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nent are few and far between: Just 13
countries are on the list of those consid-
ered safe by the European Union, a list
that so far excludes the United States. The drag is felt acutely in tourist des-
tinations that depend on air travel, like
the Canary Islands, which lie off the
northwestern coast of Africa, hundreds
of miles from mainland Spain. Airlines
carried 15 million visitors to the archi-
pelago last year, but the flight capacity
this month is 30 percent of what it was a
year ago.
As a result, property owners in the Ca-
nary Islands have opened only about 20
percent of the tourism beds, according
to Jorge Marichal, a Tenerife hotelier
who is president of Cehat, the Spanish
hotel confederation. We are doing our best to highlight
the fact that we now have almost no vi-
rus problem but of course we cannot
transport the tourists here ourselves,
Mr. Marichal said. Italy has tried to promote national
tourism by issuing a vacation bonus, a
voucher of 150 euros, or about $170, per
Italian for lodging, to as much as 500
per family. Dario Franceschini, the min-
ister of culture and tourism, told Parlia-
ment this month that about 400,000
vouchers had been issued, worth 183
million in total.
The Italian news media painted a less
enthusiastic picture. The newspaper
Music blared from a beachfront cafe
along the normally bustling southwest-
ern coast of Tenerife, the largest of the
Canary Islands. But several tables sat
empty, a month after Spains Covid-19
lockdown had ended, and the doors to
many resorts remained shut. Though tourism is returning to south-
ern Europe, from Portugal to Greece, its
restart has been sluggish, amid new out-
breaks in some countries. Bookings are
down 80 percent in Italy despite govern-
ment incentives. Ferries to the Greek is-
lands are carrying much less than half
the loads they once did. While Europeans are starting to trav-
el more within their own countries, far
fewer are venturing beyond their bor-
ders. Particularly missing are vacation-
ers from Britain, Germany and other
northern countries who typically jour-
ney south each year, spending billions of
euros. And visitors from outside the conti- Corriere della Sera reported that only a
small fraction of Italian hotels accept
the vouchers.
Greece, though suffering less from
the pandemic than either Italy or Spain,
has still seen scant evidence of a re-
bound in tourism. In the first 12 days of
July, passenger traffic at the Athens air-
port was down 75 percent from a year ago, and the countrys 14 regional air-
ports were down 84 percent. Though all of the countries of south-
ern Europe have emerged from lock-
down, new outbreaks there and quaran-
tine orders elsewhere have added hur-
dles. This month, Britain said that peo-
ple coming from Portugal, among other
The Canary Islands, with few coronavirus cases among two million full-time residents, are allowing visitors on the islands, like La Graciosa, above. But some hotels are shut.
Coasts are clear. And empty.
Southern Europe reopens,
but many popular spots
are reporting few arrivals
BY RAPHAEL MINDER Ferries, like this one that runs to La Graciosa island in the Canaries, have fewer pas-
sengers than anyone anticipated, as a result of the pandemic.
The streets of New York were crowded
with protesters when Shantell Martin
received an email from an ad agency
last month. M:United, a firm owned by the global
advertising company McCann, wanted
to know if Ms. Martin, a Black artist,
would be interested in creating a mural
about the Black Lives Matter movement
on Microsofts boarded-up Fifth Avenue
storefront. And could she do it, the email
said, while the protests are still rele-
vant and the boards are still up, ideally
no later than this coming Sunday? Several other Black artists received
the same email. In an open letter to
Microsoft and McCann, Ms. Martin and
the other artists described the invitation
as both shocking and somehow pre- dictable. They also wrote that it be-
trays a telling and dangerous opportun-
ism. In their rush to portray a public soli-
darity with the Black Lives Matter
movement, companies risk reinscribing
what got us all here: the instrumental-
ization and exploitation of Black labor,
ideas and talent for what is ultimately
their own benefit and safety, the group
wrote. The efforts of major companies to
publicly support the protests against
racism and police brutality have rung
hollow for some Black workers in cre-
ative fields. Artists, models, designers, copywrit-
ers and others said they had been
drafted to lend legitimacy to companies
that fail to live up to principles of diversi-
ty and inclusion. They said they had
been pigeonholed for roles in ad cam-
paigns or penalized when they raised
objections about efforts they felt were
insensitive and had been underpaid, or
not given proper credit for their work. After Ms. Martin posted on Instagram
Black artists wary of corporate solidarity
Some cite opportunism
in a rush to use works
at a time of U.S. unrest
Shantell Martin was among the Black artists asked to create a Black Lives Matter mural
for Microsoft while the protests since George Floyds killing were still relevant.
DEMETRIUS FREEMAN FOR THE NEW YORK TIMESThe New York Times publishes opinion
from a wide range of perspectives in
hopes of promoting constructive debate
about consequential questions. The offer to employees at the state-
owned oil giant was compelling: Be
among the first in China to take a coro-
navirus vaccine.
The employees at the oil company,
PetroChina, could use one of two vac-
cines for emergency use to protect
themselves when working overseas as
part of Chinas ambitious infrastructure
program, according to a copy of the no-
tice, which was reviewed by The New
York Times. They would effectively be
guinea pigs for testing the unproven
vaccines outside the official clinical tri-
The offer was backed by the govern-
ment. It stressed that data from clinical
trials showed that the products, both
made by Sinopharm, were safe. It did
not mention the possible side effects, or
warn against the false sense of security
from taking a vaccine that regulators
hadnt approved.
I dont think this is right ethically,
said Joan Shen, the Shanghai-based
chief executive officer of the pharma-
ceutical company I-Mab Biopharma. The unorthodox move, to test people
separately from the normal regulatory
approval process, reflects the formida-
ble challenge facing China as it races to
develop the worlds first coronavirus
Eager to find a long-term solution to
the outbreak and burnish their scientific
credentials, Chinese companies are
rushing to get as much data as possible
on their vaccines to prove they are safe
and effective. In China, they are selec-
tively testing their vaccines on small
pools of people like the PetroChina em-
ployees an approach that does not
count toward the regulatory process but
could bolster their own confidence in the
vaccines. In Brazil and other countries,
they are conducting clinical trials, going
through the normal regulatory chan-
nels. The dual strategy, though, is risking
scientific setbacks and political back-
lash, potentially undercutting Chinas
efforts. Such emergency use is rare, and the
taking of unapproved vaccines is typi-
cally reserved for health care profes-
sionals. Although the government has
stressed that taking the vaccine is vol-
untary, the soldiers and the workers at
state-owned companies could feel pres-
sure to participate. As Chinese companies also look be-
yond their borders to test the vaccine,
they are running into mistrust and skep-
ticism. Health experts have questioned
why the Canadian government is allow-
ing CanSino Biologics, which has
teamed up with the Peoples Liberation
China takes
route to
test vaccine In a race to acquire data,
soldiers and workers are
pulled into unofficial trials BY SUI-LEE WEE
AND MARIANA SIMÕES Imagine a country, a major Western
economic power, where the coronavirus
arrived late but the government, in-
stead of denying and delaying, acted
early. It was ready with tests and con-
tact tracing to flatten the curve swiftly
and limited its death rate to orders of
magnitude lower than that of any other
major Western industrial nation. Con-
taining the virus allowed for a brief and
targeted lockdown, which helped limit
unemployment to only 6 percent. Amid
a shower of international praise, the
countrys boringly predictable leader
experienced a huge spike in popular
approval, to 70 percent from 40 percent.
This mirror image
of America under
President Trump is
Germany under
Chancellor Angela
Merkel. Her surging
popularity has politi-
cally marginalized
the extreme right and
extreme left. German
unions have worked
closely with bosses to
keep factories open
and working conditions generally safe
(the countrys meatpacking industry
was a notable exception). Ms. Merkels
government has coordinated with all
the German states to contain the pan-
demic and with fellow European Union
members to establish a recovery fund
for nations hardest hit by the virus.
The strengths Germany is showing
make it the large economy most likely to
thrive in the post-pandemic world.
The coronavirus is accelerating an
inward turn among national economies
that began with the global financial
crisis of 2008. Governments are assum-
ing more and more control over all
aspects of economic life, running up
public debts to keep growth alive and
imposing new barriers to foreign trade
and immigration. Only the virtual side
of the world economy is booming, as
people work, play and shop on the inter-
net. Which nations will flourish in this
reshaped economic landscape? Despite
their tech dominance, the United States
and China are running up too much debt
and their governments have been
widely criticized for mishandling the
pandemic. Vietnam looks promising, an
emerging export powerhouse with a
government that has stopped the virus
dead in its tracks. Russia also has an
intriguing economy, because President
Vladimir Putin has been working for
years to seal off his country from foreign
financial pressure, a defensive move
Is Germany
set to thrive
post-Covid? Ruchir Sharma
Contributing Writer OPINION
will triumph
after the
Hint: Its
not the U.S.
or China.
SHARMA , PAGE 11 New York Times
Make th e mo st o f you r time indoo rs.
Be tter unde rstan d t he w orld outside .
Our virtual gat he rin gs ar e fr ee to a ttend ,
an d new events a re added daily.
Explore the full sc hedul e:
time seven ts.nytimes .com
Y(1J85IC*KKNSKM( +$!"!?!%!zIssue Number
No. 42,719
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Army, to run human trials in the country.
Rumors have spread about the authen-
ticity of a Chinese-made vaccine that is
being tested in Brazil, as supporters of
President Jair Bolsonaro cast doubt. The strategy is born of necessity.
Chinese companies cannot find
enough candidates at home to conclu-
sively determine whether their vaccines
would prevent infections, a problem
faced by research institutes and phar-
maceutical makers in countries that
have largely tamed the coronavirus.
Phase 3 trials, the final stage before ap-
proval, require vaccines to be tested in
tens of thousands of volunteers in places
with large, active outbreaks. Along with the testing at the oil com-
pany, Sinopharm, which has completed
Phase 2 trials for two products, has in-
jected the vaccine into its chairman and
other senior officials, according to the
State-owned Assets Supervision and
Administration Commission, or SASAC,
the government agency managing all
employees at state-backed companies.
The Chinese government has allowed
the CanSino-military vaccine to be given
to its armed forces, a first for the mili-
tary of any country.
Yang Zhanqiu, a virologist at Wuhan
University, was skeptical about the deci-
sion to give vaccines to employees of
state-owned companies for business
It does not make much sense at all,
because the length of time that the em-
ployees take to travel is not the same,
the locations may be different, and it is
not easy to do tracking and monitoring,
Dr. Yang said. It may just be a psycho-
logical comfort for employees.
A PetroChina employee based over-
seas confirmed that his colleagues in
China had been invited to take the vac-
cines. PetroChina, SASAC and Si-
nopharm did not respond to requests for
comment. Such testing does not help the compa-
nies clear any regulatory hurdles, since
it is not part of the official clinical trials.
Mainly, Chinese companies could use it
to give themselves extra reassurance
that the vaccines are safe, presuming
they do not discover any problems. If you are a regulatory body, if you
play by the rules, if you are hard-nosed
about it, you say this is very wrong, said
Ray Yip, the former head of the Gates Foundation in China. Dr. Yip added that
it would be useful for company execu-
tives to know that they had given the
dose to a couple of thousand people, but
no one has dropped dead, so thats
pretty good. Dr. Yip said the people taking the vac-
cines should read up on reports of the
safety data and make an informed deci-
sion. He said he would be willing to take
it. If you offer that to me saying its safe
and theres an 85 percent chance that it
works, would I take it today? he said.
You know what, I probably will. Be-
cause then I dont have to worry. In a post on its official WeChat ac-
count, a government agency reported
that the vaccine pretest on Sinopharm
employees showed that antibody levels
were high enough in subjects to combat
the coronavirus, indicating that it was safe and effective. The agency did not
make clear what vaccine the employees
had taken. The Paper, a newspaper
owned by the Shanghai government,
separately said 180 employees had tak-
en the vaccine.
Last month, the Beijing Institute of
Biological Products, which is develop-
ing one of Sinopharms vaccines, pub-
lished its preclinical data in a peer-re-
viewed journal, Cell, saying the vaccine
induced high levels of antibodies in ma-
caques and protected against Sars-
CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19. The Wuhan Institute, which Si-
nopharm owns, said its vaccine had
caused no adverse reactions among vol-
unteers, according to Xinhua, Chinas of-
ficial news agency. Volunteers achieved
full antibodies after two doses in a 28-
day program. While the early results in those small
groups are promising, Chinese compa-
nies must strike deals in other countries
to ultimately pass regulatory muster in
China and the rest the world.
In June, Sinopharm began the third
phase of clinical trials in Beijing, Wuhan
and Abu Dhabi, becoming the first com-
pany to enter the final regulatory stage.
Chinas Sinovac Biotech is teaming up
with Instituto Butantan in Brazil, which
has the worlds second-highest case
count, after the United States.
The process has been politically
fraught in Brazil, where Mr. Bolsonaro
has played down the threat, though he
later contracted Covid-19. His son
blamed China for the pandemic. Shortly after the vaccine deal, a fake
meme started spreading that said the
vaccine had been tested only on mon-
keys and never on humans. If this vac-
cine is so promising, then why not test it
in China, where this damned virus ap-
peared, instead of testing it on the citi-
zens of São Paulo? it said. Dimas Tadeu Covas, the director of
Butantan, said that he was impressed
with Sinovacs preliminary results and
that the vaccine has the greatest poten-
tial for success. He cited results from
Sinovacs Phase 1 trials that showed no
adverse effects and Phase 2 trials that
showed 90 percent protection against
Sars-Cov2. I know vaccines, and I am betting a
lot on this one, Dr. Covas said. Despite the political backlash, about
600,000 people signed up for the trials
just 24 hours after the recruiting process
went live this month. João Doria, the governor of São Paulo,
the state where testing is being con-
ducted, said, In the middle of a pan-
demic, you cant prioritize ideology or
political factors over life.
Ralcyon Teixeira, an infectious-dis-
ease specialist and director of the medi-
cal division at the hospital Emílio Ribas
in São Paulo, said he was worried that
the politicization of the Sinovac vac-
cine could hinder the introduction of
what he believed could be an effective
treatment. Its been four months of just
Covid, he said. We are tired of seeing
so many deaths, so many bad and tragic
situations, so I think that we are seeking
out hope that this vaccine will work.
China takes unorthodox route on vaccine
In a photo released by a state news
agency, above, staff members checked and
cleaned equipment at a Sinopharm vac-
cine production plant in Beijing. Right,
researchers worked in a lab at the
on June 6 about the mural request, sev-
eral McCann employees told her that
the ad agency had reached out to her
and other artists despite some internal
objections about how the project was be-
ing handled, she said in an interview.
Both Chris Capossela, the chief market-
ing officer of Microsoft, and Harris Dia-
mond, the chief executive of McCann,
apologized publicly to Ms. Martin on
Twitter. The language used in the email
to Ms. Martin was flat out wrong, Mr.
Diamond wrote. Microsoft said in a
statement that the message was an un-
acceptable mistake and that the com-
pany took full accountability. A group of marketing professionals,
Lexie Pérez, Julian Cole, Stephanie Vi-
tacca and Davis Ballard, began tracking
the flood of company statements of soli-
darity in an open Google Slides docu-
ment that they released on June 5. They
noted that companies often seemed to
be seeking participation trophies and
trivializing the Black Lives Matter
movement with empty and vague plati-
tudes, providing no concrete plans for
change and ignoring complaints of in-
equality internally. This is the current issue of the day,
said Sonya Grier, a marketing professor
at American University. It has become
almost standard for companies to jump
in, because everyone expects them to
have some kind of social presence ex-
plaining how they align on race.
So-called protest art has appeared on
the doors and boarded windows of up-
scale brands like Free People, 7 For All
Mankind and Hugo Boss. Scores of com-
panies participated in #BlackoutTues-
day on Instagram last month, posting
black squares on their feeds with cap-
tions expressing solidarity with the
movement. But consumers are increas-
ingly sensitive to the way companies ex-
press their positions. Twenty percent of
adults in the United States surveyed in
late June said they would stop buying
from a company deemed to be acting
hypocritically on the issues of police vio-
lence and racial injustice, the polling
and market research firm Opinium said. After the publishing giant Condé Nast
and the website Refinery29 publicly
backed the Black Lives Matter move-
ment, they faced accusations of mis-
treating employees of color. Leaked
grooming guidelines for store employ-
ees of the Australian fashion label Zim-
merman, which recently denounced
racism and quoted Archbishop
Desmond Tutu on its Instagram ac-
count, were found to discriminate
against Black women who wear their
hair naturally. In a statement, Zimmer-
man said it condemned racism and was
determined to be part of meaningful and positive change in the global fashion
industry. Ifeoma Ozoma, a former manager for
the image-sharing web service Pinter-
est, said on Twitter that she and another
Black woman had recently left the com-
pany after they were subjected to racist
and sexist behavior. That behavior in-
cluded negative feedback from a man-
ager after Ms. Ozoma pushed back
against the promotion of plantation
weddings on the platform, she said. The company said in a statement that
it planned to diversify its board and
commission an external review of em-
ployee pay.
Many creative workers are self-em-
ployed and are not protected by human
resources departments or represented
in corporate surveys. Many independ-
ent Black artists, like Ms. Martin, said
they were frequently asked to provide
input on diversity initiatives, but were
not compensated as consultants.
Last month, the fashion designer
Dionne Clouser saw a design from her
Dionne by T brand replicated on the In-
stagram account of the fast fashion label
Pretty Little Thing. She had seen her
work borrowed without credit before,
but this time, the theft seemed espe-
cially brazen. Just a few months earlier,
Ms. Clouser said she had turned down an offer to be a brand ambassador for
Pretty Little Thing. But as a small-business owner with
limited funds, she opted not to take on
the far larger company in court. Pretty
Little Thing declined to comment. Ive gotten used to it, but it leaves a
bad taste for me, Ms. Clouser said. Lydia Okello, a Black queer influencer
who uses the pronouns they and them,
also spoke of feeling powerless to push
back against large fashion companies.
Mx. Okello received an offer from An-
thropologie of a free outfit for publishing
content on Instagram and provided sev-
eral images to the company for a social
media campaign pegged to Pride
month. Mx. Okello responded with
standard rates, but said the producer
who had reached out repeatedly had
evaded a request for payment treat-
ment that Mx. Okello did not believe a
straight, white influencer would have
URBN, the company that owns An-
thropologie, said in a statement that it
had handled our overture to Lydia
poorly. The company said it was evalu-
ating how to make future interactions
with influencers more transparent and
respectful while clarifying guidelines
for compensation.
Ive worked as a Black creative all my adult life, and Ive noticed that
theres often an assumption that you
should feel flattered that this large com-
pany is reaching out to you, that it has
noticed you and that reflects a greater
cultural narrative that the creative work
of marginalized groups is less valuable,
Mx. Okello said. Its like, Just shut up
and take it, or well find someone else.
Exacerbating the problem is a lack of
diversity in leadership roles in the in-
dustry. Ad agencies and marketing ex-
ecutives from companies such as Gen-
eral Motors, McDonalds and Walmart
vowed in a public letter to address the
But the messages of solidarity, while
encouraging, ring hollow in the face of
our daily lived experiences, according
to a letter signed by hundreds of Black
advertising employees in June. You have extremely limited people of
color in positions of authority at the
same time that the marketplace itself is
becoming much more diverse, said
Judy Foster Davis, a marketing profes-
sor at Eastern Michigan University, who
has studied the troubled history of
brands like Aunt Jemima. Then, over
the past few years, you see all sorts of
marketing blunders.
Black artists wary of corporate solidarity
Dionne Clouser, whose fashion line has been replicated by larger brands without compensation, said, It leaves a bad taste for me.
Elizabeth Paton contributed reporting.Leonardo Villar, whose star turn as Don-
key Jack in The Given Word (also
known in English as Keeper of Prom-
ises) made him one of Brazils most
revered actors and helped the film
clinch the top prize at Cannes in 1962,
died on July 3 in São Paulo. He was 96. The film producer Anibal Massaini, a
longtime friend of Mr. Villars, said the
cause was heart failure. The Given Word, which tells the
story of a man carrying a large wooden
cross through Brazils backlands, be-
came the first, and only, Brazilian film to
win the Palme dOr, making it a classic
and Mr. Villar a movie star before it even
opened in theaters. It was also the first
South American film to be nominated
for an Oscar for best foreign-lan-
guage film.
When the director Anselmo Duarte
and the producer Oswaldo Massaini
(Anibal Massainis father) returned
from Cannes weeks later, they were pa-
raded through the streets of São Paulo
atop a fire truck an honor usually re-
served for World Cup winners. Mr. Vil-
lar, who had discreetly returned to work
the day after Cannes, turned out briefly
to appear atop the truck and was then,
just as quickly, gone. That was Mr. Villars modus operan-
di: He would dutifully appear for red
carpets and press cocktails but never
stay to socialize. A consummate profes-
sional whose fame and dedication to his
craft meant that he could get whatever
part he wanted, he had a distaste for the limelight a reluctance that kept him
from becoming an even bigger star. His work was his life, Mr. Massaini
said, adding that he had never known
Mr. Villar to have been in a romantic re-
lationship. He said Mr. Villar was sur-
vived by nieces and nephews.
Leonildo de Motta was born on July
25, 1923, in Piracicaba, a small city in the
state of São Paulo, to Antonio Mota
Viñales and Concepción Fernández
Pérez, immigrants from Spains Andalu-
sia region. He was the youngest of seven
children. Mr. Villar was among the first gradu-
ates of the University of São Paulos
School of Dramatic Art in 1948. He made
his first theatrical appearance in 1950 in
Aristophanes The Birds. From 1954 to
1961, he was a featured player at the Bra-
zilian Comedy Theater. It was there that
Mr. Villar originated the stage role of
Donkey Jack in the The Given Word,
written by Alfredo Dias Gomes in 1960.
He recreated the character in the movie
adaptation for his film debut.
In 1964, he played the lead in the film
Lampião, King of the Badlands, which
told the story of a real-life Brazilian ban-
dit who enjoys a Robin Hood-like status
there. A year later, he was named best
actor at the Brasília Film Festival for his
performance in the title role of The
Hour and Turn of Augusto Matraga.
Mr. Villar made his telenovela debut
in 1965 in A Cor de Sua Pele (The Col-
or of Your Skin), beginning a long ca-
reer in television, where most Brazilian
actors make their money. Over his career Mr. Villar appeared in
42 plays, 16 films and 31 television
shows, including some of Brazils big-
gest telenovelas. His last appearance
was in 2010 in the telenovela Passione.
A reluctant star in Brazil
who gave his all to acting
Leonardo Villar, who was never one to socialize at public events, in The Given Word,
which in 1962 won the first and only Palme dOr for Brazil at the Cannes Film Festival.
ALAMYAmber Wang and Liu Yi contributed re-
search. The dual strategy is risking
scientific setbacks and political
backlash that could undercut
Chinas efforts.

There are no signs to indicate the way to
the New Valley of Peace, or, as the Iraqis
call it, the Corona cemetery. But its not
hard to find: Just follow the cars. Its the
only place they are headed on the rough
desert road. Ground was broken on this cemetery
in southern Iraq four months ago, and
already there are more than 3,200
graves. The backhoes work every night
to make new furrows in the sandy soil.
We are waiting for our mother, said
Ali Radhi, 49, from Nasiriya as he stood
by his car at the cemeterys gate in the
blazing summer sun this month, when
midafternoon temperatures hit 115 de-
grees, or 46 degrees Celsius. She died
two days ago, but now with corona, we
cannot bring her. We have to wait for the
ambulance to carry her. There are some rituals we should be
doing, but with corona we cannot even
touch her body, and we did not hold a fu-
neral, he added softly, staring up the
road as if willing the ambulance carry-
ing his mothers body to appear on the
In Islam, burial should be done
quickly, if possible within 24 hours of
death. The body should be ritually
cleansed by professional washers, but
the family can be present men at the
washing of a male relative, women of a
female one.
In pre-pandemic times, Shiite Mus-
lims, no matter where they were from in
Iraq, would then carry the coffin on their
shoulders around the Imam Ali shrine in
the pilgrim city of Najaf and pray over
the body outside the shrines doors.
Then they would take the coffin to the
Wadi-al-Salam cemetery, one of the larg-
est and oldest in the world, for burial. Sunnis would hold their funerals close
to home and then take the body to a
nearby graveyard, where, as in Shiite Is-
lam, the gravediggers would lift the de-
ceaseds white-shrouded body from the
coffin and lay it in the earth, with the
head facing Mecca. For Mr. Radhi and the other people
whose loved ones have been buried at
the new Wadi-al-Salam cemetery, all
these essential rituals must be forgone,
and it feels like a betrayal. They failed to
do the last good thing possible for some-
one they loved: to send them in good or-
der to the next world.
They are burying their relative not in
the usual way, and this makes them very
sad, said Tawfik Mahdi, a cleric from
Najaf, who is on hand to try to comfort
families. Our role is to reduce their
grief and say, Dont worry, this pan-
demic happened and you cannot be
close to them like you were before, but
we will pray for you.
The story of how the cemetery came
into existence starts when the first coro-
navirus patients began to die in March
in Baghdad. The religious and health authorities
were unprepared for the sense of stigma
that having the disease carried, as well
as the fear that touching the body would
risk contagion. Cemeteries refused to
take those who had died of Covid-19 be-
cause people whose relatives had not
died of the virus felt it was a stigma to be
buried next to someone who had. While scientists have not established
how long the virus survives in a person
who has died of it, they believe it might
linger for as much as a few hours and
could be on materials used in wrapping
and transporting bodies. I began to see these scenes on TV I
still remember them there were sev-
en or eight bodies thrown outside a hos-
pital morgue, and they left them there,
recalled Sheikh Tahir al-Khaqani, who is
head of the Imam Ali Combat Division,
one of the first militias created to fight
the Islamic State extremist group. Un-
like some of the militias that are close to
Iran, the Imam Ali brigade is linked to
the moderate, inclusive senior Shiite
cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani. The idea came to Mr. al-Khaqani that
the solution was a new graveyard just
for those who died of the coronavirus.
He conferred with the governor of Najaf,
with Mr. Sistani and with the leader of
the Shiite Endowment, which handles fi-
nancial and real estate matters.
Within days, they had a 1,500-acre
patch of ground 20 miles from the city of
Najaf, allocated for the burials. The Imam Ali combat division volun-
teered to run the cemetery. Its medical
teams took on the job of receiving the
dead, disinfecting the body bags in which they arrived and then washing
the deceased.
Other contingents took responsibility
for the digging and burials. Some took
on the role of guides to help family mem-
bers when they come to find their rela-
tives grave among the thousands
stretching out across the desert. Family
visits are permitted 10 days after burial.
Under orders from the grand ayatol-
lah, although the graveyard is run by
Shiites, it welcomes everyone regard-
less of faith or sect, and burial is free. Mohammed Qasim, a date and vege-
table farmer from near Baghdad, said
those digging the graves, attending to
the washing and pronouncing the last
rites are human angels.
Yes, these are the noblest people I
have ever met, he said. How can they
not be the noblest when they are with
death at the same table for breakfast,
lunch and dinner, and yet they do not
complain. For Ari Sahak Dirthal, 33, an Arme-
nian Christian, his fathers burial on July
1 is still a source of pain. I immediately
went to the Armenian Orthodox church
in Baghdad because I knew that my fa-
ther wanted to be buried there, and so I
was surprised when they said we cannot
bury him here, he said. They directed him to the coronavirus
cemetery. On the way, he frantically
made calls to find out what prayers to
say. It still cuts to the quick, he said, that
no one from the Armenian Orthodox
church came with him. Mr. Dirthal said he was welcomed by
the sheikhs in charge of the cemetery, who told him his father could be buried
I just said, I want the grave of my fa-
ther to be away from the others, and in-
deed he was buried one kilometer away
from the graves of the Muslims, Mr.
Dirthal said. The Shiite gravediggers did their best
for his father, he said, sending him a vid-
eo of the burial, with one of the Shiite
medical staff wearing protective gear
and awkwardly making the sign of the
cross over his fathers body. For Sunnis, the rituals are more famil-
iar, and so the farewells have been easi-
er. Hundreds of Sunnis are buried here.
But a burial far from home is still hard. The main Sunni cemetery in Baghdad
would not accept the body of the father
of Al-Murtada Ahmed Jasmin, even
though that is where all his family mem-
bers had been buried. All the way driving to the new Wadi
al-Salam cemetery, I spoke with my fa-
ther and said to him, Please forgive me;
I could not do your will and bury you
with our family, said Mr. Jasmin, 22.
But after he arrived at the cemetery,
all of the tiredness and anger went
away because I found a typical ceme-
tery where I could visit my father at any
time, he said. I felt great relief and said
to myself that God loves my father when
he chose this place for his burial. The cemetery entrance is nothing
more than a metal skeleton frame in the
shape of a grand mosque door. Beyond
stretches the desert, glittering in the
sun, with row after row after row of
graves, each with the words of the Qur-
an: This is the will of Allah.
As the sun set one recent evening,
more families arrived with ambulances.
Burials took place from 6 p.m. until the
first prayers of the morning. Fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters,
sons and daughters stood at the edge of
the cemetery. A rope kept them from en-
tering to ensure that they stay far from
the bodies and any live infection. Some
raised their arms to the sky and cried
over their loss.
Although the weeping and keening
are ritual, it expressed perhaps even
more than usual a sense of injustice:
How could they be kept from their loved
ones in these crucial last moments?
They had traveled so far, to a cemetery
in the middle of nowhere, but could not
follow the body to the end. It was the ul-
timate, most painful form of social dis-
tancing. A middle-aged brother and sister
stood together in the hot night. The wind
blew the womans abaya around her in
swirls and the man raised his arms to
the sky.
I give you to the care of Imam Ali, he
said to his dead father, referring to a
founding figure of Shiite Islam. His sister wept into the wind.
Our role is to reduce their grief
create a place to bury
virus victims of all faiths
Falih Hassan contributed reporting from
Above, the New Valley of Peace cemetery, a graveyard for coronavirus victims outside of Najaf in southern Iraq. Below, volunteers burying a coffin at the new cemetery. Family members are not allowed at the graveside.
ALAA AL-MARJANI/REUTERSI spoke with my father and said
to him, Please forgive me; I
could not do your will and bury
you with our family.
Leaked photographs of the prime min-
ister. A police raid on the presidents of-
fice. A business tycoons takeover of a
public beach. An expected no-confi-
dence vote in the government. And the
largest street protests in seven years. Bulgaria is gripped in a political crisis,
its biggest since 2013, when sustained
protests against corruption brought
down a center-left government. Now
demonstrators are trying to oust the
right-wing successors, who face similar
accusations of corruption, judicial inter-
ference and servility to wealthy busi-
The poorest member of the European
Union, Bulgaria is both a focus of the
tussle for influence between the West
and Russia, and an example of a decline
in democratic standards in several parts
of the continent. But it is also a specific and unusual
case. In Hungary and Poland, Europes two
most prominent victims of democratic
backsliding, the governing party is driv-
ing the subversion of the democratic
process. In Bulgaria, the charge is led by
a wider range of actors, both inside and
outside the government including a
small group of wealthy businessmen. The current unrest was set off by the
revelation that a stretch of publicly
owned coast had been reserved for the
private use of a prominent businessman and power broker. For many, this cry-
stallized fears that the Bulgarian state
has fallen under the grip of outside influ-
ence, prompting tens of thousands to
demonstrate in cities across the country.
There is this sense of having come to
a fork in the road, said Vessela Tcher -
neva, head of the Sofia branch of the
European Council on Foreign Relations,
a research group. Several things are happening at
once, Ms. Tcherneva added. But first
and foremost, there is the sense in the
general public that the social contract,
which rests on rules being applied
equally to everyone, has been broken. The crisis began when an opposition
politician, Hristo Ivanov, filmed himself
landing a boat on a nominally publicly
owned stretch of the Black Sea coast.
Plainclothes state security agents
shoved Mr. Ivanov back into the water,
illustrating how the beach is unofficially
reserved for the private use of an influ-
ential politician and businessman, Ah-
med Dogan. The episode drew condemnation from
the countrys mainly ceremonial presi-
dent, Rumen Radev, and set off a flood of
protests at the influence that wealthy
power brokers like Mr. Dogan exert over
political life, state resources and, in this
case, public land. We wanted to expose that the whole
state is serving the interests of Dogan,
Mr. Ivanov said in a telephone interview.
Public outrage was quickly com-
pounded when the police later raided
the presidents offices and detained two
members of the presidents staff. Pro-
testers perceived the moves as retalia- tion for Mr. Radevs criticism of Mr. Do-
gan. State institutions have been cap-
tured by a group of people to serve their
own interests instead of functioning in-
dependently as they should, said Dan-
iel Smilov, an analyst at the Center for
Liberal Strategies, a political research
group in Sofia, the Bulgarian capital.
The tension was exacerbated by a
steady drumbeat of embarrassing and
sometimes bizarre leaks about govern-
ment officials, including Prime Minister
Boiko Borisov. An unverified photograph recently
published in the Bulgarian news media
showed him half-naked and apparently
sleeping beside a handgun. Another un- verified image seemed to show Mr. Bori-
sovs bedside table stuffed with bank
notes and gold bars. Mr. Borisov has confirmed that the
room is his, but he has said that the gun
and money are not, and that the images
were manipulated. News outlets have also published a
set of recordings of a man who sounds
like Mr. Borisov speaking in private
about state affairs. Thousands of Bulgarians have gath-
ered since July 9 in a central square in
Sofia to chant outside Mr. Borisovs of-
fice, calling for his resignation and that
of the chief prosecutor. The day before, Mr. Borisov had tried
to assuage critics by announcing that he was considering firing three senior gov-
ernment ministers. But he refused to
leave his own post leading protests to
spread to other cities.
People are sick and tired of the collu-
sion between the mafia and the state,
said Neli Trifonova, a 27-year-old online
retailer who attended a protest. We see
it everywhere. Opposition lawmakers have put for-
ward a motion of no confidence in the
government, which Parliament was to
debate on Monday, though Mr. Borisovs
majority seemed likely to hold. Last week, Mr. Borisovs party re-
leased a statement denying that it was
working under the influence of Mr.
Dogans party, which he founded in 1990,
after the collapse of Communism. Mr. Dogans party, the Movement for
Rights and Freedoms, is mainly sup- ported by members of Bulgarias ethnic
Turkish minority and has only occasion-
ally been a formal part of government. But the group and its leading mem-
bers, like Mr. Dogan, have amassed out-
size influence in Bulgarias politics,
economy and media by consistently per-
forming the role of political kingmakers. In Bulgaria, you dont have a strong-
man, said Dimitar Bechev, an expert on
southeast Europe at the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Its more
of an oligarchic system.
Last week, the United States Embas-
sy in Sofia issued an unusually forceful
statement backing the protests. We support the Bulgarian people,
the statement said, as you peacefully
advocate for increased faith in your
democratic system and promote the
rule of law in Bulgaria.
The force of the statement contrasted
with the less strident tone taken by Eu-
ropean institutions and leaders. Some
colleagues from the European Parlia-
ments centrist grouping even issued
messages of support for Mr. Dogan and
his party.
Though the rule of law is nominally
central to the philosophy of the bloc, Eu-
ropean leaders have consistently
avoided taking too strong a stance
against governments that stray from
democratic standards at home. The E.U. is a mechanism for creating
consensus, Ms. Tcherneva said. The
E.U. is not that good at confrontational
Boryana Dzhambazova reported from
Sofia, and Patrick Kingsley from Berlin.
STOYAN NENOV/REUTERSLeft, an antigovernment protest last week
in Sofia, Bulgaria. Demonstrators have
called for officials, including Prime Min-
ister Boiko Borisov, above, to resign over
accusations of corruption.
Dispute over a beach creates a political crisis in Bulgaria

The first images from a new solar mis-
sion the closest ever taken of the sun
reveal a ubiquitous burbling of minia-
ture solar flares. The discovery may
provide clues for how turbulence heats
the atmosphere of the sun and drives the
ebb and flow of solar wind, the high-ve-
locity charged particles throughout the
solar system that buffet Earth and the
other planets. Weve never been closer to the sun
with a camera, Daniel Müller, the
project scientist for the mission, Solar
Orbiter, said during a news conference
held on Thursday by the European
Space Agency. And this is just the be-
ginning of the long epic journey of Solar
Orbiter. The miniature solar flares, which the
scientists call campfires, were seen as
the spacecraft made its first close ap-
proach to the sun. It came within 48 mil-
lion miles of the suns surface, which is
just a bit more than half of the distance
between Earth and the sun. The camp-
fires are about one-millionth or one-bil-
lionth the size of flares that have been
observed from Earth. The sun is cur-
rently in the quiet part of its 11-year-so-
lar cycle, and the surface looks placid. But then when you look at it at high
resolution, its amazing, in the smallest
details, how much stuff is going on
there, said David Berghmans of the
Royal Observatory of Belgium, princi-
pal investigator of an instrument that
takes high-resolution images of the
lower layers of the suns atmosphere.
We couldnt believe this when we first
saw this. And we started giving it crazy
names like campfires and dark fibrils
and ghosts and whatever we saw.
Solar Orbiter is a joint mission for the
Europeans and NASA, which paid for
the rocket that took the probe to space. One of the spacecrafts other instru-
ments measures the magnetic field near
the surface of the sun. And it was al-
ready able to observe an active region
on a part of the surface that is not visible
from Earth.
With the new views, were starting to
see the whole beast, said Sam Solanki
of the Max Planck Institute for Solar
System Research. Launched in February, this mission
will provide a new perspective on the
sun as it completes 22 orbits in 10 years.
While most previous solar missions or-
bited in the ecliptic, or the same plane
that the planets travel around the sun,
the orbit of Solar Orbiter will tilt upward
so that it will have a better view of our
stars North and South Poles. That change of view could help solve
mysteries about the suns magnetic
fields and how they accelerate those so-
lar wind particles. The data from Solar
Orbiter could help explain the sunspot
cycle Why does the cycle last 11
years? Why are some quiet while others
roar violently? and help models to
predict solar storms that could disrupt
Earths power grids and satellites in or-
bit. The spacecraft carries 10 scientific in-
struments. Some measure what is hap-
pening directly around the spacecraft,
like the magnetic fields and particles of
the solar wind. Others take pictures of
what is occurring on the sun.
As the orbiter approaches the sun,
three peepholes in the heat shield will
open to allow the instruments to collect
data. The assorted cameras also have
heat-resistant windows (think of them
as scientific sunglasses) as protection. The cameras will look at a range of
wavelengths of light, including ultravio-
let and X-rays. Some of the cameras
break the light into separate wave-
lengths to identify specific molecules.
One instrument, the coronagraph, in-
cludes a disk to block out most of the
light and only look at what is going on in
the suns outer atmosphere, or corona,
which you can observe during a total so-
lar eclipse. As far as taking high-resolution im-
ages goes, there are two options: getting
closer to the object of interest, or build-
ing a better bigger telescope, Dr. Müller
said. Thats a little bit like going on an
expedition. You either get closer to the
elephant or you use a bigger camera.
Images of the suns surface taken by the
Solar Orbiter in May. They are among the
closest ever taken of the sun.
Solar probe
sees details
o f turbulence
on surface The new orbiter captures
images from about half
the distance of Earth BY KENNETH CHANGThis spring, as countries around the
world told people to stay home to slow
the spread of the coronavirus, doctors in
neonatal intensive care units were no-
ticing something strange: Premature
births were falling, in some cases drasti-
cally. It started with doctors in Ireland and
Denmark. Each team, unaware of the
others work, crunched the numbers
from its own region or country and
found that during the lockdowns, the
numbers of premature births espe-
cially the earliest, most dangerous cases
had plummeted. When they shared
their findings, they heard similar anec-
dotal reports from other countries. They dont know what caused the
drop in premature births, and can only
speculate on the factors in lockdown
that might have contributed. But further
research might help doctors, scientists
and parents-to-be understand the
causes of premature birth and ways to
prevent it, which have been elusive until
now. Their studies are not yet peer-re-
viewed and have been posted only on
preprint servers. In some cases the
changes amounted to only a few missing
babies per hospital. But they repre-
sented significant reductions from the
norm, and some experts in premature
birth think the research is worthy of ad-
ditional investigation.
These results are compelling, said
Dr. Denise Jamieson, an obstetrician at
Emory Universitys School of Medicine
in Atlanta.
About one in 10 U.S. babies is born
early. Pregnancy usually lasts about 40
weeks, and any delivery before 37 weeks
is considered preterm. The costs to chil-
dren and their families financially,
emotionally and in long-term health ef-
fects can be great. According to the
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, babies born prematurely,
especially before 32 weeks, are at higher
risk of vision and hearing problems, ce-
rebral palsy and death. The best way to avoid these costs
would be to prevent early births in the
first place, said Dr. Roy Philip, a neona-
tologist at University Maternity Hospi-
tal Limerick in Ireland. Dr. Philip was vacationing abroad
when his country entered lockdown on
March 12, and he noticed something un-
usual when he returned to work in late
March. He asked why there had been no
orders while he was gone for the breast
milk-based fortifier that doctors feed to
the hospitals tiniest preemies. The hos-
pitals staff said that there had been no
need, because none of these babies had
been born all month. Intrigued, Dr. Philip and his col-
leagues compared the hospitals births
so far in 2020 with births between Janu-
ary and April in every year since 2001 more than 30,000 in all. They looked at
birth weights, a useful proxy for very
premature birth. Initially I thought, There is some
mistake in the numbers, Dr. Philip
said. Over the past two decades, babies un-
der 3.3 pounds, classified as very low
birth weight, accounted for about eight
out of every thousand live births in the
hospital, which serves a region of
473,000 people. In 2020, the rate was
about a quarter of that. The very tiniest
infants, those under 2.2 pounds and con-
sidered extremely low birth weight, usu-
ally make up three per thousand births.
There should have been at least a few
born that spring but there had been
The study period went through the
end of April. By the end of June, with the
national lockdown easing, Dr. Philip
said there had still been very few early
preemies born in his hospital. In two
decades, he said, he had never seen any-
thing like these numbers. While the Irish team was digging into
its data, researchers in Denmark were
doing the same thing, driven by curi-
osity over a nearly empty NICU. Dr. Michael Christiansen of the Statens Se-
rum Institut in Copenhagen and his col-
leagues used newborn screening data to
compare births nationwide during the
strictest lockdown period, March 12 to
April 14, with births during the same pe-
riod in the previous five years. The data
set included more than 31,000 infants. The researchers found that during the
lockdown, the rate of babies born before
28 weeks had dropped by a startling 90
Anecdotes from doctors at other hos-
pitals around the world suggest the phe-
nomenon may have been widespread,
though not universal. Dr. Belal Alshaikh, a neonatologist at
the University of Calgary in Alberta,
said premature births across Calgary
dropped by nearly half during the lock-
down. The change was across the board,
though it seemed more pronounced in
the earliest babies, he said. At Mercy Hospital for Women outside
Melbourne, Australia, there were so few
premature babies that administrators
asked Dr. Dan Casalaz, the hospitals di-
rector of pediatrics, to figure out what
was going on. In the United States, Dr. Stephen Pat-
rick, a neonatologist at Vanderbilt Chil-
drens Hospital in Nashville, estimated
there were about 20 percent fewer
NICU babies at his hospital than usual
in March. Although some sick full-term
babies would stay in the NICU, Dr. Pat-
rick said preterm babies usually made
up most of the patients, and the drop-off
seemed to have been driven by missing
preemies. When Dr. Patrick shared his observa-
tion on Twitter, some U.S. doctors
shared similar stories. Others said their
NICUs were as busy as ever. Some
groups in other countries have said they
didnt see a change, either. If lockdowns prevented early births in
certain places but not others, that infor-
mation could help reveal causes of pre-
mature birth. The researchers specu-
lated about potential factors.
One could be rest. By staying home,
some pregnant women may have expe- rienced less stress from work and com-
muting, gotten more sleep and received
more support from their families, the re-
searchers said.
Women staying at home also could
have avoided infections in general, not
just the new coronavirus. Some viruses,
such as influenza, can raise the odds of
premature birth.
Air pollution, which has been linked to
some early births, has also dropped dur-
ing lockdowns as cars stayed off the
roads. Dr. Jamieson said the observations
were surprising because she would
have expected to see more preterm
births during the stress of the pandemic,
not less. It seems like we have experienced
tremendous stress in the U.S. due to
Covid, she said. The Danish and Irish researchers
have now teamed up and are building an
international group of collaborators to
study how Covid lockdowns affected
early births. For years, nothing has advanced in
this very important area, Dr. Chris-
tiansen said, and it seems it took a virus
attack to help us get on track.
Doctors wonder: Where are the preemies?
A premature newborn in east Lancashire, England, in May. Understanding why premature births happen could help reduce problems associated with them. HANNAH MCKAY/REUTERSReports of fewer cases
during lockdowns open
a promising research path BY ELIZABETH PRESTON
If some births were prevented
because mothers were in
isolation, the data could suggest
causes of premature birth.
After nine months of waiting for
surgery, Ruth Fawcetts knee muscles
wasted away, causing her joint to come
loose in its socket and leaving her un-
able to walk without assistance. Theyve just stopped doing surgery
for cases that they call nonlife-threat-
ening, and when they start again, they
will probably have to prioritize the most
urgent cases, she said, with a deep sigh. Ms. Fawcett, 82, is one of nearly four
million people in England on the Na-
tional Health Service waiting list for
routine hospital treatments, which have
been disrupted in recent months as hos-
pitals have been forced to suspend serv-
ices in favor of coronavirus cases. Many patients like Ms. Fawcett are
experiencing a significant deterioration
in their health because of the delay and
are growing anxious and frustrated be-
cause of the lack of information about
where they are on the list, or how long
they will have to wait for treatment. Many fear that they could be pushed
down the list if hospitals resume serv-
ices on a triage basis.
They wont tell me where I am on the
list, or how urgent they consider my
case to be, said Ms. Fawcett, a jewelry
designer from Cumbria, a county in
northwest England. I can hardly walk.
My knee just wobbles about and if I dont
use my two walking sticks, I will fall. Its
very scary. Even before the pandemic, the serv-
ice was struggling to meet waiting time
standards, with one in six patients in
January waiting more than the target of
18 weeks for routine treatment. The number of people on the waiting
list for elective care fell from 3.94 million
in April to 3.84 million in May, according
to N.H.S. figures published last week.
However, the drop has been attributed
to the referring of fewer people for test-
ing and treatment during the pandemic numbers are expected to start climb-
ing again when services resume. With hospitals operating at reduced
capacity to accommodate patients with
Covid-19, the waiting list could soar to 10
million people by the end of the year, ac-
cording to the N.H.S. Confederation,
which represents hospitals and other
health care providers. There is a real determination to rise
to this challenge, but it will need extra
funding and capacity, not least in re-
habilitation and recovery services in the
community where so much of the com-
ing demand will be felt, said Niall Dick-
son, the chief executive of the confeder-
ation. The N.H.S. rejects the confederations
estimate, saying that waiting lists for
both diagnostic tests and elective care
have fallen since February. The overall waiting list has fallen by
more than half a million since the onset
of Covid, but as more patients come for-
ward, local health services continue
work to expand services safely, an
N.H.S. representative said. Despite responding rapidly to the co-
ronavirus pandemic and the need to en-
sure over 100,000 patients could receive
hospital care, N.H.S. staff also provided
more than five million urgent tests,
checks and treatment in a safe way dur-
ing the peak of the virus.
Experts say there is a growing crisis
in the provision of diagnostic tests, in-
cluding magnetic resonance imaging
and computerized tomography, or
cross-section, scans. The total number of patients waiting
six weeks or more from referral for one
of the 15 key tests is at almost 571,500
58.5 percent of the total number of pa-
tients waiting which is shocking, giv-
en the target is 1 percent, said Dr. Nick
Scriven, the former president of the So-
ciety for Acute Medicine. Cancer patients have been hit particu-
larly hard.
About 2.4 million people were waiting
for cancer treatment or tests in June, ac-
cording to the charity Cancer Research
U.K., and thousands of people have
missed hospital referrals for the diag-
nostic tests that are critical in the early
detection and successful treatment of
Even after patients were referred to specialists, the median length of time
they waited for treatment in April was
12.2 weeks, the longest time in more
than a decade. More than one million pa-
tients waited more than 18 weeks,
N.H.S. England figures show.
Sylvia Traynor has cervical cancer and was undergoing a six-month re-
gimen of chemo and radiation therapy
when her doctor called in late April to
tell her that her treatment had been
paused for seven weeks because of the
risks posed by the coronavirus.
Just like that, they said dont come in, she recalled. I couldnt believe that
they could just pull the plug like that. I
know they have higher-priority cases to
deal with, but my treatment was actu-
ally working and all I could think was,
What if this goes on for the rest of the
year and I regress? What if all this treat-
ment was for nothing?
The uncertainty and anxiety caused
by the backlog has been taking a toll on
mental health.
Many patients waiting for surgery
complain about having to deal with ex-
cruciating pain on a daily basis, and
many of them are reluctant to take
strong opioid painkillers prescribed by
doctors because of the side effects and
addictive properties.
I may not be young, but my brain is
very active and sometimes I just get so
down because Im in so much pain and I
cant do anything, Ms. Fawcett said. I
feel trapped. Many younger people and families
are being affected by the delays. Melis
Kip, 31, a client manager at a retail con-
sulting firm in London, has a 1-year-old
son with an acute form of eczema. He
has been waiting more than six months
to see a dermatologist.
Our doctor says this is not serious, it
is OK to wait, and we will treat him in the
meantime, but the treatment is not
working, Ms. Kip said. He gets these
terrible flare-ups where his skin be-
comes all itchy and red and he is very
uncomfortable. Its worrying. Ms. Kip has also been struggling with
her own health issues. She has been un-
able to get a referral to her local wom-
ens clinic for a contraceptive fitting be-
cause it is not considered urgent. Womens health is a big issue, but
most matters are dismissed because
they are not seen as life-threatening,
Ms. Kip said. But when the whole
health system is on hold for non-urgent
treatment, that can lead to other prob-
lems. For example, women can suffer
from mental health issues because of
hormonal imbalances. Now that borders have reopened, Ms.
Kip, who is Turkish, plans to travel to
Turkey with her son for treatment. We cant afford to wait any longer
and are in the fortunate position to be
able to travel and receive good care at an
affordable price, she said.
Patients in Britain wait. And wait some more.
With routine care delayed,
many have no idea when
they will receive treatment
Ruth Fawcett has been on the list for knee surgery at the Cumberland Infirmary in
Carlisle, England, top. But the pandemic has forced the National Health Service to delay
treatment for her, as well as nearly four million others in England.

St. Patricks Cathedral in New York, one
of the most famous churches in the
United States, has long depended on
tourists and office workers to fill its
pews and its collection plates. But now
that the coronavirus has left Manhattan
largely deserted, it is facing a $4 million
budget shortfall that may threaten its
ability to pay its bills.
The cathedral sits in one of the least
residential parts of the city, marooned in
a sea of empty office buildings, vacant
hotels and boarded-up luxury retailers,
and its rector estimates that 90 percent
of those who typically worship there do
not live nearby.
Despite donations, coronavirus relief
funds from the U.S. government and its
status as the crown jewel of the powerful
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New
York, the situation has imperiled the ca-
thedrals ability to pay operating costs
like utilities and payroll for dozens of
employees, whether musicians who per-
form at Mass or maintenance workers
who clean and disinfect the pews. We have never had anything like this
before, Msgr. Robert T. Ritchie, the rec-
tor of the cathedral, said of the budget
shortfall, which is equivalent to about
one-quarter of the cathedrals annual in-
He said the problem had been com-
pounded by the lack of fund-raising op-
tions at a time when social gatherings
are subject to public health restrictions.
All the traditional things we have had
in the past, dinners and things like that,
we cant do, he said. The options are to
beg, which is what I have been doing
since March 15. The Archdiocese of New York
stretches up the Hudson Valley, and
more than half the population of the area
it covers is Catholic.
It is one of the churchs most populous
and influential districts in the United
States. But the part of the city around St. Pat-
ricks has been transformed by the pan-
demic. Stores like Saks Fifth Avenue, just to
the south, were boarded up during the
looting that marred racial injustice pro-
tests in June. Across Fifth Avenue lies
the normally bustling plaza of Rockefel-
ler Center, where the crowds are gone
and the statue of Prometheus, perched
above the ice skating rink, has a mask
strapped across its face.
The archdiocese does not pay for the
cathedrals upkeep, and, in fact, the op-
posite is true: St. Patricks Cathedral is
organized as a parish, like a neighbor-
hood church in a more residential area,
and it pays an 8 percent tax to the arch-
diocese. Like any other Catholic parish, the ca-
thedral relies heavily on donations col-
lected at Mass to make ends meet. On a
typical Sunday, 12,000 to 15,000 people
attend Mass in its soaring nave. Before the pandemic, income from a
variety of sources amounted to roughly
$1 million a month, Monsignor Ritchie
said. We rely on the goodness and gener-
osity of people to support us, because we
dont get any money from any other
source beside what comes in through
our doors, he said. But St. Patricks which opened in
1879, a time of widespread anti-Catholic
sentiment, as well as rising Catholic im-
migration from countries like Ireland
and Italy has also relied on the federal
government. Federal data shows that it received
$350,000 to $1 million through the Pay-
check Protection Program, a $659 bil-
lion fund created by Congress to help
companies and nonprofit organizations,
including religious ones, avoid layoffs
during the economic crisis caused by
the coronavirus outbreak. Monsignor Ritchie said the loan was
for less than $1 million, but he declined
to provide an exact amount, saying he
thought the archdiocese did not want
the number to be publicized. The monsignor said the federal loan
helped the cathedral avoid furloughs or
layoffs for employees, including mainte-
nance and security staff, gift shop em-
ployees and four salaried musicians.
We got the loan so we wouldnt have
to let anybody go, and we havent let anybody go, the monsignor said.
A second loan in the range of $1 mil-
lion to $2 million was given to the
Trustees of St. Patricks Cathedral,
which Monsignor Ritchie described as a
separate entity charged with maintain-
ing the cathedrals exterior and admin-
istering several large cemeteries that it
owns across the region.
More than five million of the people
who come through St. Patricks doors
each year are visiting tourists, the mon-
signor said. (The largest crowds come at
Christmas, when a towering tree is
erected across the street at Rockefeller
Center, followed by Easter and during
the summer).
Many visitors buy souvenirs at the ca-
thedral gift shop, slide a suggested $2
into a donation box to light a candle or
download self-guided audio tours to
their phones for as much as $25. The monsignor said gift shop reve-
nue, which typically amounts to 10 per-
cent of the cathedrals monthly income,
had dropped 80 percent since the pan-
demic hit. The cathedral usually makes $2 mil-
lion to $4 million annually, just from the
money people give when lighting can-
dles and offering prayers. That revenue
stream has also dried up.
The Easter season had literally no
visitors because the church was closed
until June, the monsignor said. I sus-
pect that the summer season will be
drastically reduced in visitor volume, so
we will continue to urge our friends to
continue helping us to keep going. The financial pain at St. Patricks is
faced by many less-famous parishes af-
ter months of coronavirus-related shut-
downs. Matthew Manion, a professor at Vil-
lanova University in Pennsylvania, sur-
veyed 92 of the 177 Catholic dioceses in
the United States and said that for most,
revenue had plunged about 50 percent
since March.
Some reported drops of as much as 85
percent, he said. Mr. Manion said many parishes ex-
pect to see collections pick up about now
as churches start to reopen but are
bracing for another wave of virus infec-
tions. In the months since the pandemic be-
gan, Monsignor Ritchie said, the cathe-
drals revenues have fallen by about 35
percent. Donations dropped 80 to 85 percent,
he said, but that steep loss was offset by
generous donations from benefactors
whom he declined to name.
In an interview, he alluded to the help
provided by members of the cathedrals
board of trustees, which includes
wealthy finance, real estate and public
relations executives. Sunday Mass resumed at the cathe-
dral on June 28, the first Sunday after
the city entered Phase 2 of the coro-
navirus reopening plan, but the number
of services at the cathedral was reduced
to three from eight, and attendance at
each was capped at 25 percent capacity. Those restrictions limited the number
of worshipers from a typical high of
15,000 to a possible maximum of 1,800,
although fewer than 400 people at-
tended its first two Masses that Sunday,
including one celebrated by Cardinal
Timothy M. Dolan.
The limited resumption of Sunday
Masses has not done much to ease the
financial crisis. The monsignor said the
cathedral collected $15,000 in total over
the first two weeks, compared with a
weekly income of as much as $150,000 in
normal times. The night before a recent Mass, a
team of cleaners draped in plastic suits
sprayed a disinfecting mist throughout
the space.
During the Mass, ushers made sure
that worshipers sat at least two pews
apart from one another and wore masks.
Afterward, parishioners said they were
glad to be back to some version of nor-
mal. The government should not stop us
from going to Mass, said Antoinette
Kzandziera, 85, who traveled from her
home on the Upper West Side of Man-
hattan to the cathedral on a hot summer
day. All of life is in Gods hands. It is not
in the hands of a mask or a vaccine. If
God wants us to be safe, we will be safe.
With tourists gone,
a cathedral struggles
St. Patricks Cathedral in Manhattan has reopened for Sunday Mass, but attendance was
limited to 1,800 worshipers. The church has been facing a shortfall in donations.
has few options to raise
money for its expenses BY LIAM STACK
All the traditional things we
have had in the past, dinners and
things like that, we cant do.
President Trumps failure to contain the
coronavirus outbreak and his refusal to
promote clear public-health guidelines
have left many senior Republicans de-
spairing that he will ever play a con-
structive role in addressing the crisis,
with some concluding they must work
around Mr. Trump and ignore or even
contradict his pronouncements. In recent days, some of the most
prominent figures in the Republican
Party outside the White House have bro-
ken with Mr. Trump over issues like the
value of wearing a mask in public and
heeding the advice of health experts like
Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, whom the presi-
dent and other hard-right figures within
the administration have subjected to
caustic personal criticism. The Republicans outside the adminis-
tration appear to be motivated by sev-
eral overlapping forces, including de-
teriorating conditions in their own
states, Mr. Trumps seeming indiffer-
ence to the problem and the approach of
a presidential election in which Mr.
Trump is badly lagging behind his Dem-
ocratic challenger, Joseph R. Biden Jr.,
in the polls.
Once-reticent Republican governors
are now issuing orders on mask-wear-
ing and business restrictions that run
counter to Mr. Trumps demands. Some
of those governors have been holding
late-night phone calls among them-
selves to trade ideas and grievances;
they have sought out partners in the ad-
ministration other than the president,
including Vice President Mike Pence,
who, despite echoing Mr. Trump in pub-
lic, is seen by governors as far more at-
tentive to the continuing disaster. The president got bored with it, Da-
vid Carney, an adviser to the Texas gov-
ernor, Greg Abbott, said of the pan-
demic. He noted that Mr. Abbott, a Re-
publican, directs his requests to Mr.
Pence, with whom he speaks two to
three times a week. A handful of Republican lawmakers in
the Senate have privately pressed the
administration to bring back health
briefings led by figures like Dr. Fauci
and Dr. Deborah Birx, who regularly up-
dated the public during the spring until
Mr. Trump upstaged them with his own
briefing-room monologues. And in his
home state of Kentucky last week, Sena-
tor Mitch McConnell, the majority
leader, broke with Mr. Trump on nearly
every major issue related to the virus.
Mr. McConnell stressed the impor-
tance of mask-wearing, expressed to-
tal confidence in Dr. Fauci and urged
Americans to follow guidelines from the
Centers for Disease Control and Preven-
tion that Mr. Trump has ignored or dis-
missed. The straight talk here that everyone
needs to understand is: This is not going
away until we get a vaccine, Mr. Mc-
Connell said last week, contradicting
Mr. Trumps rosy predictions. The result is a quiet but widening
breach between Mr. Trump and leading
figures in his party, as the virus burns
through major political battlegrounds in
the South and the West, like in the states
of Arizona, Georgia and Texas.
Amid mounting alarm in a huge por-
tion of the country, Mr. Trump has at
times appeared to inhabit a different
universe, incorrectly predicting the out-
break would quickly dissipate and false-
ly claiming the spread of the virus was
simply a function of increased testing.
With his impatient demands and de-
crees, Mr. Trump has disrupted efforts
to mitigate the crisis while effectively
sidelining himself from participating in
those efforts.
The emerging rifts in Mr. Trumps
party have been slow to develop, but
they have rapidly deepened since a new
surge in coronavirus cases began to
sweep the country last month. In the final days of June, the governor
of Utah, Gary Herbert, a Republican,
joined other governors on a conference
call with Mr. Pence and urged the ad-
ministration to do more to combat a
sense of complacency about the virus.
Mr. Herbert said it would help states like
his own if Mr. Trump and Mr. Pence were
to encourage mask-wearing on a na-
tional scale, according to a recording of
the call. As a responsible citizen, if you care
about your neighbor, if you love your
neighbor, let us show the respect neces-
sary by wearing a mask, Mr. Herbert
said, offering language to Mr. Pence and
adding, Thats where I think you and
the president can help us out.
Mr. Pence told Mr. Herbert the sug-
gestion was duly noted and said that
mask-wearing would be a very consis-
tent message from the administration. But no such appeal was ever forth-
coming from Mr. Trump, who asserted
days later that the virus would just dis-
appear. Mr. Trump has offered only hedged
recommendations on wearing masks
and has rarely worn one himself in pub-
lic; in a Fox interview that was broad-
cast on Sunday, the president said he
would not issue a national mask order,
because Americans deserve a certain
freedom on the matter. Some of the states where outbreaks
have worsened most in recent weeks are
led by Republicans who spent months
avoiding stringent lockdowns, in some cases because state leaders were un-
easy about creating space between
themselves and a president of their own
party who rejected such steps. That dy-
namic has been particularly pro-
nounced in Southern states like Ala-
bama, Florida and Mississippi, where
governors have either continued to re-
sist tough public-health restrictions or
have only recently and partially em-
braced them.
A few Republicans have grown more
open with their misgivings about Mr.
Trumps approach, including Gov. Asa
Hutchinson of Arkansas, who said this
month that he would require people to
wear masks at any Trump rallies in his
state. After issuing a broad mask man-
date last week, Mr. Hutchinson said on
the ABC program This Week on Sun-
day that an example needs to be set by
our national leadership on mask-wear-
Gov. Mike DeWine of Ohio, a Republi-
can, in an interview on Meet the Press
on NBC, did not answer directly when
asked if he had confidence in Mr.
Trumps leadership in the crisis. Mr.
DeWine said he had confidence in this
administration and praised Mr. Pence
for doing an absolutely phenomenal
job. Judd Deere, a White House spokes-
man, rejected criticisms of Mr. Trumps
approach. Any suggestion that the president is
not working around the clock to protect
the health and safety of all Americans,
lead the whole-of-government response
to this pandemic, including expediting
vaccine development, and rebuild our
economy is utterly false, Mr. Deere said
in a statement. With only a few exceptions, Republi-
cans have avoided direct confrontation
with Mr. Trump. They have come to
view public criticism as an exercise in
political futility one guaranteed to
produce a sour response from Mr.
Trump without any chance of changing
his behavior. But many Republican lawmakers
have grown exasperated with the ad-
ministrations conflicting messages, the
open warfare within Mr. Trumps staff
and the presidents demands that states
reopen faster or risk punishment from
the federal government. Senator Ben Sasse, Republican of Ne-
braska, said he wanted the administra-
tion to offer more extensive public-
health updates to the American people,
and condemned the open animosity to-
ward Dr. Fauci by some administration
officials, including Peter Navarro, the
trade adviser, who wrote an opinion col-
umn attacking Dr. Fauci, the nations top
infectious disease expert. I want more briefings but, more im-
portantly, I want the whole White House to start acting like a team on a mission to
tackle a real problem, Mr. Sasse said.
Navarros Larry, Moe and Curly junior-
high slap fight this week is yet another
way to undermine public confidence
that these guys grasp that tens of thou-
sands of Americans have died and tens
of millions are out of work. Senator Roy Blunt, Republican of Mis-
souri, was more succinct: The more
they turn the briefings over to the pro-
fessionals, the better. A group of Republican governors has
for months held regular conference
calls, usually at night and without staff
present, according to two party strat-
egists familiar with the conversations.
Unlike the virus-focused calls that Mr.
Pence leads, there are no Democratic or
White House officials on the line, so the
conversations have become a sort of
safe space where the governors can ask
their counterparts for advice, discuss
best practices and, if the mood strikes
them, vent about the administration and
the presidents erratic leadership.
Mr. Trump himself seems less inter-
ested in the specific challenges the virus
presents and is mostly just frustrated by
the reality that it has not disappeared as
he has predicted. The disconnect is only
growing between him and other party
leaders not to mention voters. A poll
published Friday by ABC News and The
Washington Post found that a majority
of the country strongly disapproved of
Mr. Trumps handling of the coronavirus
crisis, and about two-thirds of Ameri-
cans said they had little or no trust in Mr.
Trumps comments about the disease.
Mr. Trumps political standing is now
so dire that even Republicans who have
spent years avoiding direct comment on
his behavior are acknowledging his un-
popularity in plain terms. Former
House Speaker Paul Ryan, for instance,
offered a bleak assessment of Mr.
Trumps electoral standing at a recent
event hosted by Solamere, a company
with close ties to Senator Mitt Romney,
Republican of Utah, and his family.
According to a partial transcript of the
comments, shared by a person close to
him, the usually tight-lipped Mr. Ryan
said Mr. Trump was losing key voting
blocs across the Midwest and in Ari-
zona, a Republican-leaning state that
Mr. Ryan described as presently trend-
ing against us.
While Mr. Ryan did not criticize Mr. Trumps handling of the outbreak, he
said the president could not win re-elec-
tion this year if he continued losing
badly to Mr. Biden among suburban vot-
ers who were wary of both candidates
but currently favor Mr. Biden. Biden is winning over Trump in this
category of voters 70 to 30, Mr. Ryan
said, and if that sticks, he cannot win
states like Wisconsin, Michigan and
Some of Mr. Trumps closest advisers
are adamant that the best way forward
is to play down the dangers of the dis-
ease. Mark Meadows, the chief of staff,
has been particularly forceful in his
view that the White House should avoid
drawing attention to the virus, accord-
ing to people familiar with the discus-
sions. Mr. Meadows has for the most part
opposed any briefings about the virus,
while other Trump advisers, including
Hope Hicks and Jared Kushner, have
been open to holding briefings, so long
as they are not at the White House
where Mr. Trump could show up and
commandeer them. Mr. Pences team
would like to hold more briefings with
the health experts, but some of Mr.
Trumps aides do not want the vice pres-
ident to be part of them. A large number of rank-and-file Re-
publican lawmakers share Mr. Trumps
aversion to the disease-control prac-
tices. Gov. Brian Kemp of Georgia, a Repub-
lican closely aligned with Mr. Trump, is-
sued an order last week blocking local
governments from mandating mask-
wearing, then sued the mayor of Atlan-
ta, Keisha Lance Bottoms, for imposing
such a requirement. Mr. Kemps edict
came hours after Mr. Trump visited his
state, declining to wear a face mask at
the Atlanta airport.
Yet some in the Republican Party now
see no alternative to parting ways with
Mr. Trump, on policy if not politics. Glenn Hamer, president of the Ari-
zona Chamber of Commerce and Indus-
try, a powerful business federation in
the crucial state, said he saw Gov. Doug
Ducey, a Republican, walking a prudent
line breaking with Mr. Trumps policy
demands but not blasting the president
for issuing them.
Everyone knows that the president
doesnt react well to criticism, construc-
tive or not, he said. Mr. Hamer, who was among a group of
business leaders who sent a letter to the
White House urging the creation of
clearer national standards for facial cov-
erings, said Mr. Trump presented a chal-
lenge to Republican leaders seeking to
foster responsible behavior. On the mask side, it is difficult when
the leader of the party had been setting a
pretty bad example, Mr. Hamer said.
Trump allies begin to break ranks
Once-reticent Republican governors are now issuing orders on mask-wearing and business restrictions that run counter to Mr.
Trumps demands. Some of them have been holding late-night phone calls among themselves to trade ideas and grievances.
DOUG MILLS/THE NEW YORK TIMESAs president ignores crisis,
some are growing wary of
virus surge and angry voters BY ALEXANDER BURNS,
I want more briefings but,
more importantly, I want the
whole White House to start
acting like a team on a mission
to tackle a real problem.

Nate Zimdars, a Democratic candidate
for the Wisconsin State Assembly, ar-
rived at the Veterans of Foreign Wars
lodge in the town of Adams after march-
ing in the local Independence Day pa-
rade, ready to meet voters at an annual
outdoor chicken cookout called the Chic
Nic. Although the event was hosted by
the local Republican Party, Mr. Zimdars
was far from nervous being behind ene-
my lines. He was eager. The county flipped from Democratic-
leaning to Republican-leaning in 2016,
Mr. Zimdars noted, which meant it could
flip again. Plus, national Democrats had
done him a favor they had chosen for-
mer Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr.
for the top of their ticket. Biden comes across as someone
whos moderate and has experience on
both sides of the aisle, Mr. Zimdars said.
My close family and friends, who are a
little more on the Republican side of the
fence, said if Biden became the nominee
they would vote for him.
Such persuasion is at the core of Mr.
Bidens campaign strategy, designed to
bring together moderates, seniors,
working-class voters across races and
former supporters of President Trump.
The approach has helped him jump out
to an early lead in polling, both in na-
tional surveys and in swing states like
Wisconsin, where Mr. Trump won by
fewer than 23,000 votes in 2016. It has
also helped him fend off attacks from Mr.
Trump, who has sought to cast Mr. Bi-
den as a radical progressive despite his
lengthy career as a moderate lawmaker. But if Mr. Biden hopes to maintain his
advantage as November draws near,
Wisconsin Democrats like Mr. Zimdars
have some advice, akin to the famous
medical principle of do no harm, or the
cautionary words of the hit HBO series
The Wire: Keep it boring. Being politically milquetoast is Mr. Bi-
dens appeal, they said, driving his abil-
ity to attract progressives in Milwaukee,
moderates in suburbs like Waukesha
and more rural voters in places like Ad-
ams County, one of the 22 counties in the
state that voted for Mr. Trump after
backing President Barack Obama in
2012. They dont lament that Mr. Biden is
not a historic candidate like Mr. Obama or Hillary Clinton, or that he lacks
bumper-sticker progressive policies like
Senators Elizabeth Warren and Bernie
Sanders theyre grateful for it. After the 2016 election, Mrs. Clinton
was lambasted for running a risk-averse
campaign that seemed to rely on voters
finding Mr. Trumps conduct inherently
repugnant. Four years later, facing a
changed electoral landscape, many Wis-
consin Democrats think Mr. Biden can
win the state with that exact playbook. Mr. Biden is the perfect candidate for
this area at this time, said Matt Mareno,
the chairman of the Waukesha Demo-
cratic Party. Trumps whole rallying cry was that
he was an outsider coming to fix the es-
tablishment, and now he is the establish-
ment, Mr. Mareno said. Were seeing
more and more college-educated white
voters leaving him and were seeing
more seniors leave him. Were seeing
that coalition just completely dissolved,
down to the very core base of his sup-
Several characteristics inform Mr. Bi-
dens strategy, including his lengthy ca-
reer as a bipartisan legislator, Mr.
Trumps panned response to the pan-
demic and Mr. Bidens identity as an old-
er white man, the type of politician easi-
ly categorized as presidential. There are a range of ways Mr. Biden
can build a general election coalition in a
battleground state like Wisconsin.
He could focus on winning back vot-
ers in low-population areas, where Mrs.
Clinton suffered big losses in 2016. He could build on recent Democratic
efforts to target the college-educated
white voters whom Mr. Trump has, at
times, repelled, particularly in subur-
ban counties like Waukesha, Ozaukee
and Washington, where Mrs. Clinton
outperformed Mr. Obama but also lost
some votes to third-party candidates.
Or he could seek to motivate reliable
Democratic voters like young people,
Black voters and Latino voters in Mil-
waukee, the Democratic stronghold
where voter turnout was down signifi-
cantly in 2016. Mr. Bidens advisers say he will seek
to both appeal to persuadable voters
and motivate the partys base, mimick-
ing the successful campaign of Senator
Tammy Baldwin of Wisconsin, a pro-
gressive who won re-election in 2018 by
an eye-popping 10 points. Mr. Biden led Mr. Trump by 11 points in Wisconsin in a
poll by The New York Times and Siena
College last month, and more recent
polling from other battleground states
like Pennsylvania has been even better
for him. Representative Mark Pocan, a Demo-
crat who represents Madison, said Mr.
Bidens campaign had already outpaced
Mrs. Clintons in terms of investment in
and attention to Wisconsin. Mr. Pocan
said the Clinton campaign had taken
the purple state for granted, citing a
lack of both visits and financial support
for down-ballot candidates. Donald Trump came and lied to us,
but at least he showed up, he said, call-
ing the Democrats losses in 2016 a duh
moment for the party. It was Demo-
cratic voter drop-off across Wisconsin
not big Republican turnout that most
helped Mr. Trump win there, he said. When one candidate doesnt cam-
paign and the other one does, you would
expect that you might get the results
that we got, Mr. Pocan said. But no one
will ever make that mistake again. This does not mean that Mr. Biden has
avoided skepticism from core Demo-
cratic constituencies like young people
and progressive minority voters the
same groups that frequently needled
Mrs. Clinton and backed Mr. Bidens ri-
vals in the primary. In fact, the same polls that show Mr.
Biden securely ahead of Mr. Trump also
find Mr. Biden with tepid numbers
among young people and minority vot-
ers. His favorability rating decreased in a
recent survey by NBC and The Wall
Street Journal, driven by shifts among
younger Democrats. At a protest in Milwaukee in support
of Black Lives Matter this month, Laris-
sa Gladding, 23, said she viewed voting
for Biden as the unfortunate cost of
beating Mr. Trump. It doesnt even feel
like its an election about young people
or he wants the young vote anymore,
she said, adding that she planned to vote
for Mr. Biden anyway. Dominique Tonneas, 24, who was in-
terviewed at a fireworks show in
Muskego and who plans to vote for Mr.
Trump in November, said Mr. Bidens
age and long career meant he wouldnt
bring a new perspective to the table. She
said she planned to vote for Mr. Trump,
who is only a few years younger, be-
cause she preferred his economic poli-
cies. What is already clear: The last sev-
eral months, which have featured the
largest protest movement in American
history and a pandemic that continues
to kill thousands and upend the coun-
trys social and economic fabric, has forced Mr. Biden and Mr. Trump to ad-
just the structures, and the messages, of
their campaigns. Sue Schaetzka, who attended the Chic
Nic in Adams, said she voted for Mr.
Trump in 2016 and planned to do so
again in November. But she said the
events of the past few months, and par-
ticularly the nations response to the co-
ronavirus, had changed the way people
in her social circles felt about the presi-
dent. Ms. Schaetzka was unsure Mr. Trump
could win the state again this year, par-
ticularly against a Democrat like Mr. Bi-
den. With everything thats going on with
Covid, I know some people are rethink-
ing, Ms. Schaetzka said. At the protest in Milwaukee, young
liberals said they planned to vote for Mr.
Biden, but the exact things that help him
appeal to people like Ms. Schaetzka are
what makes them begrudging, even re-
sentful, supporters.
Diarelis Rodriguez, who marched in
the protest, said she understood the
young people who saw Mr. Biden and
Mr. Trump as two sides of the same coin. Biden is part of the problem. He
helped with the War on Drugs and does-
nt really understand the issues we need
him to, said Ms. Rodriguez, 18. The
people I talk to dont want to vote be-
cause they dont want to participate in a
corrupt system.
But Ms. Rodriguez still said she
planned to vote for Mr. Biden in Novem-
ber, though both she and Ms. Gladding
wished he embraced more activist rhet-
oric on matters of racial equality and de-
funding the police. Theres a reason he has not. Twenty
miles away, leaders of the Waukesha
Democratic Party said they recently
fielded a phone call from a skeptical vot-
er who said she wanted to vote for Mr.
Biden, but she was worried Democrats
were becoming hostile to police officers. A volunteer named Scott Prindl called
the woman back. Mr. Prindl, 65, said the
woman had family in law enforcement
and he does also. During the phone call, he explained
the Black Lives Matter movement and
its goals, as he saw them. The real Black Lives Matter protests
are the ones who are peaceful, Mr.
Prindl, who is white, assured the woman
over the phone. Its outsiders who are
coming in and wreaking havoc, he said,
alluding to the destructive political
groups that protesters say turned some
of the demonstrations violent. The woman was comforted. She will
be voting for Democrats in November,
she said, and for Mr. Biden over Mr.
Nate Zimdars said his family and friends are happy with
former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. Sue Schaetzka planned to vote again for President Trump
but wasnt sure he could win the state. Diarelis Rodriguez saw Mr. Biden and Mr. Trump as two
sides of the same coin.
An Independence Day parade in Friendship, Wis. The village is in one of the 22 Wisconsin counties that voted for President Trump after backing President Obama in 2012. PHOTOGRAPHS BY LAUREN JUSTICE FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
Candidate who suits local tastes
Biden is avoiding risks
in Wisconsin; for many,
that plan fits the moment
Trumps whole rallying cry was
that he was an outsider coming
to fix the establishment, and now
he is the establishment. One of the presumed lessons of Presi-
dent Trumps victory in 2016 was that he
had struck a blow against political dy-
nasties in America.
He demolished the early Republican
favorite, Jeb Bush, the son of the 41st
president and brother of the 43rd, and
then vanquished the wife of the two-
term 42nd president. But even as Mr. Trumps takeover of
his party is largely complete, a trio of
heirs to the old guard have been among
the most prominent dissenting voices. A high-profile club of elected Republi-
cans all descendants of the Republi-
can establishment of the past, whether
rebellious or resolute has emerged as
a kind of shadow conscience of the party
during these days of turmoil.
Gov. Larry Hogan of Maryland has
been a leading voice of frustration over
Mr. Trumps management of the
Covid-19 outbreak. He was also one of
the few Republican governors to say, in
2016, that he would not support his par-
tys nominee. Instead he wrote in the
name of his father, Representative
Lawrence J. Hogan, the only Watergate-
era Republican in the House who voted
to recommend all three articles of im-
peachment against President Richard
M. Nixon. The elder Mr. Hogan died in
2017. Representative Liz Cheney, Republi-
can of Wyoming and daughter of former
Vice President Dick Cheney, has been
perhaps her partys most persistent
critic of Mr. Trumps national security
She has bristled at a number of his ad-
ministrations positions including on
the Middle East, Russia and the presi-
dents engagement with autocrats
and has generally promoted a hawkish
strain of Republican foreign policy that
was associated with her father during
his vice presidency. She has made no
apologies for Mr. Cheneys role as a chief
proponent of the Iraq invasion, despite
how fully that conflict deteriorated and
how dubiously it has been recalled in
history none more so than by Mr.
Trump. Ms. Cheney also spoke out in support
of Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman, a wit-
ness who testified in the impeachment
inquiry against Mr. Trump, as well as Dr.
Anthony Fauci, the nations top infec-
tious disease expert; both have endured
sustained attacks from the White House
and several elected Republicans. Senator Mitt Romney of Utah, the Re-
publican presidential nominee in 2012,
has made plain his disgust for Mr.
Trump on a variety of occasions. (The
feeling is mutual.) His father, George
Romney, was a three-term governor of
Michigan and a moderate candidate in
Republican presidential primaries who
repeatedly ran afoul of the partys ortho-
doxy on civil rights and Vietnam. In recent months, Mitt Romney said,
he has received several Dad would be
proud messages from members of his
extended family. They came during Mr. Trumps im-
peachment trial this year after Mr. Rom-
ney cast the lone Republican vote to con-
vict the president and remove him from
office. Other missives arrived last month af-
ter Mr. Romney attended a racial equal-
ity protest near the White House and
chanted Black Lives Matter a
phrase that few elected Republicans
have uttered in public. I heard from my brother and sister,
and my nieces and nephews, saying,
Thats what Dad would have done, Mr.
Romney said in an interview. The legacy club includes two emeri-
tus brothers, former President George
W. Bush and Jeb Bush, neither of whom
have much use for Mr. Trump. The for-
mer president released a video in May
that saluted health care workers and
urged national unity in the fight against
the coronavirus. But Mr. Bushs video,
which received bipartisan praise, made
for a stark contrast with Mr. Trumps
more combative approach a slight
that apparently upset the president,
who then complained in a tweet that Mr.
Bush had not properly defended him
during his impeachment. One of the hallmarks of recent history
has been the accelerated time frames in
which political identities can shift.
George W. Bushs acceptance speech at
the 2000 Republican convention reads
like a document from a lost civilization, said Stuart Stevens, a former adviser to
Mr. Bush, Mr. Romney and other Repub-
lican presidential candidates. Its like
something from the Mayans. The
speech was all about humility and com-
passion. Mr. Bush ostensibly ran in
2000 as a moderate healer with an im-
pulse for consensus-seeking, even as his
presidency would go on to feature a host
of partisan and deeply divisive actions,
among them the invasion of Iraq and an
attempted overhaul of Social Security. A fervent critic of Mr. Trump, Mr.
Stevens has a book out this month, It
Was All a Lie, which charts what he de-
scribes as the Republican Partys dec-
ades-long spiral into racism, nativism
and ultimately Trumpism. He said de-
scendants of political families might feel
burdens of virtue more acutely than oth-
ers do. He mentioned George Romneys
protest against what he considered the
partys lack of commitment to civil
rights at the Republican National Con-
vention in 1964. To me, you can take a
direct line from there to Mitt saying
Black Lives Matter in 2020, he said. Until recently, no one would have ever
described Mitt Romney as a leading dis-
sident within his party. But the Trump
years have imposed a distinct set of
character tests upon elected Republi-
cans at every level. Notions of history and reputation
tend to resonate stronger among politi-
cal heirs. What will be said of me?
What will my character be in history?
asked the journalist and historian Jon
Meacham, a biographer of President
George H.W. Bush and close friend of
the Bush family. Interestingly, the peo-
ple with familial antecedents in the busi-
ness have tended to understand that a
good character in history a good story
requires standing up to the prevailing
sentiments of the hour. At the very least, one of the advan-
tages of having political elders who took
difficult positions is the example of their
own survival. They have been through
the wars, Mr. Meacham said, and lived
to tell about it.
He paid a big price, Mr. Hogan said
in an interview, speaking about the re-
criminations his father faced after vot-
ing to impeach Nixon. He lost friends in Congress, he lost
the support of his constituents, and he
angered the White House, Mr. Hogan
said. Nixon himself cited Lawrence Ho-
gans repudiation as a decisive signal
that his support among Republicans in
Congress would not hold.
History was kind to his father, Gover-
nor Hogan said: He voted his con-
science and was known as a courageous
guy. Unlike Mr. Romney, Mr. Hogan, who is
64, still has possible designs on higher
office. He has said he is exploring a run
for the 2024 presidential nomination of a
party in which Mr. Trump will likely re-
tain significant affection from the rank
and file, whether or not he is re-elected.
For that reason, it makes little sense for
Mr. Hogan to unload upon the president
as freely as Mr. Romney has. Likewise, Ms. Cheney who occu-
pies the sole House seat from solidly Re-
publican Wyoming has been men-
tioned for a variety of future roles, in-
cluding that of House Republican leader
or even a run for president herself. She has been especially deft in criti-
cizing Mr. Trump while managing not to
alienate him. While Mr. Trump has
voiced repeated scorn for the presiden-
cy of George W. Bush, he has mostly
spared her father. Now 79, the former vice president re-
mains a close adviser to his daughter,
who is the third-ranking Republican in
the House, a role Mr. Cheney himself
held. Ms. Cheney recently tweeted a
photo of her father wearing a cowboy
hat and a blue surgical mask, which she
captioned Dick Cheney says WEAR A
MASK. #realmenwearmasks. The
message was taken as quasi-subtle defi-
ance at Mr. Trumps stubborn refusal at
the time to do the same.
For his part, Mr. Romney said he was
less concerned with how he would be re-
membered in history than by his own
family. He cautioned that at 73, he was
too young to dwell on the past. Im just getting started with this Sen-
ate thing, Mr. Romney said.
Partys political heirs
emerge in dissent WASHINGTON MEMO
Senator Mitt Romney recently attended a protest near the White House and chanted
Black Lives Matter a phrase that few elected Republicans have uttered in public.
ERIN SCHAFF/THE NEW YORK TIMESSeveral descendants of
prominent Republicans show an
independent streak similar to
that of their fathers.

since-deleted tweet. He could not be
reached for comment. Kishonna Gray, a professor of gender
and womens studies and communica-
tions at the University of Illinois, Chi-
cago, said she viewed the statements
and reactions from game companies as
attempts to pacify people until they
stopped talking about the companies
problems with diversity, inclusion and
harassment. They just purge the evildoers and
think that theyre OK, not realizing that
theyre all complicit and that theres a
culture that devalues women, said Pro-
fessor Gray, who studies the industry.
She said she wanted to see evidence of
companies hiring and devoting re-
sources to diverse candidates. Neither Evo nor Ubisoft responded to
a request for comment about specific
changes they planned to make. Ms. Gordon said she was heartened to
see people in positions of power forced
to step down over the accusations but
said it was too early to see evidence of a
true shift. A culture change has to
start at the top, she said, so she hoped
women and people of color would be giv-
en more senior roles in companies. If we saw things like that, and not
just kind of being a symbolic gesture but
people being put into positions where
they could affect how the company oper-
ates, that might be indicative of some-
thing, she said. Carly Kocurek, an associate professor
of digital humanities and media studies
at the Illinois Institute of Technology,
said sexism in the video games industry
had its roots in the very beginning of the
industry in the 1970s. Dr. Kocurek, who researches the cul-
tural history of video games, has written
First, a popular esports tournament was
canceled. Next, game studio executives
stepped down. Then, a prominent talent
management agency for video game
streamers laid off its employees and
The stream of reports of sexual har-
assment and assault in the video game
industry that began in June has contin-
ued unabated, as more women and
some men have come forward with
accusations of mistreatment. Despite the actions that companies
have taken in response to individual in-
cidents, game experts hesitate to call
the moment an inflection point for an in-
dustry with a long and difficult history of
sexist behavior and abuse. This is not
the first time women have spoken up. In
2014, in what is known as Gamergate,
women faced death threats for criticiz-
ing the industry and its culture. Last
year, women again came forward with
stories of abuse in what was seen as the
industrys #MeToo moment.
So few expect the resignations this
time to quickly change a culture that for
decades has often been hostile to wom-
You can fire people all day long, said
Kenzie Gordon, a Ph.D. candidate at the
University of Alberta who studies how
games can be used to prevent sexual
and domestic violence. But if only the
individual people are held accountable,
that doesnt have any impact on the cul-
ture of the organization as a whole, nec-
essarily. The most extensive action has come
at the talent agency Online Performers
Group. The agencys former chief exec-
utive, Omeed Dariani, was accused in June by Molly Fender Ayala, a commu-
nity developer for the game Overwatch,
of acting inappropriately toward her
and propositioning her for sex in 2014.
Mr. Dariani stepped down from his role
the same day that Ms. Ayala came for-
ward. He did not respond to a request for
comment, and Ms. Ayala declined to
comment. Last week, with most of its clients
working to terminate their agreements
and distance themselves from the talent
agency after the allegation, the group it-
self shut down. The new chief executive,
Shane Wilson, broke the news to about
10 employees on a video call, several for-
mer staff members said. Its heartbreaking, O.P.G. went out of
business today, Mr. Wilson posted on
his LinkedIn page. He did not respond to
a request for comment. Two days later,
the agencys site was unavailable. Some employees had already quit the
company after the claims against Mr.
Dariani. And Oliver Pascual, a senior ac-
count manager there who was laid off,
said the majority of the groups 70 con-
tent creators and streamers had sig-
naled their intentions to leave. The clients leaving was likely a big
reason, but I think it was also a matter of
the publics opinion of the company by
that point, Mr. Pascual said in an inter-
view. We had always prided ourselves
on O.P.G.s pristine reputation, and after
those allegations, it was tainted and
hard to recover from. Days earlier, several top executives
stepped down at Ubisoft, the French vid-
eo game company that develops games
like Assassins Creed and Just Dance, af-
ter a rigorous review that the company
initiated in response to recent allega-
tions and accusations of misconduct and inappropriate behavior. Serge Hascoët,
the high-profile chief creative officer in
charge of Ubisofts games, was one who
departed after accusations were made
against him in a French newspaper. He
could not be reached for comment. Ubisoft has fallen short in its obliga-
tion to guarantee a safe and inclusive
workplace environment for its employ-
ees, Ubisofts chief executive, Yves
Guillemot, said in a statement. I am
committed to implementing profound
changes across the company to improve
and strengthen our workplace culture. And in early July, the fighting video
game tournament Evolution Gaming
Series, known as Evo, which draws thousands to Las Vegas each year, can-
celed this years virtual tournament and
announced that its chief executive, Joey
Cuellar, would no longer be involved
with Evo in any capacity after a player
said on Twitter that Mr. Cuellar had
acted inappropriately toward him and
other teenage boys in the late 1990s and
early 2000s. We are shocked and saddened by
these events, but we are listening and
committed to making every change that
will be necessary in making Evo a better
model for the stronger, safer culture we
all seek, tournament organizers said in
a statement published on Twitter. Mr.
Cuellar apologized for his actions in a about Brenda Laurel, one of the first fe-
male game designers, who worked at
Atari in the 1980s. When she started the
job, Ms. Laurel was one of the first wom-
en at the company, Dr. Kocurek said, and
told her male colleagues that they could
no longer use the womens restroom as a
smoking lounge.
Everyone laughed, because they
thought somebody had gotten their wife
or girlfriend to come play a prank on ev-
eryone, said Dr. Kocurek, who inter-
viewed Ms. Laurel for a book about her
pioneering accomplishments in the
field. The men thought it was so ridicu-
lous that a woman was working there.
Game companies are somewhat more
diverse now, but Dr. Kocurek attributed
the longstanding sexist attitudes to
these male-dominated beginnings.
If you dont actively try to change
these things, they dont change that
much, she said. Theres been a few
times where theres some pushback and
there seems to be a real conversation
happening, and then it just kind of fiz-
As more women join the video game
work force, its white male-dominated
culture is pushing back, said Anita Sar-
keesian, a media critic, podcaster and
creator of the Feminist Frequency non-
profit group that provides educational
resources related to gender, race and
sexuality, and operates a confidential
emotional support hotline for people
who are harassed in the industry. They feel as if theyre losing this cul-
ture war to what they would call the
S.J.W.s, said Ms. Sarkeesian, referring
to the term social justice warriors. And their reaction is violence, she
said. That is the environment in which
these stories of abuse are coming out.
Abusive game culture proves hard to clean up
BY KELLEN BROWNING A Ubisoft video game being played at a trade fair in Paris last year. Several Ubisoft
executives have resigned over allegations of misconduct and inappropriate behavior.
For years, the Goya brand was synony-
mous with the Latino-American dream.
The sheer number of products that lined
the grocery store aisles in the United
States like refried pinto beans and
sazón con azafran seasoning spoke to
the growing number of Hispanic immi-
grants who bought them. Goya, the na-
tions largest Hispanic food company,
has sponsored Dominican art shows,
mariachi contests and soccer programs. Advisers to President Trump consid-
ered it a victory when Goyas chief exec-
utive, Robert Unanue, agreed to appear
at the White House rollout of what it
called the Hispanic Prosperity Initia-
tive, an executive order that promised
better access to education and employ-
ment for Hispanics. In the Rose Garden at the White
House on July 9, Mr. Unanue praised Mr.
Trump and compared him with his
grandfather, who founded Goya. Were all truly blessed at the same
time to have a leader like President
Trump, who is a builder, Mr. Unanue
said. And thats what my grandfather
And just like that, a once-beloved
brand became anathema in many Lati-
no homes across the United States. Peo-
ple posted videos and photos of them-
selves clearing out their pantries and
tossing cans of Goya beans into the
trash. It became a symbol of political re-
sistance to share recipes for Goya prod-
uct substitutes. Oh look, its the sound
of me Googling how to make your own
Adobo, Representative Alexandria
Ocasio-Cortez, Democrat of New York
wrote on Twitter, referring to a popular
seasoning that Goya sells. Almost immediately, Trump loyalists
pushed back filling shopping carts full
of Goya products and posting videos of
themselves dutifully swallowing Goya
beans. By the time Ivanka Trump, the presi-
dents daughter and a senior adviser,
tweeted an endorsement of Goya, one
thing had become clear: In a polarized
country, at a polarized time, the buying
of beans had become a political act.
Even as Mr. Trumps support has cra-
tered among many demographics, he
has held on to a small but durable slice of
Hispanic voters, many of them in Flor-
ida, a state full of Cuban Republicans
that is known for razor-thin electoral
margins. Polls consistently show Mr. Trump
with an approval rating among Hispanic
voters hovering around 25 percent,
within the lower end of the range that
Republican presidents have attracted
for decades.
Before the coronavirus pandemic
tanked the economy, the Trump cam-
paign repeatedly pointed to the low un-
employment rate among Hispanics as
an indication that the administration
was delivering for the community, a
group he has also offended with inflam-
matory remarks about immigration.
Now Goya, based in New Jersey, has
fallen into this boiling pot of politics and
anger, a strange turn of events for a company that has prided itself on know-
ing its customers intimately.
With each wave of Hispanic immi-
grants from Latin America and the Ca-
ribbean, Goya has added new products
to suit their cuisine, and over the years it
has distributed millions of pounds of
food to pantries after hurricanes and
during the pandemic.
The company was founded in 1936 by
Mr. Unanues grandparents, who moved
from the Basque region of Spain to
Puerto Rico, and then New York City,
where they sold sardines and olive oil
from a storefront on Duane Street in
Lower Manhattan. As the company expanded, it changed
its name from Unanue & Sons to Goya
Foods reportedly buying rights to its
new name for $1 because it was easier to
pronounce than oo-NA-new-way
and branched into manufacturing. Dur-
ing the mid-1970s, Joseph Unanue, one
of the founders four sons, took over as
chief executive, and the company relo-
cated to New Jersey. By the time he stepped down, the
company had established relationships
with Walmart and other big grocers and
its annual revenue had grown to $1 bil-
lion from $20 million. Some noted that Robert Unanues re-
marks at the White House showcased
the glaring disconnect between the
wealthy executive whose family hailed
from Spain and the largely working- class Latinos who make up his customer
The harshest critics questioned
whether he considered himself Latino.
The speed and size of the boycott
speak to how raw people in the commu-
nity feel about the president, said
Clarissa Martinez de Castro, the deputy
vice president for policy and advocacy
for UnidosUS, a Latino civic engage-
ment organization. She said many Lati-
nos blamed Mr. Trumps attacks on un-
documented immigrants for inciting
discrimination and violence against La-
tinos, particularly the massacre last
summer in El Paso.
For the first time, she said, anxieties
about racial discrimination have ranked
in the top concerns among Latino voters
in surveys. But Mr. Trumps supporters
are betting that this is a winning issue
for them and that Americans wont un-
derstand or empathize with the boycott. The day after the Rose Garden cere-
mony, Senator Ted Cruz, Republican of
Texas, tweeted: Goya is a staple of Cu-
ban food. My grandparents ate Goya
black beans twice a day for nearly 90 years. And now the Left is trying to can-
cel Hispanic culture and silence free
speech. #BuyGoya. And suddenly, the once-beloved His-
panic brand became a cause célèbre on
the right. Mr. Cruz said in an interview that he
saw the boycott as an example of spirit
of intolerance.
The offense is he dared to say he sup-
ported the president, Mr. Cruz said,
adding that anytime anyone dares dis-
agree from their rigid orthodoxy, they
seek to punish, cancel or destroy to the
Mr. Unanue, who has contributed to
the campaigns of both Democrats and
Republicans and worked with Michelle
Obama on an anti-obesity initiative, ap-
peared unprepared for the firestorm.
Neither he nor Goya officials responded
to requests for comment. But Mr.
Unanue defended his remarks at the
White House , telling The Wall Street
Journal that he had gone there out of re-
spect. I remain strong in my convic-
tions that I feel blessed with the leader-
ship of our president, he told the news-
Trump supporters filmed themselves
filling shopping carts full of Goya prod-
ucts, relishing in the opportunity to de-
fend a Hispanic businessman and ac-
cuse Democrats of being anti-Latino. Di-
nesh DSouza, a conservative political
commentator, shared a video of himself swallowing beans, which he admitted he
rarely ate. A few days later, Mr. Trump
circulated a photo of himself sitting in
the Oval Office, smiling widely and with
his thumbs up, in front of several Goya
products, including a package of choco-
late wafers and coconut milk.
Responding to questions about
whether Ms. Trumps tweet violated fed-
eral law forbidding government em-
ployees from using their positions to en-
dorse products, Carolina Hurley, a
White House spokeswoman, said the
presidents daughter has every right to
express her personal support for the
company. Only the media and the cancel cul-
ture movement would criticize Ivanka
for showing her personal support for a
company that has been unfairly
mocked, boycotted and ridiculed for
supporting this administration one
that has consistently fought for and de-
livered for the Hispanic community,
Ms. Hurley said.
Some political scientists said Mr.
Trump appeared eager for the free pub-
licity that came by associating himself
with a beloved Hispanic brand.
Its the Republican version of His-
pandering, said Geraldo Cadava, a his-
tory professor at Northwestern Univer-
sity and author of The Hispanic Repub-
lican. Hes pandering to Hispanics the
same way that politicians have pep-
pered their stump speeches with a few words in Spanish. Its the same kind of
signal. Mr. Trump has occasionally made vis-
ible efforts to reach Hispanic voters.
The Hispanic Prosperity Initiative,
which included few details, came during
a week in which he also met with Vene-
zuelans who had fled socialism and held
an interview with Telemundo, a Span-
ish-language television station. Mr.
Trump spoke in the interview about a
road to citizenship for undocumented
immigrants brought to the United
States as children, even as his adminis-
tration has pledged to fight a Supreme
Court decision upholding the Obama-
era program that protected them. It remains to be seen whether Hispan-
ics who do not already support Trump
will be swayed by his sudden associa-
tion with Goya or his attempt to bring
Hispanics onto the conservative side of
the nations long-simmering culture
war. But for a few Latinos, the message
Alexander Otaola, a Cuban-American
in Florida with 105,000 followers on In-
stagram, issued a video in Spanish that
likened the Goya boycott to the destruc-
tion of statues and other cultural icons. What is Goya in the Latino communi-
ty? Its an icon, a statue, he said in the
YouTube video. The left wants to de-
stroy all icons. It is not clear how deeply the boycott
has cut into Goyas bottom line, or
whether the impact of the buycott has
canceled it out. Goya is a privately held
company, so its records are not public. In Jerrys Supermarket in the pre-
dominantly Latino Oak Cliff community
in Dallas, Goya products lined the
shelves, as usual, and were bought by a
steady stream of customers on a recent
In San Antonios Alamo Heights com-
munity, one cashier said managers of La
Michoacana Supermarket have not said
they would quit carrying Goya products.
Guava paste and Salvadoran pickled
salad, among other items, remained on
the shelves.
But in Tucson, Ariz., Patrick Robles, a
19-year-old student at the University of
Arizona, said his whole family was boy-
cotting Goya products, even though the
companys chickpeas had always been
perfect for cocido, or Mexican stew. It was a punch in the stomach for us,
Mr. Robles said of Mr. Unanues com-
ments praising a president who Mr. Ro-
bles felt has routinely devalued Latinos.
Now, they are going to turn to brands
like La Costeña or Rosarita. But Pamela Ramirez, a 48-year-old
Mexican-American small-business con-
sultant in East Los Angeles, said she
strongly opposed the Goya boycott.
Since there is a large number of Latinos
employed by the company, she thinks
that boycotting the product could harm
her own community. For every one of
her Facebook friends who has posted
about boycotting the product, Ms.
Ramirez bought $10 worth of Goya prod-
ucts and donated them to a food bank,
she said. Youve got to put your money where
your mouth is, she said. If you dont,
then youre just part of the problem.
The politics of pantry items
Goya becomes a proxy
for a president trying to
reach Hispanic voters BY FARAH STOCKMAN,
Contributing reporting were Elda Lizzia
Cantú, Giulia McDonnell Nieto del Rio,
Marina Trahan Martinez, Erin Coulehan
and David Montgomery. Sheelagh Mc-
Neill contributed research.
A Goya distribution center near Brookshire, Texas. A once-beloved brand became anathema in many Latino homes after the companys chief executive praised President Trump.
The speed and size of the
boycott speak to how raw
people in the community
feel about the president.

countries, would have to quarantine on
arrival, a move that essentially choked
off British tourism. And Britons have traditionally been
the top visitors to the Algarve, the south-
ern region of Portugal. Britains action
drew fire from Augusto Santos Silva,
Portugals foreign minister, who called it
absurd. Still, Portugal has recorded a
strong uptick in coronavirus cases,
many of them in municipalities sur-
rounding its capital, Lisbon. Outbreaks have also occurred around
major tourism hubs like Barcelona,
where about three million residents
were told on Friday to stay indoors to
help contain the coronavirus.
Carlos García Pastor, the marketing
director of Logitravel Group, a Spanish
travel operator that had revenue of
about 800 million last year, said that his
company expected earnings to drop at
least 50 percent this year. The final result, he said, will really
depend on how many new outbreaks
there are. This month, hundreds of thousands of
Spaniards were placed back under tem-
porary lockdown by the regional au-
thorities in Catalonia and Galicia after
new outbreaks. Mr. García Pastor said
some clients had canceled their book-
ings as soon as they heard about the new
restrictions. Tourism is extremely reactive, for
better or worse, he said.
In the Canary Islands, home to more
than two million full-time residents, offi-
cials have trumpeted their strict safety
measures and their low coronavirus
caseload, less than 1 percent of the na-
tions total. The archipelagos hotels re-
quire guests to wear face masks in the
lobbies and other indoor areas, and they
limit the number of people who can
lounge around their swimming pools. The protocols drew praise from Zurab
Pololikashvili, the secretary general of
the World Tourism Organization, an
agency of the United Nations, after his
visit to tourism destinations in Italy and
Spain this month.
That portrait of safety contrasts sharply with the picture that emerged
from the Canary Islands in late January,
when the archipelago recorded Spains
first coronavirus case, a German tourist
who tested positive on the island of La
Gomera. Weeks later, one of the large hotels on
Tenerife, the H10 Costa Adeje Palace,
became the first European resort to lock
down after the virus was detected
among Italian guests. But as the virus rampaged across
mainland Spain, the islands quickly
brought their own outbreaks under con-
trol. The archipelago has reported 162
deaths, according to the latest official
Spanish data, out of 28,420 nationwide. Travel within the Canary archipelago
has continued. Smaller islands like El
Hierro that do not have an international
airport have reported an influx of Cana-
rians this summer.
But across the islands the doors re-
main shut to many of the large resorts
normally filled by international package
tours. At the recently reopened Adeje
Palace, some guests said they had been relocated there at the last minute by
their travel agents because the hotels
they had booked were still closed.
A week before leaving Germany, I
wasnt sure that this vacation could ac-
tually go ahead, but I had reached the
point where I desperately needed time
away from my hospital work and no
longer really cared about which hotel I
would stay in, said Svetlana Arsenije-
vic, an anesthetist from Halle, Germany. A Swiss tourist, Anaïs Zufferey, said
that she and her sister not only had to
switch hotels at the last minute, they
also had to set off from Zurich a day later
than planned because their initial flight
was canceled. Its a holiday that has required us to
be very flexible, Ms. Zufferey said. But their journey from Tenerifes air-
port to their hotel was more than com-
fortable they were the only pas-
sengers on a 50-seat shuttle bus.
Coasts are clear, but few tourists are showing up
Elisabetta Povoledo contributed report-
ing from Rome, and Niki Kitsantonis
from Athens.
Travelers from the United Kingdom arriving at Athens International Airport, where
passenger traffic was reported to be 75 percent less than a year ago.
On May 5, after working alone in his San
Francisco apartment for almost two
months, Brian Chesky, Airbnbs chief ex-
ecutive, cried into his video camera. It was a Tuesday, not that it mattered
because the days had blurred together,
and Mr. Chesky was addressing thou-
sands of his employees. Looking into his
webcam, he read from a script that he
had written to tell them that the coro-
navirus had crushed the travel industry,
including their home rental start-up. Di-
visions would have to be cut and work-
ers laid off. I have a deep feeling of love for all of
you, Mr. Chesky said, his voice crack-
ing. What we are about is belonging,
and at the center of belonging is love.
Within a few hours, 1,900 employees a
quarter of Airbnbs work force were
told they were out. The moves thrust Airbnb into the cen-
ter of a growing debate in Silicon Valley:
What happens when a company that has
positioned itself as family to its employ-
ees reveals that it is just a regular busi-
ness with the same capitalist concerns
namely, survival as any other?
Start-ups that sell things as varied as
mattresses and data-warehousing soft-
ware have long used making the world
a better place mission statements to
energize and motivate their workers.
But as the economic fallout from the co-
ronavirus persists, many of those gauzy
mantras have given way to harsh reali-
ties like budget cuts, layoffs and bottom
lines. That puts companies with a commit-
ment culture at the highest risk of los-
ing what made them successful, said
Ethan Mollick, an entrepreneurship
professor at the Wharton School at the
University of Pennsylvania. Part of the compensation is being
part of this family, Mr. Mollick said.
Now the family goes away, and the deal
is sort of changed. It just becomes a job. In many ways, Airbnb was the ideal
example of a commitment culture com-
pany. Founded by Mr. Chesky, Nathan
Blecharczyk and Joe Gebbia in 2008, the
start-up grew quickly as an online plat-
form that helped homeowners rent out
rooms to travelers. Along the way to a
$31 billion valuation, it built a reputation
as the polar opposite of its sharing econ-
omy peers such as Uber, which prized
ruthless competition, and WeWork,
which collapsed under a partying cul-
ture and its founders self-dealing. Instead, Airbnb stood for earnest ide-
alism. Mr. Chesky, 38, a stocky designer
from upstate New York, spoke fre-
quently of trustworthiness, authenticity
and a desire to build a business that val-
ued principles and people over the
short-termism of Wall Street. Mr. Geb-
bia delivered a TED Talk on designing
for trust. And Airbnbs former chief
ethics officer, Rob Chesnut, wrote a book
called Intentional Integrity. Inside the San Francisco companys
airy, plant-filled offices, the positive
vibes were also plentiful. Employees
surprised one another by raising their
arms to form celebratory human tun-
nels, held dog pawties in conference
rooms designed to look like actual
Airbnb listings and were serenaded on
their birthdays by the companys a cap-
pella group, Airbnbeats. New employ-
ees, who were screened for empathy in
job interviews, were welcomed home
and told: You belong here. So in March, when the coronavirus
hurtled in, the rupturing of the Airfam
was painful. Airbnb, which had been on
track to go public this year, suddenly
faced an avalanche of travel cancella-
tions. Revenue evaporated. Weeks later,
Mr. Chesky announced the layoffs and
scaled back the companys ambitions.
Everything that kind of could go
wrong did go wrong, he said in an inter-
view. It felt like everything stopped
working at the same time.
From the outside, Airbnbs commit-
ment culture appeared intact. Mr. Cheskys layoffs script, which was pub-
lished on the company blog, got more
than one million views and was praised
as compassionate, empathetic and a
lesson in leadership. At a question-
and-answer session about the job cuts
later, Mr. Chesky and his co-founders of-
fered a standing ovation to the employ-
ees they had let go. Clapping and heart
emojis from audience members filled
the screen.
But more than a dozen current and
former Airbnb employees, most of
whom declined to be identified because
they had signed nondisparagement
agreements with the company, said in
interviews that they had experienced a
sudden disillusionment when the care-
fully crafted corporate idealism
cracked. Kaspian Clark, 38, who worked in
customer support in Portland, Ore., for
around two years, said he had fully
bought into Airbnbs mission and felt de- nial and grief when he was let go.
There are a lot of people who feel
very betrayed by this, he said. I deeply
hope that Airbnb is able to remain the
thing that I believed in. A company spokesman said it has
been a difficult time for everyone. He
added, The more than 5,000 people
who work at Airbnb are incredibly moti-
vated and enthusiastic because they be-
lieve in our mission.
In a podcast interview in May with
Eric Ries, a fellow entrepreneur, Mr.
Chesky acknowledged a disconnect. How does a company whose mission
is centered around belonging have to
tell thousands of people they cant be at
the company anymore? he said. It was
a very, very difficult thing to face.
Airbnb was built not on a genius techno-
logical innovation or a meticulous busi-
ness school PowerPoint, but on the idea that people might trust one another
enough to stay in strangers houses. Ba-
sically, the goodness of humanity. Its network of home rentals quickly
spread across the United States and into
almost every other country. Airbnb
raised more than $3 billion in venture
capital and expanded into activities, lux-
ury vacations, experiments with flights
and even a print magazine. As the company grew, Mr. Chesky be-
gan talking of a world where digital no-
mads healed divisions with in-person
connections. I think in the future, people wont
travel theyll just be mobile, he pre-
dicted in 2013. People are going to be
living a month here, a few weeks there,
four months somewhere else. Airbnb
was not just renting vacation homes, the
idea went, it was building a United Na-
tions around the kitchen table. His philosophy crystallized in 2018
when he presented a plan for stake-
holder capitalism: In contrast to Wall
Streets focus on quarterly financial re-
ports and daily stock moves, Mr. Chesky
aspired to a capitalism that had an infi-
nite time horizon and was good for soci-
ety. That philosophy imbued many areas
of work for Airbnb employees. Part of
their performance reviews, for instance,
were based on how well they embodied
the start-ups core values, three former
employees said. Embrace the adven-
ture was sometimes used to justify dif-
ficult situations, they said, and cham- pion the mission was code for putting a
positive spin on things. (A company
spokesman disputed the characteriza-
Airbnbs rental listings grew from
2,500 in 2009 to seven million this year.
The company landed funding from top
venture firms including Andreessen
Horowitz, Founders Fund and Sequoia
Capital. Its valuation, which topped $2
billion in 2012, skyrocketed to $31 billion
by 2017. An initial public offering this
year was set to make its executives, in-
vestors and employees rich. Enter the virus. As travel ground to a
halt in March, Airbnb cut its 2020 reve-
nue projection to less than half of the
$4.8 billion it hauled in last year. Its I.P.O.
filing, which Mr. Chesky had been
tweaking with ideas for stakeholder
capitalism and planned to submit by late
March, went into a drawer. Instead, Mr. Chesky said, he drew up
a list of principles for operating in the vi-
rus. They included being decisive and
emerging on the right side of history. He compared the situation to a fire.
Youre in a house, its burning, you have
to put out the fire while getting the furni-
ture out of the house and also rebuilding
the house, he said.
Mr. Chesky asked Airbnbs board of
directors to call in to virtual meetings
every Sunday and set up a daily war
room meeting with his executive team.
He said he had remained glued to his
computer most days till around mid-
night, occasionally baking chocolate
chip cookies or going on walks during
calls. There were stumbles. When guests
wanted out of nonrefundable bookings
because the pandemic had forced them
to change their plans, Airbnb changed
its policy to allow refunds. But the move
outraged the companys rental opera-
tors, who relied on the income. Mr.
Chesky eventually apologized for how
Airbnb had communicated the decision. Was everything done perfectly? No,
said Alfred Lin, an Airbnb board mem-
ber and investor at Sequoia Capital. It
was about speed and being directionally
right. Airbnb soon cut $800 million in mar-
keting costs, dropped bonuses and
halved executive pay for six months. It
also ended contracts with roughly 490
full-time freelancers. With cancellations
pouring in and call centers closed be-
cause of the virus, Airbnb directed em-
ployees across the company, including
its recruiters, who had frozen hiring, to
assist customers. The backlog took
weeks to get through.
In April, the company raised $1 billion
in emergency funding, followed by an-
other $1 billion in debt.
Then came the May 5 layoffs. To blunt
the shock, Airbnbs severance packages
included three months of salary and a
year of health benefits, which was more
generous than many other start-ups
layoff packages.
Mr. Chesky has since described a
second founding, in which Airbnb will
be more focused on its core home rental
business. It will look different, he said,
with fewer customers booking interna-
tional travel, less flocking to crowded
cities, more local trips and more long-
term stays.
Two days after the layoffs, the questions
came thick and fast in the employee Q.
and A. inside Awedience, Airbnbs virtu-
al meeting software, according to five
people who attended.
Some workers asked why there had-
nt been furloughs or broader pay cuts
instead of layoffs. Others asked why cer-
tain groups had been chosen for cuts
and why the company couldnt trim
more perks, like its budget for renting
office plants. Mr. Chesky said the situation was too
uncertain for furloughs and pay cuts,
calling those temporary measures. Lay-
offs were mapped to the future business
strategy, he added. A spokesman said
the company spent only a small amount
on landscaping and related services. One area hit by layoffs was Airbnbs
safety team, which handles situations
like shootings and assaults at its rentals.
When a fatal shooting at a party in
Orinda, Calif., made national headlines
last fall, the company banned unauthor-
ized parties at rentals and announced plans to confirm that all of its listings
were what they advertised. In the employee Q. and A., Mr. Chesky
reiterated past statements that safety
was a priority for the company. Workers
piped up with written heckles the
equivalent of shouting in a crowded the-
ater with messages like Safety was
never a priority! It was an unusual
public show of dissent. Within a week of the layoffs, new
safety cases had piled up, two people
with knowledge of the situation said.
Airbnb asked some laid-off employees
to return temporarily to work through
the cases, they said. Workers on the reg-
ulatory response and payments teams
were asked to come back temporarily as
well, they said. An Airbnb spokesman said that the
groups focused on user safety were the
same size as before the layoffs and that
the company assessed its support
staffing levels daily. Brian has always
made clear that safety is our priority, he
said. During that time, Leonardo Baca, an
information technology professional
who was laid off, joined colleagues at a
virtual magic performance presented
by Airbnb Experience part of the
companys activities booking service,
which had moved online because of the
virus. It was meant to be a team-build-
ing exercise but instead became a good-
bye party. Some laid-off colleagues were devas-
tated, Mr. Baca said, while those who re-
mained expressed dismay over why
they had been spared. We dont know
why people were cut, he said. You lose
a piece of the team. Later, on a Slack channel for former
employees, some lamented that Airbnb
was gutting its culture, according to
messages viewed by The New York
Times. In June, an Airbnb contractor
who had recently been let go wrote an
editorial for Wired that quoted peers
calling the company hypocritical for
its remarkably callous treatment of
contract labor during the pandemic. An Airbnb spokesman said its con-
tractors were more than contractors,
they were our teammates and friends.
He said the company had provided them
two weeks of pay and other benefits. Other issues bubbled up. In an Airbnb
chat room for laid-off female employees,
one former worker described three in-
stances of sexual harassment while at
the company, saying that human re-
sources had been unhelpful and that co-
workers had brushed it off, according to
an image of the conversation viewed by
The Times. The latter, the person wrote,
hurt the most. The company said it does not tolerate
harassment and discrimination and in-
vestigates all claims. Last month, some employees in
Airbnbs China division sent a letter to
management outlining what they said
was inappropriate behavior by Yanxin
Shi, the engineering director for its
China business, according to one of the
employees responsible for the letter,
which The Times viewed. They alleged
that Mr. Shi had ranked female col-
leagues by attractiveness and had said
he didnt believe in the companys core
values but could perform them well
enough to pass the job interview and
teach others to do the same. Airbnb said it had concluded that the
letters most serious allegations were
not supported and had taken appropri-
ate action, but it did not specify what
that was. Mr. Shi did not respond to a re-
quest for comment. Skift, a travel indus-
try publication, had reported earlier on
the letter. Mr. Chesky said he remained opti-
mistic. The company has been promot-
ing signs of recovery, like a growing
number of bookings within driving dis-
tance and adoption of its virtual experi-
ences. In a virtual meeting last week,
Mr. Chesky told Airbnb workers that the
company would resume work on its
plans to go public.
He also reflected on the last four
months, which he said had been trau-
matizing in some ways. The crisis
showed him that Airbnb had strayed
from its roots as a place for people to
connect, and he planned to rectify that. Something we can never lose, Mr.
Chesky said, is being true to ourselves,
being different, being special.
Layoffs at Airbnb were like a family breakup
Companys close rapport
with employees met reality
of surviving in a pandemic BY ERIN GRIFFITH
Inside Airbnbs headquarters, above,
where workers are encouraged to embody
the companys core values, former em-
ployees said. Brian Chesky, Airbnbs chief
executive, left, told employees in May:
What we are about is belonging, and at
the center of belonging is love. Hours
later, 1,900 employees were laid off.

Earlier this month in the United Nations
Security Council, the world saw a pre-
view of what Russian and Chinese
global leadership looks like: a world
order where the most vulnerable suffer
for the political gains of those at the top.
Twice, Russia and China vetoed U.N.
resolutions which would have ensured
that lifesaving humanitarian aid could
reach millions of suffering Syrians
through vital border crossings. The
remaining 13 members of the Security
Council, along with U.N. leaders and
nongovernmental organizations serv-
ing Syrians, strongly and publicly advo-
cated for the renewal and reopening of
three border crossings. But after days of
intense negotiations, the resolution that
passed allows only one northwestern crossing point to remain open for the
next 12 months. Sadly, this one crossing
will not be nearly enough for the mil-
lions of Syrians who continue to depend
on U.N. assistance to survive. This nefarious alliance within the
Security Council is depriving millions of
innocent civilians, including children, of
essential food, medicine and care, all in
the interest of solidifying the so-called
legitimacy of the murderous regime of
Syrias leader, Bashar al-Assad. No
truly great power would behave in this
way. The recent events at the United Na-
tions have confirmed Vladimir Putins
and Xi Jinpings priorities. First, Russia
continues to reach new lows in its quest
to maintain a foothold in Syria and along
the Mediterranean. Russia protects the
brutal Assad regime without regard for
its atrocities against the Syrian people.
The United Nations has reported that
Russia has assisted in the bombing of hospitals and civilian centers across
Syria. Yet, the Russian regimes active
participation in efforts to oppress and
deny relief to the Syrian people should
come as no surprise. After all, this is
how Russias leaders treat their own citizens.
Second, China has
no credible interest
in the Syrian con-
flict, yet it continues
to veto resolutions
that would provide
lifesaving assist-
ance the over-
whelming majority
of which is provided by the West to
the Syrian people. The world has wit-
nessed the horrific human rights
abuses the Chinese Communist Party
commits at home, including those
against Uighurs and Tibetans. The
party claims these are internal matters,
yet Chinas actions in the Middle East, which jeopardize the lives of Syrians,
show that Beijing is not shy about med-
dling outside its borders. The United
States supports the human rights of the
Syrian people, just as we do the Ui-
ghurs, Tibetans and other persecuted
minorities in China
As Russia and China continue to show
their true colors, it is important to re-
member that the Americans are among
the largest humanitarian aid providers
to the Syrian people. The United States
is leading the way on holding Mr. Assad
accountable for the crimes he has com-
mitted, and we will continue to stand
with the Syrian people by working
toward a political solution. Syrians
deserve a better and brighter future.
Going forward, the United States, the
rest of the U.N. Security Council, private
aid groups and other United Nations
agencies need to increase the pressure
on Russia and China. The world needs
to know who is responsible for cutting off this lifesaving assistance to the Syr-
ian people. This is not a confrontation
between the United States and Russia
and China. It is the entire world versus
Russia and China. In 12 months, when the Syria border-
crossing resolution comes up for re-
newal again, Russia and China will
almost assuredly again be on the wrong
side of humanity. These actions high-
light the attitude of China and Russia on
the international stage, where callous
indifference toward the rest of humanity
is the trademark of their foreign policy. It is imperative that we push back
against this behavior now. If we do not,
we will repeat this same fight for years
to come. For the sake of the Syrian peo-
ple, and the rest of the world, we must
not let them win.
veto, Moscow
and Beijing
are restrict-
ing aid
to Syrias
civilians in
their effort
to prop up
James Risch
JAMES RISCH, an Idaho Republican,
chairs the Senate Foreign Relations
Russia and China add to Syrias misery
A displaced
Syrian boy with
packages of
aid at a camp
along the border
with Turkey in
It is imperative
that we push
back against
this behavior
The recent decision by the Turkish
government to reconvert the majestic
Hagia Sophia, which was once the
worlds greatest cathedral, from a mu-
seum back to a mosque has been bad
news for Christians around the world.
They include Pope Francis, who said he
was pained by the move, and the
spiritual leader of Eastern Christianity,
Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew,
who said he was saddened and shak-
en. When contrasted with the joy of
Turkeys conservative Muslims, all this
may seem like a new episode in an old
story: Islam vs. Christianity. But some Muslims, including myself,
are not fully comfortable with this
historic step, and for a good reason:
forced conversion of shrines, which has
occurred too many times in human
history in all directions, can be ques-
tioned even from a purely Islamic point
of view. To see why, look closely into early
Islam, which was born in seventh cen-
tury Arabia as a monotheist campaign
against polytheism. The Prophet Mu-
hammad and his small group of believ-
ers saw the earlier monotheists Jews
and Christians as allies. So when
those first Muslims were persecuted in
pagan Mecca, some found asylum in the
Christian kingdom in Ethiopia. Years
later, when the Prophet ruled Medina,
he welcomed a group of Christians from the city of Najran to worship in his own
mosque. He also signed a treaty with
them, which read: There shall be no interference with
the practice of their faith. . . . No bishop
will be removed from his bishopric, no
monk from his monastery, no priest
from his parish.
This religious pluralism was also
reflected in the Quran, when it said God
protects monasteries, churches, syna-
gogues, and mosques in which the name
of God is much mentioned. (22:40) It is
the only verse in the Quran that men-
tions churches and only in a reveren-
tial tone.
To be sure, these theological affinities
did not prevent political conflicts. Nor
did they prevent Muslims, right after
the Prophets passing, from conquering
Christian lands, from Syria to Spain. Yet
still, the early Muslim conquerors did
something uncommon at the time:
They did not touch the shrines of the
subjugated peoples. The Prophets spirit was best exem-
plified by his second successor, or ca-
liph, Umar ibn Al-Khattab, soon after
his conquest of Jerusalem in the year
637. The city, which had been ruled by
Roman Christians for centuries, had
been taken by Muslims after a long and
bloody siege. Christians feared a mas-
sacre, but instead found aman, or safety.
Caliph Umar, the servant of God and
the commander of the faithful, gave
them security for their possessions,
their churches and crosses. He further
Their churches shall not be taken for
residence and shall not be demolished . . .
nor shall their crosses be removed.
The Christian historian Eutychius
even tells us that when Caliph Umar
entered the city, the patriarch of Jerusa-
lem, Sophronius, invited him to pray at
the holiest of all Christian shrines: the
Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Umar
politely declined, saying that Muslims
might later take this as a reason to
convert the church into a mosque. He
instead prayed at an empty area that
Christians ignored but Jews honored,
then as now, as their holiest site, the
Temple Mount, where today the West-
ern Wall, the last remnant of that an-
cient Jewish temple, rises to the top of the Mount, on which the Mosque of
Umar and the Dome of the Rock were
built. In other words, Islam entered Jerusa-
lem without really converting it. Even
four centuries after the Muslim con-
quest, as the Israeli historian Oded Peri
observes, the urban landscape of
Jerusalem was still dominated by Chris-
tian public and religious buildings.
Yet Islam was becoming the religion
of an empire, which, like all empires,
had to justify its appetite for hegemony.
Soon, some jurists found an excuse to
overcome the Jerusalem model: There,
Christians were given full security, because they had ultimately agreed on a
peaceful surrender. The cities that re-
sisted Muslim conquerors, however,
were fair game for plunder, enslave-
ment, and conversion of their churches. In the words of the Turkish scholar
Necmeddin Guney, this legitimatization
of conversion of churches came from not
the Quran nor the Prophetic example,
but rather administrative regulation.
The jurists who made this case, he adds,
were probably trying to create a society
that makes manifest the supremacy of
Islam in an age of religion wars. Another scholar, Fred Donner, an
expert on early Islam, argues that this
political drive even distorted records of
the earlier state of affairs. For example,
later versions of the amangiven to the
Christians of Damascus allotted Mus-
lims half of their homes and churches.
In the earlier version of the document,
there was no such clause. When the Ottomans reached the gates
of Constantinople in 1453, Islamic atti-
tudes had long been imperialized, and
also toughened in the face of endless
conflicts with the Crusaders. Using a
disputed license of the Hanafi school of
jurisprudence they followed, they con-
verted Hagia Sophia and a few other
major churches. But they also did other
things that represent the better values of
Islam: They gave full protection to not
only Greek but also Armenian Chris-
tians, rebuilt Istanbul as a cosmopolitan
city, and soon also welcomed the Span-
ish Jews who were fleeing the Catholic
Today, centuries later, the question for
to change
the former
into a
mosque flies
against the
of Islams
Would Prophet Muhammad convert Hagia Sophia?
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul on Friday.
Contributing Writer
AKYOL, PAGE 11 Opinion

Perhaps the root of the mutual
fascination that binds France and the
United States is that each sees itself as
an idea, a model of some kind for the rest
of the world. This is an immodest but
tenacious notion, bound up with the
founding articles and myths of both
republics. No other countries make such
claims for the universality of their
virtue. These are now unfashionable ideas,
having their roots in the white patriar-
chal societies of the late 18th century.
Beware of fashion. It may overcor-
rect. I will try to explain. In France, the Declaration of the
Rights of Man and of the Citizen,
adopted in 1789 as the expression of the
ideals of the French Revolution, states
in its first article: Men are born and
remain free and equal in rights. The
declaration defines these natural rights
as liberty, property, security, and re-
sistance against oppression, and says
that liberty consists of doing anything
which does not harm others. Thirteen years earlier, in its Declara-
tion of Independence, the United States
set out certain self-evident truths:
that all men are created equal, that
they are endowed by their Creator with
certain unalienable Rights, that among
these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness. The right to govern
stemmed from the consent of the gov-
erned. Over the ensuing 15 years, these
ideas were enshrined in the United
States Constitution and Bill of Rights. France and the United States were
intertwined as political allies, but also as
twinned sources of Enlightenment
principles. Thomas Jefferson, a slave
owner, influenced the formulation of the
French Declaration and was an author
of Americas founding laws.
The revolutions were sweeping.
There was nothing self-evident about
them. Out with monarchy, in with We
the people. Out with divine right, in
with human rights. Out with rule by
edict, in with the separation of powers
and the rule of law. So, falteringly, began
the liberal democratic experiment, now
under attack. The experiment was as flawed as
Jefferson himself. All men are created
equal. Sounds good, but what about
women? (A Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen was
written in France in 1791 by the French
feminist Olympe de Gouges.) And what
of Black slaves, their value set in the
Constitution at 60 percent of a free
human being? Lets rephrase the sen-
tence: All white male property owners
are created equal . Not much of a ring to
it, but has the merit
of accuracy.
And what of
France, trading in
slaves well into the
19th century, usher-
ing Jews to emanci-
pation through the
principles of the
revolution only to
contribute to their mass murder during
World War II, fighting a savage colonial
war in Algeria between 1954 and 1962? So, a cry goes up. These pretensions
of embodying ennobling ideals for
humankind were false, reflecting no
more than the narrow worldview of
18th-century white males whose talk of
equal rights was shot through with
exploitative hypocrisy. The perfect becomes the enemy of the
good. In an age of absolutist moral
certainty, the most conspicuous feature
of humankind its fallibility be- comes unpardonable. Can a slave owner
be celebrated for penning a liberating
sentence? How can a progressive so-
cialist French president, François Mit-
terrand, have been an official of the
Vichy regime? Because the second-
most conspicuous feature of human
beings is their contradictory natures. I dont think any people enjoys root-
ing around in the unpleasant parts of
their past, Robert Paxton, a prominent
American historian whose ground-
breaking work helped bring France to a
full understanding of the crimes of the
Vichy regime, told me. Denial is often
ineradicable. I think on the whole the
French came out of it quicker than we
did. It took more than a half-century, until
1995, for France, in the person of Presi-
dent Jacques Chirac, to acknowledge
that the French state, and not some
handful of misguided Vichy operatives,
had committed the irreparable in
sending some 76,000 French and foreign
Jews to their deaths. It was more than a
half-century after France left Algeria
that Emmanuel Macron, while a candi-
date for the French presidency in 2017,
called the French colonization of Algeria
a crime against humanity and later, as
president, acknowledged French atrocities.
The United States has never formally
apologized for slavery. President Clin-
ton, in Africa more than two decades
ago, managed to say that we were
wrong to have received the fruits of
the slave trade. That was all he could
muster. Now, in the midst of another push to
overcome Americas original sin, would
be a good moment for such an apology. That, after all, is what democracies
like France and the United States are
capable of: continuous adjustment,
improvement, recognition of past mis-
takes, atonement, progress toward their
ideals. If they are, it is thanks in large
part to the flawed brilliance of the archi-
tects, direct or indirect, of the two re-
publics. We can and should acknowledge their
flaws without denigrating their achieve-
ment in spreading the ideas of liberty,
free expression and the rule of law
across the face of the earth. The words
that issued from Paris and Philadelphia
between 1776 and 1791 have served the
cause of freedom, even if they were the
product of minds and cultures foreign to
the Great Awokening of recent years,
whose own chief flaw may prove to be
self-righteous intolerance.
The tenacity of the Franco-American ideal
Can a slave
owner be
for writing
sentence? Roger Cohen
The Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C. DAMON WINTER/THE NEW YORK TIMES
WASHINGTONNever mind Johnny
Depp and Amber Heard. You want to see a real cant-look-away
train wreck of a relationship? Look to
Americas capital, where a messy falling
out is chronicled everywhere from the
tabloids to a glossy fashion magazine,
replete with a photo shoot by a swim-
ming pool.
The saga has enough betrayal, back-
stabbing, recrimination, indignation
and ostracization to impress Edith
Wharton. The press breathlessly covers how
much time has passed since the pair last
spoke, whether theyre headed for
splitsville, and if they can ever agree on
whats best for the children. It was always bound to be tempestu-
ous because they are the ultimate odd
couple, the doctor and the president. One is a champion of truth and facts.
The other is a master of deceit and
denial. One is highly disciplined, work-
ing 18-hour days. The other cant be
bothered to do his homework and golfs
instead. One is driven by science and
the public good. The other is a public
menace, driven by greed and ego. One is
a Washington institution. The other was
sent here to destroy Washington institu-
tions. One is incorruptible. The other
corrupts. One is apolitical. The other
politicizes everything he touches
toilets, windows, beans and, most fa-
tally, masks.
After a fractious week, when the
former reality-show star in the White
House retweeted a former game-show
host saying that we shouldnt trust
doctors about Covid-19, Donald Trump
and Anthony Fauci are gritting their
Whats so scary is that the bumpy
course of their relationship has life-or-
death consequences for Americans. Who could even dream up a scenario
where a president and a White House
drop oppo research on the esteemed
scientist charged with keeping us safe in a worsening pandemic?
The administration acted like Peter
Navarro, Trumps wacko-bird trade
adviser, had gone rogue when he as-
sailed Dr. Fauci for being Dr. Wrong, in a
USA Today op-ed. But does anyone
believe that? And if he did, would he still
have his job? No doubt it was a case of Trump mur-
muring: Will no one rid me of this med-
dlesome infectious disease specialist? Republicans on Capitol Hill privately
confessed they were baffled by the
whole thing, saying they couldnt under-
stand why Trump would undermine
Fauci, especially now with the virus
resurgent. They think its not only hurt-
ing Trumps re-election chances, but
theirs, too. As though it couldnt get more absurd,
Kellyanne Conway told Fox News on
Friday that she thinks it would help
Trumps poll numbers for him to start
giving public briefings on the virus
again even though that exercise went
off the rails when the president began
suggesting people inject themselves
with bleach.
How did we get to a situation in our
country where the public health official most known for
honesty and hard
work is most vilified
for it? marvels
Michael Specter, a
science writer for
The New Yorker
who began covering
Fauci during the
AIDs crisis. And as
Team Trump trashes him, the numbers
keep horrifyingly proving him right. When Dr. Fauci began treating AIDs
patients, nearly every one of them died.
It was the darkest time of my life, he
told Specter. In an open letter, Larry
Kramer called Fauci a murderer. Then, as Specter writes, he started
listening to activists and made a rare
admission: His approach wasnt work-
ing. He threw his caution to the winds
and became a public-health activist.
Through rigorous research and commit-
ment to clinical studies, the death rate
from AIDs has plummeted over the
years. Now Fauci struggles to drive the data
bus as the White House throws nails
under his tires. It seems emblematic of a
deeper, existential problem: America
has lost its can-do spirit. We were al-
ways Bugs Bunny, faster, smarter, more wily than everybody else. Now were
Slugs Bunny. Can the country be any more pathetic
than this: The Georgia governor suing
the Atlanta mayor and City Council to
block their mandate for city residents to
wear masks? Trump promised the A team, but he
has surrounded himself with losers and
kiss-ups and second-raters. Just your
basic Ayn Rand nightmare. Certainly, Dr. Fauci has had to adjust
some of his early positions as he learned
about this confounding virus. (When
the facts change, I change my mind.
What do you do, sir? John Maynard
Keynes wisely observed.)
Medicine is not an exact art, Jerome
Groopman, the best-selling author and
professor at Harvard Medical School,
put it. Theres lots of uncertainty, al-
ways evolving information, much room
for doubt. The most dangerous people
are the ones who speak with total au-
thority and no room for error.
Sound like someone you know?
Medical schools, Dr. Groopman
continued, have curricula now to teach
students the imperative of admitting
when something went wrong, taking
responsibility, and committing to right-
ing it.
Some are saying the 79-year-old Dr.
Fauci should say to hell with it and quit.
But we need his voice of reason in this
nuthouse of a White House.
Despite Dr. Faucis best efforts to stay
apolitical, he has been sucked into the
demented political kaleidoscope through which we view everything
now. Consider the shoot by his pool,
photographed by Frankie Alduino, for
a digital cover story by Norah ODon-
nell for InStyle magazine.
From the left, the picture repre-
sented an unflappable hero, exhausted
and desperately in need of some R & R,
chilling poolside, not letting the White
Houses slime campaign get him down
or silence him. And on the right, some
saw a liberal media darling, high on his
own supply in the midst of a deadly
pandemic. While America burns,
Fauci does fashion mag photo shoots,
tweeted Sean Davis, co-founder of the
right-wing website The Federalist.
Its no coincidence that the QAnon-
adjacent cultists on the right began
circulating a new conspiracy theory in
the fever swamps of Facebook that Dr.
Faucis wife of three and a half dec-
ades, a bioethicist, is Ghislane
Maxwells sister. (Do I need to tell you
she isnt?)
Worryingly, new polls show that the
smear from Trumpworld may be start-
ing to stick; fewer Republicans trust
the doctor now than in the spring. Forget Mueller, Sessions, Comey,
Canada, his niece, Mika Brzezinski. Of
the many quarrels, scrapes and scraps
Trump has instigated in his time in
office, surely this will be remembered
not only as the most needless and
perverse, but as the most dangerous.
As Dr. Fauci told The Atlantic, its a
bit bizarre. More than a bit, actually.
A doctor versus a denier
Faucis at
the pool,
but Donald
in deep.
Maureen DowdDr. Anthony Fauci trusts science, making him a White House outcast.
Printed inAthens, Denpasar, Beirut, Biratnagar, Doha, Dubai, Frankfurt, Gallargues, Helsinki, Hong Kong, Islamabad, Istanbul, Jakarta, Karachi, Kathmandu, Kuala Lumpur, Lahore, London, Luqa, Madrid, Manila, Milan, Nagoya, Nepalgunj, New York, Osaka, Paris, Rome, Seoul, Singapore, Taipei, Tel Aviv, Tokyo.
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92 01, Commission Paritaire No. 0523 C83099. Printed in France by Paris Offset Print 30 Rue Raspail 93120 La Courneuve When Autumn Lee, a pre-med junior at the University of
New Mexico, needs to download lectures or class as-
signments, she hops in her car and drives 45 minutes to
the McDonalds nearest to her town of Sanders, Ariz., to
connect to reliable Wi-Fi from her car. Like Ms. Lee, many other Americans sheltering from
Covid-19 are discovering the limitations of the countrys
cobbled-together broadband service. Schooling, jobs,
government services, medical care and child care that
once were performed in person have been turned over
to the web, exposing a deep rift between the broadband
haves and have-nots. Those rifts are poised to turn into chasms, as the
global pandemic threatens another year of in-person
schooling for American children. Large public-school
districts like Los Angeles and Prince Georges County in
Maryland, as well as a variety of colleges and universi-
ties, from Hampton to Harvard to Scripps, have can-
celed in-school instruction at the start of the coming
year. Other districts will surely follow, as the raging conta-
gion in their communities gives them little alternative.
An adequate connection is no longer a matter of conven-
ience; it is a necessity for anyone wishing to participate
in civil society. Service is often unavailable or too expensive in rural
communities and low-income neighborhoods. This has
forced people into parking lots outside libraries, schools
and coffee shops to find a reliable signal while others
are simply staying logged off. At the same time, there is
pressure on small businesses that are still using pen and
paper to modernize or face extinction. Yet, federal and local initiatives have failed to bring
swift internet service to tens of millions of Americans.
Like electricity, internet service has become a necessity
for modern life. Efforts to fix this inequity extend back at least as far
as 2009, when Congress directed the Federal Communi-
cations Commission to develop a plan to get broadband
service to nearly every American. Some 21 million still lack it, according to commission-
ers estimates. Yet that might be an underestimate: One
study puts it far higher, at around 42 million. The Pew
Research Center said as many as one in four rural
Americans lack high-speed internet service, because of
either the cost or a lack of availability. Microsoft and
others have disputed the F.C.C.s data, which relies on
self-reporting from internet service providers report-
ing that can indicate an entire census block has service
even if service is provided to just one household within
the area. Getting an accurate count of where broadband is
needed is critical, because it helps federal programs like
the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund determine where to
spend to expand broadbands reach, meaning the Op-
portunity Funds $20.4 billion in planned outlays over
the next 10 years could still leave many Americans be-
hind. Two of the F.C.C.s five commissioners dissented
over parts of the funding, citing the faulty accounting. Two bills passed by the House last year would help
improve how broadbands reach is counted. These bills
are encouraging bipartisan steps toward addressing the
problem. Also worthy of strong consideration is a bill intro-
duced last month by Representative James Clyburn,
Democrat of South Carolina. It was followed by a Senate
version this month, that would devote $100 billion to-
ward making broadband accessible in underserved
areas. But Republicans have indicated that they are not
likely to support it.
Today, broadband is a patchwork of infrastructure
and services offered primarily by major corporations
like Verizon and AT&T. But swaths of the country have
been left with no service, either because of a lack of
perceived profits or a lack of the political will to extend
fiber to harder-to-reach communities. Universal broadband will be costly, but shelter-in-
place orders have demonstrated that it is even more
costly to leave so many Americans behind.
People are afraid of the price tag, said Mr. Clyburn, a
co-sponsor of the bill along with Representative Fred
Upton, Republican of Michigan. We cant afford not to
do it. Perhaps more daunting is the challenge of providing
service that is speedy and at a price that even lower-
income Americans can afford. One study found that
poorer Americans can afford only $10 a month for inter-
net service. But such service is typically at far slower
speeds than what is available in more affluent neighbor-
hoods, or for free at Starbucks. Drawing Wi-Fi from school buses and fast-food
restaurants isnt a long-term solution. In pandemic-
are a civil
rights issue.
DEAN BAQUET, Executive Editor
JOSEPH KAHN, Managing Editor
TOM BODKIN, Creative Director
SUZANNE DALEY, Associate Editor
Chief Executive Officer
STEPHEN DUNBAR-JOHNSON, President, International
CHARLOTTE GORDON, V.P., International Consumer Marketing
HELEN KONSTANTOPOULOS, V.P., International Circulation
HELENA PHUA, Executive V.P., Asia-Pacific
SUZANNE YVERNÈS, International Chief Financial Officer

THE NEW YORK TIMES INTERNATIONAL EDITION TUESDAY, JULY 21, 2020|11 The last time I was in a church was the
week before New York Citys coro-
navirus lockdown, nearly five months
and a lifetime ago.
I was at Grace Church in the Village
to hear Bach at Noon, a daily medi-
tation set to works by J.S. Bach and
played by the churchs longtime organ-
ist Patrick Allen on a magnificent
four-manual, 5,000-pipe organ. For the
past couple of years Ive been regu-
larly visiting churches at lunchtime to
hear music. These concerts, which are
free and open to the public, take place
all over the city, from St. John the
Divine on the way Upper West Side to
St. Pauls Chapel at the southern tip of
the island. The daily Bach recital at Grace
Church started after the Sept. 11 at-
tacks as a gesture of healing for the
community, but it didnt actually begin
with Bach. It began with improvisations. In
those early days following the terrorist
attack, Mr. Allen told an interviewer,
there simply needed to be sound in
that space because silence was too
strong. Day after day he improvised on
hymn tunes until someone said Why
dont we have some Bach? And so it
has gone for 19 years. On my last visit,
on March 5, Mr. Allen played three
chorales, including the haunting Alle
Menschen müssen sterben All
men must die. Im not a Sunday churchgoer but
lately have fallen in love with the pipe
organ, an instrument thought to have
been invented in Alexandria, Egypt, in
the third century B.C.E., long before
Christians gave it a primary role in
religious service. Its one of the oldest, most perpetu-
ally evolving pieces of human technol-
ogy: Its pipes were first made to sing
through the power of hydraulic energy,
then, by the Middle Ages, human legs
pumping air into bellows and finally, in
the modern era, courtesy of electricity.
When you hear a pipe organ, youre
listening to the sounds of our most
ancient past, and usually if youre in
a church, which is where most of these
massive instruments can be found
youre likely to be hearing music from
a distant era: Bach, Buxtehude, Messi- aen, Handel, Franck, Poulenc, Vierne,
all great composers who wrote for
what has come to be known as the
king of instruments. But this king is not stuck in the past;
the organ has a long, distinguished role
in the art of improvisation. You dont
need to go to a jazz club to hear a
keyboard artist spontaneously create
musical inventions that spring from
the heart. You can go to church. My introduction to this world came
when I was researching a book about
Frédéric Chopin. As a 15-year-old
conservatory student, Chopin was
tapped to play the organ during serv-
ices at a Warsaw church and was
famous for his improvisations. People in the pews would sit spell-
bound as he tore brilliantly through a
series of improvised harmonic ideas,
entirely forgetting
they were in
church. One Sunday
a sacristan stormed
up to the organ loft
on behalf of a highly
irritated priest, who
had been unable to
complete his Mass
over the wild and
unceasing playing
of the young organ-
ist. When Chopin got
to Paris in 1831, he
found a very differ-
ent situation: a culture in which a
great many Parisians were flocking to
Sunday services not just for religious
reasons, but also for musical ones.
They were showing up for the same
reason people today go to jazz clubs
and music festivals to hear popular
and new music played in inventive and
unexpected ways. In many of the great churches of
Paris, the clergy was happy to oblige,
allowing secular improvisations to
mingle with standard liturgical fare.
Sometimes the priest and organist
even worked from completely different
Visitors from other parts of Europe,
especially Germany and England,
were scandalized by the grotesque
and irreligious music they heard in
Paris churches: riffs on hunting songs,
polkas, improvisations on opera arias,
waltzes, even drinking songs. It was a
long way from reverential improvisa-
tions on Gregorian chant and familiar
hymns. What the French Romantics did was
start a musical liberation, a tradition of
secular improvisation that is still alive
and well, and constantly adapting to
the new realities of the modern world. In January I finally got to experi-
ence that jolt of excitement 19th-cen-
tury churchgoers knew so well when
David Briggs, one of worlds greatest
contemporary organists, gave a recital
at St. Pauls Chapel. Opened in 1766, St. Pauls is the
oldest surviving church building in
Manhattan and sits in the heart of the
Financial District, where it was an
unlikely survivor of the Sept. 11 at-
tacks. The church has a long history of
blending secular and liturgical music;
its first organ was imported from
England in 1802, before there were
builders in America, and it has since
been upgraded, replaced and modified as the state of the art evolved.
In the modern era the pipes of St.
Pauls organ had to be altered to ac-
count for vibrations caused by the
network of subway lines running di-
rectly below it.
When you sit in this lovely, historic
chapel you see, hear and feel the mod-
ern world all around you: Trains rum-
ble by underneath your chair, a giant
video screen shows the hands and feet of the performer in the organ loft
above your head, and the sounds,
which range from a heraldic trumpet
to a more delicate stop designed to
sound like a nightingale, envelop you
in a mingled world of harmony, po-
lyphony and percussion. That cold day in January when Mr.
Briggs gave his recital, he announced
an improvisation on a theme he
wouldnt identify in advance but prom-
ised we would all know. First he
played it through straight, the 30-odd
notes of the famous melody by John
Williams from the epic space opera
Star Wars. Then, after a tiny pause, Mr. Briggs
organized his feet on the pedals,
hunched his shoulders with a devilish
expression on his face and set into a
series of loud, heavy chords, conjuring
a full orchestra with his hands and
feet, pulling out different stops as he
went along. A fugue-like section morphed into a
riff on a carnival organ, then wan-
dered into a minor-key lament in a
performance that married the joy of
improvised music with the unlimited
capacity of the pipe organ. Turning
around to face the audience and take a
bow, Mr. Briggs made a gesture thats
unique among organists: He motioned
to the instrument his orchestra
so that we could applaud it too. When the pandemic shut down live
musical performances, Mr. Briggs
retreated to a small town in coastal
Massachusetts, where he was given
the keys to a local church, the Ascen-
sion Memorial in Ipswich. From its
much smaller but still grandly expres-
sive organ, Mr. Briggs set up his
phone and started streaming what
became an 11-week series of daily
Hibernation Improvs, short pieces
that ranged from the meditative to the
silly, with tributes to old masters
Bach, Purcell, Vierne, Duruflé
tossed in the mix. Shut off from the real world, he
tapped into that instinct that is clearly
bred in the bone of every organist: to
live in the moment by creating music
that simultaneously evokes the past,
vamps on the present and points a
way to the future. ANNIK LAFARGE
is the author of the forth-
coming Chasing Chopin: A Musical
Journey Across Three Centuries, Four
Countries, and a Half-Dozen Revolu-
tions. Annik LaFarge
10 fingers, 2 feet and 5,000 pipes, breathing life into the present You dont need
to go to a jazz
club to hear
riffs and
You can go
that will prove increasingly valuable in
a rapidly de-globalizing world. But the big winner is likely to be
Germany. Its response to the pandemic
has highlighted pre-existing strengths:
efficient government, low debt, a repu-
tation for industrial excellence that
protects its exports even as global trade
falls, and a growing capacity to create
domestic tech companies in a world
dominated by the American and Chi-
nese internet giants. While other countries worry that
recent layoffs may become permanent,
most German workers stayed on the
payroll thanks to rapid expansion of the
Kurzarbeit, a century-old government
system that pays companies to retain
employees on shortened hours through
temporary crises. Germany was able to
expand the Kurzarbeit and much else
in the way of social services thanks to
its famous frugality. During the long
years when Ms. Merkel was pressing
austerity on fellow European Union
members, they lampooned her as a
Swabian housewife, an archetype of
the thrifty German who saves stale
bread for dumplings. They arent laugh-
ing now. Because Germany went into the
pandemic with a government surplus, it
could support its locked-down economy
with direct payments to families, tax
cuts, business loans and other aid
amounting to 55 percent of gross do-
mestic product, or roughly four times
more than the United Statess rescue
package as a share of G.D.P. It was also
able and willing, for the first time, to
provide emergency stimulus funds to
neighboring countries that have long
complained that German stinginess
hurt the entire continent. That move
was shrewd as well as generous: Those
countries are now better able to afford
German exports than they would have
been. Yet Germany is not dropping its
commitment to balanced budgets. Since
much of this spending will be drawn
from savings, Germanys public debt is
expected to rise, but only to 82 percent
of G.D.P. a much lighter debt burden
than that of the United States and other
highly developed countries, which are
spending far less on economic rescue
packages. Doubters say that Germany is now
dangerously reliant on industrial ex-
ports, particularly to China, in a time of
slowing global trade. Well aware of
these vulnerabilities, Germany is push-
ing to modernize its leading exporters,
the big car companies. Through regula-
tion and public shaming, it is pressuring
the carmakers to turn from the still
highly profitable combustion engine to
the electric cars of the future. Stuttgart,
home to Porsche and Mercedes-Benz,
has banned older diesel motors within
city limits.
Germany is also making a big if some- what belated push to become a more
competitive tech power. It devotes as
much to research and development as
the United States does (around 3 per-
cent of G.D.P.) and has a long-term plan
to create an entrepreneurial ecosystem
akin to Silicon Valley, in which venture
capitalists fuel promising start-ups.
Germanys technology industry is not
without its setbacks, such as the recent
and sudden collapse of the financial
technology company Wirecard, which
has raised questions about the vigilance
of Germanys financial regulator. But
many of the industrys first successes,
copies of American online-shopping and
food-delivery companies, are scaling up
rapidly. The German economic rescue plan
includes $56 billion for start-ups that
can digitize traditional industries, using
artificial intelligence and other new
technologies. Alongside France, Ger-
many recently announced what its
economics minister called a digital
moonshot, which aims to create a
European internet cloud to rival those of
America and China. Germany is an aging, conservative
society, but critics who assume it is too
slow to change have been proved wrong
before. In the early 2000s, when Ger-
many was dismissed as the proverbial
sick man of Europe, it adopted labor
market reforms that restored its status
as the continents most stable economy.
As the pandemic accelerates the pace of
digitalization and de-globalization and
drives up the worlds debts, Germany
stands out for its relative lack of weak-
ness to those challenges, and for a gov-
ernment prepared to handle them.
Which nation will triumph post-Covid?
RUCHIR SHARMAis the chief global strat-
egist at Morgan Stanley Investment
Management and the author, most
recently, of The Ten Rules of Successful
Nations. This essay reflects his opin-
ions alone.
Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany.
Turkey is what aspect of this complex
Ottoman heritage is really more valu-
able. For the religious conservatives who
have rallied behind President Recep
Tayyip Erdogan in the past two decades,
the main answer seems to be imperial
glory embodied in an absolute ruler. For other Turks, however, the great-
ness of the Ottomans lies in their plural-
ism, rooted at the very heart of Islam,
and it would inspire different moves
today perhaps opening Hagia Sophia
to both Muslim andChristian worship,
as I have advised for years. Another
would be reopening the Halki Seminary, a Christian school of theology that
opened in 1844 under Ottoman auspices,
went victim to secular nationalism in
1971, but is still closed despite all the
calls from advocates for religious free-
dom. For the broader Muslim world, Hagia
Sophia is a reminder that our tradition
includes both our everlasting faith and
values, as well as a legacy of imperi-
alism. The latter is a bitter fact of his-
tory, like Christian imperialism or na-
tionalism, which have targeted our
mosques and even lives as well from
Cordoba to Srebrenica. But today, we
should try to heal such wounds of the
past, not open new ones. So, if we Muslims really want to
revive something from the past, lets
focus on the model initiated by the
Prophet and implemented by Caliph
Umar. That means no shrines should
be converted or reconverted. All
religious traditions should be re-
spected. And the magnanimity of
tolerance should overcome the petti-
ness of supremacism.
Converting Hagia Sophia
MUSTAFA AKYOLis a senior fellow on
Islam and modernity at the Cato Insti-
tute and the author of the forthcoming
book Reopening Muslim Minds: A
Return to Reason, Freedom, and Toler-
ance.Unprec ed ent edtimes .
Un parallele dcoverag e.
Subscribe toThe NewY ork Times
Interna tionalEdition.
ny tional

When we buy a gadget these days, we
rarely assume that it will endure. We expect to play a video game
console only as long as companies
make games for it. We expect to use a
smartphone or a laptop just as long as
the battery has juice or until it can no
longer run important software. At some point, we feel that we must
upgrade. We must have the latest and
greatest camera. We must have apps
that run faster. We must have brighter
screens. Heres the thing: This is all the doing
of marketing professionals, seared into
our subconscious. The reality is that
consumer electronics, such as your
phone, computer or tablet, can last for
many years. It just takes some re-
search to obtain tech that will endure.
This exercise will be increasingly
important in a pandemic-induced
recession, which has forced many of us
to tighten our spending.
Its a matter of buying what you
need, not what the company is telling
you that you need, said Carole Mars,
the director of technical development
and innovation at the Sustainability
Consortium, which studies the sustain-
ability of consumer goods. Strategically choosing tech with a
longer shelf life is not intuitive. It
involves assessing how easy or not it is
to repair a particular product and
determining when it makes sense to
invest more money. Here are some
questions to consider for the long run.
The next time you shop for an elec-
tronic product, try this exercise: Be-
fore you buy it, find out whether you or
a professional can easily fix it. If so,
then go for it. If its too difficult, make
it a hard pass. Vincent Lai, who works for the Fix-
ers Collective, a social club in New
York that repairs aging devices, of-
fered several approaches to assessing
whether a gadget can be straightfor-
wardly fixed:
Consult iFixit, a website that offers
instructions on gadget repairs. For
some products, the site tears apart
gadgets and does an analysis on its
ease of repair. Apples iPhone SE, for
example, has a repairability score of 6
out of 10 (10 being the easiest to re-
pair), so it could be a device worth
considering for the long haul.
Check if local technicians can service
the device. Plenty of technicians have
the parts and ability to service popular
phones like iPhones and Samsung
Galaxy devices. But if you want to buy
a handset from a less popular brand,
like OnePlus or Motorola, its worth calling around first to find out if any-
one can fix it if something goes wrong.
Find out whether theres a communi-
ty of enthusiasts. Sometimes there are
no local fixers who can help with a
product, but there may be enthusiasts
who write their own guides that you
can follow. While you probably cant
find someone to repair a Philips Soni-
care electric toothbrush that is out of
warranty, there are instructions on
how to service it on iFixit.
One of the clearest indicators of a
products durability is whether the
batteries are replaceable. Gadgets that
work without wires are powered by a
lithium-ion battery, which can be
charged only a finite number of times
before it deteriorates.
Fortunately, most phones and lap-
tops have batteries that can be re-
placed by professionals. But more
compact products have components
that are glued together and tightly
sealed up, making their batteries im-
possible to replace. Wireless earphones
like Apples AirPods and Boses Qui-
etComfort 35 are examples of popular
products with irreplaceable batteries.
Once the batteries die, you have to buy a brand-new pair.
So if youre buying anything with a
battery including digital picture
frames, wireless security cameras and
Bluetooth speakers do a web search
to see if the battery can be replaced. If
not, consider it disposable.
Like household appliances, tech prod-
ucts have failure rates the ratio of
working to defective units. These rates
can give you a sense of a brands reli-
ability. Consumer Reports, well known for
publishing reliability ratings for house-
hold appliances, compiles similar
reliability data for smartphones, lap- tops, tablets, TVs
and printers by
surveying sub-
scribers who own the
products. People tend to
have more problems
with products that
have moving parts,
like printers with ink
cartridges, than with
electronics like TVs or tablets, said
Jerry Beilinson, a technology editor at
Consumer Reports. Brother printers
fared well in the publications surveys. For phones, Apple and Samsung had
strong reliability ratings. Mr. Lai of the Fixers Collective
recommends a grass-roots approach to
assessing reliability. He reads web
forums like Reddit to see what people
are saying about a product. If a large
number of people report problems with
the device, he said, he steers clear.
Another rule of thumb to consider is
investing more in a product to make it
last. That doesnt mean you have to
buy the most expensive phone or
computer on the market. But it does
mean investing in configurations that
will make you happier in the long run,
said Nick Guy, a senior staff writer for
Wirecutter, a New York Times publica-
tion that tests products. Lets use an iPad as an example. If
you wanted an iPad, you could pay
$329 for the base model with 32 giga-
bytes of storage. But its probably a
better idea to spend $429 on the model
with 128 gigabytes of storage thats
quadruple the capacity, which you can
use to hold apps, games, photos and
videos for years to come. In tech parlance, this strategy is
known as futureproofing. If youre turned off by the idea of spending more, theres a way around
that. You can look to buy a refurbished
product meaning it was returned by
a customer and restored to its former
glory for a significant discount, said
Dr. Mars of the Sustainability Consor-
Because many modern gadgets, like
smartphones and tablets, mostly lack
moving parts, their software plays a
strong role in determining their lon-
gevity. After a company stops provid-
ing software updates to a device, you
can expect to run into problems, like
apps that stop working properly. This is where an iPhone has an edge
over an Android. Each year, when
Apple releases a new operating system
for the iPhone, it generally works on
phones as far back as five years ago.
(Apples iOS 14, due for release this
fall, will support the iPhone 6S from
2015.) That means when you buy an
iPhone, it will probably get new fea-
tures and stability improvements for at
least five years. Android users will have a tougher
time. Typically, manufacturers provide
software updates to Android devices
for two or three years. To get around that, Android users might turn to the grass-roots commu-
nity. For some Android phones, Mr. Lai
said, there are enthusiasts who offer
custom-made operating systems,
which can be installed to keep the
software up to date. Check the website
XDA Developers to see whether tinker-
ers are building custom software for
the Android phone you intend to buy.
Many so-called smart home gadgets
ordinary appliances with wireless
sensors and an internet connection
offer interesting benefits, like a refrig-
erator with a camera that sends an
alert to our phone when the milk is
running low. Just keep in mind that smart home
products can create more problems
than they solve. A trash can that auto-
matically opens its lid when you wave
your hand over it may feel magical, but
it relies on batteries and moving parts
that eventually wear out.
If it moves, if it flashes, if it can
connect to the internet and tattle on
you, its an electronic, Dr. Mars said,
and youre inheriting all the issues
that come with an electronic. It all comes back to buying what you
truly need. Sometimes a dumb prod-
uct will do just fine.
How to buy tech that lasts and lasts
Brian X. Chen
Find out
you or a
can easily
fix it.
Its time to log in to his first Zoom meet-
ing of his workday, so Joe Farrell puts on
a short-sleeve button-down from Brooks
Brothers, in black, red and white plaid.
He has worn it for video calls on 70
consecutive days. This was not his plan.
My ego thought someone would no-
tice, said Mr. Farrell, the executive vice
president of the comedy empire Funny
or Die. No one did. Not one of the half-dozen
co-workers he sees every day via screen
said anything. Neither did the 50-odd
entertainment industry executives he
Zooms with week after week. This is a
man who once owned 210 shirts be-
cause, as the host of a design show on
TLC, he couldnt have viewers see him
repeat. Finally, the terrible secret of this sin-
gle garment became too much for Mr.
Farrell to bear. He began confiding in
colleagues about his Zoom Shirt. Every time Ive outed myself, they
say, Oh, yeah, and they pull up two
shirts hanging on the back of their
chair, he said.
If you ask, people who have managed
to stay employed during the pandemic
will confess to owning a Zoom Shirt: a
top, typically kept on the back of the
computer chair or a hanger nearby, that
they pop on in the moments before their
webcam lights up. Like the pre-knotted
tie Lyndon Johnson kept ready to put
around his neck, a Zoom Shirt instantly
spiffs you up for a last-minute work
meeting. Or a meeting planned a week
ago. Or a meeting with a friend. Really,
all the meetings. Maria Rugolo, an apparel industry an-
alyst for the NPD Group, said her com-
pany had run a poll showing that only 10
percent of people get dressed for work- ing at home at the start of the day and
change into comfortable clothes later.
Some vast portion of the rest of us, I
have come to understand, just slip into
and then out of our Zoom Shirts.
There are several ways to Zoom Shirt.
Some people, like Mr. Farrell, go to a
one-garment extreme. Others rotate at
least a couple shirts, or stratify them by
degree of formality, depending on the
Zoom situation. Some take their Zoom
Shirt on and off for every meeting, while
others wear theirs all day. My book editor, Gretchen Young, a
vice president at Hachette Book Group,
has exactly three Zoom Shirts: a button-
down Hollister, a turtleneck and a James
Perse sky blue V-neck T-shirt that she
wears under a Free People jacket. Initially I would look in my closet for
them, Ms. Young said. Then I said, Im
hanging them on my bedroom door.
Then I just had them sitting on a chair in
my dining room where I set up my desk.
Choosing a Zoom Shirt isnt simple.
Ironically, a garment that rarely leaves a
single room needs the same qualities as
a travel shirt: durable, easy to store,
able to front in a variety of social set-
tings. It also must come on and off in a
flash. The Platonic ideal of the Zoom
Shirt stays mostly buttoned all the time,
with just enough buttons undone to get
the thing over your head. When my J. Crew button-downs
started to look wrinkled after a few uses,
I settled on a cheap, casual, basic H&M
number that was made to maintain its
cheap, casual, basic look. But Im con-
sidering upgrading to one recom-
mended by Daniel Zisman, the public re-
lations manager at the mens wear start-
up Proper Cloth. Its a $175 merino wool
dress shirt that he promised would
hold its shape even after being thrown
on the sofa near my laptop. I was particularly sold after I asked
him the most important question about
any Zoom Shirt. You can wash it maybe every week
or two, honestly, he said.
Zoom Shirts are really the first and Zoom Shirt can be accessorized. Wear
statement earrings, suggested Sarah
LaFleur, the chief executive and founder
of MM.LaFleur, a maker of stylish office
wear for women. As for the shirt itself,
she advises pastels to brighten your
face. I have four colors in our Chadwick
sweater, and I often throw them on five
minutes before a Zoom call, she wrote
in an email. Theyre stretchy, wrinkle
resistant and also machine washable. I
literally keep them stacked next to my
The Zoom Shirt market is competi-
tive. LaFleur has promoted the idea of
mullet dressing business on top,
party on the bottom. Email inboxes are
stuffed with ads. Urban Outfitters: Shirts, blouses and camis to keep you
video-call ready. Brooks Brothers:
What Were Wearing: Our Video Con-
ference Edit. Neiman Marcus: Picks
for when youre only in the mood for
dressing up from the waist up. Walmart sold more tops than bottoms
in the first quarter of the year. Google
Trends shows that shirts is at a 12-
month high as a search term. While
Google Trends records erratic data for
the term Zoom Shirts, thats most
likely because I only just made it up for
this article.
Zoom Shirts have perils. Chelsea
Grayson, the former chief executive of
both American Apparel and True Reli-
gion, cautions against low necklines. In the real world, you can wear
something a little bit plungy, because
theyre presented with the whole thing,
from the top to the feet, she said. On
Zoom, all people are going to see is your
breasts. And you dont want that. Unless
youre doing an OnlyFans thing. For last-minute Zooms at her Los An-
geles home, Ms. Grayson covers up with
a Louis Vuitton pink scarf near her lap-
top. I know in 15 minutes Ill be back to
my glass of rosé, she said, so Ill put
this on and have my Jackie O. moment.
Sterling McDavid, a former Goldman
Sachs analyst who co-founded the fash-
ion line Burnett New York, suggests for
a Zoom Shirt a flowy top with a pattern
that shows some movement. Her $1,500
floral ruffle blouse is her biggest seller.
In fact, its basically her only seller, be-
sides masks.
What youre going to see from us in
the fall is going to be primarily appropri-
ate for Zoom, Ms. McDavid said. You
can go straight from Zoom call to so-
cially distanced drinks outside with your friends. Its the new desk-to-din-
ner. The Zoom Shirt has accelerated the
leisure wear trend. Fokke de Jong, the
chief executive and founder of Suitsup-
ply, has been selling a lot of $100 popover
shirts long-sleeve polos that have but-
tons that go halfway down, conveniently
out of Zoom camera range.
Based in Amsterdam, where a lock-
down is over, Mr. de Jong is done with
Zoom calls. Despite all the predictions,
he said, little has changed in post-Covid
Europe. But I am wearing the popover
five out of seven days, he said. Thats
sticking with me.
In addition to the Zoom Shirt and its
variants Zoom Scarf and Zoom Sweater,
several female executives told me that
they kept a Zoom Bra beside their com-
puter to pop on for meetings. This is not
a formal bra to replace a casual bra. This
is their only bra now. While Zoom dressing might be an ac-
celeration of our performative internet
culture, what is fashion if not perform-
ance? Iris Apfel, the 98-year-old fashion
icon, likes that people are dressing up
for Zoom calls though she didnt care
for the only one she has ever done. I was wearing a white terry cloth
robe, she said. A gentleman friend
thought I should learn it, so he and an-
other friend of his gave me a lesson. I
dont know what I learned. Probably
nothing. In my humble opinion, a phone
is just to make a call or receive a call. This is what David Foster Wallace
predicted wed come to. In the 1996 nov-
el Infinite Jest, he spends seven pages
imagining a Zoom-like future in which
the invention of videophones brings en-
thusiasm, then vanity, then fatigue. Peo-
ple keep a resin mask of their own face,
slightly improved, on a hook near their
devices, so that they can look good dur-
ing calls. Within five sales quarters, the
fad collapses and everyone goes back to
aural-only communication. Thats what I want, too. And I hope it
happens before I buy that $175 Zoom
When video calls roll in
at home, this go-to item
shows youre all business
Its not just any work shirt. Its, well, a Zoom Shirt.
last word in Zoomwear. Zoom Jackets, I
quickly discovered from looking around
large Zoom calls in the early pandemic
weeks, are vestimenta non grata. Zoom
Ties look even more ridiculous. Every-
one knows you have your laptop set up
on the dining room table, with dishes
just out of sight. When people overly dress up, I find it
a little pretentious, said Kevin Murray,
a member of the Federal Home Loan
Bank of San Franciscos board and chief
executive of the Weingart Center Asso-
ciation, which serves the homeless. Mr.
Murray has been dressing less formally
for Zoom calls, partly because theyre
Zoom calls and partly because he has
bigger things to worry about right now.
But while it cant be too formal, a
A Zoom Shirt, which is typically kept on the back of a chair or a hanger nearby, is usu-
ally put on moments before the webcam lights up, instantly elevating your attire.
For many people, a single
garment is the thin wall
between respectable employee
and homebound slob.

When her soccer team returned to the
field in June, Amy Rodriguez had a fa-
miliar problem. Alone in Utah with her
two sons, she needed to get back to work
but had no way to hire child care help be-
cause of the pandemic. So Rodriguez did what only felt nor-
mal after years of balancing her profes-
sional soccer career with being a
mother: She set up her 3- and 6-year-old
sons with blankets, toys and an iPad on
the sideline and jogged out for her work-
outs. The boys were used to being patient.
But occasionally Rodriguez had to step
away from training with her National
Womens Soccer League team, the Utah
Royals, to deal with a bloody nose or a
sibling squabble. Ive had to talk it over with them,
she said. This is moms job. You have
to work with me.
As American professional sports re-
turn this summer inside so-called bub-
ble environments that limit outsiders,
the challenges for parents in a pandemic
already felt by health care workers,
first responders and stressed-out fam-
ilies have hit home for dozens of elite
athletes, and for mothers in particular.
Children and families are not allowed
in mens league bubbles, partly out of
concerns over the size of the operation
and its cost. But those decisions and oth-
ers in womens leagues also are a reflec-
tion of how American society largely
treats child-rearing as the responsibility
of women, and how the workload takes a
toll on their careers and mental health. Some players in the National Basket-
ball Association and Major League Soc-
cer have cited family reasons for staying
away as their sports have returned. But
Rodriguez, her N.W.S.L. colleagues and
their counterparts in the W.N.B.A. often
have less choice; they play in leagues in
which athletes rarely enjoy the kind of
elaborate (and expensive) support sys-
tems required to excel as both athletes
and parents. So the unusual accommo-
dations they are seeing since moving from team-run training camps to
league-arranged lockdown sites have
been a welcome surprise. N.W.S.L. players say it is the first time
they have seen the league make real ef-
forts for mothers. A similar shift is un-
derway in the W.N.B.A.s bubble in Flor-
ida, thanks to gains in the leagues new
collective bargaining agreement. It shocked me that they even
reached out to us, said North Carolina
Courage forward Jessica McDonald, who took her 8-year-old son to the
N.W.S.L.s summer tournament in Utah.
McDonald said she had been reassured
early on that she and her son would be
comfortable and safe. But she also thought: It was like, re-
ally? Where has this support been my
entire career?
In both leagues, players children
have become fixtures: sitting courtside
in their strollers for practices, living in
hotels with their mothers teams, cheer- ing at games inside empty arenas.
But Rodriguez and other players said
the yearslong balancing act of sports
and motherhood has been made easier
because of the lengths leagues have
gone to help: paid caregivers, special
living quarters and coronavirus testing
protocols tailored to young children.
There are even playgrounds in the bub-
bles; in the N.W.S.L.s case, one is a
brightly colored jungle gym just steps
from the playing field.
As with so much in the coronavirus
outbreak, though, the bubbles have also
illuminated a stark inequality: the tiny
numbers of women who are able to have
children as professional athletes, and
the sacrifices required of them when
they do.
Candace Parker, the veteran star of
the W.N.B.A.s Los Angeles Sparks, has
moved into a two-bedroom apartment
with her 11-year-old daughter, Lailaa, so
she can play. To make it work, Parker
said, she had to piece together child care
help from family members over the 40-
plus days she expected to be in sporting
lockdown. But there was never any question,
Parker said, that Lailaa would come.
She had her bags packed before I did,
Parker said. Its always been that way,
where Im better when shes here. I dont think the Sparks would want me without
her. Terri Jackson, the president of the
W.N.B.A. players union, said that as the
plans for a Florida bubble were being
drawn up, the league made it clear that it
would give priority to mothers, offering
them their choice of housing and taking
care of some costs that other players are
expected to cover. That was a significant step forward,
Jackson said.
If you took a historical look across
the league, it made you ask: If this is a
womens sports league, where are the
moms? she said. You wonder, how
many players that are looking to be-
come moms have we lost? We should have more Candaces
and Lailaas in the league.
Unlike the W.N.B.A., which is in its
third decade, the N.W.S.L. is still finding
its financial footing in its eighth season,
and salaries are still comparatively low
$20,000 to $60,000 a year.
But mothers in the league praised the
proactive moves taken by the new com-
missioner, Lisa Baird, who took charge
of the N.W.S.L. in February after it had
been leaderless for several years. Baird
is also a mother, with a college-age
daughter who, on the leagues shoe-
string budget, has been helping with child care inside the leagues bubble in
Herriman, Utah, near Salt Lake City. Even before the N.W.S.L.s announce-
ment that it would return to the field this
summer, Baird held a conference call
with the mothers in the league, asking
them what they and their children
would need to take part. Getting buy-in
from the mothers was a key part of get-
ting the players association on board, a
league representative said.
Theyre professional athletes, and
they take their jobs as moms very seri-
ously, Baird said. For them, it wasnt,
Make this special concession. It was:
This is what I need. This is part of my
In the N.W.S.L.s Utah complex, moth-
ers were allowed to bring along a care-
giver. McDonald and Rodriguez are liv-
ing with their children in an apartment
complex, but Stephanie Cox, a player for
OL Reign, elected to stay in the team ho-
tel with her daughters, 7 and 4. Theres a pool, but most important,
her teammates and team staff members
are built-in entertainment for her
daughters, Cox said. Reign players have
been the victims of her older daughters
pranks; in one, the Welsh star Jess
Fishlock was tricked into taking a bite of
an Oreo filled with toothpaste. Im too tired to be that for them all
the time, Cox said.
The simple fact that the league of-
fered to help came as a surprise to Mc-
Donald. For most of her professional ca-
reer, she said, she felt as if the league
didnt care that she was also a mother. Every trade had meant scrambling to
assemble a whole new support system
for her son, Jeremiah six teams, six
cities and six babysitters in five years,
all on a salary below the minimum wage.
In the off-season, she packed boxes in an
Amazon warehouse to pay for child care
that allowed her to train. This weekend, McDonald and her
North Carolina teammates will begin
the knockout round of the Challenge
Cup. As the top seed, the Courage are ex-
pected to reach the final, success that
will only extend her stay with Jeremiah.
But like Rodriguez and Parker and
others, she is hoping the bar has been
raised for good. Im hoping and praying that the way
theyre treating us is going to carry into
our future seasons, McDonald said.
Mothers in a bubble have a lot to juggle
Jessica McDonald took her 8-year-old son into the N.W.S.L. bubble. Players say it is the
first time they have seen the league make real efforts to support mothers. KYLE MCCUE/NORTH CAROLINA COURAGE2 womens sports leagues
surprise players with child
care help during isolation BY MOLLY HENSLEY-CLANCY
Stephanie Coxs daughters have been able to attend her matches with their caregiver.
They are staying in the OL Reign team hotel and play pranks on Coxs teammates. NILS CLAUSON/OL REIGNNON SEQUITUR PEANUTS GARFIELD
Answers to Previous Puzzles
Created by Peter Ritmeester/Presented by Will Shortz
SUDOKU No. 2107
Fill the grid so
that every row,
column 3x3 box
and shaded 3x3
box contains
each of the
1 to 9 exactly
Fill the grids with digits so as not
to repeat a digit in any row or
column, and so that the digits
within each heavily outlined box
will produce the target number
shown, by using addition,
subtraction, multiplication or
division, as indicated in the box.
A 4x4 grid will use the digits
1-4. A 6x6 grid will use 1-6.
For solving tips and more KenKen
kenken. For Feedback: nytimes@
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and more puzzles:
KenKen® is a registered trademark of Nextoy, LLC.
Copyright © 2018 All rights reserved.
(c) Distributed by The New York Times syndicate
Solution No. 2007 CROSSWORD | Edited by Will Shortz
1 “___ and ye shall receive”
4 Badminton court fixtures
8 Like bread used for stuffing, often
13 Anderson Coopers channel
14 Law & Order: SVU co-star
15 Used an old phone
16 20-20, e.g.
18 Thats great to hear!
19 Command to a dog
20 Spice in pumpkin pie
22 Thur. follower
23 20/20, e.g.
27 Dillydally
30 Cleanup hitters attribute
31 Gross!
32 Frugal sort35 Standing tall38 Party pooper40 20:20, e.g.42 Litter box emanation43 Enjoy thoroughly45 Nickname for Alexandra 47 “Made in the ___”48 Zones50 ___ Dumpty52 20/20, e.g.56 Suffix meaning “sort of” 57 Parts of some seniors’ financial plans, for short 58 Popular hair coloring technique 62 Like an old-fashioned clock 65 2020, e.g.
67 Chinese noodle dish68 One of the four Gospels 69 Hit the slopes70 Classic Pittsburgh mill product 71 Reach across72 Point value of a “Z” in Scrabble
Down 1 Circus routines 2 Quick scissors cut 3 Place to play spoons 4 Things with Thomas Jefferson’s image 5 Prefix with system 6 Contract specifics 7 Prepare rice, perhaps 8 Kind of card in a smartphone 9 Part of a garment with instructions on care 10 Raring to go11 Get down pat12 ___ Redmayne, Oscar winner for “The Theory of Everything” 15 Dora the Explorer’s cousin 17 Beach bucketful21 Calf-length pants24 Have on25 Leave wide-eyed26 Worst possible mark on a test 27 “C’mon, man!”
28 Taj Express destination city
29 Comment made while shaking the head
33 Where Jacqueline Kennedy went to college
34 Pilot’s announcement, in brief
36 “That’ll ___ you!”
37 Airplane seat attachment
39 Spiritual guide
41 “Didn’t expect to see you here!”
44 Stir-fry tidbit
46 Device for reproducing one’s signature
49 Set straight
51 “Well, I declare!”
52 Lab containers
53 “This ___ a test”
54 What a help center gets lots of
55 Deplete
59 Top-of-the-line
60 Tool by a golf bunker
61 Andrews of “Dancing With the Stars”
63 Martial arts master Bruce
64 Tankful or tankerful
66 Lead-in to an alias
PUZZLE BY ZHOUQIN BURNIKEL Solution to July 20 Puzzle
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15
16 17 18
19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35 36 37
38 39 40 41 42
43 44 45 46 47
48 49 50 51
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62 63 64 65 66
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70 71 72

Last week, the National Football
League team in Washington an-
nounced that it would be retiring the
name Redskins and its feather-topped
Indian head logo, abruptly reversing
its staunch defense of a name long
considered a racial slur.
But theres one unexpected place
where the teams logo will be pre-
served, at least through 2027: in the
National Museum of the American
Indian in Washington. A baby blanket with the logo hangs
near the entrance of Americans, an
exhibition that opened in 2018. Its
installed in a soaring hall, along with
ads, toys, film clips, toys, weapons and
hundreds of other Indian-themed
objects which may be, depending on
the beholder, kitschy or offensive. The point? To illuminate the para-
dox that Native American names,
symbols and stories are ubiquitous in
American life, even if actual Indians
are largely invisible. And they arent
just ubiquitous, the show argues, but
central to American identity. Its spooky, weird and subversive,
Paul Chaat Smith, an associate curator
who created the exhibition with Cécile
R. Ganteaume, said of the profusion of
Native imagery. We wanted to make the point that
this is part of American life, going
back 300 years, since before the found-
ing, he said. From Paul Revere to
Kanye West, why does this never go
out of style?
The museum is closed because of the
coronavirus, but much of the exhibition
can be seen online. We talked with Mr.
Chaat Smith, who is Comanche, about
the exhibition, the name change and
how to think about the national attach-
ment to Native American imagery. These are edited excerpts from the
The museum issued a statement
earlier this month calling for an end
to the use of racist mascots and
images. What do you think about the
Washington teams decision? When you follow something like that
for years, for decades, its stunning
when it changes on a dime. Were very pleased with the deci-
sion. We want to get out of the mascot
Some say these names honor the
warriors, and provide a way to intro-
duce Native culture. But an N.F.L. team is not the ideal
venue to educate the public about
Native issues. And if its such a good
idea, show me the equivalent honoring
of Chicanos, Asian-Americans or any
other group. It only happens to us. When the exhibition opened, the
focus on pop-culture appropriation,
rather than on authentic native cul-
ture, was seen as something of a
departure for the museum. What was
the idea behind it?
Since the museum opened more than
10 years ago, weve found that people
are very sympathetic to Native Ameri-
cans. They are inclined to think Native
culture is valuable and important. But
people were becoming culture tourists.
They go and learn some things, but it
has nothing to do with them. They
werent going to leave and be re- minded of Indians, the way they are
with African-Americans, who are just
present in the culture in a much differ-
ent way. You realize, Wow, its kind of inter-
esting how our whole lives we are
surrounded by Indian imagery. So we
can make the argument that Indians
are central to U.S. national identity.
You have Indians on brake fluid, weap-
ons systems, sports teams, all sorts of
other things that have nothing to do
with Indians or each other. But its
meant to say something about authen-
ticity, about Americanness. Did it seem risky to put some of this
stuff on view?
With the sports material, thats what
the activists said: This stuff should be
in a museum. Were pleased we could
put it in a museum.
The Washingtons team name is gone.
The Land O Lakes Maiden is also
gone. Should all this stuff just go
We wanted to avoid being prescriptive,
to say, This team name is bad. Its a
slur. But this other one is not. Some
things are obnoxious. We should get
rid of some things. But we are not
trying to be the police force to shame
people. It doesnt help us to eliminate
everything. The problem with Native Americans is the invisibility in Ameri-
can life.
Some of these images are at least
meant to be flattering, right?
You dont have an Aunt Jemima thing.
A lot of it is meant to be very favorable.
But its still really singular nobody
else gets plastered on every product.
The show also re-examines four
stories involving Indians that circu-
late widely in American culture, in-
cluding Thanksgiving (the subject of
a very funny video) and the Battle of
Little Bighorn. The show calls
Custers defeat a national shock akin
to the Kennedy assassination. But a
few years later, some of the warriors
are celebrities. And pretty soon the
Plains Indians, who numbered only
30,000, came to symbolize all Indi-
ans, and even America itself. How did
that happen?
Its one of the craziest things. There
was a sense of national tragedy after
Custers defeat. But pretty soon, Sitting
Bull goes on lecture tour in the East.
There was a range of opinion, but a lot
of people saw these Sioux folks, these
Cheyenne folks, as wonderful Ameri-
cans. After Little Bighorn, people said
Hey, we kind of like Indians. Its what
makes us different, this special sauce
of American Indians. But there were
still acts of dispossession happening.
All these things are coexisting.
Historians have long written about
the connections between the U.S.
Army victory in the Civil War and
conquest of Native American terri-
tory in the West. But now the general
public has become more aware of it,
in part thanks to recent debates over
Confederate and other Civil War
monuments. Does that surprise you?
Ten years ago, you would see discus-
sion of all these famous generals in the
Civil War. Then youd see them in-
volved in the Plains Indian warfare,
but it would never be connected. They
were treated as completely discrete
political developments.
Its amazing to see how fast people
are making these connections, like the
recent incident with the statue of Ulys-
ses S. Grant. He was a brilliant general
in the Civil War, then a president. But
he was also behind some of the cam-
paigns that resulted in the Black Hills
being dispossessed. For me, thats
always eventually what you want to
get to: a kind of complexity. Its not
helpful to see history in black and
People can have a strong reaction to
their team name, or their Boy Scout
rituals, being challenged. Are there
Indian-themed objects you have an
emotional connection to?
Im from the 20th century, born in the
50s. People of that time, when you see
nothing really positive in your regular
life about Native people, then you see
some Indian object, and it can be very
positive. We know its corny, its a
fantasy and its not really about us. But
it is some kind of visibility. I like the fact that Elvis Presley
made two bad movies [Stay Away
Joe and Flaming Star] in which he
played Native Americans. The biggest
star in the world thought Indians were
interesting. Of course, we want realis-
tic movies and better movies.
Weve had people who came into our
museum, including dignitaries from
reservations, wearing caps for the
Braves or other teams. Maybe its
ironic. Maybe they think it should be
changed, but they still support the
teams. For people of a certain genera-
tion, thats powerful. Its saying, Hey
man, were still here.
Native Americans nowhere, yet everywhere
A museum curator talks
about the U.S. attachment
to imagery of Indians BY JENNIFER SCHUESSLER
ons systems, sports teams, all sorts of
other things, said Paul Chaat Smith, a
curator of an exhibition, top and left, at
the National Museum of the American
Indian in Washington.
Imanbek Zeikenov is 19 years old and
lives with his parents in the small village
of Aksu in Kazakhstan. He studied rail-
way engineering at school, and until De-
cember, held a day job at his local train
But everything changed in the sum-
mer of 2019, when he discovered a song
called Roses by the Guyanese-Ameri-
can rapper and singer Saint Jhn. On the raw, sinewy Roses, which
had been commercially available for
three years, Saint Jhn sings (explicitly)
about a night on the prowl. Imanbek,
who records under his first name and
had a number of amateur remixes under
his belt, resolved to iron out some of the
tracks inefficiencies. His take pitches
up Jhns voice into a manic squeal; he
added a thick, rubbery bass line and a
snare drum in the distance.
Imanbek posted his remix to Russian
social media without giving it a second
thought. He returned a few months later,
surprised to learn he was a pop star.
I made an illegal remix, Imanbek said through a translator over a Zoom
call. He was sitting in his newly pur-
chased car and wearing a red-and-white
Kappa top. I didnt know how to pro-
mote it, because I didnt know how to
clear it. So I just put it online, and let it
go. A few months later, it blew up the
whole world. Four years after the initial release of
Roses, Imanbeks remix is an interna-
tional smash. The song is No. 5 on the
U.S. Billboard Hot 100, and reached No. 1
on the United Kingdoms chart. (Saint
Jhns only other charting single was the
2019 Beyoncé collaboration Brown
Skin Girl.) More important, Imanbek is
no longer an unsanctioned artist. At the
end of last August, he signed with the
Russian label Effective Records. The fol-
lowing month, he reached a deal with
Saint Jhn to release the accidental col-
laboration as a single. It was very easy. We said, We want
to break this record, its doing well, we
want to make it legit, Imanbek said,
describing the short meeting between
Saint Jhns management and the Effec-
tive Records owner Kirill Lupinos that
led to the alliance.
Imanbek started collecting revenue
from Roses in late 2019, earning
enough to quit his job and proclaim him-
self a professional musician, though
Lupinos said checks from the first half of 2020, when the single exploded, arent
due until later this year. Despite their
extremely profitable partnership, Iman-
bek and Saint Jhn have yet to meet in
person. The only way the two have com-
municated, the producer said, has been
over Instagram direct messages. Im performing in Russia, Saint Jhn
said in an interview with Genius last year, marveling at how audiences re-
acted to Roses despite not speaking
English. Not because Im trying to per-
form in Russia, because Russia is re-
questing me, demanding I come. Thats
surreal. Like many newer social media hits,
Roses first caught fire on TikTok, in
early 2020, when thousands of teens shimmied to easily replicable choreog-
raphy. With the power shifting from the
hands of industry gatekeepers to the
young listeners who can amplify a
tracks audience almost overnight, pop
music success is becoming increasingly
difficult to predict. In 2015, a love song
called Cheerleader, written three
years previously by the little-known Ja-
maican singer Omi, earned a sprightly
remix by the German D.J. Felix Jaehn. It
went triple platinum in the United States
and had its own TikTok challenge. Looking back now, Cheerleader
was always a good song, Omi said in a
phone interview, recalling that fans used
to sing along to the original version. I
think in 2015 it was an easy transition to
open the market up to a different demo-
graphic and appeal to a wider audience.
It gave it a whole new life.
Imanbeks father is a fire marshal, and
his mother works for a tourism agency.
He said he grew up in a musical family,
but added that he doesnt have many
western musical influences. Instead, he
was inspired by his local scene of D.J.s
and producers, and made his own foray
into electronic music by watching tutori-
als on YouTube. Right now, Imanbek is plotting his
next move. In May, he put out a chilly
house tune called Im Just Feelin (Du
Du Du), a collaboration with the Danish producer Martin Jensen. He doesnt yet
know how to D.J., so live dates (even vir-
tual ones, because of the pandemic) are
out of the question. There is an imitation
Imanbek in a Michael Myers-like mask
and an Effective Records hoodie who
streams live sets on YouTube from a
wood-paneled studio. Once Imanbek
learns how to perform, he plans to take
his place.
For now, he is still making music on
his 10-year-old laptop using a copy of FL
Studio. His sole upgrade has been a new
pair of headphones, courtesy of his la-
bel. The only recurring reminders of his
newfound fame are the emails, Whats-
App messages and Instagram DMs that
have flooded his inbox from artists in-
quiring about potential collaborations.
Imanbek screenshots each one of them
as a personal memento, before forward-
ing it to his management. One of the latest was from Tiësto, he
said, referring to the star Dutch D.J. He
reached out to me and said he really ap-
preciates what Im doing, and he wished
me good luck. Imanbek knows hes sitting on top of a
once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Whats
important, he said, is whatever comes
next. I understand where I am now,
that my success is truly global, he said.
Now, I need to prove that Im not a one-
hit wonder.
The Kazakhstan teen who remixed a hit
A 19-year-old stumbled
on a rappers old song,
turning both men into stars
BY LUKE WINKIE The musician Imanbek: Now, I need to prove that Im not a one-hit wonder.

Of all the weird ways that Covid-19 has
affected life in this country, one of the
most bizarre is taking place on a sound-
stage in Los Angeles. Thats where ac-
tors on the CBS television soap opera
The Bold and the Beautiful have been
shooting intimate scenes with man-
nequins. At first, we took out the love scenes,
and the show was falling a little flat be-
cause were all about romance and fam-
ily interactions, said Bradley Bell, the
executive producer of the CBS daytime
drama. One of the first ideas we had
was to bring in mannequins for the inti-
mate scenes and hospital scenes, and
its working quite well were shooting
it from a great distance or in a way you
cant see the form is inanimate. How are the performers reacting to
their lifeless co-stars? Weve had a lot
of strange looks and questions like, Do
you really want to do this? Bell said.
But everyone is game. They are getting
their first latex kiss.
Viewers will judge for themselves
how realistic this appears when new
episodes return to U.S. television on
July 20. The Bold and the Beautiful
was one of the first TV series to restart
production after the coronavirus caused
an industrywide shutdown in mid-
March. Since then most TV creators
have been meeting with their staffs on-
line, penning plotlines and episodes, not
knowing whether and when theyll
be able to capture them on camera.
Covid-19 has been particularly vexing
for the writers of TVs sexiest and most
romantic series as they try to figure out
how to portray physical intimacy the
scenes that draw in viewers and spark
Twitter hashtags while keeping their
performers safe. So far, producers of shows like River-
dale, Dynasty and The L Word:
Generation Q are planning on a combi-
nation of safety protocols and narrative
tricks. These include aggressive testing
of cast and crew, quarantining, on-set
medical professionals, camera wizard-
ry, illusion and innuendo-laden scripts
with subtext reminiscent of 1970s TV. (It
was an open secret, for example, that
Mary Richards of The Mary Tyler
Moore Show was sexually active, even
though the series never addressed it.) And yes, the occasional mannequin.
Riverdale, for example, shut down
during the final moments of its charac-
ters senior year in high school a prom
was filmed; graduation was not. Rober-
to Aguirre-Sacasa, the showrunner of
the CW series, has plans to feature man-
nequins in the audience at graduation,
but not in love scenes. In fact, its likely
the programs performers will be show-
ing a lot less skin. Theres a weird retro 1950s vibe to
Riverdale, Aguirre-Sacasa said. One
of the things we sometimes do is suggest
sex through coded language I think
well almost lean into that melodrama
and suggestive behavior. The series, like others, will also fea-
ture more bottle episodes a term
that describes an installment that dives
deep into the story of one or two charac-
ters, often with a limited number of sets
to help manage the number of people
present during filming. But dont expect
to see Archie and Veronica practice so-
cial distancing.
Weve done mysterious diseases, so
my hope is that Riverdale will be an es-
cape from the real world, rather than a
reflection, Aguirre-Sacasa said. A pre-
viously planned five- to six-year time
jump in the plot will help skirt the issue. Legacies, a young adult drama
about vampires and the vampire-adja-
cent, did not have a chance to film a long-
anticipated romantic reunion between
two of its main characters before pro-
duction ceased. (To name them would
spoil the show and inflame millions of
fans.) Thats been weighing on the mind
of Julie Plec, an executive producer who
is strategizing how to deliver this payoff
in a pandemic.
Twenty episodes is a long time for
nobody kissing, so we have to look at the
logistics of how we could make it work,
Plec said. Maybe we can mount a sepa-
rate intimacy unit that has its own quar-
antine and its own testing. Maybe we
could just hire a crew thats going to
shoot our intimacy.
This thinking is consistent with the
suggestions in The Safe Way Forward a 36-page document crafted by four ma-
jor Hollywood unions: SAG-AFTRA, the
Directors Guild of America, the Interna-
tional Alliance of Theatrical Stage Em-
ployees and the Teamsters. Among its recommendations is a
zoned approach to production that
limits the number of actors and staff on
sets where the use of personal protec-
tive equipment isnt possible. The un-
ions also call for capping workdays at 10
hours to allow more cleaning time, and
Covid-19 testing for all cast and crew
that ranges from weekly to rapid (in which results are delivered in 1 to 12
hours) for actors performing intimate
Its the first time in decades that the
four groups have released joint proto-
cols. Well definitely see an increase in
specially trained professionals on set,
says Duncan Crabtree-Ireland, the chief
operating officer and general counsel of
SAG-AFTRA. He adds that intimacy co-
ordinators who became fixtures on
many productions, in the wake of the
#MeToo movement, to ensure the com-
fort and safety of actors may also be
trained in Covid-19 prevention tech-
Of course, these problems are not just
the province of teen shows. The L
Word: Generation Q, Showtimes re- vival of the groundbreaking series, pre-
miered in December with a graphic 1-
minute 20-second sex scene. These
types of moments that can only be de-
picted on premium services have be-
come a hallmark of the program, which
has presented a challenge to the
showrunner Marja-Lewis Ryan as she
and her staff plan the second season. I try to write in two different phases.
Ryan said. I write the dream first and
then somebody tells me Your dreams
cant come true. Then I try to figure out:
What is it about this dream that really
matters to me? And I make adjustments
from there. My independent film background is
going to be really imperative, because in
that world you hear no all the time, she
added. I do like puzzles, so maybe itll
be OK. Ryan, like many of the other
producers interviewed for this story, is
considering limiting guest stars and
background actors its going to be a
tough time for anyone who makes a liv-
ing as a television extra and hiring
cast members real-world partners.
(The Bold and The Beautiful has al-
ready done this.) Multiple L Word
stars are dating or married to people
who also happen to be very good ac-
tors, Ryan said. Our joke is Im going to have a lot of
wigs, and Im just going to be in every
scene, she added. Wigs aside, TVs showrunners are ex-
amining how some cinematic sleights of
hand could give the illusion of intimacy.
Avoiding romantic situations really isnt
possible on Netflixs series You, which
stars Penn Badgley as a hyper-literate,
unhinged stalker with a mounting body
count in constant pursuit of his true
love so far a different woman each
Smoke and mirrors, the You
showrunner Sera Gamble said, are ba-
sically the entire job description of mak-
ing cinematic entertainment. Every-
thing requires fakery. (Gamble knows
something about cinematic shenani-
gans she also ran The Magicians.) Youve definitely watched a scene
where two people are speaking inti-
mately and not noticed that youre look-
ing over a stunt doubles shoulder, for
example, she continued. This season,
our particular job is to say, Everybody
think of 100 percent of everything
youve ever done to make something
look a certain way on camera, because
were going to work our way through all
of it.
The past offers lessons on how not to
handle the filming of intimate scenes
during an epidemic. The last time Holly-
wood confronted this issue was in the
early 1980s, before many people fully
understood how AIDS was spread.
One of those people was Rock Hud-
son, who had joined the cast of Dy-
nasty in 1984 as a love interest for
Linda Evanss Krystle. After reading a
script in which his character was sup-
posed to passionately kiss Evans, he ag-
onized over whether to tell the series
producers and his co-star that he had
AIDS, according to his autobiography,
Rock Hudson: His Story. Ultimately
he did not instead he gargled lots of
mouthwash and performed the kiss with
a closed mouth. As Evans wrote in her own memoir,
Recipes for Life: My Memories, her
puzzlement about why his kiss was so
passionless gave way to clarity when
the news broke that he had AIDS. In ret-
rospect, it was incredibly touching how
hard he tried to protect me.
This piece of television lore hasnt
come up in conversation among the ac-
tors of the CWs Dynasty revival, the
showrunner Josh Reims said. Like its
predecessor, the show, which was forced
to end its third season without filming
an eagerly awaited wedding, is known
for its sexy, soapy antics. This has Reims
and the other writers reaching for cre-
ative solutions.
Phone sex has certainly come up a
lot Reims said, laughing. I was looking
through the first episode written before
all this, and basically removed every-
thing that said, And then they kiss.
The joke among the writers, he add-
ed, is that we will watch two characters
say they want to have sex and then cut
to them saying, That was some great
Reims is hoping that when the show
returns to the air next spring, Covid-19
and the challenges of plotting and
filming intimate scenes will have sub-
sided. Regardless, you wont see the
Carringtons in face masks.
No one, he said, is watching Dy-
nasty to be reminded of a pandemic.
TV sex in a pandemic? Cue the mannequins
Hollywood finds itself
concocting safe ways
to film physical intimacy BY HENRY GOLDBLATT
BOB MAHONEY/CWSome TV shows are shooting sex scenes with mannequins. Others, like Legacies, left,
with Lulu Antariksa and Quincy Fouse, and The L Word: Generation Q, above, with
Leisha Hailey, Stephanie Allynne and Roxane Gay, are working on how to film safely.
Twenty episodes is a long time
for nobody kissing, so we have to
look at the logistics of how we
could make it work.
As unkind as the three main charac-
ters of Araminta Halls Imperfect
Women can be to one another
envious, judgmental, competitive and
spiteful their internecine meanness
is nothing like the brutality of their
self-laceration. As one hisses to her-
self: Youre no better than the ugly
sisters trying to squeeze their feet into
the glass slipper, trying to take what
isnt yours (To be fair to her harsh
analysis, she is sleeping with her dead
friends husband at the time.) Hall is a British novelist whose first
thriller, Our Kind of Cruelty, was a
chilling story about a man obsessed
with his ex-girlfriend. Here, she turns
her close attention to women how
complicated their lives are; the Faust-
ian bargains they make when they get
married and raise children, or not; the
complicated nature of their friend-
ships; how hard they are on one an-
other and themselves. The three main characters Elea-
nor, Nancy and Mary have been best
friends since the day they met during their first week at Oxford. Now theyre
grown and their lives have spun in
varied directions, as lives tend to do,
throwing into relief the differences in
their financial, professional and roman-
tic fortunes. Two are married and have children;
one isnt and doesnt. One has a great
job; the others dont. All are filled with
regrets of broken dreams and paths
not taken and envy at what their
friends apparently have. Not one is
entirely happy with her choices, with
her own particular approach to the
classic work-life balance conundrum.
(Does anyone ever solve that prob-
lem?) All try to be good people and
none really succeed. Death comes quickly in the story
when Nancys battered corpse is found
by the side of the road early one morn-
ing. It is a horrible shock. Nancy was
the enchanted princess of the trio, with
beauty, charm, wit, an attractive hus-
band, plenty of money. Even in death,
one of her friends says, she had more
influence than most people did when
they lived.
Who wouldnt want to kill someone
like that? Everyone is a suspect. Theres Nan-
cys secret lover, whom she was appar-
ently planning to leave on account of
his excessive clinginess and irritating
self-regard. (We wont learn his iden-
tity until later.) Theres her apparently
clueless husband, Robert, whose claim that he knew nothing about Nancys
extramarital activities is not particu-
larly convincing.
And there are, of course, her best
friends: jealous, never-married Elea-
nor who fancied Robert first, but
who never stood a chance with him
while Nancy was alive and mousy
Mary, a martyr to her own cruel and
overbearing husband and her demand-
ing children.
Each woman gets her own section in the book, which takes place in three
time frames: when the murder is
discovered (Eleanor); the period just
before (Nancy); and what happens
later (Mary). Coming after Eleanors
account, Nancys extended flashback
before her death is a revelation.
Who was she, anyway? Probe be-
neath the glittering surface of such a
person and see how easy it is for an
outsider to get it wrong, to forget that
no one is as perfect or happy or ful- filled as we imagine in our jealous
fantasies. We hear that Nancy feels hollow and
useless, flattened by malaise; that she
envies her friends for their thicker
and fuller lives; that her husband
discounts her distress; that a perfect
storm of unhappy emptiness has made
her ripe for the giddy euphoria of an
affair that does little but feed her ego. Now she is rived with guilt, the
initial headiness of the relationship
ceding to the realization that her lover
is, basically, a controlling jerk. Her
head was filled with terrible thoughts
that made her want to scream into a
darkened corner, Hall writes. The
sharpness of her betrayal wedged itself
between her ribs like an arrow, its
poison spreading through her blood.
The book creeps on you slowly, like a
fog, until you find yourself enveloped
in this tangled skein of relationships,
eager to see how all this is going to
play out, who is going to betray whom
and in what way. Sometimes you feel
annoyed at the women for being so
baroquely hard on themselves, just as
Robert feels annoyed at what he per-
ceives to be Nancys whining about her
amorphous unhappiness. You can be
many things in this life, but a dissatis-
fied woman is not one of them, Nancy
thinks. The final section of the book is re-
served for Mary, the faded friend. Her
surrender to wifehood and motherhood has turned her into what appears at
first to be the least interesting person
in the original trio of friends, particu-
larly now that her ghastly husband has
fallen prey to some sort of irritating
illness that requires her constant atten-
tion. But shes not boring at all. Every-
one has underestimated the depths of
her feelings and the lengths she is
willing to go. Imperfect Women is not a conven-
tional detective story, but an investiga-
tion into character and motivation. The
real mysteries concern love, friend-
ship, obligation, the disappointments
that come with the passage of time and
the mysteries of other peoples hearts
as well as your own. It will always be difficult for a man
to understand what women mean to
each other, Nancy says at one point.
None of them, she observes, thinking
about herself and her friends, had
really become what they imagined for
themselves when they used to sit up
into early mornings discussing what
they would do with their lives. Nancys death, as shocking and
unfortunate as it is, turns out to be a
precursor to the real story here, a long
tease for the twist Hall saves for the
end of this surprising book. After all
that has happened, it feels like poetic
The lies that bind, and break, friendships
Imperfect Women
By Araminta Hall. 294 pp. MCD/Farrar,
Straus & Giroux. $27.
Sarah Lyall is a writer at large for The

With (home) school over and many
summer camps canceled, chances are
youve heard the words Im bored
from a tween in your life. A lot is still off
the table, and your suggestions play
with the puppy, call a friend might be
met with apathy. Boredom is not the result of a lack of
things to do, said James Danckert, a
cognitive neuroscientist and co-author
of Out of My Skull: The Psychology of
Boredom. Its a combination of mixed-
up emotions that make young people
feel particularly stuck, and an unoccu-
pied mind, that means they dont feel
purpose and arent expressing their
abilities, interests and passions.
John Eastwood, a psychologist and
Dr. Danckerts co-author, said that the
solution must come from the tweens and
that parents alone cant fix it.
But as Mary Mann, the author of
Yawn: Adventures in Boredom, noted,
there is a role for parents: If your
tween isnt engaged in what theyre do-
ing, you can help them figure out what
will work. Be a creative collaborator instead of
the boss to help kids locate their
strengths and talents. Ms. Mann sug-
gested asking your tween, What
sounds good to you right now? or
When you let your mind wander, where
does it go? I believe that boredom is a gift, said
John Spencer, an assistant professor at
George Fox University in Oregon, a con-
sultant for Parent Lab which offers
online courses for parents and a fa-
ther of three tweens. Research shows
that when peoples minds wander or
when they do rote, meaningless activi-
ties, it is a natural path to creativity. To encourage creativity, Mr. Spencer
has been intentionally incorporating
boredom into his tweens days during
the coronavirus shutdown and continu-
ing into the summer. We split their time
into four-hour slots, he said. One is a
genius hour, where my kids learn some-
thing new, like coding, a language or an
instrument. Theres also a maker hour,
where they create something: a story, a
podcast, a craft, and up to an hour of
chores and an hour of physical fitness.
What we found is they incubate ideas
during their chores that help them come
up with projects, like building pinball
machines out of stuff around the house,
Mr. Spencer said. Even if you dont want to practice in-
tentional boredom, here are several
boredom-busting, mood-boosting tac-
tics from the experts.
When tweens complain, instead of
telling them what to do, share your ex-
perience and let them make decisions
accordingly, Dr. Eastwood suggested.
So say something like, When I feel
bored, what worked for me was to do a
few minutes of deep breathing to get
centered. They may roll their eyes, but
they cant argue, because you arent dic-
tating their actions.
Encouraging your tween to go for activi-
ties that help with healthy flow
when you are immersed in something to
the point you lose track of time can
help, Dr. Danckert said. So, reading a
book, making a vision board, journaling,
sketching or knitting works. Aside from
flow, to beat boredom, an activity
should challenge you, while allowing
you to problem-solve within your abili-
ties (like playing chess or a scavenger
hunt), Dr. Danckert added. What does-
nt work: passive entertainment like
binge-watching YouTube or Netflix.
Boredom is associated with a sense of
time passing more slowly than normal.
Part of what we are taking away during
the pandemic is the looking-forward-to-
the-future aspect of life, in the form of
trips or camp, Ms. Mann said. So add-
ing something new to the schedule that
brings in mystery, or discovery like
doing an impromptu TikTok dance com-
petition, eating outdoors for a change, or
learning a new game like Pickleball
can provide a positive rush to the brain.
When tweens are being creative, avoid
attaching pressure to the outcome. If
your tween is creating a board game,
writing a poem or painting and it doesnt
come out perfect, that is fine, Ms. Mann
said. Teach tweens to enjoy the
process, rather than attach importance
to the final product. For tweens who spent much of their
pre-pandemic lives running from one
activity to the next, it can be a challenge
to discover what actually engages them.
Perhaps a bit of boredom will be a
springboard to permanent insight.
Doing something new that
brings in discovery can provide
a positive rush to the brain.
with your
bored tween Be more than the boss.
Be your childs creative
collaborator instead. BY ESTELLE ERASMUS
I learned the secret to making the best,
crunchiest fruit crumble over two dec-
ades ago. And I subsequently ignored it. A pastry chef friend shared the tech-
nique. Instead of sprinkling the raw
crumbs on top of the fruit, where they
absorb the juices and turn a little mushy
on their undersides, he spread them out
in a pan and baked them separately, un-
til crisp and cookielike. When fruit and topping finally meet,
the crumbs are much better able to hold
their own. The parts touching the syr-
upy filling may get slightly soft, but the
rest of the mound becomes an irresist-
ible, audibly crackling crust. I didnt have a very good reason for
ignoring this smart move for so long.
Somehow, that extra step just seemed
cumbersome. Plus, traditional fruit
crumbles are stupendously delicious,
even if the topping is a little squishy. It
had never been a priority to experiment
with something already so satisfying.
This year felt different. I had more
time around the house (like, all my time)
to play around with methods like baking
crumble topping separately. So I did.
And Ill never go back. Spreading the
crumbs out on a baking sheet and pop-
ping them in the oven for 15 minutes
adds only a small amount of work.
The payoff is huge. Most of the top-
ping stays discrete, rather than melding
into the filling, offering a crunchy, cinna-
mon-scented contrast to all that jammy
fruit. Even better, the sugared fruit still
bubbles up as it bakes, pooling into glori-
ously sticky puddles amid the pebbly
crumbs. And its a perfect vehicle for ice cream or whipped cream, which melts
into a sauce, especially if you serve the
crumble warm. As with any crumble, you can use
whatever fruit youve got on hand, even
frozen fruit, though the juicier, the bet-
ter. Then, make sure to bake the crumble
long enough so that the fruit filling
comes to a profuse simmer at the edges of the pan. This shows that the corn-
starch has been activated enough to
thicken the juices, turning them supple
and silky.
You can bake the crumbs a couple of
days ahead, but the crumble is best
baked on the same day you serve it.
Thats when the topping is at its crispi-
est which is, after all, the point.
How to get your crumble to crunch
For the Topping: 1½ cups/190 grams all-purpose flour
½ cup/50 grams rolled oats
cup/75 grams light or dark brown
cup/65 grams granulated sugar
¼ teaspoon kosher salt
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
½ teaspoon ground cardamom,
ginger or allspice, or use lemon
½ cup/115 grams unsalted butter (1
stick), melted and cooled
For the Filling: 2to 5 tablespoon light brown sugar
(or granulated sugar), depending
on the sweetness of the fruit
2 tablespoons cornstarch
8 cups mixed berries (fresh or
frozen), or cubed peaches, plums,
nectarines, apricots, or pitted
sweet cherries (or a combination)
Ice cream or whipped cream, for
serving 1. Heat oven to 350 degrees.
2. Make the topping: In a large bowl,
whisk together flour, oats, sugars, salt and
spices. Stir in butter. Using your hands,
squish mixture until coarse crumbs form.
Some should be about ½-inch in size,
some smaller.
3. Spread topping in one layer onto a
rimmed baking sheet. (You dont have to
grease it first.) Bake until crumbs are solid
when you gently poke them, and are
fragrant, about 15 minutes. They wont
change appearance very much. Transfer
baking sheet to a wire rack to cool while
you make the filling. (Crumbs can be
baked up to 2 days ahead and stored in an
airtight container at room temperature.)
4. Prepare the filling: In a large bowl,
whisk together sugar and cornstarch until
well combined. Add fruit and gently toss to
coat with the sugar mixture. Pour filling
into an ungreased 2-quart gratin dish or
10-inch cake pan, mounding the fruit in
the center.
5. Spoon crumbs over filling and place the
crumble dish on a rimmed baking sheet to
catch any overflowing juices. (You can use
the same baking sheet you cooked the
crumbs on.) Bake until filling bubbles
energetically around the edges, about 55
to 65 minutes. Let cool slightly. Serve
warm or at room temperature with ice
cream or whipped cream, if you like.
Crumble can be made up to 8 hours ahead
and kept at room temperature, or warmed
up briefly in a 350-degree oven.
hostel in Prague, as many as 30 guests
and staff would sit together for a family
meal. Songs from English and Austral-
ian musicians like Arctic Monkeys, Ru-
fus Du Sol and Gang of Youths would
stream from the speakers. Playing
rounds of beer pong or Devils Dice a
twist on Kings, the cards-based drinking
game was the tradition before outings
to the citys bars and clubs. Now, MadHouse is quiet, more like a
museum, one filled with memories of
more boisterous days. And while it offi-
cially reopened in late May, the party
hostel had hardly any guests: Bookings
were mostly for July and onward.
Its not going to be a normal sum-
mer, said the co-owner Kraig Cooper,
who opened MadHouse in 2012. Hostels around Europe have sat quiet
and empty the past few months, without
the roars and chatter that make these
accommodations landmarks in their
own right. But as the continent emerges
from monthslong lockdowns, and travel
restrictions are lifted, hostels are re-
opening their doors. Owners and managers must now do
the math on how to operate post-lock-
down without subtracting sociability
arguably one of a hostels most impor-
tant factors. Like many in the travel in-
dustry, they are encountering a new
world with new challenges. And they are doing so just as the Eu-
ropean Union updated its travel restric-
tions banning American tourists, who
make up 18 percent of the overall tour-
ism market to Europe.
Hostels draw particular crowds of
people: backpackers and budget trav-
elers for whom globe-trotting is as much
about the people youre meeting and the
money youre saving as the place youre
visiting. While the primary market has
always been the young, hostels attract
all demographics. In recent years many
have made concerted efforts to appeal
to families, as well as solo and younger
travelers. A 2017 study by the WYSE Travel Con-
federation estimated that nearly 100
million travelers stayed in hostels glob-
ally. Particularly for Europeans, Canadi-
ans and Australians, backpacking and
hostel-going are a rite of passage. For many, hostels present a kind of
freedom, the opportunity to experience
the world in an affordable way. And the
price point isnt the only draw. What
makes a hostel worth the gym mats
moonlighting as mattresses or the bunk
mate who snores so very, very loudly
are the people you encounter. Hostels
are built on the idea of community and
sharing, from the rooms to the road.
Travelers never know from one day to
the next who theyll meet or where they
might end up. Which is why social distancing in a
hostel is the exact opposite of what
youre meant to do. We want to bring people together.
We want to give them a good time, said
Tina Sarajlic, 35, manager of Swanky
Mint Hostel in Zagreb, Croatia, which
accommodates around 90 people at full
capacity. Now you have to be so careful,
like who can go where and how close. Disinfectant and hand sanitizer are
now a common sight around hostels.
Dorms that once slept as many as 12 or 15 people will now bunk half as many,
with guests distributed across top and
bottom bunks to ensure theres several
feet of distance between them. Whether
masks are required indoors depends on
local ordinances.
Another obstacle: Shared spaces like
the common areas and the kitchen,
which serve as meeting points and a
means of saving money. Amsterdams
ClinkNoord hostel features a cafe, bar
and even a dance room. At full capacity,
it sleeps up to 800 guests, spread across
a variety of room options. Now, in an ef-
fort to maintain social distancing across
its grounds, much like many other pub-
lic buildings around the globe, it has
markings on the floors (even the dance
floor) to measure out appropriate dis-
tances between people and directional
arrows to steer foot traffic.
At The Yellow Hostel in Rome, no
more than three people can be in the
kitchen at a time, and guests have to
maintain social distance elsewhere in
the building. Though theyve tried to
match their signage to the hostels de-
sign aethestics, Fabio Coppola, a co-
founder of Yellow, said the environment
isnt quite the same. It looks like an air-
port, he said. As hostel owners cross their fingers
that backpackers will soon be coming
through again, theyre also thinking
about what the seasons ahead might
look like and how the pandemic might
alter other aspects of the hostel experi-
Veronika Karac and her husband are
the owners of Caveland, a hostel on the
Greek island of Santorini. At Caveland,
Ms. Karac helps organize tours, offers
yoga classes and plans group dinners at
local restaurants, among other things.
But she wonders: Will restaurants do
group dinners? If they do, theyre likely to forgo the tapas-style servings, giving
customers their own plates. Thats not the way we eat in Greece,
and our aim is to show how it looks like
in Greece when Greeks go out, she said. Other hostels are faced with the same
challenge. In the months they were
closed, many did what other businesses
around the globe did: Connect with oth-
ers through social media. Linda Mar-
tinez, who, with her husband, owns The
Beehive in Rome, conducted some
classes on Instagram and Facebook, in-
cluding storytelling events, but as they
begin ramping up for business again,
Ms. Martinez is wondering: When and
how will they keep offering their cook-
ing classes? Classes used to draw as
many as 15 guests.
We like to socialize through food and
conversation, so we used to really enjoy
our dinners, Ms. Martinez said. One re-
cent guest did ask about classes, but The Beehive isnt offering them at the mo-
ment. Theyll likely run at half-capacity
to ensure people are properly distanced. Yet smaller hostels like Ms. Mar-
tinezs have a greater ability to pivot to
the new normal. They dont need to be
fully staffed as they wait for tourism to
tick up. The Beehive isnt a party hostel,
and very rarely does it have hordes of
guests lounging on top of one another in
the common room.
At a time of year when they usually
have as many as 50 guests per day,
theyre getting one booking every few
days. We can kind of fly by the seat of
our pants right now, she said. We dont
have to have a business plan. Some hostels are thinking about how
to appeal to domestic travelers. At The
Beehive, Italians account for maybe 5
percent of their guests, and they always
book private rooms, so Ms. Martinez is
examining other markets. We have been looking into long-term
stays, Ms. Martinez said, adding that
theres a spot on the website for those
who might be looking to stay for a few
weeks or more. Among those who are trickling back
into hostel life is Tomas Polansky, a 23-
year-old university student from Slo-
vakia who has been studying in the
Netherlands. This past semester was
the hardest of his life, he said. He was
cooped up in his dorm, studying day and
night. After finishing his exams, he
headed to Germany to visit a friend, be-
fore traveling to Amsterdam for a vaca-
tion. Hed always stayed in hostels before.
Normally, I am fine if I go to a room
where there is 12 or 14 people, he said.
But because of the virus, he wanted to go
with a safer option. He looked at
Airbnbs, which were too expensive for
him and more difficult to find, and hos-
tels, mostly their private room options. For his first night in Amsterdam, he
did book a dorm room the smallest
available, with just six beds. When he ar-
rived at the hostel, it was about mid-
night. He was given his own room in-
stead, because there was someone else
in the dorm, and the hostel had so few
guests. Mr. Polansky could see a sprawl-
ing common room, a cool bar, lots of
books and games, like chess and table
tennis. The only thing missing were the
people. If it was normal time, thered be peo-
ple drinking, hanging out, he said. But
there was no one. The lights were off.
Hostels try to adapt to the Covid era
Will travelers still stay
in places built on idea of
sharing and sociability? BY ALEXANDRA E. PETRI
Above, a hand-sanitizing station at the
reception desk of the ClinkNoord Hostel
in Amsterdam. Left, The MadHouse
hostel in Prague reopened in May, but had
few bookings until this month. JULIA GUNTHER FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES