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The virus swept through the region like
past plagues that have traveled the river
with colonizers and corporations.It spread with the dugout canoes car-
rying families from town to town, the
fishing dinghies with rattling engines,
the ferries moving goods for hundreds
of miles, packed with passengers sleep-
ing in hammocks, side by side, for days
at a time. The Amazon River is South Americas
essential life source, a glittering super-
highway that cuts through the conti-
nent. It is the central artery in a vast net-
work of tributaries that sustains some
30 million people across eight countries,
moving supplies, people and industry
deep into forested regions often un-
touched by road. But once again, in a painful echo of
history, it is also bringing disease. As the pandemic assails Brazil, over-
whelming it with more than two million
infections and more than 86,000 deaths
second only to the toll in the United
States the virus is taking an excep- tionally high toll on the Amazon region
and the people who have depended on
its abundance for generations.
In Brazil, the six cities with the high-
est coronavirus exposure are all on the
Amazon River, according to an expan-
sive new study from Brazilian re-
searchers that measured antibodies in
the population. The epidemic has spread so quickly
and thoroughly along the river that in
remote fishing and farming communi-
ties like Tefé, people have been as likely
to get the virus as in New York City,
home to one of the worlds worst out-
breaks. It was all very fast, said Isabel Del-
gado, 34, whose father, Felicindo, died of the virus shortly after falling ill in the
small city of Coari. He had been born on
the river, raised his family by it and built
his life crafting furniture from the tim-
ber on its banks.
In the past four months, as the epi-
demic traveled from the biggest city in
the Brazilian Amazon, Manaus, with its
high-rises and factories, to tiny, seem-
ingly isolated villages deep in the interi-
or, the fragile health care system has
buckled under the onslaught. Cities and towns along the river have
some of the highest deaths per capita in
the country often several times the
national average. In Manaus, there
were periods when every Covid ward
was full and 100 people were dying a day,
pushing the city to cut new burial
grounds out of thick forest. Grave dig-
gers lay rows of coffins in long trenches
carved in the freshly turned earth. Down the river, hammocks have be-
come stretchers, carrying the sick from
communities with no doctors to boat
ambulances that careen through the wa-
ter. In remote reaches of the river basin,
medevac planes land in tiny airstrips
sliced into the lush landscape only to
find that their patients died while wait-
ing for help. The virus is exacting an especially
high toll on Indigenous people, a parallel
to the past. Since the 1500s, waves of ex-
In Manaus, the biggest city in the Brazilian Amazon, there were times when every Covid ward was full and 100 people were dying a day, pushing the city to dig new burial grounds.
River of life, river of death
Hammocks have become stretchers, carrying the sick from communities with no doc-
tors. The virus is exacting an especially high toll among Indigenous people. The epidemics spread
along the Amazon is a
painful echo of history
On a recent afternoon here, Krzysztof
Warlikowski sat on a roof terrace, tou-
sling his mane of hair and drawing
deeply on a vape pen. Behind him were
the spire of a church where Mozart
prayed and the hills made famous by
The Sound of Music.Just as the louche clouds of vapor he
expelled jarred against the idyllic
Salzburg landscape, so Mr. War-
likowskis theater and opera produc-
tions have been sexy, cerebral interlop-
ers on some of Europes grandest stages
over the past 20 years. This Polish director was in town pre-
paring a new production of Richard
Strausss Elektra, which is scheduled to have its premiere at the Salzburg Fes-
tival on Aug. 1. His stagings have some-
times divided audiences, though his
work is always highly anticipated
even more so in this pandemic year,
when his Elektra will be one of the few
shows in town.
A typical Salzburg Festival features
up to 10 new opera productions; this
year, because of coronavirus restric-
tions, the original program of eight fully
staged works has been scaled down to
just two, Elektra and Mozarts Così
Fan Tutte. The streets are eerily quiet for a town
normally overrun with tourists. Usu-
ally, this city, for me, its a disaster, said
Mr. Warlikowski (pronounced var-li-
KOV-ski). This year, because of coro-
navirus, its bearable. The festivals organizers arent so en-
thusiastic about the effects of the pan-
demic, which has put a damper on its
100th anniversary. Nevertheless, Elek-
tra, a collaboration by two of the events
founders Strauss and the librettist,
Hugo von Hofmannsthal is a perfect
His daring vision suits a Salzburg centennial
The Polish director Krzysztof Warlikowski, who is presenting Richard Strausss Elek-
tra, in Salzburg with his wife, Malgorzata Szczesniak, who designed the set.
Krzysztof Warlikowski
brings his cerebral style
to Elektra for the festival
BY MATTHEW ANDERSONThe New York Times publishes opinion
from a wide range of perspectives in
hopes of promoting constructive debate
about consequential questions. Step by step, blow by blow, the United
States and China are dismantling dec-
ades of political, economic and social en-
gagement, setting the stage for a new
era of confrontation shaped by the views
of the most hawkish voices on both
With President Trump trailing badly
in the polls as the election nears, his na-
tional security officials have intensified
their attack on China in recent weeks,
targeting its officials, diplomats and ex-
ecutives. While the strategy has re-
inforced a key campaign message, some
American officials, worried Mr. Trump
will lose, are also trying to engineer irre-
versible changes, according to people
familiar with the thinking.
Chinas leader, Xi Jinping, has in-
flamed the fight, brushing aside interna-
tional concern about the countrys rising
authoritarianism to consolidate his own
political power and to crack down on ba-
sic freedoms, from Xinjiang to Hong
Kong. By doing so, he has hardened atti-
tudes in Washington, fueling a clash that
at least some in China believe could be
dangerous to the countrys interests. The combined effect could prove to be
Mr. Trumps most consequential foreign
policy legacy, even if its not one he has
consistently pursued: the entrench-
ment of a fundamental strategic and
ideological confrontation between the
worlds two largest economies. A state of broad and intense competi-
tion is the end goal of the presidents
hawkish advisers. In their view, con-
frontation and coercion, aggression and
antagonism should be the status quo
with the Chinese Communist Party, no
matter who is leading the United States
next year. They call it reciprocity. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo de-
clared in a speech on Thursday that the
relationship should be based on the
principle of distrust and verify, saying
that the diplomatic opening orches-
trated by President Richard M. Nixon
nearly half a century ago had ultimately
undermined American interests. We must admit a hard truth that
should guide us in the years and dec-
ades to come: that if we want to have a
free 21st century, and not the Chinese
century of which Xi Jinping dreams, the
old paradigm of blind engagement with
China simply wont get it done, Mr.
Pompeo said. We must not continue it,
and we must not return to it. The events of the last week brought
relations to yet another low, accelerat-
ing the downward spiral. On Tuesday, the State Department or-
Hawks push
China and
U.S. toward
lasting split
Trumps top aides want
a long-term rupture, and
Xi is helping their cause
While many American foreign
policymakers are focused on China and
the South China Sea, some should take a
closer look at Turkey and the Eastern
Mediterranean, which could be the next
geopolitical flash point for Europe and
NATO to confront. To some extent, a similar dynamic is
at play. Just as China makes territorial
claims that put it at odds with other
Asian nations, Turkey is the increas-
ingly disruptive, rising power in the
Eastern Mediterranean all too eager
to make its intentions known in Libya
and Syria. For the West, Turkeys assertiveness
is a complex challenge. For one thing,
Turkey, as a NATO member, is part of
the very alliance it is disrupting. For
another, Russia has also expanded its role in the region,
and most of the
West is largely
hesitant to get
involved there.The situation
looks like a perfect
illustration of the
new world disorder.
The Eastern
Mediterranean has
not been a quiet
place since 2011, when the Arab Spring
unseated Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi in
Libya and led President Bashar al-
Assad of Syria to unleash a war on his
own people. A NATO intervention in
Libya to prevent Colonel Qaddafi from
crushing a popular uprising failed to
make things any better. Libya became a
lawless kingdom of rival militias, open
to Islamist extremists, where migrants
heading to Europe would be kidnapped
and ransomed before being put on
rickety boats by traffickers. Traumatized by their failure, as well
as the killing of the U.S. ambassador,
Christopher Stevens, and three other
Americans in Benghazi, Libya, in 2012,
NATO countries have largely stayed
away from the region. Russia, Iran and later Turkey have
filled that vacuum in Syria, helping Mr.
al-Assad crush the opposition at a tragic
human cost. And now, Presidents Vladi-
mir Putin of Russia and Recep Tayyip
Erdogan of Turkey are repeating a
similar scenario in Libya, where, like a
modern czar and sultan on parallel
neo-imperial tracks, they have estab-
lished a de facto condominium. Today, Libya is divided in two parts.
The western part, around the capital,
Tripoli, is ruled by a United Nations-
backed government, which survived a
yearlong offensive by rival forces in
a new global
flash point
Sylvie Kauffmann
Contributing Writer
In the Eastern
the West has
retreated. That
leaves Turkey
and Russia to
fill the vacuum.
, PAGE 11 Learn more ab out our reso urc es for lib ra ries and
educator s. C ontact u s t od ay. Th
e w orld has a l ot to t each . ny
tedu cation @n ytim ny
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wi th a g roup sub script ion t o
Th e N ew Yor k T imes. St
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get a s tep a head. ny
tcorp orate@ nytime m ny
tim /group subs
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work to celebrate the centennial.
It is also a perfect work for Mr. War-
likowski, 58, who has been drawn time
and again to the myths of ancient
Greece that are the basis of Elektra.
Mr. Warlikowski said he was fascinated
by the brutal themes of these stories:
Its matricide, its infanticide, its patri-
cide, its incest, its eating the body of
your own children. As recounted in plays by Aeschylus,
Euripides and Sophocles, Electras
mother, Clytemnestra, murders her hus-
band as revenge for his killing another
of their daughters many years earlier.
But the opera, which focuses on father-
adoring Electras plot to murder her
mother, doesnt include this explanation
for Clytemnestras original act. There is,
Mr. Warlikowski said, no moment
when Clytemnestra would say to Elec-
tra: Yes, I did kill your father because
he killed my daughter, and your sister.
To refocus the audiences attention on
the mothers motivation, Mr. War-
likowskis Elektra will begin with a
spoken prologue by Klytämnestra, as
the character is called in the German
text. Tanja Ariane Baumgartner, the
mezzo-soprano who will deliver the
monologue and sing the role, said in an
interview that this opening speech was
an opportunity for her character to de-
fend herself. We never go for clichés with
Krzysztof, she added. Mr. Warlikowskis treatment of the
classics isnt just about fleshing out their
psychological motivations. He also
wants to show how these ancient stories
can resonate now. In 1997, he staged Sophocless Elec-
tra in a setting that many critics recog-
nized as the former Yugoslavia, a war
zone at the time; for his Paris Opera de-
but, in 2006, he set Glucks Iphigénie en
Tauride, an opera about Electras mur-
dered sister, in a contemporary retire-
ment home. His most ambitious engagement with
ancient Greek texts so far has been his
2009 work (A)pollinia. A collage as-
sembled from snippets of classical trag-
edies, as well as reflections on the mur-
der of Jews in Poland during World War
II, it was developed at the Nowy Teatr, a
theater Mr. Warlikowski founded in
Warsaw in 2008. The thing was to make a tragedy on
the level of tragedy of the Holocaust,
Mr. Warlikowski said. It was a period in Poland when the
public wasnt used to discussing this, he
added. And so I was doing shows which
are like a public discussion. Every production Mr. Warlikowski
has staged has been a collaboration with
Malgorzata Szczesniak, a designer he
met at college in Krakow in the early
1980s. She has created a signature aus-
tere look for his shows, with lots of hard,
reflective surfaces and clinical lighting:
The stage for Elektra, for example, is
wrapped in a wall of polished steel, and
features a huge, movable plexiglass box. Their relationship is not purely artis-
tic. Mr. Warlikowski and Ms. Szczesniak
(pronounced SHTOYZH-nyek) are mar-
ried and live together, although he is gay. This might not surprise those who
saw his 2001 Hamlet, in which the title
character got naked and lusted after Ho-
ratio, or who remember drag queens in
his Taming of the Shrew. Although Mr.
Warlikowski has discussed his sexuality
openly with foreign news media, he
avoids the subject when speaking with
Polish journalists, who often prefer not
to ask. Yes, I am gay, but first I am a human
being, Mr. Warlikowski said. And I
think the gay thing, its becoming less
and less important in my life. Mr. Warlikowski and Ms. Szczesniak
lived with the prominent Polish actor
Jacek Poniedzialek in the 1990s, when
he was Mr. Warlikowskis lover. They
now live in Warsaw and Palermo, Ita-
ly with the French dancer Claude Bar-
douil, who choreographs their produc-
tions, and who is also in Salzburg work-
ing on Elektra.
Mr. Warlikowski who was born in
Szczecin, near the Polish border with
Germany met Ms. Szczesniak in a
philosophy class at the Jagiellonian Uni-
versity. After graduating, they went to
Paris when travel restrictions were
lifted in the late-80s thaw that preceded
the end of communism. They were poor
there, Ms. Szczesniak said, but happy:
They sat in the cheap seats at the opera,
visited museums and hung out in parks
and cafes. In 1989, the pair returned to Krakow and enrolled at the Ludwik Solski Acad-
emy for the Dramatic Arts. There, Mr.
Warlikowski studied with Krystian
Lupa, a towering figure in Polish theater
who makes long, slowly unfolding works
based on literary texts.
In an interview, Mr. Lupa said that a
student production by Mr. Warlikowski,
drawn from the writings of Proust,
marked him as a rising talent. I felt
there and then that Krzysztof War-
likowski was going to be a distinguished
director, he said. This potential was not always seen by
Polish critics, many of whom found Mr.
Warlikowskis early work too strongly
influenced by his teacher. The umbilical cord of our student-
pedagogue relationship had not yet
been severed, Mr. Lupa said. But, he
added, the first inklings of Mr. War-
likowskis mature style were already clear in those 1990s shows, particularly
an enduring fascination with perverse,
unobvious, not straightforward situa-
tions, where one person inflicts pain on
His stark, bloody 1997 staging of
Sophocless Electra, his Warsaw de-
but, was poorly reviewed. Looking back
in 2004, however, the critic Maciej No-
wak wrote in the theater journal Notat-
nik Teatralny that, in that production,
Polish theater made contact with what
was happening on the stages of Western
By the time Mr. Warlikowski staged
his first important opera Verdis Don
Carlos, in its French version, at the Pol-
ish National Opera in 2000 he was be-
ginning to be celebrated as an original
voice, though still a provocative one.
The 2001 Hamlet in which Mr. Po-
niedzialek (pronounced pon-ya-JOW-
ek), in the title role, took his clothes off,
was shocking when it played in Poland,
and many audience members walked
out, said Piotr Gruszczynski, a dra-
maturg who works with Mr. War-
A naked actor onstage was some-
thing totally new, he said. But this was Mr. Warlikowskis inter-
national breakout: It was rapturously
received when it traveled to the Avignon
Festival in France, and an offer to work
at the Paris Opera followed. Mr. Warlikowski now works on two or
three opera productions each year. Ev- ery two or three years, he develops a
new work with the actors in the perma-
nent troupe at the Nowy Teatr, and occa-
sionally makes a show with his friend
Isabelle Huppert, the French actress.
Ms. Huppert, who starred in Mr. War-
likowskis A Streetcar and Phaedra
(s), another work that drew inspiration
from Greek myth, said in an interview
that Mr. Warlikowski was a unique di-
What he does is so daring, she said.
Ms. Huppert added that Mr. War-
likowski always had a clear and definite
vision, but I never felt in the least ma-
nipulated by him no, no. Of course, he
is in command, but he gives you the
sense that you 100 percent participate in
his creation.
Mr. Poniedzialek said that Mr. War-
likowski was very strong, and stubborn. But on the other hand, hes also very
fragile, he added. It can really destroy
him if the performance doesnt go right,
if actors are frustrated, if reviews are
roasting him. In the interview, Mr. Warlikowski fo-
cused his ire more on a certain subset of
star-struck audience members.
The worst public in the opera are
these obsessed gays, he said. All these
rich guys with nothing to do in their life,
just following Anna Netrebko or Jonas
Kaufmann on all continents. This is not a
real audience for me. People like this, he said, and audience
expectations of opera that there will
be pyramids in Aida, for example
can make the art form into a prison. But,
he added, If you are in prison, you must
find a way to come out of the prison in
order to make you free.
His direction? Be daring
Krzysztof Warlikowski and Malgorzata Szczesniak rehearsing Elektra with Ausrine Stundyte, who will sing the title role. Bottom, a scene from Mr. Warlikowskis (A)pollonia. Tolek Magdziarz contributed reporting
and translation assistance from Warsaw.STEFAN OKOLOWICZ/NOWY TEATR
Though some stagings have
divided audiences, his work is
always highly anticipated
especially in this pandemic year.
MADRID Juan Marsé, one of Spains most
acclaimed writers, whose novels mostly
chronicled the dark years in Barcelona,
his home city, that followed the Spanish
Civil War, died there on Saturday. He
was 87. His death, in a hospital, was con-
firmed by the Carmen Balcells literary
agency. His biographer, Josep Maria
Cuenca, said the cause was heart failure.
In 2009 Mr. Marsé was awarded the
Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking
worlds most important literary honor.
Mr. Marsé wrote more than a dozen
novels, several of them based on his ex-
periences in La Salut and Guinardó,
working-class neighborhoods of Bar-
celona that were home to many families
who had fought in the civil war on the
Republican side, which was defeated by
Gen. Francisco Franco. Some of his characters are petty crim-
inals or anarchists operating in the most
oppressive years under Franco, when
Spain was being purged of his political
enemies and struggling to recover eco-
nomically from the war.
Mr. Marsé loosely based some of his
writing on events in Barcelonas history,
like the assassination of Carmen Broto,
a prostitute, in 1949. There had been
speculation that the official version of
her murder, for which a man was con-
victed, had helped shield some of her
powerful clients from scandal. Mr.
Marsé turned the story into the novel Si Te Dicen Que Caí (If They Tell You I
Fell), published in 1973 in Mexico to cir-
cumvent Francos censors.
I believe Marsé can be considered
the reference writer of the anti-Franco
movement, who also inspired a lot of
writers who came from the working
class, said Mr. Cuenca, whose autho-
rized biography of Mr. Marsé was pub-
lished in 2015. Mr. Marsé, he added,
overhauled the literature of social real-
ism in Spain. Juan Marsé Carbó was born Juan
Faneca Roca in Barcelona on Jan. 8,
1933, and adopted as a baby by Pep
Marsé and Berta Carbó. When he was
growing up, his adoptive parents told
him that they had lost a child at birth but
had then been unexpectedly offered the
chance to adopt him by the taxi driver
who was driving them home in their
grief from the hospital. The drivers
wife, they said, had died just after giving
birth. But when Mr. Marsé was in his 70s,
Mr. Cuenca told him that he had found
flaws in that story while researching his
biography. As it turned out, his adoptive
mother had not lost a child at birth, and
the taxi story had been invented. His
adoption had actually been agreed upon
by his birth father and his adoptive fa-
ther, who knew each other because they
were both Catalan nationalist militants.
Upon hearing the truth, Mr. Marsé
said, he still preferred his mothers fab-
ricated story; he understood that she
had made it up so that he could feel more
protected, he said, the same way as
good literature does with us. As a teenager, Mr. Marsé became an
apprentice in a jewelry workshop, a job
he kept until the 1960s. At the same time, passionate about Hollywood movies, he
began writing for a cinema publication.
He later began writing short stories,
which were published in magazines
starting in the late 1950s. While complet-
ing his obligatory military service in
Ceuta, a Spanish enclave in North Afri-
ca, he worked on his first novel, Encer-
rados con un Solo Juguete (Locked Up
With a Single Toy), which was pub-
lished in 1960.
Mr. Marsé won his first Spanish liter-
ary award, the Sesame prize, in 1959, for
a short story. He then left Barcelona for
Paris, where he worked as a translator, a
Spanish-language teacher and a clerk at the Pasteur Institute, Frances presti-
gious medical research center.
In 1966, after returning to Barcelona,
he published Últimas Tardes con Tere-
sa (Last Afternoons With Teresa), a
novel about class divisions. Considered
his masterpiece, it propelled him to
fame. The novel recounts the struggles
of Manolo, a working-class petty crimi-
nal nicknamed El Pijoaparte, who tries
to seduce a girl from Barcelonas bour-
geois society. (The word pijoaparte has come to
be commonly used in Spain to describe
an ambitious and unscrupulous person
from a humble social background.) Reviewing an English translation of
The Fallen another of Mr. Marsés
works that had been banned by Francos
regime in The New York Times Book
Review in 1979, Ronald Fraser, an au-
thor of books on Spain, described Mr.
Marsé as one of the finest Spanish nov-
elists of the postwar generation and
called the novel a vivid recreation of
corruption, brutality and repression in
the years after the civil war. Mr. Marsé was briefly a member of
the Spanish Communist Party in his
youth before falling out with the party
leadership. Although he grew up speak-
ing Catalan, he wrote only in Castilian
Spanish; this disappointed a Catalan na-
tionalist movement that was hoping to
gain support from Barcelonas most fa-
mous writers. Instead, its followers
found in Mr. Marsé an ardent critic of
Catalonias separatist politics. Several of his novels were turned into
movies, but he was never happy with
those adaptations, and he publicly
clashed with some of their directors. All the movies have been very faith-
ful to the literary text, too faithful, he
once said. I think they should have
been turned upside down like a sock.
There are other ways to say the same as
in the book. Mr. Marsé is survived by his wife,
Joaquina Hoyas, whom he married in
1966, and their children, Alejandro and
In September, his publishing house,
Lumen, plans to release one more of his
books: Viaje al Sur (Travel South), a
travelogue he wrote while visiting
Spains Andalusia region in 1962. The
manuscript of that book had long been
missing and was only recently found.
Novelist who wrote of Spains dark years
Juan Marsé, after receiving the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking worlds most
important literary honor, at the University of Alcalá in Spain in 2009.
1 933-2020
BY RAPHAEL MINDER Mosquitoes have been called the deadli-
est animal in the world: tiny creatures
so dangerous that genetic engineering
may be necessary to win the battle
against them. But not all mosquitoes are
equally responsible for devastating the
human population by spreading dis-
ease. Out of thousands of species, only a
few like to bite humans and even
within the same species, mosquitoes
from different places can have different
preferences. Why do some find us irre-
sistible, while others remain unim-
To answer that question, a team of
Princeton researchers, working with a
large network of local collaborators,
spent three years driving around sub-
Saharan Africa collecting the eggs of Ae-
des aegypti mosquitoes, which are re-
sponsible for Zika, yellow fever and
dengue. There are two subspecies of Aedes ae-
gypti: one that prefers humans and one
that prefers animals; most populations
are a genetic mix. After sending the
eggs to New Jersey to grow new colo-
nies, and then tempting the insects with
the sweet smells of humans and of ro-
dents, the researchers found that the
more human-loving mosquitoes tended
to come from areas with a dry climate
and dense human population. That, in turn, is because humans pro-
vide the water mosquitoes need to
breed. There had been quite a bit of specula-
tion in the literature that the original
reason this species evolved to be a hu-
man specialist had to do with its use of
human water, said Lindy McBride, a
Princeton neuroscientist and an author
on the study. Its easy to come up with
hypotheses, but what was incredibly
surprising was that you could actually
see evidence for that.
Like all mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti
lays its eggs on water, so the project be-
gan by setting out thousands of ovitraps,
little plastic cups lined with seed paper
and filled with water and dirty leaves to
simulate the ideal breeding envi-
ronment. The ovitraps were placed in big cities
and in rural areas, in an effort to span
environmentally diverse locations, said
Noah H. Rose, a postdoctoral fellow at
Princeton and co-author of the study
published last week in Current Biology.
A few days later, someone came back
and checked for eggs. After the eggs were sent to the Prince-
ton lab and new colonies were estab-
lished, the next step was figuring out
why some populations evolved to be-
come generalists and some to become
so-called human specialists. This re-
quired deploying an olfactometer: a big
plastic box full of mosquitoes, with two
removable tubes in it, one containing a
guinea pig and the other holding part of
a human. I was just sitting with my arm in the
tube doing this trial over and over
again, Dr. Rose said. He spent a couple
months of my life as mosquito bait, re-
peating the experiment hundreds of
times while listening to audiobooks.
Screens kept him and the guinea pig
from actually being bitten. Within minutes, mosquitoes, at-
tracted to either the human or the non-
human scent, would pick a tube and en-
ter it. Later, the tubes were removed to
count the mosquitoes and figure out how
many preferred Dr. Rose. The resulting data revealed that mos-
quitoes that originally came from very
dense areas more than 5,000 people
per square mile liked humans more.
(They also had more ancestry from the
human-preferring subspecies.) A big-
ger factor, however, was climate. Specif-
ically, mosquitoes that came from places
that had a rainy season followed by a
long, hot, dry season greatly preferred
Why? The scientists proposed an ex-
planation that Brian Lazzaro, a profes-
sor of entomology at Cornell who was
not involved with the study, called
pretty convincing. Mosquitoes flour-
ish during the rainy season, but then
must find a way to survive the dry sea-
son. Standing water, critical for mosqui-
toes to breed, is hard to come by in ex-
tremely arid environments. But it can be
found around humans, who store water
to live, and so mosquito populations
from arid regions evolved to take advan-
tage of the situation. The Current Biology paper focused on
the evolutionary history of the mosqui-
toes, but its findings might have implica-
tions for public health. The results, com-
bined with climate and population data
from the United Nations, suggest that
there will be more human-biting mos-
quitoes in sub-Saharan Africa by 2050,
caused mostly by urbanization.
The reason
like humans:
Not for taste
Study finds that they
are attracted to our being
a source of standing water
The original reason this
species evolved to be a human
specialist had to do with its
use of human water.

As Crown Prince Mohammed bin
Salman of Saudi Arabia sidelined rivals
to consolidate power a few years ago, a
former Saudi intelligence official feared
that he would end up in the princes
sights and slipped out of the kingdom.
The prince has been trying to get him
back since, first asking the former offi-
cial, Saad Aljabri, to come home for a
new job, then trying unsuccessfully to
have him extradited on corruption
charges through Interpol, according to
text messages and legal documents re-
viewed by The New York Times. You are involved in many large cases
of corruption that have been proven,
Prince Mohammed wrote to the former
official in September 2017. There is no
state in the world that would refuse to
turn you over. But Interpol questioned the Saudi
commitment to due process and human
rights in the kingdoms handling of cor-
ruption cases and deemed the Saudi re-
quest for Mr. Aljabri politically motivat-
ed, a violation of the organizations
rules, according to Interpol documents.
So it removed Mr. Aljabris name from
its system. The text messages and documents re-
viewed by The Times, which have not
been previously reported, shed new
light on how far Prince Mohammed has
reached to exert control over Saudis he
fears could subvert him.
The struggle has accelerated this
year. In March, Saudi Arabia detained
two of Mr. Aljabris adult children and
his brother, prompting accusations by
relatives and United States officials that
they were being held hostage to secure
Mr. Aljabris return.
This month, the kingdoms state-con-
trolled news media seized upon an arti-
cle in the The Wall Street Journal that
cited unidentified Saudi officials accus-
ing Mr. Aljabri of misspending billions of
dollars in state funds to enrich himself
and relatives. One Saudi newspaper
published a wanted poster with Mr. Al-
jabris face on it, part of an apparent ef-
fort to tarnish his reputation.
The revelations come amid concerns
about the health of Prince Mohammeds
father, King Salman, whose death could
put the prince in charge of Saudi Arabia
for decades. The king, 84, was hospital-
ized earlier this month and underwent
successful gall bladder surgery, Saudi
state media reported Thursday. Since his father became king in 2015,
Prince Mohammed, 34, has taken
charge of military, economic and social
policies while targeting critics and foes
with travel bans, detentions and law-
suits. These increasingly authoritarian
tactics caught global attention when
Saudi agents killed Jamal Khashoggi,
the dissident Saudi writer, inside the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul in 2018,
bringing widespread condemnation.
The Saudi moves against Mr. Aljabri
have drawn attention in Washington,
where many officials considered him a
valuable intelligence partner. In a letter to President Trump this
month, four senators referred to Mr. Al-
jabri as a close U.S. ally and friend and
said the United States had a moral obli-
gation to do what it can to assist in se-
curing his childrens freedom.
Officials at the Saudi Embassy in
Washington did not respond to requests
for comment about the text messages
between Prince Mohammed and Mr. Al-
jabri, the Saudi Interpol request or the
kingdoms corruption allegations. The Times reviewed scores of text
messages between the two men pro-
vided by a law firm working for Mr. Al-
jabri, Norton Rose Fulbright Canada,
and Interpol documents informing Mr.
Aljabri of its decision about the Saudi re- quest against him. Mr. Aljabris rise and
fall were tied to his association with
Prince Mohammeds primary rival for
the Saudi throne, Prince Mohammed
bin Nayef, who headed the Interior Min-
istry and became crown prince in 2015.
A linguist with a doctorate in artificial
intelligence, Mr. Aljabri became a top of-
ficial at the ministry, which handles se-
curity and counterterrorism, putting
him in regular contact with U.S. diplo-
mats and officials from the Central Intel-
ligence Agency. Many have praised his
professionalism. But Mr. Aljabris star fell as Prince
Mohammeds rose. Mr. Aljabri was dis-
missed by royal decree in 2015.
In 2017, Mr. Aljabri began to fear that
Prince Mohammed intended to replace
Mohammed bin Nayef as crown prince
and target his domestic allies, so Mr. Al-
jabri left the kingdom, settling in Turkey.
On June 18 of that year, Prince Mo-
hammed texted him, asking Mr. Aljabri
to return to help solve an unspecified is-
sue with Mohammed bin Nayef, accord-
ing to translated versions of texts pro-
vided by Mr. Aljabris law firm. I want to explain to you what has
happened recently and come to an agreement with you about a strategy to
solve all these difficulties, Prince Mo-
hammed wrote.
Mr. Aljabri replied that he was pre-
pared to accept whatever you com-
mand. Prince Mohammed said he wanted
the three men to meet so they could
reconcile and everything can return to
the way it was. On June 20, Mr. Aljabri
said he could not return to Saudi Arabia
immediately because of medical treat- ment. Prince Mohammed said he had
only summoned him because he was in
dire need of your assistance.
The next day, however, Prince Mo-
hammed ousted Mohammed bin Nayef
as crown prince and took his place. Mo-
hammed bin Nayef was placed under
house arrest, and two of Mr. Aljabris
children, Sarah, who was 17 at the time,
and Omar, who was 18, were barred from
leaving Saudi Arabia. Mr. Aljabri wrote to pledge allegiance to Prince Mohammed as crown prince,
and Prince Mohammed encouraged him
to return for an important new job.
When you return safely, I will ex-
plain to you the background to the prob-
lem, Prince Mohammed wrote. I will
still need you to deal with anyone who
attempts to create disorder and con-
flict. Mr. Aljabri asked Prince Mohammed
to lift the travel ban on his children.
Prince Mohammed did not respond.
Three months later, Mr. Aljabri asked
Prince Mohammed again to lift the trav-
el ban to allow them to leave so that
they may finish their studies. When I see you, I will explain to you
the background, Prince Mohammed re-
sponded. A few days later, Prince Mohammed
asked Mr. Aljabri to return to Saudi Ara-
bia the next day, linking his return to the
travel ban on Mr. Aljabris children. I want to resolve this problem of your
son and daughter, but this is a very sen-
sitive file here related to Mohammed
bin Nayef, Prince Mohammed wrote. I
want your opinion about it as well as in-
formation from you concerning it. I also
want to come to an understanding with
you regarding your future situation and
what the details should be. Soon after, Prince Mohammed texted
again, this time threatening to have Mr.
Aljabri arrested abroad.
With the danger now clear, Mr. Aljabri
moved from Turkey to Canada, accord-
ing to his son, Khalid Aljabri, a cardiolo-
gist in Canada. To try to force him home, the Saudi au-
thorities filed a notice with Interpol, the
international police organization, ask-
ing other nations to help with Mr. Al-
jabris extradition, according to Interpol
documents. But instead of filing for a
Red Notice, which acts like an interna-
tional arrest warrant, the Saudis filed a
diffusion, which Interpol describes as a
less formal way for Interpol members to
request help from other nations. Mr. Aljabri confirmed that his name
was in the Interpol system in December
2017, when his wife and other relatives
were barred from flying from Turkey to
Canada because their party contained
another Saad Aljabri: Mr. Aljabris in-
fant grandson and namesake, Dr. Aljabri
said. The family nonetheless managed to
get to Canada via the United States and
appealed the inclusion of Mr. Aljabris
name in the Interpol system. They won in July 2018, according to an
Interpol document about the decision. An Interpol commission wrote that
the anticorruption committee that over-
saw Prince Mohammeds crackdown on
hundreds of prominent Saudis in 2017
was part of a political strategy by MBS
[Mohammed bin Salman] to target any
potential political rival or opposition. The kingdom soon found other ways
to pressure Mr. Aljabri. In March, his two adult children who
had been barred from leaving the king-
dom were arrested in their home in Ri-
yadh, the Saudi capital. In May, Mr. Al-
jabris brother was arrested. None have
contacted their relatives since, Dr. Al-
jabri, the cardiologist, said.
A Saudi spy chief persists in exile
The crown prince tries
and fails, so far, to force
ex-official to return home
Saad Aljabri, at left in glasses, an ex-Saudi intelligence official, moved to Turkey in 2017,
then left for Canada, fearing he was in danger. Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman,
above, tried to have him extradited through Interpol on corruption charges.
Staying out of Saudi Arabia even
as relatives have been arrested.
At Wansho Laundry in Taiwan, most
dirty clothes dropped off to be steamed
or washed or dry-cleaned end up right
back in the hands of their rightful own-
ers, cleaner than when they arrived. Abandoned garments, however, can
end up on Instagram. The blouses and skirts and trousers
adorn the bodies of the laundrys octoge-
narian owners, Chang Wan-ji and Hsu
Sho-er, who have become globally fa-
mous for modeling outfits curated from
the hundreds of forgotten items left be-
hind by absent-minded customers.
No one is more shocked than their 31-
year-old grandson and unofficial stylist,
Reef Chang, by the couples newfound
fame. I was really surprised, the
younger Mr. Chang said recently. I had
no idea so many foreigners would take
interest in my grandparents. He originally came up with the idea
for the Instagram account, he said.
Their business near Taichung City had
slowed during the coronavirus pan-
demic, and his grandparents were wary
about going outside even as Taiwan took
highly effective measures to fight the vi-
rus. With nearly 24 million people, Tai-
wan has reported only 458 cases and
seven deaths. They had nothing to do, he said. I
saw how bored they were and wanted to
brighten up their lives. They are naturals in front of the cam-
era. Ms. Hsu, 84, exudes the haughti-
ness of a supermodel but retains an air
of playfulness. Mr. Chang, 83, is the per-
fect foil, complementing his wifes swag-
ger with a chill disposition while rocking
bountiful eyebrows. His eyebrows really are something
else, Ms. Hsu said smiling in an inter-
view in the rear of the laundry shop,
next to a small shrine to the earth god
Tudigong, a common feature of tradi-
tional Taiwanese homes. The clothes they model are eclectic,
funky and fun. Both can be seen in
matching laced sneakers, and jauntily
perched caps and hats. He sometimes
sports brightly colored shades. One
photo shows her leaning coolly against a
giant washing machine, arms crossed,
as he casually holds the open door, grin-
ning. They pose at a place they know
well their shop.
The couples youthful attitude appeals
to a growing number of followers
312,000 and counting despite having
only 20 posts on their account,
@wantshowasyoung, since its inception
on June 27. My grandson is very creative, Ms.
Hsu said. His creativity has made us
happy, and other people, too. The account has drawn fans from
around Taiwan and the wider world,
with many seeing the photos as a salve
during a year made dark by worries
over a global pandemic, economic ruin-
ation and climate change. Looking at Wan-ji and Sho-ers pho-
tos improves my mood, one Instagram
user named tibbar1 wrote on Thursday
in response to a photo celebrating the
accounts surpassing 100,000 followers.
Their photos really have a charming
vibe to them that not just anyone can
pull off.
The couple may be internet famous
today, but their 61 years together had a
more traditional beginning. Their story
traces that of modern Taiwan, beginning
during the repressive era when it was
under martial law and unfolding as Tai-
wan gradually grew more outward-look-
ing and confident.
Mr. Chang, then 21, met Ms. Hsu in the
late 1950s, when her elder sister and
aunt approached him in the couples na- tive Houli, a semirural district in the
north of Taichung City, with the aim of
making a marriage match. When they
took him home to meet Ms. Hsu, he did-
nt stay long, to her dismay.
I wanted him to sit down with me, but
he wouldnt, she said. Things were
more conservative back then. He was
pretty shy, she added. But he was not put off at all. My first time seeing her, I was delighted, Mr.
Chang said. Not long afterward, we
started discussing marriage.
The couple wed in 1959 and became
parents to two sons and two daughters,
and, eventually, grandparents to six.
They worked together at the business
that he had been managing since the age
of 14, doing dry cleaning and laundry for
neighbors in Houli. They built up a large clientele, some of whom still bring their
laundry there despite having moved
long ago to Taichungs downtown area.
Now, Wansho Laundry, which takes
its name from the second characters of
the proprietors names, is open daily
from 8 a.m. until 9 p.m., although it
sometimes closes early if its raining,
Mr. Chang said.
In the 1980s, after the end of martial
law in Taiwan, the two began traveling
abroad, visiting the United States, Ja-
pan, Europe and Australia. Now, those
travels help connect them with many of
the messages coming in from all over
the globe, the younger Mr. Chang said. Ill read them some of the messages
we get and tell them where the senders
are from, and theyll say, Ah, Ive been
there! he said.
Mr. Chang said he hoped that the cou-
ples experience would inspire other old-
er residents in Taiwan and elsewhere to
be active. Its better than sitting around
watching TV or napping, he said. I
might be getting on in my years, but I
dont feel old. Reef Chang said the past few weeks
have been a special time for his grand-
parents customers stick around and
chat a little longer, which have made the
couple happier. Lately, whenever we
eat together, he said, I can tell theyre
elated. Internet fame is famously fleeting,
and the owners of Wansho Laundry
have no desire to cash in on their side
gig. Although, Mr. Chang said, he would
be happy if the hundreds of people who
have forgotten to pick up their laundry
would return to pay their bills. It would be nice to chat with them,
he said, arching an eyebrow. And to get
Last Thursday morning, for the first
time in nearly seven decades, some-
thing unusual happened at Wansho
Laundry. A customer who had dropped
off clothing more than a year ago and
saw the couple in the local news finally
came back to collect the garments
and to pay the bill.
Hes 83, shes 84; forgotten laundry has them runway ready
Above, Chang Wan-ji, left, and Hsu Sho-er run a laundry business in Taichung, Taiwan.
They became an Instagram hit with 312,000 followers and counting when their
grandson began posting pictures of them modeling clothing that had been left behind.
BY CHRIS HORTONShop owners in Taiwan
are Instagram stars after
posing in clothes left behind

plorers have traveled the river, seeking
gold, land and converts and later, rub-
ber, a resource that helped fuel the In-
dustrial Revolution, changing the world.
But with them, these outsiders brought
violence and diseases like smallpox and
measles, killing millions and wiping out
entire communities.
This is a place that has generated so
much wealth for others, said Charles C.
Mann, a journalist who has written ex-
tensively on the history of the Americas,
and look at whats happening to it. Indigenous people have been roughly
six times as likely to be infected with the
coronavirus as white people, according
to the Brazilian study, and are dying in
far-flung river villages untouched by
electricity. Even in the best of times, the Amazon
was among the most neglected parts of
the country, a place where the hand of
the government can feel distant, even
nonexistent. But the regions ability to confront the
virus has been further weakened under
President Jair Bolsonaro, whose public
dismissals of the epidemic have verged
at times on mockery, even though he
tested positive himself. The virus has surged on his govern-
ments disorganized and lackluster
watch, tearing through the nation. From
his first days in office, Mr. Bolsonaro has
made it clear that protecting the welfare
of Indigenous communities was not his
priority, cutting their funding, whittling
away at their protections and encourag-
ing illegal encroachments into their ter-
ritory. To the outsider, the thickly forested
region along the Amazon River appears
impenetrable, disconnected from the
rest of the world. But that isolation is deceptive, said
Tatiana Schor, a Brazilian geography
professor who lives off one of the rivers
tributaries. There is no such thing as isolated
communities in the Amazon, she said,
and the virus has shown that. The boats that nearly everyone relies
on, sometimes crowded with more than
100 passengers for many days, are be-
hind the spread of the virus, researchers
say. And even as local governments
have officially limited travel, people
have continued to take to the water be-
cause almost everything food, medi-
cine, even the trip to the capital to pick
up emergency aid depends on the
river. Scholars have long referred to life on
the Amazon as an amphibious way of
being. The crisis in the Brazilian Amazon be-
gan in Manaus, a city of 2.2 million that
has risen out of the forest in a jarring
eruption of concrete and glass, tapering
at its edges to clusters of wooden homes
perched on stilts, high above the water. Manaus, the capital of the state of
Amazonas, is an industrial powerhouse,
a major producer of motorcycles, with
many foreign businesses. It is inti-
mately connected to the rest of the
world its international airport serves
about 250,000 passengers a month
and, through the river, to much of the
Amazon region. Manauss first documented case, con-
firmed on March 13, came from Eng-
land. The patient had mild symptoms
and quarantined at home, in a wealthier
part of town, according to city health of-
ficials. Soon, though, the virus seemed to be
everywhere. We didnt have any more
beds or even armchairs, Dr. Álvaro
Queiroz, 26, said of the days when his
public hospital in Manaus was com-
pletely full. People never stopped com-
ing. Gertrude Ferreira dos Santos lived on
the citys eastern edge, in a neighbor-
hood pressed against the water. She
used to say that her favorite thing in the
world was to travel the river by boat.
With the breeze on her face, she said,
she felt free.
Then, in May, Ms. dos Santos, 54, fell
ill. Days later, she called her children to
her bed, making them promise to stick
together. She seemed to know that she
was about to die. Eduany, 22, her youngest daughter,
stayed with her that night. In early
morning, as Eduany got up to take a
break, her sister Elen, 28, begged her to
come back. Their mother had stopped breathing.
The sisters, in desperation, attempted
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. At 6 a.m.,
the sun rising above the city, Ms. dos
Santos died in their arms. When men in white protective suits arrived later to carry away her body, the
sisters began to wail.
Ms. dos Santos had been a single
mother. Life had not always been easy.
But she had maintained a sense of won-
der, something her daughters admired.
In everything she did, Elen said, she
was joyful. Her mothers death certificate listed
many underlying conditions, including
longstanding breathing problems, ac-
cording to the women. It also listed res-
piratory failure, a key indicator that a
person has died of the coronavirus.
But her daughters didnt believe she
was a victim of the pandemic. She had
certainly died of other causes, they said.
God would not have given her such an
ugly disease. Along the river, people said similar
things over and over, reluctant to admit
to possible contagion, even as the health
of their siblings and parents declined.
Many seemed to think their families
would be shunned, that a diagnosis
would somehow tarnish an otherwise
dignified life.
But as this stigma led people to play
down symptoms of the virus out of fear,
doctors said, the pandemic was spread-
ing quickly. After Manaus, the virus traveled east
and west, racing away from the regions
health care center.
In Manacapuru, more than an hour
from Manaus, Messias Nascimento
Farias, 40, carried his ailing wife to their
car and sped down one of the regions
few country roads to meet the ambu-
lance that could carry her to a hospital. His wife, Sandra Machado Dutra, 36,
gasped in his truck.
The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not
want, he prayed over and over until he
handed her to health care workers. They
were lucky. She survived.
But for most people living along the
river, hundreds of boat miles from Ma-
naus, the fastest way to a major hospital
is by plane.
Even before the virus arrived, people
in far-flung communities with a life-
threatening emergency could make a
frantic call for an airplane ambulance who had crumpled under the burden of
disease, hurrying them in for treatment.
At the same time, patients who had
managed to survive Covid-19 staggered
out, into the jubilant arms of family and
friends. I was just there, she said, praying
that God would save my father. Mr. Delgado died a few days later.
When Isabel found out, the doctor
started crying with her.
She had no doubt that the river her fa-
ther loved had also brought him the vi-
rus. Soon, she and five other family
members fell ill, too. When the coronavirus arrived in the
Americas, there was widespread fear
that it would take a devastating toll on
the regions Indigenous communities.
In many places along the Amazon
River, those fears appear to be coming
At least 570 Indigenous people in
Brazil have died of the disease since
March, according to an association that
represents the countrys Indigenous
people. The vast majority of those
deaths were in places connected to the
river. More than 18,000 Indigenous people
have been infected. Community leaders have reported entire villages confined to
their hammocks, struggling to rise even
to feed their children.
In Tefé, a city of 60,000 people nearly
400 miles along the river from Manaus,
the virus arrived with gale force. At the small public hospital, where of-
ficials initially planned to accommodate
12 patients, nearly 50 crowded the
makeshift Covid-19 unit. Dr. Laura Criv-
ellari, 31, the hospitals only infectious
disease expert, took them in, doing what
she could with two respirators, no inten-
sive care unit, many sick colleagues
and no one to replace them. At one of the worst moments, she was
the only physician on duty for two days,
overseeing dozens of critically ill pa-
tients. The constant death pushed Dr.
Crivellari to her breaking point. Some
days she barely stopped to eat or drink. At home, she shared her anguish with
her partner. She was thinking of giving
up medicine, she said. I cant carry on
like this, she told him. The pandemic has been brutal on
medical workers around the world, and
it has been particularly difficult for the
doctors and nurses navigating the vast
distances, frequent communication cuts
and deep supply scarcity along the Am-
azon. Without proper training or equip-
ment, many nurses and doctors along
the river have died. Others have in-
fected their families. Dr. Crivellari knew her city was vul-
nerable. Its a three-day boat ride from
Manaus to Tefé, with ferries often carry-
ing 150 people at a time. Our fear was that an infected person
would contaminate the whole boat, she
said, and thats what ended up happen-
ing. By early July, the daily deaths in Tefé
were dropping, and Dr. Crivellari began
to celebrate the patients she had been
able to save. She no longer thinks of quit-
ting medicine. Tefé, as a whole, took a cautious col-
lective breath. The virus, at least for the
moment, had moved to a new place on
the river.
The Amazon, river of life and death
A family using plastic sheeting to shield their home from the virus. In remote towns along the Amazon, people have been as likely to get sick as if they were residents of New York City. PHOTOGRAPHS BY TYLER HICKS/THE NEW YORK TIMES
João Castellano and Letícia Casado con-
tributed reporting. Alain Delaquérière
contributed research.that would take them to a hospital in the
capital.But the small planes turned out to be
dangerous for people with Covid-19,
sometimes causing blood oxygen levels
to plummet as the aircraft rose. Very
few of the airlift patients seemed to be
surviving, doctors said. Instead, physicians and nurses found
themselves flying their patients to
painful deaths far from everything and
everyone they had loved.
One morning in May, a white plane
touched down at the airport in Coari,
about 230 miles from Manaus. On the
tarmac on a stretcher was Mr. Delgado,
68, the furniture maker, barefoot and
barely breathing.
Dr. Daniel Sérgio Siqueira and a
nurse, Walci Frank, exhausted after
weeks of constant work, loaded him into
the small cabin. As the plane rose, his
oxygen levels began to dive. Mr. Delgados daughter Isabel turned
to the doctor in a panic. My father is
very strong, she told him. He is going
to make it.
When the Delgados finally reached
the hospital in Manaus, Isabel was
stunned by the scenes around her. De-
spairing relatives held up loved ones
Sandra Machado Dutra, left, survived after her husband sped down country roads to meet an ambulance. Many sick people traveled on the river, right, to get tested for the virus.
Along the river, people were
reluctant to admit to possible
contagion. Many seemed to think
their families would be shunned.

Seyi Fasoranti, a chemist who moved to
Oregon from the East Coast six months
ago, has watched the Black Lives Mat-
ter protests in Portland with fascination.
A sea of white faces in one of the whitest
major American cities has cried out for
racial justice every night for nearly two
Its something I joke about with my
friends, Mr. Fasoranti, who is Black,
said over the din of protest chants last
week. There are more Black Lives Mat-
ter signs in Portland than Black people. Loud advocacy has been a hallmark of
Portland life for decades, but racism is a
more complicated topic in Oregon than
environmental policies or foreign wars
were in past protests, one that is inter-
twined with demographics and the
states legacy of some of the most brutal
anti-Black laws in the nation. During more than 56 straight nights
of protests here, throngs of largely white
protesters have raised their fists in the
air and chanted, This is not a riot, its a
revolution. They have thrown water
bottles at the federal courthouse, tried to
pry off the plywood that protects the en-
trance and engaged in running battles
with police officers through clouds of
tear gas. In recent nights, the number of
protesters has swollen into the thou-
sands. Damany Igwé, 43, a bath products
salesman who is Black and has taken
part in dozens of the protests, said white
crowds have shielded him from the po-
lice, all the while yelling Black power! I feel the most protected that I ever
have in my city, Mr. Igwé said during a
protest on Wednesday night that lasted
well into Thursday morning. White
people cant understand what weve
been through completely, but they are
trying to empathize. Thats a begin-
ning. Of the 35 cities in the United States
with populations larger than 500,000,
Portland is the whitest, according to
census data, with 71 percent of residents
categorized as non-Latino whites. Oregons relative homogeneity the
state is three-quarters white compared
with neighboring California, where
white people make up 37 percent of the
population was not accidental. The
state was founded on principles of white
supremacy. A 19th-century lash law
called for whipping any Black person
found in the state. In the early part of the
20th century, Oregons Legislature was
dominated by members of the Ku Klux
Today, the average income for Black
families in Portland is nearly half that of
white residents, and police shootings of
Black residents are disproportionate to
their 6 percent share of the population.
Three years ago, two good Samaritans
were fatally stabbed while trying to stop
a man from shouting slurs at two Afri-
can-American women on a commuter
train, one of whom was wearing Muslim
dress. Really there are two Portlands that exist, said Walidah Imarisha, a scholar
of Black history in Oregon. Theres
white Portland and Portland of color.
The differences, she said, cover al-
most every aspect of life. Theres mas-
sive racial disparities around wealth,
health care, schools and criminal legal
systems that white Portlanders just
dont understand.
Yet on the streets of Portland last
week, there was optimism among Black
protest leaders who generally spoke ad-
miringly of the large white crowds,
which were reinvigorated this month af- ter clashes with federal riot police offi-
cers who are protecting a U.S. court-
house and other buildings.
Xavier Warner, a Black protest organ-
izer, called the predominance of white
protesters a beautiful thing that
speaks to the progressive ethos in the
city. Teal Lindseth, another Black organ-
izer, said she saw the irony in predomi-
nantly white Portland having among the
longest continuous protests stemming
from the police killing of George Floyd in
Minneapolis on May 25. But she said she was thankful for the strength in num-
bers. They hurt us less when there are
more people, she said.
The role of white protesters has some
detractors in the Black community.
In an op-ed published Thursday in
The Washington Post, the Rev. E .D.
Mondainé, the president of the Portland
branch of the National Association for
the Advancement of Colored People,
called the protests a spectacle that
distracted attention from the Black
Lives Matter movement. Are they really furthering the cause of justice, or is this another example of
white co-optation? he wrote.
But in a measure of the divided opin-
ion on this question, Mr. Mondainés
predecessor at the N.A.A.C.P., Jo Ann
Hardesty, a city commissioner, rejected
his criticism. Theres a lot of new, aware folks who
have joined into the battle for Black
lives, she said during a news confer-
ence on Thursday.
Ms. Hardesty, who took office in 2019
as the first African-American woman on
the Portland City Council, said the pro- tests were serving the dual purposes of
fighting racial injustice and rejecting the
presence of federal agents sent to the
city by the Trump administration.
Both protest goals were important,
she said. And one is not any more im-
portant than the other. Joe Lowndes, an expert on right-wing
politics and race at the University of Or-
egon, said the protests reflected an in-
tertwining of interests in recent years
between racial justice advocates and the
largely white anti-fascist movement.
Both are deeply distrustful of the police
and want police powers and budgets
curtailed. The presence of far-right groups in
Oregon, emboldened during the Trump
administration, has also brought anti-
racists and anti-fascists into closer
alignment, he said. Speeches and chants at the protests
have touched on the legacy of slavery
and the stripping of lands from Native
Americans. From a historical perspective, the
sight of hundreds of white protesters
chanting one of that movements most
popular refrains Stolen lands and
stolen people can be jarring. As the destination of the Lewis and
Clark expedition, Oregon once symbol-
ized the conquest of the American West
and the subjugation of Native Ameri-
cans. Some white protesters said it was this
white supremacist legacy that helped
spur them into the streets. Bringing that history to light is defi-
nitely a motivating factor, said Liza
Lopetrone, a veterinary nurse who
joined the Wall of Moms protest last
week that consisted mostly of white
women locking arms in the face of the
federal agents. Oregon has an ex-
tremely racist history. Im not from here,
but I take responsibility for it now. Another woman at the protest, Julie
Liggins, had a more immediate connec-
tion to prejudice and racism in Portland.
She is white and her husband of three
decades, Reginald, is Black. During the years he drove his car to
work, Mr. Liggins said, he was pulled
over by Portland police multiple times
without cause. He said he switched to
riding the bus. But two years ago after
Mr. Liggins, who is 60, ran to catch a bus,
the police pulled it over after mistaking
him for a robbery suspect in his 20s. Mr. Liggins said he was encouraged
by the protests, even if he wished the
reckoning over race in America had oc-
curred earlier. And he loves his life in
You can literally go days without see-
ing people that look like you, he said.
But I find Portland to be a very pro-
gressive city, despite its racist past. I can
honestly say that as an interracial cou-
ple we havent had any problems here.
Mr. Fasoranti, the chemist, says he
has been impressed with the awareness
of racial issues in Portland and de-
scribed the current round of protests as
something that feels genuine. He says he feels welcome in the city
and was intrigued soon after he arrived
when a white motorist pulled over to the
sidewalk and asked if he needed a ride.
He has been invited to conversations
about gentrification and the displace-
ment of Black residents. There are less of these conversations
in New York or New Jersey, where I
used to live, he said.
Marching for Black lives in the whitest U.S. city
Clockwise from top: Protesters in Portland, where demonstrations have been going on since the killing of George Floyd by the police in Minneapolis; a wooden barricade that
surrounds the federal courthouse that has been the focus of the protests; and the Wall of Moms, a group of mothers who have been regularly attending the demonstrations. PHOTOGRAPHS BY OCTAVIO JONES FOR THE NEW YORK TIMESPORTLAND, ORE.
Despite Oregons history
of racism, Portland protests
have attracted wide support
dered China to shut down its Houston
consulate, prompting diplomats there to
burn documents in a courtyard. On Fri-
day, in retaliation, China ordered the
United States to close its consulate in
the southwestern city of Chengdu. The
Chinese Foreign Ministry the next day
denounced what it called forced entry
into the Houston consulate by U.S. law
enforcement officers on Friday after-
In between, the Department of Jus-
tice announced criminal charges
against four members of the Peoples
Liberation Army for lying about their
status to operate as undercover intelli-
gence operatives in the United States.
All four have been arrested. One, Tang
Juan, who was studying at the Univer-
sity of California, Davis, ignited a diplo-
matic standoff when she sought refuge
in the Chinese Consulate in San Fran-
cisco but was taken into custody on
Thursday night. This comes on top of a month in which
the administration announced sanc-
tions on senior Chinese officials, includ-
ing a member of the ruling Politburo,
over the mass internment of Muslims;
revoked the special status of Hong Kong
in diplomatic and trade relations; and
declared that Chinas vast maritime
claims in the South China Sea were ille-
The administration has also imposed
a travel ban on Chinese students at
graduate level or higher with ties to mili-
tary institutions in China. Officials are
discussing whether to do the same to
members of the Communist Party and
their families, a sweeping move that
could put 270 million people on a black-
list. Below the president, Secretary Pom-
peo and other members of the adminis-
tration appear to have broader goals,
said Ryan Hass, a China director on
President Barack Obamas National Se-
curity Council who is now at the Brook-
ings Institution. They want to reorient the U.S.-China
relationship toward an all-encompass-
ing systemic rivalry that cannot be re-
versed by the outcome of the upcoming
U.S. election, he said. They believe this
reorientation is needed to put the United
States on a competitive footing against
its 21st-century geostrategic rival. From the start, Mr. Trump has vowed
to change the relationship with China,
but mainly in terms of trade. Early this
year, the negotiated truce in the coun-
tries trade war was hailed by some
aides as a signature accomplishment.
That deal is still in effect, though hang-
ing by a thread, overshadowed by the
broader fight. Beyond China, few of the administra-
tions foreign policy goals have been
fully achieved. Mr. Trumps personal di-
plomacy with Kim Jong-un, the North
Korean leader, has done nothing to end
the countrys nuclear weapons pro-
His withdrawal from the Iran nuclear
deal has further alienated allies and
made that countrys leaders even more
belligerent. His effort to change the gov-
ernment in Venezuela failed. His prom-
ised withdrawal of all American troops
from Afghanistan has yet to occur. In Beijing, some officials and analysts
have publicly dismissed many of the
Trump administrations moves as cam-
paign politics, accusing Mr. Pompeo and
others of promoting a Cold War mental-
ity to score points for an uphill re-elec-
tion fight. There is a growing recogni-
tion, though, that the conflicts roots run
deeper. The breadth of the administrations
campaign has vindicated those in China
and possibly Mr. Xi himself who
have long suspected that the United
States will never accept the countrys
growing economic and military might,
or its authoritarian political system.
Its not just electoral considerations,
said Cheng Xiaohe, an associate profes-
sor at the School of International Stud-
ies at Renmin University in Beijing. It is also a natural escalation and a result
of the inherent contradictions between
China and the United States.
Already reeling from the coronavirus
pandemic, some Chinese officials have
sought to avoid open conflict with the
United States. They have urged the
Trump administration to reconsider
each of its actions and called for cooper-
ation, not confrontation, albeit without
offering significant concessions of their
own. With global anti-China sentiment at
its highest level in decades, Chinese offi-
cials have indicated an interest in ex-
ploring potential offramps to the current
death spiral in U.S.-China relations,
said Jessica Chen Weiss, a political sci- entist at Cornell University who studies
Chinese foreign policy and public opin-
Beijing isnt spoiling for an all-out
fight with the United States, she said,
but at a minimum the Chinese govern-
ment will retaliate to show the world
and a prospective Biden administration
that China wont be intimidated or
pushed around.
Given the size of the two nations
economies and their entwining, there
are limits to the unwinding of relations,
or what some Trump officials call de-
coupling. In the United States, tycoons
and business executives, who exercise
enormous sway among politicians of
both parties, will continue to push for a
more moderate approach, as members
of Mr. Trumps cabinet who represent
Wall Street interests have done. China is
making leaps in science, technology and
education that Americans and citizens
of other Western nations will want to
share in. In his Thursday speech, even Mr. Pompeo acknowledged, China is
deeply integrated into the global econ-
Only two weeks ago, the Chinese for-
eign minister, Wang Yi, called on the
United States to step back from con-
frontation and work with China. In reali-
ty, officials in Beijing appear resigned to
the likelihood that nothing will change
for the better before next year. There is very little China can do to
take the initiative, said Wu Qiang, an in-
dependent analyst in Beijing. It has
very few proactive options. Mr. Trump whipsaws in his language
on China. He has called Mr. Xi a very,
very good friend and even privately en-
couraged the Chinese leader to keep
building mass internment camps for
Muslims and handle the Hong Kong pro-
democracy protesters his way, accord-
ing to a new book by John R. Bolton, the
former national security adviser. After
he last spoke with Mr. Xi, he expressed
much respect! on Twitter. With the election looming, Mr.
Trumps tone has changed. He has re-
turned to bashing China, as he did in
2016, blaming Beijing for the pandemic
and even referring to the coronavirus
with a racist phrase, Kung Flu. His
campaign aides have made aggressive
rhetoric on China a pillar of their strat-
egy, believing it could help energize vot-
The heated language, combined with
the administrations policy actions,
could actually be having a galvanizing
effect on Chinese citizens, some ana-
lysts and political figures in Beijing say. I strongly urge American people to
re-elect Trump because his team has
many crazy members like Pompeo, Hu
Xijin, the editor of the nationalist news-
paper Global Times, wrote on Twitter on
Friday. They help China strengthen
solidarity and cohesion in a special way.
The relationship might not change
course, even if former Vice President Jo-
seph R. Biden Jr. defeats Mr. Trump in
November. The idea of orienting Ameri- can policy toward competition with
China has had robust bipartisan support
over the last three-and-a-half years.
The Chinese governments initial mis-
handling of the coronavirus outbreak
and its actions in Hong Kong, which is
widely seen as a beacon of liberal values
within China, have been signal mo-
ments this year, contributing to the tec-
tonic shift in views across the political
spectrum. The China hawks in the administra-
tion have seized on them to publicly
push their perspective: that the Chinese
Communist Party seeks to expand its
ideology and authoritarian vision world-
wide, and that citizens of liberal nations
must wake up to the dangers and gird
themselves for a conflict that could last
for decades. Since late June, the admin-
istration has rolled out four top officials
to make that case. Attorney General William P. Barr ac-
cused American companies of corpo-
rate appeasement, while Christopher
Wray, the director of the Federal Bureau
of Investigation, said his agency was
opening a new China-related counterin-
telligence investigation every 10 hours. Mr. Trumps national security adviser,
Robert OBrien, warned that the Chi-
nese Communist Party aimed to remake
the world in its image. The effort to con-
trol thought beyond the borders of China
is well underway, he said.
Mr. Pompeos speech on Thursday
was meant as the punctuation mark. He
chose the presidential library of the man
credited with opening up relations be-
tween the United States and China to de-
clare the policy a failure. President Nixon once said he feared
he had created a Frankenstein by
opening the world to the C.C.P., Mr.
Pompeo said, referring to the Chinese
Communist Party, and here we are.
Hawks push Beijing and Washington toward a rupture
President Trump meeting with Chinas leader, Xi Jinping, center right, in Japan last
year. He has called Mr. Xi a friend, but his language has been inconsistent.
Edward Wong reported from Washing-
ton, and Steven Lee Myers from Seoul,
South Korea. Claire Fu contributed re-
search from Beijing.They want to reorient the
U.S.-China relationship into a
rivalry the election cant reverse.

For months, President Trump belittled
former Vice President Joseph R. Biden
Jr. as an opponent cowering in the base-
ment in a mask as he sought to dismiss
the seriousness of a pandemic threat-
ening the nations health and his re-
election prospects.
But with his sudden embrace of
masks and the canceling of the Republi-
can National Convention in Jack-
sonville, Fla., on Thursday, Mr. Trump
has reluctantly conceded to the reality
of a political landscape that has been
transformed by disease and fear. A pan-
demic that once struck Democratic
states like New York and California has
moved with alarming force into red
America and helped to recast his contest
with Mr. Biden, his presumptive Demo-
cratic opponent.
Mr. Trumps attempt to play down the
coronavirus, or deride it as a threat ex-
aggerated by his Democratic opponents
and the media, has met the reality of ris-
ing caseloads and death counts and
overwhelmed intensive care units in
places like Texas, Arizona, Georgia and
Florida, all states that he won in 2016
and that the Biden campaign had until
now viewed as long shots.
The presidents handling of the virus
is shaping up as not only a policy failure,
but also as a political one. Rather than
strengthening his position against Mr.
Biden, Mr. Trumps response to the virus
appears to have created a backlash
among voters one that has only ele-
vated his opponent. The movement of Covid into the
South and West has finally caught up
with Trump, said Linda L. Fowler, a pro-
fessor of government at Dartmouth Col-
lege. While the disease was decimating
blue states, he was able to pretend it
wasnt happening. But now the context
has changed considerably, and his peo-
ple are hurting, underscored by the
sinking poll numbers, the problems for
G.O.P. congressional candidates and the
fact that the party faithful was reluctant
to attend the convention. The political perils of Mr. Trumps
course were driven home a few hours
before he announced he was scrapping
the Florida convention. A Quinnipiac
poll found that Mr. Biden was leading
Mr. Trump in Florida by 13 percentage
points, a stunning margin in a state that
has become since the recount in the
2000 presidential election between Al
Gore and George W. Bush Exhibit A
for a nation where elections are decided
by decimal points.
National and battleground state polls
over the past two weeks suggest how
much Mr. Trump is out of step with the
nation on the pandemic, in contrast with
Mr. Biden. Most Americans support the
use of masks and are apprehensive
about students returning to school or
the reopening of cities. And they have
lost confidence in the presidents ability
or willingness to steer the country
out of a crisis, to the decided advantage
of Mr. Biden. A Washington Post-ABC News poll
this month found that Americans
trusted Mr. Biden over Mr. Trump to
handle the Covid-19 crisis by a double-
digit margin, 54 percent to 34 percent.
With the election less than four months
away, and with no evidence that Mr. Bi-
den was being hurt by campaigning in a
mask and supporting tough measures to
contain the virus, Mr. Trump had little choice but to at least try to change
Hes wearing a mask and canceling
the convention, said Mark McKinnon,
who was in charge of advertising for
President George W. Bushs re-election
campaign in 2004. Thats a head-snap-
ping reversal for a guy who hates to be
wrong, hates to back down and, worst of
all, hates to be perceived as weak. The canceling of the Florida conven-
tion would appear, for now, to also play
to the Democrats advantage. Mr. Biden
and his aides no longer have to worry
that his scaled-down online acceptance
speech will look small and silly next to a
full-blown speech by Mr. Trump, as Re-
publicans had once hoped. And the Democrats cut back their
convention methodically and with no
drama and little notice. By contrast, Mr.
Trump and his party stumbled into this
decision, a long and messy process that
included a last-minute switch of the con-
vention to Florida from North Carolina.
The chaos surrounding the conven-
tion planning mirrored the chaos that
surrounded decision-making on many
issues in the White House, including
Covid-19. Mr. Trump announced the can-
cellation at the start of his Thursday co-
ronavirus briefing, with no real plan
about what, if anything, the Republicans would do in its stead. The Republicans
now have a month to put together a re-
mote convention and the Democrats
had a three-month head start, Ms.
Fowler said. And they have wasted a lot
of money. It sort of reinforces the com-
petence problems that this administra-
tion has been dealing with.
Mr. Trump, who has long been a mas-
ter of imagery, had been hoping to draw
a contrast with Mr. Biden, playing down
the seriousness of the virus as he
pushed to open cities, hold big rallies
and gather for conventions like the one
he wanted in Jacksonville. His stance re-
called the long history of Republicans
portraying themselves as unbending,
resilient and self-sufficient the pur-
ported party of strength. The Trump strategy was to cam-
paign as the strong man, Mr. McKinnon
said. While Mr. Biden was hidden in a
mask in a basement he would be step-
ping maskless into adoring crowds at a
packed convention. But over the past two weeks, mask re-
quirements have been imposed at Wal-
mart, Target, CVS and McDonalds.
Mitch McConnell, the Republican leader
of the Senate, started showing up in the
Capitol wearing a mask. These days, it is
a maskless Mr. Trump who looks the
outlier not Mr. Biden showing up at a campaign event with a piece of black
cloth draped over his mouth
The end of the conventions this year is
the latest evidence of how much
Covid-19 has thoroughly upended the
2020 race. But Mr. Trumps decision to
bow to pressure and pull out of Florida
showed the crosscurrents he is manag-
ing as he tries to win re-election in the
midst of a pandemic.
Covid-19 is exploding there. And Flor-
ida under the leadership of Gov. Ron
DeSantis, a Republican and close ally of
Mr. Trump has become for many in
the medical community a case study in
how not to deal with the virus. Mr. De-
Santis, like Mr. Trump, opposed mask
requirements and stay-at-home orders. The Democrats had already decided
the risk of a crowded convention out-
weighed whatever benefits would come
from packing thousands of people into a
stadium for a four-day celebration. The
upsurge of Covid-19 cases in Tulsa,
Okla., after Mr. Trumps insistence on a
crowded rally there served as a warning
of what could have been a politically
damaging aftermath for a convention in
Jacksonville. Republicans who had despaired at Mr.
Trumps campaign found solace in how
he has changed this past week: holding
White House briefings, wearing a mask,
abandoning the convention, listening to
science. They attributed it to the shake-
up at his campaign, when he appointed
Bill Stepien as his campaign manager,
ousting Brad Parscale. This presidential race is going to
tighten, said Scott Reed, who was the
campaign manager for Bob Dole, the
Republican senator who ran for presi-
dent in 1996. Stepien has brought a
much-needed dose of discipline to the
campaign and the results are clear
sharper press conferences, masks and
booting the Florida national conven-
tion. But Mr. Trump has already lost a lot of
ground on the issue that seems likely to
define the outcome of the race with Mr.
Biden. The idea that Mr. Trump at this
late date will change course that he
will consistently promote the use of
masks or listen to Dr. Anthony Fauci, the
governments top infectious disease ex-
pert assumes that Mr. Trump will sud-
denly find the campaign discipline that
has mostly eluded him over the years.
A line of people waiting for Covid-19 tests in Miami Springs, Fla. The pandemic has exploded in the state, whose governor is a close ally of President Trump.
Trump follows his opponent NEWS ANALYSIS
The presidents change
of course has helped Biden
and reshaped the contest
In shifting his stance, Mr. Trump has reluctantly acknowledged the transformation of the political landscape by disease and fear. SAMUEL CORUM FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
The president is seen as out of step with the nation, in contrast with his presumptive
opponent, former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., who has campaigned in a mask.
HANNAH YOON FOR THE NEW YORK TIMESThe sign is easy to miss in the waiting
room of the emergency department at
Massachusetts General Hospital, next
to the reception desk and a hand sani-
tizer pump. Register to vote here, it
says, above an iPad attached to a stand.
The kiosk has stood there since No-
vember, before the pandemic began,
and stayed there through the worst
weeks of April, when 12 gasping patients
were put on ventilators during a single
grueling 12-hour shift. Now, as the number of coronavirus
patients has slowed to a trickle, Dr. Alis-
ter Martin, the 31-year-old emergency
room doctor who built the kiosk, is de-
termined to keep trying to register vot-
ers. There will be a time where above the
din of suffering we ask, How can we use
this to make something better of our sit-
uation? said Dr. Martin, who always
sports a Ready to Vote? badge. Dr. Martins project, VotER, has taken
on new urgency as the pandemic has
curbed traditional in-person voter-reg-
istration efforts, and as the link between
public policy failures and death in the
United States has become especially
Now, despite a global pandemic or
perhaps because of it his project is
spreading across the country. Since
May, more than 3,000 health care
providers have requested kits to regis-
ter their own patients to vote, including
at flagship hospitals in states like Penn-
sylvania, Kansas and Arizona. VotER is part of a larger movement
that pushes medical professionals to ad-
dress the underlying social conditions
such as hunger, drug addiction and
homelessness that make their pa-
tients sick in the first place. At its core, it
amounts to nothing less than an effort to
change the culture of medicine by get-
ting doctors and nurses to view the
civic health of their patients as part of
their professional duties. Supporters of this movement say the
American health care system tends to
work best for communities that vote, so
encouraging voting is a strategy for im-
proving patient health in the long term.
Jonathan Kusner, a fourth-year medical
student who is co-chair of Med Out the
Vote, a get-out-the-vote initiative
started by the American Medical Stu-
dent Association, said his group was en-
couraging primary care doctors to in-
clude Are you registered to vote? on
intake screening questionnaires, simi-
lar to questions about domestic vio-
Just as we ask people to behaviorally
modify their diet or their exercise or
their health, we could ask people to mod-
ify their civics, said Mr. Kusner, whose
organization has teamed up with VotER
to promote voter registration in hospi-
tals around the country. But some health care professionals
frown on voter registration efforts, fear-
ing that they could be viewed as parti-
san. After years of being dependably Re-
publican, doctors are now more likely to
be Democrats. Others worry that registering voters
is beyond the scope of what medical pro-
fessionals should be asking their pa-
tients. Few doctors have been trained to
discuss voter registration in a nonparti-
san way, and many emergency room
doctors already feel overwhelmed by
their work as it is.
There is an enormous voice that
says, Not our job, said Dr. Harrison Al-
ter, the founding executive director of
The Andrew Levitt Center for Social
Emergency Medicine, which helped
popularize a new medical field called
social emergency medicine that trains
doctors to tackle social conditions that
make patients sick. But newly minted doctors tend to be
more outspoken about the need to get in-
volved in enfranchising patients, and
trying to fix a broken health care sys-
Dr. Martin, who grew up in New Jersey
with a single mother, said he identified
with his emergency room patients who
struggled to make ends meet. At Harvard Medical School, he be-
came disillusioned when he realized
how much time doctors spent on paper-
work and saw the power of insurance
companies to dictate what treatments
are prescribed. He considered leaving medicine for
good and earned a masters degree in
public policy. Then he worked as a
health policy aide to the governor of Ver-
mont during that states experiment
with single-payer health care. Eventually, he returned to medicine,
finishing his residency last year. He is al-
ready full of stories about public-policy
failures that make patients sick. He
speaks with passion about the 19-year-
old woman who came in twice in one
week with a life-threatening condition
related to diabetes. In medical school they called it non-
compliance. She was not taking her in-
sulin as instructed. But Dr. Martin real-
ized after talking with her that she had
been rationing insulin because she had
lost her health insurance. Then there was the woman who came
in on Christmas Eve with stomach
pains. Her urine sample revealed high
levels of ketones, a sign that she had not
eaten in days. That, too, was not the kind
of problem he had been taught to solve
in medical school.
Last year, just a few months after Dr.
Martin was hired as a full-fledged emer-
gency room doctor and a faculty mem-
ber at the Harvard Medical Schools
Center for Social Justice and Health Eq-
uity, he asked hospital administrators
for permission to put up voting kiosks.
They agreed, as long as the effort was
nonpartisan and did not infringe on
Dr. Martin installed TurboVote soft-
ware on a few iPads and affixed them to
stands that he bought online. He also put
up posters with QR codes that patients
can scan with cellphones, automatically
bringing up a website where they can
register to vote.
The project was just getting started
with about one patient a day registering
to vote and about a dozen hospitals ex-
pressing an interest in the kiosks
when the pandemic struck. Emergency
rooms filled with terrified people de-
manding tests. The iPad touch screens
became a source of possible infections.
Hospitals that had ordered kiosks
stopped returning his calls. Massachusetts General Hospital took
on the look of a military camp, with a
tent for the homeless who awaited their
results. In April, at the peak of surge, Dr.
Martin noticed that most of the sickest
people were low-income Spanish speak-
ers essential workers who could not
shelter in place. The virus was laying bare the dispari-
ties in the health care system that Dr.
Martin was already trying to combat. Instead of sidetracking VotER, the
pandemic has only raised interest in the
project. After months of watching the
mismanagement of the response, and
fearing for their own lives as well as
their patients, many doctors and nurses
now see the connection between their
work and politics more clearly. There are more nurses interested,
more doctors interested, said Aliza
Narva, the director of ethics at the Hos-
pital of the University of Pennsylvania
of her hospital systems efforts to regis-
ter patients to vote. I would guess that
people really saw the implication that
policy can have on the actual care that
we are able to deliver. So far this month, about 500 people
have registered to vote using the QR
code on VotER posters and badges worn
by health care providers, about twice as
many as had registered during the pre-
vious three months. And Dr. Martin has
received so many orders that he isnt
sure how his small team of volunteers
will fill them all. The pandemic has put an edge in his
normally cheerful demeanor that had
not been there before. If health care
providers want a system that works, he
said, they have to step up. The time for us being impartial and
apolitical and standing on the sideline is
over, he said. The virus has also given Dr. Martin
another avenue to bring up the topic of
voting with his patients. He advises his
patients, especially the most fragile,
that it is safest to vote from home in No-
vember. Do you already have your
mail-in ballot? he asks them, pointing
to the QR code on his badge. You can
get one here.
Dr. Alister Martin, an emergency room doctor, starting his commute to Massachusetts
General Hospital in Boston, where he has created a kiosk to register patients to vote.
Pandemic prescription:
Register and cast a vote
The coronavirus helps
physicians see how policy
and health are connected

Editors and account managers at the
Time & Life Building in Midtown Man-
hattan could once walk out through the
modernist lobby and into a thriving
ecosystem that existed in support of the
offices above. They could shop for de-
signer shirts or shoes, slide into a steak-
house corner booth for lunch and then
return to their desks without ever cross-
ing the street.
To approach this block today is like
visiting a relative in the hospital. The
building, rebranded a few years ago and
renovated to fit 8,000 workers, now has
just 500 a day showing up. The steak-
house dining rooms are dark. On a sidewalk once lined with food
carts, a lone hot-dog vendor stood one
recent Friday on a corner below the
building. His name is Ahmed Ahmed,
and he said he used to sell 400 hot dogs a
How many now? Maybe 10.
Midtown Manhattan, the muscular
power center of New York City for a cen-
tury, faces an economic catastrophe, a
cascade of loss upon loss that threatens
to alter the very identity of the citys cor-
porate base. The coronaviruss toll of
lost professions, lost professionals and
untold billions of lost income and tax
revenue may take years to understand
and resolve. Other New York neighborhoods are
rushing to reopen, while Midtown re-
mains stuck in a purgatorial Phase Zero,
its very purpose to bring as many hu-
man beings together as possible
strangling most hope of a convincing
comeback in the foreseeable future and
offering a sign of what may lie in store
for business districts across the United
States. Upstairs, floors are mostly empty, as
companies reassess their need for office
space, raising serious questions about
the future of the citys commercial real
estate market. Downstairs, streets were
lined with the creature comforts that
made working in Midtown not only
bearable, but even fun. They are vanish-
ing, and with them, the men and women
who fed, clothed, poured drinks for and
drove the people in those tall buildings. The Mens Wearhouse below the for-
mer Time & Life Building, now named
1271 Avenue of the Americas (its ad-
dress), remained boarded up for
months. The store reopened early this
month, its role in offering and tailoring
custom business and formal attire per-
haps never less relevant.
The staffs of the steakhouses were
furloughed months ago. Mr. Ahmed, the
hot dog vendor, looking over what
should be prime real estate outside Ra-
dio City Music Hall, said he was thinking
of cutting back to every other day.
Subway data tells a story as stark as
Mr. Ahmeds cart. Take the Rockefeller
Center subway station, a major stop for
four train lines and the point of entry
and exit to the neighborhood for work-
ers from all over. Last year on June 24, a
Monday, 62,312 riders swiped cards to
enter the station. On the comparable
Monday this year, June 22, the number
was 8,032. In danger of extinction, at least in its
known state, is the corporate office cul-
ture at large its corner suites and cu-
bicles, water-cooler movie reviews, cof-
fee breaks, office crushes, shoeshines,
black cars. Happy hour, Mad Men. That show was set in part in the Time
& Life Building, which lent a shorthand
nod to corporate chic. Today, the story of
the state of Midtown can largely be told
with a close look at the block near
Rockefeller Center where it has stood
for more than 60 years.
The Time & Life Building set the new standard, transforming the west side of
Sixth Avenue from a collection of old
tenement-like buildings into a corporate
corridor, said Robert A.
M. Stern, the
modern traditionalist architect whose
firm has executed many prominent
projects in Manhattan and around the
globe. He was not a fan, especially not of the
way the building was set back from the
street, a departure that became stand-
ard practice on Avenue of the Americas,
as Sixth Avenue is also known. It cele-
brated itself, Mr. Stern said. It was in the era of the glamour of corporations.
The Rockefeller Group, the buildings
owner, emptied 1271 Avenue of the
Americas for significant renovations
shortly after Time Inc. moved most of its
operations downtown in 2015. The build-
ing reopened last year, and the law firm
Blank Rome, a longtime tenant in the
Chrysler Building eight blocks down-
town, was among the first to move in. Among the first lawyers through the
door was Martin Luskin, who has spent
41 years with the firm. His biggest fear,
looking across the street at Rockefeller of 30 Rockefeller Plaza (30 Rock).
A client lunch or client drinks in the
evening thats my spot, he said.
Now, his spot is his home in Westches-
ter County, a New York City suburb,
staring at clients on his screen instead of
alongside breathtaking views in Mid-
town. The Rainbow Room remains
closed. The means of arrival and departure
that made the Rainbow Room unique
the long elevator ride would seem to
be a possible liability if a day comes
when cars are allowed to carry only four
diners at a time to establish social dis-
His colleague Deborah A. Skakel, also
working from home, said she had found
herself missing her own Midtown ritu-
als. She recently paid a brief visit to the
office and noticed a favorite food cart,
called King Tut, missing. You could get
a gyro or souvlaki, but what I got was
salad on the bottom and grilled chicken
and sautéed vegetables, Ms. Skakel
said. Both Mr. Luskin and Ms. Skakel
showed optimism that Midtown would
rebound, just as it has before, from high
crime, financial crises and the Sept. 11,
2001, attacks, which struck fear in many
people working in tall buildings. But in the short term, those buildings
are preparing reopening protocols that
will bear very little resemblance to life
before the pandemic. Before returning
to the office, employees will watch vid-
eos that lay out the new world: masks,
temperature checks, contact-tracing
questions, the maximum of four to an el-
evator, with arrows on the floor direct-
ing riders into the corners. Employees
will essentially make reservations to en-
ter the building, with a computer reject-
ing new arrivals after the maximum
number is reached.
The emptying out of Midtown has had
a profound impact on the Executive
Plaza, which opened in 1986 at Seventh
Avenue and West 51st Street in what had
previously been the Taft Hotel. Its more
than 400 apartments, rented out to com-
panies based in the area, including The
New York Times, have been temporary
homes to countless employees, execu-
tives, trainees, foreign correspondents
visiting their home bases and Broadway
performers including the Rockettes
and Santa Claus needing a short-term
place to stay.
But since the city shut down in March,
many of those corporations, with no one
traveling, have not renewed their
leases. So the building has pivoted, per-
suading the owners of the apartments to
cut rents for a new kind of tenant.
Young people, millennials, whose
leases are expiring elsewhere, and
theyre looking for deals, said Susanne
Miller, the leasing agent for Executive
Plaza. They want to not be on the sub-
way. They want to walk to work. Mr. Stern, the architect, said the past
was a hopeful indicator in this uncertain
time. New York survived the late 70s, and
everybody thought the city was over,
rampant crime, near bankruptcy, he
said. It survives the market crashes of
87 and 89, it survives the dot-com crash
of 2000 or so. It survived 2008. So it will
survive. But each time, each one of those
moments probably can be traced in rela-
tionship to new ideas on how to occupy
existing buildings or how to occupy new
A ghost town at the heart of New York
In other summers, the street in front of the Time & Life Building in New York has been part of the citys busy power center. Few now enter the office buildings or come out to take
advantage of what were many lunch opportunities. Ahmed Ahmed, below left, used to sell 400 hot dogs a day. Now its about 10, and he is thinking of cutting back his hours. PHOTOGRAPHS BY AMR ALFIKY/THE NEW YORK TIMESTowers are mostly empty
and steakhouses are dark
in an omen for other cities
Center, was the holidays ahead.We were petrified, hearing stories
about the tree lighting and the weeks be-
fore and a couple of weeks after, he said.
But in the end, when you get used to it
and see the excitement in the families
bringing their children to see the tree,
the excitement takes over. Its an ener-
gizing effect. He would grow fond enough of Rocke-
feller Center that he became a member
at the Rainbow Room, the gilded and
mirrored destination for Champagne
brunch and chandeliers on the 65th floor
On June 26, a small South San Francisco
company called Vaxart made a surprise
announcement: A coronavirus vaccine
it was working on had been selected by
the U.S. government to be part of Opera-
tion Warp Speed, the flagship federal
initiative to quickly develop drugs to
combat Covid-19. Vaxarts shares soared. Company in-
siders, who weeks earlier had received
stock options worth a few million dol-
lars, saw the value of those awards in-
crease sixfold. And a hedge fund that
partly controlled the company walked
away with more than $200 million in in-
stant profits. The race is on to develop a coro-
navirus vaccine, and some companies
and investors are betting that the win-
ners stand to earn vast profits from sell-
ing hundreds of millions or even bil-
lions of doses to a desperate public. Across the pharmaceutical and medi-
cal industries, senior executives and
board members are capitalizing on that
dynamic. They are making millions of dollars
after announcing positive develop-
ments, including support from the gov-
ernment, in their efforts to fight
Covid-19. After such announcements, in-
siders from at least 11 companies
most of them smaller firms whose for-
tunes often hinge on the success or fail-
ure of a single drug have sold shares
worth well over $1 billion since March, according to figures compiled for The
New York Times by Equilar, a data
In some cases, company insiders are
profiting from regularly scheduled com-
pensation or automatic stock trades.
But in other situations, senior officials
appear to be pouncing on opportunities
to cash out while their stock prices are
sky high. And some companies have
awarded stock options to executives
shortly before market-moving an-
nouncements about their vaccine
The sudden windfalls highlight the
powerful financial incentives for com-
pany officials to generate positive head-
lines in the race for coronavirus vac-
cines and treatments, even if the drugs
might never pan out. Some companies are attracting gov-
ernment scrutiny for potentially using
their associations with Operation Warp
Speed as marketing ploys. For example, the headline on Vaxarts
news release declared: Vaxarts
Covid-19 Vaccine Selected for the U.S.
Governments Operation Warp Speed.
But the reality is more complex. Vaxarts vaccine candidate was in-
cluded in a trial on primates that a fed-
eral agency was organizing in conjunc-
tion with Operation Warp Speed. But
Vaxart is not among the companies se-
lected to receive significant financial
support from Warp Speed to produce
hundreds of millions of vaccine doses. The U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services has entered into fund-
ing agreements with certain vaccine
manufacturers, and we are negotiating
with others, said Michael R. Caputo, the
departments assistant secretary for
public affairs. Neither is the case with
Vaxart. Vaxarts vaccine candidate was se-
lected to participate in preliminary U.S.
government studies to determine poten-
tial areas for possible Operation Warp
Speed partnership and support, he add-
ed. At this time, those studies are ongo-
ing, and no determinations have been
Some officials at the Department of
Health and Human Services have
grown concerned about whether com-
panies including Vaxart are trying to in-
flate their stock prices by exaggerating
their roles in Warp Speed, a senior
Trump administration official said. The
department has relayed those concerns
to the U.S. Securities and Exchange
Commission, said the official, who spoke
on the condition of anonymity. It isnt clear whether the commission
is looking into the matter. An S.E.C.
spokeswoman declined to comment.
Vaxart abides by good corporate
governance guidelines and policies and
makes decisions in accordance with the
best interests of the company and its
shareholders, Vaxarts chief executive,
Andrei Floroiu, said in a statement on
Friday. Referring to Operation Warp
Speed, he added, We believe that
Vaxarts Covid-19 vaccine is the most ex-
citing one in O.W.S. because it is the only
oral vaccine (a pill) in O.W.S. Well-timed stock transactions are
generally legal. But investors and cor-
porate governance experts say they can
create the appearance that executives
are profiting from inside information and could erode public confidence in the
pharmaceutical industry when the
world is looking to these companies to
cure Covid-19.
It is inappropriate for drug company
executives to cash in on a crisis, said
Ben Wakana, executive director of Pa-
tients for Affordable Drugs, a nonprofit
advocacy group. Every day, Americans
wake up and make sacrifices during this
pandemic. Drug companies see this as a
payday. Executives at a long list of companies
have reaped seven- or eight-figure prof-
its thanks to their work on coronavirus
vaccines and treatments. Shares of Regeneron, a biotech com-
pany in Tarrytown, N.Y., have climbed
nearly 80 percent since early February,
when it announced a collaboration with
the Department of Health and Human
Services to develop a Covid-19 treat-
ment. Since then, the companys top ex-
ecutives and board members have sold
nearly $700 million worth of stock. The
chief executive, Leonard Schleifer, sold
$178 million worth of shares on a single
day in May. Alexandra Bowie, a spokeswoman for
Regeneron, said most of those sales had
been scheduled in advance through pro-
grams that automatically sell execu-
tives shares if the stock hits a certain
price. Moderna, a 10-year-old vaccine devel-
oper based in Cambridge, Mass., that
has never brought a product to market,
announced in late January that it was
working on a coronavirus vaccine. Its
stock has more than tripled.
Moderna insiders have sold about
$248 million worth of shares since that
January announcement, most of it after
the company was selected in April to re-
ceive federal funding to support its vac- cine efforts. While some of those sales
were scheduled in advance, others were
more spur of the moment. Flagship Ven-
tures, an investment fund run by the
companys founder and chairman,
Noubar Afeyan, sold more than $68 mil-
lion worth of Moderna shares on May 21.
Those transactions were not scheduled
in advance, according to securities fil-
Executives and board members at
Luminex, Quidel and Emergent BioSo-
lutions have sold shares worth a com-
bined $85 million after announcing they
were working on vaccines, treatments
or testing solutions. Vaxart, though, is where the most
money was made the fastest. At the start of the year, its shares were
valued around 35 cents. Then in late
January, Vaxart began working on an
orally administered coronavirus vac-
cine, and its shares started rising. Vaxarts largest shareholder was a
New York hedge fund, Armistice Capi-
tal, which last year acquired nearly two-
thirds of the companys shares. Two Ar-
mistice executives, including the hedge
funds founder, Steven Boyd, joined
Vaxarts board of directors. The hedge
fund also purchased rights, known as
warrants, to buy 21 million more Vaxart
shares at some point in the future for as
little as 30 cents each.
Vaxart has never brought a vaccine to
market. It has just 15 employees. But
throughout the spring, Vaxart an-
nounced positive preliminary data for
its vaccine, along with a partnership
with a company that could manufacture
it. By late April, with investors sensing
the potential for big profits, the compa-
nys shares had reached $3.66 a ten-
fold increase from January.
Insiders cash in on sprint to develop a vaccine
A trial of a potential coronavirus vaccine announced by Moderna in January. Since then,
Moderna insiders have sold shares totaling about $248 million.
Well-timed stock bets
bring in big profits for
executives and directors

A hulking Russian pipe-laying vessel
called the Akademik Cherskiy can be
seen off the German Baltic coast these
days, marine tracking sites say, appar-
ently waiting for the chance to complete
the final stretches of a big undersea
pipeline that will carry natural gas di-
rectly to Germany from Russia.
The Trump administration, though, is
trying to keep the pipeline, known as
Nord Stream 2, on ice. Earlier this
month, the State Department moved to
potentially impose economic penalties
on investors and other business partici-
pants in the project, an expansion of ex-
isting sanctions. The new measures were a clear
warning to companies that aiding and
abetting Russias malign influence
projects will not be tolerated, Secretary
of State Mike Pompeo told reporters.
Get out now, or risk the consequences.
The threat from Washington has
brought quick condemnation from Euro-
pean leaders, who call it interference in
their sovereign right to set energy pol-
icy, but it may also put pressure on some
European energy companies, including
Royal Dutch Shell, that are backing the
pipeline. The project is described as 94 percent
complete, and while backers are confi-
dent it will be finished, the sanctions
threat has made it unclear when that
will happen. The pipeline, being built by a com-
pany owned by Gazprom, the Russian
gas giant, has become the particular fo-
cus of concerns in Washington that Rus-
sias dominance of energy supplies to
Europe could translate into political
leverage for Moscow. Such worries are
not new, as natural gas from the Soviet
Union and, after its demise, Russia, has
been crucial in powering the European
economy for decades. Recently, though, President Vladimir
V. Putins aggressive approach to Rus-
sias foreign policy has heightened wor-
ries about his ambitions. And now that
the United States has ample supplies of
gas from shale drilling and fracking,
there is widespread suspicion that
Washington may be using geopolitical
concerns to bolster American exports of
liquefied natural gas. We want them to buy from us, not the
Russians, said Robert McNally, presi-
dent of Rapidan Energy Group, a mar-
ket research firm, describing Washing-
tons policy. Senator Ted Cruz, Republican of
Texas, which is a key exporter of fuels, is
helping sponsor even tougher sanctions
legislation and has called the pipeline a
critical threat to Americas national se-
curity. Some analysts say the United States
could now use sanctions to target five
European companies that are providing
financial backing for up to half of the 9.5
billion euro, or $11 billion, cost of Nord
Stream 2. Besides Shell, Europes larg-
est oil company, they are Uniper, a Ger-
man utility; OMV, the Austrian energy
company; Engie, a French energy firm; and Wintershall Dea, a German oil com-
pany. On the other hand, with the project
largely complete and major financial
commitments already made, some say
these companies may not have much to
worry about.
Still, European officials and business
leaders are bristling at what they say is
Washingtons interference in European
matters. The U.S. administration is disre-
specting Europes right and sovereignty
to decide itself where and how we
source our energy, said Heiko Maas,
Germanys foreign minister. The European Unions foreign policy
chief, Josep Borrell, said he was deeply
concerned at the growing use of sanc-
tions, or the threat of sanctions, by the
United States against European compa-
nies and interests. German business representatives
also say the dispute threatens to further
sour trans-Atlantic economic ties that
have already been strained during the
Trump administration. It will be a very dangerous precedent
that a third country can impose its rules
on European sovereignty and rule of
law, said Michael Harms, managing di-
rector of the German Eastern Business
Association, an industry group that pro-
motes trade with Russia.
Mr. Harms warned that German busi-
nesses were talking of retaliating by
seeking a ban on imported gas derived from fracking a procedure responsi-
ble for most of the gas exported from the
United States but banned in Germany.
While countries like Germany and
France tend to shrug off fears of depend-
ing too much on Russian energy, other
countries, like Poland and Lithuania,
have built their own liquefied natural
gas facilities to ensure energy independ-
ence from Russia. Germany, Europes
largest economy, is also studying build-
ing such facilities, although analysts say
neighboring countries have plenty of ca-
pacity that Germany can use.
Construction of Nord Stream 2, which
will roughly double the amount of gas
that Russia can supply directly to Ger-
many by pipeline, was moving along
rapidly until December, when the threat
of U.S. sanctions against contractors led
Allseas, a Swiss-Dutch company, to
withdraw its advanced pipe-laying
ships, leaving the 760-mile line about 50
miles short. Germany is already receiv-
ing Russian gas through an existing
pipeline that was completed in 2012. We are forced to look for new solu-
tions to lay the remaining 6 percent of our pipeline, a Nord Stream spokesman
wrote in an email Thursday. We are
looking for options and will inform about
our plans in due time.
Gazprom, analysts say, has been
working on a plan to complete the re-
maining work, which is mostly in Dan-
ish waters, with its own vessels. The
project seemed to have clear sailing
when a Danish agency said on July 6
that it would allow the company to pro-
ceed with other vessels. Mr. Pompeo continued to press the
case last week on a trip to Europe that
included a stopover in Denmark, but he
apparently did not find a receptive audi-
ence. During a news conference with
Mr. Pompeo in Copenhagen on Wednes-
day, the Danish foreign minister, Jeppe
Kofod, appeared to rule out blocking the
pipeline. The pipeline runs through Den-
marks economic zone, and here inter-
national rules apply and we abide by
those, Mr. Kofod said, according to
Bloomberg News. Washington could still cause more de-
lays and raise the costs for Gazprom,
but most analysts expect the pipeline to
be completed because it is so close to the
finish line and because Gazprom needs
it to carry gas from new fields it is devel-
oping to market. The pipeline would
also, theoretically, allow Gazproms gas
to largely avoid going through Ukraine,
a longstanding aim, although the Rus- sian company agreed at the end of last
year to continue shipping substantial
amounts of the fuel through Ukraine for
five more years.
They are not going to abandon the
project, because they have put so much
into it, said Jane Rangel, an analyst at
Energy Aspects, a research firm. At the moment, the European gas
market that the United States and Rus-
sia are competing for is not all that entic-
ing. Prices have fallen about 75 percent
over the last two years, as a surge of new
supplies from the United States and
elsewhere swamped the market. More
recently, demand has fallen as lock-
downs designed to tackle the pandemic
have cut energy needs. Growing pres-
sures to reduce carbon emissions are
also raising questions about future de-
mand for gas. Thane Gustafson, the author of a new
book on European gas links to Russia,
The Bridge: Natural Gas in a Redivid-
ed Europe, said that while Washington
worried about Gazprom in Europe, the
Russian company was actually begin-
ning to turn its attention to faster-grow-
ing markets in Asia. The Russians understand that the
European market within another dec-
ade or so is going to start to stagnate
and decline, he said. They are starting
to shift their strategy to respond to that. Washington wants to block
a Russian venture it labels
a malign influence project
A portion of the Nord Stream 2 Russia-to-Germany gas pipeline, which is 94 percent complete, on a pipe-laying ship operated by Allseas in the Baltic Sea last year. STINE JACOBSEN/REUTERS
European officials and business
leaders are bristling at what they
say is Washingtons interference
in European matters. On June 8, Vaxart changed the terms
of its warrants agreement with Armi-
stice, making it easier for the hedge fund
to rapidly acquire the 21 million shares,
rather than having to buy and sell in
smaller batches. One week later, Vaxart announced
that its chief executive was stepping
down, though he would remain chair-
man. The new chief executive, Mr.
Floroiu, had previously worked with Mr.
Boyd, Armistices founder, at the hedge
fund and the consulting firm McKinsey
& Company. On June 25, Vaxart announced that it
had signed a letter of intent with another
company that might help it mass-
produce a coronavirus vaccine. Vaxarts
shares nearly doubled that day. The next day, Vaxart issued its news
release saying it had been selected for
Operation Warp Speed. Its shares in-
stantly doubled again, at one pointing
hitting $14, their highest level in years. We are very pleased to be one of the
few companies selected by Operation
Warp Speed, and that ours is the only
oral vaccine being evaluated, Mr.
Floroiu said. Armistice took advantage of the
stocks exponential increase at that
point up more than 3,600 percent since
January. On June 26, a Friday, and the
next Monday, the hedge fund exercised
its warrants to buy nearly 21 million
Vaxart shares for either 30 cents or $1.10
a share purchases it would not have
been able to make as quickly, had its
agreement with Vaxart not been modi-
fied weeks earlier. Armistice then immediately sold the
shares at prices from $6.58 to $12.89 a
share, according to securities filings.
The hedge funds profits were immense:
more than $197 million. It looks like the warrants may have
been reconfigured at a time when they
knew good news was coming, said
Robert Daines, a professor at Stanford
Law School who is an expert on corpo-
rate governance. Thats a valuable
change, made right as the companys
stock price was about to rise. At the same time, the hedge fund also
unloaded some of the Vaxart shares it
had previously bought, notching tens of
millions of dollars in additional profits. By the end of that Monday, June 29,
Armistice had sold almost all of its
Vaxart shares. Mr. Boyd and Armistice declined to
Mr. Floroiu said the change to the Ar-
mistice agreement was in the best in-
terests of Vaxart and its stockholders
and helped it raise money to work on the
Covid-19 vaccine. He and other Vaxart board members
also were positioned for big personal
profits. When he became chief executive
in mid-June, Mr. Floroiu received stock
options that were worth about $4.3 mil-
lion. A month later, those options were
worth more than $28 million.
Noah Weiland contributed reporting.
cash in
on sprint
for vaccine
Even before the four-month pause that
protected millions of Americans from
eviction cases expired last week, land-
lords across the United States were try-
ing to get a head start forcing renters
out. Landlords in Tucson, Ariz., filed doz-
ens of eviction cases last month despite
the federal moratorium, which was put
in place because of the coronavirus cri-
sis. Legal aid lawyers had to go to court
to stop the eviction of a San Antonio
renter who had lost her job during a city-
wide stay-at-home order. And in Omaha,
a court found that an attempted eviction
of a struggling renter had violated the
emergency law.
As the number of Covid-19 cases has
surged across the United States, a dis-
turbing trend has emerged: landlords
commencing eviction proceedings even
though the CARES Act relief law had
protected about 12 million tenants living
in qualifying properties. Lawmakers last week failed to reach
an agreement on new relief measures
including extending the eviction mora-
torium. Yolanda Jackson, a special-education
tutor in the DeKalb County schools out-
side Atlanta, lost her job in March when
the schools shut down. Ms. Jackson, a
mother of two, has yet to receive an un-
employment check, despite confirma-
tion that she had been approved, and
has not been able to pay her rent. A char-
itable organization agreed to cover her
missed payments, but so far the man-
ager of her complex, LaVista Crossing
Apartments, hasnt sent the necessary
documentation to accept it. I have tried everything in my power
not to get to this point, Ms. Jackson
said. Ive been here seven years, and they will not work with me. I am just
stressed out and trying to hold it togeth-
She received an eviction notice in late
June, and the manager said in a court fil-
ing that the property wasnt covered by
the federal moratorium. But last Tues-
day, lawyers for Legal Aid in Atlanta de-
cided to take her case after finding that
the complex is in fact listed as having a
federally backed mortgage making it
covered by the CARES Act moratorium.
Lawyers for LaVista Crossing did not
respond to messages seeking comment. At least two other residents of the
apartment complex have been served
with eviction notices for nonpayment,
said Lindsey Siegel with Atlanta Legal
Aid. Many Legal Aid clients are facing
evictions simply because their unem-
ployment benefits havent come
through, she said.
State and local governments have
also issued eviction moratoriums, but
the CARES Act reached furthest, cover-
ing as many as 12.3 million renters living
in an apartment complex or single-fam-
ily home financed with a federally
backed mortgage. But after it expired on
Friday, landlords were able to begin fil-
ing eviction notices for failure to pay
rent. It takes at least 30 days after an
eviction filing before tenants could be
kicked out. The moratorium had been a lifeline
for millions of unemployed people, al-
lowing renters waiting on slow-to-arrive
aid to stay in their homes and make up
the payments later. But the far-ranging and hastily as-
sembled CARES Act which, among
things, had provisions for direct relief
payments, a temporary expansion of
unemployment insurance and hundreds
of billions of dollars in small-business
aid did not penalize landlords who vi-
olated the moratorium. Paula Cino, a vice president for policy
and government affairs at the National
Multifamily Housing Council, a landlord
group, said there had been some legiti-
mate confusion at the outset with the federal moratorium and local and state
eviction pauses.
That said, I wouldnt minimize the
fact that there is the potential for bad ac-
tors in this space, she said. Even if
they werent initially taking advantage
of the system, they have the responsibil-
ity to better understand. Once an eviction case enters the legal
system, it can have lasting conse-
quences: Even a wrongfully filed action
can be difficult to remove from court
records and keep turning up when rent-
ers go through background checks. An eviction judgment stays on a ten-
ants credit report for seven years, is
grounds for wage garnishment and
makes it more difficult for a tenant to
find future housing, said Stacy Butler, a
law professor at the University of Ari-
zona who has been tracking violations of
the CARES Act.
The scope of the problem is elusive.
Wrongly evicted renters might not both-
er trying to challenge their landlords, sometimes because of their immigration
status, or because they did not know
they have the right.
But wrongful evictions have been re-
ported across the country. The Private
Equity Stakeholder Project, a consumer
advocacy group, found more than 100 fil-
ings in apparent violation of the CARES
Act in Arizona, Florida, Massachusetts
and Texas.
And in a survey of 100 legal aid law-
yers in 38 states, by the National Hous-
ing Law Project, all but nine said they
knew of attempts at illegal evictions in
their cities. The problem prompted the
group to create a draft complaint to chal-
lenge a violation of the CARES Act mor-
Judges have been troubled, too. The
Texas Supreme Court issued a state-
wide order last week requiring land-
lords to certify whether the CARES Act
applied to an eviction case, and Ari-
zonas Supreme Court took a similar ac-
tion earlier this month. Lawmakers in Washington are debat-
ing another relief law including possi-
ble stimulus payments, aid for govern-
ments and schools, and a decision on
what to do about the extra $600 weekly
unemployment benefit and housing
advocates want it to provide more help
for renters. The landlord group is in favor of help
for tenants, too. The National Multifam-
ily Housing Council said it favored the
creation of an emergency rental assist-
ance program of up to $100 billion. But
the organization opposes a protracted
extension of a federal eviction moratori-
um. If the moratorium is renewed in an-
other relief bill it is part of the $3 tril-
lion package passed by House Demo-
crats there are calls from housing ad-
vocates to give it enough teeth to keep
landlords from trying to skirt the rules. There should also be clearly delin-
eated enforcement mechanisms and
steep penalties for landlords who flout
the law, said Diane Yentel, president of
the National Low Income Housing Co-
alition, which had set up a webpage to
help tenants determine if their rentals
were covered by the CARES Act.
Nelson Mock, an attorney with Texas
RioGrande Legal Aid, said lawyers
across Texas had seen landlords trying
to sidestep the issue. Juanita Herrera DeLeon, 57, who lost
her job in March during San Antonios
stay-at-home order, had to fend off an
eviction attempt despite the CARES Act
moratorium. Soon after Ms. DeLeon lost her job,
the manager of her apartment complex,
the Olmos Club Apartments, tried to
lock her out by installing a device on her
doorknob. It was removed after she
complained to the police, but she said
the complex had tried other tactics to
get her to leave, like posting on her front
door a three-day notice to vacate the
premises. That was when she sought help from
RioGrande Legal Aid. In a statement
filed with her lawsuit, she said the prop- erty manager did not leave me any-
thing in writing about locking me out
before the first attempt.
The suit was recently settled; Mr.
Mock said he was not permitted to dis-
cuss the terms.
Jason Adelstein, a lawyer for the Ol-
mos Club Apartments, said, The dis-
pute was settled between the parties,
my client denies any wrongdoing, and
due to the terms of the settlement agree-
ment between the parties there can be
no further comment.
The issue of CARES Act violations
may be worst in Arizona. In June alone, at least 80 eviction pro-
ceedings that were started in the local
courts in Pima County appeared to vio-
late the CARES Act, according to re-
search by a team that included Ms. But-
ler, the law professor in Tucson. Many were filed by small landlords,
and it was hard to know whether the fil-
ings were intentional or a mistake, she
said. One property owner, however, was re-
sponsible for filing more than a dozen
cases against residents of the Cordova
Village apartment complex in Tucson.
The landlord, Equilibrium Properties,
which operates several apartment
buildings in Tucson and Washington,
D.C., said in an emailed statement that
the eviction filings had been made in er-
ror. The company, which received at
least $150,000 under the Paycheck Pro-
tection Program established by the
CARES Act, said it had moved to vacate
the proceedings and was rescinding all
notices for nonpayment that have been
given to tenants.
Moving forward, the company said,
we will take every effort to comply with
the CARES Act.
Eviction moratorium hasnt stopped landlords from trying
Yolanda Jackson is waiting for unemployment benefits after losing her teaching job.
Her landlord said she isnt covered by the moratorium, but Legal Aid Atlanta said she is.
MELISSA GOLDEN FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Ive been here seven years, and
they will not work with me. I am
just stressed out and trying to
hold it together.BY MATTHEW GOLDSTEIN

For several years now, the police and
other authorities in China have been
collecting across the country DNA
samples from millions of men and boys
who arent suspected of having com-
mitted any crime.
In a report published by the Austral-
ian Strategic Policy Institute last
month, we exposed the extent of the
Chinese governments program of
genetic surveillance: It no longer is
limited to Xinjiang, Tibet and other
areas mostly populated by ethnic mi-
norities the government represses;
DNA collection serving no apparent
immediate need has spread across
the entire country. We estimate that
the authorities goal is to gather the
DNA samples of 35 million to 70 million
Chinese males. Matched against official family
records, surveillance footage or wit-
ness statements in police reports, these
samples will become a powerful tool for
the Chinese authorities to track down a
man or boy or, failing that, a relative
of his for whatever reason they
deem fit. The Chinese government denies the
existence of any such program, but
since our studys publication, we have
continued to uncover online scattered
evidence revealing the programs
enormous scale, including government
reports and official procurement orders
for DNA kits and testing services. DNA is being harvested across the
country: in the southwestern provinces
of Yunnan and Guizhou; in central-
southern Hunan; in Shandong and
Jiangsu, in the east; and up north, in
the autonomous region of Inner Mon-
golia. We have continued to find photo-
graphic evidence that the police are
collecting blood from children, pin-
pricking their fingers at school a
clear violation of Chinas responsibil-
ities under the U.N. Convention on the
Rights of the Child.
And we have found fresh proof,
including official documents, showing
that DNA samples are also being gath-
ered in major urban centers. (For a
time, the focus seemed to be largely on
rural communities.) An official report dated June 16,
available on a website of the govern-
ment of Sichuan Province, details the
creation of a DNA database by the
Public Security Bureau of the city of
Chengdu, the provinces capital, and
seeks expert opinion on the creation of
a male ancestry investigation sys-
It documents how 17 public security
offices have collected DNA samples
from nearly 600,000 male residents
across the city thats about 7 percent
of Chengdus male population (assum-
ing that roughly half of the citys total
population of about 16.6 million is
The Chengdu procurement report
states that building a massive genetic
database about local residents will help
the police maintain public order and
stability as well as meet the needs of
daily case work. This is of no comfort. In China, securing the public order
essentially means maintaining the
uncontested rule of the Communist
Party. Dissent is a crime, and police
operations are a key part of the states
apparatus of repression. The Chinese police are not doing this
work alone. Evidence continues to
accumulate that private companies,
both Chinese and foreign, are complicit
in this extraordinarily vast, and omi-
nous, assault on the privacy of Chinese
In Hunan Province, Huangrui Scien-
tific Instruments Ltd. a company
based in the provincial capital that
produces a range of medical, chemical
and scientific products has sold to
the Public Security Bureau of the city
of Liuyang some 140,000 DNA testing
kits produced by Thermo Fisher Scien-
tific, a U.S.-based Fortune 500 com-
pany. Thats enough equipment to test
roughly one in five men in the commu-
nity. In Fujian Province, Forensic Ge-
nomics International, a subsidiary of
BGI Group a Chinese gene-sequenc- ing and biomedical company that
describes itself as one of the worlds
leading life science and genomics
organizations won a contract to
analyze 16,000 blood samples collected
by one district in the provinces capital
as part of the authorities effort to
build a male ancestry investigation
system. The estimated total male
population of the district is 43,500.
The Australian Strategic Policy
Institute has contacted Thermo Fisher
and Forensic Genomics International
asking for comments on our report;
neither company replied. In a statement issued to The New
York Times for a news story last
month related to the report, a repre-
sentative of Thermo Fisher said that
the company was proud to be a part
of the many positive ways in which
DNA identification has been applied,
from tracking down criminals to stop-
ping human trafficking and freeing the
unjustly accused. The note, titled Statement on Xin-
jiang, did not address the concerns we
raised about the potential for wide- spread abuse of genomic data by the
Chinese police throughout the country.
Thermo Fisher had previously been
criticized by human rights organiza-
tions and scholars for supplying
DNA collection and analysis equip-
ment to the Chinese authorities in
support of their campaign of repres-
sion against ethnic minorities in Xin-
jiang. Already in February 2019, the
company had vowed to cease any such
sales in the region.
Last week, the U.S. Commerce De-
partment added to its list of sanctioned
companies two other subsidiaries of
BGI Group the Chinese parent
company of Forensic Genomics Inter-
national for conducting genetic
analyses used to further the repression
of Uighurs and other Muslim minor-
ities in Xinjiang. BGI Group has rejected the accusa-
tions. Yet the company is also reported
to have agreed to build a gene bank
in the region. BGI Group has also been producing
tens of millions of Covid-19 test kits for
distribution to more than 80 countries raising concerns in places like Aus-
tralia and California that any DNA
data collected in the process might
then be misused.
For now, China appears to be the
only country in the world where police
are harvesting en masse DNA samples
outside the scope of criminal investiga-
tions. But how much longer before
others follow suit?
In other countries, including the
United States, law enforcement au-
thorities are also pushing the ethical
boundaries of genetic data collection.
The police in New York routinely
collect DNA samples from people they
arrest or simply question some-
times without saying. Across the
United States, police officers search
private ancestry sites like GEDmatch
scouring genetic data looking for po-
tential leads in cold cases also with-
out the knowledge or the consent of
the people who uploaded their person-
al information.
Earlier this year, the Trump admin-
istration put in place a program requir- THE SHIFANG MUNICIPAL PEOPLES GOVERNMENTAuthorities
are systemat-
ically gather-
ing genomic
data from
tens of
of people. Emile Dirks
James Leibold
China is harvesting DNA. Is this the future of policing?
Police officers
collecting DNA
samples from
schoolboys in
Shigu, Yunnan
Province, in
PARISNo people has found the Ameri-
can lurch toward authoritarianism
under President Trump more alarming
than the Germans. For postwar Ger-
many, the United States was savior,
protector and liberal democratic model.
Now, Germans, in shock, speak of the
American catastrophe. A recent cover of the weekly maga-
zine Der Spiegel portrays Trump in the
Oval Office holding a lighted match,
with a country ablaze visible through
his window. The headline: Der Feuer-
teufel, or, literally, the Fire Devil. Germans have a particular relation-
ship to fire. The Reichstag fire of 1933
enabled Hitler and the Nazis to scrap
the fragile Weimar democracy that had
brought them to power. Hitlers murder-
ous fantasies could now become reality.
War, Auschwitz and the German catas-
trophe followed. I have known many thoughtful Ger-
man diplomats over the years, includ-
ing Michael Steiner, who labored to stop
the Balkan wars of the 1990s, and Wolf-
gang Ischinger, the former German
ambassador to the United States. It
always seemed to me that their particu-
lar passion for freedom, democracy and
openness stemmed from the knowledge
of how easily these are lost. Michael Steinberg, a professor of
history at Brown University and the
former president of the American Acad-
emy in Berlin, wrote to me last week: The American catastrophe seems to
get worse every day, but the events in
Portland have particularly alarmed me
as a kind of strategic experiment for
fascism. The playbook from the German
fall of democracy in 1933 seems well in
place, including rogue military factions,
the destabilization of cities, etc. Steinberg continued, The basic
comparison involves racism as a politi-
cal strategy: a racist imaginary of a
pure homeland, with cities demonized
as places of decadence. Trump provokes outrage in a cascade
designed to blunt alarm. He deadens
reactions through volume and repeti-
tion. But something about the recent
use of unmarked cars and camouflage-
clad federal agents without clear identi-
fying insignia detaining protesters
shattered any inclination to shrug. From the deployment of those federal
units in Portland, Oregons largest city,
where protesters have been demanding
racial justice and police accountability,
its not a huge leap to the use of paramil-
itaries (like the German Freikorps in
the 1920s) to buttress a Law and Or-
der campaign. The Freikorps battled
communists. Today, Trump claims to
battle anarchists, terrorists and
violent leftists. Its the leitmotif of his
quest for a second term.
Perhaps the years I spent covering
Argentina in the 1980s, in the aftermath
of the military junta, made me particu-
larly sensitive to the use of unmarked
cars in the Argentine case, Ford
Falcons to grab left-wing political
opponents off the street. They were disappeared, a word whose lingering
psychological devastation I measured in
countless tear-filled rooms. Later I went
to Berlin, where there was only one
story: totalitarian tragedy and the labors
of democratic salvation.
The Department of Homeland Securi-
tys Customs and Border Protection
confirmed last week that it has deployed
officers from three paramilitary-style
units to join the federal crackdown in
Portland. The Trump administration,
facing lawsuits, has cited post-9/11 legis-
lation establishing the department to
justify its action. Chicago is now among
several cities being targeted as Trump
seeks to foment confrontation.
As Tom Ridge, a Republican who was
the first head of the Department of
Homeland Security, noted in an interview
with the Sirius XM host Michael Smer-
conish, the department was not estab-
lished to be the presidents personal
militia. In wartime, the Third Geneva Conven-
tion, to which the United States is a party,
requires even irregular forces to wear a
fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a
distance. This is critical not only to
protecting civilians but also to ensuring
accountability for misconduct. When paramilitary-style units have no
identifying insignia, there is no transpar-
ency, no accountability and that means
impunity. Democracy dies. Think of all
this as setting the scene for Trumps own
state of emergency if he does not like
the November election result. Social
media is combustible enough for a physi-
cal fire to be unnecessary. The president says he wants to protect
law-abiding citizens. In 1933, after the
Reichstag burned, Hitler issued the
Trump says
he wants to
citizens. In
1933, Hitler
issued his
Decree of
the Reich
President for
the Protection
of People and
American catastrophe through German eyes
DER SPIEGELRoger Cohen C OHEN , PAGE 11 Opinion

10 |M ONDAY, JULY 27, 2020 THE NEW YORK TIMES INTERNATIONAL EDITION Brett Kavanaugh invoked it. Mitch
McConnell used it too. Matt Damon
and Ben Affleck have each talked
about it, and this week, Representative
Ted Yoho joined their ranks: he, too, is
now a member of the having-a-daugh-
ter-makes-me-an-ally-to-women or
at the very least, should-excuse-my-
bad-behavior club.
Having been married for 45 years
with two daughters, Im very cognizant
of language, Representative Yoho said
in a speech on the House floor this
week, denying that he called Alexan-
dria Ocasio-Cortez, the freshman Con-
gresswoman from New York, a fuck-
ing bitch after a confrontation on the
steps of the Capitol. Mr. Yoho later expressed regret for
the abrupt manner of the conversa-
tion, in which he told Ms. Ocasio-
Cortez that her statements about pov-
erty and crime in New York City were
disgusting. But, he noted, I cannot
apologize for my passion or for loving
my God, my family and my country.
On Thursday, in a speech on the
House floor that has since gone viral
in which she read the vulgarity into the
Congressional record Ms. Ocasio-
Cortez said, I am someones daughter
too. She said shed planned to ignore
the insults its just another day as
a woman, she said but changed her
mind after Mr. Yoho decided to bring
his wife and daughters into the fray.
Our culture is full of platitudes about
fathers and daughters: the Hallmark
card, the weeping dad at the wedding.
But invoking daughters and wives to
deflect criticism is a particular kind of
political trope and one thats been
used throughout history to excuse a
host of bad behavior, said the histori-
an Barbara Berg. The love a man has for the female
members of his family, particularly his
offspring, is presumed to have special
power to humanize the other half of
the population, to allow him to imagine
the world his daughter will inhabit.
Sometimes, in fact, this happens. Other
times, the Daughter Excuse comes
across mostly as cynical ploy.
As if familial affiliation alone equals
enlightened attitudes towards women,
said Susan Douglas, a professor of
communication and media at the Uni-
versity of Michigan. Its like claiming
I have a Black friend as if that makes
you anti-racist.
There is social science thats shown
there is something to being the father
of a daughter.
In a study called The First-Daugh-
ter Effect, Elizabeth Sharrow, an
associate professor of public policy and
history at the University of Massachu-
setts, Amherst, and her colleagues,
determined that fathering daughters
and firstborn daughters, in particular
indeed played a role in making
mens attitudes toward gender equality
more progressive, particularly when it
came to policies like equal pay or
sexual harassment protocols. The researchers also determined that those
dads of firstborn daughters were, in
2016, more likely to support Hillary
Clinton or a fictional female congres-
sional candidate delivering a similar
Our argument is not that it is genet-
ics or biology, but that it is proximity,
said Dr. Sharrow. In other words: The
daughters help the fathers see the
problems they may
have previously
dismissed.Witness basketball
star Stephen Curry,
who has written
about how the idea
of womens equality
has become a little
more personal for
me, lately, and a little more real, since
having a daughter. Or Dick Cheney, whose views on
same-sex marriage shifted earlier than
many might have expected because of
his daughter, who is gay.
And yet.
Daughters influencing fathers views
for the better is far different from
fathers using their daughters as
shields and excuses for poor behav-
ior, as Ms. Ocasio-Cortez described
Mr. Yoho in her speech.
Its also different from fathers using
them as props, as Dr. Berg puts it, to
emphasize their alignment with wom-
ens causes or, by contrast, their
disgust over behaviors perceived to be
in opposition to them.
Consider Justice Kavanaugh, who
during his testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee about allegations
of sexual assault by Christine Blasey
Ford spoke repeatedly of his daugh-
ters (as well as his wife and mother)
and noted that coaching his daughters
basketball team was what he loved
more than anything Ive ever done in
my whole life as if loving coaching
and allegedly treating women badly as
a teenager are mutually exclusive.
Men have often pointed to their
relationships with and love for some
women especially wives and daugh-
ters to combat claims that they have
mistreated other women, said Kelly
Dittmar, a scholar at the Center for
American Women and Politics at Rut-
gers University. We have seen this
both inside and outside of politics,
especially when men are subject to
accusations of sexual harassment and
assault. In the wake of the 2016 reports on
comments made by Donald Trump on
the now-infamous Access Hollywood
tape, a host of fathers-of-daughters
came out to condemn the behavior. Mr.
McConnell noted that as the father of
three daughters he believed that Mr.
Trump needs to apologize directly to
women and girls everywhere, while
Mitt Romney said that the comments
demean our wives and daughters. (It
is perhaps worth noting that Mr.
Trump, too, has daughters.)
Similarly, in response to revelations
of sexual misconduct by Harvey Wein-
stein, both Ben Affleck and Matt Da-
mon, who had worked with the dis-
graced Hollywood producer, expressed
their disgust on behalf of their female offspring. We need to do better at
protecting our friends, sisters, co-
workers and daughters, Mr. Affleck
said on Twitter, while Mr. Damon
explained that as the father of four
daughters, this is the kind of sexual
predation that keeps me up at night.
Women, too, have at times invoked
mens daughters and other female
relatives in trying to appeal to
some men. When asked about Mr.
Yohos behavior, House Speaker
Nancy Pelosi said: Whats so funny
is, youd say to them, Do you not
have a daughter? Do you not have a
mother? Do you not have a sister? Do
you not have a wife? What makes you
think that you can be so and this is
the word I use for them conde-
scending, in addition to being disre-
The caveat, of course, is the qualifi-
cation. Qualifying your outrage
against misogyny as due to your role
as a father or husband implies that,
absent those roles, you would be
either unaware of or unconcerned,
said Dr. Dittmar. Or as Ms. Ocasio-Cortez put it:
Having a daughter does not make a
man decent. Having a wife does not
make a decent man. Treating people
with dignity and respect makes a
decent man. Why should daughters
still have to be a prerequisite to re-
spect? Jessica Bennett
JESSICA BENNETTis a Times editor at
large covering gender and culture. She
is the author of Feminist Fight Club
and This Is 18.
A.O.C. and the daughter defense
Sorry, Ted
Yoho. Having
doesnt get
you a sexism
free pass.
Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez speaking at the House on Capitol Hill on Thursday. HOUSE TELEVISION, VIA ASSOCIATED PRESSNEWS ANALYSIS
This week, Planned Parenthood of
Greater New York announced that it
would remove Margaret Sangers
name from its Manhattan Health Cen-
ter. The grounds were Sangers eu-
genic ideas and alliances, which for
years have been highlighted by anti-
abortion advocates and minimized by
her admirers. Under the pressures of
the current moment, apparently, that
minimization isnt sustainable any
more.This is an interesting shift from just
a year ago, when Clarence Thomas
faced a wave of media scorn when he
took note of Sangers eugenic sympa-
thies. But Thomas was citing Sangers
writings to suggest that abortion in
America todayreflects a kind of struc-
tural racism an inherited tendency,
which persists even without racist
intent, for pro-abortion policies to
reduce minority births more than
white births. Whereas the removal of
Sangers name, presumably, was in-
tended to drive home the opposite
point to establish a clear separation
between past and present, between
racism then and abortion rights today.
But the difficulty is that according to
current thinking on how structural
racism lingers and what anti-racism
requires, Thomas still seems to have a
reasonable case. That thinking emphasizes, first, the
persistent influence of formerly-insti- tutionalized racism even in the ab-
sence of conscious racists, and second,
the importance of assessing every
policy based on its effects on racial
equality. There is no such thing as a
nonracist or race-neutral policy,
writes the best-selling theorist Ibram
X. Kendi. Every policy in every insti-
tution in every community in every
nation is producing or sustaining ei-
ther racial inequity or equity.
Now apply these frameworks to the
history of Planned Parenthood. The
organization had eugenic ideas close to
its root, and while Sanger herself was
pro-contraception rather than pro-
abortion, her successors championed
both abortion rights and global popula-
tion control policies that were racist by any reasonable
Then when abor-
tion was legalized in
the United States,
with Planned Parent-
hoods strong sup-
port, its initial effect
was a sharp decline
in minority births.
According to the Wellesley economist
Phillip Levine, white births dipped
only slightly after legalization, while
the nonwhite birthrate dropped by 15
percent. Fifty years later, the abortion
rate is five times higher for African-
Americans than for whites. So in this story, a worldview with
racist antecedents wins a major policy
victory that immediately has a dispro-
portionate effect on minority birth-
rates. And then there is the further
twist that over the longer run, Roe v.
Wade and the sexual revolution proba-
bly changed family structure as well,
as George Akerlof and (future Fed
chair) Janet Yellen argued in a 1996
paper, by creating a wider space for
men to expect sex without commit- ment and to behave irresponsibly
toward pregnant woman: By making
the birth of the child the physical
choice of the mother, they wrote, the
sexual revolution has made marriage
and child support a social choice of the
Like the abortion rate itself, this
trend the long rise of fatherlessness
has been steeper in poor and vulner-
able communities. So it, too, has helped
to sustain racial inequality, by reserv-
ing to the whiter upper classes the
socioeconomic advantages that two-
parent families enjoy. Keep following this logic, and you
might conclude that if Planned Parent-
hood really took anti-racism seriously
it would repent of its support for abor-
tion, and devote itself exclusively to
helping support African-American
pregnancies instead. Are you convinced? I expect not. Maybe you think the decline of the
two-parent family is strictly about
de-industrialization. Maybe you be-
lieve the benefits of abortion access for
minority women outweigh whatever
power lower birthrates cost the Afri-
can-American community writ large.
Maybe you think the nuclear family
was itself a form of white or Western
oppression, and any anti-racism that
requires its revival isnt worthy of the
name. (This appears to be the position
of the official Black Lives Matters
organization.) Or maybe you simply
think abortion is an absolute human
right, which must be defended even if,
as policy, it appears to have a dis-
parate racial impact. Each of these claims could spin out
another column in response. For now, I
just want the skeptical reader to con-
sider, through the case of Planned
Parenthoods history and abortions
social consequences, just how compli-
cated the questions opened up by
concepts like structural racism and the
racism/anti-racism binary can be-
Followed rigorously to their conclu-
sions, they may lead to surprising or
inconvenient ideological conclusions,
to intersectional dilemmas no doctrine
can resolve, or just to a deep uncer-
tainty about the best path to racial
redress. Or they might even lead to a creep-
ing sense that Clarence Thomas has a
point: that at the very moment that
America finally granted African-Amer-
icans full citizenship, it also embarked
on a separate social revolution, whose
most ruthless feature the belief that
equality and liberty require removing
protections from unborn human life
left a specific stamp on the African-
American experience, just as the most
ruthless features of our history always
and anti-
The ghost of Margaret Sanger
Ross DouthatMargaret Sanger in 1916, when she was
indicted for mailing materials on birth
control, charges that were later dropped.
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92 01, Commission Paritaire No. 0523 C83099. Printed in France by Paris Offset Print 30 Rue Raspail 93120 La Courneuve President Trump announced on Thursday that, in defer-
ence to the pandemic, he was canceling the portion of
the Republican National Committees nominating con-
vention scheduled to take place in Jacksonville, Fla., late
next month.
We wont do a big, crowded convention, per se its
not the right time for that, the president said during his
daily coronavirus briefing, noting that he felt it was
wrong to have hordes of people heading into a hot
spot. Mr. Trump added hed told his advisers, Theres
nothing more important in our country than keeping our
people safe. Better late than never.
Mr. Trumps coronation party originally was planned
for Charlotte, N.C., which is where much of the conven-
tions official business will still take place. In June, how-
ever, the president relocated all the flashy bits, including
his acceptance speech, to Florida, after North Carolina
officials refused to guarantee him the overcrowded,
non-socially distanced spectacle he wanted. Florida, however, is now in the throes of a Covid-19
spike. The state reported on Thursday 10,249 new cases
and 173 deaths, a record. Bringing thousands of conven-
tiongoers into the mix would have been a recipe for
more tragic outcomes.
Instead of an arena full of cheering fans, Mr. Trump
must content himself with tele-rallies, other virtual
events and maybe some smaller gatherings. This is
surely a bitter pill for the president, who draws energy
from large, adoring crowds. But this moment of crisis
also provides his party both parties, for that matter
with an opportunity to reimagine and reshape their
conventions into something more engaging and possi-
bly more relevant to the American public. The conven-
tion of conventions is overdue for an overhaul. Why not
make necessity the mother of reinvention? Much of what goes on at national conventions is not
meant for consumption by the general public. Once
upon a time, serious nominating business was con-
ducted at these gatherings, but those days are gone.
And for all the quadrennial chatter about the possibility
of a brokered convention, the parties knock themselves
out to avoid that kind of drama, even in cycles with ugly
primaries. Nowadays, conventions are in large part extended
reunions, awash in booze, food, music and elbow rub-
bing between elected officials, lobbyists, activists, oper-
atives, celebrities, fund-raisers, journalists and other
players. They are, in some ways, politics at its swampi-
est. There has got to be a better way. As it happens, Democrats have been working on this
issue for some time, having realized several weeks ago
that they needed to shift to a largely virtual gathering.
The fine-tuning is still in progress, but some details are
available. Airtime will be slashed and the speaking
lineup shortened, Joe Solmonese, the chief executive of
this years convention, told the editorial board. We
want to be concise and respect peoples time. With a nod to social distancing, the stage will feature a
multiscreen Zoom layout on which political V.I.P.s and
regular Americans will participate in a remote roll call
vote. Dreamers and activists will chime in from iconic
or message-based locations in 57 states and territories
across America, according to an internal party memo
obtained by The Daily Beast. These will include the
Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Ala., the site of the
Bloody Sunday civil rights clash in 1965. Using resonant locations and nonfamous faces to
spotlight important issues is a smart move. Message:
This election is not about partisan games or insiders
egos. It is about the nations collective future. The Republicans and Mr. Trump are facing a slightly
different challenge with significantly less time to
adapt. At this point, most Americans already have a
clear view of the president. He will not be introducing
himself to the nation so much as he will be attempting to
rebrand himself. With his polls numbers slipping, its clear Mr. Trump
needs a retool. For starters, he could drop the self-pity-
ing talk about how unfair everyone has been to him and
make a positive case for why he deserves to be re-
elected. Central to this: He needs to articulate his vision
and priorities for a second term. The president has been
asked this question repeatedly of late, and he has consis-
tently failed to offer a coherent answer. A (virtual) con-
vention celebrating his renomination seems the obvious
place to correct that. Pageantry and celebrities have their place. Who does-
nt love a good balloon drop? But this year, the nation is
under enormous strain. Americans want to know that
the presidential contenders understand and care about
their problems and, more than that, that they are
focused intently on how to solve those problems. President
Trump did
America a
favor, in more
ways than one,
by canceling
much of
this years
DEAN BAQUET, Executive Editor
JOSEPH KAHN, Managing Editor
TOM BODKIN, Creative Director
SUZANNE DALEY, Associate Editor
Chief Executive Officer
STEPHEN DUNBAR-JOHNSON, President, International
CHARLOTTE GORDON, V.P., International Consumer Marketing
HELEN KONSTANTOPOULOS, V.P., International Circulation
HELENA PHUA, Executive V.P., Asia-Pacific
SUZANNE YVERNÈS, International Chief Financial Officer

I drove my oldest son, a middle schooler,
to his baseball game a few miles down
the road. There was a slight breeze, a
perfect setting for summer activity.
On the field, it looked like a standard
summer of boys learning the nuances of
the sport, some further along the road to
adult coordination than others. What
stood out were the masks on all their
faces: a visual reminder that we are in
the summer of Covid-19. Joy and sad-
ness, normalcy and profound change
competed among the young athletes for
our attention. During the game we parents stood at
least six feet away from one another. We
discussed the opening of school in the
fall, the politicization of wearing masks
in public, and how quickly life had
changed. We talked about how the last
time we saw one another it was at the
tryouts for the team in early March,
before the world shut down. They asked
me how I planned to teach my college
students with all the changes, and I
answered that I did not know.
As we talked, I wondered, as I have
many times during the pandemic, how
much to tell my children. Does a 9-year-
old or a 12-year-old need to know how
many have died? This mixture of safety and peril and
difficult decisions about a childs free-
dom to play: It is familiar to me. Covid-19
has given all parents a small taste of
what it is like to be a Black parent. Having our bodies as potential threats
because of the coronavirus has intro-
duced all of America to what it is like to
be perceived as a problem merely by our
presence. The major difference is that
some of us do carry an unknown virus,
while blackness is simply one manifesta-
tion of Gods creativity. Nonetheless, the
perceived danger has given others
insight into what it is like for Black
bodies, even childrens bodies, to be a
source of fear. Pandemic parenting involves a simi-
larly challenging calculus that those of
us who raise Black and brown children
have faced for centuries. How do we
balance the need to protect from danger
with the desire to let them be young and
free? Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. once re-
counted the story of not knowing what to
say when his 6-year-old daughter asked to go to a local theme park called Fun-
town. He did not want to tell her that she
could not go because Black people were
forbidden. He said that explaining
segregation to his daughter was more
daunting than the speeches he gave all
over the country.
People often mention the talk as if
the only conversation Black parents
have to have with their children is about
the complex interaction with the police.
That is hard, but not the only thing. At
some point we have to tell them about
Funtown: the limits society wants to
place on them and the struggle to tear
those limits down. My son is in the midst of the transition
from early middle schooler to emerging
teenager. In the strange moral reason-
ing of the United States, this will mean a
move from cute to
dangerous. His
Black body and his
increasing size
could, in certain
circumstances, be
weaponized against
him. Citizens and
officers merely have
to utter the words I
feared for my life
and his Black life
could be in peril.When do I warn
him about wander-
ing around our
largely white neigh-
borhood in the
evening? How long
do I let him remain a child? Am I negli-
gent if in my attempts to give him a
normal childhood I leave him unpre-
pared for the challenges he faces? I was initially hesitant to have my son
return to the baseball diamond, even
though it is a sport well suited for dis-
tancing. I reluctantly agreed. My sons
coach said that some teams would
follow the safety rules and others would
not, but that he would do the best he
could to keep them safe.
At that first game, our team dutifully
wore their masks. The other team did
not. Had politics sneaked on to the
baseball field? Were some families and
teams simply not as worried as us? I did
the math again. Should I interrupt the
game or remove my son? We already
barely had enough players to field a full
squad. I decided to let him play, to be a
child. There are no easy answers as to how
to parent Black children in America
inside or outside a pandemic. It is not my job to tell someone how to do it.
My wife and I have drifted to a bias
toward joy. We tell our children about
some major events; other burdens we
carry ourselves. Our children know
much of the history of this country, but
the focus is on Black triumph over
suffering, not the suffering itself. I
immerse them in the soul, hip-hop and
gospel music that has lifted many a
weary soul even when they would
rather listen to Kidz Bop. I have told them of Moses and the
Israelites, of Mary Jesus mother and
her dramatic yes to God. They know
about Sojourner and her railroad and
Martin and his dream of Mother Pollard
and her rested feet. I remind them that
God has looked upon their Black skin,
hair and bodies and called it good. I am making deposit after deposit of Black joy and faith in the hope that it will
be with them when the inevitable strug-
gle comes. I do so because that is what
my mother did for me.
My oldest has a favorite saint, the
North African church father Athana-
sius. He was called Athanasius Contra
Mundum against the world, a name
he received for standing against seem-
ingly insurmountable foes, even at great
cost, because of his convictions. My son
loves the defiance. Given that being
Black in America can sometimes feel
against the world, that is a great trait to
My sons team failed to emerge vic-
torious in that first game back on the
field. A socially distanced wave from
across the diamond replaced the cus-
tomary handshakes. Some two weeks
later, it seems that we avoided infection. Im glad baseball is back in our lives.
Even with masks covering the kids
faces and parents shouting encourage-
ments from afar, it is still baseball in the
summer. There are still kids in the
outfield more interested in the cloud
formations than a pop fly. The clean
double play remains the stuff of legend.
We parents had a brief moment of
shared victory. We had given our chil-
dren the gift that is often only available
to the young: the chance for uncompli-
cated joy. We who looked on wondered
what was next. ESAU MCCAULLEY
is an assistant profes-
sor of New Testament at Wheaton
College. He is the author of the forth-
coming book Reading While Black:
African American Biblical Interpreta-
tion as an Exercise in Hope. The corona-
virus forces
parents to
weigh their
kids safety
against the
need for
a tension
Black parents
have been
with for
May, thanks only to support from Tur-
key. Turkey provided firepower and
brought in thousands of mercenaries
from Syria.The assault on Tripoli was led by
Khalifa Hifter, a self-styled field mar-
shal who controls eastern Libya. He is
supported by the United Arab Emirates
and Egypt and enjoys assistance from
perhaps 1,000 Russian mercenaries
from the Wagner Group, a private army
with close links to the Kremlin. Having
halted Mr. Hifters offensive, Turkey
now has a decisive hold on Tripoli. What will Turkey do with it? The
question is of primary concern to the
European Union. What happens in the
Eastern Mediterranean is no longer a
peripheral issue for Europe, the Euro-
pean Council on Foreign Relations, a
think tank, noted in a recent report. Turkeys ever expanding activities in
the area have many tentacles: Turkeys
unresolved dispute with Greece over
Cyprus is complicated by claims to
recently discovered gas fields. That led
Turkey to strike a deal last November with Libya for a maritime boundary that
created an exclusive economic zone that
encroaches upon Greek and Cypriot
interests. Turkeys ruling party also has
links with the Muslim Brotherhood, and,
of vital importance, Turkey controls a
crucial migrant route to Europe.
As always, the European Union is
divided. France took the lead but
marched ahead alone, not trying to
involve Italy, which has historical links
and business interests with Libya.
Concerned about the spread of jihadist
groups in the lands south of Libya,
France early on put its bet on Mr. Hifter,
who seemed better armed to serve as a
bulwark against Islamist terrorism. Wrong choice. Hifter committed a
grave mistake when he decided to
launch an offensive on Tripoli, a French
diplomatic source now reckons. The
French could not stop him, the Ameri-
cans would not try, and the Russians
helped him.
France now finds itself isolated when
confronting Turkey in the Eastern
Mediterranean. On June 10, off the
Libyan coast, a Turkish flotilla encoun- tered a French frigate, the Courbet,
under NATO command as part of an
operation to enforce a U.N. arms embar-
go on Libya. The French and Turkish
versions of the incident differ: Paris
lodged a complaint but a NATO investi-
gation was inconclusive.
When France looked for support in its
clash with Turkey at a NATO meeting, it
could rally only eight countries to its
side out of 30, and neither the United
States nor Britain came to the rescue.
Yet President Emmanuel Macron has
not hesitated to accuse Turkey of crimi-
nal responsibility in Libya. Among Mr.
Macrons advisers, Turkeys purchase of
the S-400 air defense system from
Russia is considered a challenge to
NATO as much so as it is a challenge
to all Europeans when Turkey brings
Syrian mercenaries into Libya. Could France be right to sound the
alarm about Turkeys ambitions? Unfor-
tunately, being right alone doesnt help
much. The mission of France has al-
ways been to have a vision that no one
shares, Gérard Araud, a former French
ambassador to Washington, has joked.
Last November, after NATO didnt
respond when Turkey endangered
French forces in Syria, Mr. Macron
referred to a brain death of the alli-
ance because it had not reacted to a
members breach of NATO solidarity.
The Trump administration does not
claim that France is wrong. It even
shares Frances concerns over Libyas
terrible situation, as stated by Robert
OBrien, President Trumps national
security adviser. We dont want Libya to be colonized
by Turkey or Russia, he said in Paris on
Bastille Day.
But to Washington, Russias presence
is much more of a concern than Tur-
keys. Mr. Trump does not want to mess
with Mr. Erdogan. He is happy to let Mr.
Macron play the bad cop. As for
Frances European friends, they will
most likely quietly wait for Nov. 3.
Assessing a new global flash point
SYLVIE KAUFFMANNis the editorial direc-
tor and a former editor in chief of Le
The Tripoli Brigade, a militia loyal to the U.N.-recognized government of Libya that
survived a yearlong offensive by rival forces in May, paraded in the capital on July 10.
ment agents to collect with mouth
swabs DNA samples from people in
their custody and add that information
to the FBIs DNA database.
Global norms around how to handle
genomic data are unsettled, and
against that shifting background, the
actions of superpowers like China and
the United States are likely to set
dangerous precedents for other states. The high courts of some countries,
like Kuwait and Kenya, have either
banned as unconstitutional or re-
stricted the mass collection of DNA by
state authorities. Other states are trying to forge
ahead. In India, the government of Prime
Minister Narendra Modi introduced a
bill last year aimed at expanding the
application of DNA-based forensic
technologies to support and strengthen
the justice delivery system of the
country. But advocacy groups have
identified the risk of potential misuses. A senior judge had previously
warned that legislation covering In-
dias vast system of biometric identifi-
cation, Aadhaar, might be interpreted
in the future to justify the collection,
not only of peoples fingerprints and
iris scans, but of DNA samples as well.
Last month, civil rights groups in
Thailand raised concerns that Thai
border authorities, including soldiers,
had, without explanation, forcibly
taken DNA samples from minority
Muslim Thai citizens returning from
Malaysia. Malaysia, for its part, is mulling
plans to create a national registration
system that would link biometric and
DNA data to existing ID documents
this purportedly to keep ineligible
foreigners from fraudulently being
added to the countrys citizenship rolls. The battle over biometric privacy
will be one of the defining civil liberty
issues of the 21st century. And grimly,
on this front, too, China seems to be
leading the way.
The future
of policing?
is a Ph.D. candidate in the
department of Political Science at the
University of Toronto. JAMES LEIBOLDis a
senior fellow at the Australian Strategic
Policy Institute and the head of the
department of Politics, Media and
Philosophy at La Trobe University, in
Decree of the Reich President for the
Protection of People and State as his
means to seize power. German horror at Trump has many
components. Hes the fear-mongering
showman wielding nationalism, racism
and violence as if the 20th century held
no lessons. Hes the would-be destroyer
of the multilateral institutions that
brought European peace and made it
possible for Germans to raise their bowed heads again. He is a fascist in the
As Ian Beacock argued recently in
The New Republic, Angela Merkel, the
German chancellor, got it right on the
virus. Not for her the imagery of war
all that talk of the silent, invisible enemy
to be vanquished. No, for her the chal-
lenge of the virus has been a lesson in
the power of democracy. We are not condemned to accept the
spread of this virus as an inevitable fact of life, she said. We thrive not because
we are forced to do something, but
because we share knowledge and en-
courage active participation. She went
on to say that success largely depends
on each and every one of us.
It worked. Merkel was addressing all
democratic citizens, Americans includ-
ed. No wonder Trump cannot stand her,
a woman trained as a scientist whose
life lesson has been the sacred value of
U.S. catastrophe through German eyes
prec ed ent edtimes .
Un parallele dcoverag e.
Subscribe toThe NewY ork Times
Interna tionalEdition.
ny tional

On June 2, as Black Lives Matter pro-
testers swarmed Americas streets de-
manding an end to the racist vestiges of
Americas troubled past, a teenager
from a San Diego suburb posted eight
words on Twitter that would soon ignite
a less visible, though perhaps just as
powerful, movement.
Going to an HBCU wouldnt be too
bad, he wrote. The person behind the Twitter post,
which quickly went viral, is one of the
most sought-after college basketball re-
cruits of the Class of 2023: 16-year-old
Mikey Williams. If he were to attend a
historically Black college or university,
Williams would become one of the high-
est-rated athletes to do so since schools
across the South were integrated half a
century ago. Williamss post came as a surprise to
college sports recruiters and fans who
pore over social media for clues about
which schools an athlete might be favor-
ing. To land a recruit like Williams would
all but guarantee a teams success and
ensure prime TV placement for their
Williams, who averages 30 points per
game for San Ysidro High School, had al-
ready received offers from some of the
countrys top basketball programs, in-
cluding Kansas and U.C.L.A. In the six
days following his tweet, he received an-
other 14 all from H.B.C.U.s. Black col-
leges in the past have considered the ef-
fort and resources to recruit elite talent
a waste because of the long odds of be-
ing selected over a major predomi-
nantly white institution. But in January,
LeVelle Moton, the head basketball
coach at historically Black North Car-
olina Central University in Durham, of-
fered a scholarship to LeBron James Jr.,
a high school freshman known as
Bronny who is the son of the National
Basketball Association superstar Le-
Bron James.
As more top Black athletes express in-
terest in playing at an H.B.C.U., they are
signaling that Power 5 institutions may
no longer hold the same allure.
All it takes is one person to change
history, the N.B.A. star Carmelo Antho-
ny wrote on Instagram, referencing
Williamss comments. Days after
Williamss post, Nate Tabor, a top bas-
ketball player from Queens withdrew
his commitment from St. Johns to sign
with Norfolk State, a small Black college
in Virginia.
On July 3, Makur Maker, a 6-foot-11
power forward, said he was forgoing of-
fers from U.C.L.A. and Kentucky to at-
tend Howard University, becoming the
highest-ranked player in more than a
decade to choose an H.B.C.U. I want to
inspire the youth to be able to lead in
whichever way they can. Im doing it by
taking this step, Maker said in a phone
interview. Hopefully in one or two
years from now well see H.B.C.U.s as
power schools. Hours after Makers announcement,
Daniel Ingram, a star quarterback from
Ohio who had signed a letter of intent in
February to attend the University of
Cincinnati, said in a Twitter post that he
would de-commit and instead attend the
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, an-
other H.B.C.U. The following week, Tayvion Land, a
standout defensive back for Liberty
University, announced he would trans-
fer to Norfolk State so he could be sur-
rounded by people with similar back-
grounds and cultural experiences. Sev- eral other athletes and faculty members
also left Liberty recently, criticizing the
universitys handling of situations in-
volving race.
Weve reached a boiling point. Peo-
ple are truly upset, and theyre going to
push this further than its ever been
pushed before, said Jasmine Gurley, of
HBCU Jump, an organization that helps
connect top-tier recruits to H.B.C.U.
alumni, including those who made it to
the N.B.A. and the National Football
League. We want to redirect people to com-
munities and institutions that have his-
torically supported us, Gurley said. As they reflect on the trauma that has
afflicted their communities, Black ath-
letes are increasingly recognizing the
value of their star power. WE ARE THE REASON THAT
..But in the end what do we get out of
it?? Williams wrote on Instagram the
day after his viral Twitter message.
Any way I can help or make a change in
the Black community best believe I am
going to do that.
Revenue from college sports surpassed
$14 billion in 2017, according to the
United States Department of Education.
Most of that figure was generated by
mens football and basketball programs
at Power 5 schools. The 65 schools that constitute that
group present a striking imbalance: 75
percent of athletic directors and 80 per-
cent of head basketball and football
coaches, are white men. Yet the players
on their basketball and football teams
are nearly 50 percent Black, according
to NCAA data. A single star football player can in-
crease revenue to a schools athletic de- partment by more than $500,000, ac-
cording to a 2020 study by Ohio State
In what is known as the Flutie Effect,
a successful college sports team can up-
lift not only the athletic department, but
the entire school (the phenomenon is
named for Doug Flutie, a quarterback
who was credited with prompting appli-
cations to Boston College after throwing
a winning touchdown in a 1984 game
against Miami). When Norfolk State upset Missouri at
the 2012 N.C.A.A. mens tournament, be-
coming the fifth 15-seed ever to beat a
No. 2 seed, revenue from the mens bas-
ketball team spiked by more than
$220,000 a 24 percent increase over
the previous year. Enrollment jumped 4
Athletics is like the front porch of a university, said Robert Jones, the head
coach of Norfolks mens basketball. If
athletics does well, the university does
well as a whole.
Attending H.B.C.U.s used to be the
norm for top-notch Black athletes. Over
time, Black students have continued to
shift toward predominantly white insti-
tutions: The percentage of Black college
students attending H.B.C.U.s fell from 17
percent in 1990 to 9 percent in 2016, ac-
cording to a study by the Race and Equi-
ty Center at the University of Southern
The report attributes the decline to
poorly resourced admissions depart-
ments and a negative perception of
Black colleges among African-Ameri-
can students a view spawned in part
by H.B.C.U. finance and accreditation
problems and exacerbated by intermit- tent cuts in federal and state funding.
Star athletes moving en masse to re-
turn the spotlight to historically Black
universities could provide a needed eco-
nomic lift for the schools and provide an
environment that predominantly white
institutions cannot. A 2015 Gallup study
found that Black students who graduat-
ed from H.B.C.U.s were twice as likely as
Black graduates from non-H.B.C.U.s to
have experienced supportive professors
and mentors and are more likely to
strongly agree that their university had
prepared them well for life outside of
H.B.C.U.s are the one place where
youre not a minority, said Gurley, who
swam for North Carolina A&T, an
H.B.C.U. I encourage kids to go where
youre loved. Go where youre going to
be taken care of. Go where youre more
than just the revenue dollars youre go-
ing to bring in. Black students at predominantly
white schools often experience racial
microaggressions and stereotypes, said
Keneshia Grant, an assistant professor
of political science at Howard Univer-
sity. Particularly after the 2016 election,
Grant said many freshmen, as well as
students who transferred from predomi-
nantly white institutions, expressed
concerns over safety. Students are asking themselves:
Where can I go and not have to worry
about falling asleep in the library and
having the police called on me? Where
can I not have to wonder if people are
questioning my presence because of
some affirmative action policy? she
Of the 450 players on N.B.A. rosters, just
two attended H.B.C.U.s. The N.F.L. has a
similar ratio, with 32 H.B.C.U. alumni
among the leagues 1,800 players. The low representation of Black col-
lege alumni in the pros is owed in part to
a disparity in exposure. Big-name insti-
tutions offer not only first-class facilities
and well-connected coaching staffs, but
also the opportunity to play on TV in
front of millions of fans and scouts. I for sure would have gotten drafted
earlier had I gone to a P.W.I., said An-
toine Bethea, referring to predomi-
nately white institutions. Bethea, a de-
fensive back who played for the New
York Giants last season, has played 14
seasons in the N.F.L. after being drafted
out of Howard in 2006 by the Indianapo-
lis Colts. Bethea said he had been discovered
by chance when N.F.L. scouts visited
Howard to evaluate a teammate. He
said they had first taken note when he
happened to make a play that flashed on
the teammates videotape. When I was at the N.F.L. training
camps I saw guys from Ohio State and
Oklahoma who were no better than
some of my Howard teammates, he
said. Sometimes it felt like we got the
short end of the stick because of where
we played. Athletes who commit to underfunded
H.B.C.U.s should be prepared to make
sacrifices, he said. At Howard, for exam-
ple, his teams weight room was in the
basement of a dorm. The team often
took 12-hour bus rides to road games in-
stead of flying. But despite struggles
with scouting and facilities, Bethea in-
sisted that attending an H.B.C.U. was
the best decision of my life. The N.B.A. and N.F.L. have begun to
offer initiatives to help close the expo-
sure gap. In 2017, the N.B.A. players un-
ion introduced a camp to scout the coun-
trys top 50 players from H.B.C.U.s, and
the N.F.L. was set to start a similar ini-
tiative in March scouting the top 100
players at a combine but the event
was canceled because of the coro-
navirus pandemic. The N.F.L. recently designated seven
scouts to find and evaluate H.B.C.U. tal-
ent and expanded their video exchange
program where colleges share game
footage with N.F.L. scouts to include
H.B.C.U. conferences.
Exposure is everything. So this is us
filling that gap, said Troy Vincent, the
N.F.L.s executive vice president of foot-
ball operations, and its highest-ranking
African-American official. If the talent
is there, well find you. That may prove more difficult than
usual this year, as the Mid-Eastern and
Southwest Athletic Conferences an-
nounced they would postpone their foot-
ball seasons indefinitely because of the
virus outbreak. The MEAC and SWAC
both are made up of H.B.C.U. teams. Social media could help fill the expo-
sure void. Williams and Maker have In-
stagram followings of 2.3 million and
90,000, respectively, and with recent
moves toward revising N.C.A.A. rules,
which have long prohibited athletes
from profiting off their celebrity, players
could potentially leverage their move-
ment to consider Black colleges to gen-
erate endorsements. Were at a critical point in our coun-
try as far as policy, empowerment and
how were going to deal with social in-
justice, said Kali Jones, the head foot-
ball coach at Withrow High School in
Cincinnati, who encouraged Ingram to
withdraw his commitment from Cincin-
nati and choose an H.B.C.U.
Jones said he has always pushed his
players to consider H.B.C.U.s, but ex-
citement over the idea swelled after In-
gram announced his decision. He antici-
pates that many of his athletes will fol-
This is a beautiful thing. This is a
beautiful moment, he said. We are liv-
ing in a paradigm shift.
Activism brings push toward Black colleges
Makur Maker, 19, chose Howard University over offers from U.C.L.A. and Kentucky. Hopefully in one or two years from now well see H.B.C.U.s as power schools, he said. CHRISTIAN MONTERROSA FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
Mikey Williams, at 16 one of the most sought-after players in the United States, grabbed
attention when he said he would consider attending a historically Black college. BRIAN ROTHMULLER/ICON SPORTSWIRE, VIA GETTY IMAGESBlue-chip recruits show
interest in schools that
rarely landed top talent
The last time he had played at Dodger
Stadium, in 2018, Mookie Betts hit a
home run in the clinching game of the
World Series. When he played there
again to open the major league season
Thursday night, he was the highest-
paid player in the National League.
Betts won his championship with the
Boston Red Sox, who decided in Febru-
ary to save money by trading him to
the Dodgers along with starter David
Price. The Red Sox knew Betts would
cost a fortune when he became a free
agent after the 2020 season, and he
seemed determined to test the market. So much for that assumption. The
Dodgers locked up Betts Wednesday
with a 12-year, $365 million contract
extension, a deal that stretches
through 2032. The only player guaran-
teed more money than Betts is the Los
Angeles Angels Mike Trout, who
signed a 12-year, $426.5 million con-
tract before last season. The market wasnt what I was
worried about just fair value, Betts
said in a Zoom news conference.
Thats been my No. 1 thing for my
whole career: the value, and thats it.
Once we got to that point, being some- where I loved being, the match was
Betts, 27, was the American Leagues
most valuable player in 2018 and might
have the best all-around talent in the
majors. No other player can match his
combined homers (134) and stolen
bases (119) over the last five seasons,
and he has four Gold Gloves in right
field to go with a .301 career average. On Thursday, Betts set up a five-run seventh inning with his first hit in a
Dodger uniform and a heads-up
baserunning play to score the first run
of the inning that broke open a 1-1 tie
and led to an 8-1 win over the San
Francisco Giants.
While no fans were in the stands at
Dodger Stadium to greet Betts on
Thursday, there should be plenty in
time. The Dodgers have led the majors
in attendance the last seven seasons, winning the N.L. West every year. But
for all their popularity and profitability,
they still have not won a World Series
since 1988. They lost the Series in five
games to Boston in 2018 and in seven
to Houston in 2017, the year the Astros
used an illegal sign-stealing scheme.
Andrew Friedman, the Dodgers
president of baseball operations, ac-
knowledged this spring that the revela-
tions of the Astros cheating might
have consumed him if only he were
not so busy.
If there was something I could do to
change the outcome, I would spend
more time on it, but its just not pro-
ductive energy, Friedman said, adding
that most days were already packed.
Spending time thinking about that
just isnt helpful in what were trying to
accomplish looking forward. Friedman played the long game to
get to a moment like Wednesdays. He
spent more than five years making
careful, disciplined moves for the
Dodgers, consistent with his pedigree
as architect of the low-budget Tampa
Bay Rays for more than a decade. The Dodgers hired Friedman after
the 2014 season, trusting him to find
Rays-style bargains to complement
their big but responsible spend-
ing. Sticking to that plan made it easy
for the Dodgers to spend so lavishly on
Betts: The combined value of Fried-
mans three most lucrative deals for
the Dodgers before Wednesdays with Clayton Kershaw, Kenley Jansen
and Justin Turner is about $237
million, or less than two-thirds of what
the Dodgers now owe Betts.
Friedman has made bad deals, too,
but nothing that hamstrung the
Dodgers from affording a contract like
this. Players like Max Muncy and
Chris Taylor afterthoughts for other
teams became cost-effective contrib-
utors. The farm system nurtured play-
ers Friedman inherited, like Cody Bellinger, Corey
Seager and Julio
Urias, and developed
more, like pitchers
Walker Buehler and
Dustin May and
catcher Will Smith.Weve done a
really good job of
identifying when
players reach the
point of being ready,
and that last mile what has allowed
us to be as successful as weve been
has been our clubhouse culture at the
major league level, Friedman said,
crediting Manager Dave Roberts and
the coaches. They do a tremendous
job of instilling it, and then our players
carry it out unlike anything Ive ever
seen. When young players come up,
our veteran players actively try to help
them acclimate. Along the way, Friedman has some-
times frustrated Dodgers fans by resisting splashy free-agent invest-
ments or refusing to deal prospects in
trades. In-season deals to acquire Yu
Darvish and Manny Machado helped,
but only to a point; the Astros ham-
mered Darvish in the 2017 World Se-
ries, and Machado hit .182 against the
Red Sox in the 2018 World Series.
Darvish and Machado left as free
agents, but the Dodgers decided they
did not want to risk losing Betts after a
60-game cameo. Friedman was just
waiting for the right investment to
come around. Patience isnt necessarily a virtue
of mine, but weve had to kind of prac-
tice it throughout this in that, if
youre going to make a bet like this,
you want to feel as confident as you
can about the human, about how much
they care, about their work ethic, and I
cant imagine feeling more confident
than we do about Mookie, Friedman
said. So that helps, but also us staying
patient and doing things to help us in
the short term but not necessarily
costing us in the long term has
provided us some flexibility to be able
to do that. Obviously were really excit-
ed with how it turned out. So is Betts, who said he believed in
the Dodgers long-term outlook and
was here to win some rings a
realistic goal. The Dodgers have built a
perpetual winner already, and now the
Betts Era is here.
The patient Dodgers, still seeking a championship, go all in on Betts
Mookie Betts is set to be a Dodger through 2032 with a new 12-year, $365 million con-
tract extension he signed to make him the highest-paid player in the National League.
I cant
feeling more
than we do

reporter walks into a bar with a hotel
booking number in her hand and a
mask covering her face.
This is not the start of a joke. Its
how, on Tuesday, I accidentally
pierced the carefully crafted bubble the
European PGA Tour had created to
facilitate a six-stop swing in Britain as
part of its remade 2020 season.
It was all an honest mistake. It
turned out that the European Tours
health and safety procedures a
testing-heavy regimen described by
the former world No. 1 Lee Westwood
as military style, almost had
nearly been sabotaged by a third-party
online travel website, which processed
my prepaid booking for a two-night
stay at the tours so-called bubble hotel
in northeast England. The European tour believed it had
sealed off the hotel, which is a pitch
shot from the Newcastle International
Airport and a short drive to Close
House golf club, the site of last weeks
British Masters. The only guests to be
allowed were those associated with the
tournament, and only after they had
passed a pre-event coronavirus test
and submitted to daily temperature
checks upon arrival. Upon learning that I had momentari-
ly breached that circle of trust, a tour
official immediately and urgently
informed me that I would have to find
a new place to stay. And with its bubble
restored, the tour got back to work and
began play on Wednesday morning. As sports leagues and tours groan
back into action after a monthslong
shutdown prompted by the pandemic,
most athletes are getting used to per-
forming in front of few, if any, fans. But
thats not to say they are free from
Their personal movements are being
meticulously tracked and their health
monitored as if they were start-ups
about to go public, so great is the fear
that careless missteps a food deliv-
ery on a bubbles fringe, or a quick
shopping trip could foil even the
most meticulous restart plan. Theres not a moment in the day,
Westwood said, where it doesnt feel like your health is being checked or
somebody has got an eye on you.
For the cities and towns the tours
visit, everything has changed, too.
This corner of England lavished
attention on the British Masters in
2017, the last time Close House played
host to the tournament. Nearly 70,000
spectators converged on the course
during the week, which culminated in a
victory by the Irishman Paul Dunne,
who held off a strong field that includ-
ed Rory McIlroy. Three years ago, those same crowds
had for days spilled into the small
village of Wylam, less than two miles
away, packing places like the Black
Bull pub on Main Street. As the owner
Paul Bowes recalled fondly this week, guests stood shoulder to shoulder in
his place that week with some of the
roughly 2,000 residents.
And there were more people outside
the pub than in it, Bowes said. It was
fantastic. Three years later, it was quiet on the
tournaments opening day, played
under a blanket of gray clouds. The
village was so unnervingly still, it was
as if one could have used the yellow-
cased defibrillator mounted on the wall
next to the Ship Inn to revive it.
The Black Bull is closed, as it has
been since mid-March, the start of the
pandemic. The only reason that Bow-
ers and his wife were seated at the bar,
he said, was that they had been inter-
viewing a new chef to run the kitchen, once they do reopen. But, then, there
was hardly anyone to serve last week.
Like the rescheduled PGA Tour
events in the United States, the British
Masters was being held without fans,
so there was no spillover into the local
streets or businesses.
The seismic waves that emanated
from Close House in 2017 rocked the
nearby Gosforth Park racecourse,
where many of the players mingled
with locals during a night of thorough-
bred racing. They extended all the way
out to the bustling bars and eateries at
the Gateshead Quayside along the
River Tyne, where Westwood drew a
crowd while hitting balls onto a float-
ing island. Many of those same bars are shut down now, or operating with reduced
hours and sheets of paper on which
patrons are required to provide their
email addresses or telephone numbers,
or both, in case they are needed later
for contact tracing.
A short distance down the road from
the Black Bull, Fox & Hounds was
open for lunch service on Wednesday.
It was nearly empty around midday
when three men on a break from their
work as greenskeepers at Close House
walked in, ordered pints at the bar and
retreated to a back table. There they
spent the next half-hour watching live
coverage of the tournaments first
round on a cellphone. They had been at the course since
4:30 a.m., they explained, to finish buffing it for the first round, and would
be returning later in the day to prepare
it for Thursdays second day. By lunch,
the leaderboard had reflected the
European tours reach, with players
from six countries occupying the top
eight spots after the first round.
The nearby airport was still operat-
ing flights from the home countries of
at least two of the early leaders, Italys
Renato Paratore and Portugals Pedro
Figueiredo. But on the eve of the tour-
nament, the airport had so few trav-
elers in the terminal that one could
have swung a golf club for an hour
without worrying about hitting a soul. Andrew Glover, the manager of the
DoubleTree by Hilton, the tours re-
stricted-access headquarters last
week, gazed out a window and noted
that the airport parking lot, which was
virtually empty three weeks ago, was
starting to fill again.
So was his hotel, which only a few
weeks ago had endured some grim
nights when as few as three of his 193
rooms were occupied. In 2017, Glover
said, the hotel was a beehive of activity
during tournament week, as spectators
mingled with tournament officials.
Last week, it forms the outer periphery
of the tours bubble. After he apologized for not being
able to accommodate my booking last
week, Glover told a story. In 2005, he
said, he was working in Britain for
another United States-based hotel
chain. In response to an avian influenza
outbreak in Asia that year, he said, the
hotel chain was required through
guidelines established by the adminis-
tration of President George W. Bush
to keep a room stocked with pandemic
kits at each of its properties. The sup-
plies consisted of thermometers, face
coverings, hand sanitizer and gloves. I remember thinking it was silly,
Glover said. I was spending all this
money on stuff I was never going to
need. He paused. If I had had all that
equipment three months ago, it would
have been tremendously useful.
But whats past is past. For Glover,
there was no use dwelling on 2005, or
even 2017, when the European tour
came to town and Newcastle burst at
the seams with people and pride.
Three years ago, Bowes said inside
the Black Bull, the tournament defi-
nitely put Wylam on the map. Its
return last week has given weary
businesses a glimmer of hope that all
is not irretrievably lost.
Empty fairways and empty pubs
On Golf
On the 16th hole during Day 2 of the British Masters. The former No. 1 Lee Westwood said there was not a moment when it didnt feel as if somebody has got an eye on you.NON SEQUITUR PEANUTS
Answers to Previous Puzzles
Created by Peter Ritmeester/Presented by Will Shortz
SUDOKU No. 2707
Fill the grid so
that every row,
column 3x3 box
and shaded 3x3
box contains
each of the
1 to 9 exactly
Fill the grids with digits so as not
to repeat a digit in any row or
column, and so that the digits
within each heavily outlined box
will produce the target number
shown, by using addition,
subtraction, multiplication or
division, as indicated in the box.
A 4x4 grid will use the digits
1-4. A 6x6 grid will use 1-6.
For solving tips and more KenKen
kenken. For Feedback: nytimes@
For solving tips
and more puzzles:
KenKen® is a registered trademark of Nextoy, LLC.
Copyright © 2018 All rights reserved.
(c) Distributed by The New York Times syndicate
Solution No. 2507 CROSSWORD | Edited by Will Shortz
Across 1 Singer Bareilles who wrote and composed the music for Broadway’s “Waitress”
10 Varsity letter earner, say 14 With 64-Down, shrinking body of water in Asia 15 Painter Matisse16 Big name in running shoes 17 Diminutive Jedi master18 It may include a backpack, boots and a water bottle 20 Slightly off22 Gyllenhaal of Brokeback Mountain
17 syllables
27 AOL alternative29 Get a pet from the pound, e.g. 30 Word before chill or chimes 33 Busy worker in Apr.36 Item compared in “Who Wore It Best?”
Flakes mascot, e.g. 39 Expensive, as a product line 41 Seven Dwarfs’ cry as off to work they go 43 Protection against kitchen splatters 44 Put on, as a play46 Gratuity47 Look closely (at)48 Wipe the board clean50 “Let’s ___!” (“Dig in!”)52 Supermodel and longtime “Project Runway” host
56 Place for a mud bath58 Appearance60 “Swell!”61 Toyota Prius and Honda Insight 65 Not fooled by66 Fashion monthly with more than 40 international editions 67 “Well, golly!”68 Luau instruments, for short 69 Like the part of a swimming pool with the diving board 70 “Gotta go!”71 One of a set of four on a London taxi
Down 1 Doctor’s request during a physical 2 Scent 3 Half-diameters 4 Juneau is its capital 5 “Quiet!”
8 Trojan War king 9 What things do in quicksand 10 Boozer’s binge11 Like some FedEx or DHL service 12 “Gotta go!”13 Go-___ (kid’s racer)19 Thing of beauty21 Out of the blue
25 X-rated stuff26 Some newspaper essays 28 Big gulp from a bottle31 Classic soda brand32 What prices do in bear markets 33 English fellow34 Prop for Santa Claus or Frosty the Snowman 35 Pleasant37 Puppeteer Lewis
38 Connects (with)40 Dance at a Jewish wedding 42 “Omigosh!”
49 Barely make, as a living 51 Texter’s “I didn’t need to know that”
the Dog” 53 Tall and lean
54 Speak
55 Glacier National Park sighting
56 Backyard building
57 1960s TV’s “Gomer ___, U.S.M.C”
59 Vows exchanged at the altar
62 Dem.’s counterpart
63 Spanish king
64 See 14-Across
PUZZLE BY ALAN ARBESFELD Solution to July 25 Puzzle
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16
17 18 19
20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28
29 30 31 32
33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40 41 42
43 44 45 46
47 48 49
50 51 52 53 54 55
56 57 58 59 60
61 62 63 64 65
66 67 68
69 70 71

Artists and designers who work with ce-
ramics and glass might be thought of as
delicate types. After all, they specialize
in works that can easily break.
But the converse tends to be true. It
requires steady-handed bravery to blow
glass or fire up a kiln, given the melting,
explosions and shattering that are a nor-
mal part of the process. Rui Sasaki fits this counterintuitive
mold. She is soft-spoken but extremely
dogged in her exploration of a tricky me-
dium on a large scale, as with what is
perhaps her best-known work, Liquid
Sunshine/I am a Pluviophile, a com-
mission for the Corning Museum of
Glass in Corning, N.Y., which was on
long-term view until January and is now
part of the museums collection.
It is made of more than 200 raindrop-
shape pieces of phosphorescent glass,
and Ms. Sasaki spent about a year mak-
ing it. She is working on a new version of
the piece for the Toyama Glass Art Mu-
seum. Fragility and breaking glass is an in-
spiration for me, Ms. Sasaki, 36, said
from her home in Kanazawa, Japan.
Because glass is very fragile, but its re-
ally strong much stronger than iron in
some ways. Ms. Sasakis great subject is the
weather, which, in the wrong hands,
could be a banal topic. She infuses it with
mystery. Its an important inspiration for me,
Ms. Sasaki said. We never really get
great sunshine in my area, and its the
most rainy city in Japan. Its always
cloudy. She was raised in a suburb of
Tokyo, where it was much sunnier, she
Rather than create static objects to be
looked at, Ms. Sasaki is also expert at ac-
tivating her installations. In Corning,
Liquid Sunshine was experienced by
visitors in a darkened room, where the
lights went off each time someone en-
tered, courtesy of a motion detector. The bits of phosphorescent material,
which were being constantly charged,
would glow, but then fade over time as
people lingered in the space, the way
the memory of sunshine fades during
the dark days of winter, Ms. Sasaki
wrote in her artists statement for the
piece. She used phosphorescent glass simi-
larly in the 2015 work Weather Chande-
lier, which was attached to a solar pan-
el. She has to special-order the phospho-
rescent material from China. Susie Silbert, the Corning Museum
curator who worked on Liquid Sun-
shine, said Ms. Sasakis preparations
impressed her.
Rui met with scientists to see how
clear glass could work with phosphores-
cence, Ms. Silbert said. She really had
to troubleshoot that. It was a lot of re-
search. Not all glass shapes can hold it. Though Ms. Sasaki creates aestheti-
cally pleasing objects, her work can
have an edge of menace, too. Her 2010
installation Walking on Glass had vis-
itors do just that, pulverizing glass
panes into dust. For Self-Container No.
2, exhibited in 2015, she created a box of
clear glass blocks, open on top, just
barely large enough to fit her own body
in a folded-up position. Growing up, I wanted to be an ar-
chaeologist or a surgeon, Ms. Sasaki said. But in high school, she traveled
with her father to Okinawa, a hub of
craft activity in Japan, where she saw
glass blown for the first time.
I was like, Oh, my God, thisis
glass, she said. I was fascinated with
it, so I switched my career goals. Ms. Sasaki rarely works with colored
glass, preferring the clear version for
her projects.
I was really obsessed with swim-
ming in the ocean and the pool as a
child, she said. I always want to be in
the water, all the time, and Im really in-
terested in transparent material. After the Okinawa visit, she made a
connection in her mind: Water is glass.
Glass is water.
She went to her parents with the bad
news. Ms. Sasaki recalled: I told them, I want to be an artist, and they were,
like, Oh, my God, youre going to choose
an unstable life? They were so sur-
Ms. Sasaki, who is a full-time faculty
member at the Kanazawa Utatsuyama
Kogei Kobo art school, got her Bachelor
of Arts degree from Musashino Art Uni-
versity outside Tokyo in 2006. She then
went to the Rhode Island School of De-
sign for a Master of Fine Arts degree,
perfecting her English along the way. R.I.S.D. was a culture shock for her,
said Jocelyne Prince, the head of the
schools glass department and one of
Ms. Sasakis professors. I almost failed
her that first semester. But her tenacity
eventually worked in her favor. Ms. Prince said that it took time for
Ms. Sasaki to get used to an experi-
mental approach working in a way
that was more about the question than the finished result but that her strug-
gles were common for many graduate
She found her groove, and then she
was unstoppable, Ms. Prince said. Her
work hasnt lost its experimental na-
ture. Its become better while remaining
Ms. Sasakis tenacity was useful when
it was time to present Liquid Sunshine
at the Corning Museum of Glass.
Though she spent months planning it,
she was at the museum for only three
days at the very end of the installation
She wanted to use a glossy paint on
the floor, so the pieces could be reflec-
tive, Ms. Silbert recalled. But at that
point we werent able to de-install the
whole piece to do that. So we came up
with an alternative: We covered the
floor in reflective Mylar.
Instead of being thrown by a last-
minute snag, Ms. Silbert added, Rui
hung tough about the look she wanted to
Ms. Sasakis next project was sched-
uled to debut in September at the Port-
land Japanese Garden in Oregon, but it
has been postponed because of the pan-
demic. Its rainy there, so its perfect, she
said. Discussing Portlands climate got
her thinking about clouds generally and
why she likes to try to depict them. A cloud you cant touch or grab, Ms.
Sasaki said. Its a foggy shape, its tem-
porary. I think its these ambiguous
things that are interesting to me.
Inspired by the fragile and the ephemeral
YASUSHI ICHIKAWA/CORNING MUSEUM OF GLASSClockwise from left: Rui Sasakis Liquid Sunshine/I am a Pluviophile, for the Corning
Museum of Glass in New York; developing the installation at a glass workshop in Japan
in 2018; Ms. Sasaki at the Seto Ceramics and Glass Art Center in Japan.
Above, Ms. Sasaki collecting plant samples for a wall installation proposed for the
Portland Japanese Garden in Oregon. The project is to include plants sandwiched
between sheets of glass fired in a kiln, above right. HANMI MEYER/BULLSEYE PROJECTS BULLSEYE PROJECTSGlass is very fragile,
but its really strong
much stronger than
iron in some ways.
When you want to start a streaming
service and your most established
competitor has for years been spend-
ing billions of dollars making and
acquiring exclusive series, what do you
do? Disney+ and Apple TV+ chose to go
halfway when they debuted last year,
addressing Netflixs unassailable lead
with offerings of original shows that, in
each case, amounted to more than a
handful but less than a roster. This year, Peacock and HBO Max
have gone for what could be called the
British Option. Behind each services
first marquee series Love Life for
HBO Max, Brave New World for
Peacock the section devoted to
originals has been filled out with
shows made and already seen across
the Atlantic. The Special Relationship
may not have the geopolitical juice it
once had, but its alive and well in
streaming video. Peacock, which made its debut this
month, opened with just three original
scripted series for adults, two of them
British. On the surface the imports are
quite different from each other: The Capture, from BBC, is an hourlong,
tightly wound conspiracy thriller, while
the workplace sitcom Intelligence,
from Sky, is a 22-minute goof.
But if you look past genre, they have
some things in common. Both are
cautionary tales about the British
intelligence services. The Capture
warns that the spies are stealing your
liberties and will disappear you if you
protest. Intelligence warns that
theyre marginally competent wackos
more interested in food delivery and
photocopier high jinks than in prevent-
ing cyberterror. More interesting, given their promi-
nent placement on Peacock, is that
both employ a favorite British target:
the ugly American. The shortcomings
of the British characters are finessed
by shifting attention to an American
interloper whose malignancy is ex-
ceeded only by his shallowness. In The Capture, hes a cool opera-
tive running an off-the-books surveil-
lance operation in London and pulling
the strings of his peers in the British
spy and police services. This would
constitute a spoiler, as the American
doesnt show up right away in the
engagingly convoluted story, if Ron
Perlmans name werent so prominent
in the credits. In Intelligence, hes a National
Security Agency liaison to Britains
cyberterrorism unit, and it probably
says all you need to know about the
shows view of Americans that the
hammerheaded, narcissistic character
is played by David Schwimmer, that avatar of hammerheaded American
Intelligence was created by the
British actor and comedian Nick Mo-
hammed, and he cast himself in the
cringiest role as Joseph, a bumbler
who strenuously sucks up to the Amer-
ican newcomer, Schwimmers Jerry. Mohammed is amusing as the ner-
vous sycophant, as is Jane Stanness as
a frump whose submerged libido and
unsuspected spying skill are played for
laughs. (The Mongolia-born model and
actress Gana Bayarsaikhan, as an
intimidating analyst whom Jerry im-
mediately fetishizes, has presence but isnt as sure a comedian.) Amid the
Office-like ensemble, the accom-
plished Sylvestra Le Touzel (The
Crown, Happy-Go-Lucky) stands
out as the boss, Jerrys mostly but-
toned-down antagonist.
The focus is on Jerry, though, as he
preens, broadcasts his sexism and
xenophobia and tries to get the British
to loosen up with group hugs and trust
exercises that tend to involve undress-
ing in the office. (He expresses a
British idea of an Americans idea of
the British when he says of the office,
Theres still this sense that Ive wan-
dered onto an abandoned farm.) Schwimmer is what he is: calculatedly
awkward and not all that funny when
Jerry is blustering and oddly disarm-
ing when Jerry is vulnerable, which
isnt often. Intelligence is mild tea
over all, but its an easy binge at just
over two hours for its six episodes.
The Capture, also a six-parter, is
the better of the Peacock imports, a
reasonably entertaining and well-
constructed (at least in its early
episodes) example of a classic style of
British television conspiracy thriller,
most recently seen in Bodyguard on
BBC and Netflix. Its hook is surveillance culture, and
it posits that British law enforcement
(with American help) not only is em-
ploying the kind of facial-recognition
software widely used in China but has
also moved onto more advanced and
sinister uses of video technology. The
series, written and directed by Ben
Chanan (The Missing), teases a
larger theme about storytelling that
governments can use technology to
fictionalize their citizens lives but it
mostly settles for being a straightfor-
ward thriller with the stylistic tic of
often presenting the action through
closed-circuit cameras. Holliday Grainger (C.B. Strike)
embodies clipped efficiency and self-
righteousness as Rachel, a rising star
in counterterrorism whos doing a
career-enhancing stint as a detective
inspector with the regular police. Shes
called in when a worker monitoring a
video feed sees a woman being
knocked down and abducted on the street; the man in the video is a former
soldier, Shaun (Callum Turner of The
Only Living Boy in New York), who
just that day had been acquitted of
murdering an Afghan civilian, after the
video evidence against him was dis-
Its a tricky setup, and The Cap-
ture gets progressively more compli-
cated and double-crossy as Rachel and
Shaun form an uneasy alliance. (The
video of Shaun abducting the woman
is, no surprise, not entirely on the up
and up.) The show holds up fairly well
if youre the kind of conspiracy story
fan whos satisfied when each step
proceeds more or less plausibly from
the step before; if youre the kind of
fan who wants the overall plot to feel
as if it could actually take place in the
real world, well, good luck. If theres a larger point to the inclu-
sion of The Capture and Intelli-
gence in Peacocks initial lineup, it
may have to do with the smaller role
that such originals are playing while
services promote their libraries of
older series and franchise movies to
counter Netflixs focus on the new.
The British shows that HBO Max
launched with, like Ghosts and
Home, have largely disappeared
from the home page a few months
later. And the tier for Peacock Origi-
nals is several levels down, well below
Jurassic Park and 30 Rock (and
even the Bravo reality series Below
Deck Mediterranean). If you want something different, you
need to find it yourself.
Special relationship enlivens a new streaming service
Peacock fills out its roster
of originals with a pair
of British imports
BY MIKE HALE Peacocks lineup includes The Capture, a BBC original, with Holliday Grainger.

Alex Trebek was a man in search of a
vice.It was Los Angeles, in the late 70s.
Trebek, a Canadian quiz show emcee,
had been tapped to host a new trivia
program, the short-lived Wizard of
Odds. I had the world by the tail, he
writes in his new memoir, The An-
swer Is . . . I was the talented new-
comer in broadcasting. I was the
bright, fair-haired boy. He was also
saddled with a few striking disadvan-
tages, as he saw it. I didnt drink,
didnt smoke, didnt do drugs, he
writes. There were no big negatives
associated with me. He was too chaste to be trusted it
held me back from becoming one of the
guys. He tried cursing. He tried boast-
ing about his drinking even though he
privately preferred 1-percent milk (sufficiently sinister, to my mind). In
the end, he reconciled himself to that
unnerving wholesomeness and re-
serve, which have become so integral
to his appeal. The Jeopardy! cham-
pion Ken Jennings has described Tre-
bek, the quiz shows longtime host, as
a riddle wrapped in an enigma
wrapped in a Perry Ellis suit.
Its little wonder that Trebek has
written a memoir of consummate
caginess, one of the wariest Ive read:
a friendly, often funny account marked
by a reluctance so deep that it confers
a curious integrity upon the celebrity
tell-all. For years, he resisted personal
questions (Get a life, hed say in
interviews) and resisted writing an
autobiography. Only after the outpour-
ing of support following his announce-
ment last year that he had pancreatic
cancer did he feel he owed something
to the public.
But everything in proportion, please.
Im a second-tier celebrity, he insists.
The biggest reason the show has
endured is the comfort that it brings.
Viewers have gotten used to having me
there, not so much as a showbiz per-
sonality but as an uncle. Im part of the
family more than an outside celebrity who comes into your home to entertain
you. They find me comforting and
reassuring as opposed to being im-
pressed by me.
On this point, Trebek is remarkably
direct: Even if he cant quite under-
stand the public fascination with his
life, he knows he means something
significant to the culture, something
soothing and in short supply. He knows
he fills a need. For the 36 years hosting
Jeopardy! an industry record he
has been a nostalgic father figure of
sorts, showing up reliably at dinner-
time and remaining tantalizingly aloof.
In the autumn of the media patriarchs,
he stands practically alone, untinged
by scandal. His authority derives from
his defense of facts, not their distortion. He takes pride in his work, and in
the achievements of the contestants
when Jennings was ousted after win-
ning 74 games, Trebek teared up. But
he never takes himself seriously; his
memoir is a shameless dad-joke ex-
travaganza, largely at his own expense.
He is eager to talk about his hairpiece
(a damn good one). He shares silly
photos of himself in all-denim outfits
(wearing the Canadian tuxedo is my
birthright) and posing in the 1990s Got Milk? campaigns (I really do
love the stuff). He recalls the early
years of Jeopardy! with relish, when
the prizes for runners-up included
Lee Nails, delicious low-calorie meat
from Mr. Turkey and Tinactin Antifun-
gal Cream use only as directed!
Alex Trebek loves the troops, he
loves his wife, he loves his Dodge Ram.
He really loves his bromides. His kids?
Champs. His divorce? Amazing. He and his ex are still good friends.
Around the margins, a darker story
blooms. Trebek was born in Sudbury,
Ontario, in 1940, to Ukrainian immi-
grants warm, loving people, if ill-
suited for each other. His father drank.
Trebeks early years were full of pov-
erty, instability and illness, but he
presents them with his typical cloud-
less beneficence: I dont have a lot of
ghosts. I dont have any bad memories
that affect my life. Its all good. When
he was 7, he fell into a frozen lake and
had painful, lasting rheumatism. For 12
years hed wake crying in the night
until suddenly the pain disappeared.
Go figure, he shrugs. Young Trebek had a rebellious
streak. He clashed with the nuns at
school and bounced between jobs. He
quit military college when he heard
that buzz cuts were mandatory. I had
a good head of hair a sort of pom-
padour with a ducktail in the back, he
writes. (Photographic evidence is
provided.) Id be damned if I was
going to let them shave it off. Trebek might have inspired dread in
his teachers and early employers, but
he discovered his real talent was in
projecting calm, in allowing others to shine. As a host, it has been his proud-
est quality his ability to buoy an
anxious contestant through tone alone.
Facts themselves can confer steadi-
ness. A small aside: I took to Jeop-
ardy! early, and in high school had a
weird, cursory career competing in
televised trivia contests. My team-
mates and I immigrants all, as it
happened glutted ourselves on dates
and data with a hunger that I couldnt
have possibly explained at the time but
that now seems embarrassingly obvi-
ous. Facts could be trusted. Facts
consoled. Their patient, dogged acqui-
sition constituted a kind of shy pos-
session of the world. Of course, any possession in this life
is, at best, temporary. My life has
been a quest for knowledge and under-
standing, and Im nowhere near having
achieved that. And it doesnt bother me
in the least, Trebek cheerfully con-
cludes. He ends the book at home, like
of all us, in quarantine. He is ex-
hausted by cancer treatments, ex-
hausted by uncertainty but still sub-
limely calm and grateful. As hes al-
ways advised his contestants to do,
hes already looking ahead to the next
A life in the form of a question
The Answer Is...: Reflections on My Life
By Alex Trebek. Illustrated. 290 pp.
Simon & Schuster. $26.
ANDREW ECCLESOn July 18, four months and 10 days
since his last public performance, the
Grammy-winning jazz pianist Bill Char-
lap came out to play.
It was the torrid start of a heat wave,
and though he knew the club where he
was headed to, in the Pennsylvania
hamlet of Delaware Water Gap, would
not be air-conditioned as a precaution
against viral transmission, he packed a
dark blue Zegna suit into the back seat
of his Nissan Rogue.
The people I always looked up to
dressed well, he said. Performing is a
time of honor. Its a dignified thing. We
dignify each other. But in these times, to perform at all
will require substantial adaptations,
ones that keep the audience sparse and
distant and possibly alter that alchemic
connection between artist and listener
that the best shows create.
Mr. Charlap, 53, is the son of two pro-
fessional musicians the theater and
film composer Moose Charlap and the
standards singer Sandy Stewart and
has been playing professionally since he
was a student at the High School of the
Performing Arts in Manhattan. For
more than 20 years, he has led one of the
top trios in jazz, and he has collaborated
with likes of Diana Krall and Tony Ben-
nett (on their 2018 duet recording Our
Love Is Here to Stay). Like so many
other performers, Mr. Charlap had no
idea when he sounded the last notes on
March 8 at a jazz festival in Laramie,
Wyo., that he was about to endure the in-
dignity of extended, forced idleness. The hiatus, he said, has been defi-
nitely the longest I can remember. Im
minus a central part of my life. Not to mention his livelihood. He was
still able to teach remotely through the
end of the spring semester at William
Paterson University, in Wayne, N.J., where he is director of jazz studies. But
weeks of lucrative bookings at top clubs
like Birdland, and many concerts, were
erased from his schedule.
I had a very robust summer of work,
Mr. Charlap said, traveling all over the
world and the country, playing major
festivals, my own festival, he said. (He
serves as artistic director for the Jazz in
July series at the 92nd Street Y in Man-
hattan.) Of course, all these things are
now postponed or canceled. Ive lost a
huge amount financially. Its a really big,
big loss. But everyone is struggling
deeply. In late June, the pianist got a job offer
from Bob Mancuso, one of the owners of
the Deer Head Inn, a rambling 19th-cen-
tury country hotel with mansard roofs,
perched on a hillside overlooking Main
Street in Delaware Water Gap, which
sits within walking distance of a stretch
of the Appalachian Trail. The inns first-
floor bar and restaurant has featured
jazz since 1950, and its owners say the
Deer Head is the longest continuously
operating jazz club in the United States.
(Other clubs around the country make
the same claim.) On June 19, large parts of Pennsylva-
nia moved into a phase of reopening that
allows indoor dining, bar service and
live music. The inns owners started
discussing, sometimes arguing, about
how we could reopen, said Denny Car-
rig, who bought the inn 15 years ago with
his sister, Mary, and Mr. Mancuso. We decided to wait, Mr. Carrig said.
We needed to get some money coming
in. But whether anyone would think it
was safe enough to come out was some-
thing we were concerned about. The partners hashed out an opening
protocol, including mandatory masks
while moving through the club, widely
spaced tables, temperature checks on
entry and only natural ventilation, sup-
plied by open windows and fans. The
changes would bring capacity down by
75 percent, to a maximum of two dozen,
but it was a start. Mr. Mancuso began
calling musicians. Seven of the first 10
he reached said no thanks, including Mr.
Charlap. I dont think its safe, the pianist re-
membered saying. I dont feel right
about it. I dont want to endanger any-
body else. But he agreed to give it more
thought, because hed had a long and
special relationship with the unlikely
jazz enclave. I started playing the Deer Head in
the early 90s, Mr. Charlap said. I took
a bus up from Manhattan to play with
Steve Gilmore, a bassist. That first
night, Mr. Gilmores colleague, the star
jazz saxophonist Phil Woods, traveled down the hill from his nearby home and
sat in. I think I was getting an audition,
Mr. Charlap recalled. Within weeks, he
joined the Phil Woods Quintet, one of the
top jazz groups of its day, and spent 15
years touring the world and making
eight records, helping to cement his sta-
tus in the top echelons of jazz.
Theres nothing quite like the Deer
Head, Mr. Charlap added. Its been a
spot for pure music for such a long time.
The feeling there is a good, warm, hon-
est feeling and a personal connection, which is my favorite thing about playing
anyway. And thats what weve been de-
prived of right now. He booked the date.
Its a risk for everybody, I suppose,
he said. It may be early, but its time for
me. At exactly 6 p.m. on the appointed Sat-
urday, Mr. Charlap stepped up to the
Deer Heads bandstand and stood, dap-
per in his suit and tie, at the keyboard of
a glossy Yamaha grand piano that Phil
Woods left the club in his will. Though he
hadnt been asked to wear it, he straight-
ened the black cloth mask covering his
mouth and nose (and recent quarantine
beard). He looked out to his listeners,
the nearest of whom was well over six
feet away, and said: There is no substi-
tute for humanity and connection. I wish
that I could be closer physically. But I
will do everything I can to be as close in
every other possible way with the mu-
sic. Modest and low-key off the band-
stand, at the piano he is voluble and in-
tense. For the next hour, the pianist
moved through an erudite selection of
jazz and American songbook standards,
composers that ranged from Bix Beider-
becke to Bill Evans, with masterful tech-
nique and a stylistic range that encom- passed rollicking stride piano, bebop
virtuosity and harmonically opulent
Mr. Charlap winked goodbye to his
audience with After Youve Gone, a bit-
tersweet love song from 1918, another
time of pandemic. Then he put his
glasses back on the mask and humid-
ity had made them fog over and
walked out onto the inns porch. He went
to a room upstairs to put on a dry shirt
and waited by himself for the next set. The second set was full again, with
more patrons seated outside on the
large wraparound porch. When he fin-
ished the night with a moody and poign-
ant rendering of We Shall Overcome,
the pianist walked out to a standing ova-
tion, went back upstairs, changed out of
his soggy suit and then drove home to
West Orange, N.J. The next day he said in an interview:
I was reminded of exactly what we are
missing in this time. I left the Deer Head
feeling just how special it is to perform.
In these times, performing becomes like
a diamond.
Mr. Charlaps next scheduled per-
formance is a livestream from the Vil-
lage Vanguard on Sept. 11. There wont
be an audience.
The Grammy-winning artist Bill Charlap performed on July 18 at the Deer Head Inn, below right, an unlikely jazz oasis in Delaware Water Gap, Pa. It had been more than four months since his last gig. It may be early, but its time for me, said Mr. Charlap, below left.
Why a jazz pianist chose to perform Its a risk for everybody,
Bill Charlap said, testing
out the new normal

YIELD: 4 SERVINGS 1pound large broccoli florets
(about 8 cups)
1 pound fingerling or baby white
potatoes, sliced crosswise ¼-inch
thick (about 4 cups)
1 bunch scallions (8 ounces), cut
into 1-inch pieces (about 2 cups)
3 large garlic cloves, thinly sliced
2 teaspoons smoked paprika
10 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
Kosher salt and black pepper
8 (6-inch) corn tortillas
8 large eggs
2 avocados, cut into wedges
Salsa, sour cream, cilantro sprigs
and lime wedges, for serving 1. Heat oven to 450 degrees. On a large
rimmed baking sheet, combine broccoli,
potatoes, scallions and garlic with the
paprika and 6 tablespoons oil. Season with
salt and pepper, toss to coat, then spread
in an even layer. Roast, undisturbed, until
tender and charred in spots, 30 minutes.
2. Stack tortillas and wrap tightly in
aluminum foil. Five minutes before the
vegetables are done, transfer foil-wrapped
tortillas to the oven to warm up.
3. Just before serving, heat 2 tablespoons
oil over medium heat in a 12-inch nonstick
or cast-iron skillet. Crack in 4 eggs and fry
until whites are set and yolks are still
runny, about 5 minutes. Transfer to a large
plate. Repeat with remaining oil and eggs.
4. Divide vegetable filling and avocado
among the tortillas and top each with an
egg. Spoon over some salsa and sour
cream and garnish with cilantro sprigs.
Fold over tortillas to form tacos or enjoy
with forks and knives. Serve with lime
Roasted broccoli and potato tacos
with fried eggs
YIELD: 4 SERVINGS2½ to 3 pounds bone-in, skin-on
chicken breasts (about 10 to 12
ounces each)
½ cup olive oil
Kosher salt
2 medium sweet potatoes, cut into
1-inch pieces (about 1¼ pounds)
1 small fennel bulb, cut into 1-inch
wedges, fronds chopped and
¼ cup white wine vinegar
1 lemon, zested, plus 2 tablespoons
1 tablespoon Dijon mustard
1 garlic clove, grated
1½ teaspoons black pepper, plus
more to taste
1 cup crumbled or grated pecorino
¼ cup parsley, leaves and tender
4 cups leafy greens, such as baby
spinach or torn kale (optional) 1. Heat oven to 425 degrees. In a large
bowl, toss chicken with 2 tablespoons oil.
Season with salt and arrange on a large
rimmed baking sheet, skin-side up.
2. In the same bowl, toss potatoes and
fennel with 2 tablespoons oil. Season with
salt and arrange in an even layer around
the chicken.
3. Roast until chicken and potatoes are a
deep golden brown and fennel is starting
to caramelize at the edges, about 35 to 45
4. As chicken cooks, combine vinegar,
lemon zest and juice, mustard, garlic and
1½ teaspoon pepper in a small bowl.
Whisk in remaining ¼ cup olive oil in a
thin stream and stir in pecorino. Season
with salt and pepper.
5. Transfer the chicken to a cutting board
to rest. Toss the fennel fronds and parsley
with the roasted vegetables.
6. To serve, cut the chicken off the bone
and slice. Divide chicken and vegetables
among plates. Serve with a handful of
leafy greens if you like, and spoon the
pecorino vinaigrette over everything.
Sheet-pan chicken
with sweet potatoes and fennel
1pound baby Yukon Gold potatoes,
8 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
2 teaspoons kosher salt, plus more
to taste
1¼ teaspoons black pepper
2 large eggs
2 tablespoons red-wine vinegar
2 teaspoons Dijon mustard
1 teaspoon minced garlic (about 1
1 anchovy fillet, minced (optional)
6 ounces haricots verts or green
beans, trimmed
1½ cups cherry tomatoes
½ cup pitted olives, preferably
Niçoise or Kalamata
4 (6-ounce) center-cut, skin-on
salmon fillets
5 ounces tender salad greens, like
baby red and green leaf lettuce
1. Heat the oven to 400 degrees and place
a rack near the top of the oven. Place the
potatoes on a sheet pan, add 1 tablespoon
olive oil, ½ teaspoon salt and ½ teaspoon
pepper and toss. Arrange the potatoes so
the cut sides are facing down and roast for
20 minutes.
2. While the potatoes roast, fill a medium
saucepan with water and bring to a boil.
Add the eggs and cook over medium heat
for exactly 6 minutes. Remove the eggs, and when they are cool enough to handle,
peel and quarter them.
3. Make the dressing: In a large bowl,
whisk together the vinegar, 1 teaspoon
Dijon mustard, the garlic, anchovy (if
using), ½ teaspoon salt and ½ teaspoon
pepper. Slowly whisk in 4 tablespoons of
olive oil and set aside.
4. Add the haricots verts, tomatoes and
olives to the sheet pan with the potatoes,
along with 2 tablespoons olive oil and ½
teaspoon salt. Using tongs, toss well, then
move the vegetables to the sides to create
space in the center of the sheet pan. Pat
the salmon fillets dry with a paper towel
and place them, skin-side down, in the
center of the sheet pan.
5. Brush fillets with remaining 1
tablespoon olive oil and 1 teaspoon Dijon
mustard, and sprinkle with ½ teaspoon
salt and ¼ teaspoon pepper. Roast on the
top rack in the oven for 10 minutes. Turn
the broiler to high and broil for 2 to 3
minutes to lightly brown the salmon. (If
you dont have a broiler, roast salmon for
an additional 2 to 3 minutes instead.) The
salmon should flake easily and be just
cooked in the center.
6. Add the greens to the large bowl with
the dressing, and toss gently. Place greens
on a large platter, leaving a narrow border
at the platters edges. Place the salmon
fillets in the middle of the platter, then
arrange the roasted vegetables and eggs
around them. Sprinkle with salt and serve.
1pound fresh sausage, such as
sweet or hot Italian sausage
1 pound sweet or mild peppers,
such as mini sweet peppers, bell
or Cubanelle, seeded and sliced
into 2-inch strips if large
1 pound cherry or grape tomatoes
4 garlic cloves, peeled and thinly
2 shallots, peeled and cut into
½-inch wedges
3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
Kosher salt and pepper 1. Heat the broiler with a rack 6 inches
from heat source. Score the sausages in a
few places on both sides, making sure not
to cut all the way through. In a shallow
baking dish or baking sheet, toss the
sausages with the peppers, tomatoes,
garlic, shallots and olive oil. Season with
salt and pepper and spread in an even
2. Broil until the sausage is cooked
through and the peppers and tomatoes are
nicely charred, 10 to 15 minutes. Rotate
the pan and ingredients as needed so
everything gets under the broiler. If
everything is charring too quickly, cover
the pan with foil. Serve immediately.
Sheet-pan sausage
with peppers and tomatoes
YIELD: 4 SERVINGS2tablespoons olive oil
1 yellow onion, thinly sliced
4 garlic cloves, thinly sliced
Pinch of red-pepper flakes, to
1 tablespoon cider vinegar
12 ounces thin spaghetti or linguine,
broken in half
2 pounds Roma or Campari
tomatoes, chopped (about 8 to 12
1 teaspoon kosher salt
½ teaspoon black pepper
2 ounces finely grated Parmesan
(about ½ cup), plus more for
About 1 cup basil leaves, for serving 1. Heat oil in a very large, deep cast-iron
skillet (or a Dutch oven) over
medium-low. Add onion and cook until
softening, stirring occasionally, about 5
minutes. Add the garlic and cook until
fragrant, 3 to 5 minutes more. Add
red-pepper flakes and vinegar, and stir
until the vinegar evaporates.
2. Add pasta, followed by the tomatoes,
and pour 2¾ cup water over the top.
Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Cover with
a lid and bring to a boil. Simmer over
medium-low heat until the pasta is just
tender, about 10 minutes, stirring as
needed so the pasta doesnt stick.
Uncover, and continue cooking until the
liquid has evaporated to a loose sauce,
just enough to coat your noodles with
flavor, 5 to 8 minutes more. (If theres
still too much liquid at the bottom of your
pan for your tastes, simmer a little
3. Taste and add more salt and pepper as
needed. Toss with cheese and basil to
melt the cheese.
One-pan bruschetta spaghetti Summer is an ideal time to embrace cooking simplicity: Find fresh ingredi-
ents, and let them shine. But then theres cleanup. A sink stacked with dishes
and a countertop strewn with sullied pots, pans and bowls easily adds an-
other 30 minutes to the stretch of the evening known as dinnertime. To
make things easier, these recipes rely heavily on a sheet pan, an inexpensive
piece of equipment that every kitchen needs; theres also a one-pot pasta
recipe, for cooks who roll their eyes at sheet-pan cooking. Here are five dish-
es for the week.
Emily Weinstein
LINDA XIAO FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES. FOOD STYLIST: MONICA PIERINI. Smart and streamlined home cooking, courtesy of Ali Slagle: Broil sweet peppers
with grape tomatoes, shallots, garlic and sausage. Serve tucked into a crusty roll
for a sandwich, or over rice or pasta.
Just look at that enticing tangle of pasta, those juicy collapsed tomatoes. This
recipe by Sarah Copeland pleases everyone. Use the biggest pan youve got: The
pasta cooks directly in the sauce, and it needs room.
The broccoli, potato and scallions all roast together in this recipe by Kay Chun,
then they are loaded into corn tortillas. A warning: This one is for people who like
the bitter singe of roasted broccoli. Do not skip the eggs, and make them runny:
The burst yolks work as a kind of sauce.
This is a little fancy for a sheet-pan meal, and yet a sheet-pan meal it is. Lidey
Heuck wrote this recipe, which calls for adding most of the vegetables in a salade
niçoise (which are typically steamed or served raw) to the pan in stages; salmon,
which replaces tuna, goes last. You could skip the eggs to save a step but the
eggs are really good.
The lemon-pecorino dressing in this recipe by Yewande Komolafe is what really
makes the dish sing. Any number of sturdy roots or bulbs could swap in for the
vegetables; try halved shallots or red onion sliced into thick wedges. Experiment with adding cumin,
paprika, oregano or red-pepper
flakes in Step 1.
Corn tortillas are used here, but
flour tortillas can also be used. Sheet-pan roasted salmon niçoise salad
YIELD: 4 TO 6 SERVINGS2small boneless, skinless chicken
breasts (about 1 pound total)
Kosher salt
¼ cup fresh lime juice, plus more
lime wedges, for serving (3 to 4
¼ cup tahini
2 tablespoons wasabi paste
2 garlic cloves, grated ½
teaspoon granulated sugar
8 to 10 celery ribs, plus ½ cup
celery leaves
Sesame seeds, for serving
1. In a medium pot, cover chicken breasts
with about 2 inches of water, and season
with 2 tablespoons kosher salt. Bring to a
boil over high heat, then simmer on low
until the chicken is cooked through, about
20 minutes. Once the chicken is cooked,
remove it from the pot and let cool.
2. While the chicken cools, make the
dressing: In a medium bowl, whisk together lime juice, tahini, wasabi paste,
garlic, sugar and ¼ cup water until
smooth. Season to taste with salt.
3. Cut celery into 2-inch segments, then
cut segments lengthwise into matchsticks
and place in a large bowl.
4. Using two forks or hands, shred the
chicken into bite-size pieces and transfer
to the bowl with the celery.
5. Pour dressing over the chicken and
celery and toss to coat. Top with celery
leaves and sesame seeds, and serve with
lime wedges.
The next time you get delivery or take-
out, dont throw away those condiments.
Use them in your next dinner.
This recipe was inspired by a chef
who, according to his fiancée, mixes
takeout condiments hoisin sauce,
nuoc cham, sambal oelek, to name a few
and rubs it on pork or chicken for
something that becomes deliciously sa-
vory, sweet and spicy. In that same vein,
you could also save those wasabi pack-
ets from your Japanese takeout, and
whisk them into a tahini dressing to
cover a celery-chicken salad. The combination of wasabi and celery
isnt all that new: Its similar to a cold
appetizer found in Taiwanese-Chinese
cuisine, simply called hot mustard cel-
ery salad. In the dishs usual prepara-
tion, blanched celery ribs are peeled or
have the tough strings pulled out and
are then tossed with a dressing made
with hot mustard powder. (The wasabi
you often get from Japanese takeout has
the same tingly flavor profile as hot
mustard powder.) The most time-consuming part is cut-
ting the celery into matchsticks and
tearing the chicken into small pieces,
which allows more of both to be coated. The addition of lime juice pulls this away
from your standard tahini dressing: It
lends a subtle sweetness while balanc-
ing the bitter wasabi. Wasabis flavor is
strongest when the dressing is first
made. The nose-tingling spiciness sort
of disappears with time, so add more for
a stronger flavor.
Make the recipe as it is, but dont stop
there. This dressing has endless possi-
bilities. Try it with tofu and celery. Use it
on an egg salad or an herby pasta salad
or even a pepper Jack-heavy romaine
salad. Or just tuck it into a soft potato
roll, and enjoy it at a socially distanced
Chicken salad that comes with a kick