cultu ra lly i n te re sti n g, o r to a tte nd a c ultu ra l e v ent.
Susta in able t o uris m
i s
to uris m th at c ause s m in im al d am age to th e e nv ir o nm ent, s im ila r to
eco to uris m )
17.
Tru e ( W e c an a ls o s a y
hig h s e a so n.
T he o pposite – th e ti m e o f y ear w hen
no t m any p eo ple ta ke a h o lid ay – i s c alle d th e
lo w s e a so n
o r
off s e a so n
)

18.
Fals e ( a
cru is e
i s j o urn ey o n a s h ip f o r p le asu re , e sp ecia lly o ne th at
in v olv es v is iti n g a s e rie s o f p la ces. A h o lid ay w here y o u w atc h w ild
anim als i s c alle d a
sa fa ri
)

Answ ers
1 9.
Fals e ( a n
arm ch air t r a velle r
i s s o m eo ne w ho f in d s o ut w hat a p la ce i s
lik e b y w atc hin g tr a v el p ro gra m mes o n te le v is io n, r e ad in g tr a v el b ooks o r
lo okin g a t tr a v el w eb site s o n th e I n te rn et)
2 0.
Tru e ( w e c an u se th e a d je cti v e
to uris ty
to d esc rib e p la ces l ik e th is )
2
1 . r e fu gees, 2 . i n te rn ally d is p la ced , 3 . e m ig ra ti o n, 4 . i m mig ra ti o n, 5 . c ultu re
s h o ck, 6 . e xp atr ia te s ( o fte n i n fo rm ally s h o rte ned to
exp ats
), 7 . U N HCR ( th e
U nite d N atio ns H ig h C om mis sio n f o r R efu gees
), 8 . d ep orte d , 9 . p ers o na n o n
g ra ta ( a L ati n p hra se w hic h d esc rib es a f o re ig n p ers o n w ho i s n o t a llo w ed to
v is it o r s ta y i n a no th er c o untr y ), 1 0. e co no m ic m ig ra nts , 1 1 . r e p atr ia te d /
d ep orte d , 1 2. b ord er c o ntr o ls
3
1 . tr a v el a gency, 2 . p ackage to ur, 3 . i n d ep end ent tr a v elle rs , 4 . v is a s, 5 . c heck
i n ( th e p la ce w here y o u c heck i n f o r a f lig ht a t a n a ir p ort i s c alle d th e
ch eck-in
d esk / c o unte r
), 6 . e co no m y c la ss, 7 . d is e m bark , 8 . m ass to uris m , 9 . a ll-
i n clu siv e, 1 0. e co to uris m , 1 1 . r e fu gees, 1 2. i n te rn ally d is p la ced , 1 3. e co no m ic
m ig ra nts , 1 4. e xp atr ia te s, 1 5. c ultu re s h o ck, 1 6. i m mig ra ti o n, 1 7. p ers o na n o n
g ra ta , 1 8. d ep orte d , 1 9. c heckin g i n , 2 0. e xcurs io n
P ages 1 02 – 1 04 W ork
1
1 . ☺ , 2 .
☹ , 3 . ☺ , 4 . ☺ , ( w e a ls o s a y
pay r is e
), 5 .
☹ , 6 . ☺ , 7 .
☹ , 8 .
☹ , 9 .
☹ ,
( o fte n a b bre v ia te d to
RSI
), 1 0.
☹ , 1 1 . ☺ , 1 2.
☹ , 1 3. ☺ , 1 4.
☹ , 1 5. ☺ , 1 6. ☺ ,
1 7. ☺ , 1 8. ☺ , 1 9.
☹ , 2 0.
☹ , 2 1.
☹ , 2 2. ☺ ( w e a ls o s a y
in ca pacity b en efit
), 2 3.
☹ ( a lth o ugh s o m e p eo ple e njo y h av in g a d em and in g j o b), 2 4. ☺ , 2 5
☹ 2 6

2
A . T ra cy ( E ), B . J a ne ( A ), C . C la ir e ( B ), D . M arie ( F ), E . S am anth a ( C ), F .
J e anette ( D )
3

1. e m plo yees, 2 . u nsk ille d , 3 . s e m i- s k ille d , 4 . b lu e c o lla r, 5 . m anufa ctu rin g
in d ustr ie s, 6 . w hite -c o lla r, 7 . s e rv ic e i n d ustr ie s, 8 . j o b s e curity , 9 . s te ad y j o b,
10. h ir in g, 1 1 . f ir in g, 1 2. s tr e ss, 1 3. d em and in g, 1 4. u nso cia b le h o urs , 1 5.
re p eti ti v e s tr a in i n ju ry ( R SI) , 1 6. s a la ry , 1 7. p ro m oti o n, 1 8. p erk s, 1 9.
in centi v e, 2 0. i n cre m ent, 2 1. s ic kness b enefit, 2 2. p ensio n, 2 3. s e lf- e m plo yed
Oth er w ord s a nd p hra se s w hic h y o u m ig ht f in d u se fu l i n clu de:
c and id ate ,
dis m is s, d is m is sa l, e m plo yer, f ix ed i n co m e, i n te rv ie w , i n te rv ie w ee,
in te rv ie w er, l e av e ( = a f o rm al w ord f o r a h o lid ay f r o m w ork :
She’s o n l e a ve
at t h e m om en t
), m anual w ork er, o verti m e, p ro fe ssio n, r e cru it, r e cru itm ent

Blo om sb ury B usin ess
An i m prin t o f B lo om sb ury P ublis h in g P lc
50 B ed fo rd S quare
1385 B ro ad w ay
London
New Y ork
WC1B 3 D P
NY 1 0018
UK
USA
www.b lo om sb ury.c o m
B LO OM SB URY a n d t h e D ia n a l o go a re t r ad em ark s o f B lo om sb ury P ublis h in g P lc
Fir s t p ublis h ed i n G re at B rita in 2 001 b y A & C B la c k P ublis h ers L td
Seco nd e ditio n p ublis h ed 2 004 b y B lo om sb ury P ublis h in g P lc
Thir d e ditio n p ublis h ed 2 012 b y B lo om sb ury P ublis h in g P lc
© R aw do n W yatt, 2 017
R aw do n W yatt h as a sse rte d h is r ig ht u nder t h e C opyrig ht, D esig ns a n d P ate nts A ct, 1 988, t o
be i d entif ie d a s A uth o r o f t h is w ork .
All r ig hts r e se rv e d. N o p art o f t h is p ublic atio n m ay b e r e pro duced o r t r a n sm itte d i n a n y
f o rm o r b y a n y m ean s, e le ctr o nic o r m echan ic al, i n clu din g p ho to co pyin g, r e co rd in g, o r a n y
in fo rm atio n s to ra g e o r r e tr ie val s y ste m , w ith o ut p rio r p erm is sio n i n w ritin g f ro m t h e
publis h ers .
N o r e sp o nsib ility f o r l o ss c au se d t o a n y i n div id ual o r o rg an iz atio n a c tin g o n o r r e fra in in g
f ro m a c tio n a s a r e su lt o f t h e m ate ria l i n t h is p ublic atio n c an b e a c cepte d b y B lo om sb ury o r
th e a u th o r.
Britis h L ib rary C ata lo guin g-in -P ublic atio n D ata
A c ata lo gue r e co rd f o r t h is b o ok i s a vaila b le f ro m t h e B ritis h L ib ra ry .
IS B N : P B : 9 78-1 -4 729-4 737-6
eP D F: 9 78-1 -4 729-4 734-5
eP ub: 9 78-1 -4 729-4 735-2
Lib rary o f C ongress C ata lo gin g-in -P ublic atio n D ata
A c ata lo g r e co rd f o r t h is b o ok i s a vaila b le f ro m t h e L ib ra ry o f C ongre ss.
Serie s: C heck Y our V ocab ula ry
Cove r i m ag e © i S to ck
X