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Test 1
LiSTEning PART 1
Useful language: spelling
1 1 E 2 A 3 I 4 R 5 Y
6 U 7 P 8 J 9 S
10 N 11 X 12 D
Useful language: numbers
1 1 027 9901 3436
2 13
3 £237
4 114
5 310
6 AXJ0577120.
Useful language: times and dates
1 1 August 3
rd/ 3 rd August / 3 August/ August 3
2 5.15
3 May 18
4 autumn
5 July 27
th / 27 th July/ 27 July/ July 27
6 February 8
th/ 8 th February / 8 February/ February 8
Useful language: recognising when the answer
is coming
1 1 B 2 E 3 F 4 A 5 D 6 C Useful strategy: deciding what to write in the spaces
Which space needs ….
What tells you this?
a date? 8the verb ‘starts’ and
a price? 2The word ‘rate’ and the $
a phone number? 10‘contact details’
a person’s name 7the gap is followed by the
surname ‘Lindsay’.
a period of time? 9the verb ‘takes’ and the
phrase ‘on average’.
a place? 5‘outside’ indicates a place
will follow
a piece of
equipment or
clothing – singular
noun? 1
The heading ‘things
to bring’ tells you that
equipment or clothing (or
another useful object) is
‘is’ aft er the gap tells you
that the answer is in the
singular form
a piece of
equipment or
clothing– plural
noun? 6
The heading ‘things
to bring’ tells you that
equipment or clothing (or
another useful object) is
‘a pair of ‘tells you the
noun is in the plural form
a verb/ action?  3‘will help you’ – would be
followed by a verb
a part of the body?  4‘pain’ – this must occur
somewhere in the body,
e.g. your back, shoulders,

Exam Practice
Questions 1–10
Example The title of the first class is called ‘Movement
and light’, so the answer is written as ‘light’.
 1 brushes The question says ‘a set of’ and this is
paraphrased in the recording as ‘a range
different sizes’.
 2 285/ two hundred and eighty-five
Distraction The woman has seen on the website that
the cost for one term is $170, but the manager says
that the cost for two terms would be cheaper. The
question requires you to write the cost for two terms.
 3 Ramdhanie (this can also be written in capitals)
 4 bowls The question says ‘several’ and this is
paraphrased in the recording as ‘two or three’.
Distraction The woman says she hopes she
wouldn’t have to produce a vase or anything with a
handle, and the manager confirms that this is true.
 5 shirt
Distraction neither ‘clothes’ nor ‘sleeves’ will fit
grammatically into the gap
 6 Thursday
Distraction the manager admits that he was wrong
when he said ‘Wednesday’
 7 library
Distraction the woman mentions a post office, but this
isn’t the kind of building the class will start drawing
 8 sandwich The question requires you to identify
something that the woman should take to the class
and the manager recommends that she ‘make a
sandwich’ and ‘bring that along’.
 9 Station You should be familiar with this kind of
word, so it was not spelt out
10 021 785 6361
LiSTEning PART 2
Useful language: plan and map labelling
1 To the right / in the centre 2 directly below / just
above 3 right-hand corner / smaller of
4 at the top / nearest to 5 In between / square-
shaped 6 the south / surrounded by
Useful strategy: paraphrasing in 5-option
multiple-choice task
1D So one thing the session will cover in this session is
how to deal with the huge amount of paperwork we
receive. In other words, how we organize and store
it all, in the right way , I mean.
2C I’ve been impressed by the way you’ve all managed
to stand up and deliver a talk to the other people on
your team. I don’t think we need any more training
in that area for now.
3A When a dissatisfied customer rings you up to
complain, you need to know how to handle the
situation effectively. We dealt with this in the
previous session.
4E As you know, we have a number of trainees
starting work next week. We don’t have time to talk
about this in the training session, but I’d like you
to support and guide them during their first few
months in the company.
5B From time to time you need to produce formal
reports, and the aim of this training session is
to show you how to express your ideas more
effectively and clearly .
Exam Practice
Questions 11–14
11/12 A/E (in any order)
Distraction B: The question concerns what employees
need to do when they return to their new office space,
but the manager explains that there is no need for
employees to ‘get their photo done and update their
personal details’. He goes on to say that their current
pass (=form of ID) will work; C: again, the manager
explains that all the files and folders (=boxes of
documents) have already been put on employees’
desks, so they won’t have to move them; D: the manager
says he expects that next week might be ‘a challenge’,
but he refers to this in a positive way and does not
suggest it will be a problem. The phrase ‘to report back’
usually means to tell someone, in person, how well or
badly an activity went.
13/14 A/C (in any order)
Distraction B: The manager says that insulation will make
the office warmer, but this is not the same as a ‘heating
system’; D: some rooms will be used by teams to work on
projects together, but the manager does not say that any
rooms or working spaces have been made larger; E: the
windows in the office space have increased in size – so
there is more light coming into the area. But ‘the old type
of lights’ would be electrical, and there is no mention of
whether these have been changed or replaced.
Questions 15–20
15 I
16 B

17 F
18 C
19 E
20 D
LiSTEning PART 3
Useful strategy: identifying the locating words
1 1 Fleming penicillin 1928
2 pharmaceutical companies antibiotics
3 jungles mountain areas
4 manufacturers US Europe
5 since the 1970s
6 700,000 cases annually
1 1 I 2 G 3 H 4 F 5 A 6 D 7 C 8 E 9 B
2 1 D 2 I 3 F 4 A 5 E 6 H
Useful strategy: 3-option multiple-choice
1 1 Actually, you could be right. ✓
2 I doubt it. ✗
3 I hardly think so. ✗
4 Fair enough. ✓
5 I couldn’t agree more. ✓
6 Precisely. ✓
7 I’m not sure I go along with that. ✗
8 That’s one way of looking at it, but… ✗
9 You have a point there. ✓
10 Exactly. ✓
11 Come on. Surely that’s not the case. ✗
12 Not necessarily. ✗
Exam Practice
Questions 21–26
21 G 22 E 23 H 24 I 25 D 26 B
Questions 27–30
27 A
Distraction B: Lucy mentions that fitness-related articles
recommend (similar to ‘advise’) vitamins – but a health
authority is a government organisation. We are not told
who the authors of the articles may be. C: Lucy certainly
expresses the idea in C (the price has dropped…so many
manufacturers are making supplements) but Sam rejects
this as the reason for the increase in Australian sales.
28 C
Distraction A: Lucy refers to the Food and Drug
Administration agency, but she explains that they do
not require proof that vitamins work. Therefore, the
supplement industry has no guidelines to follow in this
case. B: Lucy mentions that some vitamins are said to
improve brain function, but this is the intended purpose
of the vitamin, not a possible harmful side effect.
29 B
Distraction A: Lucy refers to ‘a simple cold’ but she says
the Danish researchers found no evidence that vitamins
could prevent or treat this. C: Sam mentions ‘high doses’
(large amounts) but neither he or Lucy suggest that high
doses are harmful.
30 C
Distraction A: Sam puts forward the suggestion that people
would stop buying vitamin supplements but Lucy rejects
this idea (Hardly!) She goes on to explain why stricter
regulations wouldn’t make a difference to consumer’s
beliefs that vitamin supplements are worth taking. B: Lucy
mentions ‘fish oil with vitamin D’ – but does not say that
this product in particular should be regulated.
LiSTEning PART 4
Vocabulary: environmental issues and collocation
1 1 Habitat
2 endangered
3 household
4 renewable
5 footprint
6 emissions
7 warming
8 fuels
Useful strategy: signposting
1 1 D 2 C 3 E 4 A 5 B
Useful language: cause and effect
1 1 effect 2 cause 3 effect 4 cause 5 cause
6 effect
Exam Practice
Questions 31–40
31 gardens The idea of ‘important plants are no longer
found in’ is paraphrased in ‘...gardens …don’t
always contain the kind of plant that insects need.’
32 climate change In the recording, the ‘cause of’
butterfly and beetle loss is changed to ‘They

[=scientists] put this down to climate change’. [Both
words are necessary]
Distraction ‘fragmentation of habitat’ is also mentioned, but scientists do not believe this is a
cause. The phrase is also 3 words, and only two
words can be written in each gap.
33 memory We are told that pesticide impacts on
[=affects] a bee’s memory. This is further explained
as ‘This means that they cannot remember how to
get back to their hive.’
34 food chain ‘An essential part of’ becomes ‘at the
bottom of the food chain… They’re [=insects are]
absolutely vital’ [Both words are necessary]
35 medicine In the recording, the idea of research
based on plants is expressed as ‘scientists are now
studying plants to find out whether they might be a
source of medicine’.
36 meat The answer can be found in ‘If we cut down on
[=reduced] how much meat we ate [=consumed]…’
37 bricks We are told that ‘they [=builders/housing
developers] removed tons and tons of the sand and
turned it [=the sand] into bricks’.
38 eggs The speaker explains that that the metalmark
butterfly lays its eggs on the buckwheat plant, and
on no other.
39 fire In the recording ‘wildlife’ is explained as
‘butterflies and plants’ and we are told that fire has
destroyed a significant number of them [= it has led
to their loss].
40 conservation The speaker explains that while
some projects involving conservation need a lot of
land, others do not. In the case of the metalmark
butterfly, it only needed the area of the dunes to
1 b Information about activities offered at a zoo
Questions 1–7
Do the following statements agree with the information
given in Passage 1?
In boxes 1–7 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
Sleeping over at the zoo
This overnight camping adventure is perfect for school
and youth groups. Sleepover activities are aligned with
National Science Standards. Each program includes:

y Live animal presentations

y Zoo craft activity

y Breakfast and beverages

y A guide who will show you the nocturnal animals
and stay at the camp
Set up your Zoo tent at ‘Camp Kenya’
Pricing starts at $90 per camper (students and adults).
Hot catered meals are available for an additional fee.
Adult/Child Ratio
y Minimum adult to child ratio of 1:4.

y Maximum adult to child ratio of 1:1.
Exam Practice
Questions 1–7
1 TRUE: The first paragraphs states that The Marxland
Sculpture Garden is a former golf course.
2 TRUE: The second paragraph states There are both
permanent and temporary exhibits.
3 nOT giVEn: Nerida Graham and Shackle of Time
are mentioned in the second paragraph but it is
not stated that Graham produced that particular
4 nOT giVEn: In the third part (Your visit) the car park
is mentioned but it is not stated whether it is free
or not. The fees mentioned in that section relate to
entry to the garden.
5 FALSE: While the third part (Your visit) states that We
just ask that visitors don’t climb on any of the exhibits,
it also says: the Garden is a hands-on experience so
don’t be afraid to get up close and feel the surface of
the works
6 TRUE: The Extra Events section states that The
festival has increased in popularity every year since it
began in the early 1980s (although it’s the first time it
has run over two days).

7 FALSE: While it is possible to go the the Marxland
at Night’ program, with one of the garden staff (see
Extra Events), the alternative is try your luck with a
map and torch.
Questions 8–14
 8 F: General tips = techniques for food preparation
and creating a meal. Distraction: D talks about
conflicting advice online and that the book will
provide confidence (but not general advice)
 9 D: D says Perelman is a home cook who was
overwhelmed by the sheer volume of recipes on the
internet…. If this sounds like you…. Distraction;
A: this is written by a blogger but there is no
indication of being confused by information online.
C: an e-book is mentioned but, again, there is no
indication of being confused by information online.
10 C: recipes to help shed kilos and keep them off. Distraction: A mentions nutritionally balanced
meals; E mentions healthy appetizers but neither
mentions losing weight.
11 A : Ozich uses unprocessed alternatives to the
usual sugar and processed grains to create more
nutritionally-balanced meals. Distraction: E mentions
healthy appetizers but not replacing ingredients.
12 B: It is stated that fare in the book is taken from recipes that featured in chef Yotam Ottolenghi’s
childhood in Jerusalem (although others come from
different traditions). Distraction: C refers to family
friendly recipes and E mentions kids (but not the
writer growing up).
13 F: exotic juice-based beverages. Distraction: A mentions milk but as an ingredient, not a recipe
item in itself.
14 D: each recipe comes with a photograph so you can see what you’re aiming for. Distraction: B and E
mention photos of exotic delicacies and ‘beautifully
presented’ respectively but not that pictures
accompany every recipe.
1 c getting a job helping at a festival
2 1 One word only
2 1 Noun 2 Noun 3 Noun
Working at an outdoor music festival
If you’d like to see some world-class acts for free and
you’re not afraid of hard work, consider getting a job
at a music festival. From working as a security guard to
cleaning or serving food, there are many positions to
be filled. However, work at the most popular festivals is
highly sought-after, so consider becoming a volunteer.
It might lead to more, but if not, at least you will be
entertained and meet interesting people.
With outdoor work, be prepared for anything in terms
of weather as big festivals are very seldom cancelled.
Contrary to what many people think, there is very
little chance of running into famous musicians in the
backstage area. They tend to stay in their trailers to
avoid the crowds. But as a festival worker, you’ll meet
many interesting people all day and night.
Exam Practice
Questions 15–21
All spaces in this set require nouns.
15 team: to this end we have established a dedicated team [= set up a team] to promote environmental
16 practices: We encourage all employees to notify us where they see that company practices have a
negative impact on the environment [= workers
to identify _______ that cause harm] (under the
heading Commitment to the environment).
17 jar: we are asking ‘offenders’ to pay a small fine – there is a jar for this purpose on Kevin Wu’s desk.
[= put donation in]. Distraction: cupboard, tub also
mentioned under same heading but for different
18 cartridges: having our used ink cartridges
collected… Jetco, the manufacturer we use, arranges
collection [= current brand organises pick up].
19 tub: There is a tub in the photocopying room for any used paper [=Paper: put in ….when discarding].
Distraction: bin [the cleaners will empty this into the
large bin].
20 suppliers: please use the following approved suppliers (followed by list of companies) [= choose
products from a list of]
21 budget: provided that they are within the allocated budget. [=where …. allows] please use ‘green’
products [= order eco-friendly products]
Questions 22–27
22 Formal qualifications: While you can work as a
tour guide without formal qualifications, entry to the
occupation may be improved if you can show you are
qualified [= aren’t necessary to become a tour guide
but they can help].
23 hospitality: Experience in a related field such as
hospitality is generally looked on favourably by

employers [= If you have worked in …., it may
help your chances of employment as a tour
guide] Distraction: travel in the same paragraph
is mentioned but not as an advantage for getting
employment in the same industry and product
development and sales are mentioned in the last
paragraph – but as an option after the travel industry.
24 sleep: you will often need to operate on very little sleep (first bullet point) [= must be prepared to work
despite a lack of….] (energy and enthusiasm are
wrong here).
25 cultures: An insight into a wide range of cultures helps a guide negotiate all kinds of issues [=An
understanding of different _______ will help a tour
guide manage groups of people.].
26 questions: The ability to handle any tricky questions that arise is a crucial component of the role [=
Dealing with difficult….].Note that cultures would
not fit here as there is no mention of any particular
cultures being difficult.
27 sales: There are often openings for roles in product development and sales within the industry [= Being a
tour guide may lead to a position in ________ or in
putting together new tours for customers.].
1 a glacier lagoon
2 a
There is a lot of support for this heading in the text:
Fjaðrárgljúfur Canyon, in Icleand is little known and is so
far not as crowded as many other sites of natural beauty
in the area, such as Jökulsárlón glacier lagoon. Its
tranquility and isolation mean that is an ideal location
for photographers and hikers alike.
3 An ancient valley : the bedrock is ancient but the
valley was relatively recently formed just after the
last ice age, so `ancient’ is debateable. The age of
the valley is not the focus of the text.
A popular attraction: this is not mentioned. The
text says it is little known compared to other places.
Exam Practice
Questions 28–36
28 v The involvement of two countries: the first
paragraph is about the territory of the Falls
being in Canada and the US. It goes on to discuss
cooperative efforts to slow erosion. Distraction: B
mentions a Dutch painter and a French expedition
but the nationalities are of individuals and are not
central to the paragraph.
29 vii Depictions of the Falls: two depictions
are discussed in B: the painting of the falls and
Hennepin’s written account. This is the focus of the
paragraph. Distraction: E – the way the Falls look is
discussed but not in terms of a depiction.
30 iii When the Falls stopped flowing: the falls ran
dry. Distraction A: this paragraph deals with water
flowing over the Falls but not the ceasing of this. iv
(Permanent damage to the bottom of the river) –
people on the dry riverbed are discussed but there
is no mention of damage.
31 ii getting from one side to the other: bridges and
the Maid in the Mist are the focus of this paragraph.
Paragraph C distracts here as people were able to
walk across the riverbed but getting from one side
to the other is not the focus of C.
32 vi Physical characteristics of the Falls: E
mentions the way the Falls look (the colour of the
water and the foam at the bottom).Distraction: i
mentions preserving the beauty of the area but
there is nothing in E about preserving it.
33 B: Hennepin’s description is significant for the fact that it dominated the collective imagination of the
Falls [= influenced many people’s impression of the
Falls]. Distraction: A: he overstated, not understated
the scale of the Falls; C: the illustration was
mentioned but not that it conflicted; D: criticism by
locals at the time is not mentioned – his description
‘turned out’ (later) to be a wild exaggeration.
34 C: A natural phenomenon caused the source of the falls to be blocked [= This phenomenon occurred due
to strong westerly winds keeping water in Lake Erie,
along with an ice jam that dammed the river near
Buffalo, New York]. Distraction: A: workers from the
Maid in the Mist took advantage of the situation but
did not cause the falls to stop; B: tourists came to
look but that was not the cause; D: Engineers held
back the Falls in 1969.
35 D: It was the first bridge of its kind [wire suspension] to carry a train [= no bridge of this kind had ever
done this]. Distraction: A: While the bridge had two
levels, this is not what made it remarkable; B: the
cost is mentioned ($450,000) but not how expensive
that was; C: it was not the first bridge across Niagara
36 A: A combination of naturally-occurring substances [= The foam in the water at the base of the Falls is
not a man-made phenomenon. It is actually calcium

carbonate from the mist as it evaporates while going
over the Falls. This mixes with decaying diatoms and
other algae to produce the foam]. Distraction: B:
we know the water drops from a height (para A)
but it is not stated that it affects the water’s colour;
C: downstream is mentioned but not that there
are problems upstream; D: pollutants used to be a
problem but this not the case today.
Questions 37–40
37 rowboats: [= Prior to the Maid of the Mist’s first voyage, people used …….. to get across the
Niagara River].
38 mail: [= the steamboat carried …….. and cargo as well as passengers]
39 sightseeing: [= the main purpose of the Maid of the Mist was for……..]
40 600: [= which each have a passenger capacity of ……..]
WRiTing T ASk 1
Before you write
A Reading the question
1 The first sentence gives you the situation and the
reason you need to write the letter.
2 In this case, you need to write to the owner of
a restaurant. As you probably haven’t met the
restaurant owner before, the tone should not be
too informal. Neutral or fairly formal would be
appropriate, depending on the type of restaurant.
3 What kinds of reasons could there be for a work
party? The following are appropriate examples:
an awards evening, celebrating a big contract,
motivating staff, an end-of-year function. The
restaurant would also need to know the date and the
time that you want to go.
4 Think about types of food. What would the restaurant
need to know? Some examples may include information
about allergies etc, whether the group would like shared
plates or a banquet, whether they will be able to order
from the menu, whether they are vegetarian etc.
5 It can be too direct to simply ask: ‘How much will it
cost?’ It will make the question seem more polite if
you begin with something like ‘Could you tell me….?’
Or ‘I’d like to know ….’
B Understanding the task
1 X (write to the owner of a restaurant)
2 X (you have to write about the exact situation that is
3 X (you don’t need to be an expert – just write about
the food you know)
4 ✓ only include essential information
5 ✓ cover all the bullet points or you will lose marks
6 X (your answer should be set out as a letter, with
paragraphs. You will lose marks if you use bullet
C Selecting from the task
You work for a small company. Your manager has asked
you to arrange a party in a restaurant for everyone from
your workplace.
Write a letter to the owner of a restaurant. In the letter
y give the r eason for the party and details of when
you would like to go to the restaurant

y describe what food the group will require

y say how many people will attend and ask how much
it will cost
Dear Mr Smith – this may be appropriate if you have met
the owner of the restaurant before.
Dear Owner – it is not appropriate to use a person’s
status or job title after ‘Dear’
Dear Sir or Madam – this is appropriate in work
situations if you haven’t met the person before and/or
don’t know the person’s name. It would be appropriate
in this task.
Dear Betty – this would be inappropriate unless you
know the owner of the restaurant personally. It would
not be a safe choice in a task like this.
Beginning a letter to someone whose name you do
not know: Dear Sir or Madam; Dear Sir/Madam
– someone whose name you know but you have
never met or you do not know well? Dear Ms/Miss/
Mrs/Mr Brown (family name)
someone who you know but not well? Dear Ms/
Miss/Mrs/Mr Brown (family name) or Dear Linda/
George (first name) if it is an informal situation.

– someone at work with whom you have a lot of
contact? Dear Linda/George

– a personal friend? Dear Linda/George
D Writing the letter
1 booking
2 main purpose
3 terms of
4 options

5 much appreciated
6 total cost
7 questions
After you write
E Checking your answer
1 wether
2 a/b 1 staff 2 Have you got 3 vegetarian 4 pizzas
5 grateful 6 information
c Instead of repeating group: party
Useful language: asking for information
1 1 b 2 c 3 a 4 d
in order of formality: 1 / 2 (these are both formal), 4, 3
2 i would appreciate it if you could send me details of your prices.
3 a provide b let me know
4 1 would 2 let me know 3 provide us 4 enquire
5 appreciated
Useful language: synonyms
1 Possible answers
1 heating: electric heater/gas heater; home: house/
2 position: role, job
3 damaged: broken
4 that dish: your lemon cake/your dumplings etc.
5 request: ask(ing) for, apply(ing) for
6 supplies: equipment, items, provisions
Exam Practice
Sample answer
Dear Erin
I have recently become aware of a course called Social
Media Marketing Essentials and I am writing to ask
for your support in taking this course. It is a three-
day intensive program being offered by the Business
Leadership Association and it starts on Wednesday
2 August.
I believe the course would be of great benefit to our
company as we have been recently considering how to
build up our social media presence and attract more
customers online. After reading reviews by former
participants, I think this Social Media course will help
me professionally in my capacity as Communications
Manager and make a real difference to our company. For these reasons, I am requesting paid leave from
2–4 August to attend the course. It would be helpful
if other team members did not take leave at this time;
so far nobody else has applied. I believe this will not
be a particularly busy time at work, but I am prepared
to spend some time working on those evenings
if needed.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Best wishes
Sam McGee
WRiTing T
ASk 2
Before you write
A Reading the question
1 Spend 40 minutes on Task 2.
2 Most important words: technology improves → fewer
jobs. You have to accept that technology is improving
to write your answer (don’t argue with the premise of
the essay – the idea that the essay is based on).
3 You can agree or disagree completely or partly
agree – in that case, you need to explain why you
agree partly.
4 You have to include reasons and examples. These can
be from your knowledge and/or experience.
5 Fewer jobs: less employment/work
B Planning your answer
a 4 b 1 c 3 d 2
C Developing a clearly structured argument 1 b 2 d 3 c 4 a
5 f 6 h 7 g 8 e
Useful language: style
1 A is too informal for an essay; B is more suitable.
2 1 informal verb : reckon
2 using a dash (-) instead of a linking word:
robots – it’s
3 repeating vocabulary: jobs, robots, bad
4 simple vocabulary: jobs, bad, think
5 a conjunction / linking word at the beginning of a
sentence: But

3 1 passive verb: will … be replaced
2 neutral / formal vocabulary: To my mind,
employment, for instance, anticipate
3 a relative pronoun: which
4 a modal verb: may
5 an adverb at the beginning of a sentence: However
4 1 Few would argue
2 In my view
3 numerous
Useful language: impersonal structures
1 It is widely believed that: most people think that
It is unfortunate that: Sadly,
It is beyond doubt that: Nobody can disagree that
It is frequently argued that: P eople often say that
It is well established that: Everybody thinks that
It is occasionally the case that: Sometimes
It is sometimes assumed that: Some people think that
2 Student’s own answers
Useful language: paragraphing
Computers and robotics are revolutionising the way
work is done and already many industries are using
machines for work that was formerly done by humans.
It seems that, with a few exceptions, this trend will
continue and the majority of job that exist now will no
longer exist in the future.
There is certainly a case to be made that some types of
work require the human touch. It is difficult to imagine
areas such as childcare and counselling not being
staffed by people as the human component seems so
vital. It is also hard to envisage a time when people
will not want to work, as many get a lot of meaning
from their jobs and have an entrepreneurial spirit.
These people will always find a job to do, to create
something new or to make money.
This being said, it cannot be denied that technological
progress means that huge numbers of the world’s
workers who do manual labour may find themselves
out of work. Automation and new processes for design
and manufacturing are making many jobs disappear.
There has been talk of a ‘living wage’, presumably paid
by taxes from those who earn money to people whose
jobs will no longer be needed in society. That may not
happen for many years but it could well be that the
world is heading in that direction.
On the whole, it would appear that although there
are a few jobs that will always require people,
employment as we know it will change drastically if
technology continues to improve. A great deal of the
work that is now done by people, will be achieved
either by machines or by a smaller number of people
than currently do that work.
Exam Practice
Sample answer
Modern technology is widely used in many workplaces,
from offices to farms to factories. This has had major
impacts on the ways in which people work, from
the nature of the work they do to the location of the
workplace. While technology undoubtedly brings
advantages in terms of efficiency, this essay will argue
that over reliance on technology also has its drawbacks.
On one hand, computers and automation have made
a lot of work easier. People working in offices are not
required to do complex calculations without a calculator
and communication has become much faster thanks
to the internet. Some work that was once always done
in an office can now be done at home. In agriculture
and industry, machines are able to do a lot of heavy,
dangerous work that was formerly only handled by
humans. In short, machines can often save employers
time and money. New roles have appeared in IT and
opportunities have arisen for people to design and
maintain machines and computers.
On the other hand, people lose basic skills when
machines do certain tasks for them. If something
goes wrong with the technology, workers may not be
equipped to solve these problems on their own. Workers
in factories may find that they are being replaced by
technology and there may not be enough jobs for
manual workers in future.
To sum up, it is clear that many fields of work have
reaped the benefits that technology has brought.
However, it is worth noting that these advancements
have led to a loss of certain skills and may lead to higher
Useful language: extending your answers
1 Answers will vary
2 Possible answers
1 I use a computer every day because I need it for
my work and I like to keep in touch with friends on
social media.

2 I learned to use a computer at school when I was six. We did exercises on it as well as
playing games.
3 I like watching action films rather than romantic films, although some action films are too violent.
4 I’d like to go to the cinema more oft en but I have a lot of homework.
5 I don’t like watching sport unless there is an international football match.
6 I’d like to try ice-skating but I am scared of falling over.
3 Answers will vary
Sample notes for Part 2
– jacket – sister’s wedding
– bright colours – checked
– bought – department store with friend
– week before wedding
– feel good in it / nice memories
Useful language: clothes and fashion
1 There are many possible combinations:
striped, checked, patterned, plain and floral can go with dress, pullover, shirt, trousers, skirt, scarf,
jacket, suit and cap high-heeled and flat go with shoes
three-piece goes with suit
short-sleeved goes with shirt and pullover
full goes with skirt
tight goes with dress, pullover, shirt, skirt, trousers
and jacket
V-necked and round-necked go with pullover
long goes with skirt
2 Possible answers
a cool, excellent, fantastic, great, fine, super, lovely, convenient, suitable
b terrible, unpleasant, horrible, rubbish, poor quality
c smooth, silky, hard, stiff , uneven, bumpy
d modern, trendy, fashionable, traditional, retro
e content, at ease, relaxed, excited, depressed, fed up, disappointed, angry
Useful language: justifying opinions
1 I see what you mean ...
2 …. is largely a question of how supportive …
3 The main point of the students’ campaign is that …
4 The reason I believe that …
5 There is a lot of evidence now that …

Test 2
LiSTEning PART 1
1 Two, usually one female and one male.
2 No, not necessarily. There may be one or two tasks,
with 10 questions in total.
3 You listen for specific information, e.g. dates, prices, everyday objects, locations, names, etc.
4 Yes – do NOT change the part of speech, singular/ plural, etc.
6 Yes – you must spell the answers correctly.
Useful strategy: deciding what kind of information to
write in the spaces
no kitchen but a kettle and 2
making drinks and snacks
So, there is not a full kitchen. But there are smaller
appliances, such as a kettle. The missing information is
used in the preparation of drinks and snacks.
Possible answers: microwave, toaster, cups, plates,
cutlery, etc.
kitchen with a fridge and 3
So, this item is found in a kitchen. The answer is likely to
be a larger kitchen item similar to a fridge.
Possible answers: stove, dishwasher, sink, etc.
bring your own 4
So, this is something that is sometimes provided at
accommodation, but which guests may need to supply
themselves in budget accommodation.
Possible answers: sheets, blankets, towels, pillows, etc.
a 5
for guests under 12
This item is only for guests under 12, so not something
necessarily suitable for adults.
Possible answers: playground, trampoline, pool, etc.
1 mountains ‘view’ in the question = ‘look out over’
and ‘directly facing’ in the conversation.
Distraction The woman asks whether the rooms look out over the lake, but the receptionist says the rooms
look out in the other direction.
2 microwave ‘making’ drinks and snacks in the
question = ‘prepare’ any snacks in the conversation.
No distraction
3 dishwasher The woman asks if there is a dishwasher
and the receptionist confirms that there is one.
No distraction
4 towels ‘need to bring’ in the question = ‘required to
supply’ in the conversation.
Distraction The receptionist mentions ‘electric blankets’, but these are provided.
5 playground
Distraction The receptionist says the trampoline is not available at the moment.
Useful vocabulary: accommodation registration
 1 Title
 2 Surname
 3 Departure Date
 4 Room No.
 5 Expiry Date
 6 Home Address
 7 Street
 8 Post Code
 9 Country
10 Date and Place of Birth
11 Nationality
12 Date of Issue
Exam Practice
Action plan reminder
Table, note and form completion
1 The instructions tell you.
2 Yes, you are given time to study each task before you hear the recording.
3 What kind of information you are listening for, e.g., a kitchen appliance, something in the bedroom,
etc. Or a time, date, telephone number, passport
number, etc.
4 You will hear the general topic at the beginning of the conversation. It is also given in the heading to the
Questions 1–5
 1 pets
 2 fridge Mary has ‘just replaced’ the fridge and it has
‘never been used’, so it must be ‘new’.

Distraction The dishwasher is old but still reliable, so it cannot be the ‘new’ item.
 3 shelves Mary says she has arranged for a builder to
come in and ‘put up’ a set of shelves; put up = make
or build in this context.
Distraction Andrew says he will bring a rug for the
floor, but a rug isn’t ‘built’.
 4 lamp Andrew asks if he would need to provide his
own lamp and Mary replies that he would.
Distraction Andrew comments that there is a
wardrobe and a chest of drawers, so he would not
need to ‘bring’ either of those himself.
 5 gas Andrew asks if the water is heated by gas and
Mary replies that it is.
Distraction Electricity is mentioned, but Mary says it
is too expensive.
Questions 6–10
 6 Connaught
 7 interglobe
 8 E 738 2991 TP
 9 7/7
th April
Distraction Mary mentions that a builder is coming
on 4 April.
10 450
Distraction Mary says that a typical bond is $500,
but she only asks for $450.
LiSTEning PART 2
1 One main speaker; another speaker may introduce
the main speaker.
2 Usually two.
3 No, not necessarily.
4 The speaker’s purpose is to provide information that
is useful in some way.
Useful vocabulary: entertainment
1 C Acrobats and clowns are associated with the circus.
2 B If he ‘appears in’ movies and has ‘minor parts’, he
must be an actor.
3 B Clapping is done with the hands.
4 A If he ‘wrote’ music, he was a composer.
5 C If the exhibition is of fossils, it is most likely to be at
a museum.
6 A The opposite of to stay at home is to go out – for
example, go out and do something such as go to a
movie or concert or meet friends. Task information: Matching Tasks
It would match A, because ‘those aged under 10’ are
2 Speaker 1: C a warm sunny day = fine weather
Speaker 2: B admission is free = no cost is involved
Speaker 3: C the forecast = weather forecast, and
because it is an outdoor event the implication is that
fine weather is necessary
Speaker 4: A the kids will absolutely love = enjoyable
for children
Speaker 5: B There isn’t an entry fee = no cost is
involved, because the event is funded by the council
Exam Practice
Action plan reminder
3-option multiple-choice
 1 Read the questions. They give you an idea of what
you should listen for.
 2 Underline locating words in the questions, e.g.
names, dates, distinct nouns, etc.
 3 No – the words in the options may be paraphrased
in the recording.
 4 Write the answer quickly and then listen for the next
one. There may not be a long gap between answers
in the recording.
Questions 11–15
11 C Victoria Theatre wasn’t really big enough in the
past, so this year there will be ‘a number of other
venues as well’.
Distraction A, ‘just like last year the festival has attracted more than 250 writers from around the
world’, so there’s been no increase in international
guests. B, there’s ‘always’ time for audience
members to ask questions, so no change here.
12 B There is a 20% discount on all tickets, which
means they have been reduced in price.
Distraction A, the speaker says he’s already bought his ticket, but says nothing about how many have
sold so far. C, tickets can be bought ‘at the door’, so
do not have to be booked in advance.
13 B a chance for the whole family to learn about the
science of the ocean = an educational event; for the
whole family = for all ages
Distraction A, the speaker mentions swimming, but says it’s the wrong time of year. B, he also says it’s
the wrong time of year to build sandcastles with
the  kids.

14 A I’d recommend you take a warm coat = should
wear appropriate clothing
Distraction B, visitors can wander wherever they want around the reserve; they don’t have to keep to
the path. C, visitors can go to the exhibition at any
time over the weekend.
15 A these opportunities . . . aren’t too frequent = do
not happen often
Distraction B, the speaker ‘went last time’, meaning ‘last year’, so it must have been held before. C, the
event is only held once a year, which doesn’t imply
any change in timetable in future.
Questions 16–20
16 C it’s often really popular . . . to beat the rush =
might be crowded
Distraction B, it’s just a short walk from Central Station, so transport is actually quite simple.
17 A The location has changed from King’s Square to
the waterfront.
Distraction B, the speaker refers to the buskers coming from ‘across the city’. In this context this
means they come from all parts of the city, and does
not refer to travelling across the city. C, there’s more
space on the waterfront, so crowding is unlikely to
be an issue.
18 B The speaker warns that the roads around the
college can be congested at that time on a Friday.
Distraction C, the roads may be congested, but not the event itself. C, the speaker says the hall is huge
so everyone will get a seat.
19 B It’s hard to park in that part of the central city and
the train service is suspended, therefore transport is
a problem.
Distraction The venue, the old post office, is mentioned several times, but there is no reference
to the location having changed.
20 C The speaker says there’ll be a huge turnout and
to get your ticket without delay so as to avoid
disappointment, i.e. all the tickets might sell out.
Distraction A, the venue is the same as last year, the Ridgway Theatre.
LiSTEning PART 3
1 Two main speakers, but they may be introduced by a
third speaker.
2 An aspect of academic life, such as a presentation, a
project, research, etc.
3 There are usually two tasks.
4 Identifying key facts and ideas and how they relate to
each other. Also identifying a speaker’s attitudes and
opinions, and recognising agreement/disagreement.
Useful strategy: identifying opinions
1 1 a opinion
b fact
2 a fact
b opinion
3 a fact
b opinion
4 a opinion
b fact
5 a fact
b opinion
Useful strategy: identifying the speaker’s attitude
1 A a good time telling jokes and having fun = amused
by the behaviour
Distraction The speaker says it was a ‘challenge’ but
that her classmates kept her going.
2 B completely amazed = shocked; he also says that he
hadn’t expected to do well in the test.
Distraction It actually took quite a long time for him
to get the results because the teacher was sick.
3 B I can’t understand why . . . It doesn’t make any
sense to me = confused; she also says that only 24%
thought vocabulary was a ‘high priority’ and that
more people should have recognised how significant
vocabulary is for learners – therefore they should
have considered vocabulary ‘more important’.
Distraction She was ‘surprised’ by the survey results,
but surprised that vocabulary was a relatively low
priority for these respondents.
Exam Practice
Action plan reminder
5-option multiple-choice
1 Underline key words in the questions, e.g. words
about opinions, attitudes and agreement/
2 Not necessarily. The words in the conversation may
paraphrase the words in the questions.
3 No, the options are in random order. And the two
answers (A – E) can be written in either order on the
answer sheet – it doesn’t matter.

Questions 21–26
21/22 B and E, (in any order)
B, Maia says that babies need to investigate their
own environment. ‘They should examine the
objects around them and experiment . . . discover
information for themselves.’
E, Daniel says that babies learn by interacting with
their parents and caregivers.
Distraction A, Maia says that babies will pay attention to the videos for long periods of time. C, Maia says
babies don’t need to play in a group – it can be alone.
D, Daniel says that babies don’t learn effectively from
screens, but not that screens do them any harm.
23/24 B and C, (in any order)
B, Maia is amazed ‘the research has produced so
much specific information’. She says she hadn’t
expected the results to cover ‘so many different
aspects of baby behaviour’. C, Daniel says it isn’t
some, but that ‘pretty much every baby prefers the
paper to the present’. Maia had thought there would
be more exceptions.
Distraction A, Daniel says we should not stop
wrapping up presents. D, Daniel says that both males
and females behave the same way. E, there are
several references to methodology, including brain
scans, but no mention of criticism.
25/26 A and D, (in any order)
A, Maia says that ‘follow-up testing showed that the
classes had a long-term benefit’. Both students agree
that this is impressive.
D, Maia says that all the teachers had the same
training that emphasised the importance of play,
and they both agree that this was important for the
experiment to be valid.
Distraction B, some details about the research subjects are given but no comment is made
regarding the number. C, Daniel asks if the children
enjoyed themselves, but Maia has no information
on that. E, at present, the response of the schools is
not known.
Action plan reminder
Matching tasks
1 It depends. Sometimes you write the letters
once only, sometimes more than once. Read the
instructions and study the task carefully. 2 Yes, if it is the first task, you are given time at the
beginning of the recording. If it is the second task,
there will be a pause in the recording so you can read
the questions.
3 Not necessarily. Listen for synonyms and
4 Yes, this helps you follow the information in the
recording and find the correct answer.
Questions 27–30
27 C Maia mentions that parents and caregivers
sometimes repeated the same movements, and
concludes that babies were happiest when their
behaviour was imitated.
Distraction B, there are references to movement. D, the babies were given toys to play with, but there is
no reference to them being excited or surprised by
28 F Daniel says that the babies wanted to give
assistance. If they thought someone had a problem,
they wanted to help.
Distraction D, there is reference to a surprise such as a pen being dropped, but no reference to the babies
being excited by this. C, Maia asks if the babies
copied the researchers’ behaviour, but Daniel says
29 A Maia says the babies recognised the relationship
between reason and result, because they knew the
light would come on.
Distraction B, ‘pushing’ the buttons may suggest physical exercise but that is not the nature of this
experiment. E, Daniel asks if he is a linguist, but is
confusing him with someone else.
30 E The babies have some knowledge of how
language is structured, and can recognise nouns
and verbs, etc.
Distraction D, Maia expresses surprise at the research finding, but that doesn’t relate to the
babies being surprised.
LiSTEning PART 4
1 One
2 A topic that is suitable for an academic lecture or
3 10
4 One or two

Useful strategy: following the speaker
1 A
2 C
3 B
4 C
5 A6 B, C
7 C
8 A, C
9 A, B
10 A 11 B
12 A
13 A, B
14 C
15 A
Useful strategy: editing your work
1 1 geometry (the candidate has spelt the word
 2 correct
 3 tunnel (the candidate has written two words by
repeating the article ‘a’, which is already given on
the question paper)
 4 safe (the candidate has incorrectly changed the
part of speech)
 5 stations (the candidate has written the singular)
 6 correct
expensive (the candidate has written too many
 8 towers (the candidate has written the singular)
 9 correct
10 hospital (the candidate has written the plural)
Exam Practice
Action plan reminder
Note completion
1 The instructions will tell you how many. If the
instructions say NO MORE THAN TWO, you can write
one word or two words.
2 The headings and subheadings in the notes will give
you important information. The introduction to the
recording will also give you some information.
3 Use the subheadings to help you and the locator
words in each note (e.g. names, dates, nouns etc.).
4 Study the words around each gap and listen for
synonyms and paraphrases.
Questions 31–40
31 academic ‘female’ in the question = ‘woman’ in the
32 doctors the information in the question is in
a different order in the recording to provide
33 floods ‘survive’ in the question = ‘withstand’ in the
34 models ‘built’ in the question = ‘constructed’ in the
35 investor ‘significant’ in the question = ‘important’
in the recording
36 ships ‘faster’ in the question = ‘increased the speed
at which’ in the recording
37 erosion ‘erosion’ is described as a ‘problem’ in the
recording to highlight the issue. ‘cuttings’ provides
distraction here, but cannot be the answer as an
engineer would not wish to ‘stop’ them.
38 breakfast It’s necessary to follow the development
of the idea before the speaker gives the answer.
39 gym The locator word ‘equipment’ comes after
the answer in the question, but before it in the
recording. Then in the recording ‘equipment’ is
paraphrased as ‘machine’.
40 graduated The date provides a clear locator word
‘graduated in engineering’ in the question =
‘graduated as an engineer’ in the recording
‘studied’ provides distraction, but doesn’t work with
the preposition ‘in’
1 a Exhibitions at an art gallery
2 Look at the three descriptions of events below.
For which events are the following statements true?
a The Businessman
b Long Road Home
c Long Road Home
3 A Artist and author Jakob Randal invites the public
to contribute to the work by writing the name of
their favourite book with chalk on the concrete.
Western wing, entry by donation.
B its creator, Hannah Park, is one of the region’s
most well-known sculptors
Exam Practice
Questions 1–7
1 F: The widely acclaimed Forty-Part Motet has returned
to the gallery [= has been put back on display]
Distraction : The exhibition in A is by outstanding
laureates but there is no indication that it has been
on display at this gallery before
2 E: a significant donation by collector Gary Sim
[= exhibits that have been given to the gallery]
Distraction: multiple exhibits are mentioned in A and
B but not that they have been gifted to the gallery
3 B: most of which have never been seen before
[= exhibited for the first time.]

 4 D: parallel careers of music and cardiac surgery
[= a performer who is well-known in two fields.]
Distraction: performers feature in F but not by an
artist who is known in another field.
 5 C: Families are invited….Kids must be accompanied
by an adult [= You can bring children].Distraction:
Voices of young and old are mentioned in F but that
is part of the exhibition, not the visitors.
 6 A: come and greet the eight Canadian artists [= You
can meet creative people]. Distraction: artists and
creative people are mentioned throughout but A is
the only one in which it is stated that you can meet
 7 C: Come explore art – then design, draw and paint
your own [= You can create an artwork yourself]
Distraction: E says ‘Immerse yourself in culture!’ but
that does not mean create artwork.
Questions 8–14
 8 TRUE: see the status of the StarRail network and
details of any disruptions to your service [=app lets
passengers know if there are problems on the
train line]
 9 nOT giVEn: no information is given about the form
of payment accepted by vending machines
10 FALSE: Purchased online or with the StarRail
App? … Leave for four hours between buying and
loading, so we have time to check your order ...
11 nOT giVEn: While the text says Tap your Smartcard
at the ticket gates or platform validator., it does
not say whether all stations have the platform
validating service
12 TRUE: It costs nothing to use the app [=free of
charge] (but credit card fees may apply when buying
tickets online.)
13 FALSE: A list of tickets available on the app is given,
(not including Flexitix) and it is stated that they will
be introducing other ticket types in future. Flexitix
are available on the desktop booking site.
14 TRUE: ... enjoy great savings when you travel outside peak hours ... [= Cheaper tickets are available for
those travelling at quiet times]
1 b
2 1 Warehouse 2 scanners 3 maintenance
3 Larrington Plastics
Training Schedule for forklift drivers
Your first day will begin at 9a.m., when our foreman
Greg Shaw will give an outline of what the job of forklift
driver entails. This will take place in our warehouse,
behind the car park. After this, we will run through
how we keep track of inventory. We use RF scanners for
inventory management and this is an opportunity to
practice using these if you’re unfamiliar with them and
to ask questions. Finally, you’ll be shown where the
forklifts are kept and we’ll cover some essential points
in relation to their maintenance. You will then meet the
rest of your co-workers at the canteen for morning tea.
Exam Practice
Questions 15–21
15 harvest: there are other related jobs available after the harvest period, such as pruning and planting
16 sunscreen: sunscreen is absolutely essential if you want to avoid sunburn (hat and shirt do not fit
grammatically and are included in ‘clothing’ given
in the task.
17 belt: It will save time if you keep your water in something that is clipped to your belt so that you can
take a drink whenever you need to
18 tools: Sometimes, employers don’t supply tools so workers need to use their own. (music/mp3 player
is not something you may have to bring, just
something to consider).
19 pallets: using a forklift to load large pallets onto trucks.
20 rain: in the case of rain, you will have to stop work and will therefore not be paid (weather is also
acceptable as it appears in the text and has the
correct meaning)
21 piece rate: your pay depends on the amount of fruit
you bring in
Questions 22–27
22 priorities: outline the chief priorities of our firm [= main ….of the organisation]
23 board: as well as some of the executives who sit on our board [board members] [= meet …. And the
admin team] (note that administrative support staff
are the same as the admin team).
24 privacy: This requires a clear understanding of privacy concerns and a commitment to respecting
our clients’ information. Distraction: matters of a
sensitive nature but only one word allowed.
25 Atrium: HR Session, Atrium. Be here after lunch to have your photo taken. Distraction: collect card from
Reception at the end of the day.
26 handover: If possible, you will join the person who previously fulfilled your role [= predecessor] for a

27 safety: online modules cover sustainability policy and safety in the workplace
1 c
2 d
In the 1940s, Frida Kahlo produced many paintings,
though with some differences from what she had done
before. She was encouraged by the public recognition she
was gaining and shifted from using the small tin sheets she
had used since 1932 to much larger canvases, as they were
easier to exhibit. She also adopted a more sophisticated
technique and began to produce larger, quarter-length
portraits than she had previously, which were easier to
sell. Kahlo created many of her most famous pieces during
this period, for instance Self-portrait with Cropped Hair
(1940), The Wounded Table (1940), and Self-Portrait with
Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird (1940).
Exam Practice
Questions 28–40
28 E: New Delhi: She was a regular guest at parties and
official functions [= social events].
29 C: Alamut: Despite malaria, dengue fever, and
dysentery [= poor health]
30 A: Baghdad: applied for the role of governess for the
Iraqi princesses at the court of Baghdad, Iraq, but
was not successful [= failed to gain employment]
31 B: London: Stark returned to London and went to the
Royal Geographical Society to take drawing courses
so that she would be able to make her own maps on
future trips [=learned a craft that would help her on
her travels.]
32 D: Yemen: had to turn back without realising the
goal she had set of finding the legendary lost city
of Shabwa [= had to leave without achieving her
33 C: She wanted to escape her situation at the time: chose Arabic in the hope that it might provide an
opportunity to get away. Distraction: A: a professor
is mentioned but he recommended Icelandic, B: a
friend joined her on a trip but that was not stated as
motivation to learn Arabic; D: her prior interest was
not mentioned
34 B : She took less baggage on her trip than Bell
took. Stark took pride in travelling without servants
or extra belongings, comparing herself favourably
in this regard to writer and explorer Gertrude Bell.
Distraction: A they made similar trips but timing isn’t mentioned; C: it states that Bell is Oxford-
educated but no comparison is made with Stark’s
education; D: Stark considered herself a more
intrepid traveller but we don’t know that it is
because of the route taken.
35 C: She produced interesting accounts of her
expeditions. Freya Stark gained a high degree of
respect for her sharp observations and compelling
tales of her travels…. people read her books for
the descriptions of the journey. Distractions: A the
text states that she did not make any huge new
discoveries as an explorer; B: the writer doesn’t
give an opinion on whether she deserved more
recognition, though said she gained respect; D She
was able to accurately record unmarked villages and
mountains (so not unreliable).
36 A: She gained access to women more easily than to men: the only people available to speak with
her were the women. Distraction: B: she was more
interested in the men at first : Stark might have
approached the women as a way of gaining trust
and reaching the powerful men; C she got specialised
knowledge of the domestic arrangements, costumes
as a result of her contact with women but this was
not what she went to study; D: the text states that
Stark approached the women.
37 history: was criticised at the time for being overloaded with history and less in the genre of
travel book
38 minaret: She went to see a twelfth-century minaret …
39 letters: four volumes of autobiography and eight volumes of letters….
40 godchildren: Towards her final years, she took many of her godchildren on trips to inspire and
educate them
WRiTing T ASk 1
1 20 minutes
2 150
3 Yes, you will lose marks if you don’t cover all three
4 No
5 A letter
6 No. The style will depend on the situation.
7 Yes
8 Yes

Useful language: giving advice and suggestions
1 1 Perhaps you could think about living near me in
Bondi. (a quite well; b informal)
2 It is recommended that employees reside near
their workplace. (a possibly not at all; b formal)
3 We suggest that you should live near the office.
(a may know the person but not very well; b
4 Why don’t you just move in down the road from
my mum? (a well; b informal)
5 You ought to consider Bondi as a place to live.
(a knows the person but not very well; b neutral)
2 (see underlined phrases above).
Useful language: punctuation
1 Secondly, while it is commonly believed that our
city’s public transport system is one of the most
efficient in the country, this is not true in peak
hours, for example between 8 and 9.30 a.m. when
people are travelling to school and work. So there
is certainly more that can be done to keep traffic
moving, decrease wait times and ensure that
everyone gets where they need to go as quickly as
2 1 I haven’t heard back from my manager about
taking leave in July. That is why I haven’t been in
2 It isn’t a long way from the airport to my house.
However, you should take a taxi if you have heavy
luggage with you.
3 The sales assistant left me with no choice but to
complain to the manager because it was clear that
he didn’t have the authority to give a refund.
4 Although it can be an expensive place to visit, New
York is a place you will never forget. ✓
5 I have a lot of experience in organising parties
and festivals. For this reason, I believe I would be
perfect for the role of event planner. ✓
6 I am writing to request some help with the extra
duties I have been given. I do not feel able to cope
with my current workload and am falling behind.
Useful language: finishing a letter
1 1 a c
2 b c d
3 d e
4 a c d
5 c d e
2 1b 2a 3
Lots of love

Bye for now
Take care
Best wishes
Warm regards
Useful language: phrasal verbs
1 c 2 d 3 a 4 b 5 f 6 e
2 1 break down
2 brought up
3 looking into
4 fill in for
5 put you out
6 get away with
Useful language: striking the right tone
1 Dear friend, We need to write the person’s name if we
know it e.g. Dear Anna.
Dear Lisa Reynolds, Choose Dear Lisa if we know the
person quite well or if they have introduced themselves
as Lisa or Ms/Mrs/Miss Reynolds if we have not met the
person and do not know her well.
Dear Manager, Don’t write the person’s position in the
greeting, use the name (as above). Or if you don’t know
the name, write Dear Sir or Madam.
Your staff are always very friendly but I demand a
refund. This tone is not consistent: it is satisfied and
demanding in the same sentence.
Hi Jerry – I’m writing to inform you of my intention to
move to Ottawa. This tone is not consistent (‘Hi Jerry’
is informal but ‘writing to inform’ is formal).
Please accept my heartfelt apology for taking up your
time with this letter. You do not need to apologise for
writing a letter, simply thank the person for reading it.
I left my last job coz of my boss. The use of ‘coz’ is
too informal. A misspelling / contraction that might
be acceptable in a personal phone message is not
appropriate in a letter, even if it’s an informal situation.
Exam practice
Action plan reminder
• Who should you write to? A friend from another

y What three points do you need to cover? An
interesting part of the city to live, the public
transport there and how to meet new people

2 Think about your answer for Task 1.

y How should you begin the letter? Do you need
to write a person’s name? You need to write the
person’s name – the first name because it is a
friend) e.g. Dear Howard

y Which city are you going to write about? Should
you give the name of the city? Give the name of
the city, to bring the letter to life and make it seem
realistic. Choose one you’re fairly familiar with.

y Can you think of part of the city that is a good
place to live? What makes it a good place to live?

y What words do you know to describe public
transport? (e.g. (un)reliable; convenient; delayed;
crowded; (in)efficient; fast; clean)

y How can a person make a new life when they
move to a different city? (e.g. at work; through
sports or hobbies; neighbours; through friends they
already have).

y What will the tone of the letter be? It’s to a friend so
the tone will be informal, familiar and friendly.

y How will you finish your letter? Use an informal
way to sign off (e.g. All the best; Take care; Bye for
now; See you soon, Love)
3 Example notes:

y Northbridge – quiet, nice cafes, entertainment

y Transport – buses slow, unreliable; trains on time

y New people – at work; will introduce
4 Write your letter

y If you don’t live in a city, should you write about a
whole country? No, you need to write about a city.

y Should you include points that are not in the task?
No. You can mention things (e.g. to explain why the
city is interesting) but don’t give any detail as there
are not enough words.

y Do you need to write an equal amount on each
point? Just cover each point thoroughly and clearly.
It doesn’t matter if you don’t write exactly the same
amount on each point.

y Should you take a formal tone? In this case, it is a
letter to a friend so you will lose marks if you write
in a tone that is too formal.
Imagine you are really writing to one of your friends. Use
contractions (e.g. I’m instead of I am). Use phrasal verbs
and informal language.
Examples: should, ought to, I would, you could, if I were
you, why don’t you, I suggest, how about. Sample answer
Dear Henri
It’s very exciting to hear that you’ll be moving to Sydney
and congratulations on your new job!
As you’ll probably be working in the centre of town,
perhaps you could think about living near me in Bondi.
It’s right at the beach but only 40 minutes from the
middle of town by bus and train. There are people there
from all over the world and it has a friendly, relaxed vibe.
In terms of public transport, you can get around Sydney
by bus, train and light rail. You should just get an opal
card, which I’ll help you with. It means you can get on
and off without having to buy a separate ticket each
time. Public transport is pretty crowded in the mornings
but no worse than in Paris!
I’ll introduce you to my friends and I’m sure you’ll meet
people at work too. You could try living in a shared
house if you want to meet some locals.
Anyway, I can’t wait to see you.
WRiTing T ASk 2
1 Writing Task 2 is an essay.
2 Expressing ideas
Organisation of ideas
3 250
4 You should rephrase the prompt and/or make a
general statement, and say what your opinion is
5 Give reasons and examples.
6 Conclude by summing up your argument(s) and/or
restating your position
Useful language: reporting what people
say and believe
1 1 is often said
2 is
3 was
4 to be
5 widely; leads
6 experts

2 1 is sometimes argued
2 is considered to be
3 are in agreement
4 do not agree with
5 is widely believed
Useful language: countable and uncountable nouns 1 education
2 a good education
3 number
4 was
5 how much time
6 isn’t enough space
Useful language: giving two sides of an argument
1 1 c 2 d 3 a 4 b
2 Student’s own answers
Exam Practice
Action plan reminder
• 40 minutes

y There are two questions in the task below.

y Main ideas

y Do not copy the exact wording of the task;
Before you write
2 Notes should include useful vocabulary, reasons why
university is necessary for a good career, at least two
other things that contribute to a good career.
After you write
3 Yes, spend 3–5 minutes checking your answer when
you have finished.
4 You should NOT write your essay out again if you
have made mistakes; there isn’t enough time.
5 Which of the following should you check for?

y Where to start and end sentences

y Overall structure

y Formal/neutral/informal style

y Subject verb agreement

y Spelling

y Paragraphing

y Whether you have made clear points
Sample answer
In today’s competitive environment, it is often said
that people need to go to university in order to make
progress in their careers. However, this essay will argue that in many fields, work experience and personal
qualities get people further in their working lives.
In some careers such as medicine and law, a university
education will always be a prerequisite to practising
in those lines of work. In many companies and
government departments today, employers expect
recruits to be university educated, so people need to
have graduated from university just to get their foot
in the door. However, in some fields the internet has
opened up a world of opportunity for people to take
short, specific courses to get the skills and knowledge
they need. For those who want to start their own
business, it may not be necessary to go to university.
Likewise, tradespeople, for example electricians and
hairdressers, can have successful working lives without
going to university.
There are several other factors that may lead to a
successful career. Being in the right place at the right
time always helps, as does having a positive outlook
and a hardworking, ambitious personality. In most jobs,
it is experience in the field that helps people get ahead.
This is what helps people develop professionally, make
contacts and deal with challenges.
On balance it seems that while a university education is
still required in some fields of work, in many other fields
going to university is not essential. Whether people go
to university or not, experience, attitude, personality
and luck are all ingredients for career success.
Everyday topics
2 Work or study (or where you live)
3 Two or three different topics
4 There are usually four questions for each topic. The
introductory topics ‘work/study’ and ‘where you live’
usually have three questions.
5 Your passport or ID
Useful language: where you live
1 and 2 Student’s own answers
Useful language: tenses
1 Possible answers
1 Where do you live?
2 How long have you lived there?
3 Why did you move to your house/apartment?
4 Would you like to live somewhere else?
5 Do you think you will move soon?

2 Possible answers
1 I’ve been studying English for six years, since I
started school.
2 I started learning English because I thought it
would be a useful language.
3 I’d like to learn Spanish so I could talk to people
when I go to Spain or South America on holiday.
4 I like learning new vocabulary best, but I find the
grammar rather difficult.
5 I don’t think I’ll ever live in the UK, although it
would be great to spend some time there.
Useful language: the weather
2 Possible answers
My favourite kind of weather is when it’s very sunny
and warm.
I hate it when it rains heavily all day.
Cloudy weather really makes me feel fed up.
If I’m studying hard, I prefer the weather to be cool
and not too sunny.
When I was little I loved playing outside in the rain.
I’d really like to live in a country where it gets very
cold in the winter with deep snow.
1 The examiner will give you a booklet open at the
right task, some paper and a pencil.
2 You will have one minute.
3 You should write your notes on the paper the
examiner gives you and not on the task.
4 You should talk for two minutes.
5 The examiner will ask questions after you finish your
two-minute talk.
Ways to prepare for a talk
1-4 Student’s own answers Useful strategies: problems and solutions for giving
a talk
Possible paraphrases
1 part of a cooker where you bake cakes or meat
2 money that is given to support a student at
3 a document that promises to repair a machine if it
goes wrong within a year or two
4 something that the winner of a competition gets
5 a sign, for example, that says it is dangerous to do
1 The questions will be connected to the Part 2 topic.
2 No, the questions will be about general issues.
3 You will have to answer up to six questions
depending on the length of your answers.
Useful language: speaking generally
1 Possible answers
1 Most people believe that computers will play a
much larger role in education in future, but it
seems to me that people will always prefer face-
to-face teaching for some subjects.
2 It’s often said that space tourism will be a popular
option in the next few years, but in my view, it will
take a lot longer than that for it to be affordable
for ordinary people.
3 Generally speaking, international sporting events
help to inform people about other cultures, but at
the same time sports fans are encouraged by the
media to support their own national team.
4 That depends on the circumstances. Of course,
one person can do very little, but the evidence
shows that lots of individuals working together
can make a big difference and encourage
governments to change laws and invest in
environmentally friendly campaigns.

Test 3
LiSTEning PART 1
Questions 1–10
 1 15(
th) May / May 15( th) The woman explains that the
film must be sent in by Wednesday, May 15 th. She
also refers to this date as the deadline.
Distraction The man mentions June 30
th, but the
woman explains this is not the submission date but
the date when the judges decide on the winner.
 2 actors The woman explains that professional actors
can’t take part in the film; they all need to be ‘new
to acting’.
Distraction ‘people’ might be tempting, but it is
only actors that need to be inexperienced. People
working in audio production etc. are allowed to
 3 animal The woman explains that the man has a
choice of using either a child or an animal as one of
his characters.
Distraction ‘glasses’ is wrong as this was something
the filmmakers had to use in last year’s competition.
 4 music The woman says that permission is required
for any music the man wants to use.
Distraction ‘band’ might be tempting, but there is
no suggestion that the man needs to get permission
for this since he is asking a local band he hopes will
help him.
 5 subtitles The woman explains that if the film is in a
language other than English then accurate subtitles
are necessary.
Distraction ‘language’ might be tempting but it does
not fit grammatically in the space.
 6 script The woman suggests that this is what
filmmakers must consider [= focus on] first.
 7 comedy The man makes the point that not
everyone finds the same thing funny, and thinks he
probably shouldn’t make a comedy as a film. The
woman agrees: ‘Yes, stay away from [= avoid] that
kind of film.’
Distraction ‘Documentary’ is wrong because the man thinks making this kind of film would be a
good idea.
 8 Hyslop
 9 imagine The woman says that the film is called
Imagine – in other words, this is its title.
10 Bridge
LiSTEning PART 2
Questions 11–20
11/12 A/B (in any order)
Distraction C: The speaker explains that the
wood has been free of litter since the last time
it was cleaned up, and therefore collecting litter
is a job that the volunteers can ‘forget about’; D:
The speaker suggests that the volunteers have a
look at some of the existing bird boxes, possibly
to check that they are being used by birds. The
volunteers are not asked to make any more boxes;
E: The speaker mentions that some older trees lost
branches in a recent storm, but he does not say that
the whole tree needs to be cut down.
13/14 A/E (in any order)
Distraction B: The speaker provides examples of
tools required for the work in the wood, but says
that these will all be provided. In other words,
the volunteers do not need to bring any tools
themselves; C: The speaker says he has received
money [= funding] from the local residents
committee, and will therefore buy and provide
sandwiches for the volunteers; D: The speaker says
there is no need for sunscreen since the volunteers
will be working during a cloudy weekend.
15 C ‘New account’ is a paraphrase of ‘go online and
find a website’, ‘register your details’.
16 D ‘Suitable location’ can be understood when the
speaker says ‘consider exactly where you’re going to
count the birds’ – ‘in a single field’ or ‘a wider area’.
17 g ‘Good team’ is expressed by ‘get some other
people to come along to help you’ and ‘a group that
are also interested in birds’.
18 H ‘visual guide’ is a paraphrase of ‘a print-out
showing pictures of the birds’. The speaker goes on
to say that this should be detailed and clear enough
so that the volunteers can clearly identify the birds
they plan to count.
19 B A ‘rough estimate’ means ‘an approximate
number’ of birds. The speaker talks about ‘totals’
and ‘the probable number’.
20 A ‘clear photograph’ can be understood when the
speaker says ‘have a look at the pictures you’ve
taken’, ‘a sharp image’ and ‘best shot’.

LiSTEning PART 3
Questions 21–30
21 A Oliver suggests the introduction includes
something on why ‘restoration is necessary’, and
gives examples: damage by water, insects and
Distraction C: Chloe suggests starting with a definition, but Oliver says this isn’t necessary.
Therefore, the students don’t agree; B: Oliver
gives examples of why restoration work might be
required, but doesn’t talk about situations when
restorers have not done their work well.
22 B Chloe assumes that the restorers would have a
background in a subject such as art history, but
discovers some of the restorers studied chemistry
and archaeology. Oliver also expresses surprise that
these kinds of skills were required.
Distraction A: Chloe does mention a painting
requiring a year to clean, but neither student
expresses surprise about this length of time;
C: Oliver says the restorers have to experiment
with cleaning methods, but this does not appear to
surprise him. We also can’t assume that ‘methods’
and ‘materials’ are the same thing.
23 A Oliver says he wouldn’t like the pressure of having
to please the people who owned a painting he was
Distraction B: Oliver talks about working at heights
[= ‘restoring the paintings high up on a church
ceiling’] but says this might be interesting, not
off-putting; C: Chloe makes a joke about Oliver not
being able to draw, but this is not the reason for his
choosing not to work in art restoration.
24 A Chloe says that the person who bought the Dutch
landscape probably thought a whale spoilt the
picture. Oliver agrees [= ‘You must be right’] and says
that ‘not everyone judges a painting in the same way’.
Distraction B: Chloe explains that people had
viewed the landscape painting for a long time
without realising what the artist had originally
included. ‘Undervalued’ suggests that people
viewing the picture in the gallery hadn’t
appreciated the painting or understood its financial
worth, but Chloe does not suggest this; C: We are
told that the painting was cleaned, but there is no
information about the cleaning technique being
particularly good or new.
25 C Oliver says digital reproduction techniques make
it possible for many copies of a painting to be made, and therefore more people can see the painting. He
says he likes this development.
Distraction B: Oliver makes the point that people
who make digital reproductions are not pretending
that their paintings are originals – unlike dishonest
people who sell fakes.
26 C
27 A
28 D
29 B
30 F
LiSTEning PART 4
Questions 31–40
31 chest
Distraction ‘feet’ might be tempting but we are told
blood is pulled towards the feet on Earth, not in
32 calcium This is the only mineral given as an
33 muscle Another way of saying ‘muscle loss’ is ‘their
muscle begins to waste’.
34 vision We are told that microgravity can lead to
astronauts not being able to see clearly, and that
their vision can be permanently affected.
35 sweat Because of the word ‘including’ in the
question, we know that the key must be a form of
36 light
Distraction ‘expensive’ might be tempting but the
speaker explains that engineers want to make light
materials so that transport doesn’t have to cost so
37 paint
38 windows ‘Large windows’ is expressed as ‘to
increase the size of the windows on the ISS. They’re
very small.’
39 museum
Distraction ‘exhibits’ might be tempting, but they
are objects, not places. Also, because the word
begins with a vowel, it wouldn’t work with the
article ‘a’ in the question.
40 qualification
Distraction ‘education’ might be tempting but this
word doesn’t collocate with ‘get a new’.

Questions 1–14
 1 FALSE: Please note that barbecues are used on a
first-come-first-served basis. Distraction: you can
book a section of the rooftop ahead of time
 2 TRUE: please make sure any garbage is removed from the rooftop and put in the bins on the ground
 3 nOT giVEn: It is stated that Any breakage of communal property must be reported immediately
and paid for but it doesn’t say who should be
 4 nOT giVEn: It is stated that there are six washing machines but not how many may be used at once
by one person.
 5 nOT giVEn: While it is stated that you should notify the janitor of problems with the machines,
it doesn’t say how often the janitor checks the
 6 TRUE: … special arrangements need to be made if removalists need elevator access. Please contact
management 24 hours in advance if this is the case.
 7 FALSE: when moving furniture, please use the West Stairwell as the South stairwell is narrower
 8 D: you’ll also need to purchase ink and charcoal pencils on the night … Cost: $180 plus incidentals
[= pay extra for materials]. Distraction B: supplies
are included; C: machines and thread are provided
but bring your own thread etc
 9 C: Your proficiency will be assessed by the instructor on the first morning and you will receive instruction
based on the stage you are at.[= students of different
levels of ability]. Distraction: D; a bridge for people
who already like to draw to get to the next level; E: A
great starting point.
10 F: Bring a friend at no additional cost. [= Two people can attend for the price of one]. Distraction A: Cost:
$290 ($10 off each when you book for two students).
11 E: Cost: by donation [=You can choose how much you want to pay].
12 B: glass-cutters may be taken home [= You can borrow equipment]. Distraction; A, C and D mention
equipment but not that it can be taken away.
13 D: for people who already like to draw [= some
experience]. Distraction C: you will receive
instruction based on the stage you are at; E: A great
starting point; F: for beginners.
14 A: Take our intensive course on Saturday 23 June
[= a one-day course]
Questions 15–27
15 separate
16 storage
17 ornaments
18 clock
19 clients
20 ventilation
21 trust
22 management style
23 feedback
24 gym
25 competition
26 sports (events)
27 improvement
Questions 28–40
28 Section A v
29 Section B vii
30 Section C iv
31 Section D iii
32 Section E ii
33 jaw
34 flat
35 balance
36 tendons
37 D
38 B
39 A
40 D
WRiTing T ASk 1
Sample answer
Dear Sir or Madam
I am writing to ask whether you have a bag that I left on
Platform 3 of Wellington Central Station at 4p.m. this
afternoon (January 14). Unfortunately, I boarded the
train without it and did not realise I had left it behind
until well into my journey.
The bag is a medium-sized overnight bag, made of
brown leather. It has two small handles and a long
strap, for carrying it over the shoulder. It contains
some clothing (a pair of jeans and two T-shirts), a red
cosmetics purse and two notebooks. Most significantly,

there is a gift-wrapped photo album which I was
supposed to deliver tomorrow night for my uncle’s
As you can imagine, I am very keen to have this
returned. I don’t believe the bag or what is inside it will
be of much value to anyone else, but it is important
to me. If you have it, I would be more than happy to
pay for a courier to bring it to me where I am staying in
Johnsonville. You can contact me on 0908 766 238.
Many thanks
Georgia Jukic
WRiTing TASk 2
Sample answer
There have always been people who get a thrill from
doing dangerous things and these days the options
available to these people are greater than ever before.
However, if people knowingly do something dangerous,
should they not bear the cost if it goes wrong? This essay
will argue that in some cases, they should.
In many ways it is understandable to want to push
the boundaries of human experience. The feeling of
adrenalin while falling through the air or diving to the bottom of the ocean is an amazing, even addictive
sensation. Besides the thrill, there may also be a sense
of achievement, whether that is conquering a fear or
pushing one’s body to its limits.
It can be argued that, as it is the individual that gets the
benefit from doing these exciting activities, it should be
the individual that pays if they need to be rescued or
given medical treatment. However, it is not always so
simple. If the public health system, and therefore the
taxpayer, picks up the bill for medical problems relating
to an unhealthy, sedentary lifestyle, why should it not
cover problems resulting from an active one?
To my mind, if a professional guide has not checked the
equipment or has acted in a reckless way, that guide or
company should pay if something goes wrong during an
extreme sport they have organised. If an individual has
ignored professional advice and been injured, he or she
should pay. However, in other cases, the health system
should cover the cost.
In short, there are certain people who enjoy the
excitement that extreme sports bring. If they have not
taken reasonable safety measures as advised, they
should have to fund their own medical care.

Test 4
LiSTEning PART 1
Questions 1–10
 1 49.99 per day = daily
Distraction The man says they are $15.50 per hour, but the form requires the price per day.
 2 gloves
Distraction The woman provides the word ‘helmets’. The man then makes a comment about sizes, which
might be tempting but doesn’t make sense. The
man then adds the comment about ‘gloves’.
 3 Battenburg
 4 green Bay
 5 air conditioning the Economy car = that model
Distraction The woman provides the words ‘air conditioning’ and the man says it’s not in that
 6 52.20
Distraction The man mentions the ‘normal’ price of $59, before quoting a discounted price.
 7 heavy
Distraction The man says that on some E-Bikes the battery is very heavy, but on these bikes it’s light.
 8 brakes good = high-quality
 9 lock
Distraction The woman provides the word ‘lock’ and the man says that yes, those are provided.
10 licence no licence is needed = you don’t have to
LiSTEning PART 2
Questions 11–20
11 B discovered = found; tools = implements, like
spades and forks, for digging
Distraction A: a few documents and records exist about this site, but they weren’t ‘recently
discovered at this site’; C: photographs are
mentioned, but not drawings.
12 B enough water = the stream . . . runs through the
valley, so we can irrigate the gardens even through
long dry summers
Distraction A: the gardens get ‘freezing frosts’;
C: ‘storms blow very hard up here’
13 A built = was constructed; a medical centre = an
infirmary [a simple hospital] ‘to take care of the
health needs of the growing population’
Distraction B: this was a residential area from where
people commuted to the city to work; C: a military
base was talked about, but was never built.
14 B are given = they donate; certain local people =
families in this neighbourhood who are struggling
Distraction A: businesses and restaurants want to
buy the produce, but there isn’t enough; C: each
plot is worked by a volunteer member, but there is
no reference to members using the produce.
15 C students = undergraduates on the horticulture
course; gardening skills = their subject
Distraction A: there is a reference to academics, but
not their research; B: workshops are planned for the
future, but the question includes the word ‘now’.
16 F D and E are distracting, but they are not ‘the first
building you come to’ on that path.
17 C B is distracting, but it is not ‘actually located
inside the orchard’.
18 g H is distracting, but it is inside the car park, not
down ‘a little path heading out to the west’.
19 E D is distracting, but it is not shaped like the letter U.
20 A B is distracting, but it is not ‘right at the very end
of that path – as far as you can go’.
LiSTEning PART 3
Questions 21–30
21 A for a long time = since the 1990s, therapists
have been experimenting with games . . . this has
been going on for many years, it’s not a sudden
Distraction B: Jason says that Dr Franklin ‘sees huge
potential for games’; C: Alya says she’d been hoping
Dr Franklin might give some idea about this issue,
but, as Jason says, he ‘doesn’t really address that’.
22 C harder work rate = people are more prepared to
spend hours on rehabilitation
Distraction A: some patients get so caught up in
the games ‘they hurt themselves’; B: Jason says
that the games are no cheaper than conventional
23 B The students disagree about whether the
research subjects played games together in the
same room or played online. Alya describes this as
‘how the experiment was conducted’, which means

Distraction A: Jason mentions the purpose of the
research when he says, ‘They were investigating
whether people actually made more friends by
playing games’, and there is no disagreement about
this issue; C, the finding that ‘players develop
empathy for each other and bond over games’ is
contrary to the common opinion that games are
‘solitary’, but this is not a source of disagreement
between the students.
24 C patients and their families = better for the
children, but also better for the parents. Alya says,
‘That’s what I like about this’ and Jason agrees,
adding ‘it reduces the stress for everybody’.
Distraction A: Jason mentions that the games ‘were
simple ones on handheld devices’, but doesn’t
express an opinion about this; B: Jason suggests
that the results need to be confirmed by further
25 A reliable evidence = supplied valid proof
Distraction B: Jason says that people ‘would
probably like to know about that’, which implies no
widespread publicity yet; C: Jason ‘the finding just
reinforced what’s been shown in earlier studies,’ but
doesn’t mention academic criticism of this study.
26 F not a surprise = games are obviously going to
improve . . . I guess that’s predictable
Distraction C: the USA is mentioned, but this was only where the research was conducted.
27 B contradicts other research = there are also studies
showing a link between electronic screens and eye
Distraction D: because Alya describes the finding
as ‘controversial’, though she and Jason don’t
personally challenge it.
28 D not believable = I doubt that’s really true . . .
Seems highly unlikely to me
Distraction A: a ‘company’ is mentioned twice, but not any reason why it should be; the research
finding would seem to be a good thing for this
business, so ‘disappoint’ is not applicable here.
29 g will become increasingly important = going to be
more and more significant as the population ages
Distraction A: because Jason mentions game
manufacturers, but says this is ‘good news’ for
30 E supported by various studies = And there’s . . .
previous research to back that up, too
Distraction A: ‘the workplace’ is mentioned, but only
in a positive context. LiSTEning PART 4
Questions 31–40
31 Asia originally migrated from = began their
journeys in
Distraction the ‘Americas’ are mentioned as a possible starting point but the speaker says that
debate ‘has been settled’, and goes on to say what
anthropologists recognise today.
32 faster Distraction European ships were ‘stronger’,
which implies that Polynesian canoes were ‘weaker’,
but Europeans wouldn’t have been ‘impressed’
by that.
33 steering Distraction the speaker says the paddles
were not used for ‘propulsion’.
34 bark made from = used in the manufacture of
Distraction ‘wool’ and ‘cotton’ are mentioned, but
were ‘unknown to Polynesians’.
35 songs remembered = recall; detailed = long and
complicated; making up = created
36 waves found direction = knew which way to sail
37 birds could identify certain = recognising those
38 colour / color changes = vary; read = something else
that they were able to detect
Distraction the ‘temperature’ of the water is
constant in that part of the Pacific.
39 instruments without = did not use
Distraction it is necessary to understand a long turn
of spoken language between the reference to the
canoe’s name and the answer.
40 language(s) created fresh interest = remarkable
Questions 1–14
 3 nOT giVEn
 5 nOT giVEn
 8 E You can see a presentation about preparing food.
 9 B You can watch a group of young people perform.
10 g Children can draw with the help of an expert.
11 C You can listen to local singers.
12 D There are prizes for children.

13 F There are activities for pets.
14 C There is a place to take a rest.
Questions 15–27
15 sale table
16 fitting rooms
17 friends
18 back off ice
19 co-worker
20 lights
21 (front) entrance
22 pocket
23 (navy) (blue)
24 open-toed
25 name badge
26 staff room
27 team leader
Questions 28–40
28 D
29 A
30 C
31 A
32 D
33 B plants and animals benefit from each other.
34 C Conditions are becoming less favourable for
some fish.
35 A they can maximise the use of space.
36 B It may bring other advantages as well as providing
37 yield
38 waste
39 land
40 soil
WRiTing TASk 1
Sample answer
Dear Ms Wilkes
Last month I participated in the Workplace Health and
Safety Course which was held at Chesterton Community
College on Monday and Wednesday evenings. My tutor
was Ram Singh. I have been asked to provide feedback
and it is with pleasure that I do so.
I found the training to be extremely helpful, especially
with regards to the prevention of injuries. We have already adopted suggestions from the course in our
off ice, including the introduction of standing desks
and some new computer monitors. While I was
already familiar with most of the first aid/emergency
information, the course was a good refresher. Ram had a
solid knowledge of the material and was able to answer
all of our questions.
If I could make some suggestions, I would recommend
that the groups should be smaller or more models
should be provided for the CPR exercise, as we had to
wait quite a while for a turn. I would also like to have
more information on injury prevention in the handbook.
If you have any further questions, please contact me.
Yours sincerely
Cristina Velazquez
WRiTing TASk 2
Sample answer
For many people today, the pace of life is hectic and
they do not spend as long cooking meals as people used
to in the past. This essay will argue that, while food that
is ready to go has some advantages, overall it brings
more drawbacks.
Today there are more families in which both parents
work, which means not as much time is devoted to the
preparation of food. For others, a competitive work
environment and/or a long commute may keep them
away from the home for longer each day. Added to this,
there are more options than ever before when it comes
to ready-made food. Preservatives and refrigeration
have enabled people to keep these easy options at
home for when we need them and takeaway delivery
services will bring meals to our door if we do not have
time to cook. The availability of easy meal options
clearly has many advantages. Families and friends can
spend the precious time they have together enjoying
each other’s company rather than cooking. Takeaway
food can fill the gap and allow people to get on with
what they have to do in their day and there is a lot of
variety to cater for many tastes.
However, in my view, nothing can compare to a home-
cooked meal. The act of cooking can be a relaxing way
to unwind aft er a busy day and if you cook it yourself,
you always know what your meal contains. Takeaway
food can be unhealthy and portions are generally
large. If this kind of food is consumed too oft en, people
become unhealthy and also lose their cooking skills.
Therefore, on balance, ready-made food is a convenient
option but it brings more disadvantages than benefits to
family life and health.

Test 5
LiSTEning PART 1
Questions 1–10
 1 05443CHI771
 2 Market
 3 018 669 925
 4 storm The man explains that the storm caused a big
tree to fall over and hit the house.
Distraction Although the tree is the more immediate
cause of the damage to the house, it’s not possible
to say ‘during a tree’.
 5 glasses The man explains that his child/eight-
year-old daughter left her glasses on her desk, and
these were scratched as a result of the tree coming
through the window.
Distraction The man says that his daughter’s headphones were also on the desk, but these were
not damaged. Therefore, he is not claiming for these.
 6 carpet The idea of ‘new’ can be understood when
the man explains that ‘just last month, we’d gone
shopping’ and ‘We’d only had it for a couple of
 7 curtain The man explains that this was damaged by
the tree.
Distraction We are told that the ‘books’ and
‘computer’ were not damaged – so the man has no
need to claim for these items.
 8 garage The man says that the tree also hit the door
to the garage, and that they can’t open it anymore.
Distraction The woman asks whether it’s the door
‘to the back of the house?’, but the man explains
that the house door is not damaged.
 9 Honeywell
10 fence The man confirms he will take photographs
of the damaged fence before the builder starts work
on it.
LiSTEning PART 2
Questions 11–20
11/12 A/B (in any order)
Distraction C: The speaker refers to diff erent
activities such as trekking and kayaking, but does
not suggest these are new skills; D: The speaker
refers to diff erent landscapes, e.g. mountains, forests
and the coast, but does not say the participants will
be studying issues connected to them. 13/14
B/C (in any order)
Distraction A: The speaker mentions rivers and
streams, but in the context that it might not be a
good idea to put tents next to them; D: The speaker
talks about not burning the food, but this is food the
participants have brought with them – they don’t
have to look for food along the track.
15 C We can understand the idea of ‘being closed to
the public’ from ‘people aren’t allowed to use [the
track] at the moment’. The speaker explains that
this is due to maintenance [= repair] work.
16 B We are told that it is easy for people to slip on the
rocks as they cross Blue River, and that they may
have to cross the river several times.
17 D The Pioneer Track is divided into two sections
because it ‘ends’ at the town of Richmond, and then
continues on the other side of town.
18 A We know that Edgewater is busy with walkers
because of the paraphrase ‘it’s very popular’ and
‘other groups out walking on the way’.
19 B The Murray Track may be unsafe because part of it
goes along a cliff where the track is narrow.
20 A Lakeside is ‘a bit of a tourist attraction’ and the
participants will probably have to share ‘the track
with many other visitors’.
LiSTEning PART 3
Questions 21–30
21 B Finn refers to articles which focus on ‘the
changing nature of jobs’, and Kiara supports this by
saying how the articles suggest we ‘forget the way
things used to happen’. She says that the tradition
of starting out as an apprentice and then remaining
in the same company for years is finished.
Distraction A: Although Kiara refers to people
‘who’ve been in work for years’ [= older employees],
she says that the articles she’s read were written for
young employees, too.
22 A Kiara explains that many businesses [= companies]
are no longer using the phrase ‘job title’. This is
because the work that they are off ering is for a
temporary period – they want to hire people to work
on a particular project.
Distraction B: When Kiara talks about a person’s
social circle, she is describing their friends.
Colleagues are people you interact with at work.
Kiara explains that in the past, some people liked

to tell their friends how long they had been in a
particular job; C: Although Kiara refers to managers
and heads of department, she says that these are
job titles that might have been more relevant in the
past, not the future.
23 B Finn talks about how people who earn a good
salary can enjoy their lives, and contrasts this with
people earning the minimum wage – the least
amount of money a company can legally pay. He
says this is his biggest worry.
Distraction A: Finn says that having to leave a job
and work in different places could be ‘interesting’.
He doesn’t think a lack of job security is always a
bad thing.
24 C Kiara thinks that the findings of the survey are
not presented clearly enough. She is interested in
knowing what the individual questions in the survey
Distraction A: The tutor asks whether Kiara is
surprised by the statistic of 48% but she says, ‘It’s
hard to say’. In other words, she feels she cannot
comment on the statistic because it’s unclear what
it represents; B: Kiara refers to the people ‘who took
part’ [= the interviewees] but is only interested in
their responses to the survey, not what kind of work
they each do.
25 A Kiara makes the point that learning new skills
would help an employee if they wanted to change
companies. Finn admits he hasn’t thought about
that advantage and agrees it’s a good idea.
Distraction B: Finn says that companies will want
employees to study new skills at the weekends or in
the evening [= their own time] but doesn’t say what
he thinks about this. Kiara says that studying in your
own time could be useful, as long as companies
paid for the course.
26 B Kiara explains how her device helps her balance
her studies and the things she has to do for her
Distraction A: Kiara says that the media is often
negative about mobile technology, but she doesn’t
go into detail about why or what the disadvantages
might be.
27 B
28 F
29 C
30 D LiSTEning PART 4
Questions 31–40
31 mud We are told that thick mud, like the rocks,
made it difficult for the men and horses to make
31 steep
Distraction ‘long’ might be tempting but the lecturer
explains that the trail was ‘only about 35 miles’. In
other words, it wasn’t the length of the trail that
was the problem.
33 failure ‘fear’ is paraphrased as ‘came to the terrible
realisation that’.
34 tent ‘stayed in a tent’ is paraphrased as ‘a tent was
the only protection they had from the cold’.
35 sailor We are told that the gold-seekers had to hire
a sailor to steer their boats through Miles Canyon
and the rapids.
36 police The lecturer explains that the police gave
the gold-seekers a list of items so that they might
survive a year in the Klondike region.
37 flour
38 buckets ‘several’ is paraphrased as ‘two or three’.
39 adventure We are told that the writer Jack
London’s vivid descriptions helped readers get a
sense of adventure.
40 newspapers The lecturer explains that Hall and
Kelly were employed by newspapers in the US and
Canada to write stories about life in the Klondike
Questions 1–14
 1 B
 2 E
 3 C
 4 D
 5 g
 6 D
 7 A
 8 nOT giVEn
10 nOT giVEn

Questions 15–27
15 10/ten
16 personal
17 emotions
18 finish
19 questions
20 check
21 replacement
22 size
23 ventilation
24 chemicals
25 visibility
26 lacerations
27 slips
Questions 28–40
28 C
29 B
30 D
31 B
32 A
33 A Some of them have been shown in other cities
34 D to show the museum had a wider focus than its
earlier name suggested
35 B The people who built it were helped by the use of
computer design.
36 B Many of them have creative backgrounds.
37 screen
38 comics
39 videos
40 Make-believe
WRiTing T ASk 1
Sample answer
Dear Sir or Madam
I am writing with regards to a delivery that was made
to my home, 22 Halston Ave, Springwood, yesterday at
4 pm. The delivery was of a freestanding lamp, reference
number A37489 and the delivery person was Sam.
When Sam arrived yesterday afternoon, I was taking
an international call so I asked him to take the lamp
through to our sitting room and signed for the item at
the door. It was not until later that I went into the sitting room to check on the lamp. This is when I noticed that
a glass vase, which had been on the coffee table, was
smashed on the floor. It must have been hit by the
package containing the lamp.
I would like you to ask Sam about this. It is hard to
imagine that he did not notice but he was wearing
headphones so may not have heard the crash.
Furthermore I would like to be compensated for the $40
that will be required to replace the vase.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours faithfully
Meghan Connor
WRiTing T
ASk 2
Sample answer
Most cities in the world are growing and this is largely
because people are moving to these urban areas
for work or study opportunities. However, this puts
pressure on the infrastructure of cities as well as on
individuals and, this essay will argue, town planners and
architects may hold the key to these problems.
Services such as roads, public transport, hospitals
and schools can be overwhelmed and even cease to
function properly when there is a sudden influx of
people. There is simply too much demand and waiting
times for everything increase. More people create more
waste, so pollution can also become an issue. On an
individual level, life in a big city can be stressful. There is
competition in terms of work and education, along with
crowded conditions in public places. The cost of living
can be expensive and even unaffordable, with so many
people seeking somewhere to live.
The first thing that can be done is to discourage
businesses from having their headquarters in large
cities. If they set up in regional towns, those economies
will be boosted, leaving a little more room in the big
cities. Investing in fast trains so that people can get
to work quickly from the outer edges of the city will
also help take the pressure off the middle of the city.
Beyond that, town planners need to think ahead to
accommodate the growing urban population and
provide them with access to services. It may be that
a city should have not one but several ‘centres’ with
facilities for its inhabitants.
In sum, the increasing urban population affects services
and people’s lives. Therefore, the more people that can
be occupied outside of the city centre, the better. For
those who do live in the city, a good deal of forethought
is required in order to make cities more comfortable to
live in.

Test 6
LiSTEning PART 1
Questions 1–10
 1 train go in a = travelling; small = little
Distraction They have to go to the other side of a lake and the woman asks if that’s by boat, but the
man says it’s in a little train.
 2 5 / five minimum age of = must be 5 or older
Distraction The woman says her children are 7 and 10, and the man says they ‘will be fine’.
 3 coach / bus travel by = go in a
Distraction The woman asks if they fly but the man replies that flying is more expensive and on this tour
they go by coach.
 4 walk go for a walk = take a walk
Distraction Here, the woman asks if they can take a ‘walk’, which is then confirmed by the man. A ‘path’
is also mentioned, but it doesn’t fit the grammar.
 5 waterfall large = huge
 6 whales Distraction The woman asks if they will see
dolphins but the man replies that they won’t in ‘that
part of the country’.
 7 garden Distraction The woman asks if lunch is
inside the house, but the man says it’s in the garden.
 8 farm Distraction The man mentions the ‘city’ but is
referring to visitors who are from the city.
 9 forest old = ancient
Distraction The woman refers to the forest before
the man confirms it.
10 43 reach speeds of = how fast do you go
Distraction The first speed the man gives is in
kilometres per hour. The woman says this doesn’t
mean much to her, perhaps because in some
countries they use miles per hour. He then gives the
speed in miles per hour.
LiSTEning PART 2
Questions 11–20
11 B used for farming = a place where local people
kept animals or grew crops
Distraction A: There were no large urban settlements here, just a few small villages; B: The forests had
already been cut down.
12 C valuable substances = rich deposits of coal and
other mineral; underground = mines were built so
these deposits could be brought to the surface
Distraction A: Canal boats were used for transport,
but there is no mention of ship building; B: Trains
did not arrive until the 1850s.
13 A various metal objects = all sorts of tools,
machinery and other items out of iron and steel
Distraction B: A few factories successfully produced
fabrics, but this wasn’t what Willford was ‘best
known for’; C: The attempt to set up a pottery
industry here wasn’t very successful.
14 C each = per
Distraction: A: 9 millionth distracts for 900; B: 1976
distracts for 7,600.
15 A location = set for historical scenes; filming =
making movies and television shows
Distraction B: University research is mentioned, but
not business conferences; C: Weddings and other
private events may feature in the future.
16 C D is distracting, but it is not ‘right next to
the canal’.
17 F G is distracting, but you don’t have to walk past
the café to get there.
18 A B is distracting, but it is not ‘right on the summit
of Jack’s Hill’.
19 H G is distracting, but you do not have to ‘cross the
bridge over the canal’ to reach it.
20 E C and D are distracting as they are on Rigby Road,
but they are not on the corner with Staff ord Street.
LiSTEning PART 3
Questions 21–30
21/22 B/D (in any order)
B: reducing risk = unpredictability . . . Markets can change unexpectedly . . . minimise the chances that
something will go wrong
D: saving money = the sums you invest . . . you’ll see a return on that; long run = eventually
Distraction A: Stella mentions the most eff ective way of promoting a business, but Nathan rejects
that idea; C: Nathan mentions ‘those working
in business’ but not in the context of raising
confidence; F: Stella rejects the idea that finding the
next ‘market to exploit’ is a main benefit of market

23/24 D/E (in any order)
D: specialist language = jargon . . . the examples of
‘psychographics’, ‘coolhunting’ and ‘asynchronous
research’ terms; too much use = put off by
E: findings = results; wrong = unreliable . . . The
supposed developments . . . never occur.
Distraction A: Stella suggests some businesses people ‘think they already know everything they
need to know’, but Nathan rejects this, saying it’s
a criticism of those people, not market research;
B: Nathan says it’s difficult for businesses to see
a direct causal link between research and profits,
but Stella says businesses should be able to see
this; C: Nathan says the excuse sometimes used by
managers that they don’t have time for research
is ‘poor’.
25/26 A/C (in any order)
A: face-to-face communication = talking to
customers directly; surprised – What I hadn’t
expected . . . I was a bit taken aback
C: the media and social media = TV, radio and digital
networking sites; surprised = I hadn’t thought it
could be that simple . . . No, me neither
Distraction B: There is reference to ‘data put out by bodies like the national census and the civil
service’ which may benefit some businesses, but
neither student is ‘surprised’ by this; D: Stella
says that people are ‘less likely to be honest in
questionnaires’; E: The students agree that putting
‘cameras in stores tells us a lot about consumer
behaviour’ but they are not ‘surprised’ by this –
Nathan says ‘we all know that’ and Stella says it’s
‘well documented’.
27 C specific questions = their interactions with
customers . . . What, precisely, should they ask
customers; every day = on a daily basis
28 A written records = keep an account . . . the
document; each week = every Friday
Distraction B might be tempting because of Nathan’s
reference to ‘computer’, but Stella says the format
doesn’t matter and there is no reference to ‘studies’.
29 F regular meetings = get your staff together round
a table
Distraction E might be tempting because Stella
asks about ‘looking ahead and deciding what to do
next’ but Nathan says this is not the point made by
Business Guide.
30 D individual responsibility = delegating . . . so
that each staff member is accountable for market
research in one area of the business LiSTEning PART 4
Questions 31–40
31 elderly / old except for the = the only group for whom
32 meals / food / eating before = and then had
their meals
Distraction Both night time and waking up are
mentioned, but both are dismissed as there is ‘no
research to back this up’.
33 digestion speeds up = increases the rate at which
Distraction ‘Stomach’ is mentioned but doesn’t fit
the gap.
34 temperature cannot control = ability to regulate . . .
was compromised
35 skin / complexion results in better = improves the
condition of
36 headaches had fewer = were affected more
37 anxiety suffered more = reported increased
feelings of
38 swallowing have difficulty = found problematic
39 athletes particularly = for example
40 salt / sodium have high levels = contains such a
high proportion
Questions 1–14
 3 nOT giVEn
 4 nOT giVEn
 8 F
 9 A
10 C
11 g
12 D
13 E
14 g
Questions 15–27
15 feasibility
16 goals
17 structure

18 temperament
19 weaknesses
20 protection
21 insurance
22 litigation
23 finances
24 copyright
25 Communications
26 spokesperson
27 respect
Questions 28–40
28 ii Types of kite
29 i Using kites for scientific research
30 iv The beginning of manned flight
31 iii Factors that determine whether a kite will fly
32 vi Basic features shared by all kites
33 Paper
34 Bow
35 Spine
36 abrasive
37 A
38 A
39 B
40 C
WRiTing T ASk 1
Sample answer
Dear George
I’m sorry to be writing with some bad news. I have to tell
you that the ski jacket you lent me got torn while I was
on holiday. I feel terrible as it was so generous of you to
let me borrow it and I want you to know how sorry I am.
The jacket got torn when I was getting it out of the back
of the van; it was caught on something and I kept pulling
at it, not realising that the fabric was ripping. It’s now
got a massive tear down the sleeve and I think it’s too
big to mend. George, I feel really awful about this and hope you will
understand. Please know that I’ll replace it when I get
home. You can come out with me to the shops and
choose another one – even a more expensive one - if you
want! I do hope you can forgive me; I didn’t mean to be
I’ll be in touch as soon as I’m back next month.
Bye for now
WRiTing T
ASk 2
Sample answer
Money is something that we need to survive and
many people believe that it is a way to measure how
successful a person is in life. This essay will argue that
money is necessary but it does not equal success for
most people.
As society becomes more and more materialistic, money
is often equated with success. People want to follow
the latest fashion trends, buy new gadgets, drive a
prestige car and go on luxury holidays and all of these
things require money. On a superficial level, people may
look at others who have financial security and money
to spare and believe that those people are successful.
They may reason that earning a high salary means a
person is good at their job so that salary is a reflection of
professional success.
This is, however, a small part of the picture. People
can be very successful in some professions but not
earn a lot of money, for example the Arts, teaching
or nursing. Also, a career is just one of many ways to
measure success. Happiness, artistic fulfilment, strong
relationships and a sense of accomplishment are all
valid measures of success in life. We can see many
examples in history and in the world today where rich
people are not satisfied with their lives; they cannot be
seen as successful if they are unhappy with everything
they have.
In conclusion, while having a lot of money is something
that many people aspire to, it is not, in itself, the best
way to evaluate how successful someone is.