Erasmus Darwin. The Botanic Garden

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T he P ro je ct G ute n berg E B ook o f T he B ota n ic G ard en , b y E ra sm us D arw in
T his e B ook i s f o r t h e u se o f a n yone a n yw here a t n o c o st a n d w ith a lm ost n o
r e str ic tio ns w hats o ev er.
You m ay c o py i t, g iv e i t a w ay o r r e -u se i t u nder t h e
t e rm s o f t h e P ro je ct G ute n berg L ic en se i n clu ded w ith t h is e B ook o r o nlin e a t
w ww.g ute n berg .n et
T itle : T he B ota n ic G ard en
A P oem i n T w o P arts . P art 1 : T he E co nom y o f
V eg eta tio n
A uth or: E ra sm us D arw in
P ostin g D ate : N ovem ber 1 2, 2 011 [ E B ook # 9612] R ele ase D ate : J a n uary ,
2 006 F ir s t P oste d : O cto ber 1 0, 2 003
L an guag e: E nglis h
* ** S T A RT O F T H IS P R O JE C T G UTEN BER G E B O OK T H E B O TA NIC
G ARD EN * **
P ro duced b y J o nath an I n gra m , R obert S him min a n d P G D is tr ib ute d
P ro ofre ad ers
[ Illu str a tio n:
FL O RA a ttir e d b y t h e E LEM EN TS]

T H E
B O TA NIC G ARDEN ;
A P oem , i n T w o P arts .
P A RT
I.
C O NTA IN IN G
T H E E C O NO M Y O F V EG ETA TIO N.
P A RT I I.
T H E L O VES O F T H E P L A NTS.
W IT H
P hilo so phic al N ote s.
A DVER TIS E M EN T.
T he g en era l d esig n o f t h e f o llo w in g s h eets i s t o i n lis t I m ag in atio n u nder t h e
b an ner o f S cie n ce; a n d t o l e ad h er v ota rie s f ro m t h e l o ose r a n alo gie s, w hic h

dre ss o ut t h e i m ag ery o f p oetr y , t o t h e s tr ic te r, o nes w hic h f o rm t h e
ra tio cin atio n o f p hilo so phy. W hile t h eir p artic u la r d esig n i s t o i n duce t h e
in gen io us t o c u ltiv ate t h e k now le d ge o f B ota n y, b y i n tr o ducin g t h em t o t h e
vestib ule o f t h at d elig htf u l s c ie n ce, a n d r e co m men din g t o t h eir a tte n tio n t h e
im morta l w ork s o f t h e c ele b ra te d S w ed is h N atu ra lis t, L IN NEU S.
In t h e f ir s t P oem , o r E co nom y o f V eg eta tio n, t h e p hysio lo gy o f P la n ts i s
deliv ere d ; a n d t h e o pera tio n o f t h e E le m en ts , a s f a r a s t h ey m ay b e s u ppose d
to a ffe ct t h e g ro w th o f V eg eta b le s. I n t h e s e co nd P oem , o r L oves o f t h e
Pla n ts , t h e S ex ual S yste m o f L in neu s i s e x pla in ed , w ith t h e r e m ark ab le
pro pertie s o f m an y p artic u la r p la n ts .

A PO LO GY.
I t m ay b e p ro per h ere t o a p olo giz e f o r m an y o f t h e s u bse q uen t c o nje ctu re s o n
s o m e a rtic le s o f n atu ra l p hilo so phy, a s n ot b ein g s u pporte d b y a ccu ra te
i n vestig atio n o r c o nclu siv e e x perim en ts . E xtr a v ag an t t h eo rie s h ow ev er i n
t h ose p arts o f p hilo so phy, w here o ur k now le d ge i s y et i m perfe ct, a re n ot
w ith out t h eir u se ; a s t h ey e n co ura g e t h e e x ecu tio n o f l a b orio us e x perim en ts ,
o r t h e i n vestig atio n o f i n gen io us d ed uctio ns, t o c o nfir m o r r e fu te t h em . A nd
s in ce n atu ra l o bje cts a re a llie d t o e ach o th er b y m an y a ffin itie s, e v ery k in d o f
t h eo re tic d is tr ib utio n o f t h em a d ds t o o ur k now le d ge b y d ev elo pin g s o m e o f
t h eir a n alo gie s.
T he R osic ru cia n d octr in e o f G nom es, S ylp hs, N ym phs, a n d S ala m an ders ,
w as t h ought t o a ffo rd a p ro per m ach in ery f o r a B ota n ic p oem ; a s i t i s
p ro bab le , t h at t h ey w ere o rig in ally t h e n am es o f h ie ro gly phic f ig ure s
r e p re se n tin g t h e e le m en ts .
M an y o f t h e i m porta n t o pera tio ns o f N atu re w ere s h ad ow ed o r a lle g oriz ed i n
t h e h eath en m yth olo gy, a s t h e f ir s t C upid s p rin gin g f ro m t h e E gg o f N ig ht,
t h e m arria g e o f C upid a n d P sy ch e, t h e R ap e o f P ro se rp in e, t h e C ongre ss o f
J u pite r a n d J u no, D eath a n d R esu sc ita tio n o f A donis , & c. m an y o f w hic h a re
i n gen io usly e x pla in ed i n t h e w ork s o f B aco n, V ol. V . p . 4 7. 4 th E dit. L ondon,
1 778. T he E gyptia n s w ere p osse sse d o f m an y d is c o verie s i n p hilo so phy a n d
c h em is tr y b efo re t h e i n ven tio n o f l e tte rs ; t h ese w ere t h en e x pre sse d i n
h ie ro gly phic p ain tin gs o f m en a n d a n im als ; w hic h a fte r t h e d is c o very o f t h e
a lp hab et w ere d esc rib ed a n d a n im ate d b y t h e p oets , a n d b ecam e f ir s t t h e
d eitie s o f E gypt, a n d a fte rw ard s o f G re ece a n d R om e. A llu sio ns t o t h ose
f a b le s w ere t h ere fo re t h ought p ro per o rn am en ts t o a p hilo so phic al p oem , a n d
a re o ccasio nally i n tr o duced e ith er a s r e p re se n te d b y t h e p oets , o r p re se rv ed
o n t h e n um ero us g em s a n d m ed allio ns o f a n tiq uity .

T O
T H E A UTH OR
O F T H E
P O EM O N T H E L O VES O F T H E P L A NTS.
B Y T H E R EV . W .B . S T EPH EN S.
O ft t h o' t h y g en iu s, D — —! a m ply f ra u ght
W ith n ativ e w ealth , e x plo re n ew w orld s o f m in d;
W hen ce t h e b rig ht o re s o f d ro ssle ss w is d om b ro ught,
S ta m pt b y t h e M use 's h an d, e n ric h m an kin d;
T ho' w illin g N atu re t o t h y c u rio us e y e,
I n volv ed i n n ig ht, h er m azy d ep th s b etr a y ;
T ill a t t h eir s o urc e t h y p ie rc in g s e arc h d esc ry
T he s tr e am s, t h at b ath e w ith L if e o ur m orta l c la y ;
T ho', b old ly s o arin g i n s u blim er m ood
T hro ugh t r a ck le ss s k ie s o n m eta p hysic w in gs,
T hou d are st t o s c an t h e a p pro ach le ss C au se o f G ood,
A nd w eig h w ith s te ad fa st h an d t h e S um o f T hin gs;
Y et w ilt t h ou, c h arm 'd a m id h is w his p erin g b ow ers
O ft w ith l o ne s te p b y g litte rin g D erw en t s tr a y ,
M ark h is g re en f o lia g e, c o unt h is m usk y f lo w ers ,
T hat b lu sh o r t r e m ble t o t h e r is in g r a y ;

W hile F A NCY , s e ate d i n h er r o ck -ro of'd d ell,
Lis te n in g t h e s e cre ts o f t h e v ern al g ro ve,
Bre ath es s w eete st s tr a in s t o t h y s y m phonio us s h ell,
And g iv es n ew e ch oes t o t h e t h ro ne o f L ove.
Rep to n, N ov. 2 8, 1 788.
Arg um en t o f t h e F ir st C anto .
The G en iu s o f t h e p la ce i n vite s t h e G oddess o f B ota n y. 1 . S he d esc en ds, i s
re ceiv ed b y S prin g, a n d t h e E le m en ts , 5 9. A ddre sse s t h e N ym phs o f F ir e .
Sta r-lig ht N ig ht s e en i n t h e C am era O bsc u ra , 8 1. I . L ove c re ate d t h e
Univ ers e . C hao s e x plo des. A ll t h e S ta rs r e v olv e.
God. 9 7. I I. S hootin g S ta rs .
Lig htn in g. R ain bow . C olo urs o f t h e M orn in g a n d E ven in g S kie s. E xte rio r
Atm osp here o f i n fla m mab le A ir . T w ilig ht. F ir e -b alls . A uro ra B ore alis .
Pla n ets . C om ets . F ix ed S ta rs . S un's O rb , 1 15. I II. 1 . F ir e s a t t h e E arth 's
Cen tr e . A nim al I n cu batio n, 1 37. 2 . V olc an ic M ounta in s. V en us v is its t h e
Cyclo ps, 1 49. I V . H eat c o nfin ed o n t h e E arth b y t h e A ir . P hosp horic l ig hts i n
th e E ven in g. B olo gnia n S to ne. C alc in ed S hells . M em non's H arp , 1 73. I g nis
fa tu us. L um in ous F lo w ers . G lo w -w orm . F ir e -fly . L um in ous S ea-in se cts .
Ele ctr ic E el. E ag le a rm ed w ith L ig htn in g, 1 89. V . 1 . D is c o very o f F ir e .
Med usa , 2 09. 2 . T he c h em ic al P ro pertie s o f F ir e . P hosp horu s. L ad y i n L ove,
223. 3 . G unpow der, 2 37. V I. S te am -e n gin e a p plie d t o P um ps, B ello w s,
Wate r-e n gin es, C orn -m ills , C oin in g, B arg es, W ag gons, F ly in g-c h ario ts , 2 53.
Lab ours o f H erc u le s. A byla a n d C alp e, 2 97. V II. 1 . E le ctr ic M ach in e.
Hesp eria n D ra g on. E le ctr ic k is s. H alo r o und t h e h ead s o f S ain ts . E le ctr ic
Shock . F air y - r in gs, 3 35. 2 . D eath o f P ro fe sso r R ic h m an , 3 71. 3 . F ra n klin
dra w s L ig htn in g f ro m t h e C lo uds. C upid s n atc h es t h e T hunder-b olt f ro m
Ju pite r, 3 83. V III. P hosp horic A cid a n d V ita l H eat p ro duced i n t h e B lo od.
The g re at E gg o f N ig ht, 3 99. I X . W este rn W in d u nfe tte re d . N aia d r e le ase d .
Fro st a ssa ile d . W hale a tta ck ed , 4 21. X . B uds a n d F lo w ers e x pan ded b y
Warm th , E le ctr ic ity , a n d L ig ht. D ra w in gs w ith c o lo urle ss s y m path etic I n ks;
whic h a p pear w hen w arm ed b y t h e F ir e , 4 57. X I. S ir iu s. J u pite r a n d S em ele .
North ern C onste lla tio ns. I c e-is la n ds n av ig ate d i n to t h e T ro pic S eas. R ain y

Monso ons, 4 97. X II. P oin ts e re cte d t o p ro cu re R ain . E lija h o n M ount-
Carm el, 5 49. D ep artu re o f t h e N ym phs o f F ir e l ik e s p ark s f ro m a rtif ic ia l
Fir e w ork s, 5 87.

T H E
EC O NO M Y O F V EG ETA TIO N.
C ANTO I .
S T A Y Y OUR R U DE S T EPS! w hose t h ro bbin g b re asts i n fo ld
T he l e g io n-fie n ds o f G lo ry , o r o f G old !
S ta y ! w hose f a ls e l ip s s e d uctiv e s im pers p art,
W hile C unnin g n estle s i n t h e h arlo t- h eart! —
5
For y ou n o D ry ad s d re ss t h e r o se ate b ow er,
F or y ou n o N ym phs t h eir s p ark lin g v ase s p our;
U nm ark 'd b y y ou, l ig ht G ra ces s w im t h e g re en ,
A nd h overin g C upid s a im t h eir s h afts , u nse en .
" B ut T H OU! w hose m in d t h e w ell- a tte m per'd r a y
1 0
Of T aste a n d V ir tu e l ig hts w ith p ure r d ay ;
W hose f in er s e n se e ach s o ft v ib ra tio n o w ns
W ith s w eet r e sp onsiv e s y m path y o f t o nes;
S o t h e f a ir f lo w er e x pan ds i t's l u cid f o rm
T o m eet t h e s u n, a n d s h uts i t t o t h e s to rm ;—
1 5
For t h ee m y b ord ers n urs e t h e f ra g ra n t w re ath ,
M y f o unta in s m urm ur, a n d m y z ep hyrs b re ath e;
S lo w s lid es t h e p ain te d s n ail, t h e g ild ed f ly
S m ooth s h is f in e d ow n, t o c h arm t h y c u rio us e y e;
O n t w in klin g f in s m y p early n atio ns p la y ,
2 0
Or w in w ith s in uous t r a in t h eir t r a ck le ss w ay ;
M y p lu m y p air s i n g ay e m bro id ery d re ss'd
F orm w ith i n gen io us b ill t h e p en sile n est,
T o L ove's s w eet n ote s a ttu ne t h e l is te n in g d ell,
A nd E ch o s o unds h er s o ft s y m phonio us s h ell.

[
So t h e f a ir f lo w er
. l . 1 3. I t s e em s t o h av e b een t h e o rig in al d esig n o f t h e
philo so phy o f E pic u ru s t o r e n der t h e m in d e x quis ite ly s e n sib le t o a g re eab le
se n sa tio ns, a n d e q ually i n se n sib le t o d is a g re eab le o nes.]
2 5
"A nd, i f w ith T hee s o m e h ap le ss M aid s h ould s tr a y ,
D is a ste ro us L ove c o m pan io n o f h er w ay ,
O h, l e ad h er t im id s te p s t o y onder g la d e,
W hose a rc h in g c lif fs d ep en din g a ld ers s h ad e;
T here , a s m eek E ven in g w ak es h er t e m pera te b re eze,
3 0
And m oon-b eam s g lim mer t h ro ugh t h e t r e m blin g t r e es,
T he r ills , t h at g urg le r o und, s h all s o oth e h er e ar,
T he w eep in g r o ck s s h all n um ber t e ar f o r t e ar;
T here a s s a d P hilo m el, a lik e f o rlo rn ,
S in gs t o t h e N ig ht f ro m h er a ccu sto m ed t h orn ;
3 5
While a t s w eet i n te rv als e ach f a llin g n ote
S ig hs i n t h e g ale , a n d w his p ers r o und t h e g ro t;
T he s is te r-w oe s h all c alm h er a ch in g b re ast,
A nd s o fte r s lu m bers s te al h er c are s t o r e st.—
[ Dis a ste ro us L ove
. l . 2 6. T he s c en ery i s t a k en f ro m a b ota n ic g ard en a b out a
mile f ro m L ic h fie ld , w here a c o ld b ath w as e re cte d b y S ir J o hn F lo yer. T here
is a g ro tto s u rro unded b y p ro je ctin g r o ck s, f ro m t h e e d ges o f w hic h t r ic k le s a
perp etu al s h ow er o f w ate r; a n d i t i s h ere r e p re se n te d a s a d ap te d t o l o ve-
sc en es, a s b ein g t h en ce a p ro per r e sid en ce f o r t h e m odern g oddess o f B ota n y,
an d t h e e asie r t o i n tr o duce t h e n ex t p oem o n t h e L oves o f t h e P la n ts
acco rd in g t o t h e s y ste m o f L in neu s.]
" W in ds o f t h e N orth ! r e str a in y our i c y g ale s,
4 0
Nor c h ill t h e b oso m o f t h ese h ap py v ale s!
H en ce i n d ark h eap s, y e g ath erin g C lo uds, r e v olv e!
D is p ers e , y e L ig htn in gs! a n d, y e M is ts , d is so lv e!
— Hith er, e m erg in g f ro m y on o rie n t s k ie s,
B O TA NIC G ODDESS! b en d t h y r a d ia n t e y es;
4 5
O'e r t h ese s o ft s c en es a ssu m e t h y g en tle r e ig n,
P om ona, C ere s, F lo ra i n t h y t r a in ;

O 'e r t h e s till d aw n t h y p la cid s m ile e ffu se ,
A nd w ith t h y s ilv er s a n dals p rin t t h e d ew s;
I n n oon's b rig ht b la ze t h y v erm il v est u nfo ld ,
5 0
And w av e t h y e m era ld b an ner s ta r'd w ith g old ."
T hus s p oke t h e G EN IU S, a s H e s te p t a lo ng,
A nd b ad e t h ese l a w ns t o P eace a n d T ru th b elo ng;
D ow n t h e s te ep s lo pes H e l e d w ith m odest s k ill
T he w illin g p ath w ay , a n d t h e t r u an t r ill,
5 5
Str e tc h 'd o 'e r t h e m ars h y v ale y on w illo w y m ound,
W here s h in es t h e l a k e a m id t h e t u fte d g ro und,
R ais e d t h e y oung w oodla n d, s m ooth 'd t h e w av y g re en ,
A nd g av e t o B eau ty a ll t h e q uie t s c en e.—
S he c o m es!— th e G ODDESS!— th ro ugh t h e w his p erin g a ir ,
6 0
Brig ht a s t h e m orn , d esc en ds h er b lu sh in g c ar;
E ach c ir c lin g w heel a w re ath o f f lo w ers i n tw in es,
A nd g em 'd w ith f lo w ers t h e s ilk en h arn ess s h in es;
T he g old en b its w ith f lo w ery s tu ds a re d eck 'd ,
A nd k nots o f f lo w ers t h e c rim so n r e in s c o nnect.—
6 5
And n ow o n e arth t h e s ilv er a x le r in gs,
A nd t h e s h ell s in ks u pon i ts s le n der s p rin gs;
L ig ht f ro m h er a ir y s e at t h e G oddess b ounds,
A nd s te p s c ele stia l p re ss t h e p an sie d g ro unds.
F air S prin g a d van cin g c alls h er f e ath er'd q uir e ,
7 0
And t u nes t o s o fte r n ote s h er l a u ghin g l y re ;
B id s h er g ay h ours o n p urp le p in io ns m ove,
A nd a rm s h er Z ep hyrs w ith t h e s h afts o f L ove,
P le ase d G NOM ES, a sc en din g f ro m t h eir e arth y b ed s,
P la y r o und h er g ra cefu l f o ots te p s, a s s h e t r e ad s;
7 5
Gay S Y LPH S a tte n dan t b eat t h e f ra g ra n t a ir
O n w in now in g w in gs, a n d w aft h er g old en h air ;
B lu e N YM PH S e m erg in g l e av e t h eir s p ark lin g s tr e am s,
A nd F IE R Y F O RM S a lig ht f ro m o rie n t b eam s;
M usk 'd i n t h e r o se 's l a p f re sh d ew s t h ey s h ed ,
8 0
Or b re ath e c ele stia l l u str e s r o und h er h ead .

[ Ple a se d G nom es
. l . 7 3. T he R osic ru cia n d octr in e o f G nom es, S ylp hs,
Nym phs, a n d S ala m an ders a ffo rd s p ro per m ach in ery f o r a p hilo so phic p oem ;
as i t i s p ro bab le t h at t h ey w ere o rig in ally t h e n am es o f h ie ro gly phic f ig ure s o f
th e E le m en ts , o r o f G en ii p re sid in g o ver t h eir o pera tio ns. T he F air ie s o f m ore
modern d ay s s e em t o h av e b een d eriv ed f ro m t h em , a n d t o h av e i n herite d
th eir p ow ers . T he G nom es a n d S ylp hs, a s b ein g m ore n early a llie d t o m odern
Fair ie s a re r e p re se n te d a s e ith er m ale o r f e m ale , w hic h d is tin guis h es t h e l a tte r
fro m t h e A ura e o f t h e L atin P oets , w hic h w ere o nly f e m ale ; e x cep t t h e w in ds,
as Z ep hyru s a n d A uste r, m ay b e s u ppose d t o h av e b een t h eir h usb an ds.]
F ir s t t h e f in e F orm s h er d ulc et v oic e r e q uir e s,
W hic h b ath e o r b ask i n e le m en ta l f ir e s;
F ro m e ach b rig ht g em o f D ay 's r e fu lg en t c ar,
F ro m t h e p ale s p here o f e v ery t w in klin g s ta r,
8 5
Fro m e ach n ic e p ore o f o cean , e arth , a n d a ir ,
W ith e y e o f f la m e t h e s p ark lin g h osts r e p air ,
M ix t h eir g ay h ues, i n c h an gefu l c ir c le s p la y ,
L ik e m ote s, t h at t e n an t t h e m erid ia n r a y .—
S o t h e c le ar L en s c o lle cts w ith m ag ic p ow er
9 0
The c o untle ss g lo rie s o f t h e m id nig ht h our;
S ta rs a fte r s ta rs w ith q uiv erin g l u str e f a ll,
A nd t w in klin g g lid e a lo ng t h e w hite n 'd w all.—
P le ase d , a s t h ey p ass, s h e c o unts t h e g litte rin g b an ds,
A nd s tills t h eir m urm ur w ith h er w av in g h an ds;
9 5
Each l is te n in g t r ib e w ith f o nd e x pecta n ce b urn s,
A nd n ow t o t h ese , a n d n ow t o t h ose , s h e t u rn s.
I . " N YM PH S O F P R IM EV AL F IR E! Y OUR v esta l t r a in
H ung w ith g old -tr e sse s o 'e r t h e v ast i n an e,
P ie rc ed w ith y our s ilv er s h afts t h e t h ro ne o f N ig ht,
100
And c h arm 'd y oung N atu re 's o pen in g e y es w ith l ig ht;
W hen L O VE D IV IN E, w ith b ro odin g w in gs u nfu rl'd ,
C all'd f ro m t h e r u de a b yss t h e l iv in g w orld .
" — LET T H ER E B E L IG HT!" p ro cla im 'd t h e A LM IG HTY L O RD ,
A sto nis h 'd C hao s h eard t h e p ote n t w ord ;—
105
Thro ugh a ll h is r e alm s t h e k in dlin g E th er r u ns,

A nd t h e m ass s ta rts i n to a m illio n s u ns;
E arth s r o und e ach s u n w ith q uic k e x plo sio ns b urs t,
A nd s e co nd p la n ets i s su e f ro m t h e f ir s t;
B en d, a s t h ey j o urn ey w ith p ro je ctile f o rc e,
110
In b rig ht e llip se s t h eir r e lu cta n t c o urs e ;
O rb s w heel i n o rb s, r o und c en tr e s c en tr e s r o ll,
A nd f o rm , s e lf -b ala n ced , o ne r e v olv in g W hole .
— Onw ard t h ey m ove a m id t h eir b rig ht a b ode,
S pace w ith out b ound, T H E B O SO M O F T H EIR G OD!
[ Nym phs o f p rim eva l f ir e
. l . 9 7. T he f lu id m atte r o f h eat i s p erh ap s t h e m ost
ex te n siv e e le m en t i n n atu re ; a ll o th er b odie s a re i m mers e d i n i t, a n d a re
pre se rv ed i n t h eir p re se n t s ta te o f s o lid ity o r f lu id ity b y t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h eir
partic le s t o t h e m atte r o f h eat. S in ce a ll k now n b odie s a re c o ntr a ctib le i n to
le ss s p ace b y d ep riv in g t h em o f s o m e p ortio n o f t h eir h eat, a n d a s t h ere i s n o
part o f n atu re t o ta lly d ep riv ed o f h eat, t h ere i s r e aso n t o b elie v e t h at t h e
partic le s o f b odie s d o n ot t o uch , b ut a re h eld t o w ard s e ach o th er b y t h eir s e lf -
attr a ctio n, a n d r e ced e f ro m e ach o th er b y t h eir a ttr a ctio n t o t h e m ass o f h eat
whic h s u rro unds t h em ; a n d t h us e x is t i n a n e q uilib riu m b etw een t h ese t w o
pow ers . I f m ore o f t h e m atte r o f h eat b e a p plie d t o t h em , t h ey r e ced e f u rth er
fro m e ach o th er, a n d b eco m e f lu id ; i f s till m ore b e a p plie d , t h ey t a k e a n a eria l
fo rm , a n d a re t e rm ed G asse s b y t h e m odern c h em is ts . T hus w hen w ate r i s
heate d t o a c erta in d eg re e, i t w ould i n sta n tly a ssu m e t h e f o rm o f s te am , b ut
fo r t h e p re ssu re o f t h e a tm osp here , w hic h p re v en ts t h is c h an ge f ro m t a k in g
pla ce s o e asily ; t h e s a m e i s t r u e o f q uic k silv er, d ia m onds, a n d o f p erh ap s a ll
oth er b odie s i n N atu re ; t h ey w ould f ir s t b eco m e f lu id , a n d t h en a erif o rm b y
ap pro pria te d d eg re es o f h eat. O n t h e c o ntr a ry , t h is e la stic m atte r o f h eat,
te rm ed C alo riq ue i n t h e n ew n om en cla tu re o f t h e F re n ch A cad em ic ia n s, i s
lia b le t o b eco m e c o nso lid ate d i ts e lf i n i ts c o m bin atio ns w ith s o m e b odie s, a s
perh ap s i n n itr e , a n d p ro bab ly i n c o m bustib le b odie s a s s u lp hur a n d c h arc o al.
See n ote o n l . 2 32, o f t h is C an to . M odern p hilo so phers h av e n ot y et b een a b le
to d ecid e w heth er l ig ht a n d h eat b e d if fe re n t f lu id s, o r m odif ic atio ns o f t h e
sa m e f lu id , a s t h ey h av e m an y p ro pertie s i n c o m mon. S ee n ote o n l . 4 62 o f
th is C an to .]
[ When L ove D iv in e
. l . 1 01. F ro m h av in g o bse rv ed t h e g ra d ual e v olu tio n o f

th e y oung a n im al o r p la n t f ro m i ts e g g o r s e ed ; a n d a fte rw ard s i ts s u ccessiv e
ad van ces t o i ts m ore p erfe ct s ta te , o r m atu rity ; p hilo so phers o f a ll a g es s e em
to h av e i m ag in ed , t h at t h e g re at w orld i ts e lf h ad l ik ew is e i ts i n fa n cy a n d i ts
gra d ual p ro gre ss t o m atu rity ; t h is s e em s t o h av e g iv en o rig in t o t h e v ery
an tie n t a n d s u blim e a lle g ory o f E ro s, o r D iv in e L ove, p ro ducin g t h e w orld
fro m t h e e g g o f N ig ht, a s i t f lo ate d i n C hao s. S ee l . 4 19. o f t h is C an to .
The e x te rn al c ru st o f t h e e arth , a s f a r a s i t h as b een e x pose d t o o ur v ie w i n
min es o r m ounta in s, c o unte n an ces t h is o pin io n; s in ce t h ese h av e e v id en tly f o r
th e m ost p art h ad t h eir o rig in f ro m t h e s h ells o f f is h es, t h e d eco m positio n o f
veg eta b le s, a n d t h e r e cre m en ts o f o th er a n im al m ate ria ls , a n d m ust t h ere fo re
hav e b een f o rm ed p ro gre ssiv ely f ro m s m all b eg in nin gs. T here a re l ik ew is e
so m e a p pare n tly u se le ss o r i n co m ple te a p pen dag es t o p la n ts a n d a n im als ,
whic h s e em t o s h ew t h ey h av e g ra d ually u nderg one c h an ges f ro m t h eir
orig in al s ta te ; s u ch a s t h e s ta m en s w ith out a n th ers , a n d s ty le s w ith out s tig m as
of s e v era l p la n ts , a s m en tio ned i n t h e n ote o n C urc u m a, V ol. I I. o f t h is w ork .
Such i s t h e h alte re s, o r r u dim en ts o f w in gs o f s o m e t w o-w in ged i n se cts ; a n d
th e p ap s o f m ale a n im als ; t h us s w in e h av e f o ur t o es, b ut t w o o f t h em a re
im perfe ctly f o rm ed , a n d n ot l o ng e n ough f o r u se . T he a lla n to id e i n s o m e
an im als s e em s t o h av e b eco m e e x tin ct; i n o th ers i s a b ove t e n fo ld t h e s iz e,
whic h w ould s e em n ecessa ry f o r i ts p urp ose . B uffo n d u C och on. T . 6 . p . 2 57.
Perh ap s a ll t h e s u ppose d m onstr o us b ir th s o f N atu re a re r e m ain s o f t h eir
hab its o f p ro ductio n i n t h eir f o rm er l e ss p erfe ct s ta te , o r a tte m pts t o w ard s
gre ate r p erfe ctio n.]
[ Thro ugh a ll h is r e a lm s
. l . 1 05. M r. H ers c h el h as g iv en a v ery s u blim e a n d
cu rio us a cco unt o f t h e c o nstr u ctio n o f t h e h eav en s w ith h is d is c o very o f s o m e
th ousa n d n eb ula e, o r c lo uds o f s ta rs ; m an y o f w hic h a re m uch l a rg er
co lle ctio ns o f s ta rs , t h an a ll t h ose p ut t o geth er, w hic h a re v is ib le t o o ur n ak ed
ey es, a d ded t o t h ose w hic h f o rm t h e g ala x y, o r m ilk y z o ne, w hic h s u rro unds
us. H e o bse rv es t h at i n t h e v ic in ity o f t h ese c lu ste rs o f s ta rs t h ere a re
pro portio nally f e w er s ta rs t h an i n o th er p arts o f t h e h eav en s; a n d h en ce h e
co nclu des, t h at t h ey h av e a ttr a cte d e ach o th er, o n t h e s u ppositio n t h at i n fin ite
sp ace w as a t f ir s t e q ually s p rin kle d w ith t h em ; a s i f i t h ad a t t h e b eg in nin g
been f ille d w ith a f lu id m ass, w hic h h ad c o ag ula te d . M r. H ers c h el h as f u rth er
sh ew n, t h at t h e w hole s id ere al s y ste m i s g ra d ually m ovin g r o und s o m e
cen tr e , w hic h m ay b e a n o pak e m ass o f m atte r, P hilo s. T ra n s. V . L X XIV . I f

all t h ese S uns a re m ovin g r o und s o m e g re at c en tr a l b ody; t h ey m ust h av e h ad
a p ro je ctile f o rc e, a s w ell a s a c en tr ip eta l o ne; a n d m ay t h en ce b e s u ppose d t o
hav e e m erg ed o r b een p ro je cte d f ro m t h e m ate ria l, w here t h ey w ere
pro duced . W e c an h av e n o i d ea o f a n atu ra l p ow er, w hic h c o uld p ro je ct a S un
out o f C hao s, e x cep t b y c o m parin g i t t o t h e e x plo sio ns o r e arth quak es o w in g
to t h e s u dden e v olu tio n o f a q ueo us o r o f o th er m ore e la stic v ap ours ; o f t h e
pow er o f w hic h u nder i m measu ra b le d eg re es o f h eat, a n d c o m pre ssio n, w e
are y et i g nora n t.
It m ay b e o bje cte d , t h at i f t h e s ta rs h ad b een p ro je cte d f ro m a C hao s b y
ex plo sio ns, t h at t h ey m ust h av e r e tu rn ed a g ain i n to i t f ro m t h e k now n l a w s o f
gra v ita tio n; t h is h ow ev er w ould n ot h ap pen , i f t h e w hole o f C hao s, l ik e
gra in s o f g unpow der, w as e x plo ded a t t h e s a m e t im e, a n d d is p ers e d t h ro ugh
in fin ite s p ace a t o nce, o r i n q uic k s u ccessio n, i n e v ery p ossib le d ir e ctio n. T he
sa m e o bje ctio n m ay b e s ta te d a g ain st t h e p ossib ility o f t h e p la n ets h av in g
been t h ro w n f ro m t h e s u n b y e x plo sio ns; a n d t h e s e co ndary p la n ets f ro m t h e
prim ary o nes; w hic h w ill b e s p oken o f m ore a t l a rg e i n t h e s e co nd C an to , b ut
if t h e p la n ets a re s u ppose d t o h av e b een p ro je cte d f ro m t h eir s u ns, a n d t h e
se co ndary f ro m t h e p rim ary o nes, a t t h e b eg in nin g o f t h eir c o urs e ; t h ey m ig ht
be s o i n flu en ced o r d iv erte d b y t h e a ttr a ctio ns o f t h e s u ns, o r s u n, i n t h eir
vic in ity , a s t o p re v en t t h eir t e n den cy t o r e tu rn i n to t h e b ody, f ro m w hic h t h ey
were p ro je cte d .
If t h ese i n num era b le a n d i m men se s u ns t h us r is in g o ut o f C hao s a re s u ppose d
to h av e t h ro w n o ut t h eir a tte n dan t p la n ets b y n ew e x plo sio ns, a s t h ey
asc en ded ; a n d t h ose t h eir r e sp ectiv e s a te llite s, f illin g i n a m om en t t h e
im men sity o f s p ace w ith l ig ht a n d m otio n, a g ra n der i d ea c an not b e
co nceiv ed b y t h e m in d o f m an .]
115
II. " E TH ER EA L P O W ER S! Y OU c h ase t h e s h ootin g s ta rs ,
O r y oke t h e v ollie d l ig hte n in gs t o y our c ars ,
C lin g r o und t h e a ëria l b ow w ith p ris m s b rig ht,
A nd p le ase d u ntw is t t h e s e v en fo ld t h re ad s o f l ig ht;
E ve's s ilk en c o uch w ith g org eo us t in ts a d orn ,
120
And f ir e t h e a rro w y t h ro ne o f r is in g M orn .
— OR, p lu m 'd w ith f la m e, i n g ay b atta lio n's s p rin g
T o b rig hte r r e g io ns b orn e o n b ro ad er w in g;

W here l ig hte r g ase s, c ir c u m fu se d o n h ig h,
F orm t h e v ast c o ncav e o f e x te rio r s k y;
125
With a ir y l e n s t h e s c atte r'd r a y s a ssa u lt,
A nd b en d t h e t w ilig ht r o und t h e d usk y v au lt;
R id e, w ith b ro ad e y e a n d s c in tilla tin g h air ,
T he r a p id F ir e -b all t h ro ugh t h e m id nig ht a ir ;
D art f ro m t h e N orth o n p ale e le ctr ic s tr e am s,
130
Frin gin g N ig ht's s a b le r o be w ith t r a n sie n t b eam s.
— OR r e in t h e P la n ets i n t h eir s w if t c are ers ,
G ild in g w ith b orro w 'd l ig ht t h eir t w in klin g s p here s;
A la rm w ith c o m et- b la ze t h e s a p phir e p la in ,
T he w an s ta rs g lim merin g t h ro ugh i ts s ilv er t r a in ;
135
Gem t h e b rig ht Z odia c, s tu d t h e g lo w in g p ole ,
O r g iv e t h e S un's p hlo gis tic o rb t o r o ll.
[ Chase t h e s h ootin g s ta rs
. l . 1 15. T he m ete o rs c alle d s h ootin g s ta rs , t h e
lig hte n in g, t h e r a in bow , a n d t h e c lo uds, a re p hen om en a o f t h e l o w er r e g io ns
of t h e a tm osp here . T he t w ilig ht, t h e m ete o rs c all'd f ir e -b alls , o r f ly in g
dra g ons, a n d t h e n orth ern l ig hts , i n hab it t h e h ig her r e g io ns o f t h e a tm osp here .
See a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. I .]
[ Clin g r o und t h e a eria l b ow
. l . 1 17. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. I I]
[ Eve's s ilk en c o uch
. l . 1 19. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. I II.]
[ Where l ig hte r g ase s
. l . 1 23. M r. C av en dis h h as s h ew n t h at t h e g as c alle d
in fla m mab le a ir , i s a t l e ast t e n t im es l ig hte r t h an c o m mon a ir ; M r. L av ois ie r
co nte n ds, t h at i t i s o ne o f t h e c o m ponen t p arts o f w ate r, a n d i s b y h im c alle d
hydro gen e. I t i s s u ppose d t o a ffo rd t h eir p rin cip al n ouris h m en t t o v eg eta b le s
an d t h en ce t o a n im als , a n d i s p erp etu ally r is in g f ro m t h eir d eco m positio n;
th is s o urc e o f i t i n h ot c lim ate s, a n d i n s u m mer m onth s, i s s o g re at a s t o
ex ceed e stim atio n. N ow i f t h is l ig ht g as p asse s t h ro ugh t h e a tm osp here ,
with out c o m bin in g w ith i t, i t m ust c o m pose a n oth er a tm osp here o ver t h e
aeria l o ne; w hic h m ust e x pan d, w hen t h e p re ssu re a b ove i t i s t h us t a k en
aw ay , t o i n co nceiv ab le t e n uity .
If t h is s u pern atu ra l g asse o us a tm osp here f lo ats u pon t h e a eria l o ne, l ik e e th er

upon w ate r, w hat m ust h ap pen ? 1 . i t w ill f lo w f ro m t h e l in e, w here i t w ill b e
pro duced i n t h e g re ate st q uan titie s, a n d b eco m e m uch a ccu m ula te d o ver t h e
pole s o f t h e e arth ; 2 . t h e c o m mon a ir , o r l o w er s tr a tu m o f t h e a tm osp here ,
will b e m uch t h in ner o ver t h e p ole s t h an a t t h e l in e; b ecau se i f a g la ss g lo be
be f ille d w ith o il a n d w ate r, a n d w hir le d u pon i ts a x is , t h e c en tr if u gal p ow er
will c arry t h e h eav ie r f lu id t o t h e c ir c u m fe re n ce, a n d t h e l ig hte r w ill i n
co nse q uen ce b e f o und r o und t h e a x is . 3 . T here m ay b e a p la ce a t s o m e c erta in
la titu de b etw een t h e p ole s a n d t h e l in e o n e ach s id e t h e e q uato r, w here t h e
in fla m mab le s u pern ata n t a tm osp here m ay e n d, o w in g t o t h e g re ate r
cen tr if u gal f o rc e o f t h e h eav ie r a eria l a tm osp here . 4 . B etw een t h e t e rm in atio n
of t h e a eria l a n d t h e b eg in nin g o f t h e g asse o us a tm osp here , t h e a ir s w ill
occasio nally b e i n te rm ix ed , a n d t h us b eco m e i n fla m mab le b y t h e e le ctr ic
sp ark ; t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces w ill a ssis t i n e x pla in in g t h e p hen om en a o f f ir e -
balls , n orth ern l ig hts , a n d o f s o m e v aria b le w in ds, a n d l o ng c o ntin ued r a in s.
Sin ce t h e a b ove n ote w as f ir s t w ritte n , M r. V olta I a m i n fo rm ed h as a p plie d
th e s u ppositio n o f a s u pern ata n t a tm osp here o f i n fla m mab le a ir , t o e x pla in
so m e p hen om en a i n m ete o ro lo gy. A nd M r. L av ois ie r h as a n nounced h is
desig n t o w rite o n t h is s u bje ct. T ra ité d e C him ie , T om . I . I a m h ap py t o f in d
th ese o pin io ns s u pporte d b y s u ch r e sp ecta b le a u th ority .]
[ And b en d t h e t w ilig ht
. l . 1 26. T he c re p usc u la r a tm osp here , o r t h e r e g io n
where t h e l ig ht o f t h e s u n c ease s t o b e r e fra cte d t o u s, i s e stim ate d b y
philo so phers t o b e b etw een 4 0 a n d 5 0 m ile s h ig h, a t w hic h t im e t h e s u n i s
ab out 1 8 d eg re es b elo w t h e h oriz o n; a n d t h e r a rity o f t h e a ir i s s u ppose d t o b e
fro m 4 ,0 00 t o 1 0,0 00 t im es g re ate r t h an a t t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth . C ote s's
Hydro st. p . 1 23. T he d ura tio n o f t w ilig ht d if fe rs i n d if fe re n t s e aso ns a n d i n
dif fe re n t l a titu des; i n E ngla n d t h e s h orte st t w ilig ht i s a b out t h e b eg in nin g o f
Octo ber a n d o f M arc h ; i n m ore n orth ern l a titu des, w here t h e s u n n ev er s in ks
more t h an 1 8 d eg re es, b elo w t h e h oriz o n, t h e t w ilig ht c o ntin ues t h e w hole
nig ht. T he t im e o f i ts d ura tio n m ay a ls o b e o ccasio nally a ffe cte d b y t h e
vary in g h eig ht o f t h e a tm osp here . A n um ber o f o bse rv atio ns o n t h e d ura tio n
of t w ilig ht i n d if fe re n t l a titu des m ig ht a ffo rd c o nsid era b le i n fo rm atio n
co ncern in g t h e a eria l s tr a ta i n t h e h ig her r e g io ns o f t h e a tm osp here , a n d
mig ht a ssis t i n d ete rm in in g w heth er a n e x te rio r a tm osp here o f i n fla m mab le
gas, o r H ydro gen e, e x is ts o ver t h e a eria l o ne.]

[ Ala rm w ith C om et- b la ze
. l . 1 33. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. I V .]
[ The S un's p hlo gis tic o rb
. l . 1 36. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. V .]
I II. N YM PH S! Y OUR f in e f o rm s w ith s te p s i m passiv e m ock
E arth 's v au lte d r o ofs o f a d am an tin e r o ck ;
R ound h er s till c en tr e t r e ad t h e b urn in g s o il,
140
And w atc h t h e b illo w y L av as, a s t h ey b oil;
W here , i n b asa ltic c av es i m pris o n'd d eep ,
R elu cta n t f ir e s i n d re ad s u sp en sio n s le ep ;
O r s p here o n s p here i n w id en in g w av es e x pan d,
A nd g la d w ith g en ia l w arm th t h e i n cu m ben t l a n d.
145
So w hen t h e M oth er-b ir d s e le cts t h eir f o od
W ith c u rio us b ill, a n d f e ed s h er c allo w b ro od;
W arm th f ro m h er t e n der h eart e te rn al s p rin gs,
A nd p le ase d s h e c la sp s t h em w ith e x te n ded w in gs.
[ Round t h e s till c en tr e
. l . 1 39. M an y p hilo so phers h av e b elie v ed t h at t h e
cen tr a l p arts o f t h e e arth c o nsis t o f a f lu id m ass o f b urn in g l a v a, w hic h t h ey
hav e c alle d a s u bte rra n eo us s u n; a n d h av e s u ppose d , t h at i t c o ntr ib ute s t o t h e
pro ductio n o f m eta ls , a n d t o t h e g ro w th o f v eg eta b le s. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s,
No. V I.]
[ Or s p here o n s p here
. l . 1 43. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. V II.]
" Y OU f ro m d eep c au ld ro ns a n d u nm easu re d c av es
150
Blo w f la m in g a ir s , o r p our v itr e sc en t w av es;
O 'e r s h in in g o cean s r a y v olc an ic l ig ht,
O r h url i n nocu ous e m bers t o t h e n ig ht.—
W hile w ith l o ud s h outs t o E tn a H eccla c alls ,
A nd A ndes a n sw ers f ro m h is b eaco n'd w alls ;
155
Sea-w ild er'd c re w s t h e m ounta in -s ta rs a d m ir e ,
A nd B eau ty b eam s a m id t r e m en dous f ir e .

[ Hurl i n nocu ous e m bers
. l . 1 52. T he i m med ia te c au se o f v olc an ic e ru ptio ns i s
belie v ed t o b e o w in g t o t h e w ate r o f t h e s e a, o r f ro m l a k es, o r i n undatio ns,
fin din g i ts e lf a p assa g e i n to t h e s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s, w hic h m ay l ie a t g re at
dep th s. T his m ust f ir s t p ro duce b y i ts c o ld ness a c o nden sa tio n o f t h e v ap our
th ere e x is tin g, o r a v acu um , a n d t h us o ccasio n p arts o f t h e e arth 's c ru st o r
sh ell t o b e f o rc ed d ow n b y t h e p re ssu re o f t h e i n cu m ben t a tm osp here .
Afte rw ard s t h e w ate r b ein g s u dden ly r a is e d i n to s te am p ro duces a ll t h e
ex plo siv e e ffe cts o f e arth quak es. A nd b y n ew a ccessio ns o f w ate r d urin g t h e
in te rv als o f t h e e x plo sio ns t h e r e p etitio n o f t h e s h ock s i s c au se d . T hese
cir c u m sta n ces w ere h ourly i llu str a te d b y t h e f o unta in s o f b oilin g w ate r i n
Ic ela n d, i n w hic h t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e w ate r i n t h e b oilin g w ells s u nk d ow n l o w
befo re e v ery n ew e b ullitio n.
Besid es t h ese e ru ptio ns o ccasio ned b y t h e s te am o f w ate r, t h ere s e em s t o b e a
perp etu al e ffu sio n o f o th er v ap ours , m ore n oxio us a n d ( a s f a r a s i t i s y et
know n) p erh ap s g re atly m ore e x pan sile t h an w ate r f ro m t h e V olc an os i n
vario us p arts o f t h e w orld . A s t h ese V olc an os a re s u ppose d t o b e s p ir a cu la o r
bre ath in g h ole s t o t h e g re at s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s, i t i s p ro bab le t h at t h e e sc ap e
of e la stic v ap ours f ro m t h em i s t h e c au se , t h at t h e e arth quak es o f m odern
day s a re o f s u ch s m all e x te n t c o m pare d t o t h ose o f a n tie n t t im es, o f w hic h
vestig es r e m ain i n e v ery p art o f t h e w orld , a n d o n t h is a cco unt m ay b e s a id
not o nly t o b e i n nocu ous, b ut u se fu l.]
" T hus w hen o f o ld , a s m ystic b ard s p re su m e,
H uge C Y CLO PS d w elt i n E tn a's r o ck y w om b,
O n t h underin g a n vils r u ng t h eir l o ud a la rm s,
160
And l e ag ued w ith V ULC A N f o rg ed i m morta l a rm s;
D esc en din g V EN US s o ught t h e d ark a b ode,
A nd s o oth 'd t h e l a b ours o f t h e g ris ly G od.—
W hile f ro w nin g L oves t h e t h re ate n in g f a lc h io n w ie ld ,
A nd t itte rin g G ra ces p eep b eh in d t h e s h ie ld ,
165
With j o in te d m ail t h eir f a ir y l im bs o 'e rw helm ,
O r n od w ith p au sin g s te p t h e p lu m ed h elm ;
W ith r a d ia n t e y e S he v ie w 'd t h e b oilin g o re ,
H eard u ndis m ay 'd t h e b re ath in g b ello w s r o ar,
A dm ir e d t h eir s in ew y a rm s, a n d s h ould ers b are ,

170
And p ondero us h am mers l if te d h ig h i n a ir ,
W ith s m ile s c ele stia l b le ss'd t h eir d azzle d s ig ht,
A nd B eau ty b la zed a m id i n fe rn al n ig ht.
I V . " E FFU LG EN T M AID S! Y OU r o und d ecid uous d ay ,
T re sse d w ith s o ft b eam s, y our g litte rin g b an ds a rra y ;
175
On E arth 's c o ld b oso m , a s t h e S un r e tir e s,
C onfin e w ith f o ld s o f a ir t h e l in gerin g f ir e s;
O 'e r E ve's p ale f o rm s d if fu se p hosp horic l ig ht,
A nd d eck w ith l a m ben t f la m es t h e s h rin e o f N ig ht.
S o, w arm 'd a n d k in dle d b y m erid ia n s k ie s,
180
And v ie w 'd i n d ark ness w ith d ila te d e y es,
B O LO GNA'S c h alk s w ith f a in t i g nitio n b la ze,
B EC CA RI'S s h ells e m it p ris m atic r a y s.
S o t o t h e s a cre d S un i n M EM NON's f a n e,
S ponta n eo us c o nco rd s q uir e d t h e m atin s tr a in ;
185
—Touch 'd b y h is o rie n t b eam , r e sp onsiv e r in gs
T he l iv in g l y re , a n d v ib ra te s a ll i t's s tr in gs;
A cco rd an t a ile s t h e t e n der t o nes p ro lo ng,
A nd h oly e ch oes s w ell t h e a d orin g s o ng.
[ Confin e w ith f o ld s o f a ir
. l . 1 76. T he a ir , l ik e a ll o th er b ad c o nducto rs o f
ele ctr ic ity , i s k now n t o b e a b ad c o nducto r o f h eat; a n d t h en ce p re v en ts t h e
heat a cq uir e d f ro m t h e s u n's r a y s b y t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce f ro m b ein g s o s o on
dis sip ate d , i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s a b la n ket, w hic h m ay b e c o nsid ere d a s a
sp onge f ille d w ith a ir , p re v en ts t h e e sc ap e o f h eat f ro m t h e p ers o n w ra p ped i n
it. T his s e em s t o b e o ne c au se o f t h e g re at d eg re e o f c o ld o n t h e t o ps o f
mounta in s, w here t h e r a rity o f t h e a ir i s g re ate r, a n d i t t h ere fo re b eco m es a
bette r c o nducto r b oth o f h eat a n d e le ctr ic ity . S ee n ote o n B aro m etz , V ol. I I.
of t h is w ork .
There i s h ow ev er a n oth er c au se t o w hic h t h e g re at c o ld ness o f m ounta in s a n d
of t h e h ig her r e g io ns o f t h e a tm osp here i s m ore i m med ia te ly t o b e a sc rib ed ,
ex pla in ed b y D r. D arw in i n t h e P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol. L X XVIII. w ho h as t h ere
pro ved b y e x perim en ts w ith t h e a ir -g un a n d a ir -p um p, t h at w hen a n y p ortio n
of t h e a tm osp here b eco m es m ech an ic ally e x pan ded , i t a b so rb s h eat f ro m t h e
bodie s i n i ts v ic in ity . A nd a s t h e a ir w hic h c re ep s a lo ng t h e p la in s, e x pan ds

its e lf b y a p art o f t h e p re ssu re b ein g t a k en o ff w hen i t a sc en ds t h e s id es o f
mounta in s; i t a t t h e s a m e t im e a ttr a cts h eat f ro m t h e s u m mits o f t h ose
mounta in s, o r o th er b odie s w hic h h ap pen t o b e i m mers e d i n i t, a n d t h us
pro duces c o ld . H en ce h e c o nclu des t h at t h e h ot a ir a t t h e b otto m o f t h e A ndes
beco m es t e m pera te b y i ts o w n r a re fa ctio n w hen i t a sc en ds t o t h e c ity o f
Quito ; a n d b y i ts f u rth er r a re fa ctio n b eco m es c o ole d t o t h e f re ezin g p oin t
when i t a sc en ds t o t h e s n ow y r e g io ns o n t h e s u m mits o f t h ose m ounta in s. T o
th is a ls o h e a ttr ib ute s t h e g re at d eg re e o f c o ld e x perie n ced b y t h e a ero nau ts i n
th eir b allo ons; a n d w hic h p ro duces h ail i n s u m mer a t t h e h eig ht o f o nly t w o
or t h re e m ile s i n t h e a tm osp here .]
[ Diffu se p hosp horic l ig ht
. l . 1 77. I h av e o fte n b een i n duced t o b elie v e f ro m
obse rv atio n, t h at t h e t w ilig ht o f t h e e v en in gs i s l ig hte r t h an t h at o f t h e
morn in gs a t t h e s a m e d is ta n ce f ro m n oon. S om e m ay a sc rib e t h is t o t h e
gre ate r h eig ht o f t h e a tm osp here i n t h e e v en in gs h av in g b een r a re fie d b y t h e
su n d urin g t h e d ay ; b ut a s i ts d en sity m ust a t t h e s a m e t im e b e d im in is h ed , i ts
pow er o f r e fra ctio n w ould c o ntin ue t h e s a m e. I s h ould r a th er s u ppose t h at i t
may b e o w in g t o t h e p hosp hore sc en t q uality ( a s i t i s c alle d ) o f a lm ost a ll
bodie s; t h at i s , w hen t h ey h av e b een e x pose d t o t h e s u n t h ey c o ntin ue t o e m it
lig ht f o r a c o nsid era b le t im e a fte rw ard s. T his i s g en era lly b elie v ed t o a ris e
eith er f ro m s u ch b odie s g iv in g o ut t h e l ig ht w hic h t h ey h ad p re v io usly
ab so rb ed ; o r t o t h e c o ntin uan ce o f a s lo w c o m bustio n w hic h t h e l ig ht t h ey
had b een p re v io usly e x pose d t o h ad e x cite d . S ee t h e n ex t n ote .]
[ Becca ri's s h ells
. l . 1 82. B eccari m ad e m an y c u rio us e x perim en ts o n t h e
phosp horic l ig ht, a s i t i s c alle d , w hic h b eco m es v is ib le o n b odie s b ro ught i n to
a d ark r o om , a fte r h av in g b een p re v io usly e x pose d t o t h e s u nsh in e. I t a p pears
fro m t h ese e x perim en ts , t h at a lm ost a ll i n fla m mab le b odie s p osse ss t h is
quality i n a g re ate r o r l e ss d eg re e; w hite p ap er o r l in en t h us e x am in ed a fte r
hav in g b een e x pose d t o t h e s u nsh in e, i s l u m in ous t o a n e x tr a o rd in ary d eg re e;
an d i f a p ers o n s h ut u p i n a d ark r o om , p uts o ne o f h is h an ds o ut i n to t h e s u n's
lig ht f o r a s h ort t im e a n d t h en r e tr a cts i t, h e w ill b e a b le t o s e e t h at h an d
dis tin ctly a n d n ot t h e o th er. T hese e x perim en ts s e em t o c o unte n an ce t h e i d ea
of l ig ht b ein g a b so rb ed a n d a g ain e m itte d f ro m b odie s w hen t h ey a re
re m oved i n to d ark ness. B ut B eccari f u rth er p re te n ded , t h at s o m e c alc are o us
co m positio ns w hen e x pose d t o r e d , y ello w , o r b lu e l ig ht, t h ro ugh c o lo ure d
gla sse s, w ould o n t h eir b ein g b ro ught i n to a d ark r o om e m it c o lo ure d l ig hts .

This m is ta k en f a ct o f B eccari's , M r. W ils o n d ecid ed ly r e fu te s; a n d a m ong
man y o th er c u rio us e x perim en ts d is c o vere d , t h at i f o yste r-s h ells w ere t h ro w n
in to a c o m mon f ir e a n d c alc in ed f o r a b out h alf a n h our, a n d t h en b ro ught t o a
pers o n w ho h ad p re v io usly b een s o m e m in ute s i n a d ark r o om , t h at m an y o f
th em w ould e x hib it b eau tif u l i r is e s o f p ris m atic c o lo urs , f ro m w hen ce
pro bab ly a ro se B eccari's m is ta k e. M r. W ils o n f ro m h en ce c o nte n ds, t h at t h ese
kin ds o f p hosp hori d o n ot e m it t h e l ig ht t h ey h ad p re v io usly r e ceiv ed , b ut t h at
th ey a re s e t o n f ir e b y t h e s u n's r a y s, a n d c o ntin ue f o r s o m e t im e a s lo w
co m bustio n a fte r t h ey a re w ith dra w n f ro m t h e l ig ht. W ils o n's E xperim en ts o n
Phosp hori. D odsle y , 1 775.
The B olo gnia n s to ne i s a s e le n ite , o r g ypsu m , a n d h as b een l o ng c ele b ra te d
fo r i ts p hosp hore sc en t q uality a fte r h av in g b een b urn t i n a s u lp huro us f ir e ;
an d e x pose d w hen c o ld t o t h e s u n's l ig ht. I t m ay b e t h us w ell i m ita te d :
Calc in e o yste r-s h ells h alf a n h our, p ulv eriz e t h em w hen c o ld , a n d a d d o ne
th ir d p art o f f lo w ers o f s u lp hur, p re ss t h em c lo se i n to a s m all c ru cib le , a n d
calc in e t h em f o r a n h our o r l o nger, a n d k eep t h e p ow der i n a p hia l c lo se
sto pped . A p art o f t h is p ow der i s t o b e e x pose d f o r a m in ute o r t w o t o t h e
su nbeam s, a n d t h en b ro ught i n to a d ark r o om . T he c alc in ed B olo gnia n s to ne
beco m es a c alc are o us h ep ar o f s u lp hur; b ut t h e c alc in ed s h ells , a s t h ey
co nta in t h e a n im al a cid , m ay a ls o c o nta in s o m e o f t h e p hosp horu s o f
Kunkel.]
[ In M em non's f a ne
. l . 1 83. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s. N o. V III.]
" Y OU w ith l ig ht G as t h e l a m ps n octu rn al f e ed ,
190
Whic h d an ce a n d g lim mer o 'e r t h e m ars h y m ead ;
S hin e r o und C ale n dula a t t w ilig ht h ours ,
A nd t ip w ith s ilv er a ll h er s a ffro n f lo w ers ;
W arm o n h er m ossy c o uch t h e r a d ia n t W orm ,
G uard f ro m c o ld d ew s h er l o ve-illu m in 'd f o rm ,
195
Fro m l e af t o l e af c o nduct t h e v ir g in l ig ht,
S ta r o f t h e e arth , a n d d ia m ond o f t h e n ig ht.
Y ou b id i n a ir t h e t r o pic B eetle b urn ,
A nd f ill w ith g old en f la m e h is w in ged u rn ;
O r g ild t h e s u rg e w ith i n se ct- s p ark s, t h at s w arm
200
Round t h e b rig ht o ar, t h e k in dlin g p ro w a la rm ;

O r a rm i n w av es, e le ctr ic i n h is i r e ,
T he d re ad G ym notu s w ith e th ere al f ir e .—
O nw ard h is c o urs e w ith w av in g t a il h e h elm s,
A nd m im ic l ig hte n in gs s c are t h e w ate ry r e alm s,
205
So, w hen w ith b ris tlin g p lu m es t h e B ir d o f J O VE
V in dic tiv e l e av es t h e a rg en t f ie ld s a b ove,
B orn e o n b ro ad w in gs t h e g uilty w orld h e a w es,
A nd g ra sp s t h e l ig hte n in g i n h is s h in in g c la w s.
[ The l a m ps n octu rn al
. l . 1 89. T he i g nis f a tu us o r J a ck a l a n te rn , f re q uen tly
allu ded t o b y p oets , i s s u ppose d t o o rig in ate f ro m t h e i n fla m mab le a ir , o r
Hydro gen e, g iv en u p f ro m m ora sse s; w hic h b ein g o f a h eav ie r k in d f ro m i ts
im purity t h an t h at o bta in ed f ro m i r o n a n d w ate r, h overs n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f
th e e arth , a n d u nitin g w ith c o m mon a ir g iv es o ut l ig ht b y i ts s lo w i g nitio n.
Perh ap s s u ch l ig hts h av e n o e x is te n ce, a n d t h e r e fle ctio n o f a s ta r o n w ate ry
gro und m ay h av e d eceiv ed t h e t r a v elle rs , w ho h av e b een s a id t o b e
bew ild ere d b y t h em ? i f t h e f a ct w as e sta b lis h ed i t w ould m uch c o ntr ib ute t o
ex pla in t h e p hen om en a o f n orth ern l ig hts . I h av e t r a v elle d m uch i n t h e n ig ht,
in a ll s e aso ns o f t h e y ear, a n d o ver a ll k in ds o f s o il, b ut n ev er s a w o ne o f
th ese W ill o 'w is p s.]
[ Shin e r o und C ale n dula
. l . 1 91. S ee n ote o n T ro paeo lu m i n V ol. I I.]
[ The r a dia nt W orm
. l . 1 93. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. I X .]
[ The d re a d G ym notu s
. l . 2 02. T he G ym notu s e le ctr ic u s i s a n ativ e o f t h e r iv er
of S urin am i n S outh A m eric a; t h ose w hic h w ere b ro ught o ver t o E ngla n d
ab out e ig ht y ears a g o w ere a b out t h re e o r f o ur f e et l o ng, a n d g av e a n e le ctr ic
sh ock ( a s I e x perie n ced ) b y p uttin g o ne f in ger o n t h e b ack n ear i ts h ead , a n d
an oth er o f t h e o pposite h an d i n to t h e w ate r n ear i ts t a il. I n t h eir n ativ e
co untr y t h ey a re s a id t o e x ceed t w en ty f e et i n l e n gth , a n d k ill a n y m an w ho
ap pro ach es t h em i n a n h ostile m an ner. I t i s n ot o nly t o e sc ap e i ts e n em ie s t h at
th is s u rp riz in g p ow er o f t h e f is h i s u se d , b ut a ls o t o t a k e i ts p re y ; w hic h i t
does b y b en um bin g t h em a n d t h en d ev ourin g t h em b efo re t h ey h av e t im e t o
re co ver, o r b y p erfe ctly k illin g t h em ; f o r t h e q uan tity o f t h e p ow er s e em ed t o
be d ete rm in ed b y t h e w ill o r a n ger o f t h e a n im al; a s i t s o m etim es s tr u ck a f is h
tw ic e b efo re i t w as s u ffic ie n tly b en um bed t o b e e asily s w allo w ed .

The o rg an s p ro ductiv e o f t h is w onderfu l a ccu m ula tio n o f e le ctr ic m atte r h av e
been a ccu ra te ly d is se cte d a n d d esc rib ed b y M r. J . H unte r. P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol.
LX V. A nd a re s o d iv id ed b y m em bra n es a s t o c o m pose a v ery e x te n siv e
su rfa ce, a n d a re s u pplie d w ith m an y p air s o f n erv es l a rg er t h an a n y o th er
nerv es o f t h e b ody; b ut h ow s o l a rg e a q uan tity i s s o q uic k ly a ccu m ula te d a s
to p ro duce s u ch a m azin g e ffe cts i n a f lu id i ll a d ap te d f o r t h e p urp ose i s n ot
yet s a tis fa cto rily e x pla in ed . T he T orp ed o p osse sse s a s im ila r p ow er i n a l e ss
deg re e, a s w as s h ew n b y M r. W alc h , a n d a n oth er f is h l a te ly d esc rib ed b y M r.
Pate rs o n. P hilo . T ra n s. V ol. L X XVI.
In t h e c o nstr u ctio n o f t h e L ey den -P hia l, ( a s i t i s c alle d ) w hic h i s c o ate d o n
both s id es, i t i s k now n, t h at a b ove o ne h undre d t im es t h e q uan tity o f p ositiv e
ele ctr ic ity c an b e c o nden se d o n e v ery s q uare i n ch o f t h e c o atin g o n o ne s id e,
th an c o uld h av e b een a ccu m ula te d o n t h e s a m e s u rfa ce i f t h ere h ad b een n o
opposite c o atin g c o m munic atin g w ith t h e e arth ; b ecau se t h e n eg ativ e
ele ctr ic ity , o r t h at p art o f i t w hic h c au se d i ts e x pan sio n, i s n ow d ra w n o ff
th ro ugh t h e g la ss. I t i s a ls o w ell k now n, t h at t h e t h in ner t h e g la ss i s ( w hic h i s
th us c o ate d o n b oth s id es s o a s t o m ak e a L ey den -p hia l, o r p la te ) t h e m ore
ele ctr ic ity c an b e c o nden se d o n o ne o f i ts s u rfa ces, t ill i t b eco m es s o t h in a s
to b re ak , a n d t h en ce d is c h arg e i ts e lf .
Now i t i s p ossib le , t h at t h e q uan tity o f e le ctr ic ity c o nden sib le o n o ne s id e o f a
co ate d p hia l m ay i n cre ase i n s o m e h ig h r a tio i n r e sp ect t o t h e t h in ness o f t h e
gla ss, s in ce t h e p ow er o f a ttr a ctio n i s k now n t o d ecre ase a s t h e s q uare s o f t h e
dis ta n ces, t o w hic h t h is c ir c u m sta n ce o f e le ctr ic ity s e em s t o b ear s o m e
an alo gy. H en ce i f a n a n im al m em bra n e, a s t h in a s t h e s ilk -w orm s p in s i ts
silk , c o uld b e s o s itu ate d a s t o b e c h arg ed l ik e t h e L ey den b ottle , w ith out
burs tin g, ( a s s u ch t h in g la ss w ould b e l ia b le t o d o,) i t w ould b e d if fic u lt t o
calc u la te t h e i m men se q uan tity o f e le ctr ic f lu id , w hic h m ig ht b e a ccu m ula te d
on i ts s u rfa ce. N o l a n d a n im als a re y et d is c o vere d w hic h p osse ss t h is p ow er,
th ough t h e a ir w ould h av e b een a m uch b ette r m ed iu m f o r p ro ducin g i ts
effe cts ; p erh ap s t h e s iz e o f t h e n ecessa ry a p para tu s w ould h av e b een
in co nven ie n t t o l a n d a n im als .]
[ In h is s h in in g c la w s
. l . 2 08. A llu din g t o a n a n tiq ue g em i n t h e c o lle ctio n o f
th e G ra n d D uke o f F lo re n ce. S pen ce.]

V . 1 . " N YM PH S! Y our s o ft s m ile s u ncu ltu r'd m an s u bdued ,
210
And c h arm 'd t h e S av ag e f ro m h is n ativ e w ood;
Y ou, w hile a m azed h is h urry in g H ord s r e tir e
F ro m t h e f e ll h av oc o f d ev ourin g F IR E,
T au ght, t h e f ir s t A rt! w ith p in y r o ds t o r a is e
B y q uic k a ttr itio n t h e d om estic b la ze,
215
Fan w ith s o ft b re ath , w ith k in dlin g l e av es p ro vid e,
A nd l if t t h e d re ad D estr o yer o n h is s id e.
S o, w ith b rig ht w re ath o f s e rp en t- tr e sse s c ro w n'd ,
S ev ere i n b eau ty , y oung M ED USA f ro w n'd ;
E re w hile s u bdued , r o und W IS D OM 'S
Aeg is r o ll'd
220
His s'd t h e d re ad s n ak es, a n d f la m 'd i n b urn is h 'd g old ;
F la sh 'd o n h er b ra n dis h 'd a rm t h e i m morta l s h ie ld ,
A nd T erro r l ig hte n 'd o 'e r t h e d azzle d f ie ld .
[ Of d evo urin g f ir e
. l . 2 12. T he f ir s t a n d m ost i m porta n t d is c o very o f m an kin d
se em s t o h av e b een t h at o f f ir e . F or m an y a g es i t i s p ro bab le f ir e w as
este em ed a d an gero us e n em y, k now n o nly b y i ts d re ad fu l d ev asta tio ns; a n d
th at m an y l iv es m ust h av e b een l o st, a n d m an y d an gero us b urn s a n d w ounds
must h av e a fflic te d t h ose w ho f ir s t d are d t o s u bje ct i t t o t h e u se s o f l if e . I t i s
sa id t h at t h e t a ll m onkie s o f B orn eo a n d S um atr a l ie d ow n w ith p le asu re
ro und a n y a ccid en ta l f ir e i n t h eir w oods; a n d a re a rriv ed t o t h at d eg re e o f
re aso n, t h at k now le d ge o f c au sa tio n, t h at t h ey t h ru st i n to t h e r e m ain in g f ir e
th e h alf -b urn t e n ds o f t h e b ra n ch es t o p re v en t i ts g oin g o ut. O ne o f t h e n oble s
of t h e c u ltiv ate d p eo ple o f O ta h eita , w hen C ap ta in C ook t r e ate d t h em w ith
te a, c atc h ed t h e b oilin g w ate r i n h is h an d f ro m t h e c o ck o f t h e t e a-u rn , a n d
bello w ed w ith p ain , n ot c o nceiv in g t h at w ate r c o uld b eco m e h ot, l ik e r e d f ir e .
Tools o f s te el c o nstitu te a n oth er i m porta n t d is c o very i n c o nse q uen ce o f f ir e ;
an d c o ntr ib ute d p erh ap s p rin cip ally t o g iv e t h e E uro pean n atio ns s o g re at
su perio rity o ver t h e A m eric an w orld . B y t h ese t w o a g en ts , f ir e a n d t o ols o f
ste el, m an kin d b ecam e a b le t o c o pe w ith t h e v eg eta b le k in gdom , a n d c o nquer
pro vin ces o f f o re sts , w hic h i n u ncu ltiv ate d c o untr ie s a lm ost e x clu de t h e
gro w th o f o th er v eg eta b le s, a n d o f t h ose a n im als w hic h a re n ecessa ry t o o ur
ex is te n ce. A dd t o t h is , t h at t h e q uan tity o f o ur f o od i s a ls o i n cre ase d b y t h e
use o f f ir e , f o r s o m e v eg eta b le s b eco m e s a lu ta ry f o od b y m ean s o f t h e h eat

use d i n c o okery , w hic h a re n atu ra lly e ith er n oxio us o r d if fic u lt o f d ig estio n;
as p ota to es, k id ney -b ean s, o nio ns, c ab bag es. T he c assa v a w hen m ad e i n to
bre ad , i s p erh ap s r e n dere d m ild b y t h e h eat i t u nderg oes, m ore t h an b y
ex pre ssin g i ts s u perflu ous j u ic e. T he r o ots o f w hite b ry ony a n d o f a ru m , I a m
in fo rm ed l o se m uch o f t h eir a crim ony b y b oilin g.]
[ Young M ed usa f r o w ned
. l . 2 18. T he E gyptia n M ed usa i s r e p re se n te d o n
an tie n t g em s w ith w in gs o n h er h ead , s n ak y h air , a n d a b eau tif u l
co unte n an ce, w hic h a p pears i n te n se ly t h in kin g; a n d w as s u ppose d t o
re p re se n t d iv in e w is d om . T he G re cia n M ed usa , o n M in erv a's s h ie ld , a s
ap pears o n o th er g em s, h as a c o unte n an ce d is to rte d w ith r a g e o r p ain , a n d i s
su ppose d t o r e p re se n t d iv in e v en gean ce. T his M ed usa w as o ne o f t h e
Gorg ons, a t f ir s t v ery b eau tif u l a n d t e rrib le t o h er e n em ie s; M in erv a t u rn ed
her h air i n to s n ak es, a n d P ers e u s h av in g c u t o ff h er h ead f ix ed i t o n t h e s h ie ld
of t h at g oddess; t h e s ig ht o f w hic h t h en p etr if ie d t h e b eh old ers . D an net D ic t.]
2 . N YM PH S! Y OU d is jo in , u nite , c o nden se , e x pan d,
A nd g iv e n ew w onders t o t h e C hem is t's h an d;
225
On t e p id c lo uds o f r is in g s te am a sp ir e ,
O r f ix i n s u lp hur a ll i t's s o lid f ir e ;
W ith b oundle ss s p rin g e la stic a ir s u nfo ld ,
O r f ill t h e f in e v acu itie s o f g old ;
W ith s u dden f la sh v itr e sc en t s p ark s r e v eal,
230
By f ie rc e c o llis io n f ro m t h e f lin t a n d s te el;
O r m ark w ith s h in in g l e tte r K UNKEL's n am e
I n t h e p ale P hosp hor's s e lf -c o nsu m in g f la m e.
S o t h e c h aste h eart o f s o m e e n ch an te d M aid
S hin es w ith i n sid io us l ig ht, b y L ove b etr a y 'd ;
235
Round h er p ale b oso m p la y s t h e y oung D esir e ,
A nd s lo w s h e w aste s b y s e lf -c o nsu m in g f ir e .
[ Or f ix i n s u lp hur
. l . 2 26. T he p hen om en a o f c h em ic al e x plo sio ns c an not b e
acco unte d f o r w ith out t h e s u ppositio n, t h at s o m e o f t h e b odie s e m plo yed
co nta in c o ncen tr a te d o r s o lid h eat c o m bin ed w ith t h em , t o w hic h t h e F re n ch
Chem is ts h av e g iv en t h e n am e o f C alo riq ue. W hen a ir i s e x pan ded i n t h e a ir -
pum p, o r w ate r e v ap ora te d i n to s te am , t h ey d rin k u p o r a b so rb a g re at

quan tity o f h eat; f ro m t h is a n alo gy, w hen g unpow der i s e x plo ded i t o ught t o
ab so rb m uch h eat, t h at i s , i n p opula r l a n guag e, i t o ught t o p ro duce a g re at
quan tity o f c o ld . W hen v ita l a ir i s u nite d w ith p hlo gis tic m atte r i n r e sp ir a tio n,
whic h s e em s t o b e a s lo w c o m bustio n, i ts v olu m e i s l e sse n ed ; t h e c arb onic
acid , a n d p erh ap s p hosp horic a cid a re p ro duced ; a n d h eat i s g iv en o ut; w hic h
acco rd in g t o t h e e x perim en ts o f D r. C ra w fo rd w ould s e em t o b e d ep osite d
fro m t h e v ita l a ir . B ut a s t h e v ita l a ir i n n itr o us a cid i s c o nden se d f ro m a l ig ht
ela stic g as t o t h at o f a h eav y f lu id , i t m ust p osse ss l e ss h eat t h an b efo re . A nd
hen ce a g re at p art o f t h e h eat, w hic h i s g iv en o ut i n f ir in g g unpow der, I
sh ould s u ppose , m ust r e sid e i n t h e s u lp hur o r c h arc o al.
Mr. L av ois ie r h as s h ew n, t h at v ita l a ir , o r O xygen e, l o ose s l e ss o f i ts h eat
when i t b eco m es o ne o f t h e c o m ponen t p arts o f n itr o us a cid , t h an i n a n y o th er
of i ts c o m bin atio ns; a n d i s h en ce c ap ab le o f g iv in g o ut a g re at q uan tity o f
heat i n t h e e x plo sio n o f g unpow der; b ut a s t h ere s e em s t o b e g re at a n alo gy
betw een t h e m atte r o f h eat, o r C alo riq ue, a n d t h e e le ctr ic m atte r; a n d a s t h e
wors t c o nducto rs o f e le ctr ic ity a re b elie v ed t o c o nta in t h e g re ate st q uan tity o f
th at f lu id ; t h ere i s r e aso n t o s u sp ect t h at t h e w ors t c o nducto rs o f h eat m ay
co nta in t h e m ost o f t h at f lu id ; a s s u lp hur, w ax , s ilk , a ir , g la ss. S ee n ote o n l .
174 o f t h is C an to .]
[ Vitr e sc en t s p ark s
. l . 2 29. W hen f lin ts a re s tr u ck a g ain st o th er f lin ts t h ey h av e
th e p ro perty o f g iv in g s p ark s o f l ig ht; b ut i t s e em s t o b e a n i n te rn al l ig ht,
perh ap s o f e le ctr ic o rig in , v ery d if fe re n t f ro m t h e i g nite d s p ark s w hic h a re
str u ck f ro m f lin t a n d s te el. T he s p ark s p ro duced b y t h e c o llis io n o f s te el w ith
flin t a p pear t o b e g lo bula r p artic le s o f i r o n, w hic h h av e b een f u se d , a n d
im perfe ctly s c o rif ie d o r v itr if ie d . T hey a re k in dle d b y t h e h eat p ro duced b y
th e c o llis io n; b ut t h eir v iv id l ig ht, a n d t h eir f u sio n a n d v itr if ic atio n a re t h e
effe cts o f a c o m bustio n c o ntin ued i n t h ese p artic le s d urin g t h eir p assa g e
th ro ugh t h e a ir . T his o pin io n i s c o nfir m ed b y a n e x perim en t o f M r.
Haw ksb ee, w ho f o und t h at t h ese s p ark s c o uld n ot b e p ro duced i n t h e
ex hau ste d r e ceiv er. S ee K eir 's C hem ic al D ic t. a rt. I ro n, a n d a rt. E arth
vitr if ia b le .]
[ The p ale P hosp hor
. l . 2 32. S ee a d ditio nab le n ote s, N o. X .]
3 . " Y OU t a u ght m yste rio us B A CO N t o e x plo re

M eta llic v ein s, a n d p art t h e d ro ss f ro m o re ;
W ith s y lv an c o al i n w hir lin g m ills c o m bin e
240
The c ry sta l'd n itr e , a n d t h e s u lp huro us m in e;
T hro ugh w ir y n ets t h e b la ck d if fu sio n s tr a in ,
A nd c lo se a n a ir y o cean i n a g ra in .—
P en t i n d ark c h am bers o f c y lin dric b ra ss
S lu m bers i n g rim r e p ose t h e s o oty m ass;
245
Lit b y t h e b rillia n t s p ark , f ro m g ra in t o g ra in
R uns t h e q uic k f ir e a lo ng t h e k in dlin g t r a in ;
O n t h e p ain 'd e ar-d ru m b urs ts t h e s u dden c ra sh ,
S ta rts t h e r e d f la m e, a n d D eath p urs u es t h e f la sh .—
F ear's f e eb le h an d d ir e cts t h e f ie ry d arts ,
250
And S tr e n gth a n d C oura g e y ie ld t o c h em ic a rts ;
G uilt w ith p ale b ro w t h e m im ic t h under o w ns,
A nd T yra n ts t r e m ble o n t h eir b lo od-s ta in 'd t h ro nes.
[ And c lo se a n a ir y o cea n
. l . 2 42. G unpow der i s p la in ly d esc rib ed i n t h e
work s o f R oger B aco n b efo re t h e y ear 1 267. H e d esc rib es i t i n a c u rio us
man ner, m en tio nin g t h e s u lp hur a n d n itr e , b ut c o nceals t h e c h arc o al i n a n
an ag ra m . T he w ord s a re , s e d t a m en s a lis p etr a e
lu re m ope c a n u bre
, e t
su lp huris ; e t s ic f a cie s t o nitr u m , e t c o rru sc atio nem , s i s c ia s, a rtif ic iu m . T he
word s l u re m ope c an u bre a re a n a n ag ra m o f c arb onum p ulv ere . B io gra p h.
Brita n . V ol. I . B aco n d e S ecre tis O perib us, C ap . X I. H e a d ds, t h at h e t h in ks
by a n a rtif ic e o f t h is k in d G id eo n d efe ate d t h e M id ia n ite s w ith o nly t h re e
hundre d m en . J u dges, C hap . V II. C ham b. D ic t. a rt. G unpow der. A s B aco n
does n ot c la im t h is a s h is o w n i n ven tio n, i t i s t h ought b y m an y t o h av e b een
of m uch m ore a n tie n t d is c o very .
The p erm an en tly e la stic f lu id g en era te d i n t h e f ir in g o f g unpow der i s
calc u la te d b y M r. R obin s t o b e a b out 2 44 i f t h e b ulk o f t h e p ow der b e 1 . A nd
th at t h e h eat g en era te d a t t h e t im e o f t h e e x plo sio n o ccasio ns t h e r a re fie d a ir
th us p ro duced t o o ccu py a b out 1 000 t im es t h e s p ace o f t h e g unpow der. T his
pre ssu re m ay t h ere fo re b e c alle d e q ual t o 1 000 a tm osp here s o r s ix t o ns u pon
a s q uare i n ch . A s t h e s u dden ness o f t h is e x plo sio n m ust c o ntr ib ute m uch t o
its p ow er, i t w ould s e em t h at t h e c h am ber o f p ow der, t o p ro duce i ts g re ate st
effe ct, s h ould b e l ig hte d i n t h e c en tr e o f i t; w hic h I b elie v e i s n ot a tte n ded t o

in t h e m an ufa ctu re o f m usk ets o r p is to ls .
Fro m t h e c h eap ness w ith w hic h a v ery p ow erfu l g unpow der i s l ik ely s o on t o
be m an ufa ctu re d f ro m a era te d m arin e a cid , o r f ro m a n ew m eth od o f f o rm in g
nitr o us a cid b y m ean s o f m an gonese o r o th er c alc if o rm o re s, i t m ay p ro bab ly
in t im e b e a p plie d t o m ove m ach in ery , a n d s u pers e d e t h e u se o f s te am .
There i s a b itte r i n vectiv e i n D on Q uix ot a g ain st t h e i n ven to rs o f g un-
pow der, a s i t l e v els t h e s tr o ng w ith t h e w eak , t h e k nig ht c ase d i n s te el w ith
th e n ak ed s h ep herd , t h ose w ho h av e b een t r a in ed t o t h e s w ord , w ith t h ose
who a re t o ta lly u nsk ilf u l i n t h e u se o f i t; a n d t h ro w s d ow n a ll t h e s p le n did
dis tin ctio ns o f m an kin d. T hese v ery r e aso ns o ught t o h av e b een u rg ed t o
sh ew t h at t h e d is c o very o f g unpow der h as b een o f p ublic u tility b y
weak en in g t h e t y ra n ny o f t h e f e w o ver t h e m an y.]
V I. N YM PH S! Y ou e re w hile o n s im merin g c au ld ro ns p la y 'd ,
A nd c all'd d elig hte d S A VER Y t o y our a id ;
255
Bad e r o und t h e y outh e x plo siv e S T EA M a sp ir e
I n g ath erin g c lo uds, a n d w in g'd t h e w av e w ith f ir e ;
B ad e w ith c o ld s tr e am s t h e q uic k e x pan sio n s to p,
A nd s u nk t h e i m men se o f v ap our t o a d ro p.—
P re ss'd b y t h e p ondero us a ir t h e P is to n f a lls
260
Resis tle ss, s lid in g t h ro ugh i t's i r o n w alls ;
Q uic k m oves t h e b ala n ced b eam , o f g ia n t- b ir th ,
W ie ld s h is l a rg e l im bs, a n d n oddin g s h ak es t h e e arth .
[ Delig hte d S avery
. l . 2 54. T he i n ven tio n o f t h e s te am -e n gin e f o r r a is in g w ate r
by t h e p re ssu re o f t h e a ir i n c o nse q uen ce o f t h e c o nden sa tio n o f s te am , i s
pro perly a sc rib ed t o C ap t. S av ery ; a p la te a n d d esc rip tio n o f t h is m ach in e i s
giv en i n H arris 's L ex ic o n T ech nic u m , a rt. E ngin e. T hough t h e M arq uis o f
Worc este r i n h is C en tu ry o f I n ven tio ns p rin te d i n t h e y ear 1 663 h ad d esc rib ed
an e n gin e f o r r a is in g w ate r b y t h e e x plo siv e p ow er o f s te am l o ng b efo re
Sav ery 's . M r. D ese g ulie r a ffir m s, t h at S av ery b ought u p a ll h e c o uld p ro cu re
of t h e b ooks o f t h e M arq uis o f W orc este r, a n d d estr o yed t h em , p ro fe ssin g
him se lf t h en t o h av e d is c o vere d t h e p ow er o f s te am b y a ccid en t, w hic h s e em s
to h av e b een a n u nfo unded s la n der. S av ery a p plie d i t t o t h e r a is in g o f w ate r

to s u pply h ouse s a n d g ard en s, b ut c o uld n ot a cco m plis h t h e d ra in in g o f m in es
by i t. W hic h w as a fte rw ard s d one b y M r. N ew co m en a n d M r. J o hn C ow le y a t
Dartm outh , i n t h e y ear 1 712, w ho a d ded t h e p is to n.
A f e w y ears a g o M r. W att o f G la sg ow m uch i m pro ved t h is m ach in e, a n d w ith
Mr. B oulto n o f B ir m in gham h as a p plie d i t t o v arie ty o f p urp ose s, s u ch a s
ra is in g w ate r f ro m m in es, b lo w in g b ello w s t o f u se t h e o re , s u pply in g t o w ns
with w ate r, g rin din g c o rn a n d m an y o th er p urp ose s. T here i s r e aso n t o
belie v e i t m ay i n t im e b e a p plie d t o t h e r o w in g o f b arg es, a n d t h e m ovin g o f
carria g es a lo ng t h e r o ad . A s t h e s p ecif ic l e v ity o f a ir i s t o o g re at f o r t h e
su pport o f g re at b urth en s b y b allo ons, t h ere s e em s n o p ro bab le m eth od o f
fly in g c o nven ie n tly b ut b y t h e p ow er o f s te am , o r s o m e o th er e x plo siv e
mate ria l; w hic h a n oth er h alf c en tu ry m ay p ro bab le d is c o ver. S ee a d ditio nal
note s, N o. X I.]
" T he G ia n t- P ow er f ro m e arth 's r e m ote st c av es
L if ts w ith s tr o ng a rm h er d ark r e lu cta n t w av es;
265
Each c av ern 'd r o ck , a n d h id den d en e x plo re s,
D ra g s h er d ark c o als , a n d d ig s h er s h in in g o re s.—
N ex t, i n c lo se c ells o f r ib bed o ak c o nfin ed ,
G ale a fte r g ale , H e c ro w ds t h e s tr u gglin g w in d;
T he i m pris o n'd s to rm s t h ro ugh b ra zen n ostr ils r o ar,
270
Fan t h e w hite f la m e, a n d f u se t h e s p ark lin g o re .
H ere h ig h i n a ir t h e r is in g s tr e am H e p ours
T o c la y -b uilt c is te rn s, o r t o l e ad -lin ed t o w ers ;
F re sh t h ro ugh a t h ousa n d p ip es t h e w av e d is tils ,
A nd t h ir s ty c itie s d rin k t h e e x ubera n t r ills .—
275
There t h e v ast m ill- s to ne w ith i n eb ria te w hir l
O n t r e m blin g f lo ors h is f o rc efu l f in gers t w ir l.
W hose f lin ty t e eth t h e g old en h arv ests g rin d,
F east w ith out b lo od! a n d n ouris h h um an -k in d.
[ Fea st w ith out b lo od!
l . 2 78. T he b en ev ole n ce o f t h e g re at A uth or o f a ll
th in gs i s g re atly m an if e st i n t h e s u m o f h is w ork s, a s D r. B alg uy h as w ell
ev in ced i n h is p am phle t o n D iv in e B en ev ole n ce a sse rte d , p rin te d f o r D av is ,
1781. Y et i f w e m ay c o m pare t h e p arts o f n atu re w ith e ach o th er, t h ere a re

so m e c ir c u m sta n ces o f h er e co nom y w hic h s e em t o c o ntr ib ute m ore t o t h e
gen era l s c ale o f h ap pin ess t h an o th ers . T hus t h e n ouris h m en t o f a n im al
bodie s i s d eriv ed f ro m t h re e s o urc es: 1 . t h e m ilk g iv en f ro m t h e m oth er t o t h e
offs p rin g; i n t h is e x celle n t c o ntr iv an ce t h e m oth er h as p le asu re i n a ffo rd in g
th e s u ste n an ce t o t h e c h ild , a n d t h e c h ild h as p le asu re i n r e ceiv in g i t. 2 .
Anoth er s o urc e o f t h e f o od o f a n im als i n clu des s e ed s o r e g gs; i n t h ese t h e
em bry on i s i n a t o rp id o r i n se n sib le s ta te , a n d t h ere i s a lo ng w ith i t l a id u p f o r
its e arly n ouris h m en t a s to re o f p ro vis io n, a s t h e f ru it b elo ngin g t o s o m e
se ed s, a n d t h e o il a n d s ta rc h b elo ngin g t o o th ers ; w hen t h ese a re c o nsu m ed
by a n im als t h e u nfe elin g s e ed o r e g g r e ceiv es n o p ain , b ut t h e a n im al r e ceiv es
ple asu re w hic h c o nsu m es i t. U nder t h is a rtic le m ay b e i n clu ded t h e b odie s o f
an im als w hic h d ie n atu ra lly . 3 . B ut t h e l a st m eth od o f s u pportin g a n im al
bodie s b y t h e d estr u ctio n o f o th er l iv in g a n im als , a s l io ns p re y in g u pon
la m bs, t h ese u pon l iv in g v eg eta b le s, a n d m an kin d u pon t h em a ll, w ould
ap pear t o b e a l e ss p erfe ct p art o f t h e e co nom y o f n atu re t h an t h ose b efo re
men tio ned , a s c o ntr ib utin g l e ss t o t h e s u m o f g en era l h ap pin ess.]
" N ow h is h ard h an ds o n M ona's r if te d c re st,
280
Boso m 'd i n r o ck , h er a zu re o re s a rre st;
W ith i r o n l ip s h is r a p id r o lle rs s e iz e
T he l e n gth en in g b ars , i n t h in e x pan sio n s q ueeze;
D esc en din g s c re w s w ith p ondero us f ly -w heels w ound
T he t a w ny p la te s, t h e n ew m ed allio ns r o und;
285
Hard d yes o f s te el t h e c u pre o us c ir c le s c ra m p,
A nd w ith q uic k f a ll h is m assy h am mers s ta m p.
T he H arp , t h e L ily a n d t h e L io n j o in ,
A nd G EO RG E a n d B RIT A IN g uard t h e s te rlin g c o in .
[ Mona's r ifte d c re st
. l . 2 79. A llu din g t o t h e v ery v alu ab le c o pper- m in es i n
th e i s le o f A ngle se y , t h e p ro perty o f t h e E arl o f U xbrid ge.]
[ With i r o n-lip s
. l . 2 81. M r. B oulto n h as l a te ly c o nstr u cte d a t S oho n ear
Bir m in gham , a m ost m ag nif ic en t a p para tu s f o r C oin in g, w hic h h as c o st h im
so m e t h ousa n d p ounds; t h e w hole m ach in ery i s m oved b y a n i m pro ved
ste am -e n gin e, w hic h r o lls t h e c o pper f o r h alf -p en ce f in er t h an c o pper h as
befo re b een r o lle d f o r t h e p urp ose o f m ak in g m oney ; i t w ork s t h e c o upoir s o r

sc re w -p re sse s f o r c u ttin g o ut t h e c ir c u la r p ie ces o f c o pper; a n d c o in s b oth t h e
fa ces a n d e d ges o f t h e m oney a t t h e s a m e t im e, w ith s u ch s u perio r e x celle n ce
an d c h eap ness o f w ork m an sh ip , a s w ell a s w ith m ark s o f s u ch p ow erfu l
mach in ery a s m ust t o ta lly p re v en t c la n destin e i m ita tio n, a n d i n c o nse q uen ce
sa v e m an y l iv es f ro m t h e h an d o f t h e e x ecu tio ner; a c ir c u m sta n ce w orth y t h e
atte n tio n o f a g re at m in is te r. I f a c iv ic c ro w n w as g iv en i n R om e f o r
pre se rv in g t h e l if e o f o ne c itiz en , M r. B oulto n s h ould b e c o vere d w ith
garla n ds o f o ak ! B y t h is m ach in ery f o ur b oys o f t e n o r t w elv e y ears o ld a re
cap ab le o f s tr ik in g t h ir ty t h ousa n d g uin eas i n a n h our, a n d t h e m ach in e i ts e lf
keep s a n u nerrin g a cco unt o f t h e p ie ces s tr u ck .]
" S oon s h all t h y a rm , U NCO NQUER 'D S T EA M ! a fa r
290
Dra g t h e s lo w b arg e, o r d riv e t h e r a p id c ar;
O r o n w id e-w av in g w in gs e x pan ded b ear
T he f ly in g-c h ario t t h ro ugh t h e f ie ld s o f a ir .
— Fair c re w s t r iu m phan t, l e an in g f ro m a b ove,
S hall w av e t h eir f lu tte rin g k erc h ie fs a s t h ey m ove;
295
Or w arrio r-b an ds a la rm t h e g ap in g c ro w d,
A nd a rm ie s s h rin k b en eath t h e s h ad ow y c lo ud.
" S o m ig hty H ER CU LES o 'e r m an y a c lim e
W av ed h is v ast m ace i n V ir tu e's c au se s u blim e,
U nm easu re d s tr e n gth w ith e arly a rt c o m bin ed ,
300
Awed , s e rv ed , p ro te cte d , a n d a m azed m an kin d.—
F ir s t t w o d re ad S nak es a t J U NO'S v en gefu l n od
C lim b'd r o und t h e c ra d le o f t h e s le ep in g G od;
W ak ed b y t h e s h rillin g h is s, a n d r u stlin g s o und,
A nd s h rie k s o f f a ir a tte n dan ts t r e m blin g r o und,
305
Their g asp in g t h ro ats w ith c le n ch in g h an ds h e h old s;
A nd D eath u ntw is ts t h eir c o nvolu te d f o ld s.
N ex t i n r e d t o rre n ts f ro m h er s e v en fo ld h ead s
F ell H YDRA 'S b lo od o n L ern a's l a k e h e s h ed s;
G ra sp s A CH ELO US w ith r e sis tle ss f o rc e,
310
And d ra g s t h e r o arin g R iv er t o h is c o urs e ;
B in ds w ith l o ud b ello w in g a n d w ith h id eo us y ell
T he m onste r B ull, a n d t h re efo ld D og o f H ell.

[ So m ig hty H erc u le s
. l . 2 97. T he s to ry o f H erc u le s s e em s o f g re at a n tiq uity ,
as a p pears f ro m t h e s im plic ity o f h is d re ss a n d a rm our, a l io n's s k in a n d a
clu b; a n d f ro m t h e n atu re o f m an y o f h is e x plo its , t h e d estr u ctio n o f w ild
beasts a n d r o bbers . T his p art o f t h e h is to ry o f H erc u le s s e em s t o h av e r e la te d
to t im es b efo re t h e i n ven tio n o f t h e b ow a n d a rro w , o r o f s p in nin g f la x . O th er
sto rie s o f H erc u le s a re p erh ap s o f l a te r d ate , a n d a p pear t o b e a lle g oric al, a s
his c o nquerin g t h e r iv er- g od A ch ilo us, a n d b rin gin g C erb eru s u p t o d ay
lig ht; t h e f o rm er m ig ht r e fe r t o h is t u rn in g t h e c o urs e o f a r iv er, a n d d ra in in g
a m ora ss, a n d t h e l a tte r t o h is e x posin g a p art o f t h e s u pers titio n o f t h e t im es.
The s tr a n glin g t h e l io n a n d t e arin g h is j a w s a su nder, a re d esc rib ed f ro m a
sta tu e i n t h e M use u m F lo re n tin um , a n d f ro m a n a n tiq ue g em ; a n d t h e
gra sp in g A nte u s t o d eath i n h is a rm s a s h e l if ts h im f ro m t h e e arth , i s
desc rib ed f ro m a n oth er a n tie n t c am eo . T he f a m ous p illa rs o f H erc u le s h av e
been v ario usly e x pla in ed . P lin y a sse rts t h at t h e n ativ es o f S pain a n d o f A fric a
belie v ed t h at t h e m ounta in s o f A byla a n d C alp è o n e ach s id e o f t h e s tr a its o f
Gib ra lta r w ere t h e p illa rs o f H erc u le s; a n d t h at t h ey w ere r e are d b y t h e h an ds
of t h at g od, a n d t h e s e a a d m itte d b etw een t h em . P lin . H is t. N at. p . 4 6. E dit.
Man ut. V en et. 1 609.
If t h e p assa g e b etw een t h e t w o c o ntin en ts w as o pen ed b y a n e arth quak e i n
an tie n t t im es, a s t h is a lle g oric al s to ry w ould s e em t o c o unte n an ce, t h ere m ust
hav e b een a n i m men se c u rre n t o f w ate r a t f ir s t r u n i n to t h e M ed ite rra n ean
fro m t h e A tla n tic ; s in ce t h ere i s a t p re se n t a s tr o ng s tr e am s e ts a lw ay s f ro m
th en ce i n to t h e M ed ite rra n ean . W hate v er m ay b e t h e c au se , w hic h n ow
co nsta n tly o pera te s, s o a s t o m ak e t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e M ed ite rra n ean l o w er
th an t h at o f t h e A tla n tic , i t m ust h av e k ep t i t v ery m uch l o w er b efo re a
passa g e f o r t h e w ate r t h ro ugh t h e s tr e ig hts w as o pen ed . I t i s p ro bab le b efo re
su ch a n e v en t t o ok p la ce, t h e c o asts a n d i s la n ds o f t h e M ed ite rra n ean
ex te n ded m uch f u rth er i n to t h at s e a, a n d w ere t h en f o r a g re at e x te n t o f
co untr y , d estr o yed b y t h e f lo ods o ccasio ned b y t h e n ew r is e o f w ate r, a n d
hav e s in ce r e m ain ed b en eath t h e s e a. M ig ht n ot t h is g iv e r is e t o t h e f lo od o f
Deu calio n? S ee n ote C assia , V . I I. o f t h is w ork .]
" T hen , w here N em ea's h ow lin g f o re sts w av e,
H e d riv es t h e L io n t o h is d usk y c av e;
315
Seiz ed b y t h e t h ro at t h e g ro w lin g f ie n d d is a rm s,

A nd t e ars h is g ap in g j a w s w ith s in ew y a rm s;
L if ts p ro ud A NTEU S f ro m h is m oth er-p la in s,
A nd w ith s tr o ng g ra sp t h e s tr u gglin g G ia n t s tr a in s;
B ack f a lls h is f a in tin g h ead , a n d c la m my h air ,
320
Writh e h is w eak l im bs, a n d f lits h is l if e i n a ir ;—
B y s te p s r e v erte d o 'e r t h e b lo od-d ro pp'd f e n
H e t r a ck s h uge C A CU S t o h is m urd ero us d en ;
W here b re ath in g f la m es t h ro ugh b ra zen l ip s h e f le d ,
A nd s h ak es t h e r o ck -ro of'd c av ern o 'e r h is h ead .
325
"L ast w ith w id e a rm s t h e s o lid e arth H e t e ars ,
P ile s r o ck o n r o ck , o n m ounta in m ounta in r e ars ;
H eav es u p h uge A BY LA o n A fric 's s a n d,
C ro w ns w ith h ig h C A LPÈ E uro pe's s a lia n t s tr a n d,
C re sts w ith o pposin g t o w ers t h e s p le n did s c en e,
330
And p ours f ro m u rn s i m men se t h e s e a b etw een .—
— Loud o 'e r h er w hir lin g f lo od C hary bdis r o ars ,
A ffrig hte d S cy lla b ello w s r o und h is s h ore s,
V esu vio g ro an s t h ro ugh a ll h is e ch oin g c av es,
A nd E tn a t h unders o 'e r t h e i n su rg en t w av es.
335
VII. 1 . N YM PH S! Y OUR f in e h an ds e th ere al f lo ods a m ass
F ro m t h e w arm c u sh io n, a n d t h e w hir lin g g la ss;
B eard t h e b rig ht c y lin der w ith g old en w ir e ,
A nd c ir c u m fu se t h e g ra v ita tin g f ir e .
C old f ro m e ach p oin t c eru le an l u str e s g le am ,
340
Or s h oot i n a ir t h e s c in tilla tin g s tr e am .
S o, b orn e o n b ra zen t a lo ns, w atc h 'd o f o ld
T he s le ep le ss d ra g on o 'e r h is f ru its o f g old ;
B rig ht b eam 'd h is s c ale s, h is e y e-b alls b la zed w ith i r e ,
A nd h is w id e n ostr ils b re ath 'd i n ch an te d f ir e .
[ Eth ere a l f lo ods a m ass
. l . 3 35. T he t h eo ry o f t h e a ccu m ula tio n o f t h e e le ctr ic
flu id b y m ean s o f t h e g la ss-g lo be a n d c u sh io n i s d if fic u lt t o c o m pre h en d. D r.
Fra n klin 's i d ea o f t h e p ore s o f t h e g la ss b ein g o pen ed b y t h e f ric tio n, a n d
th en ce r e n dere d c ap ab le o f a ttr a ctin g m ore e le ctr ic f lu id , w hic h i t a g ain p arts
with , a s t h e p ore s c o ntr a ct a g ain , s e em s a n alo gous i n s o m e m easu re t o t h e

heat p ro duced b y t h e v ib ra tio n, o r c o nden sa tio n o f b odie s, a s w hen a n ail i s
ham mere d o r f ile d t ill i t b eco m es h ot, a s m en tio ned i n a d ditio nal N ote s, N o.
VII. S om e p hilo so phers h av e e n deav oure d t o a cco unt f o r t h is p hen om en on b y
su pposin g t h e e x is te n ce o f t w o e le ctr ic f lu id s w hic h m ay b e c alle d t h e
vitr e o us a n d r e sin ous o nes, i n ste ad o f t h e p lu s a n d m in us o f t h e s a m e e th er.
But i ts a ccu m ula tio n o n t h e r u bbed g la ss b ears g re at a n alo gy t o i ts
accu m ula tio n o n t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e L ey den b ottle , a n d c an n ot p erh ap s b e
ex pla in ed f ro m a n y k now n m ech an ic al o r c h em ic al p rin cip le . S ee n ote o n
Gym notu s. l . 2 02, o f t h is C an to .]
[ Cold f r o m e a ch p oin t
. l . 3 39. S ee a d ditio nal n ote , N o. X III.]
345
"Y OU b id g old -le av es, i n c ry sta l l a n th ern s h eld ,
A ppro ach a ttr a cte d , a n d r e ced e r e p el'd ;
W hile p ap er-n ym phs i n stin ct w ith m otio n r if e ,
A nd d an cin g f a u ns t h e a d m ir in g S ag e s u rp riz e.
O R, i f o n w ax s o m e f e arle ss B eau ty s ta n d,
350
And t o uch t h e s p ark lin g r o d w ith g ra cefu l h an d;
T hro ugh h er f in e l im bs t h e m im ic l ig htn in gs d art,
A nd f la m es i n nocu ous e d dy r o und h er h eart;
O 'e r h er f a ir b ro w t h e k in dlin g l u str e s g la re ,
B lu e r a y s d iv erg in g f ro m h er b ris tlin g h air ;
355
While s o m e f o nd Y outh t h e k is s e th ere al s ip s.
A nd s o ft f ir e s i s su e f ro m t h eir m eetin g l ip s.
S o r o und t h e v ir g in S ain t i n s ilv er s tr e am s
T he h oly H alo s h oots i t's a rro w y b eam s.
[ You b id g old l e a ves
. l . 3 45. A llu din g t o t h e v ery s e n sib le e le ctr o m ete r
im pro ved b y M r. B en nett, i t c o nsis ts o f t w o s lip s o f g old - l e af s u sp en ded
fro m a t in c ap i n a g la ss c y lin der, w hic h h as a p artia l c o atin g w ith out,
co m munic atin g w ith t h e w ooden p ed esta l. I f a s tic k o f s e alin g w ax b e r u bbed
fo r a m om en t o n a d ry c lo th , a n d t h en h eld i n t h e a ir
at t h e d is ta nce o f t w o o r
th re e f e et
f ro m t h e c ap o f t h is i n str u m en t, t h e g old l e av es s e p era te , s u ch i s i ts
asto nis h in g s e n sib ility t o e le ctr ic i n flu en ce! ( S ee B en net o n e le ctr ic ity ,
Jo hnso n, L ond.) T he n erv es o f s e n se o f a n im al b odie s d o n ot s e em t o b e
affe cte d b y l e ss q uan titie s o f l ig ht o r h eat! ]

[ The h oly H alo
. l . 3 58. I b elie v e i t i s n ot k now n w ith c erta in ty a t w hat t im e
th e p ain te rs f ir s t i n tr o duced t h e l u m in ous c ir c le r o und t h e h ead t o i m port a
Sain t o r h oly p ers o n. I t i s n ow b eco m e a p art o f t h e s y m bolic l a n guag e o f
pain tin g, a n d i t i s m uch t o b e w is h ed t h at t h is k in d o f h ie ro gly phic c h ara cte r
was m ore f re q uen t i n t h at a rt; a s i t i s m uch w an te d t o r e n der h is to ric p ic tu re s
both m ore i n te llig ib le , a n d m ore s u blim e; a n d w hy s h ould n ot p ain tin g a s
well a s p oetr y e x pre ss i ts e lf i n m eta p hor, o r i n i n dis tin ct a lle g ory ? A t r u ly
gre at m odern p ain te r l a te ly e n deav oure d t o e n la rg e t h e s p here o f p ic to ria l
la n guag e, b y p uttin g a d em on b eh in d t h e p illo w o f a w ic k ed m an o n h is d eath
bed . W hic h u nfo rtu nate ly f o r t h e s c ie n tif ic p art o f p ain tin g, t h e c o ld c ritic is m
of t h e p re se n t d ay h as d ep re cia te d ; a n d t h us b arre d p erh ap s t h e o nly r o ad t o
th e f u rth er i m pro vem en t i n t h is s c ie n ce.]
" Y OU c ro w d i n c o ate d j a rs t h e d en se r f ir e ,
360
Pie rc e t h e t h in g la ss, a n d f u se t h e b la zin g w ir e ;
O r d art t h e r e d f la sh t h ro ugh t h e c ir c lin g b an d
O f y outh s a n d t im oro us d am se ls , h an d i n h an d.
— Sta rts t h e q uic k E th er t h ro ugh t h e f ib re -tr a in s
O f d an cin g a rte rie s, a n d o f t in glin g v ein s,
365
Goad s e ach f in e n erv e, w ith n ew s e n sa tio n t h rill'd ,
B en ds t h e r e lu cta n t l im bs w ith p ow er u nw ill'd ;
P als y 's c o ld h an ds t h e f ie rc e c o ncu ssio n o w n,
A nd L if e c lin gs t r e m blin g o n h er t o tte rin g t h ro ne.—
S o f ro m d ark c lo uds t h e p la y fu l l ig htn in g s p rin gs,
370
Riv es t h e f ir m o ak , o r p rin ts t h e F air y -rin gs.
[ With n ew s e n sa tio n t h rill'd
. l . 3 65. T here i s p ro bab ly a s y ste m o f n erv es i n
an im al b odie s f o r t h e p urp ose o f p erc eiv in g h eat; s in ce t h e d eg re e o f t h is
flu id i s s o n ecessa ry t o h ealth t h at w e b eco m e p re se n tly i n ju re d e ith er b y i ts
access o r d efe ct; a n d b ecau se a lm ost e v ery p art o f o ur b odie s i s s u pplie d w ith
bra n ch es f ro m d if fe re n t p air s o f n erv es, w hic h w ould n ot s e em n ecessa ry f o r
th eir m otio n a lo ne: I t i s t h ere fo re p ro bab le , t h at o ur s e n sa tio n o f e le ctr ic ity i s
only o f i ts v io le n ce i n p assin g t h ro ugh o ur s y ste m b y i ts s u dden ly d is te n din g
th e m usc le s, l ik e a n y o th er m ech an ic al v io le n ce; a n d t h at i t i s g en era l p ain
alo ne t h at w e f e el, a n d n ot a n y s e n sa tio n a n alo gous t o t h e s p ecif ic q uality o f
th e o bje ct. N atu re m ay s e em t o h av e b een n ig gard ly t o m an kin d i n b esto w in g

upon t h em s o f e w s e n se s; s in ce a s e n se t o h av e p erc eiv ed e le ctr ic ity , a n d
an oth er t o h av e p erc eiv ed m ag netis m m ig ht h av e b een o f g re at s e rv ic e t o
th em , m an y a g es b efo re t h ese f lu id s w ere d is c o vere d b y a ccid en ta l
ex perim en t, b ut i t i s p ossib le a n i n cre ase d n um ber o f s e n se s m ig ht h av e
in co m moded u s b y a d din g t o t h e s iz e o f o ur b odie s.]
[ Pals y 's c o ld h ands
. l . 3 67. P ara ly tic l im bs a re i n g en era l o nly i n cap ab le o f
bein g s tim ula te d i n to a ctio n b y t h e p ow er o f t h e w ill; s in ce t h e p uls e
co ntin ues t o b eat a n d t h e f lu id s t o b e a b so rb ed i n t h em ; a n d i t c o m monly
hap pen s, w hen p ara ly tic p eo ple y aw n a n d s tr e tc h t h em se lv es, ( w hic h i s n ot a
volu nta ry m otio n,) t h at t h e a ffe cte d l im b m oves a t t h e s a m e t im e. T he
te m pora ry m otio n o f a p ara ly tic l im b i s l ik ew is e c au se d b y p assin g t h e
ele ctr ic s h ock t h ro ugh i t; w hic h w ould s e em t o i n dic ate s o m e a n alo gy
betw een t h e e le ctr ic f lu id , a n d t h e n erv ous f lu id , w hic h i s s e p era te d f ro m t h e
blo od b y t h e b ra in , a n d t h en ce d if fu se d a lo ng t h e n erv es f o r t h e p urp ose s o f
motio n a n d s e n sa tio n. I t p ro bab ly d estr o ys l if e b y i ts s u dden e x pan sio n o f t h e
nerv es o r f ib re s o f t h e b ra in ; i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s i t f u se s m eta ls a n d
sp lin te rs w ood o r s to ne, a n d r e m oves t h e a tm osp here , w hen i t p asse s f ro m
one o bje ct t o a n oth er i n a d en se s ta te .]
[ Prin ts t h e F air y r in gs
. l . 3 70. S ee a d ditio nal n ote N o. X III.]
2 . N YM PH S! o n t h at d ay Y E s h ed f ro m l u cid e y es.
C ele stia l t e ars , a n d b re ath ed e th ere al s ig hs!
W hen R IC H M AN r e ar'd , b y f e arle ss h aste b etr a y ed ,
T he w ir y r o d i n N ie v a's f a ta l s h ad e;—
375
Clo uds o 'e r t h e S ag e, w ith f rin ged s k ir ts s u cceed ,
F la sh f o llo w s f la sh , t h e w arn in g c o rk s r e ced e;
N ear a n d m ore n ear H e e y 'd w ith f o nd a m aze
T he s ilv er s tr e am s, a n d w atc h 'd t h e s a p hir e b la ze;
T hen b urs t t h e s te el, t h e d art e le ctr ic s p ed ,
380
And t h e b old S ag e l a y n um ber'd w ith t h e d ead !—
N YM PH S! o n t h at d ay Y E s h ed f ro m l u cid e y es
C ele stia l t e ars , a n d b re ath ed e th ere al s ig hs!

[ W hen R ic h m an r e a re d
. l . 3 73. D r. R ic h m an P ro fe sso r o f n atu ra l p hilo so phy
a t P ete rs b urg h a b out t h e y ear 1 763, e le v ate d a n i n su la te d m eta llic r o d t o
c o lle ct t h e a eria l e le ctr ic ity , a s D r. F ra n klin h ad p re v io usly d one a t
P hila d elp hia ; a n d a s h e w as o bse rv in g t h e r e p uls io n o f t h e b alls o f h is
e le ctr o m ete r a p pro ach ed t o o n ear t h e c o nducto r, a n d r e ceiv in g t h e l ig hte n in g
i n h is h ead w ith a l o ud e x plo sio n, w as s tr u ck d ead a m id st h is f a m ily .]
3 . " Y OU l e d y our F R A NKLIN t o y our g la zed r e tr e ats ,
Y our a ir -b uilt c astle s, a n d y our s ilk en s e ats ;
3 85
Bad e h is b old a rm i n vad e t h e l o w erin g s k y,
A nd s e iz e t h e t ip to e l ig htn in gs, e re t h ey f ly ;
O 'e r t h e y oung S ag e y our m ystic m an tle s p re ad ,
A nd w re ath 'd t h e c ro w n e le ctr ic r o und h is h ead .—
T hus w hen o n w an to n w in g i n tr e p id L O VE
3 90
Snatc h 'd t h e r a is e d l ig htn in g f ro m t h e a rm o f J O VE;
Q uic k o 'e r h is k nee t h e t r ip le b olt H e b en t,
T he c lu ste r'd d arts a n d f o rk y a rro w s r e n t,
S nap p'd w ith i llu m in 'd h an ds e ach f la m in g s h aft,
H is t in glin g f in gers s h ook, a n d s ta m p'd , a n d l a u gh'd ;
3 95
Brig ht o 'e r t h e f lo or t h e s c atte r'd f ra g m en ts b la z'd ,
A nd G ods r e tr e atin g t r e m ble d a s t h ey g az'd ;
T he i m morta l S ir e , i n dulg en t t o h is c h ild ,
B ow 'd h is a m bro sia l l o ck s, a n d H eav en r e le n tin g s m ile d .
[ Y ou l e d y o ur F ra nklin
. l . 3 83. D r. F ra n klin w as t h e f ir s t t h at d is c o vere d t h at
l ig hte n in g c o nsis te d o f e le ctr ic m atte r, h e e le v ate d a t a ll r o d w ith a w ir e
w ra p ped r o und i t, a n d f ix in g t h e b otto m o f a r o d i n to a g la ss b ottle , a n d
p re se rv in g i t f ro m f a llin g b y m ean s o f s ilk - s tr in gs, h e f o und i t e le ctr if ie d
w hen ev er a c lo ud p arte d o ver i t, r e ceiv in g s p ark s b y h is f in ger f ro m i t, a n d
c h arg in g c o ate d p hia ls . T his g re at d is c o very t a u ght u s t o d efe n d h ouse s a n d
s h ip s a n d t e m ple s f ro m l ig htn in g, a n d a ls o t o u nders ta n d,
th at p eo ple a re
a lw ays p erfe ctly s a fe i n a r o om d urin g a t h under s to rm i f t h ey k eep
t h em se lv es a t t h re e o r f o ur f e et d is ta nce f r o m t h e w alls
; f o r t h e m atte r o f
l ig htn in g i n p assin g f ro m t h e c lo uds t o t h e e arth , o r f ro m t h e e arth t o t h e

clo uds, r u ns t h ro ugh t h e w alls o f a h ouse , t h e t r u nk o f a t r e e, o r o th er
ele v ate d o bje ct; e x cep t t h ere b e s o m e m ois te r b ody, a s a n a n im al i n c o nta ct
with t h em , o r n early s o ; a n d i n t h at c ase t h e l ig htn in g l e av es t h e w all o r t r e e,
an d p asse s t h ro ugh t h e a n im al; b ut a s i t c an p ass t h ro ugh m eta ls w ith s till
gre ate r f a cility , i t w ill l e av e a n im al b odie s t o p ass t h ro ugh m eta llic o nes.
If a p ers o n i n t h e o pen a ir b e s u rp riz ed b y a t h unders to rm , h e w ill k now h is
dan ger b y o bse rv in g o n a s e co nd w atc h t h e t im e w hic h p asse s b etw een t h e
fla sh a n d t h e c ra ck , a n d r e ck onin g a m ile f o r e v ery f o ur s e co nds a n d a h alf ,
an d a l ittle m ore . F or s o und t r a v els a t t h e r a te o f 1 142 f e et i n a s e co nd o f
tim e, a n d t h e v elo city o f l ig ht t h ro ugh s u ch s m all d is ta n ces i s n ot t o b e
estim ate d . I n t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces a p ers o n w ill b e s a fe r b y l y in g d ow n o n t h e
gro und, t h an e re ct, a n d s till s a fe r i f w ith in a f e w f e et o f h is h ors e ; w hic h
bein g t h en a m ore e le v ate d a n im al w ill r e ceiv e t h e s h ock , i n p re fe re n ce a s t h e
clo ud p asse s o ver. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X III.]
[ In tr e p id L ove
. l . 3 89. T his a lle g ory i s u nco m monly b eau tif u l, r e p re se n tin g
Div in e J u stic e a s d is a rm ed b y D iv in e L ove, a n d r e le n tin g o f h is p urp ose . I t i s
ex pre sse d o n a n a g ate i n t h e G re at D uke's c o lle ctio n a t F lo re n ce. S pen ce.]
V III. " W hen A ir 's p ure e sse n ce j o in s t h e v ita l f lo od,
400
And w ith p hosp horic A cid d yes t h e b lo od,
Y OUR V IR G IN T R A IN S t h e t r a n sie n t H EA T d is p art,
A nd l e ad t h e s o ft c o m bustio n r o und t h e h eart;
L if e 's h oly l a m p w ith f ir e s s u ccessiv e f e ed ,
F ro m t h e c ro w n'd f o re h ead t o t h e p ro str a te w eed ,
405
Fro m E arth 's p ro ud r e alm s t o a ll t h at s w im o r s w eep
T he y ie ld in g e th er o r t u m ultu ous d eep .
Y ou s w ell t h e b ulb b en eath t h e h eav in g l a w n,
B ro od t h e l iv e s e ed , u nfo ld t h e b urs tin g s p aw n;
N urs e w ith s o ft l a p , a n d w arm w ith f ra g ra n t b re ath
410
The e m bry on p an tin g i n t h e a rm s o f D eath ;
Y outh 's v iv id e y e w ith l iv in g l ig ht a d orn ,
A nd f ir e t h e r is in g b lu sh o f B eau ty 's g old en m orn .
[ Tra nsie n t h ea t d is p art
. l . 4 01. D r. C ra w fo rd i n h is i n gen io us w ork o n a n im al

heat h as e n deav oure d t o p ro ve, t h at d urin g t h e c o m bin atio n o f t h e p ure p art
of t h e a tm osp here w ith t h e p hlo gis tic p art o f t h e b lo od, t h at m uch o f t h e
matte r o f t h e h eat i s g iv en o ut f ro m t h e a ir ; a n d t h at t h is i s t h e g re at a n d
perp etu al s o urc e o f t h e h eat o f a n im als ; t o w hic h w e m ay a d d t h at t h e
phosp horic a cid i s p ro bab ly p ro duced b y t h is c o m bin atio n; b y w hic h a cid t h e
co lo ur o f t h e b lo od i s c h an ged i n t h e l u ngs f ro m a d eep c rim so n t o a b rig ht
sc arle t. T here s e em s t o b e h ow ev er a n oth er s o urc e o f a n im al h eat, t h ough o f a
sim ila r n atu re ; a n d t h at i s f ro m t h e c h em ic al c o m bin atio ns p ro duced i n a ll t h e
gla n ds; s in ce b y w hate v er c au se a n y g la n dula r s e cre tio n i s i n cre ase d , a s b y
fric tio n o r t o pic al i m fla m matio n, t h e h eat o f t h at p art b eco m es i n cre ase d a t
th e s a m e t im e; t h us a fte r t h e h an ds h av e b een f o r a t im e i m mers e d i n s n ow ,
on c o m in g i n to a w arm r o om , t h ey b eco m e r e d a n d h ot, w ith out a n y
in cre ase d p ulm onary a ctio n. B ESID ES T H IS t h ere w ould s e em t o b e a n oth er
mate ria l r e ceiv ed f ro m t h e a ir b y r e sp ir a tio n; w hic h i s s o n ecessa ry t o l if e ,
th at t h e e m bry on m ust l e arn t o b re ath e a lm ost w ith in a m in ute a fte r i ts b ir th ,
or i t d ie s. T he p erp etu al n ecessity o f b re ath in g s h ew s, t h at t h e m ate ria l t h us
acq uir e d i s p erp etu ally c o nsu m in g o r e sc ap in g, a n d o n t h at a cco unt r e q uir e s
perp etu al r e n ovatio n. P erh ap s t h e s p ir it o f a n im atio n i ts e lf i s t h us a cq uir e d
fro m t h e a tm osp here , w hic h i f i t b e s u ppose d t o b e f in er o r m ore s u btle t h an
th e e le ctr ic m atte r, c o uld n ot l o ng b e r e ta in ed i n o ur b odie s, a n d m ust
th ere fo re r e q uir e p erp etu al r e n ovatio n.]
" T hus w hen t h e E gg o f N ig ht, o n C hao s h url'd ,
B urs t, a n d d is c lo se d t h e c ra d le o f t h e w orld ;
415
Fir s t f ro m t h e g ap in g s h ell r e fu lg en t s p ru ng
I M MORTA L L O VE, h is b ow c ele stia l s tr u ng;—
O 'e r t h e w id e w aste h is g au dy w in gs u nfo ld ,
B eam h is s o ft s m ile s, a n d w av e h is c u rls o f g old ;—
W ith s ilv er d arts H e p ie rc ed t h e k in dlin g f ra m e,
420
And l it w ith t o rc h d iv in e t h e e v er-liv in g f la m e."
[ Thus w hen t h e e g g o f N ig ht
. l . 4 13. T here w ere t w o C upid s b elo ngin g t o t h e
an tie n t m yth olo gy, o ne m uch e ld er t h an t h e o th er. T he e ld er c u pid , o r E ro s,
or d iv in e L ove, w as t h e f ir s t t h at c am e o ut o f t h e g re at e g g o f n ig ht, w hic h
flo ate d i n C hao s, a n d w as b ro ken b y t h e h orn s o f t h e c ele stia l b ull, t h at i s ,
was h atc h ed b y t h e w arm th o f t h e s p rin g. H e w as w in ged a n d a rm ed , a n d b y

his a rro w s a n d t o rc h p ie rc ed a n d v iv if ie d a ll t h in gs, p ro ducin g l if e a n d j o y.
Baco n, V ol. V . p . 1 97. Q uarto e d it. L ond. 1 778. " A t t h is t im e, ( s a y s
Aris to phan es,) s a b le -w in ged n ig ht p ro duced a n e g g, f ro m w hen ce s p ru ng u p
lik e a b lo sso m E ro s, t h e l o vely , t h e d esir a b le , w ith h is g lo ssy g old en w in gs."
Avib us. B ry an t's M yth olo gy, V ol. I I. p . 3 50. s e co nd e d itio n. T his i n te re stin g
mom en t o f t h is s u blim e a lle g ory M rs . C osw ay h as c h ose n f o r h er v ery
beau tif u l p ain tin g. S he h as r e p re se n te d E ro s o r d iv in e L ove w ith l a rg e w in gs
hav in g t h e s tr e n gth o f t h e e ag le 's w in gs, a n d t h e s p le n dor o f t h e p eaco ck s,
with h is h air f lo atin g i n t h e f o rm o f f la m e, a n d w ith a h alo o f l ig ht v ap our
ro und h is h ead ; w hic h i llu m in ate s t h e p ain tin g; w hile h e i s i n t h e a ct o f
sp rin gin g f o rw ard s, a n d w ith h is h an ds s e p ara tin g t h e e le m en ts .]
I X . T he G ODDESS p au se d , a d m ir e d w ith c o nsc io us p rid e
T he e ffu lg en t l e g io ns m ars h al'd b y h er s id e,
F orm s s p here d i n f ir e w ith t r e m blin g l ig ht a rra y 'd ,
E ns w ith out w eig ht, a n d s u bsta n ce w ith out s h ad e;
425
And, w hile t u m ultu ous j o y h er b oso m w arm s,
W av es h er w hite h an d, a n d c alls h er h osts t o a rm s,
" U nite , I L LU ST R IO US N YM PH S! y our r a d ia n t p ow ers ,
C all f ro m t h eir l o ng r e p ose t h e V ER N AL H OURS.
W ak e w ith s o ft t o uch , w ith r o sy h an ds u nbin d
430
The s tr u gglin g p in io ns o f t h e W EST ER N W IN D;
C hafe h is w an c h eek s, h is r u ffle d p lu m es r e p air ,
A nd w rin g t h e r a in -d ro ps f ro m h is t a n gle d h air .
B la ze r o und e ach f ro ste d r ill, o r s ta g nan t w av e,
A nd c h arm t h e N AIA D f ro m h er s ile n t c av e;
435
Where , s h rin ed i n i c e, l ik e N IO BE s h e m ourn s,
A nd c la sp s w ith h oary a rm s h er e m pty u rn s.
C all y our b rig ht m yria d s, t r o opin g f ro m a fa r,
W ith b eam y h elm s, a n d g litte rin g s h afts o f w ar;
I n p hala n x f ir m t h e F IE N D O F F R O ST a ssa il,
440
Bre ak h is w hite t o w ers , a n d p ie rc e h is c ry sta l m ail;
T o Z em bla 's m oon-b rig ht c o asts t h e T yra n t b ear,
A nd c h ain h im h ow lin g t o t h e N orth ern B ear.

[ Of t h e W este rn W in d
. l . 4 30. T he p rin cip al f ro sts o f t h is c o untr y a re
acco m pan ie d o r p ro duced b y a N .E . w in d, a n d t h e t h aw s b y a S .W . w in d; t h e
re aso n o f w hic h i s t h at t h e N .E . w in ds c o nsis t o f r e g io ns o f a ir b ro ught f ro m
th e n orth , w hic h a p pear t o a cq uir e a n e aste rly d ir e ctio n a s t h ey a d van ce; a n d
th e S .W . w in ds c o nsis t o f r e g io ns o f a ir b ro ught f ro m t h e s o uth , w hic h a p pear
to a cq uir e a w este rly d ir e ctio n a s t h ey a d van ce. T he s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth
neare r t h e p ole m oves s lo w er t h an i t d oes i n o ur l a titu de; w hen ce t h e r e g io ns
of a ir b ro ught f ro m t h en ce, m ove s lo w er, w hen t h ey a rriv e h ith er, t h an t h e
earth 's s u rfa ce w ith w hic h t h ey n ow b eco m e i n c o nta ct; t h at i s t h ey a cq uir e a n
ap pare n t e aste rly d ir e ctio n, a s t h e e arth m oves f ro m w est t o e ast f a ste r t h an
th is n ew p art o f i ts a tm osp here . T he S .W . w in ds o n t h e c o ntr a ry c o nsis t o f
re g io ns o f a ir b ro ught f ro m t h e s o uth , w here t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth m oves
fa ste r t h an i n o ur l a titu de; a n d h av e t h ere fo re a w este rly d ir e ctio n w hen t h ey
arriv e h ith er b y t h eir m ovin g f a ste r t h an t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , w ith w hic h
th ey a re i n c o nta ct; a n d i n g en era l t h e n eare r t o t h e w est a n d t h e g re ate r t h e
velo city o f t h ese w in ds t h e w arm er t h ey s h ould b e i n r e sp ect t o t h e s e aso n o f
th e y ear, s in ce t h ey h av e b een b ro ught m ore e x ped itio usly f ro m t h e s o uth ,
th an t h ose w in ds w hic h h av e l e ss w este rly d ir e ctio n, a n d h av e t h en ce b een
le ss c o ole d i n t h eir p assa g e.
Som etim es I h av e o bse rv ed t h e t h aw t o c o m men ce i m med ia te ly o n t h e
ch an ge o f t h e w in d, e v en w ith in a n h our, i f I a m n ot m is ta k en , o r s o oner. A t
oth er t im es t h e S .W . w in d h as c o ntin ued a d ay , o r e v en t w o, b efo re t h e t h aw
has c o m men ced ; d urin g w hic h t im e s o m e o f t h e f ro sty a ir , w hic h h ad g one
so uth w ard s, i s d riv en b ack o ver u s; a n d i n c o nse q uen ce h as t a k en a w este rly
dir e ctio n, a s w ell a s a s o uth ern o ne. A t o th er t im es I h av e o bse rv ed a f ro st
with a N .E . w in d e v ery m orn in g, a n d a t h aw w ith a S .W . w in d e v ery n oon f o r
se v era l d ay s t o geth er. S ee a d ditio nal n ote , X XXIII.]
[ The F ie n d o f F ro st
. l . 4 39. T he p rin cip al i n ju ry d one t o v eg eta tio n b y f ro st i s
fro m t h e e x pan sio n o f t h e w ate r c o nta in ed i n t h e v esse ls o f p la n ts . W ate r
co nverte d i n to i c e o ccu pie s a g re ate r s p ace t h an i t d id b efo re , a s a p pears b y
th e b urs tin g o f b ottle s f ille d w ith w ate r a t t h e t im e o f t h eir f re ezin g. H en ce
fro st d estr o ys t h ose p la n ts o f o ur i s la n d f ir s t, w hic h a re m ost s u ccu le n t; a n d
th e m ost s u ccu le n t p arts f ir s t o f o th er p la n ts ; a s t h eir l e av es a n d l a st y ear's
sh oots ; t h e v esse ls o f w hic h a re d is te n ded a n d b urs t b y t h e e x pan sio n o f t h eir
fre ezin g f lu id s, w hile t h e d rie r o r m ore r e sin ous p la n ts , a s p in es, y ew s,

la u re ls , a n d o th er e v er-g re en s, a re l e ss l ia b le t o i n ju ry f ro m c o ld . T he t r e es i n
vallie s a re o n t h is a cco unt m ore i n ju re d b y t h e v ern al f ro sts t h an t h ose o n
em in en cie s, b ecau se t h eir e arly s u ccu le n t s h oots c o m e o ut s o oner. H en ce
fru it t r e es c o vere d b y a s ix -in ch c o pin g o f a w all a re l e ss i n ju re d b y t h e v ern al
fro sts b ecau se t h eir b ein g s h ie ld ed f ro m s h ow ers a n d t h e d esc en din g n ig ht-
dew s h as p re v en te d t h em f ro m b ein g m ois t a t t h e t im e o f t h eir b ein g f ro zen :
whic h c ir c u m sta n ce h as g iv en o ccasio n t o a v ulg ar e rro r a m ongst g ard en ers ,
who s u ppose f ro st t o d esc en d.
As t h e c o m mon h eat o f t h e e arth i n t h is c lim ate i s 4 8 d eg re es, t h ose t e n der
tr e es w hic h w ill b ear b en din g d ow n, a re e asily s e cu re d f ro m t h e f ro st b y
sp re ad in g t h em u pon t h e g ro und, a n d c o verin g t h em w ith s tr a w o r f e rn . T his
partic u la rly s u its f ig -tr e es, a s t h ey e asily b ear b en din g t o t h e g ro und, a n d a re
fu rn is h ed w ith a n a crid j u ic e, w hic h s e cu re s t h em f ro m t h e d ep re d atio ns o f
in se cts ; b ut a re n ev erth ele ss l ia b le t o b e e ate n b y m ic e. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s,
No. X II.]
" S o w hen e n orm ous G RA M PU S, i s su in g f o rth
F ro m t h e p ale r e g io ns o f t h e i c y N orth ;
445
Wav es h is b ro ad t a il, a n d o pes h is r ib bed m outh ,
A nd s e ek s o n w in now in g f in t h e b re ezy S outh ;
F ro m t o w ns d ese rte d r u sh t h e b re ath le ss h osts ,
S w arm r o und t h e h ills , a n d d ark en a ll t h e c o asts ;
B oats f o llo w b oats a lo ng t h e s h outin g t id es,
450
And s p ears a n d j a v elin s p ie rc e h is b lu bbery s id es;
N ow t h e b old S ailo r, r a is e d o n p oin te d t o e,
W hir ls t h e w in g'd h arp oon o n t h e s lim y f o e;
Q uic k s in ks t h e m onste r i n h is o ozy b ed ,
T he b lo od-s ta in 'd s u rg es c ir c lin g o 'e r h is h ead ,
455
Ste ers t o t h e f ro zen p ole h is w onte d t r a ck ,
A nd b ears t h e i r o n t e m pest o n h is b ack .
X . " O n w in gs o f f la m e, E TH ER EA L V IR G IN S! s w eep
O 'e r E arth 's f a ir b oso m , a n d c o m pla cen t d eep ;
W here d w ell m y v eg eta tiv e r e alm s b en um b'd ,
460
In b uds i m pris o n'd , o r i n b ulb s i n to m b'd ,
P erv ad e, P E LLU CID F O RM S! t h eir c o ld r e tr e at,

R ay f ro m b rig ht u rn s y our v ie w le ss f lo ods o f
hea t
;
F ro m e arth 's d eep w aste s
ele ctr ic
t o rre n ts p our,
O r s h ed f ro m h eav en t h e s c in tilla tin g s h ow er;
465
Pie rc e t h e d ull r o ot, r e la x i ts f ib re -tr a in s,
T haw t h e t h ic k b lo od, w hic h l in gers i n i ts v ein s;
M elt w ith w arm b re ath t h e f ra g ra n t g um s, t h at b in d
T he e x pan din g f o lia g e i n i ts s c aly r in d;
A nd a s i n a ir t h e l a u ghin g l e afle ts p la y ,
470
And t u rn t h eir s h in in g b oso m s t o t h e r a y ,
N YM PH S! w ith s w eet s m ile e ach o pen in g g lo w er i n vite ,
A nd o n i ts d am ask e y elid s p our t h e
lig ht
.
[ In b uds i m pris o n'd
. l . 4 60. T he b uds a n d b ulb s o f p la n ts c o nstitu te w hat i s
te rm ed b y L in neu s t h e H ybern acu lu m , o r w in te r c ra d le o f t h e e m bry on
veg eta b le . T he b uds a ris e f ro m t h e b ark o n t h e b ra n ch es o f t r e es, a n d t h e
bulb s f ro m t h e c au dex o f b ulb ous-ro ote d p la n ts , o r t h e p art f ro m w hic h t h e
fib re s o f t h e r o ot a re p ro duced , t h ey a re d efe n ded f ro m t o o m uch m ois tu re ,
an d f ro m f ro sts , a n d f ro m t h e d ep re d atio ns o f i n se cts b y v ario us c o ntr iv an ces,
as b y s c ale s, h air s , r e sin ous v arn is h es, a n d b y a crid r in ds.
The b uds o f t r e es a re o f t w o k in ds, e ith er f lo w er-b uds o r l e af b uds; t h e f o rm er
of t h ese p ro duce t h eir s e ed s a n d d ie ; t h e l a tte r p ro duce o th er l e af b uds o r
flo w er b uds a n d d ie . S o t h at a ll t h e b uds o f t r e es m ay b e c o nsid ere d a s a n nual
pla n ts , h av in g t h eir e m bry on p ro duced d urin g t h e p re ceed in g s u m mer. T he
sa m e s e em s t o h ap pen w ith r e sp ect t o b ulb s; t h us a t u lip p ro duces a n nually
one f lo w er-b earin g b ulb , s o m etim es t w o, a n d s e v era l l e af-b earin g b ulb s; a n d
th en t h e o ld r o ot p eris h es. N ex t y ear t h e f lo w er-b earin g b ulb p ro duces s e ed s
an d o th er b ulb s a n d p eris h es; w hile t h e l e af-b earin g b ulb , p ro ducin g o th er
bulb s o nly , p eris h es l ik ew is e ; t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces e sta b lis h a s tr ic t a n alo gy
betw een b ulb s a n d b uds. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X IV .]
[ Vie w le ss f lo ods o f h ea t
. l . 4 62. T he f lu id m atte r o f h eat, o r C alo riq ue, i n
whic h a ll b odie s a re i m mers e d , i s a s n ecessa ry t o v eg eta b le a s t o a n im al
ex is te n ce. I t i s n ot y et d ete rm in ab le w heth er h eat a n d l ig ht b e d if fe re n t
mate ria ls , o r m odif ic atio ns o f t h e s a m e m ate ria ls , a s t h ey h av e s o m e
pro pertie s i n c o m mon. T hey a p pear t o b e b oth o f t h em e q ually n ecessa ry t o
veg eta b le h ealth , s in ce w ith out l ig ht g re en v eg eta b le s b eco m e f ir s t y ello w ,

th at i s , t h ey l o se t h e b lu e c o lo ur, w hic h c o ntr ib ute d t o p ro duce t h e g re en ; a n d
afte rw ard s t h ey a ls o l o se t h e y ello w a n d b eco m e w hite ; a s i s s e en i n c elle ry
bla n ch ed o r e tio la te d f o r t h e t a b le b y e x clu din g t h e l ig ht f ro m i t.
The u pper s u rfa ce o f l e av es, w hic h I s u ppose t o b e t h eir o rg an o f r e sp ir a tio n,
se em s t o r e q uir e l ig ht a s w ell a s a ir ; s in ce p la n ts w hic h g ro w i n w in dow s o n
th e i n sid e o f h ouse s a re e q ually s o llic ito us t o t u rn t h e u pper s id e o f t h eir
le av es t o t h e l ig ht. V eg eta b le s a t t h e s a m e t im e e x su de o r p ers p ir e a g re at
quan tity f ro m t h eir l e av es, a s a n im als d o f ro m t h eir l u ngs; t h is p ers p ir a b le
matte r a s i t r is e s f ro m t h eir f in e v esse ls , ( p erh ap s m uch f in er t h an t h e p ore s o f
an im al s k in s,) i s d iv id ed i n to i n co ncie v ab le t e n uity ; a n d w hen a cte d u pon b y
th e S un's l ig ht a p pears t o b e d eco m pose d ; t h e h ydro gen e b eco m es a p art o f
th e v eg eta b le , c o m posin g o ils o r r e sin s; a n d t h e O xygen e c o m bin ed w ith l ig ht
or c alo riq ue a sc en ds, p ro ducin g t h e p ure p art o f t h e a tm osp here o r v ita l a ir .
Hen ce d urin g t h e l ig ht o f t h e d ay v eg eta b le s g iv e u p m ore p ure a ir t h an t h eir
re sp ir a tio n i n ju re s; b ut n ot s o i n t h e n ig ht, e v en t h ough e q ually e x pose d t o
warm th . T his s in gle f a ct w ould s e em t o s h ew , t h at l ig ht i s e sse n tia lly
dif fe re n t f ro m h eat; a n d i t i s p erh ap s b y i ts c o m bin atio n w ith b odie s, t h at
th eir c o m bin ed o r l a te n t h eat i s s e t a t l ib erty , a n d b eco m es s e n sib le . S ee
ad ditio nal n ote , X XXIV .]
[ Ele ctr ic t o rre n ts p our
. l . 4 63. T he i n flu en ce o f e le ctr ic ity i n f o rw ard in g t h e
germ in atio n o f p la n ts a n d t h eir g ro w th s e em s t o b e p re tty w ell e sta b lis h ed ;
th ough M r. I n gen houz d id n ot s u cceed i n h is e x perim en ts , a n d t h en ce d oubts
th e s u ccess o f t h ose o f o th ers . A nd t h ough M . R oula n d f ro m h is n ew
ex perim en ts b elie v es, t h at n eith er p ositiv e n or n eg ativ e e le ctr ic ity i n cre ase s
veg eta tio n; b oth w hic h p hilo so phers h ad p re v io usly b een s u pporte rs o f t h e
co ntr a ry d octr in e; f o r m an y o th er n atu ra lis ts h av e s in ce r e p eate d t h eir
ex perim en ts r e la tiv e t o t h is o bje ct, a n d t h eir n ew r e su lts h av e c o nfir m ed t h eir
fo rm er o nes. M r. D 'O rm oy a n d t h e t w o R ozie rs h av e f o und t h e s a m e s u ccess
in n um ero us e x perim en ts w hic h t h ey h av e m ad e i n t h e l a st t w o y ears ; a n d
Mr. C arm oy h as s h ew n i n a c o nvin cin g m an ner t h at e le ctr ic ity a ccele ra te s
germ in atio n.
Mr. D 'O rm oy n ot o nly f o und v ario us s e ed s t o v eg eta te s o oner, a n d t o g ro w
ta lle r w hic h w ere p ut u pon h is i n su la te d t a b le a n d s u pplie d w ith e le ctr ic ity ,
but a ls o t h at s ilk -w orm s b eg an t o s p in m uch s o oner w hic h w ere k ep t

ele ctr if ie d t h an t h ose o f t h e s a m e h atc h w hic h w ere k ep t i n t h e s a m e p la ce
an d m an ner, e x cep t t h at t h ey w ere n ot e le ctr if ie d . T hese e x perim en ts o f M .
D'O rm oy a re d eta ile d a t l e n gth i n t h e J o urn al d e P hysiq ue o f R ozie r, T om .
XXXV. p . 2 70.
M. B arth olo n, w ho h ad b efo re w ritte n a t r a ct o n t h is s u bje ct, a n d p ro pose d
in gen io us m eth ods f o r a p ply in g e le ctr ic ity t o a g ric u ltu re a n d g ard en in g, h as
als o r e p eate d a n um ero us s e t o f e x perim en ts ; a n d s h ew s b oth t h at n atu ra l
ele ctr ic ity , a s w ell a s t h e a rtif ic ia l, i n cre ase s t h e g ro w th o f p la n ts , a n d t h e
germ in atio n o f s e ed s; a n d o ppose s M r. I n gen houz b y v ery n um ero us a n d
co nclu siv e f a cts . I b . T om . X XXV. p . 4 01.
Sin ce b y t h e l a te d is c o verie s o r o pin io ns o f t h e C hem is ts t h ere i s r e aso n t o
belie v e t h at w ate r i s d eco m pose d i n t h e v esse ls o f v eg eta b le s; a n d t h at t h e
Hydro gen e o r i n fla m mab le a ir , o f w hic h i t i n p art c o nsis ts , c o ntr ib ute s t o t h e
nouris h m en t o f t h e p la n t, a n d t o t h e p ro ductio n o f i ts o ils , r o sin s, g um s,
su gar, & c. a n d l a stly a s e le ctr ic ity d eco m pose s w ate r i n to t h ese t w o a ir s
te rm ed O xygen e a n d H ydro gen e, t h ere i s a p ow erfu l a n alo gy t o i n duce u s t o
belie v e t h at i t a ccele ra te s o r c o ntr ib ute s t o t h e g ro w th o f v eg eta tio n, a n d l ik e
heat m ay p ossib ly e n te r i n to c o m bin atio n w ith m an y b odie s, o r f o rm t h e b asis
of s o m e y et u nan alis e d a cid .]
" S o s h all m y p in es, C an ad ia n w ild s t h at s h ad e,
W here n o b old s te p h as p ie rc 'd t h e t a n gle d g la d e,
475
Hig h-to w erin g p alm s, t h at p art t h e S outh ern f lo od
W ith s h ad ow y i s le s a n d c o ntin en ts o f w ood,
O ak s, w hose b ro ad a n tle rs c re st B rita n nia 's p la in ,
O r b ear h er t h unders o 'e r t h e c o nquer'd m ain ,
S hout, a s y ou p ass, i n hale t h e g en ia l s k ie s,
480
And b ask a n d b rig hte n i n y our b eam y e y es;
B ow t h eir w hite h ead s, a d m ir e t h e c h an gin g c lim e,
S hak e f ro m t h eir c an die d t r u nks t h e t in klin g r im e;
W ith b urs tin g b uds t h eir w rin kle d b ark s a d orn ,
A nd w ed t h e t im oro us f lo re t t o h er t h orn ;
485
Deep s tr ik e t h eir r o ots , t h eir l e n gth en in g t o ps r e v iv e,
A nd a ll m y w orld o f f o lia g e w av e, a liv e.

" T hus w ith H erm etic a rt t h e A DEPT c o m bin es
T he r o yal a cid w ith c o baltic m in es;
M ark s w ith q uic k p en , i n l in es u nse en p ortr a y ed ,
490
The b lu sh in g m ead , g re en d ell, a n d d usk y g la d e;
S had es w ith p ellu cid c lo uds t h e t in tle ss f ie ld ,
A nd a ll t h e f u tu re G ro up e x is ts c o nceal'd ;
T ill w ak ed b y f ir e t h e d aw nin g t a b le t g lo w s,
G re en s p rin gs t h e h erb , t h e p urp le f lo re t b lo w s,
495
Hills v ale s a n d w oods i n b rig ht s u ccessio n r is e ,
A nd a ll t h e l iv in g l a n dsc ap e c h arm s h is e y es.
[ Thus w ith H erm etic a rt
. l . 4 87. T he s y m path etic i n ks m ad e b y Z affre
dis so lv ed i n t h e m arin e a n d n itr o us a cid s h av e t h is c u rio us p ro perty , t h at
bein g b ro ught t o t h e f ir e o ne o f t h em b eco m es g re en , a n d t h e o th er r e d ; b ut
what i s m ore w onderfu l, t h ey a g ain l o se t h ese c o lo urs , ( u nle ss t h e h eat h as
been t o o g re at,) o n t h eir b ein g a g ain w ith dra w n f ro m t h e f ir e . F ir e -s c re en s
hav e b een t h us p ain te d , w hic h i n t h e c o ld h av e s h ew n o nly t h e t r u nk a n d
bra n ch es o f a d ead t r e e, a n d s a n dy h ills , w hic h o n t h eir a p pro ach t o t h e f ir e
hav e p ut f o rth g re en l e av es a n d r e d f lo w ers , a n d g ra ss u pon t h e m ounta in s.
The p ro cess o f m ak in g t h ese i n ks i s v ery e asy , t a k e Z affre , a s s o ld b y t h e
dru ggis ts , a n d d ig est i t i n a q ua r e g ia , a n d t h e c alx o f C obalt w ill b e d is so lv ed ;
whic h s o lu tio n m ust b e d ilu te d w ith a l ittle c o m mon w ate r t o p re v en t i t f ro m
mak in g t o o s tr o ng a n i m pre ssio n o n t h e p ap er; t h e c o lo ur w hen t h e p ap er i s
heate d b eco m es o f a f in e g re en -b lu e. I f Z affre o r R eg ulu s o f C obalt b e
dis so lv ed i n t h e s a m e m an ner i n s p ir it o f n itr e , o r a q ua f o rtis , a r e d dis h c o lo ur
is p ro duced o n e x posin g t h e p ap er t o h eat. C hem ic al D ic tio nary b y M r. K eir ,
Art. I n k S ym path etic .]
X I. " W ith c re st o f g old s h ould s u ltr y S IR IU S g la re ,
A nd w ith h is k in dlin g t r e sse s s c o rc h t h e a ir ;
W ith p oin ts o f f la m e t h e s h afts o f S um mer a rm ,
500
And b urn t h e b eau tie s h e d esig ns t o w arm ;—
— So e rs t w hen J O VE h is o ath e x to rte d m ourn 'd ,
A nd c la d i n g lo ry t o t h e F air r e tu rn 'd ;
W hile L oves a t f o rk y b olts t h eir t o rc h es l ig ht,
A nd r e stin g l ig htn in gs g ild t h e c ar o f N ig ht;

505
His b la zin g f o rm t h e d azzle d M aid a d m ir 'd ,
M et w ith f o nd l ip s, a n d i n h is a rm s e x pir 'd ;—
N YM PH S! o n l ig ht p in io n l e ad y our b an ner'd h osts
H ig h o 'e r t h e c lif fs o f O RK NEY 'S g ulp hy c o asts ;
L eav e o n y our l e ft t h e r e d v olc an ic l ig ht,
510
Whic h H EC CLA l if ts a m id t h e d usk y n ig ht;
M ark o n t h e r ig ht t h e D OFR IN E'S s n ow -c ap t b ro w ,
W here w hir lin g M AELST R O M E r o ars a n d f o am s b elo w ;
W atc h w ith u nm ovin g e y e, w here C EPH EU S b en ds
H is t r ip le c ro w n, h is s c ep te r'd h an d e x te n ds;
515
Where s tu ds C A SSIO PE w ith s ta rs u nknow n
H er g old en c h air , a n d g em s h er s a p phir e z o ne;
W here w ith v ast c o nvolu tio n D RA CO h old s
T he e clip tic a x is i n h is s c aly f o ld s,
O 'e r h alf t h e s k ie s h is n eck e n orm ous r e ars ,
520
And w ith i m men se m ean ders p arts t h e B EA RS;
O nw ard , t h e k in dre d B EA RS w ith f o ots te p r u de
D an ce r o und t h e P ole , p urs u in g a n d p urs u ed .
[ With s ta rs u nkn ow n
. l . 5 15. A llu din g t o t h e s ta r w hic h a p peare d i n t h e c h air
of C assio pea i n t h e y ear 1 572, w hic h a t f ir s t s u rp asse d J u pite r i n m ag nitu de
an d b rig htn ess, d im in is h ed b y d eg re es a n d d is a p peare d i n 1 8 m onth s; i t
ala rm ed a ll t h e a str o nom ers o f t h e a g e, a n d w as e ste em ed a c o m et b y s o m e.
—Could t h is h av e b een t h e G eo rg iu m s id us? ]
" T here i n h er a zu re c o if a n d s ta rry s to le ,
G re y T W IL IG HT s its , a n d r u le s t h e s lu m berin g P ole ;
525
Ben ds t h e p ale m oon-b eam s r o und t h e s p ark lin g c o ast,
A nd s tr e w s w ith l iv id h an ds e te rn al f ro st.
T here , N YM PH S! a lig ht, a rra y y our d azzlin g p ow ers ,
W ith s u dden m arc h a la rm t h e t o rp id H ours ;
O n i c e-b uilt i s le s e x pan d a t h ousa n d s a ils ,
530
Hin ge t h e s tr o ng h elm s, a n d c atc h t h e f ro zen g ale s;
T he w in ged r o ck s t o f e v eris h c lim ate s g uid e,
W here f a in tin g Z ep hyrs p an t u pon t h e t id e;
P ass, w here t o C EU TA C A LPE 'S t h under r o ars ,

A nd a n sw erin g e ch oes s h ak e t h e k in dre d s h ore s;
535
Pass, w here w ith p alm y p lu m es C A NARY s m ile s,
A nd i n h er s ilv er g ir d le b in ds h er i s le s;
O nw ard , w here N IG ER 'S d usk y N aia d l a v es
A t h ousa n d k in gdom s w ith p ro lif ic w av es,
O r l e ad s o 'e r g old en s a n ds h er t h re efo ld t r a in
540
In s te am y c h an nels t o t h e f e rv id m ain ,
W hile s w arth y n atio ns c ro ud t h e s u ltr y c o ast,
D rin k t h e f re sh b re eze, a n d h ail t h e f lo atin g F ro st,
N YM PH S! v eil'd i n m is t, t h e m eltin g t r e asu re s s te er,
A nd c o ol w ith a rc tic s n ow s t h e t r o pic y ear.
545
So f ro m t h e b urn in g L in e b y M onso ons d riv en
C lo uds s a il i n s q uad ro ns o 'e r t h e d ark en 'd h eav en ;
W id e w aste s o f s a n d t h e g elid g ale s p erv ad e,
A nd o cean c o ols b en eath t h e m ovin g s h ad e.
[ On i c e-b uilt i s le s
. l . 5 29. T here a re m an y r e aso ns t o b elie v e f ro m t h e
acco unts o f t r a v elle rs a n d n av ig ato rs , t h at t h e i s la n ds o f i c e i n t h e h ig her
north ern l a titu des a s w ell a s t h e G la cie rs o n t h e A lp s c o ntin ue p erp etu ally t o
in cre ase i n b ulk . A t c erta in t im es i n t h e i c e- m ounta in s o f S w itz erla n d t h ere
hap pen c ra ck s w hic h h av e s h ew n t h e g re at t h ic k ness o f t h e i c e, a s s o m e o f
th ese c ra ck s h av e m easu re d t h re e o r f o ur h undre d e lls d eep . T he g re at i s la n ds
of i c e i n t h e n orth ern s e as n ear H udso n's b ay h av e b een o bse rv ed t o h av e
been i m mers e d a b ove o ne h undre d f a th om s b en eath t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e s e a,
an d t o h av e r is e n a f if th o r s ix th p art a b ove t h e s u rfa ce, a n d t o h av e m easu re d
betw een t h re e a n d f o ur m ile s i n c ir c u m fe re n ce. P hil. T ra n s. N o. 4 65. S ect. 2 .
Dr. L is te r e n deav oure d t o s h ew t h at t h e i c e o f s e a-w ate r c o nta in s s o m e s a lt
an d p erh ap s l e ss a ir t h an c o m mon i c e, a n d t h at i t i s t h ere fo re m uch m ore
dif fic u lt o f s o lu tio n; w hen ce h e a cco unts f o r t h e p erp etu al a n d g re at i n cre ase
of t h ese f lo atin g i s la n ds o f i c e. P hilo s. T ra n s. N o. 1 69.
As b y a f a m ous e x perim en t o f M r. B oyle s i t a p pears t h at i c e e v ap ora te s v ery
fa st i n s e v ere f ro sty w eath er w hen t h e w in d b lo w s u pon i t; a n d a s i c e i n a
th aw in g s ta te i s k now n t o c o nta in s ix t im es m ore c o ld t h an w ate r a t t h e s a m e
deg re e o f s e n sib le c o ld ness, i t i s e asy t o u nders ta n d t h at w in ds b lo w in g o ver
is la n ds a n d c o ntin en ts o f i c e p erh ap s m uch b elo w n oth in g o n F are n heit's

sc ale , a n d c o m in g f ro m t h en ce i n to o ur l a titu de m ust b rin g g re at d eg re es o f
co ld a lo ng w ith t h em . I f w e a d d t o t h is t h e q uan tity o f c o ld p ro duced b y t h e
ev ap ora tio n o f t h e w ate r a s w ell a s b y t h e s o lu tio n o f t h e i c e, w e c an not d oubt
but t h at t h e n orth ern i c e i s t h e p rin cip le s o urc e o f t h e c o ld ness o f o ur w in te rs ,
an d t h at i t i s b ro ught h ith er b y t h e r e g io ns o f a ir b lo w in g f ro m t h e n orth , a n d
whic h t a k e a n a p pare n t e aste rly d ir e ctio n b y t h eir c o m in g t o a p art o f t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e e arth w hic h m oves f a ste r t h an t h e l a titu de t h ey c o m e f ro m .
Hen ce t h e i n cre ase o f t h e i c e i n t h e p ola r r e g io ns b y i n cre asin g t h e c o ld o f
our c lim ate a d ds a t t h e s a m e t im e t o t h e b ulk o f t h e G la cie rs o f I ta ly a n d
Sw itz erla n d.
If t h e n atio ns w ho i n hab it t h is h em is p here o f t h e g lo be, i n ste ad o f d estr o yin g
th eir s e a-m en a n d e x hau stin g t h eir w ealth i n u nnecessa ry w ars , c o uld b e
in duced t o u nite t h eir l a b ours t o n av ig ate t h ese i m men se m asse s o f i c e i n to
th e m ore s o uth ern o cean s, t w o g re at a d van ta g es w ould r e su lt t o m an kin d, t h e
tr o pic c o untr ie s w ould b e m uch c o ole d b y t h eir s o lu tio n, a n d o ur w in te rs i n
th is l a titu de w ould b e r e n dere d m uch m ild er f o r p erh ap s a c en tu ry o r t w o, t ill
th e m asse s o f i c e b ecam e a g ain e n orm ous.
Mr. B ra d le y d esc rib es t h e c o ld w in ds a n d w et w eath er w hic h s o m etim es
hap pen i n M ay a n d J u ne t o t h e s o lu tio n o f i c e-is la n ds a ccid en ta lly f lo atin g
fro m t h e n orth . T re atis e o n H usb an dry a n d G ard en in g, V ol. I I. p . 4 37. A nd
ad ds, t h at M r. B arh am a b out t h e y ear 1 718, i n h is v oyag e f ro m J a m aic a t o
Engla n d i n t h e b eg in nin g o f J u ne, m et w ith i c e-is la n ds c o m in g f ro m t h e
north , w hic h w ere s u rro unded w ith s o g re at a f o g t h at t h e s h ip w as i n d an ger
of s tr ik in g u pon t h em , a n d t h at o ne o f t h em m easu re d f if ty m ile s i n l e n gth .
We h av e l a te ly e x perie n ced a n i n sta n ce o f i c e-is la n ds b ro ught f ro m t h e
South ern p ola r r e g io ns, o n w hic h t h e G uard ia n s tr u ck a t t h e b eg in nin g o f h er
passa g e f ro m t h e C ap e o f G ood H ope t o w ard s B ota n y B ay , o n D ecem ber 2 2,
1789. T hese i s la n ds w ere i n volv ed i n m is t, w ere a b out o ne h undre d a n d f if ty
fa th om s l o ng, a n d a b out f if ty f a th om s a b ove t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e w ate r. A p art
fro m t h e t o p o f o ne o f t h em b ro ke o ff a n d f e ll i n to t h e s e a, c au sin g a n
ex tr a o rd in ary c o m motio n i n t h e w ate r a n d a t h ic k s m oke a ll r o und i t.]
[ Thre efo ld t r a in
. l . 5 39. T he r iv er N ig er a fte r t r a v ers in g a n i m men se t r a ct o f
populo us c o untr y i s s u ppose d t o d iv id e i ts e lf i n to t h re e o th er g re at r iv ers . T he
Rio G ra n de, t h e G am bia , a n d t h e S en eg al. G old -d ust i s o bta in ed f ro m t h e

sa n ds o f t h ese r iv ers .]
[ Wid e w aste s o f s a nd
. l . 5 47. W hen t h e s u n i s i n t h e S outh ern t r o pic 3 6 d eg .
dis ta n t f ro m t h e z en ith , t h e t h erm om ete r i s s e ld om l o w er t h an 7 2 d eg . a t
Gondar i n A byssin ia , b ut i t f a lls t o 6 0 o r 5 3 d eg . w hen t h e s u n i s i m med ia te ly
vertic al; s o m uch d oes t h e a p pro ach o f r a in c o unte ra ct t h e h eat o f t h e s u n.
Bru ce's T ra v els , V ol. 3 . p . 6 70.]
X II. S hould S O LST IC E, s ta lk in g t h ro ugh t h e s ic k en in g b ow ers ,
550
Suck t h e w arm d ew -d ro ps, l a p t h e f a llin g s h ow ers ;
K neel w ith p arc h 'd l ip , a n d b en din g f ro m i t's b rin k
F ro m d rip pin g p alm t h e s c an ty r iv er d rin k;
N YM PH S! o 'e r t h e s o il t e n t h ousa n d p oin ts e re ct,
A nd h ig h i n a ir t h e e le ctr ic f la m e c o lle ct.
555
Soon s h all d ark m is ts w ith s e lf -a ttr a ctio n s h ro ud
T he b la zin g d ay , a n d s a il i n w ild s o f c lo ud;
E ach s ilv ery F lo w er t h e s tr e am s a eria l q uaff,
B ow h er s w eet h ead , a n d i n fa n t H arv est l a u gh.
[ Ten t h ousa nd p oin ts e re ct
. l . 5 53. T he s o lu tio n o f w ate r i n a ir o r i n
calo riq ue, s e em s t o a cq uir e e le ctr ic m atte r a t t h e s a m e t im e, a s a p pears f ro m
an e x perim en t o f M r. B en net. H e p ut s o m e l iv e c o als i n to a n i n su la te d f u nnel
of m eta l, a n d t h ro w in g o n t h em a l ittle w ate r o bse rv ed t h at t h e a sc en din g
ste am w as e le ctr is e d p lu s, a n d t h e w ate r w hic h d esc en ded t h ro ugh t h e f u nnel
was e le ctr is e d m in us. H en ce i t a p pears t h at t h ough c lo uds b y t h eir c h an ge o f
fo rm m ay s o m etim es b eco m e e le ctr is e d m in us y et t h ey h av e i n g en era l a n
accu m ula tio n o f e le ctr ic ity . T his a ccu m ula tio n o f e le ctr ic m atte r a ls o
ev id en tly c o ntr ib ute s t o s u pport t h e a tm osp heric v ap our w hen i t i s c o nden se d
in to t h e f o rm o f c lo uds, b ecau se i t i s s e en t o d esc en d r a p id ly a fte r t h e f la sh es
of l ig htn in g h av e d im in is h ed i ts q uan tity ; w hen ce t h ere i s r e aso n t o c o nclu de
th at v ery n um ero us m eta llic r o ds w ith f in e p oin ts e re cte d h ig h i n t h e a ir
mig ht i n duce i t a t a n y t im e t o p art w ith s o m e o f i ts w ate r.
If w e m ay t r u st t h e t h eo ry o f M r. L av ois ie r c o ncern in g t h e c o m positio n a n d
deco m positio n o f w ate r, t h ere w ould s e em a n oth er s o urc e o f t h under-
sh ow ers ; a n d t h at i s , t h at t h e t w o g asse s t e rm ed o xygen e g as o r v ita l a ir , a n d

hydro gen e g as o r i n fla m mab le a ir , m ay e x is t i n t h e s u m mer a tm osp here i n a
sta te o f m ix tu re b ut n ot o f c o m bin atio n, a n d t h at t h e e le ctr ic s p ark o r f la sh o f
lig htn in g m ay c o m bin e t h em a n d p ro duce w ate r i n sta n ta n eo usly .]
" T hus w hen E LIJ A m ark 'd f ro m C arm el's b ro w
560
In b rig ht e x pan se t h e b rin y f lo od b elo w ;
R oll'd h is r e d e y es a m id t h e s c o rc h in g a ir ,
S m ote h is f ir m b re ast, a n d b re ath ed h is a rd en t p ra y er;
H ig h i n t h e m id st a m assy a lta r s to od,
A nd s la u ghte r'd o ffe rin gs p re ss'd t h e p ile s o f w ood;
565
While I S R A EL'S c h ie fs t h e s a cre d h ill s u rro und,
A nd f a m is h 'd a rm ie s c ro w d t h e d usty g ro und;
W hile p ro ud I d ola tr y w as l e ag ued w ith d earth ,
A nd w ith er'd f a m in e s w ep t t h e d ese rt e arth .—
" O H, M IG HTY L O RD ! t h y w oe-w orn s e rv an t h ear,
570
"W ho c alls t h y n am e i n a g ony o f p ra y er;
" T hy f a n es d is h onour'd , a n d t h y p ro phets s la in ,
" L o! I a lo ne s u rv iv e o f a ll t h y t r a in !—
" O h s e n d f ro m h eav en t h y s a cre d f ir e ,— an d p our
" O 'e r t h e p arc h 'd l a n d t h e s a lu ta ry s h ow er,—
575
"S o s h all t h y P rie st t h y e rrin g f lo ck r e cal,—
" A nd s p eak i n t h under, " T H OU A RT L O RD O F A LL." —
H e c rie d , a n d k neelin g o n t h e m ounta in -s a n ds,
S tr e tc h 'd h ig h i n a ir h is s u pplic atin g h an ds.
— Desc en din g f la m es t h e d usk y s h rin e i llu m e;
580
Fir e t h e w et w ood, t h e s a cre d b ull c o nsu m e;
W in g'd f ro m t h e s e a t h e g ath erin g m is ts a ris e ,
A nd f lo atin g w ate rs d ark en a ll t h e s k ie s;
T he K in g w ith s h if te d r e in s h is c h ario t b en ds,
A nd w id e o 'e r e arth t h e a ir y f lo od d esc en ds;
585
With m in glin g c rie s d is p ers in g h osts a p pla u d,
A nd s h outin g n atio ns o w n T H E L IV IN G G OD."
T he G ODDESS c ease d ,— th e e x ultin g t r ib es o bey ,
S ta rt f ro m t h e s o il, a n d w in t h eir a ir y w ay ;
T he v au lte d s k ie s w ith s tr e am s o f t r a n sie n t r a y s

590
Shin e, a s t h ey p ass, a n d e arth a n d o cean b la ze.
S o f ro m f ie rc e w ars w hen l a w le ss M onarc h 's c ease ,
O r L ib erty r e tu rn s w ith l a u re l'd P eace;
B rig ht f ly t h e s p ark s, t h e c o lo ur'd l u str e s b urn ,
F la sh f o llo w s f
595
Blu e s e rp en ts s w eep a lo ng t h e d usk y a ir ,
I m p'd b y l o ng t r a in s o f s c in tilla tin g h air ;
R ed r o ck ets r is e , l o ud c ra ck s a re h eard o n h ig h,
A nd s h ow ers o f s ta rs r u sh h ead lo ng f ro m t h e s k y,
B urs t, a s i n s ilv er l in es t h ey h is s a lo ng,
600
And t h e q uic k f la sh u nfo ld s t h e g azin g t h ro ng.
Arg um en t o f t h e S eco nd C anto .
Addre ss t o t h e G nom es. I . T he E arth t h ro w n f ro m a v olc an o o f t h e S un; i t's
atm osp here a n d o cean ; i t's j o urn ey t h ro ugh t h e z o dia c; v ic is situ de o f d ay -
lig ht, a n d o f s e aso ns, 1 1. I I. P rim ev al i s la n ds. P ara d is e , o r t h e g old en A ge.
Ven us r is in g f ro m t h e s e a, 3 3. I II. T he f ir s t g re at e arth quak es; c o ntin en ts
ra is e d f ro m t h e s e a; t h e M oon t h ro w n f ro m a v olc an o, h as n o a tm osp here ,
an d i s f ro zen ; t h e e arth 's d iu rn al m otio n r e ta rd ed ; i t's a x is m ore i n clin ed ;
whir ls w ith t h e m oon r o und a n ew c en tr e . 6 7. I V . F orm atio n o f l im e-s to ne b y
aq ueo us s o lu tio n; c alc are o us s p ar; w hite m arb le ; a n tie n t s ta tu e o f H erc u le s
re stin g f ro m h is l a b ours . A ntin ous. A pollo o f B elv id ere . V en us d e M ed ic i.
Lad y E liz ab eth F oste r, a n d L ad y M elb ourn b y M rs . D am er. 9 3. V . 1 . O f
mora sse s. W hen ce t h e p ro ductio n o f S alt b y e lu tr ia tio n. S alt- m in es a t
Cra co w , 1 15. 2 . P ro ductio n o f n itr e . M ars a n d V en us c au ght b y V ulc an , 1 43.
3. P ro ductio n o f i r o n. M r. M ic h el's i m pro vem en t o f a rtif ic ia l m ag nets . U se s
of S te el i n a g ric u ltu re , n av ig atio n, w ar, 1 83. 4 . P ro ductio n o f a cid s, w hen ce
Flin t. S ea-s a n d. S ele n ite . A sb estu s. F lu or. O nyx, A gate , M och o, O pal,
Sap phir e , R uby, D ia m ond. J u pite r a n d E uro pa, 2 15. V I. 1 . N ew
su bte rra n eo us f ir e s f ro m f e rm en ta tio n. P ro ductio n o f C la y s; m an ufa ctu re o f
Porc ela in i n C hin a; i n I ta ly ; i n E ngla n d. M r. W ed gw ood's w ork s a t E tr u ria i n
Sta ffo rd sh ir e . C am eo o f a S la v e i n C hain s; o f H ope. F ig ure s o n t h e P ortla n d
or B arb erin i v ase e x pla in ed , 2 71. 2 . C oal; P yrite ; N ap hth a; J e t; A m ber. D r.

Fra n klin 's d is c o very o f d is a rm in g t h e T em pest o f i t's l ig htn in g. L ib erty o f
Am eric a; o f I re la n d; o f F ra n ce, 3 49.
VII. A ntie n t c en tr a l s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s.
Pro ductio n o f T in , C opper, Z in k, L ead , M erc u ry , P la tin a, G old a n d S ilv er.
Destr u ctio n o f M ex ic o . S la v ery o f A fric a, 3 95. V III. D estr u ctio n o f t h e
arm ie s o f C am byse s, 4 31. I X . G nom es l ik e s ta rs o f a n O rre ry . I n ro ad s o f t h e
Sea s to pped . R ock s c u ltiv ate d . H an nib al p asse s t h e A lp s, 4 99. X . M atte r
cir c u la te s. M an ure s t o V eg eta b le s l ik e C hyle t o A nim als . P la n ts r is in g f ro m
th e E arth . S t. P ete r d eliv ere d f ro m P ris o n, 5 37. X I. T ra n sm ig ra tio n o f m atte r,
565. D eath a n d r e su sc ita tio n o f A donis , 5 75. D ep artu re o f t h e G nom es, 6 01.

T H E
EC O NO M Y O F V EG ETA TIO N.
C ANTO I I.
A ND N OW T H E G ODDESS w ith a tte n tio n s w eet
T urn s t o t h e G NOM ES, t h at c ir c le r o und h er f e et;
O rb w ith in o rb a p pro ach t h e m ars h al'd t r a in s,
A nd p ig m y l e g io ns d ark en a ll t h e p la in s;
5
Thric e s h out w ith s ilv er t o nes t h e a p pla u din g b an ds,
B ow , e re S he s p eak s, a n d c la p t h eir f a ir y h an ds.
S o t h e t a ll g ra ss, w hen n oon-tid e z ep hyr b lo w s,
B en ds i t's g re en b la d es i n u ndula tin g r o w s;
W id e o 'e r t h e f ie ld s t h e b illo w y t u m ult s p re ad s,
1 0
And r u stlin g h arv ests b ow t h eir g old en h ead s.
I . " G NOM ES! Y OUR b rig ht f o rm s, p re sid in g a t h er b ir th ,
C lu ng i n f o nd s q uad ro ns r o und t h e n ew -b orn E A RTH ;
W hen h ig h i n e th er, w ith e x plo sio n d ir e ,
F ro m t h e d eep c ra te rs o f h is r e alm s o f f ir e ,
1 5
The w hir lin g S un t h is p ondero us p la n et h url'd ,
A nd g av e t h e a sto nis h 'd v oid a n oth er w orld .
W hen f ro m i t's v ap oro us a ir , c o nden se d b y c o ld ,
D esc en din g t o rre n ts i n to o cean s r o ll'd ;
A nd f ie rc e a ttr a ctio n w ith r e le n tle ss f o rc e
2 0
Ben t t h e r e lu cta n t w an dere r t o i t's c o urs e .
[ F ro m t h e d eep c ra te rs
. l . 1 4. T he e x is te n ce o f s o la r v olc an os i s
c o unte n an ced b y t h eir a n alo gy t o t e rre str ia l, a n d l u nar v olc an os; a n d b y t h e

sp ots o n t h e s u n's d is k , w hic h h av e b een s h ew n b y D r. W ils o n t o b e
ex cav atio ns t h ro ugh i ts l u m in ous s u rfa ce, a n d m ay b e s u ppose d t o b e t h e
cav itie s f ro m w hen ce t h e p la n ets a n d c o m ets w ere e je cte d b y e x plo sio ns. S ee
ad ditio nal n ote s, N o. X V. o n s o la r v olc an os.]
[ When f r o m i ts v a poro us a ir
. l . 1 7. I f t h e n ucle u s o f t h e e arth w as t h ro w n o ut
fro m t h e s u n b y a n e x plo sio n a lo ng w ith a s l a rg e a q uan tity o f s u rro undin g
hot v ap our a s i ts a ttr a ctio n w ould o ccasio n t o a cco m pan y i t, t h e p ondero us
se m i- flu id n ucle u s w ould t a k e a s p heric al f o rm f ro m t h e a ttr a ctio n o f i ts o w n
parts , w hic h w ould b eco m e a n o bla te s p hero id f ro m i ts d iu rn al r e v olu tio n. A s
th e v ap our c o ole d t h e w ate r w ould b e p re cip ita te d , a n d a n o cean w ould
su rro und t h e s p heric al n ucle u s w ith a s u perin cu m ben t a tm osp here . T he
nucle u s o f s o la r l a v a w ould l ik ew is e b eco m e h ard er a s i t b ecam e c o ole r. T o
unders ta n d h ow t h e s tr a ta o f t h e e arth w ere a fte rw ard s f o rm ed f ro m t h e
se d im en ts o f t h is c ir c u m flu en t o cean t h e r e ad er i s r e fe rre d t o a n i n gen io us
Tre atis e o n t h e T heo ry o f t h e E arth b y M r. W hite h urs t, w ho w as m an y y ears
a w atc h -m ak er a n d e n gin eer a t D erb y, b ut w hose i n gen uity , i n te g rity , a n d
hum an ity , w ere r a re ly e q ualle d i n a n y s ta tio n o f l if e .]
" W here y et t h e B ull w ith d ia m ond-e y e a d orn s
T he S prin g's f a ir f o re h ead , a n d w ith g old en h orn s;
W here y et t h e L io n c lim bs t h e e th ere al p la in ,
A nd s h ak es t h e S um mer f ro m h is r a d ia n t m an e;
2 5
Where L ib ra l if ts h er a ir y a rm , a n d w eig hs,
P ois e d i n h er s ilv er b alla n ce, n ig hts a n d d ay s;
W ith p ale r l u str e s w here A quariu s b urn s,
A nd s h ow ers t h e s till s n ow f ro m h is h oary u rn s;
Y OUR a rd en t t r o ops p urs u ed t h e f ly in g s p here ,
3 0
Cir c lin g t h e s ta rry g ir d le o f t h e y ear;
W hile s w eet v ic is situ des o f d ay a n d c lim e
M ark 'd t h e n ew a n nals o f e n asc en t T im e.
I I. " Y ou t r o d w ith p rin tle ss s te p E arth 's t e n der g lo be,
W hile O cean w ra p 'd i t i n h is a zu re r o be;
3 5
Ben eath h is w av es h er h ard en in g s tr a ta s p re ad ,
R ais e d h er P R IM EV AL I S L A NDS f ro m h is b ed ,
S tr e tc h 'd h er w id e l a w ns, a n d s u nk h er w in din g d ells ,

A nd d eck 'd h er s h ore s w ith c o ra ls , p earls , a n d s h ells .
[ While o cea n w ra p'd
. l . 3 4. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X VI. o n t h e p ro ductio n
of c alc are o us e arth .]
[ Her h ard en in g s ra ta s p re a d
.
l. 3 5. T he g ra n ite , o r m oor-s to ne, o r p orp hory ,
co nstitu te t h e o ld est p art o f t h e g lo be, s in ce t h e l im esto ne, s h ells , c o ra llo id s,
an d o th er s e a-p ro ductio ns r e st u pon t h em ; a n d u pon t h ese s e a-p ro ductio ns a re
fo und c la y , i r o n, c o al, s a lt, a n d s ilic eo us s a n d o r g rit- s to ne. T hus t h ere s e em
to b e t h re e d iv is io ns o f t h e g lo be d is tin ctly m ark ed ; t h e f ir s t I s u ppose t o h av e
been t h e o rig in al n ucle u s o f t h e e arth , o r l a v a p ro je cte d f ro m t h e s u n; 2 . o ver
th is l ie t h e r e cre m en ts o f a n im al a n d v eg eta b le m atte r p ro duced i n t h e o cean ;
an d, 3 . o ver t h ese t h e r e cre m en ts o f a n im al a n d v eg eta b le m atte r p ro duced
upon t h e l a n d. B esid es t h ese t h ere a re b odie s w hic h o w e t h eir o rig in t o a
co m bin atio n o f t h ose a lr e ad y m en tio ned , a s s ilic eo us s a n d, f lu or, a la b aste r;
whic h s e em t o h av e d eriv ed t h eir a cid s o rig in ally f ro m t h e v eg eta b le
kin gdom , a n d t h eir e arth y b ase s f ro m s e a-p ro ductio ns. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s,
No. X VI. o n c alc are o us e arth .]
[ Rais e d h er p rim eva l i s la nds
. l . 3 6. T he n ucle u s o f t h e e arth , s till c o vere d
with w ate r, r e ceiv ed p erp etu al i n cre ase b y t h e i m men se q uan titie s o f s h ells
an d c o ra llo id s e ith er a n nually p ro duced a n d r e lin quis h ie d , o r l e ft a fte r t h e
death o f t h e a n im als . T hese w ould g ra d ually b y t h eir d if fe re n t d eg re es o f
co hesio n b e s o m e o f t h em m ore a n d o th ers l e ss r e m ovab le b y t h e i n flu en ce o f
so la r t id es, a n d g en tle t r o pic al b re ezes, w hic h t h en m ust h av e p ro bab ly
ex te n ded f ro m o ne p ole t o t h e o th er; f o r i t i s s u ppose d t h e m oon w as n ot y et
pro duced , a n d t h at n o s to rm s o r u neq ual w in ds h ad y et e x is te n ce.
Hen ce t h en t h e p rim ev al i s la n ds h ad t h eir g ra d ual o rig in , w ere r a is e d b ut a
fe w f e et a b ove t h e l e v el o f t h e s e a, a n d w ere n ot e x pose d t o t h e g re at o r
su dden v aria tio ns o f h eat a n d c o ld , a s i s s o w ell e x pla in ed i n M r. W hite h urs t's
Theo ry o f t h e E arth , c h ap . x vi. W hen ce t h e p ara d is e o f t h e s a cre d w rite rs , a n d
th e g old en a g e o f t h e p ro fa n e o nes, s e em s t o h av e h ad a r e al e x is te n ce. A s
th ere c an b e n o r a in bow , w hen t h e h eav en s a re c o vere d w ith c lo uds, b ecau se
th e s u n-b eam s a re t h en p re clu ded f ro m f a llin g u pon t h e r a in -d ro ps o pposite t o
th e e y e o f t h e s p ecta to r, t h e r a in bow i s a m ark o f g en tle o r p artia l s h ow ers .
Mr. W hite h urs t h as e n deav oure d t o s h ow t h at t h e p rim itiv e i s la n ds w ere o nly

mois te n ed b y n octu rn al d ew s a n d n ot b y s h ow ers , a s o ccu rs a t t h is d ay t o t h e
Delta o f E gypt; a n d i s t h en ce o f o pin io n, t h at t h e r a in bow h ad n o e x is te n ce
till a fte r t h e p ro ductio n o f m ounta in s a n d c o ntin en ts . A s t h e s a lt o f t h e s e a h as
been g ra d ually a ccu m ula tin g, b ein g w ash ed d ow n i n to i t f ro m t h e r e cre m en ts
of a n im al a n d v eg eta b le b odie s, t h e s e a m ust o rig in ally h av e b een a s f re sh a s
riv er w ate r; a n d a s i t i s n ot y et s a tu ra te d w ith s a lt, m ust b eco m e a n nually
more s a lin e. S ee n ote o n l . 1 19 o f t h is C an to .]
" O 'e r t h ose b le st i s le s n o i c e-c ro w n'd m ounta in s t o w er'd ,
4 0
No l ig htn in gs d arte d , a n d n o t e m pests l o w er'd ;
S oft f e ll t h e v esp er-d ro ps, c o nden se d b elo w ,
O r b en t i n a ir t h e r a in -re fra cte d b ow ;
S w eet b re ath ed t h e z ep hyrs , j u st p erc eiv 'd a n d l o st;
A nd b rin ele ss b illo w s o nly k is s'd t h e c o ast;
4 5
Round t h e b rig ht z o dia c d an ced t h e v ern al h ours ,
A nd P eace, t h e C heru b, d w elt i n m orta l b ow ers !
" S o y oung D IO NE, n urs e d b en eath t h e w av es,
A nd r o ck 'd b y N ere id s i n t h eir c o ra l c av es,
C harm 'd t h e b lu e s is te rh ood w ith p la y fu l w ile s,
5 0
Lis p 'd h er s w eet t o nes, a n d t r ie d h er t e n der s m ile s.
T hen , o n h er b ery l t h ro ne b y T rito n's b orn e,
B rig ht r o se t h e G oddess l ik e t h e S ta r o f m orn ;
W hen w ith s o ft f ir e s t h e m ilk y d aw n H e l e ad s,
A nd w ak es t o l if e a n d l o ve t h e l a u ghin g m ead s;—
5 5
With r o sy f in gers , a s u ncu rl'd t h ey h ung
R ound h er f a ir b ro w , h er g old en l o ck s s h e w ru ng;
O 'e r t h e s m ooth s u rg e o n s ilv er s a n dals f lo od,
A nd l o ok'd e n ch an tm en t o n t h e d azzle d f lo od.—
T he b rig ht d ro ps, r o llin g f ro m h er l if te d a rm s,
6 0
In s lo w m ean ders w an der o 'e r h er c h arm s,
S eek r o und h er s n ow y n eck t h eir l u cid t r a ck ,
P earl h er w hite s h ould ers , g em h er i v ory b ack ,
R ound h er f in e w ais t a n d s w ellin g b oso m s w im ,
A nd s ta r w ith g litte rin g b rin e e ach c ry sta l l im b.—
6 5
—The i m morta l f o rm e n am our'd N atu re h ail'd ,

A nd B eau ty b la zed t o h eav en a n d e arth , u nvail'd .
[ So y o ung D io ne
. l . 4 7. T here i s a n a n tie n t g em r e p re se n tin g V en us r is in g o ut
of t h e o cean s u pporte d b y t w o T rito ns. F ro m t h e f o rm ality o f t h e d esig n i t
would a p pear t o b e o f g re at a n tiq uity b efo re t h e i n tr o ductio n o f f in e t a ste i n to
th e w orld . I t i s p ro bab le t h at t h is b eau tif u l a lle g ory w as o rig in ally a n
hie ro gly phic p ic tu re ( b efo re t h e i n ven tio n o f l e tte rs ) d esc rip tiv e o f t h e
fo rm atio n o f t h e e arth f ro m t h e o cean , w hic h s e em s t o h av e b een a n o pin io n
of m an y o f t h e m ost a n tie n t p hilo so phers .]
I II. " Y ou! w ho t h en , k in dlin g a fte r m an y a n a g e,
S aw w ith n ew f ir e s t h e f ir s t V OLC A NO r a g e,
O 'e r s m ould erin g h eap s o f l iv id s u lp hur s w ell
7 0
At E arth 's f ir m c en tr e , a n d d is te n d h er s h ell,
S aw a t e ach o pen in g c le ft t h e f u rn ace g lo w ,
A nd s e as r u sh h ead lo ng o n t h e g ulp hs b elo w .—
G NOM ES! h ow y ou s h rie k 'd ! w hen t h ro ugh t h e t r o uble d a ir
R oar'd t h e f ie rc e d in o f e le m en ta l w ar;
7 5
When r o se t h e c o ntin en ts , a n d s u nk t h e m ain ,
A nd E arth 's h uge s p here e x plo din g b urs t i n t w ain .—
G NOM ES! h ow y ou g azed ! w hen f ro m h er w ounded s id e
W here n ow t h e S outh -S ea h eav es i ts w aste o f t id e,
R ose o n s w if t w heels t h e M OON'S r e fu lg en t c ar,
8 0
Cir c lin g t h e s o la r o rb ; a s is te r-s ta r,
D im ple d w ith v ale s, w ith s h in in g h ills e m boss'd ,
A nd r o ll'd r o und E arth h er a ir le ss r e alm s o f f ro st.
[ The f ir st v o lc a no
. l . 6 8. A s t h e e arth b efo re t h e e x is te n ce o f e arth quak es w as
nearly l e v el, a n d t h e g re ate st p art o f i t c o vere d w ith s e a; w hen t h e f ir s t g re at
fir e s b eg an d eep i n t h e i n te rn al p arts o f i t, t h ose p arts w ould b eco m e m uch
ex pan ded ; t h is e x pan sio n w ould b e g ra d ually e x te n ded , a s t h e h eat i n cre ase d ,
th ro ugh t h e w hole t e rra q ueo us g lo be o f 7 000 m ile s d ia m ete r; t h e c ru st w ould
th en ce i n m an y p la ces o pen i n to f is su re s, w hic h b y a d m ittin g t h e s e a t o f lo w
in u pon t h e f ir e , w ould p ro duce n ot o nly a q uan tity o f s te am b ey ond
calc u la tio n b y i ts e x pan sio n, b ut w ould a ls o b y i ts d eco m positio n p ro duce

in fla m mab le a ir a n d v ita l a ir i n q uan titie s b ey ond c o ncep tio n, s u ffic ie n t t o
effe ct t h ose v io le n t e x plo sio ns, t h e v estig es o f w hic h a ll o ver t h e w orld e x cite
our a d m ir a tio n a n d o ur s tu dy; t h e d if fic u lty o f u nders ta n din g h ow
su bte rra n eo us f ir e s c o uld e x is t w ith out t h e p re se n ce o f a ir h as d is a p peare d
sin ce D r. P rie stle y 's d is c o verie s o f s u ch g re at q uan titie s o f p ure a ir w hic h
co nstitu te a ll t h e a cid s, a n d c o nse q uen tly e x is t i n a ll s a lin e b odie s, a s s e a-s a lt,
nitr e , l im e-s to ne, a n d i n a ll c alc if o rm o re s, a s m an gan ese , c ala m y, o ch re , a n d
oth er m in era l s u bsta n ces. S ee a n i n gen io us t r e atis e b y M r. M ic h el o n
earth quak es i n t h e P hilo s. T ra n s.
In t h ese f ir s t t r e m en dous i g nitio ns o f t h e g lo be, a s t h e c o ntin en ts w ere h eav ed
up, t h e v allie s, w hic h n ow h old t h e s e a, w ere f o rm ed b y t h e e arth s u bsid in g
in to t h e c av itie s m ad e b y t h e r is in g m ounta in s; a s t h e s te am , w hic h r a is e d
th em c o nden se d ; w hic h w ould t h en ce n ot h av e a n y c av ern s o f g re at e x te n t
re m ain b en eath t h em , a s s o m e p hilo so phers h av e i m ag in ed . T he e arth quak es
of m odern d ay s a re o f v ery s m all e x te n t i n deed c o m pare d t o t h ose o f a n tie n t
tim es, a n d a re i n gen io usly c o m pare d b y M . D e L uc t o t h e o pera tio ns o f a
mole -h ill, w here f ro m a s m all c av ity a re r a is e d f ro m t im e t o t im e s m all
quan titie s o f l a v a o r p um ic e s to ne. M onth ly R ev ie w , J u ne, 1 790.]
[ The m oon's r e fu lg en t c a r
. l . 7 9. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X V. o n s o la r
volc an os.]
[ Her a ir le ss r e a lm s o f f r o st
. l . 8 2. I f t h e m oon h ad n o a tm osp here a t t h e t im e
of i ts e le v atio n f ro m t h e e arth ; o r i f i ts a tm osp here w as a fte rw ard s s to le n
fro m i t b y t h e e arth 's a ttr a ctio n; t h e w ate r o n t h e m oon w ould r is e q uic k ly
in to v ap our; a n d t h e c o ld p ro duced b y a c erta in q uan tity o f t h is e v ap ora tio n
would c o ngeal t h e r e m ain der o f i t. H en ce i t i s n ot p ro bab le t h at t h e m oon i s
at p re se n t i n hab ite d , b ut a s i t s e em s t o h av e s u ffe re d a n d t o c o ntin ue t o s u ffe r
much b y v olc an os, a s u ffic ie n t q uan tity o f a ir m ay i n p ro cess o f t im e b e
gen era te d t o p ro duce a n a tm osp here ; w hic h m ay p re v en t i ts h eat f ro m s o
easily e sc ap in g, a n d i ts w ate r f ro m s o e asily e v ap ora tin g, a n d t h en ce b eco m e
fit f o r t h e p ro ductio n o f v eg eta b le s a n d a n im als .
That t h e m oon p osse sse s l ittle o r n o a tm osp here i s d ed uced f ro m t h e
undim in is h ed l u str e o f t h e s ta rs , a t t h e i n sta n t w hen t h ey e m erg e f ro m b eh in d
her d is k . T hat t h e o cean o f t h e m oon i s f ro zen , i s c o nfir m ed f ro m t h ere b ein g
no a p peara n ce o f l u nar t id es; w hic h , i f t h ey e x is te d , w ould c o ver t h e p art o f

her d is k n eare st t h e e arth . S ee n ote o n C an to I II. l . 6 1.]
" G NOM ES! h ow y ou t r e m ble d ! w ith t h e d re ad fu l f o rc e
W hen E arth r e co ilin g s ta g ger'd f ro m h er c o urs e ;
8 5
When , a s h er L in e i n s lo w er c ir c le s s p un,
A nd h er s h ock 'd a x is n odded f ro m t h e s u n,
W ith d re ad fu l m arc h t h e a ccu m ula te d m ain
S w ep t h er v ast w re ck s o f m ounta in , v ale , a n d p la in ;
A nd, w hile n ew t id es t h eir s h outin g f lo ods u nite ,
9 0
And h ail t h eir Q ueen , f a ir R eg en t o f t h e n ig ht;
C hain 'd t o o ne c en tr e w hir l'd t h e k in dre d s p here s,
A nd m ark 'd w ith l u nar c y cle s s o la r y ears .
[ When e a rth r e co ilin g
. l . 8 4. O n s u ppositio n t h at t h e m oon w as t h ro w n f ro m
th e e arth b y t h e e x plo sio n o f w ate r o r t h e g en era tio n o f o th er v ap ours o f
gre ate r p ow er, t h e r e m ain in g p art o f t h e g lo be w ould r e ced e f ro m i ts o rb it i n
one d ir e ctio n a s t h e m oon r e ced ed i n a n oth er, a n d t h at i n p ro portio n t o t h e
re sp ectiv e m om en tu m o f e ach , a n d w ould a fte rw ard s r e v olv e r o und t h eir
co m mon c en tr e o f g ra v ity .
If t h e m oon r o se f ro m a n y p art o f t h e e arth e x cep t e x actly a t t h e l in e o r p ole s,
th e s h ock w ould t e n d t o t u rn t h e a x is o f t h e e arth o ut o f i ts p re v io us d ir e ctio n.
And a s a m ass o f m atte r r is in g f ro m d eep p arts o f t h e g lo be w ould h av e
pre v io usly a cq uir e d l e ss d iu rn al v elo city t h an t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce f ro m w hen ce
it r o se , i t w ould r e ceiv e d urin g t h e t im e o f i ts r is in g a d ditio nal v elo city f ro m
th e e arth 's s u rfa ce, a n d w ould c o nse q uen tly s o m uch r e ta rd t h e m otio n o f t h e
earth r o und i ts a x is .
When t h e e arth t h us r e ced ed t h e s h ock w ould o vertu rn a ll i ts b uild in gs a n d
fo re sts , a n d t h e w ate r w ould r u sh w ith i n co nceiv ab le v io le n ce o ver i ts s u rfa ce
to w ard s t h e n ew s a te llite , f ro m t w o c au se s, b oth b y i ts n ot a t f ir s t a cq uir in g
th e v elo city w ith w hic h t h e e arth r e ced ed , a n d b y t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h e n ew
moon, a s i t l e av es t h e e arth ; o n t h ese a cco unts a t f ir s t t h ere w ould b e b ut o ne
tid e t ill t h e m oon r e ced ed t o a g re ate r d is ta n ce, a n d t h e e arth m ovin g r o und a
co m mon c en tr e o f g ra v ity b etw een t h em , t h e w ate r o n t h e s id e f u rth est f ro m
th e m oon w ould a cq uir e a c en tr if u gal f o rc e i n r e sp ect t o t h is c o m mon c en tr e

betw een i ts e lf a n d t h e m oon.]
I V . " G NOM ES! y ou t h en b ad e d is so lv in g S H ELLS d is til
F ro m t h e l o ose s u m mits o f e ach s h atte r'd h ill,
9 5
To e ach f in e p ore a n d d ark i n te rs tic e f lo w ,
A nd f ill w ith l iq uid c h alk t h e m ass b elo w .
W hen ce s p arry f o rm s i n d usk y c av ern s g le am
W ith b orro w 'd l ig ht, a n d t w ic e r e fra ct t h e b eam ;
W hile i n w hite b ed s c o ngealin g r o ck s b en eath
100
Court t h e n ic e c h is se l, a n d d esir e t o b re ath e.—
[F ootn ote :
Dis so lv in g s h ells d is til
. l . 9 3. T he l im e-s to ne r o ck s h av e h ad t h eir
orig in f ro m s h ells f o rm ed b en eath t h e s e a, t h e s o fte r s tr a ta g ra d ually
dis so lv in g a n d f illin g u p t h e i n te rs tic es o f t h e h ard er o nes, a fte rw ard s w hen
th ese a ccu m ula tio ns o f s h ells w ere e le v ate d a b ove t h e w ate rs t h e u pper s tr a ta
becam e d is so lv ed b y t h e a ctio ns o f t h e a ir a n d d ew s, a n d f ille d u p t h e
in te rs tic es b en eath , p ro ducin g s o lid r o ck s o f d if fe re n t k in ds f ro m t h e c o ars e
lim e-s to nes t o t h e f in est m arb le s. W hen t h ose l im e-s to nes h av e b een i n s u ch a
situ atio n t h at t h ey c o uld f o rm p erfe ct c ry sta ls t h ey a re c alle d s p ars , s o m e o f
whic h p osse ss a d ouble r e fra ctio n, a s o bse rv ed b y S ir I s a ac N ew to n. W hen
th ese c ry sta ls a re j u m ble d t o geth er o r m ix ed w ith s o m e c o lo urin g i m puritie s
it i s t e rm ed m arb le , i f i ts t e x tu re b e e q uab le a n d f ir m ; i f i ts t e x tu re b e c o ars e
an d p oro us y et h ard , i t i s c alle d l im e-s to ne; i f i ts t e x tu re b e v ery l o ose a n d
poro us i t i s t e rm ed c h alk . I n s o m e r o ck s t h e s h ells r e m ain a lm ost u nch an ged
an d o nly c o vere d , o r b ed ded w ith l im e-s to ne, w hic h s e em s t o h av e b een
dis so lv ed a n d s u nk d ow n a m ongst t h em . I n o th ers t h e s o fte r s h ells a n d b ones
are d is so lv ed , a n d o nly s h ark s t e eth o r h ard er e ch in i h av e p re se rv ed t h eir
fo rm i n velo ped i n t h e c h alk o r l im e-s to ne; i n s o m e m arb le s t h e s o lu tio n h as
been c o m ple at a n d n o v estig es o f s h ell a p pear, a s i n t h e w hite k in d c alle d
sta tu ary b y t h e w ork m en . S ee a d dit. n ote s, N o. X VI.]
" H en ce w earie d H ER CU LES i n m arb le r e ars
H is l a n guid l im bs, a n d r e sts a t h ousa n d y ears ;
S till, a s h e l e an s, s h all y oung A NTIN OUS p le ase
W ith c are le ss g ra ce, a n d u naffe cte d e ase ;

105
Onw ard w ith l o ftie r s te p A PO LLO s p rin g,
A nd l a u nch t h e u nerrin g a rro w f ro m t h e s tr in g;
I n B eau ty 's b ash fu l f o rm , t h e v eil u nfu rl'd ,
I d eal V EN US w in t h e g azin g w orld .
H en ce o n R O UBIL IA C'S t o m b s h all F am e s u blim e
110
Wav e h er t r iu m phan t w in gs, a n d c o nquer T im e;
L ong w ith s o ft t o uch s h all D AM ER 'S c h is se l c h arm ,
W ith g ra ce d elig ht u s, a n d w ith b eau ty w arm ;
F O ST ER 'S f in e f o rm s h all h earts u nborn e n gag e,
A nd M ELB O URN 's s m ile e n ch an t a n oth er a g e.
[ Hen ce w ea rie d H erc u le s
. l . 1 01. A llu din g t o t h e c ele b ra te d H erc u le s o f
Gly co r e stin g a fte r h is l a b ours ; a n d t o t h e e asy a ttitu de o f A ntin ous; t h e l o fty
ste p o f t h e A pollo o f B elv id ere ; a n d t h e r e tr e atin g m odesty o f t h e V en us d e
Med ic i. M an y o f t h e d esig ns b y R oubilia c i n W estm in ste r A bbey a re
unco m monly p oetic al; t h e a lle g ory o f T im e a n d F am e c o nte n din g f o r t h e
tr o phy o f G en era l W ad e, w hic h i s h ere a llu ded t o , i s b eau tif u lly t o ld ; t h e
win gs o f F am e a re s till e x pan ded , a n d h er h air s till f lo atin g i n t h e a ir ; w hic h
not o nly s h ew s t h at s h e h as t h at m om en t a rriv ed , b ut a ls o t h at h er f o rc e i s n ot
yet e x pen ded ; a t t h e s a m e t im e, t h at t h e o ld f ig ure o f T im e w ith h is
dis o rd ere d w in gs i s r a th er l e an in g b ack w ard s a n d y ie ld in g t o h er i m puls e ,
an d m ust a p pare n tly i n a n oth er i n sta n t b e d riv en f ro m h is a tta ck u pon t h e
tr o phy.]
[ Foste r's f in e f o rm
. l . 1 13. A llu din g t o t h e b eau tif u l s ta tu es o f L ad y E liz ab eth
Foste r a n d o f L ad y M elb ourn e x ecu te d b y t h e i n gen io us M rs . D am er.]
115
V. G NOM ES! y ou t h en t a u ght t r a n su din g d ew s t o p ass
T hro ugh t im e-fa ll'n w oods, a n d r o ot- in w ove m ora ss
A ge a fte r a g e; a n d w ith f iltr a tio n f in e
D is p art, f ro m e arth s a n d s u lp hurs , t h e s a lin e.
[ Root- in w ove m ora ss
. l . 1 16. T he g re at m ass o f m atte r w hic h r e sts u pon t h e
lim e-s to ne s tr a ta o f t h e e arth , o r u pon t h e g ra n ite w here t h e l im e- s to ne
str a tu m h as b een r e m oved b y e arth quak es o r c o vere d b y l a v a, h as h ad i ts

orig in f ro m t h e r e cre m en ts o f v eg eta b le s a n d o f a ir -b re ath in g a n im als , a s t h e
lim e-s to ne h ad i ts o rig in f ro m s e a a n im als . T he w hole h ab ita b le w orld w as
orig in ally c o vere d w ith w oods, t ill m an kin d f o rm ed t h em se lv es i n to s o cie tie s,
an d s u bdued t h em b y f ir e a n d b y s te el. H en ce w oods i n u ncu ltiv ate d
co untr ie s h av e g ro w n a n d f a lle n t h ro ugh m an y a g es, w hen ce m ora sse s o f
im men se e x te n t; a n d f ro m t h ese a s t h e m ore s o lu ble p arts w ere w ash ed a w ay
fir s t, w ere p ro duced s e a-s a lt, n itr e , i r o n, a n d v arie ty o f a cid s, w hic h
co m bin in g w ith c alc are o us m atte r w ere p ro ductiv e o f m an y f o ssil b odie s, a s
flin t, s e a-s a n d, s e le n ite , w ith t h e p re cio us s to nes, a n d p erh ap s t h e d ia m ond.
See a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X VII.]
1 . " H EN CE w ith d if fu siv e S A LT o ld O cean s te ep s
120
His e m era ld s h allo w s, a n d h is s a p phir e d eep s.
O ft i n w id e l a k es, a ro und t h eir w arm er b rim
I n h ollo w p yra m id s t h e c ry sta ls s w im ;
O r, f u se d b y e arth -b orn f ir e s, i n c u bic b lo ck s
S hoot t h eir w hite f o rm s, a n d h ard en i n to r o ck s.
[ Hen ce w ith d iffu siv e s a lt
. l . 1 19. S alts o f v ario us k in ds a re p ro duced f ro m
th e r e cre m en ts o f a n im al a n d v eg eta b le b odie s, s u ch a s p hosp horic ,
am monia cal, m arin e s a lt, a n d o th ers ; t h ese a re w ash ed f ro m t h e e arth b y
ra in s, a n d c arrie d d ow n o ur r iv ers i n to t h e s e a; t h ey s e em a ll h ere t o
deco m pose e ach o th er e x cep t t h e m arin e s a lt, w hic h h as t h ere fo re f ro m t h e
beg in nin g o f t h e h ab ita b le w orld b een p erp etu ally a ccu m ula tin g.
There i s a t o w n i n t h e i m men se s a lt- m in es o f C ra co w i n P ola n d, w ith a
mark et- p la ce, a r iv er, a c h urc h , a n d a f a m ous s ta tu e, ( h ere s u ppose d t o b e o f
Lot's w if e ) b y t h e m ois t o r d ry a p peara n ce o f w hic h t h e s u bte rra n ean
in hab ita n ts a re s a id t o k now w hen t h e w eath er i s f a ir a b ove g ro und. T he
galle rie s i n t h ese m in es a re s o n um ero us a n d s o i n tr ic ate , t h at w ork m en h av e
fre q uen tly l o st t h eir w ay , t h eir l ig hts h av in g b een b urn t o ut, a n d h av e
peris h ed b efo re t h ey c o uld b e f o und. E ssa is , & c. p ar M . M acq uart. A nd
th ough t h e a rc h es o f t h ese d if fe re n t s to rie s o f g alle rie s a re b old ly e x ecu te d ,
yet t h ey a re n ot d an gero us; a s t h ey a re h eld t o geth er o r s u pporte d b y l a rg e
masse s o f t im ber o f a f o ot s q uare ; a n d t h ese v ast t im bers r e m ain p erfe ctly
so und f o r m an y c en tu rie s, w hile a ll o th er p illa rs w heth er o f b ric k , c em en t, o r

sa lt s o on d is so lv e o r m ould er a w ay . I b id . C ould t h e t im bers o ver w ate r-m ill
wheels o r c ella rs , b e t h us p re se rv ed b y o ccasio nally s o ak in g t h em w ith b rin e?
These i m men se m asse s o f r o ck -s a lt s e em t o h av e b een p ro duced b y t h e
ev ap ora tio n o f s e a-w ate r i n t h e e arly p erio ds o f t h e w orld b y s u bte rra n ean
fir e s. D r. H utto n's T heo ry o f t h e E arth . S ee a ls o T heo rie d es S ourc es S ale es,
par M r. S tr u ve. H is to ir e d e S cie n ces d e L au sa n ne. T om . I I. T his i d ea o f D r.
Hutto n's i s c o nfir m ed b y a f a ct m en tio ned i n M . M acq uart's E ssa is s u r
Min ero lo gie , w ho f o und a g re at q uan tity o f f o ssil s h ells , p rin cip ally b i- v alv es
an d m ad re -p ore s, i n t h e s a lt- m in es o f W ia lic zk a n ear C ra co w . D urin g t h e
ev ap ora tio n o f t h e l a k es o f s a lt- w ate r, a s i n a rtif ic ia l s a lt- w ork s, t h e s a lt
beg in s t o c ry sta lliz e n ear t h e e d ges w here t h e w ate r i s s h allo w est, f o rm in g
hollo w i n verte d p yra m id s; w hic h , w hen t h ey b eco m e o f a c erta in s iz e,
su bsid e b y t h eir g ra v ity ; i f u rg ed b y a s tr o nger f ir e t h e s a lt f u se s o r f o rm s
la rg e c u bes; w hen ce t h e s a lt s h ap ed i n h ollo w p yra m id s, c alle d f la k e-s a lt, i s
bette r t a ste d a n d p re se rv es f le sh b ette r, t h an t h e b ask et o r p ow der s a lt;
becau se i t i s m ad e b y l e ss h eat a n d t h en ce c o nta in s m ore o f t h e m arin e a cid .
The s e a- w ate r a b out o ur i s la n d c o nta in s f ro m a b out o ne t w en ty -e ig hth t o o ne
th ir tie th p art o f s e a-s a lt, a n d a b out o ne e ig htie th o f m ag nesia n s a lt. S ee
Bro w nrig g o n S alt. S ee n ote o n O cy m um , V ol. I I. o f t h is w ork .]
125
"T hus, c av ern 'd r o und i n C RA CO W 'S m ig hty m in es,
W ith c ry sta l w alls a g org eo us c ity s h in es;
S co op'd i n t h e b rin y r o ck l o ng s tr e ets e x te n d
T heir h oary c o urs e , a n d g litte rin g d om es a sc en d;
D ow n t h e b rig ht s te ep s, e m erg in g i n to d ay ,
130
Im petu ous f o unta in s b urs t t h eir h ead lo ng w ay ,
O 'e r m ilk -w hite v ale s i n i v ory c h an nels s p re ad ,
A nd w onderin g s e ek t h eir s u bte rra n eo us b ed .
F orm 'd i n p ellu cid s a lt w ith c h is se l n ic e,
T he p ale l a m p g lim merin g t h ro ugh t h e s c u lp tu re d i c e,
135
With w ild r e v erte d e y es f a ir L O TTA s ta n ds,
A nd s p re ad s t o H eav en , i n v ain , h er g la ssy h an ds;
C old d ew s c o nden se u pon h er p early b re ast,
A nd t h e b ig t e ar r o lls l u cid d ow n h er v est.
F ar g le am in g o 'e r t h e t o w n t r a n sp are n t f a n es
140
Rear t h eir w hite t o w ers , a n d w av e t h eir g old en v an es;

L ong l in es o f l u str e s p our t h eir t r e m blin g r a y s,
A nd t h e b rig ht v au lt r e tu rn s t h e m in gle d b la ze.
2 . " H EN CE o rie n t N IT R E o w es i t's s p ark lin g b ir th ,
A nd w ith p ris m atic c ry sta ls g em s t h e e arth ,
145
O'e r t o tte rin g d om es i n f ilm y f o lia g e c ra w ls ,
O r f ro sts w ith b ra n ch in g p lu m es t h e m ould erin g w alls .
A s w oos A zo tic G as t h e v ir g in A ir ,
A nd v eils i n c rim so n c lo uds t h e y ie ld in g F air ,
I n dig nan t F ir e t h e t r e ach ero us c o urts h ip f lie s,
150
Wav es h is l ig ht w in g, a n d m in gle s w ith t h e s k ie s.
[ Hen ce o rie n t N itr e
. l . 1 43. N itr e i s f o und i n B en gal n atu ra lly c ry sta lliz ed ,
an d i s s w ep t b y b ro om s f ro m e arth s a n d s to nes, a n d t h en ce c alle d s w eep in gs
of n itr e . I t h as l a te ly b een f o und i n l a rg e q uan titie s i n a n atu ra l b aso n o f
calc are o us e arth a t M olf e tta i n I ta ly , b oth i n t h in s tr a ta b etw een t h e
calc are o us b ed s, a n d i n e fflo re sc en ces o f v ario us b eau tif u l l e afy a n d h air y
fo rm s. A n a cco unt o f t h is n itr e -b ed i s g iv en b y M r. Z im merm an a n d a b rid ged
in R ozie r's J o urn al d e P hysiq ue F ev rie r. 1 790. T his a cid a p pears t o b e
pro duced i n a ll s itu atio ns w here a n im al a n d v eg eta b le m atte rs a re c o m ple atly
deco m pose d , a n d w hic h a re e x pose d t o t h e a ctio n o f t h e a ir a s o n t h e w alls o f
sta b le s, a n d s la u ghte r-h ouse s; t h e c ry sta ls a re p ris m s f u rro w ed b y
lo ngitu din al g ro ves.
Dr. P rie stle y d is c o vere d t h at n itr o us a ir o r g as w hic h h e o bta in ed b y
dis so lv in g m eta ls i n n itr o us a cid , w ould c o m bin e r a p id ly w ith v ita l a ir , a n d
pro duce w ith i t a t r u e n itr o us a cid ; f o rm in g r e d c lo uds d urin g t h e
co m bin atio n; t h e t w o a ir s o ccu py o nly t h e s p ace b efo re o ccu pie d b y o ne o f
th em , a n d a t t h e s a m e t im e h eat i s g iv en o ut f ro m t h e n ew c o m bin atio n. T his
dim unitio n o f t h e b ulk o f a m ix tu re o f n itr o us g as a n d v ita l a ir , D r. P rie stle y
in gen io usly u se d a s a t e st o f t h e p urity o f t h e l a tte r; a d is c o very o f t h e
gre ate st i m porta n ce i n t h e a n aly sis o f a ir s .
Mr. C av en dis h h as s in ce d em onstr a te d t h at t w o p arts o f v ita l a ir o r o xygen e,
an d o ne p art o f p hlo gis tic a ir o r a zo te , b ein g l o ng e x pose d t o e le ctr ic s h ock s,
unite , a n d p ro duce n itr o us a cid . P hilo s. T ra n s. V ols . L X XV. a n d L X XVIII.

Azo te i s o ne o f t h e m ost a b undan t e le m en ts i n n atu re , a n d c o m bin ed w ith
calo riq ue o r h eat, i t f o rm s a zo tic g as o r p hlo gis tic a ir , a n d c o m pose s t w o
th ir d s o f t h e a tm osp here ; a n d i s o ne o f t h e p rin cip al c o m ponen t p arts o f
an im al b odie s, a n d w hen u nite d t o v ita l a ir o r o xygen e p ro duces t h e n itr o us
acid . M r. L av ois ie r f o und t h at 2 11/2 p arts b y w eig ht o f a zo te , a n d 4 31/2 p arts
of o xygen e p ro duced 6 4 p arts o f n itr o us g as, a n d b y t h e f u rth er a d ditio n o f 3 6
parts o f o xygen e n itr o us a cid w as p ro duced . T ra ité d e C him ie . W hen t w o a ir s
beco m e u nite d s o a s t o p ro duce a n u nela stic l iq uid m uch c alo riq ue o r h eat i s
of n ecessity e x pelle d f ro m t h e n ew c o m bin atio n, t h ough p erh ap s n itr o us a cid
an d o xygen ate d m arin e a cid a d m it m ore h eat i n to t h eir c o m bin atio ns t h an
oth er a cid s.]
" S o B eau ty 's G ODDESS, w arm w ith n ew d esir e ,
L eft, o n h er s ilv er w heels , t h e G OD o f F ir e ;
H er f a ith le ss c h arm s t o f ie rc er M ARS r e sig n'd ,
M et w ith f o nd l ip s, w ith w an to n a rm s i n tw in 'd .
155
—In dig nan t V ULC A N e y ed t h e p artin g F air ,
A nd w atc h 'd w ith j e alo us s te p t h e g uilty p air ;
O 'e r h is b ro ad n eck a w ir y n et h e f lu ng,
Q uic k a s h e s tr o de, t h e t in klin g m esh es r u ng;
F in e a s t h e s p id er's f lim sy t h re ad H e w ove
160
The i m morta l t o il t o l im e i llic it l o ve;
S te el w ere t h e k nots , a n d s te el t h e t w is te d t h ong,
R in g l in k'd i n r in g, i n dis so lu bly s tr o ng;
O n v ie w le ss h ooks a lo ng t h e f re tte d r o of
H e h ung, u nse en , t h e i n ex tr ic ab le w oof.—
165
—Quic k s ta rt t h e s p rin gs, t h e w eb s p ellu cid s p re ad ,
A nd l o ck t h e e m bra cin g L overs o n t h eir b ed ;
F ie rc e w ith l o ud t a u nts v in dic tiv e V ULC A N s p rin gs,
T rie s a ll t h e b olts , a n d t ig hte n s a ll t h e s tr in gs,
S hak es w ith i n cessa n t s h outs t h e b rig ht a b odes,
170
Cla p s h is r u de h an ds, a n d c alls t h e f e stiv e G ods.—
— With s p re ad in g p alm s t h e a la rm ed G oddess t r ie s
T o v eil h er b eau tie s f ro m c ele stia l e y es,
W rith es h er f a ir l im bs, t h e s le n der r in gle ts s tr a in s,
A nd b id s h er L oves u ntie t h e o bdura te c h ain s;

175
Soft s w ells h er p an tin g b oso m , a s s h e t u rn s,
A nd h er f lu sh 'd c h eek w ith b rig hte r b lu sh es b urn s.
M aje stic g rie f t h e Q ueen o f H eav en a v ow s,
A nd c h aste M in erv a h id es h er h elm ed b ro w s;
A tte n dan t N ym phs w ith b ash fu l e y es a sk an ce
180
Ste al o f i n ta n gle d M ARS a t r a n sie n t g la n ce;
S urro undin g G ods t h e c ir c lin g n ecta r q uaff,
G aze o n t h e F air , a n d e n vy a s t h ey l a u gh.
3 . " H EN CE d usk y I R O N s le ep s i n d ark a b odes,
A nd f e rn y f o lia g e n estle s i n t h e n odes;
185
Till w ith w id e l u ngs t h e p an tin g b ello w s b lo w ,
A nd w ak ed b y f ir e t h e g litte rin g t o rre n ts f lo w ;
— Quic k w hir ls t h e w heel, t h e p ondero us h am mer f a lls ,
L oud a n vils r in g a m id t h e t r e m blin g w alls ,
S tr o kes f o llo w s tr o kes, t h e s p ark lin g i n got s h in es,
190
Flo w s t h e r e d s la g , t h e l e n gth en in g b ar r e fin es;
C old w av es, i m mers e d , t h e g lo w in g m ass c o ngeal,
A nd t u rn t o a d am an t t h e h is sin g S te el.
[ Hen ce d usk y I r o n
. l . 1 83. T he p ro ductio n o f i r o n f ro m t h e d eco m positio n o f
veg eta b le b odie s i s p erp etu ally p re se n te d t o o ur v ie w ; t h e w ate rs o ozin g f ro m
all m ora sse s a re c h aly beate , a n d d ep osit t h eir o ch re o n b ein g e x pose d t o t h e
air , t h e i r o n a cq uir in g a c alc if o rm s ta te f ro m i ts u nio n w ith o xygen e o r v ita l
air . W here t h in m ora sse s l ie o n b ed s o f g ra v el t h e l a tte r a re g en era lly s ta in ed
by t h e f iltr a tio n o f s o m e o f t h e c h aly beate w ate r t h ro ugh t h em . T his
fo rm atio n o f i r o n f ro m v eg eta b le r e cre m en ts i s f u rth er e v in ced b y t h e f e rn
le av es a n d o th er p arts o f v eg eta b le s, s o f re q uen tly f o und i n t h e c en tr e o f t h e
knobs o r n odule s o f s o m e i r o n-o re s.
In s o m e o f t h ese n odule s t h ere i s a n ucle u s o f w hite r i r o n-e arth s u rro unded b y
man y c o ncen tr ic s tr a ta o f d ark er a n d l ig hte r i r o n-e arth a lte rn ate ly . I n o ne,
whic h n ow l ie s b efo re m e, t h e n ucle u s i s a p ris m o f a t r ia n gula r f o rm w ith
blu nte d a n gle s, a n d a b out h alf a n i n ch h ig h, a n d a n i n ch a n d h alf b ro ad ; o n
ev ery s id e o f t h is a re c o ncen tr ic s tr a ta o f s im ila r i r o n-e arth a lte rn ate ly
bro w ner a n d l e ss b ro w n; e ach s tr a tu m i s a b out a t e n th o f a n i n ch i n t h ic k ness
an d t h ere a re t e n o f t h em i n n um ber. T o w hat k now n c au se c an t h is e x actly

re g ula r d is tr ib utio n o f s o m an y e arth y s tr a ta o f d if fe re n t c o lo urs s u rro undin g
th e n ucle u s b e a sc rib ed ? I d on't k now t h at a n y m in era lo gis ts h av e a tte m pte d
an e x pla n atio n o f t h is w onderfu l p hen om en on. I s u sp ect i t i s o w in g t o t h e
pola rity o f t h e c en tr a l n ucle u s. I f i r o n-filin gs b e r e g ula rly l a id o n p ap er b y
mean s o f a s m all s ie v e, a n d a m ag net b e p la ced u ndern eath , t h e f ilin gs w ill
dis p ose t h em se lv es i n c o ncen tr ic c u rv es w ith v acan t i n te rv als b etw een t h em .
Now i f t h ese i r o n-filin gs a re c o nceiv ed t o b e s u sp en ded i n a f lu id , w hose
sp ecif ic g ra v ity i s s im ila r t o t h eir o w n, a n d a m ag netic b ar w as i n tr o duced a s
an a x is i n to t h is f lu id , i t i s e asy t o f o re se e t h at t h e i r o n f ilin gs w ould d is p ose
th em se lv es i n to c o ncen tr ic s p here s, w ith i n te rv als o f t h e c ir c u m nata n t f lu id
betw een t h em , e x actly a s i s s e en i n t h ese n odule s o f i r o n-e arth . A s a ll t h e
la v as c o nsis t o f o ne f o urth o f i r o n, ( K ir v an 's M in era l) a n d a lm ost a ll o th er
know n b odie s, w heth er o f a n im al o r v eg eta b le o rig in , p osse ss m ore o r l e ss o f
th is p ro perty , m ay n ot t h e d is tr ib utio n o f a g re at p ortio n o f t h e g lo be o f t h e
earth i n to s tr a ta o f g re ate r o r l e ss r e g ula rity b e o w in g t o t h e p ola rity o f t h e
whole ?]
[ And t u rn t o a dam ant
. l . 1 92. T he c ir c u m sta n ces w hic h r e n der i r o n m ore
valu ab le t o m an kin d t h an a n y o th er m eta l a re , 1 . i ts p ro perty o f b ein g
re n dere d h ard t o s o g re at a d eg re e a n d t h us c o nstitu tin g s u ch e x celle n t t o ols .
It w as t h e d is c o very o f t h is p ro perty o f i r o n, M r. L ock e t h in ks, t h at g av e s u ch
pre -e m in en ce t o t h e E uro pean w orld o ver t h e A m eric an o ne. 2 . I ts p ow er o f
bein g w eld ed ; t h at i s , w hen t w o p ie ces a re m ad e v ery h ot a n d a p plie d
to geth er b y h am merin g, t h ey u nite c o m ple atly , u nle ss a n y s c ale o f i r o n
in te rv en es; a n d t o p re v en t t h is i t i s u su al f o r s m ith s t o d ip t h e v ery h ot b ar i n
sa n d, a l ittle o f w hic h f u se s i n to f lu id g la ss w ith t h e s c ale a n d i s s q ueezed o ut
fro m b etw een t h e u nitin g p arts b y t h e f o rc e o f h am merin g. 3 . I ts p ow er o f
acq uir in g m ag netis m .
It i s h ow ev er t o b e w is h ed t h at g old o r s ilv er w ere d is c o vere d i n a s g re at
quan tity a s i r o n, s in ce t h ese m eta ls b ein g i n destr u ctib le b y e x posu re t o a ir ,
wate r, f ir e o r a n y c o m mon a cid s w ould s u pply w hole so m e v esse ls f o r
co okery , s o m uch t o b e d esir e d , a n d s o d if fic u lt t o o bta in , a n d w ould f o rm t h e
most l ig ht a n d d ura b le c o verin gs f o r h ouse s, a s w ell a s i n destr u ctib le f ir e -
gra te s, o ven s, a n d b oilin g v esse ls . S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X VIII. o n S te el.]
" L ast M IC H ELL'S h an ds w ith t o uch o f p ote n t c h arm

T he p olis h 'd r o ds w ith p ow ers m ag netic a rm ;
195
With p oin ts d ir e cte d t o t h e p ola r s ta rs
I n o ne l o ng l in e e x te n d t h e t e m per'd b ars ;
T hen t h ric e a n d t h ric e w ith s te ad y e y e h e g uid es,
A nd o 'e r t h e a d hesiv e t r a in t h e m ag net s lid es;
T he o bed ie n t S te el w ith l iv in g i n stin ct m oves,
200
And v eers f o r e v er t o t h e p ole i t l o ves.
[ Last M ic h ell's h ands
. l . 1 93. T he d is c o very o f t h e m ag net s e em s t o h av e
been i n v ery e arly t im es; i t i s m en tio ned b y P la to , L ucre tiu s, P lin y, a n d
Gale n , a n d i s s a id t o h av e t a k en i ts n am e o f m ag nes f ro m M ag nesia , a s e a-
port o f a n tie n t L ybia .
As e v ery p ie ce o f i r o n w hic h w as m ad e m ag netic al b y t h e t o uch o f a m ag net
becam e i ts e lf a m ag net, m an y a tte m pts w ere m ad e t o i m pro ve t h ese a rtif ic ia l
mag nets , b ut w ith out m uch s u ccess t ill S erv in gdon S av ary , E sq . m ad e t h em
of h ard en ed s te el b ars , w hic h w ere s o p ow erfu l t h at o ne o f t h em w eig hin g
th re e p ounds a v erd upois w ould l if t a n oth er o f t h e s a m e w eig ht. P hilo s. T ra n s.
Afte r t h is D r. K nig ht m ad e v ery s u ccessfu l e x perim en ts o n t h is s u bje ct,
whic h , t h ough h e k ep t h is m eth od s e cre t, s e em s t o h av e e x cite d o th ers t o t u rn
th eir a tte n tio n t o m ag netis m . A t t h is t im e t h e R ev . M r. M ic h ell i n ven te d a n
eq ually e ffic acio us a n d m ore e x ped itio us w ay o f m ak in g s tr o ng a rtif ic ia l
mag nets , w hic h h e p ublis h ed i n t h e e n d o f t h e y ear 1 750, i n w hic h h e
ex pla in ed h is m eth od o f w hat h e c alle d " th e d ouble t o uch ", a n d w hic h , s in ce
Mr. K nig ht's m eth od h as b een k now n, a p pears t o b e s o m ew hat d if fe re n t f ro m
it.
This m eth od o f r e n derin g b ars o f h ard en ed s te el m ag netic al c o nsis ts i n
hold in g v ertic ally t w o o r m ore m ag netic b ars n early p ara lle l t o e ach o th er
with t h eir o pposite p ole s v ery n ear e ach o th er ( b ut n ev erth ele ss s e p ara te d t o a
sm all d is ta n ce), t h ese a re t o b e s lid ed o ver a l in e o f b ars l a id h oriz o nta lly a
fe w t im es b ack w ard a n d f o rw ard . S ee M ic h ell o n M ag netis m , a ls o a d eta ile d
acco unt i n C ham ber's D ic tio nary .
What M r. M ic h ell p ro pose d b y t h is m eth od w as t o i n clu de a v ery s m all
portio n o f t h e h oriz o nta l b ars , i n te n ded t o b e m ad e m ag netic al, b etw een t h e

jo in t f o rc es o f t w o o r m ore b ars a lr e ad y m ag netic al, a n d b y s lid in g t h em f ro m
en d t o e n d e v ery p art o f t h e l in e o f b ars b ecam e s u ccessiv ely i n clu ded , a n d
th us b ars p osse sse d o f a v ery s m all d eg re e o f m ag netis m t o b eg in w ith , w ould
in a f e w t im es s lid in g b ack w ard s a n d f o rw ard s m ak e t h e o th er o nes m uch
more m ag netic al t h an t h em se lv es, w hic h a re t h en t o b e t a k en u p a n d u se d t o
to uch t h e f o rm er, w hic h a re i n s u ccessio n t o b e l a id d ow n h oriz o nta lly i n a
lin e.
There i s s till a g re at f ie ld r e m ain s f o r f u tu re d is c o verie s i n m ag netis m b oth i n
re sp ect t o e x perim en t a n d t h eo ry ; t h e l a tte r c o nsis ts o f v ag ue c o nje ctu re s t h e
more p ro bab le o f w hic h a re p erh ap s t h ose o f E lp in us, a s t h ey a ssim ula te i t t o
ele ctr ic ity .
One c o nje ctu re I s h all a d d, v iz . t h at t h e p ola rity o f m ag netis m m ay b e o w in g
to t h e e arth 's r o ta to ry m otio n. I f h eat, e le ctr ic ity , a n d m ag netis m a re s u ppose d
to b e f lu id s o f d if fe re n t g ra v itie s, h eat b ein g t h e h eav ie st o f t h em , e le ctr ic ity
th e n ex t h eav y, a n d m ag netis m t h e l ig hte st, i t i s e v id en t t h at b y t h e q uic k
re v olu tio n o f t h e e arth t h e h eat w ill b e a ccu m ula te d m ost o ver t h e l in e,
ele ctr ic ity n ex t b en eath t h is , a n d t h at t h e m ag netis m w ill b e d etr u ded t o t h e
pole s a n d a x is o f t h e e arth , l ik e t h e a tm osp here s o f c o m mon a ir a n d o f
in fla m mab le g as, a s e x pla in ed i n t h e n ote o n C an to I . l . 1 23.
Ele ctr ic ity a n d h eat w ill b oth o f t h em d is p la ce m ag netis m , a n d t h is s h ow s
th at t h ey m ay g ra v ita te o n e ach o th er; a n d h en ce w hen t o o g re at a q uan tity o f
th e e le ctr ic f lu id b eco m es a ccu m ula te d a t t h e p ole s b y d esc en din g s n ow s, o r
oth er u nknow n c au se s, i t m ay h av e a t e n den cy t o r is e t o w ard s t h e t r o pic s b y
its c en tr if u gal f o rc e, a n d p ro duce t h e n orth ern l ig hts . S ee a d ditio nal n ote s,
No. I .]

" H ail, a d am an tin e S T EEL! m ag netic L ord !
K in g o f t h e p ro w , t h e p lo w sh are , a n d t h e s w ord !
T ru e t o t h e p ole , b y t h ee t h e p ilo t g uid es
H is s te ad y h elm a m id t h e s tr u gglin g t id es,
2 05
Bra v es w ith b ro ad s a il t h e i m measu ra b le s e a,
C le av es t h e d ark a ir , a n d a sk s n o s ta r b ut T hee.—
B y t h ee t h e p lo w sh are r e n ds t h e m atte d p la in ,
I n hum es i n l e v el r o w s t h e l iv in g g ra in ;
I n tr u siv e f o re sts q uit t h e c u ltu re d g ro und,
2 10
And C ere s l a u ghs w ith g old en f ille ts c ro w n'd .—
O 'e r r e stle ss r e alm s w hen s c o w lin g D is c o rd f lin gs
H er s n ak es, a n d l o ud t h e d in o f b attle r in gs;
E xpir in g S tr e n gth , a n d v an quis h 'd C oura g e f e el
T hy a rm r e sis tle ss, a d am an tin e S T EEL!
2 15
4. " H EN CE i n f in e s tr e am s d if fu siv e A CID S f lo w ,
O r w in g'd w ith f ir e o 'e r E arth 's f a ir b oso m b lo w ;
T ra n sm ute t o g litte rin g F lin ts h er c h alk y l a n ds,
O r s in k o n O cean 's b ed i n c o untle ss S an ds.
H en ce s ilv ery S ele n ite h er c h ry sta l m ould s,
2 20
And s o ft A sb estu s s m ooth s h is s ilk y f o ld s;
H is c u bic f o rm s p hosp horic F lu or p rin ts ,
O r r a y s i n s p here s h is a m eth ystin e t in ts .
S oft c o bw eb c lo uds t r a n sp are n t O nyx s p re ad s,
A nd p la y fu l A gate s w eav e t h eir c o lo ur'd t h re ad s;
2 25
Gay p ic tu re d M och oes g lo w w ith l a n dsc ap e-d yes,
A nd c h an gefu l O pals r o ll t h eir l u cid e y es;
B lu e l a m ben t l ig ht a ro und t h e S ap phir e p la y s,
B rig ht R ubie s b lu sh , a n d l iv in g D ia m onds b la ze.
[ D iffu siv e A cid s f lo w
. l . 2 15. T he p ro ductio n o f m arin e a cid f ro m
d eco m posin g v eg eta b le a n d a n im al m atte rs w ith v ita l a ir , a n d o f n itr o us a cid
f ro m a zo te a n d v ita l a ir , t h e f o rm er o f w hic h i s u nite d t o i ts b asis b y m ean s o f
t h e e x hala tio ns f ro m v eg eta b le a n d a n im al m atte rs , c o nstitu te a n a n alo gy
w hic h i n duces u s t o b elie v e t h at m an y o th er a cid s h av e e ith er t h eir b ase s o r

are u nite d t o v ita l a ir b y m ean s o f s o m e p art o f d eco m posin g v eg eta b le a n d
an im al m atte rs .
The g re at q uan titie s o f f lin t s a n d w heth er f o rm ed i n m ounta in s o r i n t h e s e a
would a p pear t o d eriv e i ts a cid f ro m t h e n ew w orld , a s i t i s f o und a b ove t h e
str a ta o f l im e-s to ne a n d g ra n ite w hic h c o nstitu te t h e o ld w orld , a n d a s t h e
earth y b asis o f f lin t i s p ro bab ly c alc are o us, a g re at p art o f i t s e em s t o b e
pro duced b y a c o nju nctio n o f t h e n ew a n d o ld w orld ; t h e r e cre m en ts o f a ir -
bre ath in g a n im als a n d v eg eta b le s p ro bab ly a ffo rd t h e a cid , a n d t h e s h ells o f
marin e a n im als t h e e arth y b asis , w hile a n oth er p art m ay h av e d eriv ed i ts
calc are o us p art a ls o f ro m t h e d eco m positio n o f v eg eta b le a n d a n im al b odie s.
The s a m e m ode o f r e aso nin g s e em s a p plic ab le t o t h e s ilic eo us s to nes u nder
vario us n am es, a s a m eth yst, o nyx, a g ate , m och oe, o pal, & c. w hic h d o n ot
se em t o h av e u nderg one a n y p ro cess f ro m v olc an ic f ir e s, a n d a s t h ese s to nes
only d if fe r f ro m f lin t b y a g re ate r o r l e ss a d m ix tu re o f a rg illa ceo us a n d
calc are o us e arth s. T he d if fe re n t p ro portio ns o f w hic h i n e ach k in d o f s to ne
may b e s e en i n M r. K ir w an 's v alu ab le E le m en ts o f M in era lo gy. S ee
ad ditio nal n ote s, N o. X IX .]
[ Liv in g d ia m onds b la ze
. l . 2 28. S ir I s a ac N ew to n h av in g o bse rv ed t h e g re at
pow er o f r e fra ctin g l ig ht, w hic h t h e d ia m ond p osse sse s a b ove a ll o th er
cry sta lliz ed o r v itr e o us m atte r, c o nje ctu re d t h at i t w as a n i n fla m mab le b ody
in s o m e m an ner c o ngeale d . I n so m uch t h at a ll t h e l ig ht i s r e fle cte d w hic h f a lls
on a n y o f i ts i n te rio r s u rfa ces a t a g re ate r a n gle o f i n cid en ce t h an 2 41/2
deg re es; w here as a n a rtif ic ia l g em o f g la ss d oes n ot r e fle ct a n y l ig ht f ro m i ts
hin der s u rfa ce, u nle ss t h at s u rfa ce i s i n clin ed i n a n a n gle o f 4 1 d eg re es.
Hen ce t h e d ia m ond r e fle cts h alf a s m uch m ore l ig ht a s a f a ctitio us g em i n
sim ila r c ir c u m sta n ces; t o w hic h m ust b e a d ded i ts g re at t r a n sp are n cy , a n d t h e
ex celle n t p olis h i t i s c ap ab le o f. T he d ia m ond h ad n ev erth ele ss b een p la ced a t
th e h ead o f c ry sta ls o r p re cio us s to nes b y t h e m in era lo gis ts , t ill B erg m an
ra n ged i t o f l a te i n t h e c o m bustib le c la ss o f b odie s, b ecau se b y t h e f o cu s o f
Ville tte 's b urn in g m ir ro r i t w as e v ap ora te d b y a h eat n ot m uch g re ate r t h an
will m elt s ilv er, a n d g av e o ut l ig ht. M r. H oep fn er h ow ev er t h in ks t h e
dis p ers io n o f t h e d ia m ond b y t h is g re at h eat s h ould b e c alle d a
phosp hore sc en t e v ap ora tio n o f i t, r a th er t h an a c o m bustio n; a n d f ro m i ts o th er
an alo gie s o f c ry sta lliz atio n, h ard ness, t r a n sp are n cy , a n d p la ce o f i ts n ativ ity ,

wis h es a g ain t o r e p la ce i t a m ongst t h e p re cio us s to nes. O bse rv . s u r l a
Physiq ue, p ar R ozie r, T om . X XXV. p . 4 48. S ee n ew e d itio n o f t h e
Tra n sla tio n o f C ro nste d , b y D e C osta .]
" T hus, f o r a ttr a ctiv e e arth , i n co nsta n t J O VE
230
Mask 'd i n n ew s h ap es f o rs o ok h is r e alm s a b ove.—
F ir s t h er s w eet e y es h is E ag le -fo rm b eg uile s,
A nd H EB E f e ed s h im w ith a m bro sia l s m ile s;
N ex t t h e c h an g'd G od a C ygnet's d ow n a ssu m es,
A nd p la y fu l L ED A s m ooth s h is g lo ssy p lu m es;
235
Then g lid es a s ilv er S erp en t, t r e ach ero us g uest!
A nd f a ir O LY M PIA f o ld s h im i n h er b re ast;
N ow l o w s a m ilk -w hite B ull o n A fric 's s tr a n d,
A nd c ro ps w ith d an cin g h ead t h e d ais y 'd l a n d.—
W ith r o sy w re ath es E U RO PA 'S h an d a d orn s
240
His f rin ged f o re h ead , a n d h is p early h orn s;
L ig ht o n h is b ack t h e s p ortiv e D am se l b ounds,
A nd p le ase d h e m oves a lo ng t h e f lo w ery g ro unds;
B ears w ith s lo w s te p h is b eau te o us p riz e a lo of,
D ip s i n t h e l u cid f lo od h is i v ory h oof;
245
Then w ets h is v elv et k nees, a n d w ad in g l a v es
H is s ilk y s id es a m id t h e d im plin g w av es.
W hile h er f o nd t r a in w ith b eck onin g h an ds d ep lo re ,
S tr a in t h eir b lu e e y es, a n d s h rie k a lo ng t h e s h ore ;
B en eath h er r o be s h e d ra w s h er s n ow y f e et,
250
And, h alf -re clin in g o n h er e rm in e s e at,
R ound h is r a is e d n eck h er r a d ia n t a rm s s h e t h ro w s,
A nd r e sts h er f a ir c h eek o n h is c u rle d b ro w s;
H er y ello w t r e sse s w av e o n w an to n g ale s,
A nd h ig h i n a ir h er a zu re m an tle s a ils .
255
—Onw ard H e m oves, a p pla u din g C upid s g uid e,
A nd s k im o n s h ootin g w in g t h e s h in in g t id e;
E m erg in g T rito n's l e av e t h eir c o ra l c av es,
S ound t h eir l o ud c o nch s, a n d s m ooth t h e c ir c lin g w av es,
S urro und t h e t im oro us B eau ty , a s s h e s w im s,
260
And g aze e n am our'd o n h er s ilv er l im bs.

— Now E uro pe's s h ad ow y s h ore s w ith l o ud a ccla im
H ail t h e f a ir f u gitiv e, a n d s h out h er n am e;
S oft e ch oes w arb le , w his p erin g f o re sts n od,
A nd c o nsc io us N atu re o w ns t h e p re se n t G od.
265
—Chan ged f ro m t h e B ull, t h e r a p tu ro us G od a ssu m es
I m morta l y outh , w ith g lo w c ele stia l b lo om s,
W ith l e n ie n t w ord s h er v ir g in f e ars d is a rm s,
A nd c la sp s t h e y ie ld in g B eau ty i n h is a rm s;
W hen ce K in gs a n d H ero es o w n i llu str io us b ir th ,
270
Guard s o f m an kin d, a n d d em ig ods o n e arth .
[ In co nsta nt J o ve
. l . 2 29. T he p ure r a ir o r e th er i n t h e a n tie n t m yth olo gy w as
re p re se n te d b y J u pite r, a n d t h e i n fe rio r a ir b y J u no; a n d t h e c o nju nctio n o f
th ese d eitie s w as s a id t o p ro duce t h e v ern al s h ow ers , a n d p ro cre ate a ll t h in gs,
as i s f u rth er s p oken o f i n C an to I II. l . 2 04. I t i s n ow d is c o vere d t h at p ure a ir ,
or o xygen e, u nitin g w ith v arie ty o f b ase s f o rm s t h e v ario us k in ds o f a cid s; a s
th e v itr io lic a cid f ro m p ure a ir a n d s u lp hur; t h e n itr o us a cid f ro m p ure a ir a n d
phlo gis tic a ir , o r a zo te ; a n d c arb onic a cid , ( o r f ix ed a ir ,) f ro m p ure a ir a n d
ch arc o al. S om e o f t h ese a ffin itie s w ere p erh ap s p ortr a y ed b y t h e M ag i o f
Egypt, w ho w ere p ro bab ly l e arn ed i n c h em is tr y , i n t h eir h ie ro gly phic p ic tu re s
befo re t h e i n ven tio n o f l e tte rs , b y t h e l o ves o f J u pite r w ith t e rre str ia l l a d ie s.
And t h us p hysic ally a s w ell a s m eta p hysic ally m ig ht b e s a id " Jo vis o m nia
ple n a." ]
V I. " G NOM ES! a s y ou p ass'd b en eath t h e l a b ourin g s o il,
T he g uard s a n d g uid es o f N atu re 's c h em ic t o il,
Y OU s a w , d eep -s e p ulc h re d i n d usk y r e alm s,
W hic h E arth 's r o ck -rib bed p ondero us v au lt o 'e rw helm s,
275
With s e lf -b orn f ir e s t h e m ass f e rm en tin g g lo w ,
A nd f la m e-w in g'd s u lp hurs q uit t h e e arth s b elo w .
[ With s e lf- b orn f ir e s
. l . 2 75. A fte r t h e a ccu m ula tio n o f p la in s a n d m ounta in s
on t h e c alc are o us r o ck s o r g ra n ite w hic h h ad b een p re v io usly r a is e d b y
volc an ic f ir e s, a s e co nd s e t o f v olc an ic f ir e s w ere p ro duced b y t h e
fe rm en ta tio n o f t h is n ew m ass, b y w hic h a fte r t h e s a lts o r a cid s a n d i r o n h ad

been w ash ed a w ay i n p art b y e lu tr ia tio n, d is sip ate d t h e s u lp huro us p arts
whic h w ere i n so lu ble i n w ate r; w hen ce a rg illa ceo us a n d s ilic eo us e arth s w ere
le ft i n s o m e p la ces; i n o th ers , b itu m en b ecam e s u blim ed t o t h e u pper p art o f
th e s tr a tu m , p ro ducin g c o als o f v ario us d eg re es o f p urity .]
1 . " H EN CE d uctile C LA YS i n w id e e x pan sio n s p re ad ,
S oft a s t h e C ygnet's d ow n, t h eir s n ow -w hite b ed ;
W ith y ie ld in g f la k es s u ccessiv e f o rm s r e v eal,
280
And c h an ge o bed ie n t t o t h e w hir lin g w heel.
— Fir s t C H IN A'S s o ns, w ith e arly a rt e la te ,
F orm 'd t h e g ay t e a-p ot, a n d t h e p ic tu re d p la te ;
S aw w ith i llu m in 'd b ro w a n d d azzle d e y es
I n t h e r e d s to ve v itr e sc en t c o lo urs r is e ;
285
Speck 'd h er t a ll b eak ers w ith e n am el'd s ta rs ,
H er m onste r-jo sse s, a n d g ig an tic j a rs ;
S m ear'd h er h uge d ra g ons w ith m eta llic h ues,
W ith g old en p urp le s, a n d c o baltic b lu es;
B ad e o n w id e h ills h er p orc ela in c astle s g la re ,
290
And g la zed P ag odas t r e m ble i n t h e a ir .
[ Hen ce d uctile c la ys
l . 2 77. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X X.]
[ Saw w ith i llu m in 'd b ro w
. l . 2 83. N o c o lo ur i s d is tin guis h ab le i n t h e r e d -h ot
kiln b ut t h e r e d i ts e lf , t ill t h e w ork m an i n tr o duces a s m all p ie ce o f d ry w ood,
whic h b y p ro ducin g a w hite f la m e r e n ders a ll t h e o th er c o lo urs v is ib le i n a
mom en t.]
[ With g old en p urp le s
. l . 2 88. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XI.]
" E TR U RIA ! n ex t b en eath t h y m ag ic h an ds
G lid es t h e q uic k w heel, t h e p la is tic c la y e x pan ds,
N erv ed w ith f in e t o uch , t h y f in gers ( a s i t t u rn s)
M ark t h e n ic e b ounds o f v ase s, e w ers , a n d u rn s;
295
Round e ach f a ir f o rm i n l in es i m morta l t r a ce
U nco pie d B eau ty , a n d i d eal G ra ce.

[ Etr u ria ! n ext
. l . 2 91. E tr u ria m ay p erh ap s v ie w ith C hin a i ts e lf i n t h e
an tiq uity o f i ts a rts . T he t im es o f i ts g re ate st s p le n dour w ere p rio r t o t h e
fo undatio ns o f R om e, a n d t h e r e ig n o f o ne o f i ts b est p rin ces, J a n us, w as t h e
old est e p och t h e R om an s k new . T he e arlie st h is to ria n s s p eak o f t h e E tr u sc an s
as b ein g t h en o f h ig h a n tiq uity , m ost p ro bab ly a c o lo ny f ro m P hoen ic ia , t o
whic h a P ela sg ia n c o lo ny a cced ed , a n d w as u nite d s o on a fte r D eu calio n's
flo od. T he p ecu lia r c h ara cte r o f t h eir e arth ern v ase s c o nsis ts i n t h e a d m ir a b le
beau ty , s im plic ity , a n d d iv ers ity o f f o rm s, w hic h c o ntin ue t h e b est m odels o f
ta ste t o t h e a rtis ts o f t h e p re se n t t im es; a n d i n a s p ecie s o f n on-v itr e o us
en cau stic p ain tin g, w hic h w as r e ck oned , e v en i n t h e t im e o f P lin y, a m ong t h e
lo st a rts o f a n tiq uity , b ut w hic h h as l a te ly b een r e co vere d b y t h e i n gen uity
an d i n dustr y o f M r. W ed gw ood. I t i s s u ppose d t h at t h e p rin cip al
man ufa cto rie s w ere a b out N ola , a t t h e f o ot o f V esu viu s; f o r i t i s i n t h at
neig hbourh ood t h at t h e g re ate st q uan titie s o f a n tiq ue v ase s h av e b een f o und;
an d i t i s s a id t h at t h e g en era l t a ste o f t h e i n hab ita n ts i s a p pare n tly i n flu en ced
by t h em ; i n so m uch t h at s tr a n gers c o m in g t o N ap le s, a re c o m monly s tr u ck
with t h e d iv ers ity a n d e le g an ce e v en o f t h e m ost o rd in ary v ase s f o r c o m mon
use s. S ee D 'H an carv ille 's p re lim in ary d is c o urs e s t o t h e m ag nif ic en t c o lle ctio n
of E tr u sc an v ase s, p ublis h ed b y S ir W illia m H am ilto n.]
" G NOM ES! a s y ou n ow d is se ct w ith h am mers f in e
T he g ra n ite -ro ck , t h e n odul'd f lin t c alc in e;
G rin d w ith s tr o ng a rm , t h e c ir c lin g c h ertz b etw ix t,
300
Your p ure K a-o -lin s a n d P e-tu n-ts e s m ix t;
O 'e r e ach r e d s a g gars b urn in g c av e p re sid e,
T he k een -e y ed F ir e -N ym phs b la zin g b y y our s id e;
A nd p le ase d o n W ED GW OOD r a y y our p artia l s m ile ,
A n ew E tr u ria d eck s B rita n nia 's i s le .—
305
Charm 'd b y y our t o uch , t h e f lin t l iq uesc en t p ours
T hro ugh f in er s ie v es, a n d f a lls i n w hite r s h ow ers ;
C harm 'd b y y our t o uch , t h e k nead ed c la y r e fin es,
T he b is c u it h ard en s, t h e e n am el s h in es;
E ach n ic er m ould a s o fte r f e atu re d rin ks,
310
The b old C am eo s p eak s, t h e s o ft I n ta g lio t h in ks.
[Illu str a tio n:
H. W eb ber i n it
J. H ollo w ay s c u lp t C opie d f r o m C apt.

Phillip 's V oya ge t o B ota ny B ay, b y p erm is sio n o f t h e P ro prie to r
]
[T ra n sc rib er's n ote : n am es o f p ain te r a n d e n gra v er a re o nly g uessw ork .]
[Illu str a tio n: A M I N OT A M AN A ND A B RO TH ER ]
" T o c all t h e p early d ro ps f ro m P ity 's e y e,
O r s ta y D esp air 's d is a n im atin g s ig h,
W heth er, O F rie n d o f a rt! t h e g em y ou m ould
R ic h w ith n ew t a ste , w ith a n tie n t v ir tu e b old ;
315
Form t h e p oor f e tte r'd S L A VE o n b en ded k nee
F ro m B rita in 's s o ns i m plo rin g t o b e f re e;
O r w ith f a ir H OPE t h e b rig hte n in g s c en es i m pro ve,
A nd c h eer t h e d re ary w aste s a t S ydney -c o ve;
O r b id M orta lity r e jo ic e a n d m ourn
320
O'e r t h e f in e f o rm s o n P O RTLA ND'S m ystic u rn .—
[ Form t h e p oor f e tte r'd S la ve
. l . 3 15. A llu din g t o t w o c am eo s o f M r.
Wed gw ood's m an ufa ctu re ; o ne o f a S la v e i n c h ain s, o f w hic h h e d is tr ib ute d
man y h undre d s, t o e x cite t h e h um an e t o a tte n d t o a n d t o a ssis t i n t h e a b olitio n
of t h e d ete sta b le t r a ffic i n h um an c re atu re s; a n d t h e o th er a c am eo o f H ope
atte n ded b y P eace, a n d A rt, a n d L ab our; w hic h w as m ad e o f c la y f ro m
Bota n y B ay ; t o w hic h p la ce h e s e n t m an y o f t h em t o s h ew t h e i n hab ita n ts
what t h eir m ate ria ls w ould d o, a n d t o e n co ura g e t h eir i n dustr y . A p rin t o f t h is
la tte r m ed allio n i s p re fix ed t o M r. S to ck dale 's e d itio n o f P hilip 's E xped itio n
to B ota n y B ay .]
[ Portla nd's m ystic u rn
. l . 3 20. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XII.]
"
Here
b y f a ll'n c o lu m ns a n d d is jo in 'd a rc ad es,
O n m ould erin g s to nes, b en eath d ecid uous s h ad es,
S its H UM ANKIN D i n h ie ro gly phic s ta te ,
S erio us, a n d p onderin g o n t h eir c h an gefu l s ta te ;
325
While w ith i n verte d t o rc h , a n d s w im min g e y es,
S in ks t h e f a ir s h ad e o f M ORTA L L IF E , a n d d ie s.

There
t h e p ale G HOST t h ro ugh D eath 's w id e p orta l b en ds
H is t im id f e et, t h e d usk y s te ep d esc en ds;
W ith s m ile s a ssu asiv e L O VE D IV IN E i n vite s,
330
Guid es o n b ro ad w in g, w ith t o rc h u plif te d l ig hts ;
I M MORTA L L IF E , h er h an d e x te n din g, c o urts
T he l in gerin g f o rm , h is t o tte rin g s te p s u pports ;
L ead s o n t o P lu to 's r e alm s t h e d re ary w ay ,
A nd g iv es h im t r e m blin g t o E ly sia n d ay .
335
Ben ea th
i n s a cre d r o bes t h e P R IE ST ESS d re ss'd ,
T he c o if c lo se -h ooded , a n d t h e f lu tte rin g v est,
W ith p oin tin g f in ger g uid es t h e i n itia te y outh ,
U nw eav es t h e m an y-c o lo ur'd v eil o f T ru th ,
D riv es t h e p ro fa n e f ro m M yste ry 's b olte d d oor,
340
And S ile n ce g uard s t h e E le u sin ia n l o re .—
[Illu str a tio n:
The P ortla nd V ase
]
[Illu str a tio n:
The f ir st C om partm en t
, L ondon P ublis h ed D ec'r 1 st 1 791 b y J .
Jo hnso n, S t. P au l's C hurc h Y ard .]
[T ra n sc rib er's n ote : 2 nd l in e w ith d ate v ery s m all a n d n early i lle g ib le ]
[Illu str a tio n:
The s e co nd C om partm en t
]
[Illu str a tio n:
The H andle s & B otto m o f t h e V ase .
L ondon P ublis h ed
Dec'r 1 st 1 791 b y J . J o hnso n, S t. P au l's C hurc h Y ard .]
" W heth er, O F rie n d o f A rt! y our g em s d eriv e
F in e f o rm s f ro m G re ece, a n d f a b le d G ods r e v iv e;
O r b id f ro m m odern l if e t h e P ortr a it b re ath e,
A nd b in d r o und H onour's b ro w t h e l a u re l w re ath ;
345
Buoyan t s h all s a il, w ith F am e's h is to ric p ag e,
E ach f a ir m ed allio n o 'e r t h e w re ck s o f a g e;
N or T im e s h all m ar; n or s te el, n or f ir e , n or r u st
T ouch t h e h ard p olis h o f t h e i m morta l b ust.

[ Fin e f o rm s f r o m G re ece
. l . 3 42. I n r e al s to nes, o r i n p aste o r s o ft c o lo ure d
gla ss, m an y p ie ces o f e x quis ite w ork m an sh ip w ere p ro duced b y t h e a n tie n ts .
Basso -re lie v os o f v ario us s iz es w ere m ad e i n c o ars e b ro w n e arth o f o ne
co lo ur; b ut o f t h e i m pro ved k in d o f t w o o r m ore c o lo urs , a n d o f a t r u e
porc ela in t e x tu re , n one w ere m ad e b y t h e a n tie n ts , n or a tte m pte d I b elie v e b y
th e m odern s, b efo re t h ose o f M r. W ed gw ood's m an ufa cto ry .]
2 . " H EN CE s a b le C O AL h is m assy c o uch e x te n ds,
350
And s ta rs o f g old t h e s p ark lin g P yrite b le n ds;
H en ce d ull- e y ed N ap hth a p ours h is p itc h y s tr e am s,
A nd J e t u nco lo ur'd d rin ks t h e s o la r b eam s,
B rig ht A m ber s h in es o n h is e le ctr ic t h ro ne,
A nd a d ds e th ere al l u str e s t o h is o w n.
355
—Led b y t h e p hosp hor-lig ht, w ith d arin g t r e ad
I m morta l F R A NKLIN s o ught t h e f ie ry b ed ;
W here , n urs e d i n n ig ht, i n cu m ben t T em pest s h ro uds
T he s e ed s o f T hunder i n c ir c u m flu en t c lo uds,
B esie g ed w ith i r o n p oin ts h is a ir y c ell,
360
And p ie rc ed t h e m onste r s lu m berin g i n t h e s h ell.
[ Hen ce s a ble C oal
. l . 3 49. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XIII. o n c o al.]
[ Brig ht A m ber s h in es
. l . 3 53. C oal h as p ro bab ly a ll b een s u blim ed m ore o r
le ss f ro m t h e c la y , w ith w hic h i t w as a t f ir s t f o rm ed i n d eco m posin g
mora sse s; t h e p etr o le u m s e em s t o h av e b een s e p ara te d a n d c o nden se d a g ain
in s u perio r s tr a ta , a n d a s till f in er k in d o f o il, a s n ap hth a, h as p ro bab ly h ad
th e s a m e o rig in . S om e o f t h ese l iq uid o ils h av e a g ain l o st t h eir m ore v ola tile
parts , a n d b eco m e c an nel- c o al, a sp haltu m , j e t, a n d a m ber, a cco rd in g t o t h e
purity o f t h e o rig in al f o ssil o il. D r. P rie stle y h as s h ew n, t h at e sse n tia l o ils
lo ng e x pose d t o t h e a tm osp here a b so rb b oth t h e v ita l a n d p hlo gis tic p art o f i t;
when ce i t i s p ro bab le t h eir b eco m in g s o lid m ay i n g re at m easu re d ep en d, a s
well a s b y t h e e x hala tio n o f t h eir m ore v ola tile p arts . O n d is tilla tio n w ith
vola tile a lc aly a ll t h ese f o ssil o ils a re s h ew n t o c o nta in t h e a cid o f a m ber,
whic h e v in ces t h e i d en tity o f t h eir o rig in . I f a p ie ce o f a m ber b e r u bbed i t
attr a cts s tr a w s a n d h air s , w hen ce t h e d is c o very o f e le ctr ic ity , a n d w hen ce i ts
nam e, f ro m e le ctr o n t h e G re ek w ord f o r a m ber.]

[ Im morta l F ra nklin
. l . 3 56. S ee n ote o n C an to I . l . 3 83.]
" S o, b orn o n s o undin g p in io ns t o t h e W EST ,
W hen T yra n t- P ow er h ad b uilt h is e ag le n est;
W hile f ro m h is e y ry s h rie k 'd t h e f a m is h 'd b ro od,
C le n ch ed t h eir s h arp c la w s, a n d c h am p'd t h eir b eak s f o r b lo od,
365
Im morta l F R A NKLIN w atc h 'd t h e c allo w c re w ,
A nd s ta b b'd t h e s tr u gglin g V am pir e s, e re t h ey f le w .
— The p atr io t- fla m e w ith q uic k c o nta g io n r a n ,
H ill l ig hte d h ill, a n d m an e le ctr is e d m an ;
H er h ero es s la in a w hile C O LU M BIA m ourn 'd ,
370
And c ro w n'd w ith l a u re ls L IB ER TY r e tu rn 'd .
" T he W arrio r, L IB ER TY , w ith b en din g s a ils
H elm 'd h is b old c o urs e t o f a ir H IB ER N IA 'S v ale s;—
F ir m a s h e s te p s, a lo ng t h e s h outin g l a n ds,
L o! T ru th a n d V ir tu e r a n ge t h eir r a d ia n t b an ds;
375
Sad S upers titio n w ails h er e m pir e t o rn ,
A rt p lie s h is o ar, a n d C om merc e p ours h er h orn .
" L ong h ad t h e G ia n t- fo rm o n G ALLIA 'S p la in s
I n glo rio us s le p t, u nco nsc io us o f h is c h ain s;
R ound h is l a rg e l im bs w ere w ound a t h ousa n d s tr in gs
380
By t h e w eak h an ds o f C onfe sso rs a n d K in gs;
O 'e r h is c lo se d e y es a t r ip le v eil w as b ound,
A nd s te ely r iv ets l o ck 'd h im t o t h e g ro und;
W hile s te rn B astile w ith i r o n c ag e i n th ra lls
H is f o ld ed l im bs, a n d h em s i n m arb le w alls .
385
—Touch 'd b y t h e p atr io t- fla m e, h e r e n t a m azed
T he f lim sy b onds, a n d r o und a n d r o und h im g azed ;
S ta rts u p f ro m e arth , a b ove t h e a d m ir in g t h ro ng
L if ts h is C olo ssa l f o rm , a n d t o w ers a lo ng;
H ig h o 'e r h is f o es h is h undre d a rm s H e r e ars ,
390
Plo w sh are s h is s w ord s, a n d p ru nin g h ooks h is s p ears ;
C alls t o t h e G ood a n d B ra v e w ith v oic e, t h at r o lls
L ik e H eav en 's o w n t h under r o und t h e e ch oin g p ole s;
G iv es t o t h e w in ds h is b an ner b ro ad u nfu rl'd ,

A nd g ath ers i n i ts s h ad e t h e l iv in g w orld !
[ While s te rn B astile
. l . 3 83. " W e d esc en ded w ith g re at d if fic u lty i n to t h e
dungeo ns, w hic h w ere m ad e t o o l o w f o r o ur s ta n din g u prig ht; a n d w ere s o
dark , t h at w e w ere o blig ed a t n oon-d ay t o v is it t h em b y t h e l ig ht o f a c an dle .
We s a w t h e h ooks o f t h ose c h ain s, b y w hic h t h e p ris o ners w ere f a ste n ed b y
th eir n eck s t o t h e w alls o f t h eir c ells ; m an y o f w hic h b ein g b elo w t h e l e v el o f
th e w ate r w ere i n a c o nsta n t s ta te o f h um id ity ; f ro m w hic h i s su ed a n oxio us
vap our, w hic h m ore t h an o nce e x tin guis h ed t h e c an dle s. S in ce t h e d estr u ctio n
of t h e b uild in g m an y s u bte rra n eo us c ells h av e b een d is c o vere d u nder a p ie ce
of g ro und, w hic h s e em ed o nly a b an k o f s o lid e arth b efo re t h e h orrid s e cre ts
of t h is p ris o n-h ouse w ere d is c lo se d . S om e s k ele to ns w ere f o und i n t h ese
re cesse s w ith i r o ns s till f a ste n ed t o t h eir d ecay ed b ones." L ette rs f ro m F ra n ce,
by H .M . W illia m s, p . 2 4.]
395
VII. " G NOM ES! Y OU t h en t a u ght v olc an ic a ir s t o f o rc e
T hro ugh b ubblin g L av as t h eir r e sis tle ss c o urs e ,
O 'e r t h e b ro ad w alls o f r if te d G ra n ite c lim b,
A nd p ie rc e t h e r e n t r o of o f i n cu m ben t L im e,
R ound s p arry c av es m eta llic l u str e s f lin g,
400
And b ear p hlo gis to n o n t h eir t e p id w in g.
[ And p ie rc e t h e r e n t r o of
. l . 3 98. T he g ra n ite r o ck s a n d t h e l im esto ne r o ck s
hav e b een c ra ck ed t o v ery g re at d ep th s a t t h e t im e t h ey w ere r a is e d u p b y
su bte rra n ean f ir e s; i n t h ese c ra ck s a re f o und m ost o f t h e m eta llic o re s, e x cep t
ir o n a n d p erh ap s m an gan ese , t h e f o rm er o f w hic h i s g en era lly f o und i n
horiz o nta l s tr a ta , a n d t h e l a tte r g en era lly n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth .
Philo so phers p osse ssin g s o c o nven ie n t a t e st f o r t h e d is c o very o f i r o n b y t h e
mag net, h av e l o ng s in ce f o und i t i n a ll v eg eta b le a n d a n im al m atte rs ; a n d o f
la te M r. S ch eele h as d is c o vere d t h e e x is te n ce o f m an gan ese i n v eg eta b le
ash es. S ch eele , 5 6 m em . S to ck . 1 774. K ir w an . M in . 3 53. W hic h a cco unts f o r
th e p ro ductio n o f i t n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f e arth , a n d t h en ce f o r i ts c alc if o rm
ap peara n ce, o r u nio n w ith v ita l a ir . B erg m an h as l ik ew is e s h ew n, t h at t h e
lim esto nes w hic h b eco m e b lu is h o r d ark c o lo ure d w hen c alc in ed , p osse ss a

mix tu re o f m an gan ese , a n d a re t h en ce p re fe ra b le a s a c em en t t o o th er k in ds o f
lim e. 2 . B erg m an , 2 29. W hic h i m pre g natio n w ith m an gan ese h as p ro bab ly
been r e ceiv ed f ro m t h e d eco m positio n o f s u perin cu m ben t v eg eta b le m atte rs .
These c ra ck s o r p erp en dic u la r c av ern s i n t h e g ra n ite o r l im esto ne p ass t o
unknow n d ep th s; a n d i t i s u p t h ese c h an nels t h at I h av e e n deav oure d t o s h ew
th at t h e s te am r is e s w hic h b eco m es a fte rw ard s c o nden se d a n d p ro duces t h e
warm s p rin gs o f t h is i s la n d, a n d o th er p arts o f t h e w orld . ( S ee n ote o n F ucu s,
Vol. I I.) A nd u p t h ese c ra ck s I s u ppose c erta in v ap ours a ris e , w hic h e ith er
alo ne, o r b y m eetin g w ith s o m eth in g d esc en din g i n to t h em f ro m a b ove, h av e
pro duced m ost o f t h e m eta ls ; a n d s e v era l o f t h e m ate ria ls i n w hic h t h ey a re
bed ded . T hus t h e p ondero us e arth , B ary te s, o f D erb ysh ir e , i s f o und i n t h ese
cra ck s, a n d i s s tr a tif ie d f re q uen tly w ith l e ad -o re , a n d f re q uen tly s u rro unds i t.
This p ondero us e arth h as b een f o und b y D r. H oep fn er i n a g ra n ite i n
Sw itz erla n d, a n d m ay h av e t h us b een s u blim ed f ro m i m men se d ep th s b y
gre at h eat, a n d h av e o bta in ed i ts c arb onic o r v itr io lic a cid f ro m a b ove.
Annale s d e C him ie . T here i s a ls o r e aso n t o c o nclu de t h at s o m eth in g f ro m
ab ove i s n ecessa ry t o t h e f o rm atio n o f m an y o f t h e m eta ls : a t H aw ksto ne i n
Shro psh ir e , t h e s e at o f S ir R ic h ard H ill, t h ere i s a n e le v ate d r o ck o f s ilic eo us
sa n d w hic h i s c o lo ure d g re en w ith c o pper i n m an y p la ces h ig h i n t h e a ir ; a n d
I h av e i n m y p osse ssio n a s p ecim en o f l e ad f o rm ed i n t h e c av ity o f a n i r o n
nodule , a n d a n oth er o f l e ad a m id s p ar f ro m a c ra ck o f a c o al- s tr a tu m ; a ll
whic h c o unte n an ce t h e m odern p ro ductio n o f t h ose m eta ls f ro m d esc en din g
mate ria ls . T o w hic h s h ould b e a d ded , t h at t h e h ig hest m ounta in s o f g ra n ite ,
whic h h av e t h ere fo re p ro bab ly n ev er b een c o vere d w ith m arin e p ro ductio ns
on a cco unt o f t h eir e arly e le v atio n, n or w ith v eg eta b le o r a n im al m atte rs o n
acco unt o f t h eir g re at c o ld ness, c o nta in n o m eta llic o re s, w hils t t h e l o w er
ones c o nta in c o pper a n d t in i n t h eir c ra ck s o r v ein s, b oth i n S ax ony, S ile sia ,
an d C orn w all. K ir w an 's M in era l. p . 3 74.
The t r a n sm uta tio n o f o ne m eta l i n to a n oth er, t h ough h ith erto u ndis c o vere d b y
th e a lc h ym is ts , d oes n ot a p pear i m possib le ; s u ch t r a n sm uta tio ns h av e b een
su ppose d t o e x is t i n n atu re , t h us l a p is c ala m in aris m ay h av e b een p ro duced
fro m t h e d estr u ctio n o f l e ad -o re , a s i t i s g en era lly f o und o n t h e t o p o f t h e
vein s o f l e ad , w here i t h as b een c alc in ed o r u nite d w ith a ir , a n d b ecau se
masse s o f l e ad -o re a re o fte n f o und i n tir e ly i n clo se d i n i t. S o s ilv er i s f o und
mix ed i n a lm ost a ll l e ad -o re s, a n d s o m etim es i n s e p era te f ila m en ts w ith in t h e

cav itie s o f l e ad -o re , a s I a m i n fo rm ed b y M r. M ic h ell, a n d i s t h en ce p ro bab ly
a p artia l t r a n sm uta tio n o f t h e l e ad t o s ilv er, t h e r a p id p ro gre ss o f m odern
ch em is tr y h av in g s h ew n t h e a n alo gy b etw een m eta llic c alc es a n d a cid s, m ay
le ad t o t h e p ow er o f t r a n sm utin g t h eir b ase s: a d is c o very m uch t o b e w is h ed .]
" H EN CE g lo w s, r e fu lg en t T in ! t h y c h ry sta l g ra in s,
A nd t a w ny C opper s h oots h er a zu re v ein s;
Z in c l in es h is f re tte d v au lt w ith s a b le o re ,
A nd d ull G ale n a t e sse lla te s t h e f lo or;
405
On v erm il b ed s i n I d ria 's m ig hty c av es
T he l iv in g S ilv er r o lls i ts p ondero us w av es;
W ith g ay r e fra ctio ns b rig ht P la tin a s h in es,
A nd s tu ds w ith s q uan der'd s ta rs h is d usk y m in es;
L ong t h re ad s o f n ette d g old , a n d s ilv ery d arts ,
410
In la y t h e L azu li, a n d p ie rc e t h e Q uartz ;—
— When ce r o of'd w ith s ilv er b eam 'd P E R U , o f o ld ,
A nd h ap le ss M EX IC O w as p av ed w ith g old .
" H eav en s! o n m y s ig ht w hat s a n guin e c o lo urs b la ze!
S pain 's d eath le ss s h am e! t h e c rim es o f m odern d ay s!
415
When A varic e, s h ro uded i n R elig io n's r o be,
S ail'd t o t h e W est, a n d s la u ghte r'd h alf t h e g lo be;
W hile S upers titio n, s ta lk in g b y h is s id e,
M ock 'd t h e l o ud g ro an s, a n d l a p 'd t h e b lo ody t id e;
F or s a cre d t r u th s a n nounced h er f re n zie d d re am s,
420
And t u rn 'd t o n ig ht t h e s u n's m erid ia n b eam s.—
H ear, o h, B RIT A NNIA ! p ote n t Q ueen o f i s le s,
O n w hom f a ir A rt, a n d m eek R elig io n s m ile s,
N ow A FR IC 'S c o asts t h y c ra ftie r s o ns i n vad e
W ith m urd er, r a p in e, t h eft,— an d c all i t T ra d e!
425
—The S L A VE, i n c h ain s, o n s u pplic atin g k nee,
S pre ad s h is w id e a rm s, a n d l if ts h is e y es t o T hee;
W ith h unger p ale , w ith w ounds a n d t o il o ppre ss'd ,
" A RE W E N OT B RETH REN ?" s o rro w c h oak s t h e r e st;—
— AIR ! b ear t o h eav en u pon t h y a zu re f lo od
430
Their i n nocen t c rie s!— EA RTH ! c o ver n ot t h eir b lo od!

V III. " W hen H eav en 's d re ad j u stic e s m ite s i n c rim es o 'e rg ro w n
T he b lo od-n urs e d T yra n t o n h is p urp le t h ro ne,
G NOM ES! Y OUR b old f o rm s u nnum ber'd a rm s o uts tr e tc h ,
A nd u rg e t h e v en gean ce o 'e r t h e g uilty w re tc h .—
435
Thus w hen C A M BY SE S l e d h is b arb aro us h osts
F ro m P ers ia 's r o ck s t o E gypt's t r e m blin g c o asts ,
D efile d e ach h allo w ed f a n e, a n d s a cre d w ood,
A nd, d ru nk w ith f u ry , s w ell'd t h e N ile w ith b lo od;
W av ed h is p ro ud b an ner o 'e r t h e T heb an s ta te s,
440
And p our'd d estr u ctio n t h ro ugh h er h undre d g ate s;
I n d re ad d iv is io ns m arc h 'd t h e m ars h al'd b an ds,
A nd s w arm in g a rm ie s b la ck en 'd a ll t h e l a n ds,
B y M em phis t h ese t o E TH IO P'S s u ltr y p la in s,
A nd t h ose t o H AM MON'S s a n d-in cir c le d f a n es.—
445
Slo w a s t h ey p ass'd , t h e i n dig nan t t e m ple s f ro w n'd ,
L ow c u rs e s m utte rin g f ro m t h e v au lte d g ro und;
L ong a ile s o f C ypre ss w av ed t h eir d eep en 'd g lo om s,
A nd q uiv erin g s p ectr e s g rin n'd a m id t h e t o m bs;
P ro phetic w his p ers b re ath ed f ro m S
450
And M EM NON'S l y re w ith h ollo w m urm urs r u ng;
B urs t f ro m e ach p yra m id e x pir in g g ro an s,
A nd d ark er s h ad ow s s tr e tc h 'd t h eir l e n gth en 'd c o nes.—
D ay a fte r d ay t h eir d eath fu l r o ut T hey s te er,
L ust i n t h e v an , a n d r a p in e i n t h e r e ar.
[ Thus w hen C am byse s
.
l. 4 35. C am byse s m arc h ed o ne a rm y f ro m T heb es,
afte r h av in g o vertu rn ed t h e t e m ple s, r a v ag ed t h e c o untr y , a n d d elu ged i t w ith
blo od, t o s u bdue E th io pia ; t h is a rm y a lm ost p eris h ed b y f a m in e, i n so m uch ,
th at t h ey r e p eate d ly s le w e v ery t e n th m an t o s u pply t h e r e m ain der w ith f o od.
He s e n t a n oth er a rm y t o p lu nder t h e t e m ple o f J u pite r A m mon, w hic h
peris h ed o verw helm 'd w ith s a n d.]
[ Exp ir in g g ro ans
. l . 4 51. M r. S av ery o r M r. V oln ey i n t h eir T ra v els t h ro ugh
Egypt h as g iv en a c u rio us d esc rip tio n o f o ne o f t h e p yra m id s, w ith t h e
opero se m eth od o f c lo sin g t h em , a n d i m murin g t h e b ody, ( a s t h ey s u ppose d )
fo r s ix t h ousa n d y ears . A nd h as e n deav oure d f ro m t h en ce t o s h ew , t h at, w hen

a m onarc h d ie d , s e v era l o f h is f a v ourite c o urtie rs w ere i n clo se d a liv e w ith t h e
mum my i n t h ese g re at m asse s o f s to ne-w ork ; a n d h ad f o od a n d w ate r
co nvey ed t o t h em , a s l o ng a s t h ey l iv ed , p ro per a p ertu re s b ein g l e ft f o r t h is
purp ose , a n d f o r t h e a d m is sio n o f a ir , a n d f o r t h e e x clu sio n o f a n y t h in g
offe n siv e.]
455
"G NOM ES! a s t h ey m arc h 'd , Y ou h id t h e g ath ere d f ru its ,
T he b la d ed g ra ss, s w eet g ra in s, a n d m ealy r o ots ;
S care d t h e t ir e d q uails , t h at j o urn ey 'd o 'e r t h eir h ead s,
R eta in 'd t h e l o cu sts i n t h eir e arth y b ed s;
B ad e o n y our s a n ds n o n ig ht- b orn d ew s d is til,
460
Sta y 'd w ith v in dic tiv e h an ds t h e s c an ty r ill.—
L oud o 'e r t h e c am p t h e F ie n d o f F am in e s h rie k s,
C alls a ll h er b ro od, a n d c h am ps h er h undre d b eak s;
O 'e r t e n s q uare l e ag ues h er p en nons b ro ad e x pan d,
A nd t w ilig ht s w im s u pon t h e s h udderin g s a n d;
465
Perc h 'd o n h er c re st t h e G rif fin D is c o rd c lin gs,
A nd G ia n t M urd er r id es b etw een h er w in gs;
B lo od f ro m e ach c lo tte d h air , a n d h orn y q uill,
A nd s h ow ers o f t e ars i n b le n ded s tr e am s d is til;
H ig h-p ois e d i n a ir h er s p ir y n eck s h e b en ds,
470
Rolls h er k een e y e, h er D ra g on-c la w s e x te n ds,
D arts f ro m a b ove, a n d t e ars a t e ach f e ll s w oop
W ith i r o n f a n gs t h e d ecim ate d t r o op.
" N ow o 'e r t h eir h ead t h e w hiz zin g w hir lw in ds b re ath e,
A nd t h e l iv e d ese rt p an ts , a n d h eav es b en eath ;
475
Tin ged b y t h e c rim so n s u n, v ast c o lu m ns r is e
O f e d dyin g s a n ds, a n d w ar a m id t h e s k ie s,
I n r e d a rc ad es t h e b illo w y p la in s u rro und,
A nd s ta lk in g t u rre ts d an ce u pon t h e g ro und.
— Long r a n ks i n v ain t h eir s h in in g b la d es e x te n d,
480
To D em on-G ods t h eir k nees u nhallo w 'd b en d,
W heel i n w id e c ir c le , f o rm i n h ollo w s q uare ,
A nd n ow t h ey f ro nt, a n d n ow t h ey f ly t h e w ar,
P ie rc e t h e d eaf t e m pest w ith l a m en tin g c rie s,

P re ss t h eir p arc h 'd l ip s, a n d c lo se t h eir b lo od-s h ot e y es.
485
—GNOM ES! o 'e r t h e w aste Y OU l e d y our m yria d p ow ers ,
C lim b'd o n t h e w hir ls , a n d a im 'd t h e f lin ty s h ow ers !—
O nw ard r e sis tle ss r o lls t h e i n fu ria te s u rg e,
C lo uds f o llo w c lo uds, a n d m ounta in s m ounta in s u rg e;
W av e o ver w av e t h e d riv in g d ese rt s w im s,
490
Burs ts o 'e r t h eir h ead s, i n hum es t h eir s tr u gglin g l im bs;
M an m ounts o n m an , o n c am els c am els r u sh ,
H osts m arc h o 'e r h osts , a n d n atio ns n atio ns c ru sh ,—
W heelin g i n a ir t h e w in ged i s la n ds f a ll,
A nd o ne g re at e arth y O cean c o vers a ll! —
495
Then c ease d t h e s to rm ,— NIG HT b ow 'd h is E th io p b ro w
T o e arth , a n d l is te n 'd t o t h e g ro an s b elo w ,—
G rim H ORRO R s h ook,— aw hile t h e l iv in g h ill
H eav ed w ith c o nvuls iv e t h ro es,— an d a ll w as s till!
[ And s ta lk in g t u rre ts
. l . 4 78. " A t o ne o 'c lo ck w e a lig hte d a m ong s o m e a cacia
tr e es a t W aad i e l H alb oub, h av in g g one t w en ty -o ne m ile s. W e w ere h ere a t
once s u rp ris e d a n d t e rrif ie d b y a s ig ht s u re ly o ne o f t h e m ost m ag nif ic en t i n
th e w orld . I n t h at v ast e x pan se o f d ese rt, f ro m W . t o N .W . o f u s, w e s a w a
num ber o f p ro dig io us p illa rs o f s a n d a t d if fe re n t d is ta n ces, a t t im es m ovin g
with g re at c ele rity , a t o th ers s ta lk in g o n w ith a m aje stic s lo w ness; a t i n te rv als
we t h ought t h ey w ere c o m in g i n a v ery f e w m in ute s t o o verw helm u s; a n d
sm all q uan titie s o f s a n d d id a ctu ally m ore t h an o nce r e ach u s. A gain t h ey
would r e tr e at s o a s t o b e a lm ost o ut o f s ig ht, t h eir t o ps r e ach in g t o t h e v ery
clo uds. T here t h e t o ps o fte n s e p ara te d f ro m t h e b odie s; a n d t h ese , o nce
dis jo in ed , d is p ers e d i n t h e a ir , a n d d id n ot a p pear m ore . S om etim es t h ey w ere
bro ken i n t h e m id dle , a s i f s tr u ck w ith l a rg e c an non-s h ot. A bout n oon t h ey
beg an t o a d van ce w ith c o nsid era b le s w if tn ess u pon u s, t h e w in d b ein g v ery
str o ng a t n orth . E le v en o f t h em r a n ged a lo ng s id e o f u s a b out t h e d is ta n ce o f
th re e m ile s. T he g re ate st d ia m ete r o f t h e l a rg est a p peare d t o m e a t t h at
dis ta n ce a s i f i t w ould m easu re t e n f e et. T hey r e tir e d f ro m u s w ith a w in d a t
S.E . l e av in g a n i m pre ssio n u pon m y m in d t o w hic h I c an g iv e n o n am e,
th ough s u re ly o ne i n gre d ie n t i n i t w as f e ar, w ith a c o nsid era b le d eal o f
wonder a n d a sto nis h m en t. I t w as i n v ain t o t h in k o f f ly in g; t h e s w if te st h ors e ,
or f a ste st s a ilin g s h ip , c o uld b e o f n o u se t o c arry u s o ut o f t h is d an ger; a n d

th e f u ll p ers u asio n o f t h is r iv ette d m e a s i f t o t h e s p ot w here I s to od.
"T he s a m e a p peara n ce o f m ovin g p illa rs o f s a n d p re se n te d t h em se lv es t o u s
th is d ay i n f o rm a n d d is p ositio n l ik e t h ose w e h ad s e en a t W aad i H alb oub,
only t h ey s e em ed t o b e m ore i n n um ber a n d l e ss i n s iz e. T hey c am e s e v era l
tim es i n a d ir e ctio n c lo se u pon u s, t h at i s , I b elie v e, w ith in l e ss t h an t w o
mile s. T hey b eg an i m med ia te ly a fte r s u n r is e l ik e a t h ic k w ood a n d a lm ost
dark en ed t h e s u n. H is r a y s s h in in g t h ro ugh t h em f o r n ear a n h our, g av e t h em
an a p peara n ce o f p illa rs o f f ir e . O ur p eo ple n ow b ecam e d esp era te , t h e
Gre ek s s h rie k ed o ut a n d s a id i t w as t h e d ay o f j u dgm en t; I s m ael p ro nounced
it t o b e h ell; a n d t h e T urc o ro rie s, t h at t h e w orld w as o n f ir e ." B ru ce's T ra v els ,
Vol. I V . p . 5 53,- 5 55.
Fro m t h is a cco unt i t w ould a p pear, t h at t h e e d die s o f w in d w ere o w in g t o t h e
lo ng r a n ge o f b ro ken r o ck s, w hic h b ounded o ne s id e o f t h e s a n dy d ese rt, a n d
ben t t h e c u rre n ts o f a ir , w hic h s tr u ck a g ain st t h eir s id es; a n d w ere t h us l ik e
th e e d die s i n a s tr e am o f w ate r, w hic h f a lls a g ain st o bliq ue o bsta cle s. T his
ex pla n atio n i s p ro bab ly t h e t r u e o ne, a s t h ese w hir l- w in ds w ere n ot a tte n ded
with r a in o r l ig hte n in g l ik e t h e t o rn ad oes o f t h e W est- In die s.]
I X . " G NOM ES! w hose f in e f o rm s, i m passiv e a s t h e a ir ,
500
Shrin k w ith s o ft s y m path y f o r h um an c are ;
W ho g lid e u nse en , o n p rin tle ss s lip pers b orn e,
B en eath t h e w av in g g ra ss, a n d n oddin g c o rn ;
O r l a y y our t in y l im bs, w hen n oon-tid e w arm s,
W here s h ad ow y c o w slip s s tr e tc h t h eir g old en a rm s,—
505
So m ark 'd o n o rre rie s i n l u cid s ig ns,
S ta r'd w ith b rig ht p oin ts t h e m im ic z o dia c s h in es;
B orn e o n f in e w ir e s a m id t h e p ic tu re d s k ie s
W ith i v ory o rb s t h e p la n ets s e t a n d r is e ;
R ound t h e d w arf e arth t h e p early m oon i s r o ll'd ,
510
And t h e s u n t w in klin g w hir ls h is r a y s o f g old .—
C all y our b rig ht m yria d s, m arc h y our m aile d h osts ,
W ith s p ears a n d h elm ets g litte rin g r o und t h e c o asts ;
T hic k a s t h e h air s , w hic h r e ar t h e L io n's m an e,
O r f rin ge t h e B oar, t h at b ay s t h e h unte r-tr a in ;
515
Watc h , w here p ro ud S urg es b re ak t h eir t r e ach ero us m ounds,

A nd s w eep r e sis tle ss o 'e r t h e c u ltu re d g ro unds;
S uch a s e re w hile , i m pell'd o 'e r B elg ia 's p la in ,
R oll'd h er r ic h r u in s t o t h e i n sa tia te m ain ;
W ith p ile s a n d p ie rs t h e r u ffia n w av es e n gag e,
520
And b id i n dig nan t O cean s ta y h is r a g e.
[ So m ark 'd o n o rre rie s
. l . 5 05. T he f ir s t o rre ry w as c o nstr u cte d b y a M r.
Row le y , a m ath em atic ia n b orn a t L ic h fie ld ; a n d s o n am ed f ro m h is p atr o n t h e
Earl o f O rre ry . J o hnso n's D ic tio nary .]
" W here , g ir t w ith c lo uds, t h e r if te d m ounta in y aw ns,
A nd c h ills w ith l e n gth o f s h ad e t h e g elid l a w ns,
C lim b t h e r u de s te ep s, t h e g ra n ite -c lif fs s u rro und,
P ie rc e w ith s te el p oin ts , w ith w ooden w ed ges w ound;
525
Bre ak i n to c la y s t h e s o ft v olc an ic s la g gs,
O r m elt w ith a cid a ir s t h e m arb le c ra g gs;
C ro w n t h e g re en s u m mits w ith a d ven tu ro us f lo ck s,
A nd c h arm w ith n ovel f lo w ers t h e w onderin g r o ck s.
— So w hen p ro ud R om e t h e A fric W arrio r b ra v ed ,
530
And h ig h o n A lp s h is c rim so n b an ner w av ed ;
W hile r o ck s o n r o ck s t h eir b eetlin g b ro w s o ppose
W ith p in y f o re sts , a n d u nfa th om ed s n ow s;
O nw ard h e m arc h 'd , t o L atiu m 's v elv et g ro und
W ith f ir e s a n d a cid s b urs t t h e o bdura te b ound,
535
Wid e o 'e r h er w eep in g v ale s d estr u ctio n h url'd ,
A nd s h ook t h e r is in g e m pir e o f t h e w orld .
[ The g ra nite -c liffs .
l . 5 23. O n l o ng e x posu re t o a ir t h e g ra n ite s o r p orp horie s
of t h is c o untr y e x hib it a f e rru gen ous c ru st, t h e i r o n b ein g c alc in ed b y t h e a ir
fir s t b eco m es v is ib le , a n d i s t h en w ash ed a w ay f ro m t h e e x te rn al s u rfa ce,
whic h b eco m es w hite o r g re y , a n d t h us i n t im e s e em s t o d eco m pose . T he
marb le s s e em t o d eco m pose b y l o osin g t h eir c arb onic a cid , a s t h e o uts id e,
whic h h as b een l o ng e x pose d t o t h e a ir , d oes n ot s e em t o e ffe rv esc e s o h astily
with a cid s a s t h e p arts m ore r e cen tly b ro ken . T he i m men se q uan tity o f
carb onic a cid , w hic h e x is ts i n t h e m an y p ro vin ces o f l im e-s to ne, i f i t w as

ex tr ic ate d a n d d eco m pose d w ould a ffo rd c h arc o al e n ough f o r f u el f o r a g es, o r
fo r t h e p ro ductio n o f n ew v eg eta b le o r a n im al b odie s. T he v olc an ic s la g gs o n
Mount V esu viu s a re s a id b y M . F erb er t o b e c h an ged i n to c la y b y m ean s o f
th e s u lp hur- a cid , a n d e v en p ots m ad e o f c la y a n d b urn t o r v itr if ie d a re s a id
by h im t o b e a g ain r e d ucib le t o d uctile c la y b y t h e v olc an ic s te am s. F erb er's
Tra v els t h ro ugh I ta ly , p . 1 66.]
[ Wooden w ed ges w ound
. l . 5 24. I t i s u su al i n s e p era tin g l a rg e m ill- s to nes
fro m t h e s ilic eo us s a n d-ro ck s i n s o m e p arts o f D erb ysh ir e t o b ore h oriz o nta l
hole s u nder t h em i n a c ir c le , a n d f ill t h ese w ith p eg s m ad e o f d ry w ood,
whic h g ra d ually s w ell b y t h e m ois tu re o f t h e e arth , a n d i n a d ay o r t w o l if t u p
th e m ill- s to ne w ith out b re ak in g i t.]
[ With f ir e s a nd a cid s
. l . 5 34. H an nib al w as s a id t o e ro de h is w ay o ver t h e
Alp s b y f ir e a n d v in eg ar. T he l a tte r i s s u ppose d t o a llu de t o t h e v in eg ar a n d
wate r w hic h w as t h e b ev era g e o f h is a rm y. I n r e sp ect t o t h e f o rm er i t i s n ot
im pro bab le , b ut w here w ood w as t o b e h ad i n g re at a b undan ce, t h at f ir e s
mad e r o und l im esto ne p re cip ic es w ould c alc in e t h em t o a c o nsid era b le d ep th ,
th e n ig ht- d ew s o r m ounta in -m is ts w ould p en etr a te t h ese c alc in ed p arts a n d
pulv eriz e t h em b y t h e f o rc e o f t h e s te am w hic h t h e g en era te d h eat w ould
pro duce, t h e w in ds w ould d is p ers e t h is l im e-p ow der, a n d t h us b y r e p eate d
fir e s a p re cip ic e o f l im e-s to ne m ig ht b e d estr o yed a n d a p assa g e o pen ed . I t
sh ould b e a d ded , t h at a cco rd in g t o F erb er's o bse rv atio ns, t h ese A lp s c o nsis t
of l im e-s to ne. L ette rs f ro m I ta ly .]
X . " G o, g en tle G NOM ES! r e su m e y our v ern al t o il,
S eek m y c h ill t r ib es, w hic h s le ep b en eath t h e s o il;
O n g re y -m oss b an ks, g re en m ead s, o r f u rro w 'd l a n ds
540
Spre ad t h e d ark m ould , w hite l im e, a n d c ru m blin g s a n ds;
E ach b urs tin g b ud w ith h ealth ie r j u ic es f e ed ,
E m erg in g s c io n, o r a w ak en 'd s e ed .
S o, i n d esc en din g s tr e am s, t h e s ilv er C hyle
S tr e ak s w ith w hite c lo uds t h e g old en f lo ods o f b ile ;
545
Thro ugh e ach n ic e v alv e t h e m in glin g c u rre n ts g lid e,
J o in t h eir f in e r ills , a n d s w ell t h e s a n guin e t id e;
E ach c o untle ss c ell, a n d v ie w le ss f ib re s e ek ,
N erv e t h e s tr o ng a rm , a n d t in ge t h e b lu sh in g c h eek .

" O h, w atc h , w here b oso m 'd i n t h e t e em in g e arth ,
550
Gre en s w ells t h e g erm , i m patie n t f o r i ts b ir th ;
G uard f ro m r a p acio us w orm s i ts t e n der s h oots ,
A nd d riv e t h e m in in g b eetle f ro m i ts r o ots ;
W ith c ease le ss e ffo rts r e n d t h e o bdura te c la y ,
A nd g iv e m y v eg eta b le b ab es t o d ay !
555
—Thus w hen a n A ngel- fo rm , i n l ig ht a rra y 'd ,
L ik e H OW ARD p ie rc ed t h e p ris o n's n ois o m e s h ad e;
W here c h ain 'd t o e arth , w ith e y es t o h eav en u ptu rn 'd ,
T he k neelin g S ain t i n h oly a n guis h m ourn 'd ;—
R ay 'd f ro m h is l u cid v est, a n d h alo 'd b ro w
560
O'e r t h e d ark r o of c ele stia l l u str e s g lo w ,
" P E TER , a ris e !" w ith c h eerin g v oic e H e c alls ,
A nd s o unds s e ra p hic e ch o r o und t h e w alls ;
L ock s, b olts , a n d c h ain s h is p ote n t t o uch o bey ,
A nd p le ase d h e l e ad s t h e d azzle d S ag e t o d ay .
565
XI. " Y OU! w hose f in e f in gers f ill t h e o rg an ic c ells ,
W ith v ir g in e arth , o f w oods a n d b ones a n d s h ells ;
M ould w ith r e tr a ctile g lu e t h eir s p ongy b ed s,
A nd s tr e tc h a n d s tr e n gth en a ll t h eir f ib re -th re ad s.—
L ate w hen t h e m ass o bey s i ts c h an gefu l d oom ,
570
And s in ks t o e arth , i ts c ra d le a n d i ts t o m b,
G NOM ES! w ith n ic e e y e t h e s lo w s o lu tio n w atc h ,
W ith f o ste rin g h an d t h e p artin g a to m s c atc h ,
J o in i n n ew f o rm s, c o m bin e w ith l if e a n d s e n se ,
A nd g uid e a n d g uard t h e t r a n sm ig ra tin g E ns.
[ Mould w ith r e tr a ctile g lu e
. l . 5 67. T he c o nstitu en t p arts o f a n im al f ib re s a re
belie v ed t o b e e arth a n d g lu te n . T hese d o n ot s e p era te e x cep t b y l o ng
putr e fa ctio n o r b y f ir e . T he e arth t h en e ffe rv esc es w ith a cid s, a n d c an o nly b e
co nverte d i n to g la ss b y t h e g re ate st f o rc e o f f ir e . T he g lu te n h as c o ntin ued
unite d w ith t h e e arth o f t h e b ones a b ove 2 000 y ears i n E gyptia n m um mie s;
but b y l o ng e x posu re t o a ir o r m ois tu re i t d if fo lv es a n d l e av es o nly t h e e arth .
Hen ce b ones l o ng b urie d , w hen e x pose d t o t h e a ir , a b so rb m ois tu re a n d
cru m ble i n to p ow der. P hil. T ra n s. N o. 4 75. T he r e tr a ctib ility o r e la stic ity o f

th e a n im al f ib re d ep en ds o n t h e g lu te n ; a n d o f t h ese f ib re s a re c o m pose d t h e
mem bra n es m usc le s a n d b ones. H alle r. P hysio l. T om . I , p . 2 .
For t h e c h em ic al d eco m positio n o f a n im al a n d v eg eta b le b odie s s e e t h e
in gen io us w ork o f L av ois ie r, T ra ité d e C him ie , T om . I . p . 1 32. w ho r e so lv es
all t h eir c o m ponen t p arts i n to o xygen e, h ydro gen e, c arb one, a n d a zo te , t h e
th re e f o rm er o f w hic h b elo ng p rin cip ally t o v eg eta b le a n d t h e l a st t o a n im al
matte r.]
[ The t r a nsm ig ra tin g E ns
. l . 5 74, T he p erp etu al c ir c u la tio n o f m atte r i n t h e
gro w th a n d d is so lu tio n o f v eg eta b le a n d a n im al b odie s s e em s t o h av e g iv en
Pyth ag ora s h is i d ea o f t h e m ete m psy co sis o r t r a n sm ig ra tio n o f s p ir it; w hic h
was a fte rw ard s d re sse d o ut o r r id ic u le d i n v arie ty o f a m usin g f a b le s. O th er
philo so phers h av e s u ppose d , t h at t h ere a re t w o d if fe re n t m ate ria ls o r
esse n ces, w hic h f ill t h e u niv ers e . O ne o f t h ese , w hic h h as t h e p ow er o f
co m men cin g o r p ro ducin g m otio n, i s c alle d s p ir it; t h e o th er, w hic h h as t h e
pow er o f r e ceiv in g a n d o f c o m munic atin g m otio n, b ut n ot o f b eg in nin g i t, i s
calle d m atte r. T he f o rm er o f t h ese i s s u ppose d t o b e d if fu se d t h ro ugh a ll
sp ace, f illin g u p t h e i n te rs tic es o f t h e s u ns a n d p la n ets , a n d c o nstitu tin g t h e
gra v ita tio ns o f t h e s id ere al b odie s, t h e a ttr a ctio ns o f c h em is tr y , w ith t h e s p ir it
of v eg eta tio n, a n d o f a n im atio n. T he l a tte r o ccu pie s c o m para tiv ely b ut s m all
sp ace, c o nstitu tin g t h e s o lid p arts o f t h e s u ns a n d p la n ets , a n d t h eir
atm osp here s. H en ce t h ese p hilo so phers h av e s u ppose d , t h at b oth m atte r a n d
sp ir it a re e q ually i m morta l a n d u nperis h ab le ; a n d t h at o n t h e d is so lu tio n o f
veg eta b le o r a n im al o rg an iz atio n, t h e m atte r r e tu rn s t o t h e g en era l m ass o f
matte r; a n d t h e s p ir it t o t h e g en era l m ass o f s p ir it, t o e n te r a g ain i n to n ew
co m bin atio ns, a cco rd in g t o t h e o rig in al i d ea o f P yth ag ora s.
The s m all a p pare n t q uan tity o f m atte r t h at e x is ts i n t h e u niv ers e c o m pare d t o
th at o f s p ir it, a n d t h e s h ort t im e i n w hic h t h e r e cre m en ts o f a n im al o r
veg eta b le b odie s b eco m e a g ain v iv if ie d i n t h e f o rm s o f v eg eta b le m uco r o r
mic ro sc o pic i n se cts , s e em s t o h av e g iv en r is e t o a n oth er c u rio us f a b le o f
an tiq uity . T hat J u pite r t h re w d ow n a l a rg e h an dfu l o f s o uls u pon t h e e arth ,
an d l e ft t h em t o s c ra m ble f o r t h e f e w b odie s w hic h w ere t o b e h ad .]
575
"S o w hen o n L eb an on's s e q ueste r'd h ig ht
T he f a ir A DONIS l e ft t h e r e alm s o f l ig ht,

B ow 'd h is b rig ht l o ck s, a n d, f a te d f ro m h is b ir th
T o c h an ge e te rn al, m in gle d w ith t h e e arth ;—
W ith d ark er h orro r s h ook t h e c o nsc io us w ood,
580
Gro an 'd t h e s a d g ale s, a n d r iv ers b lu sh 'd w ith b lo od;
O n c y pre ss-b oughs t h e L oves t h eir q uiv ers h ung,
T heir a rro w s s c atte r'd , a n d t h eir b ow s u nstr u ng;
A nd B EA UTY 'S G ODDESS, b en din g o 'e r h is b ie r,
B re ath ed t h e s o ft s ig h, a n d p our'd t h e t e n der t e ar.—
585
Adm ir in g P R O SE R PIN E t h ro ugh d usk y g la d es
L ed t h e f a ir p han to m t o E ly sia n s h ad es,
C la d w ith n ew f o rm , w ith f in er s e n se c o m bin ed ,
A nd l it w ith p ure r f la m e t h e e th ere al m in d.
— Ere w hile , e m erg in g f ro m i n fe rn al n ig ht,
590
The b rig ht A ssu rg en t r is e s i n to l ig ht,
L eav es t h e d re ar c h am bers o f t h e i n sa tia te t o m b,
A nd s h in es a n d c h arm s w ith r e n ovate d b lo om .—
W hile w onderin g L oves t h e b urs tin g g ra v e s u rro und,
A nd e d ge w ith m eetin g w in gs t h e y aw nin g g ro und,
595
Str e tc h t h eir f a ir n eck s, a n d l e an in g o 'e r t h e b rin k
V ie w t h e p ale r e g io ns o f t h e d ead , a n d s h rin k;
L ong w ith b ro ad e y es e csta tic B EA UTY s ta n ds,
H eav es h er w hite b oso m , s p re ad s h er w ax en h an ds;
T hen w ith l o ud s h rie k t h e p an tin g Y outh a la rm s,
600
"M y L if e ! m y L ove!" a n d s p rin gs i n to h is a rm s."
[ Adonis
. l . 5 76. T he v ery a n tie n t s to ry o f t h e b eau tif u l A donis p assin g o ne
half o f t h e y ear w ith V en us, a n d t h e o th er w ith P ro se rp in e a lte rn ate ly , h as h ad
varie ty o f i n te rp re ta tio ns. S om e h av e s u ppose d t h at i t a lle g oriz ed t h e s u m mer
an d w in te r s o ls tic e; b ut t h is s e em s t o o o bvio us a f a ct t o h av e n eed ed a n
hie ro gly phic e m ble m . O th ers h av e b elie v ed i t t o r e p re se n t t h e c o rn , w hic h
was s u ppose d t o s le ep i n t h e e arth d urin g t h e w in te r m onth s, a n d t o r is e o ut
of i t i n s u m mer. T his d oes n ot a cco rd w ith t h e c lim ate o f E gypt, w here t h e
harv est s o on f o llo w s t h e s e ed -tim e.
It s e em s m ore p ro bab ly t o h av e b een a s to ry e x pla in in g s o m e h ie ro gly phic
fig ure s r e p re se n tin g t h e d eco m positio n a n d r e su sc ita tio n o f a n im al m atte r; a

su blim e a n d i n te re stin g s u bje ct, a n d w hic h s e em s t o h av e g iv en o rig in t o t h e
doctr in e o f t h e t r a n sm ig ra tio n, w hic h h ad p ro bab ly i ts b ir th a ls o f ro m t h e
hie ro gly phic t r e asu re s o f E gypt. I t i s r e m ark ab le t h at t h e c y pre ss g ro ves i n
th e a n cie n t g re ek w rite rs , a s i n T heo critu s, w ere d ed ic ate d t o V en us; a n d
afte rw ard s b ecam e f u nere al e m ble m s. W hic h w as p ro bab ly o ccasio ned b y t h e
Cypre ss b ein g a n a cco m pan im en t o f V en us i n t h e a n nual p ro cessio ns, i n
whic h s h e w as s u ppose d t o l a m en t o ver t h e f u nera l o f A donis ; a c ere m ony
whic h o bta in ed o ver a ll t h e e aste rn w orld f ro m g re at a n tiq uity , a n d i s
su ppose d t o b e r e fe rre d t o b y E zek ie l, w ho a ccu se s t h e i d ola tr o us w om an o f
weep in g f o r T ham mus.]
T he G ODDESS c ease d ,— th e d ele g ate d t h ro ng
O 'e r t h e w id e p la in s d elig hte d r u sh a lo ng;
I n d usk y s q uad ro ns, a n d i n s h in in g g ro ups,
H osts f o llo w h osts , a n d t r o ops s u cceed t o t r o ops;
605
Scarc e b ears t h e b en din g g ra ss t h e m ovin g f re ig ht,
A nd n oddin g f lo re ts b ow b en eath t h eir w eig ht.
S o w hen l ig ht c lo uds o n a ir y p in io ns s a il,
F lit t h e s o ft s h ad ow s o 'e r t h e w av in g v ale ;
S had e f o llo w s s h ad e, a s l a u ghin g Z ep hyrs d riv e,
610
And a ll t h e c h eq uer'd l a n dsc ap e s e em s a liv e.
[ Zep hyrs d riv e
. l . 6 09. T hese l in es w ere o rig in ally w ritte n t h us,
S had e f o llo w s s h ad e b y l a u ghin g Z ep hyrs d ro ve,
A nd a ll t h e c h eq uer'd l a n dsc ap e s e em s t o m ove.
but w ere a lte re d o n a cco unt o f t h e s u ppose d f a ls e g ra m mar i n u sin g t h e w ord
dro ve f o r d riv en , a cco rd in g t o t h e o pin io n o f D r. L ow th : a t t h e s a m e t im e i t
may b e o bse rv ed , 1 . t h at t h is i s i n m an y c ase s o nly a n e llip sis o f t h e l e tte r
n a t
th e e n d o f t h e w ord ; a s f ro ze, f o r f ro zen ; w ove, f o r w oven ; s p oke, f o r s p oken ;
an d t h at t h en t h e p artic ip le a ccid en ta lly b eco m es s im ila r t o t h e p ast t e n se : 2 .
th at t h e l a n guag e s e em s g ra d ually t e n din g t o o m it t h e l e tte r
n i n o th er k in d o f
word s f o r t h e s a k e o f e u phony; a s h ouse n i s b eco m e h ouse s; e y ne, e y es;
th in e, t h y, & c. a n d i n c o m mon c o nvers a tio n, t h e w ord s f o rg ot, s p oke, f ro ze,
ro de, a re f re q uen tly u se d f o r f o rg otte n , s p oken , f ro zen , r id den . 3 . I t d oes n ot

ap pear t h at a n y c o nfu sio n w ould f o llo w t h e i n dis c rim in ate u se o f t h e s a m e
word f o r t h e p ast t e n se a n d t h e p artic ip le p assiv e, s in ce t h e a u xilia ry v erb
have
, o r t h e p re ced in g n oun o r p ro noun a lw ay s c le arly d is tin guis h es t h em :
an d l a stly , r h im e-p oetr y m ust l o se t h e u se o f m an y e le g an t w ord s w ith out t h is
lic en se .]
Arg um en t o f t h e T hir d C anto .
Addre ss t o t h e N ym phs. I . S te am r is e s f ro m t h e o cean , f lo ats i n c lo uds,
desc en ds i n r a in a n d d ew , o r i s c o nden se d o n h ills , p ro duces s p rin gs, a n d
riv ers , a n d r e tu rn s t o t h e s e a. S o t h e b lo od c ir c u la te s t h ro ugh t h e b ody a n d
re tu rn s t o t h e h eart. 1 1. I I. 1 . T id es, 5 7. 2 . E ch in us, n au tilu s, p in na, c an cer.
Gro tto o f a m erm aid . 6 5. 3 . O il s tills t h e w av es. C ora l r o ck s. S hip -w orm , o r
Tere d o. M aels tr o m e, a w hir lp ool o n t h e c o ast o f N orw ay . 8 5. I II. R iv ers f ro m
ben eath t h e s n ow s o n t h e A lp s. T he T ib er. 1 03. I V . O verflo w in g o f t h e N ile
fro m A fric an M onso ons, 1 29.
V. 1 . G ie sa r, a b oilin g f o unta in i n I c ela n d,
destr o yed b y i n undatio n, a n d c o nse q uen t e arth quak e, 1 45. 2 . W arm m ed ic in al
sp rin gs. B uxto n. D uke a n d D utc h ess o f D ev onsh ir e . 1 57. V I. C om bin atio n o f
vita l a ir a n d i n fla m mab le g as p ro duces w ate r. W hic h i s a n oth er s o urc e o f
sp rin gs a n d r iv ers .
Alle g oric al l o ves o f J u pite r a n d J u no p ro ductiv e o f v ern al
sh ow ers . 2 01. V II. A quatic T aste . D is ta n t m urm ur o f t h e s e a b y n ig ht. S ea-
hors e . N ere id s in gin g. 2 61.
VIII. T he N ym phs o f t h e r iv er D erw en t l a m en t
th e d eath o f M rs . F re n ch , 2 97. I X . I n la n d n av ig atio n. M onum en t f o r M r.
Brin dle y , 3 41. X . P um ps e x pla in ed . C hild s u ck in g. M oth ers e x horte d t o n urs e
th eir c h ild re n . C heru b s le ep in g. 3 65. X I. E ngin es f o r e x tin guis h in g f ir e . S to ry
of t w o l o vers p eris h in g i n t h e f la m es. 3 97. X II. C haritie s o f M is s J o nes, 4 47.
XIII. M ars h es d ra in ed . H erc u le s c o nquers A ch ilo us. T he h orn o f P le n ty . 4 83.
XIV . S how ers . D ew s. F lo atin g l a n ds w ith w ate r. L acte al s y ste m i n a n im als .
Cara v an d rin kin g. 5 29. D ep artu re o f t h e N ym phs l ik e w ate r s p id ers ; l ik e
north ern n atio ns s k aitin g o n t h e i c e. 5 69.

T H E
EC O NO M Y O F V EG ETA TIO N.
C ANTO I II.
A GAIN t h e G ODDESS s p eak s!— gla d E ch o s w ells
T he t u nefu l t o nes a lo ng h er s h ad ow y d ells ,
H er w rin klin g f o unts w ith s o ft v ib ra tio n s h ak es,
C urls h er d eep w ells , a n d r im ple s a ll h er l a k es,
5
Thrills e ach w id e s tr e am , B rita n nia 's i s le t h at l a v es,
H er h ead lo ng c ata ra cts , a n d c ir c u m flu en t w av es.
— Thic k a s t h e d ew s, w hic h d eck t h e m orn in g f lo w ers ,
O r r a in -d ro ps t w in klin g i n t h e s u n-b rig ht s h ow ers ,
F air N ym phs, e m erg in g i n p ellu cid b an ds,
1 0
Ris e , a s s h e t u rn s, a n d w hite n a ll t h e l a n ds.
I . " Y OUR b uoyan t t r o ops o n d im plin g o cean t r e ad ,
W aftin g t h e m ois t a ir f ro m h is o ozy b ed ,
A QUATIC N YM PH S!— YOU l e ad w ith v ie w le ss m arc h
T he w in ged v ap ours u p t h e a eria l a rc h ,
1 5
On e ach b ro ad c lo ud a t h ousa n d s a ils e x pan d,
A nd s te er t h e s h ad ow y t r e asu re o 'e r t h e l a n d,
T hro ugh v ern al s k ie s t h e g ath erin g d ro ps d if fu se ,
P lu nge i n s o ft r a in s, o r s in k i n s ilv er d ew s.—
Y OUR l u cid b an ds c o nden se w ith f in gers c h ill
2 0
The b lu e m is t h overin g r o und t h e g elid h ill;
I n c la y -fo rm 'd b ed s t h e t r ic k lin g s tr e am s c o lle ct,
S tr a in t h ro ugh w hite s a n ds, t h ro ugh p eb bly v ein s d ir e ct;
O r p oin t i n r if te d r o ck s t h eir d ubio us w ay ,
A nd i n e ach b ubblin g f o unta in r is e t o d ay .

[ The w in ged v a pours
. l . 1 4. S ee a d ditio nal n ote N o. X XV. o n e v ap ora tio n.]
[ On e a ch b ro ad c lo ud
. l . 1 5. T he c lo uds c o nsis t o f c o nden se d v ap our, t h e
partic le s o f w hic h a re t o o s m all s e p ara te ly t o o verc o m e t h e t e n acity o f t h e a ir ,
an d w hic h t h ere fo re d o n ot d esc en d. T hey a re i n s u ch s m all s p here s a s t o
re p el e ach o th er, t h at i s , t h ey a re a p plie d t o e ach o th er b y s u ch v ery s m all
su rfa ces, t h at t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h e p artic le s o f e ach d ro p t o i ts o w n c en tr e i s
gre ate r t h an i ts a ttr a ctio n t o t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e d ro p i n i ts v ic in ity ; e v ery o ne
has o bse rv ed w ith w hat d if fic u lty s m all s p heru le s o f q uic k silv er c an b e m ad e
to u nite , o w in g t o t h e s a m e c au se ; a n d i t i s c o m mon t o s e e o n r id in g t h ro ugh
sh allo w w ate r o n a c le ar d ay , n um bers o f v ery s m all s p here s o f w ate r a s t h ey
are t h ro w n f ro m t h e h ors e s f e et r u n a lo ng t h e s u rfa ce f o r m an y y ard s b efo re
th ey a g ain u nite w ith i t. I n m an y c ase s t h ese s p heru le s o f w ate r, w hic h
co m pose c lo uds, a re k ep t f ro m u nitin g b y a s u rp lu s o f e le ctr ic f lu id ; a n d f a ll
in v io le n t s h ow ers a s s o on a s t h at i s w ith dra w n f ro m t h em , a s i n t h under
sto rm s. S ee n ote o n C an to I . l . 5 53.
If i n t h is s ta te a c lo ud b eco m es f ro zen , i t i s t o rn t o p ie ces i n i ts d esc en t b y t h e
fric tio n o f t h e a ir , a n d f a lls i n w hite f la k es o f s n ow . O r t h ese f la k es a re
ro unded b y b ein g r u bbed t o geth er b y t h e w in ds, a n d b y h av in g t h eir a n gle s
th aw ed o ff b y t h e w arm er a ir b en eath a s t h ey d esc en d; a n d p art o f t h e w ate r
pro duced b y t h ese a n gle s t h us d is so lv ed i s a b so rb ed i n to t h e b ody o f t h e
hails to ne, a s m ay b e s e en b y h old in g a l u m p o f s n ow o ver a c an dle , a n d t h ere
beco m es f ro zen i n to i c e b y t h e q uan tity o f c o ld w hic h t h e h ails to ne p osse sse s
ben eath t h e f re ezin g p oin t, o r w hic h i s p ro duced b y i ts q uic k e v ap ora tio n i n
fa llin g; a n d t h us h ails to nes a re o fte n f o und o f g re ate r o r l e ss d en sity
acco rd in g a s t h ey c o nsis t o f a g re ate r p ortio n o f s n ow o r i c e. I f h ails to nes
co nsis te d o f t h e l a rg e d ro ps o f s h ow ers f ro zen i n t h eir d esc en t, t h ey w ould
co nsis t o f p ure t r a n sp are n t i c e.
As h ail i s o nly p ro duced i n s u m mer, a n d i s a lw ay s a tte n ded w ith s to rm s,
so m e p hilo so phers h av e b elie v ed t h at t h e s u dden d ep artu re o f e le ctr ic ity f ro m
a c lo ud m ay e ffe ct s o m eth in g y et u nknow n i n t h is p hen om en on; b ut i t m ay
hap pen i n s u m mer i n dep en den t o f e le ctr ic ity , b ecau se t h e a q ueo us v ap our i s
th en r a is e d h ig her i n t h e a tm osp here , w hen ce i t h as f u rth er t o f a ll, a n d t h ere i s
warm er a ir b elo w f o r i t t o f a ll t h ro ugh.]
[ Or s in k i n s ilv er d ew s
. l . 1 8. D urin g t h e c o ld ness o f t h e n ig ht t h e m ois tu re

befo re d is so lv ed i n t h e a ir i s g ra d ually p re cip ita te d , a n d a s i t s u bsid es a d here s
to t h e b odie s i t f a lls u pon. W here t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h e b ody t o t h e p artic le s o f
wate r i s g re ate r t h an t h e a ttr a ctio ns o f t h ose p artic le s t o e ach o th er, i t
beco m es s p re ad u pon t h eir s u rfa ce, o r s lid es d ow n t h em i n a ctu al c o nta ct; a s
on t h e b ro ad p arts o f t h e b la d es o f m ois t g ra ss: w here t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h e
su rfa ce t o t h e w ate r i s l e ss t h an t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h e p artic le s o f w ate r t o e ach
oth er, t h e d ew s ta n ds i n d ro ps; a s o n t h e p oin ts a n d e d ges o f g ra ss o r g ors e ,
where t h e s u rfa ce p re se n te d t o t h e d ro p b ein g s m all i t a ttr a cts i t s o l ittle a s b ut
ju st t o s u pport i t w ith out m uch c h an gin g i ts g lo bula r f o rm : w here t h ere i s n o
attr a ctio n b etw een t h e v eg eta b le s u rfa ce a n d t h e d ew d ro ps, a s o n c ab bag e
le av es, t h e d ro p d oes n ot c o m e i n to c o nta ct w ith t h e l e af, b ut h an gs o ver i t
re p elle d , a n d r e ta in s i t n atu ra l f o rm , c o m pose d o f t h e a ttr a ctio n a n d p re ssu re
of i ts o w n p arts , a n d t h en ce l o oks l ik e q uic k silv er, r e fle ctin g l ig ht f ro m b oth
its s u rfa ces. N or i s t h is o w in g t o a n y o ilin ess o f t h e l e af, b ut s im ply t o t h e
polis h o f i ts s u rfa ce, a s a l ig ht n eed le m ay b e l a id o n w ate r i n t h e s a m e
man ner w ith out t o uch in g i t; f o r a s t h e a ttr a ctiv e p ow ers o f p olis h ed s u rfa ces
are g re ate r w hen i n a ctu al c o nta ct, s o t h e r e p uls iv e p ow er i s g re ate r b efo re
co nta ct.]
[ The b lu e m is t
. l . 2 0. M is ts a re c lo uds r e stin g o n t h e g ro und, t h ey g en era lly
co m e o n a t t h e b eg in nin g o f n ig ht, a n d e ith er f ill t h e m ois t v allie s, o r h an g o n
th e s u m mits o f h ills , a cco rd in g t o t h e d eg re e o f m ois tu re p re v io usly
dis so lv ed , a n d t h e e d uctio n o f h eat f ro m t h em . T he a ir o ver r iv ers d urin g t h e
warm th o f t h e d ay s u sp en ds m uch m ois tu re , a n d a s t h e c h an gefu l s u rfa ce o f
riv ers o ccasio ns t h em t o c o ol s o oner t h an t h e l a n d a t t h e a p pro ach o f e v en in g,
mis ts a re m ost f re q uen tly s e en t o b eg in o ver r iv ers , a n d t o s p re ad t h em se lv es
over m ois t g ro unds, a n d f ill t h e v allie s, w hile t h e m is ts o n t h e t o ps o f
mounta in s a re m ore p ro perly c lo uds, c o nden se d b y t h e c o ld ness o f t h eir
situ atio n.
On a sc en din g u p t h e s id e o f a h ill f ro m a m is ty v alle y , I h av e o bse rv ed a
beau tif u l c o lo ure d h alo r o und t h e m oon w hen a c erta in t h ic k ness o f m is t w as
over m e, w hic h c ease d t o b e v is ib le a s s o on a s I e m erg ed o ut o f i t; a n d w ell
re m em ber a d m ir in g w ith o th er s p ecta to rs t h e s h ad ow o f t h e t h re e s p ir e s o f
th e c ath ed ra l c h urc h a t L ic h fie ld , t h e m oon r is in g b eh in d i t, a p pare n tly
bro ken o ff, a n d l y in g d is tin ctly o ver o ur h ead s a s i f h oriz o nta lly o n t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e m is t, w hic h a ro se a b out a s h ig h a s t h e r o of o f t h e c h urc h . T here

are s o m e c u rio us r e m ark s o n s h ad ow s o r r e fle x io ns s e en o n t h e s u rfa ce o f
mis ts f ro m h ig h m ounta in s i n U llo a's V oyag es. T he d ry m is t o f s u m mer
1783, w as p ro bab ly o ccasio ned b y v olc an ic e ru ptio n, a s m en tio ned i n n ote o n
Chunda, V ol. I I. a n d t h ere fo re m ore l ik e t h e a tm osp here o f s m oke w hic h
han gs o n s till d ay s o ver g re at c itie s.
There i s a d ry m is t, o r r a th er a d im in is h ed t r a n sp are n ce o f t h e a ir , w hic h
acco rd in g t o M r. S au ssu re a cco m pan ie s f a ir w eath er, w hile g re at
tr a n sp are n ce o f a ir i n dic ate s r a in . T hus w hen l a rg e r iv ers t w o m ile s b ro ad ,
su ch a s a t L iv erp ool, a p pear n arro w , i t i s s a id t o p ro gnostic ate r a in ; a n d w hen
wid e, f a ir w eath er. T his w an t o f t r a n sp are n ce o f t h e a ir i n d ry w eath er, m ay
be o w in g t o n ew c o m bin atio ns o r d eco m positio ns o f t h e v ap ours d is so lv ed i n
it, b ut w an ts f u rth er i n vestig atio n. E ssa is s u r L 'H ygro m et, p . 3 57.]
[ Round t h e g elid h ill
. l . 2 0. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XVI. o n t h e o rig in o f
sp rin gs.]
2 5
"N YM PH S! Y OU t h en g uid e, a tte n dan t f ro m t h eir s o urc e,
T he a sso cia te r ills a lo ng t h eir s in uous c o urs e ;
F lo at i n b rig ht s q uad ro ns b y t h e w illo w y b rin k,
O r c ir c lin g s lo w i n l im pid e d die s s in k;
C all f ro m h er c ry sta l c av e t h e N aia d -N ym ph,
3 0
Who h id es h er f in e f o rm i n t h e p assin g l y m ph,
A nd, a s b elo w s h e b ra id s h er h yalin e h air ,
E yes h er s o ft s m ile s r e fle cte d i n t h e a ir ;
O r s p ort i n g ro ups w ith R iv er-B oys, t h at l a v e
T heir s ilk en l im bs a m id t h e d ash in g w av e;
3 5
Plu ck t h e p ale p rim ro se b en din g f ro m i ts e d ge,
O r t itte rin g d an ce a m id t h e w his p erin g s e d ge.—
" O nw ard Y OU p ass, t h e p in e-c ap t h ills d iv id e,
O r f e ed t h e g old en h arv ests o n t h eir s id e;
T he w id e-rib b'd a rc h w ith h urry in g t o rre n ts f ill,
4 0
Shove t h e s lo w b arg e, o r w hir l t h e f o am in g m ill.
O R l e ad w ith b eck onin g h an d t h e s p ark lin g t r a in
O f r e flu en t w ate r t o i ts p are n t m ain ,
A nd p le ase d r e v is it i n t h eir s e a-m oss v ale s

B lu e N ere id -fo rm s a rra y 'd i n s h in in g s c ale s,
4 5
Shap es, w hose b ro ad o ar t h e t o rp id w av e i m pels ,
A nd T rito ns b ello w in g t h ro ugh t h eir t w is te d s h ells .
" S o f ro m t h e h eart t h e s a n guin e s tr e am d is tils ,
O 'e r B eau ty 's r a d ia n t s h rin e i n v erm il r ills ,
F eed s e ach f in e n erv e, e ach s le n der h air p erv ad es,
5 0
The s k in s b rig ht s n ow w ith l iv in g p urp le s h ad es,
E ach d im plin g c h eek w ith w arm er b lu sh es d yes,
L au ghs o n t h e l ip s, a n d l ig hte n s i n t h e e y es.
— Ere w hile a b so rb 'd , t h e v ag ra n t g lo bule s s w im
F ro m e ach f a ir f e atu re , a n d p ro portio n'd l im b,
5 5
Jo in 'd i n o ne t r u nk w ith d eep er t in t r e tu rn
T o t h e w arm c o ncav e o f t h e v ita l u rn .
I I. 1 ." A QUATIC M AID S! Y OU s w ay t h e m ig hty r e alm s
O f s c ale a n d s h ell, w hic h O cean o verw helm s;
A s N ig ht's p ale Q ueen h er r is in g o rb r e v eals ,
6 0
And c lim bs t h e z en ith w ith r e fu lg en t w heels ,
C ar'd o n t h e f o am y our g lim merin g l e g io n r id es,
Y our l ittle t r id en ts h eav e t h e d ash in g t id es,
U rg e o n t h e s o undin g s h ore s t h eir c ry sta l c o urs e ,
R estr a in t h eir f u ry , o r d ir e ct t h eir f o rc e.
[ Car'd o n t h e f o am
. l . 6 1. T he p hen om en a o f t h e t id es h av e b een w ell
in vestig ate d a n d s a tis fa cto rily e x pla in ed b y S ir I s a ac N ew to n a n d D r. H alle y
fro m t h e r e cip ro cal g ra v ita tio ns o f t h e e arth , m oon, a n d s u n. A s t h e e arth a n d
moon m ove r o und a c en tr e o f m otio n n ear t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce, a t t h e s a m e
tim e t h at t h ey a re p ro ceed in g i n t h eir a n nual o rb it r o und t h e s u n, i t f o llo w s
th at t h e w ate r o n t h e s id e o f t h e e arth n eare st t h is c en tr e o f m otio n b etw een
th e e arth a n d m oon w ill b e m ore a ttr a cte d b y t h e m oon, a n d t h e w ate rs o n t h e
opposite s id e o f t h e e arth w ill b e l e ss a ttr a cte d b y t h e m oon, t h an t h e c en tr a l
parts o f t h e e arth . A dd t o t h is t h at t h e c en tr if u gal f o rc e o f t h e w ate r o n t h e
sid e o f t h e e arth f u rth est f ro m t h e c en tr e o f t h e m otio n, r o und w hic h t h e e arth
an d m oon m ove, ( w hic h , a s w as s a id b efo re , i s n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth )
is g re ate r t h an t h at o n t h e o pposite s id e o f t h e e arth . F ro m b oth t h ese c au se s i t
is e asy t o c o m pre h en d t h at t h e w ate r w ill r is e o n t w o s id es o f t h e e arth , v iz .

on t h at n eare st t o t h e m oon, a n d i ts o pposite s id e, a n d t h at i t w ill b e f la tte n ed
in c o nse q uen ce a t t h e q uad ra tu re s, a n d t h us p ro duce t w o t id es i n e v ery l u nar
day , w hic h c o nsis ts o f a b out t w en ty - f o ur h ours a n d f o rty -e ig ht m in ute s.
These t id es w ill b e a ls o a ffe cte d b y t h e s o la r a ttr a ctio n w hen i t c o in cid es w ith
th e l u nar o ne, o r o ppose s i t, a s a t n ew a n d f u ll m oon, a n d w ill a ls o b e m uch
in flu en ced b y t h e o pposin g s h ore s i n e v ery p art o f t h e e arth .
Now a s t h e m oon i n m ovin g r o und t h e c en tr e o f g ra v ity b etw een i ts e lf a n d
th e e arth d esc rib es a m uch l a rg er o rb it t h an t h e e arth d esc rib es r o und t h e
sa m e c en tr e , i t f o llo w s t h at t h e c en tr if u gal m otio n o n t h e s id e o f t h e m oon
opposite t o t h e e arth m ust b e m uch g re ate r t h an t h e c en tr if u gal m otio n o f t h e
sid e o f t h e e arth o pposite t o t h e m oon r o und t h e s a m e c en tr e . A nd s e co ndly ,
as t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h e e arth e x erte d o n t h e m oon's s u rfa ce n ex t t o t h e e arth i s
much g re ate r t h an t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h e m oon e x erte d o n t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce,
th e t id es o n t h e l u nar s e a, ( if s u ch t h ere b e,) s h ould b e m uch g re ate r t h an
th ose o f o ur o cean . A dd t o t h is t h at a s t h e s a m e f a ce o f t h e m oon a lw ay s i s
tu rn ed t o t h e e arth , t h e l u nar t id es m ust b e p erm an en t, a n d i f t h e s o lid p arts o f
th e m oon b e s p heric al, m ust a lw ay s c o ver t h e p hasis n ex t t o u s. B ut a s t h ere
are e v id en tly h ills a n d v ale s a n d v olc an os o n t h is s id e o f t h e m oon, t h e
co nse q uen ce i s t h at t h e m oon h as n o o cean , o r t h at i t i s f ro zen .]
6 5
2." N YM PH S! Y OU a d orn , i n g lo ssy v olu m es r o ll'd ,
T he g au dy c o nch w ith a zu re , g re en , a n d g old .
Y ou r o und E ch in us r a y h is a rro w y m ail,
G iv e t h e k eel'd N au tilu s h is o ar a n d s a il;
F ir m t o h is r o ck w ith s ilv er c o rd s s u sp en d
7 0
The a n ch or'd P in na, a n d h is C an cer-frie n d;
W ith w orm -lik e b eard h is t o oth le ss l ip s a rra y ,
A nd t e ach t h e u nw ie ld y S tu rg eo n t o b etr a y .—
A m bush 'd i n w eed s, o r s e p ulc h er'd i n s a n ds,
I n d re ad r e p ose H e w aits t h e s c aly b an ds,
7 5
Wav es i n r e d s p ir e s t h e l iv in g l u re s, a n d d ra w s
T he u nw ary p lu ndere rs t o h is c ir c lin g j a w s,
E yes w ith g rim j o y t h e t w in klin g s h oals b ese t,
A nd c la sp s t h e q uic k i n ex tr ic ab le n et.
Y ou c h ase t h e w arrio r S hark , a n d c u m bero us W hale ,

8 0
And g uard t h e M erm aid i n h er b rin y v ale ;
F eed t h e l iv e p eta ls o f h er i n se ct- flo w ers ,
H er s h ell- w ra ck g ard en s, a n d h er s e a-fa n b ow ers ;
W ith o re s a n d g em s a d orn h er c o ra l c ell,
A nd d ro p a p earl i n e v ery g ap in g s h ell.
[ The g audy c o nch
. l . 6 6. T he s p ir a l f o rm o f m an y s h ells s e em t o h av e
affo rd ed a m ore f ru gal m an ner o f c o verin g t h e l o ng t a il o f t h e f is h w ith
calc are o us a rm our; s in ce a s in gle t h in p artitio n b etw een t h e a d jo in in g c ir c le s
of t h e f is h w as s u ffic ie n t t o d efe n d b oth s u rfa ces, a n d t h us m uch c re ta ceo us
matte r i s s a v ed ; a n d i t i s p ro bab le t h at f ro m t h is s p ir a l f o rm t h ey a re b ette r
en ab le d t o f e el t h e v ib ra tio ns o f t h e e le m en t i n w hic h t h ey e x is t. S ee n ote o n
Can to I V . l . 1 62. T his c re ta ceo us m atte r i s f o rm ed b y a m uco us s e cre tio n
fro m t h e s k in o f t h e f is h , a s i s s e en i n c ra b -fis h , a n d o th ers w hic h a n nually
cast t h eir s h ells , a n d i s a t f ir s t a s o ft m uco us c o verin g, ( lik e t h at o f a h en 's
eg g, w hen i t i s l a id a d ay o r t w o t o o s o on,) a n d w hic h g ra d ually h ard en s. T his
may a ls o b e s e en i n c o m mon s h ell s n ails , i f a p art o f t h eir s h ell b e b ro ken i t
beco m es r e p air e d i n a s im ila r m an ner w ith m ucu s, w hic h b y d eg re es h ard en s
in to s h ell.
It i s p ro bab le t h e c alc u li o r s to nes f o und i n o th er a n im als m ay h av e a s im ila r
orig in , a s t h ey a re f o rm ed o n m uco us m em bra n es, a s t h ose o f t h e k id ney a n d
bla d der, c h alk -s to nes i n t h e g out, a n d g all- s to nes; a n d a re p ro bab ly o w in g t o
th e i n fla m matio n o f t h e m em bra n e w here t h ey a re p ro duced , a n d v ary
acco rd in g t o t h e d eg re e o f i n fla m matio n o f t h e m em bra n e w hic h f o rm s t h em ,
an d t h e k in d o f m uco us w hic h i t n atu ra lly p ro duces. T hus t h e s h elly m atte r o f
dif fe re n t s h ell- fis h d if fe rs , f ro m t h e c o urs e r k in ds w hic h f o rm t h e s h ells o f
cra b s, t o t h e f in er k in ds w hic h p ro duces t h e m oth er-p earl.
The b eau tif u l c o lo urs o f s o m e s h ells o rig in ate f ro m t h e t h in ness o f t h e
la m in ae o f w hic h t h ey c o nsis t, r a th er t h an t o a n y c o lo urin g m atte r, a s i s s e en
in m oth er-p earl, w hic h r e fle cts d if fe re n t c o lo urs a cco rd in g t o t h e o bliq uity o f
th e l ig ht w hic h f a lls o n i t. T he b eau tif u l p ris m atic c o lo urs s e en o n t h e
Lab ro dore s to ne a re o w in g t o a s im ila r c au se , v iz . t h e t h in ness o f t h e l a m in ae
of w hic h i t c o nsis ts , a n d h as p ro bab ly b een f o rm ed f ro m m oth er-p earl s h ells .
It i s c u rio us t h at s o m e o f t h e m ost c o m mon f o ssil s h ells a re n ot n ow k now n

in t h eir r e cen t s ta te , a s t h e c o rn ua a m monis ; a n d o n t h e c o ntr a ry , m an y s h ells
whic h a re v ery p le n tif u l i n t h eir r e cen t s ta te , a s l im pets , s e a-e ars , v olu te s,
co w rie s, a re v ery r a re ly f o und f o ssil. D a C osta 's C onch olo gy, p . 1 63. W ere
all t h e a m monia e d estr o yed w hen t h e c o ntin en ts w ere r a is e d ? O r d o s o m e
gen era o f a n im als p eris h b y t h e i n cre asin g p ow er o f t h eir e n em ie s? O r d o
th ey s till r e sid e a t i n accessib le d ep th s i n t h e s e a? O r d o s o m e a n im als c h an ge
th eir f o rm s g ra d ually a n d b eco m e n ew g en era ?]
[ Ech in us. N autilu s
. l . 6 7, 6 8. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XVII.]
[ Pin na. C ancer
. l . 7 0. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XVII.]
[ With w orm -lik e b ea rd
. l . 7 1. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XVIII.]
[ Feed t h e l iv e p eta ls
. l . 8 2. T here i s a s e a-in se ct d esc rib ed b y M r. H uges
whose c la w s o r t e n ta cle s b ein g d is p ose d i n r e g ula r c ir c le s a n d t in ged w ith
varie ty o f b rig ht l iv ely c o lo urs r e p re se n t t h e p eta ls o f s o m e m ost e le g an tly
frin ged a n d r a d ia te d f lo w ers a s t h e c arn atio n, m arig old , a n d a n em one. P hilo s.
Tra n s. A brid g. V ol. I X . p . 1 10. T he A bbe D ic q uem arre h as f u rth er e lu cid ate d
th e h is to ry o f t h e a ctin ia ; a n d o bse rv ed t h eir m an ner o f t a k in g t h eir p re y b y
in clo sin g i t i n t h ese b eau tif u l r a y s l ik e a n et. P hil. T ra n s. V ol. L X III. a n d
LX V. a n d L X VII.]
[ And d ro p a p ea rl
. l . 8 4. M an y a re t h e o pin io ns b oth o f a n tie n t a n d m odern
co ncern in g t h e p ro ductio n o f p earls . M r. R eau m ur t h in ks t h ey a re f o rm ed l ik e
th e h ard c o ncre tio ns i n m an y l a n d a n im als a s s to nes o f t h e b la d der,
galls to nes, a n d b ezo ar, a n d h en ce c o nclu des t h em t o b e a d is e ase o f t h e f is h ,
but t h ere s e em s t o b e a s tr ic te r a n alo gy b etw een t h ese a n d t h e c alc are o us
pro ductio ns f o und i n c ra b -fis h c alle d c ra b 's e y es, w hic h a re f o rm ed n ear t h e
sto m ach o f t h e a n im al, a n d c o nstitu te a r e se rv oir o f c alc are o us m atte r a g ain st
th e r e n ovatio n o f t h e s h ell, a t w hic h t im e t h ey a re r e -d is so lv ed a n d d ep osite d
fo r t h at p urp ose . A s t h e i n te rn al p art o f t h e s h ell o f t h e p earl o yste r o r m usc le
co nsis ts o f m oth er-p earl w hic h i s a s im ila r m ate ria l t o t h e p earl a n d a s t h e
an im al h as a n nually o ccasio n t o e n la rg e h is s h ell t h ere i s r e aso n t o s u sp ect
th e l o ose p earls a re s im ila r r e se rv oir s o f t h e p early m atte r f o r t h at p urp ose .]
8 5
3. " Y OUR m yria d t r a in s o 'e r s ta g nan t o cean 's t o w ,

H arn ess'd w ith g ossa m er, t h e l o ite rin g p ro w ;
O r w ith f in e f ilm s, s u sp en ded o 'e r t h e d eep ,
O f o il e ffu siv e l u ll t h e w av es t o s le ep .
Y ou s ta y t h e f ly in g b ark , c o nceal'd b en eath ,
9 0
Where l iv in g r o ck s o f w orm -b uilt c o ra l b re ath e;
M eet f e ll T ER ED O, a s h e m in es t h e k eel
W ith b eak ed h ead , a n d b re ak h is l ip s o f s te el;
T urn t h e b ro ad h elm , t h e f lu tte rin g c an vas u rg e
F ro m M AELST R O M E'S f ie rc e i n nav ig ab le s u rg e.
9 5
—'M id t h e l o rn i s le s o f N orw ay 's s to rm y m ain ,
A s s w eep s o 'e r m an y a l e ag ue h is e d dyin g t r a in ,
V ast w ate ry w alls i n r a p id c ir c le s s p in ,
A nd d eep -in gulp h'd t h e D em on d w ells w ith in ;
S prin gs o 'e r t h e f e ar-fro ze c re w w ith H arp y-c la w s,
100
Dow n h is d eep d en t h e w hir lin g v esse l d ra w s;
C hurn s w ith h is b lo ody m outh t h e d re ad r e p ast,
T he b oom in g w ate rs m urm urin g o 'e r t h e m ast.
[ Or w ith f in e f ilm s
. l . 8 7. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XIX .]
[ Where l iv in g r o cks
. l . 9 0. T he i m men se a n d d an gero us r o ck s b uilt b y t h e
sw arm s o f c o ra l i n fe cts w hic h r is e a lm ost p erp en dic u la rly i n t h e s o uth ern
ocean l ik e w alls a re d esc rib ed i n C ook's v oyag es, a p oin t o f o ne o f t h ese
ro ck s b ro ke o ff a n d s tu ck i n t h e h ole w hic h i t h ad m ad e i n t h e b otto m o f o ne
of h is s h ip s, w hic h w ould o th erw is e h av e p eris h ed b y t h e a d m is sio n o f w ate r.
The n um ero us l im e-s to ne r o ck s w hic h c o nsis t o f a c o ngerie s o f t h e c ells o f
th ese a n im als a n d w hic h c o nstitu te a g re at p art o f t h e s o lid e arth s h ew t h eir
pro dig io us m ultip lic atio n i n a ll a g es o f t h e w orld . S pecim en s o f t h ese r o ck s
are t o b e s e en i n t h e L im e-w ork s a t L in se l n ear N ew port i n S hro psh ir e , i n
Coal- b ro ok D ale , a n d i n m an y p arts o f t h e P eak o f D erb ysh ir e . T he i n se ct h as
been w ell d esc rib ed b y M . P ey sso nnel, E llis , a n d o th ers . P hil. T ra n s. V ol.
XLV II. L . L II. a n d L V II.]
[ Meet f e ll T ere d o
. l . 9 1. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XX.]
[ Turn t h e b ro ad h elm
. l 9 3. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXI.]

I II. " W here w ith c h ill f ro w n e n orm ous A LPS a la rm s
A t h ousa n d r e alm s, h oriz o n'd i n h is a rm s;
105
While c lo udle ss s u ns m erid ia n g lo rie s s h ed
F ro m s k ie s o f s ilv er r o und h is h oary h ead ,
T all r o ck s o f i c e r e fra ct t h e c o lo ure d r a y s,
A nd F ro st s its t h ro ned a m id t h e l a m ben t b la ze;
N YM PH S! Y OUR t h in f o rm s p erv ad e h is g litte rin g p ile s,
110
His r o ofs o f c h ry sta l, a n d h is g la sy a ile s;
W here i n c o ld c av es i m pris o ned N aia d s s le ep ,
O r c h ain 'd o n m ossy c o uch es w ak e a n d w eep ;
W here r o und d ark c ra g s i n dig nan t w ate rs b en d
T hro ugh r if te d i c e, i n i v ory v ein s d esc en d,
115
Seek t h ro ugh u nfa th om 'd s n ow s t h eir d ev io us t r a ck ,
H eav e t h e v ast s p ars , t h e r ib bed g ra n ite s c ra ck ,
R ush i n to d ay , i n f o am y t o rre n ts s h in e,
A nd s w ell t h e i m peria l D an ube o r t h e R hin e.—
O r f e ed t h e m urm urin g T IB ER , a s h e l a v es
120
His r e alm s i n glo rio us w ith d im in is h 'd w av es,
H ears h is l o rn F oru m s o und w ith E unuch -s tr a in s,
S ees d an cin g s la v es i n su lt h is m artia l p la in s;
P arts w ith c h ill s tr e am t h e d im r e lig io us b ow er,
T im e-m ould ere d b astio n, a n d d is m an tle d t o w er;
125
By a lte r'd f a n es a n d n am ele ss v illa s g lid es,
A nd c la ssic d om es, t h at t r e m ble o n h is s id es;
S ig hs o 'e r e ach b ro ken u rn , a n d y aw nin g t o m b,
A nd m ourn s t h e f a ll o f L IB ER TY a n d R O M E.

[ W here r o und d ark c ra ggs
. l . 1 13. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXII.]
[ H ea ve t h e v a st s p ars
. l . 1 16. W ate r i n d esc en din g d ow n e le v ate d s itu atio ns i f
t h e o utle t f o r i t b elo w i s n ot s u ffic ie n t f o r i ts e m is sio n a cts w ith a f o rc e e q ual
t o t h e h eig ht o f t h e c o lu m n, a s i s s e en i n a n e x perim en ta l m ach in e c alle d t h e
p hilo so phic al b ello w s, i n w hic h a f e w p in ts o f w ate r a re m ad e t o r a is e m an y
h undre d p ounds. T o t h is c au se i s t o b e a sc rib ed m an y l a rg e p ro m onto rie s o f
i c e b ein g o ccasio nally t h ro w n d ow n f ro m t h e g la cie rs ; r o ck s h av e l ik ew is e
b een t h ro w n f ro m t h e s id es o f m ounta in s b y t h e s a m e c au se , a n d l a rg e
p ortio ns o f e arth h av e b een r e m oved m an y h undre d y ard s f ro m t h eir
s itu atio ns a t t h e f o ot o f m ounta in s. O n i n sp ectin g t h e l o co m otio n o f a b out
t h ir ty a cre s o f e arth w ith a s m all h ouse n ear B ild er's B rid ge i n S hro psh ir e ,
a b out t w en ty y ears a g o, f ro m t h e f o ot o f a m ounta in t o w ard s t h e r iv er, I w ell
r e m em ber i t b ore a ll t h e m ark s o f h av in g b een t h us l if te d u p, p ush ed a w ay ,
a n d a s i t w ere c ru m ple d i n to r id ges, b y a c o lu m n o f w ate r c o nta in ed i n t h e
m ounta in .
F ro m w ate r b ein g t h us c o nfin ed i n h ig h c o lu m ns b etw een t h e s tr a ta o f
m ounta in ous c o untr ie s i t h as o fte n h ap pen ed t h at w hen w ells o r p erfo ra tio ns
h av e b een m ad e i n to t h e e arth , t h at s p rin gs h av e a ris e n m uch a b ove t h e
s u rfa ce o f t h e n ew w ell. W hen t h e n ew b rid ge w as b uild in g a t D ublin M r. G .
S em ple f o und a s p rin g i n t h e b ed o f t h e r iv er w here h e m ean t t o l a y t h e
f o undatio n o f a p ie rre , w hic h , b y f ix in g i r o n p ip es i n to i t, h e r a is e d m an y f e et.
T re atis e o n B uild in g i n W ate r, b y G . S em ple . F ro m h av in g o bse rv ed a v alle y
n orth -w est o f S t. A lk m ond's w ell n ear D erb y, a t t h e h ead o f w hic h t h at s p rin g
o f w ate r o nce p ro bab ly e x is te d , a n d b y i ts c u rre n t f o rm ed t h e v alle y , ( b ut
w hic h i n a fte r t im es f o und i ts w ay o ut i n i ts p re se n t s itu atio n,) I s u sp ect t h at
S t. A lk m ond's w ell m ig ht b y b uild in g r o und i t b e r a is e d h ig h e n ough t o
s u pply m an y s tr e ets i n D erb y w ith s p rin g-w ate r w hic h a re n ow o nly s u pplie d
w ith r iv er-w ate r. S ee a n a cco unt o f a n a rtif ic ia l s p rin g o f w ate r, P hil. T ra n s.
V ol. L X XV. p . 1 .
I n m ak in g a w ell a t S heern ess t h e w ate r r o se 3 00 f e et a b ove i ts s o urc e i n t h e
w ell. P hil. T ra n s. V ol. L X XIV . A nd a t H artf o rd i n C onnectic u t t h ere i s a w ell
w hic h w as d ug s e v en ty f e et d eep b efo re w ate r w as f o und, t h en i n b orin g a n
a u gur-h ole t h ro ugh a r o ck t h e w ate r r o se s o f a st a s t o m ak e i t d if fic u lt t o k eep

it d ry b y p um ps t ill t h ey c o uld b lo w t h e h ole l a rg er b y g unpow der, w hic h w as
no s o oner a cco m plis h ed t h an i t f ille d a n d r u n o ver, a n d h as b een a b ro ok f o r
near a c en tu ry . T ra v els t h ro ugh A m eric a. L ond. 1 789. L an e.]
I V . " S ailin g i n a ir , w hen d ark M ONSO ON i n sh ro uds
130
His t r o pic m ounta in s i n a n ig ht o f c lo uds;
O r d ra w n b y w hir lw in ds f ro m t h e L in e r e tu rn s,
A nd s h ow ers o 'e r A fric a ll h is t h ousa n d u rn s;
H ig h o 'e r h is h ead t h e b eam s o f S IR IU S g lo w ,
A nd, D og o f N ile , A NUBIS b ark s b elo w .
135
NYM PH S! Y OU f ro m c lif f t o c lif f a tte n dan t g uid e
I n h ead lo ng c ata ra cts t h e i m petu ous t id e;
O r l e ad o 'e r w aste s o f A byssin ia n s a n ds
T he b rig ht e x pan se t o E G YPT 'S s h ow er-le ss l a n ds.
— Her l o ng c an als t h e s a cre d w ate rs f ill,
140
And e d ge w ith s ilv er e v ery p eo ple d h ill;
G ig an tic S PH IN X i n c ir c lin g w av es a d m ir e ;
A nd M EM NON b en din g o 'e r h is b ro ken l y re ;
O 'e r f u rro w 'd g le b es a n d g re en s a v an nas s w eep ,
A nd t o w ns a n d t e m ple s l a u gh a m id t h e d eep .
[ Dark m onso on i n sh ro uds
. l . 1 29. W hen f ro m a n y p ecu lia r s itu atio ns o f l a n d
in r e sp ect t o s e a t h e t r o pic b eco m es m ore h eate d , w hen t h e s u n i s v ertic al
over i t, t h an t h e l in e, t h e p erio dic al w in ds c alle d m onso ons a re p ro duced , a n d
th ese a re a tte n ded b y r a in y s e aso ns; f o r a s t h e a ir a t t h e t r o pic i s n ow m ore
heate d t h an a t t h e l in e i t a sc en ds b y d ecre ase o f i ts s p ecif ic g ra v ity , a n d
flo ods o f a ir r u sh i n b oth f ro m t h e S outh W est a n d N orth E ast, a n d t h ese
bein g o ne w arm er t h an t h e o th er t h e r a in i s p re cip ita te d b y t h eir m ix tu re a s
obse rv ed b y D r. H utto n. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XV. A ll l a te t r a v elle rs
hav e a sc rib ed t h e r is e o f t h e N ile t o t h e m onso ons w hic h d elu ge N ubia a n d
Abyssin ia w ith r a in . T he w hir lin g o f t h e a sc en din g a ir w as e v en s e en b y M r.
Bru ce i n A byssin ia ; h e s a y s, " e v ery m orn in g a s m all c lo ud b eg an t o w hir l
ro und, a n d p re se n tly a fte r t h e w hole h eav en s b ecam e c o vere d w ith c lo uds,"
by t h is v orte x o f a sc en din g a ir t h e N .E . w in ds a n d t h e S .W . w in ds, w hic h
flo w i n t o s u pply t h e p la ce o f t h e a sc en din g c o lu m n, b ecam e m ix ed m ore
ra p id ly a n d d ep osite d t h eir r a in i n g re ate r a b undan ce.

Mr. V oln ey o bse rv es t h at t h e t im e o f t h e r is in g o f t h e N ile c o m men ces a b out
th e 1 9th o f J u ne, a n d t h at A byssin ia a n d t h e a d ja cen t p arts o f A fric a a re
delu ged w ith r a in i n M ay , J u ne, a n d J u ly , a n d p ro duce a m ass o f w ate r w hic h
is t h re e m onth s i n d ra in in g o ff. T he A bbe L e P lu ch e o bse rv es t h at a s S ir iu s,
or t h e d og-s ta r, r o se a t t h e t im e o f t h e c o m men cem en t o f t h e f lo od i ts r is in g
was w atc h ed b y t h e a str o nom ers , a n d n otic e g iv en o f t h e a p pro ach o f
in undatio n b y h an gin g t h e f ig ure o f A nubis , w hic h w as t h at o f a m an w ith a
dog's h ead , u pon a ll t h eir t e m ple s. H is to ir e d e C ie l.]
[Illu str a tio n:
Fertiliz atio n o f E gypt.]
[ Egyp t's s h ow er-le ss l a nds
. l . 1 38. T here s e em t o b e t w o s itu atio ns w hic h
may b e c o nceiv ed t o b e e x em pte d f ro m r a in f a llin g u pon t h em , o ne w here t h e
co nsta n t t r a d e-w in ds m eet b en eath t h e l in e, f o r h ere t w o r e g io ns o f w arm a ir
are m ix ed t o geth er, a n d t h en ce d o n ot s e em t o h av e a n y c au se t o p re cip ita te
th eir v ap our; a n d t h e o th er i s , w here t h e w in ds a re b ro ught f ro m c o ld er
clim ate s a n d b eco m e w arm er b y t h eir c o nta ct w ith t h e e arth o f a w arm er o ne.
Thus L ow er E gypt i s a f la t c o untr y w arm ed b y t h e s u n m ore t h an t h e h ig her
la n ds o f o ne s id e o f i t, a n d t h an t h e M ed ite rra n ean o n t h e o th er; a n d h en ce t h e
win ds w hic h b lo w o ver i t a cq uir e g re ate r w arm th , w hic h e v er w ay t h ey c o m e,
th an t h ey p osse sse d b efo re , a n d i n c o nse q uen ce h av e a t e n den cy t o a cq uir e
an d n ot t o p art w ith t h eir v ap our l ik e t h e n orth -e ast w in ds o f t h is c o untr y .
There i s s a id t o b e a n arro w s p ot u pon t h e c o ast o f P eru w here r a in s e ld om
occu rs , a t t h e s a m e t im e a cco rd in g t o U llo a o n t h e m ounta in ous r e g io ns o f
th e A ndes b ey ond t h ere i s a lm ost p erp etu al r a in . F or t h e w in d b lo w s
unif o rm ly u pon t h is h ot p art o f t h e c o ast o f P eru , b ut n o c au se o f
dev ap ora tio n o ccu rs t ill i t b eg in s t o a sc en d t h e m ounta in ous A ndes, a n d t h en
its o w n e x pan sio n p ro duces c o ld s u ffic ie n t t o c o nden se i ts v ap our.]
145
V. 1 . " H ig h i n t h e f ro zen N orth w here H EC CLA g lo w s,
A nd m elts i n t o rre n ts h is c o ev al s n ow s;
O 'e r i s le s a n d o cean s s h ed s a s a n guin e l ig ht,
O r s h oots r e d s ta rs a m id t h e e b on n ig ht;
W hen , a t h is b ase i n to m b'd , w ith b ello w in g s o und
150
Fell G IE SA R r o ar'd , a n d s tr u gglin g s h ook t h e g ro und;
P our'd f ro m r e d n ostr ils , w ith h er s c ald in g b re ath ,
A b oilin g d elu ge o 'e r t h e b la ste d h eath ;

A nd, w id e i n a ir , i n m is ty v olu m es h url'd
C onta g io us a to m s o 'e r t h e a la rm ed w orld ;
155
NYM PH S! Y OUR b old m yria d s b ro ke t h e i n fe rn al s p ell,
A nd c ru sh 'd t h e S orc ere ss i n h er f lin ty c ell.
[ Fell G ie sa r r o ar'd
. l . 1 50. T he b oilin g c o lu m n o f w ate r a t G ie sa r i n I c ela n d
was n in ete en f e et i n d ia m ete r, a n d s o m etim es r o se t o t h e h eig ht o f n in ety -tw o
fe et. O n c o olin g i t d ep osite d a s ilic eo us m atte r o r c h alc ed ony f o rm in g a
baso n r o und i ts b ase . T he h eat o f t h is w ate r b efo re i t r o se o ut o f t h e e arth
co uld n ot b e a sc erta in ed , a s w ate r l o ose s a ll i ts h eat a b ove 2 12 ( a s s o on a s i t
is a t l ib erty t o e x pan d) b y t h e e x hala tio n o f a p art, b ut t h e f lin ty b aso n w hic h
is d ep osite d f ro m i t s h ew s t h at w ate r w ith g re at d eg re es o f h eat w ill d is so lv e
silic eo us m atte r. V an T ro il's L ette rs o n I c ela n d. S in ce t h e a b ove a cco unt i n
th e y ear 1 780 t h is p art o f I c ela n d h as b een d estr o yed b y a n e arth quak e o r
co vere d w ith l a v a, w hic h w as p ro bab ly e ffe cte d b y t h e f o rc e o f a q ueo us
ste am , a g re ate r q uan tity o f w ate r f a llin g o n t h e s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s t h an
co uld e sc ap e b y t h e a n tie n t o utle ts a n d g en era tin g a n i n cre ase d q uan tity o f
vap our. F or t h e d is p ers io n o f c o nta g io us v ap ours f ro m v olc an os s e e a n
acco unt o f t h e H arm atta n i n t h e n ote s o n C hunda, V ol. I I.]
2 . " W here w ith s o ft f ir e s i n u nex tin guis h 'd u rn s,
C au ld ro n'd i n r o ck , i n nocu ous L av a b urn s;
O n t h e b rig ht l a k e Y OUR g elid h an ds d is til
160
In p early m ow ers t h e p ars im onio us r ill;
A nd, a s a lo ft t h e c u rlin g v ap ours r is e
T hro ugh t h e c le ft r o of, a m bitio us f o r t h e s k ie s,
I n v au lte d h ills c o nden se t h e t e p id s te am s,
A nd p our t o H EA LTH t h e m ed ic ate d s tr e am s.
165
—So i n g re en v ale s a m id h er m ounta in s b le ak
B U XTO NIA s m ile s, t h e G oddess-N ym yh o f P eak ;
D eep i n w arm w av es, a n d p eb bly b ath s s h e d w ells ,
A nd c alls H YGEIA t o h er s a in te d w ells .
[ Buxto nia s m ile s
. l . 1 66. S om e a rg um en ts a re m en tio ned i n t h e n ote o n F ucu s
Vol. I I. t o s h ew t h at t h e w arm s p rin gs o f t h is c o untr y d o n ot a ris e f ro m t h e
deco m positio n o f p yrite s n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , b ut t h at t h ey a re

pro duced b y s te am r is in g u p t h e f is su re s o f t h e m ounta in s f ro m g re at d ep th s,
ow in g t o w ate r f a llin g o n s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s, a n d t h at t h is s te am i s
co nden se d b etw een t h e s tr a ta o f t h e i n cu m ben t m ounta in s a n d c o lle cte d i n to
sp rin gs. F or f u rth er p ro ofs o n t h is s u bje ct t h e r e ad er i s r e fe rre d t o a L ette r
fro m D r. D arw in i n M r. P ilk in gto n's V ie w o f D erb ysh ir e , V ol I . p . 2 56.]
" H ith er i n s p ortiv e b an ds b rig ht D EV ON l e ad s
170
Gra ces a n d L oves f ro m C hats w orth 's f lo w ery m ead s.—
C harm 'd r o und t h e N YM PH , t h ey c lim b t h e r if te d r o ck s;
A nd s te ep i n m ounta in -m is t t h eir g old en l o ck s;
O n v en tu ro us s te p h er s p arry c av es e x plo re ,
A nd l ig ht w ith r a d ia n t e y es h er r e alm s o f o re ;
175
—Oft b y h er b ubblin g f o unts , a n d s h ad ow y d om es,
I n g ay u ndre ss t h e f a ir y l e g io n r o am s,
T heir d rip pin g p alm s i n p la y fu l m alic e f ill,
O r t a ste w ith r u by l ip t h e s p ark lin g r ill;
C ro ud r o und h er b ath s, a n d, b en din g o 'e r t h e s id e,
180
Uncla sp 'd t h eir s a n dals , a n d t h eir z o nes u ntie d ,
D ip w ith g ay f e ar t h e s h udderin g f o ot u ndre ss'd ,
A nd q uic k r e tr a ct i t t o t h e f rin ged v est;
O r c le av e w ith b ra n dis h 'd a rm s t h e l u cid s tr e am ,
A nd s o b, t h eir b lu e e y es t w in klin g i n t h e s te am .
185
—Hig h o 'e r t h e c h eq uer'd v au lt w ith t r a n sie n t g lo w
B rig ht l u str e s d art, a s d ash t h e w av es b elo w ;
A nd E ch o's s w eet r e sp onsiv e v oic e p ro lo ngs
T he d ulc et t u m ult o f t h eir s ilv er t o ngues.—
O 'e r t h eir f lu sh 'd c h eek s u ncu rlin g t r e sse s f lo w ,
190
And d ew -d ro ps g litte r o n t h eir n eck s o f s n ow ;
R ound e ach f a ir N ym ph h er d ro ppin g m an tle c lin gs,
A nd L oves e m erg in g s h ak e t h eir s h ow ery w in gs.
[ And s o b, t h eir b lu e e yes
. l . 1 84. T he b ath a t B uxto n b ein g o f 8 2 d eg re es o f
heat i s c alle d a w arm b ath , a n d i s s o c o m pare d w ith c o m mon s p rin g-w ate r
whic h p osse sse s b ut 4 8 d eg re es o f h eat, b ut i s n ev erth ele ss a c o ld b ath
co m pare d t o t h e h eat o f t h e b ody w hic h i s 9 8. O n g oin g i n to t h is b ath t h ere i s
th ere fo re a lw ay s a c h ill p erc eiv ed a t t h e f ir s t i m mers io n, b ut a fte r h av in g

been i n i t a m in ute t h e c h ill c ease s a n d a s e n sa tio n o f w arm th s u cceed s
th ough t h e b ody c o ntin ues t o b e i m mers e d i n t h e w ate r. T he c au se o f t h is
cu rio us p hen om en on i s t o b e l o oked f o r i n t h e l a w s o f a n im al s e n sa tio n a n d
not f ro m a n y p ro pertie s o f h eat. W hen a p ers o n g oes f ro m c le ar d ay -lig ht i n to
an o bsc u re r o om f o r a w hile i t a p pears g lo om y, w hic h g lo om h ow ev er i n a
little t im e c ease s, a n d t h e d efic ie n cy o f l ig ht b eco m es n o l o nger p erc eiv ed .
This i s n ot s o le ly o w in g t o t h e e n la rg em en t o f t h e i r is o f t h e e y e, s in ce t h at i s
perfo rm ed i n a n i n sta n t, b ut t o t h is l a w o f s e n sa tio n, t h at w hen a l e ss s tim ulu s
is a p plie d ( w ith in c erta in b ounds) t h e s e n sib ility i n cre ase s. T hus a t g oin g i n to
a b ath a s m uch c o ld er t h an t h e b ody a s t h at o f B uxto n, t h e d im in utio n o f h eat
on t h e s k in i s a t f ir s t p erc eiv ed , b ut i n a b out a m in ute t h e s e n sib ility t o h eat
in cre ase s a n d t h e n erv es o f t h e s k in a re e q ually e x cite d b y t h e l e sse n ed
stim ulu s. T he s e n sa tio n o f w arm th a t e m erg in g f ro m a c o ld -b ath , a n d t h e p ain
calle d t h e h ot- a ch , a fte r t h e h an ds h av e b een i m mers e d i n s n ow , d ep en d o n
th e s a m e p rin cip le , v iz . t h e i n cre ase d s e n sib ility o f t h e s k in a fte r h av in g b een
pre v io usly e x pose d t o a s tim ulu s l e ss t h an u su al.]
" H ere o ft h er L O RD s u rv ey s t h e r u de d om ain ,
F air a rts o f G re ece t r iu m phan t i n h is t r a in ;
195
LO ! a s h e s te p s, t h e c o lu m n'd p ile a sc en ds,
T he b lu e r o of c lo se s, o r t h e c re sc en t b en ds;
N ew w oods a sp ir in g c lo th e t h eir h ills w ith g re en ,
S m ooth s lo pe t h e l a w ns, t h e g re y r o ck p eep s b etw een ;
R ele n tin g N atu re g iv es h er h an d t o T aste ,
200
And H ealth a n d B eau ty c ro w n t h e l a u ghin g w aste .
[ Here o ft h er L ord
. l . 1 93. A llu din g t o t h e m ag nif ic en t a n d b eau tif u l c re sc en t,
an d s u perb s ta b le s l a te ly e re cte d a t B uxto n f o r t h e a cco m odatio n o f t h e
co m pan y b y t h e D uke o f D ev onsh ir e ; a n d t o t h e p la n ta tio ns w ith w hic h h e
has d eco ra te d t h e s u rro undin g m ounta in s.]
V I. " N YM PH S! Y OUR b rig ht s q uad ro ns w atc h w ith c h em ic e y es
T he c o ld -e la stic v ap ours , a s t h ey r is e ;
W ith p la y fu l f o rc e a rre st t h em a s t h ey p ass,
A nd t o
pure
A IR b etr o th t h e
fla m in g
G AS.
205
Round t h eir t r a n slu cen t f o rm s a t o nce t h ey f lin g

T heir r a p tu ro us a rm s, w ith s ilv er b oso m s c lin g;
I n f le ecy c lo uds t h eir f lu tte rin g w in gs e x te n d,
O r f ro m t h e s k ie s i n l u cid s h ow ers d esc en d;
W hen ce r ills a n d r iv ers o w e t h eir s e cre t b ir th ,
210
And O cean 's h undre d a rm s i n fo ld t h e e arth .
[ And t o p ure a ir
. l . 2 04. U ntil v ery l a te ly w ate r w as e ste em ed a s im ple
ele m en t, n or a re a ll t h e m ost c ele b ra te d c h em is ts o f E uro pe y et c o nverts t o
th e n ew o pin io n o f i ts d eco m positio n. M r. L av ois ie r a n d o th ers o f t h e F re n ch
sc h ool h av e m ost i n gen io usly e n deav oure d t o s h ew t h at w ate r c o nsis ts o f
pure a ir , c alle d b y t h em o xygen e, a n d o f i n fla m mab le a ir , c alle d h ydro gen e,
with a s m uch o f t h e m atte r o f h eat, o r c alo riq ue, a s i s n ecessa ry t o p re se rv e
th em i n t h e f o rm o f g as. G as i s d is tin guis h ed f ro m s te am b y i ts p re se rv in g i ts
ela stic ity u nder t h e p re ssu re o f t h e a tm osp here , a n d i n t h e g re ate st d eg re es o f
co ld y et k now n. T he h is to ry o f t h e p ro gre ss o f t h is g re at d is c o very i s d eta ile d
in t h e M em oir e s o f t h e R oyal A cad em y f o r 1 781, a n d t h e e x perim en ta l p ro ofs
of i t a re d eliv ere d i n L av ois ie r's E le m en ts o f C hem is tr y . T he r e su lts o f w hic h
are t h at w ate r c o nsis ts o f e ig hty -fiv e p arts b y w eig ht o f o xygen e, a n d f if te en
parts b y w eig ht o f h ydro gen e, w ith a s u ffic ie n t q uan tity o f C alo riq ue. N ot
only n um ero us c h em ic al p hen om en a, b ut m an y a tm osp heric al a n d v eg eta b le
fa cts r e ceiv e c le ar a n d b eau tif u l e lu cid atio n f ro m t h is i m porta n t a n aly sis . I n
th e a tm osp here i n fla m mab le a ir i s p ro bab ly p erp etu ally u nitin g w ith v ita l a ir
an d p ro ducin g m ois tu re w hic h d esc en ds i n d ew s a n d s h ow ers , w hile t h e
gro w th o f v eg eta b le s b y t h e a ssis ta n ce o f l ig ht i s p erp etu ally a g ain
deco m posin g t h e w ate r t h ey i m bib e f ro m t h e e arth , a n d w hile t h ey r e ta in t h e
in fla m mab le a ir f o r t h e f o rm atio n o f o ils , w ax , h oney , r e sin , & c. t h ey g iv e u p
th e v ita l a ir t o r e p le n is h t h e a tm osp here .]
" S o, r o bed b y B eau ty 's Q ueen , w ith s o fte r c h arm s
S A TU RN IA w oo'd t h e T hundere r t o h er a rm s;
O 'e r h er f a ir l im bs a v eil o f l ig ht s h e s p re ad ,
A nd b ound a s ta rry d ia d em o n h er h ead ;
215
Long b ra id s o f p earl h er g old en t r e sse s g ra c'd ,
A nd t h e c h arm 'd C EST U S s p ark le d r o und h er w ais t.
— Rais e d o 'e r t h e w oof, b y B eau ty 's h an d i n w ro ught,
B re ath es t h e s o ft S ig h, a n d g lo w s t h e e n am our'd T hought;

V ow s o n l ig ht w in gs s u cceed , a n d q uiv er'd W ile s,
220
Assu asiv e A ccen ts , a n d s e d uctiv e S m ile s.
— Slo w r o lls t h e C ypria n c ar i n p urp le p rid e,
A nd, s te er'd b y L O VE, a sc en ds a d m ir in g I d e;
C lim bs t h e g re en s lo pes, t h e n oddin g w oods p erv ad es,
B urn s r o und t h e r o ck s, o r g le am s a m id t h e s h ad es.
225
—Gla d Z EPH YR l e ad s t h e t r a in , a n d w av es a b ove
T he b arb ed d arts , a n d b la zin g t o rc h o f L ove;
R ev erts h is s m ilin g f a ce, a n d p au sin g f lin gs
S oft s h ow ers o f r o se s f ro m a u re lia n w in gs.
D elig hte d F aw ns, i n w re ath es o f f lo w ers a rra y 'd ,
230
With t ip to e W ood-B oys b eat t h e c h eq uer'd g la d e;
A la rm ed N aia d s, r is in g i n to a ir ,
L if t o 'e r t h eir s ilv er u rn s t h eir l e afy h air ;
E ach t o h er o ak t h e b ash fu l D ry ad s s h rin k,
A nd a zu re e y es a re s e en t h ro ugh e v ery c h in k.
235
—LO VE c u lls a f la m in g s h aft o f b ro ad est w in g,
A nd r e sts t h e f o rk u pon t h e q uiv erin g s tr in g;
P oin ts h is a rc h e y e a lo ft, w ith f in gers s tr o ng
D ra w s t o h is c u rle d e ar t h e s ilk en t h ong;
L oud t w an gs t h e s te el, t h e g old en a rro w f lie s,
240
Tra ils a l o ng l in e o f l u str e t h ro ugh t h e s k ie s;
" 'T is d one!" h e s h outs , " th e m ig hty M onarc h f e els !"
A nd w ith l o ud l a u ghte r s h ak es t h e s ilv er w heels ;
B en ds o 'e r t h e c ar, a n d w hir lin g, a s i t m oves,
H is l o ose n 'd b ow str in g, d riv es t h e r is in g d oves.
245
—Pie rc ed o n h is t h ro ne t h e s la rtin g T hundere r t u rn s,
M elts w ith s o ft s ig hs, w ith k in dlin g r a p tu re b urn s;
C la sp s h er f a ir h an d, a n d e y es i n f o nd a m aze
T he b rig ht I n tr u der w ith e n am our'd g aze.
" A nd l e av es m y G oddess, l ik e a b lo om in g b rid e,
250
"T he f a n es o f A rg os f o r t h e r o ck s o f I d e?
" H er g org eo us p ala ces, a n d a m ara n th b ow ers ,
" F or c lif f-to p'd m ounta in s, a n d a eria l t o w ers ? "
H e s a id ; a n d, l e ad in g f ro m h er i v ory s e at
T he b lu sh in g B eau ty t o h is l o ne r e tr e at,
255
Curta in 'd w ith n ig ht t h e c o uch i m peria l s h ro uds,

A nd r e sts t h e c rim so n c u sh io ns u pon c lo uds.—
E arth f e els t h e g ra te fu l i n flu en ce f ro m a b ove,
S ig hs t h e s o ft A ir , a n d O cean m urm urs l o ve;
E th eria l W arm th e x pan ds h is b ro odin g w in g,
260
And i n s till s h ow ers d esc en ds t h e g en ia l S prin g.
[ And s te er'd b y l o ve
. l . 2 22. T he y ounger l o ve, o r C upid , t h e s o n o f V en us,
ow es h is e x is te n ce a n d h is a ttr ib ute s t o m uch l a te r t im es t h an t h e E ro s, o r
div in e l o ve, m en tio ned i n C an to I . s in ce t h e f o rm er i s n o w here m en tio ned b y
Hom er, t h ough s o m an y a p t o pportu nitie s o f i n tr o ducin g h im o ccu r i n t h e
work s o f t h at i m morta l b ard . B aco n.]
[ And i n s till s h ow ers.
l . 2 60. T he a lle g oric al i n te rp re ta tio n o f t h e v ery a n tie n t
myth olo gy w hic h s u ppose s J u pite r t o r e p re se n t t h e s u perio r p art o f t h e
atm osp here o r e th er, a n d J u no t h e i n fe rio r a ir , a n d t h at t h e c o nju nctio n o f
th ese t w o p ro duces v ern al s h ow ers , a s a llu ded t o i n V ir g il's G eo rg ic s, i s s o
an alo gous t o t h e p re se n t i m porta n t d is c o very o f t h e p ro ductio n o f w ate r f ro m
pure a ir , o r o xygen e, a n d i n fla m mab le a ir , o r h ydro gen e, ( w hic h f ro m i ts
gre ate r l e v ity p ro bab ly r e sid es o ver t h e f o rm er,) t h at o ne s h ould b e t e m pte d
to b elie v e t h at t h e v ery a n tie n t c h em is ts o f E gypt h ad d is c o vere d t h e
co m positio n o f w ate r, a n d t h us r e p re se n te d i t i n t h eir h ie ro gly phic f ig ure s
befo re t h e i n ven tio n o f l e tte rs .
In t h e p assa g e o f V ir g il J u pite r i s c alle d e th er, a n d d esc en ds i n p ro lif ic
sh ow ers o n t h e b oso m o f J u no, w hen ce t h e s p rin g s u cceed s a n d a ll n atu re
re jo ic es.
T um p ate r o m nip ote n s f o ecu ndis i m brib us A eth er
C onju gis i n g re m iu m l a eta e d esc en dit, e t o m nes
M ag nus a lit, m ag no c o m mix tu s c o rp ore , f a etu s.
Vir g . G eo rg . L ib . I I. l . 3 25.]
V II. " N YM PH S O F A QUATIC T A ST E! w hose p la cid s m ile
B re ath es s w eet e n ch an tm en t o 'e r B RIT A NNIA 'S i s le ;
W hose s p ortiv e t o uch i n s h ow ers r e sp le n den t f lin gs

H er l u cid c ata ra cts , a n d h er b ubblin g s p rin gs;
265
Thro ugh p eo ple d v ale s t h e l iq uid s ilv er g uid es,
A nd s w ells i n b rig ht e x pan se h er f re ig hte d t id es.
Y OU w ith n ic e e ar, i n t ip to e t r a in s, p erv ad e
D im w alk s o f m orn o r e v en in g's s ile n t s h ad e;
J o in t h e l o ne N ig htin gale , h er w oods a m ong,
270
And r o ll y our r ills s y m phonio us t o h er s o ng;
T hro ugh f o unt- fu ll d ells , a n d w av e-w orn v alle y s m ove,
A nd t u ne t h eir e ch oin g w ate rfa lls t o l o ve;
O r c atc h , a tte n tiv e t o t h e d is ta n t r o ar,
T he p au sin g m urm urs o f t h e d ash in g s h ore ;
275
Or, a s a lo ud s h e p ours h er l iq uid s tr a in ,
P urs u e t h e N ER EID o n t h e t w ilig ht m ain .
— Her p la y fu l S ea-h ors e w oos h er s o ft c o m man ds,
T urn s h is q uic k e ars , h is w eb bed c la w s e x pan ds,
H is w ate ry w ay w ith w av in g v olu te s w in s,
280
Or l is te n in g l ib ra te s o n u nm ovin g f in s.
T he N ym ph e m erg in g m ounts h er s c aly s e at,
H an gs o 'e r h is g lo ssy s id es h er s ilv er f e et,
W ith s n ow -w hite h an ds h er a rc h in g v eil d eta in s,
G iv es t o h is s lim y l ip s t h e s la ck en 'd r e in s,
285
Lif ts t o t h e s ta r o f E ve h er e y e s e re n e,
A nd c h au nts t h e b ir th o f B eau ty 's r a d ia n t Q ueen .—
O 'e r h er f a ir b ro w h er p early c o m b u nfu rls
H er b ery l l o ck s, a n d p arts t h e w av in g c u rls ,
E ach t a n gle d b ra id w ith g lis te n in g t e eth u nbin ds
290
And w ith t h e f lo atin g t r e asu re m usk s t h e w in ds.—
T hrill'd b y t h e d ulc et a ccen ts , a s s h e s in gs,
T he r ip plin g w av e i n w id en in g c ir c le s r in gs;
N ig ht's s h ad ow y f o rm s a lo ng t h e m arg in g le am
W ith p oin te d e ars , o r d an ce u pon t h e s tr e am ;
295
The M oon t r a n sp orte d s ta y s h er b rig ht c are er,
A nd m ad den in g S ta rs s h oot h ead lo ng f ro m t h e s p here .
[ Her p la yfu l s e a horse .
l . 2 77. D esc rib ed f o rm a n a n tiq ue g em .]

V III. " N YM PH S! w hose f a ir e y es w ith v iv id l u str e s g lo w
F or h um an w eal, a n d m elt a t h um an w oe;
L ate a s Y OU f lo ate d o n y our s ilv er s h ells ,
300
Sorro w in g a n d s lo w b y D ER W EN T'S w illo w y d ells ;
W here b y t a ll g ro ves h is f o am y f lo od h e s te ers
T hro ugh p ondero us a rc h es o 'e r i m petu ous w ears ,
B y D ER BY 'S s h ad ow y t o w ers r e fle ctiv e s w eep s,
A nd g oth ic g ra n deu r c h ills h is d usk y d eep s;
305
You p earl'd w ith P ity 's d ro ps h is v elv et s id es,
S ig h'd i n h is g ale s, a n d m urm ur'd i n h is t id es,
W av ed o 'e r h is f rin ged b rin k a d eep er g lo om ,
A nd b ow 'd h is a ld ers o 'e r M IL C EN A'S t o m b.
[ O'e r M ilc en a's t o m b
. l . 3 08. I n m em ory o f M rs . F re n ch , a l a d y w ho t o m an y
oth er e le g an t a cco m plis h m en ts a d ded a p ro fic ie n cy i n b ota n y a n d n atu ra l
his to ry .]
" O ft w ith s w eet v oic e S he l e d h er i n fa n t- tr a in ,
310
Prin tin g w ith g ra cefu l s te p h is s p an gle d p la in ,
E xplo re d h is t w in klin g s w arm s, t h at s w im o r f ly ,
A nd m ark 'd h is f lo re ts w ith b ota n ic e y e.—
" S w eet b ud o f S prin g! h ow f ra il t h y t r a n sie n t b lo om ,
" F in e f ilm ," s h e c rie d , " o f N atu re 's f a ir e st l o om !
315
"S oon B eau ty f a d es u pon i ts d am ask t h ro ne!" —
— Unco nsc io us o f t h e w orm , t h at m in ed h er o w n!—
— Pale a re t h ose l ip s, w here s o ft c are sse s h ung,
W an t h e w arm c h eek , a n d m ute t h e t e n der t o ngue,
C old r e sts t h at f e elin g h eart o n D erw en t's s h ore ,
320
And t h ose l o ve-lig hte d e y e-b alls r o ll n o m ore !
— HER E h er s a d C onso rt, s te alin g t h ro ugh t h e g lo om
O f
H an gs i n m ute a n guis h o 'e r t h e s c u tc h eo n'd h ears e ,
O r g ra v es w ith t r e m blin g s ty le t h e v otiv e v ers e .
325
"S ex to n! o h, l a y b en eath t h is s a cre d s h rin e,

W hen T im e's c o ld h an d s h all c lo se m y a ch in g e y es,
O h, g en tly l a y t h is w earie d e arth o f m in e,
W here w ra p 'd i n n ig ht m y l o ved M IL C EN A l ie s.
" S o s h all w ith p ure r j o y m y s p ir it m ove,
330
When t h e l a st t r u m pet t h rills t h e c av es o f D eath ,
C atc h t h e f ir s t w his p ers o f m y w ak in g l o ve,
A nd d rin k w ith h oly k is s h er k in dlin g b re ath .
" T he s p otle ss F air , w ith b lu sh e th ere al w arm ,
S hall h ail w ith s w eete r s m ile r e tu rn in g d ay ,
335
Ris e f ro m h er m arb le b ed a b rig hte r f o rm ,
A nd w in o n b uoyan t s te p h er a ir y w ay .
" S hall b en d a p pro ved , w here b eck onin g h osts i n vite ,
O n c lo uds o f s ilv er h er a d orin g k nee,
A ppro ach w ith S era p him t h e t h ro ne o f l ig ht,
340
—And B EA UTY p le ad w ith a n gel- to ngue f o r M e!"
I X . " Y OUR v ir g in t r a in s o n B RIN DLEY 'S c ra d le s m ile d ,
A nd n urs e d w ith f a ir y -lo ve t h e u nle tte r'd c h ild ,
S pre ad r o und h is p illo w a ll y our s e cre t s p ells ,
P ie rc ed a ll y our s p rin gs, a n d o pen 'd a ll y our w ells .—
345
As n ow o n g ra ss, w ith g lo ssy f o ld s r e v eal'd ,
G lid es t h e b rig ht s e rp en t, n ow i n f lo w ers c o nceal'd ;
F ar s h in e t h e s c ale s, t h at g ild h is s in uous b ack ,
A nd l u cid u ndula tio ns m ark h is t r a ck ;
S o w ith s tr o ng a rm i m morta l B RIN DLEY l e ad s
350
His l o ng c an als , a n d p arts t h e v elv et m ead s;
W in din g i n l u cid l in es, t h e w ate ry m ass
M in es t h e f ir m r o ck , o r l o ad s t h e d eep m ora ss,
W ith r is in g l o ck s a t h ousa n d h ills a la rm s,
F lin gs o 'e r a t h ousa n d s tr e am s i ts s ilv er a rm s,
355
Feed s t h e l o ng v ale , t h e n oddin g w oodla n d l a v es,
A nd P le n ty , A rts , a n d C om merc e f re ig ht t h e w av es.
— NYM PH S! w ho e re w hile r o und B RIN DLEY 'S e arly b ie r
O n s h ow -w hite b oso m s s h ow er'd t h e i n cessa n t t e ar,
A dorn h is t o m b!— oh, r a is e t h e m arb le b ust,

360
Pro cla im h is h onours , a n d p ro te ct h is d ust!
W ith u rn s i n verte d , r o und t h e s a cre d s h rin e
T heir o zie r w re ath s l e t w eep in g N aia d s t w in e;
W hile o n t h e t o p M EC H ANIC G EN IU S s ta n ds,
C ounts t h e f le et w av es, a n d b ala n ces t h e l a n ds.
[ On B rin dle y's c ra dle s m ile d
. l . 3 41. T he l if e o f M r. B rin dle y , w hose g re at
ab ilitie s i n t h e c o nstr u ctio n o f c an al n av ig atio n w ere c alle d f o rth b y t h e
patr o nag e o f t h e D uke o f B rid gw ate r, m ay b e r e ad i n D r. K ip pis 's B io gra p hia
Brita n nic a, t h e e x celle n ce o f h is g en iu s i s v is ib le i n e v ery p art o f t h is i s la n d.
He d ie d a t T urn hurs t i n S ta ffo rd sh ir e i n 1 772, a n d o ught t o h av e a m onum en t
in t h e c ath ed ra l c h urc h a t L ic h fie ld .]
365
X. " N YM PH S! Y OU f ir s t t a u ght t o p ie rc e t h e s e cre t c av es
O f h um id e arth , a n d l if t h er p ondero us w av es;
B ad e w ith q uic k s tr o ke t h e s lid in g p is to n b ear
T he v ie w le ss c o lu m ns o f i n cu m ben t a ir ;—
P re ss'd b y t h e i n cu m ben t a ir t h e f lo ods b elo w ,
370
Thro ugh o pen in g v alv es i n f o am in g t o rre n ts f lo w ,
F oot a fte r f o ot w ith l e sse n 'd i m puls e m ove,
A nd r is in g s e ek t h e v acan cy a b ove.—
S o w hen t h e M oth er, b en din g o 'e r h is c h arm s,
C la sp s h er f a ir n urs e lin g i n d elig hte d a rm s;
375
Thro w s t h e t h in k erc h ie f f ro m h er n eck o f s n ow ,
A nd h alf u nveils t h e p early o rb s b elo w ;
W ith s p ark lin g e y e t h e b la m ele ss P lu ndere r o w ns
H er s o ft e m bra ces, a n d e n dearin g t o nes,
S eek s t h e s a lu brio us f o unt w ith o pen in g l ip s,
380
Spre ad s h is i n quir in g h an ds, a n d s m ile s, a n d s ip s.
[ Lift h er p ondero us w aves
. l . 3 66. T he i n ven tio n o f t h e p um p i s o f v ery
an tie n t d ate , b ein g a sc rib ed t o o ne C te se b es a n A th en ia n , w hen ce i t w as
calle d b y t h e L atin s m ach in a C te se b ia n a; b ut i t w as l o ng b efo re i t w as k now n
th at t h e a sc en t o f t h e p is to n l if te d t h e s u perin cu m ben t c o lu m n o f t h e
atm osp here , a n d t h at t h en t h e p re ssu re o f t h e s u rro undin g a ir o n t h e s u rfa ce

of t h e w ell b elo w f o rc ed t h e w ate r u p i n to t h e v acu um , a n d t h at o n t h at
acco unt i n t h e c o m mon l if tin g p um p t h e w ate r w ould r is e o nly a b out t h ir ty -
fiv e f e et, a s t h e w eig ht o f s u ch a c o lu m n o f w ate r w as i n g en era l a n e q uip ois e
to t h e s u rro undin g a tm osp here . T he f o am y a p peara n ce o f w ate r, w hen t h e
pre ssu re o f t h e a ir o ver i t i s d im in is h ed , i s o w in g t o t h e e x pan sio n a n d e sc ap e
of t h e a ir p re v io usly d is so lv ed b y i t, o r e x is tin g i n i ts p ore s. W hen a c h ild
fir s t s u ck s i t o nly p re sse s o r c h am ps t h e t e at, a s o bse rv ed b y t h e g re at
Harv ey , b ut a fte rw ard s i t l e arn s t o m ak e a n i n cip ie n t v acu um i n i ts m outh ,
an d a cts b y r e m ovin g t h e p re ssu re o f t h e a tm osp here f ro m t h e n ip ple , l ik e a
pum p.]
" C O NNUBIA L F A IR ! w hom n o f o nd t r a n sp ort w arm s
T o l u ll y our i n fa n t i n m ate rn al a rm s;
W ho, b le ss'd i n v ain w ith t u m id b oso m s, h ear
H is t e n der w ailin gs w ith u nfe elin g e ar;
385
The s o oth in g k is s a n d m ilk y r ill d en y
T o t h e s w eet p outin g l ip , a n d g lis te n in g e y e!—
A h! w hat a v ails t h e c ra d le 's d am ask r o of,
T he e id er b ols te r, a n d e m bro id er'd w oof!—
O ft h ears t h e g ild ed c o uch u npity 'd p la in s,
390
And m an y a t e ar t h e t a sse l'd c u sh io n s ta in s!
N o v oic e s o s w eet a ttu nes h is c are s t o r e st,
S o s o ft n o p illo w , a s h is M oth er's b re ast! —
— Thus c h arm 'd t o s w eet r e p ose , w hen t w ilig ht h ours
S hed t h eir s o ft i n flu en ce o n c ele stia l b ow ers ,
395
The C heru b, I n nocen ce, w ith s m ile d iv in e
S huts h is w hite w in gs, a n d s le ep s o n B eau ty 's s h rin e.
[ Ah! w hat a va ils
. l . 3 87. F ro m a n e le g an t l ittle p oem o f M r. J e rn in gham 's
in title d I l L atte , e x hortin g l a d ie s t o n urs e t h eir o w n c h ild re n .]
X I. " F ro m d om e t o d om e w hen f la m es i n fu ria te c lim b,
S w eep t h e l o ng s tr e et, i n vest t h e t o w er s u blim e;
G ild t h e t a ll v an es a m id t h e a sto nis h 'd n ig ht,
400
And r e d den in g h eav en r e tu rn s t h e s a n guin e l ig ht;

W hile w ith v ast s tr id es a n d b ris tlin g h air a lo of
P ale D an ger g lid es a lo ng t h e f a llin g r o of;
A nd G ia n t T erro r h ow lin g i n a m aze
M oves h is d ark l im bs a cro ss t h e l u rid b la ze.
405
NYM PH S! y ou f ir s t t a u ght t h e g elid w av e t o r is e
H url'd i n r e sp le n den t a rc h es t o t h e s k ie s;
I n i r o n c ells c o nden se d t h e a ir y s p rin g,
A nd i m p'd t h e t o rre n t w ith u nfa ilin g w in g;
— On t h e f ie rc e f la m es t h e s h ow er i m petu ous f a lls ,
410
And s u dden d ark ness s h ro uds t h e s h atte r'd w alls ;
S te am , s m oak , a n d d ust i n b le n ded v olu m es r o ll,
A nd N ig ht a n d S ile n ce r e p osse ss t h e P ole .—
[ Hurl'd i n r e sp le n den t a rc h es
. l . 4 06. T he a d ditio n o f a n a ir -c ell t o m ach in es
fo r r a is in g w ate r t o e x tin guis h f ir e w as f ir s t i n tr o duced b y M r. N ew sh am o f
London, a n d i s n ow a p plie d t o s im ila r e n gin es f o r w ash in g w all- tr e es i n
gard en s, a n d t o a ll k in ds o f f o rc in g p um ps, a n d m ig ht b e a p plie d w ith
ad van ta g e t o l if tin g p um ps w here t h e w ate r i s b ro ught f ro m a g re at d is ta n ce
horiz o nta lly . A noth er k in d o f m ach in e w as i n ven te d b y o ne G re y l, i n w hic h a
vesse l o f w ate r w as e v ery w ay d is p ers e d b y t h e e x plo sio n o f g un-p ow der
lo dgin g i n t h e c en tr e o f i t, a n d l ig hte d b y a n a d ap te d m atc h ; f ro m t h is i d ea
Mr. G odfre y p ro pose d a w ate r-b om b o f s im ila r c o nstr u ctio n. D r. H ale s t o
pre v en t t h e s p re ad in g o f f ir e p ro pose d t o c o ver t h e f lo ors a n d s ta ir s o f t h e
ad jo in in g h ouse s w ith e arth ; M r. H artle y p ro pose d t o p re v en t h ouse s f ro m
ta k in g f ir e b y c o verin g t h e c ie lin g w ith t h in i r o n-p la te s, a n d L ord M ah on b y a
bed o f c o ars e m orta r o r p la is te r b etw een t h e c ie lin g a n d f lo or a b ove i t. M ay
not t h is a g e o f c h em ic al s c ie n ce d is c o ver s o m e m eth od o f i n je ctin g o r
so ak in g t im ber w ith l im e-w ate r a n d a fte rw ard s w ith v itr io lic a cid , a n d t h us
fill i ts p ore s w ith a la b aste r? o r o f p en etr a tin g i t w ith s ilic eo us m atte r, b y
pro cesse s s im ila r t o t h ose o f B erg m an a n d A ch ard ? S ee C ro nsta d t's M in era l.
2d. e d it. V ol. I . p . 2 22.]
" W here w ere y e, N YM PH S! i n t h ose d is a ste ro us h ours ,
W hic h w ra p 'd i n f la m es A UGUST A 'S s in kin g t o w ers ?
415
Why d id y e l in ger i n y our w ells a n d g ro ves,
W hen s a d W OODM ASO N m ourn 'd h er i n fa n t l o ves?

W hen t h y f a ir D au ghte rs w ith u nheed ed s c re am s,
I ll- fa te d M OLESW ORTH ! c all'd t h e l o ite rin g s tr e am s? —
T he t r e m blin g N ym ph o n b lo odle ss f in gers h ung
420
Eyes f ro m t h e t o tte rin g w all t h e d is ta n t t h ro ng,
W ith c ease le ss s h rie k s h er s le ep in g f rie n ds a la rm s,
D ro ps w ith s in ged h air i n to h er l o ver's a rm s.—
T he i llu m in 'd M oth er s e ek s w ith f o ots te p s f le et,
W here h an gs t h e s a fe b alc o ny o 'e r t h e s tr e et,
425
Wra p 'd i n h er s h eet h er y oungest h ope s u sp en ds,
A nd p an tin g l o w ers i t t o h er t ip to e f rie n ds;
A gain s h e h urrie s o n a ffe ctio n's w in gs,
A nd n ow a t h ir d , a n d n ow a f o urth , s h e b rin gs;
S afe a ll h er b ab es, s h e s m ooth s h er h orre n t b ro w ,
430
And b urs ts t h ro ugh b ic k erin g f la m es, u nsc o rc h 'd , b elo w .
S o, b y h er S on a rra ig n'd , w ith f e et u nsh od
O 'e r b urn in g b ars i n dig nan t E m ma t r o d.
[F ootn ote :
Woodm aso n, M ole sw orth
. l . 4 16. T he h is to rie s o f t h ese
unfo rtu nate f a m ilie s m ay b e s e en i n t h e A nnual R eg is te r, o r i n t h e
Gen tle m an 's M ag azin e.]
" E 'e n o n t h e d ay w hen Y outh w ith B eau ty w ed ,
T he f la m es s u rp riz ed t h em i n t h eir n uptia l b ed ;—
435
Seen a t t h e o pen in g s a sh w ith b oso m b are ,
W ith w rin gin g h an ds, a n d d ark d is h ev el'd h air ,
T he b lu sh in g B eau ty w ith d is o rd er'd c h arm s
R ound h er f o nd l o ver w in ds h er i v ory a rm s;
B eat, a s t h ey c la sp , t h eir t h ro bbin g h earts w ith f e ar,
440
And m an y a k is s i s m ix 'd w ith m an y a t e ar;—
A h m e! i n v ain t h e l a b ourin g e n gin es p our
R ound t h eir p ale l im bs t h e i n effe ctu al s h ow er!—
— Then c ra sh 'd t h e f lo or, w hile s h rin kin g c ro uds r e tir e ,
A nd L ove a n d V ir tu e s u nk a m id t h e f ir e !—
445
With p ie rc in g s c re am s a fflic te d s tr a n gers m ourn ,
A nd t h eir w hite a sh es m in gle i n t h eir u rn .

X II. " P E LLU CID F O RM S! w hose c ry sta l b oso m s s h ow
T he s h in e o f w elf a re , o r t h e s h ad e o f w oe;
W ho w ith s o ft l ip s s a lu te r e tu rn in g S prin g,
450
And h ail t h e Z ep hyr q uiv erin g o n h is w in g;
O r w atc h , u ntir e d , t h e w in te ry c lo uds, a n d s h are
W ith s tr e am in g e y es m y v eg eta b le c are ;
G o, s h ove t h e d im m is t f ro m t h e m ounta in 's b ro w ,
C hase t h e w hite f o g, w hic h f lo ods t h e v ale b elo w ;
455
Melt t h e t h ic k s n ow s, t h at l in ger o n t h e l a n ds,
A nd c atc h t h e h ails to nes i n y our l ittle h an ds;
G uard t h e c o y b lo sso m f ro m t h e p eltin g s h ow er,
A nd d ash t h e r im y s p an gle s f ro m t h e b ow er;
F ro m e ach c h ill l e af t h e s ilv ery d ro ps r e p el,
460
And c lo se t h e t im oro us f lo re t's g old en b ell.
[ Shove t h e d im m is t
. l . 4 53. S ee n ote o n l . 2 0 o f t h is C an to .]
[ Catc h t h e h ail- s to nes
. l . 4 56. S ee n ote o n l . 1 5 o f t h is C an to .]
[ Fro m e a ch c h ill l e a f
. l . 4 59. T he u pper s id e o f t h e l e af i s t h e o rg an o f
veg eta b le r e sp ir a tio n, a s e x pla in ed i n t h e a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXVII,
hen ce t h e l e af i s l ia b le t o i n ju ry f ro m m uch m ois tu re o n t h is s u rfa ce, a n d i s
destr o yed b y b ein g s m eare d w ith o il, i n t h ese r e sp ects r e se m blin g t h e l u ngs
of a n im als o r t h e s p ir a cu la o f i n se cts . T o p re v en t t h ese i n ju rie s s o m e l e av es
re p el t h e d ew -d ro ps f ro m t h eir u pper s u rfa ces a s t h ose o f c ab bag es; o th er
veg eta b le s c lo se t h e u pper s u rfa ces o f t h eir l e av es t o geth er i n t h e n ig ht o r i n
wet w eath er, a s t h e s e n sitiv e p la n t; o th ers o nly h an g t h eir l e av es d ow nw ard s
so a s t o s h oot t h e w et f ro m t h em , a s k id ney -b ean s, a n d m an y t r e es. S ee n ote
on l . 1 8 o f t h is C an to .]
[ Gold en b ell
. l . 4 60. T here a re m usc le s p la ced a b out t h e f o ots ta lk s o f t h e
le av es o r l e afle ts o f m an y p la n ts , f o r t h e p urp ose o f c lo sin g t h eir u pper
su rfa ces t o geth er, o r o f b en din g t h em d ow n s o a s t o s h oot o ff t h e s h ow ers o r
dew -d ro ps, a s m en tio ned i n t h e p re ceed in g n ote . T he c la w s o f t h e p eta ls o r o f
th e d iv is io ns o f t h e c aly x o f m an y f lo w ers a re f u rn is h ed i n a s im ila r m an ner
with m usc le s, w hic h a re e x erte d t o o pen o r c lo se t h e c o ro l a n d c aly x o f t h e
flo w er a s i n t r a g opogon, a n em one. T his a ctio n o f o pen in g a n d c lo sin g t h e

le av es o r f lo w ers d oes n ot a p pear t o b e p ro duced s im ply b y
ir rita tio n
o n t h e
musc le s t h em se lv es, b ut b y t h e c o nnectio n o f t h ose m usc le s w ith a
se n sitiv e
se n so riu m o r b ra in e x is tin g i n e ach i n div id ual b ud o r f lo w er. 1 st. B ecau se
man y f lo w ers c lo se f ro m t h e d efe ct o f s tim ulu s, n ot b y t h e e x cess o f i t, a s b y
dark ness, w hic h i s t h e a b se n ce o f t h e s tim ulu s o f l ig ht; o r b y c o ld , w hic h i s
th e a b se n ce o f t h e s tim ulu s o f h eat. N ow t h e d efe ct o f h eat, o r t h e a b se n ce o f
fo od, o r o f d rin k, a ffe cts o ur
se n sa tio ns
, w hic h h ad b een p re v io usly
accu sto m ed t o a g re ate r q uan tity o f t h em ; b ut a m usc le c an not b e s a id t o b e
stim ula te d i n to a ctio n b y a d efe ct o f s tim ulu s. 2 . B ecau se t h e m usc le s a ro und
th e f o ots ta lk s o f t h e s u bdiv is io ns o f t h e l e av es o f t h e s e n sitiv e p la n t a re
ex erte d w hen a n y i n ju ry i s o ffe re d t o t h e o th er e x tr e m ity o f t h e l e af, a n d
so m e o f t h e s ta m en s o f t h e f lo w ers o f t h e c la ss S yngen esia c o ntr a ct
th em se lv es w hen o th ers a re i r rita te d . S ee n ote o n C hondrilla , V ol. I I. o f t h is
work .
Fro m t h is c ir c u m sta n ce t h e c o ntr a ctio n o f t h e m usc le s o f v eg eta b le s s e em s t o
dep en d o n a d is a g re eab le
se n sa tio n
i n s o m e d is ta n t p art, a n d n ot o n t h e
ir rita tio n
o f t h e m usc le s t h em se lv es. T hus w hen a p artic le o f d ust s tim ula te s
th e b all o f t h e e y e, t h e e y e-lid s a re i n sta n tly c lo se d , a n d w hen t o o m uch l ig ht
pain s t h e r e tin a, t h e m usc le s o f t h e i r is c o ntr a ct i ts a p ertu re , a n d t h is n ot b y
an y c o nnectio n o r c o nse n t o f t h e n erv es o f t h ose p arts , b ut a s a n e ffo rt t o
pre v en t o r t o r e m ove a d is a g re eab le s e n sa tio n, w hic h e v in ces t h at v eg eta b le s
are e n dued w ith s e n sa tio n, o r t h at e ach b ud h as a c o m mon s e n so riu m , a n d i s
fu rn is h ed w ith a b ra in o r a c en tr a l p la ce w here i ts n erv es w ere c o nnecte d .]
" S o s h ould y oung S Y M PA TH Y, i n f e m ale f o rm ,
C lim b t h e t a ll r o ck , s p ecta tr e ss o f t h e s to rm ;
L if e 's s in kin g w re ck s w ith s e cre t s ig hs d ep lo re ,
A nd b le ed f o r o th ers ' w oes, H ers e lf o n s h ore ;
465
To f rie n dle ss V ir tu e, g asp in g o n t h e s tr a n d,
B are h er w arm h eart, h er v ir g in a rm s e x pan d,
C harm w ith k in d l o oks, w ith t e n der a ccen ts c h eer,
A nd p our t h e s w eet c o nso la to ry t e ar;
G rie f's c u re le ss w ounds w ith l e n ie n t b alm s a ssw ag e,
470
Or p ro p w ith f ir m er s ta ff t h e s te p s o f A ge;
T he l if te d a rm o f m ute D esp air a rre st,

A nd s n atc h t h e d ag ger p oin te d t o h is b re ast;
O r l u ll t o s lu m ber E nvy's h ag gard m ie n ,
A nd r o b h er q uiv er'd s h afts w ith h an d u nse en .
475
—Sound, N YM PH S O F H ELIC O N! t h e t r u m p o f F am e,
A nd t e ach H ib ern ia n e ch oes J O NES'S n am e;
B in d r o und h er p olis h 'd b ro w t h e c iv ic b ay ,
A nd d ra g t h e f a ir P hila n th ro pis t t o d ay .—
S o f ro m s e clu ded s p rin gs, a n d s e cre t c av es,
480
Her L if fy p ours h is b rig ht m ean derin g w av es,
C ools t h e p arc h 'd v ale , t h e s u ltr y m ead d iv id es,
A nd t o w ns a n d t e m ple s s ta r h is s h ad ow y s id es.
[ Jo nes's n am e
. l . 4 76. A y oung l a d y w ho d ev ote s a g re at p art o f a n a m ple
fo rtu ne t o w ell c h ose n a cts o f s e cre t c h arity .]
X III. " C A LL Y OUR l ig ht l e g io ns, t r e ad t h e s w am py h eath ,
P ie rc e w ith s h arp s p ad es t h e t r e m ulo us p eat b en eath ;
485
With c o lte rs b rig ht t h e r u sh y s w ard b is e ct,
A nd i n n ew v ein s t h e g ush in g r ills d ir e ct;—
S o f lo w ers s h all r is e i n p urp le l ig ht a rra y 'd ,
A nd b lo sso m 'd o rc h ard s s tr e tc h t h eir s ilv er s h ad e;
A dm ir in g g le b es t h eir a m ber e ars u nfo ld ,
490
And L ab our s le ep a m id t h e w av in g g old .
" T hus w hen y oung H ER CU LES w ith f ir m d is d ain
B ra v ed t h e s o ft s m ile s o f P le asu re 's h arlo t t r a in ;
T o v alia n t t o ils h is f o rc efu l l im bs a ssig n'd ,
A nd g av e t o V ir tu e a ll h is m ig hty m in d,
495
Fie rc e A CH ELO US r u sh 'd f ro m m ounta in -c av es,
O 'e r s a d E to lia p our'd h is w aste fu l w av es,
O 'e r l o w in g v ale s a n d b le atin g p astu re s r o ll'd ,
S w ep t h er r e d v in ey ard s, a n d h er g le b es o f g old ,
M in ed a ll h er t o w ns, u pto re h er r o ote d w oods,
500
And F am in e d an ced u pon t h e s h in in g f lo ods.
T he y outh fu l H ero s e iz ed h is c u rle d c re st,
A nd d ash 'd w ith l if te d c lu b t h e w ate ry P est;

W ith w av in g a rm t h e b illo w y t u m ult q uell'd ,
A nd t o h is c o urs e t h e b ello w in g F ie n d r e p ell'd .
[ Fie rc e A ch elo us
. l . 4 95. T he r iv er A ch elo us d elu ged E to lia , b y o ne o f i ts
bra n ch es o r a rm s, w hic h i n t h e a n tie n t l a n guag es a re c alle d h orn s, a n d
pro duced f a m in e t h ro ughout a g re at t r a ct o f c o untr y , t h is w as r e p re se n te d i n
hie ro gly phic e m ble m s b y t h e w in din g c o urs e o f a s e rp en t a n d t h e r o arin g o f a
bull w ith l a rg e h orn s. H erc u le s, o r t h e e m ble m o f s tr e n gth , s tr a n gle d t h e
se rp en t, a n d t o re o ff o ne h orn f ro m t h e b ull; t h at i s , h e s to pped a n d t u rn ed t h e
co urs e o f o ne a rm o f t h e r iv er, a n d r e sto re d p le n ty t o t h e c o untr y . W hen ce t h e
an tie n t e m ble m o f t h e h orn o f p le n ty . D ic t. p ar M . D an et.]
505
"T hen t o a S nak e t h e f in ny D em on t u rn 'd
H is l e n gth en 'd f o rm , w ith s c ale s o f s ilv er b urn 'd ;
L ash 'd w ith r e stle ss s w eep h is d ra g on-tr a in ,
A nd s h ot m ean derin g o 'e r t h e a ffrig hte d p la in .
T he H ero -G od, w ith g ia n t f in gers c la sp 'd
510
Fir m r o und h is n eck , t h e h is sin g m onste r g ra sp 'd ;
W ith s ta rtin g e y es, w id e t h ro at, a n d g ap in g t e eth ,
C url h is r e d undan t f o ld s, a n d w rith e i n d eath .
" A nd n ow a B ull, a m id t h e f ly in g t h ro ng
T he g ris ly D em on f o am 'd , a n d r o ar'd a lo ng;
515
With s ilv er h oofs t h e f lo w ery m ead ow s s p urn 'd ,
R oll'd h is r e d e y e, h is t h re ate n in g a n tle rs t u rn 'd .
D ra g g'd d ow n t o e arth , t h e W arrio r's v ic to r-h an ds
P re ss'd h is d eep d ew la p o n t h e i m prin te d s a n ds;
T hen w ith q uic k b ound h is b en ded k nee h e f ix 'd
520
Hig h o n h is n eck , t h e b ra n ch in g h orn s b etw ix t,
S tr a in 'd h is s tr o ng a rm s, h is s in ew y s h ould ers b en t,
A nd f ro m h is c u rle d b ro w t h e t w is te d t e rro r r e n t.
— Ple ase d F aw ns a n d N ym phs w ith d an cin g s te p a p pla u d,
A nd h an g t h eir c h ap le ts r o und t h e r e stin g G od;
525
Lin k t h eir s o ft h an ds, a n d r e ar w ith p au sin g t o il
T he g old en t r o phy o n t h e f u rro w 'd s o il;
F ill w ith r ip e f ru its , w ith w re ath ed f lo w ers a d orn ,

A nd g iv e t o P L EN TY h er p ro lif ic h orn .
[ Dra gg'd d ow n t o e a rth
. l . 5 17. D esc rib ed f ro m a n a n tiq ue g em .]
X IV . " O n S prin g's f a ir l a p , C ER U LEA N S IS T ER S! p our
530
Fro m a ir y u rn s t h e s u n-illu m in ed s h ow er,
F eed w ith t h e d ulc et d ro ps m y t e n der b ro ods,
M ellif lu ous f lo w ers , a n d a ro m atic b uds;
H an g f ro m e ach b en din g g ra ss a n d h orre n t t h orn
T he t r e m ulo us p earl, t h at g litte rs t o t h e m orn ;
535
Or w here c o ld d ew s t h eir s e cre t c h an nels l a v e,
A nd E arth 's d ark c h am bers h id e t h e s ta g nan t w av e,
O , p ie rc e, Y E N YM PH S! h er m arb le v ein s, a n d l e ad
H er g ush in g f o unta in s t o t h e t h ir s ty m ead ;
W id e o 'e r t h e s h in in g v ale s, a n d t r ic k lin g h ills
540
Spre ad t h e b rig ht t r e asu re i n a t h ousa n d r ills .
S o s h all m y p eo ple d r e alm s o f L eaf a n d F lo w er
E xult, i n eb ria te w ith t h e g en ia l s h ow er;
D ip t h eir l o ng t r e sse s f ro m t h e m ossy b rin k,
W ith t u fte d r o ots t h e g la ssy c u rre n ts d rin k;
545
Shad e y our c o ol m an sio ns f ro m m erid ia n b eam s,
A nd v ie w t h eir w av in g h onours i n y our s tr e am s.
[ Spre a d t h e b rig ht t r e a su re
. l . 5 40. T he p ra ctic e o f f lo odin g l a n ds l o ng i n u se
in C hin a h as b een b ut l a te ly i n tr o duced i n to t h is c o untr y . B esid es t h e
su pply in g w ate r t o t h e h erb ag e i n d ry er s e aso ns, i t s e em s t o d efe n d i t f ro m
fro st i n t h e e arly p art o f t h e y ear, a n d t h us d oubly a d van ces t h e v eg eta tio n.
The w ate rs w hic h r is e f ro m s p rin gs p assin g t h ro ugh m arl o r l im esto ne a re
re p le te w ith c alc are o us e arth , a n d w hen t h ro w n o ver m ora sse s t h ey d ep osit
th is e arth a n d i n cru st o r c o nso lid ate t h e m ora ss. T his k in d o f e arth i s
dep osite d i n g re at q uan tity f ro m t h e s p rin gs a t M atlo ck b ath , a n d s u pplie s t h e
so ft p oro us l im esto ne o f w hic h t h e h ouse s a n d w alls a re t h ere c o nstr u cte d ;
an d h as f o rm ed t h e w hole b an k f o r n ear a m ile o n t h at s id e o f t h e D erw en t o n
whic h t h ey s ta n d.

The w ate r o f m an y s p rin gs c o nta in s m uch a zo tic g as, o r p hlo gis tic a ir ,
besid es c arb onic g as, o r f ix ed a ir , a s t h at o f B uxto n a n d B ath ; t h is b ein g s e t a t
lib erty m ay m ore r e ad ily c o ntr ib ute t o t h e p ro ductio n o f n itr e b y m ean s o f t h e
putr e sc en t m atte rs w hic h i t i s e x pose d t o b y b ein g s p re ad u pon t h e s u rfa ce o f
th e l a n d; i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s f re q uen tly t u rn in g o ver h eap s o f m an ure
fa cilita te s t h e n itr o us p ro cess b y i m pris o nin g a tm osp heric a ir i n t h e i n te rs tic es
of t h e p utr e sc en t m ate ria ls . W ate r a ris in g b y l a n d-flo ods b rin gs a lo ng w ith i t
much o f t h e m ost s o lu ble p arts o f t h e m an ure f ro m t h e h ig her l a n ds t o t h e
lo w er o nes. R iv er-w ate r i n i ts c le ar s ta te a n d t h ose s p rin gs w hic h a re c alle d
so ft a re l e ss b en efic ia l f o r t h e p urp ose o f w ate rin g l a n ds, a s t h ey c o nta in l e ss
earth y o r s a lin e m atte r; a n d w ate r f ro m d is so lv in g s n ow f ro m i ts s lo w
so lu tio n b rin gs b ut l ittle e arth a lo ng w ith i t, a s m ay b e s e en b y t h e
co m para tiv e c le arn ess o f t h e w ate r o f s n ow -flo ods.]
" T hus w here t h e v ein s t h eir c o nflu en t b ra n ch es b en d,
A nd m ilk y e d die s w ith t h e p urp le b le n d;
T he C hyle 's w hite t r u nk, d iv erg in g f ro m i ts s o urc e,
550
Seek s t h ro ugh t h e v ita l m ass i ts s h in in g c o urs e ;
O 'e r e ach r e d c ell, a n d t is su ed m em bra n e s p re ad s
I n l iv in g n et- w ork a ll i ts b ra n ch in g t h re ad s;
M aze w ith in m aze i ts t o rtu ous p ath p urs u es,
W in ds i n to g la n ds, i n ex tr ic ab le c lu es;
555
Ste als t h ro ugh t h e s to m ach 's v elv et s id es, a n d s ip s
T he s ilv er s u rg es w ith a t h ousa n d l ip s;
F ills e ach f in e p ore , p erv ad es e ach s le n der h air ,
A nd d rin ks s a lu brio us d ew -d ro ps f ro m t h e a ir .
" T hus w hen t o k neel i n M ecca's a w fu l g lo om ,
560
Or p re ss w ith p io us k is s M ed in a's t o m b,
L eag ue a fte r l e ag ue, t h ro ugh m an y a l in gerin g d ay ,
S te er t h e s w art C ara v an s t h eir s u ltr y w ay ;
O 'e r s a n dy w aste s o n g asp in g c am els t o il,
O r p rin t w ith p ilg rim -s te p s t h e b urn in g s o il;
565
If f ro m l o ne r o ck s a s p ark lin g r ill d esc en d,
O 'e r t h e g re en b rin k t h e k neelin g n atio ns b en d,
B ath e t h e p arc h 'd l ip , a n d c o ol t h e f e v eris h t o ngue,

A nd t h e c le ar l a k e r e fle cts t h e m in gle d t h ro ng."
T he G oddess p au se d ,— th e l is te n in g b an ds a w hile
570
Still s e em t o h ear, a n d d w ell u pon h er s m ile ;
T hen w ith s o ft m urm ur s w eep i n l u cid t r a in s
D ow n t h e g re en s lo pes, a n d o 'e r t h e p eb bly p la in s,
T o e ach b rig ht s tr e am o n s ilv er s a n dals g lid e,
R efle ctiv e f o unta in , a n d t u m ultu ous t id e.
575
So s h oot t h e S pid er-b ro ods a t b re ezy d aw n
T heir g litte rin g n et- w ork o 'e r t h e a u tu m nal l a w n;
F ro m b la d e t o b la d e c o nnect w ith c o rd ag e f in e
T he u nben din g g ra ss, a n d l iv e a lo ng t h e l in e;
O r b ath e u nw et t h eir o ily f o rm s, a n d d w ell
580
With f e et r e p uls iv e o n t h e d im plin g w ell.
S o w hen t h e N orth c o ngeals h is w ate ry m ass,
P ile s h ig h h is s n ow s, a n d f lo ors h is s e as w ith g la ss;
W hile m an y a M onth , u nknow n t o w arm er r a y s,
M ark s i ts s lo w c h ro nic le b y l u nar d ay s;
585
Sto ut y outh s a n d r u ddy d am se ls , s p ortiv e t r a in ,
L eav e t h e w hite s o il, a n d r u sh u pon t h e m ain ;
F ro m i s le t o i s le t h e m oon-b rig ht s q uad ro ns s tr a y ,
A nd w in i n e asy c u rv es t h eir g ra cefu l w ay ;
O n s te p a lte rn ate b orn e, w ith b ala n ce n ic e
590
Han g o 'e r t h e g lid in g s te el, a n d h is s a lo ng t h e i c e.
Arg um en t o f t h e F ourth C anto .
Addre ss t o t h e S ylp hs. I . T ra d e-w in ds. M onso ons. N .E . a n d S .W . w in ds.
Lan d a n d s e a b re ezes. I rre g ula r w in ds. 9 . I I. P ro ductio n o f v ita l a ir f ro m
oxygen e a n d l ig ht. T he m arria g e o f C upid a n d P sy ch e. 2 5. I II. 1 . S yro c.
Sim oom . T orn ad o. 6 3. 2 . F og. C onta g io n. S to ry o f T hyrs is a n d A eg le . L ove
an d D eath . 7 9. I V . 1 . B aro m ete r. A ir -p um p. 1 27. 2 . A ir - b allo on o f

Mongulf ie r. D eath o f R ozie r. I c aru s. 1 43. V . D is c o verie s o f D r. P rie stle y .
Evolu tio ns a n d c o m bin atio ns o f p ure a ir . R ap e o f P ro se rp in e. 1 65. V I. S ea-
ballo ons, o r h ouse s c o nstr u cte d t o m ove u nder t h e s e a.
Death o f M r. D ay .
Of
Mr. S pald in g.
Of C ap ta in P ie rc e a n d h is D au ghte rs . 1 95. V II. S ylp hs o f
music . C ecelia s in gin g. C upid w ith a l y re r id in g u pon a l io n. 2 33. V III.
Destr u ctio n o f S en ach erib 's a rm y b y a p estile n tia l w in d. S had ow o f D eath .
263. I X . 1 . W is h t o p osse ss t h e s e cre t o f c h an gin g t h e c o urs e o f t h e w in ds.
305. 2 . M onste r d ev ourin g a ir s u bdued b y M r. K ir w an . 3 21. X . 1 . S eed s
su sp en ded i n t h eir p ods. S ta rs d is c o vere d b y M r. H ers c h el. D estr u ctio n a n d
re su sc ita tio n o f a ll t h in gs. 3 51. 2 . S eed s w ith in s e ed s, a n d b ulb s w ith in b ulb s.
Pic tu re o n t h e r e tin a o f t h e e y e. C oncen tr ic s tr a ta o f t h e e arth . T he g re at s e ed .
381. 3 . T he r o ot, p ith , l o bes, p lu m e, c aly x, c o ra l, s a p , b lo od, l e av es r e sp ir e
an d a b so rb l ig ht. T he c ro co dile i n i ts e g g. 4 09. X I. O pen in g o f t h e f lo w er.
The p eta ls , s ty le , a n th ers , p ro lif ic d ust. T ra n sm uta tio n o f t h e s ilk w orm . 4 41.
XII. 1 . L eaf-b uds c h an ged i n to f lo w er-b uds b y w oundin g t h e b ark , o r
str a n gula tin g a p art o f t h e b ra n ch . 4 61. 2 . I n gra ftin g. A aro n's r o d p ullu la te s.
477. X III. 1 . I n se cts o n t r e es. H um min g-b ir d a la rm ed b y t h e s p id er-lik e
ap eara n ce o f C ypre p ed ia . 4 91. 2 . D is e ase s o f v eg eta b le s. S cra tc h o n u nneale d
gla ss. 5 11. X IV . 1 . T en der f lo w ers . A m ary llis , f ritilla ry , e ry th rin a, m im osa ,
cere a. 5 23. 2 . V in es. O ra n ges. D ia n a's t r e es. K ew g ard en . T he r o yal f a m ily .
541. X V. O ffe rin g t o H ygeia . 5 87. D ep artu re o f t h e G oddess. 6 29.

T H E
EC O NO M Y O F V EG ETA TIO N.
C ANTO I V .
A s w hen a t n oon i n H ybla 's f ra g ra n t b ow ers
C A CA LIA o pen s a ll h er h oney 'd f lo w ers ;
C onte n din g s w arm s o n b en din g b ra n ch es c lin g,
A nd n atio ns h over o n a u re lia n w in g;
5
So r o und t h e G ODDESS, e re s h e s p eak s, o n h ig h
I m patie n t S Y LPH S i n g aw dy c ir c le ts f ly ;
Q uiv erin g i n a ir t h eir p ain te d p lu m es e x pan d,
A nd c o lo ure d s h ad ow s d an ce u pon t h e l a n d.
[ C aca lia o pen s
. l . 2 . T he i m porta n ce o f t h e n ecta riu m o r h oney -g la n d i n t h e
v eg eta b le e co nom y i s s e en f ro m t h e v ery c o m plic ate d a p para tu s, w hic h
n atu re h as f o rm ed i n s o m e f lo w ers f o r t h e p re se rv atio n o f t h eir h oney f ro m
i n se cts , a s i n t h e a co nite s o r m onksh oods; i n o th er p la n ts i n ste ad o f a g re at
a p para tu s f o r i ts p ro te ctio n a g re ate r s e cre tio n o f i t i s p ro duced t h at t h en ce a
p art m ay b e s p are d t o t h e d ep re d atio n o f i n se cts . T he c acalia s u av eo le n s
p ro duces s o m uch h oney t h at o n s o m e d ay s i t m ay b e s m elt a t a g re at d is ta n ce
f ro m t h e p la n t. I r e m em ber o nce c o untin g o n o ne o f t h ese p la n ts b esid es b ees
o f v ario us k in ds w ith out n um ber, a b ove t w o h undre d p ain te d b utte rflie s,
w hic h g av e i t t h e b eau tif u l a p peara n ce o f b ein g c o vere d w ith a d ditio nal
f lo w ers .]
I . " S Y LPH S! Y OUR l ig ht t r o ops t h e t r o pic W in ds c o nfin e,
1 0
And g uid e t h eir s tr e am in g a rro w s t o t h e L in e;
W hile i n w arm f lo ods e clip tic b re ezes r is e ,

A nd s in k w ith w in gs b en um b'd i n c o ld er s k ie s.
Y ou b id M onso ons o n I n dia n s e as r e sid e,
A nd v eer, a s m oves t h e s u n, t h eir a ir y t id e;
1 5
While s o uth ern g ale s o 'e r w este rn o cean s r o ll,
A nd E uru s s te als h is i c e-w in ds f ro m t h e P ole .
Y our p la y fu l t r a in s, o n s u ltr y i s la n ds b orn ,
T urn o n f a n ta stic t o e a t e v e a n d m orn ;
W ith s o ft s u su rra n t v oic e a lte rn ate s w eep
2 0
Earth 's g re en p av ilio ns a n d e n cir c lin g d eep .
O R i n i tin era n t c o horts , b orn e s u blim e
O n t id es o f e th er, f lo at f ro m c lim e t o c lim e;
O 'e r w av in g A utu m n b en d y our a ir y r in g,
O r w aft t h e f ra g ra n t b oso m o f t h e S prin g.
[ The t r o pic w in ds
. l . 9 . S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXIII.]
2 5
II. " W hen M orn , e sc o rte d b y t h e d an cin g H ours ,
O 'e r t h e b rig ht p la in s h er d ew y l u str e s h ow ers ;
T ill f ro m h er s a b le c h ario t E ve s e re n e
D ro ps t h e d ark c u rta in o 'e r t h e b rillia n t s c en e;
Y ou f o rm w ith c h em ic h an ds t h e a ir y s u rg e,
3 0
Mix w ith b ro ad v an s, w ith s h ad ow y t r id en ts u rg e.
S Y LPH S! f ro m e ach s u n-b rig ht l e af, t h at t w in klin g s h ak es
O 'e r E arth 's g re en l a p , o r s h oots a m id h er l a k es,
Y our p la y fu l b an ds w ith s im perin g l ip s i n vite ,
A nd w ed t h e e n am our'd O XYGEN E t o L IG HT.—
3 5
Round t h eir w hite n eck s w ith f in gers i n te rw ove,
C lin g t h e f o nd P air w ith u nab atin g l o ve;
H an d l in k'd i n h an d o n b uoyan t s te p t h ey r is e ,
A nd s o ar a n d g lis te n i n u nclo uded s k ie s.
W hen ce i n b rig ht f lo ods t h e V IT A L A IR e x pan ds,
4 0
And w ith c o ncen tr ic s p here s i n volv es t h e l a n ds;
P erv ad es t h e s w arm in g s e as, a n d h eav in g e arth s,
W here t e em in g N atu re b ro ods h er m yria d b ir th s;
F ills t h e f in e l u ngs o f a ll t h at
bre a th e
o r
bud
,
W arm s t h e n ew h eart, a n d d yes t h e g ush in g b lo od;

4 5
With L if e 's f ir s t s p ark i n sp ir e s t h e o rg an ic f ra m e,
A nd, a s i t w aste s, r e n ew s t h e s u btile f la m e.
[ The e n am our'd o xyg en e
. l . 3 4. T he c o m mon a ir o f t h e a tm osp here a p pears
by t h e a n aly sis o f D r. P rie stle y a n d o th er p hilo so phers t o c o nsis t o f a b out
th re e p arts o f a n e la stic f lu id u nfit f o r r e sp ir a tio n o r c o m bustio n, c alle d a zo te
by t h e F re n ch s c h ool, a n d a b out o ne f o urth o f p ure v ita l a ir f it f o r t h e s u pport
of a n im al l if e a n d o f c o m bustio n, c alle d o xygen e. T he p rin cip al s o urc e o f t h e
azo te i s p ro bab ly f ro m t h e d eco m positio n o f a ll v eg eta b le a n d a n im al m atte rs
by p utr e fa ctio n a n d c o m bustio n; t h e p rin cip al s o urc e o f v ita l a ir o r o xygen e i s
perh ap s f ro m t h e d eco m positio n o f w ate r i n t h e o rg an s o f v eg eta b le s b y
mean s o f t h e s u n's l ig ht. T he d if fic u lty o f i n je ctin g v eg eta b le v esse ls s e em s t o
sh ew t h at t h eir p ers p ir a tiv e p ore s a re m uch l e ss t h an t h ose o f a n im als , a n d
th at t h e w ate r w hic h c o nstitu te s t h eir p ers p ir a tio n i s s o d iv id ed a t t h e t im e o f
its e x clu sio n t h at b y m ean s o f t h e s u n's l ig ht i t b eco m es d eco m pose d , t h e
in fla m mab le a ir o r h ydro gen e, w hic h i s o ne o f i ts c o nstitu en t p arts , b ein g
re ta in ed t o f o rm t h e o il, r e sin , w ax , h oney , & c. o f t h e v eg eta b le e co nom y;
an d t h e o th er p art, w hic h u nite d w ith l ig ht o r h eat b eco m es v ita l a ir o r
oxygen e g as, r is e s i n to t h e a tm osp here a n d r e p le n is h es i t w ith t h e f o od o f l if e .
Dr. P rie stle y h as e v in ced b y v ery i n gen io us e x perim en ts t h at t h e b lo od g iv es
out p hlo gis to n, a n d r e ceiv es v ita l a ir , o r o xygen e-g as b y t h e l u ngs. A nd D r.
Cra w fo rd h as s h ew n t h at t h e b lo od a cq uir e s h eat f ro m t h is v ita l a ir i n
re sp ir a tio n. T here i s h ow ev er s till a s o m eth in g m ore s u btil t h an h eat, w hic h
must b e o bta in ed i n r e sp ir a tio n f ro m t h e v ita l a ir , a s o m eth in g w hic h l if e c an
not e x is t a f e w m in ute s w ith out, w hic h s e em s n ecessa ry t o t h e v eg eta b le a s
well a s t o t h e a n im al w orld , a n d w hic h a s n o o rg an iz ed v esse ls c an c o nfin e i t,
re q uir e s p erp etu ally t o b e r e n ew ed . S ee n ote o n C an to I . l . 4 01.]
" S o p ure , s o s o ft, w ith s w eet a ttr a ctio n s h one
F air P SY CH E, k neelin g a t t h e e th ere al t h ro ne;
W on w ith c o y s m ile s t h e a d m ir in g c o urt o f J o ve,
5 0
And w arm 'd t h e b oso m o f u nco nquer'd L O VE.—
B en eath a m ovin g s h ad e o f f ru its a n d f lo w ers
O nw ard t h ey m arc h t o H YM EN 'S s a cre d b ow ers ;
W ith l if te d t o rc h h e l ig hts t h e f e stiv e t r a in ,

S ublim e, a n d l e ad s t h em i n h is g old en c h ain ;
5 5
Jo in s t h e f o nd p air , i n dulg en t t o t h eir v ow s,
A nd h id es w ith m ystic v eil t h eir b lu sh in g b ro w s.
R ound t h eir f a ir f o rm s t h eir m in glin g a rm s t h ey f lin g,
M eet w ith w arm l ip , a n d c la sp w ith r u stlin g w in g.—
— Hen ce p la stic N atu re , a s O bliv io n w helm s
6 0
Her f a d in g f o rm s, r e p eo ple s a ll h er r e alm s;
S oft J o ys d is p ort o n p urp le p lu m es u nfu rl'd ,
A nd L ove a n d B eau ty r u le t h e w illin g w orld .
[ Fair P sy ch e
. l . 4 8. D esc rib ed f ro m a n a n tie n t g em o n a f in e o nyx i n
posse ssio n o f t h e D uke o f M arlb oro ugh, o f w hic h t h ere i s a b eau tif u l p rin t i n
Bry an t's M yth ol. V ol I I. p . 3 92. A nd f ro m a n oth er a n tie n t g em o f C upid a n d
Psy ch e e m bra cin g, o f w hic h t h ere i s a p rin t i n S pen ce's P oly m etis . p . 8 2.]
[ Rep eo ple s a ll h er r e a lm s
. l . 6 0.
Q uae m are n av ig eru m e t t e rra s f ru gif e re n te s
C oncele b ra s; p er t e q uonia m g en us o m ne a n im an tu m
C oncip itu r, v is itq ue e x ortu m l u m in a f o lis .
Lucre t.]
I II. 1 . " S Y LPH S! Y our b old m yria d s o n t h e w ith erin g h eath
S ta y t h e f e ll S Y RO C'S s u ffo cativ e b re ath ;
6 5
Arre st S IM OOM i n h is r e alm s o f s a n d,
T he p ois o ned j a v elin b ala n ced i n h is h an d;—
F ie rc e o n b lu e s tr e am s h e r id es t h e t a in te d a ir ,
P oin ts h is k een e y e, a n d w av es h is w his tlin g h air ;
W hile , a s h e t u rn s, t h e u ndula tin g s o il
7 0
Rolls i n r e d w av es, a n d b illo w y d ese rts b oil.
[ Arre st S im oom
. l . 6 5. " A t e le v en o 'c lo ck w hile w e w ere w ith g re at p le asu re
co nte m pla tin g t h e r u gged t o ps o f C hig gre , w here w e e x pecte d t o s o la ce
ours e lv es w ith p le n ty o f g ood w ate r, I d ris c rie d o ut w ith a l o ud v oic e, " fa ll
upon y our f a ces, f o r h ere i s t h e s im oom !" I s a w f ro m t h e S .E . a h aze c o m e i n
co lo ur l ik e t h e p urp le p art o f a r a in bow , b ut n ot s o c o m pre sse d o r t h ic k ; i t d id

not o ccu py t w en ty y ard s i n b re ad th , a n d w as a b out t w elv e f e et h ig h f ro m t h e
gro und. I t w as a k in d o f a b lu sh u pon t h e a ir , a n d i t m oved v ery r a p id ly , f o r I
sc arc e c o uld t u rn t o f a ll u pon t h e g ro und w ith m y h ead t o t h e n orth w ard ,
when I f e lt t h e h eat o f i ts c u rre n t p la in ly u pon m y f a ce. W e a ll l a y f la t u pon
th e g ro und, a s i f d ead , t ill I d ris t o ld u s i t w as b lo w n o ver. T he m ete o r, o r
purp le h aze, w hic h I s a w w as i n deed p asse d ; b ut t h e l ig ht a ir t h at s till b le w
was o f h eat t o t h re ate n s u ffo catio n. F or m y p art I f o und d is tin ctly i n m y
bre ast, t h at I h ad i m bib ed a p art o f i t; n or w as I f re e o f a n a sth m atic s e n sa tio n
till I h ad b een s o m e m onth s i n I ta ly ." B ru ce's T ra v els . V ol. I V . p . 5 57.
It i s d if fic u lt t o a cco unt f o r t h e n arro w t r a ck o f t h is p estile n tia l w in d, w hic h i s
sa id n ot t o e x ceed t w en ty y ard s, a n d f o r i ts s m all e le v atio n o f t w elv e f e et. A
whir lw in d w ill p ass f o rw ard s, a n d t h ro w d ow n a n a v en ue o f t r e es b y i ts q uic k
re v olu tio n a s i t p asse s, b ut n oth in g l ik e a w hir lin g i s d esc rib ed a s h ap pen in g
in t h ese n arro w s tr e am s o f a ir , a n d w hir lw in ds a sc en d t o g re ate r h eig hts .
There s e em s b ut o ne k now n m an ner i n w hic h t h is c h an nel o f a ir c o uld b e
effe cte d , a n d t h at i s b y e le ctr ic ity .
The v olc an ic o rig in o f t h ese w in ds i s m en tio ned i n t h e n ote o n C hunda i n
Vol. I I. o f t h is w ork ; i t m ust h ere b e a d ded , t h at P ro fe sso r V air o a t N ap le s
fo und, t h at d urin g t h e e ru ptio n o f V esu viu s p erp en dic u la r i r o n b ars w ere
ele ctr ic ; a n d o th ers h av e o bse rv ed s u ffo catin g d am ps t o a tte n d t h ese
eru ptio ns. F erb er's T ra v els i n I ta ly , p . 1 33. A nd l a stly , t h at a c u rre n t o f a ir
atte n ds t h e p assa g e o f e le ctr ic m atte r, a s i s s e en i n p re se n tin g a n e le ctr iz ed
poin t t o t h e f la m e o f a c an dle . I n M r. B ru ce's a cco unt o f t h is s im oom , i t w as
in i ts c o urs e o ver a q uite d ry d ese rt o f s a n d, ( a n d w hic h w as i n c o nse q uen ce
unab le t o c o nduct a n e le ctr ic s tr e am i n to t h e e arth b en eath i t,) t o s o m e m ois t
ro ck s a t b ut a f e w m ile s d is ta n ce; a n d t h en ce w ould a p pear t o b e a s tr e am o f
ele ctr ic ity f ro m a v olc an o a tte n ded w ith n oxio us a ir ; a n d a s t h e b odie s o f M r.
Bru ce a n d h is a tte n dan ts w ere i n su la te d o n t h e s a n d, t h ey w ould n ot b e
se n sib le o f t h eir i n cre ase d e le ctr ic ity , a s i t p asse d o ver t h em ; t o w hic h i t m ay
be a d ded , t h at a s u lp huro us o r s u ffo catin g s e n sa tio n i s s a id t o a cco m pan y
fla m es o f l ig htn in g, a n d e v en s tr o ng s p ark s o f a rtif ic ia l e le ctr ic ity . I n t h e
ab ove a cco unt o f t h e s im oom , a g re at r e d ness i n t h e a ir i s s a id t o b e a c erta in
sig n o f i ts a p pro ach , w hic h m ay b e o ccasio ned b y t h e e ru ptio n o f f la m e f ro m
a d is ta n t v olc an o i n t h ese e x te n siv e a n d i m pen etr a b le d ese rts o f s a n d. S ee
Note o n l . 2 94 o f t h is C an to .]

Y ou s e iz e T O RN ADO b y h is l o ck s o f m is t,
B urs t h is d en se c lo uds, h is w heelin g s p ir e s u ntw is t;
W id e o 'e r t h e W est w hen b orn e o n h ead lo ng g ale s,
D ark a s m erid ia n n ig ht, t h e M onste r s a ils ,
7 5
How ls h ig h i n a ir , a n d s h ak es h is c u rle d b ro w ,
L ash in g w ith s e rp en t- tr a in t h e w av es b elo w ,
W hir ls h is b la ck a rm , t h e f o rk ed l ig htn in g f lin gs,
A nd s h ow ers a d elu ge f ro m h is d em on-w in gs.
[ Torn ado's
. l . 7 1. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXIII.]
2 . " S Y LPH S! w ith l ig ht s h afts Y OU p ie rc e t h e d ro w sy F O G,
8 0
That l in gerin g s lu m bers o n t h e s e d ge-w ove b og,
W ith w eb bed f e et o 'e r m id nig ht m ead ow s c re ep s,
O r f lin gs h is h air y l im bs o n s ta g nan t d eep s.
Y OU m eet C O NTA GIO N i s su in g f ro m a fa r,
A nd d ash t h e b ale fu l c o nquero r f ro m h is c ar;
8 5
When , G uest o f D EA TH ! f ro m c h arn el v au lts h e s te als ,
A nd b ath es i n h um an g ore h is a rm ed w heels .
[ On s ta gnant d eep s
. l . 8 2. A ll c o nta g io us m ia sm ata o rig in ate e ith er f ro m
an im al b odie s, a s t h ose o f t h e s m all p ox, o r f ro m p utr id m ora sse s; t h ese l a tte r
pro duce a g ues i n t h e c o ld er c lim ate s, a n d m alig nan t f e v ers i n t h e w arm er
ones. T he v olc an ic v ap ours w hic h c au se e p id em ic c o ughs, a re t o b e r a n ked
am ongst p ois o ns, r a th er t h an a m ongst t h e m ia sm ata , w hic h p ro duce
co nta g io us d is e ase s.]
" T hus w hen t h e P L A GUE, u pborn e o n B elg ia n a ir ,
L ook'd t h ro ugh t h e m is t a n d s h ook h is c lo tte d h air ,
O 'e r s h rin kin g n atio ns s te er'd m alig nan t c lo uds,
9 0
And r a in 'd d estr u ctio n o n t h e g asp in g c ro uds.
T he b eau te o us A EG LE f e lt t h e v en om 'd d art,
S lo w r o ll'd h er e y e, a n d f e eb ly t h ro bb'd h er h eart;
E ach f e rv id s ig h s e em 'd s h orte r t h an t h e l a st,

A nd s ta rtin g F rie n dsh ip s h unn'd h er, a s s h e p ass'd .
9 5
—With w eak u nste ad y s te p t h e f a in tin g M aid
S eek s t h e c o ld g ard en 's s o lita ry s h ad e,
S in ks o n t h e p illo w y m oss h er d ro opin g h ead ,
A nd p rin ts w ith l if e le ss l im bs h er l e afy b ed .
— On w in gs o f L ove h er p lig hte d S w ain p urs u es,
100
Shad es h er f ro m w in ds, a n d s h elte rs h er f ro m d ew s,
E xte n ds o n t a p erin g p ole s t h e c an vas r o of,
S pre ad s o 'e r t h e s tr a w -w ove m att t h e f la x en w oof,
S w eet b uds a n d b lo sso m s o n h er b ols te r s tr o w s,
A nd b in ds h is k erc h ie f r o und h er a ch in g b ro w s;
105
Sooth s w ith s o ft k is s, w ith t e n der a ccen ts c h arm s,
A nd c la sp s t h e b rig ht I n fe ctio n i n h is a rm s.—
W ith p ale a n d l a n guid s m ile s t h e g ra te fu l F air
A ppla u ds h is v ir tu es, a n d r e w ard s h is c are ;
M ourn s w ith w et c h eek h er f a ir c o m pan io ns f le d
110
On t im oro us s te p , o r n um ber'd w ith t h e d ead ;
C alls t o i ts b oso m a ll i ts s c atte r'd r a y s,
A nd p ours o n T H YRSIS t h e c o lle cte d b la ze;
B ra v es t h e c h ill n ig ht, c are ssin g a n d c are ss'd ,
A nd f o ld s h er H ero -lo ver t o h er b re ast.—
115
Less b old , L EA NDER a t t h e d usk y h our
E yed , a s h e s w am , t h e f a r l o ve-lig hte d t o w er;
B re aste d w ith s tr u gglin g a rm s t h e t o ssin g w av e,
A nd s u nk b en ig hte d i n t h e w ate ry g ra v e.
L ess b old , T O BIA S c la im 'd t h e n uptia l b ed ,
120
Where s e v en f o nd L overs b y a F ie n d h ad b le d ;
A nd d ro ve, i n str u cte d b y h is A ngel- G uid e,
T he e n am our'd D em on f ro m t h e f a ta l b rid e.—
— SY LPH S! w hile y our w in now in g p in io ns f a n 'd t h e a ir ,
A nd s h ed g ay v is io ns o 'e r t h e s le ep in g p air ;
125
LO VE r o und t h eir c o uch e ffu se d h is r o sy b re ath ,
A nd w ith h is k een er a rro w s c o nquer'd D EA TH .
[ The b ea ute o us A eg le
. l . 9 1. W hen t h e p la g ue r a g ed i n H olla n d i n 1 636, a
young g ir l w as s e iz ed w ith i t, h ad t h re e c arb uncle s, a n d w as r e m oved t o a

gard en , w here h er l o ver, w ho w as b etr o th ed t o h er, a tte n ded h er a s a n urs e ,
an d s le p t w ith h er a s h is w if e . H e r e m ain ed u nin fe cte d , a n d s h e r e co vere d ,
an d w as m arrie d t o h im . T he s to ry i s r e la te d b y V in c. F ab ric iu s i n t h e M is c .
Cur. A nn. I I. O bs. 1 88.]
I V . 1 . " Y ou c h arm 'd , i n dulg en t S Y LPH S! t h eir l e arn ed t o il,
A nd c ro w n'd w ith f a m e y our T O RRIC ELL, a n d B O YLE;
T au ght w ith s w eet s m ile s, r e sp onsiv e t o t h eir p ra y er,
130
The s p rin g a n d p re ssu re o f t h e v ie w le ss a ir .
— How u p e x hau ste d t u bes b rig ht c u rre n ts f lo w
O f l iq uid s ilv er f ro m t h e l a k e b elo w ,
W eig h t h e l o ng c o lu m n o f t h e i n cu m ben t s k ie s,
A nd w ith t h e c h an gefu l m om en t f a ll a n d r is e .
135
—How , a s i n b ra zen p um ps t h e p is to ns m ove,
T he m em bra n e-v alv e s u sta in s t h e w eig ht a b ove;
S tr o ke f o llo w s s tr o ke, t h e g elid v ap our f a lls ,
A nd m is ty d ew -d ro ps d im t h e c ry sta l w alls ;
R are a n d m ore r a re e x pan ds t h e f lu id t h in ,
140
And S ile n ce d w ells w ith V acan cy w ith in .—
S o i n t h e m ig hty V oid w ith g rim d elig ht
P rim ev al S ile n ce r e ig n'd w ith a n cie n t N ig ht.
[ Torric ell a nd B oyle
. l . 1 28. T he p re ssu re o f t h e a tm osp here w as d is c o vere d
by T orric elli, a d is c ip le o f G alile o , w ho h ad p re v io usly f o und t h at t h e a ir h ad
weig ht. D r. H ook a n d M . D u H am el a sc rib e t h e i n ven tio n o f t h e a ir -p um p t o
Mr. B oyle , w ho h ow ev er c o nfe sse s h e h ad s o m e h in ts c o ncern in g i ts
co nstr u ctio n f ro m D e G ueric k . T he v acan cy a t t h e s u m mit o f t h e b aro m ete r i s
te rm ed t h e T orric ellia n v acu um , a n d t h e e x hau ste d r e ceiv er o f a n a ir p um p
th e B oyle an v acu um , i n h onour o f t h ese t w o p hilo so phers .
The m is t a n d d esc en din g d ew w hic h a p pear a t f ir s t e x hau stin g t h e r e ceiv er o f
an a ir -p um p, a re e x pla in ed i n t h e P hil. T ra n s. V ol. L X XVIII. f ro m t h e c o ld
pro duced b y t h e e x pan sio n o f a ir . F or a t h erm om ete r p la ced i n t h e r e ceiv er
sin ks s o m e d eg re es, a n d i n a v ery l ittle t im e, a s s o on a s a s u ffic ie n t q uan tity
of h eat c an b e a cq uir e d f ro m t h e s u rro undin g b odie s, t h e d ew b eco m es a g ain
ta k en u p. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. V II. M r. S au ssu re o bse rv ed o n p la cin g h is

hygro m ete r i n a r e ceiv er o f a n a ir - p um p, t h at t h ough o n b eg in nin g t o e x hau st
it t h e a ir b ecam e m is ty , a n d p arte d w ith i ts m ois tu re , y et t h e h air o f h is
hygro m ete r c o ntr a cte d , a n d t h e i n str u m en t p oin te d t o g re ate r d ry ness. T his
unex pecte d o ccu rre n ce i s e x pla in ed b y M . M onge ( A nnale s d e C hym ie , T om .
V.) t o d ep en d o n t h e w an t o f t h e u su al p re ssu re o f t h e a tm osp here t o f o rc e t h e
aq ueo us p artic le s i n to t h e p ore s o f t h e h air ; a n d M . S au ssu re s u ppose s, t h at
his v esic u la r v ap our r e q uir e s m ore t im e t o b e r e d is so lv ed , t h an i s n ecessa ry t o
dry t h e h air o f h is t h erm om ete r. E ssa is s u r l 'H ygro m . p . 2 26. b ut I s u sp ect
th ere i s a l e ss h ypoth etic al w ay o f u nders ta n din g i t; w hen a c o ld er b ody i s
bro ught i n to w arm a n d m ois t a ir , ( a s a b ottle o f s p rin g-w ate r f o r i n sta n ce,) a
ste am i s q uic k ly c o lle cte d o n i ts s u rfa ce; t h e c o ntr a ry o ccu rs w hen a w arm er
body i s b ro ught i n to c o ld a n d d am p a ir , i t c o ntin ues f re e f ro m d ew s o l o ng a s
it c o ntin ues w arm ; f o r i t w arm s t h e a tm osp here a ro und i t, a n d r e n ders i t
cap ab le o f r e ceiv in g i n ste ad o f p artin g w ith m ois tu re . T he m om en t t h e a ir
beco m es r a re fie d i n t h e r e ceiv er o f t h e a ir -p um p i t b eco m es c o ld er, a s
ap pears b y t h e t h erm om ete r, a n d d ep osits i ts v ap our; b ut t h e h air o f M r.
Sau ssu re 's h ygro m ete r i s n ow w arm er t h an t h e a ir i n w hic h i t i s i m mers e d ,
an d i n c o nse q uen ce b eco m es d ry er t h an b efo re , b y w arm in g t h e a ir w hic h
im med ia te ly s u rro unds i t, a p art o f i ts m ois tu re e v ap ora tin g a lo ng w ith i ts
heat.]
2 . " S Y LPH S! y our s o ft v oic es, w his p erin g f ro m t h e s k ie s,
B ad e f ro m l o w e arth t h e b old M ONGULFIE R r is e ;
145
Outs tr e tc h 'd h is b uoyan t b all w ith a ir y s p rin g,
A nd b ore t h e S ag e o n l e v ity o f w in g;—
W here w ere y e, S Y LPH S! w hen o n t h e e th ere al m ain
Y oung R O SIE R E l a u nch 'd , a n d c all'd y our a id i n v ain ?
F air m ounts t h e l ig ht b allo on, b y Z ep hyr d riv en ,
150
Parts t h e t h in c lo uds, a n d s a ils a lo ng t h e h eav en ;
H ig her a n d y et h ig her t h e e x pan din g b ubble f lie s,
L ig hts w ith q uic k f la sh , a n d b urs ts a m id t h e s k ie s.—
H ead lo ng H e r u sh es t h ro ugh t h e a ffrig hte d a ir
W ith l im bs d is to rte d , a n d d is h ev el'd h air ,
155
Whir ls r o und a n d r o und, t h e f ly in g c ro ud a la rm s,
A nd D EA TH r e ceiv es h im i n h is s a b le a rm s!—
S o e rs t w ith m eltin g w ax a n d l o ose n 'd s tr in gs

S unk h ap le ss I C A RU S o n u nfa ith fu l w in gs;
H is s c atte r'd p lu m ag e d an ced u pon t h e w av e,
160
And s o rro w in g M erm aid s d eck 'd h is w ate ry g ra v e;
O 'e r h is p ale c o rs e t h eir p early s e a-flo w ers s h ed ,
A nd s tr e w 'd w ith c rim so n m oss h is m arb le b ed ;
S tr u ck i n t h eir c o ra l t o w ers t h e p au sin g b ell,
A nd w id e i n o cean t o ll'd h is e ch oin g k nell.
[ Young R osie re l a unch 'd
. l . 1 48. M . P ila tr e d u R osie re w ith a M . R om ain r o se
in a b allo on f ro m B oulo gne i n J u ne 1 785, a n d a fte r h av in g b een a b out a m ile
hig h f o r a b out h alf a n h our t h e b allo on t o ok f ir e , a n d t h e t w o a d ven tu re rs
were d ash ed t o p ie ces o n t h eir f a ll t o t h e g ro und. M r. R osie re w as a
philo so pher o f g re at t a le n ts a n d a ctiv ity , j o in ed w ith s u ch u rb an ity a n d
ele g an ce o f m an ners , a s c o ncilia te d t h e a ffe ctio ns o f h is a cq uain ta n ce a n d
re n dere d h is m is fo rtu ne u niv ers a lly l a m en te d . A nnual R eg is te r f o r 1 784 a n d
1785, p . 3 29.]
[ And w id e i n o cea n
. l . 1 64. D en se r b odie s p ro pag ate v ib ra tio n o r s o und b ette r
th an r a re r o nes; i f t w o s to nes b e s tr u ck t o geth er u nder t h e w ate r, t h ey m ay b e
heard a m ile o r t w o b y a n y o ne w hose h ead i s i m mers e d a t t h at d is ta n ce,
acco rd in g t o a n e x perim en t o f D r. F ra n klin . I f t h e e ar b e a p plie d t o o ne e n d o f
a l o ng b eam o f t im ber, t h e s tr o ke o f a p in a t t h e o th er e n d b eco m es s e n sib le ;
if a p oker b e s u sp en ded i n t h e m id dle o f a g arte r, e ach e n d o f w hic h i s
pre sse d a g ain st t h e e ar, t h e l e ast p erc u ssio ns o n t h e p oker g iv e g re at s o unds.
And I a m i n fo rm ed b y l a y in g t h e e ar o n t h e g ro und t h e t r e ad o f a h ors e m ay
be d is c ern ed a t a g re at d is ta n ce i n t h e n ig ht. T he o rg an s o f h earin g b elo ngin g
to f is h a re f o r t h is r e aso n m uch l e ss c o m plic ate d t h an o f q uad ru ped s, a s t h e
flu id t h ey a re i m mers e d i n s o m uch b ette r c o nvey s i ts v ib ra tio ns. A nd i t i s
pro bab le t h at s o m e s h ell- fis h w hic h h av e t w is te d s h ells l ik e t h e c o ch le a a n d
se m ic ir c u la r c an als o f t h e e ars o f m en a n d q uad ru ped s m ay h av e n o
ap pro pria te d o rg an f o r p erc eiv in g t h e v ib ra tio ns o f t h e e le m en t t h ey l iv e i n ,
but m ay b y t h eir s p ir a l f o rm b e i n a m an ner a ll e ar.]
165
V. " S Y LPH S! Y OU, r e tir in g t o s e q ueste r'd b ow ers ,
W here o ft y our P R IE ST LEY w oos y our a ir y p ow ers ,
O n n ois e le ss s te p o r q uiv erin g p in io n g lid e,

A s s its t h e S ag e w ith S cie n ce b y h is s id e;
T o h is c h arm 'd e y e i n g ay u ndre ss a p pear,
170
Or p our y our s e cre ts o n h is r a p tu re d e ar.
H ow n itr o us G as f ro m i r o n i n gots d riv en
D rin ks w ith r e d l ip s t h e p ure st b re ath o f h eav en ;
H ow , w hile C onfe rv a f ro m i ts t e n der h air
G iv es i n b rig ht b ubble s e m pyre an a ir ;
175
The c ry sta l f lo ods p hlo gis tic o re s c alc in e,
A nd t h e p ure E TH ER m arrie s w ith t h e M IN E.
[ Where o ft y o ur P rie stle y
. l . 1 66. T he f a m e o f D r. P rie stle y i s k now n i n e v ery
part o f t h e e arth w here s c ie n ce h as p en etr a te d . H is v ario us d is c o verie s
re sp ectin g t h e a n aly sis o f t h e a tm osp here , a n d t h e p ro ductio n o f v arie ty o f
new a ir s o r g asse s, c an o nly b e c le arly u nders to od b y r e ad in g h is
Experim en ts o n A ir s , ( 3 v ols . o cta v o, J o hnso n, L ondon.) t h e f o llo w in g a re
am ongst h is m an y d is c o verie s. 1 . T he d is c o very o f n itr o us a n d
dep hlo gis tic ate d a ir s . 2 . T he e x hib itio n o f t h e a cid s a n d a lk alie s i n t h e f o rm
of a ir . 3 . A sc erta in in g t h e p urity o f r e sp ir a b le a ir b y n itr o us a ir . 4 . T he
re sto ra tio n o f v itia te d a ir b y v eg eta tio n. 5 . T he i n flu en ce o f l ig ht t o e n ab le
veg eta b le s t o y ie ld p ure a ir . 6 . T he c o nvers io n b y m ean s o f l ig ht o f a n im al
an d v eg eta b le s u bsta n ces, t h at w ould o th erw is e b eco m e p utr id a n d o ffe n siv e,
in to n ouris h m en t o f v eg eta b le s. 7 . T he u se o f r e sp ir a tio n b y t h e b lo od p artin g
with p hlo gis to n, a n d i m bib in g d ep hlo gis tic ate d a ir .

T he e x perim en ts h ere a llu ded t o a re , 1 . C oncern in g t h e p ro ductio n o f n itr o us
g as f ro m d is so lv in g i r o n a n d m an y o th er m eta ls i n n itr o us a cid , w hic h t h ough
f ir s t d is c o vere d b y D r. H ale s ( S ta tic . E ss. V ol. I . p . 2 24) w as f u lly
i n vestig ate d , a n d a p plie d t o t h e i m porta n t p urp ose o f d is tin guis h in g t h e p urity
o f a tm osp heric a ir b y D r. P rie stle y . W hen a b out t w o m easu re s o f c o m mon a ir
a n d o ne o f n itr o us g as a re m ix ed t o geth er a r e d e ffe rv esc en ce t a k es p la ce, a n d
t h e t w o a ir s o ccu py a b out o ne f o urth l e ss s p ace t h an w as p re v io usly o ccu pie d
b y t h e c o m mon a ir a lo ne.
2 . C oncern in g t h e g re en s u bsta n ce w hic h g ro w s a t t h e b otto m o f r e se rv oir s o f
w ate r, w hic h D r. P rie stle y d is c o vere d t o y ie ld m uch p ure a ir w hen t h e s u n
s h one o n i t. H is m eth od o f c o lle ctin g t h is a ir i s b y p la cin g o ver t h e g re en
s u bsta n ce, w hic h h e b elie v es t o b e a v eg eta b le o f t h e g en us c o nfe rv a, a n
i n verte d b ell- g la ss p re v io usly f ille d w ith w ate r, w hic h s u bsid es a s t h e a ir
a ris e s; i t h as s in ce b een f o und t h at a ll v eg eta b le s g iv e u p p ure a ir f ro m t h eir
l e av es, w hen t h e s u n s h in es u pon t h em , b ut n ot i n t h e n ig ht, w hic h m ay b e
o w in g t o t h e s le ep o f t h e p la n t.
3 . T he t h ir d r e fe rs t o t h e g re at q uan tity o f p ure a ir c o nta in ed i n t h e c alc es o f
m eta ls . T he c alc es w ere l o ng k now n t o w eig h m uch m ore t h an t h e m eta llic
b odie s b efo re c alc in atio n, i n so m uch t h at 1 00 p ounds o f l e ad w ill p ro duce 1 12
p ounds o f m in iu m ; t h e o re o f m an gan ese , w hic h i s a lw ay s f o und n ear t h e
s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , i s r e p le te w ith p ure a ir , w hic h i s n ow u se d f o r t h e
p urp ose o f b le ach in g. O th er m eta ls w hen e x pose d t o t h e a tm osp here a ttr a ct
t h e p ure a ir f ro m i t, a n d b eco m e c alc es b y i ts c o m bin atio n, a s z in c, l e ad , i r o n;
a n d i n cre ase i n w eig ht i n p ro portio n t o t h e a ir , w hic h t h ey i m bib e.]
" S o i n S ic ilia 's e v er-b lo om in g s h ad e
W hen p la y fu l P R O SE R PIN E f ro m C ER ES s tr a y 'd ,
L ed w ith u nw ary s te p h er v ir g in t r a in s
1 80
O'e r E tn a's s te ep s, a n d E nna's g old en p la in s;
P lu ck 'd w ith f a ir h an d t h e s ilv er-b lo sso m 'd b ow er,
A nd p urp le d m ead ,— hers e lf a f a ir e r f lo w er;
S udden , u nse en a m id t h e t w ilig ht g la d e,
R ush 'd g lo om y D IS , a n d s e iz ed t h e t r e m blin g m aid .—
1 85
Her s ta rtin g d am se ls s p ru ng f ro m m ossy s e ats ,

D ro pp'd f ro m t h eir g au zy l a p s t h e g ath er'd s w eets ,
C lu ng r o und t h e s tr u gglin g N ym ph, w ith p ie rc in g c rie s,
P urs u ed t h e c h ario t, a n d i n voked t h e s k ie s;—
P le ase d a s h e g ra sp s h er i n h is i r o n a rm s,
190
Frig hts w ith s o ft s ig hs, w ith t e n der w ord s a la rm s,
T he w heels d esc en din g r o ll'd i n s m oky r in gs,
I n fe rn al C upid s f la p p'd t h eir d em on w in gs;
E arth w ith d eep y aw n r e ceiv ed t h e F air , a m az'd ,
A nd f a r i n N ig ht c ele stia l B eau ty b la z'd .
[ When p la yfu l P ro se rp in e
. l . 1 78. T he f a b le o f P ro se rp in e's b ein g s e iz ed b y
Plu to a s s h e w as g ath erin g f lo w ers , i s e x pla in ed b y L ord B aco n t o s ig nif y t h e
co m bin atio n o r m arria g e o f e th eria l s p ir it w ith e arth ly m ate ria ls . B aco n's
Work s, V ol. V . p . 4 70. e d it. 4 to . L ond. 1 778. T his a llu sio n i s s till m ore
cu rio usly e x act, f ro m t h e l a te d is c o very o f p ure a ir b ein g g iv en u p f ro m
veg eta b le s, a n d t h at t h en i n i ts u nm ix ed s ta te i t m ore r e ad ily c o m bin es w ith
meta llic o r i n fla m mab le b odie s. F ro m t h ese f a b le s w hic h w ere p ro bab ly t a k en
fro m a n tie n t h ie ro gly phic s t h ere i s f re q uen tly r e aso n t o b elie v e t h at t h e
Egyptia n s p osse sse d m uch c h em ic al k now le d ge, w hic h f o r w an t o f
alp hab etic al w ritin g p eris h ed w ith t h eir p hilo so phers .]
195
VI. " L ed b y t h e S ag e, L o! B rita in 's s o ns s h all g uid e
H uge S E A -B A LLO ONS b en eath t h e t o ssin g t id e;
T he d iv in g c astle s, r o of'd w ith s p heric g la ss,
R ib b'd w ith s tr o ng o ak , a n d b arr'd w ith b olts o f b ra ss,
B uoy'd w ith p ure a ir s h all e n dle ss t r a ck s p urs u e,
200
And P R IE ST LEY 'S h an d t h e v ita l f lo od r e n ew .—
T hen s h all B RIT A NNIA r u le t h e w ealth y r e alm s,
W hic h O cean 's w id e i n sa tia te w av e o 'e rw helm s;
C onfin e i n n ette d b ow ers h is s c aly f lo ck s,
P art h is b lu e p la in s, a n d p eo ple a ll h is r o ck s.
205
Deep , i n w arm w av es b en eath t h e L in e t h at r o ll,
B en eath t h e s h ad ow y i c e-is le s o f t h e P ole ,
O nw ard , t h ro ugh b rig ht m ean derin g v ale s, a fa r,
O bed ie n t S hark s s h all t r a il h er s c ep tr e d c ar,
W ith h arn ess'd n eck s t h e p early f lo od d is tu rb ,

210
Str e tc h t h e s ilk r e in , a n d c h am p t h e s ilv er c u rb ;
P le ase d r o und h er t r iu m ph w onderin g T rito ns p la y ,
A nd S eam aid s h ail h er o n t h e w ate ry w ay .
— Oft s h all s h e w eep b en eath t h e c ry sta l w av es
O 'e r s h ip w re ck 'd l o vers w elte rin g i n t h eir g ra v es;
215
Min glin g i n d eath t h e B ra v e a n d G ood b eh old
W ith s la v es t o g lo ry , a n d w ith s la v es t o g old ;
S hrin 'd i n t h e d eep s h all D AY a n d S PA LD IN G m ourn ,
E ach i n h is t r e ach ero us b ell, s e p ulc h ra l u rn !—
O ft o 'e r t h y l o vely d au ghte rs , h ap le ss P IE R CE!
220
Her s ig hs s h all b re ath e, h er s o rro w s d ew t h eir h ears e .—
W ith b ro w u ptu rn 'd t o H eav en , " W E W IL L N OT P A RT!"
H e c rie d , a n d c la sp 'd t h em t o h is a ch in g h eart,—
— Dash 'd i n d re ad c o nflic t o n t h e r o ck y g ro unds,
C ra sh t h e m ock 'd m asts , t h e s ta g gerin g w re ck r e b ounds;
225
Thro ugh g ap in g s e am s t h e r u sh in g d elu ge s w im s,
C hills t h eir p ale b oso m s, b ath es t h eir s h udderin g l im bs,
C lim bs t h eir w hite s h ould ers , b uoys t h eir s tr e am in g h air ,
A nd t h e l a st s e a-s h rie k b ello w s i n t h e a ir .—
E ach w ith l o ud s o bs h er t e n der s ir e c are ss'd ,
230
And g asp in g s tr a in 'd h im c lo se r t o h er b re ast! —
— Str e tc h 'd o n o ne b ie r t h ey s le ep b en eath t h e b rin e,
A nd t h eir w hite b ones w ith i v ory a rm s i n tw in e!
[ Led b y t h e S age
. l . 1 95. D r. P rie stle y 's d is c o very o f t h e p ro ductio n o f p ure
air f ro m s u ch v arie ty o f s u bsta n ces w ill p ro bab ly s o on b e a p plie d t o t h e
im pro vem en t o f t h e d iv in g b ell, a s t h e s u bsta n ces w hic h c o nta in v ita l a ir i n
im men se q uan titie s a re o f l ittle v alu e a s m an gan ese a n d m in iu m . S ee
ad ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXIII. I n e v ery h undre d w eig ht o f m in iu m t h ere i s
co m bin ed a b out t w elv e p ounds o f p ure a ir , n ow a s s ix ty p ounds o f w ate r a re
ab out a c u bic f o ot, a n d a s a ir i s e ig ht h undre d t im es l ig hte r t h an w ate r, f iv e
hundre d w eig ht o f m in iu m w ill p ro duce e ig ht h undre d c u bic f e et o f a ir o r
ab out s ix t h ousa n d g allo ns. N ow , a s t h is i s a t l e ast t h ric e a s p ure a s
atm osp heric a ir , a g allo n o f i t m ay b e s u ppose d t o s e rv e f o r t h re e m in ute s
re sp ir a tio n f o r o ne m an . A t p re se n t t h e a ir c an n ot b e s e t a t l ib erty f ro m
min iu m b y v itr io lic a cid w ith out t h e a p plic atio n o f s o m e h eat, t h is i s h ow ev er

very l ik ely s o on t o b e d is c o vere d , a n d w ill t h en e n ab le a d ven tu re rs t o j o urn ey
ben eath t h e o cean i n l a rg e i n verte d s h ip s o r d iv in g b allo ons.
Mr. B oyle r e la te s, t h at C orn eliu s D re b elle c o ntr iv ed n ot o nly a v esse l t o b e
ro w ed u nder w ate r, b ut a ls o a l iq uor t o b e c arie d i n t h at v esse l, w hic h w ould
su pply t h e w an t o f f re sh a ir . T he v esse l w as m ad e b y o rd er o f J a m es I . a n d
carrie d t w elv e r o w ers b esid es p asse n gers . I t w as t r ie d i n t h e r iv er T ham es,
an d o ne o f t h e p ers o ns w ho w as i n t h at s u bm arin e v oyag e t o ld t h e p artic u la rs
of t h e e x perim en ts t o a p ers o n w ho r e la te d t h em t o M r. B oyle . A nnual
Reg is te r f o r 1 774, p . 2 48.]
[ Day a nd S pald in g m ourn
. l . 2 17. M r. D ay p eris h ed i n a d iv in g b ell, o r d iv in g
boat, o f h is o w n c o nstr u ctio n a t P ly m outh i n J u ne 1 774, i n w hic h h e w as t o
hav e c o ntin ued f o r a w ag er t w elv e h ours o ne h undre d f e et d eep i n w ate r, a n d
pro bab ly p eris h ed f ro m h is n ot p osse ssin g a ll t h e h ydro sta tic k now le d ge t h at
was n ecessa ry . S ee n ote o n U lv a, V ol. I I. o f t h is w ork . S ee A nnual R eg is te r
fo r 1 774. p . 2 45.
Mr. S pald in g w as p ro fe ssio nally i n gen io us i n t h e a rt o f c o nstr u ctin g a n d
man ag in g t h e d iv in g b ell, a n d h ad p ra ctis e d t h e b usin ess m an y y ears w ith
su ccess. H e w en t d ow n a cco m pan ie d b y o ne o f h is y oung m en t w ic e t o v ie w
th e w re ck o f t h e I m peria l E ast- In dia m an a t t h e K is h b an k i n I re la n d. O n
desc en din g t h e t h ir d t im e i n J u ne, 1 783, t h ey r e m ain ed a b out a n h our u nder
wate r, a n d h ad t w o b arre ls o f a ir s e n t d ow n t o t h em , b ut o n t h e s ig nals f ro m
belo w n ot b ein g a g ain r e p eate d , a fte r a c erta in t im e, t h ey w ere d ra w n u p b y
th eir a ssis ta n ts a n d b oth f o und d ead i n t h e b ell. A nnual R eg is te r f o r 1 783, p .
206. T hese t w o u nhap py e v en ts m ay f o r a t im e c h eck t h e a rd or o f a d ven tu re rs
in t r a v ers in g t h e b otto m o f t h e o cean , b ut i t i s p ro bab le i n a n oth er h alf
cen tu ry i t m ay b e s a fe r t o t r a v el u nder t h e o cean t h an o ver i t, s in ce D r.
Prie stle y 's d is c o very o f p ro cu rin g p ure a ir i n s u ch g re at a b undan ce f ro m t h e
calc es o f m eta ls .]
[ Haple ss P ie rc e!
l , 2 19. T he H asle w ell E ast- In dia m an , o utw ard b ound, w as
wre ck ed o ff S eaco m b i n t h e i s le o f P urb ec o n t h e 6 th o f J a n uary , 1 786; w hen
Cap t. P ie rc e, t h e c o m man der, w ith t w o y oung l a d ie s, h is d au ghte rs , a n d t h e
gre ate st p art o f t h e c re w a n d p asse n gers p eris h ed i n t h e s e a. S om e o f t h e
offic ers a n d a b out s e v en ty s e am en e sc ap ed w ith g re at d if fic u lty o n t h e r o ck s,
but C ap t. P ie rc e f in din g i t w as i m possib le t o s a v e t h e l iv es o f t h e y oung

la d ie s r e fu se d t o q uit t h e s h ip , a n d p eris h ed w ith t h em .]
" V II. S Y LPH S O F N IC E E A R! w ith b eatin g w in gs y ou g uid e
T he f in e v ib ra tio ns o f t h e a eria l t id e;
235
Jo in i n s w eet c ad en ces t h e m easu re d w ord s,
O r s tr e tc h a n d m odula te t h e t r e m blin g c o rd s.
Y ou s tr u ng t o m elo dy t h e G re cia n l y re ,
B re ath ed t h e r a p t s o ng, a n d f a n 'd t h e t h ought o f f ir e ,
O r b ro ught i n c o m bin atio ns, d eep a n d c le ar,
240
Im morta l h arm ony t o H ANDEL'S e ar.—
Y OU w ith s o ft b re ath a ttu ne t h e v ern al g ale ,
W hen b re ezy e v en in g b ro ods t h e l is te n in g v ale ;
O r w ak e t h e l o ud t u m ultu ous s o unds, t h at d w ell
I n E ch o's m an y-to ned d iu rn al s h ell.
245
YOU m elt i n d ulc et c h ord s, w hen Z ep hyr r in gs
T he E olia n H arp , a n d m in gle a ll i ts s tr in gs;
O r t r ill i n a ir t h e s o ft s y m phonio us c h im e,
W hen r a p t C EC IL IA l if ts h er e y e s u blim e,
S w ell, a s s h e b re ath es, h er b oso m s r is in g s n ow ,
250
O'e r h er w hite t e eth i n t u nefu l a ccen ts s lo w ,
T hro ugh h er f a ir l ip s o n w his p erin g p in io ns m ove,
A nd f o rm t h e t e n der s ig hs, t h at k in dle l o ve!
" S o p la y fu l L O VE o n I d a's f lo w ery s id es
W ith r ib bon-re in t h e i n dig nan t L io n g uid es;
255
Ple ase d o n h is b rin ded b ack t h e l y re h e r in gs,
A nd s h ak es d elir io us r a p tu re f ro m t h e s tr in gs;
S lo w a s t h e p au sin g M onarc h s ta lk s a lo ng,
S heath s h is r e tr a ctile c la w s, a n d d rin ks t h e s o ng;
S oft N ym phs o n t im id s te p t h e t r iu m ph v ie w ,
260
And l is te n in g F aw ns w ith b eatin g h oofs p urs u e;
W ith p oin te d e ars t h e a la rm ed f o re st s ta rts ,
A nd L ove a n d M usic s o fte n s a v ag e h earts .
[ In dig nant l io n g uid es
. l . 2 54.
Desc rib ed f ro m a n a n tie n t g em , e x pre ssiv e o f
th e c o m bin ed p ow er o f l o ve a n d m usic , i n t h e M use u m F lo re n t.]

V III. " S Y LPH S! Y OUR b old h osts , w hen H eav en w ith j u stic e d re ad
C alls t h e r e d t e m pest r o und t h e g uilty h ead ,
265
Fie rc e a t h is n od a ssu m e v in dic tiv e f o rm s,
A nd l a u nch f ro m a ir y c ars t h e v ollie d s to rm s.—
F ro m A sh ur's v ale s w hen p ro ud S E N ACH ER IB t r o d,
P our'd h is s w oln h eart, d efie d t h e l iv in g G OD,
U rg ed w ith i n cessa n t s h outs h is g litte rin g p ow ers ;
270
And J U DAH s h ook t h ro ugh a ll h er m assy t o w ers ;
R ound h er s a d a lta rs p re ss'd t h e p ro str a te c ro w d,
H osts b eat t h eir b re asts , a n d s u pplia n t c h ie fta in s b ow 'd ;
L oud s h rie k s o f m atr o ns t h rill'd t h e t r o uble d a ir ,
A nd t r e m blin g v ir g in s r e n t t h eir s c atte r'd h air ;
275
Hig h i n t h e m id st t h e k neelin g K in g a d ore d ,
S pre ad t h e b la sp hem in g s c ro ll b efo re t h e L ord ,
R ais e d h is p ale h an ds, a n d b re ath ed h is p au sin g s ig hs,
A nd f ix ed o n H eav en h is d im i m plo rin g e y es,—
" O h! M IG HTY G OD! a m id st t h y S era p h-th ro ng
280
"W ho s it's t s u blim e, t h e J u dge o f R ig ht a n d W ro ng;
" T hin e t h e w id e e arth , b rig ht s u n, a n d s ta rry z o ne,
" T hat t w in klin g j o urn ey r o und t h y g old en t h ro ne;
" T hin e i s t h e c ry sta l s o urc e o f l if e a n d l ig ht,
" A nd t h in e t h e r e alm s o f D eath 's e te rn al n ig ht.
285
"O h, b en d t h in e e ar, t h y g ra cio us e y e i n clin e,
" L o! A sh ur's K in g b la sp hem es t h y h oly s h rin e,
" In su lts o ur o ffe rin gs, a n d d erid es o ur v ow s,— -
" O h! s tr ik e t h e d ia d em f ro m h is i m pio us b ro w s,
" T ear f ro m h is m urd ero us h an d t h e b lo ody r o d,
290
"A nd t e ach t h e t r e m blin g n atio ns, " T H OU A RT G OD!" —
— SY LPH S! i n w hat d re ad a rra y w ith p en nons b ro ad
O nw ard y e f lo ate d o 'e r t h e e th ere al r o ad ,
C all'd e ach d an k s te am t h e r e ek in g m ars h e x hale s,
C onta g io us v ap ours , a n d v olc an ic g ale s,
295
Gav e t h e s o ft S outh w ith p ois o nous b re ath t o b lo w ,
A nd r o lle d t h e d re ad fu l w hir lw in d o n t h e f o e!—
H ark ! o 'e r t h e c am p t h e v en om 'd t e m pest s in gs,
M an f a lls o n M an , o n b uck le r b uck le r r in gs;
G ro an a n sw ers g ro an , t o a n guis h a n guis h y ie ld s,

300
And D EA TH 'S l o ud a ccen ts s h ak e t h e t e n te d f ie ld s!
— Hig h r e ars t h e F ie n d h is g rin nin g j a w s, a n d w id e
S pan s t h e p ale n atio ns w ith c o lo ssa l s tr id e,
W av es h is b ro ad f a lc h io n w ith u plif te d h an d,
A nd h is v ast s h ad ow d ark en s a ll t h e l a n d.
[ Volc a nic g ale s
. l . 2 94. T he p estile n tia l w in ds o f t h e e ast a re d esc rib ed b y
vario us a u th ors u nder v ario us d en om in atio ns; a s h arm atta n , s a m ie l, s a m iu m ,
sy ro cca, k am sin , s e ra v an su m . M . d e B eau ch am p d esc rib es a r e m ark ab le
so uth w in d i n t h e d ese rts a b out B ag dad , c alle d s e ra v an su m , o r p ois o n-w in d;
it b urn s t h e f a ce, i m ped es r e sp ir a tio n, s tr ip s t h e t r e es o f t h eir l e av es, a n d i s
sa id t o p ass o n i n a s tr e ig ht l in e, a n d o fte n k ills p eo ple i n s ix h ours . P . C otte
su r l a M ete o ro l. A naly tic al R ev ie w f o r F eb ru ary , 1 790. M . V oln ey s a y s, t h e
hot w in d o r r a m sin s e em s t o b lo w a t t h e s e aso n w hen t h e s a n ds o f t h e d ese rts
are t h e h otte st; t h e a ir i s t h en f ille d w ith a n e x tr e am ly s u btle d ust. V ol. I . p .
61. T hese w in ds b lo w i n a ll d ir e ctio ns f ro m t h e d ese rts ; i n E gypt t h e m ost
vio le n t p ro ceed f ro m t h e S .S .W . a t M ecca f ro m t h e E . a t S ura t f ro m t h e N . a t
Basso ra f ro m t h e N .W . a t B ag dad f ro m t h e W . a n d i n S yria f ro m t h e S .E .
On t h e s o uth o f S yria , h e a d ds, w here t h e J o rd an f lo w s i s a c o untr y o f
volc an os; a n d i t i s o bse rv ed t h at t h e e arth quak es i n S yria h ap pen a fte r t h eir
ra in y s e aso n, w hic h i s a ls o c o nfo rm ab le t o a s im ila r o bse rv atio n m ad e b y D r.
Shaw i n B arb ary . T ra v els i n E gypt, V ol. I . p . 3 03.
These w in ds s e em a ll t o b e o f v olc an ic o rig in , a s b efo re m en tio ned , w ith t h is
dif fe re n ce, t h at t h e S im oom i s a tte n ded w ith a s tr e am o f e le ctr ic m atte r; t h ey
se em t o b e i n c o nse q uen ce o f e arth quak es c au se d b y t h e m onso on f lo ods,
whic h f a ll o n v olc an ic f ir e s i n S yria , a t t h e s a m e t im e t h at t h ey i n undate t h e
Nile .]
305
IX . 1 . " E th ere al c o horts ! E sse n ces o f A ir !
M ak e t h e g re en c h ild re n o f t h e S prin g y our c are !
O h, S Y LPH S! d is c lo se i n t h is i n quir in g a g e
O ne G OLD EN S E C RET t o s o m e f a v our'd s a g e;
G ra n t t h e c h arm 'd t a lis m an , t h e c h ain , t h at b in ds,
310
Or g uid es t h e c h an gefu l p in io ns o f t h e w in ds!

— No m ore s h all h oary B ore as, i s su in g f o rth
W ith E uru s, l e ad t h e t e m pests o f t h e N orth ;
R im e t h e p ale D aw n, o r v eil'd i n f la k y s h ow ers
C hill t h e s w eet b oso m s o f t h e s m ilin g H ours .
315
By w his p erin g A uste r w ak ed s h all Z ep hyr r is e ,
M eet w ith s o ft k is s, a n d m in gle i n t h e s k ie s,
F an t h e g ay f lo re t, b en d t h e y ello w e ar,
A nd r o ck t h e u ncu rta in 'd c ra d le o f t h e y ear;
A utu m n a n d S prin g i n l iv ely u nio n b le n d,
320
And f ro m t h e s k ie s t h e G old en A ge d esc en d.
[ One g old en s e cre t
. l . 3 08. T he s u dden ness o f t h e c h an ge o f t h e w in d f ro m
N.E . t o S .W . s e em s t o s h ew t h at i t d ep en ds o n s o m e m in ute c h em ic al c au se ;
whic h i f i t w as d is c o vere d m ig ht p ro bab ly , l ik e o th er c h em ic al c au se s, b e
govern ed b y h um an a g en cy ; s u ch a s b lo w in g u p r o ck s b y g unpow der, o r
ex tr a ctin g t h e l ig hte n in g f ro m t h e c lo uds. I f t h is c o uld b e a cco m plis h ed , i t
would b e t h e m ost h ap py d is c o very t h at e v er h as h ap pen ed t o t h ese n orth ern
la titu des, s in ce i n t h is c o untr y t h e N .E . w in ds b rin g f ro st, a n d t h e S .W . o nes
are a tte n ded w ith w arm th a n d m ois tu re ; i f t h e i n fe rio r c u rre n ts o f a ir c o uld b e
kep t p erp etu ally f ro m t h e S .W . s u pplie d b y n ew p ro ductio ns o f a ir a t t h e l in e,
or b y s u perio r c u rre n ts f lo w in g i n a c o ntr a ry d ir e ctio n, t h e v eg eta tio n o f t h is
co untr y w ould b e d ouble d ; a s i n t h e m ois t v allie s o f A fric a, w hic h k now n o
fro st; t h e n um ber o f i ts i n hab ita n ts w ould b e i n cre ase d , a n d t h eir l iv es
pro lo nged ; a s g re at a b undan ce o f t h e a g ed a n d i n fir m o f m an kin d, a s w ell a s
man y b ir d s a n d a n im als , a re d estr o yed b y s e v ere c o ntin ued f ro sts i n t h is
clim ate .]
2 . " C astle d o n i c e, b en eath t h e c ir c lin g B ear,
A v ast C A M ELIO N s p its a n d s w allo w s a ir ;
O 'e r t w elv e d eg re es h is r ib s g ig an tic b en d,
A nd m an y a l e ag ue h is l e ath ern j a w s e x te n d;
325
Half -fis h , b en eath , h is s c aly v olu te s s p re ad ,
A nd v eg eta b le p lu m ag e c re sts h is h ead ;
H uge f ie ld s o f a ir h is w rin kle d s k in r e ceiv es,
F ro m p an tin g g ills , w id e l u ngs, a n d w av in g l e av es;
T hen w ith d re ad t h ro es s u bsid es h is b lo ate d f o rm ,

330
His s h rie k t h e t h under, a n d h is s ig h t h e s to rm .
O ft h ig h i n h eav en t h e h is sin g D em on w in s
H is t o w erin g c o urs e , u pborn e o n w in now in g f in s;
S te ers w ith e x pan ded e y e a n d g ap in g m outh ,
H is m ass e n orm ous t o t h e a ffrig hte d S outh ;
335
Spre ad s o 'e r t h e s h udderin g L in e h is s h ad ow y l im bs,
A nd F ro st a n d F am in e f o llo w a s h e s w im s.—
S Y LPH S! r o und h is c lo ud-b uilt c o uch y our b an ds a rra y ,
A nd m ould t h e M onste r t o y our g en tle s w ay ;
C harm w ith s o ft t o nes, w ith t e n der t o uch es c h eck ,
340
Ben d t o y our g old en y oke h is w illin g n eck ,
W ith s ilv er c u rb h is y ie ld in g t e eth r e str a in ,
A nd g iv e t o K IR W AN'S h an d t h e s ilk en r e in .
— Ple ase d s h all t h e S ag e, t h e d ra g on-w in gs b etw een ,
B en d o 'e r d is c o rd an t c lim es h is e y e s e re n e,
345
With L ap la n d b re ezes c o ol A ra b ia n v ale s,
A nd c all t o H in dosta n a n ta rc tic g ale s,
A dorn w ith w re ath ed e ars K am psc h atc a's b ro w s,
A nd s c atte r r o se s o n Z eala n dic s n ow s,
E arth 's w onderin g Z ones t h e g en ia l s e aso ns s h are ,
350
And n atio ns h ail h im " M ONARCH O F T H E A IR ."
[ A v a st C am elio n
. l . 3 22. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXIII. o n t h e
destr u ctio n a n d r e p ro ductio n o f t h e a tm osp here .]
[ To K ir w an's h and
. l . 3 42. M r. K ir w an h as p ublis h ed a v alu ab le t r e atis e o n
th e t e m pera tu re o f c lim ate s, a s a s te p t o w ard s i n vestig atin g t h e t h eo ry o f t h e
win ds; a n d h as s in ce w ritte n s o m e i n gen io us p ap ers o n t h is s u bje ct i n t h e
Tra n sa ctio ns o f t h e R oyal I ris h S ocie ty .]
X . 1 . " S Y LPH S! a s y ou h over o n e th ere al w in g,
B ro od t h e g re en c h ild re n o f p artu rie n t S prin g!—
W here i n t h eir b urs tin g c ells m y E m bry ons r e st,
I c h arg e y ou g uard t h e v eg eta b le n est;
355
Count w ith n ic e e y e t h e m yria d S E ED S, t h at s w ell
E ach v au lte d w om b o f h usk , o r p od, o r s h ell;

F eed w ith s w eet j u ic es, c lo th e w ith d ow ny h air ,
O r h an g, i n sh rin ed , t h eir l ittle o rb s i n a ir .
[ The m yria d s e ed s
. l . 3 55. N atu re w ould s e em t o h av e b een w onderfu lly
pro dig al i n t h e s e ed s o f v eg eta b le s, a n d t h e s p aw n o f f is h ; a lm ost a n y o ne
pla n t, i f a ll i ts s e ed s s h ould g ro w t o m atu rity , w ould i n a f e w y ears a lo ne
peo ple t h e t e rre str ia l g lo be. M r. R ay a sse rts t h at 1 01 s e ed s o f t o bacco
weig hed o nly o ne g ra in , a n d t h at f ro m o ne t o bacco p la n t t h e s e ed s t h us
calc u la te d a m ounte d t o 3 60,0 00! T he s e ed s o f t h e f e rn s a re b y h im s u ppose d
to e x ceed a m illio n o n a l e af. A s t h e w ork s o f n atu re a re g overn ed b y g en era l
la w s t h is e x ubera n t r e p ro ductio n p re v en ts t h e a ccid en ta l e x tin ctio n o f t h e
sp ecie s, a t t h e s a m e t im e t h at t h ey s e rv e f o r f o od f o r t h e h ig her o rd ers o f
an im atio n.
Every s e ed p osse sse s a r e se rv oir o f n utr im en t d esig ned f o r t h e g ro w th o f t h e
fu tu re p la n t, t h is c o nsis ts o f s ta rc h , m ucila g e, o r o il, w ith in t h e c o at o f t h e
se ed , o r o f s u gar a n d s u bacid p ulp i n t h e f ru its , w hic h b elo ngs t o i t.
For t h e p re se rv atio n o f t h e i m matu re s e ed n atu re h as u se d m an y i n gen io us
meth ods; s o m e a re w ra p ped i n d ow n, a s t h e s e ed s o f t h e r o se , b ean , a n d
co tto n-p la n t; o th ers a re s u sp en ded i n a l a rg e a ir -v esse l, a s t h ose o f t h e
bla d der-s e n a, s ta p hyla ea, a n d p ea.]
" S o, l a te d esc ry 'd b y H ER SC H EL'S p ie rc in g s ig ht,
360
Han g t h e b rig ht s q uad ro ns o f t h e t w in klin g N ig ht;
T en t h ousa n d m ars h all'd s ta rs , a s ilv er z o ne,
E ffu se t h eir b le n ded l u str e s r o und h er t h ro ne;
S uns c all t o s u ns, i n l u cid c lo uds c o nsp ir e ,
A nd l ig ht e x te rio r s k ie s w ith g old en f ir e ;
365
Resis tle ss r o lls t h e i llim ita b le s p here ,
A nd o ne g re at c ir c le f o rm s t h e u nm easu re d y ear.
— Roll o n, Y E S T A RS! e x ult i n y outh fu l p rim e,
M ark w ith b rig ht c u rv es t h e p rin tle ss s te p s o f T im e;
N ear a n d m ore n ear y our b eam y c ars a p pro ach ,
370
And l e sse n in g o rb s o n l e sse n in g o rb s e n cro ach ;—
F lo w ers o f t h e s k y! y e t o o t o a g e m ust y ie ld ,

F ra il a s y our s ilk en s is te rs o f t h e f ie ld !
S ta r a fte r s ta r f ro m H eav en 's h ig h a rc h s h all r u sh ,
S uns s in k o n s u ns, a n d s y ste m s s y ste m s c ru sh ,
375
Head lo ng, e x tin ct, t o o ne d ark c en tr e f a ll,
A nd D eath a n d N ig ht a n d C hao s m in gle a ll!
— Till o 'e r t h e w re ck , e m erg in g f ro m t h e s to rm ,
I m morta l N ATU RE l if ts h er c h an gefu l f o rm ,
M ounts f ro m h er f u nera l p yre o n w in gs o f f la m e,
380
And s o ars a n d s h in es, a n oth er a n d t h e s a m e.
[ And l ig ht e xte rio r
. l . 3 64. I s u sp ect t h is l in e i s f ro m D wig ht's C onquest o f
Can aan , a p oem w ritte n b y a v ery y oung m an , a n d w hic h c o nta in s m uch f in e
vers if ic atio n.]
[ Nea r a nd m ore n ea r
. l . 3 69. F ro m t h e v acan t s p aces i n s o m e p arts o f t h e
heav en s, a n d t h e c o rre sp onden t c lu ste rs o f s ta rs i n t h eir v ic in ity , M r.
Hers c h el c o nclu des t h at t h e n eb ula e o r c o nste lla tio ns o f f ix ed s ta rs a re
ap pro ach in g e ach o th er, a n d m ust f in ally c o ale sc e i n o ne m ass. P hil. T ra n s.
Vol. L X XV.]
[ Till o 'e r t h e w re ck
. l . 3 77. T he s to ry o f t h e p hen ix r is in g f ro m i ts o w n a sh es
with a t w in klin g s ta r u pon i ts h ead , s e em s t o h av e b een a n a n tie n t
hie ro gly phic e m ble m o f t h e d estr u ctio n a n d r e su sc ita tio n o f a ll t h in gs.
There i s a f ig ure o f t h e g re at P la to nic y ear w ith a p hen ix o n h is h an d o n t h e
re v ers e o f a m ed al o f A dria n . S pen ce's P oly m . p . 1 89.]
2 . " L o! o n e ach S E ED w ith in i ts s le n der r in d
L if e 's g old en t h re ad s i n e n dle ss c ir c le s w in d;
M aze w ith in m aze t h e l u cid w eb s a re r o ll'd ,
A nd, a s t h ey b urs t, t h e l iv in g f la m e u nfo ld .
385
The p ulp y a co rn , e re i t s w ells , c o nta in s
T he O ak 's v ast b ra n ch es i n i ts m ilk y v ein s;
E ach r a v el'd b ud, f in e f ilm , a n d f ib re -lin e
T ra ced w ith n ic e p en cil o n t h e s m all d esig n.
T he y oung N arc is su s, i n i t's b ulb c o m pre ss'd ,

390
Cra d le s a s e co nd n estlin g o n i ts b re ast;
I n w hose f in e a rm s a y ounger e m bry on l ie s,
F old s i ts t h in l e av es, a n d s h uts i ts f lo re t- e y es;
G ra in w ith in g ra in s u ccessiv e h arv ests d w ell,
A nd b oundle ss f o re sts s lu m ber i n a s h ell.
395
—So y on g re y p re cip ic e, a n d i v y'd t o w ers ,
L ong w in din g m ead s, a n d i n te rm in gle d b ow ers ,
G re en f ile s o f p opla rs , o 'e r t h e l a k e t h at b ow ,
A nd g lim merin g w heel, w hic h r o lls a n d f o am s b elo w ,
I n o ne b rig ht p oin t w ith n ic e d is tin ctio n l ie
400
Pla n 'd o n t h e m ovin g t a b le t o f t h e e y e.
— So, f o ld o n f o ld , E arth 's w av y p la in s e x te n d,
A nd, s p here i n s p here , i ts h id den s tr a ta b en d;—
I n cu m ben t S prin g h er b eam y p lu m es e x pan ds
O 'e r r e stle ss o cean s, a n d i m patie n t l a n ds,
405
With g en ia l l u str e s w arm s t h e m ig hty b all,
A nd t h e G REA T S E ED e v olv es, d is c lo sin g A LL;
L IF E
buds
o r
bre a th es
f ro m I n dus t o t h e P ole s,
A nd t h e v ast s u rfa ce k in dle s, a s i t r o lls !
[ Maze w ith in m aze
. l . 3 83. T he e le g an t a p peara n ce o n d is se ctio n o f t h e y oung
tu lip i n t h e b ulb w as f ir s t o bse rv ed b y M ario tte a n d i s m en tio ned i n t h e n ote
on t u lip a i n V ol.I I, a n d w as a fte rw ard s n otic ed b y D u H am el. A cad . S cie n .
Lew en hook a ssu re s u s t h at i n t h e b ud o f a c u rra n t t r e e h e c o uld n ot o nly
dis c o ver t h e l ig neo us p art b ut e v en t h e b errie s t h em se lv es, a p pearin g l ik e
sm all g ra p es. C ham b. D ic t. a rt. B ud. M r. B ak er s a y s h e d is se cte d a s e ed o f
tr e m blin g g ra ss i n w hic h a p erfe ct p la n t a p peare d w ith i ts r o ot, s e n din g f o rth
tw o b ra n ch es, f ro m e ach o f w hic h s e v era l l e av es o r b la d es o f g ra ss
pro ceed ed . M ic ro sc . V ol. I . p . 2 52. M r. B onnet s a w f o ur g en era tio ns o f
su ccessiv e p la n ts i n t h e b ulb o f a h yacin th . B onnet C orp s O rg an . V ol. I . p .
103. H alle r's P hysio l. V ol. I . p . 9 1. I n t h e t e rm in al b ud o f a h ors e -c h esn ut t h e
new f lo w er m ay b e s e en b y t h e n ak ed e y e c o vere d w ith a m ucila g in ous
dow n, a n d t h e s a m e i n t h e b ulb o f a n arc is su s, a s I t h is m orn in g o bse rv ed i n
se v era l o f t h em s e n t m e b y M is s — —
fo r t h at p urp ose . S ep t. 1 6.
Mr. F erb er s p eak s o f t h e p le asu re h e r e ceiv ed i n o bse rv in g i n t h e b uds o f

Hep atic a a n d p ed ic u la ris h ir s u ta y et l y in g h id i n t h e e arth , a n d i n t h e g em s o f
th e s h ru b d ap hne m ezere o n, a n d a t t h e b ase o f o sm unda l u naria a p erfe ct
pla n t o f t h e f u tu re y ear, d is c ern ab le i n a ll i ts p arts a y ear b efo re i t c o m es
fo rth , a n d i n t h e s e ed s o f n ym phea n elu m bo t h e l e av es o f t h e p la n t w ere s e en
so d is tin ctly t h at t h e a u th or f o und o ut b y t h em w hat p la n t t h e s e ed s b elo nged
to . T he s a m e o f t h e s e ed s o f t h e t u lip t r e e o r l ir io den dum t u lip if e ru m . A m aen .
Aced . V ol. V I.]
[ And t h e g re a t s e ed
. l . 4 06. A llu din g t o t h e [ G re ek : p ro to n o on], o r f ir s t g re at
eg g o f t h e a n tie n t p hilo so phy, i t h ad a s e rp en t w ra p ped r o und i t e m ble m atic al
of d iv in e w is d om , a n i m ag e o f i t w as a fte rw ard s p re se rv ed a n d w ors h ip ped i n
th e t e m ple o f D io sc u ri, a n d s u ppose d t o r e p re se n t t h e e g g o f L ed a. S ee a p rin t
of i t i n B ry an t's M yth olo gy. I t w as s a id t o h av e b een b ro ken b y t h e h orn s o f
th e c ele stia l b ull, t h at i s , i t w as h atc h ed b y t h e w arm th o f t h e S prin g. S ee n ote
on C an to I . l . 4 13.]
[ And t h e v a st s u rfa ce
. l . 4 08. L 'O rg an iz atio n, l e s e n tim en t, l e m ovem en t
sp onta n é, l a v ie , n 'e x is te n t q u'a l a s u rfa ce d e l a t e rre , e t d an s l e l ie u x e x pose s
á l a l u m ié re . T ra ité d e C hym ie p ar M . L av ois ie r, T om . I . p . 2 02.]
3 . " C om e, Y E S O FT S Y LPH S! w ho s p ort o n L atia n l a n d,
410
Com e, s w eet- lip 'd Z ep hyr, a n d F av oniu s b la n d!
T each t h e f in e S E ED , i n stin ct w ith l if e , t o s h oot
O n E arth 's c o ld b oso m i ts d esc en din g r o ot;
W ith P ith e la stic s tr e tc h i ts r is in g s te m ,
P art t h e t w in L obes, e x pan d t h e t h ro bbin g G em ;
415
Cla sp i n y our a ir y a rm s t h e a sp ir in g P lu m e,
F an w ith y our b alm y b re ath i ts k in dlin g b lo om ,
E ach w id en in g s c ale a n d b urs tin g f ilm u nfo ld ,
S w ell t h e g re en c u p, a n d t in t t h e f lo w er w ith g old ;
W hile i n b rig ht v ein s t h e s ilv ery S ap a sc en ds,
420
And r e flu en t b lo od i n m ilk y e d die s b en ds;
W hile , s p re ad i n a ir , t h e l e av es r e sp ir in g p la y ,
O r d rin k t h e g old en q uin te sse n ce o f d ay .
— So f ro m h is s h ell o n D elta 's s h ow er-le ss i s le
B urs ts i n to l if e t h e M onste r o f t h e N ile ;
425
Fir s t i n t r a n slu cen t l y m ph w ith c o bw eb -th re ad s

T he B ra in 's f in e f lo atin g t is su e s w ells , a n d s p re ad s;
N erv e a fte r n erv e t h e g lis te n in g s p in e d esc en ds,
T he r e d H eart d an ces, t h e A orta b en ds;
T hro ugh e ach n ew g la n d t h e p urp le c u rre n t g lid es,
430
New v ein s m ean derin g d rin k t h e r e flu en t t id es;
E dge o ver e d ge e x pan ds t h e h ard en in g s c ale ,
A nd s h eath s h is s lim y s k in i n s ilv er m ail.
— Ere w hile , e m erg in g f ro m t h e b ro odin g s a n d,
W ith T yger-p aw H e p rin ts t h e b rin ele ss s tr a n d,
435
Hig h o n t h e f lo od w ith s p eck le d b oso m s w im s,
H elm 'd w ith b ro ad t a il, a n d o ar'd w ith g ia n t l im bs;
R olls h is f ie rc e e y e-b alls , c la sp s h is i r o n c la w s,
A nd c h am ps w ith g nash in g t e eth h is m assy j a w s;
O ld N ilu s s ig hs a lo ng h is c an e-c ro w n'd s h ore s,
440
And s w arth y M em phis t r e m ble s a n d a d ore s.
[ Tea ch t h e f in e s e ed
. l . 4 11. T he s e ed s i n t h eir n atu ra l s ta te f a ll o n t h e s u rfa ce
of t h e e arth , a n d h av in g a b so rb ed s o m e m ois tu re t h e r o ot s h oots i ts e lf
dow nw ard s i n to t h e e arth a n d t h e p lu m e r is e s i n a ir . T hus e ach e n deav ourin g
to s e ek i ts p ro per p ab ulu m d ir e cte d b y a v eg eta b le i r rita b ility s im ila r t o t h at
of t h e l a cte al s y ste m a n d t o t h e l u ngs i n a n im als .
The p ith s e em s t o p ush u p o r e lo ngate t h e b ud b y i ts e la stic ity , l ik e t h e p ith i n
th e c allo w q uills o f b ir d s. T his m ed ulla L in neu s b elie v es t o c o nsis t o f a
bundle o f f ib re s, w hic h d iv erg in g b re ak s t h ro ugh t h e b ark y et g ela tin ous
pro ducin g t h e b uds.
The l o bes a re r e se rv oir s o f p re p are d n utr im en t f o r t h e y oung s e ed , w hic h i s
ab so rb ed b y i ts p la cen ta l v esse ls , a n d c o nverte d i n to s u gar, t ill i t h as
pen etr a te d w ith i ts r o ots f a r e n ough i n to t h e e arth t o e x tr a ct s u ffic ie n t
mois tu re , a n d h as a cq uir e d l e av es t o c o nvert i t i n to n ouris h m en t. I n s o m e
pla n ts t h ese l o bes r is e f ro m t h e e arth a n d s u pply t h e p la ce o f l e av es, a s i n
kid ney -b ean s, c u cu m bers , a n d h en ce s e em t o s e rv e b oth a s a p la cen ta t o t h e
fo etu s, a n d l u ngs t o t h e y oung p la n t. D urin g t h e p ro cess o f g erm in atio n t h e
sta rc h o f t h e s e ed i s c o nverte d i n to s u gar, a s i s s e en i n t h e p ro cess o f m altin g
barle y f o r t h e p urp ose o f b re w in g. A nd i s o n t h is a cco unt v ery s im ila r t o t h e
dig estio n o f f o od i n t h e s to m ach s o f a n im als , w hic h c o nverts a ll t h eir a lim en t

in to a c h yle , w hic h c o nsis ts o f m ucila g e, o il, a n d s u gar; t h e p la cen ta tio n o f
buds w ill b e s p oken o f h ere afte r.]
[ The s ilv ery s a p
. l . 4 19. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXVI.]
[ Or d rin k t h e g old en
. l . 4 22. L in neu s h av in g o bse rv ed t h e g re at i n flu en ce o f
lig ht o n v eg eta tio n, i m ag in ed t h at t h e l e av es o f p la n ts i n hale d e le ctr ic m atte r
fro m t h e l ig ht w ith t h eir u pper s u rfa ce. ( S yste m o f V eg eta b le s t r a n sla te d , p .
8.)
The e ffe ct o f l ig ht o n p la n ts o ccasio ns t h e a ctio ns o f t h e v eg eta b le m usc le s o f
th eir l e af-s ta lk s, w hic h t u rn t h e u pper s id e o f t h e l e af t o t h e l ig ht, a n d w hic h
open t h eir c aly xes a n d c h oro ls , a cco rd in g t o t h e e x perim en ts o f A bbe T essie r,
who e x pose d v arie ty o f p la n ts i n a c av ern t o d if fe re n t q uan titie s o f l ig ht. H is t.
de L 'A cad em ie R oyal. A nn. 1 783. T he s le ep o r v ig ila n ce o f p la n ts s e em s
ow in g t o t h e p re se n ce o r a b se n ce o f t h is s tim ulu s. S ee n ote o n N im osa , V ol.
II.]
X I. " C om e, Y E S O FT S Y LPH S! w ho f a n t h e P ap hia n g ro ves,
A nd b ear o n s p ortiv e w in gs t h e c allo w L oves;
C all w ith s w eet w his p er, i n e ach g ale t h at b lo w s,
T he s lu m berin g S now -d ro p f ro m h er l o ng r e p ose ;
445
Charm t h e p ale P rim ro se f ro m h er c la y -c o ld b ed ,
U nveil t h e b ash fu l V io le t's t r e m ulo us h ead ;
W hile f ro m h er b ud t h e p la y fu l T ulip b re ak s,
A nd y oung C arn atio ns p eep w ith b lu sh in g c h eek s;
B id t h e c lo se d
Peta ls
f ro m n octu rn al c o ld
450
The v ir g in
Sty le
i n s ilk en c u rta in s f o ld ,
S hak e i n to v ie w le ss a ir t h e m orn in g d ew s,
A nd w av e i n l ig ht t h eir i r id esc en t h ues;
W hile f ro m o n h ig h t h e b urs tin g
Anth ers
t r u st
T o t h e m ild b re ezes t h eir p ro lif ic d ust;
455
Or b en d i n r a p tu re o 'e r t h e c en tr a l F air ,
L ove o ut t h eir h our, a n d l e av e t h eir l iv es i n a ir .
S o i n h is s ilk en s e p ulc h re t h e W orm ,
W arm 'd w ith n ew l if e , u nfo ld s h is l a rv a-fo rm ;
E re w hile a lo ft i n w an to n c ir c le s m oves,

460
And w oos o n H ym en -w in gs h is v elv et l o ves.
[ Love o ut t h eir h our
. l . 4 56. T he v eg eta b le p assio n o f l o ve i s a g re eab ly s e en
in t h e f lo w er o f t h e p arn assia , i n w hic h t h e m ale s a lte rn ate ly a p pro ach a n d
re ced e f ro m t h e f e m ale , a n d i n t h e f lo w er o f n ig ella , o r d ev il i n t h e b ush , i n
whic h t h e t a ll f e m ale s b en d d ow n t o t h eir d w arf h usb an ds. B ut I w as t h is
morn in g s u rp ris e d t o o bse rv e, a m ongst S ir B ro oke B ooth by's v alu ab le
co lle ctio n o f p la n ts a t A sh bourn , t h e m an if e st a d ulte ry o f s e v era l f e m ale s o f
th e p la n t C ollin so nia , w ho h ad b en t t h em se lv es i n to c o nta ct w ith t h e m ale s o f
oth er f lo w ers o f t h e s a m e p la n t i n t h eir v ic in ity , n eg le ctf u l o f t h eir o w n. S ep t.
16. S ee a d ditio nal n ote s, N o. X XXVIII.]
[ Unfo ld s h is l a rv a -fo rm
. l . 4 58. T he f lo w er b urs ts f o rth f ro m i ts l a rv a, t h e
herb , n ak ed a n d p erfe ct l ik e a b utte rfly f ro m i ts c h ry so lis ; w in ged w ith i ts
co ro l; w in g-s h eath ed b y i ts c aly x; c o nsis tin g a lo ne o f t h e o rg an s o f
re p ro ductio n. T he m ale s, o r s ta m en s, h av e t h eir a n th ers r e p le te w ith a p ro lif ic
pow der c o nta in in g t h e v iv if y in g f o villa : i n t h e f e m ale s, o r p is tils , e x is ts t h e
ovary , t e rm in ate d b y t h e t u bula r s tig m a. W hen t h e a n th ers b urs t a n d s h ed
th eir b ag s o f d ust, t h e m ale f o villa i s r e ceiv ed b y t h e p ro lif ic l y m ph o f t h e
stig m a, a n d p ro duces t h e s e ed o r e g g, w hic h i s n ouris h ed i n t h e o vary .
Syste m o f V eg eta b le s t r a n sla te d f ro m L in neu s b y t h e L ic h fie ld S ocie ty , p .
10.]
X II. 1 . " If p ro uder b ra n ch es w ith e x ubera n ce r u de
P oin t t h eir g re en g em s, t h eir b arre n s h oots p ro tr u de;
W ound t h em , y e S Y LPH S! w ith l ittle k niv es, o r b in d
A w ir y r in gle t r o und t h e s w ellin g r in d;
465
Bis e ct w ith c h is se l f in e t h e r o ot b elo w ,
O r b en d t o e arth t h e i n hosp ita b le b ough.
S o s h all e ach g erm w ith n ew p ro lif ic p ow er
D ela y t h e l e af-b ud, a n d e x pan d t h e f lo w er;
C lo se d i n t h e
Sty le
t h e t e n der p ith s h all e n d,
470
The l e n gth en in g W ood i n c ir c lin g
Sta m en s
b en d;
T he s m ooth er R in d i ts s o ft e m bro id ery s p re ad
I n v au lte d
Peta ls
o 'e r t h eir f e rtile b ed ;
W hile t h e r o ugh B ark , i n c ir c lin g m azes r o ll'd ,

F orm s t h e g re en
Cup
w ith m an y a w rin kle d f o ld ;
475
And e ach s m all b ud-s c ale s p re ad s i ts f o lia g e h ard ,
F ir m r o und t h e c allo w g erm , a
Flo ra l G uard
.
[ Wound t h em , y e S ylp hs!
l . 4 63. M r. W hitm ill a d vis e d t o b in d s o m e o f t h e
most v ig oro us s h oots w ith s tr o ng w ir e , a n d e v en s o m e o f t h e l a rg e r o ots ; a n d
Mr. W arn er c u ts , w hat h e c alls a w ild w orm a b out t h e b ody o f t h e t r e e, o r
sc o re s t h e b ark q uite t o t h e w ood l ik e a s c re w w ith a s h arp k nif e . B ra d le y o n
Gard en in g, V ol. I I. p . 1 55. M r. F itz g era ld p ro duced f lo w ers a n d f ru it o n w all
tr e es b y c u ttin g o ff a p art o f t h e b ark . P hil. T ra n s. A nn. 1 761. M . B uffo n
pro duced t h e s a m e e ffe ct b y a s tr a ig ht b an dag e p ut r o und a b ra n ch , A ct.
Paris , A nn. 1 738, a n d c o nclu des t h at a n i n gra fte d b ra n ch b ears b ette r f ro m i ts
vesse ls b ein g c o m pre sse d b y t h e c allo us.
A c o m ple at c y lin der o f t h e b ark a b out a n i n ch i n h eig ht w as c u t o ff f ro m t h e
bra n ch o f a p ear t r e e a g ain st a w all i n M r. H ow ard 's g ard en a t L ic h fie ld a b out
fiv e y ears a g o, t h e c ir c u m cis e d p art i s n ow n ot a b ove h alf t h e d ia m ete r o f t h e
bra n ch a b ove a n d b elo w i t, y et t h is b ra n ch h as b een f u ll o f f ru it e v ery y ear
sin ce, w hen t h e o th er b ra n ch es o f t h e t r e e b ore o nly s p arin gly . I l a te ly
obse rv ed t h at t h e l e av es o f t h is w ounded b ra n ch w ere s m alle r a n d p ale r, a n d
th e f ru it l e ss i n s iz e, a n d r ip en ed s o oner t h an o n t h e o th er p arts o f t h e t r e e.
Anoth er b ra n ch h as t h e b ark t a k en o ff n ot q uite a ll r o und w ith m uch t h e s a m e
effe ct.
The t h eo ry o f t h is c u rio us v eg eta b le f a ct h as b een e ste em ed d if fic u lt, b ut
re ceiv es g re at l ig ht f ro m t h e f o re g oin g a cco unt o f t h e i n div id uality o f b uds. A
flo w er-b ud d ie s, w hen i t h as p erfe cte d i ts s e ed , l ik e a n a n nual p la n t, a n d
hen ce r e q uir e s n o p la ce o n t h e b ark f o r n ew r o ots t o p ass d ow nw ard s; b ut o n
th e c o ntr a ry l e af-b uds, a s t h ey a d van ce i n to s h oots , f o rm n ew b uds i n t h e
ax illa o f e v ery l e af, w hic h n ew b uds r e q uir e n ew r o ots t o p ass d ow n t h e b ark ,
an d t h us t h ic k en a s w ell a s e lo ngate t h e b ra n ch , n ow i f a w ir e o r s tr in g b e t ie d
ro und t h e b ark , m an y o f t h ese n ew r o ots c an not d esc en d, a n d t h en ce m ore o f
th e b uds w ill b e c o nverte d i n to f lo w er-b uds.
It i s c u sto m ary t o d eb ark o ak -tr e es i n t h e s p rin g, w hic h a re i n te n ded t o b e
fe lle d i n t h e e n su in g a u tu m n; b ecau se t h e b ark c o m es o ff e asie r a t t h is
se aso n, a n d t h e s a p -w ood, o r a lb urn um , i s b elie v ed t o b eco m e h ard er a n d

more d ura b le , i f t h e t r e e r e m ain s t ill t h e e n d o f s u m mer. T he t r e es t h us
str ip ped o f t h eir b ark p ut f o rth s h oots a s u su al w ith a co rn s o n t h e 6 th 7 th a n d
8th j o in t, l ik e v in es; b ut i n t h e b ra n ch es I e x am in ed , t h e j o in ts o f t h e
deb ark ed t r e es w ere m uch s h orte r t h an t h ose o f o th er o ak - t r e es; t h e a co rn s
were m ore n um ero us; a n d n o n ew b uds w ere p ro duced a b ove t h e j o in ts w hic h
bore a co rn s. F ro m h en ce i t a p pears t h at t h e b ra n ch es o f d eb ark ed o ak -tr e es
pro duce f e w er l e af-b uds, a n d m ore f lo w er- b uds, w hic h l a st c ir c u m sta n ce I
su ppose m ust d ep en d o n t h eir b ein g s o oner o r l a te r d eb ark ed i n t h e v ern al
month s. A nd, s e co ndly , t h at t h e n ew b uds o f d eb ark ed o ak -tr e es c o ntin ue t o
obta in m ois tu re f ro m t h e a lb urn um a fte r t h e s e aso n o f t h e a sc en t o f s a p i n
oth er v eg eta b le s c ease s; w hic h i n t h is u nnatu ra l s ta te o f t h e d eb ark ed t r e e
may a ct a s c ap illa ry t u bes, l ik e t h e a lb urn um o f t h e s m all d eb ark ed c y lin der
of a p ear-tr e e a b ovem en tio ned ; o r m ay c o ntin ue t o a ct a s p la cen ta l v esse ls , a s
hap pen s t o t h e a n im al e m bry on i n c ase s o f s u perfe ta tio n; w hen t h e f e tu s
co ntin ues a m onth o r t w o i n t h e w om b b ey ond i ts u su al t im e, o f w hic h s o m e
in sta n ces h av e b een r e co rd ed , t h e p la cen ta c o ntin ues t o s u pply p erh ap s t h e
double o ffic e b oth o f n utr itio n a n d o f r e sp ir a tio n.]
[ And b en d t o e a rth
. l . 4 66. M r. H itt i n h is t r e atis e o n f ru it t r e es o bse rv es t h at
if a v ig oro us b ra n ch o f a w all t r e e b e b en t t o t h e h oriz o n, o r b en eath i t, i t
lo ose s i ts v ig our a n d b eco m es a b earin g b ra n ch . T he t h eo ry o f t h is I s u ppose
to d ep en d o n t h e d if fic u lty w ith w hic h t h e l e af-s h oots c an p ro tr u de t h e r o ots
necessa ry f o r t h eir n ew p ro gen y o f b uds u pw ard s a lo ng t h e b en ded b ra n ch t o
th e e arth c o ntr a ry t o t h eir n atu ra l h ab its o r p ow ers , w hen ce m ore f lo w er-
sh oots a re p ro duced w hic h d o n ot r e q uir e n ew r o ots t o p ass a lo ng t h e b ark o f
th e b en ded b ra n ch , b ut w hic h l e t t h eir o ffs p rin g, t h e s e ed s, f a ll u pon t h e e arth
an d s e ek r o ots f o r t h em se lv es.]
[ With n ew p ro lific p ow er
. l . 4 67. A bout M id su m mer t h e n ew b uds a re
fo rm ed , b ut i t i s b elie v ed b y s o m e o f t h e L in nean s c h ool, t h at t h ese b uds m ay
in t h eir e arly s ta te b e e ith er c o nverte d i n to f lo w er-b uds o r l e af-b uds
acco rd in g t o t h e v ig our o f t h e v eg eta tin g b ra n ch . T hus i f t h e u pper p art o f a
bra n ch b e c u t a w ay , t h e b uds n ear t h e e x tr e m ity o f t h e r e m ain in g s te m ,
hav in g a g re ate r p ro portio nal s u pply o f n utr im en t, o r p osse ssin g a g re ate r
fa cility o f s h ootin g t h eir r o ots , o r a b so rb en t v esse ls , d ow n t h e b ark , w ill
beco m e l e af-b uds, w hic h m ig ht o th erw is e h av e b een f lo w er-b uds. A nd t h e
co ntr a ry a s e x pla in ed i n n ote o n l . 4 63. o f t h is C an to .]

[ Clo se d i n t h e s ty le
. l . 4 69. " I c o nceiv e t h e m ed ulla o f a p la n t t o c o nsis t o f a
bundle o f n erv ous f ib re s, a n d t h at t h e p ro pellin g v ita l p ow er s e p ara te s t h eir
upperm ost e x tr e m itie s. T hese , d iv erg in g, p en etr a te t h e b ark , w hic h i s n ow
gela tin ous, a n d b eco m e m ultip lie d i n t h e n ew g em , o r l e af-b ud. T he
asc en din g v esse ls o f t h e b ark b ein g t h us d iv id ed b y t h e n erv ous f ib re s, w hic h
perfo ra te i t, a n d t h e a sc en t o f i ts f lu id s b ein g t h us i m ped ed , t h e b ark i s
ex te n ded i n to a l e af. B ut t h e f lo w er i s p ro duced , w hen t h e p ro tr u sio n o f t h e
med ulla i s g re ate r t h an t h e r e te n tio n o f t h e i n clu din g c o rtic al p art; w hen ce t h e
su bsta n ce o f t h e b ark i s e x pan ded i n t h e c aly x; t h at o f t h e r in d, ( o r i n te rio r
bark ,) i n t h e c o ro l; t h at o f t h e w ood i n t h e s ta m en s, t h at o f t h e m ed ulla i n t h e
pis til. V eg eta tio n t h us t e rm in ate s i n t h e p ro ductio n o f n ew l if e , t h e u ltim ate
med ulla ry a n d c o rtic al f ib re s b ein g c o lle cte d i n t h e s e ed s." L in nei S yste m a
Veg et. p . 6 . e d it. 1 4.]
2 . " W here c ru der j u ic es s w ell t h e l e afy v ein ,
S tin t t h e y oung g erm , t h e t e n der b lo sso m s ta in ;
O n e ach l o p'd s h oot a s o fte r s c io n b in d,
480
Pith p re ss'd t o p ith , a n d r in d a p plie d t o r in d,
S o s h all t h e t r u nk w ith l o ftie r c re st a sc en d,
A nd w id e i n a ir i ts h ap pie r a rm s e x te n d;
N urs e t h e n ew b uds, a d m ir e t h e l e av es u nknow n,
A nd b lu sh in g b en d w ith f ru ita g e n ot i ts o w n.
[ Nurse t h e n ew b uds
. l . 4 83. M r. F air c h ild b udded a p assio n-tr e e, w hose
le av es w ere s p otte d w ith y ello w , i n to o ne w hic h b ears l o ng f ru it. T he b uds
did n ot t a k e, n ev erth ele ss i n a f o rtn ig ht y ello w s p ots b eg an t o s h ew
th em se lv es a b out t h re e f e et a b ove t h e i n ocu la tio n, a n d i n a s h ort t im e
afte rw ard s y ello w s p ots a p peare d o n a s h oot w hic h c am e o ut o f t h e g ro und
fro m a n oth er p art o f t h e p la n t. B ra d le y , V ol. I I. p . 1 29. T hese f a cts a re t h e
more c u rio us s in ce f ro m e x perim en ts o f i n gra ftin g r e d c u rra n ts o n b la ck ( Ib .
Vol. I I.) t h e f ru it d oes n ot a cq uir e a n y c h an ge o f f la v our, a n d b y m an y o th er
ex perim en ts n eith er c o lo ur n or a n y o th er c h an ge i s p ro duced i n t h e f ru it
in gra fte d o n o th er s to ck s.
There i s a n a p ple d esc rib ed i n B ra d le y 's w ork w hic h i s s a id t o h av e o ne s id e
of i t a s w eet f ru it w hic h b oils s o ft, a n d t h e o th er s id e a s o ur f ru it w hic h b oils

hard , w hic h M r. B ra d le y s o l o ng a g o a s t h e y ear 1 721 i n gen io usly a sc rib es t o
th e f a rin a o f o ne o f t h ese a p ple s i m pre g natin g t h e o th er, w hic h w ould s e em
th e m ore p ro bab le i f w e c o nsid er t h at e ach d iv is io n o f a n a p ple i s a s e p ara te
wom b, a n d m ay t h ere fo re h av e a s e p ara te i m pre g natio n l ik e p uppie s o f
dif fe re n t k in ds i n o ne l itte r. T he s a m e i s s a id t o h av e o ccu rre d i n o ra n ges a n d
le m ons, a n d g ra p es o f d if fe re n t c o lo urs .]
485
"T hus w hen i n h oly t r iu m ph A aro n t r o d,
A nd o ffe r'd o n t h e s h rin e h is m ystic r o d;
F ir s t a n ew b ark i ts s ilk en t is su e w eav es,
N ew b uds e m erg in g w id en i n to l e av es;
F air f ru its p ro tr u de, e n asc en t f lo w ers e x pan d,
490
And b lu sh a n d t r e m ble r o und t h e l iv in g w an d.
X III. 1 . " S Y LPH S! o n e ach O ak -b ud w ound t h e w orm y g alls ,
W ith p ig m y s p ears , o r c ru sh t h e v en om 'd b alls ;
F rig ht t h e g re en L ocu st f ro m h is f o am y b ed ,
U nw eav e t h e C ate rp illa r's g lu ey t h re ad ;
495
Chase t h e f ie rc e E arw ig , s c are t h e b lo ate d T oad ,
A rre st t h e s n ail u pon h is s lim y r o ad ;
A rm w ith s h arp t h orn s t h e S w eet- b rie r's t e n der w ood,
A nd d ash t h e C ynip s f ro m h er d am ask b ud;
S te ep i n a m bro sia l d ew s t h e W oodbin e's b ells ,
500
And d riv e t h e N ig ht- m oth f ro m h er h oney 'd c ells .
S o w here t h e H um min g-b ir d i n C hili's b ow ers
O n m urm urin g p in io ns r o bs t h e p en den t f lo w ers ;
S eek s, w here f in e p ore s t h eir d ulc et b alm d is till,
A nd s u ck s t h e t r e asu re w ith p ro bosc is -b ill;
505
Fair C Y PR EPE D IA w ith s u ccessfu l g uile
K nits h er s m ooth b ro w , e x tin guis h es h er s m ile ;
A S pid ers b lo ate d p au nch a n d j o in te d a rm s
H id e h er f in e f o rm , a n d m ask h er b lu sh in g c h arm s;
I n a m bush s ly t h e m im ic w arrio r l ie s,
510
And o n q uic k w in g t h e p an tin g p lu ndere r f lie s.
[ Fair C yp re p ed ia
. l . 5 05.
The c y pre p ed iu m f ro m S outh A m eric a i s s u ppose d

to b e o f l a rg er s iz e a n d b rig hte r c o lo urs t h an t h at f ro m N orth A m eric a f ro m
whic h t h is p rin t i s t a k en ; i t h as a l a rg e g lo bula r n ecta ry a b out t h e s iz e o f a
pid geo n's e g g o f a f le sh y c o lo ur, a n d a n i n cis io n o r d ep re ssio n o n i ts u pper
part, m uch r e se m blin g t h e b ody o f t h e l a rg e A m eric an s p id er; t h is g lo bula r
necta ry i s a tta ch ed t o d iv erg en t s le n der p eta ls n ot u nlik e t h e l e g s o f t h e s a m e
an im al. T his s p id er i s c alle d b y L in neu s A re n ea a v ic u la ria , w ith a c o nvex
orb ic u la r t h ora x , t h e c en te r t r a n sv ers e ly e x cav ate d , h e a d ds t h at i t c atc h es
sm all b ir d s a s w ell a s i n se cts , a n d h as t h e v en em ous b ite o f a s e rp en t. S yste m
Natu re , T om . I . p . 1 034. M . L onvillie rs d e P oin cy , ( H is to ir e N at. d es A ntille s,
Cap . x iv . a rt. I II.) c alls i t P hala n ge, a n d d esc rib es t h e b ody t o b e t h e s iz e o f a
pid geo n's e g g, w ith a h ollo w o n i ts b ack l ik e a n av el, a n d m en tio ns i ts
catc h in g t h e h um min g-b ir d i n i ts s tr o ng n ets .
The s im ilitu de o f t h is f lo w er t o t h is g re at s p id er s e em s t o b e a v eg eta b le
co ntr iv an ce t o p re v en t t h e h um min g-b ir d f ro m p lu nderin g i ts h oney . A bout
Matlo ck i n D erb ysh ir e t h e f ly -o phris i s p ro duced , t h e n ecta ry o f w hic h s o
much r e se m ble s t h e s m all w all- b ee, p erh ap s t h e a p is i c h neu m onea, t h at i t
may b e e asily m is ta k en f o r i t a t a s m all d is ta n ce. I t i s p ro bab le t h at b y t h is
mean s i t m ay o fte n e sc ap e b ein g p lu ndere d . S ee n ote o n l o nic era i n t h e n ex t
poem .
A b ir d o f o ur o w n c o untr y c alle d a w illo w -w re n ( M ota cilla ) r u ns u p t h e s te m
of t h e c ro w n-im peria l ( F rittilla ria c o ro nalis ) a n d s ip s t h e p en dulo us d ro ps
with in i ts p eta ls . T his s p ecie s o f M ota cilla i s c alle d b y R ay R eg ulu s n on
cris ta tu s. W hite 's H is t. o f S elb orn e.]
[Illu str a tio n:
Cyp rip ed iu m . L ondon, P ublis h ed D ec'r 1 st 1 791 b y J .
Jo hnso n, S t. P aul's C hurc h Y ard .
]
2 . " S hie ld t h e y oung H arv est f ro m d ev ourin g b lig ht,
T he S m ut's d ark p ois o n, a n d t h e M ild ew w hite ;
D eep -ro ote d M ould , a n d E rg ot's h orn u nco uth ,
A nd b re ak t h e C an ker's d eso la tin g t o oth .
515
Fir s t i n o ne p oin t t h e f e ste rin g w ound c o nfin 'd
M in es u nperc eiv ed b en eath t h e s h riv el'd r in 'd ;
T hen c lim bs t h e b ra n ch es w ith i n cre asin g s tr e n gth ,
S pre ad s a s t h ey s p re ad , a n d l e n gth en s w ith t h eir l e n gth ;

— Thus t h e s lig ht w ound i n gra v ed o n g la ss u nneal'd
520
Runs i n w hite l in es a lo ng t h e l u cid f ie ld ;
C ra ck f o llo w s c ra ck , t o l a w s e la stic j u st,
A nd t h e f ra il f a b ric s h iv ers i n to d ust.
[ Shie ld t h e y o ung h arv est
. l . 5 11. L in neu s e n um era te s b ut f o ur d is e ase s o f
pla n ts ; E ry sy ch e, t h e w hite m uco r o r m ould , w ith s e ssile t a w ny h ead s, w ith
whic h t h e l e av es a re s p rin kle d , a s i s f re q uen t o n t h e h op, h um ulu s, m ap le ,
acer, & c. R ubig o, t h e f e rru gin eo us p ow der s p rin kle d u nder t h e l e av es
fre q uen t i n l a d y's m an tle , a lc h em illa , & c.
Cla v us, w hen t h e s e ed s g ro w o ut i n to l a rg er h orn s b la ck w ith out, a s i n r y e.
This i s c alle d E rg ot b y t h e f re n ch w rite rs .
Ustu la g o, w hen t h e f ru it i n ste ad o f s e ed p ro duces a b la ck p ow der, a s i n
barle y , o ats , & c. T o w hic h p erh ap s t h e h oney -d ew o ught t o h av e b een a d ded ,
an d t h e c an ker, i n t h e f o rm er o f w hic h t h e n ouris h in g f lu id o f t h e p la n t s e em s
to b e e x su ded b y a r e tr o gra d e m otio n o f t h e c u ta n eo us l y m phatic s, a s i n t h e
sw eatin g s ic k ness o f t h e l a st c en tu ry . T he l a tte r i s a p hag ed en ic u lc er o f t h e
bark , v ery d estr u ctiv e t o y oung a p ple - t r e es, a n d w hic h i n c h erry -tr e es i s
atte n ded w ith a d ep ositio n o f g um a ra b ic , w hic h o fte n t e rm in ate s i n t h e d eath
of t h e t r e e.]
[ Erg ot's h orn
. l . 5 13. T here i s a d is e ase f re q uen tly a ffe cts t h e r y e i n F ra n ce,
an d s o m etim es i n E ngla n d i n m ois t s e aso ns, w hic h i s c alle d E rg ot, o r h orn
se ed ; t h e g ra in b eco m es c o nsid era b ly e lo ngate d a n d i s e ith er s tr a ig ht o r
cro oked , c o nta in in g b la ck m eal a lo ng w ith t h e w hite , a n d a p pears t o b e
pie rc ed b y i n se cts , w hic h w ere p ro bab ly t h e c au se o f t h e d is e ase . M r.
Duham el a sc rib es i t t o t h is c au se , a n d c o m pare s i t t o g alls o n o ak -le av es. B y
th e u se o f t h is b ad g ra in a m ongst t h e p oor d is e ase s h av e b een p ro duced
atte n ded w ith g re at d eb ility a n d m ortif ic atio n o f t h e e x tr e m itie s b oth i n
Fra n ce a n d E ngla n d. D ic t. R ais o n. a rt. S ie g le . P hilo so p. T ra n sa ct.]
[ On g la ss u nnea l'd
. l . 5 19. T he g la ss m ak ers o ccasio nally m ak e w hat t h ey
call
pro ofs
, w hic h a re c o ole d h astily , w here as t h e o th er g la ss v esse ls a re
re m oved f ro m w arm er o ven s t o c o ole r o nes, a n d s u ffe re d t o c o ol b y s lo w
deg re es, w hic h i s c alle d a n nealin g, o r n ealin g t h em . I f a n u nneale d g la ss b e

sc ra tc h ed b y e v en a g ra in o f s a n d f a llin g i n to i t, i t w ill s e em t o c o nsid er o f i t
fo r s o m e t im e, o r e v en a d ay , a n d w ill t h en c ra ck i n to a t h ousa n d p ie ces.
The s a m e h ap pen s t o a s m ooth s u rfa ced l e ad -o re i n D erb ysh ir e , t h e w ork m en
hav in g c le are d a l a rg e f a ce o f i t s c ra tc h i t w ith p ic k s, a n d i n a f e w h ours
man y t o ns o f i t c ra ck t o p ie ces a n d f a ll, w ith a k in d o f e x plo sio n.
White h urs t's T heo ry o f E arth .
Gla ss d ro pped i n to c o ld w ate r, c alle d P rin ce R upert's d ro ps, e x plo de w hen a
sm all p art o f t h eir t a ils a re b ro ken o ff, m ore s u dden ly i n deed , b ut p ro bab ly
fro m t h e s a m e c au se . A re t h e i n te rn al p artic le s o f t h ese e la stic b odie s k ep t s o
fa r f ro m e ach o th er b y t h e e x te rn al c ru st t h at t h ey a re n early i n a s ta te o f
re p uls io n i n to w hic h s ta te t h ey a re t h ro w n b y t h eir v ib ra tio ns f ro m a n y
vio le n ce a p plie d ? O r, l ik e e la stic b alls i n c erta in p ro portio ns s u sp en ded i n
co nta ct w ith e ach o th er, c an m otio n o nce b eg an b e i n cre ase d b y t h eir
ela stic ity , t ill t h e w hole e x plo des? A nd c an t h is p ow er b e a p plie d t o a n y
mech an ic al p urp ose s? ]
X IV . I . " S Y LPH S! i f w ith m orn d estr u ctiv e E uru s s p rin gs,
O , c la sp t h e H are b el w ith y our v elv et w in gs;
525
Scre en w ith t h ic k l e av es t h e J a sm in e a s i t b lo w s,
A nd s h ak e t h e w hite r im e f ro m t h e s h udderin g R ose ;
W hils t A m ary llis t u rn s w ith g ra cefu l e ase
H er b lu sh in g b eau tie s, a n d e lu des t h e b re eze.—
S Y LPH S! i f a t n oon t h e F ritilla ry d ro ops,
530
With d ro ps n ecta re o us h an g h er n oddin g c u ps;
T hin c lo uds o f G ossa m er i n a ir d is p la y ,
A nd h id e t h e v ale 's c h aste L ily f ro m t h e r a y ;
W hils t E ry th rin a o 'e r h er t e n der f lo w er
B en ds a ll h er l e av es, a n d b ra v es t h e s u ltr y h our;—
535
Shie ld , w hen c o ld H esp er s h ed s h is d ew y l ig ht,
M im osa 's s o ft s e n sa tio ns f ro m t h e n ig ht;
F old h er t h in f o ila g e, c lo se h er t im id f lo w ers ,
A nd w ith a m bro sia l s lu m bers g uard h er b ow ers ;
O 'e r e ach w arm w all w hile C ere a f lin gs h er a rm s,
540
And w aste s o n n ig ht's d ull e y e a b la ze o f c h arm s.

[Illu str a tio n:
Ery th rin a C ora llo den dro n. L ondon P ublis h ed D ec'r 1 st b y
J. J o hnso n S t. P aul's C hurc h Y ard .
]
[ With a m bro sia l s lu m bers
. l . 5 38. M an y v eg eta b le s d urin g t h e n ig ht d o n ot
se em t o r e sp ir e , b ut t o s le ep l ik e t h e d orm an t a n im als a n d i n se cts i n w in te r.
This a p pears f ro m t h e m im osa a n d m an y o th er p la n ts c lo sin g t h e u pper s id es
of t h eir l e av es t o geth er i n t h eir s le ep , a n d t h us p re clu din g t h at s id e o f t h em
fro m b oth l ig ht a n d a ir . A nd f ro m m an y f lo w ers c lo sin g u p t h e p olis h ed o r
in te rio r s id e o f t h eir p eta ls , w hic h w e h av e a ls o e n deav oure d t o s h ew t o b e a
re sp ir a to ry o rg an .
The i r rita b ility o f p la n ts i s a b undan tly e v in ced b y t h e a b so rp tio n a n d
pulm onary c ir c u la tio n o f t h eir j u ic es; t h eir s e n sib ility i s s h ew n b y t h e
ap pro ach es o f t h e m ale s t o t h e f e m ale s, a n d o f t h e f e m ale s t o t h e m ale s i n
num ero us i n sta n ces; a n d, a s t h e e sse n tia l c ir c u m sta n ce o f s le ep c o nsis ts i n t h e
te m pora ry a b olitio n o f v olu nta ry p ow er a lo ne, t h e s le ep o f p la n ts e v in ces t h at
th ey p osse ss v olu nta ry p ow er; w hic h a ls o i n dis p uta b ly a p pears i n m an y o f
th em b y c lo sin g t h eir p eta ls o r t h eir l e av es d urin g c o ld , o r r a in , o r d ark ness,
or f ro m m ech an ic v io le n ce.]
2 . R ound h er t a ll E lm w ith d ew y f in gers t w in e
T he g ad din g t e n drils o f t h e a d ven tu ro us V in e;
F ro m a rm t o a rm i n g ay f e sto ons s u sp en d
H er f ra g ra n t f lo w ers , h er g ra cefu l f o lia g e b en d;
545
Sw ell w ith s w eet j u ic e h er v erm il o rb s, a n d f e ed
S hrin ed i n t r a n sp are n t p ulp h er p early s e ed ;
H an g r o und t h e O ra n ge a ll h er s ilv er b ells ,
A nd g uard h er f ra g ra n ce w ith H esp eria n s p ells ;
B ud a fte r b ud h er p olis h 'd l e av es u nfo ld ,
550
And l o ad h er b ra n ch es w ith s u ccessiv e g old .
S o t h e l e arn 'd A lc h em is t e x ultin g s e es
R is e i n h is b rig ht m atr a ss D IA NA'S t r e es;
D ro p a fte r d ro p, w ith j u st d ela y h e p ours
T he r e d -fu m ed a cid o n P oto si's o re s;
555
With s u dden f la sh t h e f ie rc e b ullitio ns r is e ,
A nd w id e i n a ir t h e g as p hlo gis tic f lie s;
S lo w s h oot, a t l e n gth , i n m an y a b rillia n t m ass

M eta llic r o ots a cro ss t h e n ette d g la ss;
B ra n ch a fte r b ra n ch e x te n d t h eir s ilv er s te m s,
560
Bud i n to g old , a n d b lo sso m s i n to g em s.
[ Dia na's t r e es
, l . 5 52. T he c h em is ts a n d a str o nom ers f ro m t h e e arlie st
an tiq uity h av e u se d t h e s a m e c h ara cte rs t o r e p re se n t t h e m eta ls a n d t h e
pla n ets , w hic h w ere m ost p ro bab ly o utlin es o r a b str a cts o f t h e o rig in al
hie ro gly phic f ig ure s o f E gypt. T hese a fte rw ard s a cq uir e d n ic h es i n t h eir
te m ple s, a n d r e p re se n te d G ods a s w ell a s m eta ls a n d p la n ets ; w hen ce s ilv er i s
calle d D ia n a, o r t h e m oon, i n t h e b ooks o f a lc h em y.
The p ro cess f o r m ak in g D ia n a's s ilv er t r e e i s t h us d esc rib ed b y L em eri.
Dis so lv e o ne o unce o f p ure s ilv er i n a cid o f n itr e v ery p ure a n d m odera te ly
str o ng; m ix t h is s o lu tio n w ith a b out t w en ty o unces o f d is tille d w ate r; a d d t o
th is t w o o unces o f m erc u ry , a n d l e t i t r e m ain a t r e st. I n a b out f o ur d ay s t h ere
will f o rm u pon t h e m erc u ry a t r e e o f s ilv er w ith b ra n ch es i m ita tin g
veg eta tio n.
1. A s t h e m erc u ry h as a g re ate r a ffin ity t h an s ilv er w ith t h e n itr o us a cid , t h e
silv er b eco m es p re cip ita te d ; a n d, b ein g d ep riv ed o f t h e n itr o us o xygen e b y
th e m erc u ry , s in ks d ow n i n i ts m eta llic f o rm a n d l u str e . 2 . T he a ttr a ctio n
betw een s ilv er a n d m erc u ry , w hic h c au se s t h em r e ad ily t o a m alg am ate
to geth er, o ccasio ns t h e p re cip ita te d s ilv er t o a d here t o t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e
merc u ry i n p re fe re n ce t o a n y o th er p art o f t h e v esse l. 3 . T he a ttr a ctio n o f t h e
partic le s o f t h e p re cip ita te d s ilv er t o e ach o th er c au se s t h e b eg in nin g b ra n ch es
to t h ic k en a n d e lo ngate i n to t r e es a n d s h ru bs r o ote d o n t h e m erc u ry . F or o th er
cir c u m sta n ces c o ncern in g t h is b eau tif u l e x perim en t s e e M r. K eir 's C hem ic al
Dic tio nary , a rt. A rb or D ia n ae; a w ork p erh ap s o f g re ate r u tility t o m an kin d
th an t h e l o st A le x an dria n L ib ra ry ; t h e c o ntin uatio n o f w hic h i s s o e ag erly
ex pecte d b y a ll, w ho a re o ccu pie d i n t h e a rts , o r a tta ch ed t o t h e s c ie n ces.]
S o s its e n th ro n'd i n v eg eta b le p rid e
I m peria l K EW b y T ham es's g litte rin g s id e;
O bed ie n t s a ils f ro m r e alm s u nfu rro w 'd b rin g
F or h er t h e u nnam 'd p ro gen y o f s p rin g;
565
Atte n dan t N ym phs h er d ulc et m an date s h ear,

A nd n urs e i n f o ste rin g a rm s t h e t e n der y ear,
P la n t t h e y oung b ulb , i n hum e t h e l iv in g s e ed ,
P ro p t h e w eak s te m , t h e e rrin g t e n dril l e ad ;
O r f a n i n g la ss-b uilt f a n es t h e s tr a n ger f lo w ers
570
With m ild er g ale s, a n d s te ep w ith w arm er s h ow ers .
D elig hte d T ham es t h ro ugh t r o pic u m bra g e g lid es,
A nd f lo w ers a n ta rc tic , b en din g o 'e r h is t id es;
D rin ks t h e n ew t in ts , t h e s w eets u nknow n i n hale s,
A nd c alls t h e s o ns o f s c ie n ce t o h is v ale s.
575
In o ne b rig ht p oin t a d m ir in g N atu re e y es
T he f ru its a n d f o lia g e o f d is c o rd an t s k ie s,
T w in es t h e g ay f lo re t w ith t h e f ra g ra n t b ough,
A nd b en ds t h e w re ath r o und G EO RG E'S r o yal b ro w .
— Som etim es r e tir in g, f ro m t h e p ublic w eal
580
One t r a n quil h our t h e R O YAL P A RTN ER S s te al;
T hro ugh g la d es e x otic p ass w ith s te p s u blim e,
O r m ark t h e g ro w th s o f B rita in 's h ap pie r c lim e;
W ith b eau ty b lo sso m 'd , a n d w ith v ir tu e b la z'd ,
M ark t h e f a ir S cio ns, t h at t h em se lv es h av e r a is 'd ;
585
Sw eet b lo om s t h e R ose , t h e t o w erin g O ak e x pan ds,
T he G ra ce a n d G uard o f B rita in 's g old en l a n ds.
X V. S Y LPH S! w ho, r o und e arth o n p urp le p in io ns b orn e,
A tte n d t h e r a d ia n t c h ario t o f t h e m orn ;
L ead t h e g ay h ours a lo ng t h e e th ere al h ig ht,
590
And o n e ach d un m erid ia n s h ow er t h e l ig ht;
S Y LPH S! w ho f ro m r e alm s o f e q uato ria l d ay
T o c lim es, t h at s h udder i n t h e p ola r r a y ,
F ro m z o ne t o z o ne p urs u e o n s h if tin g w in g,
T he b rig ht p ere n nia l j o urn ey o f t h e s p rin g;
595
Brin g m y r ic h B alm s f ro m M ecca's h allo w 'd g la d es,
S w eet f lo w ers , t h at g litte r i n A ra b ia 's s h ad es;
F ru its , w hose f a ir f o rm s i n b rig ht s u ccessio n g lo w
G ild in g t h e B an ks o f A rn o, o r o f P o;
E ach l e af, w hose f ra g ra n t s te am w ith r u by l ip
600
Gay C hin a's n ym phs f ro m p ic tu r'd v ase s s ip ;
E ach s p ic y r in d, w hic h s u ltr y I n dia b oasts ,

S cen tin g t h e n ig ht- a ir r o und h er b re ezy c o asts ;
R oots w hose b old s te m s i n b le ak S ib eria b lo w ,
A nd g em w ith m an y a t in t t h e e te rn al s n ow ;
605
Bark s, w hose b ro ad u m bra g e h ig h i n e th er w av es
O 'e r A nde's s te ep s, a n d h id es h is g old en c av es;
— And, w here y on o ak e x te n ds h is d usk y s h oots
W id e o 'e r t h e r ill, t h at b ubble s f ro m h is r o ots ;
B en eath w hose a rm s, p ro te cte d f ro m t h e s to rm
610
A t u rf-b uilt a lta r r e ars i t's r u stic f o rm ;
S Y LPH S! w ith r e lig io us h an ds f re sh g arla n ds t w in e,
A nd d eck w ith l a v is h p om p H YGEIA 'S s h rin e.
" C all w ith l o ud v oic e t h e S is te rh ood, t h at d w ell
O n f lo atin g c lo ud, w id e w av e, o r b ubblin g w ell;
615
Sta m p w ith c h arm 'd f o ot, c o nvoke t h e a la rm ed G nom es
F ro m g old en b ed s, a n d a d am an tin e d om es;
E ach f ro m h er s p here w ith b eck onin g a rm i n vite ,
C url'd w ith r e d f la m e, t h e V esta l F orm s o f l ig ht.
C lo se a ll y our s p otte d w in gs, i n l u cid r a n ks
620
Pre ss w ith y our b en din g k nees t h e c ro w ded b an ks,
C ro ss y our m eek a rm s, i n clin e y our w re ath ed b ro w s,
A nd w in t h e G oddess w ith u nw earie d v ow s.
" O h, w av e, H YGEIA ! o 'e r B RIT A NNIA 'S t h ro ne
T hy s e rp en t- w an d, a n d m ark i t f o r t h y o w n;
625
Lead r o und h er b re ezy c o asts t h y g uard ia n t r a in s,
H er n oddin g f o re sts , a n d h er w av in g p la in s;
S hed o 'e r h er p eo ple d r e alm s t h y b eam y s m ile ,
A nd w ith t h y a ir y t e m ple c ro w n h er i s le !"
T he G ODDESS c ease d ,— an d c allin g f ro m a fa r
630
The w an derin g Z ep hyrs , j o in s t h em t o h er c ar;
M ounts w ith l ig ht b ound, a n d g ra cefu l, a s s h e b en ds,
W hir ls t h e l o ng l a sh , t h e f le x ile r e in e x te n ds;
O n w his p erin g w heels t h e s ilv er a x le s lid es,
C lim bs i n to a ir , a n d c le av es t h e c ry sta l t id es;
635
Burs t f ro m i ts p early c h ain s, h er a m ber h air

S tr e am s o 'e r h er i v ory s h ould ers , b uoy'd i n a ir ;
S w ells h er w hite v eil, w ith r u by c la sp c o nfin ed
R ound h er f a ir b ro w , a n d u ndula te s b eh in d;
T he l e sse n in g c o urs e rs r is e i n s p ir a l r in gs,
640
Pie rc e t h e s lo w -s a ilin g c lo uds, a n d s tr e tc h t h eir s h ad ow y w in gs.

C O NTEN TS
O F
T H E N O TES.
C ANTO I .
R osic ru cia n m ach in ery .
73
A ll b odie s a re i m mers e d i n t h e m atte r o f h eat. P artic le s o f b odie s d o n ot
t o uch e ach o th er.
97
G ra d ual p ro gre ss o f t h e f o rm atio n o f t h e e arth , a n d o f p la n ts a n d a n im als .
M onstr o us b ir th s
101
F ix ed s ta rs a p pro ach t o w ard s e ach o th er, t h ey w ere p ro je cte d f ro m c h ao s b y
e x plo sio n, a n d t h e p la n ets p ro je cte d f ro m t h em
105
A n a tm osp here o f i n fla m mab le a ir a b ove t h e c o m mon a tm osp here p rin cip ally
a b out t h e p ole s
123
T w ilig ht f if ty m ile s h ig h. W an ts f u rth er o bse rv atio ns
126
I m med ia te c au se o f v olc an os f ro m s te am a n d o th er v ap ours . T hey p re v en t
g re ate r e arth quak es
152
C onducto rs o f h eat. C old o n t h e t o ps o f m ounta in s
176
P hosp hore sc en t l ig ht i n t h e e v en in g f ro m a ll b odie s
177

Phosp horic l ig ht f ro m c alc in ed s h ells . B olo gnia n s to ne. E xperim en ts o f
Beccari a n d W ils o n
182
Ig nis f a tu us d oubtf u l
189
Ele ctr ic E el. I ts e le ctr ic o rg an s. C om pare d t o t h e e le ctr ic L ey den p hia l 2 02
Dis c o very o f f ir e . T ools o f s te el. F ore sts s u bdued . Q uan tity o f f o od i n cre ase d
by c o okery
212
Med usa o rig in ally a n h ie ro gly phic o f d iv in e w is d om
218
Cau se o f e x plo sio ns f ro m c o m bin ed h eat. H eat g iv en o ut f ro m a ir i n
re sp ir a tio n. O xygen e l o ose s l e ss h eat w hen c o nverte d i n to n itr o us a cid t h an i n
an y o th er o f i ts c o m bin atio ns
226
Spark s f ro m t h e c o llis io n o f f lin ts a re e le ctr ic . F ro m t h e c o llis io n o f f lin t a n d
ste el a re f ro m t h e c o m bustio n o f t h e s te el
229
Gunpow der d esc rib ed b y B aco n. I ts p ow er. S hould b e l ig hte d i n t h e c en tr e . A
new k in d o f i t. L ev els t h e w eak a n d s tr o ng
242
Ste am -e n gin e i n ven te d b y S av ery . I m pro ved b y N ew co m en . P erfe cte d b y
Watt a n d B oulto n
254
Div in e b en ev ole n ce. T he p arts o f n atu re n ot o f e q ual e x celle n ce
278
Mr. B oulto n's s te am -e n gin e f o r t h e p urp ose o f c o in in g w ould s a v e m an y l iv es
fro m t h e e x ecu tio ner
281
Lab ours o f H erc u le s o f g re at a n tiq uity . P illa rs o f H erc u le s. S urfa ce o f t h e
Med ite ra n ean l o w er t h an t h e A tla n tic . A byla a n d C alp e. F lo od o f D eu calio n
297
Accu m ula tio n o f e le ctr ic ity n ot f ro m f ric tio n
335
Mr. B en net's s e n sib le e le ctr o m ete r
345
Halo o f s a in ts i s p ic to ria l l a n guag e
358

We h av e a s e n se a d ap te d t o p erc eiv e h eat b ut n ot e le ctr ic ity
365
Para ly tic l im bs m ove b y e le ctr ic i n flu en ce
367
Death o f P ro fe sso r R ic h m an b y e le ctr ic ity
373
Lig htn in g d ra w n f ro m t h e c lo uds. H ow t o b e s a fe i n t h under s to rm s
383
Anim al h eat f ro m a ir i n r e sp ir a tio n. P erp etu al n ecessity o f r e sp ir a tio n.
Spir it o f a n im atio n p erp etu ally r e n ew ed
401
Cupid r is e s f ro m t h e e g g o f n ig ht. M rs . C osw ay 's p ain tin g o f t h is s u bje ct
413
Weste rn -w in ds. T heir o rig in . W arm er t h an s o uth -w in ds. P ro duce a t h aw 4 30
Wate r e x pan ds i n f re ezin g. D estr o ys s u ccu le n t p la n ts , n ot r e sin ous o nes.
Tre es i n v alle y s m ore l ia b le t o i n ju ry . F ig -tr e es b en t t o t h e g ro und i n w in te r
439
Buds a n d b ulb s a re t h e w in te r c ra d le o f t h e p la n t. D efe n ded f ro m f ro st a n d
fro m i n se cts . T ulip p ro duces o ne f lo w er-b ulb a n d s e v era l l e af-b ulb s, a n d
peris h es.
460
Matte r o f h eat i s d if fe re n t f ro m l ig ht. V eg eta b le s b la n ch ed b y e x clu sio n o f
lig ht. T urn t h e u pper s u rfa ce o f t h eir l e av es t o t h e l ig ht. W ate r d eco m pose d a s
it e sc ap es f ro m t h eir p ore s. H en ce v eg eta b le s p urif y a ir i n t h e d ay t im e o nly .
462
Ele ctr ic ity f o rw ard s t h e g ro w th o f p la n ts . S ilk -w orm s e le ctr is e d s p in s o oner.
Wate r d eco m pose d i n v eg eta b le s, a n d b y e le ctr ic ity
463
Sym path etic i n ks w hic h a p pear b y h eat, a n d d is a p pear i n t h e c o ld . M ad e f ro m
co balt
487
Sta r i n C assio pe's c h air
515
Ic e-is la n ds 1 00 f a th om s d eep .
Sea-ic e m ore d if fic u lt o f s o lu tio n. I c e
ev ap ora te s p ro ducin g g re at c o ld . I c e-is la n ds i n cre ase . S hould b e n av ig ate d
in to s o uth ern c lim ate s. S om e i c e-is la n ds h av e f lo ate d s o uth w ard s 6 0 m ile s

lo ng. S te am a tte n din g t h em i n w arm c lim ate s
529
Monso on c o ols t h e s a n ds o f A byssin ia
547
Asc en din g v ap ours a re e le ctr is e d p lu s, a s a p pears f ro m a n e x perim en t o f M r.
Ben net. E le ctr ic ity s u pports v ap our i n c lo uds. T hunder s h ow ers f ro m
co m bin atio n o f i n fla m mab le a n d v ita l a ir s
553

C ANTO I I.
S ola r v olc an os a n alo gous t o t e rre str ia l a n d l u nar o nes. S pots o f t h e s u n a re
e x cav atio ns
14
S pheric al f o rm o f t h e e arth . O cean f ro m c o nden se d v ap our. C hara cte r o f
M r. W hite h urs t
17
G ra n ite t h e o ld est p art o f t h e e arth . T hen l im esto ne. A nd l a stly , c la y , i r o n,
c o al, s a n dsto ne. T hre e g re at c o ncen tr ic d iv is io ns o f t h e g lo be 3 5
F orm atio n o f p rim ev al i s la n ds b efo re t h e p ro ductio n o f t h e m oon. P ara d is e .
T he G old en A ge. R ain -b ow . W ate r o f t h e s e a o rig in ally f re sh 3 6
V en us r is in g f ro m t h e s e a a n h ie ro gly phic e m ble m o f t h e p ro ductio n o f t h e
e arth b en eath t h e o cean
47
F ir s t g re at v olc an os i n t h e c en tr a l p arts o f t h e e arth . F ro m s te am , i n fla m mab le
g as, a n d v ita l a ir . P re se n t v olc an os l ik e m ole -h ills
68
M oon h as l ittle o r n o a tm osp here . I ts o cean i s f ro zen . I s n ot y et i n hab ite d , b ut
m ay b e i n t im e
82
E arth 's a x is c h an ged b y t h e a sc en t o f t h e m oon. I ts d iu rn al m otio n r e ta rd ed .
O ne g re at t id e
84
L im esto ne p ro duced f ro m s h ells . S pars w ith d ouble r e fra ctio ns. M arb le .
C halk
93
A ntie n t s ta tu es o f H erc u le s. A ntin ous. A pollo . V en us. D esig ns o f
R oubilia c. M onum en t o f G en era l W ad e. S ta tu es o f M rs . D am er
101

Mora sse s r e st o n l im esto ne. O f i m men se e x te n t
116
Salts f ro m a n im al a n d v eg eta b le b odie s d eco m pose e ach o th er, e x cep t m arin e
sa lt. S alt m in es i n P ola n d. T im ber d oes n ot d ecay i n t h em . R ock - s a lt
pro duced b y e v ap ora tio n f ro m s e a-w ate r. F ossil s h ells i n s a lt m in es. S alt i n
hollo w p yra m id s. I n c u bes. S ea-w ate r c o nta in s a b out o ne- t h ir tie th o f s a lt
119
Nitr e , n ativ e i n B en gal a n d I ta ly . N itr o us g as c o m bin ed w ith v ita l a ir
pro duces r e d c lo uds, a n d t h e t w o a ir s o ccu py l e ss s p ace t h an o ne o f t h em
befo re , a n d g iv e o ut h eat. O xygen e a n d a zo te p ro duce n itr o us a cid
143
Iro n f ro m d eco m pose d v eg eta b le s. C haly beat s p rin gs. F ern -le av es i n n odule s
of i r o n. C oncen tr ic s p here s o f i r o n n odule s o w in g t o p ola rity , l ik e i r o n-filin gs
arra n ged b y a m ag net. G re at s tr a ta o f t h e e arth o w in g t o t h eir p ola rity
183
Hard ness o f s te el f o r t o ols . G av e s u perio rity t o t h e E uro pean n atio ns.
Weld in g o f s te el. I ts m ag netis m . U se s o f g old
192
Artif ic ia l m ag nets i m pro ved b y S av ery a n d D r. K nig ht, p erfe cte d b y M r.
Mic h el. H ow p ro duced . P ola rity o w in g t o t h e e arth 's r o ta to ry m otio n. T he
ele ctr ic f lu id , a n d t h e m atte r o f h eat, a n d m ag netis m g ra v ita te o n e ach o th er.
Mag netis m b ein g t h e l ig hte st i s f o und n eare st t h e a x is o f t h e m otio n.
Ele ctr ic ity p ro duces n orth ern l ig hts b y i ts c en tr if u gal m otio n 1 93
Acid s f ro m v eg eta b le r e cre m en ts . F lin t h as i ts a cid f ro m t h e n ew w orld . I ts
base i n p art f ro m t h e o ld w orld , a n d i n p art f ro m t h e n ew . P re cio us s to nes
215
Dia m ond. I ts g re at r e fra ctio n o f l ig ht. I ts v ola tib ility b y h eat. I f a n
in fla m mab le b ody.
228
Fir e s o f t h e n ew w orld f ro m f e rm en ta tio n. W hen ce s u lp hur a n d b itu m en b y
su blim atio n, t h e c la y , c o al, a n d f lin t r e m ain in g
275
Colo urs n ot d is tin guis h ab le i n t h e e n am el- k iln , t ill a b it o f d ry w ood i s
in tr o duced
283
Etr u ria n p otte ry p rio r t o t h e f o undatio ns o f R om e. E xcelle d i n f in e f o rm s, a n d
in a n on-v itr e o us e n cau stic p ain tin g, w hic h w as l o st t ill r e sto re d b y M r.

Wed gw ood. S till i n flu en ces t h e t a ste o f t h e i n hab ita n ts 2 91
Mr. W ed gw ood's c am eo o f a s la v e i n c h ain s, a n d o f H ope
315
Basso -re lie v os o f t w o o r m ore c o lo urs n ot m ad e b y t h e a n tie n ts . I n ven te d b y
Mr. W ed gw ood
342
Petr o le u m a n d n ap th a h av e b een s u blim ed . W hen ce j e t a n d a m ber. T hey
ab so rb a ir . A ttr a ct s tr a w s w hen r u bbed . E le ctr ic ity f ro m e le ctr o n t h e g re ek
nam e f o r a m ber
353
Cle fts i n g ra n ite r o ck s i n w hic h m eta ls a re f o und. I ro n a n d m an gan ese f o und
in a ll v eg eta b le s. M an gan ese i n l im esto ne. W arm s p rin gs f ro m s te am r is in g
up t h e c le fts o f g ra n ite a n d l im esto ne. P ondero us e arth i n l im esto ne c le fts a n d
in g ra n ite . C opper, l e ad , i r o n, f ro m d esc en din g m ate ria ls . H ig h m ounta in s o f
gra n ite c o nta in n o o re s n ear t h eir s u m mits . T ra n sm uta tio n o f m eta ls . O f l e ad
in to c ala m y. I n to s ilv er
398
Arm ie s o f C am byte s d estr o yed b y f a m in e, a n d b y s a n d-s to rm s
435
Whir lin g t u rre ts o f s a n d d esc rib ed a n d e x pla in ed
478
Gra n ite s h ew s i r o n a s i t d eco m pose s. M arb le d eco m pose s. I m men se q uan tity
of c h arc o al e x is ts i n l im esto ne. V olc an ic s la g s d eco m pose , a n d b eco m e c la y
523
Mills to nes r a is e d b y w ooden p eg s
524
Han nib al m ad e a p assa g e b y f ir e o ver t h e A lp s
534
Passe d t e n se o f m an y w ord s t w ofo ld , a s d riv en o r d ro ve, s p oken o r s p oke.
A p oetic l ic en ce
609

C ANTO I II.
C lo uds c o nsis t o f a q ueo us s p here s, w hic h d o n ot e asily u nite , l ik e g lo bule s o f
q uic k silv er, a s m ay b e s e en i n r id in g t h ro ugh w ate r. O win g t o e le ctr ic ity .
S now . H ails to nes r o unded b y a ttr itio n a n d d is so lu tio n o f t h eir a n gle s. N ot
f ro m f ro zen d ro ps o f w ate r
15
D ew o n p oin ts a n d e d ges o f g ra ss, o r h an gs o ver c ab bag e-le av es, n eed le
f lo ats o n w ate r
18
M is ts o ver r iv ers a n d o n m ounta in s. H alo r o und t h e m oon. S had ow o f a
c h urc h -s te ep le u pon a m is t. D ry m is t, o r w an t o f t r a n sp are n cy o f t h e a ir , a
s ig n o f f a ir -w eath er
20
T id es o n b oth s id es o f t h e e arth . M oon's t id es s h ould b e m uch g re ate r t h an t h e
e arth 's t id es. T he o cean o f t h e m oon i s f ro zen
61
S pir a l f o rm o f s h ells s a v es c alc are o us m atte r. S erv es t h em a s a n o rg an o f
h earin g. C alc are o us m atte r p ro duced f ro m i n fla m ed m em bra n es. C olo urs o f
s h ells , l a b ra d ore -s to ne f ro m m oth er-p earl. F ossil s h ells n ot n ow f o und r e cen t
6 6
S ea-in se cts l ik e f lo w ers . A ctin ia
82
P ro ductio n o f p earls , n ot a d is e ase o f t h e f is h . C ra b 's e y es. R ese rv oir s o f
p early m atte r
84
R ock s o f c o ra l i n t h e s o uth -s e a. C ora llo id l im esto ne a t L in se l, a n d
C oalb ro ok D ale
90
R ock s t h ro w n f ro m m ounta in s, i c e f ro m g la cie rs , a n d p ortio ns o f e arth , o r

mora sse s, r e m oved b y c o lu m ns o f w ate r. E arth -m otio n i n S hro psh ir e . W ate r
of w ells r is in g a b ove t h e l e v el o f t h e g ro und. S t. A lk m ond's w ell n ear D erb y
mig ht b e r a is e d m an y y ard s, s o a s t o s e rv e t h e t o w n. W ell a t S heern ess, a n d
at H artf o rd i n C onnectic u t
116
Moonso ons a tte n ded w ith r a in O verflo w in g o f t h e N ile . V orte x o f a sc en din g
air . R is in g o f t h e D ogsta r a n nounces t h e f lo ods o f t h e N ile . A nubis h ung o ut
upon t h eir t e m ple s
129
Situ atio ns e x em pt f ro m r a in . A t t h e L in e i n L ow er E gypt. O n t h e c o ast o f
Peru
138
Gie sa r, a b oilin g f o unta in i n I c ela n d. W ate r w ith g re at d eg re es o f h eat
dis so lv es s ilic eo us m atte r. E arth quak e f ro m s te am
150
Warm s p rin gs n ot f ro m d eco m pose d p yrite s. F ro m s te am r is in g u p f is su re s
fro m g re at d ep th s
166
Buxto n b ath p osse sse s 8 2 d eg re es o f h eat. I s i m pro perly c alle d a w arm b ath .
A c h ill a t i m mers io n, a n d t h en a s e n sa tio n o f w arm th , l ik e t h e e y e i n a n
obsc u re r o om o w in g t o i n cre ase d s e n sib ility o f t h e s k in
184
Wate r c o m pounded o f p ure a ir a n d i n fla m mab le a ir w ith a s m uch m atte r o f
heat a s p re se rv es i t f lu id . P erp etu ally d eco m pose d b y v eg eta b le s i n t h e s u n's
lig ht, a n d r e co m pose d i n t h e a tm osp here
204
Myth olo gic al i n te rp re ta tio n o f J u pite r a n d J u no d esig ned a s a n e m ble m o f t h e
co m positio n o f w ate r f ro m t w o a ir s
260
Death o f M rs . F re n ch
308
Tom b o f M r. B rin dle y
341
In ven tio n o f t h e p um p. T he p is to n l if ts t h e a tm osp here a b ove i t. T he
su rro undin g a tm osp here p re sse s u p t h e w ate r i n to t h e v acu um . M an ner i n
whic h a c h ild s u ck s
366
Air -c ell i n e n gin es f o r e x tin guis h in g f ir e . W ate r d is p ers e d b y t h e e x plo sio n o f
Gunpow der. H ouse s p re se rv ed f ro m f ir e b y e arth o n t h e f lo ors , b y a s e co nd

ceilin g o f i r o n-p la te s o r c o ars e m orta r. W ood i m pre g nate d w ith a la b aste r o r
flin t
406
Musc u la r a ctio ns a n d s e n sa tio ns o f p la n ts
460
Riv er A ch elo us. H orn o f P le n ty
495
Flo odin g l a n ds d efe n ds t h em f ro m v ern al f ro sts . S om e s p rin gs d ep osit
calc are o us e arth . S om e c o nta in a zo tic g as, w hic h c o ntr ib ute s t o p ro duce n itr e .
Snow w ate r l e ss s e rv ic eab le
540

C ANTO I V .
C acalia p ro duces m uch h oney , t h at a p art m ay b e t a k en b y i n se cts w ith out
i n ju ry
2
A naly sis o f c o m mon a ir . S ourc e o f a zo te . O f O xygen e. W ate r d eco m pose d
b y v eg eta b le p ore s a n d t h e s u n's l ig ht. B lo od g iv es o ut p hlo gis to n a n d
r e ceiv es v ita l a ir . A cq uir e s h eat a n d t h e v iv if y in g p rin cip le
34
C upid a n d P sy ch e
48
S im oom , a p estile n tia l w in d. D esc rib ed . O win g t o v olc an ic e le ctr ic ity .
N ot a w hir lw in d
65
C onta g io n e ith er a n im al o r v eg eta b le
82
T hyrs is e sc ap es t h e P la g ue
91
B aro m ete r a n d a ir -p um p, D ew o n e x hau stin g t h e r e ceiv er t h ough t h e
h ygro m ete r p oin ts t o d ry ness. R are a ir w ill d is so lv e o r a cq uir e m ore h eat, a n d
m ore m ois tu re , a n d m ore e le ctr ic ity
128
S ound p ro pag ate d b est b y d en se b odie s, a s w ood, a n d w ate r, a n d e arth .
F is h i n s p ir a l s h ells a ll e ar
164
D is c o verie s o f D r. P rie stle y . G re en v eg eta b le m atte r. P ure a ir c o nta in ed i n t h e
c alc es o f m eta ls , a s m in iu m , m an gan ese , c ala m y, o ch re
166
F ab le o f P ro se rp in e a n a n tie n t c h em ic al e m ble m
178
D iv in g b allo ons s u pplie d w ith p ure a ir f ro m m in iu m . A cco unt o f o ne b y

Mr. B oyle
195
Mr. D ay . M r. S pald in g
217
Cap ta in P ie rc e a n d h is d au ghte rs
219
Pestile n tia l w in ds o f v olc an ic o rig in . J o rd an f lo w s t h ro ugh a c o untr y o f
volc an os
294
Chan ge o f w in d o w in g t o s m all c au se s. I f t h e w in d c o uld b e g overn ed , t h e
pro ducts o f t h e e arth w ould b e d ouble d , a n d i ts n um ber o f i n hab ita n ts
in cre ase d
308
Mr. K ir w an 's t r e atis e o n t e m pera tu re o f c lim ate s
342
Seed s o f p la n ts . S paw n o f f is h . N utr im en t l o dged i n s e ed s. T heir p re se rv atio n
in t h eir s e ed -v esse ls
355
Fix ed s ta rs a p pro ach e ach o th er
369
Fab le o f t h e P hoen ix
377
Pla n ts v is ib le w ith in b ulb s, a n d b uds, a n d s e ed s
383
Gre at E gg o f N ig ht
406
Seed s s h oot i n to t h e g ro und. P ith . S eed -lo bes. S ta rc h c o nverte d i n to s u gar.
Lik e a n im al c h yle
411
Lig ht o ccasio ns t h e a ctio ns o f v eg eta b le m usc le s. K eep s t h em a w ak e 4 22
Veg eta b le l o ve i n P arn assia , N ig ella . V eg eta b le a d ulte ry i n C ollin so nia 4 56
Str o ng v eg eta b le s h oots a n d r o ots b ound w ith w ir e , i n p art d eb ark ed , w hen ce
le af-b uds c o nverte d i n to f lo w er-b uds. T heo ry o f t h is c u rio us f a ct 4 63
Bra n ch es b en t t o t h e h oriz o n b ear m ore f ru it
466
Engra ftin g o f a s p otte d p assio n-flo w er p ro duced s p ots u pon t h e s to ck .

Apple s o ft o n o ne s id e a n d h ard o n t h e o th er
483
Cypre p ed iu m a ssu m es t h e f o rm o f a l a rg e s p id er t o a ffrig ht t h e h um min g-
bir d . F ly -o phris . W illo w -w re n s u ck s t h e h oney o f t h e c ro w n-im peria l 5 05
Dis e ase s o f p la n ts f o ur k in ds. H oney -d ew
511
Erg ot a d is e ase o f r y e
513
Gla ss u nan neale d . I ts c ra ck s o w in g t o e la stic ity . O ne k in d o f l e ad -o re c ra ck s
in to p ie ces. P rin ce R upert's d ro ps. E la stic b alls
519
Sle ep o f p la n ts . T heir i r rita b ility , s e n sib ility , a n d v olu nta ry m otio ns 5 38

A DDIT IO NAL N O TES.
N O TE I .— METEO RS.
Eth eria l F orm s! y o u c h ase t h e s h ootin g s ta rs,
Or y o ke t h e v o llie d
lig htn in gs t o y o ur c a rs.
C A NTO I . l . 1 15.
T here s e em t o b e t h re e c o ncen tr ic s tr a ta o f o ur i n cu m ben t a tm osp here ; i n
w hic h , o r b etw een t h em , a re p ro duced f o ur k in ds o f m ete o rs ; l ig htn in g,
s h ootin g s ta rs , f ir e -b alls , a n d n orth ern l ig hts . F ir s t, t h e l o w er r e g io n o f a ir , o r
t h at w hic h i s d en se e n ough t o r e sis t b y t h e a d hesio n o f i ts p artic le s t h e
d esc en t o f c o nden se d v ap our, o r c lo uds, w hic h m ay e x te n d f ro m o ne t o t h re e
o r f o ur m ile s h ig h. I n t h is r e g io n t h e c o m mon l ig htn in g i s p ro duced f ro m t h e
a ccu m ula tio n o r d efe ct o f e le ctr ic m atte r i n t h ose f lo atin g f ie ld s o f v ap our
e ith er i n r e sp ect t o e ach o th er, o r i n r e sp ect t o t h e e arth b en eath t h em , o r t h e
d is so lv ed v ap our a b ove t h em , w hic h i s c o nsta n tly v ary in g b oth w ith t h e
c h an ge o f t h e f o rm o f t h e c lo uds, w hic h t h us e v olv e a g re ate r o r l e ss s u rfa ce;
a n d a ls o w ith t h eir e v er-c h an gin g d eg re e o f c o nden sa tio n. A s t h e l ig htn in g i s
t h us p ro duced i n d en se a ir , i t p ro ceed s b ut a s h ort c o urs e o n a cco unt o f t h e
g re ate r r e sis ta n ce w hic h i t e n co unte rs , i s a tte n ded w ith a l o ud e x plo sio n, a n d
a p pears w ith a r e d l ig ht.
2 . T he s e co nd r e g io n o f t h e a tm osp here I s u ppose t o b e t h at w hic h h as t o o
l ittle t e n acity t o s u pport c o nden se d v ap our o r c lo uds; b ut w hic h y et c o nta in s
i n vis ib le v ap our, o r w ate r i n a eria l s o lu tio n. T his a eria l s o lu tio n o f w ate r
d if fe rs f ro m t h at d is so lv ed i n t h e m atte r o f h eat, a s i t i s s u pporte d b y i ts
a d hesio n t o t h e p artic le s o f a ir , a n d i s n ot p re cip ita te d b y c o ld . I n t h is s tr a tu m

it s e em s p ro bab le t h at t h e m ete o rs c alle d s h ootin g s ta rs a re p ro duced ; a n d
th at t h ey c o nsis t o f e le ctr ic s p ark s, o r l ig htn in g, p assin g f ro m o ne r e g io n t o
an oth er o f t h ese i n vis ib le f ie ld s o f a ero -a q ueo us s o lu tio n. T he h eig ht o f t h ese
sh ootin g s ta rs h as n ot y et b een a sc erta in ed b y s u ffic ie n t o bse rv atio n; D r.
Bla g den t h in ks t h eir s itu atio n i s l o w er d ow n i n t h e a tm osp here t h an t h at o f
fir e b alls , w hic h h e c o nje ctu re s f ro m t h eir s w if t a p pare n t m otio n, a n d a sc rib es
th eir s m alln ess t o t h e m ore m in ute d iv is io n o f t h e e le ctr ic m atte r o f w hic h
th ey a re s u ppose d t o c o nsis t, o w in g t o t h e g re ate r r e sis ta n ce o f t h e d en se r
med iu m t h ro ugh w hic h t h ey p ass, t h an t h at i n w hic h t h e f ir e -b alls e x is t. M r.
Bry done o bse rv ed t h at t h e s h ootin g s ta rs a p peare d t o h im t o b e a s h ig h i n t h e
atm osp here , w hen h e w as n ear t h e s u m mit o f m ount E tn a, a s t h ey d o w hen
obse rv ed f ro m t h e p la in . P hil. T ra n . V ol. L X III.
As t h e s tr a tu m o f a ir , i n w hic h s h ootin g s ta rs a re s u ppose d t o e x is t i s m uch
ra re r t h an t h at i n w hic h l ig htn in g r e sid es, a n d y et m uch d en se r t h an t h at i n
whic h f ir e -b alls a re p ro duced , t h ey w ill b e a ttr a cte d a t a g re ate r d is ta n ce t h an
th e f o rm er, a n d a t a l e ss t h an t h e l a tte r. F ro m t h is r a rity o f t h e a ir s o s m all a
so und w ill b e p ro duced b y t h eir e x plo sio n, a s n ot t o r e ach t h e l o w er p arts o f
th e a tm osp here ; t h eir q uan tity o f l ig ht f ro m t h eir g re ate r d is ta n ce b ein g s m all,
is n ev er s e en t h ro ugh d en se a ir a t a ll, a n d t h en ce d oes n ot a p pear r e d , l ik e
lig htn in g o r f ir e b alls . T here a re n o a p pare n t c lo uds t o e m it o r t o a ttr a ct t h em ,
becau se t h e c o nstitu en t p arts o f t h ese a ero -a q ueo us r e g io ns m ay p osse ss a n
ab undan ce o r d efic ie n cy o f e le ctr ic m atte r a n d y et b e i n p erfe ct r e cip ro cal
so lu tio n. A nd l a stly t h eir a p pare n t t r a in o f l ig ht i s p ro bab ly o w in g o nly t o a
co ntin uan ce o f t h eir i m pre ssio n o n t h e e y e; a s w hen a f ir e -s tic k i s w hir le d i n
th e d ark i t g iv es t h e a p peara n ce o f a c o m ple at c ir c le o f f ir e : f o r t h ese w hite
tr a in s o f s h ootin g s ta rs q uic k ly v an is h , a n d d o n ot s e em t o s e t a n y t h in g o n
fir e i n t h eir p assa g e, a s s e em s t o h ap pen i n t h e t r a n sit o f f ir e -b alls .
3. T he s e co nd r e g io n o r s tr a tu m o f a ir t e rm in ate s I s u ppose w here t h e t w ilig ht
cease s t o b e r e fra cte d , t h at i s , w here t h e a ir i s 3 000 t im es r a re r t h an a t t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e e arth ; a n d w here i t s e em s p ro bab le t h at t h e c o m mon a ir e n ds,
an d i s s u rro unded b y a n a tm osp here o f i n fla m mab le g as t e n fo ld r a re r t h an
its e lf . I n t h is r e g io n I b elie v e f ir e -b alls s o m etim es t o p ass, a n d a t o th er t im es
th e n orth ern l ig hts t o e x is t. O ne o f t h ese f ir e -b alls o r d ra co v ola n s, w as
obse rv ed b y D r. P rin gle a n d m an y o th ers o n N ov. 2 6, 1 758, w hic h w as
afte rw ard s e stim ate d t o h av e b een a m ile a n d a h alf i n c ir c u m fe re n ce, t o h av e

been a b out o ne h undre d m ile s h ig h, a n d t o h av e m oved t o w ard s t h e n orth
with a v elo city o f n ear t h ir ty m ile s i n a s e co nd o f t im e. T his m ete o r h ad a r e al
ta il m an y m ile s l o ng, w hic h t h re w o ff s p ark s i n i ts c o urs e , a n d t h e w hole
ex plo ded w ith a s o und l ik e d is ta n t t h under. P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol. L I.
Dr. B la g den h as r e la te d t h e h is to ry o f a n oth er l a rg e m ete o r, o r f ir e - b all,
whic h w as s e en t h e 1 8th o f A ugust, 1 783, w ith m an y i n gen io us o bse rv atio ns
an d c o nje ctu re s. T his w as e stim ate d t o b e b etw een 6 0 a n d 7 0 m ile s h ig h, a n d
to t r a v el 1 000 m ile s a t t h e r a te o f a b out t w en ty m ile s i n a s e co nd. T his f ir e -
ball h ad l ik ew is e a r e al t r a in o f l ig ht l e ft b eh in d i t i n i ts p assa g e, w hic h v arie d
in c o lo ur; a n d i n s o m e p art o f i ts c o urs e g av e o ff s p ark s o r e x plo sio ns w here
it h ad b een b rig hte st; a n d a d usk y r e d s tr e ak r e m ain ed v is ib le p erh ap s a
min ute . P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol. L X XIV .
These f ir e -b alls d if fe r f ro m l ig htn in g, a n d f ro m s h ootin g s ta rs i n m an y
re m ark ab le c ir c u m sta n ces; a s t h eir v ery g re at b ulk , b ein g a m ile a n d a h alf i n
dia m ete r; t h eir t r a v ellin g 1 000 m ile s n early h oriz o nta lly ; t h eir t h ro w in g o ff
sp ark s i n t h eir p assa g e; a n d c h an gin g c o lo urs f ro m b rig ht b lu e t o d usk y r e d ;
an d l e av in g a t r a in o f f ir e b eh in d t h em , c o ntin uin g a b out a m in ute . T hey
dif fe r f ro m t h e n orth ern l ig hts i n n ot b ein g d if fu se d , b ut p assin g f ro m o ne
poin t o f t h e h eav en s t o a n oth er i n a d efin ed l in e; a n d t h is i n a r e g io n a b ove
th e c re p usc u la r a tm osp here , w here t h e a ir i s 3 000 t in es r a re r t h an a t t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e e arth . T here h as n ot y et b een e v en a c o nje ctu re w hic h c an
acco unt f o r t h ese a p peara n ces!— One I s h all t h ere fo re h azard ; w hic h , i f i t
does n ot i n fo rm , m ay a m use t h e r e ad er.
In t h e n ote o n l . 1 23, i t w as s h ew n t h at t h ere i s p ro bab ly a s u pern ata n t
str a tu m o f i n fla m mab le g as o r h ydro gen e, o ver t h e c o m mon a tm osp here ; a n d
whose d en sity a t t h e s u rfa ce w here t h ey m eet, m ust b e a t l e ast t e n t im es l e ss
th an t h at u pon w hic h i t s w im s; l ik e c h em ic al e th er f lo atin g u pon w ate r, a n d
perh ap s w ith out a n y r e al c o nta ct. 1 . I n t h is r e g io n, w here t h e a eria l
atm osp here t e rm in ate s a n d t h e i n fla m mab le o ne b eg in s, t h e q uan tity o f
te n acity o r r e sis ta n ce m ust b e a lm ost i n co nceiv ab le ; i n w hic h a b all o f
ele ctr ic ity m ig ht p ass 1 000 m ile s w ith g re ate r e ase t h an t h ro ugh a t h ousa n dth
part o f a n i n ch o f g la ss. 2 . S uch a b all o f e le ctr ic ity p assin g b etw een
in fla m mab le a n d c o m mon a ir w ould s e t f ir e t o t h em i n a l in e a s i t p atte d
alo ng; w hic h w ould d if fe r i n c o lo ur a cco rd in g t o t h e g re ate r p ro portio nate

co m mix tu re o f t h e t w o a ir s ; a n d f ro m t h e s a m e c au se t h ere m ig ht o ccu r
gre ate r d eg re es o f i n fla m matio n, o r b ra n ch es o f f ir e , i n s o m e p arts o f i ts
co urs e .
As t h ese f ir e -b alls t r a v el i n a d efin ed l in e, i t i s p re tty e v id en t f ro m t h e k now n
la w s o f e le ctr ic ity , t h at t h ey m ust b e a ttr a cte d ; a n d a s t h ey a re a m ile o r m ore
in d ia m ete r, t h ey m ust b e e m itte d f ro m a l a rg e s u rfa ce o f e le ctr ic m atte r;
becau se l a rg e n obs g iv e l a rg er s p ark s, l e ss d if fu se d , a n d m ore b rig htly
lu m in ous, t h an l e ss o nes o r p oin ts , a n d r e sis t m ore f o rc eab ly t h e e m is sio n o f
th e e le ctr ic m atte r. W hat i s t h ere i n n atu re c an a ttr a ct t h em a t s o g re at a
dis ta n ce a s 1 000 m ile s, a n d s o f o rc eab ly a s t o d eta ch a n e le ctr ic s p ark o f a
mile d ia m ete r? C an v olc an os a t t h e t im e o f t h eir e ru ptio ns h av e t h is e ffe ct, a s
th ey a re g en era lly a tte n ded w ith l ig htn in g? F utu re o bse rv atio ns m ust d is c o ver
th ese s e cre t o pera tio ns o f n atu re ! A s a s tr e am o f c o m mon a ir i s c arrie d a lo ng
with t h e p assa g e o f e le ctr ic a u ra f ro m o ne b ody t o a n oth er; i t i s e asy t o
co nceiv e, t h at t h e c o m mon a ir a n d t h e i n fla m mab le a ir b etw een w hic h t h e
fir e -b all i s s u ppose d t o p ass, w ill b e p artia lly i n te rm ix ed b y b ein g t h us
ag ita te d , a n d s o f a r a s i t b eco m es i n te rm ix ed i t w ill t a k e f ir e , a n d p ro duce t h e
lin ear f la m e a n d b ra n ch in g s p ark s a b ove d esc rib ed . I n t h is c ir c u m sta n ce o f
th eir b ein g a ttr a cte d , a n d t h en ce p assin g i n a d efin ed l in e, t h e f ir e -b alls s e em
to d if fe r f ro m t h e c o ru sc atio ns o f t h e a u ro ra b ore alis , o r n orth ern l ig hts ,
whic h p ro bab ly t a k e p la ce i n t h e s a m e r e g io n o f t h e a tm osp here ; w here t h e
co m mon a ir e x is ts i n e x tr e m e t e n uity , a n d i s c o vere d b y a s till r a re r s p here o f
in fla m mab le g as, t e n t im es l ig hte r t h an i ts e lf .
As t h e e le ctr ic s tr e am s, w hic h c o nstitu te t h ese n orth ern l ig hts , s e em t o b e
re p elle d o r r a d ia te d f ro m a n a ccu m ula tio n o f t h at f lu id i n t h e n orth , a n d n ot
attr a cte d l ik e t h e f ir e b alls ; t h is a cco unts f o r t h e d if fu sio n o f t h eir l ig ht, a s w ell
as t h e s ile n ce o f t h eir p assa g e; w hile t h eir v arie ty o f c o lo urs , a n d t h e
perm an en cy o f t h em , a n d e v en t h e b re ad th o f t h em i n d if fe re n t p la ces, m ay
dep en d o n t h eir s e ttin g o n f ir e t h e m ix tu re o f i n fla m mab le a n d c o m mon a ir
th ro ugh w hic h t h ey p ass; a s s e em s t o h ap pen i n t h e t r a n sit o f t h e f ir e -b alls .
It w as o bse rv ed b y D r. P rie stle y t h at t h e e le ctr ic s h ock t a k en t h ro ugh
in fla m mab le a ir w as r e d , i n c o m mon a ir i t i s b lu eis h ; t o t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces
perh ap s s o m e o f t h e c o lo urs o f t h e n orth ern l ig hts m ay b ear a n alo gy; t h ough
th e d en sity o f t h e m ed iu m t h ro ugh w hic h l ig ht i s s e en m ust p rin cip ally v ary

its c o lo ur, a s i s w ell e x pla in ed b y M r. M org an . P hil. T ra n s. V ol. L X XV.
Hen ce l ig htn in g i s r e d w hen s e en t h ro ugh a d ark c lo ud, o r n ear t h e h oriz o n;
becau se t h e m ore r e fra n gib le r a y s c an not p erm eate s o d en se a m ed iu m . B ut
th e s h ootin g s ta rs c o nsis t o f w hite l ig ht, a s t h ey a re g en era lly s e en o n c le ar
nig hts , a n d n early v ertic al: i n o th er s itu atio ns t h eir l ig ht i s p ro bab ly t o o f a in t
to c o m e t o u s. B ut a s i n s o m e r e m ark ab le a p peara n ces o f t h e n orth ern l ig hts ,
as i n M arc h , 1 716, a ll t h e p ris m atic c o lo urs w ere s e en q uic k ly t o s u cceed
each o th er, t h ese a p pear t o h av e b een o w in g t o r e al c o m bustio n; a s t h e
den sity o f t h e i n te rp ose d m ed iu m c o uld n ot b e s u ppose d t o c h an ge s o
fre q uen tly ; a n d t h ere fo re t h ese c o lo urs m ust h av e b een o w in g t o d if fe re n t
deg re es o f h eat a cco rd in g t o M r. M org an 's t h eo ry o f c o m bustio n. I n S m ith 's
Optic s, p . 6 9. t h e p ris m atic c o lo urs , a n d o ptic al d ecep tio ns o f t h e n orth ern
lig hts a re d esc rib ed b y M r. C ote s.
The T orric ellia n v acu um , i f p erfe ctly f re e f ro m a ir , i s s a id b y M r. M org an
an d o th ers t o b e a p erfe ct n on-c o nducto r. T his c ir c u m sta n ce t h ere fo re w ould
pre clu de t h e e le ctr ic s tr e am s f ro m r is in g a b ove t h e a tm osp here . B ut a s M r.
Morg an d id n ot t r y t o p ass a n e le ctr ic s h ock t h ro ugh a v acu um , a n d a s a ir , o r
so m eth in g c o nta in in g a ir , s u rro undin g t h e t r a n sit o f e le ctr ic ity m ay b e
necessa ry t o t h e p ro ductio n o f l ig ht, t h e c o nclu sio n m ay p erh ap s s till b e
dubio us. I f h ow ev er t h e s tr e am s o f t h e n orth ern l ig hts w ere s u ppose d t o r is e
ab ove o ur a tm osp here , t h ey w ould o nly b e v is ib le a t e ach e x tr e m ity o f t h eir
co urs e ; w here t h ey e m erg e f ro m , o r a re a g ain i m merg ed i n to t h e a tm osp here ;
but n ot i n t h eir j o urn ey t h ro ugh t h e v acu um ; f o r t h e a b se n ce o f e le ctr ic l ig ht
in a v acu um i s s u ffic ie n tly p ro ved b y t h e c o m mon e x perim en t o f s h ak in g a
baro m ete r i n t h e d ark ; t h e e le ctr ic ity , p ro duced b y t h e f ric tio n o f t h e m erc u ry
in t h e g la ss a t i ts t o p, i s l u m in ous i f t h e b aro m ete r h as a l ittle a ir i n i t; b ut
th ere i s n o l ig ht i f t h e v acu um b e c o m ple te .
The a u ro ra b ore alis , o r n orth ern d aw n, i s v ery i n gen io usly a cco unte d f o r b y
Dr. F ra n klin o n p rin cip le s o f e le ctr ic ity . H e p re m is e s t h e f o llo w in g e le ctr ic
phen om en a: 1 . t h at a ll n ew f a lle n s n ow h as m uch p ositiv e e le ctr ic ity s ta n din g
on i ts s u rfa ce. 2 . T hat a b out t w elv e d eg re es o f l a titu de r o und t h e p ole s a re
co vere d w ith a c ru st o f e te rn al i c e, w hic h i s i m perv io us t o t h e e le ctr ic f lu id .
3. T hat t h e d en se p art o f t h e a tm osp here r is e s b ut a f e w m ile s h ig h; a n d t h at
in t h e r a re r p arts o f i t t h e e le ctr ic f lu id w ill p ass t o a lm ost a n y d is ta n ce.

Hen ce h e s u ppose s t h ere m ust b e a g re at a ccu m ula tio n o f p ositiv e e le ctr ic
matte r o n t h e f re sh f a lle n s n ow i n t h e p ola r r e g io ns; w hic h , n ot b ein g a b le t o
pass t h ro ugh t h e c ru st o f i c e i n to t h e e arth , m ust r is e i n to t h e r a re a ir o f t h e
upper p arts o f o ur a tm osp here , w hic h w ill t h e l e ast r e sis t i ts p assa g e; a n d
passin g t o w ard s t h e e q uato r d esc en d a g ain i n to t h e d en se r a tm osp here , a n d
th en ce i n to t h e e arth i n s ile n t s tr e am s. A nd t h at m an y o f t h e a p peara n ces
atte n din g t h ese l ig hts a re o ptic al d ecep tio ns, o w in g t o t h e s itu atio n o f t h e e y e
th at b eh old s t h em ; w hic h m ak es a ll a sc en din g p ara lle l l in es a p pear t o
co nverg e t o a p oin t.
The i d ea, a b ove e x pla in ed i n n ote o n l . 1 23, o f t h e e x is te n ce o f a s p here o f
in fla m mab le g as o ver t h e a eria l a tm osp here w ould m uch f a v our t h is t h eo ry o f
Dr. F ra n klin ; b ecau se i n t h at c ase t h e d en se a eria l a tm osp here w ould r is e a
much l e ss h eig ht i n t h e p ola r r e g io ns, d im in is h in g a lm ost t o n oth in g a t t h e
pole i ts e lf ; a n d t h us g iv e a n e asie r p assa g e t o t h e a sc en t o f t h e e le ctr ic f lu id .
And f ro m t h e g re at d if fe re n ce i n t h e s p ecif ic g ra v ity o f t h e t w o a ir s , a n d t h e
velo city o f t h e e arth 's r o ta tio n, t h ere m ust b e a p la ce b etw een t h e p ole s a n d
th e e q uato r, w here t h e s u perio r a tm osp here o f i n fla m mab le g as w ould
te rm in ate ; w hic h w ould a cco unt f o r t h ese s tr e am s o f t h e a u ro ra b ore alis n ot
ap pearin g n ear t h e e q uato r; a d d t o t h is t h at i t i s p ro bab le t h e e le ctr ic f lu id
may b e h eav ie r t h an t h e m ag netic o ne; a n d w ill t h en ce b y t h e r o ta tio n o f t h e
earth 's s u rfa ce a sc en d o ver t h e m ag netic o ne b y i ts c en tr if u gal f o rc e; a n d m ay
th us b e i n duced t o r is e t h ro ugh t h e t h in s tr a tu m o f a eria l a tm osp here o ver t h e
pole s. S ee n ote o n C an to I I. l . 1 93. I s h all h av e o ccasio n a g ain t o m en tio n t h is
gre at a ccu m ula tio n o f i n fla m mab le a ir o ver t h e p ole s; a n d t o c o nje ctu re t h at
th ese n orth ern l ig hts m ay b e p ro duced b y t h e u nio n o f i n fla m mab le w ith
co m mon a ir , w ith out t h e a ssis ta n ce o f t h e e le ctr ic s p ark t o t h ro w t h em i n to
co m bustio n.
The a n tiq uity o f t h e a p peara n ce o f n orth ern l ig hts h as b een d oubte d ; a s n one
were r e co rd ed i n o ur a n nals s in ce t h e r e m ark ab le o ne o n N ov. 1 4, 1 574, t ill
an oth er r e m ark ab le o ne o n M arc h 6 , 1 716, a n d t h e t h re e f o llo w in g n ig hts ,
whic h w ere s e en a t t h e s a m e t im e i n I re la n d, R ussia , a n d P ola n d, e x te n din g
near 3 0 d eg re es o f l o ngitu de a n d f ro m a b out t h e 5 0th d eg re e o f l a titu de o ver
alm ost a ll t h e n orth o f E uro pe. T here i s h ow ev er r e aso n t o b elie v e t h em o f
re m ote a n tiq uity t h ough i n accu ra te ly d esc rib ed ; t h us t h e f o llo w in g c u rio us
passa g e f ro m t h e B ook o f M accab ees, ( B . I I. c . v .) i s s u ch a d esc rip tio n o f

th em , a s m ig ht p ro bab ly b e g iv en b y a n i g nora n t a n d a la rm ed p eo ple .
"T hro ugh a ll t h e c ity , f o r t h e s p ace o f a lm ost f o rty d ay s, t h ere w ere s e en
hors e m en r u nnin g i n t h e a ir , i n c lo th o f g old , a n d a rm ed w ith l a n ces, l ik e a
ban d o f s o ld ie rs ; a n d t r o ops o f h ors e m en i n a rra y e n co unte rin g a n d r u nnin g
one a g ain st a n oth er, w ith s h ak in g o f s h ie ld s a n d m ultitu de o f p ik es, a n d
dra w in g o f s w ord s, a n d c astin g o f d arts , a n d g litte rin g o f g old en o rn am en ts
an d h arn ess."

N O TE I I.— PR IM ARY C O LO URS.
Clin g r o und t h e a eria l b ow w ith p ris m s b rig ht,
And p le a se d u ntw is t
th e s e ven fo ld t h re a ds o f l ig ht.
C A NTO I . l . 1 17.
T he m an ner i n w hic h t h e r a in bow i s p ro duced w as i n s o m e m easu re
u nders to od b efo re S ir I s a ac N ew to n h ad d is c o vere d h is t h eo ry o f c o lo urs .
T he f ir s t p ers o n w ho e x pre ssly s h ew ed t h e r a in bow t o b e f o rm ed b y t h e
r e fle ctio n o f t h e s u nbeam s f ro m d ro ps o f f a llin g r a in w as A nto nio d e
D om in is . T his w as a fte rw ard s m ore f u lly a n d d is tin ctly e x pla in ed b y D es
C arte s. B ut w hat c au se d t h e d iv ers ity o f i ts c o lo urs w as n ot t h en u nders to od;
i t w as r e se rv ed f o r t h e i m morta l N ew to n t o d is c o ver t h at t h e r a y s o f l ig ht
c o nsis te d o f s e v en c o m bin ed c o lo urs o f d if fe re n t r e fra n gib ility , w hic h c o uld
b e s e p era te d a t p le asu re b y a w ed ge o f g la ss. P em berto n's V ie w o f N ew to n.
S ir I s a ac N ew to n d is c o vere d t h at t h e p ris m atic s p ectr u m w as c o m pose d o f
s e v en c o lo urs i n t h e f o llo w in g p ro portio ns, v io le t 8 0, i n dig o 4 0, b lu e 6 0,
g re en 6 0, y ello w 4 8, o ra n ge 2 7, r e d 4 5. I f a ll t h ese c o lo urs b e p ain te d o n a
c ir c u la r c ard i n t h e p ro portio ns a b ove m en tio ned , a n d t h e c ard b e r a p id ly
w hir le d o n i ts c en te r, t h ey p ro duce i n t h e e y e t h e s e n sa tio n o f w hite . A nd a n y
o ne o f t h ese c o lo urs m ay b e i m ita te d b y p ain tin g a c ard w ith t h e t w o c o lo urs
w hic h a re c o ntig uous t o i t, i n t h e s a m e p ro portio ns a s i n t h e s p ectr u m , a n d
w hir lin g t h em i n t h e s a m e m an ner. M y i n gen io us f rie n d, M r. G alto n o f
B ir m in gham , a sc erta in ed i n t h is m an ner b y a s e t o f e x perim en ts t h e f o llo w in g
p ro positio ns; t h e t r u th o f w hic h h e h ad p re co nceiv ed f ro m t h e a b ove d ata .
1 . A ny c o lo ur i n t h e p ris m atic s p ectr u m m ay b e i m ita te d b y a m ix tu re o f t h e

tw o c o lo urs c o ntig uous t o i t.
2. I f a n y t h re e s u ccessiv e c o lo urs i n t h e p ris m atic s p ectr u m a re m ix ed , t h ey
co m pose o nly t h e s e co nd o r m id dle m ost c o lo ur.
3. I f a n y f o ur s u ccesiv e c o lo urs i n t h e p ris m atic s p ectr u m b e m ix ed , a t in t
sim ila r t o a m ix tu re o f t h e s e co nd a n d t h ir d c o lo urs w ill b e p ro duced , b ut n ot
pre cis e ly t h e s a m e, b ecau se t h ey a re n ot i n t h e s a m e p ro portio n.
4. I f b eg in nin g w ith a n y c o lo ur i n t h e c ir c u la r s p ectr u m , y ou t a k e o f t h e
se co nd c o lo ur a q uan tity e q ual t o t h e f ir s t, s e co nd, a n d t h ir d ; a n d a d d t o t h at
th e f if th c o lo ur, e q ual i n q uan tity t o t h e f o urth , f if th , a n d s ix th ; a n d w ith t h ese
co m bin e t h e s e v en th c o lo ur i n t h e p ro portio n i t e x is ts i n t h e s p ectr u m , w hite
will b e p ro duced . B ecau se t h e f ir s t, s e co nd, a n d t h ir d , c o m pose o nly t h e
se co nd; a n d t h e f o urth , f if th , a n d s ix th , c o m pose o nly t h e f if th ; t h ere fo re i f
th e s e v en th b e a d ded , t h e s a m e e ffe ct i s p ro duced , a s i f a ll t h e s e v en w ere
em plo yed .
5. B eg in nin g w ith a n y c o lo ur i n t h e c ir c u la r s p ectr u m , i f y ou t a k e a t in t
co m pose d o f a c erta in p ro portio n o f t h e s e co nd a n d t h ir d , ( e q ual i n q uan tity
to t h e f ir s t, s e co nd, t h ir d , a n d f o urth ,) a n d a d d t o t h is t h e s ix th c o lo ur e q ual i n
quan tity t o t h e f if th , s ix th , a n d s e v en th , w hite w ill b e p ro duced .
Fro m t h ese c u rio us e x perim en ts o f M r. G alto n m an y p hen om en a i n t h e
ch em ic al c h an ges o f c o lo urs m ay p ro bab ly b eco m e b ette r u nders to od;
esp ecia lly i f , a s I s u ppose , t h e s a m e t h eo ry m ust a p ply t o t r a n sm itte d c o lo urs ,
as t o r e fle cte d o nes. T hus i t i s w ell k now n, t h at i f t h e g la ss o f m an gonese ,
whic h i s a t in t p ro bab ly c o m pose d o f v io le t a n d i n dig o, b e m ix ed i n a c erta in
pro portio n w ith t h e g la ss o f l e ad , w hic h i s y ello w ; t h at t h e m ix tu re b eco m es
tr a n sp are n t. N ow f ro m M r. G alto n's e x perim en ts i t a p pears , t h at i n r e fle cte d
co lo urs s u ch a m ix tu re w ould p ro duce w hite , t h at i s , t h e s a m e a s i f a ll t h e
co lo urs w ere r e fle cte d . A nd t h ere fo re i n t r a n sm itte d c o lo urs t h e s a m e
cir c u m sta n ces m ust p ro duce t r a n sp are n cy , t h at i s , t h e s a m e a s i f a ll t h e
co lo urs w ere t r a n sm itte d . F or t h e p artic le s, w hic h c o nstitu te t h e g la ss o f
man gonese w ill t r a n sm it r e d , v io le t, i n dig o, a n d b lu e; a n d t h ose o f t h e g la ss
of l e ad w ill t r a n sm it o ra n ge, y ello w , a n d g re en ; h en ce a ll t h e p rim ary c o lo urs
by a m ix tu re o f t h ese g la sse s b eco m e t r a n sm itte d , t h at i s , t h e g la ss b eco m es
tr a n sp are n t.

Mr. G alto n h as f u rth er o bse rv ed t h at f iv e s u ccessiv e p ris m atic c o lo urs m ay
be c o m bin ed i n s u ch p ro portio ns a s t o p ro duce b ut o ne c o lo ur, a c ir c u m sta n ce
whic h m ig ht b e o f c o nse q uen ce i n t h e a rt o f p ain tin g. F or i f y ou b eg in a t a n y
part o f t h e c ir c u la r s p ectr u m a b ove d esc rib ed , a n d t a k e t h e f ir s t, s e co nd, a n d
th ir d c o lo urs i n t h e p ro portio ns i n w hic h t h ey e x is t i n t h e s p ectr u m ; t h ese w ill
co m pose o nly t h e s e co nd c o lo ur e q ual i n q uan tity t o t h e f ir s t, s e co nd, a n d
th ir d ; a d d t o t h ese t h e t h ir d , f o urth , a n d f if th i n t h e p ro portio n t h ey e x is t i n
th e s p ectr u m , a n d t h ese w ill p ro duce t h e f o urth c o lo ur e q ual i n q uan tity t o t h e
th ir d , f o urth , a n d f if th . C onse q uen tly t h is i s p re cis e ly t h e s a m e t h in g, a s
mix in g t h e s e co nd a n d f o urth c o lo urs o nly ; w hic h m ix tu re w ould o nly
pro duce t h e t h ir d c o lo ur. T here fo re i f y ou c o m bin e t h e f ir s t, s e co nd, f o urth ,
an d f if th i n t h e p ro portio ns i n w hic h t h ey e x is t i n t h e s p ectr u m , w ith d ouble
th e q uan tity o f t h e t h ir d c o lo ur, t h is t h ir d c o lo ur w ill b e p ro duced . I t i s
pro bab le t h at m an y o f t h e u nex pecte d c h an ges i n m ix in g c o lo urs o n a
pain te r's e asle , a s w ell a s i n m ore f lu id c h em ic al m ix tu re s, m ay d ep en d o n
th ese p rin cip le s r a th er t h an o n a n ew a rra n gem en t o r c o m bin atio n o f t h eir
min ute p artic le s.
Mr. G alto n f u rth er o bse rv es, t h at w hite m ay u niv ers a lly b e p ro duced b y t h e
co m bin atio n o f o ne p ris m atic c o lo ur, a n d a t in t i n te rm ed ia te t o t w o o th ers .
Whic h t in t m ay b e d is tin guis h ed b y a n am e c o m pounded o f t h e t w o c o lo urs ,
to w hic h i t i s i n te rm ed ia te . T hus w hite i s p ro duced b y a m ix tu re o f r e d w ith
blu e-g re en . O f o ra n ge w ith i n dig o-b lu e. O f Y ello w w ith v io le t- in dig o. O f
gre en w ith r e d -v io le t. O f b lu e w ith O ra n ge-re d . O f i n dig o w ith y ello w -
ora n ge. O f v io le t w ith g re en -y ello w . W hic h h e f u rth er r e m ark s e x actly
co in cid es w ith t h e t h eo ry a n d f a cts m en tio ned b y D r. R obert D arw in o f
Shre w sb ury i n h is a cco unt o f o cu la r s p ectr a ; w ho h as s h ew n t h at w hen o ne o f
th ese c o ntr a ste d c o lo urs h as b een l o ng v ie w ed , a s p ectr u m o r a p peara n ce o f
th e o th er b eco m es v is ib le i n t h e f a tig ued e y e. P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol. L X XVI. f o r
th e y ear 1 786.
These e x perim en ts o f M r. G alto n m ig ht m uch a ssis t t h e c o pper-p la te p rin te rs
of c allic o es a n d p ap ers i n c o lo urs ; a s t h re e c o lo urs o r m ore m ig ht b e
pro duced b y t w o c o pper-p la te s. T hus s u ppose s o m e y ello w f ig ure s w ere p ut
on b y t h e f ir s t p la te , a n d u pon s o m e p arts o f t h ese y ello w f ig ure s a n d o n o th er
parts o f t h e g ro und b lu e w as l a id o n b y a n oth er c o pper-p la te . T he t h re e
co lo urs o f y ello w , b lu e, a n d g re en m ig ht b e p ro duced ; a s g re en l e av es w ith

yello w a n d b lu e f lo w ers .

N O TE I II.— CO LO URED C LO UDS.
Eve's s ilk en c o uch w ith g org eo us t in ts a dorn ,
Or f ir e t h e a rro w y
th ro ne o f r is in g m orn .
C A NTO I . l . 1 19.
T he r a y s f ro m t h e r is in g a n d s e ttin g s u n a re r e fra cte d b y o ur s p heric al
a tm osp here , h en ce t h e m ost r e fra n gib le r a y s, a s t h e v io le t, i n dig o, a n d b lu e
a re r e fle cte d i n g re ate r q uan titie s f ro m t h e m orn in g a n d e v en in g s k ie s; a n d
t h e l e ast r e fra n gib le o nes, a s r e d a n d o ra n ge, a re l a st s e en a b out t h e s e ttin g
s u n. H en ce M r. B eg uelin o bse rv ed t h at t h e s h ad ow o f h is f in ger o n h is
p ock et- b ook w as m uch b lu er i n t h e m orn in g a n d e v en in g, w hen t h e s h ad ow
w as a b out e ig ht t im es a s l o ng a s t h e b ody f ro m w hic h i t w as p ro je cte d . M r.
M elv ille o bse rv es, t h at t h e b lu e r a y s b ein g m ore r e fra n gib le a re b en t d ow n i n
t h e e v en in gs b y o ur a tm osp here , w hile t h e r e d a n d o ra n ge b ein g l e ss
r e fra n gib le c o ntin ue t o p ass o n a n d t in ge t h e m orn in g a n d e v en in g c lo uds
w ith t h eir c o lo urs . S ee P rie stle y 's H is to ry o f L ig ht a n d C olo urs , p . 4 40. B ut a s
t h e p artic le s o f a ir , l ik e t h ose o f w ate r, a re t h em se lv es b lu e, a b lu e s h ad ow
m ay b e s e en a t a ll t im es o f t h e d ay , t h ough m uch m ore b eau tif u lly i n t h e
m orn in gs a n d e v en in gs, o r b y m ean s o f a c an dle i n t h e m id dle o f t h e d ay . F or
i f a s h ad ow o n a p ie ce o f w hite p ap er i s p ro duced b y p la cin g y our f in ger
b etw een t h e p ap er a n d a c an dle i n t h e d ay l ig ht, t h e s h ad ow w ill a p pear v ery
b lu e; t h e y ello w l ig ht o f t h e c an dle u pon t h e o th er p arts o f t h e p ap er
a p pare n tly d eep en s t h e b lu e b y i ts c o ntr a st; t h ese c o lo urs b ein g o pposite t o
e ach o th er, a s e x pla in ed i n n ote I I.
C olo urs a re p ro duced f ro m c lo uds o r m is ts b y r e fra ctio n, a s w ell a s b y
r e fle ctio n. I n r id in g i n t h e n ig ht o ver a n u neq ual c o untr y I o bse rv ed a v ery

beau tif u l c o lo ure d h alo r o und t h e m oon, w hen ev er I w as c o vere d w ith a f e w
fe et o f m is t, a s I a sc en ded f ro m t h e v allie s; w hic h c ease d t o a p pear w hen I
ro se a b ove t h e m is t. T his I s u ppose w as o w in g t o t h e t h in ness o f t h e s tr a tu m
of m is t, i n w hic h I w as i m mers e d ; h ad i t b een t h ic k er, t h e c o lo urs r e fra cte d
by t h e s m all d ro ps, o f w hic h a f o g c o nsis ts , w ould n ot h av e p asse d t h ro ugh i t
dow n t o m y e y e.
There i s a b rig ht s p ot s e en o n t h e c o rn ea o f t h e e y e, w hen w e f a ce a w in dow ,
whic h i s m uch a tte n ded t o b y p ortr a it p ain te rs ; t h is i s t h e l ig ht r e fle cte d f ro m
th e s p heric al s u rfa ce o f t h e p olis h ed c o rn ea, a n d b ro ught t o a f o cu s; i f t h e
obse rv er i s p la ced i n t h is f o cu s, h e s e es t h e i m ag e o f t h e w in dow ; i f h e i s
pla ced b efo re o r b eh in d t h e f o cu s, h e o nly s e es a l u m in ous s p ot, w hic h i s
more l u m in ous a n d o f l e ss e x te n t, t h e n eare r h e a p pro ach es t o t h e f o cu s. T he
lu m in ous a p peara n ce o f t h e e y es o f a n im als i n t h e d usk y c o rn ers o f a r o om ,
or i n h ole s i n t h e e arth , m ay a ris e i n s o m e i n sta n ces f ro m t h e s a m e p rin cip le ;
viz . t h e r e fle ctio n o f t h e l ig ht f ro m t h e s p heric al c o rn ea; w hic h w ill b e
co lo ure d r e d o r b lu e i n s o m e d eg re e b y t h e m orn in g, e v en in g, o r m erid ia n
lig ht; o r b y t h e o bje cts f ro m w hic h t h at l ig ht i s p re v io usly r e fle cte d . I n t h e
cav ern a t C ole b ro ok D ale , w here t h e m in era l t a r e x su des, t h e e y es o f t h e
hors e , w hic h w as d ra w in g a c art f ro m w ith in t o w ard s t h e m outh o f i t,
ap peare d l ik e t w o b alls o f p hosp horu s, w hen h e w as a b ove 1 00 y ard s o ff, a n d
fo r a l o ng t im e b efo re a n y o th er p art o f t h e a n im al w as v is ib le . I n t h is c ase I
su sp ect t h e l u m in ous a p peara n ce t o h av e b een o w in g t o t h e l ig ht, w hic h h ad
en te re d t h e e y e, b ein g r e fle cte d f ro m t h e b ack s u rfa ce o f t h e v itr e o us h um our,
an d t h en ce e m erg in g a g ain i n p ara lle l r a y s f ro m t h e a n im als e y e, a s i t d oes
fro m t h e b ack s u rfa ce o f t h e d ro ps o f t h e r a in bow , a n d f ro m t h e w ate r-d ro ps
whic h l ie , p erh ap s w ith out c o nta ct, o n c ab bag e-le av es, a n d h av e t h e
brillia n cy o f q uic k silv er. T his a cco unts f o r t h is l u m in ous a p peara n ce b ein g
best s e en i n t h ose a n im als w hic h h av e l a rg e a p ertu re s i n t h eir i r is , a s i n c ats
an d h ors e s, a n d i s t h e o nly p art v is ib le i n o bsc u re p la ces, b ecau se t h is i s a
bette r r e fle ctin g s u rfa ce t h an a n y o th er p art o f t h e a n im al. I f a n y o f t h ese
em erg en t r a y s f ro m t h e a n im als e y e c an b e s u ppose d t o h av e b een r e fle cte d
fro m t h e c h oro id c o at t h ro ugh t h e s e m i- tr a n sp are n t r e tin a, t h is w ould a cco unt
fo r t h e c o lo ure d g la re o f t h e e y es o f d ogs o r c ats a n d r a b its i n d ark c o rn ers .

N O TE I V .— CO M ETS.
Ala rm w ith c o m et- b la ze t h e s a pphir e p la in ,
The w an s ta rs g lim merin g
th ro ugh i ts s ilv er t r a in .
C A NTO I . l . 1 33.
T here h av e b een m an y t h eo rie s i n ven te d t o a cco unt f o r t h e t a ils o f c o m ets . S ir
I s a ac N ew to n t h in ks t h at t h ey c o nsis t o f r a re v ap ours r a is e d f ro m t h e n ucle u s
o f t h e c o m et, a n d s o r a re fie d b y t h e s u n's h eat a s t o h av e t h eir g en era l
g ra v ita tio n d im in is h ed , a n d t h at t h ey i n c o nse q uen ce a sc en d o pposite t o t h e
s u n, a n d f ro m t h en ce r e fle ct t h e r a y s o f l ig ht. D r. H alle y c o m pare s t h e l ig ht o f
t h e t a ils o f c o m ets t o t h e s tr e am s o f t h e a u ro ra b ore alis , a n d o th er e le ctr ic
e fflu via . P hilo s. T ra n s. N o. 3 47.
D r. H am ilto n o bse rv es t h at t h e l ig ht o f s m all s ta rs a re s e en u ndim in is h ed
t h ro ugh b oth t h e l ig ht o f t h e t a ils o f c o m ets , a n d o f t h e a u ro ra b ore alis , a n d
h as f u rth er i llu str a te d t h eir e le ctr ic a n alo gy, a n d a d ds t h at t h e t a ils o f c o m ets
c o nsis t o f a l u cid s e lf -s h in in g s u bsta n ce w hic h h as n ot t h e p ow er o f r e fra ctin g
o r r e fle ctin g t h e r a y s o f l ig ht. E ssa y s.
T he t a il o f t h e c o m et o f 1 744 a t o ne t im e a p peare d t o e x te n d a b ove 1 6
d eg re es f ro m i ts b ody, a n d m ust h av e t h en ce b een a b ove t w en ty t h re e
m illio ns o f m ile s l o ng. A nd t h e c o m et o f 1 680, a cco rd in g t o t h e c alc u la tio ns
o f D r. H alle y o n N ovem ber t h e 1 1th , w as n ot a b ove o ne s e m i- d ia m ete r o f
t h e e arth , o r l e ss t h an 4 000 m ile s t o t h e n orth w ard o f t h e w ay o f t h e e arth ; a t
w hic h t im e h ad t h e e arth b een i n t h at p art o f i ts o rb it, w hat m ig ht h av e b een
t h e c o nse q uen ce! n o o ne w ould p ro bab ly h av e s u rv iv ed t o h av e r e g is te re d t h e
t r e m en dous e ffe cts .

The c o m et o f 1 531, 1 607, a n d 1 682 h av in g r e tu rn ed i n t h e y ear 1 759,
acco rd in g t o D r. H alle y 's p re d ic tio n i n t h e P hilo s. T ra n s. f o r 1 705, t h ere
se em s n o r e aso n t o d oubt t h at a ll t h e o th er c o m ets w ill r e tu rn a fte r t h eir
pro per p erio ds. A str o nom ers h av e i n g en era l a cq uie sc ed i n t h e c o nje ctu re o f
Dr. H alle y , t h at t h e c o m ets o f 1 532, a n d 1 661 a re o ne a n d t h e s a m e c o m et,
fro m t h e s im ila rity o f t h e e le m en ts o f t h eir o rb its , a n d w ere t h ere fo re i n duced
to e x pect i ts r e tu rn t o i ts p erih eliu m 1 789. A s t h is c o m et i s l ia b le t o b e
dis tu rb ed i n i ts a sc en t f ro m t h e s u n b y t h e p la n ets J u pite r a n d S atu rn , D r.
Mask ely ne e x pecte d i ts r e tu rn t o i ts p erih eliu m i n t h e b eg in nin g o f t h e y ear
1789, o r t h e l a tte r e n d o f t h e y ear 1 788, a n d c erta in ly s o m etim e b efo re t h e
27th o f A pril, 1 789, w hic h p re d ic tio n h as n ot b een f u lf ille d . P hil. T ra n s. V ol.
LX XVI.

N O TE V .— SU N'S R AYS.
O r g iv e t h e s u n's p hlo gis tic o rb t o r o ll.
C A NTO I . l . 1 36.
T he d is p ute a m ong p hilo so phers a b out p hlo gis to n i s n ot c o ncern in g t h e
e x is te n ce o f a n i n fla m mab le p rin cip le , b ut r a th er w heth er t h ere b e o ne o r
m ore i n fla m mab le p rin cip le s. T he d is c ip le s o f S ta h l, w hic h t ill l a te ly i n clu ded
t h e w hole c h em ic al w orld , b elie v ed i n t h e i d en tity o f p hlo gis to n i n a ll b odie s
w hic h w ould f la m e o r c alc in e. T he d is c ip le s o f L av ois ie r p ay h om ag e t o a
p lu ra lity o f p hlo gis to ns u nder t h e v ario us n am es o f c h arc o al, s u lp hur, m eta ls ,
& c. W hate v er w ill u nite w ith
pure
a ir , a n d t h en ce c o m pose a n a cid , i s
e ste em ed i n t h is i n gen io us t h eo ry t o b e a d if fe re n t k in d o f p hlo gis tic o r
i n fla m mab le b ody. A t t h e s a m e t im e t h ere r e m ain s a d oubt w heth er t h ese
i n fla m mab le b odie s, a s m eta ls , s u lp hur, c h arc o al, & c. m ay n ot b e
c o m pounded o f t h e s a m e p hlo gis to n a lo ng w ith s o m e o th er m ate ria l y et
u ndis c o vere d , a n d t h us a n u nity o f p hlo gis to n e x is t, a s i n t h e t h eo ry o f S ta h l,
t h ough v ery d if fe re n tly a p plie d i n t h e e x plic atio n o f c h em ic al p hen om en a.
S om e m odern p hilo so phers a re o f o pin io n t h at t h e s u n i s t h e g re at f o unta in
f ro m w hic h t h e e arth a n d o th er p la n ets d eriv e a ll t h e p hlo gis to n w hic h t h ey
p osse ss; a n d t h at t h is i s f o rm ed b y t h e c o m bin atio n o f t h e s o la r r a y s w ith a ll
o pak e b odie s, b ut p artic u la rly w ith t h e l e av es o f v eg eta b le s, w hic h t h ey
s u ppose t o b e o rg an s a d ap te d t o a b so rb t h em . A nd t h at a s a n im als r e ceiv e
t h eir n ouris h m en t f ro m v eg eta b le s t h ey a ls o o bta in i n a s e co ndary m an ner
t h eir p hlo gis to n f ro m t h e s u n. A nd l a stly a s g re at m asse s o f t h e m in era l
k in gdom , w hic h h av e b een f o und i n t h e t h in c ru st o f t h e e arth w hic h h um an
l a b our h as p en etr a te d , h av e e v id en tly b een f o rm ed f ro m t h e r e cre m en ts o f

an im al a n d v eg eta b le b odie s, t h ese a ls o a re s u ppose d t h us t o h av e d eriv ed
th eir p hlo gis to n f ro m t h e s u n.
Anoth er o pin io n c o ncern in g t h e s u n's r a y s i s , t h at t h ey a re n ot l u m in ous t ill
th ey a rriv e a t o ur a tm osp here ; a n d t h at t h ere u nitin g w ith s o m e p art o f t h e a ir
th ey p ro duce c o m bustio n, a n d l ig ht i s e m itte d , a n d t h at a n e th eria l a cid , y et
undis c o vere d , i s f o rm ed f ro m t h is c o m bustio n.
The m ore p ro bab le o pin io n i s p erh ap s, t h at t h e s u n i s a p hlo gis tic m ass o f
matte r, w hose s u rfa ce i s i n a s ta te o f c o m bustio n, w hic h l ik e o th er b urn in g
bodie s e m its l ig ht w ith i m men se v elo city i n a ll d ir e ctio ns; t h at t h ese r a y s o f
lig ht a ct u pon a ll o pak e b odie s, a n d c o m bin in g w ith t h em e ith er d is p la ce o r
pro duce t h eir e le m en ta ry h eat, a n d b eco m e c h em ic ally c o m bin ed w ith t h e
phlo gis tic p art o f t h em ; f o r l ig ht i s g iv en o ut w hen p hlo gis tic b odie s u nite
with t h e o xygen ous p rin cip le o f t h e a ir , a s i n c o m bustio n, o r i n t h e r e d uctio n
of m eta llic c alx es; t h us i n p re se n tin g t o t h e f la m e o f a c an dle a l e tte r-w afe r,
(if i t b e c o lo ure d w ith r e d - l e ad ,) a t t h e t im e t h e r e d -le ad b eco m es a m eta llic
dro p, a f la sh o f l ig ht i s p erc eiv ed . D r. A le x an der W ils o n v ery i n gen io usly
en deav ours t o p ro ve t h at t h e s u n i s o nly i n a s ta te o f c o m bustio n o n i ts
su rfa ce, a n d t h at t h e d ark s p ots s e en o n t h e d is k a re e x cav atio ns o r c av ern s
th ro ugh t h e l u m in ous c ru st, s o m e o f w hic h a re 4 000 m ile s i n d ia m ete r. P hil.
Tra n s. 1 774. O f t h is I s h all h av e o ccasio n t o s p eak a g ain .

N O TE V I.— CEN TR AL F IR ES.
Round h er s till c en tr e t r e a d t h e b urn in g s o il,
And w atc h t h e b illo w y
Lava s, a s t h ey b oil.
C A NTO I . l . 1 39.
M . d e M air a n i n a p ap er p ublis h ed i n t h e H is to ir e d e l 'A cad em ie d e S cie n ces,
1 765, h as e n deav oure d t o s h ew t h at t h e e arth r e ceiv es b ut a s m all p art o f t h e
h eat w hic h i t p osse sse s, f ro m t h e s u n's r a y s, b ut i s p rin cip ally h eate d b y f ir e s
w ith in i ts e lf . H e t h in ks t h e s u n i s t h e c au se o f t h e v ic is situ des o f o ur s e aso ns
o f s u m mer a n d w in te r b y a v ery s m all q uan tity o f h eat i n a d ditio n t o t h at
a lr e ad y r e sid in g i n t h e e arth , w hic h b y e m an atio ns f ro m t h e c en tr e t o t h e
c ir c u m fe re n ce r e n ders t h e s u rfa ce h ab ita b le , a n d w ith out w hic h , t h ough t h e
s u n w as c o nsta n tly t o i llu m in ate t w o t h ir d s o f t h e g lo be a t o nce, w ith a h eat
e q ual t o t h at a t t h e e q uato r, i t w ould s o on b eco m e a m ass o f s o lid i c e. H is
r e aso nin gs a n d c alc u la tio ns o n t h is s u bje ct a re t o o l o ng a n d t o o i n tr ic ate t o b e
i n se rte d h ere , b ut a re e q ually c u rio us a n d i n gen io us a n d c arry m uch
c o nvic tio n a lo ng w ith t h em .
T he o pin io n t h at t h e c en te r o f t h e e arth c o nsis ts o f a l a rg e m ass o f b urn in g
l a v a, h as b een e sp ouse d b y B oyle , B oerh av e, a n d m an y o th er p hilo so phers .
S om e o f w hom c o nsid erin g i ts s u ppose d e ffe cts o n v eg eta tio n a n d t h e
f o rm atio n o f m in era ls h av e c alle d i t a s e co nd s u n. T here a re m an y a rg um en ts
i n s u pport o f t h is o pin io n, 1 . B ecau se t h e p ow er o f t h e s u n d oes n ot e x te n d
m uch b ey ond t e n f e et d eep i n to t h e e arth , a ll b elo w b ein g i n w in te r a n d
s u m mer a lw ay s o f t h e s a m e d eg re e o f h eat, v iz . 4 8, w hic h b ein g m uch
w arm er t h an t h e m ild est f ro st, i s s u ppose d t o b e s u sta in ed b y s o m e i n te rn al
d is ta n t f ir e . A dd t o t h is h ow ev er t h at f ro m e x perim en ts m ad e s o m e y ears a g o

by D r. F ra n klin t h e s p rin g-w ate r a t P hila d elp hia a p peare d t o b e o f 5 2° o f
heat, w hic h s e em s f u rth er t o c o nfir m t h is o pin io n, s in ce t h e c lim ate s i n N orth
Am eric a a re s u ppose d t o b e c o ld er t h an t h ose o f E uro pe u nder s im ila r
deg re es o f l a titu de. 2 . M r. D e L uc i n g oin g 1 359 f e et p erp en dic u la r i n to t h e
min es o f H artz o n J u ly t h e 5 th , 1 778, o n a v ery f in e d ay f o und t h e a ir a t t h e
botto m a l ittle w arm er t h an a t t h e t o p o f t h e s h aft. P hil. T ra n s. V ol. L X IX . p .
488. I n t h e m in es i n H ungary , w hic h a re 5 00 c u bits d eep , t h e h eat b eco m es
very t r o uble so m e w hen t h e m in ers g et b elo w 4 80 f e et d ep th .
Morin us d e
Locis s u bte r
. p . 1 31. B ut a s s o m e o th er d eep m in es a s m en tio ned b y M r.
Kir w an a re s a id t o p osse ss b ut t h e c o m mon h eat o f t h e e arth ; a n d a s t h e c ru st
of t h e g lo be t h us p en etr a te d b y h um an l a b our i s s o t h in c o m pare d w ith t h e
whole , n o c erta in d ed uctio n c an b e m ad e f ro m t h ese f a cts o n e ith er s id e o f t h e
questio n. 3 . T he w arm -s p rin gs i n m an y p arts o f t h e e arth a t g re at d is ta n ce
fro m a n y V olc an os s e em t o o rig in ate f ro m t h e c o nden sa tio n o f v ap ours
aris in g f ro m w ate r w hic h i s b oile d b y s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s, a n d c o ole d a g ain i n
th eir p assa g e t h ro ugh a c erta in l e n gth o f t h e c o ld er s o il; f o r t h e t h eo ry o f
ch em ic al s o lu tio n w ill n ot e x pla in t h e e q uality o f t h eir h eat a t a ll s e aso ns a n d
th ro ugh s o m an y c en tu rie s. S ee n ote o n F ucu s i n V ol. I I. S ee a l e tte r o n t h is
su bje ct i n M r. P ilk in to n's V ie w o f D erb ysh ir e f ro m D r. D arw in . 4 . F ro m t h e
situ atio ns o f v olc an os w hic h a re a lw ay s f o und u pon t h e s u m mit o f t h e h ig hest
mounta in s. F or a s t h ese m ounta in s h av e b een l if te d u p a n d l o se s e v era l o f
th eir u pperm ost s tr a ta a s t h ey r is e , t h e l o w est s tr a ta o f t h e e arth y et k now n
ap pear a t t h e t o ps o f t h e h ig hest h ills ; a n d t h e b ed s o f t h e V olc an os u pon
th ese h ills m ust i n c o nse q uen ce b elo ng t o t h e l o w est s tr a ta o f t h e e arth ,
co nsis tin g p erh ap s o f g ra n ite o r b asa lte s, w hic h w ere p ro duced b efo re t h e
ex is ta n ce o f a n im al o r v eg eta b le b odie s, a n d m ig ht c o nstitu te t h e o rig in al
nucle u s o f t h e e arth , w hic h I h av e s u ppose d t o h av e b een p ro je cte d f ro m t h e
su n, h en ce t h e v olc an os t h em se lv es a p pear t o b e s p ir a cu la o r c h im ney s
belo ngin g t o g re at c en tr a l f ir e s. I t i s p ro bab ly o w in g t o t h e e sc ap e o f t h e
ela stic v ap ours f ro m t h ese s p ir a cu la t h at t h e m odern e arth quak es a re o f s u ch
sm all e x te n t c o m pare d w ith t h ose o f r e m ote a n tiq uity , o f w hic h t h e v estig es
re m ain a ll o ver t h e g lo be. 5 . T he g re at s iz e a n d h eig ht o f t h e c o ntin en ts , a n d
th e g re at s iz e a n d d ep th o f t h e S outh -s e a, A tla n tic , a n d o th er o cean s, e v in ce
th at t h e f ir s t e arth quak es, w hic h p ro duced t h ese i m men se c h an ges i n t h e
glo be, m ust h av e b een o ccasio ned b y c en tr a l f ir e s. 6 . T he v ery d is ta n t a n d
ex ped itio us c o m munic atio n o f t h e s h ock s o f s o m e g re at e arth quak es. T he
earth quak e a t L is b on i n 1 755 w as p erc eiv ed i n S co tla n d, i n t h e P eak o f

Derb ysh ir e , a n d i n m an y o th er d is ta n t p arts o f E uro pe. T he p erc u ssio ns o f i t
tr a v elle d w ith a b out t h e v elo city o f s o und, v iz . a b out t h ir te en m ile s i n a
min ute . T he e arth quak e i n 1 693 e x te n ded 2 600 l e ag ues. ( G old sm ith 's
His to ry .) T hese p hen om en a a re e asily e x pla in ed i f t h e c en tr a l p arts o f t h e
earth c o nsis t o f a f lu id l a v a, a s a p erc u ssio n o n o ne p art o f s u ch a f lu id m ass
would b e f e lt o n o th er p arts o f i ts c o nfin in g v au lt, l ik e a s tr o ke o n a f lu id
co nta in ed i n a b la d der, w hic h h ow ev er g en tle o n o ne s id e i s p erc ep tib le t o t h e
han d p la ced o n t h e o th er; a n d t h e v elo city w ith w hic h s u ch a c o ncu ssio n
would t r a v el w ould b e t h at o f s o und, o r t h ir te en m ile s i n a m in ute . F or f u rth er
in fo rm atio n o n t h is p art o f t h e s u bje ct t h e r e ad er i s r e fe rre d t o M r. M ic h ell's
ex celle n t T re atis e o n E arth quak es i n t h e P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol. L I. 7 . T hat t h ere
is a c av ity a t t h e c en te r o f t h e e arth i s m ad e p ro bab le b y t h e l a te e x perim en ts
on t h e a ttr a ctio n o f m ounta in s b y M r. M ask erly ne, w ho s u ppose d f ro m o th er
co nsid era tio ns t h at t h e d en sity o f t h e e arth n ear t h e s u rfa ce s h ould b e f iv e
tim es l e ss t h an i ts m ean d en sity . P hil. T ra n s. V ol. L X V. p . 4 98. B ut f o und
fro m t h e a ttr a ctio n o f t h e m ounta in S ch eh allie n , t h at i t i s p ro bab le , t h e m ean
den sity o f t h e e arth i s b ut d ouble t h at o f t h e h ill. I b id . p . 5 32. H en ce i f t h e
fir s t s u ppositio n b e w ell f o unded t h ere w ould a p pear t o b e a c av ity a t t h e
cen tr e o f c o nsid era b le m ag nitu de, f ro m w hen ce t h e i m men se b ed s a n d
mounta in s o f l a v a, t o ad sto ne, b asa lte s, g ra n ite , & c. h av e b een p ro tr u ded . 8 .
The v aria tio n o f t h e c o m pass c an o nly b e a cco unte d f o r b y s u pposin g t h e
cen tr a l p arts o f t h e e arth t o c o nsis t o f a f lu id m ass, a n d t h at p art o f t h is f lu id
is i r o n, w hic h r e q uir in g a g re ate r d eg re e o f h eat t o b rin g i t i n to f u sio n t h an
gla ss o r o th er m eta ls , r e m ain s a s o lid , a n d t h e v is i n ertia e o f t h is f lu id m ass
with t h e i r o n i n i t, o ccasio ns i t t o p erfo rm f e w er r e v olu tio ns t h an t h e c ru st o f
so lid e arth o ver i t, a n d t h us i t i s g ra d ually l e ft b eh in d, a n d t h e p la ce w here t h e
flo atin g i r o n r e sid es i s p oin te d t o b y t h e d ir e ct o r r e tr o gra d e m otio ns o f t h e
mag netic n eed le . T his s e em s t o h av e b een n early t h e o pin io n o f D r. H alle y
an d M r. E ule r.

N O TE V II.— ELEM EN TA RY H EA T.
Or s p here o n s p here i n w id en in g w aves e xp and,
And g la d w ith
gen ia l w arm th t h e i n cu m ben t l a nd.
C A NTO I . l . 1 43.
A c erta in q uan tity o f h eat s e em s t o b e c o m bin ed w ith a ll b odie s b esid es t h e
s e n sib le q uan tity w hic h g ra v ita te s l ik e t h e e le ctr ic f lu id a m ongst t h em . T his
c o m bin ed h eat o r l a te n t h eat o f D r. B la ck , w hen s e t a t l ib erty b y
f e rm en ta tio n, i n fla m matio n, c ry sta lliz atio n, f re ezin g, o r o th er c h em ic al
a ttr a ctio ns p ro ducin g n ew
co m bin atio ns
, p asse s a s a f lu id e le m en t i n to t h e
s u rro undin g b odie s. A nd b y t h aw in g, d if fu sio n o f n eu tr a l s a lts i n w ate r,
m eltin g, a n d o th er c h em ic al
so lu tio ns
, a p ortio n o f h eat i s a ttr a cte d f ro m t h e
b odie s i n v ic in ity a n d e n te rs i n to o r b eco m es c o m bin ed w ith t h e n ew
s o lu tio ns.
H en ce a
co m bin atio n
o f m eta ls w ith a cid s, o f e sse n tia l o ils a n d a cid s, o f
a lc o hol a n d w ate r, o f a cid s a n d w ate r, g iv e o ut h eat; w hils t a
so lu tio n
o f s n ow
i n w ate r o r i n a cid s, a n d o f n eu tr a l s a lts i n w ate r, a ttr a ct h eat f ro m t h e
s u rro undin g b odie s. S o t h e a cid o f n itr e m ix ed w ith o il o f c lo ves u nite s w ith
i t a n d p ro duces a m ost v io le n t f la m e; t h e s a m e a cid o f n itr e p oure d o n s n ow
i n sta n tly d is so lv es i t a n d p ro duces t h e g re ate st d eg re e o f c o ld y et k now n, b y
w hic h a t P ete rs b urg h q uic k silv er w as f ir s t f ro zen i n 1 760.
W ate r m ay b e c o ole d b elo w 3 2° w ith out b ein g f ro zen , i f i t b e p la ced o n a
s o lid f lo or a n d s e cu re d f ro m a g ita tio n, b ut w hen t h us c o ole d b elo w t h e
f re ezin g p oin t t h e l e ast a g ita tio n t u rn s p art o f i t s u dden ly i n to i c e, a n d w hen
t h is s u dden f re ezin g t a k es p la ce a t h erm om ete r p la ced i n i t i n sta n tly r is e s a s

so m e h eat i s g iv en o ut i n t h e a ct o f c o ngela tio n, a n d t h e i c e i s t h us l e ft w ith
th e s a m e
se n sib le
d eg re e o f c o ld a s t h e w ate r h ad p osse sse d b efo re i t w as
ag ita te d , b ut i s n ev erth ele ss n ow c o m bin ed w ith l e ss
la te n t
h eat.
A c u bic i n ch o f w ate r t h us c o ole d d ow n t o 3 2° m ix ed w ith a n e q ual q uan tity
of b oilin g w ate r a t 2 12° w ill c o ol i t t o t h e m id dle n um ber b etw een t h ese t w o,
or t o 1 22. B ut a c u bic i n ch o f i c e w hose s e n sib le c o ld a ls o i s b ut 3 2, m ix ed
with a n e q ual q uan tity o f b oilin g w ate r, w ill c o ol i t s ix t im es a s m uch a s t h e
cu bic i n ch o f c o ld w ate r a b ove-m en tio ned , a s t h e i c e n ot o nly g ain s i ts s h are
of t h e s e n sib le o r g ra v ita tin g h eat o f t h e b oilin g w ate r b ut a ttr a cts t o i ts e lf
als o a n d c o m bin es w ith t h e q uan tity o f l a te n t h eat w hic h i t h ad l o st a t t h e
tim e o f i ts c o ngela tio n.
So b oilin g w ate r w ill a cq uir e b ut 2 12° o f h eat u nder t h e c o m mon p re ssu re o f
th e a tm osp here , b ut t h e s te am r a is e d f ro m i t b y i ts e x pan sio n o r b y i ts
so lu tio n i n t h e a tm osp here c o m bin es w ith a n d c arrie s a w ay a p ro dig io us
quan tity o f h eat w hic h i t a g ain p arts w ith o n i ts c o nden sa tio n; a s i s s e en i n
co m mon d is tilla tio n w here t h e l a rg e q uan tity o f w ate r i n t h e w orm -tu b i s s o
so on h eate d . H en ce t h e e v ap ora tio n o f e th er o n a t h erm om ete r s o on s in ks t h e
merc u ry b elo w f re ezin g, a n d h en ce a w arm th o f t h e a ir i n w in te r f re q uen tly
su cceed s a s h ow er.
When t h e m atte r o f h eat o r c alo riq ue i s s e t a t l ib erty f ro m i ts c o m bin atio ns, a s
by i n fla m matio n, i t p asse s i n to t h e s u rro undin g b odie s, w hic h p osse ss
dif fe re n t c ap acitie s o f a cq uir in g t h eir s h are o f t h e l o ose o r s e n sib le h eat; t h us
a p in t m easu re o f c o ld w ate r a t 4 8° m ix ed w ith a p in t o f b oilin g w ate r a t 2 12°
will c o ol i t t o t h e d eg re e b etw een t h ese t w o n um bers , o r t o 1 54°, b ut i t
re q uir e s t w o p in t m easu re s o f q uic k silv er a t 4 8° o f h eat t o c o ol o ne p in t o f
wate r a s a b ove. T hese a n d o th er c u rio us e x perim en ts a re a d duced b y D r.
Bla ck t o e v in ce t h e e x is ta n ce o f c o m bin ed o r l a te n t h eat i n b odie s, a s h as
been e x pla in ed b y s o m e o f h is p upils , a n d w ell i llu str a te d b y D r. C ra w fo rd .
The w orld h as l o ng b een i n e x pecta tio n o f a n a cco unt o f h is d is c o verie s o n
th is s u bje ct b y t h e c ele b ra te d a u th or h im se lf .
As t h is d octr in e o f e le m en ta ry h eat i n i ts f lu id a n d c o m bin ed s ta te i s n ot y et
univ ers a lly r e ceiv ed , I s h all h ere a d d t w o a rg um en ts i n s u pport o f i t d ra w n
fro m d if fe re n t s o urc es, v iz . f ro m t h e h eat g iv en o ut o r a b so rb ed b y t h e
mech an ic al c o nden sa tio n o r e x pan sio n o f t h e a ir , a n d p erh ap s o f o th er b odie s,

an d f ro m t h e a n alo gy o f t h e v ario us p hen om en a o f h eat w ith t h ose o f
ele ctr ic ity .
I. I f a t h erm om ete r b e p la ced i n t h e r e ceiv er o f a n a ir -p um p, a n d t h e a ir
hastily e x hau ste d , t h e t h erm om ete r w ill s in k s o m e d eg re es, a n d t h e g la ss
beco m e s te am y; t h e s a m e o ccu rs i n h astily a d m ittin g a p art o f t h e a ir a g ain .
This I s u ppose t o b e p ro duced b y t h e e x pan sio n o f p art o f t h e a ir , b oth d urin g
th e e x hau stio n a n d r e -a d m is sio n o f i t; a n d t h at t h e a ir s o e x pan ded b eco m es
cap ab le o f a ttr a ctin g f ro m t h e b odie s i n i ts v ic in ity a p art o f t h eir h eat, h en ce
th e v ap ours c o nta in ed i n i t a n d t h e g la ss r e ceiv er a re f o r a t im e c o ld er a n d t h e
ste am i s p re cip ita te d . T hat t h e a ir t h us p arts w ith i ts m ois tu re f ro m t h e c o ld
occasio ned b y i ts r a re fa ctio n a n d n ot s im ply b y t h e r a re fa ctio n i ts e lf i s
ev id en t, b ecau se i n a m in ute o r t w o t h e s a m e r a re fie d a ir w ill a g ain t a k e u p
th e d ew d ep osite d o n t h e r e ceiv er; a n d b ecau se w ate r w ill e v ap ora te s o oner i n
ra re t h an i n d en se a ir .
There i s a c u rio us p hen om en on s im ila r t o t h is o bse rv ed i n t h e f o unta in o f
Hie ro c o nstr u cte d o n a l a rg e s c ale a t t h e C hem nic en sia n m in es i n H ungary . I n
th is m ach in e t h e a ir i n a l a rg e v esse l i s c o m pre sse d b y a c o lu m n o f w ate r 2 60
fe et h ig h, a s to p-c o ck i s t h en o pen ed , a n d a s t h e a ir i s su es o ut w ith g re at
veh em en ce, a n d t h us b eco m es i m med ia te ly g re atly e x pan ded , s o m uch c o ld
is p ro duced t h at t h e m ois tu re f ro m t h is s tr e am o f a ir i s p re cip ita te d i n t h e
fo rm o f s n ow , a n d i c e i s f o rm ed a d herin g t o t h e n ose l o f t h e c o ck . T his
re m ark ab le c ir c u m sta n ce i s d esc rib ed a t l a rg e w ith a p la te o f t h e m ach in e i n
Philo s. T ra n s. V ol. L II. f o r 1 761.
The f o llo w in g e x perim en t i s r e la te d b y D r. D arw in i n t h e P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol.
LX XVIII. H av in g c h arg ed a n a ir -g un a s f o rc ib ly a s h e w ell c o uld t h e a ir -c ell
an d s y rin ge b ecam e e x ceed in gly h ot, m uch m ore s o t h an c o uld b e a sc rib ed t o
th e f ric tio n i n w ork in g i t; i t w as t h en l e ft a b out h alf a n h our t o c o ol d ow n t o
th e t e m pera tu re o f t h e a ir , a n d a t h erm om ete r h av in g b een p re v io usly f ix ed
ag ain st a w all, t h e a ir w as d is c h arg ed i n a c o ntin ual s tr e am o n i ts b ulb , a n d i t
su nk m an y d eg re es. F ro m t h ese t h re e e x perim en ts o f t h e s te am i n t h e
ex hau ste d r e ceiv er b ein g d ep osite d a n d r e -a b so rb ed , w hen a p art o f t h e a ir i s
ex hau ste d o r r e -a d m itte d , a n d t h e s n ow p ro duced b y t h e f o unta in o f H ie ro ,
an d t h e e x tr a o rd in ary h eat g iv en o ut i n c h arg in g, a n d t h e c o ld p ro duced i n
dis c h arg in g a n a ir -g un, t h ere i s r e aso n t o c o nclu de t h at w hen a ir i s

mech an ic ally c o m pre sse d t h e e le m en ta ry f lu id h eat i s p re sse d o ut o f i t, a n d
th at w hen i t i s m ech an ic ally e x pan ded t h e s a m e f lu id h eat i s r e -a b so rb ed f ro m
th e c o m mon m ass.
It i s p ro bab le a ll o th er b odie s a s w ell a s a ir a ttr a ct h eat f ro m t h eir n eig hbours
when t h ey a re m ech an ic ally e x pan ded , a n d g iv e i t o ut w hen t h ey a re
mech an ic ally c o nden se d . T hus w hen a v ib ra tio n o f t h e p artic le s o f h ard
bodie s i s e x cite d b y f ric tio n o r b y p erc u ssio n, t h ese p artic le s m utu ally r e ced e
fro m a n d a p pro ach e ach o th er r e cip ro cally ; a t t h e t im es o f t h eir r e cessio n
fro m e ach o th er, t h e b ody b eco m es e n la rg ed i n b ulk , a n d i s t h en i n a
co nditio n t o a ttr a ct h eat f ro m t h ose i n i ts v ic in ity w ith g re at a n d s u dden
pow er; a t t h e t im es o f t h eir a p pro ach t o e ach o th er t h is h eat i s a g ain g iv en
out, b ut t h e b odie s i n c o nta ct h av in g i n t h e m ean w hile r e ceiv ed t h e h eat t h ey
had t h us l o st, f ro m o th er b odie s b eh in d t h em , d o n ot s o s u dden ly o r s o
fo rc ib ly r e -a b so rb t h e h eat a g ain f ro m t h e b ody i n v ib ra tio n; h en ce i t r e m ain s
on i ts s u rfa ce l ik e t h e e le ctr ic f lu id o n a r u bbed g la ss g lo be, a n d f o r t h e s a m e
re aso n, b ecau se t h ere i s n o g ood c o nducto r t o t a k e i t u p a g ain . H en ce a t e v ery
vib ra tio n m ore a n d m ore h eat i s a cq uir e d a n d s ta n ds l o ose u pon t h e s u rfa ce;
as i n f ilin g m eta ls o r r u bbin g g la ss t u bes; a n d t h us a s m ith w ith a f e w s tr o kes
on a n ail o n h is a n vil c an m ak e i t h ot e n ough t o l ig ht a b rim sto ne-m atc h ; a n d
hen ce i n s tr ik in g f lin t a n d s te el t o geth er h eat e n ough i s p ro duced t o v itr if y t h e
parts t h us s tr u ck en o ff, t h e q uan tity o f w hic h h eat i s a g ain p ro bab ly i n cre ase d
by t h e n ew c h em ic al c o m bin atio n.
II. T he a n alo gy b etw een t h e p hen om en a o f t h e e le ctr ic f lu id a n d o f h eat
fu rn is h es a n oth er a rg um en t i n s u pport o f t h e e x is te n ce o f h eat a s a g ra v ita tin g
flu id . 1 . T hey a re b oth a ccu m ula te d b y f ric tio n o n t h e e x cite d b ody. 2 . T hey
are p ro pag ate d e asily o r w ith d if fic alty a lo ng t h e s a m e c la sse s o f b odie s; w ith
ease b y m eta ls , w ith l e ss e ase b y w ate r; a n d w ith d if fic u lty b y r e sin s, b ees-
wax , s ilk , a ir , a n d g la ss. T hus g la ss c an es o r c an es o f s e alin g-w ax m ay b e
melte d b y a b lo w -p ip e o r a c an dle w ith in a q uarte r o f a n i n ch o f t h e f in gers
whic h h old t h em , w ith out a n y i n co nven ie n t h eat, w hile a p in o r o th er m eta llic
su bsta n ce a p ply ed t o t h e f la m e o f a c an dle s o r e ad ily c o nducts t h e h eat a s
im med ia te ly t o b urn t h e f in gers . H en ce c lo th es o f s ilk k eep t h e b ody w arm er
th an c lo th es o f l in en o f e q ual t h ic k ness, b y c o nfin in g t h e h eat u pon t h e b ody.
And h en ce p la in s a re s o m uch w arm er t h an t h e s u m mits o f m ounta in s b y t h e
gre ate r d en sity o f t h e a ir c o nfin in g t h e a cq uir e d h eat u pon t h em . 3 . T hey b oth

giv e o ut l ig ht i n t h eir p assa g e t h ro ugh a ir , p erh ap s n ot i n t h eir p assa g e
th ro ugh a v acu um . 4 . T hey b oth o f t h em f u se o r v itr if y m eta ls . 5 . B odie s a fte r
bein g e le ctr iz ed i f t h ey a re m ech an ic ally e x te n ded w ill r e ceiv e a g re ate r
quan tity o f e le ctr ic ity , a s i n D r. F ra n klin 's e x perim en t o f t h e c h ain i n t h e
ta n kard ; t h e s a m e s e em s t r u e i n r e sp ect t o h eat a s e x pla in ed a b ove. 6 . B oth
heat a n d e le ctr ic ity c o ntr ib ute t o s u sp en d s te am i n t h e a tm osp here b y
pro ducin g o r i n cre asin g t h e r e p uls io n o f i ts p artic le s. 7 . T hey b oth g ra v ita te ,
when t h ey h av e b een a ccu m ula te d , t ill t h ey f in d t h eir e q uilib riu m .
If w e a d d t o t h e a b ove t h e m an y c h em ic al e x perim en ts w hic h r e ceiv e a n e asy
an d e le g an t e x pla n atio n f ro m t h e s u ppose d m atte r o f h eat, a s e m plo yed i n t h e
work s o f B erg m an a n d L av ois ie r, I t h in k w e m ay r e aso nab ly a llo w o f i ts
ex is te n ce a s a n e le m en t, o ccasio nally c o m bin ed w ith o th er b odie s, a n d
occasio nally e x is tin g a s a f lu id , l ik e t h e e le ctr ic f lu id g ra v ita tin g a m ongst
th em , a n d t h at h en ce i t m ay b e p ro pag ate d f ro m t h e c en tr a l f ir e s o f t h e e arth
to t h e w hole m ass, a n d c o ntr ib ute t o p re se rv e t h e m ean h eat o f t h e e arth ,
whic h i n t h is c o untr y i s a b out 4 8 d eg re es b ut v aria b le f ro m t h e g re ate r o r l e ss
effe ct o f t h e s u n's h eat i n d if fe re n t c lim ate s, s o w ell e x pla in ed i n M r.
Kir w an 's T re atis e o n t h e T em pera tu re o f d if fe re n t L atitu des. 1 787, E lm sly .
London.

N O TE V III.— MEM NO N'S L Y RE.
So t o t h e s a cre d S un i n M em non's f a ne
Sponta neo us c o nco rd s q uir e d
th e m atin s tr a in .
C A NTO I . l . 1 83.
T he g ig an tic s ta tu e o f M em non i n h is t e m ple a t T heb es h ad a l y re i n h is
h an ds, w hic h m an y c re d ib le w rite rs a ssu re u s, s o unded w hen t h e r is in g s u n
s h one u pon i t. S om e p hilo so phers h av e s u ppose d t h at t h e s u n's l ig ht
p osse sse s a m ech an ic al i m puls e , a n d t h at t h e s o unds a b ovem en tio ned m ig ht
b e t h en ce p ro duced . M r. M ic h ell c o nstr u cte d a v ery t e n der h oriz o nta l
b ala n ce, a s r e la te d b y D r. P rie stle y i n h is h is to ry o f l ig ht a n d c o lo urs , f o r t h is
p urp ose , b ut s o m e e x perim en ts w ith t h is b ala n ce w hic h I s a w m ad e b y t h e
l a te D r. P ow el, w ho t h re w t h e f o cu s o f a l a rg e r e fle cto r o n o ne e x tr e m ity o f i t,
w ere n ot c o nclu siv e e ith er w ay , a s t h e c o pper l e af o f t h e b ala n ce a p pro ach ed
i n o ne e x perim en t a n d r e ced ed i n a n oth er.
T here a re h ow ev er m eth ods b y w hic h e ith er a r o ta tiv e o r a lte rn atin g m otio n
m ay b e p ro duced b y v ery m odera te d eg re es o f h eat. I f a s tr a ig ht g la ss t u be,
s u ch a s a re u se d f o r b aro m ete rs , b e s u sp en ded h oriz o nta lly b efo re a f ir e , l ik e
a r o astin g s p it, i t w ill r e v olv e b y i n te rv als ; f o r a s g la ss i s a b ad c o nducto r o f
h eat t h e s id e n ex t t h e f ir e b eco m es h eate d s o oner t h an t h e o pposite s id e, a n d
t h e t u be b eco m es b en t i n to a b ow w ith t h e e x te rn al p art o f t h e c u rv e t o w ard s
t h e f ir e , t h is c u rv e t h en f a lls d ow n a n d p ro duces a f o urth p art o f a r e v olu tio n
o f t h e g la ss t u be, w hic h t h us r e v olv es w ith i n te rm ed ia te p au se s.
A noth er a lte rn atin g m otio n I h av e s e en p ro duced b y s u sp en din g a g la ss t u be
a b out e ig ht i n ch es l o ng w ith b ulb s a t e ach e n d o n a c en tr e l ik e a s c ale b eam .

This c u rio us m ach in e i s f ille d a b out o ne t h ir d p art w ith p ure st s p ir it o f w in e,
th e o th er t w o t h ir d s b ein g a v acu um , a n d i s c alle d a p uls e -g la ss, i f i t b e
pla ced i n a b ox b efo re t h e f ir e , s o t h at e ith er b ulb , a s i t r is e s, m ay b eco m e
sh ad ed f ro m t h e f ir e , a n d e x pose d t o i t w hen i t d esc en ds, a n a lte rn ate
lib ra tio n o f i t i s p ro duced . F or s p ir it o f w in e i n v acu o e m its s te am b y a v ery
sm all d eg re e o f h eat, a n d t h is s te am f o rc es t h e s p ir it b en eath i t u p i n to t h e
upper b ulb , w hic h t h ere fo re d esc en ds. I t i s p ro bab le s u ch a m ach in e o n a
la rg er s c ale m ig ht b e o f u se t o o pen t h e d oors o r w in dow s o f h ot- h ouse s o r
mello n- f ra m es, w hen t h e a ir w ith in t h em s h ould b eco m e t o o m uch h eate d , o r
mig ht b e e m plo yed i n m ore i m porta n t m ech an ic al p urp ose s.
On t r a v ellin g t h ro ugh a h ot s u m mer's d ay i n a c h ais e w ith a b ox c o vere d w ith
le ath er o n t h e f o re -a x le -tr e e, I o bse rv ed , a s t h e s u n s h one u pon t h e b la ck
le ath er, t h e b ox b eg an t o o pen i ts l id , w hic h a t n oon r o se a b ove a f o ot, a n d
co uld n ot w ith out g re at f o rc e b e p re sse d d ow n; a n d w hic h g ra d ually c lo se d
ag ain a s t h e s u n d eclin ed i n t h e e v en in g. T his I s u ppose m ig ht w ith s till
gre ate r f a cility b e a p plie d t o t h e p urp ose o f o pen in g m elo n-fra m es o r t h e
sa sh es o f h ot- h ouse s.
The s ta tu e o f M em non w as o verth ro w n a n d s a w ed i n t w o b y C am byse s t o
dis c o ver i ts i n te rn al s tr u ctu re , a n d i s s a id s till t o e x is t. S ee S av ary 's L ette rs o n
Egypt. T he t r u ncate d s ta tu e i s s a id f o r m an y c en tu rie s t o h av e s a lu te d t h e
ris in g s u n w ith c h earfu l t o nes, a n d t h e s e ttin g s u n w ith m ela n ch oly o nes.

N O TE I X .— LU M IN O US I N SE C TS.
S ta r o f t h e e a rth , a nd d ia m ond o f t h e n ig ht.
C A NTO I . l . 1 96.
T here a re e ig hte en s p ecie s o f L am pyris o r g lo w -w orm , a cco rd in g t o L in neu s,
s o m e o f w hic h a re f o und i n a lm ost e v ery p art o f t h e w orld . I n m an y o f t h e
s p ecie s t h e f e m ale s h av e n o w in gs, a n d a re s u ppose d t o b e d is c o vere d b y t h e
w in ged m ale s b y t h eir s h in in g i n t h e n ig ht. T hey b eco m e m uch m ore l u cid
w hen t h ey p ut t h em se lv es i n m otio n, w hic h w ould s e em t o i n dic ate t h at t h eir
l ig ht i s o w in g t o t h eir r e sp ir a tio n; i n w hic h p ro cess i t i s p ro bab le p hosp horic
a cid i s p ro duced b y t h e c o m bin atio n o f v ita l a ir w ith s o m e p art o f t h e b lo od,
a n d t h at l ig ht i s g iv en o ut t h ro ugh t h eir t r a n sp are n t b odie s b y t h is s lo w
i n te rn al c o m bustio n.
T here i s a f ir e -fly o f t h e b eetle -k in d d esc rib ed i n t h e D ic t. R ais o nné u nder t h e
n am e o f A cu dia , w hic h i s s a id t o b e t w o i n ch es l o ng, a n d i n hab its t h e W est-
I n die s a n d S outh A m eric a; t h e n ativ es u se t h em i n ste ad o f c an dle s, p uttin g
f ro m o ne t o t h re e o f t h em u nder a g la ss. M ad am M eria n s a y s, t h at a t S urin am
t h e l ig ht o f t h is f ly i s s o g re at, t h at s h e s a w s u ffic ie n tly w ell b y o ne o f t h em
t o p ain t a n d f in is h o ne o f t h e f ig ure s o f t h em i n h er w ork o n i n se cts . T he
l a rg est a n d o ld est o f t h em a re s a id t o b eco m e f o ur i n ch es l o ng, a n d t o s h in e
l ik e a s h ootin g s ta r a s t h ey f ly , a n d a re t h en ce c alle d L an te rn -b eare rs . T he u se
o f t h is l ig ht t o t h e i n se ct i ts e lf s e em s t o b e t h at i t m ay n ot f ly a g ain st o bje cts
i n t h e n ig ht; b y w hic h c o ntr iv an ce t h ese i n se cts a re e n ab le d t o p ro cu re t h eir
s u ste n an ce e ith er b y n ig ht o r d ay , a s t h eir w an ts m ay r e q uir e , o r t h eir
n um ero us e n em ie s p erm it t h em ; w here as s o m e o f o ur b eetle s h av e e y es
a d ap te d o nly t o t h e n ig ht, a n d i f t h ey h ap pen t o c o m e a b ro ad t o o s o on i n t h e

ev en in g a re s o d azzle d t h at t h ey f ly a g ain st e v ery t h in g i n t h eir w ay . S ee n ote
on P hosp horu s, N o. X .
In s o m e s e as, a s p artic u la rly a b out t h e c o ast o f M ala b ar, a s a s h ip f lo ats
alo ng, i t s e em s d urin g t h e n ig ht t o b e s u rro unded w ith f ir e , a n d t o l e av e a
lo ng t r a ct o f l ig ht b eh in d i t. W hen ev er t h e s e a i s g en tly a g ita te d i t s e em s
co nverte d i n to l ittle s ta rs , e v ery d ro p a s i t b re ak s e m its l ig ht, l ik e b odie s
ele ctr if ie d i n t h e d ark . M r. B om are s a y s, t h at w hen h e w as a t t h e p ort o f
Cette s i n L an gued oc, a n d b ath in g w ith a c o m pan io n i n t h e s e a a fte r a v ery h ot
day , t h ey b oth a p peare d c o vere d w ith f ir e a fte r e v ery i m mers io n, a n d t h at
la y in g h is w et h an d o n t h e a rm o f h is c o m pan io n, w ho h ad n ot t h en d ip ped
him se lf , t h e e x act m ark o f h is h an d a n d f in gers w as s e en i n c h ara cte rs o f f ir e .
As n um ero us m ic ro sc o pic i n se cts a re f o und i n t h is s h in in g w ate r, i ts l ig ht h as
been g en era lly a sc rib ed t o t h em , t h ough i t s e em s p ro bab le t h at f is h -s lim e i n
hot c o untr ie s m ay b eco m e i n s u ch a s ta te o f i n cip ie n t p utr e fa ctio n a s t o g iv e
lig ht, e sp ecia lly w hen b y a g ita tio n i t i s m ore e x pose d t o t h e a ir ; o th erw is e i t
is n ot e asy t o e x pla in w hy a g ita tio n s h ould b e n ecessa ry t o p ro duce t h is
marin e l ig ht. S ee n ote o n P hosp horu s N o. X .

N O TE X .— PH OSP H ORUS.
Or m ark i n s h in in g l e tte rs K unckel's n am e
In t h e p ale p hosp hor's
se lf- c o nsu m in g f la m e.
C A NTO I . l . 2 31.
K unck el, a n ativ e o f H am burg h, w as t h e f ir s t w ho d is c o vere d t o t h e w orld t h e
p ro cess f o r p ro ducin g p hosp horu s; t h ough B ra n dt a n d B oyle w ere l ik ew is e
s a id t o h av e p re v io usly h ad t h e a rt o f m ak in g i t. I t w as o bta in ed f ro m s a l
m ic ro co sm ic u m b y e v ap ora tio n i n t h e f o rm o f a n a cid , b ut h as s in ce b een
f o und i n o th er a n im al s u bsta n ces, a s i n t h e a sh es o f b ones, a n d e v en i n s o m e
v eg eta b le s, a s i n w heat f lo ur. K eir 's c h em ic al D ic t. T his p hosp horic a cid i s
l ik e a ll o th er a cid s u nite d w ith v ita l a ir , a n d r e q uir e s t o b e t r e ate d w ith
c h arc o al o r p hlo gis to n t o d ep riv e i t o f t h is a ir , i t t h en b eco m es a k in d o f
a n im al s u lp hur, b ut o f s o i n fla m mab le a n atu re , t h at o n t h e a ccess o f a ir i t
t a k es f ir e s p onta n eo usly , a n d a s i t b urn s b eco m es a g ain u nite d w ith v ita l a ir ,
a n d r e -a ssu m es i ts f o rm o f p hosp horic a cid .
A s a n im al r e sp ir a tio n s e em s t o b e a k in d o f s lo w c o m bustio n, i n w hic h i t i s
p ro bab le t h at p hosp horic a cid i s p ro duced b y t h e u nio n o f p hosp horu s w ith
t h e v ita l a ir , s o i t i s a ls o p ro bab le t h at p hosp horic a cid i s p ro duced i n t h e
e x cre to ry o r r e sp ir a to ry v esse ls o f l u m in ous i n se cts , a s t h e g lo w -w orm a n d
f ir e -fly , a n d s o m e m arin e i n se cts . F ro m t h e s a m e p rin cip le I s u ppose t h e l ig ht
f ro m p utr id f is h , a s f ro m t h e h ead s o f h ad ock s, a n d f ro m p utr id v eal, a n d
f ro m r o tte n w ood i n a c erta in s ta te o f t h eir p utr e fa ctio n, i s p ro duced , a n d
p hosp horu s t h us s lo w ly c o m bin ed w ith a ir i s c h an ged i n to p hosp horic a cid .
T he l ig ht f ro m t h e B olo gnia n s to ne, a n d f ro m c alc in ed s h ells , a n d f ro m w hite
p ap er, a n d l in en a fte r h av in g b een e x pose d f o r a t im e t o t h e s u n's l ig ht, s e em

to p ro duce e ith er t h e p hosp horic o r s o m e o th er k in d o f a cid f ro m t h e
su lp huro us o r p hlo gis tic m atte r w hic h t h ey c o nta in . S ee n ote o n B eccari's
sh ells . l . 1 80.
There i s a n oth er p ro cess s e em s s im ila r t o t h is s lo w c o m bustio n, a n d t h at i s
ble a ch in g
. B y t h e w arm th a n d l ig ht o f t h e s u n t h e w ate r s p rin kle d u pon l in en
or c o tto n c lo th s e em s t o b e d eco m pose d , ( if w e c re d it t h e t h eo ry o f M .
Lav ois ie r,) a n d a p art o f t h e v ita l a ir t h us s e t a t l ib erty a n d u nco m bin ed a n d
not b ein g i n i ts e la stic f o rm , m ore e asily d is so lv es t h e c o lo urin g o r p hlo gis tic
matte r o f t h e c lo th , a n d p ro duces a n ew a cid , w hic h i s i ts e lf c o lo urle ss, o r i s
wash ed o ut o f t h e c lo th b y w ate r. T he n ew p ro cess o f b le ach in g c o nfir m s a
part o f t h is t h eo ry , f o r b y u nitin g m uch v ita l a ir t o m arin e a cid b y d is tillin g i t
fro m m an gan ese , o n d ip pin g t h e c lo th t o b e b le ach ed i n w ate r r e p le at w ith
th is s u per-a era te d m arin e a cid , t h e c o lo urin g m atte r d is a p pears i m med ia te ly ,
so oner i n deed i n c o tto n t h an i n l in en . S ee n ote X XXIV .
There i s a n oth er p ro cess w hic h I s u sp ect b ears a n alo gy t o t h ese a b ove-
men tio ned , a n d t h at i s t h e r a n cid ity o f a n im al f a t, a s o f b aco n; i f b aco n b e
hung u p i n a w arm k itc h en , w ith m uch s a lt a d herin g o n t h e o uts id e o f i t, t h e
fa t p art o f i t s o on b eco m es y ello w a n d r a n cid ; i f i t b e w ash ed w ith m uch c o ld
wate r a fte r i t h as i m bib ed t h e s a lt, a n d j u st b efo re i t i s h ung u p, I a m w ell
in fo rm ed , t h at i t w ill n ot b eco m e r a n cid , o r i n v ery s lig ht d eg re es. I n t h e
fo rm er c ase I i m ag in e t h e s a lt o n t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e b aco n a ttr a cts w ate r
durin g t h e c o ld o f t h e n ig ht, w hic h i s e v ap ora te d d urin g t h e d ay , a n d t h at i n
th is e v ap ora tio n a p art o f t h e w ate r b eco m es d eco m pose d , a s i n b le ach in g,
an d i ts v ita l a ir u nitin g w ith g re ate r f a cility i n i ts u nela stic s ta te w ith t h e
an im al f a t, p ro duces a n a cid , p erh ap s o f t h e p hosp horic k in d, w hic h b ein g o f
a f ix ed n atu re l ie s u pon t h e b aco n, g iv in g i t t h e y ello w c o lo ur a n d r a n cid
ta ste . I t i s r e m ark ab le t h at t h e s u per-a era te d m arin e a cid d oes n ot b le ach
liv in g a n im al s u bsta n ces, a t l e ast i t d id n ot w hite n a p art o f m y h an d w hic h I
fo r s o m e m in ute s e x pose d t o i t.

N O TE X I.— ST EA M -E N G IN E.
Quic k m oves t h e b ala nced b ea m , o f g ia nt- b ir th ,
Wie ld s h is l a rg e
lim bs, a nd n oddin g s h akes t h e e a rth .
C A NTO I . l . 2 61.
T he e x pan siv e f o rc e o f s te am w as k now n i n s o m e d eg re e t o t h e a n tie n ts ,
H ero o f A le x an dria d esc rib es a n a p plic atio n o f i t t o p ro duce a r o ta tiv e m otio n
b y t h e r e -a ctio n o f s te am i s su in g f ro m a s p here m ounte d u pon a n a x is ,
t h ro ugh t w o s m all t u bes b en t i n to t a n gen ts , a n d i s su in g f ro m t h e o pposite
s id es o f t h e e q uato ria l d ia m ete r o f t h e s p here , t h e s p here w as s u pplie d w ith
s te am b y a p ip e c o m munic atin g w ith a p an o f b oilin g w ate r, a n d e n te rin g t h e
s p here a t o ne o f i ts p ole s.
A f re n ch w rite r a b out t h e y ear 1 630 d esc rib es a m eth od o f r a is in g w ate r t o
t h e u pper p art o f a h ouse b y f illin g a c h am ber w ith s te am , a n d s u ffe rin g i t t o
c o nden se o f i ts e lf , b ut i t s e em s t o h av e b een m ere t h eo ry , a s h is m eth od w as
s c arc ely p ra ctic ab le a s h e d esc rib es i t. I n 1 655 t h e M arq uis o f W orc este r
m en tio ns a m eth od o f r a is in g w ate r b y f ir e i n h is C en tu ry o f I n ven tio ns, b ut
h e s e em s o nly t o h av e a v aile d h im se lf o f t h e e x pan siv e f o rc e a n d n ot t o h av e
k now n t h e a d van ta g es a ris in g f ro m c o nden sin g t h e s te am b y a n i n je ctio n o f
c o ld w ate r. T his l a tte r a n d m ost i m porta n t i m pro vem en t s e em s t o h av e b een
m ad e b y C ap t. S av ery s o m etim e p rio r t o 1 698, f o r i n t h at y ear h is p ate n t f o r
t h e u se o f t h at i n ven tio n w as c o nfir m ed b y a ct o f p arlia m en t. T his g en tle m an
a p pears t o h av e b een t h e f ir s t w ho r e d uced t h e m ach in e t o p ra ctic e a n d
e x hib ite d i t i n a n u se fu l f o rm . T his m eth od c o nsis te d o nly i n e x pellin g t h e a ir
f ro m a v esse l b y s te am a n d c o nden sin g t h e s te am b y a n i n je ctio n o f c o ld
w ate r, w hic h m ak in g a v acu um , t h e p re ssu re o f t h e a tm osp here f o rc ed t h e

wate r t o a sc en d i n to t h e s te am -v esse l t h ro ugh a p ip e o f 2 4 t o 2 6 f e et h ig h,
an d b y t h e a d m is sio n o f d en se s te am f ro m t h e b oile r, f o rc in g t h e w ate r i n t h e
ste am -v esse l t o a sc en d t o t h e h eig ht d esir e d . T his c o nstr u ctio n w as d efe ctiv e
becau se i t r e q uir e d v ery s tr o ng v esse ls t o r e sis t t h e f o rc e o f t h e s te am , a n d
becau se a n e n orm ous q uan tity o f s te am w as c o nden se d b y c o m in g i n c o nta ct
with t h e c o ld w ate r i n t h e s te am -v esse l.
About o r s o on a fte r t h at t im e M . P ap in a tte m pte d a s te am -e n gin e o n s im ila r
prin cip le s b ut r a th er m ore d efe ctiv e i n i ts c o nstr u ctio n.
The n ex t i m pro vem en t w as m ad e v ery s o on a fte rw ard s b y M essrs .
New co m en a n d C aw le y o f D artm outh , i t c o nsis te d i n e m plo yin g f o r t h e
ste am -v esse l a h ollo w c y lin der, s h ut a t b otto m a n d o pen a t t o p, f u rn is h ed
with a p is to n s lid in g e asily u p a n d d ow n i n i t, a n d m ad e t ig ht b y o ak um o r
hem p, a n d c o vere d w ith w ate r. T his p is to n i s s u sp en ded b y c h ain s f ro m o ne
en d o f a b eam , m oveab le u pon a n a x is i n t h e m id dle o f i ts l e n gth , t o t h e o th er
en d o f t h is b eam a re s u sp en ded t h e p um p-ro ds.
The d an ger o f b urs tin g t h e v esse ls w as a v oid ed i n t h is m ach in e, a s h ow ev er
hig h t h e w ate r w as t o b e r a is e d i t w as n ot n ecessa ry t o i n cre ase t h e d en sity o f
th e s te am b ut o nly t o e n la rg e t h e d ia m ete r o f t h e c y lin der.
Anoth er a d van ta g e w as, t h at t h e c y lin der n ot b ein g m ad e s o c o ld a s i n
Sav ary 's m eth od, m uch l e ss s te am w as l o st i n f illin g i t a fte r e ach
co nden sa tio n.
The m ach in e h ow ev er s till r e m ain ed i m perfe ct, f o r t h e c o ld w ate r t h ro w n i n to
th e c y lin der a cq uir e d h eat f ro m t h e s te am i t c o nden se d , a n d b ein g i n a v esse l
ex hau ste d o f a ir i t p ro duced s te am i ts e lf , w hic h i n p art r e sis te d t h e a ctio n o f
th e a tm osp here o n t h e p is to n; w ere t h is r e m ed ie d b y t h ro w in g i n m ore c o ld
wate r t h e d estr u ctio n o f s te am i n t h e n ex t f illin g o f t h e c y lin der w ould b e
pro portio nally i n cre ase d . I t h as t h ere fo re i n p ra ctic e b een f o und a d vis e ab le
not t o l o ad t h ese e n gin es w ith c o lu m ns o f w ate r w eig hin g m ore t h an s e v en
pounds f o r e ach s q uare i n ch o f t h e a re a o f t h e p is to n. T he b ulk o f w ate r w hen
co nverte d i n to s te am r e m ain ed u nknow n u ntil M r. J . W att, t h en o f G la sg ow ,
in 1 764, d ete rm in ed i t t o b e a b out 1 800 t im es m ore r a re t h an w ate r. I t s o on
occu rre d t o M r. W att t h at a p erfe ct e n gin e w ould b e t h at i n w hic h n o s te am
sh ould b e c o nden se d i n f illin g t h e c y lin der, a n d i n w hic h t h e s te am s h ould b e

so p erfe ctly c o ole d a s t o p ro duce n early a p erfe ct v acu um .
Mr. W att h av in g a sc erta in ed t h e d eg re e o f h eat i n w hic h w ate r b oile d i n
vacu o, a n d u nder p ro gre ssiv e d eg re es o f p re ssu re , a n d i n str u cte d b y D r.
Bla ck 's d is c o very o f l a te n t h eat, h av in g c alc u la te d t h e q uan tity o f c o ld w ate r
necessa ry t o c o nden se c erta in q uan titie s o f s te am s o f a r a s t o p ro duce t h e
ex hau stio n r e q uir e d , h e m ad e a c o m munic atio n f ro m t h e c y lin der t o a c o ld
vesse l p re v io usly e x hau ste d o f a ir a n d w ate r, i n to w hic h t h e s te am r u sh ed b y
its e la stic ity , a n d b ecam e i m med ia te ly c o nden se d . H e t h en a d ap te d a c o ver t o
th e c y lin der a n d a d m itte d s te am a b ove t h e p is to n t o p re ss i t d ow n i n ste ad o f
air , a n d i n ste ad o f a p ply in g w ate r h e u se d o il o r g re ase t o f ill t h e p ore s o f t h e
oak um a n d t o l u bric ate t h e c y lin der.
He n ex t a p plie d a p um p t o e x tr a ct t h e i n je ctio n w ate r, t h e c o nden se d s te am ,
an d t h e a ir , f ro m t h e c o nden sin g v esse l, e v ery s tr o ke o f t h e e n gin e.
To p re v en t t h e c o olin g o f t h e c y lin der b y t h e c o nta ct o f t h e e x te rn al a ir , h e
su rro unded i t w ith a c ase c o nta in in g s te am , w hic h h e a g ain p ro te cte d b y a
co verin g o f m atte rs w hic h c o nduct h eat s lo w ly .
This c o nstr u ctio n p re se n te d a n e asy m ean s o f r e g ula tin g t h e p ow er o f t h e
en gin e, f o r t h e s te am b ein g t h e a ctin g p ow er, a s t h e p ip e w hic h a d m its i t f ro m
th e b oile r i s m ore o r l e ss o pen ed , a g re ate r o r s m alle r q uan tity c an e n te r
durin g t h e t im e o f a s tr o ke, a n d c o nse q uen tly t h e e n gin e c an a ct w ith e x actly
th e n ecessa ry d eg re e o f e n erg y.
Mr. W att g ain ed a p ate n t f o r h is e n gin e i n 1 768, b ut t h e f u rth er p ers e cu tio n o f
his d esig ns w ere d ela y ed b y o th er a v ocatio ns t ill 1 775, w hen i n c o nju nctio n
with M r. B oulto n o f S oho n ear B ir m in gham , n um ero us e x perim en ts w ere
mad e o n a l a rg e s c ale b y t h eir u nite d i n gen uity , a n d g re at i m pro vem en ts
ad ded t o t h e m ach in ery , a n d a n a ct o f p arlia m en t o bta in ed f o r t h e
pro lo ngatio n o f t h eir p ate n t f o r t w en ty -fiv e y ears , t h ey h av e s in ce t h at t im e
dra in ed m an y o f t h e d eep m in es i n C orn w all, w hic h b ut f o r t h e h ap py u nio n
of s u ch g en iu s m ust i m med ia te ly h av e c ease d t o w ork . O ne o f t h ese e n gin es
work s a p um p o f e ig hte en i n ch es d ia m ete r, a n d u pw ard s o f 1 00 f a th om o r
600 f e et h ig h, a t t h e r a te o f t e n t o t w elv e s tr o kes o f s e v en f e et l o ng e ach , i n a
min ute , a n d t h at w ith o ne f if th p art o f t h e c o als w hic h a c o m mon e n gin e
would h av e t a k en t o d o t h e s a m e w ork . T he p ow er o f t h is e n gin e m ay b e

easie r c o m pre h en ded b y s a y in g t h at i t r a is e d a w eig ht e q ual t o 8 1000 p ounds
80 f e et h ig h i n a m in ute , w hic h i s e q ual t o t h e c o m bin ed a ctio n o f 2 00 g ood
hors e s. I n N ew co m en 's e n gin e t h is w ould h av e r e q uir e d a c y lin der o f t h e
en orm ous d ia m ete r o f 1 20 i n ch es o r t e n f e et, b ut a s i n t h is e n gin e o f M r. W att
an d M r. B oulto n t h e s te am a cts , a n d a v acu um i s m ad e, a lte rn ate ly a b ove a n d
belo w t h e p is to n, t h e p ow er e x erte d i s d ouble t o w hat t h e s a m e c y lin der
would o th erw ay s p ro duce, a n d i s f u rth er a u gm en te d b y a n i n eq uality i n t h e
le n gth o f t h e t w o e n ds o f t h e l e v er.
These g en tle m en h av e a ls o b y o th er c o ntr iv an ces a p plie d t h eir e n gin es t o t h e
tu rn in g o f m ills f o r a lm ost e v ery p urp ose , o f w hic h t h at g re at p ile o f
mach in ery t h e A lb io n M ill i s a w ell k now n i n sta n ce. F org es, s littin g m ills ,
an d o th er g re at w ork s a re e re cte d w here n atu re h as f u rn is h ed n o r u nnin g
wate r, a n d f u tu re t im es m ay b oast t h at t h is g ra n d a n d u se fu l e n gin e w as
in ven te d a n d p erfe cte d i n o ur o w n c o untr y .
Sin ce t h e a b ove a rtic le w en t t o t h e p re ss t h e A lb io n M ill i s n o m ore ; i t i s
su ppose d t o h av e b een s e t o n f ir e b y i n te re ste d o r m alic io us i n cen darie s, a n d
is b urn t t o t h e g ro und. W hen ce L ondon h as l o st t h e c re d it a n d t h e a d van ta g e
of p osse ssin g t h e m ost p ow erfu l m ach in e i n t h e w orld !

N O TE X II.— FR O ST .
I n p hala nx f ir m t h e f ie n d o f F ro st a ssa il.
C A NTO I . l . 4 39.
T he c au se o f t h e e x pan sio n o f w ate r d urin g i ts c o nvers io n i n to i c e i s n ot y et
w ell a sc erta in ed , i t w as s u ppose d t o h av e b een o w in g t o t h e a ir b ein g s e t a t
l ib erty i n t h e a ct o f c o ngela tio n w hic h w as b efo re d is so lv ed i n t h e w ate r, a n d
t h e m an y a ir b ubble s i n i c e w ere t h ought t o c o unte n an ce t h is o pin io n. B ut t h e
g re at f o rc e w ith w hic h i c e e x pan ds d urin g i ts c o ngela tio n, s o a s t o b urs t i r o n
b om bs a n d c o eh orn s, a cco rd in g t o t h e e x perim en ts o f M ajo r W illia m s a t
Q ueb ec, i n valid ate s t h is i d ea o f t h e c au se o f i t, a n d m ay s o m etim e b e b ro ught
i n to u se a s a m ean s o f b re ak in g r o ck s i n m in in g, o r p ro je ctin g c an non-b alls ,
o r f o r o th er m ech an ic al p urp ose s, i f t h e m ean s o f p ro ducin g c o ngela tio n
s h ould e v er b e d is c o vere d t o b e a s e asy a s t h e m ean s o f p ro ducin g
c o m bustio n.
M r. d e M air a n a ttr ib ute s t h e i n cre ase o f b ulk o f f ro zen w ate r t o t h e d if fe re n t
a rra n gem en t o f t h e p artic le s o f i t i n c ry sta lliz atio n, a s t h ey a re c o nsta n tly
j o in ed a t a n a n gle o f 6 0 d eg re es; a n d m ust b y t h is d is p ositio n h e t h in ks
o ccu py a g re ate r v olu m e t h an i f t h ey w ere p ara lle l. H e f o und t h e
a u gm en ta tio n o f t h e w ate r d urin g f re ezin g t o a m ount t o o ne-fo urte en th , o ne-
e ig hte en th , o ne-n in ete en th , a n d w hen t h e w ate r w as p re v io usly p urg ed o f a ir
t o o nly o ne-tw en ty -s e co nd p art. H e a d ds t h at a p ie ce o f i c e, w hic h w as a t f ir s t
o nly o ne-fo urte en th p art s p ecif ic ally l ig hte r t h an w ate r, o n b ein g e x pose d
s o m e d ay s t o t h e f ro st b ecam e o ne-tw elf th l ig hte r t h an w ate r. H en ce h e t h in ks
i c e b y b ein g e x pose d t o g re ate r c o ld s till i n cre ase s i n v olu m e, a n d t o t h is
a ttr ib ute s t h e b urs tin g o f i c e i n p onds a n d o n t h e g la cie rs . S ee L ew is 's

Com merc e o f A rts , p . 2 57. a n d t h e n ote o n M usc h us i n t h e o th er v olu m e o f
th is w ork .
This e x pan sio n o f i c e w ell a cco unts f o r t h e g re ate r m is c h ie f d one b y v ern al
fro sts a tte n ded w ith m ois tu re , ( a s b y h oar-fro sts ,) t h an b y t h e d ry f ro sts c alle d
bla ck f ro sts . M r. L aw re n ce i n a l e tte r t o M r. B ra d le y c o m pla in s t h at t h e d ale -
mis t a tte n ded w ith a f ro st o n m ay -d ay h ad d estr o yed a ll h is t e n der f ru its ;
th ough t h ere w as a s h arp er f ro st t h e n ig ht b efo re w ith out a m is t, t h at d id h im
no i n ju ry ; a n d a d ds, t h at a g ard en n ot a s to ne's t h ro w f ro m h is o w n o n a
hig her s itu atio n, b ein g a b ove t h e d ale -m is t, h ad r e ceiv ed n o d am ag e. B ra d le y ,
Vol. I I. p . 2 32.
Mr. H unte r b y v ery c u rio us e x perim en ts d is c o vere d t h at t h e l iv in g p rin cip le
in f is h , i n v eg eta b le s, a n d e v en i n e g gs a n d s e ed s, p osse sse s a p ow er o f
re sis tin g c o ngela tio n. P hil. T ra n s. T here c an b e n o d oubt b ut t h at t h e
ex ertio ns o f a n im als t o a v oid t h e p ain o f c o ld m ay p ro duce i n t h em a g re ate r
quan tity o f h eat, a t l e ast f o r a t im e, b ut t h at v eg eta b le s, e g gs, o r s e ed s, s h ould
posse ss s u ch a q uality i s t r u ly w onderfu l. O th ers h av e i m ag in ed t h at a n im als
posse ss a p ow er o f p re v en tin g t h em se lv es f ro m b eco m in g m uch w arm er t h an
98 d eg re es o f h eat, w hen i m mers e d i n a n a tm osp here a b ove t h at d eg re e o f
heat. I t i s t r u e t h at t h e i n cre ase d e x hala tio n f ro m t h eir b odie s w ill i n s o m e
measu re c o ol t h em , a s m uch h eat i s c arrie d o ff b y t h e e v ap ora tio n o f f lu id s,
but t h is i s a c h em ic al n ot a n a n im al p ro cess. T he e x perim en ts m ad e b y t h ose
who c o ntin ued m an y m in ute s i n t h e a ir o f a r o om h eate d s o m uch a b ove a n y
natu ra l a tm osp heric h eat, d o n ot s e em c o nclu siv e, a s t h ey r e m ain ed i n i t a
le ss t im e t h an w ould h av e b een n ecessa ry t o h av e h eate d a m ass o f b eef o f
th e s a m e m ag nitu de, a n d t h e c ir c u la tio n o f t h e b lo od i n l iv in g a n im als , b y
perp etu ally b rin gin g n ew s u pplie s o f f lu id t o t h e s k in , w ould p re v en t t h e
ex te rn al s u rfa ce f ro m b eco m in g h ot m uch s o oner t h an t h e w hole m ass. A nd
th ir d ly , t h ere a p pears n o p ow er o f a n im al b odie s t o p ro duce c o ld i n d is e ase s,
as i n s c arle t f e v er, i n w hic h t h e i n cre ase d a ctio n o f t h e v esse ls o f t h e s k in
pro duces h eat a n d c o ntr ib ute s t o e x hau st t h e a n im al p ow er a lr e ad y t o o m uch
weak en ed .
It h as b een t h ought b y m an y t h at f ro sts m elio ra te t h e g ro und, a n d t h at t h ey
are i n g en era l s a lu brio us t o m an kin d. I n r e sp ect t o t h e f o rm er i t i s n ow w ell
know n t h at i c e o r s n ow c o nta in n o n itr o us p artic le s, a n d t h ough f ro st b y

en la rg in g t h e b ulk o f m ois t c la y l e av es i t s o fte r f o r a t im e a fte r t h e t h aw , y et
as s o on a s t h e w ate r e x hale s, t h e c la y b eco m es a s h ard a s b efo re , b ein g
pre sse d t o geth er b y t h e i n cu m ben t a tm osp here , a n d b y i ts s e lf -a ttr a ctio n,
calle d
se ttin g
b y t h e p otte rs . A dd t o t h is t h at o n t h e c o asts o f A fric a, w here
fro st i s u nknow n, t h e f e rtility o f t h e s o il i s a lm ost b ey ond o ur c o ncep tio ns o f
it. I n r e sp ect t o t h e g en era l s a lu brity o f f ro sty s e aso ns t h e b ills o f m orta lity
are a n e v id en ce i n t h e n eg ativ e, a s i n l o ng f ro sts m an y w eak ly a n d o ld p eo ple
peris h f ro m d eb ility o ccasio ned b y t h e c o ld , a n d m an y c la sse s o f b ir d s a n d
oth er w ild a n im als a re b en um bed b y t h e c o ld o r d estr o yed b y t h e c o nse q uen t
sc arc ity o f f o od, a n d m an y t e n der v eg eta b le s p eris h f ro m t h e d eg re e o f c o ld .
I d o n ot t h in k i t s h ould b e o bje cte d t o t h is d octr in e t h at t h ere a re m ois t d ay s
atte n ded w ith a b ris k c o ld w in d w hen n o v is ib le i c e a p pears , a n d w hic h a re
yet m ore d is a g re eab le a n d d estr u ctiv e t h an f ro sty w eath er. F or o n t h ese d ay s
th e c o ld m ois tu re , w hic h i s d ep osite d o n t h e s k in i s t h ere e v ap ora te d a n d t h us
pro duces a d eg re e o f c o ld p erh ap s g re ate r t h an t h e m ild er f ro sts . W hen ce
ev en i n s u ch d ay s b oth t h e d is a g re eab le s e n sa tio ns a n d i n sa lu brio us e ffe cts
belo ng t o t h e c au se a b ovem en tio ned , v iz . t h e i n te n sity o f t h e c o ld . A dd t o t h is
th at i n t h ese c o ld m ois t d ay s a s w e p ass a lo ng o r a s t h e w in d b lo w s u pon u s, a
new s h eet o f c o ld w ate r i s a s i t w ere p erp etu ally a p plie d t o u s a n d h an gs u pon
our b odie s, n ow a s w ate r i s 8 00 t im es d en se r t h an a ir a n d i s a m uch b ette r
co nducto r o f h eat, w e a re s ta rv ed w ith c o ld l ik e t h ose w ho g o i n to a c o ld
bath , b oth b y t h e g re at n um ber o f p artic le s i n c o nta ct w ith t h e s k in a n d t h eir
gre ate r f a cility o f r e ceiv in g o ur h eat.
It m ay n ev erth ele ss b e t r u e t h at s n ow s o f l o ng d ura tio n i n o ur w in te rs m ay b e
le ss i n ju rio us t o v eg eta tio n t h an g re at r a in s a n d s h orte r f ro sts , f o r t w o
re aso ns. 1 . B ecau se g re at r a in s c arry d ow n m an y t h ousa n d p ounds w orth o f
th e b est p art o f t h e m an ure o ff t h e l a n ds i n to t h e s e a, w here as s n ow d is so lv es
more g ra d ually a n d t h en ce c arrie s a w ay l e ss f ro m t h e l a n d; a n y o ne m ay
dis tin guis h a s n ow -flo od f ro m a r a in -flo od b y t h e t r a n sp are n cy o f t h e w ate r.
Hen ce h ills o r f ie ld s w ith c o nsid era b le i n clin atio n o f s u rfa ce s h ould b e
plo ughed h oriz o nta lly t h at t h e f u rro w s m ay s ta y t h e w ate r f ro m s h ow ers t ill i t
dep osits i ts m ud. 2 . S now p ro te cts v eg eta b le s f ro m t h e s e v erity o f t h e f ro st,
sin ce i t i s a lw ay s i n a s ta te o f t h aw w here i t i s i n c o nta ct w ith t h e e arth ; a s t h e
earth 's h eat i s a b out 4 8° a n d t h e h eat o f t h aw in g s n ow i s 3 2° t h e v eg eta b le s
betw een t h em a re k ep t i n a d eg re e o f h eat a b out 4 0, b y w hic h m an y o f t h em

are p re se rv ed . S ee n ote o n M usc h us, V ol. I I. o f t h is w ork .

N O TE X III.— ELEC TR IC IT Y
C old f r o m e a ch p oin t c eru le a n l u str e s g le a m .
C A NTO I . l . 3 39.
E LEC TR IC P O IN TS.
T here w as a n i d le d is p ute w heth er k nobs o r p oin ts w ere p re fe ra b le o n t h e t o p
o f c o nducto rs f o r t h e d efe n ce o f h ouse s. T he d esig n o f t h ese c o nducto rs i s t o
p erm it t h e e le ctr ic m atte r a ccu m ula te d i n t h e c lo uds t o p ass t h ro ugh t h em i n to
t h e e arth i n a s m alle r c o ntin ued s tr e am a s t h e c lo ud a p pro ach es, b efo re i t
c o m es t o w hat i s t e rm ed s tr ik in g d is ta n ce; n ow a s i t i s w ell k now n t h at
a ccu m ula te d e le ctr ic ity w ill p ass t o p oin ts a t a m uch g re ate r d is ta n ce t h an i t
w ill t o k nobs t h ere c an b e n o d oubt o f t h eir p re fe re n ce; a n d i t w ould s e em
t h at t h e f in er t h e p oin t a n d t h e l e ss l ia b le t o b eco m e r u sty t h e b ette r, a s i t
w ould t a k e o ff t h e l ig hte n in g w hile i t w as s till a t a g re ate r d is ta n ce, a n d b y
t h at m ean s p re se rv e a g re ate r e x te n t o f b uild in g; t h e v ery e x tr e m ity o f t h e
p oin t s h ould b e o f p ure s ilv er o r g old , a n d m ig ht b e b ra n ch ed i n to a k in d o f
b ru sh , s in ce o ne s m all p oin t c an n ot b e s u ppose d t o r e ceiv e s o g re at a
q uan tity a s a t h ic k er b ar m ig ht c o nduct i n to t h e e arth .
I f a n i n su la te d m eta llic b all i s a rm ed w ith a p oin t, l ik e a n eed le , p ro je ctin g
f ro m o ne p art o f i t, t h e e le ctr ic f lu id w ill b e s e en i n t h e d ark t o p ass o ff f ro m
t h is p oin t, s o l o ng a s t h e b all i s k ep t s u pplie d w ith e le ctr ic ity . T he r e aso n o f
t h is i s n ot d if fic u lt t o c o m pre h en d, e v ery p art o f t h e e le ctr ic a tm osp here
w hic h s u rro unds t h e i n su la te d b all i s a ttr a cte d t o t h at b all b y a l a rg e s u rfa ce
o f i t, w here as t h e e le ctr ic a tm osp here w hic h i s n ear t h e e x tr e m ity o f t h e
n eed le i s a ttr a cte d t o i t b y o nly a s in gle p oin t, i n c o nse q uen ce t h e p artic le s o f

ele ctr ic m atte r n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e b all a p pro ach t o w ard s i t a n d p ush o ff
by t h eir g re ate r g ra v ita tio n t h e p artic le s o f e le ctr ic m atte r o ver t h e p oin t o f
th e n eed le i n a c o ntin ued s tr e am .
Som eth in g l ik e t h is h ap pen s i n r e sp ect t o t h e d if fu sio n o f o il o n w ate r f ro m a
poin te d c o rk , a n e x perim en t w hic h w as m an y y ears a g o s h ew n m e b y D r.
Fra n klin ; h e c u t a p ie ce o f c o rk a b out t h e s iz e o f a l e tte r-w afe r a n d l e ft o n o ne
ed ge o f i t a p oin t a b out a s ix th o f a n i n ch i n l e n gth p ro je ctin g a s a t a n gen t t o
th e c ir c u m fe re n ce. T his w as d ip ped i n o il a n d t h ro w n o n a p ond o f w ate r a n d
co ntin ued t o r e v olv e a s t h e o il l e ft t h e p oin t f o r a g re at m an y m in ute s. T he o il
desc en ds f ro m t h e f lo atin g c o rk u pon t h e w ate r b ein g d if fu se d u pon i t
with out f ric tio n a n d p erh ap s w ith out c o nta ct; b ut i ts g oin g o ff a t t h e p oin t s o
fo rc ib ly a s t o m ak e t h e c o rk r e v olv e i n a c o ntr a ry d ir e ctio n s e em s a n alo gous
to t h e d ep artu re o f t h e e le ctr ic f lu id f ro m p oin ts .
Can a n y t h in g s im ila r t o e ith er o f t h ese h ap pen i n r e sp ect t o t h e e arth 's
atm osp here a n d g iv e o ccasio n t o t h e b re ezes o n t h e t o ps o f m ounta in s, w hic h
may b e c o nsid ere d a s p oin ts o n t h e e arth s c ir c u m fe re n ce?
FA IR Y-R IN G S.
There i s a p hen om en on s u ppose d t o b e e le ctr ic w hic h i s y et u nacco unte d f o r,
I m ean t h e F air y -rin gs, a s t h ey a re c alle d , s o o fte n s e en o n t h e g ra ss. T he
num ero us f la sh es o f l ig htn in g w hic h o ccu r e v ery s u m mer a re , I b elie v e,
gen era lly d is c h arg ed o n t h e e arth , a n d b ut s e ld om ( if e v er) f ro m o ne c lo ud t o
an oth er. M ois t t r e es a re t h e m ost f re q uen t c o nducto rs o f t h ese f la sh es o f
lig htn in g, a n d I a m i n fo rm ed b y p urc h ase rs o f w ood t h at i n num era b le t r e es
are t h us c ra ck ed a n d i n ju re d . A t o th er t im es l a rg er p arts o r p ro m in en ces o f
clo uds g ra d ually s in kin g a s t h ey m ove a lo ng, a re d is c h arg ed o n t h e m ois tu re
parts o f g ra ssy p la in s. N ow t h is k nob o r c o rn er o f a c lo ud i n b ein g a ttr a cte d
by t h e e arth w ill b eco m e n early c y lin dric al, a s l o ose w ool w ould d o w hen
dra w n o ut i n to a t h re ad , a n d w ill s tr ik e t h e e arth w ith a s tr e am o f e le ctr ic ity
perh ap s t w o o r t e n y ard s i n d ia m ete r. N ow a s a s tr e am o f e le ctr ic ity d is p la ces
th e a ir i t p asse s t h ro ugh, i t i s p la in n o p art o f t h e g ra ss c an b e b urn t b y i t, b ut
ju st t h e e x te rn al r in g o f t h is c y lin der w here t h e g ra ss c an h av e a ccess t o t h e
air , s in ce w ith out a ir n oth in g c an b e c alc in ed . T his e arth a fte r h av in g b een s o

calc in ed b eco m es a r ic h er s o il, a n d e ith er f u nguse s o r a b lu er g ra ss f o r m an y
years m ark t h e p la ce. T hat l ig htn in g d is p la ces t h e a ir i n i ts p assa g e i s e v in ced
by t h e l o ud c ra ck t h at s u cceed s i t, w hic h i s o w in g t o t h e s id es o f t h e a eria l
vacu um c la p pin g t o geth er w hen t h e l ig htn in g i s w ith dra w n. T hat n oth in g w ill
calc in e w ith out a ir i s n ow w ell u nders to od f ro m t h e a cid s p ro duced i n t h e
burn in g o f p hlo gis tic s u bsta n ces, a n d m ay b e a g re eab ly s e en b y s u sp en din g a
pap er o n a n i r o n p ro ng a n d p uttin g i t i n to t h e c en tr e o f t h e b la ze o f a n i r o n-
fu rn ace; i t m ay b e h eld t h ere s o m e s e co nds a n d m ay b e a g ain w ith dra w n
with out i ts b ein g b urn t, i f i t b e p asse d q uic k ly i n to t h e f la m e a n d o ut a g ain
th ro ugh t h e e x te rn al p art o f i t w hic h i s i n c o nta ct w ith t h e a ir . I k now s o m e
cir c le s o f m an y y ard s d ia m ete r o f t h is k in d n ear F ore m ark i n D erb ysh ir e
whic h a n nually p ro duce l a rg e w hite f u nguse s a n d s tr o nger g ra ss, a n d h av e
done s o , I a m i n fo rm ed , a b ove t h ir ty y ears . T his i n cre ase d f e rtility o f t h e
gro und b y c alc in atio n o r c h arrin g, a n d i ts c o ntin uin g t o o pera te s o m an y
years i s w ell w orth t h e a tte n tio n o f t h e f a rm er, a n d s h ew s t h e u se o f p arin g
an d b urn in g n ew t u rf i n a g ric u ltu re , w hic h p ro duces i ts e ffe ct n ot s o m uch b y
th e a sh es o f t h e v eg eta b le f ib re s a s b y c h arrin g t h e s o il w hic h a d here s t o
th em .
These s itu atio ns, w heth er f ro m e m in en ce o r f ro m m ois tu re , w hic h w ere
pro per o nce t o a ttr a ct a n d d is c h arg e a t h under-c lo ud, a re m ore l ia b le a g ain t o
ex perie n ce t h e s a m e. H en ce m an y f a ir y -rin gs a re o fte n s e en n ear e ach o th er
eith er w ith out i n te rs e ctin g e ach o th er, a s I s a w t h is s u m mer i n a g ard en i n
Nottin gham sh ir e , o r i n te rs e ctin g e ach o th er a s d esc rib ed o n A rth ur's s e at n ear
Edin burg h i n t h e E din b. T ra n s. V ol. I I. p . 3 .

N O TE X IV .— BU DS A ND B U LBS.
Where d w ell m y v eg eta tiv e r e a lm s b en um b'd
In b uds i m pris o n'd , o r
in b ulb s i n to m b'd .
C A NTO I . l . 4 59.
A t r e e i s p ro perly s p eak in g a f a m ily o r s w arm o f b uds, e ach b ud b ein g a n
i n div id ual p la n t, f o r i f o ne o f t h ese b uds b e t o rn o r c u t o ut a n d p la n te d i n t h e
e arth w ith a g la ss c u p i n verte d o ver i t t o p re v en t i ts e x hala tio n f ro m b ein g a t
f ir s t g re ate r t h an i ts p ow er o f a b so rp tio n, i t w ill p ro duce a t r e e s im ila r t o i ts
p are n t; e ach b ud h as a l e af, w hic h i s i ts l u ngs, a p pro pria te d t o i t, a n d t h e b ark
o f t h e t r e e i s a c o ngerie s o f t h e r o ots o f t h ese i n div id ual b uds, w hen ce o ld
h ollo w t r e es a re o fte n s e en t o h av e s o m e b ra n ch es f lo uris h w ith v ig our a fte r
t h e i n te rn al w ood i s a lm ost i n tir e ly d ecay ed a n d v an is h ed . A cco rd in g t o t h is
i d ea L in neu s h as o bse rv ed t h at t r e es a n d s h ru bs a re r o ots a b ove g ro und, f o r i f
a t r e e b e i n verte d l e av es w ill g ro w f ro m t h e r o ot- p art a n d r o ots f ro m t h e
t r u nk-p art. P hil. B ot p . 3 9. H en ce i t a p pears t h at v eg eta b le s h av e t w o
m eth ods o f p ro pag atin g t h em se lv es, t h e o vip aro us a s b y s e ed s, a n d t h e
v iv ip aro us a s b y t h eir b uds a n d b ulb s, a n d t h at t h e i n div id ual p la n ts , w heth er
f ro m s e ed s o r b uds o r b ulb s, a re a ll a n nual p ro ductio ns l ik e m an y k in ds o f
i n se cts a s t h e s ilk -w orm , t h e p are n t p eris h in g i n t h e a u tu m n a fte r h av in g
p ro duced a n e m bry on, w hic h l ie s i n a t o rp id s ta te d urin g t h e w in te r, a n d i s
m atu re d i n t h e s u cceed in g s u m mer. H en ce L in neu s n am es b uds a n d b ulb s t h e
w in te r-c ra d le s o f t h e p la n t o r h ybern acu la , a n d m ig ht h av e g iv en t h e s a m e
t e rm t o s e ed s. I n w arm c lim ate s f e w p la n ts p ro duce b uds, a s t h e v eg eta b le l if e
c an b e c o m ple ate d i n o ne s u m mer, a n d h en ce t h e h ybern acle i s n ot w an te d ; i n
c o ld c lim ate s a ls o s o m e p la n ts d o n ot p ro duce b uds, a s p hila d elp hus,
f ra n gula , v ib urn um , i v y, h eath , w ood-n ig hts h ad e, r u e, g era n iu m .

The b ulb s o f p la n ts a re a n oth er k in d o f w in te r-c ra d le , o r h ybern acle , a d herin g
to t h e d esc en din g t r u nk, a n d a re f o und i n t h e p ere n nia l h erb aceo us p la n ts
whic h a re t o o t e n der t o b ear t h e c o ld o f t h e w in te r. T he p ro ductio n o f t h ese
su bte rra n eo us w in te r l o dges, i s n ot y et p erh ap s c le arly u nders to od, t h ey h av e
been d is tr ib ute d b y L in neu s a cco rd in g t o t h eir f o rm s i n to s c aly , s o lid , c o ate d ,
an d j o in te d b ulb s, w hic h h ow ev er d oes n ot e lu cid ate t h eir m an ner o f
pro ductio n. A s t h e b uds o f t r e es m ay b e t r u ly e ste em ed i n div id ual a n nual
pla n ts , t h eir r o ots c o nstitu tin g t h e b ark o f t h e t r e e, i t f o llo w s t h at t h ese r o ots
(v iz . o f e ach i n div id ual b ud) s p re ad t h em se lv es o ver t h e l a st y ears b ark ,
mak in g a n ew b ark o ver t h e o ld o ne, a n d t h en ce d esc en din g c o ver w ith a n ew
bark t h e o ld r o ots a ls o i n t h e s a m e m an ner. A s im ila r c ir c u m sta n ce I s u ppose
to h ap pen i n s o m e h erb aceo us p la n ts , t h at i s , a n ew b ark i s a n nually p ro duced
over t h e o ld r o ot, a n d t h us f o r s o m e y ears a t l e ast t h e o ld r o ot o r c au dex
in cre ase s i n s iz e a n d p uts u p n ew s te m s. A s t h ese r o ots i n cre ase i n s iz e t h e
cen tr a l p art I s u ppose c h an ges l ik e t h e i n te rn al w ood o f a t r e e a n d d oes n ot
posse ss a n y v eg eta b le l if e , a n d t h ere fo re g iv es o ut n o f ib re s o r r o otle ts , a n d
hen ce a p pears b itte n o ff, a s i n v ale ria n , p la n ta in , a n d d ev il's -b it. A nd t h is
decay o f t h e c en tr a l p art o f t h e r o ot I s u ppose h as g iv en o ccasio n t o t h e b elie f
of t h e r o ot- fib re s d ra w in g d ow n t h e b ulb s o m uch i n sis te d o n b y M r. M iln e i n
his B ota n ic al D ic tio nary , A rt. B ulb .
Fro m t h e o bse rv atio ns a n d d ra w in gs o f v ario us k in ds o f b ulb ous r o ots a t
dif fe re n t t im es o f t h eir g ro w th , s e n t m e b y a y oung l a d y o f n ic e o bse rv atio n,
it a p pears p ro bab le t h at a ll b ulb ous r o ots p ro perly s o c alle d p eris h a n nually i n
th is c lim ate : B ra d le y , M ille r, a n d t h e A uth or o f S pecta cle d e l a N atu re ,
obse rv e t h at t h e t u lip a n nually r e n ew s i ts b ulb , f o r t h e s ta lk o f t h e o ld f lo w er
is f o und u nder t h e o ld d ry c o at b ut o n t h e o uts id e o f t h e n ew b ulb . T his l a rg e
new b ulb i s t h e f lo w erin g b ulb , b ut b esid es t h is t h ere a re o th er s m all n ew
bulb s p ro duced b etw een t h e c o ats o f t h is l a rg e o ne b ut f ro m t h e s a m e c au dex ,
(o r c ir c le f ro m w hic h t h e r o ot- fib re s s p rin g;) t h ese s m all b ulb s a re l e af-
bearin g b ulb s, a n d r e n ew t h em se lv es a n nually w ith i n cre asin g s iz e t ill t h ey
bear f lo w ers .
Mis s — — f a v oure d m e w ith t h e f o llo w in g c u rio us e x perim en t: S he t o ok a
sm all t u lip -ro ot o ut o f t h e e arth w hen t h e g re en l e av es w ere s u ffic ie n tly h ig h
to s h ow t h e f lo w er, a n d p la ced i t i n a g la ss o f w ate r; t h e l e av es a n d f lo w er
so on w ith ere d a n d t h e b ulb b ecam e w rin kle d a n d s o ft, b ut p ut o ut o ne s m all

sid e b ulb a n d t h re e b ulb s b en eath d esc en din g a n i n ch i n to t h e w ate r b y l o ng
pro cesse s f ro m t h e c au dex , t h e o ld b ulb i n s o m e w eek s i n tir e ly d ecay ed ; o n
dis se ctin g t h is m onste r, t h e m id dle d esc en din g b ulb w as f o und b y i ts p ro cess
to a d here t o t h e c au dex a n d t o t h e o ld f lo w er-s te m , a n d t h e s id e o nes w ere
se p ara te d f ro m t h e f lo w er- s te m b y a f e w s h riv elle d c o ats b ut a d here d t o t h e
cau dex . W hen ce s h e c o nclu des t h at t h ese l a st w ere o ff-s e ts o r l e af-b ulb s
whic h s h ould h av e b een s e en b etw een t h e c o ats o f t h e n ew f lo w er-b ulb i f i t
had b een l e ft t o g ro w i n t h e e arth , a n d t h at t h e m id dle o ne w ould h av e b een
th e n ew f lo w er-b ulb . I n s o m e y ears ( p erh ap s i n w et s e aso ns) t h e f lo ris ts a re
sa id t o l o se m an y o f t h eir t u lip -ro ots b y a s im ila r p ro cess, t h e n ew l e af-b ulb s
bein g p ro duced b en eath t h e o ld o nes b y a n e lo ngatio n o f t h e c au dex w ith out
an y n ew f lo w er-b ulb s.
By r e p eate d d is se ctio ns s h e o bse rv es t h at t h e l e af-b ulb s o r o ff-s e ts o f t u lip ,
cro cu s, g la d io lu s, f ritilla ry , a re r e n ew ed i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s t h e f lo w erin g-
bulb s, c o ntr a ry t o t h e o pin io n o f m an y w rite rs ; t h is n ew l e af-b ulb i s f o rm ed
on t h e i n sid e o f t h e c o ats f ro m w hen ce t h e l e av es g ro w , a n d i s m ore o r l e ss
ad van ced i n s iz e a s t h e o ute r c o ats a n d l e av es a re m ore o r l e ss s h riv elle d . I n
ex am in in g t u lip , i r is , h yacin th , h are - b ell, t h e n ew b ulb w as i n varia b ly f o und
betw een
t h e f lo w er-s te m a n d t h e b ase o f t h e i n nerm ost l e af o f t h ose r o ots
whic h h ad f lo w ere d , a n d
in clo se d
b y t h e b ase o f t h e i n nerm ost l e af i n t h ose
ro ots w hic h h ad n ot f lo w ere d , i n b oth c ase s a d herin g t o t h e c au dex o r f le sh y
cir c le f ro m w hic h t h e r o ot- fib re s s p rin g.
Hen ce i t i s p ro bab le t h at t h e b ulb s o f h yacin th s a re r e n ew ed a n nually , b ut t h at
th is i s p erfo rm ed f ro m t h e c au dex w ith in t h e o ld b ulb , t h e o ute r c o at o f w hic h
does n ot s o s h riv el a s i n c ro cu s a n d f ritilla ry a n d h en ce t h is c h an ge i s n ot s o
ap pare n t. B ut I b elie v e a s s o on a s t h e f lo w er i s a d van ced t h e n ew b ulb s m ay
be s e en o n d is se ctio n, n or d oes t h e a n nual i n cre ase o f t h e s iz e o f t h e r o ot o f
cy cla m en a n d o f a le tr is c ap en sis m ilita te a g ain st t h is a n nual r e n ew al o f t h em ,
sin ce t h e l e af- b ulb s o r o ff-s e ts , a s d esc rib ed a b ove, a re i n cre ase d i n s iz e a s
th ey a re a n nually r e n ew ed . S ee n ote o n o rc h is , a n d o n a n th oxan th um , i n V ol.
II. o f t h is w ork .

N O TE X V.— SO LA R V O LC ANO S.
Fro m t h e d eep c ra te rs o f h is r e a lm s o f f ir e
The w hir lin g s u n t h is
pondero us p la net h urld
.
C A NTO I I. l . 1 4.
D r. A le x an der W ils o n, P ro fe sso r o f A str o nom y a t G la sg ow , p ublis h ed a
p ap er i n t h e P hilo so phic al T ra n sa ctio ns f o r 1 774, d em onstr a tin g t h at t h e s p ots
i n t h e s u n's d is k a re r e al c av itie s, e x cav atio ns t h ro ugh t h e l u m in ous m ate ria l,
w hic h c o vers t h e o th er p arts o f t h e s u n's s u rfa ce. O ne o f t h ese c av itie s h e
f o und t o b e a b out 4 000 m ile s d eep a n d m an y t im es a s w id e. S om e o bje ctio ns
w ere m ad e t o t h is d octr in e b y M . D e l a L au de i n t h e M em oir s o f t h e F re n ch
A cad em y f o r t h e y ear 1 776, w hic h h ow ev er h av e b een a b ly a n sw ere d b y
P ro fe sso r W ils o n i n r e p ly i n t h e P hilo s. T ra n s. f o r 1 783. K eil o bse rv es, i n h is
A str o nom ic al L ectu re s, p . 4 4, " W e f re q uen tly s e e s p ots i n t h e s u n w hic h a re
l a rg er a n d b ro ad er n ot o nly t h an E uro pe o r A fric a, b ut w hic h e v en e q ual, i f
t h ey d o n ot e x ceed , t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e w hole t e rra q ueo us g lo be." N ow t h at
t h ese c av itie s a re m ad e i n t h e s u n's b ody b y a p ro cess o f n atu re s im ila r t o o ur
e arth quak es d oes n ot s e em i m pro bab le o n s e v era l a cco unts . 1 . B ecau se f ro m
t h is d is c o very o f D r. W ils o n i t a p pears t h at t h e i n te rn al p arts o f t h e s u n a re
n ot i n a s ta te o f i n fla m matio n o r o f e je ctin g l ig ht, l ik e t h e e x te rn al p art o r
l u m in ous o cean w hic h c o vers i t; a n d h en ce t h at a g re ate r d eg re e o f h eat o r
i n fla m matio n a n d c o nse q uen t e x pan sio n o r e x plo sio n m ay o ccasio nally b e
p ro duced i n i ts i n te rn al o r d ark n ucle u s. 2 . B ecau se t h e s o la r s p ots o r c av itie s
a re f re q uen tly i n cre ase d o r d im in is h ed i n s iz e. 3 . N ew o nes a re o fte n
p ro duced . 4 . A nd o ld o nes v an is h . 5 . B ecau se t h ere a re b rig hte r o r m ore
l u m in ous p arts o f t h e s u n's d is k , c alle d f a cu la e b y S ch ein er a n d H ev eliu s,
w hic h w ould s e em t o b e v olc an os i n t h e s u n, o r, a s D r. W ils o n c alls t h em ,

"e ru cta tio ns o f m atte r m ore l u m in ous t h an t h at w hic h c o vers t h e s u n's
su rfa ce." 6 . T o w hic h m ay b e a d ded t h at a ll t h e p la n ets a d ded t o geth er w ith
th eir s a te llite s d o n ot a m ount t o m ore t h an o ne s ix h undre d a n d f if tie th p art o f
th e m ass o f t h e s u n a cco rd in g t o S ir I s a ac N ew to n.
Now i f i t c o uld b e s u ppose d t h at t h e p la n ets w ere o rig in ally t h ro w n o ut o f t h e
su n b y l a rg er s u n-q uak es t h an t h ose f re q uen t o nes w hic h o ccasio n t h ese s p ots
or e x cav atio ns a b ove-m en tio ned , w hat w ould h ap pen ? 1 . A cco rd in g t o t h e
obse rv atio ns a n d o pin io n o f M r. H ers c h el t h e s u n i ts e lf a n d a ll i ts p la n ets a re
movin g f o rw ard s r o und s o m e o th er c en tr e w ith a n u nknow n v elo city , w hic h
may b e o f o pak e m atte r c o rre sp ondin g w ith t h e v ery a n tie n t a n d g en era l i d ea
of a c h ao s. W hen ce i f a p ondero us p la n et, a s S atu rn , c o uld b e s u ppose d t o b e
pro je cte d f ro m t h e s u n b y a n e x plo sio n, t h e m otio n o f t h e s u n i ts e lf m ig ht b e
at t h e s a m e t im e d is tu rb ed i n s u ch a m an ner a s t o p re v en t t h e p la n et f ro m
fa llin g a g ain i n to i t. 2 . A s t h e s u n r e v olv es r o und i ts o w n a x is i ts f o rm m ust
be t h at o f a n o bla te s p hero id l ik e t h e e arth , a n d t h ere fo re a b ody p ro je cte d
fro m i ts s u rfa ce p erp en dic u la rly u pw ard s f ro m t h at s u rfa ce w ould n ot r is e
perp en dic u la rly f ro m t h e s u n's c en tr e , u nle ss i t h ap pen ed t o b e p ro je cte d
ex actly f ro m e ith er o f i ts p ole s o r f ro m i ts e q uato r. W hen ce i t m ay n ot b e
necessa ry t h at a p la n et i f t h us p ro je cte d f ro m t h e s u n b y e x plo sio n s h ould
ag ain f a ll i n to t h e s u n. 3 . T hey w ould p art f ro m t h e s u n's s u rfa ce w ith t h e
velo city w ith w hic h t h at s u rfa ce w as m ovin g, a n d w ith t h e v elo city a cq uir e d
by t h e e x plo sio n, a n d w ould t h ere fo re m ove r o und t h e s u n i n t h e s a m e
dir e ctio n i n w hic h t h e s u n r o ta te s o n i ts a x is , a n d p erfo rm e lip tic o rb its . 4 . A ll
th e p la n ets w ould m ove t h e s a m e w ay r o und t h e s u n, f ro m t h is f ir s t m otio n
acq uir e d a t l e av in g i ts s u rfa ce, b ut t h eir o rb its w ould b e i n clin ed t o e ach o th er
acco rd in g t o t h e d is ta n ce o f t h e p art, w here t h ey w ere t h ro w n o ut, f ro m t h e
su n's e q uato r. H en ce t h ose w hic h w ere e je cte d n ear t h e s u n's e q uato r w ould
hav e o rb its b ut l ittle i n clin ed t o e ach o th er, a s t h e p rim ary p la n ets ; t h e p la in
of a ll w hose o rb its a re i n clin ed b ut s e v en d eg re es a n d a h alf f ro m e ach o th er.
Oth ers w hic h w ere e je cte d n ear t h e s u n's p ole s w ould h av e m uch m ore
eccen tr ic o rb its , a s t h ey w ould p arta k e s o m uch l e ss o f t h e s u n's r o ta to ry
motio n a t t h e t im e t h ey p arte d f ro m h is s u rfa ce, a n d w ould t h ere fo re b e
carrie d f u rth er f ro m t h e s u n b y t h e v elo city t h ey h ad g ain ed b y t h e e x plo sio n
whic h e je cte d t h em , a n d b eco m e c o m ets . 5 . T hey w ould a ll o bey t h e s a m e
la w s o f m otio n i n t h eir r e v olu tio ns r o und t h e s u n; t h is h as b een d ete rm in ed
by a str o nom ers , w ho h av e d em onstr a te d t h at t h ey m ove t h ro ugh e q ual a re as

in e q ual t im es. 6 . A s t h eir a n nual p erio ds w ould d ep en d o n t h e h eig ht t h ey
ro se b y t h e e x plo sio n, t h ese w ould d if fe r i n t h em a ll. 7 . A s t h eir d iu rn al
re v olu tio ns w ould d ep en d o n o ne s id e o f t h e e x plo ded m atte r a d herin g m ore
th an t h e o th er a t t h e t im e i t w as t o rn o ff b y t h e e x plo sio n, t h ese w ould a ls o
dif fe r i n t h e d if fe re n t p la n ets , a n d n ot b ear a n y p ro portio n t o t h eir a n nual
perio ds. N ow a s a ll t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces c o in cid e w ith t h e k now n l a w s o f t h e
pla n eta ry s y ste m , t h ey s e rv e t o s tr e n gth en t h is c o nje ctu re .
This c o in cid en ce o f s u ch a v arie ty o f c ir c u m sta n ces i n duced M . d e B uffo n t o
su ppose t h at t h e p la n ets w ere a ll s tr u ck o ff f ro m t h e s u n's s u rfa ce b y t h e
im pact o f a l a rg e c o m et, s u ch a s a p pro ach ed s o n ear t h e s u n's d is k , a n d w ith
su ch a m azin g v elo city , i n t h e y ear 1 680, a n d i s e x pecte d t o r e tu rn i n 2 255.
But M r. B uffo n d id n ot r e co lle ct t h at t h ese c o m ets t h em se lv es a re o nly
pla n ets w ith m ore e ccen tr ic o rb its , a n d t h at t h ere fo re i t m ust b e a sk ed , w hat
had p re v io usly s tr u ck o ff t h ese c o m ets f ro m t h e s u n's b ody? 2 . T hat i f a ll
th ese p la n ets w ere s tr u ck o ff f ro m t h e s u n a t t h e s a m e t im e, t h ey m ust h av e
been s o n ear a s t o h av e a ttr a cte d e ach o th er a n d h av e f o rm ed o ne m ass: 3 .
That w e s h all w an t n ew c au se s f o r s e p ara tin g t h e s e co ndary p la n ets f ro m t h e
prim ary o nes, a n d m ust t h ere fo re l o ok o ut f o r s o m e o th er a g en t, a s i t d oes n ot
ap pear h ow t h e i m puls e o f a c o m et c o uld h av e m ad e o ne p la n et r o ll r o und
an oth er a t t h e t im e t h ey b oth o f t h em w ere d riv en o ff f ro m t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e
su n.
If i t s h ould b e a sk ed , w hy n ew p la n ets a re n ot f re q uen tly e je cte d f ro m t h e
su n? i t m ay b e a n sw ere d , t h at a fte r m an y l a rg e e arth quak es m an y v en ts a re
le ft f o r t h e e la stic v ap ours t o e sc ap e, a n d h en ce, b y t h e p re se n t a p peara n ce o f
th e s u rfa ce o f o ur e arth , e arth quak es p ro dig io usly l a rg er t h an a n y r e co rd ed i n
his to ry h av e e x is te d ; t h e s a m e c ir c u m sta n ces m ay h av e a ffe cte d t h e s u n, o n
whose s u rfa ce t h ere a re a p peara n ces o f v olc an os, a s d esc rib ed a b ove. A dd t o
th is , t h at s o m e o f t h e c o m ets , a n d e v en t h e g eo rg iu m s id us, m ay , f o r o ught
we k now t o t h e c o ntr a ry , h av e b een e m itte d f ro m t h e s u n i n m ore m odern
day s, a n d h av e b een d iv erte d f ro m t h eir c o urs e , a n d t h us p re v en te d f ro m
re tu rn in g i n to t h e s u n, b y t h eir a p pro ach t o s o m e o f t h e o ld er p la n ets , w hic h
is s o m ew hat c o unte n an ced b y t h e o pin io n s e v era l p hilo so phers h av e
main ta in ed , t h at t h e q uan tity o f m atte r o f t h e s u n h as d ecre ase d . D r. H alle y
obse rv ed , t h at b y c o m parin g t h e p ro portio n w hic h t h e p erio dic al t im e o f t h e
moon b ore t o t h at o f t h e s u n i n f o rm er t im es, w ith t h e p ro portio n b etw een

th em a t p re se n t, t h at t h e m oon i s f o und t o b e s o m ew hat a ccele ra te d i n r e sp ect
to t h e s u n. P em berto n's V ie w o f S ir I s a ac N ew to n, p . 2 47. A nd s o l a rg e i s t h e
body o f t h is m ig hty l u m in ary , t h at a ll t h e p la n ets t h us t h ro w n o ut o f i t w ould
mak e s c arc ely a n y p erc ep tib le d im in utio n o f i t, a s m en tio ned a b ove. T he
cav ity m en tio ned a b ove, a s m easu re d b y D r. W ils o n o f 4 000 m ile s i n d ep th ,
not p en etr a tin g a n h undre d th p art o f t h e s u n's s e m i- d ia m ete r; a n d y et, a s i ts
wid th w as m an y t im es g re ate r t h an i ts d ep th , w as l a rg e e n ough t o c o nta in a
gre ate r b ody t h an o ur t e rre str ia l w orld .
I d o n ot m ean t o c o nceal, t h at f ro m t h e l a w s o f g ra v ity u nfo ld ed b y S ir I s a ac
New to n, s u pposin g t h e s u n t o b e a s p here a n d t o h av e n o p ro gre ssiv e m otio n,
an d n ot l ia b le i ts e lf t o b e d is tu rb ed b y t h e s u ppose d p ro je ctio n o f t h e p la n ets
fro m i t, t h at s u ch p la n ets m ust r e tu rn i n to t h e s u n. T he l a te R ev . W illia m
Ludla m , o f L eic este r, w hose g en iu s n ev er m et w ith r e w ard e q ual t o i ts m erits ,
in a l e tte r t o m e, d ate d J a n uary , 1 787, a fte r h av in g s h ew n, a s m en tio ned
ab ove, t h at p la n ets s o p ro je cte d f ro m t h e s u n w ould r e tu rn t o i t, a d ds, " T hat a
body a s l a rg e a s t h e m oon s o p ro je cte d , w ould d is tu rb t h e m otio n o f t h e e arth
in i ts o rb it, i s c erta in ; b ut t h e c alc u la tio n o f s u ch d is tu rb in g f o rc es i s d if fic u lt.
The b ody i n s o m e c ir c u m sta n ces m ig ht b eco m e a s a te llite , a n d b oth m ove
ro und t h eir c o m mon c en tr e o f g ra v ity , a n d t h at c en tr e b e c arrie d i n a n a n nual
orb it r o und t h e s u n."
There a re o th er c ir c u m sta n ces w hic h m ig ht h av e c o ncu rre d a t t h e t im e o f
su ch s u ppose d e x plo sio ns, w hic h w ould r e n der t h is i d ea n ot i m possib le . 1 .
The p la n ets m ig ht b e t h ro w n o ut o f t h e s u n a t t h e t im e t h e s u n i ts e lf w as
ris in g f ro m c h ao s, a n d b e a ttr a cte d b y o th er s u ns i n t h eir v ic in ity r is in g a t t h e
sa m e t im e o ut o f c h ao s, w hic h w ould p re v en t t h em f ro m r e tu rn in g i n to t h e
su n. 2 . T he n ew p la n et i n i ts c o urs e o r a sc en t f ro m t h e s u n, m ig ht e x plo de
an d e je ct a s a te llite , o r p erh ap s m ore t h an o ne, a n d t h us b y i ts c o urs e b ein g
affe cte d m ig ht n ot r e tu rn i n to t h e s u n. 3 . I f m ore p la n ets w ere e je cte d a t t h e
sa m e t im e f ro m t h e s u n, t h ey m ig ht a ttr a ct a n d d is tu rb e ach o th ers c o urs e a t
th e t im e t h ey l e ft t h e b ody o f t h e s u n, o r v ery s o on a fte rw ard s, w hen t h ey
would b e s o m uch n eare r e ach o th er.

N O TE X VI.— CALC AREO US E A RTH .
W hile O cea n w ra p'd i t i n h is a zu re r o be
.
C A NTO I I. l . 3 4.
F ro m h av in g o bse rv ed t h at m an y o f t h e h ig hest m ounta in s o f t h e w orld
c o nsis t o f l im e-s to ne r e p le te w ith s h ells , a n d t h at t h ese m ounta in s b ear t h e
m ark s o f h av in g b een l if te d u p b y s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s f ro m t h e i n te rio r p arts
o f t h e g lo be; a n d a s l im e-s to ne r e p le te w ith s h ells i s f o und a t t h e b otto m o f
m an y o f o ur d eep est m in es s o m e p hilo so phers h av e c o nclu ded t h at t h e
n ucle u s o f t h e e arth w as f o r m an y a g es c o vere d w ith w ate r w hic h w as
p eo ple d w ith i ts a d ap te d a n im als ; t h at t h e s h ells a n d b ones o f t h ese a n im als i n
a l o ng s e rie s o f t im e p ro duced s o lid s tr a ta i n t h e o cean s u rro undin g t h e
o rig in al n ucle u s.
T hese s tr a ta c o nsis t o f t h e a ccu m ula te d e x uvia e o f s h ell- fis h , t h e a n im als
p eris h ed a g e a fte r a g e b ut t h eir s h ells r e m ain ed , a n d i n p ro gre ssio n o f t im e
p ro duced t h e a m azin g q uan titie s o f l im e-s to ne w hic h a lm ost c o ver t h e e arth .
O th er m arin e a n im als c alle d c o ra llo id s r a is e d w alls a n d e v en m ounta in s b y
t h e c o ngerie s o f t h eir c alc are o us h ab ita tio ns, t h ese p erp en dic u la r c o rra llin e
r o ck s m ak e s o m e p arts o f t h e S outh ern O cean h ig hly d an gero us, a s a p pears i n
t h e j o urn als o f C ap t. C ook. F ro m c o nte m pla tin g t h e i m men se s tr a ta o f l im e-
s to ne, b oth i n r e sp ect t o t h eir e x te n t a n d t h ic k ness, f o rm ed f ro m t h ese s h ells
o f a n im als , p hilo so phers h av e b een l e d t o c o nclu de t h at m uch o f t h e w ate r o f
t h e s e a h as b een c o nverte d i n to c alc are o us e arth b y p assin g t h ro ugh t h eir
o rg an s o f d ig estio n. T he f o rm atio n o f c alc are o us e arth s e em s m ore
p artic u la rly t o b e a n a n im al p ro cess a s t h e f o rm atio n o f c la y b elo ngs t o t h e
v eg eta b le e co nom y; t h us t h e s h ells o f c ra b s a n d o th er t e sta ceo us f is h a re

an nually r e p ro duced f ro m t h e m uco us m em bra n e b en eath t h em ; t h e s h ells o f
eg gs a re f ir s t a m uco us m em bra n e, a n d t h e c alc u li o f t h e k id ney s a n d t h ose
fo und i n a ll o th er p arts o f o ur s y ste m w hic h s o m etim es c o nta in c alc are o us
earth , s e em t o o rig in ate f ro m i n fla m ed m em bra n es; t h e b ones t h em se lv es
co nsis t o f c alc are o us e arth u nite d w ith t h e p hosp horic o r a n im al a cid , w hic h
may b e s e p ara te d b y d is so lv in g t h e a sh es o f c alc in ed b ones i n t h e n itr o us
acid ; t h e v ario us s e cre tio ns o f a n im als , a s t h eir s a liv a a n d u rin e, a b ound
lik ew is e w ith c alc are o us e arth , a s a p pears b y t h e i n cru sta tio ns a b out t h e t e eth
an d t h e s e d im en ts o f u rin e. I t i s p ro bab le t h at a n im al m ucu s i s a p re v io us
pro cess t o w ard s t h e f o rm atio n o f c alc are o us e arth ; a n d t h at a ll t h e c alc are o us
earth i n t h e w orld w hic h i s s e en i n l im e-s to nes, m arb le s, s p ars , a la b aste rs ,
marls , ( w hic h m ak e u p t h e g re ate st p art o f t h e e arth 's c ru st, a s f a r a s i t h as y et
been p en etr a te d ,) h av e b een f o rm ed o rig in ally b y a n im al a n d v eg eta b le
bodie s f ro m t h e m ass o f w ate r, a n d t h at b y t h ese m ean s t h e s o lid p art o f t h e
te rra q ueo us g lo be h as p erp etu ally b een i n a n i n cre asin g s ta te a n d t h e w ate r
perp etu ally i n a d ecre asin g o ne.
Afte r t h e m ounta in s o f s h ells a n d o th er r e cre m en ts o f a q uatic a n im als w ere
ele v ate d a b ove t h e w ate r t h e u pper h eap s o f t h em w ere g ra d ually d is so lv ed
by r a in s a n d d ew s a n d o ozin g t h ro ugh w ere e ith er p erfe ctly c ry sta lliz ed i n
sm alle r c av itie s a n d f o rm ed c alc are o us s p ar, o r w ere i m perfe ctly c ry sta lliz ed
on t h e r o ofs o f l a rg er c av itie s a n d p ro duced s ta la cte s; o r m ix in g w ith o th er
undis so lv ed s h ells b en eath t h em f o rm ed m arb le s, w hic h w ere m ore o r l e ss
cry sta lliz ed a n d m ore o r l e ss p ure ; o r l a stly , a fte r b ein g d is so lv ed , t h e w ate r
was e x hale d f ro m t h em i n s u ch a m an ner t h at t h e e x te rn al p arts b ecam e s o lid ,
an d f o rm in g a n a rc h p re v en te d t h e i n te rn al p arts f ro m a p pro ach in g e ach o th er
so n ear a s t o b eco m e s o lid , a n d t h us c h alk w as p ro duced . I h av e s p ecim en s o f
ch alk f o rm ed a t t h e r o ot o f s e v era l s ta la ctite s, a n d i n t h eir c en tr a l p arts ; a n d
of o th er s ta la ctite s w hic h a re h ollo w l ik e q uills f ro m a s im ila r c au se , v iz .
fro m t h e e x te rn al p art o f t h e s ta la ctite h ard en in g f ir s t b y i ts e v ap ora tio n, a n d
th us e ith er a ttr a ctin g t h e i n te rn al d is so lv ed p artic le s t o t h e c ru st, o r p re v en tin g
th em f ro m a p pro ach in g e ach o th er s o a s t o f o rm a s o lid b ody. O f t h ese I s a w
man y h an gin g f ro m t h e a rc h ed r o of o f a c ella r u nder t h e h ig h s tr e et i n
Edin burg h.
If t h is d is so lv ed l im esto ne m et w ith v itr io lic a cid i t w as c o nverte d i n to
ala b aste r, p artin g a t t h e s a m e t im e w ith i ts f ix ab le a ir . I f i t m et w ith t h e f lu or

acid i t b ecam e f lu or; i f w ith t h e s ilic eo us a cid , f lin t; a n d w hen m ix ed w ith
cla y a n d s a n d, o r e ith er o f t h em , a cq uir e s t h e n am e o f m arl. A nd u nder o ne o r
oth er o f t h ese f o rm s c o m pose s a g re at p art o f t h e s o lid g lo be o f t h e e arth .
Anoth er m ode i n w hic h l im esto ne a p pears i s i n t h e f o rm o f r o und g ra n ula te d
partic le s, b ut s lig htly c o herin g t o geth er; o f t h is k in d a b ed e x te n ds o ver
Lin co ln h eath , p erh ap s t w en ty m ile s l o ng b y t e n w id e. T he f o rm o f t h is
calc are o us s a n d, i ts a n gle s h av in g b een r u bbed o ff, a n d t h e f la tn ess o f i ts b ed ,
ev in ces t h at t h at p art o f t h e c o untr y w as s o f o rm ed u nder w ate r, t h e p artic le s
of s a n d h av in g t h us b een r o unded , l ik e a ll o th er r o unded p eb ble s. T his r o und
fo rm o f c alc are o us s a n d a n d o f o th er l a rg er p eb ble s i s p ro duced u nder w ate r,
partly b y t h eir b ein g m ore o r l e ss s o lu ble i n w ate r, a n d h en ce t h e a n gula r
parts b eco m e d is so lv ed , f ir s t, b y t h eir e x posin g a l a rg er s u rfa ce t o t h e a ctio n
of t h e m en str u um , a n d s e co ndly , f ro m t h eir a ttr itio n a g ain st e ach o th er b y t h e
str e am s o r t id es, f o r a g re at l e n gth o f t im e, s u ccessiv ely a s t h ey w ere
co lle cte d , a n d p erh ap s w hen s o m e o f t h em h ad n ot a cq uir e d t h eir h ard est
sta te .
This c alc are o us s a n d h as g en era lly b een c alle d k etto n-s to ne a n d b elie v ed t o
re se m ble t h e s p aw n o f f is h , i t h as a cq uir e d a f o rm s o m uch r o under t h an
silic eo us s a n d f ro m i ts b ein g o f s o m uch s o fte r a t e x tu re a n d a ls o m uch m ore
so lu ble i n w ate r. T here a re o th er s o ft c alc are o us s to nes c alle d t u pha w hic h
are d ep osite d f ro m w ate r o n m osse s, a s a t M atlo ck , f ro m w hic h m oss i t i s
pro bab le t h e w ate r m ay r e ceiv e s o m eth in g w hic h i n duces i t t h e r e ad ie r t o p art
with i ts e arth .
In s o m e l im e-s to nes t h e l iv in g a n im als s e em t o h av e b een b urie d a s w ell a s
th eir s h ells d urin g s o m e g re at c o nvuls io n o f n atu re , t h ese s h ells c o nta in a
bla ck c o aly s u bsta n ce w ith in t h em , i n o th ers s o m e p hlo gis to n o r v ola tile
alc ali f ro m t h e b odie s o f t h e d ead a n im als r e m ain s m ix ed w ith t h e s to ne,
whic h i s t h en c alle d l iv er-s to ne a s i t e m its a s u lp huro us s m ell o n b ein g
str u ck , a n d t h ere i s a s tr a tu m a b out s ix i n ch es t h ic k e x te n ds a c o nsid era b le
way o ver t h e i r o n o re a t W in gerw orth n ear C heste rfie ld i n D erb ysh ir e w hic h
se em s e v id en tly t o h av e b een f o rm ed f ro m t h e s h ells o f f re sh -w ate r m usc le s.
There i s h ow ev er a n oth er s o urc e o f c alc are o us e arth b esid es t h e a q uatic o ne
ab ove d esc rib ed a n d t h at i s f ro m t h e r e cre m en ts o f l a n d a n im als a n d
veg eta b le s a s f o und i n m arls , w hic h c o nsis t o f v ario us m ix tu re s o f c alc are o us

earth , s a n d, a n d c la y , a ll o f t h em p erh ap s p rin cip ally f ro m v eg eta b le o rig in .
Dr. H utto n i s o f o pin io n t h at t h e r o ck s o f m arb le h av e b een s o fte n ed b y f ir e
in to a f lu id m ass, w hic h h e t h in ks u nder i m men se p re ssu re m ig ht b e d one
with out t h e e sc ap e o f t h eir c arb onic a cid o r f ix ed a ir . E din b. T ra n sa ct. V ol. I .
If t h is i n gen io us i d ea b e a llo w ed i t m ig ht a cco unt f o r t h e p urity o f s o m e
white m arb le s, a s d urin g t h eir f lu id s ta te t h ere m ig ht b e t im e f o r t h eir p artia l
im puritie s, w heth er f ro m t h e b odie s o f t h e a n im als w hic h p ro duced t h e s h ells
or f ro m o th er e x tr a n eo us m atte r, e ith er t o s u blim e t o t h e u pperm ost p art o f
th e s tr a tu m o r t o s u bsid e t o t h e l o w erm ost p art o f i t. A s a c o nfir m atio n o f t h is
th eo ry o f D r. H utto n's i t m ay b e a d ded t h at s o m e c alc are o us s to nes a re f o und
mix ed w ith l im e, a n d h av e t h en ce l o st a p art o f t h eir f ix ed a ir o r c arb onic g as,
as t h e b ath -s to ne, a n d o n t h at a cco unt h ard en s o n b ein g e x pose d t o t h e a ir ,
an d m ix ed w ith s u lp hur p ro duces c alc are o us l iv er o f s u lp hur. F alc o ner o n
Bath -w ate r. V ol. I . p . 1 56. a n d p . 2 57. M r. M onnet f o und l im e i n p ow der i n
th e m ounta in s o f A uverg ne, a n d s u sp ecte d i t o f v olc an ic o rig in . K ir w an 's
Min . p . 2 2.

N O TE X VII.— MORASSE S.
Gnom es! y o u t h en t a ught t r a nsu din g d ew s t o p ass
Thro ugh t im e-
fa lle n w oods, a nd r o ot- in w ove m ora ss
.
C A NTO I I. l . 1 15.
W here w oods h av e r e p eate d ly g ro w n a n d p eris h ed m ora sse s a re i n p ro cess o f
t im e p ro duced , a n d b y t h eir l o ng r o ots f ill u p t h e i n te rs tic es t ill t h e w hole
b eco m es f o r m an y y ard s d eep a m ass o f v eg eta tio n. T his f a ct i s c u rio usly
v erif ie d b y a n a cco unt g iv en m an y y ears a g o b y t h e E arl o f C ro m artie , o f
w hic h t h e f o llo w in g i s a s h ort a b str a ct.
I n t h e y ear 1 651 t h e E A RL O F C RO M ARTIE b ein g t h en n in ete en y ears o f
a g e s a w a p la in i n t h e p aris h o f L ock burn c o vere d o ver w ith a f ir m s ta n din g
w ood, w hic h w as s o o ld t h at n ot o nly t h e t r e es h ad n o g re en l e av es u pon
t h em b ut t h e b ark w as t o ta lly t h ro w n o ff, w hic h h e w as t h ere i n fo rm ed b y t h e
o ld c o untr y m en w as t h e u niv ers a l m an ner i n w hic h f ir -w oods t e rm in ate d , a n d
t h at i n t w en ty o r t h ir ty y ears t h e t r e es w ould c ast t h em se lv es u p b y t h e r o ots .
A bout f if te en y ears a fte r h e h ad o ccasio n t o t r a v el t h e s a m e w ay a n d
o bse rv ed t h at t h ere w as n ot a t r e e n or t h e a p peara n ce o f a r o ot o f a n y o f t h em ;
b ut i n t h eir p la ce t h e w hole p la in w here t h e w ood s to od w as c o vere d w ith a
f la t g re en m oss o r m ora ss, a n d o n a sk in g t h e c o untr y p eo ple w hat w as
b eco m e o f t h e w ood h e w as i n fo rm ed t h at n o o ne h ad b een a t t h e t r o uble t o
c arry i t a w ay , b ut t h at i t h ad a ll b een o vertu rn ed b y t h e w in d, t h at t h e t r e es
l a y t h ic k o ver e ach o th er, a n d t h at t h e m oss o r b og h ad o verg ro w n t h e w hole
t im ber, w hic h t h ey a d ded w as o ccasio ned b y t h e m ois tu re w hic h c am e d ow n
f ro m t h e h ig h h ills a b ove i t a n d s ta g nate d u pon t h e p la in , a n d t h at n obody
c o uld y et p ass o ver i t, w hic h h ow ev er h is L ord sh ip w as s o i n cau tio us a s t o

atte m pt a n d s lip t u p t o t h e a rm -p its . B efo re t h e y ear 1 699 t h at w hole p ie ce o f
gro und w as b eco m e a s o lid m oss w here in t h e p easa n ts t h en d ug t u rf o r p eat,
whic h h ow ev er w as n ot y et o f t h e b est s o rt. P hilo s. T ra n s. N o. 3 30. A brid g.
Vol. V . p . 2 72.
Mora sse s i n g re at l e n gth o f t im e u nderg o v arie ty o f c h an ges, f ir s t b y
elu tr ia tio n, a n d a fte rw ard s b y f e rm en ta tio n, a n d t h e c o nse q uen t h eat. 1 . B y
wate r p erp etu ally o ozin g t h ro ugh t h em t h e m ost s o lu ble p arts a re f ir s t w ash ed
aw ay , a s t h e e sse n tia l s a lts , t h ese t o geth er w ith t h e s a lts f ro m a n im al
re cre m en ts a re c arrie d d ow n t h e r iv ers i n to t h e s e a, w here a ll o f t h em s e em t o
deco m pose e ach o th er e x cep t t h e m arin e s a lt. H en ce t h e a sh es o f p eat c o nta in
little o r n o v eg eta b le a lc ali a n d a re n ot u se d i n t h e c o untr ie s, w here p eat
co nstitu te s t h e f u el o f t h e l o w er p eo ple , f o r t h e p urp ose o f w ash in g l in en . T he
se co nd t h in g w hic h i s a lw ay s s e en o ozin g f ro m m ora sse s i s i r o n i n s o lu tio n,
whic h p ro duces c h aly beate s p rin gs, f ro m w hen ce d ep ositio ns o f o ch re a n d
varie ty o f i r o n o re s. T he t h ir d e lu tr ia tio n s e em s t o c o nsis t o f v eg eta b le a cid ,
whic h b y m ean s u nknow n a p pears t o b e c o nverte d i n to a ll o th er a cid s. 1 . I n to
marin e a n d n itr o us a cid s a s m en tio ned a b ove. 2 . I n to v itr io lic a cid w hic h i s
fo und i n s o m e m ora sse s s o p le n tif u lly a s t o p re se rv e t h e b odie s o f a n im als
fro m p utr e fa ctio n w hic h h av e b een b urie d i n t h em , a n d t h is a cid c arrie d a w ay
by r a in a n d d ew s a n d m eetin g w ith c alc are o us e arth p ro duces g ypsu m o r
ala b aste r, w ith c la y i t p ro duces a lu m , a n d d ep riv ed o f i ts v ita l a ir p ro duces
su lp hur. 3 . F lu or a cid w hic h b ein g w ash ed a w ay a n d m eetin g w ith c alc are o us
earth p ro duces f lu or o r c u bic s p ar. 4 . T he s ilic eo us a cid w hic h s e em s t o h av e
been d is se m in ate d i n g re at q uan tity e ith er b y s o lu tio n i n w ate r o r b y s o lu tio n
in a ir , a n d a p pears t o h av e p ro duced t h e s a n d i n t h e s e a u nitin g w ith
calc are o us e arth p re v io usly d is so lv ed i n t h at e le m en t, f ro m w hic h w ere
afte rw ard s f o rm ed s o m e o f t h e g rit- s to ne r o ck s b y m ean s o f a s ilic eo us o r
calc are o us c em en t. B y i ts u nio n w ith t h e c alc are o us e arth o f t h e m ora ss o th er
str a ta o f s ilic eo us s a n d h av e b een p ro duced ; a n d b y t h e m ix tu re o f t h is w ith
cla y a n d l im e a ro se t h e b ed s o f m arl.
In o th er c ir c u m sta n ces, p ro bab ly w here l e ss m ois tu re h as p re v aile d , m ora sse s
se em t o h av e u nderg one a f e rm en ta tio n, a s o th er v eg eta b le m atte r, n ew h ay
fo r i n sta n ce i s l ia b le t o d o f ro m t h e g re at q uan tity o f s u gar i t c o nta in s. F ro m
th e g re at h eat t h us p ro duced i n t h e l o w er p arts o f i m men se b ed s o f m ora ss t h e
phlo gis tic p art, o r o il, o r a sp haltu m , b eco m es d is tille d , a n d r is in g i n to h ig her

str a ta b eco m es a g ain c o nden se d f o rm in g c o al- b ed s o f g re ate r o r l e ss p urity
acco rd in g t o t h eir g re ate r o r l e ss q uan tity o f i n fla m mab le m atte r; a t t h e s a m e
tim e t h e c la y b ed s b eco m e p ure r o r l e ss s o , a s t h e p hlo gis tic p art i s m ore o r
le ss c o m ple te ly e x hale d f ro m t h em . T hough c o al a n d c la y a re f re q uen tly
pro duced i n t h is m an ner, y et I h av e n o d oubt, b ut t h at t h ey a re l ik ew is e o fte n
pro duced b y e lu tr ia tio n; i n s itu atio ns o n d ecliv itie s t h e c la y i s w ash ed a w ay
dow n i n to t h e v alle y s, a n d t h e p hlo gis tic p art o r c o al l e ft b eh in d; t h is
cir c u m sta n ce i s s e en i n m an y v alle y s n ear t h e b ed s o f r iv ers , w hic h a re
co vere d r e cen tly b y a w hitis h i m pure c la y , c alle d w ate r-c la y . S ee n ote X IX .
XX. a n d X XIII.
LO RD C RO M ARTIE h as f u rn is h ed a n oth er c u rio us o bse rv atio n o n m ora sse s
in t h e p ap er a b ove r e fe rre d t o . I n a m oss n ear t h e t o w n o f E glin i n M urra y ,
th ough t h ere i s n o r iv er o r w ate r w hic h c o m munic ate s w ith t h e m oss, y et f o r
th re e o r f o ur f e et o f d ep th i n t h e m oss t h ere a re l ittle s h ell- fis h r e se m blin g
oyste rs w ith l iv in g f is h i n t h em i n g re at q uan titie s, t h ough n o s u ch f is h a re
fo und i n t h e a d ja cen t r iv ers , n or e v en i n t h e w ate r p its i n t h e m oss, b ut o nly
in t h e s o lid s u bsta n ce o f t h e m oss. T his c u rio us f a ct n ot o nly a cco unts f o r t h e
sh ells s o m etim es f o und o n t h e s u rfa ce o f c o als , a n d i n t h e c la y a b ove t h em ;
but a ls o f o r a t h in s tr a tu m o f s h ells w hic h s o m etim es e x is ts o ver i r o n-o re .

N O TE X VIII.— IR O N.
Cold w aves, i m merg ed , t h e g lo w in g m ass c o ngea l,
And t u rn t o
adam ant t h e h is sin g S te el.
C A NTO I I. l . 1 91.
A s i r o n i s f o rm ed n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , i t b eco m es e x pose d t o s tr e am s
o f w ate r a n d o f a ir m ore t h an m ost o th er m eta llic b odie s, a n d t h en ce b eco m es
c o m bin ed w ith o xygen e, o r v ita l a ir , a n d a p pears v ery f re q uen tly i n i ts
c alc if o rm s ta te , a s i n v arie ty o f o ch re s. M an gan ese , a n d z in c, a n d s o m etim es
l e ad , a re a ls o f o und n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , a n d o n t h at a cco unt b eco m e
c o m bin ed w ith v ita l a ir a n d a re e x hib ite d i n t h eir c alc if o rm s ta te .
T he a v id ity w ith w hic h i r o n u nite s w ith o xygen e, o r v ita l a ir , i n w hic h
p ro cess m uch h eat i s g iv en o ut f ro m t h e c o m bin in g m ate ria ls , i s s h ew n b y a
c u rio us e x perim en t o f M . I n gen houz. A f in e i r o n w ir e t w is te d s p ir a lly i s f ix ed
t o a c o rk , o n t h e p oin t o f t h e s p ir e i s f ix ed a m atc h m ad e o f a g aric d ip ped i n
s o lu tio n o f n itr e ; t h e m atc h i s t h en i g nite d , a n d t h e w ir e w ith t h e c o rk p ut
i m med ia te ly i n to a b ottle f u ll o f v ita l a ir , t h e m atc h f ir s t b urn s v iv id ly , a n d
t h e i r o n s o on t a k es f ir e a n d c o nsu m es w ith b rillia n t s p ark s t ill i t i s r e d uced t o
s m all b rittle g lo bule s, g ain in g a n a d ditio n o f a b out o ne t h ir d o f i ts w eig ht b y
i ts u nio n, w ith v ita l a ir . A nnale s d e C hym ie . T ra ité d e C him ie , p er L av ois ie r,
c . i ii.
S T EEL.
I t i s p ro bab ly o w in g t o a t o ta l d ep riv atio n o f v ita l a ir w hic h i t h old s w ith s o

gre at a v id ity , t h at i r o n o n b ein g k ep t m an y h ours o r d ay s i n i g nite d c h arc o al
beco m es c o nverte d i n to s te el, a n d t h en ce a cq uir e s t h e f a cu lty o f b ein g w eld ed
when r e d h ot l o ng b efo re i t m elts , a n d a ls o t h e p ow er o f b eco m in g h ard w hen
im mers e d i n c o ld w ate r; b oth w hic h I s u ppose d ep en d o n t h e s a m e c au se , t h at
is , o n i ts b ein g a w ors e c o nducto r o f h eat t h an o th er m eta ls ; a n d h en ce t h e
su rfa ce b oth a cq uir e s h eat m uch s o oner, a n d l o se s i t m uch s o oner, t h an t h e
in te rn al p arts o f i t, i n t h is c ir c u m sta n ce r e se m blin g g la ss.
When s te el i s m ad e v ery h ot, a n d s u dden ly i m merg ed i n v ery c o ld w ate r, a n d
moved a b out i n i t, t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e s te el b eco m es c o ole d f ir s t, a n d t h us
pro ducin g a k in d o f c ase o r a rc h o ver t h e i n te rn al p art, p re v en ts t h at i n te rn al
part f ro m c o ntr a ctin g q uite s o m uch a s i t o th erw is e w ould d o, w hen ce i t
beco m es b rittle r a n d h ard er, l ik e t h e g la ss-d ro ps c alle d P rin ce R upert's d ro ps,
whic h a re m ad e b y d ro ppin g m elte d g la ss i n to c o ld w ate r. T his i d ea i s
co unte n an ced b y t h e c ir c u m sta n ce t h at h ard en ed s te el i s s p ecif ic ally l ig hte r
th an s te el w hic h i s m ore g ra d ually c o ole d . ( N ic h ols o n's C hem is tr y , p . 3 13.)
Why t h e b rittle n ess a n d h ard ness o f s te el o r g la ss s h ould k eep p ace o r b e
co m pan io ns t o e ach o th er m ay b e d if fic u lt t o c o nceiv e.
When a s te el s p rin g i s f o rc ib ly b en t t ill i t b re ak , i t r e q uir e s l e ss p ow er t o b en d
it t h ro ugh t h e f ir s t i n ch t h an t h e s e co nd, a n d l e ss t h ro ugh t h e s e co nd t h an t h e
th ir d ; t h e s a m e I s u ppose t o h ap pen i f a w ir e b e d is te n ded t ill i t b re ak b y
han gin g w eig hts t o i t; t h is s h ew s t h at t h e p artic le s m ay b e f o rc ed f ro m e ach
oth er t o a s m all d is ta n ce b y l e ss p ow er, t h an i s n ecessa ry t o m ak e t h em
re ced e t o a g re ate r d is ta n ce; i n t h is c ir c u m sta n ce p erh ap s t h e a ttr a ctio n o f
co hesio n d if fe rs f ro m t h at o f g ra v ita tio n, w hic h e x erts i ts p ow er i n vers e ly a s
th e s q uare s o f t h e d is ta n ce. H en ce i t a p pears t h at i f t h e i n nerm ost p artic le s o f
a s te el b ar, b y c o olin g t h e e x te rn al s u rfa ce f ir s t, a re k ep t f ro m a p pro ach in g
each o th er s o n early a s t h ey o th erw is e w ould d o, t h at t h ey b eco m e i n t h e
situ atio n o f t h e p artic le s o n t h e c o nvex s id e o f a b en t s p rin g, a n d c an n ot b e
fo rc ed f u rth er f ro m e ach o th er e x cep t b y a g re ate r p ow er t h an w ould h av e
been n ecessa ry t o h av e m ad e t h em r e ced e t h us f a r. A nd s e co ndly , t h at i f t h ey
be f o rc ed a l ittle f u rth er f ro m e ach o th er t h ey s e p ara te ; t h is m ay b e
ex em plif ie d b y l a y in g t w o m ag netic n eed le s p ara lle l t o e ach o th er, t h e
co ntr a ry p ole s t o geth er, t h en d ra w in g t h em l o ngitu din ally f ro m e ach o th er,
th ey w ill s lid e w ith s m all f o rc e t ill t h ey b eg in t o s e p ara te , a n d w ill t h en
re q uir e a s tr o nger f o rc e t o r e ally s e p ara te t h em . H en ce i t a p pears , t h at

hard ness a n d b rittle n ess d ep en d o n t h e s a m e c ir c u m sta n ce, t h at t h e p artic le s
are r e m oved t o a g re ate r d is ta n ce f ro m e ach o th er a n d t h us r e sis t a n y p ow er
more f o rc ib ly w hic h i s a p plie d t o d is p la ce t h em f u rth er, t h is c o nstitu te s
hard ness. A nd s e co ndly , i f t h ey a re d is p la ced b y s u ch a p plie d f o rc e t h ey
im med ia te ly s e p ara te , a n d t h is c o nstitu te s b rittle n ess.
Ste el m ay b e t h us r e n dere d t o o b rittle f o r m an y p urp ose s, o n w hic h a cco unt
artis ts h av e m ean s o f s o fte n in g i t a g ain , b y e x posin g i t t o c erta in d eg re es o f
heat, f o r t h e c o nstr u ctio n o f d if fe re n t k in ds o f t o ols , w hic h i s c alle d
te m perin g i t. S om e a rtis ts p lu nge l a rg e t o ols i n v ery c o ld w ate r a s s o on a s
th ey a re c o m ple atly i g nite d , a n d m ovin g i t a b out, t a k e i t o ut a s s o on a s i t
cease s t o b e l u m in ous b en eath t h e w ate r; i t i s t h en r u bbed q uic k ly w ith a f ile
or o n s a n d t o c le an t h e s u rfa ce, t h e h eat w hic h t h e m eta l s till r e ta in s s o on
beg in s t o p ro duce a s u ccessio n o f c o lo urs ; i f a h ard t e m per b e r e q uir e d , t h e
pie ce i s d ip ped a g ain a n d s tir re d a b out i n c o ld w ate r a s s o on a s t h e y ello w
tin ge a p pears , i f i t b e c o ole d w hen t h e p urp le t in ge a p pears i t b eco m es f it f o r
gra v ers ' t o ols u se d i n w ork in g u pon m eta ls ; i f c o ole d w hile b lu e i t i s p ro per
fo r s p rin gs. N ic h ols o n's C hem is tr y , p . 3 13. K eir 's C hem ic al D ic tio nary .
MODER N P R O DUCTIO N O F I R O N.
The r e cen t p ro ductio n o f i r o n i s e v in ced f ro m t h e c h aly beate w ate rs w hic h
flo w f ro m m ora sse s w hic h l ie u pon g ra v el- b ed s, a n d w hic h m ust t h ere fo re
hav e p ro duced i r o n a fte r t h ose g ra v el- b ed s w ere r a is e d o ut o f t h e s e a. O n t h e
so uth s id e o f t h e r o ad b etw een C head le a n d O key m oor i n S ta ffo rd sh ir e ,
yello w s ta in s o f i r o n a re s e en t o p en etr a te t h e g ra v el f ro m a t h in m ora ss o n i ts
su rfa ce. T here i s a f is su re e ig ht o r t e n f e et w id e, i n a g ra v el- b ed o n t h e
easte rn s id e o f t h e h ollo w r o ad a sc en din g t h e h ill a b out a m ile f ro m T re n th am
in S ta ffo rd sh ir e , l e ad in g t o w ard D ra y to n i n S hro psh ir e , w hic h f is su re i s f ille d
up w ith n odule s o f i r o n- o re . A b an k o f s o ds i s n ow r a is e d a g ain st t h is f is su re
to p re v en t t h e l o ose i r o n n odule s f ro m f a llin g i n to t h e t u rn pik e r o ad , a n d t h us
th is n atu ra l c u rio sity i s a t p re se n t c o nceale d f ro m t r a v elle rs . A s im ila r f is su re
in a b ed o f m arl, a n d f ille d u p w ith i r o n n odule s a n d w ith s o m e l a rg e p ie ces
of f lin t, i s s e en o n t h e e aste rn s id e o f t h e h ollo w r o ad a sc en din g t h e h ill f ro m
th e t u rn pik e h ouse a b out a m ile f ro m D erb y i n t h e r o ad t o w ard s B urto n. A nd
an oth er s u ch f is su re f ille d w ith i r o n n odes, a p pears a b out h alf a m ile f ro m

New to n-S oln ey i n D erb ysh ir e , i n t h e r o ad t o B urto n, n ear t h e s u m mit o f t h e
hill. T hese c o lle ctio ns o f i r o n a n d o f f lin t m ust h av e b een p ro duced p oste rio r
to t h e e le v atio n o f a ll t h ose h ills , a n d w ere t h en ce e v id en tly o f v eg eta b le o r
an im al o rig in . T o w hic h s h ould b e a d ded , t h at i r o n i s f o und i n g en era l i n b ed s
eith er n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , o r s tr a tif ie d w ith c la y c o als o r a rg illa ceo us
grit, w hic h a re t h em se lv es p ro ductio ns o f t h e m odern w orld , t h at i s , f ro m t h e
re cre m en ts o f v eg eta b le s a n d a ir -b re ath in g a n im als .
Not o nly i r o n b ut m an gan ese , c ala m y, a n d e v en c o pper a n d l e ad a p pear i n
so m e i n sta n ces t o h av e b een o f r e cen t p ro ductio n. I ro n a n d m an gan ese a re
dete cte d i n a ll v eg eta b le p ro ductio ns, a n d i t i s p ro bab le o th er m eta llic b odie s
mig ht b e f o und t o e x is t i n v eg eta b le o r a n im al m atte rs , i f w e h ad t e sts t o
dete ct t h em i n v ery m in ute q uan titie s. M an gan ese a n d c ala m y a re f o und i n
bed s l ik e i r o n n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , a n d i n a c alc if o rm s ta te , w hic h
co unte n an ces t h eir m odern p ro ductio n. T he r e cen t p ro ductio n o f c ala m y, o ne
of t h e o re s o f z in c, a p pears f ro m i ts f re q uen tly i n cru stin g c alc are o us s p ar i n
its d esc en t f ro m t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth i n to t h e u pperm ost f is su re s o f t h e
lim esto ne m ounta in s o f D erb ysh ir e . T hat t h e c ala m y h as b een c arrie d b y i ts
so lu tio n o r d if fu sio n i n w ate r i n to t h ese c av itie s, a n d n ot b y i ts a sc en t f ro m
belo w i n f o rm o f s te am , i s e v in ced f ro m i ts n ot o nly f o rm in g a c ru st o ver t h e
dogto oth s p ar, b ut b y i ts a fte rw ard s d is so lv in g o r d estr o yin g t h e s p arry
cry sta l. I h av e s p ecim en s o f c ala m y i n t h e f o rm o f d ogto oth s p ar, t w o i n ch es
hig h, w hic h a re h ollo w , a n d s ta n d h alf a n i n ch a b ove t h e d im in is h ed s p arry
cry sta l o n w hic h t h ey w ere f o rm ed , l ik e a s h eath a g re at d eal t o o b ig f o r i t;
th is s e em s t o s h ew , t h at t h is p ro cess w as c arrie d o n i n w ate r, o th erw is e a fte r
th e c ala m y h ad i n cru ste d i ts s p ar, a n d d is so lv ed i ts s u rfa ce, s o a s t o f o rm a
hollo w c av ern o ver i t, i t c o uld n ot a ct f u rth er u pon i t e x cep t b y t h e
in te rp ositio n o f s o m e m ed iu m . A s t h ese s p ars a n d c ala m y a re f o rm ed i n t h e
fis su re s o f m ounta in s t h ey m ust b oth h av e b een f o rm ed a fte r t h e e le v atio n o f
th ose m ounta in s.
In r e sp ect t o t h e r e cen t p ro ductio n o f c o pper, i t w as b efo re o bse rv ed i n n ote
on C an to I I. l . 3 94, t h at t h e s u m mit o f t h e g rit- s to ne m ounta in a t H aw ksto ne
in S hro psh ir e , i s t in ged w ith c o pper, w hic h f ro m t h e a p peara n ce o f t h e b lu e
sta in s s e em s t o h av e d esc en ded t o t h e p arts o f t h e r o ck b en eath . I h av e a
calc if o rm o re o f c o pper c o nsis tin g o f t h e h ollo w c ru sts o f c u bic c ells , w hic h
has e v id en tly b een f o rm ed o n c ry sta ls o f f lu or, w hic h i t h as e ro ded i n t h e

sa m e m an ner a s t h e c ala m y e ro des t h e c alc are o us c ry sta ls , f ro m w hen ce m ay
be d ed uced i n t h e s a m e m an ner, t h e a q ueo us s o lu tio n o r d if fu sio n, a s w ell a s
th e r e cen t p ro ductio n o f t h is c alc if o rm o re o f c o pper.
Lead i n s m all q uan titie s i s s o m etim es f o und i n t h e f is su re s o f c o al- b ed s,
whic h f is su re s a re p re v io usly c o vere d w ith s p ar; a n d s o m etim es i n n odule s o f
ir o n-o re . O f t h e f o rm er I h av e a s p ecim en f ro m n ear C au lk i n D erb ysh ir e , a n d
of t h e l a tte r f ro m C ole b ro ok D ale i n S hro psh ir e . T hough a ll t h ese f a cts s h ew
th at s o m e m eta llic b odie s a re f o rm ed f ro m v eg eta b le o r a n im al r e cre m en ts , a s
ir o n, a n d p erh ap s m an gan ese a n d c ala m y, a ll w hic h a re f o und n ear t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e e arth ; y et a s t h e o th er m eta ls a re f o und o nly i n f is su re s o f
ro ck s, w hic h p en etr a te t o u nknow n d ep th s, t h ey m ay b e w holly o r i n p art
pro duced b y a sc en din g s te am s f ro m s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s, a s m en tio ned i n n ote
on C an to I I. l . 3 98.
SE PT A RIA O F I R O N-S T O NE.
Over s o m e l im e w ork s a t W als a ll i n S ta ffo rd sh ir e , I o bse rv ed s o m e y ears a g o
a s tr a tu m o f i r o n e arth a b out s ix i n ch es t h ic k , f u ll o f v ery l a rg e c av itie s; t h ese
cav itie s w ere e v id en tly p ro duced w hen t h e m ate ria l p asse d f ro m a s e m if lu id
sta te i n to a s o lid o ne; a s t h e f rit o f t h e p otte rs , o r a m ix tu re o f c la y a n d w ate r
is l ia b le t o c ra ck i n d ry in g; w hic h i s o w in g t o t h e f u rth er c o ntr a ctio n o f t h e
in te rn al p art, a fte r t h e c ru st i s b eco m e h ard . T hese h ollo w s a re l ia b le t o
re ceiv e e x tr a n eo us m atte r, a s I b elie v e g ypsu m , a n d s o m etim es s p ar, a n d
ev en l e ad ; a c u rio us s p ecim en o f t h e l a st w as p re se n te d t o m e b y M r. D arb y
of C ole b ro ok D ale , w hic h c o nta in s i n i ts c av ity s o m e o unces o f l e ad -o re . B ut
th ere a re o th er s e p ta ria o f i r o n-s to ne w hic h s e em t o h av e h ad a v ery d if fe re n t
orig in , t h eir c av itie s h av in g b een f o rm ed i n c o olin g o r c o ngealin g f ro m a n
ig nite d s ta te , a s i s i n gen io usly d ed uced b y D r. H utto n f ro m t h eir i n te rn al
str u ctu re . E din b. T ra n sa ct. V ol. I . p . 2 46. T he v olc an ic o rig in o f t h ese c u rio us
se p ta ria a p pears t o m e t o b e f u rth er e v in ced f ro m t h eir f o rm a n d t h e p la ces
where t h ey a re f o und. T hey c o nsis t o f o bla te s p hero id s a n d a re f o und i n m an y
parts o f t h e e arth t o ta lly d eta ch ed f ro m t h e b ed s i n w hic h t h ey l ie , a s a t E ast
Loth ia n i n S co tla n d. T w o o f t h ese , w hic h n ow l ie b efo re m e, w ere f o und w ith
man y o th ers i m mers e d i n a rg illa ceo us s h ale o r s h iv er, s u rro unded b y b ro ken

lim esto ne m ounta in s a t B ra d bourn n ear A sh bourn i n D erb ysh ir e , a n d w ere
pre se n te d t o m e b y M r. B uxto n, a g en tle m an o f t h at t o w n. O ne o f t h ese i s
ab out f if te en i n ch es i n i ts e q uato ria l d ia m ete r, a n d a b out s ix i n ch es i n i ts
pola r o ne, a n d c o nta in s b eau tif u l s ta r-lik e s e p ta ria i n cru ste d a n d i n p art f ille d
with c alc are o us s p ar. T he o th er i s a b out e ig ht i n ch es i n i ts e q uato ria l
dia m ete r, a n d a b out f o ur i n ch es i n i ts p ola r d ia m ete r, a n d i s q uite s o lid , b ut
sh ew s o n i ts i n te rn al s u rfa ce m ark s o f d if fe re n t c o lo urs , a s i f a b eg in nin g
se p ara tio n h ad t a k en p la ce. N ow a s t h ese s e p ta ria c o nta in f if ty p er c en t, o f
ir o n, a cco rd in g t o D r. H utto n, t h ey w ould s o fte n o r m elt i n to a s e m if lu id
glo bule b y s u bte rra n eo us f ir e b y l e ss h eat t h an t h e l im esto ne i n t h eir v ic in ity ;
an d i f t h ey w ere e je cte d t h ro ugh a h ole o r f is su re w ould g ain a c ir c u la r
motio n a lo ng w ith t h eir p ro gre ssiv e o ne b y t h eir g re ate r f ric tio n o r a d hesio n
to o ne s id e o f t h e h ole . T his w hir lin g m otio n w ould p ro duce t h e o bla te
sp hero id ic al f o rm w hic h t h ey p osse ss, a n d w hic h a s f a r a s I k now c an n ot i n
an y o th er w ay b e a cco unte d f o r. T hey w ould t h en h ard en i n t h e a ir a s t h ey
ro se i n to t h e c o ld er p arts o f t h e a tm osp here ; a n d a s t h ey d esc en ded i n to s o
so ft a m ate ria l a s s h ale o r s h iv er, t h eir f o rm s w ould n ot b e i n ju re d i n t h eir
fa ll; a n d t h eir p re se n ce i n m ate ria ls s o d if fe re n t f ro m t h em se lv es b eco m es
acco unte d f o r.
About t h e t r o pic s o f t h e l a rg e s e p ta riu m a b ove m en tio ned , a re c ir c u la r
em in en t l in es, s u ch a s m ig ht h av e b een l e ft i f i t h ad b een c o ars e ly t u rn ed i n a
la th e. T hese l in es s e em t o c o nsis t o f a f lu id m atte r, w hic h s e em s t o h av e
ex su ded i n c ir c u la r z o nes, a s t h eir e d ges a p pear b lu nte d o r r e tr a cte d ; a n d t h e
se p ta riu m s e em s t o h av e s p lit e asie r i n s u ch s e ctio ns p ara lle l t o i ts e q uato r.
Now a s t h e c ru st w ould f ir s t b eg in t o c o ol a n d h ard en a fte r i ts e je ctio n i n a
se m if lu id s ta te , a n d t h e e q uato ria l d ia m ete r w ould b eco m e g ra d ually e n la rg ed
as i t r o se i n t h e a ir ; t h e i n te rn al p arts b ein g s o fte r w ould s lid e b en eath t h e
pola r c ru st, w hic h m ig ht c ra ck a n d p erm it p art o f t h e s e m if lu id t o e x su de, a n d
it i s p ro bab le t h e a d hesio n w ould t h us b eco m e l e ss i n s e ctio ns p ara lle l t o t h e
eq uato r. W hic h f u rth er c o nfir m s t h is i d ea o f t h e p ro ductio n o f t h ese c u rio us
se p ta ria . A n ew -c ast c an non b all r e d -h ot w ith i ts c ru st o nly s o lid , i f i t w ere
sh ot i n to t h e a ir w ould p ro bab ly b urs t i n i ts p assa g e; a s i t w ould c o nsis t o f a
more f lu id m ate ria l t h an t h ese s e p ta ria ; a n d t h us b y d is c h arg in g a s h ow er o f
liq uid i r o n w ould p ro duce m ore d re ad fu l c o m bustio n, i f u se d i n w ar, t h an
co uld b e e ffe cte d b y a b all, w hic h h ad b een c o ole d a n d w as h eate d a g ain :
sin ce i n t h e l a tte r c ase t h e b all c o uld n ot h av e i ts i n te rn al p arts m ad e h otte r

th an t h e c ru st o f i t, w ith out f ir s t l o osin g i ts f o rm .

N O TE X IX .— FL IN T.
Tra nsm ute t o g litte rin g f lin ts h er c h alk y l a nds,
Or s in k o n O cea n's
bed i n c o untle ss s a nds.
C A NTO I I. l . 2 17.
1 . S IL IC EO US R O CK S.
T he g re at m asse s o f s ilic eo us s a n d w hic h l ie i n r o ck s u pon t h e b ed s o f
l im esto ne, o r w hic h a re s tr a tif ie d w ith c la y , c o al, a n d i r o n-o re , a re e v id en tly
p ro duced i n t h e d eco m positio n o f v eg eta b le o r a n im al m atte rs , a s e x pla in ed
i n t h e n ote o n m ora sse s. H en ce t h e i m pre ssio ns o f v eg eta b le r o ots a n d e v en
w hole t r e es a re o fte n f o und i n s a n d-s to ne, a s w ell a s i n c o als a n d i r o n-o re . I n
t h ese s a n d-ro ck s b oth t h e s ilic eo us a cid a n d t h e c alc are o us b ase s e em t o b e
p ro duced f ro m t h e m ate ria ls o f t h e m ora ss; f o r t h ough t h e p re se n ce o f a
s ilic eo us a cid a n d o f a c alc are o us b ase h av e n ot y et b een s e p ara te ly e x hib ite d
f ro m f lin ts , y et f ro m t h e a n alo gy o f f lin t t o f lu or, a n d g ypsu m , a n d m arb le ,
a n d f ro m t h e c o nvers io n o f t h e l a tte r i n to f lin t, t h ere c an b e l ittle d oubt o f
t h eir e x is te n ce.
T hese s ilic eo us s a n d-ro ck s a re e ith er h eld t o geth er b y a s ilic eo us c em en t, o r
h av e a g re ate r o r l e ss p ortio n o f c la y i n t h em , w hic h i n s o m e a cts a s a c em en t
t o t h e s ilic eo us c ry sta ls , b ut i n o th ers i s i n s u ch g re at a b undan ce t h at i n
b urn in g t h em t h ey b eco m e a n i m perfe ct p orc ela in a n d a re t h en u se d t o r e p air
t h e r o ad s, a s a t C heste rfie ld i n D erb ysh ir e ; t h ese a re c alle d a rg illa ceo us g rit
b y M r. K ir w an . I n o th er p la ces a c alc are o us m atte r c em en ts t h e c ry sta ls
t o geth er; a n d i n o th er p la ces t h e s ilic eo us c ry sta ls l ie i n l o ose s tr a ta u nder t h e
m arl i n t h e f o rm o f w hite s a n d; a s a t N orm in gto n a b out a m ile f ro m D erb y.

The l o w est b ed s o f s ilic eo us s a n d-s to ne p ro duced f ro m m ora sse s s e em t o
obta in t h eir a cid f ro m t h e m ora ss, a n d t h eir c alc are o us b ase f ro m t h e
lim esto ne o n w hic h i t r e sts ; T hese b ed s p osse ss a s ilic eo us c em en t, a n d f ro m
th eir g re ate r p urity a n d h ard ness a re u se d f o r c o urs e g rin din g- s to nes a n d
sc y th s to nes, a n d a re s itu ate d o n t h e e d ges o f l im esto ne c o untr ie s, h av in g l o st
th e o th er s tr a ta o f c o als , o r c la y , o r i r o n, w hic h w ere o rig in ally p ro duced
ab ove t h em . S uch a re t h e s a n d-ro ck s i n cu m ben t o n l im esto ne n ear M atlo ck i n
Derb ysh ir e . A s t h ese s ilic eo us s a n d-ro ck s c o nta in n o m arin e p ro ductio ns
sc atte re d a m ongst t h em , t h ey a p pear t o h av e b een e le v ate d , t o rn t o p ie ces,
an d m an y f ra g m en ts o f t h em s c atte re d o ver t h e a d ja cen t c o untr y b y
ex plo sio ns, f ro m f ir e s w ith in t h e m ora ss f ro m w hic h t h ey h av e b een f o rm ed ;
an d w hic h d is sip ate d e v ery t h in g i n fla m mab le a b ove a n d b en eath t h em ,
ex cep t s o m e s ta in s o f i r o n, w ith w hic h t h ey a re i n s o m e p la ces s p otte d . I f
th ese s a n d-ro ck s h ad b een a ccu m ula te d b en eath t h e s e a, a n d e le v ate d a lo ng
with t h e b ed s o f l im esto ne o n w hic h t h ey r e st, s o m e v estig es o f m arin e s h ells
eith er i n t h eir s ilic eo us o r c alc are o us s ta te m ust h av e b een d is c ern ed a m ongst
th em .
2. S IL IC EO US T R EES.
In m an y o f t h ese s a n d-ro ck s a re f o und t h e i m pre ssio ns o f v eg eta b le r o ots ,
whic h s e em t o h av e b een t h e m ost u nch an geab le p arts o f t h e p la n t, a s s h ells
an d s h ark 's t e eth a re f o und i n c h alk -b ed s f ro m t h eir b ein g t h e m ost
unch an geab le p arts o f t h e a n im al. I n o th er i n sta n ces t h e w ood i ts e lf i s
pen etr a te d , a n d w hole t r e es c o nverte d i n to f lin t; s p ecim en s o f w hic h I h av e
by m e, f ro m n ear C oven tr y , a n d f ro m a g ra v el- p it i n S hro psh ir e n ear C hild 's
Arc h al i n t h e r o ad t o D ra y to n. O th er p olis h ed s p ecim en s o f v eg eta b le f lin ts
ab ound i n t h e c ab in ets o f t h e c u rio us, w hic h e v id en tly s h ew t h e c o ncen tr ic
cir c le s o f w oody f ib re s, a n d t h eir i n te rs tic es f ille d w ith w hite r s ilic eo us
matte r, w ith t h e b ra n ch in g o ff o f t h e k nots w hen c u t h oriz o nta lly , a n d t h e
para lle l l in es o f w ood w hen c u t l o ngitu din ally , w ith u nco m mon b eau ty a n d
varie ty . O f t h ese I p osse ss s o m e b eau tif u l s p ecim en s, w hic h w ere p re se n te d
to m e b y t h e E arl o f U xbrid ge.
The c o lo urs o f t h ese s ilic eo us v eg eta b le s a re g en era lly b ro w n, f ro m t h e i r o n,
I s u ppose , o r m an gan ese , w hic h i n duced t h em t o c ry sta lliz e o r t o f u se m ore

easily . S om e o f t h e c ra ck s o f t h e w ood i n d ry in g a re f ille d w ith w hite f lin t o r
calc ed ony, a n d o th ers o f t h em r e m ain h ollo w , l in ed w ith i n num era b le s m all
cry sta ls t in ged w ith i r o n, w hic h I s u ppose h ad a s h are i n c o nvertin g t h eir
calc are o us m atte r i n to s ilic eo us c ry sta ls , b ecau se t h e c ry sta ls c alle d P eak -
dia m onds a re a lw ay s f o und b ed ded i n a n o ch re o us e arth ; a n d t h ose c alle d
Bris to l- s to nes a re s itu ate d o n l im esto ne c o lo ure d w ith i r o n. M r. F . F re n ch
pre se n te d m e w ith a c o ngerie s o f s ilic eo us c ry sta ls , w hic h h e g ath ere d o n t h e
cra te r ( a s h e s u ppose s) o f a n e x tin guis h ed v olc an o a t C ro m ach W ate r i n
Cum berla n d. T he c ry sta ls a re a b out a n i n ch h ig h i n t h e s h ap e o f d ogto oth o r
calc are o us s p ar, c o vere d w ith a d ark f e rru gin ous m atte r. T he b ed o n w hic h
th ey r e st i s a b out a n i n ch i n t h ic k ness, a n d i s s ta in ed w ith i r o n o n i ts
unders u rfa ce. T his c u rio us f o ssil s h ew s t h e t r a n sm uta tio n o f c alc are o us e arth
in to s ilic eo us, a s m uch a s t h e s ilic eo us s h ells w hic h a b ound i n t h e c ab in ets o f
th e c u rio us. T here m ay s o m etim e b e d is c o vere d i n t h is a g e o f s c ie n ce, a
meth od o f t h us i m pre g natin g w ood w ith l iq uid f lin t, w hic h w ould p ro duce
pilla rs f o r t h e s u pport, a n d t ile s f o r t h e c o verin g o f h ouse s, w hic h w ould b e
unin fla m mab le a n d e n dure a s l o ng a s t h e e arth b en eath t h em .
That s o m e s ilic eo us p ro ductio ns h av e b een i n a f lu id s ta te w ith out m uch h eat
at t h e t im e o f t h eir f o rm atio n a p pears f ro m t h e v eg eta b le f lin ts a b ove
desc rib ed n ot h av in g q uite l o st t h eir o rg an iz ed a p peara n ce; f ro m s h ells , a n d
co ra llo id s, a n d e n tr o ch i b ein g c o nverte d i n to f lin t w ith out l o osin g t h eir f o rm ;
fro m t h e b aso n o f c alc ed ony r o und G ie sa r i n I c ela n d; a n d f ro m t h e
ex perim en t o f M r. B erg m an , w ho o bta in ed t h ir te en r e g ula r f o rm ed c ry sta ls
by s u ffe rin g t h e p ow der o f q uartz t o r e m ain i n a v esse l w ith f lu or a cid f o r t w o
years ; t h ese c ry sta ls w ere a b out t h e s iz e o f s m all p eas, a n d w ere n ot s o h ard
as q uartz . O pusc . d e T errâ S ilic eâ, p . 3 3. M r. A ch ard p ro cu re d b oth
calc are o us a n d s ilic eo us c ry sta ls , o ne f ro m c alc are o us e arth , a n d t h e o th er
fro m t h e e arth o f a lu m , b oth d is so lv ed i n w ate r i m pre g nate d w ith f ix ed a ir ;
th e w ate r f iltr a tin g v ery s lo w ly t h ro ugh a p oro us b otto m o f b ak ed c la y . S ee
Jo urn al d e P hysiq ue, f o r J a n uary , 1 778.
3. A G ATES, O NYXES, S C O TS-P E BBLES.
In s m all c av itie s o f t h ese s a n d-ro ck s, I a m i n fo rm ed , t h e b eau tif u l s ilic eo us
nodule s a re f o und w hic h a re c alle d S co t's -p eb ble s; a n d w hic h o n b ein g c u t i n

dif fe re n t d ir e ctio ns t a k e t h e n am es o f a g ate s, o nyxes, s a rd onyxes, & c.
acco rd in g t o t h e c o lo urs o f t h e l in es o r s tr a ta w hic h t h ey e x hib it. S om e o f t h e
nodule s a re h ollo w a n d f ille d w ith c ry sta ls , o th ers h av e a n ucle u s o f l e ss
co m pact s ilic eo us m atte r w hic h i s g en era lly w hite , s u rro unded w ith m an y
co ncen tr ic s tr a ta c o lo ure d w ith i r o n, a n d o th er a lte rn ate s tr a ta o f w hite a g ate
or c alc ed ony, s o m etim es t o t h e n um ber o f t h ir ty .
I t h in k t h ese n odule s b ear e v id en t m ark s o f t h eir h av in g b een i n p erfe ct
fu sio n b y e ith er h eat a lo ne, o r b y w ate r a n d h eat, u nder g re at p re ssu re ,
acco rd in g t o t h e i n gen io us t h eo ry o f D r. H utto n; b ut I d o n ot i m ag in e, t h at
th ey w ere i n je cte d i n to c av itie s f ro m m ate ria ls f ro m w ith out, b ut t h at s o m e
veg eta b le s o r p arts o f v eg eta b le s c o nta in in g m ore i r o n o r m an gan ese t h an
oth ers , f a cilita te d t h e c o m ple at f u sio n, t h us d estr o yin g t h e v estig es o f
veg eta b le o rg an iz atio n, w hic h w ere c o nsp ic u ous i n t h e s ilic eo us t r e es a b ove
men tio ned . S om e o f t h ese n odule s b ein g h ollo w a n d l in ed w ith c ry sta ls , a n d
oth ers c o nta in in g a n ucle u s o f w hite s ilic eo us m atte r o f a l o ose r t e x tu re , s h ew
th ey w ere c o m pose d o f t h e m ate ria ls t h en e x is tin g i n t h e c av ity ; w hic h
co nsis tin g b efo re o f l o ose s a n d, m ust t a k e u p l e ss s p ace w hen f u se d i n to a
so lid m ass.
These s ilic eo us n odule s r e se m ble t h e n odule s o f i r o n-s to ne m en tio ned i n n ote
on C an to I I. l . 1 83, i n r e sp ect t o t h eir p osse ssin g a g re at n um ber o f c o ncen tr ic
sp here s c o lo ure d g en era lly w ith i r o n, b ut t h ey d if fe r i n t h is c ir c u m sta n ce, t h at
th e c o ncen tr ic s p here s g en era lly o bey t h e f o rm o f t h e e x te rn al c ru st, a n d i n
th eir n ot p osse ssin g a c h aly beate n ucle u s. T he s ta la ctite s f o rm ed o n t h e r o ofs
of c av ern s a re o fte n c o lo ure d i n c o ncen tr ic s tr a ta , b y t h eir c o ats b ein g s p re ad
over e ach o th er a t d if fe re n t t im es; a n d s o m e o f t h em , a s t h e c u pre o us o nes,
posse ss g re at b eau ty f ro m t h is f o rm atio n; b ut a s t h ese a re n ecessa rily m ore o r
le ss o f a c y lin dric al o r c o nic f o rm , t h e n odule s o r g lo bula r f lin ts a b ove
desc rib ed c an not h av e b een c o nstr u cte d i n t h is m an ner. T o w hat l a w o f n atu re
th en i s t o b e r e fe rre d t h e p ro ductio n o f s u ch n um ero us c o ncen tr ic s p here s? I
su sp ect t o t h e l a w o f c o ngela tio n.
When s a lt a n d w ate r a re e x pose d t o s e v ere f ro sty a ir , t h e s a lt i s s a id t o b e
pre cip ita te d a s t h e w ate r f re ezes; t h at i s , a s t h e h eat, i n w hic h i t w as
dis so lv ed , i s w ith dra w n; w here t h e e x perim en t i s t r ie d i n a b ow l o r b aso n,
th is m ay b e t r u e, a s t h e s u rfa ce f re ezes f ir s t, a n d t h e s a lt i s f o und a t t h e

botto m . B ut i n a f lu id e x pose d i n a t h in p hia l, I f o und b y e x perim en t, t h at t h e
ex tr a n eo us m atte r p re v io usly d is so lv ed b y t h e h eat i n t h e m ix tu re w as n ot
sim ply s e t a t l ib erty t o s u bsid e, b ut w as d etr u ded o r p ush ed b ack w ard a s t h e
ic e w as p ro duced . T he e x perim en t w as t h is : a b out t w o o unces o f a s o lu tio n o f
blu e v itr io l w ere a ccid en ta lly f ro zen i n a t h in p hia l, t h e g la ss w as c ra ck ed a n d
fa lle n t o p ie ces, t h e i c e w as d is so lv ed , a n d I f o und a p illa r o f b lu e v itr io l
sta n din g e re ct o n t h e b otto m o f t h e b ro ken b ottle . N or i s t h is p ow er o f
co ngela tio n m ore e x tr a o rd in ary , t h an t h at b y i ts p ow erfu l a n d s u dden
ex pan sio n i t s h ould b urs t i r o n s h ells a n d c o eh orn s, o r t h ro w o ut t h e p lu gs
with w hic h t h e w ate r w as s e cu re d i n t h em a b ove o ne h undre d a n d t h ir ty
yard s, a cco rd in g t o t h e e x perim en ts a t Q ueb ec b y M ajo r W illia m s. E din b.
Tra n sa ct. V ol. I I. p . 2 3.
In s o m e s ilic eo us n odule s w hic h n ow l ie b efo re m e, t h e e x te rn al c ru st f o r
ab out t h e t e n th o f a n i n ch c o nsis ts o f w hite a g ate , i n o th ers i t i s m uch t h in ner,
an d i n s o m e m uch t h ic k er; c o rre sp ondin g w ith t h is c ru st t h ere a re f ro m
tw en ty t o t h ir ty s u perin cu m ben t s tr a ta , o f a lte rn ate ly d ark er a n d l ig hte r
co lo ur; w hen ce i t a p pears , t h at t h e e x te rn al c ru st a s i t c o ole d o r f ro ze,
pro pelle d f ro m i t t h e i r o n o r m an gan ese w hic h w as d is so lv ed i n i t; t h is
re ced ed t ill i t h ad f o rm ed a n a rc h o r v au lt s tr o ng e n ough t o r e sis t i ts f u rth er
pro tr u sio n; t h en t h e n ex t i n ner s p here o r s tr a tu m a s i t c o ole d o r f ro ze,
pro pelle d f o rw ard s i ts c o lo urin g m atte r i n t h e s a m e m an ner, t ill a n oth er a rc h
or s p here p ro duced s u ffic ie n t r e sis ta n ce t o t h is f rig oris c en t e x puls io n. S om e
of t h em h av e d etr u ded t h eir c o lo urin g m atte r q uite t o t h e c en tr e , t h e r in gs
co ntin uin g t o b eco m e d ark er a s t h ey a re n eare r i t; i n o th ers t h e c h aly beate
arc h s e em s t o h av e s to pped h alf a n i n ch f ro m t h e c en tr e , a n d b eco m e t h ic k er
by h av in g a ttr a cte d t o i ts e lf t h e i r o ny m atte r f ro m t h e w hite n ucle u s, o w in g
pro bab ly t o i ts c o olin g l e ss p re cip ita te ly i n t h e c en tr a l p arts t h an a t t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e p eb ble .
A s im ila r d etr u sio n o f a m arly m atte r i n c ir c u la r a rc h es o r v au lts o bta in s i n
th e s a lt m in es i n C hesh ir e ; f ro m w hen ce D r. H utto n v ery i n gen io usly
co nclu des, t h at t h e s a lt m ust h av e b een l iq uif ie d b y h eat; w hic h w ould s e em
to b e m uch c o nfir m ed b y t h e a b ove t h eo ry . E din b. T ra n sa ct. V ol. I . p . 2 44.
I c an not c o nclu de t h is a cco unt o f S co ts -p eb ble s w ith out o bse rv in g t h at s o m e
of t h em o n b ein g s a w ed l o ngitu din ally a su nder, s e em s till t o p osse ss s o m e

vestig es o f t h e c y lin dric al o rg an iz atio n o f v eg eta b le s; o th ers p osse ss a
nucle u s o f w hite a g ate m uch r e se m blin g s o m e b ulb ous r o ots w ith t h eir
co ncen tr ic c o ats , o r t h e k nots i n e lm -ro ots o r c ra b - t r e es; s o m e o f t h ese I
su ppose w ere f o rm ed i n t h e m an ner a b ove e x pla in ed , d urin g t h e c o ngela tio n
of m asse s o f m elte d f lin t a n d i r o n; o th ers m ay h av e b een f o rm ed f ro m a
veg eta b le n ucle u s, a n d r e ta in s o m e v estig es o f t h e o rg an iz atio n o f t h e p la n t.
4. S A ND O F T H E S E A .
The g re at a b undan ce o f s ilic eo us s a n d a t t h e b otto m o f t h e o cean m ay i n p art
be w ash ed d ow n f ro m t h e s ilic eo us r o ck s a b ove d esc rib ed , b ut i n g en era l I
su ppose i t d eriv es i ts a cid o nly f ro m t h e v eg eta b le a n d a n im al m atte r o f
mora sse s, w hic h i s c arrie d d ow n b y f lo ods o r b y t h e a tm osp here , a n d
beco m es u nite d i n t h e s e a w ith i ts c alc are o us b ase f ro m s h ells a n d c o ra llo id s,
an d t h us a ssu m es i ts c ry sta llin e f o rm a t t h e b otto m o f t h e o cean , a n d i s t h ere
in te rm ix ed w ith g ra v el o r o th er m atte rs w ash ed f ro m t h e m ounta in s i n i ts
vic in ity .
5. C H ER T, O R P E TR O SIL EX .
The r o ck s o f m arb le a re o fte n a lte rn ate ly i n te rm ix ed w ith s tr a ta o f c h ert, o r
co ars e f lin t, a n d t h is i n b ed s f ro m o ne t o t h re e f e et t h ic k , a s a t H am a n d
Matlo ck , o r o f l e ss t h an t h e t e n th o f a n i n ch i n t h ic k ness, a s a m ile o r t w o
fro m B ak ew ell i n t h e r o ad t o B uxto n. I t i s d if fic u lt t o c o nceiv e i n w hat
man ner t e n o r t w en ty s tr a ta o f e ith er l im esto ne o r f lin t, o f d if fe re n t s h ad es o f
white a n d b la ck , c o uld b e l a id q uite r e g ula rly o ver e ach o th er f ro m s e d im en ts
or p re cip ita tio ns f ro m t h e s e a; i t a p pears t o m e m uch e asie r t o c o m pre h en d,
by s u pposin g w ith D r. H utto n, t h at b oth t h e s o lid r o ck s o f m arb le a n d t h e
flin t h ad b een f u se d b y g re at h eat, ( o r b y h eat a n d w ate r,) u nder i m men se
pre ssu re ; b y i ts c o olin g o r c o ngealin g t h e c o lo urin g m atte r m ig ht b e d etr u ded ,
an d f o rm p ara lle l o r c u rv ilin ean s tr a ta , a s a b ove e x pla in ed .
The c o lo urin g m atte r b oth o f l im esto ne a n d f lin t w as p ro bab ly o w in g t o t h e
fle sh o f p ecu lia r a n im als , a s w ell a s t h e s ilic eo us a cid , w hic h c o nverte d s o m e
of t h e l im esto ne i n to f lin t; o r t o s o m e s tr a ta o f s h ell- f is h h av in g b een

overw helm ed w hen a liv e w ith n ew m ate ria ls , w hile o th ers d yin g i n t h eir
natu ra l s itu atio ns w ould l o se t h eir f le sh y p arts , e ith er b y i ts p utr id s o lu tio n i n
th e w ate r o r b y i ts b ein g e ate n b y o th er s e a- i n se cts . I h av e s o m e c alc are o us
fo ssil s h ells w hic h c o nta in a b la ck c o aly m atte r i n t h em , w hic h w as e v id en tly
th e b ody o f t h e a n im al, a n d o th ers o f t h e s a m e k in d f ille d w ith s p ar i n ste ad o f
it. T he L ab ra d ore s to ne h as I s u ppose i ts c o lo urs f ro m t h e n acre o r m oth er-
pearl s h ells , f ro m w hic h i t w as p ro bab ly p ro duced . A nd t h ere i s a s tr a tu m o f
calc are o us m atte r a b out s ix o r e ig ht i n ch es t h ic k a t W in gerw orth i n
Derb ysh ir e o ver t h e i r o n-b ed s, w hic h i s r e p le te w ith s h ells o f f re sh - w ate r
musc le s, a n d e v id en tly o bta in s i ts d ark c o lo ur f ro m t h em , a s m en tio ned i n
note X VI. M an y n odule s o f f lin t r e se m ble i n c o lo ur a s w ell a s i n f o rm t h e
sh ell o f t h e e ch in us o r s e a-u rc h in ; o th ers r e se m ble s o m e c o ra llo id s b oth i n
fo rm a n d c o lo ur; a n d M . A rd uin i f o und i n t h e M onte d e P an cra sio , r e d f lin ts
bra n ch in g l ik e c o ra ls , f ro m w hen ce t h ey s e em t o h av e o bta in ed b oth t h eir
fo rm a n d t h eir c o lo ur. F erb er's T ra v els i n I ta ly , p . 4 2.
6. N O DULES O F F L IN T I N C H ALK -B ED S.
As t h e n odule s o f f lin t f o und i n c h alk -b ed s p osse ss n o m ark s o f h av in g b een
ro unded b y a ttr itio n o r s o lu tio n, I c o nclu de t h at t h ey h av e g ain ed t h eir f o rm
as w ell a s t h eir d ark c o lo ur f ro m t h e f le sh o f t h e s h ell- fis h f ro m w hic h t h ey
had t h eir o rig in ; b ut w hic h h av e b een s o c o m ple atly f u se d b y h eat, o r h eat
an d w ate r, a s t o o blite ra te a ll v estig es o f t h e s h ell, i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s t h e
nodule s o f a g ate a n d o nyx w ere p ro duced f ro m p arts o f v eg eta b le s, b ut w hic h
had b een s o c o m ple te ly f u se d a s t o o blite ra te a ll m ark s o f t h eir o rg an iz atio n,
or a s m an y i r o n-n odule s h av e o bta in ed t h eir f o rm a n d o rig in f ro m p ecu lia r
veg eta b le s.
Som e n odule s i n c h alk -b ed s c o nsis t o f s h ells o f e ch in i f ille d u p w ith c h alk ,
th e a n im al h av in g b een d is so lv ed a w ay b y p utr e sc en ce i n w ate r, o r e ate n b y
oth er s e a-in se cts ; o th er s h ells o f e ch in i, i n w hic h I s u ppose t h e a n im al's b ody
re m ain ed , a re c o nverte d i n to f lin t b ut s till r e ta in t h e f o rm o f t h e s h ell. O th ers ,
I s u ppose a s a b ove, b ein g m ore c o m ple te ly f u se d , h av e b eco m e f lin t c o lo ure d
by t h e a n im al f le sh , b ut w ith out t h e e x act f o rm e ith er o f t h e f le sh o r s h ell o f
th e a n im al. M an y o f t h ese a re h ollo w w ith in a n d l in ed w ith c ry sta ls , l ik e t h e
Sco t's -p eb ble s a b ove d esc rib ed ; b ut a s t h e c o lo urin g m atte r o f a n im al b odie s

dif fe rs b ut l ittle f ro m e ach o th er c o m pare d w ith t h ose o f v eg eta b le s, t h ese
flin ts v ary l e ss i n t h eir c o lo urs t h an t h ose a b ove m en tio ned . A t t h e s a m e t im e
as t h ey c o ole d i n c o ncen tr ic s p here s l ik e t h e S co t's -p eb ble s, t h ey o fte n
posse ss f a in t r in gs o f c o lo urs , a n d a lw ay s b re ak i n c o nch oid e f o rm s l ik e
th em .
This i d ea o f t h e p ro ductio n o f n odule s o f f lin t i n c h alk -b ed s i s c o unte n an ced
fro m t h e i r o n w hic h g en era lly a p pears a s t h ese f lin ts b eco m e d eco m pose d b y
th e a ir ; w hic h b y u nitin g w ith t h e i r o n i n t h eir c o m positio n r e d uces i t f ro m a
vitr e sc en t s ta te t o t h at o f c alx , a n d t h us r e n ders i t v is ib le . A nd s e co ndly , b y
th ere b ein g n o a p peara n ce i n c h alk - b ed s o f a s tr in g o r p ip e o f s ilic eo us
matte r c o nnectin g o ne n odule w ith a n oth er, w hic h m ust h av e h ap pen ed i f t h e
silic eo us m atte r, o r i ts a cid , h ad b een i n je cte d f ro m w ith out a cco rd in g t o t h e
id ea o f D r. H utto n. A nd t h ir d ly , b ecau se m an y o f t h em h av e v ery l a rg e
cav itie s a t t h eir c en tr e s, w hic h s h ould n ot h av e h ap pen ed h ad t h ey b een
fo rm ed b y t h e i n je ctio n o f a m ate ria l f ro m w ith out.
When s h ells o r c h alk a re t h us c o nverte d f ro m c alc are o us t o s ilic eo us m atte r
by t h e f le sh o f t h e a n im al, t h e n ew f lin t b ein g h eav ie r t h an t h e s h ell o r c h alk
occu pie s l e ss s p ace t h an t h e m ate ria ls i t w as p ro duced f ro m ; t h is i s t h e c au se
of f re q uen t c av itie s w ith in t h em , w here t h e w hole m ass h as n ot b een
co m ple te ly f u se d a n d p re sse d t o geth er. I n D erb ysh ir e t h ere a re m asse s o f
co ra llo id a n d o th er s h ells w hic h h av e b eco m e s ilic eo us, a n d a re t h us l e ft w ith
la rg e v acu itie s s o m etim es w ith in a n d s o m etim es o n t h e o uts id e o f t h e
re m ain in g f o rm o f t h e s h ell, l ik e t h e F re n ch m ills to nes, a n d I s u ppose m ig ht
se rv e t h e s a m e p urp ose ; t h e g ra v el o f t h e D erw en t i s f u ll o f s p ecim en s o f t h is
kin d.
Sin ce w ritin g t h e a b ove I h av e r e ceiv ed a v ery i n gen io us a cco unt o f c h alk -
bed s f ro m D r. M EN IS H o f C helm sfo rd . H e d is tin guis h es c h alk -b ed s i n to
th re e k in ds; s u ch a s h av e b een r a is e d f ro m t h e s e a w ith l ittle d is tu rb an ce o f
th eir s tr a ta , a s t h e c lif fs o f D over a n d M arg ate , w hic h h e t e rm s
in tir e
c h alk .
Anoth er s ta te o f c h alk i s w here i t h as s u ffe re d m uch d era n gem en t, a s t h e
ban ks o f t h e T ham es a t G ra v ese n d a n d D artf o rd . A nd a t h ir d s ta te w here
fra g m en ts o f c h alk h av e b een r o unded b y w ate r, w hic h h e t e rm s
allu via l
ch alk . I n t h e f ir s t o f t h ese s itu atio ns o f c h alk h e o bse rv es, t h at t h e f lin t l ie s i n
str a ta h oriz o nta lly , g en era lly i n d is tin ct n odule s, b ut t h at h e h as o bse rv ed t w o

in sta n ces o f s o lid p la te s o r s tr a ta o f f lin t, f ro m a n i n ch t o t w o i n ch es i n
th ic k ness, i n te rp ose d b etw een t h e c h alk -b ed s; o ne o f t h ese i s i n a c h alk -b an k
by t h e r o ad s id e a t B erk ham ste ad , t h e o th er i n a b an k o n t h e r o ad f ro m
Chath am l e ad in g t o C an te rb ury . D r. M en is h h as f u rth er o bse rv ed , t h at m an y
of t h e e ch in i a re c ru sh ed i n t h eir f o rm , a n d y et f ille d w ith f lin t, w hic h h as
ta k en t h e f o rm o f t h e c ru sh ed s h ell, a n d t h at t h ough m an y f lin t n odule s a re
hollo w , y et t h at i n s o m e e ch in i t h e s ilic eu m s e em s t o h av e e n la rg ed , a s i t
passe d f ro m a f lu id t o a s o lid s ta te , a s i t s w ells o ut i n a p ro tu bera n ce a t t h e
mouth a n d a n us o f t h e s h ell, a n d t h at t h ough t h ese s h ells a re s o f ille d w ith
flin t y et t h at i n m an y p la ces t h e s h ell i ts e lf r e m ain s c alc are o us. T hese s tr a ta
of n odule s a n d p la te s o f f lin t s e em t o c o unte n an ce t h eir o rig in f ro m t h e f le sh
of a s tr a tu m o f a n im als w hic h p eris h ed b y s o m e n atu ra l v io le n ce, a n d w ere
burie d i n t h eir s h ells .
7. A NG LES O F S IL IC EO US S A ND.
In m an y r o ck s o f s ilic eo us s a n d t h e p artic le s r e ta in t h eir a n gula r f o rm , a n d i n
so m e b ed s o f l o ose s a n d, o f w hic h t h ere i s o ne o f c o nsid era b le p urity a f e w
yard s b en eath t h e m arl a t N orm in gto n a b out a m ile s o uth o f D erb y. O th er
silic eo us s a n ds h av e h ad t h eir a n gle s r o unded o ff, l ik e t h e p eb ble s i n g ra v el-
bed s. T hese s e em t o o w e t h eir g lo bula r f o rm t o t w o c au se s; o ne t o t h eir
attr itio n a g ain st e ach o th er, w hen t h ey m ay f o r c en tu rie s h av e l a in a t t h e
botto m o f t h e s e a, o r o f r iv ers ; w here t h ey m ay h av e b een p ro gre ssiv ely
accu m ula te d , a n d t h us p ro gre ssiv ely a t t h e s a m e t im e r u bbed u pon e ach o th er
by t h e d ash in g o f t h e w ate r, a n d w here t h ey w ould b e m ore e asily r o lle d o ver
each o th er b y t h eir g ra v ity b ein g s o m uch l e ss t h an i n a ir . T his i s e v id en tly
now g oin g o n i n t h e r iv er D erw en t, f o r t h ough t h ere a re n o l im esto ne r o ck s
fo r t e n o r f if te en m ile s a b ove D erb y, y et a g re at p art o f t h e r iv er-g ra v el a t
Derb y c o nsis ts o f l im esto ne n odule s, w hose a n gle s a re q uite w orn o ff i n t h eir
desc en t d ow n t h e s tr e am .
There i s h ow ev er a n oth er c au se w hic h m ust h av e c o ntr ib ute d t o r o und t h e
an gle s b oth o f c alc are o us a n d s ilic eo us f ra g m en ts ; a n d t h at i s , t h eir s o lu bility
in w ate r; c alc are o us e arth i s p erp etu ally f o und s u sp en ded i n t h e w ate rs w hic h
pass o ver i t; a n d t h e e arth o f f lin ts w as o bse rv ed b y B erg m an t o b e c o nta in ed
in w ate r i n t h e p ro portio n o f o ne g ra in t o a g allo n. K ir w an 's M in era lo gy, p .

107. I n b oilin g w ate r, h ow ev er, i t i s s o lu ble i n m uch g re ate r p ro portio n, a s
ap pears f ro m t h e s ilic eo us e arth s u blim ed i n t h e d is tilla tio n o f f lu or a cid i n
gla ss v esse ls ; a n d f ro m t h e b aso ns o f c alc ed ony w hic h s u rro unded t h e j e ts o f
hot w ate r n ear m ount H eccla i n I c ela n d. T ro il o n I c ela n d. I t i s p ro bab le m ost
silic eo us s a n ds o r p eb ble s h av e a t s o m e a g es o f t h e w orld b een l o ng e x pose d
to a q ueo us s te am s r a is e d b y s u bte rra n ean f ir e s. A nd i f f ra g m en ts o f s to ne
were l o ng i m mers e d i n a f lu id m en str u m , t h eir a n gula r p arts w ould b e f ir s t
dis so lv ed , o n a cco unt o f t h eir g re ate r s u rfa ce.
Man y b ed s o f s ilic eo us g ra v el a re c em en te d t o geth er b y a s ilic eo us c em en t,
an d a re c alle d b re ccia ; a s t h e p lu m b-p uddin g s to nes o f H artf o rd sh ir e , a n d t h e
walls o f a s u bte rra n eo us t e m ple e x cav ate d b y M r. C urz o n, a t H ag le y n ear
Rugely i n S ta ffo rd fs h ir e ; t h ese m ay h av e b een e x pose d t o g re at h eat a s t h ey
were i m mers e d i n w ate r; w hic h w ate r u nder g re at p re ssu re o f s u perin cu m ben t
mate ria ls m ay h av e b een r e n dere d r e d - h ot, a s i n P ap in 's d ig este r; a n d h av e
th us p osse sse d p ow ers o f s o lu tio n w ith w hic h w e a re u nacq uain te d .
8. B A SA LTES A ND G RANIT ES.
Anoth er s o urc e o f s ilic eo us s to nes i s f ro m t h e g ra n ite , o r b asa lte s, o r
porp hyrie s, w hic h a re o f d if fe re n t h ard nesse s a cco rd in g t o t h e m ate ria ls o f
th eir c o m positio n, o r t o t h e f ir e t h ey h av e u nderg one; s u ch a re t h e s to nes o f
Arth ur's -h ill n ear E din burg h, o f t h e G ia n t's C au sw ay i n I re la n d, a n d o f
Charn w ood F ore st i n L eic este rs h ir e ; t h e u pperm ost s tr a tu m o f w hic h l a st
se em s t o h av e b een c ra ck ed e ith er b y i ts e le v atio n, o r b y i ts h astily c o olin g
afte r i g nitio n b y t h e c o nta ct o f d ew s o r s n ow s, a n d t h us b re ak s i n to a n gula r
fra g m en ts , s u ch a s t h e s tr e ets o f L ondon a re p av ed w ith ; o r h av e h ad t h eir
an gle s r o unded b y a ttr itio n o r b y p artia l s o lu tio n; a n d h av e t h us f o rm ed t h e
co m mon p av in g s to nes o r b ow le rs ; a s w ell a s t h e g ra v el, w hic h i s o fte n r o lle d
in to s tr a ta a m id t h e s ilic eo us s a n d-b ed s, w hic h a re e ith er f o rm ed o r c o lle cte d
in t h e s e a.
In w hat m an ner s u ch a m ass o f c ry sta lliz ed m atte r a s t h e G ia n t's C au sw ay
an d s im ila r c o lu m ns o f b asa lte s, c o uld h av e b een r a is e d w ith out o th er
volc an ic a p peara n ces, m ay b e a m atte r n ot e asy t o c o m pre h en d; b ut t h ere i s
an oth er p ow er i n n atu re b esid es t h at o f e x pan sile v ap our w hic h m ay h av e

ra is e d s o m e m ate ria ls w hic h h av e p re v io usly b een i n i g neo us o r a q ueo us
so lu tio n; a n d t h at i s t h e a ct o f c o ngela tio n. W hen t h e w ate r i n t h e
ex perim en ts a b ove r e la te d o f M ajo r W illia m s h ad b y c o ngela tio n t h ro w n o ut
th e p lu gs f ro m t h e b om b-s h ells , a c o lu m n o f i c e r o se f ro m t h e h ole o f t h e
bom b s ix o r e ig ht i n ch es h ig h. O th er b odie s I s u sp ect i n cre ase i n b ulk w hic h
cry sta lliz e i n c o olin g, a s i r o n a n d t y pe-m eta l. I r e m em ber p ourin g e ig ht o r t e n
pounds o f m elte d b rim sto ne i n to a p ot t o c o ol a n d w as s u rp riz ed t o s e e a fte r a
little t im e a p art o f t h e f lu id b en eath b re ak a h ole i n t h e c o ngeale d c ru st a b ove
it, a n d g ra d ually r is e i n to a p ro m onto ry s e v era l i n ch es h ig h; t h e b asa lte s h as
man y m ark s o f f u sio n a n d o f c ry sta lliz atio n a n d m ay t h en ce, a s w ell a s m an y
oth er k in ds o f r o ck s, a s o f s p ar, m arb le , p etr o sile x , j a sp er, & c. h av e b een
ra is e d b y t h e p ow er o f c o ngela tio n, a p ow er w hose q uan tity h as n ot y et b een
asc erta in ed , a n d p erh ap s g re ate r a n d m ore u niv ers a l t h an t h at o f v ap ours
ex pan ded b y h eat. T hese b asa ltic c o lu m ns r is e s o m etim es o ut o f m ounta in s o f
gra n ite i ts e lf , a s m en tio ned b y D r. B ed does, ( P hil. T ra n sa ct. V ol. L X XX.)
an d a s t h ey s e em t o c o nsis t o f s im ila r m ate ria ls m ore c o m ple te ly f u se d , t h ere
is s till g re ate r r e aso n t o b elie v e t h em t o h av e b een e le v ate d i n t h e c o olin g o r
cry sta lliz atio n o f t h e m ass. S ee n ote X XIV .

N O TE X X.— CLA Y.
When ce d uctile C la ys i n w id e e xp ansio n s p re a d,
Soft a s t h e C yg net's
dow n, t h eir s n ow -w hite b ed .
C A NTO I I. l . 2 77.
T he p hilo so phers , w ho h av e a tte n ded t o t h e f o rm atio n o f t h e e arth , h av e
a ck now le d ged t w o g re at a g en ts i n p ro ducin g t h e v ario us c h an ges w hic h t h e
t e rra q ueo us g lo be h as u nderg one, a n d t h ese a re w ate r a n d f ir e . S om e o f t h em
h av e p erh ap s a sc rib ed t o o m uch t o o ne o f t h ese g re at a g en ts o f n atu re , a n d
s o m e t o t h e o th er. T hey h av e g en era lly a g re ed t h at t h e s tr a tif ic atio n o f
m ate ria ls c o uld o nly b e p ro duced f ro m s e d im en ts o r p re cip ita tio ns, w hic h
w ere p re v io usly m ix ed o r d is so lv ed i n t h e s e a; a n d t h at w hate v er e ffe cts w ere
p ro duced b y f ir e w ere p erfo rm ed a fte rw ard s.
T here i s h ow ev er g re at d if fic u lty i n a cco untin g f o r t h e u niv ers a l s tr a tif ic atio n
o f t h e s o lid g lo be o f t h e e arth i n t h is m an ner, s in ce m an y o f t h e m ate ria ls ,
w hic h a p pear i n s tr a ta , c o uld n ot h av e b een s u sp en ded i n w ate r; a s t h e
n odule s o f f lin t i n c h alk -b ed s, t h e e x te n siv e b ed s o f s h ells , a n d l a stly t h e
s tr a ta o f c o al, c la y , s a n d, a n d i r o n-o re , w hic h i n m ost c o al- c o untr ie s l ie f ro m
f iv e t o s e v en t im es a lte rn ate ly s tr a tif ie d o ver e ach o th er, a n d n one o f t h em a re
s o lu ble i n w ate r. A dd t o t h is i f a s o lu tio n o f t h em o r a m ix tu re o f t h em i n
w ate r c o uld b e s u ppose d , t h e c au se o f t h at s o lu tio n m ust c ease b efo re a
p re cip ita tio n c o uld c o m men ce.
1 . T he g re at m asse s o f l a v a, u nder t h e v ario us n am es o f g ra n ite , p orp hyry ,
t o ad sto ne, m oor-s to ne, r a g , a n d s la te , w hic h c o nstitu te t h e o ld w orld , m ay
h av e a cq uir e d t h e s tr a tif ic atio n, w hic h s o m e o f t h em a p pear t o p osse ss, b y

th eir h av in g b een f o rm ed b y s u ccessiv e e ru ptio ns o f a f lu id m ass, w hic h a t
dif fe re n t p erio ds o f a n tie n t t im e a ro se f ro m v olc an ic s h afts a n d c o vere d e ach
oth er, t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e i n te rio r m ass o f l a v a w ould c o ol a n d b eco m e s o lid
befo re t h e s u perin cu m ben t s tr a tu m w as p oure d o ver i t; t o t h e s a m e c au se m ay
be a sc rib ed t h eir d if fe re n t c o m positio ns a n d t e x tu re s, w hic h a re s c arc ely t h e
sa m e i n a n y t w o p arts o f t h e w orld .
2. T he s tr a tif ic atio ns o f t h e g re at m asse s o f l im esto ne, w hic h w ere p ro duced
fro m s e a-s h ells , s e em t o h av e b een f o rm ed b y t h e d if fe re n t t im es a t w hic h t h e
in num era b le s h ells w ere p ro duced a n d d ep osite d . A c o lo ny o f e ch in i, o r
mad re p ore s, o r c o rn ua a m monis , l iv ed a n d p eris h ed i n o ne p erio d o f t im e; i n
an oth er a n ew c o lo ny o f e ith er s im ila r o r d if fe re n t s h ells l iv ed a n d d ie d o ver
th e f o rm er o nes, p ro ducin g a s tr a tu m o f m ore r e cen t s h ell o ver a s tr a tu m o f
oth ers w hic h h ad b eg an t o p etr if y o r t o b eco m e m arb le ; a n d t h us f ro m
unknow n d ep th s t o w hat a re n ow t h e s u m mits o f m ounta in s t h e l im esto ne i s
dis p ose d i n s tr a ta o f v ary in g s o lid ity a n d c o lo ur. T hese h av e a fte rw ard s
underg one v arie ty o f c h an ges b y t h eir s o lu tio n a n d d ep ositio n f ro m t h e w ate r
in w hic h t h ey w ere i m mers e d , o r f ro m h av in g b een e x pose d t o g re at h eat
under g re at p re ssu re , a cco rd in g t o t h e i n gen io us t h eo ry o f D r. H utto n. E din b.
Tra n sa ct. V ol. I . S ee N ote X VI.
3. I n m ost o f t h e c o al- c o untr ie s o f t h is i s la n d t h ere a re f ro m f iv e t o s e v en
bed s o f c o al s tr a tif ie d w ith a n e q ual n um ber o f b ed s, t h ough o f m uch g re ate r
th ic k ness, o f c la y a n d s a n dsto ne, a n d o ccasio nally o f i r o n- o re s. I n w hat
man ner t o a cco unt f o r t h e s tr a tif ic atio n o f t h ese m ate ria ls s e em s t o b e a
pro ble m o f g re ate r d if fic u lty . P hilo so phers h av e g en era lly s u ppose d t h at t h ey
hav e b een a rra n ged b y t h e c u rre n ts o f t h e s e a; b ut c o nsid erin g t h eir
in so lu bility i n w ate r, a n d t h eir a lm ost s im ila r s p ecif ic g ra v ity , a n
accu m ula tio n o f t h em i n s u ch d is tin ct b ed s f ro m t h is c au se i s a lto geth er
in co nceiv eab le , t h ough s o m e c o al- c o untr ie s b ear m ark s o f h av in g b een a t
so m e t im e i m mers e d b en eath t h e w av es a n d r a is e d a g ain b y s u bte rra n ean
fir e s.
The h ig her a n d l o w er p arts o f m ora sse s w ere n ecessa rily p ro duced a t
dif fe re n t p erio ds o f t im e, s e e N ote X VII. a n d w ould t h us o rig in ally b e f o rm ed
in s tr a ta o f d if fe re n t a g es. F or w hen a n o ld w ood p eris h ed , a n d p ro duced a
mora ss, m an y c en tu rie s w ould e la p se b efo re a n oth er w ood c o uld g ro w a n d

peris h a g ain u pon t h e s a m e g ro und, w hic h w ould t h us p ro duce a n ew s tr a tu m
of m ora ss o ver t h e o th er, d if fe rin g i n deed p rin cip ally i n i ts a g e, a n d p erh ap s,
as t h e t im ber m ig ht b e d if fe re n t, i n t h e p ro portio ns o f i ts c o m ponen t p arts .
Now i f w e s u ppose t h e l o w erm ost s tr a tu m o f a m ora ss b eco m e i g nite d , l ik e
fe rm en tin g h ay , ( a fte r w hate v er c o uld b e c arrie d a w ay b y s o lu tio n i n w ate r
was g one,) w hat w ould h ap pen ? C erta in ly t h e i n fla m mab le p art, t h e o il,
su lp hur, o r b itu m en , w ould b urn a w ay , a n d b e e v ap ora te d i n a ir ; a n d t h e f ix ed
parts w ould b e l e ft, a s c la y , l im e, a n d i r o n; w hile s o m e o f t h e c alc are o us e arth
would j o in w ith t h e s ilic eo us a cid , a n d p ro duce s a n d, o r w ith t h e a rg illa ceo us
earth , a n d p ro duce m arl. T hen ce a fte r m an y c en tu rie s a n oth er b ed w ould t a k e
fir e , b ut w ith l e ss d eg re e o f i g nitio n, a n d w ith a g re ate r b ody o f m ora ss o ver
it, w hat t h en w ould h ap pen ? T he b itu m en a n d s u lp hur w ould r is e a n d m ig ht
beco m e c o nden se d u nder a n i m perv io us s tr a tu m , w hic h m ig ht n ot b e i g nite d ,
an d t h ere f o rm c o al o f d if fe re n t p uritie s a cco rd in g t o i ts d eg re e o f f lu id ity ,
whic h w ould p erm it s o m e o f t h e c la y t o s u bsid e t h ro ugh i t i n to t h e p la ce f ro m
whic h i t w as s u blim ed .
Som e c en tu rie s a fte rw ard s a n oth er s im ila r p ro cess m ig ht t a k e p la ce, a n d
eith er t h ic k en t h e c o al- b ed , o r p ro duce a n ew c la y -b ed , o r m arl, o r s a n d, o r
dep osit i r o n u pon i t, a cco rd in g t o t h e c o nco m ita n t c ir c u m sta n ces a b ove
men tio ned .
I d o n ot m ean t o c o nte n d t h at a f e w m asse s o f s o m e m ate ria ls m ay n ot h av e
been r o lle d t o geth er b y c u rre n ts , w hen t h e m ounta in s w ere m uch m ore
ele v ate d t h an a t p re se n t, a n d i n c o nse q uen ce t h e r iv ers b ro ad er a n d m ore
ra p id , a n d t h e s to rm s o f r a in a n d w in d g re ate r b oth i n q uan tity a n d f o rc e.
Som e g ra v el- b ed s m ay h av e b een t h us w ash ed f ro m t h e m ounta in s; a n d s o m e
white c la y w ash ed f ro m m ora sse s i n to v alle y s b en eath t h em ; a n d s o m e o ch re s
of i r o n d is so lv ed a n d a g ain d ep osite d b y w ate r; a n d s o m e c alc are o us
dep ositio ns f ro m w ate r, ( a s t h e b an k f o r i n sta n ce o n w hic h s ta n d t h e h ouse s
at M atlo ck -b ath ;) b ut t h ese a re o f s m all e x te n t o r c o nse q uen ce c o m pare d t o
th e p rim itiv e r o ck s o f g ra n ite o r p orp yhry w hic h f o rm t h e n ucle u s o f t h e
earth , o r t o t h e i m men se s tr a ta o f l im esto ne w hic h c ru st o ver t h e g re ate st p art
of t h is g ra n ite o r p orp hyry ; o r l a stly t o t h e v ery e x te n siv e b ed s o f c la y , m arl,
sa n dsto ne, c o al, a n d i r o n, w hic h w ere p ro bab ly f o r m an y m illio ns o f y ears t h e
only p arts o f o ur c o ntin en ts a n d i s la n ds, w hic h w ere t h en e le v ate d a b ove t h e

le v el o f t h e s e a, a n d w hic h o n t h at a cco unt b ecam e c o vere d w ith v eg eta tio n,
an d t h en ce a cq uir e d t h eir l a te r o r s u perin cu m ben t s tr a ta , w hic h c o nstitu te ,
what s o m e h av e t e rm ed , t h e n ew w orld .
There i s a n oth er s o urc e o f c la y , a n d t h at o f t h e f in est k in d, f ro m d eco m pose d
gra n ite , t h is i s o f a s n ow y w hite a n d m ix ed w ith m in in g p artic le s o f m ic a, o f
th is k in d i s a n e arth f ro m t h e c o untr y o f C hero kees. O th er k in ds a re f ro m l e ss
pure l a v as; M r. F erb er a sse rts t h at t h e s u lp huro us s te am s f ro m M ount
Vesu viu s c o nvert t h e l a v a i n to c la y .
"T he l a v as o f t h e a n tie n t S olf a ta ra v olc an o h av e b een u ndoubte d ly o f a
vitr e o us n atu re , a n d t h ese a p pear a t p re se n t a rg illa ceo us. S om e f ra g m en ts o f
th is l a v a a re b ut h alf o r a t o ne s id e c h an ged i n to c la y , w hic h e ith er i s v is c id o r
ductile , o r h ard a n d s to ney . C la y s b y f ir e a re d ep riv ed o f t h eir c o here n t
quality , w hic h c an not b e r e sto re d t o t h em b y p ulv eriz atio n, n or b y
hum ecta tio n. B ut t h e s u lp hure o us S olf a ta ra s te am s r e sto re i t, a s m ay b e e asily
obse rv ed o n t h e b ro ken p ots w here in t h ey g ath er t h e s a l a m monia c; t h ough
very w ell b ak ed a n d b urn t a t N ap le s t h ey a re m ollif ie d a g ain b y t h e a cid
ste am s i n to a v is c id c la y w hic h k eep s t h e f o rm er f ir e -b urn t c o lo ur." T ra v els
in I ta ly , p . 1 56.

N O TE X XI.— EN AM ELS.
Sm ea r'd h er h uge d ra gons w ith m eta llic h ues,
With g old en p urp le s,
and c o baltic b lu es;
C A NTO I I. l . 2 87.
T he f in e b rig ht p urp le s o r r o se c o lo urs w hic h w e s e e o n c h in a c u ps a re n ot
p ro ducib le w ith a n y o th er m ate ria l e x cep t g old , m an gan ese i n deed g iv es a
p urp le b ut o f a v ery d if fe re n t k in d.
I n E uro pe t h e a p plic atio n o f g old t o t h ese p urp ose s a p pears t o b e o f m odern
i n ven tio n. C assiu s's d is c o very o f t h e p re cip ita te o f g old b y t in , a n d t h e u se o f
t h at p re cip ita te f o r c o lo urin g g la ss a n d e n am els , a re n ow g en era lly k now n,
b ut t h ough t h e p re cip ita te w ith t in b e m ore s u ccessfu l i n p ro ducin g t h e r u by
g la ss, o r t h e c o lo urle ss g la ss w hic h b eco m es r e d b y s u bse q uen t i g nitio n, t h e
t in p ro bab ly c o ntr ib utin g t o p re v en t t h e g old f ro m s e p ara tin g, ( w hic h i t i s
v ery l ia b le t o d o d urin g t h e f u sio n; y et, f o r e n am els , t h e p re cip ita te s m ad e b y
a lc alin e s a lts a n sw er e q ually w ell, a n d g iv e a f in er r e d , t h e c o lo ur p ro duced
b y t h e t in p re cip ita te b ein g a b lu is h p urp le , b ut w ith t h e o th ers a r o se r e d . I
a m i n fo rm ed t h at s o m e o f o ur b est a rtis ts p re fe r a u ru m f u lm in an s, m ix in g i t,
b efo re i t h as b eco m e d ry , w ith t h e w hite c o m positio n o r e n am el f lu x; w hen
o nce i t i s d iv id ed b y t h e o th er m atte r, i t i s g ro und w ith g re at s a fe ty , a n d
w ith out t h e l e ast d an ger o f e x plo sio n, w heth er m ois t o r d ry . T he c o lo ur i s
r e m ark ab ly i m pro ved a n d b ro ught f o rth b y l o ng g rin din g, w hic h a cco rd in gly
m ak es a n e sse n tia l c ir c u m sta n ce i n t h e p ro cess.
T he p re cip ita te s o f g old , a n d t h e c o lc o th ar o r o th er r e d p re p ara tio ns o f i r o n,
a re c alle d
te n der
c o lo urs . T he h eat m ust b e n o g re ate r t h an i s j u st s u ffic ie n t t o

mak e t h e e n am el r u n u pon t h e p ie ce, f o r i f g re ate r, t h e c o lo urs w ill b e
destr o yed o r c h an ged t o a d if fe re n t k in d. W hen t h e v itr e o us m atte r h as j u st
beco m e f lu id i t s e em s a s i f t h e c o lo ure d m eta llic c alx r e m ain ed b are ly
in te rm ix ed
w ith i t, l ik e a c o lo ure d p ow der o f e x quis ite t e n uity s u sp en ded i n
wate r: b ut b y s tr o nger f ir e t h e c alx i s
dis so lv ed
, a n d m eta llic c o lo urs a re
alte re d b y
so lu tio n
i n g la ss a s w ell a s i n a cid s o r a lc alie s.
The S ax on m in es h av e t ill v ery l a te ly a lm ost e x clu siv ely s u pplie d t h e r e st o f
Euro pe w ith c o balt, o r r a th er w ith i ts p re p ara tio ns, z affre a n d s m alt, f o r t h e
ex porta tio n o f t h e o re i ts e lf i s t h ere a c ap ita l c rim e. H ungary , S pain , S w ed en ,
an d s o m e o th er p arts o f t h e c o ntin en t, a re n ow s a id t o a ffo rd c o balts e q ual t o
th e S ax on, a n d s p ecim en s h av e b een d is c o vere d i n o ur o w n i s la n d, b oth i n
Corn w all a n d i n S co tla n d; b ut h ith erto i n n o g re at q uan tity .
Calc es o f c o balt a n d o f c o pper d if fe r v ery m ate ria lly f ro m t h ose a b ove
men tio ned i n t h eir a p plic atio n f o r c o lo urin g e n am els . I n t h ose t h e c alx h as
pre v io usly a cq uir e d t h e i n te n ded c o lo ur, a c o lo ur w hic h b ears a r e d h eat
with out i n ju ry , a n d a ll t h at r e m ain s i s t o f ix i t o n t h e p ie ce b y a v itr e o us f lu x.
But t h e b lu e c o lo ur o f c o balt, a n d t h e g re en o r b lu is h g re en o f c o pper, a re
pro duced
b y v itr if ic atio n, t h at i s , b y
so lu tio n
i n t h e g la ss, a n d a s tr o ng f ir e i s
necessa ry f o r t h eir p erfe ctio n. T hese c alc es t h ere fo re , w hen m ix ed w ith t h e
en am el f lu x, a re m elte d i n c ru cib le s, o nce o r o fte n er, a n d t h e d eep c o lo ure d
opak e g la ss, t h en ce r e su ltin g, i s g ro und i n to u npalp ab le p ow der, a n d u se d f o r
en am el. O ne p art o f e ith er o f t h ese c alc es i s p ut t o t e n , s ix te en , o r t w en ty
parts o f t h e f lu x, a cco rd in g t o t h e d ep th o f c o lo ur r e q uir e d . T he h eat o f t h e
en am el k iln i s o nly a f u ll r e d , s u ch a s i s m ark ed o n M r. W ed gw ood's
th erm om ete r 6 d eg re es. I t i s t h ere fo re n ecessa ry t h at t h e f lu x b e s o a d ju ste d
as t o m elt i n t h at l o w h eat. T he u su al m ate ria ls a re f lin t, o r f lin t- g la ss, w ith a
due p ro portio n o f r e d -le d , o r b ora x , o r b oth , a n d s o m etim es a l ittle t in c alx t o
giv e o pacity .
Ka-o -lin
i s t h e n am e g iv en b y t h e C hin ese t o t h eir p orc ela in c la y , a n d
pe-tu n-
ts e
t o t h e o th er i n gre d ie n t i n t h eir C hin a w are . S pecim en s o f b oth t h ese h av e
been b ro ught i n to E ngla n d, a n d f o und t o a g re e i n q uality w ith s o m e o f o ur
ow n m ate ria ls . K ao lin i s t h e v ery s a m e w ith t h e c la y c alle d i n C orn w all
[T ra n sc rib er's n ote : w ord m is sin g] a n d t h e p etu nts e i s a g ra n ite s im ila r t o t h e
Corn is h m oors to ne. T here a re d if fe re n ces, b oth i n t h e C hin ese p etu nts e s, a n d

th e E nglis h m oors to nes; a ll o f t h em c o nta in m ic aceo us a n d q uartz y p artic le s,
in g re ate r o r l e ss q uan tity , a lo ng w ith f e lts p at, w hic h l a st i s t h e e sse n tia l
in gre d ie n t f o r t h e p orc ela in m an ufa cto ry . T he o nly i n ju rio us m ate ria l
co m monly f o und i n t h em i s i r o n, w hic h d is c o lo urs t h e w are i n p ro portio n t o
its q uan tity , a n d w hic h o ur m oors to nes a re p erh ap s m ore f re q uen tly t a in te d
with t h an t h e C hin ese . V ery f in e p orc ela in h as b een m ad e f ro m E nglis h
mate ria ls b ut t h e n atu re o f t h e m an ufa ctu re r e n ders t h e p ro cess p re cario us
an d t h e p ro fit h azard ous; f o r t h e s e m iv itr if ic atio n, w hic h c o nstitu te s
porc ela in , i s n ecessa rily a cco m pan ie d w ith a d eg re e o f s o ftn ess, o r
se m if u sio n, s o t h at t h e v esse ls a re l ia b le t o h av e t h eir f o rm s a lte re d i n t h e
kiln , o r t o r u n t o geth er w ith a n y a ccid en ta l a u gm en ta tio ns o f t h e f ir e .

N O TE X XII.— PO RTLA ND V ASE .
Or b id M orta lity r e jo ic e o r m ourn
O'e r t h e f in e f o rm s o f P ortla nd's
mystic u rn .
C A NTO I I. l . 3 19.
T he c ele b ra te d f u nere al v ase , l o ng i n p osse ssio n o f t h e B arb erin i f a m ily , a n d
l a te ly p urc h ase d b y t h e D uke o f P ortla n d f o r a t h ousa n d g uin eas, i s a b out t e n
i n ch es h ig h a n d s ix i n d ia m ete r i n t h e b ro ad est p art. T he f ig ure s a re o f m ost
e x quis ite w ork m an sh ip i n b as r e lie f o f w hite o pak e g la ss, r a is e d o n a g ro und
o f d eep b lu e g la ss, w hic h a p pears b la ck e x cep t w hen h eld a g ain st t h e l ig ht.
M r. W ed gw ood i s o f o pin io n f ro m m an y c ir c u m sta n ces t h at t h e f ig ure s h av e
b een m ad e b y c u ttin g a w ay t h e e x te rn al c ru st o f w hite o pak e g la ss, i n t h e
m an ner t h e f in est c am eo 's h av e b een p ro duced , a n d t h at i t m ust t h en ce h av e
b een t h e l a b our o f a g re at m an y y ears . S om e a n tiq uaria n s h av e p la ced t h e
t im e o f i ts p ro ductio n m an y c en tu rie s b efo re t h e c h ris tia n a era ; a s s c u lp tu re
w as s a id t o h av e b een d eclin in g i n r e sp ect t o i ts e x celle n ce i n t h e t im e o f
A le x an der t h e G re at. S ee a n a cco unt o f t h e B arb erin i o r P ortla n d v ase b y M .
D 'H an carv ille , a n d b y M r. W ed gw ood.
M an y o pin io ns a n d c o nje ctu re s h av e b een p ublis h ed c o ncern in g t h e f ig ure s
o n t h is c ele b ra te d v ase . H av in g c are fu lly e x am in ed o ne o f M r. W ed gw ood's
b eau tif u l c o pie s o f t h is w onderfu l p ro ductio n o f a rt, I s h all a d d o ne m ore
c o nje ctu re t o t h e n um ber.
M r. W ed gw ood h as w ell o bse rv ed t h at i t d oes n ot s e em p ro bab le t h at t h e
P ortla n d v ase w as p urp ose ly m ad e f o r t h e a sh es o f a n y p artic u la r p ers o n
d ecease d , b ecau se m an y y ears m ust h av e b een n ecessa ry f o r i ts p ro ductio n.

Hen ce i t m ay b e c o nclu ded , t h at t h e s u bje ct o f i ts e m bellis h m en ts i s n ot
priv ate h is to ry b ut o f a g en era l n atu re . T his s u bje ct a p pears t o m e t o b e w ell
ch ose n , a n d t h e s to ry t o b e f in ely t o ld ; a n d t h at i t r e p re se n ts w hat i n a n tie n t
tim es e n gag ed t h e a tte n tio n o f p hilo so phers , p oets , a n d h ero es, I m ean a p art
of t h e E le u sin ia n m yste rie s.
These m yste rie s w ere i n ven te d i n A eg ypt, a n d a fte rw ard s t r a n sfe rre d t o
Gre ece, a n d f lo uris h ed m ore p artic u la rly a t A th en s, w hic h w as a t t h e s a m e
tim e t h e s e at o f t h e f in e a rts . T hey c o nsis te d o f s c en ic al e x hib itio ns
re p re se n tin g a n d i n cu lc atin g t h e e x pecta tio n o f a f u tu re l if e a fte r d eath , a n d
on t h is a cco unt w ere e n co ura g ed b y t h e g overn m en t, i n so m uch t h at t h e
Ath en ia n l a w s p unis h ed a d is c o very o f t h eir s e cre ts w ith d eath . D r.
Warb urto n h as w ith g re at l e arn in g a n d i n gen uity s h ew n t h at t h e d esc en t o f
Aen eas i n to h ell, d esc rib ed i n t h e S ix th B ook o f V ir g il, i s a p oetic al a cco unt
of t h e r e p re se n ta tio ns o f t h e f u tu re s ta te i n t h e E le u sin ia n m yste rie s. D iv in e
Leg atio n, V ol. I . p . 2 10.
And t h ough s o m e w rite rs h av e d if fe re d i n o pin io n f ro m D r. W arb urto n o n
th is s u bje ct, b ecau se V ir g il h as i n tr o duced s o m e o f h is o w n h ero es i n to t h e
Ely sia n f ie ld s, a s D eip hobus, P alin uru s, a n d D id o, i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s
Hom er h ad d one b efo re h im , y et i t i s a g re ed t h at t h e r e ceiv ed n otio ns a b out a
fu tu re s ta te w ere e x hib ite d i n t h ese m yste rie s, a n d a s t h ese p oets d esc rib ed
th ose r e ceiv ed n otio ns, t h ey m ay b e s a id , a s f a r a s t h ese r e lig io us d octr in es
were c o ncern ed , t o h av e d esc rib ed t h e m yste rie s.
Now a s t h ese w ere e m ble m atic e x hib itio ns t h ey m ust h av e b een a s w ell
ad ap te d t o t h e p urp ose s o f s c u lp tu re a s o f p oetr y , w hic h i n deed d oes n ot s e em
to h av e b een u nco m mon, s in ce o ne c o m partm en t o f f ig ure s i n t h e s h eild o f
Aen eas r e p re se n te d t h e r e g io ns o f T arta ru s. A en . L ib . X . T he p ro cessio n o f
to rc h es, w hic h a cco rd in g t o M . D e S t. C ro ix w as e x hib ite d i n t h ese m yste rie s,
is s till t o b e s e en i n b asso r e lie v o, d is c o vere d b y S pon a n d W hele r. M em oir e s
su r l e M yste re s p ar D e S t. C ro ix . 1 784. A nd i t i s v ery p ro bab le t h at t h e
beau tif u l g em r e p re se n tin g t h e m arria g e o f C upid a n d P sy ch e, a s d esc rib ed
by A pule u s, w as o rig in ally d esc rip tiv e o f a n oth er p art o f t h e e x hib itio ns i n
th ese m yste rie s, t h ough a fte rw ard s i t b ecam e a c o m mon s u bje ct o f a n tie n t a rt.
See D iv in e L eg at. V ol. I . p . 3 23. W hat s u bje ct c o uld h av e b een i m ag in ed s o
su blim e f o r t h e o rn am en ts o f a f u nere al u rn a s t h e m orta lity o f a ll t h in gs a n d

th eir r e su sc ita tio n? W here c o uld t h e d esig ner b e s u pplie d w ith e m ble m s f o r
th is p urp ose , b efo re t h e C hris tia n e ra , b ut f ro m t h e E le u sin ia n m yste rie s?
1. T he e x hib itio ns o f t h e m yste rie s w ere o f t w o k in ds, t h ose w hic h t h e p eo ple
were p erm itte d t o s e e, a n d t h ose w hic h w ere o nly s h ew n t o t h e i n itia te d .
Concern in g t h e l a tte r, A ris tid es c alls t h em " th e m ost s h ock in g a n d m ost
ra v is h in g r e p re se n ta tio ns." A nd S to boeu s a sse rts t h at t h e i n itia tio n i n to t h e
gra n d m yste rie s e x actly r e se m ble s d eath . D iv in e L eg at. V ol. I . p . 2 80, a n d p .
272. A nd V ir g il i n h is e n tr a n ce t o t h e s h ad es b elo w , a m ongst o th er t h in gs o f
te rrib le f o rm , m en tio ns d eath . A en . V I. T his p art o f t h e e x hib itio n s e em s t o
be r e p re se n te d i n o ne o f t h e c o m partm en ts o f t h e P ortla n d v ase .
Thre e f ig ure s o f e x quis ite w ork m an sh ip a re p la ced b y t h e s id e o f a r u in ed
co lu m n w hose c ap ita l i s f a lle n o ff, a n d l ie s a t t h eir f e et w ith o th er d is jo in te d
sto nes, t h ey s it o n l o ose p ile s o f s to ne b en eath a t r e e, w hic h h as n ot t h e l e av es
of a n y e v erg re en o f t h is c lim ate , b ut m ay b e s u ppose d t o b e a n e lm , w hic h
Vir g il p la ces n ear t h e e n tr a n ce o f t h e i n fe rn al r e g io ns, a n d a d ds, t h at a d re am
was b elie v ed t o d w ell u nder e v ery l e af o f i t. A en . V I. l . 2 81. I n t h e m id st o f
th is g ro up r e clin es a f e m ale f ig ure i n a d yin g a ttitu de, i n w hic h e x tr e m e
la n guor i s b eau tif u lly r e p re se n te d , i n h er h an d i s a n i n verte d t o rc h , a n a n tie n t
em ble m o f e x tin guis h ed l if e , t h e e lb ow o f t h e s a m e a rm r e stin g o n a s to ne
su pports h er a s s h e s in ks, w hile t h e o th er h an d i s r a is e d a n d t h ro w n o ver h er
dro opin g h ead , i n s o m e m easu re s u sta in in g i t a n d g iv es w ith g re at a rt t h e i d ea
of f a in tin g l a ssitu de. O n t h e r ig ht o f h er s its a m an , a n d o n t h e l e ft a w om an ,
both s u pportin g t h em se lv es o n t h eir a rm s, a s p eo ple a re l ia b le t o d o w hen
th ey a re t h in kin g i n te n se ly . T hey h av e t h eir b ack s t o w ard s t h e d yin g f ig ure ,
yet w ith t h eir f a ces t u rn ed t o w ard s h er, a s i f s e rio usly c o nte m pla tin g h er
situ atio n, b ut w ith out s tr e tc h in g o ut t h eir h an ds t o a ssis t h er.
This c en tr a l f ig ure t h en a p pears t o m e t o b e a n h ie ro gly phic o r E le u sin ia n
em ble m o f M ORTA L L IF E , t h at i s , t h e l e th um , o r d eath , m en tio ned b y V ir g il
am ongst t h e t e rrib le t h in gs e x hib ite d a t t h e b eg in nin g o f t h e m yste rie s. T he
in verte d t o rc h s h ew s t h e f ig ure t o b e e m ble m atic , i f i t h ad b een d esig ned t o
re p re se n t a r e al p ers o n i n t h e a ct o f d yin g t h ere h ad b een n o n ecessity f o r t h e
ex pir in g t o rc h , a s t h e d yin g f ig ure a lo ne w ould h av e b een s u ffic ie n tly
in te llig ib le ;— it w ould h av e b een a s a b su rd a s t o h av e p ut a n i n verte d t o rc h
in to t h e h an d o f a r e al p ers o n a t t h e t im e o f h is e x pir in g. B esid es i f t h is f ig ure

had r e p re se n te d a r e al d yin g p ers o n w ould n ot t h e o th er f ig ure s, o r o ne o f
th em a t l e ast, h av e s tr e tc h ed o ut a h an d t o s u pport h er, t o h av e e ase d h er f a ll
am ong l o ose s to nes, o r t o h av e s m ooth ed h er p illo w ? T hese c ir c u m sta n ces
ev in ce t h at t h e f ig ure i s a n e m ble m , a n d t h ere fo re c o uld n ot b e a
re p re se n ta tio n o f t h e p riv ate h is to ry o f a n y p artic u la r f a m ily o r e v en t.
The m an a n d w om an o n e ach s id e o f t h e d yin g f ig ure m ust b e c o nsid ere d a s
em ble m s, b oth f ro m t h eir s im ila rity o f s itu atio n a n d d re ss t o t h e m id dle
fig ure , a n d t h eir b ein g g ro uped a lo ng w ith i t. T hese I t h in k a re h ie ro gly phic
or E le u sin ia n e m ble m s o f H UM ANKIN D, w ith t h eir b ack s t o w ard t h e d yin g
fig ure o f M ORTA L L IF E , u nw illin g t o a sso cia te w ith h er, y et t u rn in g b ack
th eir s e rio us a n d a tte n tiv e c o unte n an ces, c u rio us i n deed t o b eh old , y et s o rry
to c o nte m pla te t h eir l a tte r e n d. T hese f ig ure s b rin g s tr o ngly t o o ne's m in d t h e
Adam a n d E ve o f s a cre d w rit, w hom s o m e h av e s u ppose d t o h av e b een
alle g oric al o r h ie ro gly phic p ers o ns o f A eg yptia n o rig in , b ut o f m ore a n tie n t
date , a m ongst w hom I t h in k i s D r. W arb urto n. A cco rd in g t o t h is o pin io n
Adam a n d E ve w ere t h e n am es o f t w o h ie ro gly phic f ig ure s r e p re se n tin g t h e
early s ta te o f m an kin d; A bel w as t h e n am e o f a n h ie ro gly phic f ig ure
re p re se n tin g t h e a g e o f p astu ra g e, a n d C ain t h e n am e o f a n oth er h ie ro gly phic
sy m bol r e p re se n tin g t h e a g e o f a g ric u ltu re , a t w hic h t im e t h e u se s o f i r o n
were d is c o vere d . A nd a s t h e p eo ple w ho c u ltiv ate d t h e e arth a n d b uilt h ouse s
would i n cre ase i n n um bers m uch f a ste r b y t h eir g re ate r p ro ductio n o f f o od,
th ey w ould r e ad ily c o nquer o r d estr o y t h e p eo ple w ho w ere s u sta in ed b y
pastu ra g e, w hic h w as t y pif ie d b y C ain s la y in g A bel.
2. O n t h e o th er c o m partm en t o f t h is c ele b ra te d v ase i s e x hib ite d a n e m ble m
of i m morta lity , t h e r e p re se n ta tio n o f w hic h w as w ell k now n t o c o nstitu te a
very p rin cip al p art o f t h e s h ew s a t t h e E le u sin ia n m yste rie s, a s D r. W arb urto n
has p ro ved b y v arie ty o f a u th ority . T he h ab ita tio n o f s p ir its o r g hosts a fte r
death w as s u ppose d b y t h e a n tie n ts t o b e p la ced b en eath t h e e arth , w here
Plu to r e ig ned , a n d d is p en se d r e w ard s o r p unis h m en ts . H en ce t h e f ir s t f ig ure
in t h is g ro up i s o f t h e M ANES o r G HOST , w ho h av in g p asse d t h ro ugh a n
open p orta l i s d esc en din g i n to a d usk y r e g io n, p oin tin g h is t o e w ith t im id a n d
unste ad y s te p , f e elin g a s i t w ere h is w ay i n t h e g lo om . T his p orta l A en eas
en te rs , w hic h i s d esc rib ed b y V ir g il,— pate t a tr i j a n ua d itis , A en . V I. l . 1 26;
as w ell a s t h e e asy d esc en t,— fa cilis d esc en su s A vern i. I b . T he d ark ness a t t h e
en tr a n ce t o t h e s h ad es i s h um oro usly d esc rib ed b y L ucia n . D iv . L eg at. V ol. I .

p. 2 41. A nd t h e h orro r o f t h e g ate s o f h ell w as i n t h e t im e o f H om er b eco m e a
pro verb ; A ch ille s s a y s t o U ly sse s, " I h ate a l ia r w ors e t h an t h e g ate s o f h ell;"
th e s a m e e x pre ssio n i s u se d i n I s a ia h , c h . x xxviii. v . 1 0. T he M ANES o r
GHOST a p pears l in gerin g a n d f e arfu l, a n d w is h es t o d ra g a fte r h im a p art o f
his m orta l g arm en t, w hic h h ow ev er a d here s t o t h e s id e o f t h e p orta l t h ro ugh
whic h h e h as p asse d . T he b eau ty o f t h is a lle g ory w ould h av e b een e x pre sse d
by M r. P ope, b y " W e f e el t h e r u lin g p assio n s tr o ng i n d eath ."
A l ittle l o w er d ow n i n t h e g ro up t h e m an es o r g host i s r e ceiv ed b y a b eau tif u l
fe m ale , a s y m bol o f I M MORTA L L IF E . T his i s e v in ced b y h er f o ndlin g
betw een h er k nees a l a rg e a n d p la y fu l s e rp en t, w hic h f ro m i ts a n nually
re n ew in g i ts e x te rn al s k in h as f ro m g re at a n tiq uity , e v en a s e arly a s t h e f a b le
of P ro m eth eu s, b een e ste em ed a n e m ble m o f r e n ovate d y outh . T he s to ry o f
th e s e rp en t a cq uir in g i m morta l l if e f ro m t h e a ss o f P ro m eth eu s, w ho c arrie d i t
on h is b ack , i s t o ld i n B aco n's W ork s, V ol. V . p . 4 62. Q uarto e d it. L ond.
1778. F or a s im ila r p urp ose a s e rp en t w as w ra p ped r o und t h e l a rg e
hie ro gly phic e g g i n t h e t e m ple o f D io sc u ri, a s a n e m ble m o f t h e r e n ew al o f
lif e f ro m a s ta te o f d eath . B ry an t's M yth olo gy, V ol I I. p . 3 59. s e c. e d it. O n
th is a cco unt a ls o t h e s e rp en t w as a n a tte n dan t o n A esc u la p iu s, w hic h s e em s
to h av e b een t h e n am e o f t h e h ie ro gly phic f ig ure o f m ed ic in e. T his s e rp en t
sh ew s t h is f ig ure t o b e a n e m ble m , a s t h e t o rc h s h ew ed t h e c en tr a l f ig ure o f
th e o th er c o m partm en t t o b e a n e m ble m , h en ce t h ey a g re eab ly c o rre sp ond,
an d e x pla in e ach o th er, o ne r e p re se n tin g M ORTA L L IF E , a n d t h e o th er
IM MORTA L L IF E .
This e m ble m atic f ig ure o f i m morta l l if e s its d ow n w ith h er f e et t o w ard s t h e
fig ure o f P lu to , b ut, t u rn in g b ack h er f a ce t o w ard s t h e t im id g host, s h e
str e tc h es f o rth h er h an d, a n d t a k in g h old o f h is e lb ow , s u pports h is t o tte rin g
ste p s, a s w ell a s e n co ura g es h im t o a d van ce, b oth w hic h c ir c u m sta n ces a re
th us w ith w onderfu l i n gen uity b ro ught t o t h e e y e. A t t h e s a m e t im e t h e s p ir it
lo ose ly l a y s h is h an d u pon h er a rm , a s o ne w alk in g i n t h e d ark w ould
natu ra lly d o f o r t h e g re ate r c erta in ty o f f o llo w in g h is c o nductr e ss, w hile t h e
gen era l p art o f t h e s y m bol o f I M MORTA L L IF E , b ein g t u rn ed t o w ard t h e
fig ure o f P lu to , s h ew s t h at s h e i s l e ad in g t h e p han to m t o h is r e alm s.
In t h e P am phili g ard en s a t R om e, P ers e u s i n a ssis tin g A ndro m ed a t o d esc en d
fro m t h e r o ck t a k es h old o f h er e lb ow t o s te ad y o r s u pport h er s te p , a n d s h e

la y s h er h an d l o ose ly o n h is a rm a s i n t h is f ig ure . A dm ir . R om an . A ntiq .
The f ig ure o f P L U TO c an n ot b e m is ta k en , a s i s a g re ed b y m ost o f t h e w rite rs
who h av e m en tio ned t h is v ase ; h is g ris le y b eard , a n d h is h av in g o ne f o ot
burie d i n t h e e arth , d en ote s t h e i n fe rn al m onarc h . H e i s p la ced a t t h e l o w est
part o f t h e g ro up, a n d r e stin g h is c h in o n h is h an d, a n d h is a rm u pon h is k nee,
re ceiv es t h e s tr a n ger-s p ir it w ith i n quis itiv e a tte n tio n; i t w as b efo re o bse rv ed
th at w hen p eo ple t h in k a tte n tiv ely t h ey n atu ra lly r e st t h eir b odie s i n s o m e
easy a ttitu de, t h at m ore a n im al p ow er m ay b e e m plo yed o n t h e t h in kin g
fa cu lty . I n t h is g ro up o f f ig ure s t h ere i s g re at a rt s h ew n i n g iv in g a n i d ea o f a
desc en din g p la in , v iz . f ro m e arth t o E ly siu m , a n d y et a ll t h e f ig ure s a re i n
re ality o n a n h oriz o nta l o ne. T his w onderfu l d ecep tio n i s p ro duced f ir s t b y
th e d esc en din g s te p o f t h e m an es o r g host; s e co ndly , b y t h e a rm o f t h e s ittin g
fig ure o f i m morta l l if e b ein g r a is e d u p t o r e ceiv e h im a s h e d esc en ds; a n d
la stly , b y P lu to h av in g o ne f o ot s u nk i n to t h e e arth .
There i s y et a n oth er f ig ure w hic h i s c o ncern ed i n c o nducin g t h e m an es o r
ghost t o t h e r e alm s o f P lu to , a n d t h is i s L O VE. H e p re ced es t h e d esc en din g
sp ir it o n e x pan ded w in gs, l ig hts h im w ith h is t o rc h , a n d t u rn in g b ack h is
beau tif u l c o unte n an ce b eck ons h im t o a d van ce. T he a n tie n t G od o f l o ve w as
of m uch h ig her d ig nity t h an t h e m odern C upid . H e w as t h e f ir s t t h at c am e o ut
of t h e g re at e g g o f n ig ht, ( H esio d. T heo g. V . C X X. B ry an t's M yth ol. V ol. I I.
p. 3 48.) a n d i s s a id t o p osse ss t h e k ey s o f t h e s k y, s e a, a n d e arth . A s h e
th ere fo re l e d t h e w ay i n to t h is l if e , h e s e em s t o c o nstitu te p ro per e m ble m f o r
le ad in g t h e w ay t o a f u tu re l if e . S ee B aco n's w ork s. V ol. I . p . 5 68. a n d V ol.
III. p . 5 82. Q uarto e d it.
The i n tr o ductio n o f l o ve i n to t h is p art o f t h e m yste rie s r e q uir e s a l ittle f u rth er
ex pla n atio n. T he P sy ch e o f t h e A eg yptia n s w as o ne o f t h eir m ost f a v ourite
em ble m s, a n d r e p re se n te d t h e s o ul, o r a f u tu re l if e ; i t w as o rig in ally n o o th er
th an t h e a u re lia , o r b utte rfly , b ut i n a fte r t im es w as r e p re se n te d b y a l o vely
fe m ale c h ild w ith t h e b eau tif u l w in gs o f t h at i n se ct. T he a u re lia , a fte r i ts f ir s t
sta g e a s a n e ru ca o r c ate rp illa r, l ie s f o r a s e aso n i n a m an ner d ead , a n d i s
in clo se d i n a s o rt o f c o ffin , i n t h is s ta te o f d ark ness i t r e m ain s a ll t h e w in te r,
but a t t h e r e tu rn o f s p rin g i t b urs ts i ts b onds a n d c o m es o ut w ith n ew l if e , a n d
in t h e m ost b eau tif u l a ttir e . T he A eg yptia n s t h ought t h is a v ery p ro per p ic tu re
of t h e s o ul o f m an , a n d o f t h e i m morta lity t o w hic h i t a sp ir e d . B ut a s t h is w as

all o w in g t o d iv in e L ove, o f w hic h E R O S w as a n e m ble m , w e f in d t h is
pers o n f re q uen tly i n tr o duced a s a c o nco m ita n t o f t h e s o ul i n g en era l o r
Psy ch e. ( B ry an t's M yth ol. V ol. I I. p . 3 86.) E R O S, o r d iv in e L ove, i s f o r t h e
sa m e r e aso n a p ro per a tte n dan t o n t h e m an es o r s o ul a fte r d eath , a n d m uch
co ntr ib ute s t o t e ll t h e s to ry , t h at i s , t o s h ew t h at a s o ul o r m an es i s d esig ned
by t h e d esc en din g f ig ure . F ro m t h is f ig ure o f L ove M . D 'H an carv ille
im ag in es t h at O rp heu s a n d E ury dic e a re t y pif ie d u nder t h e f ig ure o f t h e
man es a n d i m morta l l if e a s a b ove d esc rib ed . I t m ay b e s u ffic ie n t t o a n sw er,
fir s t, t h at O rp heu s i s a lw ay s r e p re se n te d w ith a l y re , o f w hic h t h ere a re p rin ts
of f o ur d if fe re n t g em s i n S pen ce's P oly m etis , a n d V ir g il s o d esc rib es h im ,
Aen . V I. c y th arâ f re tu s. A nd s e co ndly , t h at i t i s a b su rd t o s u ppose t h at
Eury dic e w as f o ndlin g a n d p la y in g w ith a s e rp en t t h at h ad s la in h er. A dd t o
th is t h at L ove s e em s t o h av e b een a n i n hab ita n t o f t h e i n fe rn al r e g io ns, a s
ex hib ite d i n t h e m yste rie s, f o r C la u dia n , w ho t r e ats m ore o pen ly o f t h e
Ele u sin ia n m yste rie s, w hen t h ey w ere h eld i n l e ss v en era tio n, i n vokes t h e
deitie s t o d is c lo se t o h im t h eir s e cre ts , a n d a m ongst o th er t h in gs b y w hat
to rc h L ove s o fte n s P lu to .
D ii, q uib us i n n um eru m , & c.
V os m ih i s a cra ru m p en etr a lia p an dite r e ru m ,
E t v estr i s e cre ta p oli, q uâ l a m pad e D ite m
F le x it a m or.
In t h is c o m partm en t t h ere a re t w o t r e es, w hose b ra n ch es s p re ad o ver t h e
fig ure s, o ne o f t h em h as s m ooth er l e av es l ik e s o m e e v erg re en s, a n d m ig ht
th en ce b e s u ppose d t o h av e s o m e a llu sio n t o i m morta lity , b ut t h ey m ay
perh ap s h av e b een d esig ned o nly a s o rn am en ts , o r t o r e lie v e t h e f ig ure s, o r
becau se i t w as i n g ro ves, w here t h ese m yste rie s w ere o rig in ally c ele b ra te d .
Thus H om er s p eak s o f t h e w oods o f P ro se rp in e, a n d m en tio ns m an y t r e es i n
Tarta ru s, a s p re se n tin g t h eir f ru its t o T an ta lu s; V ir g il s p eak s o f t h e p le asa n t
gro ves o f E ly siu m ; a n d i n S pen ce's P oly m etis t h ere a re p rin ts o f t w o a n tie n t
gem s, o ne o f O rp heu s c h arm in g C erb eru s w ith h is l y re , a n d t h e o th er o f
Herc u le s b in din g h im i n a c o rd , e ach o f t h em s ta n din g b y a t r e e. P oly m et. p .
284. A s h ow ev er t h ese t r e es h av e a ll d if fe re n t f o lia g e s o c le arly m ark ed b y
th e a rtis t, t h ey m ay h av e h ad s p ecif ic m ean in gs i n t h e e x hib itio ns o f t h e
myste rie s, w hic h h av e n ot r e ach ed p oste rity , o f t h is k in d s e em t o h av e b een
th e t r e e o f k now le d ge o f g ood a n d e v il, a n d t h e t r e e o f l if e , i n s a cre d w rit,

both w hic h m ust h av e b een e m ble m atic o r a lle g oric al. T he m ask s, h an gin g t o
th e h an dle s o f t h e v ase , s e em t o i n dic ate t h at t h ere i s a c o nceale d m ean in g i n
th e f ig ure s b esid es t h eir g en era l a p peara n ce. A nd t h e p rie ste ss a t t h e b otto m ,
whic h I c o m e n ow t o d esc rib e, s e em s t o s h ew t h is c o nceale d m ean in g t o b e
of t h e s a cre d o r E le u sin ia n k in d.
3. T he f ig ure o n t h e b otto m o f t h e v ase i s o n a l a rg er s c ale t h an t h e o th ers ,
an d l e ss f in ely f in is h ed , a n d l e ss e le v ate d , a n d a s t h is b otto m p art w as
afte rw ard s c em en te d t o t h e u pper p art, i t m ig ht b e e x ecu te d b y a n oth er a rtis t
fo r t h e s a k e o f e x ped itio n, b ut t h ere s e em s n o r e aso n t o s u ppose t h at i t w as
not o rig in ally d esig ned f o r t h e u pper p art o f i t a s s o m e h av e c o nje ctu re d . A s
th e m yste rie s o f C ere s w ere c ele b ra te d b y f e m ale p rie sts , f o r P orp hyriu s s a y s
th e a n tie n ts c alle d t h e p rie ste sse s o f C ere s, M elis sa i, o r b ees, w hic h w ere
em ble m s o f c h astity . D iv . L eg . V ol. I . p . 2 35. A nd a s, i n h is S atir e a g ain st t h e
se x , J u ven al s a y s, t h at f e w w om en a re w orth y t o b e p rie ste sse s o f C ere s. S at.
VI. t h e f ig ure a t t h e b otto m o f t h e v ase w ould s e em t o r e p re se n t a
PR IE ST ESS o r H IE R O PH ANT, w hose o ffic e i t w as t o i n tr o duce t h e
in itia te d , a n d p oin t o ut t o t h em , a n d e x pla in t h e e x hib itio ns i n t h e m yste rie s,
an d t o e x clu de t h e u nin itia te d , c allin g o ut t o t h em , " F ar, f a r r e tir e , y e
pro fa n e!" a n d t o g uard t h e s e cre ts o f t h e t e m ple . T hus t h e i n tr o ducto ry h ym n
su ng b y t h e h ie ro phan t, a cco rd in g t o E use b iu s, b eg in s, " I w ill d ecla re a s e cre t
to t h e i n itia te d , b ut l e t t h e d oors b e s h ut a g ain st t h e p ro fa n e." D iv . L eg . V ol.
I. p . 1 77. T he p rie ste ss o r h ie ro phan t a p pears i n t h is f ig ure w ith a c lo se h ood,
an d d re sse d i n l in en , w hic h f its c lo se a b out h er; e x cep t a l ig ht c lo ak , w hic h
flu tte rs i n t h e w in d. W ool, a s t a k en f ro m s la u ghte re d a n im als , w as e ste em ed
pro fa n e b y t h e p rie sts o f A eg ypt, w ho w ere a lw ay s d re sse d i n l in en . A pule u s,
p. 6 4. D iv . L eg . V ol. I . p . 3 18. T hus E li m ad e f o r S am uel a l in en e p hod.
Sam uel i . 3 .
Secre cy w as t h e f o undatio n o n w hic h a ll m yste rie s r e ste d , w hen p ublic ly
know n t h ey c ease d t o b e m yste rie s; h en ce a d is c o very o f t h em w as n ot o nly
punis h ed w ith d eath b y t h e A th en ia n l a w ; b ut i n o th er c o untr ie s a d is g ra ce
atte n ded t h e b re ach o f a s o le m n o ath . T he p rie ste ss i n t h e f ig ure b efo re u s h as
her f in ger p oin tin g t o h er l ip s a s a n e m ble m o f s ile n ce. T here i s a f ig ure o f
Harp ocra te s, w ho w as o f A eg yptia n o rig in , t h e s a m e a s O ru s, w ith t h e l o tu s
on h is h ead , a n d w ith h is f in ger p oin tin g t o h is l ip s n ot p re sse d u pon t h em , i n
Bry an t's M yth ol. V ol. I I. p . 3 98, a n d a n oth er f e m ale f ig ure s ta n din g o n a

lo tu s, a s i f j u st r is e n f ro m t h e N ile , w ith h er f in ger i n t h e s a m e a ttitu de, t h ese
se em t o h av e b een r e p re se n ta tio ns o r e m ble m s o f m ale a n d f e m ale p rie sts o f
th e s e cre t m yste rie s. A s t h ese s o rt o f e m ble m s w ere f re q uen tly c h an ged b y
artis ts f o r t h eir m ore e le g an t e x hib itio n, i t i s p ossib le t h e f o lia g e o ver t h e
head o f t h is f ig ure m ay b ear s o m e a n alo gy t o t h e l o tu s a b ove m en tio ned .
This f ig ure o f s e cre cy s e em s t o b e h ere p la ced , w ith g re at i n gen uity , a s a
cau tio n t o t h e i n itia te d , w ho m ig ht u nders ta n d t h e m ean in g o f t h e e m ble m s
ro und t h e v ase , n ot t o d iv ulg e i t. A nd t h is c ir c u m sta n ce s e em s t o a cco unt f o r
th ere b ein g n o w ritte n e x pla n atio n e x ta n t, a n d n o t r a d itio n c o ncern in g t h ese
beau tif u l f ig ure s h an ded d ow n t o u s a lo ng w ith t h em .
Anoth er e x pla n atio n o f t h is f ig ure a t t h e b otto m o f t h e v ase w ould s e em t o
co nfir m t h e i d ea t h at t h e b asso r e lie v os r o und i ts s id es a re r e p re se n ta tio ns o f
a p art o f t h e m yste rie s, I m ean t h at i t i s t h e h ead o f A TIS . L ucia n s a y s t h at
Atis w as a y oung m an o f P hry gia , o f u nco m mon b eau ty , t h at h e d ed ic ate d a
te m ple i n S yria t o R hea, o r C ybele , a n d f ir s t t a u ght h er m yste rie s t o t h e
Lydia n s, P hry gia n s, a n d S am oth ra cia n s, w hic h m yste rie s h e b ro ught f ro m
In dia . H e w as a fte rw ard s m ad e a n e u nuch b y R hea, a n d l iv ed l ik e a w om an ,
an d a ssu m ed a f e m in in e h ab it, a n d i n t h at g arb w en t o ver t h e w orld t e ach in g
her c ere m onie s a n d m yste rie s. D ic t. p ar M . D an et, a rt. A tis . A s t h is f ig ure i s
co vere d w ith c lo th es, w hile t h ose o n t h e s id es o f t h e v ase a re n ak ed , a n d h as
a P hry gia n c ap o n t h e h ead , a n d a s t h e f o rm a n d f e atu re s a re s o s o ft, t h at i t i s
dif fic u lt t o s a y w heth er i t b e a m ale o r f e m ale f ig ure , t h ere i s r e aso n t o
co nclu de, 1 . t h at i t h as r e fe re n ce t o s o m e p artic u la r p ers o n o f s o m e p artic u la r
co untr y ; 2 . t h at t h is p ers o n i s A tis , t h e f ir s t g re at h ie ro phan t, o r t e ach er o f
myste rie s, t o w hom M . D e l a C hau sse s a y s t h e f ig ure i ts e lf b ears a
re se m bla n ce. M use o . C ap ito l. T om . I V . p . 4 02.
In t h e M use u m E tr u sc u m , V ol. I . p la te 9 6, t h ere i s t h e h ead o f A tis w ith
fe m in in e f e atu re s, c lo th ed w ith a P hry gia n c ap , a n d r is in g f ro m v ery b ro ad
fo lia g e, p la ced o n a k in d o f t e rm s u pporte d b y t h e p aw o f a l io n. G ore u s i n
his e x pla n atio n o f t h e f ig ure s a y s t h at i t i s p la ced o n a l io n's f o ot b ecau se t h at
an im al w as s a cre d t o C ybele , a n d t h at i t r is e s f ro m v ery b ro ad l e av es b ecau se
afte r h e b ecam e a n e u nuch h e d ete rm in ed t o d w ell i n t h e g ro ves. T hus t h e
fo lia g e, a s w ell a s t h e c ap a n d f e m in in e f e atu re s, c o nfir m t h e i d ea o f t h is
fig ure a t t h e b otto m o f t h e v ase r e p re se n tin g t h e h ead o f A tis t h e f ir s t g re at

hie ro phan t, a n d t h at t h e f ig ure s o n t h e s id es o f t h e v ase a re e m ble m s f ro m t h e
an tie n t m yste rie s.
I b eg l e av e t o a d d t h at i t d oes n ot a p pear t o h av e b een u nco m mon a m ongst
th e a n tie n ts t o p ut a lle g oric al f ig ure s o n f u nera l v ase s. I n t h e P am phili p ala ce
at R om e t h ere i s a n e la b ora te r e p re se n ta tio n o f L if e a n d o f D eath , o n a n
an tie n t s a rc o phag us. I n t h e f ir s t P ro m eth eu s i s r e p re se n te d m ak in g m an , a n d
Min erv a i s p la cin g a b utte rfly , o r t h e s o ul, u pon h is h ead . I n t h e o th er
co m partm en t L ove e x tin guis h es h is t o rc h i n t h e b oso m o f t h e d yin g f ig ure ,
an d i s r e ceiv in g t h e b utte rfly , o r P sy ch e, f ro m h im , w ith a g re at n um ber o f
co m plic ate d e m ble m atic f ig ure s g ro uped i n v ery b ad t a ste . A dm ir . R om an .
Antiq .

N O TE X XIII.— CO AL
When ce s a ble C oal h is m assy c o uch e xte n ds,
And s ta rs o f g old t h e
sp ark lin g P yrite b le n ds.
C A NTO I I. l . 3 49.
T o e lu cid ate t h e f o rm atio n o f c o al- b ed s I s h all h ere d esc rib e a f o unta in o f
f o ssil t a r, o r p etr o le u m , d is c o vere d l a te ly n ear C ole b ro ok D ale i n S hro psh ir e ,
t h e p artic u la rs o f w hic h w ere s e n t m e b y D r. R obert D arw in o f S hre w sb ury .
A bout a m ile a n d a h alf b elo w t h e c ele b ra te d i r o n-b rid ge, c o nstr u cte d b y t h e
l a te M r. D ARBY n ear C ole b ro ok D ale , o n t h e e ast s id e o f t h e r iv er S ev ern , a s
t h e w ork m en i n O cto ber 1 786 w ere m ak in g a s u bte rra n ean c an al i n to t h e
m ounta in , f o r t h e m ore e asy a cq uis itio n a n d c o nvey an ce o f t h e c o als w hic h
l ie u nder i t, t h ey f o und a n o ozin g o f l iq uid b itu m en , o r p etr o le u m ; a n d a s t h ey
p ro ceed ed f u rth er c u t t h ro ugh s m all c av itie s o f d if fe re n t s iz es f ro m w hic h t h e
b itu m en i s su ed . F ro m t e n t o f if te en b arre ls o f t h is f o ssil t a r, e ach b arre l
c o nta in in g t h ir ty -tw o g allo ns, w ere a t f ir s t c o lle cte d i n a d ay , w hic h h as s in ce
h ow ev er g ra d ually d im in is h ed i n q uan tity , s o t h at a t p re se n t t h e p ro duct i s
a b out s e v en b arre ls i n f o urte en d ay s.
T he m ounta in , i n to w hic h t h is c an al e n te rs , c o nsis ts o f s ilic eo us s a n d, i n
w hic h h ow ev er a f e w m arin e p ro ductio ns, a p pare n tly i n t h eir r e cen t s ta te ,
h av e b een f o und, a n d a re n ow i n t h e p osse ssio n o f M r. W IL LIA M
R EY NOLD S o f K etly B an k. A bout t h re e h undre d y ard s f ro m t h e e n tr a n ce
i n to t h e m ounta in , a n d a b out t w en ty -e ig ht y ard s b elo w t h e s u rfa ce o f i t, t h e
t a r i s f o und o ozin g f ro m t h e s a n d-ro ck a b ove i n to t h e t o p a n d s id es o f t h e
c an al.

Ben eath t h e l e v el o f t h is c an al a s h aft h as b een s u nk t h ro ugh a g re y
arg illa ceo us s u bsta n ce, c alle d i n t h is c o untr y c lu nch , w hic h i s s a id t o b e a
pre tty c erta in i n dic atio n o f c o al; b en eath t h is l ie s a s tr a tu m o f c o al, a b out t w o
or t h re e i n ch es t h ic k , o f a n i n fe rio r k in d, y ie ld in g l ittle f la m e i n b urn in g, a n d
le av in g m uch a sh es; b elo w t h is i s a r o ck o f a h ard er t e x tu re ; a n d b en eath t h is
are f o und c o als o f a n e x celle n t q uality ; f o r t h e p urp ose o f p ro cu rin g w hic h
with g re ate r f a cility t h e c an al, o r h oriz o nta l a p ertu re , i s n ow m ak in g i n to t h e
mounta in . J u ly , 1 788.
Ben eath t h ese c o als i n s o m e p la ces i s f o und s a lt w ate r, i n o th er p arts o f t h e
ad ja cen t c o untr y t h ere a re b ed s o f i r o n-s to ne, w hic h a ls o c o nta in s o m e
bitu m en i n a l e ss f lu id s ta te , a n d w hic h a re a b out o n a l e v el w ith t h e n ew
can al, i n to w hic h t h e f o ssil t a r o ozes, a s a b ove d esc rib ed .
There a re m an y i n te re stin g c ir c u m sta n ces a tte n din g t h e s itu atio n a n d
acco m pan im en ts o f t h is f o unta in o f f o ssil t a r, t e n din g t o d ev elo p t h e m an ner
of i ts p ro ductio n. 1 . A s t h e c an al p assin g i n to t h e m ounta in r u ns o ver t h e b ed s
of c o als , a n d u nder t h e r e se rv oir o f p etr o le u m , i t a p pears t h at a
natu ra l
dis tilla tio n
o f t h is f o ssil i n t h e b ow els o f t h e e arth m ust h av e t a k en p la ce a t
so m e e arly p erio d o f t h e w orld , s im ila r t o t h e a rtif ic ia l d is tilla tio n o f c o al,
whic h h as m an y y ears b een c arrie d o n i n t h is p la ce o n a s m alle r s c ale a b ove
gro und. W hen t h is r e se rv oir o f p etr o le u m w as c u t i n to , t h e s lo w ness o f i ts
ex su datio n i n to t h e c an al w as n ot o nly o w in g t o i ts v is c id ity , b ut t o t h e
pre ssu re o f t h e a tm osp here , o r t o t h e n ecessity t h ere w as t h at a ir s h ould a t t h e
sa m e t im e i n sin uate i ts e lf i n to t h e s m all c av itie s f ro m w hic h t h e p etr o le u m
desc en ded . T he e x is te n ce o f s u ch a d is tilla tio n a t s o m e a n tie n t t im e i s
co nfir m ed b y t h e t h in s tr a tu m o f c o al b en eath t h e c an al, ( w hic h c o vers t h e
hard r o ck ,) h av in g b een d ep riv ed o f i ts f o ssil o il, s o a s t o b urn w ith out f la m e,
an d t h us t o h av e b eco m e a n atu ra l c o ak , o r f o ssil c h arc o al, w hile t h e
petr o le u m d is tille d f ro m i t i s f o und i n t h e c av itie s o f t h e r o ck a b ove i t.
There a re a p peara n ces i n o th er p la ces, w hic h f a v our t h is i d ea o f t h e n atu ra l
dis tilla tio n o f p etr o le u m , t h us a t M atlo ck i n D erb ysh ir e a h ard b itu m en i s
fo und a d herin g t o t h e s p ar i n t h e c le fts o f t h e l im e-ro ck s i n t h e f o rm o f r o und
dro ps a b out t h e s iz e o f p eas; w hic h c o uld p erh ap s o nly b e d ep osite d t h ere i n
th at f o rm b y s u blim atio n.
2. T he s e co nd d ed uctio n, w hic h o ffe rs i ts e lf , i s , t h at t h ese b ed s o f c o al h av e

been
exp ose d t o a c o nsid era ble d eg re e o f h ea t
, s in ce t h e p etr o le u m a b ove
co uld n ot b e s e p ara te d , a s f a r a s w e k now , b y a n y o th er m ean s, a n d t h at t h e
good q uality o f t h e c o als b en eath t h e h ard r o ck w as o w in g t o t h e
im perm eab ility o f t h is r o ck t o t h e b itu m in ous v ap our, a n d t o i ts p re ssu re
bein g t o o g re at t o p erm it i ts b ein g r e m oved b y t h e e la stic ity o f t h at v ap our.
Thus f ro m t h e d eg re e o f h eat, t h e d eg re e o f p re ssu re , a n d t h e p erm eab ility o f
th e s u perin cu m ben t s tr a ta , m an y o f t h e p hen om en a a tte n din g c o al- b ed s
re ceiv e a n e asy e x pla n atio n, w hic h m uch a cco rd s w ith t h e i n gen io us t h eo ry
of t h e e arth b y D r. H utto n, T ra n s. o f E din b. V ol. I .
In s o m e c o al w ork s t h e f u sio n o f t h e s tr a ta o f c o al h as b een s o s lig ht, t h at
th ere r e m ain s t h e a p peara n ce o f l ig neu s f ib re s, a n d t h e i m pre ssio n o f l e av es,
as a t B ovey n ear E xete r, a n d e v en s e ed s o f v eg eta b le s, o f w hic h I h av e h ad
sp ecim en s f ro m t h e c o llie rie s n ear P ole sw orth i n W arw ic k sh ir e . I n s o m e,
where t h e h eat w as n ot v ery i n te n se a n d t h e i n cu m ben t s tr a tu m n ot p erm eab le
to v ap our, t h e f o ssil o il h as o nly r is e n t o t h e u pper p art o f t h e c o al- b ed , a n d
has r e n dere d t h at m uch m ore i n fla m mab le t h an t h e l o w er p arts o f i t, a s i n t h e
co llie rie s n ear B eau dese rt, t h e s e at o f t h e E A RL O F U XBRID GE i n
Sta ffo rd sh ir e , w here t h e u pper s tr a tu m i s a p erfe ct c an nel, o r c an dle -c o al, a n d
th e l o w er o ne o f a n i n fe rio r q uality . O ver t h e c o al- b ed s n ear S ir H .
HARPU R'S h ouse i n D erb ysh ir e a t h in l a m in a o f a sp haltu m i s f o und i n s o m e
pla ces n ear t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , w hic h w ould s e em t o b e f ro m a
dis tilla tio n o f p etr o le u m f ro m t h e c o als b elo w , t h e m ore f lu id p art o f w hic h
had i n p ro cess o f t im e e x hale d , o r b een c o nso lid ate d b y i ts a b so rp tio n o f a ir .
In o th er c o al- w ork s t h e u pper p art o f t h e s tr a tu m i s o f a w ors e k in d t h an t h e
lo w er o ne, a s a t A lf re to n a n d D en big h i n D erb ysh ir e , o w in g t o t h e
su perc u m ben t s tr a tu m h av in g p erm itte d t h e e x hala tio n o f a g re at p art o f t h e
petr o le u m ; w hils t a t W id drin gto n i n N orth um berla n d t h ere i s f ir s t a s e am o f
co al a b out s ix i n ch es t h ic k o f n o v alu e, w hic h l ie s u nder a b out f o ur f a th om o f
cla y , b en eath t h is i s a w hite f re esto ne, t h en a h ard s to ne, w hic h t h e w ork m en
th ere c all a w hin , t h en t w o f a th om s o f c la y , t h en a n oth er w hite s to ne, a n d
under t h at a v ein o f c o als t h re e f e et n in e i n ch es t h ic k , o f a s im ila r n atu re t o
th e N ew castle c o al. P hil. T ra n s. A brid g. V ol. V I. p la te I I. p . 1 92. T he
sim ilitu de b etw een t h e c ir c u m sta n ces o f t h is c o llie ry , a n d o f t h e c o al b en eath
th e f o unta in o f t a r a b ove d esc rib ed , r e n ders i t h ig hly p ro bab le t h at t h is u pper
th in s e am o f c o al h as s u ffe re d a s im ila r d is tilla tio n, a n d t h at t h e i n fla m mab le
part o f i t h ad e ith er b een r e ceiv ed i n to t h e c la y a b ove i n t h e f o rm o f s u lp hur,

whic h w hen b urn t i n t h e o pen a ir w ould p ro duce a lu m ; o r h ad b een d is sip ate d
fo r w an t o f a r e ceiv er, w here i t c o uld b e c o nden se d . T he f o rm er o pin io n i s
perh ap s i n t h is c ase m ore p ro bab le a s i n s o m e o th er c o al- b ed s, o f w hic h I
hav e p ro cu re d a cco unts , t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e c o al b en eath c lu nch o r c la y i s o f
an i n fe rio r q uality , a s a t W est H allu m i n N ottin gham sh ir e . T he c lu nch
pro bab ly f ro m h en ce a cq uir e s i ts i n fla m mab le p art, w hic h o n c alc in atio n
beco m es v itr io lic a cid . I g ath ere d p ie ces o f c lu nch c o nverte d p artia lly i n to
alu m a t a c o llie ry n ear B ils to n, w here t h e g ro und w as s till o n f ir e a f e w y ears
ag o.
The h eat, w hic h h as t h us p erv ad ed t h e b ed s o f m ora ss, s e em s t o h av e b een
th e e ffe ct o f t h e f e rm en ta tio n o f t h eir v eg eta b le m ate ria ls ; a s n ew h ay
so m etim es t a k es f ir e e v en i n s u ch v ery s m all m asse s f ro m t h e s u gar i t
co nta in s, a n d s e em s h en ce n ot t o h av e b een a tte n ded w ith a n y e x puls io n o f
la v a, l ik e t h e d eep er c ra te rs o f v olc an os s itu ate d i n b ed s o f g ra n ite .
3. T he m arin e s h ells f o und i n t h e l o ose s a n d-ro ck a b ove t h is r e se rv oir o f
petr o le u m , a n d t h e c o al- b ed s b en eath i t, t o geth er w ith t h e e x is te n ce o f s e a-
sa lt b en eath t h ese c o als , p ro ve t h at t h ese c o al b ed s h av e b een
at t h e b otto m o f
th e s e a
, d urin g s o m e r e m ote p erio d o f t im e, a n d w ere a fte rw ard s r a is e d i n to
th eir p re se n t s itu atio n b y s u bte rra n eo us e x pan sio ns o f v ap our. T his d octr in e
is f u rth er s u pporte d b y t h e m ark s o f v io le n ce, w hic h s o m e c o al- b ed s r e ceiv ed
at t h e t im e t h ey w ere r a is e d o ut o f t h e s e a, a s i n t h e c o llie rie s a t M en dip i n
Som ers e ts h ir e . I n t h ese t h ere a re s e v en s tr a ta o f c o als , e q uita n t u pon e ach
oth er, w ith b ed s o f c la y a n d s to ne i n te rv en in g; a m ongst w hic h c la y a re f o und
sh ells a n d f e rn b ra n ch es. I n o ne p art o f t h is h ill t h e s tr a ta a re d is jo in ed , a n d a
quan tity o f h ete ro gen eo us s u bsta n ces f ill u p t h e c h asm w hic h d is jo in s t h em ,
on o ne s id e o f t h is c h asm t h e s e v en s tr a ta o f c o al a re s e en c o rre sp ondin g i n
re sp ect t o t h eir r e cip ro cal t h ic k ness a n d g oodness w ith t h e s e v en s tr a ta o n t h e
oth er s id e o f t h e c av ity , e x cep t t h at t h ey h av e b een e le v ate d s e v era l y ard s
hig her. P hil. T ra n s. N o. 3 60. a b rid g. V ol. V . p . 2 37.
The c ra ck s i n t h e c o al- b ed n ear T ic k nall i n D erb ysh ir e , a n d i n t h e s a n d- s to ne
ro ck o ver i t, i n b oth o f w hic h s p ecim en s o f l e ad -o re a n d s p ar a re f o und,
co nfir m t h is o pin io n o f t h eir h av in g b een f o rc ib ly r a is e d u p b y s u bte rra n eo us
fir e s. O ver t h e c o llie ry a t B ro w n-h ills n ear L ic h fie ld , t h ere i s a s tr a tu m o f
gra v el o n t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e g ro und; w hic h m ay b e a d duced a s a n oth er p ro of

to s h ew t h at t h ose c o als h ad s o m e t im e b een b en eath t h e s e a, o r t h e b ed o f a
riv er. N ev erth ele ss, t h ese a rg um en ts o nly a p ply t o t h e c o llie rie s a b ove
men tio ned , w hic h a re f e w c o m pare d w ith t h ose w hic h b ear n o m ark s o f
hav in g b een i m mers e d i n t h e s e a.
On t h e o th er h an d t h e p ro ductio n o f c o als f ro m m ora sse s, a s d esc rib ed i n n ote
XX. i s e v in ced f ro m t h e v eg eta b le m atte rs f re q uen tly f o und i n t h em , a n d i n
th e s tr a ta o ver t h em ; a s f e rn -le av es i n n odule s o f i r o n-o re , a n d f ro m t h e b og-
sh ells o r f re sh w ate r m usc le s s o m etim es f o und o ver t h em , o f b oth w hic h I
hav e w hat I b elie v e t o b e s p ecim en s; a n d i s f u rth er p ro ved f ro m s o m e p arts o f
th ese b ed s b ein g o nly i n p art t r a n sfo rm ed t o c o al; a n d t h e o th er p art s till
re ta in in g n ot o nly t h e f o rm , b ut s o m e o f t h e p ro pertie s o f w ood; s p ecim en s o f
whic h a re n ot u nfre q uen t i n t h e c ab in ets o f t h e c u rio us, p ro cu re d f ro m L och
Neig h i n I re la n d, f ro m B ovey n ear E xete r, a n d o th er p la ces; a n d f ro m a
fa m ous c av ern c alle d t h e T em ple o f t h e D ev il, n ear t h e t o w n o f A lto rf i n
Fra n co nia , a t t h e f o ot o f a m ounta in c o vere d w ith p in e a n d s a v in e, i n w hic h
are f o und l a rg e c o als r e se m blin g t r e es o f e b ony; w hic h a re s o f a r m in era liz ed
as t o b e h eav y a n d c o m pact; a n d s o t o e fflo re sc e w ith p yrite s i n s o m e p arts a s
to c ru m ble t o p ie ces; y et f ro m o th er p arts w hite a sh es a re p ro duced o n
calc in atio n, f ro m w hic h
fix ed a lc a li
i s p ro cu re d ; w hic h e v in ces t h eir
veg eta b le o rig in . ( D ic t. R ais o nné, a rt. C harb on.) T o t h ese m ay b e a d ded
an oth er a rg um en t f ro m t h e o il w hic h i s d is tille d f ro m c o als , a n d w hic h i s
an alo gous t o v eg eta b le o il, a n d d oes n ot e x is t i n a n y b odie s t r u ly m in era l.
Keir 's C hem ic al D ic tio nary , a rt. B itu m en .
When ce i t w ould a p pear, t h at t h ough m ost c o llie rie s w ith t h eir a tte n dan t
str a ta o f c la y , s a n d-s to ne, a n d i r o n, w ere f o rm ed o n t h e p la ces w here t h e
veg eta b le s g re w , f ro m w hic h t h ey h ad t h eir o rig in ; y et t h at o th er c o lle ctio ns
of v eg eta b le m atte r w ere w ash ed d ow n f ro m e m in en ces b y c u rre n ts o f w ate rs
in to t h e b ed s o f r iv ers , o r t h e n eig hbourin g s e as, a n d w ere t h ere a ccu m ula te d
at d if fe re n t p erio ds o f t im e, a n d u nderw en t a g re at d eg re e o f h eat f ro m t h eir
fe rm en ta tio n, i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s t h ose b ed s o f m ora ss w hic h h ad
co ntin ued o n t h e p la in s w here t h ey w ere p ro duced . A nd t h at b y t h is
fe rm en ta tio n m an y o f t h em h ad b een r a is e d f ro m t h e o cean w ith s a n d a n d
se a-s h ells o ver t h em ; a n d o th ers f ro m t h e b ed s o f r iv ers w ith a ccu m ula tio ns
of g ra v el u pon t h em .

4. F or t h e p urp ose o f b rin gin g t h is h is to ry o f t h e p ro ducts o f m ora sse s m ore
dis tin ctly t o t h e e y e o f t h e r e ad er, I s h all h ere s u bjo in t w o o r t h re e a cco unts
of s in kin g o r b orin g f o r c o als , o ut o f a b ove t w en ty w hic h I h av e p ro cu re d
fro m v ario us p la ces, t h ough t h e t e rm s a re n ot v ery i n te llig ib le , b ein g t h e
la n guag e o f t h e o vers e ers o f c o al- w ork s.
1.
Whitfie ld m in e
n ear t h e P otte ry i n S ta ffo rd sh ir e . S oil 1 f o ot. b ric k -c la y 3
fe et. s h ale 4 . m eta l w hic h i s h ard b ro w n a n d f a lls i n t h e w eath er 4 2. c o al 3 .
warra n t c la y 6 . b ro w n g rits to ne 3 6. c o al 3 1/2 . w arra n t c la y 3 1/2 . b ass a n d
meta l 5 31/2 . h ard sto ne 4 . s h aly b ass 1 1/2 . c o al 4 . w arra n t c la y , d ep th
unknow n. i n a ll a b out 5 5 y ard s.
2.
Coal- m in e a t A lfr e to n
i n D erb ysh ir e . S oil a n d c la y 7 f e et. f ra g m en ts o f
sto ne 9 . b in d 1 3. s to ne 6 . b in d 3 4. s to ne 5 . b in d 2 . s to ne 2 . b in d 1 0. c o al 1 1/2 .
bin d 1 1/2 . s to ne 3 7. b in d 7 . s o ft c o al 3 . b in d 3 . s to ne 2 0. b in d 1 6. c o al 7 1/2 .
in a ll a b out 6 1 y ard s.
3.
A b asse t c o al- m in e a t W oola rto n
i n N ottin gham sh ir e . S an d a n d g ra v el 6
fe et. b in d 2 1. s to ne 1 0. s m ut o r e ffe te c o al 1 . c lu nch 4 . b in d 2 1. s to ne 1 8. b in d
18. s to ne-b in d 1 5. s o ft c o al 2 . c lu nch a n d b in d 2 1. c o al 7 . i n a ll a b out 4 8
yard s.
4.
Coal- m in e a t W est- H alla m
i n N ottin gham sh ir e . S oil a n d c la y 7 f e et. b in d
48. s m ut 1 1/2 . c lu nch 4 . b in d 3 . s to ne 2 . b in d 1 . s to ne 1 . b in d 3 . s to ne 1 . b in d
16. s h ale 2 . b in d 1 2. s h ale 3 . c lu nch , s to ne, a n d a b ed o f c an k 5 4. s o ft c o al 4 .
cla y a n d d un 1 . s o ft c o al 4 1/2 . c lu nch a n d b in d 2 1. c o al 1 . b ro ad b in d 2 6. h ard
co al 6 . i n a ll a b out 7 4 y ard s.
As t h ese s tr a ta g en era lly l ie i n clin ed , I s u ppose p ara lle l w ith t h e l im esto ne o n
whic h t h ey r e st, t h e u pper e d ges o f t h em a ll c o m e o ut t o d ay , w hic h i s t e rm ed
basse ttin g; w hen t h e w hole m ass w as i g nite d b y i ts f e rm en ta tio n, i t i s
pro bab le t h at t h e i n fla m mab le p art o f s o m e s tr a ta m ig ht t h us m ore e asily
esc ap e t h an o f o th ers i n t h e f o rm o f v ap our; a s d ew s a re k now n t o s lid e
betw een s u ch s tr a ta i n t h e p ro ductio n o f s p rin gs; w hic h a cco unts f o r s o m e
co al- b ed s b ein g s o m uch w ors e t h an o th ers . S ee n ote X X.
Fro m t h is a cco unt o f t h e p ro ductio n o f c o als f ro m m ora sse s i t w ould a p pear,
th at c o al- b ed s a re n ot t o b e e x pecte d b en eath m asse s o f l im e- s to ne.

Nev erth ele ss I h av e b een l a te ly i n fo rm ed b y m y f rie n d M r. M ic h ell o f
Thorn hill, w ho I h ope w ill s o on f a v our t h e p ublic w ith h is g eo lo gic al
in vestig atio ns, t h at t h e b ed s o f c h alk a re t h e u pperm ost o f a ll t h e l im esto nes;
an d t h at t h ey r e st o n t h e g ra n ula te d l im esto ne, c alle d k etto n-s to ne; w hic h I
su ppose i s s im ila r t o t h at w hic h c o vers t h e w hole c o untr y f ro m L ead en ham t o
Sle afo rd , a n d f ro m S le afo rd t o L in co ln ; a n d t h at, t h ir d ly , c o al- d elp hs a re
fre q uen tly f o und b en eath t h ese t w o u pperm ost b ed s o f l im esto ne.
Now a s t h e b ed s o f c h alk a n d o f g ra n ula te d l im esto ne m ay h av e b een f o rm ed
by a llu via tio n, o n o r b en eath t h e s h ore s o f t h e s e a, o r i n v allie s o f t h e l a n d; i t
would s e em , t h at s o m e c o al c o untr ie s, w hic h i n t h e g re at c o m motio ns o f t h e
earth h ad b een s u nk b en eath t h e w ate r, w ere t h us c o vere d w ith a llu via l
lim esto ne, a s w ell a s o th ers w ith a llu via l b asa lte s, o r c o m mon g ra v el- b ed s.
Very e x te n siv e p la in s w hic h n ow c o nsis t o f a llu via l m ate ria ls , w ere i n t h e
early t im es c o vere d w ith w ate r; w hic h h as s in ce d im in is h ed a s t h e s o lid p arts
of t h e e arth h av e i n cre ase d . F or t h e s o lid p arts o f t h e e arth c o nsis tin g c h ie fly
of a n im al a n d v eg eta b le r e cre m en ts m ust h av e o rig in ally b een f o rm ed o r
pro duced f ro m t h e w ate r b y a n im al a n d v eg eta b le p ro cesse s; a n d a s t h e s o lid
parts o f t h e e arth m ay b e s u ppose d t o b e t h ric e a s h eav y a s w ate r, i t f o llo w s
th at t h ric e t h e q uan tity o f w ate r m ust h av e v an is h ed c o m pare d w ith t h e
quan tity o f e arth t h us p ro duced . T his m ay a cco unt f o r m an y i m men se b ed s o f
allu via l m ate ria ls , a s g ra v el, r o unded s a n d g ra n ula te d l im esto ne, a n d c h alk ,
co verin g s u ch e x te n siv e p la in s a s L in co ln -h eath , h av in g b eco m e d ry w ith out
th e s u ppositio n o f t h eir h av in g b een a g ain e le v ate d f ro m t h e o cean . A t t h e
sa m e t im e w e a cq uir e t h e k now le d ge o f o ne o f t h e u se s o r f in al c au se s o f t h e
org an iz ed w orld , n ot i n deed v ery f la tte rin g t o o ur v an ity , t h at i t c o nverts
wate r i n to e arth , f o rm in g i s la n ds a n d c o ntin en ts b y i ts r e cre m en ts o r e x uvia e.

N O TE X XIV .— GRANIT E.
C lim b t h e r u de s te ep s, t h e G ra nite -c liffs s u rro und.
C A NTO I I. l . 5 23.
T he l o w est s tr a tu m o f t h e e arth w hic h h um an l a b our h as a rriv ed t o , i s g ra n ite ;
a n d o f t h is l ik ew is e c o nsis ts t h e h ig hest m ounta in s o f t h e w orld . I t i s k now n
u nder v arie ty o f n am es a cco rd in g t o s o m e d if fe re n ce i n i ts a p peara n ce o r
c o m positio n, b ut i s n ow g en era lly c o nsid ere d b y p hilo so phers a s a s p ecie s o f
l a v a; i f i t c o nta in s q uartz , f e lts p at, a n d m ic a i n d is tin ct c ry sta ls , i t i s c alle d
g ra n ite ; w hic h i s f o und i n C orn w all i n r o ck s; a n d i n l o ose s to nes i n t h e g ra v el
n ear D ra y to n i n S hro psh ir e , i n t h e r o ad t o w ard s N ew castle . I f t h ese p arts o f
t h e c o m positio n b e l e ss d is tin ct, o r i f o nly t w o o f t h em b e v is ib le t o t h e e y e, i t
i s t e rm ed p orp hyry , t r a p , w hin sto ne, m oors to ne, s la te . A nd i f i t a p pears i n a
r e g ula r a n gula r f o rm , i t i s c alle d b asa lte s. T he a ffin ity o f t h ese b odie s h as
l a te ly b een f u rth er w ell e sta b lis h ed b y D r. B ed does i n t h e P hil. T ra n s. V ol.
L X XX.
T hese a re a ll e ste em ed t o h av e b een v olc an ic p ro ductio ns t h at h av e
u nderg one d if fe re n t d eg re es o f h eat; i t i s w ell k now n t h at i n P ap in 's d ig este r
w ate r m ay b e m ad e r e d h ot b y c o nfin em en t, a n d w ill t h en d is so lv e m an y
b odie s w hic h o th erw is e a re l ittle o r n ot a t a ll a cte d u pon b y i t. F ro m h en ce i t
m ay b e c o nceiv ed , t h at u nder i m men se p re ssu re o f s u perin cu m ben t m ate ria ls ,
a n d b y g re at h eat, t h ese m asse s o f l a v a m ay h av e u nderg one a k in d o f
a q ueo us s o lu tio n, w ith out a n y t e n den cy t o v itr if ic atio n, a n d m ig ht t h en ce
h av e a p ow er o f c ry sta lliz atio n, w hen ce a ll t h e v arie tie s a b ove m en tio ned
f ro m t h e d if fe re n t p ro portio n o f t h e m ate ria ls , o r t h e d if fe re n t d eg re es o f h eat
t h ey m ay h av e u nderg one i n t h is a q ueo us s o lu tio n. A nd t h at t h e u nif o rm ity o f

th e m ix tu re o f t h e o rig in al e arth s, a s o f l im e, a rg il, s ile x , m ag nesia , a n d
bary te s, w hic h t h ey c o nta in , w as o w in g t o t h eir b oilin g t o geth er a l o nger o r
sh orte r t im e b efo re t h eir e le v atio n i n to m ounta in s. S ee n ote X IX . a rt. 8 .
The s e at o f v olc an os s e em s t o b e p rin cip ally , i f n ot e n tir e ly , i n t h ese s tr a ta o f
gra n ite ; a s m an y o f t h em a re s itu ate d o n g ra n ite m ounta in s, a n d t h ro w u p
fro m t im e t o t im e s h eets o f l a v a w hic h r u n d ow n o ver t h e p ro ceed in g s tr a ta
fro m t h e s a m e o rig in ; a n d i n t h is t h ey s e em t o d if fe r f ro m t h e h eat w hic h h as
se p ara te d t h e c la y , c o al, a n d s a n d i n m ora sse s, w hic h w ould a p pear t o h av e
ris e n f ro m a k in d o f f e rm en ta tio n, a n d t h us t o h av e p erv ad ed t h e w hole m ass
with out a n y e x puitio n o f l a v a.
[Illu str a tio n:
Sectio n o f t h e E arth . A s k etc h o f a s u ppose d S ectio n o f t h e E arth
in r e sp ect t o t h e d is p ositio n o f t h e S tr a ta o ver e a ch o th er w ith out r e g ard t o
th eir p ro portio ns o r n um ber.
London P ublis h ed D ec'r 1 st 1 791 b y J . J o hnso n
St P aul's C hurc h Y ard .
]
All t h e l a v as f ro m V esu viu s c o nta in o ne f o urth p art o f i r o n, ( K ir w an 's M in .)
an d a ll t h e f iv e p rim itiv e e arth s, v iz . c alc are o us, a rg illa ceo us, s ilic eo us,
bary tic , a n d m ag nesia n e arth s, w hic h a re a ls o e v id en tly p ro duced n ow d aily
fro m t h e r e cre m en ts o f a n im al a n d v eg eta b le b odie s. W hat i s t o b e t h en ce
co nclu ded ? H as t h e g ra n ite s tr a tu m i n v ery a n tie n t t im es b een p ro duced l ik e
th e p re se n t c alc are o us a n d s ilic eo us m asse s, a cco rd in g t o t h e i n gen io us
th eo ry o f D r. H utto n, w ho s a y s n ew c o ntin en ts a re n ow f o rm in g a t t h e b otto m
of t h e s e a t o r is e i n t h eir t u rn , a n d t h at t h us t h e t e rra q ueo us g lo be h as b een ,
an d w ill b e, e te rn al? O r s h all w e s u ppose t h at t h is i n te rn al h eate d m ass o f
gra n ite , w hic h f o rm s t h e n ucle u s o f t h e e arth , w as a p art o f t h e b ody o f t h e
su n b efo re i t w as s e p ara te d b y a n e x plo sio n? O r w as t h e s u n o rig in ally a
pla n et, i n hab ite d l ik e o urs , a n d a s a te llite t o s o m e o th er g re ate r s u n, w hic h
has l o ng b een e x tin guis h ed b y d if fu sio n o f i ts l ig ht, a n d a ro und w hic h t h e
pre se n t s u n c o ntin ues t o r e v olv e, a cco rd in g t o a c o nje ctu re o f t h e c ele b ra te d
Mr. H ers c h ell, a n d w hic h c o nvey s t o t h e m in d a m ost s u blim e i d ea o f t h e
pro gre ssiv e a n d i n cre asin g e x celle n ce o f t h e w ork s o f t h e C re ato r o f a ll
th in gs?
For t h e m ore e asy c o m pre h en sio n o f t h e f a cts a n d c o nje ctu re s c o ncern in g t h e
situ atio n a n d p ro ductio n o f t h e v ario us s tr a ta o f t h e e arth , I s h all h ere s u bjo in
a s u ppose d s e ctio n o f t h e g lo be, b ut w ith out a n y a tte m pt t o g iv e t h e

pro portio ns o f t h e p arts , o r t h e n um ber o f t h em , b ut o nly t h eir r e sp ectiv e
situ atio n o ver e ach o th er, a n d a g eo lo gic al r e cap itu la tio n.
GEO LO GIC AL R EC APIT U LA TIO N.
1. T he e arth w as p ro je cte d a lo ng w ith t h e o th er p rim ary p la n ets f ro m t h e s u n,
whic h i s s u ppose d t o b e o n f ir e o nly o n i ts s u rfa ce, e m ittin g l ig ht w ith out
much i n te rn al h eat l ik e a b all o f b urn in g c am phor.
2. T he r o ta tio n o f t h e e arth r o und i ts a x is w as o ccasio ned b y i ts g re ate r
fric tio n o r a d hesio n t o o ne s id e o f t h e c av ity f ro m w hic h i t w as e je cte d ; a n d
fro m t h is r o ta tio n i t a cq uir e d i ts s p hero id ic al f o rm . A s i t c o ole d i n i ts a sc en t
fro m t h e s u n i ts n ucle u s b ecam e h ard er; a n d i ts a tte n dan t v ap ours w ere
co nden se d , f o rm in g t h e o cean .
3. T he m asse s o r m ounta in s o f g ra n ite , p orp hery , b asa lt, a n d s to nes o f s im ila r
str u ctu re , w ere a p art o f t h e o rig in al n ucle u s o f t h e e arth ; o r c o nsis t o f
volc an ic p ro ductio ns s in ce f o rm ed .
4. O n t h is n ucle u s o f g ra n ite a n d b asa lte s, t h us c o vere d b y t h e o cean , w ere
fo rm ed t h e c alc are o us b ed s o f l im esto ne, m arb le , c h alk , s p ar, f ro m t h e
ex uvia e o f m arin e a n im als ; w ith t h e f lin ts , o r c h ertz , w hic h a cco m pan y t h em .
And w ere s tr a tif ie d b y t h eir h av in g b een f o rm ed a t d if fe re n t a n d v ery d is ta n t
perio ds o f t im e.
5. T he w hole t e rra q ueo us g lo be w as b urs t b y c en tr a l f ir e s; i s la n ds a n d
co ntin en ts w ere r a is e d , c o nsis tin g o f g ra n ite o r l a v a i n s o m e p arts , a n d o f
lim esto ne i n o th ers ; a n d g re at v allie s w ere s u nk, i n to w hic h t h e o cean r e tir e d .
6. D urin g t h ese c en tr a l e arth quak es t h e m oon w as e je cte d f ro m t h e e arth ,
cau sin g n ew t id es; a n d t h e e arth 's a x is s u ffe re d s o m e c h an ge i n i ts i n clin atio n,
an d i ts r o ta to ry m otio n w as r e ta rd ed .
7. O n s o m e p arts o f t h ese i s la n ds a n d c o ntin en ts o f g ra n ite o r l im esto ne w ere
gra d ually p ro duced e x te n siv e m ora sse s f ro m t h e r e cre m en ts o f v eg eta b le s
an d o f l a n d a n im als ; a n d f ro m t h ese m ora sse s, h eate d b y f e rm en ta tio n, w ere
pro duced c la y , m arle , s a n dsto ne, c o al, i r o n, ( w ith t h e b ase s o f v arie ty o f

acid s;) a ll w hic h w ere s tr a tif ie d b y t h eir h av in g b een f o rm ed a t d if fe re n t, a n d
very d is ta n t p erio ds o f t im e.
8. I n t h e e le v atio n o f t h e m ounta in s v ery n um ero us a n d d eep f is su re s
necessa rily w ere p ro duced . I n t h ese f is su re s m an y o f t h e m eta ls a re f o rm ed
partly f ro m d esc en din g m ate ria ls , a n d p artly f ro m a sc en din g o nes r a is e d i n
vap our b y s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s. I n t h e f is su re s o f g ra n ite o r p orp hery q uartz i s
fo rm ed ; i n t h e f is su re s o f l im esto ne c alc are o us s p ar i s p ro duced .
9. D urin g t h ese f ir s t g re at v olc an ic f ir e s i t i s p ro bab le t h e a tm osp here w as
eith er p ro duced , o r m uch i n cre ase d ; a p ro cess w hic h i s p erh ap s n ow g oin g o n
in t h e m oon; M r. H ers c h ell h av in g d is c o vere d a v olc an ic c ra te r t h re e m ile s
bro ad b urn in g o n h er d is k .
10. T he s u m mits o f t h e n ew m ounta in s w ere c ra ck ed i n to i n num era b le
lo zen ges b y t h e c o ld d ew s o r s n ow s f a llin g u pon t h em w hen r e d h ot. F ro m
th ese s u m mits , w hic h w ere t h en t w ic e a s h ig h a s a t p re se n t, c u bes a n d
lo zen ges o f g ra n ite , a n d b asa lt, a n d q uartz i n s o m e c o untr ie s, a n d o f m arb le
an d f lin ts i n o th ers , d esc en ded g ra d ually i n to t h e v alle y s, a n d w ere r o lle d
to geth er i n t h e b ed s o f r iv ers , ( w hic h w ere t h en s o l a rg e a s t o o ccu py t h e
whole v alle y s, w hic h t h ey n ow o nly i n te rs e ct;) a n d p ro duced t h e g re at b ed s
of g ra v el, o f w hic h m an y v alle y s c o nsis t.
11. I n s e v era l p arts o f t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce s u bse q uen t e arth quak es, f ro m t h e
fe rm en ta tio n o f m ora sse s, h av e a t d if fe re n t p erio ds o f t im e d era n ged t h e
positio n o f t h e m atte rs a b ove d esc rib ed . H en ce t h e g ra v el, w hic h w as b efo re
in t h e b ed s o f r iv ers , h as i n s o m e p la ces b een r a is e d i n to m ounta in s, a lo ng
with c la y a n d c o al s tr a ta w hic h w ere f o rm ed f ro m m ora sse s a n d w ash ed
dow n f ro m e m in en ces i n to t h e b ed s o f r iv ers o r t h e n eig hbourin g s e as, a n d i n
part r a is e d a g ain w ith g ra v el o r m arin e s h ells o ver t h em ; b ut t h is h as o nly
obta in ed i n f e w p la ces c o m pare d w ith t h e g en era l d is tr ib utio n o f s u ch
mate ria ls . H en ce t h ere s e em t o h av e e x is te d t w o s o urc es o f e arth quak es,
whic h h av e o ccu rre d a t g re at d is ta n ce o f t im e f ro m e ach o th er; o ne f ro m t h e
gra n ite b ed s i n t h e c en tr a l p arts o f t h e e arth , a n d t h e o th er f ro m t h e m ora sse s
on i ts s u rfa ce. A ll t h e s u bse q uen t e arth quak es a n d v olc an os o f m odern d ay s
co m pare d w ith t h ese a re o f s m all e x te n t a n d i n sig nif ic an t e ffe ct.
12. B esid es t h e a rg illa ceo us s a n d-s to ne p ro duced f ro m m ora sse s, w hic h i s

str a tif ie d w ith c la y , a n d c o al, a n d i r o n, o th er g re at b ed s o f s ilic eo us s a n d h av e
been f o rm ed i n t h e s e a b y t h e c o m bin atio n o f a n u nknow n a cid f ro m
mora sse s, a n d t h e c alc are o us m atte rs o f t h e o cean .
13. T he w arm w ate rs w hic h a re f o und i n m an y c o untr ie s, a re o w in g t o s te am
aris in g f ro m g re at d ep th s t h ro ugh t h e f is su re s o f l im esto ne o r l a v a, e le v ate d
by s u bte rra n ean f ir e s, a n d c o nden se d b etw een t h e s tr a ta o f t h e h ills o ver
th em ; a n d n ot f ro m a n y d eco m positio n o f p yrite s o r m an gan ese n ear t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e e arth .
14. T he c o lu m ns o f b asa lte s h av e b een r a is e d b y t h e c o ngela tio n o r e x pan sio n
of g ra n ite b ed s i n t h e a ct o f c o olin g f ro m t h eir s e m i- v itr e o us f u sio n.

N O TE X XV.— EV APO RATIO N.
Aquatic n ym phs! y o u l e a d w ith v ie w le ss m arc h
The w in ged v a pour
up t h e a eria l a rc h .
C A NTO I II. l . 1 3.
I . T he a tm osp here w ill d is so lv e a c erta in q uan tity o f m ois tu re a s a c h em ic al
m en str u um , e v en w hen i t i s m uch b elo w t h e f re ezin g p oin t, a s a p pears f ro m
t h e d im in utio n o f i c e s u sp en ded i n f ro sty a ir , b ut a m uch g re ate r q uan tity o f
w ate r i s e v ap ora te d a n d s u sp en ded i n t h e a ir b y m ean s o f h eat, w hic h i s
p erh ap s t h e u niv ers a l c au se o f f lu id ity , f o r w ate r i s k now n t o b oil w ith l e ss
h eat i n v acu o, w hic h i s a p ro of t h at i t w ill e v ap ora te f a ste r i n v acu o, a n d t h at
t h e a ir t h ere fo re r a th er h in ders t h an p ro m ote s i ts e v ap ora tio n i n h ig her
d eg re es o f h eat. T he q uic k e v ap ora tio n o ccasio ned i n v acu o b y a s m all d eg re e
o f h eat i s a g re eab ly s e en i n w hat i s t e rm ed a p uls e -g la ss, w hic h c o nsis ts o f a n
e x hau ste d t u be o f g la ss w ith a b ulb a t e ach e n d o f i t a n d w ith a b out t w o t h ir d s
o f t h e c av ity f ille d w ith a lc o hol, i n w hic h t h e s p ir it i s i n sta n tly s e en t o b oil b y
t h e h eat o f t h e f in ger-e n d a p plie d o n a b ubble o f s te am i n t h e l o w er b ulb , a n d
i s c o nden se d a g ain i n t h e u pper b ulb b y t h e l e ast c o nceiv ab le c o m para tiv e
c o ld ness.
2 . A noth er c ir c u m sta n ce e v in cin g t h at h eat i s t h e p rin cip al c au se o f
e v ap ora tio n i s t h at a t t h e t im e o f w ate r b ein g c o nverte d i n to s te am , a g re at
q uan tity o f h eat i s t a k en a w ay f ro m t h e n eig hbourin g b odie s. I f a
t h erm om ete r b e r e p eate d ly d ip ped i n e th er, o r i n r e ctif ie d s p ir it o f w in e, a n d
e x pose d t o a b la st o f a ir , t o e x ped ite t h e e v ap ora tio n b y p erp etu ally r e m ovin g
t h e s a tu ra te d a ir f ro m i t, t h e t h erm om ete r w ill p re se n tly s in k b elo w f re ezin g.
T his w arm th , t a k en f ro m t h e a m bie n t b odie s a t t h e t im e o f e v ap ora tio n b y t h e

ste am , i s a g ain g iv en o ut w hen t h e s te am i s c o nden se d i n to w ate r. H en ce t h e
wate r i n a w orm -tu b d urin g d is tilla tio n s o s o on b eco m es h ot; a n d h en ce t h e
warm th a cco m pan yin g t h e d esc en t o f r a in i n c o ld w eath er.
3. T he t h ir d c ir c u m sta n ce, s h ew in g t h at h eat i s t h e p rin cip al c au se o f
ev ap ora tio n, i s , t h at s o m e o f t h e s te am b eco m es a g ain c o nden se d w hen a n y
part o f t h e h eat i s w ith dra w n. T hus w hen w arm er s o uth -w est w in ds r e p le te
with m ois tu re s u cceed t h e c o ld er n orth -e ast w in ds a ll b odie s t h at a re d en se
an d s u bsta n tia l, a s s to ne w alls , b ric k f lo ors , & c. a b so rb s o m e o f t h e h eat f ro m
th e p assin g a ir , a n d i ts m ois tu re b eco m es p re cip ita te d o n t h em , w hile t h e
north -e ast w in ds b eco m e w arm er o n t h eir a rriv al i n t h is l a titu de, a n d a re
th en ce d is p ose d t o t a k e u p m ore m ois tu re , a n d a re t e rm ed d ry in g w in ds.
4. H eat s e em s t o b e t h e p rin cip al c au se o f t h e s o lu tio n o f m an y o th er b odie s,
as c o m mon s a lt, o r b lu e v itr io l d is so lv ed i n w ate r, w hic h w hen e x pose d t o
se v ere c o ld a re p re cip ita te d , o r c arrie d , t o t h e p art o f t h e w ate r l a st f ro zen ;
th is I o bse rv ed i n a p hia l f ille d w ith a s o lu tio n o f b lu e v itr io l w hic h w as
fro zen ; t h e p hia l w as b urs t, t h e i c e t h aw ed , a n d a b lu e c o lu m n o f c u pre o us
vitr io l w as l e ft s ta n din g u prig ht o n t h e b otto m o f t h e b ro ken g la ss, a s
desc rib ed i n n ote X IX .
II. H en ce w ate r m ay e ith er b e d is so lv ed i n a ir , a n d m ay t h en b e c alle d a n
aeria l s o lu tio n o f w ate r; o r i t m ay b e d is so lv ed i n t h e f lu id m atte r o f h eat,
acco rd in g t o t h e t h eo ry o f M . L av ois ie r, a n d m ay t h en b e c alle d s te am . I n t h e
fo rm er c ase i t i s p ro bab le t h ere a re m an y o th er v ap ours w hic h m ay p re cip ita te
it, a s m arin e a cid g as, o r f lu or a cid g as. S o a lc alin e g as a n d a cid g as d is so lv ed
in a ir p re cip ita te e ach o th er, n itr o us g as p re cip ita te s v ita l a ir f ro m i ts a zo te ,
an d i n fla m mab le g as m ix ed w ith v ita l a ir i g nite d b y a n e le ctr ic s p ark e ith er
pro duces o r p re cip ita te s t h e w ate r i n b oth o f t h em . A re t h ere a n y s u btle
ex hala tio ns o ccasio nally d if fu se d i n t h e a tm osp here w hic h m ay t h us c au se
ra in ?
1. B ut a s w ate r i s p erh ap s m an y h undre d t im es m ore s o lu ble i n t h e f lu id
matte r o f h eat t h an i n a ir , I s u ppose t h e e d uctio n o f t h is h eat, b y w hate v er
mean s i t i s o ccasio ned , i s t h e p rin cip al c au se o f d ev ap ora tio n. T hus i f a
re g io n o f a ir i s b ro ught f ro m a w arm er c lim ate , a s t h e S .W . w in ds, i t b eco m es
co ole d b y i ts c o nta ct w ith t h e e arth i n t h is l a titu de, a n d p arts w ith s o m uch o f
its m ois tu re a s w as d is so lv ed i n t h e q uan tity o f c alo riq ue, o r h eat, w hic h i t

now l o ose s, b ut r e ta in s t h at p art w hic h w as s u sp en ded b y i ts a ttr a ctio n t o t h e
partic le s o f a ir , o r b y a eria l s o lu tio n, e v en i n t h e m ost s e v ere f ro sts .
2. A s e co nd i m med ia te c au se o f r a in i s a s tr e am o f N .E . w in d d esc en din g
fro m a s u perio r c u rre n t o f a ir , a n d m ix in g w ith t h e w arm er S .W . w in d b elo w ;
or t h e r e v ers e o f t h is , v iz . a s u perio r c u rre n t o f S .W . w in d m ix in g w ith a n
in fe rio r o ne o f N .E . w in d; i n b oth t h ese c ase s t h e w hole h eav en b eco m es
in sta n tly c lo uded , a n d t h e m ois tu re c o nta in ed i n t h e S .W . c u rre n t i s
pre cip ita te d . T his c au se o f d ev ap ora tio n h as b een i n gen io usly e x pla in ed b y
Dr. H utto n i n t h e T ra n sa ct. o f E din burg h, V ol. I , a n d s e em s t o a ris e f ro m t h is
cir c u m sta n ce; t h e p artic le s o f a ir o f t h e N .E . w in d e d uce p art o f t h e h eat f ro m
th e S .W . w in d, a n d t h ere fo re t h e w ate r w hic h w as d is so lv ed b y t h at q uan tity
of
hea t
i s p re cip ita te d ; a ll t h e o th er p art o f t h e w ate r, w hic h w as s u sp en ded
by i ts a ttr a ctio n t o t h e p artic le s o f a ir , o r d is so lv ed i n t h e r e m ain der o f t h e
heat, c o ntin ues u npre cip ita te d .
3. A t h ir d m eth od b y w hic h a r e g io n o f a ir b eco m es c o ole d , a n d i n
co nse q uen ce d ep osits m uch o f i ts m ois tu re , i s f ro m t h e m ech an ic al e x pan sio n
of a ir , w hen p art o f t h e p re ssu re i s t a k en o ff. I n t h is c ase t h e e x pan ded a ir
beco m es c ap ab le o f r e ceiv in g o r a ttr a ctin g m ore o f t h e m atte r o f h eat i n to i ts
in te rs tic es, a n d t h e v ap our, w hic h w as p re v io usly d is so lv ed i n t h is h eat, i s
dep osite d , a s i s s e en i n t h e r e ceiv er o f a n a ir -p um p, w hic h b eco m es d ew y, a s
th e a ir w ith in b eco m es e x pan ded b y t h e e d uctio n o f p art o f i t. S ee n ote V II.
Hen ce w hen t h e m erc u ry i n t h e b aro m ete r s in ks w ith out a c h an ge o f t h e w in d
th e a ir g en era lly b eco m es c o ld er. S ee n ote V II. o n E le m en ta ry H eat. A nd i t i s
pro bab ly f ro m t h e v ary in g p re ssu re o f t h e i n cu m ben t a ir t h at i n s u m mer d ay s
sm all b la ck c lo uds a re o fte n t h us s u dden ly p ro duced , a n d a g ain s o on v an is h .
See a p ap er i n P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol. L X XVIII. i n title d F rig orif ic E xperim en ts
on t h e M ech an ic al E xpan sio n o f A ir .
4. A noth er p ortio n o f a tm osp heric w ate r m ay p ossib ly b e h eld i n s o lu tio n b y
th e e le ctr ic f lu id , s in ce i n t h under s to rm s a p re cip ita tio n o f t h e w ate r s e em s t o
be e ith er t h e c au se o r t h e c o nse q uen ce o f t h e e d uctio n o f t h e e le ctr ic ity . B ut i t
ap pears m ore p ro bab le t h at t h e w ate r i s c o nden se d i n to c lo uds b y t h e
ed uctio n o f i ts h eat, a n d t h at t h en t h e s u rp lu s o f e le ctr ic ity p re v en ts t h eir
co ale sc en ce i n to l a rg er d ro ps, w hic h i m med ia te ly s u cceed s t h e d ep artu re o f
th e l ig htn in g.

5. T he i m med ia te c au se w hy t h e b aro m ete r s in ks b efo re r a in i s , f ir s t, b ecau se
a r e g io n o f w arm a ir , b ro ught t o u s i n t h e p la ce o f t h e c o ld a ir w hic h i t h ad
dis p la ced , m ust w eig h l ig hte r, b oth s p ecif ic ally a n d a b so lu te ly , i f t h e h eig ht
of t h e w arm a tm osp here b e s u ppose d t o b e e q ual t o t h at o f t h e p re ceed in g
co ld o ne. A nd s e co ndly , a fte r t h e d ro ps o f r a in b eg in t o f a ll i n a n y c o lu m n o f
air , t h at c o lu m n b eco m es l ig hte r, t h e f a llin g d ro ps o nly a d din g t o t h e p re ssu re
of t h e a ir i n p ro portio n t o t h e r e sis ta n ce w hic h t h ey m eet w ith i n p assin g
th ro ugh t h at f lu id .
If w e c o uld s u ppose w ate r t o b e d is so lv ed i n a ir w ith out h eat, o r i n v ery l o w
deg re es o f h eat, I s u ppose t h e a ir w ould b eco m e h eav ie r, a s h ap pen s i n m an y
ch em ic al s o lu tio ns, b ut i f w ate r d is so lv ed i n t h e m atte r o f h eat, o r c alo riq ue,
be m ix ed w ith a n a eria l s o lu tio n o f w ate r, t h ere c an b e n o d oubt b ut a n
atm osp here c o nsis tin g o f s u ch a m ix tu re m ust b eco m e l ig hte r i n p ro portio n t o
th e q uan tity o f c alo riq ue. O n t h e s a m e c ir c u m sta n ce d ep en ds t h e v is ib le
vap our p ro duced f ro m t h e b re ath o f a n im als i n c o ld w eath er, o r f ro m a
boilin g k ettle ; t h e p artic le s o f c o ld a ir , w ith w hic h i t i s m ix ed , s te al a p art o f
its h eat, a n d b eco m e t h em se lv es r a is e d i n t e m pera tu re , w hen ce p art o f t h e
wate r i s p re cip ita te d i n v is ib le v ap our, w hic h , i f i n g re at q uan tity s in ks t o t h e
gro und; i f i n s m all q uan tity , a n d t h e s u rro undin g a ir i s n ot p re v io usly
sa tu ra te d , i t s p re ad s i ts e lf t ill i t b eco m es a g ain d is so lv ed .

N O TE X XVI.— SP R IN G S
Your l u cid b ands c o nden se w ith f in gers c h ill
The b lu e m is t h overin g
ro und t h e g elid h ill
.
C A NTO I II. l . 1 9.
T he s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth c o nsis ts o f s tr a ta m an y o f w hic h w ere f o rm ed
o rig in ally b en eath t h e s e a, t h e m ounta in s w ere a fte rw ard s f o rc ed u p b y
s u bte rra n eo us f ir e s, a s a p pears f ro m t h e f is su re s i n t h e r o ck s o f w hic h t h ey
c o nsis t, t h e q uan tity o f v olc an ic p ro ductio ns a ll o ver t h e w orld , a n d t h e
n um ero us r e m ain s o f c ra te rs o f v olc an os i n m ounta in ous c o untr ie s. H en ce t h e
s tr a ta w hic h c o m pose t h e s id es o f m ounta in s l ie s la n tin g d ow nw ard s, a n d o ne
o r t w o o r m ore o f t h e e x te rn al s tr a ta n ot r e ach in g t o t h e s u m mit w hen t h e
m ounta in w as r a is e d u p, t h e s e co nd o r t h ir d s tr a tu m o r a m ore i n fe rio r o ne i s
t h ere e x pose d t o d ay ; t h is m ay b e w ell r e p re se n te d b y f o rc eab ly t h ru stin g a
b lu nt i n str u m en t t h ro ugh s e v era l s h eets o f p ap er, a b ur w ill s ta n d u p w ith t h e
l o w erm ost s h eet s ta n din g h ig hest i n t h e c en te r o f i t. O n t h is u pperm ost
s tr a tu m , w hic h i s c o ld er a s i t i s m ore e le v ate d , t h e d ew s a re c o nden se d i n
l a rg e q uan titie s; a n d s lid in g d ow n p ass u nder t h e f ir s t o r s e co nd o r t h ir d
s tr a tu m w hic h c o m pose t h e s id es o f t h e h ill; a n d e ith er f o rm a m ora ss b elo w ,
o r a w eep in g r o ck , b y o ozin g o ut i n n um ero us p la ces, o r m an y o f t h ese l e ss
c u rre n ts m eetin g t o geth er b urs t o ut i n a m ore c o pio us r ill.
T he s u m mits o f m ounta in s a re m uch c o ld er t h an t h e p la in s i n t h eir v ic in ity ,
o w in g t o s e v era l c au se s; 1 . T heir b ein g i n a m an ner i n su la te d o r c u t o ff f ro m
t h e c o m mon h eat o f t h e e arth , w hic h i s a lw ay s o f 4 8 d eg re es, a n d p erp etu ally
c o unte ra cts t h e e ffe cts o f e x te rn al c o ld b en eath t h at d eg re e. 2 . F ro m t h eir
s u rfa ces b ein g l a rg er i n p ro portio n t o t h eir s o lid c o nte n ts , a n d h en ce t h eir

heat m ore e x ped itio usly c arrie d a w ay b y t h e e v er-m ovin g a tm osp here . 3 . T he
in cre asin g r a rity o f t h e a ir a s t h e m ounta in r is e s. A ll t h ose b odie s w hic h
co nduct e le ctr ic ity w ell o r i ll, c o nduct t h e m atte r o f h eat l ik ew is e w ell o r i ll.
See n ote V II. A tm osp heric a ir i s a b ad c o nducto r o f e le ctr ic ity a n d t h en ce
co nfin es i t o n t h e b ody w here i t i s a ccu m ula te d , b ut w hen i t i s m ad e v ery
ra re , a s i n t h e e x hau ste d r e ceiv er, t h e e le ctr ic a u ra p asse s a w ay i m med ia te ly
to a n y d is ta n ce. T he s a m e c ir c u m sta n ce p ro bab ly h ap pen s i n r e sp ect t o h eat,
whic h i s t h us k ep t b y t h e d en se r a ir o n t h e p la in s f ro m e sc ap in g, b ut i s
dis sip ate d o n t h e h ills w here t h e a ir i s t h in ner. 4 . A s t h e c u rre n ts o f a ir r is e u p
th e s id es o f m ounta in s t h ey b eco m e m ech an ic ally r a re fie d , t h e p re ssu re o f t h e
in cu m ben t c o lu m n l e sse n in g a s t h ey a sc en d. H en ce t h e e x pan din g a ir a b so rb s
heat f ro m t h e m ounta in a s i t a sc en ds, a s e x pla in ed i n n ote V II. 5 . T here i s
an oth er, a n d p erh ap s m ore p ow erfu l c au se , I s u sp ect, w hic h m ay o ccasio n t h e
gre at c o ld o n m ounta in s, a n d i n t h e h ig her p arts o f t h e a tm osp here , a n d w hic h
has n ot y et b een a tte n ded t o ; I m ean t h at t h e f lu id m atte r o f h eat m ay
pro bab ly g ra v ita te r o und t h e e arth , a n d f o rm a n a tm osp here o n i ts s u rfa ce,
mix ed w ith t h e a eria l a tm osp here , w hic h m ay d im in is h o r b eco m e r a re r, a s i t
re ced es f ro m t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce, i n a g re ate r p ro portio n t h an t h e a ir
dim in is h es.
6. T he g re at c o nden sa tio n o f m ois tu re o n t h e s u m mits o f h ills h as a n oth er
cau se , w hic h i s t h e d ash in g o f m ovin g c lo uds a g ain st t h em , i n m is ty d ay s t h is
is o fte n s e en t o h av e g re at e ffe ct o n p la in s, w here a n e m in en t t r e e b y
obstr u ctin g t h e m is t a s i t m oves a lo ng s h all h av e a m uch g re ate r q uan tity o f
mois tu re d ro p f ro m i ts l e av es t h an f a lls a t t h e s a m e t im e o n t h e g ro und i n i ts
vic in ity . M r. W hite , i n h is H is to ry o f S elb orn e g iv es a n a cco unt o f a l a rg e
tr e e s o s itu ate d , f ro m w hic h a s tr e am f lo w ed d urin g a m ovin g m is t s o a s t o
fill t h e c art- ru ts i n a l a n e o th erw is e n ot v ery m ois t, a n d i n gen io usly a d ds, t h at
tr e es p la n te d a b out p onds o f s ta g nan t w ate r c o ntr ib ute m uch b y t h ese m ean s
to s u pply t h e r e se rv oir . T he s p heru le s w hic h c o nstitu te a m is t o r c lo ud a re
kep t f ro m u nitin g b y s o s m all a p ow er t h at a l ittle a g ita tio n a g ain st t h e l e av es
of a t r e e, o r t h e g re ate r a ttr a ctio n o f a f la t m ois t s u rfa ce, c o nden se s o r
pre cip ita te s t h em .
If a l e af h as i ts s u rfa ce m ois te n ed a n d p artic le s o f w ate r s e p ara te f ro m e ach
oth er a s i n a m is t b e b ro ught n ear t h e m ois te n ed s u rfa ce o f a l e af, e ach
partic le w ill b e a ttr a cte d m ore b y t h at p la in s u rfa ce o f w ate r o n t h e l e af t h an i t

can b e b y t h e s u rro undin g p artic le s o f t h e m is t, b ecau se g lo bule s o nly a ttr a ct
each o th er i n o ne p oin t, w here as a p la in a ttr a cts a g lo bule b y a g re ate r e x te n t
of i ts s u rfa ce.
The c o m mon c o ld s p rin gs a re t h us f o rm ed o n e le v ate d g ro unds b y t h e
co nden se d v ap ours , a n d h en ce a re s tr o nger w hen t h e n ig hts a re c o ld a fte r h ot
day s i n s p rin g, t h an e v en i n t h e w et d ay s o f w in te r. F or t h e w arm a tm osp here
durin g t h e d ay h as d is so lv ed m uch m ore w ate r t h an i t c an s u pport i n s o lu tio n
durin g t h e c o ld o f t h e n ig ht, w hic h i s t h us d ep osite d i n l a rg e q uan titie s o n t h e
hills , a n d y et s o g ra d ually a s t o s o ak i n b etw een t h e s tr a ta o f t h em , r a th er t h an
to s lid e o ff o ver t h eir s u rfa ces l ik e s h ow ers o f r a in . T he c o m mon h eat o f t h e
in te rn al p arts o f t h e e arth i s a sc erta in ed b y s p rin gs w hic h a ris e f ro m s tr a ta o f
earth t o o d eep t o b e a ffe cte d b y t h e h eat o f s u m mer o r t h e f ro sts o f w in te r.
Those i n t h is c o untr y a re o f 4 8 d eg re es o f h eat, t h ose a b out P hilid elp hia w ere
sa id b y D r. F ra n klin t o b e 5 2; w heth er t h is v aria tio n i s t o b e a cco unte d f o r b y
th e d if fe re n ce o f t h e s u n's h eat o n t h at c o untr y , a cco rd in g t o t h e i n gen io us
th eo ry o f M r. K ir w an , o r t o t h e v ic in ity o f s u bte rra n ean f ir e s i s n ot y et, I
th in k, d ecid ed . T here a re h ow ev er s u bte rra n eo us s tr e am s o f w ate r n ot e x actly
pro duced i n t h is m an ner, a s s tr e am s i s su in g f ro m f is su re s i n t h e e arth ,
co m munic atin g w ith t h e c ra te rs o f o ld v olc an oes; i n t h e P eak o f D erb ysh ir e
are m an y h ollo w s, c alle d s w allo w s, w here t h e l a n d f lo ods s in k i n to t h e e arth ,
an d c o m e o ut a t s o m e m ile s d is ta n t, a s a t I la m n ear A sh born e. S ee n ote o n
Fic a, V ol. I I.
Oth er s tr e am s o f c o ld w ate r a ris e f ro m b en eath t h e s n ow o n t h e A lp s a n d
Andes, a n d o th er h ig h m ounta in s, w hic h i s p erp etu aly t h aw in g a t i ts u nder
su rfa ce b y t h e c o m mon h eat o f t h e e arth , a n d g iv es r is e t o l a rg e r iv ers . F or
th e o rig in o f w arm s p rin gs s e e n ote o n F ucu s, V ol. I I.

N O TE X XVII.— SH ELL F IS H .

You r o und E ch in us r a y h is a rro w y m ail,
G iv e t h e k eel'd N autilu s h is o ar a nd s a il.
F ir m t o h is r o ck w ith s ilv er c o rd s s u sp en d
T he a nch ore d P in na, a nd h is C ancer-fr ie n d
.
C A NTO I II. l . 6 7.
T he a rm our o f t h e E ch in us, o r S ea-h ed ge H og, c o nsis ts g en era lly o f
m oveab le s p in es; (
Lin nei S yste m . N at.
V ol. I . p . 1 102.) a n d i n t h at r e sp ect
r e se m ble s t h e a rm our o f t h e l a n d a n im al o f t h e s a m e n am e. T he i r re g ula r
p ro tu bera n ces o n o th er s e a-s h ells , a s o n s o m e s p ecie s o f t h e P urp ura , a n d
M ure x , s e rv e t h em a s a f o rtif ic atio n a g ain st t h e a tta ck s o f t h eir e n em ie s.
I t i s s a id t h at t h is a n im al f o re se es t e m pestu ous w eath er, a n d s in kin g t o t h e
b otto m o f t h e s e a a d here s f ir m ly t o s e a-p la n ts , o r o th er b odie s b y m ean s o f a
s u bsta n ce w hic h r e se m ble s t h e h orn s o f s n ails . A bove t w elv e h undre d o f
t h ese f ille ts h av e b een c o unte d b y w hic h t h is a n im al f ix es i ts e lf ; a n d w hen
a flo at, i t c o ntr a cts t h ese f ille ts b etw een t h e b ase s o f i ts p oin ts , t h e n um ber o f
w hic h o fte n a m ounts t o t w o t h ousa n d. D ic t r a is o nne. a rt. O urs in . d e m er.
T here i s a k in d o f N au tilu s, c alle d b y L in neu s, A rg onau ta , w hose s h ell h as
b ut o ne c ell; o f t h is a n im al P lin y a ffir m s, t h at h av in g e x onera te d i ts s h ell b y
t h ro w in g o ut t h e w ate r, i t s w im s u pon t h e s u rfa ce, e x te n din g a w eb o f
w onderfu l t e n uity , a n d b en din g b ack t w o o f i ts a rm s a n d r o w in g w ith t h e r e st,
m ak es a s a il, a n d a t l e n gth r e ceiv in g t h e w ate r d iv es a g ain . P lin . I X . 2 9.
L in neu s a d ds t o h is d esc rip tio n o f t h is a n im al, t h at l ik e t h e C ra b D io gen es o r
B ern hard , i t o ccu pie s a h ouse n ot i ts o w n, a s i t i s n ot c o nnecte d t o i ts s h ell,

an d i s t h ere fo re f o re ig n t o i t; w ho c o uld h av e g iv en c re d it t o t h is i f i t h ad n ot
been a tte ste d b y s o m an y w ho h av e w ith t h eir o w n e y es s e en t h is a rg onau t i n
th e a ct o f s a ilin g? S yst. N at p . 1 161.
The N au tilu s, p ro perly s o n am ed b y L in neu s, h as a s h ell c o nsis tin g o f m an y
ch am bers , o f w hic h c u ps a re m ad e i n t h e E ast w ith b eau tif u l p ain tin g a n d
carv in g o n t h e m oth er-p earl. T he a n im al i s s a id t o i n hab it o nly t h e u pperm ost
or o pen c h am ber, w hic h i s l a rg er t h an t h e r e st; a n d t h at t h e r e st r e m ain e m pty
ex cep t t h at t h e p ip e, o r s ip huncu lu s, w hic h c o m munic ate s f ro m o ne t o t h e
oth er o f t h em i s f ille d w ith a n a p pen dag e o f t h e a n im al l ik e a g ut o r s tr in g.
Mr. H ook i n h is P hilo s. E xper. p . 3 06, i m ag in es t h is t o b e a d ila ta b le o r
co m pre ssib le t u be, l ik e t h e a ir - b la d ders o f f is h , a n d t h at b y c o ntr a ctin g o r
perm ittin g i t t o e x pan d, i t r e n ders i ts s h ell b oyan t o r t h e c o ntr a ry . S ee N ote
on U lv a, V ol. I I.
The P in na, o r S ea-w in g, i s c o nta in ed i n a t w o-v alv e s h ell, w eig hin g
so m etim es f if te en p ounds, a n d e m its a b eard o f f in e l o ng g lo ssy s ilk - l ik e
fib re s, b y w hic h i t i s s u sp en ded t o t h e r o ck s t w en ty o r t h ir ty f e et b en eath t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e s e a. I n t h is s itu atio n i t i s s o s u ccessfu lly a tta ck ed b y t h e e ig ht-
fo ote d P oly pus, t h at t h e s p ecie s p erh ap s c o uld n ot e x is t b ut f o r t h e e x ertio ns
of t h e C an cer P in noth eris , w ho l iv es i n t h e s a m e s h ell a s a g uard a n d
co m pan io n. A m oen . A cad em . V ol. I I. p . 4 8. L in . S yst. N at. V ol. I . p . 1 159,
an d p . 1 040.
The P in noth eris , o r P in nophyla x , i s a s m all c ra b n ak ed l ik e B ern ard t h e
Herm it, b ut i s f u rn is h ed w ith g ood e y es, a n d l iv es i n t h e s a m e s h ell w ith t h e
Pin na; w hen t h ey w an t f o od t h e P in na o pen s i ts s h ell, a n d s e n ds i ts f a ith fu l
ally t o f o ra g e; b ut i f t h e C an cer s e es t h e P oly pus, h e r e tu rn s s u dden ly t o t h e
arm s o f h is b lin d h oste ss, w ho b y c lo sin g t h e s h ell a v oid s t h e f u ry o f h er
en em y; o th erw is e , w hen i t h as p ro cu re d a b ooty , i t b rin gs i t t o t h e o pen in g o f
th e s h ell, w here i t i s a d m itte d , a n d t h ey d iv id e t h e p re y . T his w as o bse rv ed b y
Hasle q uis t i n h is v oyag e t o P ale stin e.
The B yssu s o f t h e a n tie n ts , a cco rd in g t o A ris to tle , w as t h e b eard o f t h e P in na
ab ove m en tio ned , b ut s e em s t o h av e b een u se d b y o th er w rite rs
in dis c rim in ate ly f o r a n y s p un m ate ria l, w hic h w as e ste em ed f in er o r m ore
valu ab le t h an w ool. R eau m ur s a y s t h e t h re ad s o f t h is B yssu s a re n ot l e ss f in e
or l e ss b eau tif u l t h an t h e s ilk , a s i t i s s p un b y t h e s ilk -w orm ; t h e P in na o n t h e

co asts o f I ta ly a n d P ro ven ce ( w here i t i s f is h ed u p b y i r o n-h ooks f ix ed o n
lo ng p ole s) i s c alle d t h e s ilk -w orm o f t h e s e a. T he s to ck in gs a n d g lo ves
man ufa ctu re d f ro m i t, a re o f e x quis ite f in en ess, b ut t o o w arm f o r c o m mon
wear, a n d a re t h en ce e ste em ed u se fu l i n r h um atis m a n d g out. D ic t. r a is o nné
art. P in ne-m arin e. T he w arm th o f t h e B yssu s, l ik e t h at o f s ilk , i s p ro bab ly
ow in g t o t h eir b ein g b ad c o nducto rs o f h eat, a s w ell a s o f e le ctr ic ity . W hen
th ese f ib re s a re b ro ken b y v io le n ce, t h is a n im al a s w ell a s t h e m usc le h as t h e
pow er t o r e p ro duce t h em l ik e t h e c o m mon s p id ers , a s w as o bse rv ed b y M .
Adan so n. A s r a w s ilk , a n d r a w c o bw eb s, w hen s w allo w ed , a re l ia b le t o
pro duce g re at s ic k ness ( a s I a m i n fo rm ed ) i t i s p ro bab le t h e p art o f m usc le s,
whic h s o m etim es d is a g re es w ith t h e p eo ple w ho e at t h em , m ay b e t h is s ilk y
web , b y w hic h t h ey a tta ch t h em se lv es t o s to nes. T he l a rg e k in d o f P in na
co nta in s s o m e m oth er-p earl o f a r e d dis h t in ge, a cco rd in g t o M . d 'A rg en ville .
The s u bsta n ce s o ld u nder t h e n am e o f I n dia n w eed , a n d u se d a t t h e b otto m o f
fis h -lin es, i s p ro bab ly a p ro ductio n o f t h is k in d; w hic h h ow ev er i s s c arc ely t o
be d is tin guis h ed b y t h e e y e f ro m t h e t e n dons o f a r a t's t a il, a fte r t h ey h av e
been s e p ara te d b y p utr e fa ctio n i n w ate r, a n d w ell c le an ed a n d r u bbed ; a
pro ductio n, w hic h I w as o nce s h ew n a s a g re at c u rio sity ; i t h ad t h e u pperm ost
bone o f t h e t a il a d herin g t o i t, a n d w as s a id t o h av e b een u se d a s a n o rn am en t
in a l a d y's h air .

N O TE X XVIII.— ST U RG EO N.
With w orm -lik e h ard h is t o oth le ss l ip s a rra y,
And
te a ch t h e u nw eild y S tu rg eo n t o b etr a y.
C A NTO I II. l . 7 1.
T he S tu rg eo n,
Acip en se r, S tr u rio .
L in . S yst. N at. V ol. I . p . 4 03. i s a f is h o f
g re at c u rio sity a s w ell a s o f g re at i m porta n ce; h is m outh i s p la ced u nder t h e
h ead , w ith out t e eth , l ik e t h e o pen in g o f a p urs e , w hic h h e h as t h e p ow er t o
p ush s u dden ly o ut o r r e tr a ct. B efo re t h is m outh u nder t h e b eak o r n ose h an g
f o ur t e n drils s o m e i n ch es l o ng, a n d w hic h s o r e se m ble e arth -w orm s t h at a t
f ir s t s ig ht t h ey m ay b e m is ta k en f o r t h em . T his c lu m sy t o oth le ss f is h i s
s u ppose d b y t h is c o ntr iv an ce t o k eep h im se lf i n g ood c o nditio n, t h e s o lid ity
o f h is f le sh e v id en tly s h ew in g h im t o b e a f is h o f p re y . H e i s s a id t o h id e h is
l a rg e b ody a m ongst t h e w eed s n ear t h e s e a-c o ast, o r a t t h e m outh s o f l a rg e
r iv ers , o nly e x posin g h is c ir rh i o r t e n drils , w hic h s m all f is h o r s e a-in se cts
m is ta k in g f o r r e al w orm s a p pro ach f o r p lu nder, a n d a re s u ck ed i n to t h e j a w s
o f t h eir e n em y. H e h as b een s u ppose d b y s o m e t o r o ot i n to t h e s o il a t t h e
b otto m o f t h e s e a o r r iv ers ; b ut t h e c ir rh i, o r t e n drills a b ovem en tio ned , w hic h
h an g f ro m h is s n out o ver h is m outh , m ust t h em se lv es b e v ery i n co nven ie n t
f o r t h is p urp ose , a n d a s i t h as n o j a w s i t e v id en tly l iv es b y s u ctio n, a n d d urin g
i ts r e sid en ce i n t h e s e a a q uan tity o f s e a-in se cts a re f o und i n i ts s to m ach .
T he f le sh w as s o v alu ed i n t h e t im e o f t h e E m pero r S ev eru s, t h at i t w as
b ro ught t o t a b le b y s e rv an ts w ith c o ro nets o n t h eir h ead s, a n d p re ced ed b y
m usic , w hic h m ig ht g iv e r is e t o i ts b ein g i n o ur c o untr y p re se n te d b y t h e L ord
M ay or t o t h e K in g. A t p re se n t i t i s c au ght i n t h e D an ube, a n d t h e W alg a, t h e
D on, a n d o th er l a rg e r iv ers f o r v ario us p urp ose s. T he s k in m ak es t h e b est

co verin g f o r c arria g es; i s in gla ss i s p re p are d f ro m p arts o f t h e s k in ; c av ear
fro m t h e s p aw n; a n d t h e f le sh i s p ic k le d o r s a lte d , a n d s e n t a ll o ver E uro pe.

N O TE X XIX .— OIL O N W ATER .
Who w ith f in e f ilm s, s u sp en ded o 'e r t h e d eep ,
Of O il e ffu siv e l u ll t h e
waves t o s le ep .
C A NTO I II. l . 8 7.
T here i s r e aso n t o b elie v e t h at w hen o il i s p oure d u pon w ate r, t h e t w o
s u rfa ces d o n ot t o uch e ach o th er, b ut t h at t h e o il i s s u sp en ded o ver t h e w ate r
b y t h eir m utu al r e p uls io n. T his s e em s t o b e r e n dere d p ro bab le b y t h e
f o llo w in g e x perim en t: i f o ne d ro p o f o il b e d ro ped o n a b aso n o f w ate r, i t w ill
i m med ia te ly d if fu se i ts e lf o ver t h e w hole , f o r t h ere b ein g n o f ric tio n b etw een
t h e t w o s u rfa ces, t h ere i s n oth in g t o p re v en t i ts s p re ad in g i ts e lf b y t h e g ra v ity
o f t h e u pper p art o f i t, e x cep t i ts o w n t e n acity , i n to a p ellic le o f t h e g re ate st
t e n uity . B ut i f a s e co nd d ro p o f o il b e p ut u pon t h e f o rm er, i t d oes n ot s p re ad
i ts e lf , b ut r e m ain s i n t h e f o rm o f a d ro p, a s t h e o th er a lr e ad y o ccu pie d t h e
w hole s u rfa ce o f t h e b aso n, a n d t h ere i s f ric tio n i n o il p assin g o ver o il,
t h ough n one i n o il p assin g o ver w ate r.
H en ce w hen o il i s d if fu se d o n t h e s u rfa ce o f w ate r g en tle b re ezes h av e n o
i n flu en ce i n r a is in g w av es u pon i t; f o r a s m all q uan tity o f o il w ill c o ver a
v ery g re at s u rfa ce o f w ate r, ( I s u ppose a s p oonfu l w ill d if fu se i ts e lf o ver
s o m e a cre s) a n d t h e w in d b lo w in g u pon t h is c arrie s i t g ra d ually f o rw ard s; a n d
t h ere b ein g n o f ric tio n b etw een t h e t w o s u rfa ces t h e w ate r i s n ot a ffe cte d . O n
w hic h a cco unt o il h as n o e ffe ct i n s tillin g t h e a g ita tio n o f t h e w ate r a fte r t h e
w in d c ease s, a s w as f o und b y t h e e x perim en ts o f D r. F ra n klin .
T his c ir c u m sta n ce l a te ly b ro ught i n to n otic e b y D r. F ra n klin h ad b een
m en tio ned b y P lin y, a n d i s s a id t o b e i n u se b y t h e d iv ers f o r p earls , w ho i n

win dy w eath er t a k e d ow n w ith t h em a l ittle o il i n t h eir m outh s, w hic h t h ey
occasio nally g iv e o ut w hen t h e i n eq uality o f t h e s u pern ata n t w av es p re v en ts
th em f ro m s e ein g s u ffic ie n tly d is tin ctly f o r t h eir p urp ose .
The w onderfu l t e n uity w ith w hic h o il c an b e s p re ad u pon w ate r i s e v in ced b y
a f e w d ro ps p ro je cte d f ro m a b rid ge, w here t h e e y e i s p ro perly p la ced o ver i t,
passin g t h ro ugh a ll t h e p ris m atic c o lo urs a s i t d if fu se s i ts e lf . A nd a ls o f ro m
an oth er c u rio us e x perim en t o f D r. F ra n klin 's : h e c u t a p ie ce o f c o rk t o a b out
th e s iz e o f a l e tte r-w afe r, l e av in g a p oin t s ta n din g o ff l ik e a t a n gen t a t o ne
ed ge o f t h e c ir c le . T his p ie ce o f c o rk w as t h en d ip ped i n o il a n d t h ro w n i n to a
la rg e p ond o f w ate r, a n d a s t h e o il f lo w ed o ff a t t h e p oin t, t h e c o rk -w afe r
co ntin ued t o r e v olv e i n a c o ntr a ry d ir e ctio n f o r s e v era l m in ute s. T he o il
flo w in g o ff a ll t h at t im e a t t h e p oin te d t a n gen t i n c o lo ure d s tr e am s. I n a s m all
pond o f w ate r t h is e x perim en t d oes n ot s o w ell s u cceed , a s t h e c ir c u la tio n o f
th e c o rk s to ps a s s o on a s t h e w ate r b eco m es c o vere d w ith t h e p ellic le o f o il.
See A dditio nal N ote , N o. X III. a n d N ote o n F ucu s, V ol. I I.
The e ase w ith w hic h o il a n d w ate r s lid e o ver e ach o th er i s a g re eab ly s e en i f a
phia l b e a b out h alf f ille d w ith e q ual p arts o f o il a n d w ate r, a n d m ad e t o
osc illa te s u sp en ded b y a s tr in g, t h e u pper s u rfa ce o f t h e o il a n d t h e l o w er o ne
of t h e w ate r w ill a lw ay s k eep s m ooth ; b ut t h e a g ita tio n o f t h e s u rfa ces w here
th e o il a n d w ate r m eet, i s c u rio us; f o r t h eir s p ecif ic g ra v itie s b ein g n ot v ery
dif fe re n t, a n d t h eir f ric tio n o n e ach o th er n oth in g, t h e h ig hest s id e o f t h e
wate r, a s t h e p hia l d esc en ds i n i ts o sc illa tio n, h av in g a cq uir e d a g re ate r
mom en tu m t h an t h e l o w est s id e ( fro m i ts h av in g d esc en ded f u rth er) w ould
ris e t h e h ig hest o n t h e a sc en din g s id e o f t h e o sc illa tio n, a n d t h en ce p ush es t h e
th en u pperm ost p art o f t h e w ate r a m ongst t h e o il.

N O TE X XX.— SH IP -W ORM .
Meet f e ll T ere d o, a s h e m in es t h e k eel
With b ea ked h ea d, a nd b re a k
his l ip s o f s te el.
C A NTO I II. l . 9 1.
T he T ere d o, o r s h ip -w orm , h as t w o c alc are o us j a w s, h em is p heric al, f la t
b efo re , a n d a n gula r b eh in d. T he s h ell i s t a p er, w in din g, p en etr a tin g s h ip s a n d
s u bm arin e w ood, a n d w as b ro ught f ro m I n dia i n to E uro pe, L in nei S yste m .
N at. p . 1 267. T he T arie re s, o r s e a-w orm s, a tta ck a n d e ro de s h ip s w ith s u ch
f u ry , a n d i n s u ch n um bers , a s o fte n g re atly t o e n dan ger t h em . I t i s s a id t h at
o ur v esse ls h av e n ot k now n t h is n ew e n em y a b ove f if ty y ears , t h at t h ey w ere
b ro ught f ro m t h e s e a a b out t h e A ntille s t o o ur p arts o f t h e o cean , w here t h ey
h av e i n cre ase d p ro dig io usly . T hey b ore t h eir p assa g e i n t h e d ir e ctio n o f t h e
f ib re s o f t h e w ood, w hic h i s t h eir n ouris h m en t, a n d c an not r e tu rn o r p ass
o bliq uely , a n d t h en ce w hen t h ey c o m e t o a k not i n t h e w ood, o r w hen t w o o f
t h em m eet t o geth er w ith t h eir s to ny m outh s, t h ey p eris h f o r w an t o f f o od.
I n t h e y ears 1 731 a n d 1 732 t h e U nite d P ro vin ces w ere u nder a d re ad fu l a la rm
c o ncern in g t h ese i n se cts , w hic h h ad m ad e g re at d ep re d atio n o n t h e p ile s
w hic h s u pport t h e b an ks o f Z ela n d, b ut i t w as h ap pily d is c o vere d a f e w y ears
a fte rw ard s t h at t h ese i n se cts h ad t o ta lly a b an doned t h at i s la n d, ( D ic t
R ais o nné, a rt, V ers R ongeu rs ,) w hic h m ig ht h av e b een o ccasio ned b y t h eir
n ot b ein g a b le t o l iv e i n t h at l a titu de w hen t h e w in te r w as r a th er s e v ere r t h an
u su al.

N O TE X XXI.— MAELST R O M .
Turn t h e b ro ad h elm , t h e f lu tte rin g c a nva s u rg e
Fro m M aels tr o m 's
fie rc e i n navig able s u rg e.
C A NTO I II. l . 9 3.
O n t h e c o ast o f N orw ay t h ere i s a n e x te n siv e v orte x , o r e d dy, w hic h l ie s
b etw een t h e i s la n ds o f M osk oe a n d M osk en as, a n d i s c alle d M osk oestr o m , o r
M aels tr o m ; i t o ccu pie s s o m e l e ag ues i n c ir c u m fe re n ce, a n d i s s a id t o b e v ery
d an gero us a n d o fte n d estr u ctiv e t o v esse ls n av ig atin g t h ese s e as. I t i s n ot e asy
t o u nders ta n d t h e e x is te n ce o f a c o nsta n t d esc en din g s tr e am w ith out
s u pposin g i t m ust p ass t h ro ugh a s u bte rra n ean c av ity t o s o m e o th er p art o f t h e
e arth o r o cean w hic h m ay l ie b en eath i ts l e v el; a s t h e M ed ite rra n ean s e em s t o
l ie b en eath t h e l e v el o f t h e A tla n tic o cean , w hic h t h ere fo re c o nsta n tly f lo w s
i n to i t t h ro ugh t h e S tr a its ; a n d t h e w ate rs o f t h e G ulp h o f M ex ic o l ie m uch
a b ove t h e l e v el o f t h e s e a a b out t h e F lo rid as a n d f u rth er n orth w ard , w hic h
g iv es r is e t o t h e G ulp h-s tr e am , a s d esc rib ed i n n ote o n C assia i n V ol. I I.
T he M aels tr o m i s s a id t o b e s till t w ic e i n a b out t w en ty -fo ur h ours w hen t h e
t id e i s u p, a n d m ost v io le n t a t t h e o pposite t im es o f t h e d ay . T his i s n ot
d if fic u lt t o a cco unt f o r, s in ce w hen s o m uch w ate r i s b ro ught o ver t h e
s u bte rra n eo us p assa g e, i f s u ch e x is ts , a s c o m ple atly t o f ill i t a n d s ta n d m an y
f e et a b ove i t, l e ss d is tu rb an ce m ust a p pear o n t h e s u rfa ce. T he M aels tr o m i s
d esc rib ed i n t h e M em oir e s o f t h e S w ed is h A cad em y o f S cie n ces, a n d
P onto ppid en 's H is t. o f N orw ay , a n d i n U niv ers a l M use u m f o r 1 763, p . 1 31.
T he r e aso n w hy e d die s o f w ate r b eco m e h ollo w i n t h e m id dle i s b ecau se t h e
w ate r i m med ia te ly o ver t h e c en tr e o f t h e w ell, o r c av ity , f a lls f a ste r, h av in g

le ss f ric tio n t o o ppose i ts d esc en t, t h an t h e w ate r o ver t h e c ir c u m fe re n ce o r
ed ges o f t h e w ell. T he c ir c u la r m otio n o r g yra tio n o f e d die s d ep en ds o n t h e
obliq uity o f t h e c o urs e o f t h e s tr e am , o r t o t h e f ric tio n o r o ppositio n t o i t
bein g g re ate r o n o ne s id e o f t h e w ell t h an t h e o th er; I h av e o bse rv ed i n w ate r
passin g t h ro ugh a h ole i n t h e b otto m o f a t r o ugh, w hic h w as a lw ay s k ep t f u ll,
th e g yra tio n o f t h e s tr e am m ig ht b e t u rn ed e ith er w ay b y i n cre asin g t h e
oppositio n o f o ne s id e o f t h e e d dy w ith o nes f in ger, o r b y t u rn in g t h e s p out,
th ro ugh w hic h t h e w ate r w as i n tr o duced , a l ittle m ore o bliq uely t o t h e h ole o n
one s id e o r o n t h e o th er. L ig hte r b odie s a re l ia b le t o b e r e ta in ed l o ng i n
ed die s o f w ate r, w hile t h ose r a th er h eav ie r t h an w ate r a re s o on t h ro w n o ut
bey ond t h e c ir c u m fe re n ce b y t h eir a cq uir e d m om en tu m b eco m in g g re ate r
th an t h at o f t h e w ate r. T hus i f e q ual p ortio ns o f o il a n d w ate r b e p ut i n to a
phia l, a n d b y m ean s o f a s tr in g b e w hir le d i n a c ir c le r o und t h e h an d, t h e
wate r w ill a lw ay s k eep a t t h e g re ate r d is ta n ce f ro m t h e c en tr e , w hen ce i n t h e
ed die s f o rm ed i n r iv ers d urin g a f lo od a p ers o n w ho e n deav ours t o k eep
ab ove w ate r o r t o s w im i s l ia b le t o b e d eta in ed i n t h em , b ut o n s u ffe rin g
him se lf t o s in k o r d iv e h e i s s a id r e ad ily t o e sc ap e. T his c ir c u la tio n o f w ate r
in d esc en din g t h ro ugh a h ole i n a v esse l D r. F ra n klin h as i n gen io usly a p plie d
to t h e e x pla n atio n o f h urric an es o r e d die s o f a ir .

N O TE
XXXII.— GLA CIE R S.
While r o und d ark c ra gs i m pris o n'd w ate rs b en d
Thro ugh r ifte d i c e,
in i v o ry v ein s d esc en d.
C A NTO I II. l . 1 13.
T he c o m mon h eat o f t h e i n te rio r p arts o f t h e e arth b ein g a lw ay s 4 8 d eg re es,
b oth i n w in te r a n d s u m mer, t h e s n ow w hic h l ie s i n c o nta ct w ith i t i s a lw ay s i n
a t h aw in g s ta te ; H en ce i n i c e-h ouse s t h e e x te rn al p arts o f t h e c o lle ctio n o f i c e
i s p erp etu ally t h aw in g a n d t h us p re se rv es t h e i n te rn al p art o f i t; s o t h at i t i s
n ecessa ry t o l a y u p m an y t o ns f o r t h e p re se rv atio n o f o ne t o n. H en ce i n I ta ly
c o nsid era b le r iv ers h av e t h eir s o urc e f ro m b en eath t h e e te rn al g la cie rs , o r
m ounta in s o f s n ow a n d i c e.
I n o ur c o untr y w hen t h e a ir i n t h e c o urs e o f a f ro st c o ntin ues a d ay o r t w o a t
v ery n ear 3 2 d eg re es, t h e c o m mon h eat o f t h e e arth t h aw s t h e i c e o n i ts
s u rfa ce, w hile t h e t h erm om ete r r e m ain s a t t h e f re ezin g p oin t. T his
c ir c u m sta n ce i s o fte n o bse rv ab le i n t h e r im y m orn in gs o f s p rin g; t h e
t h erm om ete r s h all c o ntin ue a t t h e f re ezin g p oin t, y et a ll t h e r im e w ill v an is h ,
e x cep t t h at w hic h h ap pen s t o l ie o n a b rid ge, a b oard , o r o n a c ak e o f c o w -
d ung, w hic h b ein g t h us a s i t w ere i n su la te d o r c u t o ff f ro m s o f re e a
c o m munic atio n w ith t h e c o m mon h eat o f t h e e arth b y m ean s o f t h e a ir u nder
t h e b rid ge, o r w ood, o r d ung, w hic h a re b ad c o nducto rs o f h eat, c o ntin ues
s o m e t im e l o nger u nth aw ed . H en ce w hen t h e g ro und i s c o vere d t h ic k w ith
s n ow , t h ough t h e f ro st c o ntin ues, a n d t h e s u n d oes n ot s h in e, y et t h e s n ow i s
o bse rv ed t o d ecre ase v ery s e n sib ly . F or t h e c o m mon h eat o f t h e e arth m elts
t h e u nder s u rfa ce o f i t, a n d t h e u pper o ne e v ap ora te s b y i ts s o lu tio n i n t h e a ir .
T he g re at e v ap ora tio n o f i c e w as o bse rv ed b y M r. B oyle , w hic h e x perim en t I

re p eate d s o m e t im e a g o. H av in g s u sp en ded a p ie ce o f i c e b y a w ir e a n d
weig hed i t w ith c are w ith out t o uch in g i t w ith m y h an d, I h ung i t o ut t h e
whole o f a c le ar f ro sty n ig ht, a n d f o und i n t h e m orn in g i t h ad l o st n early a
fif th o f i ts w eig ht. M r. N . W alle riu s h as s in ce o bse rv ed t h at i c e a t t h e t im e o f
its c o ngela tio n e v ap ora te s f a ste r t h an w ate r i n i ts f lu id f o rm ; w hic h m ay b e
acco unte d f o r f ro m t h e h eat g iv en o ut a t t h e i n sta n t o f f re ezin g; ( S au ssu re 's
Essa is s u r H ygro m et. p . 2 49.) b ut t h is e ffe ct i s o nly m om en ta ry .
Thus t h e v eg eta b le s t h at a re c o vere d w ith s n ow a re s e ld om i n ju re d ; s in ce, a s
th ey l ie b etw een t h e t h aw in g s n ow , w hic h h as 3 2 d eg re es o f h eat, a n d t h e
co vere d e arth w hic h h as 4 8, t h ey a re p re se rv ed i n a d eg re e o f h eat b etw een
th ese ; v iz . i n 4 0 d eg re es o f h eat. W hen ce t h e m oss o n w hic h t h e r e in -d eer
fe ed i n t h e n orth ern l a titu des v eg eta te s b en eath t h e s n ow ; ( S ee n ote o n
Musc h us, V ol. I I.) a n d h en ce m an y L ap la n d a n d A lp in e p la n ts p eris h ed
th ro ugh c o ld i n t h e b ota n ic g ard en a t U psa l, f o r i n t h eir n ativ e s itu atio ns,
th ough t h e c o ld i s m uch m ore i n te n se , y et a t i ts v ery c o m men cem en t t h ey a re
co vere d d eep w ith s n ow , w hic h r e m ain s t ill l a te i n t h e s p rin g. F or t h is f a ct
se e A m aen it. A cad em . V ol. I . N o. 4 8. I n o ur c lim ate s u ch p la n ts d o w ell
co vere d w ith d rie d f e rn , u nder w hic h t h ey w ill g ro w , a n d e v en f lo w er, t ill t h e
se v ere v ern al f ro sts c ease . F or t h e i n cre ase o f g la cie rs s e e N ote o n C an to I . l .
529.

N O TE X XXIII.— WIN DS.
While s o uth ern g ale s o 'e r w este rn o cea ns r o ll,
And E uru s s te a ls h is
ic e-w in ds f r o m t h e p ole .
C A NTO I V . l . 1 5.
T he t h eo ry o f t h e w in ds i s y et v ery i m perfe ct, i n p art p erh ap s o w in g t o t h e
w an t o f o bse rv atio ns s u ffic ie n tly n um ero us o f t h e e x act t im es a n d p la ces
w here t h ey b eg in a n d c ease t o b lo w , b ut c h ie fly t o o ur y et i m perfe ct
k now le d ge o f t h e m ean s b y w hic h g re at r e g io ns o f a ir a re e ith er s u dden ly
p ro duced o r s u dden ly d estr o yed .
T he a ir i s p erp etu ally s u bje ct t o i n cre ase o r d im in utio n f ro m i ts c o m bin atio n
w ith o th er b odie s, o r i ts e v olu tio n f ro m t h em . T he v ita l p art o f t h e a ir , c alle d
o xygen e, i s c o ntin ually p ro duced i n t h is c lim ate f ro m t h e p ers p ir a tio n o f
v eg eta b le s i n t h e s u nsh in e, a n d p ro bab ly f ro m t h e a ctio n o f l ig ht o n c lo uds o r
o n w ate r i n t h e t r o pic al c lim ate s, w here t h e s u n h as g re ate r p ow er, a n d m ay
e x ert s o m e y et u nknow n l a w s o f l u m in ous c o m bin atio n. A noth er p art o f t h e
a tm osp here , w hic h i s c alle d a zo te , i s p erp etu ally s e t a t l ib erty f ro m a n im al
a n d v eg eta b le b odie s b y p utr e fa ctio n o r c o m bustio n, f ro m m an y s p rin gs o f
w ate r, f ro m v ola tile a lc ali, a n d p ro bab ly f ro m f ix ed a lc ali, o f w hic h t h ere i s
a n e x hau stle ss s o urc e i n t h e w ate r o f t h e o cean . B oth t h ese c o m ponen t p arts
o f t h e a ir a re p erp etu ally a g ain d im in is h ed b y t h eir c o nta ct w ith t h e s o il,
w hic h c o vers t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth , p ro ducin g n itr e . T he o xygen e i s
d im in is h ed i n t h e p ro ductio n o f a ll a cid s, o f w hic h t h e c arb onic a n d m uria tic
e x is t i n g re at a b undan ce. T he a zo te i s d im in is h ed i n t h e g ro w th o f a n im al
b odie s, o f w hic h i t c o nstitu te s a n i m porta n t p art, a n d i n i ts c o m bin atio ns w ith
m an y o th er n atu ra l p ro ductio ns.

They a re b oth p ro bab ly d im in is h ed i n i m men se q uan titie s b y u nitin g w ith t h e
in fla m mab le a ir , w hic h a ris e s f ro m t h e m ud o f r iv ers a n d l a k es a t s o m e
se aso ns, w hen t h e a tm osp here i s l ig ht: t h e o xygen e o f t h e a ir p ro ducin g
wate r, a n d t h e a zo te p ro ducin g v ola tile a lc ali b y t h eir c o m bin atio ns w ith t h is
in fla m mab le a ir . A t o th er s e aso ns o f t h e y ear t h ese p rin cip le s m ay a g ain
ch an ge t h eir c o m bin atio ns, a n d t h e a tm osp heric a ir b e r e p ro duced .
Mr. L av ois ie r f o und t h at o ne p ound o f c h arc o al i n b urn in g c o nsu m ed t w o
pounds n in e o unces o f v ita l a ir , o r o xygen e. T he c o nsu m ptio n o f v ita l a ir i n
th e p ro cess o f m ak in g r e d l e ad m ay r e ad ily b e r e d uced t o c alc u la tio n; a s m all
barre l c o nta in s a b out t w elv e h undre d w eig ht o f t h is c o m modity , 1 200 p ounds
of l e ad b y c alc in atio n a b so rb a b out 1 44 p ounds o f v ita l a ir ; n ow a s a c u bic
fo ot o f w ate r w eig hs 1 000 a v erd upois o unces, a n d a s v ita l a ir i s a b ove 8 00
tim es l ig hte r t h an w ate r, i t f o llo w s t h at e v ery b arre l o f r e d l e ad c o nta in s
nearly 2 000 c u bic f e et o f v ita l a ir . I f t h is c an b e p erfo rm ed i n m in ia tu re i n a
sm all o ven , w hat m ay n ot b e d one i n t h e i m men se e la b ora to rie s o f n atu re !
These g re at e la b ora to rie s o f n atu re i n clu de a lm ost a ll h er f o ssil a s w ell a s h er
an im al a n d v eg eta b le p ro ductio ns. D r. P rie stle y o bta in ed a ir o f g re ate r o r l e ss
purity , b oth v ita l a n d a zo tic , f ro m a lm ost a ll t h e f o ssil s u bsta n ces h e
su bje cte d t o e x perim en t. F our o unce-w eig ht o f l a v a f ro m I c ela n d h eate d i n a n
earth en r e to rt y ie ld ed t w en ty o unce-m easu re s o f a ir .
4
ounce-w eig ht o f l a v a
gav e
20 o unce m easu re s o f a ir .
7
……………
basa lte s
….
104 … ……………….
2
…………… t o ad sto ne
….
40
………………….
11/2 … ………… g ra n ite
….
20 … ……………….
1
…………… e lv ain
….
30 … ……………….
7
…………… g ypsu m
….
230 … ……………….
4
…………… b lu e s la te
….
230 … ……………….
4
…………… c la y
….
20 … ……………….
4
…………… l im esto ne-
sp ar … .
830 … ……………….
5
…………… l im esto ne
…. 1 160
………………….
3
…………… c h alk
….
630 … ……………….
31/2
…………… w hite i r o n-o re … .
560 … ……………….
4
…………… d ark
ir o n-o re
….
410 … ……………….
1/2 … ………… m oly bden a
….
25
………………….
1/2 … ………… s tr e am t in
….
20 … ……………….
2
…………… s te atite s
….
40 … ……………….
2
…………… b ary te s
….
26 … ……………….
2
…………… b la ck w ad
….
80 … ……………….
4
…………… s a n d s to ne
….
75 … ……………….
3
…………… c o al
….

700 … ……………….
In t h is a cco unt t h e f ix ed a ir w as p re v io usly e x tr a cte d f ro m t h e l im esto nes b y
acid s, a n d t h e h eat a p plie d w as m uch l e ss t h an w as n ecessa ry t o e x tr a ct a ll
th e a ir f ro m t h e b odie s e m plo yed . A dd t o t h is t h e k now n q uan titie s o f a ir
whic h a re c o m bin ed w ith t h e c alc if o rm o re s, a s t h e o ch re s o f i r o n,
man gan ese , c ala m y, g re y o re o f l e ad , a n d s o m e i d ea m ay b e f o rm ed o f t h e
gre at p ro ductio n o f a ir i n v olc an ic e ru ptio ns, a s m en tio ned i n n ote o n
Chunda, V ol. I I. a n d o f t h e p erp etu al a b so rp tio ns a n d e v olu tio ns o f w hole
ocean s o f a ir f ro m e v ery p art o f t h e e arth .
But t h ere w ould s e em t o b e a n o ffic in a a eris , a s h op w here a ir i s b oth
man ufa ctu re d a n d d estr o yed i n t h e g re ate st a b undan ce w ith in t h e p ola r
cir c le s, a s w ill h ere afte r b e s p oken o f. C an t h is b e e ffe cte d b y s o m e y et
unknow n l a w o f t h e c o ngela tio n o f a q ueo us o r s a lin e f lu id s, w hic h m ay s e t a t
lib erty t h eir c o m bin ed h eat, a n d c o nvert a p art b oth o f t h e a cid a n d a lc ali o f
se a-w ate r i n to t h eir c o m ponen t a ir s ? O r o n t h e c o ntr a ry c an t h e e le ctr ic ity o f
th e n orth ern l ig hts c o nvert i n fla m mab le a ir a n d o xygen e i n to w ate r, w hils t
th e g re at d eg re e o f c o ld a t t h e p ole s u nite s t h e a zo te w ith s o m e o th er b ase ?
Anoth er o ffic in a a eris , o r m an ufa ctu re o f a ir , w ould s e em t o e x is t w ith in t h e
tr o pic s o r a t t h e l in e, t h ough i n a m uch l e ss q uan tity t h an a t t h e p ole s, o w in g
perh ap s t o t h e a ctio n o f t h e s u n's l ig ht o n t h e m ois tu re s u sp en ded i n t h e a ir , a s
will a ls o b e s p oken o f h ere afte r; b ut i n a ll o th er p arts o f t h e e arth t h ese
ab so rp tio ns a n d e v olu tio ns o f a ir i n a g re ate r o r l e ss d eg re e a re p erp etu ally
goin g o n i n i n co nceiv ab le a b undan ce; i n cre ase d p ro bab ly , a n d d im in is h ed a t
dif fe re n t s e aso ns o f t h e y ear b y t h e a p pro ach o r r e tr o cessio n o f t h e s u n's l ig ht;
fu tu re d is c o verie s m ust e lu cid ate t h is p art o f t h e s u bje ct. T o t h is s h ould b e
ad ded t h at a s h eat a n d e le ctr ic ity , a n d p erh ap s m ag netis m , a re k now n t o
dis p la ce a ir , t h at i t i s n ot i m possib le b ut t h at t h e i n cre ase d o r d im in is h ed
quan titie s o f t h ese f lu id s d if fu se d i n t h e a tm osp here m ay i n cre ase i ts w eig ht a
well a s i ts b ulk ; s in ce t h eir s p ecif ic a ttr a ctio ns o r a ffin itie s t o m atte r a re v ery
str o ng, t h ey p ro bab ly a ls o p osse ss g en era l g ra v ita tio n t o t h e e arth ; a s u bje ct
whic h w an ts f u rth er i n vestig atio n. S ee N ote X XVI.
SO UTH -W EST W IN DS.

The v elo city o f t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth i n m ovin g r o und i ts a x is d im in is h es
fro m t h e e q uato r t o t h e p ole s. W hen ce i f a r e g io n o f a ir i n t h is c o untr y s h ould
be s u dden ly r e m oved a f e w d eg re es t o w ard s t h e n orth i t m ust c o nstitu te a
weste rn w in d, b ecau se f ro m t h e v elo city i t h ad p re v io usly a cq uir e d i n t h is
clim ate b y i ts f ric tio n w ith t h e e arth i t w ould f o r a t im e m ove q uic k er t h an t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e c o untr y i t w as r e m oved t o ; t h e c o ntr a ry m ust e n su e w hen a
re g io n o f a ir i s t r a n sp orte d f ro m t h is c o untr y a f e w d eg re es s o uth w ard ,
becau se t h e v elo city i t h ad a cq uir e d i n t h is c lim ate w ould b e l e ss t h an t h at o f
th e e arth 's s u rfa ce w here i t w as r e m oved t o , w hen ce i t w ould a p pear t o
co nstitu te a w in d f ro m t h e e ast, w hile i n r e ality t h e e m in en t p arts o f t h e e arth
would b e c arrie d a g ain st t h e t o o s lo w a ir . B ut i f t h is t r a n sp orta tio n o f a ir f ro m
so uth t o n orth b e p erfo rm ed g ra d ually , t h e m otio n o f t h e w in d w ill b lo w i n
th e d ia g onal b etw een s o uth a n d w est. A nd o n t h e c o ntr a ry i f a r e g io n o f a ir b e
gra d ually r e m oved f ro m n orth t o s o uth i t w ould a ls o b lo w d ia g onally
betw een t h e n orth a n d e ast, f ro m w hen ce w e m ay s a fe ly c o nclu de t h at a ll o ur
win ds i n t h is c o untr y w hic h b lo w f ro m t h e n orth o r e ast, o r a n y p oin t b etw een
th em , c o nsis t o f r e g io ns o f a ir b ro ught f ro m t h e n orth ; a n d t h at a ll o ur w in ds
blo w in g f ro m t h e s o uth o r w est, o r f ro m a n y p oin t b etw een t h em , a re r e g io ns
of a ir b ro ught f ro m t h e s o uth .
It f re q uen tly h ap pen s d urin g t h e v ern al m onth s t h at a fte r a n orth -e ast w in d
has p asse d o ver u s f o r s e v era l w eek s, d urin g w hic h t im e t h e b aro m ete r h as
flo od a t a b ove 3 01/2 i n ch es, i t b eco m es s u dden ly s u cceed ed b y a s o uth -w est
win d, w hic h a ls o c o ntin ues s e v era l w eek s, a n d t h e b aro m ete r s in ks t o n early
281/2 i n ch es. N ow a s t w o i n ch es o f t h e m erc u ry i n t h e b aro m ete r b ala n ce
one-fif te en th p art o f t h e w hole a tm osp here , a n i m porta n t q uestio n h ere
pre se n ts i ts e lf ,
what i s b eco m e o f a ll t h is a ir
.
1. T his g re at q uan tity o f a ir c an n ot b e c arrie d i n a s u perio r c u rre n t t o w ard s
th e l in e, w hile t h e i n fe rio r c u rre n t s lo w s t o w ard s t h e p ole s, b ecau se t h en i t
would e q ually a ffe ct t h e b aro m ete r, w hic h s h ould n ot t h ere fo re s u bsid e f ro m
301/2 i n ch es t o 2 81/2 f o r s ix w eek s t o geth er.
2. I t c an not b e o w in g t o t h e a ir h av in g l o st a ll t h e m ois tu re w hic h w as
pre v io usly d is so lv ed i n i t, b ecau se t h ese w arm s o uth -w est w in ds a re r e p le te
with m ois tu re , a n d t h e c o ld n orth -e ast w in ds, w hic h w eig h u p t h e m erc u ry i n
th e b aro m ete r t o 3 1 i n ch es, c o nsis t o f d ry a ir .

3. I t c an n ot b e c arrie d o ver t h e p ola r r e g io ns a n d b e a ccu m ula te d o n t h e
merid ia n , o pposite t o u s i n i ts p assa g e t o w ard s t h e l in e, a s s u ch a n
accu m ula tio n w ould e q ual o ne-fif te en th o f t h e w hole a tm osp here , a n d c an n ot
be s u ppose d t o r e m ain i n t h at s itu atio n f o r s ix w eek s t o geth er.
4. I t c an n ot d ep en d o n t h e e x is te n ce o f t id es i n t h e a tm osp here , s in ce i t m ust
th en c o rre sp ond t o l u nar p erio ds. N or t o a ccu m ula tio ns o f a ir f ro m t h e
sp ecif ic l e v ity o f t h e u pper r e g io ns o f t h e a tm osp here , s in ce i ts d eg re e o f
flu id ity m ust c o rre sp ond w ith i ts t e n uity , a n d c o nse q uen tly s u ch g re at
mounta in s o f a ir c an n ot b e s u ppose d t o e x is t f o r s o m an y w eek s t o geth er a s
th e s o uth w est w in ds s o m etim es c o ntin ue.
5. I t r e m ain s t h ere fo re t h at t h ere m ust b e a t t h is t im e a g re at a n d s u dden
ab so rp tio n o f a ir i n t h e p ola r c ir c le b y s o m e u nknow n o pera tio n o f n atu re ,
an d t h at t h e s o uth w in d r u ns i n t o s u pply t h e d efic ie n cy . N ow a s t h is s o uth
win d c o nsis ts o f a ir b ro ught f ro m a p art o f t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce w hic h m oves
fa ste r t h an i t d oes i n t h is c lim ate i t m ust h av e a t t h e s a m e t im e a d ir e ctio n
fro m t h e w est b y r e ta in in g p art o f t h e v elo city i t h ad p re v io usly a cq uir e d .
These s o uth -w est w in ds c o m in g f ro m a w arm er c o untr y , a n d b eco m in g
co ld er b y t h eir c o nta ct w ith t h e e arth o f t h is c lim ate , a n d b y t h eir e x pan sio n,
(s o g re at a p art o f t h e s u perin cu m ben t a tm osp here h av in g v an is h ed ,)
pre cip ita te t h eir m ois tu re ; a n d a s t h ey c o ntin ue f o r s e v era l w eek s t o b e
ab so rb ed i n t h e p ola r c ir c le w ould s e em t o r e ceiv e a p erp etu al s u pply f ro m
th e t r o pic al r e g io ns, e sp ecia lly o ver t h e l in e, a s w ill h ere afte r b e s p oken o f.
It m ay s o m etim es h ap pen t h at a n orth -e ast w in d h av in g p asse d o ver u s m ay
be b en t d ow n a n d d riv en b ack b efo re i t h as a cq uir e d a n y h eat f ro m t h e
clim ate , a n d m ay t h us f o r a f e w h ours o r a d ay h av e a s o uth -w est d ir e ctio n,
an d f ro m i ts d esc en din g f ro m a h ig her r e g io n o f t h e a tm osp here m ay p osse ss
a g re ate r d eg re e o f c o ld t h an a n i n fe rio r n orth e ast c u rre n t o f a ir .
The e x tr e m e c o ld o f J a n . 1 3, 1 709, a t P aris c am e o n w ith a g en tle s o uth w in d,
an d w as d im in is h ed w hen t h e w in d c h an ged t o t h e n orth , w hic h i s a cco unte d
fo r b y M r. H om berg f ro m a r e flu x o f a ir w hic h h ad b een f lo w in g f o r s o m e
tim e f ro m t h e n orth . C hem ic al E ssa y s b y R . W ats o n, V ol. V . p . 1 82.
It m ay h ap pen t h at a n orth -e ast c u rre n t m ay f o r a d ay o r t w o p ass o ver u s a n d
pro duce i n cessa n t r a in b y m ix in g w ith t h e i n fe rio r s o uth -w est c u rre n t; b ut t h is

as w ell a s t h e f o rm er i s o f s h ort d ura tio n, a s i ts f ric tio n w ill s o on c arry t h e
in fe rio r c u rre n t a lo ng w ith i t, a n d d ry o r f ro sty w eath er w ill t h en s u cceed .
NO RTH -E A ST W IN DS.
The n orth -e ast w in ds o f t h is c o untr y c o nsis t o f r e g io ns o f a ir f ro m t h e n orth ,
tr a v ellin g s o m etim es a t t h e r a te o f a b out a m ile i n t w o m in ute s d urin g t h e
vern al m onth s f o r s e v era l w eek s t o geth er f ro m t h e p ola r r e g io ns t o w ard t h e
so uth , t h e m erc u ry i n t h e b aro m ete r s ta n din g a b ove 3 0. T hese w in ds c o nsis t
of a ir g re atly c o ole d b y t h e e v ap ora tio n o f t h e i c e a n d s n ow o ver w hic h i t
passe s, a n d a s t h ey b eco m e w arm er b y t h eir c o nta ct w ith t h e e arth o f t h is
clim ate a re c ap ab le o f d is so lv in g m ore m ois tu re a s t h ey p ass a lo ng, a n d a re
th en ce a tte n ded w ith f ro sts i n w in te r a n d w ith d ry h ot w eath er i n s u m mer.
1. T his g re at q uan tity o f a ir c an n ot b e s u pplie d b y s u perio r c u rre n ts p assin g
in a c o ntr a ry d ir e ctio n f ro m s o uth t o n orth , b ecau se s u ch c u rre n ts m ust a s
th ey a ris e i n to t h e a tm osp here a m ile o r t w o h ig h b eco m e e x pose d t o s o g re at
co ld a s t o o ccasio n t h em t o d ep osit t h eir m ois tu re , w hic h w ould f a ll t h ro ugh
th e i n fe rio r c u rre n t u pon t h e e arth i n s o m e p art o f t h eir p assa g e.
2. T he w hole a tm osp here m ust h av e i n cre ase d i n q uan tity , b ecau se i t a p pears
by t h e b aro m ete r t h at t h ere e x is ts o ne-fif te en th p art m ore a ir o ver u s f o r m an y
week s t o geth er, w hic h c o uld n ot b e t h us a ccu m ula te d b y d if fe re n ce o f
te m pera tu re i n r e sp ect t o h eat, o r b y a n y a ero sta tic l a w s a t p re se n t k now n, o r
by a n y l u nar i n flu en ce.
Fro m w hen ce i t w ould a p pear t h at i m men se m asse s o f a ir w ere s e t a t l ib erty
fro m t h eir c o m bin atio ns w ith s o lid b odie s, a lo ng w ith a s u ffic ie n t q uan tity o f
co m bin ed h eat, w ith in t h e p ola r c ir c le , o r i n s o m e r e g io n t o t h e n orth o f u s;
an d t h at t h ey t h us p erp etu ally i n cre ase t h e q uan tity o f t h e a tm osp here ; a n d
th at t h is i s a g ain a t c erta in t im es r e -a b so rb ed , o r e n te rs i n to n ew c o m bin atio ns
at t h e l in e o r t r o pic al r e g io ns. B y w hic h w onderfu l c o ntr iv an ce t h e
atm osp here i s p erp etu ally r e n ew ed a n d r e n dere d f it f o r t h e s u pport o f a n im al
an d v eg eta b le l if e .
SO UTH -E A ST W IN DS.

The s o uth -e ast w in ds o f t h is c o untr y c o nsis t o f a ir f ro m t h e n orth w hic h h ad
passe d b y u s, o r o ver u s, a n d b efo re i t h ad o bta in ed t h e v elo city o f t h e e arth 's
su rfa ce i n t h is c lim ate h ad b een d riv en b ack , o w in g t o a d efic ie n cy o f a ir n ow
co m men cin g a t t h e p ola r r e g io ns. H en ce t h ese a re g en era lly d ry o r f re ezin g
win ds, a n d i f t h ey s u cceed n orth -e ast w in ds s h ould p ro gnostic ate a c h an ge o f
win d f ro m n orth -e ast t o s o uth -w est; t h e b aro m ete r i s g en era lly a b out 3 0.
They a re s o m etim es a tte n ded w ith c lo udy w eath er, o r r a in , o w in g t o t h eir
hav in g a cq uir e d a n i n cre ase d d eg re e o f w arm th a n d m ois tu re b efo re t h ey
becam e r e tr o gra d e; o r t o t h eir b ein g m ix ed w ith a ir f ro m t h e s o uth .
2. S om etim es t h ese s o uth -e ast w in ds c o nsis t o f a v ertic al e d dy o f n orth - e ast
air , w ith out a n y m ix tu re o f s o uth -w est a ir ; i n t h at c ase t h e b aro m ete r
co ntin ues a b ove 3 0, a n d t h e w eath er i s d ry o r f ro sty f o r f o ur o r f iv e d ay s
to geth er.
It s h ould h ere b e o bse rv ed , t h at a ir b ein g a n e la stic f lu id m ust b e m ore l ia b le
to e d die s t h an w ate r, a n d t h at t h ese e d die s m ust e x te n d i n to c y lin ders o r
vorte x es o f g re ate r d ia m ete r, a n d t h at i f a v ertic al e d dy o f n orth -e ast a ir b e o f
sm all d ia m ete r o r h as p asse d b ut a l ittle w ay t o t h e s o uth o f u s b efo re i ts
re tu rn , i t w ill n ot h av e g ain ed t h e v elo city o f t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce t o t h e s o uth
of u s, a n d w ill i n c o nse q uen ce b eco m e a s o uth -e ast w in d.— But i f t h e v ertic al
ed dy b e o f l a rg e d ia m ete r, o r h as p asse d m uch t o t h e s o uth o f u s, i t w ill h av e
acq uir e d v elo city f ro m i ts f ric tio n w ith t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce t o t h e s o uth o f u s,
an d w ill i n c o nse q uen ce o n i ts r e tu rn b eco m e a s o uth -w est w in d, p ro ducin g
gre at c o ld .
NO RTH -W EST W IN DS.
There s e em t o b e t h re e s o urc es o f t h e n orth -w est w in ds o f t h is h em is p here o f
th e e arth . 1 . W hen a p ortio n o f s o uth ern a ir , w hic h w as p assin g o ver u s, i s
driv en b ack b y a ccu m ula tio n o f n ew a ir i n t h e p ola r r e g io ns. I n t h is c ase I
su ppose t h ey a re g en era lly m ois t o r r a in y w in ds, w ith t h e b aro m ete r u nder
30, a n d i f t h e w in d h ad p re v io usly b een i n t h e s o uth -w est, i t w ould s e em t o
pro gnostic ate a c h an ge t o t h e n orth -e ast.
2. I f a c u rre n t o f n orth w in d i s p assin g o ver u s b ut a f e w m ile s h ig h, w ith out
an y e aste rly d ir e ctio n; a n d i s b en t d ow n u pon u s, i t m ust i m med ia te ly p osse ss

a w este rly d ir e ctio n, b ecau se i t w ill n ow m ove f a ste r t h an t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e
earth w here i t a rriv es; a n d t h us b eco m es c h an ged f ro m a n orth -e ast t o a
north -w est w in d. T his d esc en t o f a n orth - e ast c u rre n t o f a ir p ro ducin g a
north -w est w in d m ay c o ntin ue s o m e d ay s w ith c le ar o r f re ezin g w eath er, a s i t
may b e s im ply o w in g t o a v ertic al e d dy o f n orth -e ast a ir , a s w ill b e s p oken o f
belo w . I t m ay o th erw is e b e f o rc ed d ow n b y a c u rre n t o f s o uth -w est w in d
passin g o ver i t, a n d i n t h is c ase i t w ill b e a tte n ded w ith r a in f o r a f e w d ay s b y
th e m ix tu re o f t h e t w o a ir s o f d if fe re n t d eg re es o f h eat; a n d w ill p ro gnostic ate
a c h an ge o f w in d f ro m n orth -e ast t o s o uth -w est i f t h e w in d w as p re v io usly i n
th e n orth -e ast q uarte r.
3. O n t h e e aste rn c o ast o f N orth A m eric a t h e n orth -w est w in ds b rin g f ro st, a s
th e n orth -e ast w in ds d o i n t h is c o untr y , a s a p pears f ro m v arie ty o f t e stim ony.
This s e em s t o h ap pen f ro m a v ertic al s p ir a l e d dy m ad e i n t h e a tm osp here
betw een t h e s h ore a n d t h e r id ge o f m ounta in s w hic h f o rm t h e s p in e o r b ack -
bone o f t h at c o ntin en t. I f a c u rre n t o f w ate r r u ns a lo ng t h e h ypoth en use o f a
tr ia n gle a n e d dy w ill b e m ad e i n t h e i n clu ded a n gle , w hic h w ill t u rn r o und
lik e a w ate r-w heel a s t h e s tr e am p asse s i n c o nta ct w ith o ne e d ge o f i t. T he
sa m e m ust h ap pen w hen a s h eet o f a ir f lo w in g a lo ng f ro m t h e n orth -e ast r is e s
fro m t h e s h ore i n a s tr a ig ht l in e t o t h e s u m mit o f t h e A pala ch ia n m ounta in s, a
part o f t h e s tr e am o f n orth -e ast a ir w ill f lo w o ver t h e m ounta in s, a n oth er p art
will r e v ert a n d c ir c u la te s p ir a lly b etw een t h e s u m mit o f t h e c o untr y a n d t h e
easte rn s h ore , c o ntin uin g t o m ove t o w ard t h e s o uth ; a n d t h us b e c h an ged
fro m a n orth -e ast t o a n orth -w est w in d.
This v ertic al s p ir a l e d dy h av in g b een i n c o nta ct w ith t h e c o ld s u m mits o f
th ese m ounta in s, a n d d esc en din g f ro m h ig her p arts o f t h e a tm osp here w ill
lo se p art o f i ts h eat, a n d t h us c o nstitu te o ne c au se o f t h e g re ate r c o ld ness o f
th e e aste rn s id es o f N orth A m eric a t h an o f t h e E uro pean s h ore s o pposite t o
th em , w hic h i s s a id t o b e e q ual t o t w elv e d eg re es o f n orth l a titu de, w hic h i s a
wonderfu l f a ct, n ot o th erw is e e asy t o b e e x pla in ed , s in ce t h e h eat o f t h e
sp rin gs a t P hila d elp hia i s s a id t o b e 5 0, w hic h i s g re ate r t h an t h e m ed iu m h eat
of t h e e arth i n t h is c o untr y .
The e x is te n ce o f v ertic al e d die s, o r g re at c y lin ders o f a ir r o llin g o n t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e e arth , i s a g re eab le t o t h e o bse rv atio ns o f t h e c o nstr u cto rs o f
win dm ills ; w ho o n t h is i d ea p la ce t h e a re a o f t h e s a ils l e an in g b ack w ard s,

in clin ed t o t h e h oriz o n; a n d b elie v e t h at t h en t h ey h av e g re ate r p ow er t h an
when t h ey a re p la ced q uite p erp en dic u la rly . T he s a m e k in d o f r o llin g
cy lin ders o f w ate r o bta in i n r iv ers o w in g t o t h e f ric tio n o f t h e w ate r a g ain st
th e e arth a t t h eir b otto m s; a s i s k now n b y b odie s h av in g b een o bse rv ed t o
flo at u pon t h eir s u rfa ces q uic k er t h an w hen i m mers e d t o a c erta in d ep th .
These v ertic al e d die s o f a ir p ro bab ly e x is t a ll o ver t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce, b ut
partic u la rly a t t h e b otto m o r s id es o f m ounta in s; a n d m ore s o p ro bab ly i n t h e
co urs e o f t h e s o uth -w est t h an o f t h e n orth -e ast w in ds; b ecau se t h e f o rm er f a ll
fro m a n e m in en ce, a s i t w ere , o n a p art o f t h e e arth w here t h ere i s a
defic ie n cy o f t h e q uan tity o f a ir ; a s i s s h ew n b y t h e s in kin g o f t h e b aro m ete r:
where as t h e l a tte r a re p ush ed o r s q ueezed f o rw ard b y a n a d ditio n t o t h e
atm osp here b eh in d t h em , a s a p pears b y t h e r is in g o f t h e b aro m ete r.
TR ADE-W IN DS.
A c o lu m n o f h eate d a ir b eco m es l ig hte r t h an b efo re , a n d w ill t h ere fo re
asc en d, b y t h e p re ssu re o f t h e c o ld a ir w hic h s u rro unds i t, l ik e a c o rk i n
wate r, o r l ik e h eate d s m oke i n a c h im ney .
Now a s t h e s u n p asse s t w ic e o ver t h e e q uato r f o r o nce o ver e ith er t r o pic , t h e
eq uato r h as n ot t im e t o b eco m e c o ol; a n d o n t h is a cco unt i t i s i n g en era l
hotte r a t t h e l in e t h an a t t h e t r o pic s; a n d t h ere fo re t h e a ir o ver t h e l in e, e x cep t
in s o m e f e w i n sta n ces h ere afte r t o b e m en tio ned , c o ntin ues t o a sc en d a t a ll
se aso ns o f t h e y ear, p re sse d u pw ard s b y r e g io ns o f a ir b ro ught f ro m t h e
tr o pic s.
This a ir t h us b ro ught f ro m t h e t r o pic s t o t h e e q uato r, w ould c o nstitu te a n orth
win d o n o ne s id e o f t h e e q uato r, a n d a s o uth w in d o n t h e o th er; b ut a s t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e e arth a t t h e e q uato r m oves q uic k er t h an t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth
at t h e t r o pic s, i t i s e v id en t t h at a r e g io n o f a ir b ro ught f ro m e ith er t r o pic t o t h e
eq uato r, a n d w hic h h ad p re v io usly o nly a cq uir e d t h e v elo city o f t h e e arth 's
su rfa ce a t t h e t r o pic s, w ill n ow m ove t o o s lo w f o r t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce a t t h e
eq uato r, a n d w ill t h en ce a p pear t o m ove i n a d ir e ctio n c o ntr a ry t o t h e m otio n
of t h e e arth . H en ce t h e t r a d e-w in ds, t h ough t h ey c o nsis t o f r e g io ns o f a ir
bro ught f ro m t h e n orth o n o ne s id e o f t h e l in e, a n d f ro m t h e s o uth o n t h e
oth er, w ill a p pear t o h av e t h e d ia g onal d ir e ctio n o f n orth -e ast a n d s o uth -w est

win ds.
Now i t i s c o m monly b elie v ed t h at t h ere a re s u perio r c u rre n ts o f a ir p assin g
over t h ese n orth -e ast a n d s o uth -w est c u rre n ts i n a c o ntr a ry d ir e ctio n, a n d
whic h d esc en din g n ear t h e t r o pic s p ro duce v ertic al w hir lp ools o f a ir . A n
im porta n t q uestio n h ere a g ain p re se n ts i ts e lf ,
What b eco m es o f t h e m ois tu re
whic h t h is h ea te d a ir o ught t o d ep osit, a s i t c o ols i n t h e u pper r e g io ns o f t h e
atm osp here i n i ts j o urn ey t o t h e t r o pic s?
I t h as b een s h ew n b y D r. P rie stle y
an d M r. I n gen houz t h at t h e g re en m atte r a t t h e b otto m o f c is te rn s, a n d t h e
fre sh l e av es o f p la n ts i m mers e d i n w ate r, g iv e o ut c o nsid era b le q uan titie s o f
vita l a ir i n t h e s u n-s h in e; t h at i s , t h e p ers p ir a b le m atte r o f p la n ts ( w hic h i s
wate r m uch d iv id ed i n i ts e g re ss f ro m t h eir m in ute p ore s) b eco m es
deco m pose d b y t h e s u n's l ig ht, a n d c o nverte d i n to t w o k in ds o f a ir , t h e v ita l
an d i n fla m mab le a ir s . T he m ois tu re c o nta in ed o r d is so lv ed i n t h e a sc en din g
heate d a ir a t t h e l in e m ust e x is t i n g re at t e n uity ; a n d b y b ein g e x pose d t o t h e
gre at l ig ht o f t h e s u n i n t h at c lim ate , t h e w ate r m ay b e d eco m pose d , a n d t h e
new a ir s s p re ad o n t h e a tm osp here f ro m t h e l in e t o t h e p ole s.
1. F ro m t h ere b ein g n o c o nsta n t d ep ositio n o f r a in s i n t h e u su al c o urs e o f t h e
tr a d e-w in ds, i t w ould a p pear t h at t h e w ate r r is in g a t t h e l in e i s d eco m pose d i n
its a sc en t.
2. F ro m t h e o bse rv atio ns o f M . B ougner o n t h e m ounta in P in ch in ca, o ne o f
th e C ord elie re s i m med ia te ly u nder t h e l in e, t h ere a p pears t o b e n o
co nden sib le v ap our a b ove t h re e o r f o ur m ile s h ig h. N ow t h ough t h e
atm osp here a t t h at h eig ht m ay b e c o ld t o a v ery c o nsid era b le d eg re e; y et i ts
to ta l d ep riv atio n o f c o nden sib le v ap our w ould s e em t o s h ew , t h at i ts w ate r
was d eco m pose d ; a s t h ere a re n o e x perim en ts t o e v in ce t h at a n y d eg re e o f
co ld h ith erto k now n h as b een a b le t o d ep riv e a ir o f i ts m ois tu re ; a n d g re at
ab undan ce o f s n ow i s d ep osite d f ro m t h e a ir t h at f lo w s t o t h e p ola r r e g io ns,
th ough i t i s e x pose d t o n o g re ate r d eg re es o f c o ld i n i ts j o urn ey t h ith er t h an
pro bab ly e x is ts a t f o ur m ile s h eig ht i n t h e a tm osp here a t t h e l in e.
3. T he h ygro m ete r o f M r. S au ffu re a ls o p oin te d t o d ry ness a s h e a sc en ded
in to r a re r a ir ; t h e s in gle h air o f w hic h i t w as c o nstr u cte d , c o ntr a ctin g f ro m
defic ie n cy o f m ois tu re . E ssa is s u r l 'H ygro m et. p . 1 43.
Fro m t h ese o bse rv atio ns i t a p pears e ith er t h at r a re a n d c o ld a ir r e q uir e s m ore

mois tu re t o s a tu ra te i t t h an d en se a ir ; o r t h at t h e m ois tu re b eco m es
deco m pose d a n d c o nverte d i n to a ir , a s i t a sc en ds i n to t h ese c o ld a n d r a re
re g io ns o f t h e a tm osp here .
4. T here s e em s s o m e a n alo gy b etw een t h e c ir c u m sta n ce o f a ir b ein g
pro duced o r g en era te d i n t h e c o ld p arts o f t h e a tm osp here b oth a t t h e l in e a n d
at t h e p ole s.
MONSO ONS A ND T O RNADO ES.
1. I n t h e A ra b ia n a n d I n dia n s e as a re w in ds, w hic h b lo w s ix m onth s o ne w ay ,
an d s ix m onth s t h e o th er, a n d a re c alle d M onso ons; b y t h e a ccid en ta l
dis p ositio ns o f l a n d a n d s e a i t h ap pen s, t h at i n s o m e p la ces t h e a ir n ear t h e
tr o pic i s s u ppose d t o b eco m e w arm er w hen t h e s u n i s v ertic al o ver i t, t h an a t
th e l in e.
The a ir i n t h ese p la ces c o nse q uen tly a sc en ds p re sse d u pon o ne s id e
by t h e n orth -e ast r e g io ns o f a ir , a n d o n t h e o th er s id e b y t h e s o uth -w est
re g io ns o f a ir . F or a s t h e a ir b ro ught f ro m t h e s o uth h as p re v io usly o bta in ed
th e v elo city o f t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce a t t h e l in e, i t m oves f a ste r t h an t h e e arth 's
su rfa ce n ear t h e t r o pic w here i t n ow a rriv es, a n d b eco m es a s o uth -w est w in d,
while t h e a ir f ro m t h e n orth b eco m es a n orth -e ast w in d a s b efo re e x pla in ed .
These t w o w in ds d o n ot s o q uie tly j o in a n d a sc en d a s t h e n orth -e ast a n d
so uth -e ast w in ds, w hic h m eet a t t h e l in e w ith e q ual w arm th a n d v elo city a n d
fo rm t h e t r a d e-w in ds; b ut a s t h ey m eet i n c o ntr a ry d ir e ctio ns b efo re t h ey
asc en d, a n d c an not b e s u ppose d a ccu ra te ly t o b ala n ce e ach o th er, a r o ta to ry
motio n w ill b e p ro duced a s t h ey a sc en d l ik e w ate r f a llin g t h ro ugh a h ole , a n d
an h oriz o nta l o r s p ir a l e d dy i s t h e c o nse q uen ce; t h ese e d die s a re m ore o r l e ss
ra p id , a n d a re c alle d T orn ad oes i n t h eir m ost v io le n t s ta te , r a is in g w ate r f ro m
th e o cean i n t h e w est o r s a n d f ro m t h e d ese rts o f t h e e ast, i n l e ss v io le n t
deg re es t h ey o nly m ix t o geth er t h e t w o c u rre n ts o f n orth -e ast a n d s o uth - w est
air , a n d p ro duce b y t h is m ean s i n cessa n t r a in s, a s t h e a ir o f t h e n orth -e ast
acq uir e s s o m e o f t h e h eat f ro m t h e s o uth -w est w in d, a s e x pla in ed i n N ote
XXV. T his c ir c u m sta n ce o f t h e e d die s p ro duced b y t h e m onso on-w in ds w as
se en b y M r. B ru ce i n A byssin ia ; h e r e la te s t h at f o r m an y s u ccessiv e m orn in gs
at t h e c o m men cem en t o f t h e r a in y m onso on, h e o bse rv ed a c lo ud o f
ap pare n tly s m all d im en sio ns w hir lin g r o und w ith g re at r a p id ity , a n d i n f e w
min ute s t h e h eav en s b ecam e c o vere d w ith d ark c lo uds w ith c o nse q uen t g re at

ra in s. S ee N ote o n C an to I II. l . 1 29.
2. B ut i t i s n ot o nly a t t h e p la ce w here t h e a ir a sc en ds a t t h e n orth ern
ex tr e m ity o f t h e r a in y m onso on, a n d w here i t f o rm s t o rn ad oes, a s o bse rv ed
ab ove b y M r. B ru ce, b ut o ver a g re at t r a ct o f c o untr y s e v era l d eg re es i n
le n gth i n c erta in p arts a s i n t h e A ra b ia n s e a, a p erp etu al r a in f o r s e v era l
month s d esc en ds, s im ila r t o w hat h ap pen s f o r w eek s t o geth er i n o ur o w n
clim ate i n a l e ss d eg re e d urin g t h e s o uth -w est w in ds. A noth er i m porta n t
questio n p re se n ts i ts e lf h ere ,
if t h e c lim ate t o w hic h t h is s o uth -w est w in d
arriv es, i t n ot c o ld er t h an t h at i t c o m es f r o m , w hy s h ould i t d ep osit i ts
mois tu re d urin g i ts w hole j o urn ey? i f i t b e a c o ld er c lim ate , w hy d oes i t c o m e
th ith er?
T he t o rn ad oes o f a ir a b ove d esc rib ed c an e x te n d b ut a l ittle w ay , a n d
it i s n ot e asy t o c o nceiv e t h at a s u perio r c o ld c u rre n t o f a ir c an m ix w ith a n
in fe rio r o ne, a n d t h us p ro duce s h ow ers o ver t e n d eg re es o f c o untr y , s in ce a t
ab out t h re e m ile s h ig h t h ere i s p erp etu al f ro st; a n d w hat c an i n duce t h ese
narro w a n d s h allo w c u rre n ts t o f lo w o ver e ach o th er s o m an y h undre d m ile s?
Though t h e e arth a t t h e n orth re n e x tr e m ity o f t h is m onso on m ay b e m ore
heate d b y c erta in c ir c u m sta n ces o f s itu atio n t h an a t t h e l in e, y et i t s e em s
pro bab le t h at t h e i n te rm ed ia te c o untr y b etw een t h at a n d t h e l in e, m ay
co ntin ue c o ld er t h an t h e l in e ( a s i n o th er p arts o f t h e e arth ) a n d h en ce t h at t h e
air c o m in g f ro m t h e l in e t o s u pply t h is a sc en t o r d estr u ctio n o f a ir a t t h e
north ern e x tr e m ity o f t h e m onso on w ill b e c o ole d a ll t h e w ay i n i ts a p pro ach ,
an d i n c o nse q uen ce d ep osit i ts w ate r. I t s e em s p ro bab le t h at a t t h e n orth ern
ex tr e m ity o f t h is m onso on, w here t h e t o rn ad oes o r h urric an es e x is t, t h at t h e
air n ot o nly a sc en ds b ut i s i n p art c o nverte d i n to w ate r, o r o th erw is e
dim in is h ed i n q uan tity , a s n o a cco unt i s g iv en o f t h e e x is te n ce o f a n y s u perio r
cu rre n ts o f i t.
As t h e s o uth -w est w in ds a re a lw ay s a tte n ded w ith a l ig ht a tm osp here , a n
in cip ie n t v acan cy , o r a g re at d im in utio n o f a ir m ust h av e t a k en p la ce t o t h e
north w ard o f t h em i n a ll p arts o f t h e e arth w here v er t h ey e x is t, a n d a
dep ositio n o f t h eir m ois tu re s u cceed s t h eir b ein g c o ole d b y t h e c lim ate t h ey
arriv e a t, a n d n ot b y a c o ntr a ry c u rre n t o f c o ld a ir o ver t h em , s in ce i n t h at
case t h e b aro m ete r w ould n ot s in k. T hey m ay t h us i n o ur o w n c o untr y b e
te rm ed m onso ons w ith out v ery r e g ula r p erio ds.
3. A noth er c au se o f T O RN ADOES i n dep en den t o f t h e m onso ons i s

in gen io usly e x pla in ed b y D r. F ra n klin , w hen i n t h e t r o pic al c o untr ie s a
str a tu m o f i n fe rio r a ir b eco m es s o h eate d b y i ts c o nta ct w ith t h e w arm e arth ,
th at i ts e x pan sio n i s i n cre ase d m ore t h an i s e q uiv ale n t t o t h e p re ssu re o f t h e
str a tu m o f a ir o ver i t; o r w hen t h e s u perio r s tr a tu m b eco m es m ore c o nden se d
by c o ld t h an t h e i n fe rio r o ne b y p re ssu re , t h e u pper r e g io n w ill d esc en d a n d
th e l o w er o ne a sc en d. I n t h is s itu atio n i f o ne p art o f t h e a tm osp here b e h otte r
fro m s o m e f o rtu ito us c ir c u m sta n ces, o r, h as l e ss p re ssu re o ver i t, t h e l o w er
str a tu m w ill b eg in t o a sc en d a t t h is p art, a n d r e se m ble w ate r f a llin g t h ro ugh a
hole a s m en tio ned a b ove. I f t h e l o w er r e g io n o f a ir w as g oin g f o rw ard s w ith
co nsid era b le v elo city , i t w ill g ain a n e d dy b y r ilin g u p t h is h ole i n t h e
in cu m ben t h eav y a ir , s o t h at t h e w hir lp ool o r t o rn ad o h as n ot o nly i ts
pro gre ssiv e v elo city , b ut i ts c ir c u la r o ne a ls o , w hic h t h us l if ts u p o r o vertu rn s
ev ery t h in g w ith in i ts s p ir a l w hir l. B y t h e w eak er w hir lw in ds i n t h is c o untr y
th e t r e es a re s o m etim es t h ro w n d ow n i n a l in e o f o nly t w en ty o r f o rty y ard s i n
bre ad th , m ak in g a k in d o f a v en ue t h ro ugh a c o untr y . I n t h e W est I n die s t h e
se a r is e s l ik e a c o ne i n t h e w hir l, a n d i s m et b y b la ck c lo uds p ro duced b y t h e
co ld u pper a ir a n d t h e w arm l o w er a ir b ein g r a p id ly m ix ed ; w hen ce a re
pro duced t h e g re at a n d s u dden r a in s c alle d w ate r-s p outs ; w hile t h e u pper a n d
lo w er a ir s e x ch an ge t h eir p lu s o r m in us e le ctr ic ity i n p erp etu al l ig hte n in gs.
LA ND A ND S E A -B R EEZES.
The s e a b ein g a t r a n sp are n t m ass i s l e ss h eate d a t i ts s u rfa ce b y t h e s u n's r a y s
th an t h e l a n d, a n d i ts c o ntin ual c h an ge o f s u rfa ce c o ntr ib ute s t o p re se rv e a
gre ate r u nif o rm ity i n t h e h eat o f t h e a ir w hic h h an gs o ver i t. H en ce t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e t r o pic al i s la n ds i s m ore h eate d d urin g t h e d ay t h an t h e s e a t h at
su rro unds t h em , a n d c o ols m ore i n t h e n ig ht b y i ts g re ate r e le v atio n: w hen ce
in t h e a fte rn oon w hen t h e l a n ds o f t h e t r o pic al i s la n ds h av e b een m uch h eate d
by t h e s u n, t h e a ir o ver t h em a sc en ds p re sse d u pw ard s b y t h e c o ole r a ir o f t h e
in cir c lin g o cean , i n t h e m orn in g a g ain t h e l a n d b eco m in g c o ole d m ore t h an
th e s e a, t h e a ir o ver i t d esc en ds b y i ts i n cre ase d g ra v ity , a n d b lo w s o ver t h e
ocean n ear i ts s h ore s.
CO NCLU SIO N.

1 . T here a re v ario us i r re g ula r w in ds b esid es t h ose a b ove d esc rib ed , w hic h
c o nsis t o f h oriz o nta l o r v ertic al e d die s o f a ir o w in g t o t h e i n eq uality o f t h e
e arth 's s u rfa ce, o r t h e j u xta p ositio n o f t h e s e a. O th er i r re g ula r w in ds h av e
t h eir o rig in f ro m i n cre ase d e v ap ora tio n o f w ate r, o r i ts s u dden d ev ap ora tio n
a n d d esc en t i n s h ow ers ; o th ers f ro m t h e p artia l e x pan sio n a n d c o nden sa tio n
o f a ir b y h eat a n d c o ld ; b y t h e a ccu m ula tio n o r d efe ct o f e le ctr ic f lu id , o r t o
t h e a ir 's n ew p ro ductio n o r a b so rp tio n o ccasio ned b y l o cal c au se s n ot y et
d is c o vere d . S ee N ote s V II. a n d X XV.
2 . T here s e em t o e x is t o nly t w o o rig in al w in ds: o ne c o nsis tin g o f a ir b ro ught
f ro m t h e n orth , a n d t h e o th er o f a ir b ro ught f ro m t h e s o uth . T he f o rm er o f
t h ese w in ds h as a ls o g en era lly a n a p pare n t d ir e ctio n f ro m t h e e ast, a n d t h e
l a tte r f ro m t h e w est, a ris in g f ro m t h e d if fe re n t v elo citie s o f t h e e arth 's
s u rfa ce. A ll t h e o th er w in ds a b ove d esc rib ed a re d efle ctio ns o r r e tr o gre ssio ns
o f s o m e p arts o f t h ese c u rre n ts o f a ir f ro m t h e n orth o r s o uth .
3 . O ne f if te en th p art o f t h e a tm osp here i s o ccasio nally d estr o yed , a n d
o ccasio nally r e p ro duced b y u nknow n c au se s. T hese c au se s a re b ro ught i n to
i m med ia te a ctiv ity o ver a g re at p art o f t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth a t n early t h e
s a m e t im e, b ut a lw ay s a ct m ore p ow erfu l t o t h e n orth w ard t h an t o t h e
s o uth w ard o f a n y g iv en p la ce; a n d w ould h en ce s e em t o h av e t h eir p rin cip al
e ffe ct i n t h e p ola r c ir c le s, e x is tin g n ev erth ele ss t h ough w ith l e ss p ow er
t o w ard t h e t r o pic s o r a t t h e l in e.
F or w hen t h e n orth -e ast w in d b lo w s t h e b aro m ete r r is e s, s o m etim es f ro m
2 81/2 i n ch es t o 3 01/2 , w hic h s h ew s a g re at n ew g en era tio n o f a ir i n t h e n orth ;
a n d w hen t h e s o uth -w est w in d b lo w s t h e b aro m ete r s in ks a s m uch , w hic h
s h ew s a g re at d estr u ctio n o f a ir i n t h e n orth . B ut a s t h e n orth - e ast w in ds
s o m etim es c o ntin ue f o r f iv e o r s ix w eek s, t h e n ew ly -g en era te d a ir m ust b e
d estr o yed a t t h ose t im es i n t h e w arm er c lim ate s t o t h e s o uth o f u s, o r c ir c u la te
i n s u perio r c u rre n ts , w hic h h as b een s h ew n t o b e i m pro bab le f ro m i ts n ot
d ep ositin g i ts w ate r. A nd a s t h e s o uth -w est w in ds s o m etim es c o ntin ue f o r
s o m e w eek s, t h ere m ust b e a g en era tio n o f a ir t o t h e s o uth a t t h ose t im es, o r
s u perio r c u rre n ts , w hic h l a st h as b een s h ew n t o b e i m pro bab le .
4 . T he n orth -e ast w in ds b ein g g en era te d a b out t h e p ole s a re p ush ed f o rw ard s
t o w ard s t h e t r o pic s o r l in e, b y t h e p re ssu re f ro m b eh in d, a n d h en ce t h ey

beco m e w arm er, a s e x pla in ed i n N ote V II. a s w ell a s b y t h eir c o m in g i n to
co nta ct w ith a w arm er p art o f t h e e arth w hic h c o ntr ib ute s t o m ak e t h ese
win ds g re ed ily a b so rb m ois tu re i n t h eir p assa g e. O n t h e c o ntr a ry , t h e s o uth -
west w in ds, a s t h e a tm osp here i s s u dden ly d im in is h ed i n t h e p ola r r e g io ns,
are d ra w n a s i t w ere i n to a n i n cip ie n t v acan cy , a n d b eco m e t h ere fo re
ex pan ded i n t h eir p assa g e, a n d t h us g en era te c o ld , a s e x pla in ed i n N ote V II.
an d a re t h us i n duced t o p art w ith t h eir m ois tu re , a s w ell a s b y t h eir c o nta ct
with a c o ld er p art o f t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce. A dd t o t h is , t h at t h e d if fe re n ce i n t h e
so und o f t h e n orth -e ast a n d s o uth -w est w in ds m ay d ep en d o n t h e f o rm er
bein g p ush ed f o rw ard s b y a p re ssu re b eh in d, a n d t h e l a tte r f a llin g a s i t w ere
in to a p artia l o r i n cip ie n t v acan cy b efo re ; w hen ce t h e f o rm er b eco m es m ore
co nden se d , a n d t h e l a tte r m ore r a re fie d a s i t p asse s. T here i s a w his tle , t e rm ed
a l a rk -c all, w hic h c o nsis ts o f a h ollo w c y lin der o f t in -p la te , c lo se d a t e ach
en d, a b out h alf a n i n ch i n d ia m ete r a n d a q uarte r o f a n i n ch h ig h, w ith
opposite h ole s a b out t h e s iz e o f a g oose -q uill t h ro ugh t h e c en tr e o f e ach e n d;
if t h is l a rk -w his tle b e h eld b etw een t h e l ip s t h e s o und o f i t i s m an if e stly
dif fe re n t w hen t h e b re ath i s f o rc eab ly b lo w n t h ro ugh i t f ro m w ith in o utw ard s,
an d w hen i t i s s u ck ed f ro m w ith out i n w ard s. P erh ap s t h is m ig ht b e w orth y
th e a tte n tio n o f o rg an -b uild ers .
5. A s to p i s p ut t o t h is n ew g en era tio n o f a ir , w hen a b out a f if te en th o f t h e
whole i s p ro duced , b y i ts i n cre asin g p re ssu re ; a n d a s im ila r b oundary i s f ix ed
to i ts a b so rp tio n o r d estr u ctio n b y t h e d ecre ase o f a tm osp heric p re ssu re . A s
wate r r e q uir e s m ore h eat t o c o nvert i t i n to v ap our u nder a h eav y a tm osp here
th an u nder a l ig ht o ne, s o i n l e ttin g o ff t h e w ate r f ro m m uddy f is h -p onds
gre at q uan titie s o f a ir -b ubble s a re s e en t o a sc en d f ro m t h e b otto m , w hic h
were p re v io usly c o nfin ed t h ere b y t h e p re ssu re o f t h e w ate r. S im ila r b ubble s
of i n fla m mab le a ir a re s e en t o a ris e f ro m l a k es i n m an y s e aso ns o f t h e y ear,
when t h e a tm osp here s u dden ly b eco m es l ig ht.
6. T he i n cre ase d a b so rp tio ns a n d e v olu tio ns o f a ir m ust, l ik e i ts s im ple
ex pan sio ns, d ep en d m uch o n t h e p re se n ce o r a b se n ce o f h eat a n d l ig ht, a n d
will h en ce, i n r e sp ect t o t h e t im es a n d p la ces o f i ts p ro ductio n a n d
destr u ctio n, b e g overn ed b y t h e a p pro ach o r r e tr o cessio n o f t h e s u n, a n d o n
th e t e m pera tu re , i n r e g ard t o h eat, o f v ario us l a titu des, a n d p arts o f t h e s a m e
la titu de, s o w ell e x pla in ed b y M r. K ir w an .

7. T hough t h e i m med ia te c au se o f t h e d estr u ctio n o r r e p ro ductio n o f g re at
masse s o f a ir a t c erta in t im es, w hen t h e w in d c h an ges f ro m n orth t o s o uth , o r
fro m s o uth t o n orth c an n ot y et b e a sc erta in ed ; y et a s t h ere a p pears g re ate r
dif fic u lty i n a cco untin g f o r t h is c h an ge o f w in d f o r a n y o th er k now n c au se s,
we m ay s till s u sp ect t h at t h ere e x is ts i n t h e a rc tic a n d a n ta rc tic c ir c le s a
BEA R o r D RA GON y et u nknow n t o p hilo so phers , w hic h a t t im es s u dden ly
drin ks u p, a n d a s s u dden ly a t o th er t im es v om its o ut o ne-fif te en th p art o f t h e
atm osp here : a n d h ope t h at t h is o r s o m e f u tu re a g e w ill l e arn h ow t o g overn
an d d om estic ate a m onste r w hic h m ig ht b e r e n dere d o f s u ch i m porta n t
se rv ic e t o m an kin d.
IN ST R UM EN TS.
If a lo ng w ith t h e u su al r e g is te rs o f t h e w eath er o bse rv atio ns w ere m ad e o n
th e w in ds i n m an y p arts o f t h e e arth w ith t h e t h re e f o llo w in g i n str u m en ts ,
whic h m ig ht b e c o nstr u cte d a t n o g re at e x pen ce, s o m e u se fu l i n fo rm atio n
mig ht b e a cq uir e d .
1. T o m ark t h e h our w hen t h e w in d c h an ges f ro m n orth -e ast t o s o uth -w est,
an d t h e c o ntr a ry . T his m ig ht b e m an ag ed b y m ak in g a c o m munic atio n f ro m
th e v an e o f a w eath erc o ck t o a c lo ck ; i n s u ch a m an ner, t h at i f t h e v an e m ould
re v olv e q uite r o und, a t o oth o n i ts r e v olv in g a x is s h ould s to p t h e c lo ck , o r p ut
back a s m all b olt o n t h e e d ge o f a w heel r e v olv in g o nce i n t w en ty -fo ur h ours .
2. T o d is c o ver w heth er i n a y ear m ore a ir p asse d f ro m n orth t o s o uth , o r t h e
co ntr a ry . T his m ig ht b e e ffe cte d b y p la cin g a w in dm ill- s a il o f c o pper a b out
nin e i n ch es d ia m ete r i n a h ollo w c y lin der a b out s ix i n ch es l o ng, o pen a t b oth
en ds, a n d f ix ed o n a n e m in en t s itu atio n e x actly n orth a n d s o uth . T hen ce o nly
a p art o f t h e n orth -e ast a n d s o uth -w est c u rre n ts w ould a ffe ct t h e s a il s o a s t o
tu rn i t; a n d i f i ts r e v olu tio ns w ere c o unte d b y a n a d ap te d m ach in ery , a s t h e
sa il w ould t u rn o ne w ay w ith t h e n orth c u rre n ts o f a ir , a n d t h e c o ntr a ry o ne
with t h e s o uth c u rre n ts , t h e a d van ce o f t h e c o untin g f in ger e ith er w ay w ould
sh ew w hic h w in d h ad p re v aile d m ost a t t h e e n d o f t h e y ear.
3. T o d is c o ver t h e r o llin g c y lin ders o f a ir , t h e v an e o f a w eath erc o ck m ig ht b e
so s u sp en ded a s t o d ip o r r is e v ertic ally , a s w ell a s t o h av e i ts h oriz o nta l
ro ta tio n.

REC APIT U LA TIO N.
NORTH -E A ST W IN DS c o nsis t o f a ir f lo w in g f ro m t h e n orth , w here i t s e em s
to b e o ccasio nally p ro duced ; h as a n a p pare n t d ir e ctio n f ro m t h e e ast o w in g t o
its n ot h av in g a cq uir e d i n i ts j o urn ey t h e i n cre asin g v elo city o f t h e e arth 's
su rfa ce; t h ese w in ds a re a n alo gous t o t h e t r a d e-w in ds b etw een t h e t r o pic s,
an d f re q uen tly c o ntin ue i n t h e v ern al m onth s f o r f o ur a n d s ix w eek s t o geth er,
with a h ig h b aro m ete r, a n d f a ir o r f ro sty w eath er. 2 . T hey s o m etim es c o nsis t
of s o uth -w est a ir , w hic h h ad p asse d b y u s o r o ver u s, d riv en b ack b y a n ew
accu m ula tio n o f a ir i n t h e n orth , T hese c o ntin ue b ut a d ay o r t w o, a n d a re
atte n ded w ith r a in . S ee N ote X XV.
SO UTH -W EST W IN D c o nsis ts o f a ir f lo w in g f ro m t h e s o uth , a n d s e em s
occasio nally a b so rb ed a t i ts a rriv al t o t h e m ore n orth ern l a titu des. I t h as a r e al
dir e ctio n f ro m t h e w est o w in g t o i ts n ot h av in g l o st i n i ts j o urn ey t h e g re ate r
velo city i t h ad a cq uir e d f ro m t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce f ro m w hen ce i t c am e. T hese
win ds a re a n alo gous t o t h e m onso ons b etw een t h e t r o pic s, a n d f re q uen tly
co ntin ue f o r f o ur o r s ix w eek s t o geth er, w ith a l o w b aro m ete r a n d r a in y
weath er. 2 . T hey s o m etim es c o nsis t o f n orth -e ast a ir , w hic h h ad p asse d b y u s
or o ver u s, w hic h b eco m es r e tr o gra d e b y a c o m men cin g d efic ie n cy o f a ir i n
th e n orth . T hese w in ds c o ntin ue b ut a d ay o r t w o, a tte n ded w ith s e v ere r f ro st
with a s in kin g b aro m ete r; t h eir c o ld b ein g i n cre ase d b y t h eir e x pan sio n, a s
th ey r e tu rn , i n to a n i n cip ie n t v acan cy .
NORTH -W EST W IN DS c o nsis t, f ir s t, o f s o uth -w est w in ds, w hic h h av e
passe d o ver u s, b en t d ow n a n d d riv en b ack t o w ard s t h e s o uth b y n ew ly
gen era te d n orth ern a ir . T hey c o ntin ue b ut a d ay o r t w o, a n d a re a tte n ded w ith
ra in o r c lo uds. 2 . T hey c o nsis t o f n orth -e ast w in ds b en t d ow n f ro m t h e h ig her
parts o f t h e a tm osp here , a n d h av in g t h ere a cq uir e d a g re ate r v elo city t h an , t h e
earth 's s u rfa ce; a re f ro sty o r f a ir . 3 . T hey c o nsis t o f n orth - e ast w in ds f o rm ed
in to a v ertic al s p ir a l e d dy, a s o n t h e e aste rn c o asts o f N orth A m eric a, a n d
brin g s e v ere f ro st.
SO UTH -E A ST W IN DS c o nsis t, f ir s t, o f n orth -e ast w in ds b eco m e r e tr o gra d e,
co ntin ue f o r a d ay o r t w o, f ro sty o r f a ir , s in kin g b aro m ete r. 2 . T hey c o nsis t o f
north -e ast w in ds f o rm ed i n to a v ertic al e d dy n ot a s p ir a l o ne, f ro st o r f a ir .

NORTH W IN DS c o nsis t, f ir s t, o f a ir f lo w in g s lo w ly f ro m t h e n orth , s o t h at
th ey a cq uir e t h e v elo city o f t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce a s t h ey a p pro ach , a re f a ir o r
fro sty , s e ld om o ccu r. 2 . T hey c o nsis t o f r e tr o gra d e s o uth w in ds; t h ese
co ntin ue b ut a d ay o r t w o, a re p re ced ed b y s o uth -w est w in ds; a n d a re
gen era lly s u cceed ed b y n orth -e ast w in ds, c lo udy o r r a in y, b aro m ete r r is in g.
SO UTH W IN DS c o nsis t, f ir s t, o f a ir f lo w in g s lo w ly f ro m t h e s o uth , l o osin g
th eir p re v io us w este rn v elo city b y t h e f ric tio n o f t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce a s t h ey
ap pro ach , m ois t, s e ld om o ccu r, 2 . T hey c o nsis t o f r e tr o gra d e n orth w in ds;
th ese c o ntin ue b ut a d ay o r t w o, a re p re ced ed b y n orth -e ast w in ds, a n d
gen era lly s u cceed ed b y s o uth -w est w in ds, c o ld er, b aro m ete r s in kin g.
EA ST W IN DS c o nsis t o f a ir b ro ught h astily f ro m t h e n orth , a n d n ot i m pelle d
fa rth er s o uth w ard , o w in g t o a s u dden b eg in nin g a b so rp tio n o f a ir i n t h e
north ern r e g io ns, v ery c o ld , b aro m ete r h ig h, g en era lly s u cceed ed b y s o uth -
west w in d.
WEST W IN DS c o nsis t o f a ir b ro ught h astily f ro m t h e s o uth , a n d c h eck ed
fro m p ro ceed in g f u rth er t o t h e n orth b y a b eg in nin g p ro ductio n o f a ir i n t h e
north ern r e g io ns, w arm a n d m ois t, g en era lly s u cceed ed b y n orth -e ast w in d. 2 .
They c o nsis t o f a ir b en t d ow n f ro m t h e h ig her r e g io ns o f t h e a tm osp here , i f
th is a ir b e f ro m t h e s o uth , a n d b ro ught h astily i t b eco m es a w in d o f g re at
velo city , m ovin g p erh ap s 6 0 m ile s a n h our, i s w arm a n d r a in y; i f i t c o nsis ts
of n orth ern a ir b en t d ow n i t i s o f l e ss v elo city a n d c o ld er.
Applic a tio n o f t h e p re ced in g T heo ry t o S om e E xtr a cts
fr o m
a J o urn al o f t h e W ea th er.
Dec. 1 , 1 790.
T he b aro m ete r s u nk s u dden ly , a n d t h e w in d, w hic h h ad b een
so m e d ay s n orth -e ast w ith f ro st, c h an ged t o s o uth -e ast w ith a n i n cessa n t
th ough m odera te f a ll o f s n ow . A p art o f t h e n orth ern a ir , w hic h h ad p asse d b y
us I s u ppose , n ow b ecam e r e tr o gra d e b efo re i t h ad a cq uir e d t h e v elo city o f
th e e arth 's s u rfa ce t o t h e s o uth o f u s, a n d b ein g a tte n ded b y s o m e o f t h e
so uth ern a ir i n i ts j o urn ey , t h e m ois tu re o f t h e l a tte r b ecam e c o nden se d a n d
fro zen b y i ts m ix tu re m ith t h e f o rm er.
Dec. 2 , 3 .
T he w in d c h an ged t o n orth -w est a n d t h aw ed t h e s n ow . A p art o f

th e s o uth ern a ir , w hic h h ad p asse d b y u s o r o ver u s, w ith t h e r e tr o gra d e
north ern a ir a b ove d esc rib ed , w as n ow i n i ts t u rn d riv en b ack , b efo re i t h ad
lo st t h e v elo city o f t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e e arth t o t h e s o uth o f u s, a n d
co nse q uen tly b ecam e a n orth -w est w in d; a n d n ot h av in g l o st t h e w arm th i t
bro ught f ro m t h e s o uth p ro duced a t h aw .
Dec. 4 , 5 .
W in d c h an ged t o n orth -e ast w ith f ro st a n d a r is in g b aro m ete r. T he
air f ro m t h e n orth c o ntin uin g t o b lo w , a fte r i t h ad d riv en b ack t h e s o uth ern a ir
as a b ove d esc rib ed , b ecam e a n orth -e ast w in d, h av in g l e ss v elo city t h an t h e
su rfa ce o f t h e e arth i n t h is c lim ate , a n d p ro duced f ro st f ro m i ts c o ld ness.
Dec. 6 , 7 .
W in d n ow c h an ged t o t h e s o uth -w est w ith i n cessa n t r a in a n d a
sin kin g b aro m ete r. F ro m u nknow n c au se s I s u ppose t h e q uan tity o f a ir t o b e
dim in is h ed i n t h e p ola r r e g io ns, a n d t h e s o uth ern a ir c o ole d b y t h e e arth 's
su rfa ce, w hic h w as p re v io usly f ro zen , d ep osits i ts m ois tu re f o r a d ay o r t w o;
afte rw ard s t h e w in d c o ntin ued s o uth -w est w ith out r a in , a s t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e
earth b ecam e w arm er.
Marc h 1 8, 1 785.
T here h as b een a l o ng f ro st; a f e w d ay s a g o t h e b aro m ete r
su nk t o 2 91/2 , a n d t h e f ro st b ecam e m ore s e v ere . B ecau se t h e a ir b ein g
ex pan ded b y a p art o f t h e p re ssu re b ein g t a k en o ff b ecam e c o ld er. T his d ay
th e m erc u ry r o se t o 3 0, a n d t h e f ro st c ease d , t h e w in d c o ntin uin g a s b efo re
betw een n orth a n d e ast.
Marc h 1 9.
M erc u ry a b ove 3 0, w eath er s till m ild er,
no f ro st, w in d n orth -e ast.
Marc h 2 0.
T he s a m e, f o r t h e m erc u ry r is in g s h ew s
th at t h e a ir b eco m es m ore c o m pre sse d b y t h e w eig ht a b ove, a n d i n
co nse q uen ce g iv es o ut w arm th .
April 4 , 5 .
F ro st, w in d n orth -e ast, t h e w in d c h an ged i n t h e m id dle o f t h e d ay
to t h e n orth -w est w ith out r a in , a n d h as d one s o f o r t h re e o r f o ur d ay s,
beco m in g a g ain n orth -e ast a t n ig ht. F or t h e s u n n ow g iv in g g re ate r d eg re es o f
heat, t h e a ir a sc en ds a s t h e s u n p asse s t h e z en ith , a n d i s s u pplie d b elo w b y t h e
air o n t h e w este rn s id e a s w ell a s o n t h e e aste rn s id e o f t h e z en ith d urin g t h e
hot p art o f t h e d ay ; w hen ce f o r a f e w h ours , o n t h e a p pro ach o f t h e h ot p art o f
th e d ay , t h e a ir a cq uir e s a w este rly d ir e ctio n i n t h is l o ngitu de. I f t h e n orth -
west w in d h ad b een c au se d b y a r e tr o gra d e m otio n o f s o m e s o uth ern a ir ,
whic h h ad p asse d o ver u s, i t w ould h av e b een a tte n ded w ith r a in o r c lo uds.
April 1 0.
I t r a in ed a ll d ay y este rd ay , t h e w in d n orth -w est, t h is m orn in g t h ere

was a s h arp f ro st. T he e v ap ora tio n o f t h e m ois tu re , ( w hic h f e ll y este rd ay )
occasio ned b y t h e c o ntin uan ce o f t h e w in d, p ro duced s o m uch c o ld a s t o
fre eze t h e d ew .
May 1 2.
F re q uen t s h ow ers w ith a c u rre n t o f c o ld er w in d p re ced in g e v ery
sh ow er. T he s in kin g o f t h e r a in o r c lo ud p re sse d a w ay t h e a ir f ro m b en eath i t
in i ts d esc en t, w hic h h av in g b een f o r a t im e s h ad ed f ro m t h e s u n b y t h e
flo atin g c lo ud, b ecam e c o ole d i n s o m e d eg re e.
Ju ne 2 0.
T he b aro m ete r s u nk, t h e w in d b ecam e s o uth -w est, a n d t h e w hole
heav en w as i n sta n tly c o vere d w ith c lo uds. A p art o f t h e i n cu m ben t
atm osp here h av in g v an is h ed , a s a p peare d b y t h e s in kin g o f t h e b aro m ete r, t h e
re m ain der b ecam e e x pan ded b y i ts e la stic ity , a n d t h en ce a ttr a cte d s o m e o f t h e
matte r o f h eat f ro m t h e v ap our i n te rm ix ed w ith i t, a n d t h us i n a f e w m in ute s a
to ta l d ev ap ora tio n t o ok p la ce, a s i n e x hau stin g t h e r e ceiv er o f a n a ir -p um p.
See n ote X XV. A t t h e p la ce w here t h e a ir i s d estr o yed , c u rre n ts b oth f ro m t h e
north a n d s o uth f lo w i n t o s u pply t h e d efic ie n cy , ( fo r i t h as b een s h ew n t h at
th ere a re n o o th er p ro per w in ds b ut t h ese t w o) a n d t h e m ix tu re o f t h ese w in ds
pro duces s o s u dden c o nden sa tio n o f t h e m ois tu re , b oth b y t h e c o ld ness o f t h e
north ern a ir a n d t h e e x pan sio n o f b oth o f t h em , t h at l ig htn in g i s g iv en o ut,
an d a n i n cip ie n t t o rn ad o t a k es p la ce; w hen ce t h under i s s a id f re q uen tly t o
ap pro ach a g ain st t h e w in d.
August 2 8, 1 732.
B aro m ete r w as a t 3 1, a n d
Dec. 3 0
, i n t h e s a m e y ear, i t w as
at 2 8 2 -te n th s. M ed ic al E ssa y s, E din burg h, V ol. I I. p . 7 . I t a p pears f ro m t h ese
jo urn als t h at t h e m erc u ry a t E din burg h v arie s s o m etim es n early t h re e i n ch es,
or o ne t e n th o f t h e w hole a tm osp here . F ro m t h e j o urn als k ep t b y t h e R oyal
Socie ty a t L ondon i t a p pears s e ld om t o v ary m ore t h an t w o i n ch es, o r o ne-
fif te en th o f t h e w hole a tm osp here . T he q uan tity o f t h e v aria tio n i s s a id s till t o
decre ase n eare r t h e l in e, a n d t o i n cre ase i n t h e m ore n orth ern l a titu des; w hic h
much c o nfir m s t h e i d ea t h at t h ere e x is ts a t c erta in t im es a g re at d estr u ctio n o r
pro ductio n o f a ir w ith in t h e p ola r c ir c le .
Ju ly 2 , 1 732.
T he w este rly w in ds i n t h e j o urn al i n t h e M ed ic al E ssa y s, V ol.
II. a b ove r e fe rre d t o , a re f re q uen tly m ark ed w ith t h e n um ber t h re e t o s h ew
th eir g re ate r v elo city , w here as t h e e aste rly w in ds s e ld om a p pro ach t o t h e
num ber t w o. T he g re ate r v elo city o f t h e w este rly w in ds t h an t h e e aste rly o nes
is w ell k now n I b elie v e i n e v ery c lim ate o f t h e w orld ; w hic h m ay b e t h us

ex pla in ed f ro m t h e t h eo ry a b ove d eliv ere d . 1 . W hen t h e a ir i s s till, t h e h ig her
parts o f t h e a tm osp here m ove q uic k er t h an t h ose p arts w hic h t o uch t h e e arth ,
becau se t h ey a re a t a g re ate r d is ta n ce f ro m t h e a x is o f m otio n. 2 . T he p art o f
th e a tm osp here w here t h e n orth o r s o uth w in d c o m es f ro m i s h ig her t h an t h e
part o f i t w here i t c o m es t o , h en ce t h e m ore e le v ate d p arts o f t h e a tm osp here
co ntin ue t o d esc en d t o w ard s t h e e arth a s e ith er o f t h ose w in ds a p pro ach . 3 .
When s o uth ern a ir i s b ro ught t o u s i t p osse sse s a w este rly d ir e ctio n a ls o ,
ow in g t o t h e v elo city i t h ad p re v io usly a cq uir e d f ro m t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce; a n d
if i t c o nsis ts o f a ir f ro m t h e h ig her p arts o f t h e a tm osp here d esc en din g n eare r
th e e arth , t h is w este rly v elo city b eco m es i n cre ase d . B ut w hen n orth ern a ir i s
bro ught t o u s, i t p osse sse s a n a p pare n t e aste rly d ir e ctio n a ls o , o w in g t o t h e
velo city w hic h i t h ad p re v io usly a cq uir e d f ro m t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce b ein g l e ss
th an t h at o f t h e e arth 's s u rfa ce i n t h is l a titu de; n ow i f t h e n orth -e ast w in d
co nsis ts o f a ir d esc en din g f ro m h ig her p arts o f t h e a tm osp here , t h is
defic ie n cy o f v elo city w ill b e l e ss, i n c o nse q uen ce o f t h e s a m e c au se , v iz . T he
hig her p arts o f t h e a tm osp here d esc en din g, a s t h e w in d a p pro ach es, i n cre ase s
th e r e al v elo city o f t h e w este rn w in ds, a n d d ecre ase s t h e a p pare n t v elo city o f
th e e aste rn o nes.
Octo ber 2 2.
W in d c h an ged f ro m s o uth -e ast t o s o uth -w est. T here i s a p opula r
pro gnostic atio n t h at i f t h e w in d c h an ges f ro m t h e n orth t o w ard s t h e s o uth
passin g t h ro ugh t h e e ast, i t i s m ore l ik ely t o c o ntin ue i n t h e s o uth , t h an i f i t
passe s t h ro ugh t h e w est, w hic h m ay b e t h us a cco unte d f o r. I f t h e n orth -e ast
win d c h an ges t o a n orth -w est w in d, i t s h ew s e ith er t h at a p art o f t h e n orth ern
air d esc en ds u pon u s i n a s p ir a l e d dy, o r t h at a s u perio r c u rre n t o f s o uth ern a ir
is d riv en b ack ; b ut i f a n orth -e ast w in d b e c h an ged i n to a s o uth -e ast w in d i t
sh ew s t h at t h e n orth ern a ir i s b eco m e r e tr o gra d e, a n d t h at i n a d ay o r t w o, a s
so on a s t h at p art o f i t h as p asse d , w hic h h as n ot g ain ed t h e v elo city o f t h e
earth 's s u rfa ce i n t h is l a titu de, i t w ill b eco m e a s o uth w in d f o r a f e w h ours ,
an d t h en a s o uth -w est w in d.
The w rite r o f t h is i m perfe ct s k etc h o f a n em olo gy w is h es i t m ay i n cite s o m e
pers o n o f g re ate r l e iz u re a n d a b ility t o a tte n d t o t h is s u bje ct, a n d b y
co m parin g t h e v ario us m ete o ro lo gic al j o urn als a n d o bse rv atio ns a lr e ad y
publis h ed , t o c o nstr u ct a m ore a ccu ra te a n d m eth odic al t r e atis e o n t h is
in te re stin g b ra n ch o f p hilo so phy.

N O TE X XXIV .— VEG ETA BLE P E R SP IR ATIO N.
A nd w ed t h e e n am oure d O xyg en e t o L ig ht.
C A NTO I V . l . 3 4.
W hen p oin ts o r h air s a re p ut i n to s p rin g-w ate r, a s i n t h e e x perim en ts o f S ir B .
T hom pso n, ( P hilo s. T ra n s. V ol. L X XVII.) a n d e x pose d t o t h e l ig ht o f t h e s u n,
m uch a ir , w hic h l o ose ly a d here d t o t h e w ate r, r is e s i n b ubble s, a s e x pla in ed
i n n ote o n F ucu s, V ol. I I. A s till g re ate r q uan tity o f a ir , a n d o f a p ure r k in d, i s
e m itte d b y D r. P rie stle y 's g re en m atte r, a n d b y v eg eta b le l e av es g ro w in g i n
w ate r i n t h e s u n-s h in e, a cco rd in g t o M r. I n gen houze's e x perim en ts ; b oth
w hic h I s u sp ect t o b e o w in g t o a d eco m positio n o f t h e w ate r p ers p ir e d b y t h e
p la n t, f o r t h e e d ge o f a c ap illa ry t u be o f g re at t e n uity m ay b e c o nsid ere d a s a
c ir c le o f p oin ts , a n d a s t h e o xygen e, o r p rin cip le o f v ita l a ir , m ay b e e x pan ded
i n to a g as b y t h e s u n's l ig ht; t h e h ydro gen e o r i n fla m mab le a ir m ay b e
d eta in ed i n t h e p ore s o f t h e v eg eta b le .
H en ce p la n ts g ro w in g i n t h e s h ad e a re w hite , a n d b eco m e g re en b y b ein g
e x pose d t o t h e s u n's l ig ht; f o r t h eir n atu ra l c o lo ur b ein g b lu e, t h e a d ditio n o f
h ydro gen e a d ds y ello w t o t h is b lu e, a n d
ta ns
t h em g re en . I s u ppose a s im ila r
c ir c u m sta n ce t a k es p la ce i n a n im al b odie s; t h eir p ers p ir a b le m atte r a s i t
e sc ap es i n t h e s u n-s h in e b eco m es d eco m pose d b y t h e e d ges o f t h eir p ore s a s
i n v eg eta b le s, t h ough i n l e ss q uan tity , a s t h eir p ers p ir a tio n i s l e ss, a n d b y t h e
h ydro gen e b ein g r e ta in ed t h e s k in b eco m es
ta nned
y ello w . I n p ro of o f t h is i t
m ust b e o bse rv ed t h at b oth v eg eta b le a n d a n im al s u bsta n ces b eco m e
b le ach ed w hite b y t h e s u n-b eam s w hen t h ey a re d ead , a s c ab bag e-s ta lk s,
b ones, i v ory , t a llo w , b ees-w ax , l in en a n d c o tto n c lo th ; a n d h en ce I s u ppose
t h e c o pper-c o lo ure d n ativ es o f s u nny c o untr ie s m ig ht b eco m e e tio la te d o r

bla n ch ed b y b ein g k ep t f ro m t h eir i n fa n cy i n t h e d ark , o r r e m oved f o r a f e w
gen era tio ns t o m ore n orth erly c lim ate s.
It i s p ro bab le t h at o n a s u nny m orn in g m uch p ure a ir b eco m es s e p ara te d f ro m
th e d ew b y m ean s o f t h e p oin ts o f v eg eta b le s o n w hic h i t a d here s, a n d m uch
in fla m mab le a ir i m bib ed b y t h e v eg eta b le , o r c o m bin ed w ith i t; a n d b y t h e
su n's l ig ht t h us d eco m posin g w ate r t h e e ffe cts o f i t i n b le ach in g l in en s e em s
to d ep en d ( a s d esc rib ed i n N ote X .) : t h e w ate r i s d eco m pose d b y t h e l ig ht a t
th e e n ds o r p oin ts o f t h e c o tto n o r t h re ad , a n d t h e v ita l a ir u nite s w ith t h e
phlo gis tic o r c o lo urin g m atte rs o f t h e c lo th , a n d p ro duces a n ew a cid , w hic h
is e ith er i ts e lf c o lo urle ss o r w ash es o ut, a t t h e s a m e t im e t h e i n fla m mab le p art
of t h e w ate r e sc ap es. H en ce t h ere s e em s a r e aso n w hy c o tto n b le ach es s o
much s o oner t h an l in en , v iz . b ecau se i ts f ib re s a re t h re e o r f o ur t im es s h orte r,
an d t h ere fo re p ro tr u de s o m an y m ore p oin ts , w hic h s e em t o f a cilita te t h e
lib era tio n o f t h e v ita l a ir f ro m t h e i n fla m mab le p art o f t h e w ate r.
Bee's w ax b eco m es b le ach ed b y e x posu re t o t h e s u n a n d d ew s i n a s im ila r
man ner a s m eta ls b eco m e c alc in ed o r r u sty , v iz . b y t h e w ate r o n t h eir s u rfa ce
bein g d eco m pose d ; a n d h en ce t h e i n fla m mab le m ate ria l w hic h c au se d t h e
co lo ur b eco m es u nite d w ith v ita l a ir f o rm in g a n ew a cid , a n d i s w ash ed a w ay .
Oil c lo se s to pped i n a p hia l n ot f u ll, a n d e x pose d l o ng t o t h e s u n's l ig ht,
beco m es b le ach ed , a s I s u ppose , b y t h e d eco m positio n o f t h e w ate r i t
co nta in s; t h e i n fla m mab le a ir r is in g a b ove t h e s u rfa ce, a n d t h e v ita l a ir
unitin g w ith t h e c o lo urin g m atte r o f t h e o il. F or i t i s r e m ark ab le , t h at b y
sh uttin g u p a p hia l o f b le ach ed o il i n a d ark d ra w er, i t i n a l ittle t im e b eco m es
co lo ure d a g ain .
The f o llo w in g e x perim en t s h ew s t h e p ow er o f l ig ht i n s e p ara tin g v ita l a ir
fro m a n oth er b asis , v iz . f ro m a zo te . M r. S ch eel i n verte d a g la ss v esse l f ille d
with c o lo urle ss n itr o us a cid i n to a n oth er g la ss c o nta in in g t h e s a m e a cid , a n d
on e x posin g t h em t o t h e s u n's l ig ht, t h e i n verte d g la ss b ecam e p artly f ille d
with p ure a ir , a n d t h e a cid a t t h e s a m e t im e b ecam e c o lo ure d . S ch eel i n
Cre ll's A nnal. 1 786. B ut i f t h e v esse l o f c o lo urle ss n itr o us a cid b e q uite f u ll
an d s to pped , s o t h at n o s p ace i s l e ft f o r t h e a ir p ro duced t o e x pan d i ts e lf i n to ,
no c h an ge o f c o lo ur t a k es p la ce. P rie stle y 's E xp. V I. p . 3 44. S ee K eir 's v ery
ex celle n t C hem ic al D ic tio nary , p . 9 9. n ew e d itio n.

A s u n-flo w er t h re e f e et a n d h alf h ig h a cco rd in g t o t h e e x perim en t o f D r.
Hale s, p ers p ir e d t w o p in ts i n o ne d ay ( V eg eta b le S ta tic s.) w hic h i s m an y
tim es a s m uch i n p ro portio n t o i ts s u rfa ce, a s i s p ers p ir e d f ro m t h e s u rfa ce
an d l u ngs o f a n im al b odie s; i t f o llo w s t h at t h e v ita l a ir l ib era te d f ro m t h e
su rfa ces o f p la n ts b y t h e s u nsh in e m ust m uch e x ceed t h e q uan tity o f i t
ab so rb ed b y t h eir r e sp ir a tio n, a n d t h at h en ce t h ey i m pro ve t h e a ir i n w hic h
th ey l iv e d urin g t h e l ig ht p art o f t h e d ay , a n d t h us b la n ch ed v eg eta b le s w ill
so oner b eco m e
ta nned i n to g re en
b y t h e s u n's l ig ht, t h an e tio la te d a n im al
bodie s w ill b eco m e
ta nned y ello w
b y t h e s a m e m ean s.
It i s h en ce e v id en t, t h at t h e c u rio us d is c o very o f D r. P rie stle y , t h at h is g re en
veg eta b le m atte r a n d o th er a q uatic p la n ts g av e o ut v ita l a ir w hen t h e s u n
sh one u pon t h em , a n d t h e l e av es o f o th er p la n ts d id t h e s a m e w hen i m mers e d
in w ate r, a s o bse rv ed b y M r. I n gen houze, r e fe r t o t h e p ers p ir a tio n o f
veg eta b le s n ot t o t h eir r e sp ir a tio n. B ecau se D r. P rie stle y o bse rv ed t h e p ure a ir
to c o m e f ro m b oth s id es o f t h e l e av es a n d e v en f ro m t h e s ta lk s o f a w ate r-
fla g , w here as o ne s id e o f t h e l e af o nly s e rv es t h e o ffic e o f l u ngs, a n d
certa in ly n ot t h e s ta lk s. E xper. o n A ir , V ol. I II. A nd t h us i n r e sp ect t o t h e
cir c u m sta n ce i n w hic h p la n ts a n d a n im als s e em ed t h e f u rth ere st r e m oved
fro m e ach o th er, I m ean i n t h eir s u ppose d m ode o f r e sp ir a tio n, b y w hic h o ne
was b elie v ed t o p urif y t h e a ir w hic h t h e o th er h ad i n ju re d , t h ey s e em t o d if fe r
only i n d eg re e, a n d t h e a n alo gy b etw een t h em r e m ain s u nbro ken .
Pla n ts a re s a id b y m an y w rite rs t o g ro w m uch f a ste r i n t h e n ig ht t h an i n t h e
day ; a s i s p artic u la rly o bse rv ab le i n s e ed lin gs a t t h eir r is in g o ut o f t h e g ro und.
This p ro bab ly i s a c o nse q uen ce o f t h eir s le ep r a th er t h an o f t h e a b se n ce o f
lig ht; a n d i n t h is I s u ppose t h ey a ls o r e se m ble a n im al b odie s.

N O TE X XXV.— VEG ETA BLE P L A CEN TA TIO N.
_ W hile i n b rig ht v ein s t h e s ilv ery s a p a sc en ds.
C A NTO I V . l . 4 19.
A s b uds a re t h e v iv ip aro us o ffs p rin g o f v eg eta b le s, i t b eco m es n ecessa ry t h at
t h ey s h ould b e f u rn is h ed w ith p la cen ta l v esse ls f o r t h eir n ouris h m en t, t ill t h ey
a cq uir e l u ngs o r l e av es f o r t h e p urp ose o f e la b ora tin g t h e c o m mon j u ic es o f
t h e e arth i n to n utr im en t. T hese v esse ls e x is t i n b ulb s a n d i n s e ed s, a n d s u pply
t h e y oung p la n t w ith a s w eet j u ic e t ill i t a cq uir e s l e av es, a s i s s e en i n
c o nvertin g b arle y i n to m alt, a n d a p pears f ro m t h e s w eet t a ste o f o nio ns a n d
p ota to es, w hen t h ey b eg in t o g ro w .
T he p la cen ta l v esse ls b elo ngin g t o t h e b uds o f t r e es a re p la ced a b out t h e r o ots
o f m ost, a s t h e v in e; s o m an y r o ots a re f u rn is h ed w ith s w eet o r m ealy m atte r
a s f e rn -ro ot, b ry ony, c arro t, t u rn ip , p ota to e, o r i n t h e a lb urn um o r s a p -w ood
a s i n t h ose t r e es w hic h p ro duce m an na, w hic h i s d ep osite d a b out t h e m onth
o f A ugust, o r i n t h e j o in ts o f s u gar c an e, a n d g ra sse s; e arly i n t h e s p rin g t h e
a b so rb en t m outh s o f t h ese v esse ls d rin k u p m ois tu re f ro m t h e e arth , w ith a
s a cch arin e m atte r l o dged f o r t h at p urp ose d urin g t h e p re ced in g a u tu m n, a n d
p ush t h is n utr itiv e f lu id u p t h e v esse ls o f t h e a lb urn um t o e v ery i n div id ual
b ud, a s i s e v in ced b y t h e e x perim en ts o f D r. H ale s, a n d o f M r. W alk er i n t h e
E din burg h P hilo so phic al T ra n sa ct. T he f o rm er o bse rv ed t h at t h e s a p f ro m t h e
s tu m p o f a v in e, w hic h h e h ad c u t o ff i n t h e b eg in nin g o f A pril, a ro se t w en ty -
o ne f e et h ig h i n t u bes a ffix ed t o i t f o r t h at p urp ose , b ut i n a f e w w eek s i t
c ease d t o b le ed a t a ll, a n d D r. W alk er m ark ed t h e p ro gre ss o f t h e a sc en din g
s a p , a n d f o und l ik ew is e t h at a s s o on a s t h e l e av es b ecam e e x pan ded t h e s a p
c ease d t o r is e ; t h e a sc en din g j u ic e o f s o m e t r e es i s s o c o pio us a n d s o s w eet

durin g t h e s a p -s e aso n t h at i t i s u se d t o m ak e w in e, a s t h e b ir c h , b etu la , a n d
sy cam ore , a cer p se u do-p la tin us, a n d p artic u la rly t h e p alm .
Durin g t h is a sc en t o f t h e s a p -ju ic e e ach i n div id ual l e af-b ud e x pan ds i ts n ew
le av es, a n d s h oots d ow n n ew r o ots , c o verin g b y t h eir i n te rte x tu re t h e o ld b ark
with a n ew o ne; a n d a s s o on a s t h ese n ew r o ots ( o r b ark ) a re c ap ab le o f
ab so rb in g s u ffic ie n t j u ic es f ro m t h e e arth f o r t h e s u pport o f e ach b ud, a n d t h e
new l e av es a re c ap ab le o f p erfo rm in g t h eir o ffic e o f e x posin g t h ese j u ic es t o
th e i n flu en ce o f t h e a ir ; t h e p la cen ta l v esse ls c ease t o a ct, c o ale sc e, a n d a re
tr a n sfo rm ed f ro m s a p - w ood, o r a lb urn um , i n to i n ert w ood; s e rv in g o nly f o r
th e s u pport o f t h e n ew t r e e, w hic h g ro w s o ver t h em .
Thus f ro m t h e p ith o f t h e n ew b ud o f t h e h ors e -c h esn ut f iv e v esse ls p ass o ut
th ro ugh t h e c ir c le o f t h e p la cen ta l v esse ls a b ove d esc rib ed , a n d c arry w ith
th em a m in ute r c ir c le o f t h ose v esse ls ; t h ese f iv e b undle s o f v esse ls u nite
afte r t h eir e x it, a n d f o rm t h e f o ots ta lk o r p etio le o f t h e n ew f iv e-fin gere d l e af,
to b e s p oken o f h ere afte r. T his s tr u ctu re i s w ell s e en b y c u ttin g o ff a l e af o f
th e h ors e -c h esn ut ( A esc u lu s H ip pocasta n um ) i n S ep te m ber b efo re i t f a lls , a s
th e b uds o f t h is t r e e a re s o l a rg e t h at t h e f lo w er m ay b e s e en i n t h em w ith t h e
nak ed e y e.
Afte r a t im e, p erh ap s a b out m id su m mer, a n oth er b undle o f v esse ls p asse s
fro m t h e p ith t h ro ugh t h e a lb urn um o r s a p -v esse ls i n t h e b oso m o f e ach l e af,
an d u nite s b y t h e n ew b ark w ith t h e l e af, w hic h b eco m es e ith er a f lo w er-b ud
or a l e af-b ud t o b e e x pan ded i n t h e e n su in g s p rin g, f o r w hic h p urp ose a n
ap para tu s o f p la cen ta l v esse ls a re p ro duced w ith p ro per n utr im en t d urin g t h e
pro gre ss o f t h e s u m mer a n d a u tu m n, a n d t h us t h e v eg eta b le b eco m es
an nually i n cre ase d , t e n t h ousa n d b uds o fte n e x is tin g o n o ne t r e e, a cco rd in g t o
th e e stim ate o f L in neu s. P hil. B ot.
The v asc u la r c o nnectio n o f v eg eta b le b uds w ith t h e l e av es i n w hose b oso m s
th ey a re f o rm ed i s c o nfir m ed b y t h e f o llo w in g e x perim en t, ( O ct. 2 0, 1 781.)
On t h e e x tr e m ity o f a y oung b ud o f t h e M im osa ( s e n sitiv e p la n t) a s m all d ro p
of a cid o f v itr io l w as p ut b y m ean s o f a p en , a n d, a fte r a f e w s e co nds, t h e l e af
in w hose a x illa i t d w elt c lo se d a n d o pen ed n o m ore , t h ough t h e d ro p o f
vitr io lic a cid w as s o s m all a s a p pare n tly o nly t o i n ju re t h e s u m mit o f t h e b ud.
Does n ot t h is s e em t o s h ew t h at t h e l e af a n d i ts b ud h av e c o nnectin g v esse ls
th ough t h ey a ris e a t d if fe re n t t im es a n d f ro m d if fe re n t p arts o f t h e m ed ulla o r

pith ? A nd, a s i t e x is ts p re v io usly t o i t, t h at t h e l e af i s t h e p are n t o f t h e b ud?
This p la cen ta tio n o f v eg eta b le b uds i s c le arly e v in ced f ro m t h e s w eetn ess o f
th e r is in g s a p , a n d f ro m i ts c easin g t o r is e a s s o on a s t h e l e av es a re e x pan ded ,
an d t h us c o m ple ats t h e a n alo gy b etw een b uds a n d b ulb s. N or n eed w e
wonder a t t h e l e n gth o f t h e u m bilic al c o rd s o f b uds s in ce t h at m ust
co rre sp ond w ith t h eir s itu atio n o n t h e t r e e, i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s t h eir
ly m phatic s a n d a rte rie s a re p ro portio nally e lo ngate d .
It d oes n ot a p pear p ro bab le t h at a n y u m bilic al a rte ry a tte n ds t h ese p la cen ta l
ab so rb en ts , s in ce, a s t h ere s e em s t o b e n o s y ste m o f v ein s i n v eg eta b le s t o
brin g b ack t h e b lo od f ro m t h e e x tr e m itie s o f t h eir a rte rie s, ( e x cep t t h eir
pulm onary v ein s,) t h ere c o uld n ot b e a n y v eg eta b le f lu id s t o b e r e tu rn ed t o
th eir p la cen ta , w hic h i n v eg eta b le s s e em s t o b e s im ply a n o rg an f o r n utr itio n,
where as t h e p la cen ta o f t h e a n im al f o etu s s e em s l ik ew is e t o s e rv e a s a
re sp ir a to ry o rg an l ik e t h e g ills o f f is h es.

N O TE X XXVI— VEG ETA BLE C IR CULA TIO N.
A nd r e flu en t b lo od i n m ilk y e d die s b en ds.
C A NTO I V . l . 4 20.
T he i n div id uality o f v eg eta b le b uds w as s p oken o f b efo re , a n d i s c o nfir m ed
b y t h e m eth od o f r a is in g a ll k in ds o f t r e es b y M r. B arn es. ( M eth od o f
p ro pag atin g F ru it T re es. 1 759. L ond. B ald w in .) H e c u t a b ra n ch i n to a s m an y
p ie ces a s t h ere w ere b uds o r l e av es u pon i t, a n d w ip in g t h e t w o w ounded
e n ds d ry h e q uic k ly a p plie d t o e ach a c em en t, p re v io usly w arm ed a l ittle ,
w hic h c o nsis te d p rin cip ally o f p itc h , a n d p la n te d t h em i n t h e e arth . T he u se o f
t h is c em en t I s u ppose t o c o nsis t i n i ts p re v en tin g t h e b ud f ro m b le ed in g t o
d eath , t h ough t h e a u th or a sc rib es i t t o i ts a n tis c ep tic q uality .
T hese b uds o f p la n ts , w hic h a re t h us e ach a n i n div id ual v eg eta b le , i n m an y
c ir c u m sta n ces r e se m ble i n div id ual a n im als , b ut a s a n im al b odie s a re d eta ch ed
f ro m t h e e arth , a n d m ove f ro m p la ce t o p la ce i n s e arc h o f f o od, a n d t a k e t h at
f o od a t c o nsid era b le i n te rv als o f t im e, a n d p re p are i t f o r t h eir n ouris h im en t
w ith in t h eir o w n b odie s a fte r i t i s t a k en , i t i s e v id en t t h ey m ust r e q uir e m an y
o rg an s a n d p ow ers w hic h a re n ot n ecessa ry t o a s ta tio nary b ud. A s v eg eta b le s
a re i m moveab ly f ix ed t o t h e s o il f ro m w hen ce t h ey d ra w t h eir n ouris h m en t
r e ad y p re p are d , a n d t h is u nif o rm ly n ot a t r e tu rn in g i n te rv als , i t f o llo w s t h at i n
e x am in in g t h eir a n ato m e w e a re n ot t o l o ok f o r m usc le s o f l o co m otio n, a s
a rm s a n d l e g s; n or f o r o rg an s t o r e ceiv e a n d p re p are t h eir n ouris h m en t, a s a
s to m ach a n d b ow els ; n or f o r a r e se rv oir f o r i t a fte r i t i s p re p are d , a s a g en era l
s y ste m o f v ein s, w hic h i n l o co m otiv e a n im als c o nta in s a n d r e tu rn s t h e
s u perflu ous b lo od w hic h i s l e ft a fte r t h e v ario us o rg an s o f s e cre tio n h av e
b een s u pplie d , b y w hic h c o ntr iv an ce t h ey a re e n ab le d t o l iv e a l o ng t im e

with out n ew s u pplie s o f f o od.
The p arts w hic h w e m ay e x pert t o f in d i n t h e a n ato m e o f v eg eta b le s
co rre sp onden t t o t h ose i n t h e a n im al e co nom y a re , 1 . A s y ste m o f a b so rb en t
vesse ls t o i m bib e t h e m ois tu re o f t h e e arth s im ila r t o t h e l a cte al v esse ls , a s i n
th e r o ots o f p la n ts ; a n d a n oth er s y ste m o f a b so rb en ts s im ila r t o t h e
ly m phatic s o f a n im al b odie s, o pen in g i ts m outh s o n t h e i n te rn al c ells a n d
ex te rn al s u rfa ces o f v eg eta b le s; a n d a t h ir d s y ste m o f a b so rb en t v esse ls
co rre sp onden t w ith t h ose o f t h e p la cen ta tio n o f t h e a n im al f o etu s. 2 . A
pulm onary s y ste m c o rre sp onden t t o t h e l u ngs o r g ills o f q uad ru ped s a n d f is h ,
by w hic h t h e f lu id a b so rb ed b y t h e l a cte als a n d l y m phatic s m ay b e e x pose d t o
th e i n flu en ce o f t h e a ir , t h is i s d one b y t h e g re en l e av es o f p la n ts , t h ose i n t h e
air r e se m blin g l u ngs, a n d t h ose i n t h e w ate r r e se m blin g g ills ; a n d b y t h e
peta ls o f f lo w ers . 3 . A rte ria l s y ste m s t o c o nvey t h e f lu id t h us e la b ora te d t o
th e v ario us g la n ds o f t h e v eg eta b le f o r t h e p urp ose s o f i ts g ro w th , n utr itio n,
an d v ario us s e cre tio ns. 4 . T he v ario us g la n ds w hic h s e p ara te f ro m t h e
veg eta b le b lo od t h e h oney , w ax , g um , r e sin , s ta rc h , s u gar, e sse n tia l o il, & c. 5 .
The o rg an s a d ap te d f o r t h eir p ro pag atio n o r r e p ro ductio n. 6 . M usc le s t o
perfo rm s e v era l m otio ns o f t h eir p arts .
I. T he e x is te n ce o f t h at b ra n ch o f t h e a b so rb en t v esse ls o f v eg eta b le s w hic h
re se m ble s t h e l a cte als o f a n im al b odie s, a n d i m bib es t h eir n utr im en t f ro m t h e
mois t e arth , i s e v in ced b y t h eir g ro w th s o l o ng a s m ois tu re i s a p plie d t o t h eir
ro ots , a n d t h eir q uic k ly w ith erin g w hen i t i s w ith dra w n.
Besid es t h ese a b so rb en ts i n t h e r o ots o f p la n ts t h ere a re o th ers w hic h o pen
th eir m outh s o n t h e e x te rn al s u rfa ces o f t h e b ark a n d l e av es, a n d o n t h e
in te rn al s u rfa ces o f a ll t h e c ells , a n d b etw een t h e b ark a n d t h e a lb urn um o r
sa p -w ood; t h e e x is te n ce o f t h ese i s s h ew n, b ecau se a l e af p lu ck ed o ff a n d l a id
with i ts u nder s id e o n w ate r w ill n ot w ith er s o s o on a s i f l e ft i n t h e d ry a ir ,—
th e s a m e i f t h e b ark a lo ne o f a b ra n ch w hic h i s s e p ara te d f ro m a t r e e b e k ep t
mois t w ith w ate r,— an d l a stly , b y m ois te n in g t h e a lb urn um o r s a p -w ood
alo ne o f a b ra n ch d eta ch ed f ro m a t r e e i t w ill n ot s o s o on w ith er a s i f l e ft i n
th e d ry a ir . B y t h e f o llo w in g e x perim en t t h ese v esse ls w ere a g re eab ly v is ib le
by a c o m mon m ag nif y in g g la ss, I p la ced i n t h e s u m mer o f 1 781 t h e f o ots ta lk s
of s o m e l a rg e f ig -le av es a b out a n i n ch d eep i n a d eco ctio n o f m ad der, ( ru bia
tin cto ru m ,) a n d o th ers i n a d eco ctio n o f l o gw ood, ( h aem ato xylu m

cam pech en se ,) a lo ng w ith s o m e s p rig s c u t o ff f ro m a p la n t o f p ic ris , t h ese
pla n ts w ere c h ose n b ecau se t h eir b lo od i s w hite , a fte r s o m e h ours , a n d o n t h e
nex t d ay , o n t a k in g o ut e ith er o f t h ese a n d c u ttin g o ff f ro m i ts b otto m a b out a
quarte r o f a n i n ch o f t h e s ta lk a n i n te rn al c ir c le o f r e d p oin ts a p peare d , w hic h
were t h e e n ds o f a b so rb en t v esse ls c o lo ure d r e d w ith t h e d eco ctio n, w hile a n
ex te rn al r in g o f a rte rie s w as s e en t o b le ed o ut h astily a m ilk y j u ic e, a n d a t
once e v in ced b oth t h e a b so rb en t a n d a rte ria l s y ste m . T hese a b so rb en t v esse ls
hav e b een c alle d b y G re w , a n d M alp hig i, a n d s o m e o th er p hilo so phers ,
bro nch i, a n d e rro neo usly s u ppose d t o b e a ir -v esse ls . I t i s p ro bab le t h at t h ese
vesse ls , w hen c u t t h ro ugh, m ay e ffu se t h eir f lu id s, a n d r e ceiv e a ir , t h eir s id es
bein g t o o s tif f t o c o lla p se ; s in ce d ry w ood e m its a ir -b uble s i n t h e e x hau ste d
re ceiv er i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s m ois t w ood.
The s tr u ctu re o f t h ese v eg eta b le a b so rb en ts c o nsis ts o f a s p ir a l l in e, a n d n ot
of a v esse l i n te rru pte d w ith v alv es l ik e t h e a n im al l y m phatic s, s in ce o n
bre ak in g a lm ost a n y t e n der l e af a n d d ra w in g o ut s o m e o f t h e f ib re s w hic h
ad here l o ngest t h is s p ir a l s tr u ctu re b eco m es v is ib le e v en t o t h e n ak ed e y e,
an d d is tin ctly s o b y t h e u se o f a c o m mon l e n s. S ee G re w , P la te 5 1.
In s u ch a s tr u ctu re i t i s e asy t o c o nceiv e h ow a v erm ic u la r o r p eris ta ltic
motio n o f t h e v esse l b eg in nin g a t t h e l o w est p art o f i t, e ach s p ir a l r in g
su ccessiv ely c o ntr a ctin g i ts e lf t ill i t f ills u p t h e t u be, m ust f o rc ib ly p ush
fo rw ard s i ts c o nte n ts , a s f ro m t h e r o ots o f v in es i n t h e b le ed in g s e aso n; a n d i f
th is v erm ic u la r m otio n s h ould b eg in a t t h e u pper e n d o f t h e v esse l i t i s a s
easy t o s e e h ow i t m ust c arry i ts c o nta in ed f lu id i n a c o ntr a ry d ir e ctio n. T he
re tr o gra d e m otio n o f t h e v eg eta b le a b so rb en t v esse ls i s s h ew n b y c u ttin g a
fo rk ed b ra n ch f ro m a t r e e, a n d i m mers in g a p art o f o ne o f t h e f o rk s i n w ate r,
whic h w ill f o r m an y d ay s p re v en t t h e o th er f ro m w ith erin g; o r i t i s s h ew n b y
pla n tin g a w illo w b ra n ch w ith t h e w ro ng e n d u pw ard s. T his s tr u ctu re i n s o m e
deg re e o bta in s i n t h e e so phag us o r t h ro at o f c o w s, w ho b y s im ila r m ean s
co nvey t h eir f o od f ir s t d ow nw ard s a n d a fte rw ard u pw ard s b y a r e tr o gra d e
motio n o f t h e a n nula r m usc le s o r c artila g es f o r t h e p urp ose o f a s e co nd
mastic atio n o f i t.
II. T he f lu id s t h us d ra n k u p b y t h e v eg eta b le a b so rb en t v esse ls f ro m t h e e arth ,
or f ro m t h e a tm osp here , o r f ro m t h eir o w n c ells a n d i n te rfa ces, a re c arrie d t o
th e f o ot- s ta lk o f e v ery l e af, w here t h e a b so rb en ts b elo ngin g t o e ach l e af u nite

in to b ra n ch es, f o rm in g s o m an y p ulm onary a rte rie s, a n d a re t h en ce d is p ers e d
to t h e e x tr e m itie s o f t h e l e af, a s m ay b e s e en i n c u ttin g a w ay s lic e a fte r s lic e
th e f o ots ta lk o f a h ors e - c h esn ut i n S ep te m ber b efo re t h e l e af f a lls . T here i s
th en a c o m ple at c ir c u la tio n i n t h e l e af; a p ulm onary v ein r e ceiv in g t h e b lo od
fro m t h e e x tr e m itie s o f e ach a rte ry o n t h e u pper s id e o f t h e l e af, a n d j o in in g
ag ain i n t h e f o ots ta lk o f t h e l e af t h ese v ein s p ro duce s o m an y a rte rie s, o r
ao rta s, w hic h d is p ers e t h e n ew b lo od o ver t h e n ew b ark , e lo ngatin g i ts
vesse ls , o r p ro ducin g i ts s e cre tio ns; b ut a s a r e se rv oir o f b lo od c o uld n ot b e
wan te d b y a v eg eta b le b ud w hic h t a k es i n i ts n utr im en t a t a ll t im es, I i m ag in e
th ere i s n o v en ous s y ste m , n o v ein s p ro perly s o c alle d , w hic h r e ceiv e t h e
blo od w hic h w as t o s p are , a n d r e tu rn i t i n to t h e p ulm onary o r a rte ria l s y ste m .
The w an t o f a s y ste m o f v ein s w as c o unte n an ced b y t h e f o llo w in g
ex perim en t; I c u t o ff s e v era l s te m s o f t a ll s p urg e, ( E uphorb ia h elio sc o pia ) i n
au tu m n, a b out t h e c en tr e o f t h e p la n t, a n d o bse rv ed t e n fo ld t h e q uan tity o f
milk y j u ic e o oze f ro m t h e u pper t h an f ro m t h e l o w er e x tr e m ity , w hic h c o uld
hard ly h av e h ap pen ed i f t h ere h ad b een a v en ous s y ste m o f v esse ls t o r e tu rn
th e b lo od f ro m t h e r o ots t o t h e l e av es.
Thus t h e v eg eta b le c ir c u la tio n, c o m ple te i n t h e l u ngs, b ut p ro bab ly i n t h e
oth er p art o f t h e s y ste m d efic ie n t i n r e sp ect t o a s y ste m o f r e tu rn in g v ein s, i s
carrie d f o rw ard s w ith out a h eart, l ik e t h e c ir c u la tio n t h ro ugh t h e l iv ers o f
an im als w here t h e b lo od b ro ught f ro m t h e i n te stin es a n d m ese n te ry b y o ne
vein i s d is p ers e d t h ro ugh t h e l iv er b y t h e v en a p orta ru m , w hic h a ssu m es t h e
offic e o f a n a rte ry . S ee N ote X XXVII.
At t h e s a m e t im e s o m in ute a re t h e v esse ls i n t h e i n te rte x tu re o f t h e b ark s o f
pla n ts , w hic h b elo ng t o e ach i n div id ual b ud, t h at a g en era l c ir c u la tio n m ay
possib ly e x is t, t h ough w e h av e n ot y et b een a b le t o d is c o ver t h e v en ous p art
of i t.
There i s h ow ev er a n oth er p art o f t h e c ir c u la tio n o f v eg eta b le j u ic es v is ib le t o
th e n ak ed e y e, a n d t h at i s i n t h e c o ro l o r p eta ls o f f lo w ers , i n w hic h a p art o f
th e b lo od o f t h e p la n t i s e x pose d t o t h e i n flu en ce o f t h e a ir a n d l ig ht i n t h e
sa m e m an ner a s i n t h e f o lia g e, a s w ill b e m en tio ned m ore a t l a rg e i n N ote s
XXXVII a n d X XXIX .
These c ir c u la tio ns o f t h eir r e sp ectiv e f lu id s s e em t o b e c arrie d o n i n t h e

vesse ls o f p la n ts p re cis e ly a s i n a n im al b odie s b y t h eir i r rita b ility t o t h e
stim ulu s o f t h eir a d ap te d f lu id s, a n d n ot b y a n y m ech an ic al o r c h em ic al
attr a ctio n, f o r t h eir a b so rb en t v esse ls p ro pel t h e j u ic e u pw ard s, w hic h t h ey
drin k u p f ro m t h e e arth , w ith g re at v io le n ce; I s u ppose w ith m uch g re ate r
th an i s e x erte d b y t h e l a cte als o f a n im als , p ro bab ly o w in g t o t h e g re ate r
min ute n ess o f t h ese v esse ls i n v eg eta b le s a n d t h e g re ate r r ig id ity o f t h eir
co ats . D r. H ale s i n t h e s p rin g s e aso n c u t o ff a v in e n ear t h e g ro und, a n d b y
fix in g t u bes o n t h e r e m ain in g s tu m p o f i t, f o und t h e s a p t o r is e t w en ty -o ne
fe et i n t h e t u be b y t h e p ro puls iv e p ow er o f t h ese a b so rb en ts o f t h e r o ots o f i t.
Veg et. S ta t. p . 1 02. S uch a p ow er c an n ot b e p ro duced b y c ap illa ry a ttr a ctio n,
as t h at c o uld o nly r a is e a f lu id n early t o t h e u pper e d ge o f t h e a ttr a ctin g
cy lin der, b ut n ot e n ab le i t t o f lo w o ver t h at e d ge, a n d m uch l e ss t o r is e 2 1 f e et
ab ove i t. W hat t h en c an t h is p ow er b e o w in g t o ? D oubtle ss t o t h e l iv in g
activ ity o f t h e a b so rb en t v esse ls , a n d t o t h eir i n cre ase d v iv acity f ro m t h e
in flu en ce o f t h e w arm th o f t h e s p rin g s u cceed in g t h e w in te r's c o ld , a n d t h eir
th en ce g re ate r s u sc ep tib ility t o i r rita tio n f ro m t h e j u ic es w hic h t h ey a b so rb ,
re se m blin g i n a ll c ir c u m sta n ces t h e a ctio n o f t h e l iv in g v esse ls o f a n im als .

N O TE X XXVII— VEG ETA BLE R ESP IR ATIO N.
W hile s p re a d i n a ir t h e l e a ves r e sp ir in g p la y.
C A NTO I V . l . 4 21.
I .
There h av e b een v ario us o pin io ns c o ncern in g t h e u se o f t h e l e av es o f p la n ts
i n t h e v eg eta b le o eco nom y. S om e h av e c o nte n ded t h at t h ey a re p ers p ir a to ry
o rg an s; t h is d oes n ot s e em p ro bab le f ro m a n e x perim en t o f D r. H ale s, V eg .
S ta t. p . 3 0. H e f o und b y c u ttin g o ff b ra n ch es o f t r e es w ith a p ple s o n t h em ,
a n d t a k in g o ff t h e l e av es, t h at a n a p ple e x hale d a b out a s m uch a s t w o l e av es,
t h e s u rfa ces o f w hic h w ere n early e q ual t o t h e a p ple ; w hen ce i t w ould a p pear
t h at a p ple s h av e a s g ood a c la im t o b e t e rm ed p ers p ir a to ry o rg an s a s l e av es.
O th ers h av e b elie v ed t h em e x cre to ry o rg an s o f e x cre m en tio us j u ic es; b ut a s
t h e v ap our e x hale d f ro m v eg eta b le s h as n o t a ste , t h is i d ea i s n o m ore
p ro bab le t h an t h e o th er; a d d t o t h is t h at i n m ois t w eath er, t h ey d o n ot a p pear
t o p ers p ir e o r e x hale a t a ll.
T he i n te rn al s u rfa ce o f t h e l u ngs o r a ir -v esse ls i n m en , a re s a id t o b e e q ual t o
t h e e x te rn al s u rfa ce o f t h e w hole b ody, o r a b out f if te en s q uare f e et; o n t h is
s u rfa ce t h e b lo od i s e x pose d t o t h e i n flu en ce o f t h e r e sp ir e d a ir t h ro ugh t h e
m ed iu m h ow ev er o f a t h in p ellic le ; b y t h is e x posu re t o t h e a ir i t h as i ts c o lo ur
c h an ged f ro m d eep r e d t o b rig ht s c arle t, a n d a cq uir e s s o m eth in g s o n ecessa ry
t o t h e e x is te n ce o f l if e , t h at w e c an l iv e s c arc ely a m in ute w ith out t h is
w onderfu l p ro cess.
T he a n alo gy b etw een t h e l e av es o f p la n ts a n d t h e l u ngs o r g ills o f a n im als
s e em s t o e m bra ce s o m an y c ir c u m sta n ces, t h at w e c an s c arc ely w ith hold o ur
a sse n t t o t h eir p erfo rm in g s im ila r o ffic es.

I. T he g re at s u rfa ce o f t h e l e av es c o m pare d t o t h at o f t h e t r u nk a n d b ra n ch es
of t r e es i s s u ch , t h at i t w ould s e em t o b e a n o rg an w ell a d ap te d f o r t h e
purp ose o f e x posin g t h e v eg eta b le j u ic es t o t h e i n flu en ce o f t h e a ir ; t h is
how ev er w e s h all s e e a fte rw ard s i s p ro bab ly p erfo rm ed o nly b y t h eir u pper
su rfa ces, y et e v en i n t h is c ase t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e l e av es i n g en era l b ear a
gre ate r p ro portio n t o t h e s u rfa ce o f t h e t r e e, t h an t h e l u ngs o f a n im als t o t h eir
ex te rn al s u rfa ces.
2. I n t h e l u ngs o f a n im al, t h e b lo od a fte r h av in g b een e x pose d t o t h e a ir i n t h e
ex tr e m itie s o f p ulm onary a rte ry , i s c h an ged i n c o lo ur f ro m d eep r e d t o b rig ht
sc arle t, a n d c erta in ly i n s o m e o f i ts e sse n tia l p ro pertie s; i t i s t h en c o lle cte d b y
th e p ulm onary v ein a n d r e tu rn ed t o t h e h eart. T o s h ew a s im ila rity o f
cir c u m sta n ce i n t h e l e av es o f p la n ts t h e f o llo w in g e x perim en t w as m ad e, J u ne
24, 1 781: A s ta lk w ith l e av es a n d s e ed -v esse ls o f l a rg e s p urg e ( E uphorb ia
helio sc o pia ) h ad b een s e v era l d ay s p la ced i n a d eco ctio n o f m ad der ( R ubia
tin cto ru m ) s o t h at t h e l o w er p art o f t h e s te m , a n d t w o o f t h e u nderm ost l e av es
were i m mers e d i n i t. A fte r h av in g w ash ed t h e i m mers e d l e av es i n c le ar w ate r,
I c o uld r e ad ily d is c ern t h e c o lo ur o f t h e m ad der p assin g a lo ng t h e m id dle r ib
of e ach l e af. T his r e d a rte ry w as b eau tif u lly v is ib le b oth o n t h e u nder a n d
upper s u rfa ce o f t h e l e af; b ut o n t h e u pper s id e m an y r e d b ra n ch es w ere s e en
goin g f ro m i t t o t h e e x tr e m itie s o f t h e l e af, w hic h o n t h e o th er s id e w ere n ot
vis ib le e x cep t b y l o okin g t h ro ugh i t a g ain st t h e l ig ht. O n t h is u nder s id e a
sy ste m o f b ra n ch in g v esse ls c arry in g a p ale m ilk y f lu id w ere s e en c o m in g
fro m t h e e x tr e m itie s o f t h e l e af, a n d c o verin g t h e w hole u nders id e o f i t, a n d
jo in in g i n to t w o l a rg e v ein s, o ne o n e ach s id e o f t h e r e d a rte ry i n t h e m id dle
rib o f t h e l e af, a n d a lo ng w ith i t d esc en din g t o t h e f o ots ta lk o r p etio le . O n
slittin g o ne o f t h ese l e av es w ith s c is sa rs , a n d h av in g a c o m mon m ag nif y in g
le n s r e ad y, t h e m ilk y b lo od w as s e en o ozin g o ut o f t h e r e tu rn in g v ein s o n
each s id e o f t h e r e d a rte ry i n t h e m id dle r ib , b ut n one o f t h e r e d f lu id f ro m t h e
arte ry .
All t h ese a p peara n ces w ere m ore e asily s e en i n a l e af o f P ic ris t r e ate d i n t h e
sa m e m an ner; f o r i n t h is m ilk y p la n t t h e s te m s a n d m id dle r ib o f t h e l e av es
are s o m etim es n atu ra lly c o lo ure d r e d dis h , a n d h en ce t h e c o lo ur o f t h e m ad der
se em ed t o p ass f u rth er i n to t h e r a m if ic atio ns o f t h eir l e af-a rte rie s, a n d w as
th ere b eau tif u lly v is ib le w ith t h e r e tu rn in g b ra n ch es o f m ilk y v ein s o n e ach
sid e.

3. F ro m t h ese e x perim en ts t h e u pper s u rfa ce o f t h e l e af a p peare d t o b e t h e
im med ia te o rg an o f r e sp ir a tio n, b ecau se t h e c o lo ure d f lu id w as c arrie d t o t h e
ex tr e m itie s o f t h e l e af b y v esse ls m ost c o nsp ic u ous o n t h e u pper s u rfa ce, a n d
th ere c h an ged i n to a m ilk y f lu id , w hic h i s t h e b lo od o f t h e p la n t, a n d t h en
re tu rn ed b y c o nco m ita n t v ein s o n t h e u nder s u rfa ce, w hic h w ere s e en t o o oze
when d iv id ed w ith s c is sa rs , a n d w hic h i n P ic ris , p artic u la rly r e n der t h e u nder
su rfa ce o f t h e l e av es g re atly w hite r t h an t h e u pper o ne.
4. A s t h e u pper s u rfa ce o f l e av es c o nstitu te s t h e o rg an o f r e sp ir a tio n, o n
whic h t h e s a p i s e x pose d i n t h e t e rm in atio ns o f a rte rie s b en eath a t h in p ellic le
to t h e a ctio n o f t h e a tm osp here , t h ese s u rfa ces i n m an y p la n ts s tr o ngly r e p el
mois tu re , a s c ab bag e-le av es, w hen ce t h e p artic le s o f r a in l y in g o ver t h eir
su rfa ces w ith out t o uch in g t h em , a s o bse rv ed b y M r. M elv ille ( E ssa y s L ite ra ry
an d P hilo so p. E din burg h) h av e t h e a p peara n ce o f g lo bule s o f q uic k silv er.
And h en ce l e av es l a id w ith t h e u pper s u rfa ces o n w ate r, w ith er a s s o on a s i n
th e d ry a ir , b ut c o ntin ue g re en m an y d ay s, i f p la ced w ith t h e u nder s u rfa ces
on w ate r, a s a p pears i n t h e e x perim en ts o f M ons. B onnet ( U sa g e d es
Fev ille s.) H en ce s o m e a q uatic p la n ts , a s t h e W ate r-lily ( N ym phoea) h av e t h e
lo w er s id es o f t h eir l e av es f lo atin g o n t h e w ate r, w hile t h e u pper s u rfa ces
re m ain d ry i n t h e a ir .
5. A s t h ose i n se cts , w hic h h av e m an y s p ir a cu la , o r b re ath in g a p ertu re s, a s
wasp s a n d f lie s, a re i m med ia te ly
su ffo cate d b y p ourin g o il u pon t h em , I
care fu lly c o vere d w ith o il t h e s u rfa ces o f s e v era l l e av es o f P hlo m is , o f
Portu gal L au re l, a n d B als a m s, a n d t h ough i t w ould n ot r e g ula rly a d here , I
fo und t h em a ll d ie i n a d ay o r t w o.
Of a q uatic l e av es, s e e N ote o n T ra p a a n d o n F ucu s, i n V ol. I I. t o w hic h m ust
be a d ded t h at m an y l e av es a re f u rn is h ed w ith m usc le s a b out t h eir f o ots ta lk s,
to t u rn t h eir u pper s u rfa ces t o t h e a ir o r l ig ht, a s M im osa a n d H ed ysa ru m
gyra n s. F ro m a ll t h ese a n alo gie s I t h in k t h ere c an b e n o d oubt b ut t h at l e av es
of t r e es a re t h eir l u ngs, g iv in g o ut a p hlo gis tic m ate ria l t o t h e a tm osp here ,
an d a b so rb in g o xygen e o r v ita l a ir .
6. T he g re at u se o f l ig ht t o v eg eta tio n w ould a p pear f ro m t h is t h eo ry t o b e b y
dis e n gag in g v ita l a ir f ro m t h e w ate r w hic h t h ey p ers p ir e , a n d t h en ce t o
fa cilita te i ts u nio n w ith t h eir b lo od e x pose d b en eath t h e t h in s u rfa ce o f t h eir
le av es; s in ce w hen p ure a ir i s t h us a p plie d , i t i s p ro bab le , t h at i t c an b e m ore

re ad ily a b so rb ed . H en ce i n t h e c u rio us e x perim en ts o f D r. P rie stle y a n d M r.
In gen houze, s o m e p la n ts p urif ie d a ir l e ss t h an o th ers , t h at i s , t h ey p ers p ir e d
le ss i n t h e s u nsh in e; a n d M r. S ch eele f o und t h at b y p uttin g p eas i n to w ate r,
whic h a b out h alf - c o vere d t h em , t h at t h ey c o nverte d t h e v ita l a ir i n to f ix ed
air , o r c arb onic a cid g as, i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s i n a n im al r e sp ir a tio n. S ee
Note X XXIV .
7. T he c ir c u la tio n i n t h e l u ngs o r l e av es o f p la n ts i s v ery s im ila r t o t h at o f
fis h . I n f is h t h e b lo od a fte r h av in g p asse d t h ro ugh t h eir g ills d oes n ot r e tu rn
to t h e h eart a s f ro m t h e l u ngs o f a ir -b re ath in g a n im als , b ut t h e p ulm onary
vein t a k in g t h e s tr u ctu re o f a n a rte ry a fte r h av in g r e ceiv ed t h e b lo od f ro m t h e
gills , w hic h t h ere g ain s a m ore f lo rrid c o lo ur, d is tr ib ute s i t t o t h e o th er p arts
of t h eir b odie s. T he s a m e s tr u ctu re o ccu rs i n t h e l iv ers o f f is h , w hen ce w e s e e
in t h ose a n im als t w o c ir c u la tio ns i n dep en den t o f t h e p ow er o f t h e h eart, v iz .
th at b eg in nin g a t t h e t e rm in atio n o f t h e v ein s o f t h e g ills , a n d b ra n ch in g
th ro ugh t h e m usc le s; a n d t h at w hic h p asse s t h ro ugh t h e l iv er; b oth w hic h a re
carrie d o n b y t h e a ctio n o f t h ose r e sp ectiv e a rte rie s a n d v ein s. M onro 's
Physio lo gy o f F is h , p . 1 9.
The c o urs e o f t h e f lu id s i n t h e r o ots , l e av es, a n d b uds o f v eg eta b le s s e em s t o
be p erfo rm ed i n a m an ner s im ila r t o b oth t h ese . F ir s t t h e a b so rb en t v esse ls o f
th e r o ots a n d s u rfa ces u nite a t t h e f o ots ta lk o f t h e l e af; a n d t h en , l ik e t h e V en a
Porta ru m , a n a rte ry c o m men ces w ith out t h e i n te rv en tio n o f a h eart, a n d
sp re ad s t h e s a p i n i ts n um ero us r a m if ic atio ns o n t h e u pper s u rfa ce o f t h e l e af;
here i t c h an ges i ts c o lo ur a n d p ro pertie s, a n d b eco m es v eg eta b le b lo od; a n d i s
ag ain c o lle cte d b y a p ulm onary v ein o n t h e u nder s u rfa ce o f t h e l e af. T his
vein , l ik e t h at w hic h r e ceiv es t h e b lo od f ro m t h e g ills o f f is h , a ssu m es t h e
offic e a n d n am e o f a n a rte ry , a n d b ra n ch in g a g ain d is p ers e s t h e b lo od u pw ard
to t h e b ud f ro m t h e f o ots ta lk o f t h e l e af, a n d d ow nw ard t o t h e r o ots ; w here i t
is a ll e x pen ded i n t h e v ario us s e cre tio ns, t h e n ouris h m en t a n d g ro w th o f t h e
pla n t, a s f a st a s i t i s p re p are d .
II. T he o rg an o f r e sp ir a tio n a lr e ad y s p oken o f b elo ngs p artic u la rly t o t h e
sh oots o r b uds, b ut t h ere i s a n oth er p ulm onary s y ste m , p erh ap s t o ta lly
in dep en den t o f t h e g re en f o lia g e, w hic h b elo ngs t o t h e f ru ctif ic atio n o nly , I
mean t h e c o ro l o r p eta ls . I n t h is t h ere i s a n a rte ry b elo ngin g t o e ach p eta l,
whic h c o nvey s t h e v eg eta b le b lo od t o i ts e x tr e m itie s, e x posin g i t t o t h e l ig ht

an d a ir u nder a d elic ate m em bra n e c o verin g t h e i n te rn al s u rfa ce o f t h e p eta l,
where i t o fte n c h an ges i ts c o lo ur, a s i s b eau tif u lly s e en i n s o m e p arty -
co lo ure d p oppie s; t h ough i t i s p ro bab le s o m e o f t h e i r id esc en t c o lo urs o f
flo w ers m ay b e o w in g t o t h e d if fe re n t d eg re es o f t e n uity o f t h e e x te rio r
mem bra n e o f t h e l e af r e fra ctin g t h e l ig ht l ik e s o ap -b ubble s, t h e v eg eta b le
blo od i s t h en r e tu rn ed b y c o rre sp onden t v eg eta b le v ein s, e x actly a s i n t h e
gre en f o lia g e; f o r t h e p urp ose s o f t h e i m porta n t s e cre tio ns o f h oney , w ax , t h e
fin er e sse n tia l o il, a n d t h e p ro lif ic d ust o f t h e a n th ers .
1. T he v asc u la r s tr u ctu re o f t h e c o ro l a s a b ove d esc rib ed , a n d w hic h i s v is ib le
to t h e n ak ed e y e, a n d i ts e x posin g t h e v eg eta b le j u ic es t o t h e a ir a n d l ig ht
durin g t h e d ay , e v in ces t h at i t i s a p ulm onary o rg an .
2. A s t h e g la n ds w hic h p ro duce t h e p ro lif ic d ust o f t h e a n th ers , t h e h oney ,
wax , a n d f re q uen tly s o m e o dorif e ro us e sse n tia l o il, a re g en era lly a tta ch ed t o
th e c o ro l, a n d a lw ay s f a ll o ff a n d p eris h w ith i t, i t i s e v id en t t h at t h e b lo od i s
ela b ora te d o r o xygen ate d i n t h is p ulm onary s y ste m f o r t h e p urp ose o f t h ese
im porta n t s e cre tio ns.
3. M an y f lo w ers , a s t h e C olc h ic u m , a n d H am am elis a ris e n ak ed i n a u tu m n,
no g re en l e av es a p pearin g t ill t h e e n su in g s p rin g; a n d m an y o th ers p ut f o rth
th eir f lo w ers a n d c o m ple te t h eir i m pre g natio n e arly i n t h e s p rin g b efo re t h e
gre en f o lia g e a p pears , a s M ezere o n, c h errie s, p ears , w hic h s h ew s t h at t h ese
co ro ls a re t h e l u ngs b elo ngin g t o t h e f ru ctif ic atio n.
4. T his o rg an d oes n ot s e em t o h av e b een n ecessa ry f o r t h e d efe n ce o f t h e
sta m en s a n d p is tils , s in ce t h e c aly x o f m an y f lo w ers , a s T ra g opogon,
perfo rm s t h is o ffic e; a n d i n m an y f lo w ers t h ese p eta ls t h em se lv es a re s o
te n der a s t o r e q uir e b ein g s h ut u p i n t h e c aly x d urin g t h e n ig ht, f o r w hat o th er
use t h en c an s u ch a n a p para tu s o f v esse ls b e d esig ned ?
5. I n t h e H elle b oru s-n ig er, C hris tm as-ro se , a fte r t h e s e ed s a re g ro w n t o a
certa in s iz e, t h e n ecta rie s a n d s ta m en s d ro p o ff, a n d t h e b eau tif u l l a rg e w hite
peta ls c h an ge t h eir c o lo ur t o a d eep g re en , a n d g ra d ually t h us b eco m e a c aly x
in clo sin g a n d d efe n din g t h e r ip en in g s e ed s, h en ce i t w ould s e em t h at t h e
white v esse ls o f t h e c o ro l s e rv ed t h e o ffic e o f e x posin g t h e b lo od t o t h e
actio n o f t h e a ir , f o r t h e p urp ose s o f s e p ara tin g o r p ro ducin g t h e h oney , w ax ,
an d p ro lif ic d ust, a n d w hen t h ese w ere n o l o nger w an te d , t h at t h ese v esse ls

co ale sc ed l ik e t h e p la cen ta l v esse ls o f a n im als a fte r t h eir b ir th , a n d t h us
cease d t o p erfo rm t h at o ffic e a n d l o st a t t h e s a m e t im e t h eir w hite c o lo ur.
Why s h ould t h ey l o ose t h eir w hite c o lo ur, u nle ss t h ey a t t h e s a m e t im e l o st
so m e o th er p ro perty b esid es t h at o f d efe n din g t h e s e ed -v esse l, w hic h t h ey
still c o ntin ue t o d efe n d?
6. F ro m t h ese o bse rv atio ns I a m l e d t o d oubt w heth er g re en l e av es b e
ab so lu te ly n ecessa ry t o t h e p ro gre ss o f t h e f ru it- b ud a fte r t h e l a st y ear's
le av es a re f a lle n o ff. T he g re en l e av es s e rv e a s l u ngs t o t h e s h oots a n d f o ste r
th e n ew b uds i n t h eir b oso m s, w heth er t h ese b uds b e l e af-b uds o r f ru it- b uds;
but i n t h e e arly s p rin g t h e f ru it- b uds e x pan d t h eir c o ro ls , w hic h a re t h eir
lu ngs, a n d s e em n o l o nger t o r e q uir e g re en l e av es; h en ce t h e v in e b ears f ru it
at o ne j o in t w ith out l e av es, a n d p uts o ut a l e af-b ud a t a n oth er j o in t w ith out
fru it. A nd I s u ppose t h e g re en l e av es w hic h r is e o ut o f t h e e arth i n t h e s p rin g
fro m t h e C olc h ic u m a re f o r t h e p urp ose o f p ro ducin g t h e n ew b ulb , a n d i ts
pla cen ta , a n d n ot f o r t h e g iv in g m atu rity t o t h e s e ed . W hen c u rra n t o r
goosb erry t r e es l o se t h eir l e av es b y t h e d ep re d atio n o f i n se cts t h e f ru it
co ntin ues t o b e f o rm ed , t h ough l e ss s w eet a n d l e ss i n s iz e.
7. F ro m t h ese f a cts i t a p pears t h at t h e f lo w er-b ud a fte r t h e c o ro l f a lls o ff,
(w hic h i s i ts l u ngs,) a n d t h e s ta m en s a n d n ecta ry a lo ng w ith i t, b eco m es
sim ply a n u te ru s f o r t h e p urp ose o f s u pply in g t h e g ro w in g e m bry on w ith
nouris h m en t, t o geth er w ith a s y ste m o f a b so rb en t v esse ls w hic h b rin g t h e
ju ic es o f t h e e arth t o t h e f o ots ta lk o f t h e f ru it, a n d w hic h t h ere c h an ges i n to
an a rte ry f o r t h e p urp ose o f d is tr ib utin g t h e s a p f o r t h e s e cre tio n o f t h e
sa cch arin e o r f a rin aceo us o r a cesc en t m ate ria ls f o r t h e u se o f t h e e m bry on. A t
th e s a m e t im e a s a ll t h e v esse ls o f t h e d if fe re n t b uds o f t r e es i n osc u la te o r
co m munic ate w ith e ach o th er, t h e f ru it b eco m es s w eete r a n d l a rg er w hen t h e
gre en l e av es c o ntin ue o n t h e t r e e, b ut t h e m atu re f lo w ers t h em se lv es, ( th e
su cceed in g f ru it n ot c o nsid ere d ) p erh ap s s u ffe r l ittle i n ju ry f ro m t h e g re en
le av es b ein g t a k en o ff, a s s o m e f lo ris ts h av e o bse rv ed .
8. T hat t h e v esse ls o f d if fe re n t v eg eta b le b uds i n osc u la te i n v ario us p arts o f
th eir c ir c u la tio n i s r e n dere d p ro bab le b y t h e i n cre ase d g ro w th o f o ne b ud,
when o th ers i n i ts v ic in ity a re c u t a w ay ; a s i t t h us s e em s t o r e ceiv e t h e
nouris h m en t w hic h w as b efo re d iv id ed a m ongst m an y.

N O TE X XXVIII.— VEG ETA BLE
I M PR EG NATIO N.
L ove o ut t h eir h our a nd l e a ve t h eir l iv es i n a ir .
C A NTO I V . l . 4 56.
F ro m t h e a ccu ra te e x perim en ts a n d o bse rv atio ns o f S palla n zan i i t a p pears t h at
i n t h e S partiu m J u nceu m , r u sh -b ro om , t h e v ery m in ute s e ed s w ere d is c ern ed
i n t h e p od a t l e ast t w en ty d ay s b efo re t h e f lo w er i s i n f u ll b lo om , t h at i s
t w en ty d ay s b efo re f e cu ndatio n. A t t h is t im e a ls o t h e p ow der o f t h e a n th ers
w as v is ib le , b ut g lu ed f a st t o t h eir s u m mits . T he s e ed s h ow ev er a t t h is t im e,
a n d f o r t e n d ay s a fte r t h e b lo sso m h ad f a lle n o ff, a p peare d t o c o nsis t o f a
g ela tin ous s u bsta n ce. O n t h e e le v en th d ay a fte r t h e f a llin g o f t h e b lo sso m t h e
s e ed s b ecam e h eart- s h ap e, w ith t h e b asis a tta ch ed b y a n a p pen dag e t o t h e
p od, a n d a w hite p oin t a t t h e a p ex ; t h is w hite p oin t w as o n p re ssu re f o und t o
b e a c av ity i n clu din g a d ro p o f l iq uor.
O n t h e 2 5th d ay t h e c av ity w hic h a t f ir s t a p peare d a t t h e a p ex w as m uch
e n la rg ed a n d s till f u ll o f l iq uor, i t a ls o c o nta in ed a v ery s m all s e m i-
t r a n sp are n t b ody, o f a y ello w is h c o lo ur, g ela tin ous, a n d f ix ed b y i ts t w o
o pposite e n ds t o t h e s id es o f t h e c av ity .
I n a m onth t h e s e ed w as m uch e n la rg ed a n d i ts s h ap e c h an ged f ro m a h eart t o
a k id ney , t h e l ittle b ody c o nta in ed i n t h e c av ity w as i n cre ase d i n b ulk a n d w as
l e ss t r a n sp are n t, a n d g ela tin ous, b ut t h ere y et a p peare d n o o rg an iz atio n.
O n t h e 4 0th d ay t h e c av ity n ow g ro w n l a rg er w as q uite f ille d w ith t h e b ody,
w hic h w as c o vere d w ith a t h in m em bra n e; a fte r t h is m em bra n e w as r e m oved

th e b ody a p peare d o f a b rig ht g re en , a n d w as e asily d iv id ed b y t h e p oin t o f a
need le i n to t w o p ortio ns, w hic h m an if e stly f o rm ed t h e t w o l o bes, a n d w ith in
th ese a tta ch ed t o t h e l o w er p art t h e e x ceed in gly s m all p la n tu le w as e asily
perc eiv ed .
The f o re g oin g o bse rv atio ns e v in ce, 1 . T hat t h e s e ed s e x is t i n t h e o variu m
man y d ay s b efo re f e cu ndatio n. 2 . T hat t h ey r e m ain f o r s o m e t im e s o lid , a n d
th en a c av ity c o nta in in g a l iq uid i s f o rm ed i n t h em . 3 . T hat a fte r f e cu ndatio n
a b ody b eg in s t o a p pear w ith in t h e c av ity f ix ed b y t w o p oin ts t o t h e s id es,
whic h i n p ro cess o f t im e p ro ves t o b e t w o l o bes c o nta in in g a p la n tu le . 4 . T hat
th e r ip e s e ed c o nsis ts o f t w o l o bes a d herin g t o a p la n tu le , a n d s u rro unded b y
a t h in m em bra n e w hic h i s i ts e lf c o vere d w ith a h usk o r c u tic le . S pala n zan i's
Dis se rta tio ns, V ol. I I. p . 2 53.
The a n alo gy b etw een s e ed s a n d e g gs h as l o ng b een o bse rv ed , a n d i s
co nfir m ed b y t h e m ode o f t h eir p ro ductio n. T he e g g i s k now n t o b e f o rm ed
with in t h e h en l o ng b efo re i ts i m pre g natio n; C .F . W olf a sse rts t h at t h e y olk o f
th e e g g i s n ouris h ed b y t h e v esse ls o f t h e m oth er, a n d t h at i t h as f ro m t h ose
its a rte ria l a n d v en ous b ra n ch es, b ut t h at a fte r i m pre g natio n t h ese v esse ls
gra d ually b eco m e i m perv io us a n d o blite ra te d , a n d t h at n ew o nes a re
pro duced f ro m t h e f e tu s a n d d is p ers e d i n to t h e y olk . H alle r's P hysio lo g. T om .
VIII. p . 9 4. T he y oung s e ed a fte r f e cu ndatio n, I s u ppose , i s n ouris h ed i n a
sim ila r m an ner f ro m t h e g ela tin ous l iq uor, w hic h i s p re v io usly d ep osite d f o r
th at p urp ose ; t h e u te ru s o f t h e p la n t p ro ducin g o r s e cre tin g i t i n to a r e se rv oir
or a m nio s i n w hic h t h e e m bry on i s l o dged , a n d t h at t h e y oung e m bry on i s
fu rn is h ed w ith v esse ls t o a b so rb a p art o f i t, a s i n t h e v ery e arly e m bry on i n
th e a n im al u te ru s.
The s p aw n o f f ro gs a n d o f f is h i s d eliv ere d f ro m t h e f e m ale b efo re i ts
im pre g natio n. M . B onnet s a y s t h at t h e m ale s a la m an der d arts h is s e m en i n to
th e w ate r, w here i t f o rm s a l ittle w hitis h c lo ud w hic h i s a fte rw ard s r e ceiv ed
by t h e s w oln a n us o f t h e f e m ale , a n d s h e i s f e cu ndate d .— He a d ds t h at m arin e
pla n ts a p pro ach n ear t o t h ese a n im als , a s t h e m ale d oes n ot p ro je ct a f in e
pow der b ut a l iq uor w hic h i n l ik e m an ner f o rm s a l ittle c lo ud i n t h e w ate r.—
And f u rth er a d ds, w ho k now s b ut t h e p ow der o f t h e s ta m in a o f c erta in p la n ts
may n ot m ak e s o m e i m pre ssio n o n c erta in g erm s b elo ngin g t o t h e a n im al
kin gdom ! L ette r X LIII. t o S pala n zan i, O ev re s P hilo s.

Spala n zan i f o und t h at t h e s e m in al f lu id o f f ro gs a n d d ogs e v en w hen d ilu te d
with m uch w ate r r e ta in ed i ts p ro lif ic q uality . W heth er t h is q uality b e s im ply a
stim ulu s e x citin g t h e e g g i n to a n im al a ctio n, w hic h m ay b e c alle d a v iv if y in g
prin cip le , o r w heth er p art o f i t b e a ctu ally c o njo in ed w ith t h e e g g i s n ot y et
dete rm in ed , t h ough t h e l a tte r s e em s m ore p ro bab le f ro m t h e f re q uen t
re se m bla n ce o f t h e f e tu s t o t h e m ale p are n t. A c o nju nctio n h ow ev er o f b oth
th e m ale a n d f e m ale i n flu en ce s e em s n ecessa ry f o r t h e p urp ose o f
re p ro ductio n t h ro ughout a ll o rg an iz ed n atu re , a s w ell i n h erm ap hro dite
in se cts , m ic ro sc o pic a n im als , a n d p oly pi, a n d e x is ts a s w ell i n t h e f o rm atio n
of t h e b uds o f v eg eta b le s a s i n t h e p ro ductio n o f t h eir s e ed s, w hic h i s
in gen io usly c o nceiv ed a n d e x pla in ed b y L in neu s. A fte r h av in g c o m pare d t h e
flo w er t o t h e l a rv a o f a b utte rfly , c o nfin in g o f p eta ls i n ste ad o f w in gs, c aly xes
in ste ad o f w in g-s h eath s, w ith t h e o rg an s o f r e p ro ductio n, a n d h av in g s h ew n
th e u se o f t h e f a rin a i n f e cu ndatin g t h e e g g o r s e ed , h e p ro ceed s t o e x pla in t h e
pro ductio n o f t h e b ud. T he c aly x o f a f lo w er, h e s a y s, i s a n e x pan sio n o f t h e
oute r b ark , t h e p eta ls p ro ceed f ro m t h e i n ner b ark o r r in d, t h e s ta m en s f ro m
th e a lb urn um o r w oody c ir c le , a n d t h e s ty le f ro m t h e p ith . I n t h e p ro ductio n
an d i m pre g natio n o f t h e s e ed a c o m mix tu re o f t h e s e cre tio ns o f t h e s ta m en s
an d s ty le a re n ecessa ry ; a n d f o r t h e p ro ductio n o f a b ud h e t h in ks t h e m ed ulla
or p ith b urs ts i ts i n te g um en ts a n d m ix es w ith t h e w oody p art o r a lb urn um ,
an d t h ese f o rc in g t h eir p assa g e t h ro ugh t h e r in d a n d b ark c o nstitu te t h e b ud o r
viv ip aro us p ro gen y o f t h e v eg eta b le . S yste m o f V eg eta b le s t r a n sla te d f ro m
Lin neu s, p . 8 .
It h as b een s u ppose d t h at t h e e m bry on v eg eta b le a fte r f e cu ndatio n, b y i ts
liv in g a ctiv ity o r s tim ulu s e x erte d o n t h e v esse ls o f t h e p are n t p la n t, m ay
pro duce t h e f ru it o r s e ed -lo bes, a s t h e a n im al f e tu s p ro duces i ts p la cen ta , a n d
as v eg eta b le b uds m ay b e s u ppose d t o p ro duce t h eir u m bilic al v esse ls o r
ro ots d ow n t h e b ark o f t h e t r e e. T his i n r e sp ect t o t h e p ro ductio n o f t h e f ru it
su rro undin g t h e s e ed s o f t r e es h as b een a ssim ila te d t o t h e g all- n uts o n o ak -
le av es, a n d t o t h e b ed eg uar o n b ria rs , b ut t h ere i s a p ow erfu l o bje ctio n t o t h is
doctr in e, v iz . t h at t h e f ru it o f f ig s, a ll w hic h a re f e m ale i n t h is c o untr y , g ro w
nearly a s l a rg e w ith out f e cu ndatio n, a n d t h ere fo re t h e e m bry on h as i n t h em
no s e lf -liv in g p rin cip le .

N O TE X XXIX .— VEG ETA BLE
G LA NDULA TIO N.
S eeks, w here f in e p ore s t h eir d ulc et b alm d is til.
C A NTO I V . l . 5 03.
T he g la n ds o f v eg eta b le s w hic h s e p ara te f ro m t h eir b lo od t h e m ucila g e,
s ta rc h , o r s u gar f o r t h e p la cen ta tio n o r s u pport o f t h eir s e ed s, b ulb s, a n d b uds;
o r t h ose w hic h d ep osit t h eir b itte r, a crid , o r n arc o tic j u ic es f o r t h eir d efe n ce
f ro m d ep re d atio ns o f i n se cts o r l a rg er a n im als ; o r t h ose w hic h s e cre te r e sin s
o r w ax f o r t h eir p ro te ctio n f ro m m ois tu re o r f ro sts , c o nsis t o f v esse ls t o o f in e
f o r t h e i n je ctio n o r a b so rp tio n o f c o lo ure d f lu id s, a n d h av e n ot t h ere fo re y et
b een e x hib ite d t o t h e i n sp ectio n e v en o f o ur g la sse s, a n d c an t h ere fo re o nly
b e k now n b y t h eir e ffe cts , b ut o ne o f t h e m ost c u rio us a n d i m porta n t o f a ll
v eg eta b le s e cre tio ns, t h at o f h oney , i s a p pare n t t o o ur n ak ed e y es, t h ough
b efo re t h e d is c o verie s o f L in neu s t h e n ecta ry o r h oney -g la n d h ad n ot e v en
a cq uir e d a n am e.
T he o dorif e ro us e sse n tia l o ils o f s e v era l f lo w ers s e em t o h av e b een d esig ned
f o r t h eir d efe n ce a g ain st t h e d ep re d atio ns o f i n se cts , w hile t h eir b eau tif u l
c o lo urs w ere a n ecessa ry c o nse q uen ce o f t h e s iz e o f t h e p artic le s o f t h eir
b lo od, o r o f t h e t e n uity o f t h e e x te rio r m em bra n e o f t h e p eta l. T he u se o f t h e
p ro lif ic d ust i s n ow w ell a sc erta in ed , t h e w ax w hic h c o vers t h e a n th ers
p re v en ts t h is d ust f ro m r e ceiv in g m ois tu re , w hic h w ould m ak e i t b urs t
p re m atu re ly a n d t h en ce p re v en t i ts a p plic atio n t o t h e s tig m a, a s s o m etim es
h ap pen s i n m ois t y ears a n d i s t h e c au se o f d efic ie n t f e cu ndatio n b oth o f o ur
f ie ld s a n d o rc h ard s.

The u niv ers a lity o f t h e p ro ductio n o f h oney i n t h e v eg eta b le w orld , a n d t h e
very c o m plic ate d a p para tu s w hic h n atu re h as c o nstr u cte d i n m an y f lo w ers , a s
well a s t h e a crid o r d ele te rio us j u ic es s h e h as f u rn is h ed t h ose f lo w ers w ith ( a s
in t h e A co nite ) t o p ro te ct t h is h oney f ro m r a in a n d f ro m t h e d ep re d atio ns o f
in se cts , s e em t o i m ply t h at t h is f lu id i s o f v ery g re at i m porta n ce i n t h e
veg eta b le e co nom y; a n d a ls o t h at i t w as n ecessa ry t o e x pose i t t o t h e o pen a ir
pre v io us t o i ts r e ab so rp tio n i n to t h e v eg eta b le v esse ls .
In t h e a n im al s y ste m t h e l a ch ry m al g la n d s e p ara te s i ts f lu id i n to t h e o pen a ir
fo r t h e p urp ose o f m ois te n in g t h e e y e, o f t h is f lu id t h e p art w hic h d oes n ot
ex hale i t a b so rb ed b y t h e p uncta l a ch ry m alia a n d c arrie d i n to t h e n ostr ils ; b ut
as t h is i s n ot a n utr itiv e f lu id t h e a n alo gy g oes n o f u rth er t h an i ts s e cre tio n
in to t h e o pen a ir a n d i ts r e ab so rp tio n i n to t h e s y ste m ; e v ery o th er s e cre te d
flu id i n t h e a n im al b ody i s i n p art a b so rb ed a g ain i n to t h e s y ste m , e v en t h ose
whic h a re e ste em ed e x cre m en titio us, a s t h e u rin e a n d p ers p ir a b le m atte r, o f
whic h t h e l a tte r i s s e cre te d , l ik e t h e h oney , i n to t h e e x te rn al a ir . T hat t h e
honey i s a n utr itio us f lu id , p erh ap s t h e m ost s o o f a n y v eg eta b le p ro ductio n,
ap pears f ro m i ts g re at s im ila rity t o s u gar, a n d f ro m i ts a ffo rd in g s u ste n an ce t o
su ch n um bers o f i n se cts , w hic h l iv e u pon i t s o le ly d urin g s u m mer, a n d l a y i t
up f o r t h eir w in te r p ro vis io n. T hese p ro ofs o f i ts n utr itiv e n atu re e v in ce t h e
necessity o f i ts r e ab so rp tio n i n to t h e v eg eta b le s y ste m f o r s o m e u se fu l
purp ose .
This p urp ose h ow ev er h as a s y et e sc ap ed t h e r e se arc h es o f p hilo so phic al
bota n is ts . M . P onte d era b elie v es i t d esig ned t o l u bric ate t h e v eg eta b le u te ru s,
an d c o m pare s t h e h orn -lik e n ecta rie s o f s o m e f lo w ers t o t h e a p pen dic le o f t h e
caecu m i n te stin um o f a n im als . ( A nth olo g. p . 4 9.) O th ers h av e s u ppose d t h at
th e h oney , w hen r e ab so rb ed , m ig ht s e rv e t h e p urp ose o f t h e l iq uor a m nii, o r
white o f t h e e g g, a s a n utr im en t f o r t h e y oung e m bry on o r f e cu ndate d s e ed i n
its e arly s ta te o f e x is te n ce. B ut a s t h e n ecta ry i s f o und e q ually g en era l i n m ale
flo w ers a s i n f e m ale o nes; a n d a s t h e y oung e m bry on o r s e ed g ro w s b efo re
th e p eta ls a n d n ecta ry a re e x pan ded , a n d a fte r t h ey f a ll o ff; a n d, t h ir d ly , a s t h e
necta ry s o s o on f a lls o ff a fte r t h e f e cu ndatio n o f t h e p is tillu m ; t h ese s e em t o
be i n su rm ounta b le o bje ctio ns t o b oth t h e a b ove-m en tio ned o pin io ns.
In t h is s ta te o f u ncerta in ty c o nje ctu re s m ay b e o f u se s o f a r a s t h ey l e ad t o
fu rth er e x perim en t a n d i n vestig atio n. I n m an y t r ib es o f i n se cts , a s t h e s ilk -

worm , a n d p erh ap s i n a ll t h e m oth s a n d b utte rflie s, t h e m ale a n d f e m ale
pare n ts d ie a s s o on a s t h e e g gs a re i m pre g nate d a n d e x clu ded ; t h e e g gs
re m ain in g t o b e p erfe cte d a n d h atc h ed a t s o m e f u tu re t im e. T he s a m e t h in g
hap pen s i n r e g ard t o t h e m ale a n d f e m ale p arts o f f lo w ers ; t h e a n th ers a n d
fila m en ts , w hic h c o nstitu te t h e m ale p arts o f t h e f lo w er, a n d t h e s tig m a a n d
sty le , w hic h c o nstitu te t h e f e m ale p art o f t h e f lo w er, f a ll o ff a n d d ie a s s o on
as t h e s e ed s a re i m pre g nate d , a n d a lo ng w ith t h ese t h e p eta ls a n d n ecta ry .
Now t h e m oth s a n d b utte rflie s a b ove-m en tio ned , a s s o on a s t h ey a cq uir e t h e
passio n a n d t h e a p para tu s f o r t h e r e p ro ductio n o f t h eir s p ecie s, l o ose t h e
pow er o f f e ed in g u pon l e av es a s t h ey d id b efo re , a n d b eco m e n ouris h ed b y
what? — by h oney a lo ne.
Hen ce w e a cq uir e a s tr o ng a n alo gy f o r t h e u se o f t h e n ecta ry o r s e cre tio n o f
honey i n t h e v eg eta b le e co nom y, w hic h i s , t h at t h e m ale p arts o f f lo w ers , a n d
th e f e m ale p arts , a s s o on a s t h ey l e av e t h eir f e tu s-s ta te , e x pan din g t h eir
peta ls , ( w hic h c o nstitu te t h eir l u ngs,) b eco m e s e n sib le t o t h e p assio n, a n d
gain t h e a p para tu s f o r t h e r e p ro ductio n o f t h eir s p ecie s, a n d a re f e d a n d
nouris h ed w ith h oney l ik e t h e i n se cts a b ove d esc rib ed ; a n d t h at h en ce t h e
necta ry b eg in s i ts o ffic e o f p ro ducin g h oney , a n d d ie s o r c ease s t o p ro duce
honey a t t h e s a m e t im e w ith t h e b ir th a n d d eath o f t h e s ta m en s a n d t h e p is tils ;
whic h , w heth er e x is tin g i n t h e s a m e o r i n d if fe re n t f lo w ers , a re s e p ara te a n d
dis tin ct a n im ate d b ein gs.
Pre v io us t o t h is t im e t h e a n th ers w ith t h eir f ila m en ts , a n d t h e s tig m as w ith
th eir s ty le s, a re i n t h eir f e tu s-s ta te s u sta in ed b y t h eir p la cen ta l v esse ls , l ik e
th e u nex pan ded l e af-b ud; w ith t h e s e ed s e x is tin g i n t h e v eg eta b le w om b y et
unim pre g nate d , a n d t h e d ust y et u nrip e i n t h e c ells o f t h e a n th ers . A fte r t h is
perio d t h ey e x pan d t h eir p eta ls , w hic h h av e b een s h ew n a b ove t o c o nstitu te
th e l u ngs o f t h e f lo w er; t h e p la cen ta l v esse ls , w hic h b efo re n ouris h ed t h e
an th ers a n d t h e s tig m as, c o ale sc e o r c ease t o n ouris h t h em ; a n d t h ey n ow
acq uir e b lo od m ore o xygen ate d b y t h e a ir , o bta in t h e p assio n a n d p ow er o f
re p ro ductio n, a re s e n sib le t o h eat, a n d c o ld , a n d m ois tu re , a n d t o m ech an ic
stim ulu s, a n d b eco m e i n r e ality i n se cts f e d w ith h oney , s im ila r i n e v ery
re sp ect e x cep t t h eir b ein g a tta ch ed t o t h e t r e e o n w hic h t h ey w ere p ro duced .
Som e e x perim en ts I h av e m ad e t h is s u m mer b y c u ttin g o ut t h e n ecta rie s o f
se v era l f lo w ers o f t h e a co nite s b efo re t h e p eta ls w ere o pen , o r h ad b eco m e

much c o lo ure d , s o m e o f t h ese f lo w ers n ear t h e s u m mit o f t h e p la n ts p ro duced
no s e ed s, o th ers l o w er d ow n p ro duced s e ed s; b ut t h ey w ere n ot s u ffic ie n tly
guard ed f ro m t h e f a rin a o f t h e f lo w ers i n t h eir v ic in ity ; n or h av e I h ad
opportu nity t o t r y i f t h ese s e ed s w ould v eg eta te .
I a m a cq uain te d w ith a p hilo so pher, w ho c o nte m pla tin g t h is s u bje ct t h in ks i t
not i m possib le , t h at t h e f ir s t i n se cts w ere t h e a n th ers o r s tig m as o f f lo w ers ;
whic h h ad b y s o m e m ean s l o ose d t h em se lv es f ro m t h eir p are n t p la n t, l ik e t h e
male f lo w ers o f V allis n eria ; a n d t h at m an y o th er i n se cts h av e g ra d ually i n
lo ng p ro cess o f t im e b een f o rm ed f ro m t h ese ; s o m e a cq uir in g w in gs, o th ers
fin s, a n d o th ers c la w s, f ro m t h eir c ease le ss e ffo rts t o p ro cu re t h eir f o od, o r t o
se cu re t h em se lv es f ro m i n ju ry . H e c o nte n ds, t h at n one o f t h ese c h an ges a re
more i n co m pre h en sib le t h an t h e t r a n sfo rm atio n o f t a d pole s i n to f ro gs, a n d
cate rp illa rs i n to b utte rflie s.
There a re p arts o f a n im al b odie s, w hic h d o n ot r e q uir e o xygen ate d b lo od f o r
th e p urp ose o f t h eir s e cre tio ns, a s t h e l iv er; w hic h f o r t h e p ro ductio n o f b ile
ta k es i ts b lo od f ro m t h e m ese n te ric v ein s, a fte r i t m ust h av e l o st t h e w hole o r
a g re at p art o f i ts o xygen atio n, w hic h i t h ad a cq uir e d i n i ts p assa g e t h ro ugh
th e l u ngs. I n l ik e m an ner t h e p eric arp iu m , o r w om b o f t h e f lo w er, c o ntin ues
to s e cre te i ts p ro per j u ic es f o r t h e p re se n t n ouris h m en t o f t h e n ew ly a n im ate d
em bry on-s e ed ; a n d t h e s a cch arin e, a cesc en t, o r s ta rc h y m atte r o f t h e f ru it o r
se ed - l o bes f o r i ts f u tu re g ro w th ; i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s t h ese t h in gs w en t o n
befo re f e cu ndatio n; t h at i s , w ith out a n y c ir c u la tio n o f j u ic es i n t h e p eta ls , o r
pro ductio n o f h oney i n t h e n ecta ry ; t h ese h av in g p eris h ed a n d f a lle n o ff w ith
th e m ale a n d f e m ale a p para tu s f o r i m pre g natio n.
It i s p ro bab le t h at t h e d ep re d atio ns o f i n se cts o n t h is n utr itio us f lu id m ust b e
in ju rio us t o t h e p ro ducts o f v eg eta tio n, a n d w ould b e m uch m ore s o , b ut t h at
th e p la n ts h av e e ith er a cq uir e d m ean s t o d efe n d t h eir h oney i n p art, o r h av e
le arn ed t o m ak e m ore t h an i s a b so lu te ly n ecessa ry f o r t h eir o w n e co nom y. I n
th e s a m e m an ner t h e h oney -d ew o n t r e es i s v ery i n ju rio us t o t h em ; i n w hic h
dis e ase t h e n utr itiv e f lu id , t h e v eg eta b le - s a p -ju ic e, s e em s t o b e e x su ded b y a
re tr o gra d e m otio n o f t h e c u ta n eo us l y m phatic s, a s i n t h e s w eatin g s ic k ness o f
th e l a st c en tu ry . T o p re v en t t h e d ep re d atio n o f i n se cts o n h oney a w ealth y
man i n I ta ly i s s a id t o h av e p ois o ned h is n eig hbour's b ees p erh ap s b y m ix in g
ars n ic w ith h oney , a g ain st w hic h t h ere i s a m ost f lo w ery d ecla m atio n i n

Quin tilia n . N o. X III. A s t h e u se o f t h e w ax i s t o p re se rv e t h e d ust o f t h e
an th ers f ro m m ois tu re , w hic h w ould p re m atu re ly b urs t t h em , t h e b ees w hic h
co lle ct t h is f o r t h e c o nstr u ctio n o f t h e c o m bs o r c ells , m ust o n t h is a cco unt
als o i n ju re t h e v eg eta tio n o f a c o untr y w here t h ey t o o m uch a b ound.
It i s n ot e asy t o c o nje ctu re w hy i t w as n ecessa ry t h at t h is s e cre tio n o f h oney
sh ould b e e x pose d t o t h e o pen a ir i n t h e n ecta ry o r h oney -c u p, f o r w hic h
purp ose s o g re at a n a p para tu s f o r i ts d efe n ce f ro m i n se cts a n d f ro m s h ow ers
becam e n ecessa ry . T his d if fic u lty i n cre ase s w hen w e r e co lle ct t h at t h e s u gar
in t h e j o in ts o f g ra ss, i n t h e s u gar-c an e, a n d i n t h e r o ots o f b eets , a n d i n r ip e
fru its i s p ro duced w ith out t h e e x posu re t o t h e a ir . O n s u ppositio n o f i ts
se rv in g f o r n utr im en t t o t h e a n th ers a n d s tig m as i t m ay t h us a cq uir e g re ate r
oxygen atio n f o r t h e p urp ose o f p ro ducin g g re ate r p ow ers o f s e n sib ility ,
acco rd in g t o a d octr in e l a te ly a d van ced b y a F re n ch p hilo so pher, w ho h as
en deav oure d t o s h ew t h at t h e o xygen e, o r b ase o f v ita l a ir , i s t h e c o nstitu en t
prin cip le o f o ur p ow er o f s e n sib ility .
Fro m t h is p ro vis io n o f h oney f o r t h e m ale a n d f e m ale p arts o f f lo w ers , a n d
fro m t h e p ro vis io n o f s u gar, s ta rc h , o il, a n d m ucila g e, i n t h e f ru its , s e ed -
co ty le d ons, r o ots , a n d b uds o f p la n ts l a id u p f o r t h e n utr im en t o f t h e
ex pan din g f e tu s, n ot o nly a v ery n um ero us c la ss o f i n se cts , b ut a g re at p art o f
th e l a rg er a n im als p ro cu re t h eir f o od; a n d t h us e n jo y l if e a n d p le asu re w ith out
pro ducin g p ain t o o th ers , f o r t h ese s e ed s o r e g gs w ith t h e n utr im en t l a id u p i n
th em a re n ot y et e n dued w ith s e n sitiv e l if e .
The s e cre tio ns f ro m v ario us v eg eta b le g la n ds h ard en ed i n t h e a ir p ro duce
gum s, r e sin s, a n d v ario us k in ds o f s a cch arin e, s a p onaceo us, a n d w ax -lik e
su bsta n ces, a s t h e g um o f c h erry o r p lu m b-tr e es, g um t r a g acan th f ro m t h e
astr a g alu s t r a g acan th a, c am phor f ro m t h e l a u ru s c am phora , e le m i f ro m
am yris e le m if e ra , a n em e f ro m h ym en oea c o urb aril, t u rp en tin e f ro m p is ta cia
te re b in th us, b als a m o f M ecca f ro m t h e b uds o f a m yris o pobals a m um ,
bra n ch es o f w hic h a re p la ced i n t h e t e m ple s o f t h e E ast o n a cco unt o f t h eir
fra g ra n ce, t h e w ood i s c alle d x ylo bals a m um , a n d t h e f ru it c arp obals a m um ;
alo e f ro m a p la n t o f t h e s a m e n am e; m yrrh f ro m a p la n t n ot y et d esc rib ed ; t h e
re m ark ab ly e la stic r e sin i s b ro ught i n to E uro pe p rin cip ally i n t h e f o rm o f
fla sk s, w hic h l o ok l ik e b la ck l e ath er, a n d a re w onderfu lly e la stic , a n d n ot
pen etr a b le b y w ate r, r e ctif ie d e th er d is so lv es i t; i ts f le x ib ility i s e n cre ase d b y

warm th a n d d estr o yed b y c o ld ; t h e t r e e w hic h y ie ld s t h is j u ic e i s t h e j a tr o pha
ela stic a, i t g ro w s i n G uaia n a a n d t h e n eig hbourin g t r a cts o f A m eric a; i ts j u ic e
is s a id t o r e se m ble w ax i n b eco m in g s o ft b y h eat, b ut t h at i t a cq uir e s n o
ela stic ity t ill t h at p ro perty i s c o m munic ate d t o i t b y a s e cre t a rt, a fte r w hic h i t
is p oure d i n to m ould s a n d w ell d rie d a n d c an n o l o nger b e r e n dere d f lu id b y
heat. M r. d e l a B ord e p hysic ia n a t C ay en ne h as g iv en t h is a cco unt. M an na i s
obta in ed a t N ap le s f ro m t h e f ra x in us o rn us, o r m an na-a sh , i t p artly i s su es
sp onta n eo usly , w hic h i s p re fe rre d , a n d p artly e x su des f ro m w ounds m ad e
purp ose ly i n t h e m onth o f A ugust, m an y o th er p la n ts y ie ld m an na m ore
sp arin gly ; s u gar i s p ro perly m ad e f ro m t h e s a cch aru m o ffic in ale , o r s u gar-
can e, b ut i s f o und i n t h e r o ots o f b eet a n d m an y o th er p la n ts ; A m eric an w ax
is o bta in ed f ro m t h e m yric a c erif e ra , c an dle -b erry m yrtle , t h e b errie s a re
boile d i n w ate r a n d a g re en w ax s e p ara te s, w ith l u ke-w arm w ate r t h e w ax i s
yello w : t h e s e ed o f c ro to n s e b if e ru m a re l o dged i n t a llo w ; t h ere a re m an y
oth er v eg eta b le e x su datio ns u se d i n t h e v ario us a rts o f d yein g, v arn is h in g,
ta n nin g, l a cq uerin g, a n d w hic h s u pply t h e s h op o f t h e d ru ggis t w ith
med ic in es a n d w ith p ois o ns.

T here i s a n oth er a n alo gy, w hic h w ould s e em t o a sso cia te p la n ts w ith a n im als ,
a n d w hic h p erh ap s b elo ngs t o t h is N ote o n G la n dula tio n, I m ean t h e
s im ila rity o f t h eir d ig estiv e p ow ers . I n t h e r o ots o f g ro w in g v eg eta b le s, a s i n
t h e p ro cess o f m ak in g m alt, t h e f a rin aceo us p art o f t h e s e ed i s c o nverte d i n to
s u gar b y t h e v eg eta b le p ow er o f d ig estio n i n t h e s a m e m an ner a s t h e
f a rin aceo us m atte r o f s e ed s a re c o nverte d i n to s w eet c h yle b y t h e a n im al
d ig estio n. T he s a p -ju ic e w hic h r is e s i n t h e v ern al m onth s f ro m t h e r o ots o f
t r e es t h ro ugh t h e a lb urn um o r s a p -w ood, o w es i ts s w eetn ess I s u ppose t o a
s im ila r d ig estiv e p ow er o f t h e a b so rb en t s y ste m o f t h e y oung b uds. T his
e x is ts i n m an y v eg eta b le s i n g re at a b undan ce a s i n v in es, s y cam ore , b ir c h ,
a n d m ost a b undan tly i n t h e p alm -tr e e, ( Is e rt's V oyag e t o G uin ea,) a n d s e em s
t o b e a s im ila r f lu id i n a ll p la n ts , a s c h yle i s s im ila r i n a ll a n im als .
H en ce a s t h e d ig este d f o od o f v eg eta b le s c o nsis ts p rin cip ally o f s u gar, a n d
f ro m t h at i s p ro duced a g ain t h eir m ucila g e, s ta rc h , a n d o il, a n d s in ce a n im als
a re s u sta in ed b y t h ese v eg eta b le p ro ductio ns, i t w ould s e em t h at t h e s u gar-
m ak in g p ro cess c arrie d o n i n v eg eta b le v esse ls w as t h e g re at s o urc e o f l if e t o
a ll o rg an iz ed b ein gs. A nd t h at i f o ur i m pro ved c h em is tr y s h ould e v er
d is c o ver t h e a rt o f m ak in g s u gar f ro m f o ssile o r a eria l m atte r w ith out t h e
a ssis ta n ce o f v eg eta tio n, f o od f o r a n im als w ould t h en b eco m e a s p le n tif u l a s
w ate r, a n d m an kin d m ig ht l iv e u pon t h e e arth a s t h ic k a s b la d es o f g ra ss, w ith
n o r e str a in t t o t h eir n um bers b ut t h e w an t o f l o cal r o om .
I t w ould s e em t h at r o ots f ix ed i n t h e e arth , a n d l e av es i n num era b le w av in g i n
t h e a ir w ere n ecessa ry f o r t h e d eco m positio n o f w ate r, a n d t h e c o nvers io n o f
i t i n to s a cch arin e m atte r, w hic h w ould h av e b een n ot o nly c u m bero us b ut
t o ta lly i n co m patib le w ith t h e l o co m otio n o f a n im al b odie s. F or h ow c o uld a
m an o r q uad ru ped h av e c arrie d o n h is h ead o r b ack a f o re st o f l e av es, o r h av e
h ad l o ng b ra n ch in g l a cte al o r a b so rb en t v esse ls t e rm in atin g i n t h e e arth ?
A nim als t h ere fo re s u bsis t o n v eg eta b le s; t h at i s , t h ey t a k e t h e m atte r s o f a r
p re p are d , a n d h av e o rg an s t o p re p are i t f u rth er f o r t h e p urp ose s o f h ig her
a n im atio n, a n d g re ate r s e n sib ility . I n t h e s a m e m an ner t h e a p para tu s o f g re en
l e av es a n d l o ng r o ots w ere f o und i n co nven ie n t f o r t h e m ore a n im ate d a n d
s e n sitiv e p arts o f v eg eta b le -flo w ers , I m ean t h e a n th ers a n d s tig m as, w hic h
a re t h ere fo re s e p ara te b ein gs, e n dued w ith t h e p assio n a n d p ow er o f
r e p ro ductio n, w ith l u ngs o f t h eir o w n, a n d f e d w ith h oney , a f o od r e ad y

pre p are d b y t h e l o ng r o ots a n d g re en l e av es o f t h e p la n t, a n d p re se n te d t o
th eir a b so rb en t m outh s.
Fro m t h is o utlin e a p hilo so pher m ay c atc h a g lim pse o f t h e g en era l e co nom y
of n atu re ; a n d l ik e t h e m arin er c ast u pon a n u nknow n s h ore , w ho r e jo ic ed
when h e s a w t h e p rin t o f a h um an f o ot u pon t h e s a n d, h e m ay c ry o ut w ith
ra p tu re , " A G OD D W ELLS H ER E."

C O NTEN TS
O F T H E
A DDIT IO NAL N O TES.
N O TE I … M ETEO RS.
T here a re f o ur s tr a ta o f t h e a tm osp here , a n d f o ur k in ds o f m ete o rs . 1 .
L ig htn in g i s e le ctr ic , e x is ts i n v is ib le c lo uds, i ts s h ort c o urs e , a n d r e d l ig ht. 2 .
S hootin g s ta rs e x is t i n i n vis ib le v ap our, w ith out s o und, w hite l ig ht, h av e n o
l u m in ous t r a in s. 3 . T w ilig ht; f ir e -b alls m ove t h ir ty m ile s i n a s e co nd, a n d a re
a b out s ix ty m ile s h ig h, h av e l u m in ous t r a in s, o ccasio ned b y a n e le ctr ic s p ark
p assin g b etw een t h e a eria l a n d i n fla m mab le s tr a ta o f t h e a tm osp here , a n d
m ix in g t h em a n d s e ttin g t h em o n f ir e i n i ts p assa g e; a ttr a cte d b y v olc an ic
e ru ptio ns; o ne t h ousa n d m ile s t h ro ugh s u ch a m ed iu m r e sis ts l e ss t h an t h e
t e n th o f a n i n ch o f g la ss. 4 . N orth ern l ig hts n ot a ttr a cte d t o a p oin t b ut
d if fu se d ; t h eir c o lo urs ; p assa g e o f e le ctr ic f ir e i n v acu o d ubio us; D r.
F ra n klin 's t h eo ry o f n orth ern l ig hts c o unte n an ced i n p art b y t h e s u ppositio n o f
a s u perio r a tm osp here o f i n fla m mab le a ir ; a n tiq uity o f t h eir a p peara n ce;
d esc rib ed i n M accab ees.
N O TE I I … P R IM ARY C O LO URS.
T he r a in bow w as i n p art u nders to od b efo re S ir I s a ac N ew to n; t h e s e v en
c o lo urs w ere d is c o vere d b y h im ; M r. G allo n's e x perim en ts o n c o lo urs ;
m an gan ese a n d l e ad p ro duce c o lo urle ss g la ss.

NO TE I II … C O LO URED C LO UDS.
The r a y s r e fra cte d b y t h e c o nvex ity o f t h e a tm osp here ; t h e p artic le s o f a ir a n d
of w ate r a re b lu e; s h ad ow b y m ean s o f a c an dle i n t h e d ay ; h alo r o und t h e
moon i n a f o g; b rig ht s p ot i n t h e c o rn ea o f t h e e y e; l ig ht f ro m c at's e y es i n t h e
dark , f ro m a h ors e 's e y es i n a c av ern , c o lo ure d b y t h e c h oro id c o at w ith in t h e
ey e.
NO TE I V … C O M ETS.
Tails o f c o m ets f ro m r a rif ie d v ap our, l ik e n orth ern l ig hts , f ro m e le ctr ic ity ;
tw en ty m illio ns o f m ile s l o ng; e x pecte d c o m et.
NO TE V … S U N'S R AYS.
Dis p ute a b out p hlo gis to n; t h e s u n t h e f o unta in f ro m w hen ce a ll p hlo gis to n i s
deriv ed ; i ts r a y s n ot l u m in ous t ill t h ey a rriv e a t o ur a tm osp here ; l ig ht o w in g
to t h eir c o m bustio n w ith a ir , w hen ce a n u nknow n a cid ; t h e s u n i s o n f ir e o nly
on i ts s u rfa ce; t h e d ark s p ots o n i t a re e x cav atio ns t h ro ugh i ts l u m in ous c ru st.
NO TE V I … C EN TR AL F IR ES.
Sun's h eat m uch l e ss t h an t h at f ro m t h e f ir e a t t h e e arth 's c en tr e ; s u n's h eat
pen etr a te s b ut a f e w f e et i n s u m mer; s o m e m in es a re w arm ; w arm s p rin gs
ow in g t o s u bte rra n eo us f ir e ; s itu atio ns o f v olc an os o n h ig h m ounta in s;
orig in al n ucle u s o f t h e e arth ; d eep v allie s o f t h e o cean ; d is ta n t p erc ep tio n o f
earth quak es; g re at a ttr a ctio n o f m ounta in s; v aria tio n o f t h e c o m pass;
co unte n an ce t h e e x is te n ce o f a c av ity o r f lu id l a v a w ith in t h e e arth .
NO TE V II … E LEM EN TA RY H EA T.
Com bin ed a n d s e n sib le h eat; c h em ic al c o m bin atio ns a ttr a ct h eat, s o lu tio ns
re je ct h eat; i c e c o ols b oilin g w ate r s ix t im es a s m uch a s c o ld w ate r c o ols i t;

co ld p ro duced b y e v ap ora tio n; h eat b y d ev ap ora tio n; c ap acitie s o f b odie s i n
re sp ect t o h eat, 1 . E xis te n ce o f t h e m atte r o f h eat s h ew n f ro m t h e m ech an ic al
co nden sa tio n a n d r a re fa ctio n o f a ir , f ro m t h e s te am p ro duced i n e x hau stin g a
re ceiv er, s n ow f ro m r a re fie d a ir , c o ld f ro m d is c h arg in g a n a ir -g un, h eat f ro m
vib ra tio n o r f ric tio n; 2 . M atte r o f h eat a n alo gous t o t h e e le ctr ic f lu id i n m an y
cir c u m sta n ces, e x pla in s m an y c h em ic al p hen om en a.
NO TE V III … M EM NO N'S L Y RE.
Mech an ic al i m puls e o f l ig ht d ubio us; a g la ss t u be l a id h oriz o nta lly b efo re a
fir e r e v olv es; p uls e -g la ss s u sp en ded o n a c en tr e ; b la ck l e ath er c o ntr a cts i n t h e
su nsh in e; M em non's s ta tu e b ro ken b y C am byse s.
NO TE I X … L U M IN O US I N SE C TS.
Eig hte en s p ecie s o f g lo w -w orm , t h eir l ig ht o w in g t o t h eir r e sp ir a tio n i n
tr a n sp are n t l u ngs; A cu dia o f S urin am g iv es l ig ht e n ough t o r e ad a n d d ra w b y,
use o f i ts l ig ht t o t h e i n se ct; l u m in ous s e a-in se cts a d here t o t h e s k in o f t h ose
who b ath e i n t h e p orts o f L an gued oc, t h e l ig ht m ay a ris e f ro m p utr e sc en t
slim e.
NO TE X … P H OSP H ORUS.
Dis c o vere d b y K unkel, B ra n dt, a n d B oyle ; p ro duced i n r e sp ir a tio n, a n d b y
lu m in ous i n se cts , d ecay ed w ood, a n d c alc in ed s h ells ; b le ach in g a s lo w
co m bustio n i n w hic h t h e w ate r i s d eco m pose d ; r a n cid ity o f a n im al f a t o w in g
to t h e d eco m positio n o f w ate r o n i ts s u rfa ce; a era te d m arin e a cid d oes n ot
white n o r b le ach t h e h an d.
NO TE X I … S T EA M -E N G IN E.
Hero o f A le x an dria f ir s t a p plie d s te am t o m ach in ery , n ex t a F re n ch w rite r i n
1630, t h e M arq uis o f W orc este r i n 1 655, C ap t. S av ery i n 1 689, N ew co m en

an d C aw le y a d ded t h e p is to n; t h e i m pro vem en ts o f W att a n d B oulto n; p ow er
of o ne o f t h eir l a rg e e n gin es e q ual t o t w o h undre d h ors e s.
NO TE X II … F R O ST .
Expan sio n o f w ate r i n f re ezin g; i n ju ry d one b y v ern al f ro sts ; f is h , e g gs, s e ed s,
re sis t c o ngela tio n; a n im als d o n ot r e sis t t h e i n cre ase o f h eat; f ro sts d o n ot
melio ra te t h e g ro und, n or a re i n g en era l s a lu brio us; d am p a ir p ro duces c o ld
on t h e s k in b y e v ap ora tio n; s n ow l e ss p ern ic io us t o a g ric u ltu re t h an h eav y
ra in s f o r t w o r e aso ns.
NO TE X III … E LEC TR IC IT Y .
1.
Poin ts
p re fe ra b le t o k nobs f o r d efe n ce o f b uild in gs; w hy p oin ts e m it t h e
ele ctr ic f lu id ; d if fu sio n o f o il o n w ate r; m ounta in s a re p oin ts o n t h e e arth 's
glo be; d o t h ey p ro duce a sc en din g c u rre n ts o f a ir ? 2 .
Fair y -r in gs
e x pla in ed ;
ad van ta g e o f p arin g a n d b urn in g g ro und.
NO TE X IV … B U DS A ND B U LBS.
A t r e e i s a s w arm o f i n div id ual p la n ts ; v eg eta b le s a re e ith er o vip aro us o r
viv ip aro us; a re a ll a n nual p ro ductio ns l ik e m an y k in ds o f i n se cts ?
Hybern acu la , a n ew b ark a n nually p ro duced o ver t h e o ld o ne i n t r e es a n d i n
so m e h erb aceo us p la n ts , w hen ce t h eir r o ots s e em e n d-b itte n ; a ll b ulb ous r o ots
peris h a n nually ; e x perim en t o n a t u lip -ro ot; b oth t h e l e af-b ulb s a n d t h e
flo w er-b ulb s a re a n nually r e n ew ed .
NO TE X V … S O LA R V O LC ANO S.