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but we found one another regardless,
and thats when you become Black.Besides fueling heated debates over
racism, the killing of George Floyd by a
police officer in Minneapolis has under-
scored the emergence of a new way of
thinking about race in the public dis-
course in France, a nation where discus-
sion of race and religion has tradition-
ally been muted in favor of elevating a
colorblind ideal that all people share the
same universal rights. That ideal has often fallen short in re-
ality, especially as French society has
become more diverse and discrimina-
tion has remained entrenched, leading
some to wonder whether the universal-
ist model has run its course. Today it is being challenged perhaps
most vociferously by the many Black
French who have gone through a racial
awakening in recent decades helped
by the pop culture of the United States,
its thinkers, and even its Paris-based
diplomats who spotted and encouraged
young Black French leaders a decade
ago. To its opponents, Black and white, the
challenge to the universalist tradition is
perceived as part of the broader Ameri-
canization of French society. This chal-
lenge risks fragmenting France, they
say, and poses a threat far more central
to the modern republics founding prin-
ciples than familiar complaints about
Growing up in France, Maboula Souma-
horo never thought of herself as Black.
At home, her immigrant parents
stressed the culture of the Dioula,a Mus-
lim ethnic group from Ivory Coast and
other West African countries. In her
neighborhood, she identified herself as
Ivorian to other children of African im-
migrants. It was only as a teenager years af-
ter the discovery of Whitney Houston,
Michael Jackson, The Cosby Show
and hip-hop made her dream of being
cool like African-Americans that she
began feeling a racial affinity with her
friends, she said. We were all children of immigrants
from Guadeloupe, Martinique, Africa,
and we are all a little bit unlike our par-
ents, recalled Ms. Soumahoro, 44, an
expert on race who lived in the United
States for a decade. We were French in
our new way, and we werent white
French. It was different in our homes, the encroachment of McDonalds or Hol-
lywood blockbusters.
Even those Black French who have
been inspired by the United States also
consider America to be a deeply flawed
and violently racist society. In France,
people of different backgrounds mix far
more freely, and while Black people oc-
cupy fewer high-profile positions than in the United States, like all French citi-
zens they enjoy universal access to edu-
cation, health care and other services.
When I consider both countries, Im
not saying that one country is better
than the other, said Ms. Soumahoro,
who has taught African-American stud-
ies at Columbia and now teaches at the
Maboula Soumahoro, who has lived in both France and the United States, said that France and the United States are two racist societies that manage racism in their own way.
Rejecting a colorblind ideal
with a push from the pop
culture of Black Americans
BY NORIMITSU ONISHI A Black Lives Matter protest in Paris. A group of protesters raised a banner calling for
justice for Babacar Guèye, a Senegalese man fatally shot by the police in 2015.
When Julia Zaher, the owner of a com-
pany that makes some of the most popu-
lar tahini in Israel, made a donation to
an Israeli gay rights group recently, she
saw it as an unremarkable act.When I see people in a tough place, I
always like to help them, Ms. Zaher, 65,
an Arab citizen of Israel, said in an inter-
view. If everyone turns their back on
this community, who is going to help? But after the gay rights organization
publicly thanked her, the backlash in Is-
raels socially conservative Arab com-
munity was swift and unforgiving. Activists called for a boycott of her
company, Al Arz. Videos circulated on
Facebook and Twitter of Arab shopkeep- ers pulling tahini sesame-seed paste
popular in Mediterranean and Middle
Eastern cuisines made by Al Arz from
their shelves and throwing it in the
garbage. An executive at one of the larg-
est Arab-owned grocery chains in Is-
rael, Al Mashadawi, said it was consid-
ering dropping Al Arz from its 14 stores.
We have values that we follow, said
Jabr Hejazi, a supermarket owner in the
northern town of Tamra who abruptly
stopped carrying the brand. Its a sim-
ple matter. But gay rights activists say the con-
troversy has had the welcome side ef-
fect of focusing attention on a group
whose problems have been ignored for
too long: gay and transgender members
of Israels Arab minority, who say they
are discriminated against and margin-
alized twice over. This is a huge event, said Khader
Abu-Seif, 33, an L.G.B.T. rights activist
in Tel Aviv. Of course, were seeing ugli-
ness, but were also seeing support from
people who never spoke out openly for
us in the past.
Gay rights donation spills into food fight
Israeli tahini company
becomes flashpoint of
a struggle, and of hope
BY ADAM RASGON If everyone turns their back on this community, who is going to help? said Julia
Zaher, the Israeli Arab owner of a tahini producer, whose company faced a boycott.
SAMAR HAZBOUN FOR THE NEW YORK TIMESThe New York Times publishes opinion
from a wide range of perspectives in
hopes of promoting constructive debate
about consequential questions. The Trump administration is consider-
ing a sweeping ban on travel to the
United States by members of the Chi-
nese Communist Party and their fam-
ilies, according to people familiar with
the proposal, a move that would almost
certainly prompt retaliation against
Americans seeking to enter or remain in
China and exacerbate tensions between
the two nations.
The presidential proclamation, still in
draft form, could also authorize the U.S.
government to revoke the visas of party
members and their families who are al-
ready in the country, leading to their ex-
pulsion. Some proposed language is also
aimed at limiting travel to the United
States by members of the Peoples Lib-
eration Army and executives at state-
owned enterprises, though many of
them are also likely to be party mem-
bers. Details of the plan, described by
four people with knowledge of the dis-
cussions, have not yet been completed,
and President Trump might ultimately
reject it.
While the president and his campaign
strategists have been intent on portray-
ing him as tough on China for re-election
purposes, Mr. Trump has vacillated
wildly in both his language and actions
on the Chinese government since taking
office in 2017. He has criticized China on
some issues, particularly trade. But he
has also lavished praise on President Xi
Jinping, pleaded with Mr. Xi to help him
win re-election and remained silent on
or even explicitly approved of repres-
sion in Hong Kong and Xinjiang.
There are practical issues as well. The
Chinese Communist Party has 92 mil-
lion members. And if the ban extends to
family members, it could affect nearly
three times that figure. Almost three
million Chinese citizens visited the
United States in 2018, though the num-
bers have plummeted because of the co-
ronavirus pandemic and the current ban
on most travelers from China. The U.S. government has no knowl-
edge of party status for a vast majority
of them. So trying to immediately iden-
tify party members to either prevent
their entry or expel those already in the
United States would be difficult. The presidential order would cite the
same statute in the Immigration and
Nationality Act used in a 2017 travel ban
on a number of predominantly Muslim
countries that gives the president power
to temporarily block travel to the United
States by foreign nationals who are
deemed detrimental to the interests of
the United States. The 2017 ban was
fought in the courts and expanded this
year. Such a broad ban would be the most
U.S. weighs
broad ban
on travel
from China
Measure aimed at people
linked to Communist Party
could affect 270 million
Ive made a few
condolence calls during the past few
months. None of the people I called to
condole about had died of Covid-19. I
was always given another reason. It started with the death of an uncle
two months ago. I called to condole with
my cousin. We had not spoken in more
than a decade. My uncle was in his 80s,
and I thought itd be a life-well-lived
type of conversation, but soon it turned
into a detailed and uncalled-for denial:
My dad, your uncle, didnt die of
Covid-19, my cousin said. My uncle had tested negative; he died
of a heart attack, I was told. I hadnt
even mentioned the C-word.
I managed to get
in my life-well-
lived bit and hung
Since then I
have seen a pat-
tern: I have made
a half-dozen calls,
the subject of my
condolences were
five men and one
woman, between
the ages of 31 and
82, and without my
ever mentioning the subject, I was told,
It wasnt what you think. There was one exception: A friends
father died and my friend told me his
father had died of Covid-19 but that the
family was trying to cover that up. My friend is a doctor who has lived
and worked in the United States for the
past three decades. When I called him,
he told me about the circumstances of
his fathers death: His father was in his
late 70s and like many, many Pakistanis
had chosen to believe that either the
new coronavirus is a hoax or it would
shy away from good Muslims.
My friends father had been socializ-
ing in his neighborhood of Karachi and
offering his prayers in public, going into
the mosque through the back door
when, for a time, people his age were
banned from visiting. He fell sick, was
hospitalized, tested positive for the
virus and died a couple of days later. This was in early May, around the
time that the funerals of people who
were dying of Covid-19 were being
managed by the local authorities rather
than relatives, because some members
of the medical community believed then
that the dead could infect the living. My
friends relatives had to bribe the police
to get the body, and although initially
they tried to hide the cause of death, the
news leaked. There were people coming to con-
Whats with
Mohammed Hanif
Contributing Writer
Some Pakistanis
wont say that
they are losing
family members
to the pandemic
because they
dont want
to bury the
bodies alone.
, PAGE 11 Wo
rdplay , eve ry da y. The N
ew York Times Crossword is the upside to downtime . It’
s the smar t way to fill the breaks in your day . Start playing . ny
Y(1J85IC*KKNSKM( +,!"!$!?!} Issue Number
No. 42,716
Andorra 4.00
Antilles 4.00
Austria 3.80
Belgium 3.80
Bos. & Herz. KM 5.80
Britain £ 2.40 Cameroon CFA 3000
Canada CAN$ 5.50
Croatia KN 24.00
Cyprus 3.40
Czech Rep CZK 110
Denmark Dkr 35Egypt EGP 36.00
Estonia 3.70
Finland 3.90
France 3.80
Gabon CFA 3000
Germany 3.80 Greece 3.00
Hungary HUF 1050
Israel NIS 14.00/
Friday 27.80
Israel / Eilat NIS 12.00/ Friday 23.50
Italy 3.70 Slovenia 3.40
Spain 3.70
Sweden Skr 45
Switzerland CHF 5.00
Syria US$ 3.00
The Netherlands 3.80
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United States $ 4.00
United States Military(Europe) $ 2.20

Ms. Zaher, a mild-mannered, strong-
willed mother of two from Nazareth,
may seem an unlikely catalyst for the
controversy. A schoolteacher for decades, she took
over her husbands tahini business
when he died after a heart attack in
2003. The company was in poor financial
shape, she said in an interview on Satur-
day in Tel Aviv. But she poured herself
into it, paying off debts, persuading the
bank to lend her more money and up-
grading the manufacturing process. Today, her companys two plants in
the Nazareth area produce 20 to 25 tons
of tahini a day. The thick paste they
make from Ethiopian sesame seeds is
nearly ubiquitous at supermarkets and
restaurants in Israel and is exported to
18 countries, including the United
States. And Ms. Zaher became the rare
woman to lead a major Arab-owned
company. No stranger to philanthropy, she had
made previous donations to benefit
womens rights and people with disabili-
The donation she made to Aguda, a
national L.G.B.T. rights organization,
was to help set up a hotline for Arabic-
speaking Israelis.
The groups chief executive, Ohad
Hizki, declined to say how much Ms. Za-
her had given but called it significant.
He said the hotline would be open for
calls by next month. The controversy erupted when Aguda
thanked Ms. Zaher on Twitter on July 1. Mouad Khateb, one of the most promi-
nent opponents of the donation, ex-
pressed the views of many critics, say-
ing that he had no objection to whatever
gay and transgender people do in pri-
vate but that the donation would con-
tribute to normalizing their unnatu-
ral way of life to the Arab public.
Whats most problematic is when Ar-
abs are participating in these efforts,
said Mr. Khateb, who has used deroga-
tory terms to describe members of the
L.G.B.T. community and asserted that
they had psychological disorders re-
quiring treatment. But the boycott has also drawn public
opposition from supporters of gay
rights. Im with Al Arz against the boycott,
Hana Amoury, a resident of the port city
of Jaffa, wrote on Facebook. Those still
saying and thinking gay people are ab-
normal need to do some reading. Mr. Abu-Seif, the activist, noted that
an Arab lawmaker from Acre, Aida
Touma-Sliman, had spoken out in de-
fense of the L.G.B.T. community a
rare instance, he said, and a sign that it
was becoming more difficult for Arab
politicians to remain on the sidelines
when L.G.B.T. people were attacked. Aside from the anti-gay backlash,
some gay Arabs also criticized the dona-
tion because it had gone to an Israeli or-
ganization, which they contend sup-
ports policies that work to erase the Pal-
estinian experience, instead of a Pales-
tinian one. Aguda denies the accusation,
saying it advocates equal rights for all
gay and transgender people in Israel, re-
gardless of their religious or national
background. Al Arzs donation was only the latest
in a series of public demonstrations of
support for Arab gays and lesbians, ac-
tivists say. In May, thousands of mourners at-
tended the funeral of Ayman Safiah, a
gay dancer who drowned in the Medi-
terranean after helping save the life of a
friend. And last August, hundreds of
people protested in Haifa after the stab-
bing of a young transgender Arab. What we have been seeing is the ta-
boo slowly being broken down, said
Fady Khoury, 35, a gay civil rights law-
yer from Haifa. Everything that hap-
pened in the past year is the culmination
of the work that has been done over the
past two decades all the efforts activ-
ists have made to promote social change
on this issue. But Ms. Zaher, whose phone has been
ringing constantly over the past week,
said she was still puzzled by the uproar. I never could have imagined that
something like this would happen, she
said. It doesnt make sense: You do
something positive, and then you get
something negative in return.
gay rights
Activists called for a boycott of Al Arz
tahini after the companys owner made a
donation to an Israeli gay rights group. ARIEL ROSENTHAL
Were seeing ugliness, but
were also seeing support from
people who never spoke out
openly for us in the past.
University of Tours. For me, theyre
two racist societies that manage racism
in their own way.
Most of Frances new thinkers on race
are the children of immigrants from the
former colonial empire. Growing up in
households with a strong sense of their
separate ethnic identities, they gradual-
ly began to develop a shared sense of ra-
cial consciousness in their neighbor-
hoods and schools. Pap Ndiaye a historian who led ef-
forts to establish Black studies as an ac-
ademic discipline in France with the
2008 publication of his book La Condi-
tion Noire, or The Black Condition
said he grew aware of his race only after
studying in the United States in the
1990s. Its an experience that all Black
French go through when they go to the
United States, said Mr. Ndiaye, 54, who
teaches at Sciences Po. Its the experi-
ence of a country where skin color is re-
flected upon and where it is not hidden
behind a colorblind discourse. The son of a Senegalese father and a
Frenchwoman, Mr. Ndiaye is a métis
in the French context, or of mixed race,
though he identifies himself as a Black
His views of the world and himself
were a radical challenge to the French
state. Rooted in the Enlightenment and
the Revolution, Frances universalism
has long held that each human being en-
joys fundamental rights like equality
and liberty. In keeping with the belief
that no group should be given prefer-
ence, it remains illegal to collect data on
race for the census and for almost all
other official purposes. But the unequal treatment of women
in France and of nonwhite people
throughout its colonies belied that uni-
versalist ideal. Universality could work easily
enough when there werent too many
immigrants or when they were white
Catholics, said Gérard Araud, Frances
former ambassador to Washington.
But faced with Islam on one side and
Black Africans on the other, this model
has evidently reached its limits. And so
the debate is that on one side is this uni-
versalism, which is a beautiful ideal, but
on the other is how to say at the same
time that, yes, its not working. Tania de Montaigne, a French author
who has written about race, said that
Black French would fully integrate only
through the rule of law and citizenship.
Emphasizing a racial identity, she said,
would make Black French perpetual
outsiders in a society where the over-
whelming majority aspires to a color-
blind universalism. They say that theres something,
wherever you are in the world, what-
ever language you speak, whatever
your history, this Black nature endures,
said Ms. de Montaigne, 44, whose par-
ents immigrated from Martinique and
the Democratic Republic of Congo. But
thats exactly how you make it impossi-
ble to become a citizen, because there
will always be something in me that will
never be included in society. In the United States, many immi-
grants from Africa, the Caribbean or
Asia develop a shared sense of race and
grow acutely aware of the role of race in America, a country where it is part of the
daily conversation.
Rokhaya Diallo, 42, a journalist who is
also one of Frances most prominent
antiracism activists, said she became
aware of a shared sense of race only af-
ter she became an adult and often found
herself the only Black person in an aca-
demic or professional setting. She grew
up in La Courneuve, a suburb of Paris
known as a banlieue, in a building with
mostly immigrants from Frances for-
mer Southeast Asian colonies. Race was never talked about. But
fleeting images of Black people on
French television struck a chord in Ms.
Diallo, whose parents came from Sene-
gal and Gambia. Like many people of
her generation, she loved a childrens
television series called Club Dorothée.
But she could never forget an episode
a colonial trope in which the host, a
white woman, is boiled alive in a caldron
by three Black men.
Id talk about it with my brother, Ms.
Diallo said. We werent able to put it in
words, but I remember how it annoyed
us cannibals, stupid Blacks, things
like that. By contrast, American shows that
were broadcast later in France, like
The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air or The
Cosby Show, showed Black people who
were comfortable in their skin, Ms. Di-
allo said, adding, The only positive im-
ages of Black people that I saw came
from the United States. Thanks to a U.S. government pro-
gram, Ms. Diallo, who founded an anti-
racism organization called Les Indivis-
ibles in 2007, visited the United States in
2010 to learn about managing ethnic di-
versity in the U.S.
Ms. Diallo is one of several high-pro-
file individuals who took part in the U.S.
program, a fact that has contributed to
fears, especially among French conser-
vatives, of an Americanization of
French society.
The U.S. Embassy in Paris began
reaching out to ethnic and racial minor-
ities in France after the Sept. 11 attacks
as part of a global push to win hearts
and minds. The embassy organized educational
programs on subjects like affirmative
action, a taboo concept in France, draw-
ing nonwhite French audiences for the
first time, said Randianina Peccoud, who oversaw the outreach programs
and retired from the embassy last year.
Ms. Peccoud, who is from Madagas-
car, a former French colony, also identi-
fied grass-roots leaders like Ms. Diallo
in the banlieues often eliciting angry
reactions from French officials and fuel-
ing enduring suspicions. They were afraid that people in the
banlieues would start to be a little aware
of their own situation in French society,
Ms. Peccoud said. The visits to the United States, orga-
nized around themes like community or-
ganizing in Chicago and diversity, also
gave participants an introduction to an
alternative vision of society. Almamy Kanouté, an actor, activist
and leader in the current protests
against police violence in France, vis-
ited the United States in 2011 to learn
about policies toward new immigrants. In Minneapolis, he met a French-speak-
ing man from Laos whose roots were ac-
knowledged despite his becoming an
American citizen in contrast to
Frances assimilationist policies.
Here, they want us to melt into a sin-
gle body and put aside our cultural di-
versity, said Mr. Kanouté, 40, whose
parents are from Mali and who ap-
peared in Les Misérables, the Oscar-
nominated film. With us, thats not pos-
sible. Were French, but we dont forget
what makes us whole. For younger Black people in France,
awareness of race partly grew out of the
work of the older generation. Binetou
Sylla, 31, a co-author of Le Dérangeur,
a book about race in France, said that
she vividly remembers buying Mr.
Ndiayes The Black Condition, which
helped established Black studies in
France, and that she had devoured it. Another co-author, Rhoda
Tchokokam, 29, grew up in Cameroon
before immigrating to France at the age
of 17. While her racial awareness
emerged in France, it evolved in the
United States, where she went to study
for two years, watched all of Spike Lees
movies and discovered the works of Toni
Morrison and Black feminists like An-
gela Davis and Audre Lorde.
When I started meeting Black peo-
ple in France, I started broadening my
outlook a little, Ms. Tchokokam said. I
still didnt think of myself as Black be-
cause thats a long process, where today
I define myself as Black politically. Back
then, I started becoming aware and
when I arrived in the United States, its
in fact there that I was able to put it in
A racial awakening in France
Aurélien Breeden and Constant Méheut
contributed research.
Above, Almamy Kanouté, an actor and
leader in protests against police violence.
Right, Rokhaya Diallo, who founded an
antiracism organization, visited the
United States in 2010 to learn about
managing ethnic diversity in the U.S.
1 929-2020
BY MICHAEL ASTOR Thereza de Orléans e Bragança at her home in Rio de Janeiro. The photo was taken for
a 1954 Life magazine article that described her life with her first husband.

Finishing her 15th year as chancellor of
Germany, Angela Merkel, the European
Unions longest-serving and most re-
spected leader, now has her last, best
chance to shape the future of the bloc
and her own legacy.With her long tenure winding down,
she and Germany have assumed the un-
ions rotating presidency, which lasts
through the end of the year, at a moment
when the bloc is badly divided over a co-
ronavirus recovery plan, a new seven-
year budget and threats to the rule of
law in eastern member states.
Ms. Merkel was to face her first big
test on Friday, when she and other lead-
ers were scheduled to convene their
first in-person summit meeting in Brus-
sels since the coronavirus outbreak took
hold in Europe five months ago. With a
sense of urgency, they will try to hash
out a consensus on how best to help Eu-
ropean nations clobbered by the virus. Expectations for Ms. Merkels leader-
ship are high. But while this may be her
final act, many expect the same cautious
pragmatism and reluctance to take bold,
transformative steps that have charac-
terized her time in office and her re-
sponse to past European crises. As a politician, Ms. Merkel, soon to be
66, remains, as ever, deliberately
opaque, allowing many to imagine her
support for their own preferred out-
comes. But as much as she is committed
to the European Union, she has consis-
tently sought that sweet spot where
German and European interests align,
guided by German public opinion and
her own careful personality. While she has understood in the cur- rent crisis that the European economy
needs a rescue, she is also keenly aware
that Germany needs a strong European
economy for its own continued prosper-
That, as much as anything, led her to
break new ground with France by back-
ing pooled debt among E.U. members to
stave off the economic crash of the pan-
demic what she last week called the
greatest test the European Union has
ever faced. The proposal grants worth 500 bil-
lion euros, or about $570 billion, for re-
gions hit hardest by the pandemic
represented a reversal of the fierce Ger-
man opposition to collective European
debt. Some hailed her move as a sea
change, one that would seal her legacy
as a Europeanist, much as Helmut Kohl
is remembered for his support of the
euro currency.
But others are skeptical, instead see-
ing a unique and typically pragmatic re-
sponse to a crisis that threatened the
European single market and thus the
German economy. Ms. Merkel, who tends to say what
she means, has made it clear that such
largess was a one-off. Germany has moved a lot, said Dan-
iela Schwarzer, the director of the Ger-
man Council on Foreign Relations in
Berlin. Germans were always ready in
the presidency to put a bit more on the
table, but without the virus, there would
have been no revolution in the budget.
Ulrich Speck, a senior fellow at the
German Marshall Fund in Berlin, said
that Ms. Merkel remained true to her-
self, and that she was shifting only be-
cause Germans, deeply embedded in
the European Union, want to help those ravaged by the pandemic, especially in
Italy and Spain.
For her, this does not really change
the European Union, and public opinion
is behind it, Mr. Speck said. This is not
controversial; this is crisis manage-
ment. What would be controversial
would be a permanent change of struc-
ture. But others, especially European fed-
eralists in France and Italy, dare to be-
lieve Ms. Merkel harbors secret sympa-
thy for deeper European integration
and prefer to see her as breaking a ta-
boo. Even if that were true, with her time in
office coming to an end, any more per-
manent shift in policy would have to
come from her successor, and few be-
lieve that the current band of potential
chancellors would have the political
weight, let alone the desire, to repeat the
But first she must get a deal, which
will not be simple, given that all 27 mem-
ber countries must agree.
There is significant opposition from
northern European nations like the
Netherlands and Austria, which oppose
grants and want loans to come with con-
ditions about structural change in
weaker economies. And there will be a
fight over how the money is distributed
and monitored. Still, given the stakes, Ms. Merkel is
likely to succeed at finding some agree-
ment if not this week then before the
end of the month, when Europe goes on
vacation, even in a crisis. She has made clear that she will not
run for office again, and by the end of
this year, when Germanys European
presidency ends, her party will have
picked a new leader, rendering her a
placeholder before German elections in
Within Germany, Ms. Merkel had a
deep and lasting dip in popularity fol-
lowing her 2015 decision to open the
countrys borders to thousands of mi-
grants and refugees. As she entered this
year, her political powers were waning, her partys support was cratering and
even her health seemed in question af-
ter a series of shaking episodes at public
In Europe more broadly, her reluc-
tance to stand up to domestic pressure
during the Greek euro crisis of the last
decade cost the bloc dearly. Many, par-
ticularly in the southern countries, have
never forgiven her. But the chancellor is riding high again
in Germany, having handled the coro-
navirus outbreak with patience and rea-
son, building on her experience and her
training as a scientist. And there are now lavish hopes in
Brussels that she will similarly rise to
the moment, finding consensus despite
the current rancor.
But Ms. Merkel is still seen as a hold-
over of an older Europe, one that prof-
ited from friendly relations with the
United States, a healthy trans-Atlantic
relationship, a strong NATO and a
global consensus about the virtues of
multilateralism and of engagement with
a rising China. Those bedrock beliefs are now in
question. As much as she is praised for
her steadiness, there is a deep sense in
Europe that she is yesterdays leader,
her core beliefs no longer a given in a
more rivalrous, competitive world.
The pandemic has provided an oppor-
tunity for her to change the narrative. It
created political space for her to push
Germany in a more European direction,
said Simon Tilford, of the Forum for a
New Economy in Berlin. This is an opportunity to ensure her
legacy as a chancellor who bit the bullet
and convinced Germans that its in their
interest to accept greater responsibility
for the performance of the European
economy as a whole, he said.
But her prospects for success are un-
clear particularly without a successor
in place. Its a pity she didnt use her po-
litical capital earlier, Mr. Tilford said.
Because shell be gone, and the jury is
very much out on how much of her party
is happy to move with her.
Over 15 years in office, Chancellor Angela Merkel has consistently sought that sweet spot where German and European interests align.
Merkels closing act BRUSSELS
German leader can seal
her European legacy with
a pandemic recovery plan
This is not controversial; this is
crisis management. What would
be controversial would be a
permanent change of structure. This years startling heat across much of
Siberia would have been all but impossi-
ble without climate change influenced
by humans, researchers have con-
The scientists looked at two recent ex-
amples of exceptional heating in Sibe-
ria, one long-term and the other more
brief. The first was the overall rise in
temperature across the region from Jan-
uary to June, which was more than nine
degrees Fahrenheit above average tem-
peratures recorded between 1951 and
1980. The second was the astonishing
spike on June 20 that put temperatures
at the Russian town of Verkhoyansk at a
reported 100.4 degrees, which the Rus-
sian Meteorological Service said is a
record for temperatures anywhere
north of the Arctic Circle. In their analysis, the scientists said
climate change had made the prolonged
heat event 600 times as likely to occur as
it would have been without climate
change. In a statement, Andrew
Ciavarella, the lead author of the re-
search and senior detection and attribu-
tion scientist at the Met Office, the na-
tional meteorological service for Brit-
ain, called the result truly staggering. For all practical purposes, said
Friederike Otto, acting director of the
Environmental Change Institute at the
University of Oxford and an author of
the paper, you would not have gotten an
event like this without climate change. In a world without climate change, the
prolonged Siberian heat wave would oc-
cur less than once every 80,000 years,
which is not anything you reckon with
or are expecting to see in anyones life-
time, Dr. Otto said. Even under current
climate conditions, such prolonged
warming could be expected to recur less
than once every 130 years. The research, conducted by scientists
from universities and government me-
teorological agencies in Germany, the
Netherlands, Russia, Switzerland and
Britain, employs the techniques of the
emerging field of rapid attribution sci-
ence, which involves computer models
and rich troves of data to determine how
much of a weather phenomenon may
have been caused by human activities
that have generated planet-warming
greenhouse gases. The scientific initia-
tive, known as World Weather Attribu-
tion, has found human fingerprints on
disasters like Australias brush fires and
the drenching rainfall from Hurricane
Harvey. The Siberia research has not yet been
submitted for peer review. The heat in Siberia has produced con-
ditions both hellish and bizarre, with
spreading wildfires, ravening mosqui-
toes and destabilized permafrost that
caused infrastructure damage including
a burst fuel tank that released about
140,000 barrels of diesel fuel into a river.
The Siberian fires have put more
greenhouse gases into the Earths at-
mosphere than in any other month in 18
years of data collection, according to one
report. Zeke Hausfather, a climate scientist
with The Breakthrough Institute who
was not involved with the paper, said
that the new research underscored the
changes in the frequency of extreme
weather events under climate change.
What was a one-in-100-year event a
century ago, would be a one-in-20- or a
one-in-10-year event now, he said.
While the Siberian heat is unusual today,
if high greenhouse gas emissions per-
sist, by the end of the century this years
horror story could be an average sum-
mer in Siberia, he said.
The temperatures in the region dur-
ing the long hot spell would have been at
least 2 degrees Celsius, or 3.6 degrees
Fahrenheit, lower if it had occurred in
1900 instead of today. By 2050, the re-
searchers said, the temperature in-
crease in the Siberian region since 1900
could be between 4.15 and 12.6 degrees
As for the single-day June 20 spike at
Verkhoyansk, the researchers noted
that it is hard to quantify the influence of
climate change with as much statistical
confidence as the effect on long-dura-
tion heating. The high one-day tempera-
ture, the scientists said, was made many
thousands of times more likely than
such an event would be without climate
change. In a briefing with reporters this week
about the study, Sarah F. Kew of the
Royal Netherlands Meteorological In-
stitute said that the Siberia findings are
among the strongest results of any at-
tribution study so far. She added that without strong action
against climate change, we have little
time to stabilize global warming at the
levels called for in the Paris climate ac-
cord, limiting the temperature rise to
two degrees Celsius since the beginning
of the industrial age. In his statement, Dr. Ciavarella said,
This research is further evidence of the
extreme temperatures we can expect to
see more frequently around the world in
a warming global climate. Importantly,
an increasing frequency of these ex-
treme heat events can be moderated by
reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Study links Siberian heat
to global climate change
European researchers look
at a prolonged pattern and
one exceptional incident
Among the fires accompanying the extraordinary Siberian weather was this one in the
Yakutia region in June. Fires have released a large volume of greenhouse gases.
and has destabilized permafrost.
Jen Reid had never marched in a Black
Lives Matter protest before she took to
the streets of Bristol, England, on June 7.
By the end of that angry day, she had
clambered up to stand in the place of a
17th-century slave trader whose bronze
statue had been pulled down and
dumped in the citys harbor. The image of Ms. Reid, her fist
clenched, her right arm thrust upward
in a gesture of defiance, spread widely
on social media. For many, it seemed the
perfect replacement for the merchant,
Edward Colston a flesh-and-blood re-
buke to the traders cruel legacy, which
still hangs over modern Bristol. At dawn on Wednesday, Ms. Reid was
up there again in the form of a resin-and-
steel sculpture by Marc Quinn. A promi-
nent British sculptor known for his pro-
vocative works, Mr. Quinn said that
when he saw the image of Ms. Reid on
the plinth, he sensed the opportunity for
an act of guerrilla art. He got in touch with Ms. Reid and pro-
posed that she pose for a sculpture that
he would install where the Colston stat-
ue had stood. Working with a team of 10 people, Mr. Quinn swiftly erected the
piece without the approval of city au-
She created this iconic image, Mr.
Quinn said in an interview. Im just am-
plifying the moment she created. He said he viewed the sculpture as a
complement to the protests, one that he
hoped would provoke debate about
how we commemorate people in stat-
ues. While he said he did not expect city
officials to leave the work in place per- manently, he hoped they would leave it
long enough to prompt a conversation.
Ms. Reid, who works as a fashion styl-
ist, said she found it surreal to have an
artist memorialize her spontaneous de-
cision to climb up on the plinth, a mo-
ment she recalls with a mix of exhilara-
tion and fear. Looking back on that mo-
ment, it just gives me goose-pimples,
she said. Even before that moment, Ms. Reid
said she had misgivings about going to
the march. She is taking care of aging
parents, and was worried about the risk
of contracting the coronavirus. But her
outrage at the murder of George Floyd
by the police in Minneapolis overrode
her trepidation, she said, and she de-
cided to go. Ms. Reid and her husband, Alasdair
Doggart, listened to speeches before
joining a march to the site of the Colston
statue. After they watched the crowd
tear it down and dump it in the water, the
couple returned to the empty plinth,
where helped up by Mr. Doggart
she stood on the plinth and posed. It wasnt as easy as it looked, be-
cause it was a lot higher than I thought it
was, Ms. Reid said. My legs were jelly.
It was a slow rise, but when I stood up
and raised my fist, the crowd cheered
like crazy. The debate over what should perma-
nently replace the Colston statue has
percolated since last month. Historians
have suggested a statue of Paul
Stephenson, a Black activist who orga-
nized a successful boycott of a Bristol
bus company in the 1960s. A mannequin
of Jimmy Savile, the disgraced BBC tele-
vision host dressed in a blonde wig
and neon tracksuit was placed on the
plinth for a few days. As for the statue of Colston, Bristols
mayor, Marvin Rees, ordered it fished
out of the harbor and stored for safe-
keeping while the public debates what
to do with it. It is likely to end up in a
local museum that has an exhibition
about Bristols links to the slave trade.
Mr. Rees has gotten plenty of other
suggestions already.
Banksy, the elusive street artist who
became famous for his graffiti paintings
on the sides of buildings in Bristol,
posted a sketch on Instagram of a pro-
posed memorial depicting Colston in the
act of being toppled, with protesters tug-
ging on ropes around his neck. Ms. Reid said she had no idea how
long the city would let the statue of her
stay in place. Not long, it turned out.
Workers removed the resin-and-steel
statue of Ms. Reid at dawn Thursday, 24 hours after it was put up, bringing a
swift curtain down on an act of guerrilla
art that attracted widespread attention
but did not impress city leaders.
I understand people want expres-
sion, but the statue has been put up with-
out permission, the mayor of Bristol,
Marvin Rees, said in a post on Twitter on
Wednesday, soon after the figure was in-
stalled. Anything put on the plinth out-
side of the process weve put in place
will have to be removed. The people of Bristol will decide its
future, Mr. Rees added of the plinth. The Bristol City Council said it would
hold the statue of Ms. Reid at a local mu-
seum for Mr. Quinn to collect or donate
to our collection.
Mr. Quinn, the sculptor, did not have
an immediate response.
For Ms. Reid, a descendant of Jamai-
can immigrants, the debate over the Col-
ston statue symbolized Bristols reluc-
tance to confront the sinister past of one
of its biggest benefactors. Colstons
name is still on a school, a performing
arts center and several other institu-
tions in the city, though some are in the
process of removing it. I walked past his statue every day
for the last five years, she said. Its an
effrontery to have a slave master you
have to walk past everyday.
Protester has her moment replacing a British slave trader
BY MARK LANDLER Jen Reid of Bristol, England, with the resin-and-steel statue depicting her defiant joy
after the bronze of a 17th-century slave trader was pulled from the same plinth in June.

Within 10 days of the British govern-
ments lockdown announcement in late
March, one woman lost all nine of her
cleaning jobs. Another was laid off from
a laundromat after she requested a
mask, and a live-in nanny was fired for
using public transportation on her day
In interviews, the three women said
that they had expected to confront hard-
ships during the lockdown. But as the
economy starts to reopen, they and
other women on the lower rungs of the
economy say they are still struggling,
weighed down by debt accumulated
during the freeze and often facing pay
cuts or forced to do more work for the
same wages. The three have one other thing in
common. They are all women of color, a
group that has long faced economic and
racial inequality in Britain and is now
being hit disproportionately by the fi-
nancial and psychological impacts of the
coronavirus and the disease it causes,
Covid-19, according to a recent study by
a group of British universities and wom-
ens charities. Covid-19 has brought the harsh reali-
ties of pre-existing racial inequalities
into sharp relief, and nowhere is this
more manifest than the disproportion-
ate social and economic impact of
Covid-19 on Black and ethnic minority
women, said Zubaida Haque, the inter- im director of the Runnymede Trust, a
London-based organization advocating
racial equality.
The main reason that people of color
are so vulnerable, experts say, is that
they are more likely to be in precarious
employment or to become unemployed,
making it harder for them to qualify for
government support and to protect
themselves from the virus. Minji Paik, a Korean beautician who
works in a hair salon in East London,
said she made 15 pounds an hour before
the pandemic, about $19 dollars, plus
Now she is making £10 an hour and
has been working longer shifts because
of staff shortages.
My manager says this is temporary
and she will give me more money when
we make money, Ms. Paik said. But ac-
tually, I should be paid more because Im
working inside and risking my health. A government review of the dispari-
ties in the risk and outcomes from the
coronavirus found that death rates have
been higher in Black, Asian and other
minority ethnic groups than in white
groups. The review found that Chinese, Indi-
ans, Pakistanis and other Asians, as well
as Caribbeans and other Black people,
had from 10 percent to 50 percent higher
risk of death than white Britons. Theres often a risk when people
start talking about the underlying
causes of death because of the assump-
tion that the reason is related to genetics
or poor diets, said Bridget Byrne, direc-
tor of the Center on Dynamics of Eth-
nicity at the University of Manchester.
But actually, you need to look at the
wider process of racism and the struc-
turing of race and deprivation.
The precarious nature of the current
labor market is a contributing factor as well, Ms. Byrne said. It makes people
less willing to voice their concerns. They
worry that if they say, I dont feel safe, I
dont think I should be coming in, they
will be the first to be laid off.
Candice Brown, 48, a cleaner who is of
Jamaican descent, said she had lost all
her clients when lockdown measures
were imposed in March. They phoned me one by one to say
dont come, she recalled, referring to
the owners of the nine houses she
cleaned each week in the city of Man-
chester, in northwestern England.
Each call was like a bomb, blasting ev-
ery bit of my livelihood, until I had no
work left.
For two months she tried to navigate
the governments financial support sys-
tem for those affected by the pandemic
and even borrowed money from a friend
to hire an accountant to help. But even-
tually, she found out that she was not eli-
gible for any aid because she lacked the
paperwork to prove her employment
I applied for universal credit, she
said referring to the governments in-
come support program. But I am still
waiting. I havent received a penny.
Even with the easing of the lockdown
measures, Ms. Brown has not been in-
vited back to work because her former
employers fear that she could contract
and spread the virus by working in mul-
tiple households.
I dont know how much longer I can
go on like this, she said. In the first month, I was worrying about how to pay
my rent and my bills. Now I cant sleep
worrying about how to feed my chil-
A survey published by the Fawcett So-
ciety, a womens rights charity, found
that nearly 43 percent of Black and eth-
nic minority women believed that they
would be in more debt than before the
pandemic, compared with 37 percent of
white women and 34 percent of white
men. More than four in 10 of the women
said they would struggle to make ends
meet over the next three months.
Many have jobs that require them to
carry out menial tasks that can be per-
ilous in a pandemic, a recent study by
the Runnymede Trust found. Zuhr Rind, 48, a Pakistani laundromat
worker in East London, was asked to
work the last shift when the pandemic
broke out so that she could wash the uni-
forms of the front-of-house employees,
who collected laundry from clients.
I was not happy about it, but what
could I do? Work is work and I was
afraid to lose my job if I made an argu-
ment, she said. When she asked for a face mask, her
manager chided her, she said. That is pathetic Z, her manager
wrote back in a text message she
showed to The New York Times. Doc-
tors and nurses do not even have
enough masks and theyre still going to
A day later, Ms. Rind said, she was laid
off. When you have brown skin, when
you have an accent and when you dont
have a high education, you dont have
choices, she said. And this is a very
dangerous situation to be in during
Covid. The laundromat where she had
worked did not respond to a request for
comment. Ms. Rind was recently offered a clean-
ing job in a hotel but had to turn it down
because she lives 40 minutes away and,
as a precaution against the virus, the
employer did not want her to take public
transportation. Black and ethnic minority women
also generally have much lower levels of
savings and assets than white Britons,
according to the Runnymede Trust
study. So those who lost their jobs in the
pandemic have had to seek new employ-
ment immediately, meaning some of
them take lower-paid, higher-risk posi-
Verona Pollard, an experienced
nanny and maternity nurse, has taken
up part-time child care work since being
fired from a full-time nannying job, after
her employer found out she had taken
public transportation on her days off.
She was ruthless about it and would-
nt take me back, even when the lock-
down was lifted, she said in a phone in-
terview. Its been brutal since then, Im
just doing odd jobs here and there. In the Fawcett Societys survey, work-
related anxiety was highest among
Black and minority ethnic women, with
65.1 percent of women employed outside
the home reporting that they felt appre-
hensive as a result of having to go to
work during the pandemic.
Ms. Brown, the cleaner in Manches-
ter, said that she was still waiting for her
unemployment benefits to come
through and that she had been borrow-
ing money from a friend and from a for-
mer employer to get by. In recent weeks,
she said, she has become so stressed
and anxious that rashes have broken out
over her body and she has noticed her
hair falling out. I promise you, what I am going
through now is worse than any virus,
she said.
Brixton High Street in South London. According to a recent study, women from Black and ethnic minority backgrounds in Britain are being hurt disproportionately by the financial and psychological effects of the pandemic.
Minority women hit hard by U.K. lockdown LONDON
Facing racial inequality
isnt new, but the pandemic
has increased the strain
In the first month, I was worrying
about how to pay my rent and my
bills. Now I cant sleep worrying
about how to feed my children.
Nearly a month into the coronavirus
lockdown, which began in late March,
Kleon Papadimitriou, a Greek student in
Aberdeen, Scotland, was feeling home-
sick. Restless and with flights to much of
Europe canceled he was looking for a
way home to Athens. His father joked
that he could simply walk, and a light
bulb went on. What if he cycled? I wanted something big, a project for
the year, Mr. Papadimitriou said by
phone this week. What followed was a bicycle journey
across Europe that covered more than
2,000 miles over 48 days, with Mr. Pa-
padimitriou finally arriving home in
Athens late last month. Mr. Papadimitriou, 20, studies electri-
cal and electronic engineering at the
University of Aberdeen, but when
classes stopped, he found himself with a
sudden surplus of time and energy. So, turning the strictures of the pandemic
into an opportunity and motivation, he
began planning his trip by bike across a
coronavirus-hit Europe.
Less than a month later, on May 10, he
was packed and ready to leave Aber-
deen, in northeastern Scotland, with a
handful of essential supplies. Making
the cut: phone, power bank, some tools,
two changes of clothes, a raincoat, a
windbreaker, a tent, sleeping bag, food
for four days and water. A book he had
wanted to bring took up too much space,
so had to be left behind.
In the beginning, he had daily regrets
about his self-inflicted odyssey, he said.
His first day on the road proved trying. My parents did not know where I
was; I started crying, he said. I didnt
know where Id stay for the night. He asked a pizza delivery man, who
directed him to a nearby grove, where
he regrouped, had some food and called
his parents. I learned a lot of things about myself,
about handling myself in difficult situa-
tions, when I have a low morale, and
how important some relationships are,
he said. Besides getting lost, the first days of
his trip were full of difficulties that in-
cluded flat tires, bad weather, and steep
climbs. When he set out, he planned to
cover about 125 miles a day. But he soon realized that such a goal would be un-
likely. Instead, he covered about 75
miles at most in a day.
A week into his journey, he arrived at
a friends house in Leeds, a city in north-
ern England, where he stayed for two
days. He also took his first shower since
leaving Scotland. Departing again was a challenge. I was thinking God, what
am I doing with my life?
he said.
But his spirits lifted when he reached
his first milestone: boarding a ferry
from Britain to the Netherlands, and
crossing his first national border. It was
the point of no return, he said. Four days later, and after staying at campsites, he made it to Germany.
Friends of friends let him stay over,
though most did not want him inside
their houses because of the coronavirus,
so he set up his tent in their gardens. He
was being careful around people too,
wary of getting sick while on the road.
He made it to another important,
milestone: Stuttgart, where his grand-
mother lives.
It was very important to me, it was
like a checkpoint, he said. I hadnt seen
my grandma for so many years, and the
only thing I cared about was, if some-
thing were to happen to me, I didnt
want it to happen before I got to Stutt-
gart. He stayed with her for a week to rest
and refuel, his first time eating a proper
homemade meal after weeks of a mea-
ger diet.
Not long after Germany came Italy,
where businesses were gradually re-
opening after the first wave of the pan-
demic. He had a pepperoni pizza and a
beer in the Italian Alps before heading to
Venice, where he stayed for a day. Then
it was on to Ancona, a seaside city on the Adriatic coast, where he boarded a ferry
to Patras, in the Peloponnese region of
The moment I believed I could make
it was when I boarded the ferry from An-
cona, Mr. Papadimitriou said, adding
that before he had begun his journey he
had estimated that it would take a maxi-
mum of 30 days. That turned out to be optimistic. Mr.
Papadimitriou finally made it to Greece
on June 25, 46 days after leaving Aber-
deen. His parents met him in Patras,
where he was tested for the coronavirus
the result was negative and the
three of them cycled the final stretch to-
gether. On June 27, they arrived home in
Athens. I think that if I had not already done
it, and if someone were to tell me I could
do it, I wouldnt believe it, he said. I
had no idea that I had the patience and
the willpower. He hopes to take another journey
along the same lines or bigger in
the future, he said. For now, he is resting
at home and enjoying a more varied diet
than the foods that sustained him for
much of his 48-day trip. I want to take some time off sar-
dines, he said. I think I liked them be-
cause I was so hungry, but now I dont
even want to look at them.
Homesick student cycles
more than 2,000 miles to
reach his family in Greece
BY ILIANA MAGRA Kleon Papadimitriou rode his bike from Aberdeen, Scotland, to Athens and found it to be
harder than he expected. I was thinking God, what am I doing with my life? he said.
KLEON PAPADIMITRIOU The self-inflicted odyssey was not
without some daily regrets.
A 48-day trek with ups, downs and too many sardines Early in the coronavirus pandemic, re-
searchers found preliminary evidence
suggesting that peoples blood type
might be an important risk factor
both for being infected by the virus and
for falling dangerously ill.
But after looking at thousands of pa-
tients with Covid-19, the disease caused
by the virus, scientists are now report-
ing a much weaker link to blood type. Two studies one at the Massachu-
setts General Hospital and the other at
NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia Uni-
versity Irving Medical Center did not
find that Type A blood increased the
odds that people would be infected with
Covid-19. The new reports do find evidence that
people with Type O blood may be
slightly less likely to be infected. But the
effect is so small that people shouldnt
count on it. No one should think theyre
protected, said Nicholas Tatonetti, a
data scientist at Columbia University in
New York. Reviewing medical records for 7,770
people who tested positive for the coro-
navirus, Dr. Tatonetti and a graduate
student, Michael Zietz, found that peo-
ple with Type A blood were at a some-
what lower risk of being placed on venti-
lators. People who were Type AB were
at a higher risk, but the scientists cau-
tioned that this result might not be reli-
able, because there were so few patients
with that blood type in their analysis. Dr. Tatonetti and Mr. Zietz released
the initial results from 1,559 patients at
the New York hospital in April. Their
larger survey is now under review for
publication in a scientific journal. The other new study, carried out at
Massachusetts General Hospital, offers
a somewhat different picture. The re-
searchers also found that people with
Type O were slightly less likely to get
Covid-19. But blood type did not affect
whether people would have to be placed
on ventilators, or their odds of dying. Anahita Dua, a vascular surgeon at
the hospital and the senior author of the
study, said that blood type was not
something shed consider when judging
the risks faced by patients who tested
positive for Covid-19. I wouldnt even
bring it up, she said.
With this new paper, its probably de-
cided that blood groups are not influenc-
ing the outcome of the disease, said Jo-
ern Bullerdiek, the director of the Insti-
tute for Medical Genetics at University
Medicine Rostock in Germany. Even if blood types dont matter much
for treating people with Covid-19, they
could reveal something important about
the basic nature of the disease. Thats because blood type influences
how your immune system fights against
infections. People with Type A blood
dont make the same kind of antibodies
as people with Type B blood, for exam-
ple. Its conceivable that these molecu-
lar differences in the immune system
explain the purported link between
blood type and coronavirus infections.
Blood type
is dismissed
as risk factor
for Covid-19
People with Type O blood may be only
slightly less likely to get the coronavirus.

President Trump traveled this week to
the political battleground state of Geor-
gia to blast away at one of the United
States cornerstone conservation laws,
vowing to speed construction projects
by limiting legally mandated envi-
ronmental reviews of highways, pipe-
lines and power plants.
One day earlier, on Tuesday, his pre-
sumptive Democratic presidential rival,
Joseph R. Biden Jr., took a different tack,
releasing a $2 trillion plan to confront
climate change and overhaul the na-
tions infrastructure, claiming he would
create millions of jobs by building a
clean-energy economy. The major-party candidates for the
White House displayed in sharp relief
just how far apart they are ideologically
on infrastructure and environmental
matters of vital importance to many
American voters, particularly in critical
battleground states, including Pennsyl-
vania and Florida. Mr. Biden is trying to win over young
voters and supporters of his vanquished
Democratic rival, Senator Bernie Sand-
ers of Vermont, by showing an ag-
gressive awareness of climate change
and promising to move urgently to com-
bat it. At the same time, he has sought to
maintain his promised connection to
white, working-class voters, especially
in the Upper Midwest, who swung to Mr.
Trump four years ago and are leery of
what they see as threats to their liveli-
hood, especially the loss of jobs in the oil
and gas industry. The president, in contrast, is pretty
much where he has been for more than a
decade: alternately acknowledging
global warming and calling it a hoax;
making spurious accusations that wind
turbines cause cancer, energy-efficient
appliances are worthless and zero-
emissions buildings basically have no
windows. At every turn and on every
regulatory decision the administration
embraces business over environmental
Biden wants to massively re-regu-
late the energy economy, rejoin the
Paris climate accord, which would kill
our energy totally, you would have to
close 25 percent of your businesses and
kill oil and gas development, Mr. Trump
said on Wednesday as he announced a
top to bottom overhaul of the National
Environmental Policy Act, a bedrock en-
vironmental law since its passage in
1969. He offered no evidence to back up
his statistics.
When I think about climate change,
the word I think of is jobs, good-paying
union jobs that will put Americans to
work, making the air cleaner for our
kids to breathe, restoring our crumbling
roads, and bridges and ports, Mr. Biden
said on Tuesday as he outlined his plan.
The events captured the two candi-
dates radically different beliefs about
the global threat of the planets warming
and offered a glimpse of how they would
lead a nation confronting a climate crisis
over the next four years. For Mr. Trump,
tackling global warming is a threat to
the economy. For Mr. Biden, its an op-
portunity. They are polar opposites on almost
everything to do with the environment,
but particularly climate change, said
Christine Todd Whitman, the former Re-
publican governor of New Jersey who
headed the Environmental Protection Agency under George W. Bush.
Mr. Bidens plan would spend $2 tril-
lion over four years to put the United
States on an irreversible path to net-
zero emissions of planet-warming gases
before 2050, meaning that carbon diox-
ide and other pollutants would be com-
pletely eliminated or offset by removal
technology. To do that, he called for clean energy
standards that would achieve a carbon-
free power sector by 2035; the energy-
efficiency upgrading of four million
buildings in four years; and the con-
struction of 500,000 electric vehicle
charging stations. He also vowed to
bring the United States back into the
Paris Agreement, reinstate climate reg-
ulations that Mr. Trump has repealed
and put more restrictions on things like
emissions from vehicle tailpipes. Mr. Trump has already moved to roll
back virtually every effort the federal
government made under President
Barack Obama to combat climate
change, like restricting emissions from
power plants and vehicles and curbing
methane from the oil and gas sector. He
even rescinded an Obama-era executive
order that urged federal agencies to
take into account climate change and
sea-level rise when rebuilding infra-
structure. The Trump administrations latest
overhaul to the National Environmental
Policy Act highlighted their differences
still more. The changes completed on Wednes-
day include a limit of two years to con- duct exhaustive environmental reviews
of infrastructure projects. They also re-
voked a requirement that agencies con-
sider the cumulative environmental ef-
fects of projects, like their contribution
to climate change.
Mr. Trump said the current lengthy
process has cost of trillions of dollars
over the years for our country and de-
lays like you wouldnt believe. In past campaigns, candidates have shied away from bold proposals on the
environment, especially on climate
change, but Patrick Murray, director of
the Monmouth University Polling Insti-
tute, said that Mr. Biden has more politi-
cal space to pursue his agenda, amid the
economic and public health crises
plaguing the nation.
With the pandemic shaking up the
core of peoples lives, they are much less
worried about bold and radical change right now, he said, because thats what
they want in some way.
Those political dynamics have freed
Mr. Biden to pursue policies that his al-
lies hope will electrify younger, more lib-
eral voters who were skeptical about
him during the Democratic primaries,
without automatically alienating more
moderate voters, Mr. Murray said. Certainly, Mr. Bidens allies also see
political risks, should he be perceived as moving too far left on issues like natural
gas hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a
practice that is tied to many jobs in
states like Pennsylvania. In contrast to a
number of his Democratic primary op-
ponents, he does not support a total ban
on fracking.
In a call with reporters on Tuesday, Bi-
den campaign officials stressed that his
long-held view on the issue stands: No
new fracking on federal lands. Mr. Trump is betting that his uncom-
promising, unchanging stands will ap-
peal to business-minded voters and peo-
ple who distrust government. But there
is a risk to him, too. Carlos Curbelo, a former Republican
congressman from Florida who has
championed a carbon tax to combat cli-
mate change, said he believes Mr.
Trumps disregard for the issue and his
handling of the coronavirus are becom-
ing linked to part of the broader charac-
ter question. Such character questions resonate
with not just young voters who have re-
jected his stance on climate for quite
some time but also middle-aged and old-
er voters who now in the context of
Covid prioritize leaders who are good
crisis managers, he said.
Mr. Bidens campaign criticized the
presidents gutting of the environmental
policy act as a way to distract from Mr.
Trumps failure to deliver an infrastruc-
ture plan. He has failed to deliver any
real plan to create jobs and instead is
cutting corners to once again ignore sci-
ence, experts, and communities and res-
ervations entitled to clean air, water, and
environments, read a campaign state-
ment. In some ways, the debate over climate
reflects the broader political realign-
ment in both parties that defined the
2016 campaign: Working-class white
voters, especially in rural areas, have
moved farther from their union Demo-
cratic roots to embrace Mr. Trump and
his energy policies, while educated, af-
fluent white suburban voters, once
staunchly Republican, have drifted to-
ward the Democrats and appear in-
creasingly open to more ambitious ef-
forts to combat climate change. Bidens pitch may play well with tra-
ditionally moderate Republican voters
in the suburbs, just as Trumps policy
pronouncements may play well with tra-
ditionally more Democratic-leaning vot-
ers in other parts of the state, more rural
parts of the state, said former Repre-
sentative Ryan Costello, a Republican
who represented the Philadelphia sub-
But pro-business voters may see the
danger of a Biden victory as just as high,
said Scott Jennings, a Republican strat-
egist. A tremendous amount is at stake, he
said. Drastic overregulation and an-
tibusiness regulations could just deci-
mate rural and middle-American econo-
mies already reeling. Scientists said the next four years
could be critical to whether greenhouse
gas emissions from the United States
rise or fall.
We are on a trajectory to a hotter
planet, said Waleed Abdalati, director
of the Cooperative Institute for Re-
search in Environmental Sciences at the
University of Colorado, Boulder. Mr.
Trump and Mr. Biden, he said, repre-
sent two very divergent paths.
A stark contrast on the environment
President rolls back
climate rules as Biden
vows to fight warming
Above, President Trump in Georgia,
where he vowed to speed up infrastruc-
ture projects by limiting environmental
reviews; right, a day earlier in Delaware,
Joseph R. Biden Jr. released a $2 trillion
plan to build a clean-energy economy.
on almost everything to do
with the environment, but
particularly climate change.
provocative action against China by the
United States since the start of the trade
war between the two countries in 2018.
It would further poison U.S.-China rela-
tions, even after several years of open
clashes over economics, technology and
global influence have led some diplo-
mats and analysts to speak of a new cold
war. Officials at the White House, State De-
partment and Department of Homeland
Security have been involved in the dis-
cussion over the ban. Spokesmen for the
White House National Security Council
and the State Department declined to
comment on Wednesday, and one for the
Department of Homeland Security did
not return a request for comment. Officials at those agencies also contin-
ue to debate a variety of formulations
for banning Chinese travel to the United
States short of barring all party mem-
bers, such as targeting only the 25 mem-
bers of the ruling Politburo and their
families. In recent months, top administration
officials have tried to draw a distinction
between party members and other Chi-
nese, saying the party must be punished
for its actions and its global ambitions
must be thwarted. They have loudly de-
nounced what they call the evils of the
Chinese Communist Party, pointing to
the role of its officials in the cover-up of
the initial coronavirus outbreak, the de-
tentions of one million or more Muslims
in internment camps and the disman-
tling of civil liberties in Hong Kong. The Communist Party is both a pow-
erful and mundane part of life in China.
While its leaders maintain control of do-
mestic and foreign policy, those on lower rungs perform functions like supervis-
ing schools and managing neighbor-
hood-level governance. In recent dec-
ades, many citizens joined to get a leg up
in a wide range of sectors: business, ac-
ademia and even the arts. Many party
members do not conform to official
ideology; some are Christians who at-
tend underground churches, for exam-
Many Chinese outside the party
praise the top leadership but complain
about corruption among local officials. Counting party members as well as
their families, the ban could technically
bar travel to the United States for as many as 270 million people, according to
one internal administration estimate.
The overwhelming majority of C.C.P.
members have no involvement or input
into Beijings policymaking, so going af-
ter the entire party membership is like
China sanctioning all Republicans be-
cause of frustrations with Trump, said
Jude Blanchette, a China scholar at the
Center for Strategic and International
Studies in Washington. Such a move
would inflame public opinion in China,
as this would target nearly 10 percent of
the entire Chinese population and would
do so based on blanket assertions of
guilt. Besides the iterations of the 2017 trav-
el ban, the Trump administration has es-
tablished other entry restrictions. This
year, during the pandemic, it has
banned entry for most citizens of China
as well as those from the European Un-
ion and some other nations. And last
month, it blocked employment visas and
extended restrictions on issuing green
cards, moves that would keep as many
as 525,000 foreign workers out of the
United States for the rest of the year. The State Department has also an-
nounced visa restrictions on various
categories of Chinese citizens. These in-
clude officials responsible for the mass
internment and surveillance of Muslim
ethnic minorities in the Xinjiang region
and journalists working in the United
States. In May, American officials said the
government was canceling the visas of
graduate or higher-level students in the
United States who had ties to certain
Chinese military institutions the first
ban on a category of Chinese students,
who make up the largest group of inter-
national students in the country. After Mr. Trump signed the Hong
Kong Autonomy Act on Tuesday, the
State Department was expected to pro-
pose names of Chinese officials oversee-
ing repression in Hong Kong for visa
and economic sanctions.
And on Wednesday, Secretary of State
Mike Pompeo announced a ban on some
employees of Chinese technology com-
panies, including Huawei, that provide
material support to regimes engaging in
human rights abuses globally. He added, Telecommunications
companies around the world should con-
sider themselves on notice: If they are doing business with Huawei, they are
doing business with human rights
Despite Mr. Trumps admiration for
Mr. Xi, national security officials have
tried to push tough policies on China
that are designed to counter what they
view as dangerous expansionist actions
by Chinese leaders and agencies. The
pandemic and Beijings recent actions
on Hong Kong have helped push rela-
tions between the two nations to the low-
est point in decades. At the same time, some of Mr. Trumps
top economic advisers have promoted a
softer approach to China, warning of
further damage to the world economy
and falling stock markets. Those advis-
ers and allies among American execu-
tives are likely to oppose a broad visa
ban on Communist Party members,
some of whom do business with Ameri-
can corporations.
A broad ban would give the State De-
partment new powers to block top Chi-
nese political and business leaders and
their families from entering the United
States. (Mr. Xis daughter, Xi Mingze, at-
tended Harvard University under a
pseudonym several years ago.) It would
also allow the department to formalize a
process by which American officials
could inquire about party status during
visa application interviews and on
forms. Under the draft proclamation, the Department of Homeland Security
would share responsibility for carrying
out the ban.
Several Chinese citizens who have
traveled to the United States in recent
years said they did not recall any ques-
tions on visa applications asking if they
were party members. Language in the draft proclamation
stresses recent egregious behavior by
China, in particular theft of intellectual
property by Chinese state actors and so-
called exit bans used by security offi-
cials to prevent some U.S. citizens from
leaving China. On Tuesday, the Trump administra-
tion reversed course on an order that
would have subjected international stu-
dents to deportation if they did not phys-
ically attend classes during the pan-
demic, after American universities filed
a lawsuit. Still, the administration has
stood by its visa actions focused more
narrowly on China. The Chinese govern-
ment has continued with its own harsh
visa actions and even widened them to
the nonrenewal of work permits for
Western journalists in Hong Kong. At a speech in Beijing this month,
Wang Yi, the foreign minister of China,
said the China-U.S. relationship was fac-
ing its most severe challenge since the
normalization of diplomatic ties in 1979. Some say that China-U.S. relations
will not be able to return to its past, he
said. But that should not mean ignoring
the history altogether and starting all
over again, let alone impractical decou-
pling. It should mean building on past
achievements and keeping pace with
the times.
Julian E. Barnes contributed reporting.
Morning rush hour in Beijing. A broad travel ban would be the most provocative U.S.
action against China since the start of the trade war in 2018.
have tried to draw a distinction
between party members and
other Chinese.
U.S. considers ban on entry by Communist Party members

Glowing purple and scarlet in fading af-
ternoon light, the geological marvel that
is the Grand Canyon, the crown jewel of
Americas national park system, draws
more than six million visitors from
around the globe in a normal year and
fuels the economy of Arizona.
But now, with Arizona leading the na-
tion in coronavirus infections per capita,
pressure is mounting to close Grand
Canyon National Park and other na-
tional parks in states across the South
and the West that have experienced
spikes in their number of cases. As
locked-down Americans clamor to re-
turn to the outdoors and families seek
out safe vacations from limited options,
the national parks could become the lat-
est battleground in the fight over re-
opening. When the pandemic took hold in the
United States this spring, many local
public health officials demanded that
the parks close, arguing that the mil-
lions of tourists they attract endangered
vulnerable people in adjacent towns and
tribal lands, often remote places with
hospitals miles away. With little guidance from Washington,
where President Trump has from the
start resisted virus-related closures, in-
dividual parks and local health officials
devised their own strategies on the fly.
Grand Canyon National Park was shut
down on April 1. The park partially reopened in time
for summer tourist season. But now in-
fections are surging in the states that
host the nations most-visited natural
wonders, and the countrys 62 national
parks are struggling with how to safely
allow visitors while preventing out-
breaks. With Mr. Trump, who called for
parks to reopen in late April, still urging
swift reopenings of schools and other
businesses, public health officials and
park rangers worry it could prove diffi-
cult to close the parks again if necessary. The countrys parks were surging
with popularity even before the pan-
demic locked Americans in their homes.
Last year, the National Park Service
logged 327.5 million visitors, the third-
largest annual crowd, behind those in
2016 and 2017. While attendance has fallen in many
parks because of the shutdowns
Grand Canyon National Park officials
estimated that its daily number of vis-
itors could be cut in half many people
are still making the trip. At Cades Cove,
a popular section of the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park in Tennessee,
weekend visitation in May was 54 per-
cent higher than the same month last
year even though the park was closed
for some of that time.
In some ways, the parks provide a ref-
uge from the pandemic. Experts say the
risk of catching the virus is much lower
outdoors. Camping offers a cheap, so-
cially distanced vacation for families,
and some parks are in sparsely popu-
lated areas with fewer cases.
But as the virus infiltrates more sec-
tions of the country, some lawmakers
are questioning the decision to keep
parks open, even partially. I felt all along that the public health
rationale for closing these places, which was obvious to everyone, was overrid-
den by the symbolic need to have some-
thing open, said Representative Raúl
Grijalva, Democrat of Arizona and
chairman of the House Natural Re-
sources Committee.
On May 15, Mr. Grijalva, on behalf of
the committee, sent the Interior Depart-
ment a detailed request for the safety
criteria it would apply to reopening na-
tional parks. The Interior Department
replied two weeks later, calling the re-
quest overly broad and unreasonably
burdensome, particularly at this time. Its the same situation in all the
parks, Mr. Grijalva said. The adminis-
tration trying to shoehorn political and
economic considerations into its deci-
sions, and the public health taking a
back seat to those discussions. In a statement, the National Park Service defended parks decision to re-
main mostly open: With the support of
Department of the Interior and National
Park Service leadership, park superin-
tendents are making decisions to mod-
ify operations for facilities and pro-
grams based on federal and state public
health guidance.
Parks have revised operations to bet-
ter protect visitors and people living in
adjacent communities. In Utah, Zion
National Park is reducing the number of
visitors by instituting a first-come, first-
served ticketing system. In California,
Yosemite National Park is taking limited
reservations. Grand Canyon National
Park has closed some entrances, shops
and visitors centers, and restricted Col-
orado River trips to protect hard-hit Na-
tive American communities nearby.
Still, crowds inevitably gather. On a visit to Yellowstone National Park last
month, Lynn Bacon, 61, a biologist from
Bozeman, Mont., was surprised to see
hundreds of people clustered together
waiting for Old Faithful, the parks most
famous and punctual geyser, to erupt.
We were being cautious because ev-
erybody is there: Texas, Floridians, Cal-
ifornia, Wisconsin, said Ms. Bacon, re-
calling the out-of-state license plates she
saw. She estimated that 1 percent of the
visitors she saw were wearing masks. It probably feels to many people that
its a safe haven here, she said. But
people are bringing it here, she added.
Tens of thousands of people have vis-
ited Yellowstone since the park began a
phased reopening on May 18. To prevent
outbreaks, the park is testing both its
employees and the wastewater system
for signs of the virus. While the park has not been a source
of a known outbreak, Dr. Travis Riddell,
the health officer for Teton County, Wyo.,
which includes much of Yellowstone as
well as Grand Teton National Park, said
an increase in cases very much corre-
lates with the onset of tourist season
here. He recently proposed a mask order
for indoor public spaces that was
adopted by Jackson, Wyo. The mandate
did not apply to federal land, partly be-
cause of confusion about whether he
had jurisdiction. Dr. Riddell said he
would absolutely like to see a mask or-
der for indoor spaces in the parks.
I see it as a way for us to keep our
economy functioning, he said.
In Texas, where new cases are surg-
ing, the season has been marred by fits
and starts for Big Bend National Park, an 800,000-acre mountain and desert re-
gion on the Mexican border.
Like other parks, Big Bend shut down
this spring as many states issued stay-
at-home orders. For Bob Krumenaker,
the park superintendent, that decision
proved far easier than weighing what to
do after reopening the park again on
June 1.
The park, which employs up to 14
emergency medical technicians, has
one ambulance, and the closest hospital
is nearly two hours away in Alpine,
Texas, a city of 6,000. Given those vul-
nerabilities, Mr. Krumenaker said, park
officials developed a strict framework
for triggering another closure. On July 1,
park officials announced that they had
met the threshold after a staff member
tested positive for the virus. The park
shut down again for at least two weeks,
and on Wednesday, the closure was ex-
tended for at least several more days. There is a huge burden on me to
make as wise a decision as I can, Mr.
Krumenaker said. I fully accept the re-
sponsibility of this job, which involves
making these really tough decisions.
But there is no playbook. The tricky balance of weighing health
and economic impacts is acute at Grand
Canyon National Park, which is in Coco-
nino County, a sprawling region of
143,000. The park and the tourist econ-
omy it creates provide 12,000 jobs in the
county, said Elizabeth Archuleta, the
chairwoman of the countys Board of Su-
pervisors. The park closed on April 1 after
county health officials suggested, then
demanded, that it do so as infections in
the park and county began rising. The
park began a phased reopening in late
May for the Memorial Day holiday. As coronavirus cases skyrocket in Ar-
izona, Gov. Doug Ducey, a Republican
and close Trump ally, has taken a series
of half-measures on closures and has re-
jected a statewide mask order. Ms. Archuleta said she needed Wash-
ington to give the county the flexibility
to close Grand Canyon again, should
cases begin spiraling out of control.
Were here in the West and the deci-
sion makers are in the East, Ms.
Archuleta said. Making sure local offi-
cials advice is being heeded thats the
As of this week there are about 30 co-
ronavirus cases in the ZIP code that en-
compasses Grand Canyon National
Park and the nearby town of Tusayan.
There is no way to track how many tour-
ists have the coronavirus or were ex-
posed to it while visiting the park.
The coronavirus presents challenges
for Grand Canyon emergency medical
workers, who are short-staffed and han-
dle calls inside and outside the park.
They said they were still awaiting fund-
ing from the Coronavirus Aid, Relief,
and Economic Security Act, signed by
Mr. Trump on March 27, to hire four or
five more medical professionals.
Rangers encourage hikers on the can-
yons narrow trails to wear face masks
but are powerless if they refuse to com-
ply. Andrew Sprutta, a ranger patrolling
the South Kaibab Trailhead last week,
estimated that about 10 percent of the
visitors he had seen wore masks. On the
Bright Angel Trail the day before, half of
hikers had been masked. It is both the joy and the danger of vis-
iting here, he said, that everyone is wel-
come to do as they wish.
U.S. national parks grapple with virus outbreak
Elizabeth Williamson reported from
Grand Canyon National Park, Ariz., and
Sarah Mervosh from Canton, Ohio.
Mitch Smith contributed reporting from
As cases soar in the West,
conflicting needs confront
rangers in tourist season
Most of Americas national parks have at least partially reopened, including Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona, above. Below left, Old Faithful erupting at Yellowstone Na-
tional Park, in Wyoming. Below right, fireflies in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee and North Carolina. The Smokies had a surge of visitors in May. ADRIANA ZEHBRAUSKAS FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
Nikki Wilkerson, growing up in rural
Pennsylvania, was used to thinking of
herself as the small brown girl. She said she has been eyed skepti-
cally while out shopping and questioned
by the police for no clear reason at all.
But she had resigned herself to keeping
quiet about racism, which her white
friends never seemed to notice, even
when it happened right in front of them.
Nobody around Chambersburg, a town
in the south-central part of the state,
ever talked about any of this. Its just
what it was. And yet there one afternoon in early
June, right in the middle of the county
seat, she happened upon it: a crowd of
white people demanding justice for
Black lives. They would be joined by
Black high school students, children of
Latino farmworkers, gays, lesbians,
queer, transgender, whatever, Ms.
Wilkerson, 34, said. This was not the
Chambersburg I grew up in. I had no
idea. All of these people are just coming
out of the woodwork. The sight was inspiring, she said. But
also frustrating. Why werent we doing
this a long time ago? Black Lives Matter could be responsi-
ble for the largest protest movement in
U.S. history, after demonstrations back-
ing the movement sprang up in count-
less cities and small towns following the killing of George Floyd by the Minne-
apolis police in May. While the street
protests have now tapered off in most
places, newly minted activists in small
towns are still discussing plans for new
events or standing in the back of other-
wise empty City Council meetings to
make their demands for police reform.
But beyond any policy changes,
which could be slow in coming, a signifi-
cant consequence of recent weeks could
be the realization for many Americans
in small towns that their neighbors are
more multiracial and less willing to be
quiet about things than most people had
assumed. In Lehighton, Pa., a town that is 95
percent white, Montreo Thompson, 26,
pulled a lawn chair into his driveway in
early June and held up a Black Lives
Matter poster. Within days he was help-
ing lead marches in towns all over the
region and also protesting alongside
Black people he had never seen before
some of whom lived down the street.
They were literally walking distance
from our house, and I never knew they
were there. Small-town America has never been
racially or politically monolithic. After
the 2016 election and especially in
places where President Trump romped,
thousands of women who were aghast at
the elections result became politically
active for the first time in their lives,
meeting in library basements and or-
ganizing small but regular rallies. Still,
that movement, powered chiefly by mid-
dle-aged, middle-class women in the
suburbs and exurbs, was in many ways
just a preamble to the mass wave of pro-
tests following Mr. Floyds death. For weeks, protesters in Chambers-
burg gathered on the sidewalk in front of
Central Presbyterian Church, a bronze- steepled landmark dedicated in 1871,
just seven years after the town was
burned by Confederate soldiers. The
Rev. Scott Bowerman, who has been
pastor for eight years, called Mr.
Trumps election an apocalyptic mo-
ment. It was a deliberate word choice,
he said, based in the root meaning of
apocalypse: a revelation.
The 2016 election, Mr. Bowerman
said, revealed that Franklin County,
where Chambersburg sits, was not only
conservative but enamored of a brand of
America-first politics that truly electri-
fied many of the white voters, who un-
furled flags for Mr. Trump in a way they
never had for any another candidate.
Mr. Trump won the county by more than
45 points, 71 to 25 percent. But the election also revealed a silent
minority, long quiet about politics. Many
already knew one another (the usual
suspects, Mr. Bowerman said) but they
began forming overtly liberal groups
Franklin County Coalition for Progress,
Community Uniting, Concerned Citi-
zens of Franklin County planning to
celebrate Pride month, for instance, and
digging into redistricting reform. A new
organization called Racial Reconcilia-
tion began holding discussion groups at
the Presbyterian church, with mostly
white attendees.
But then the George Floyd demon-
strations began. These protesters were
not the Trump faithful, nor were they
members of the so-called resistance. At
first, nobody recognized them at all. I couldnt believe it, said Linda
Thomas Worthy, a founder of Racial
Reconciliation and one of the countys
most outspoken figures on racial issues.
She would drive through downtown dur-
ing the first week of the protests to try to
understand who were all of the people
coming out to denounce racism. I
wanted to see how this unfolds.
The protesters were mostly white but
not exclusively so, not in a town where
more than a third of the students in the
local schools are minorities. Lexi Ley-
dig, 23, who is mixed race and was
raised by a Guatemalan stepfather, was
there, as was Maricruz Cabrera, 26, a
Mexican-American who waits tables
down the street at Falafel Shack. Protests followed in nearly every
town in Franklin County: Shippensburg
up the road, little Greencastle and Mer-
cersburg, and Waynesboro, where a
Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan
showed up to jeer. The politics of the protesters were
deeply eclectic. Many of those at the
demonstrations in Chambersburg were
avowedly apolitical, with little faith in ei-
ther major party or electoral politics at
all. In Shippensburg, a young Black
nursing assistant who announced the
rally there was joined by a Republican, a
libertarian, a Democrat and a young
man who described himself as a radical
Christian, all committed to defunding
the police. The most unexpected champion, per-
haps, has been the Franklin County dis-
trict attorney, Matt Fogal, a Republican.
For weeks he had been stewing, unhap-
py about how partisan the pandemic re-
sponse had become. Then one afternoon
he heard the protest out of his window. Im listening to them out there and
just people honking in support, abso- lutely peaceful, a contrast to some of the
images that we had been seeing, he
said. He sent a statement to local media.
Black lives matter. Period, it said, go-
ing on to urge people to put country over
party in November. The former chair-
man of the local Republican Party called
the statement thoroughly disgusting.
The protests themselves, fueled by
the young and often working class, have
been hard to keep going. A young wom-
an who had taken over the organizing in
Chambersburg soon found her days
growing too complicated, especially af-
ter her mother was suddenly evicted
from public housing. The task of organizing transferred to
a local graduate student, Kristi Rines,
30, who tries to keep a regular appoint-
ment in front of the church, taking me-
ticulous notes about the ratio of honks to
jeers (3 p.m. 4 p.m.; 9 incidents of
backlash, 77 incidents of support) but
often standing by herself in the swelter-
ing heat. Ms. Wilkerson has tried to show up,
but it is hard with children and a full-
time job. She teaches teenagers at a pri-
vate juvenile detention center in the
county, and as one of the few Black em-
ployees, has been among the few who
will talk with the boys there about what
has been happening outside. They heard how theyre changing
names of syrup bottles and theyre can-
celing TV shows, Ms. Wilkerson said.
Her students tell her that they just want
an end to watching my friends get beat
up and watching my uncles and fathers
and brothers get arrested over small
amounts of marijuana. They dont have much faith in the
system changing, Ms. Wilkerson said.
She tells them she hopes it will. Thats
all I can really say.
In Americas small towns, protests reveal diversity
Newly minted activists
realize their neighbors
arent who they expected
BY CAMPBELL ROBERTSON In June, protesters of many political leanings and ethnicities gathered in Chambers-
burg, Pa., but life in a pandemic has made it hard to keep demonstrations going.

The first half of the year was not kind to
the 737 Max. Boeing froze production of
its beleaguered plane from January
through much of May, as customers can-
celed hundreds of orders, and deals for
hundreds more were put at risk by de-
lays in the planes return to the skies and
the coronavirus pandemic.
But Boeing is back at work on the
Max, and if it passes regulatory scru-
tiny, the plane could fly again as soon as
the end of the year. When it does, it will
return to an industry that has been ham-
mered by the coronavirus and faces a
yearslong recovery. The Max crisis has already wrecked
Boeings bottom line. The plane was
grounded in March 2019 after 346 people
died in crashes in Indonesia and Ethi-
opia that were attributed to faulty flight-
control software. In January of this year,
the U.S. aerospace manufacturer said it
expected the grounding to cost more
than $18 billion, which didnt account for
the ruinous effect the pandemic would
have on airlines. In April, it announced
plans to cut about 16,000 jobs, or a tenth
of its work force, because of the pan-
demic. Boeing said this week that its
customers had canceled 373 Max orders
in the first six months of the year. An ad-
ditional 439 are considered at risk, in-
cluding nearly 100 that Norwegian Air, a
struggling low-cost carrier, recently
said it no longer planned to buy.
Boeing still has several thousand
pending orders for the Max, but ana-
lysts expect that number to shrink
somewhat as more customers back out
of deals. And even though the company
plans to increase production of the jet
and other 737 variants to 31 planes per
month sometime next year, that is about
half the rate Boeing had aimed for be-
fore the Max was grounded. Globally, airlines are losing hundreds
of millions of dollars by the day, and
most experts predict it will be two to five
years before the industry carries as
many passengers as it did in 2019. After
the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the United
States and the financial crisis a decade
ago, airlines recovered before the over-
all economy, according to Boeing, which
expects the opposite this time around.
In the United States, a limited recov-
ery in domestic travel has stalled in re-
cent weeks as virus infections have
soared and states and cities have re-
imposed restrictions on travel and busi-
ness activity. And more than a third of
the worlds passenger planes over
8,000 aircraft remain parked and un-
used, according to Cirium, an airline
data firm.
Yet experts said the 737 Max would
survive because many airlines still saw
value in it as they fought for what few
passengers remained. Its not phenomenal, but I dont think
its all that dire for the Max, despite
Covid and everything else, said Sheila
Kahyaoglu, an aerospace and defense
analyst with Jefferies, an investment
bank. It may seem misguided for an airline
in the midst of a major crisis to buy a tar-
nished jet that costs tens of millions of
dollars, but experts say there is good
reason many companies like Southwest
Airlines and American Airlines will
stick with the Max. The plane can offer
substantial savings on fuel and mainte-
nance that are even more valuable in
lean times. Other airlines might find it
difficult to walk away from orders they
have already placed and will reluctantly
go through with purchases. A new plane can last a generation, and
the Maxs efficiency matters a lot be-
cause fuel can account for about a fifth of
an airlines operating costs. Boeing says
the plane uses at least 14 percent less jet
fuel than its predecessors. That could
yield double-digit increases in profits for
airlines, said Vitaly Guzhva, a professor
of aviation finance at Embry Riddle
Aeronautical University. Theres still a
pretty strong business case for the
Max. Southwest, for example, has nearly
750 planes in its fleet, each some version of the 737. If it had been able to replace
part of its fleet last year with the more
than 275 Max jets it hopes to own, South-
west could have saved more than $230
million in fuel costs, according to Dr.
Guzhvas math. Boeing says the plane
offers fuel savings of more than $10 mil-
lion over its 25- to 30-year life span.
Airlines can also point to fuel savings
as an indication of their environmental
stewardship to customers who are in-
creasingly cognizant of air travels con-
tribution to climate change. Others
might just want to apply the money
saved to lowering the price of tickets to
lure business. The jet could yield big savings on
maintenance, too. New planes often
come with warranties, and expensive
engine overhauls are typically needed a
few years after those end, said Robert
Spingarn, an aerospace and defense an-
alyst at Credit Suisse. If the timing is
right, an airline might choose to replace
a plane in need of major repairs with a
Max. When you have a brand-new air-
plane, you dont have to think about that
kind of expense, Mr. Spingarn said.
Theres going to be some that say, Im
sticking with the Max, because the math
works better for me than not taking it.
Strapped airlines could also see an op-
portunity in buying the Max, selling it to
a third party for cash and then immedi-
ately leasing it back. They get an up-
front 10, 15, maybe even 20 million dol-
lars, which helps with liquidity, Dr.
Guzhva said. Delta Air Lines did just that after pas-
senger traffic bottomed out this year.
Between April and June, the airline
raised $2.8 billion by selling and leasing
back planes, it said this week. Delta is
the only major U.S. airline not to use the
Max. By Boeings count, thousands of air-
planes worldwide are at least 20 years
old and may be due for expensive main-
tenance or replacement soon. And air-
lines over the past few months have re-
tired older aircraft, sometimes years
ahead of schedule.
Rather than back away from Boeing,
airlines might also try to negotiate com-
pensation for the planes grounding and
delays in securing the jets. Customers
could demand that Boeing defer deliver-
ies or offer them deep discounts. After
the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, the low-
cost Irish carrier Ryanair reportedly
snapped up 737s at a substantial dis-
count, for example. When asked the
price he paid, the airlines chief execu-
tive, Michael OLeary, demurred: I
wouldnt even tell my priest what dis-
count I got off Boeing.
Industry trends are also on Boeings
side. For years, airlines have been shift-
ing away from wide-bodied planes to-
ward narrow-bodied ones like the Max,
which are easier to fill. And the pan-
demic only seems to be accelerating the
shift. The rebound in air travel, pitiful as
it is, is also being driven by domestic
flights, exactly the kind of short trips for
which the Max was designed.
Contracts are drawn up years in ad-
vance of delivery and can be difficult to
break, experts said. Still, terms vary
substantially by order, so some airlines
may be better positioned than others,
and contracts for the Max may provide
for some renegotiation rights. The Max has a list price of as much as
$135 million for the latest model, but it
can sell for far less: as little as 50 per-
cent of that figure for a large enough or-
der, according to experts. An airline
might pay 1 percent upfront when it
signs a letter of intent and 5 percent
more when it signs a contract, said Eddy
Pieniazek, an airline consultant at
Ishka, a consulting firm. The rest is typi-
cally paid in the year or two before a
plane is delivered. There are companies that stick with
Boeing, and there are companies that
stick with Airbus; you dont often get
people jumping and changing, Mr.
Pieniazek said. There are people who
have bought into the Max story and will
want to fly their airplanes.
The Boeing 737 Max could fly as soon as the end of the year if it receives the necessary
regulatory approvals. But many orders for the plane have been canceled.
Looking to fly again,
but into turbulence
Travel industrys in trouble,
but Boeing hopes to get
the 737 Max back in the air
Globally, airlines are losing huge
sums, and most experts predict
it will be two to five years before
airlines fully recover.
TikTok, the wildly popular social media
app known for its viral dance and lip-
sync video clips, has been embraced by
millions of students, celebrities and
young adults across the United States.
But the companys ties to China could
cripple its existence.
TikTok, owned by the Chinese com-
pany ByteDance, has become the latest
target in the Trump administrations
long simmering security and economic
battle with Beijing. It is now desperately
trying to convince lawmakers and ad-
ministration officials that its allegiance
lies with the United States, not China. The social media company, which a
year ago had virtually no lobbying pres-
ence in Washington, has hired a small
army of more than 35 lobbyists to work
on its behalf, including one with deep
ties to President Trump.
Behind that buildup is a growing
threat to one of TikToks most important
markets. Secretary of State Mike Pom-
peo has threatened to ban Chinese apps
like TikTok, which are downloaded to
mobile phones, over concerns that they
could be used for surveillance by the
Chinese government. Peter Navarro,
the White House trade adviser, called
TikToks new chief executive an Ameri-
can puppet during a Fox Business in-
terview on Sunday and said the admin-
istration would take strong action
against the company and other Chinese
social media apps. A powerful U.S. panel has opened a
national security review into
Bytedances 2018 purchase of Musi-, an app that was merged to form
TikTok. The Committee on Foreign In-
vestment in the United States is examin-
ing whether the merged companies
could give the Chinese government ac-
cess to vast amounts of American data,
including videos useful for training fa-
cial recognition software. And the
Trump administration is weighing ac-
tion against Chinese social media serv-
ices like TikTok under the International
Emergency Economic Powers Act,
which allows the president to regulate
international commerce in response to
unusual and extraordinary threats, peo-
ple familiar with the deliberations say. Speaking to reporters Wednesday, the
White House chief of staff, Mark Mead-
ows, said a number of administration of-
ficials were looking at the national se-
curity risk as it relates to TikTok, We-
Chat and other apps. I dont think theres any self-imposed
deadline for action, but I think we are
looking at weeks, not months, he said.
In the past three months, lobbyists
working on behalf of TikTok have held at
least 50 meetings with congressional
staff and lawmakers, including those on
top committees like commerce, judicia-
ry and intelligence. Those meetings
have included a slick presentation that
includes an organizational chart show-
ing that TikTok does not operate in
China and that most of its top leaders re-
side in the United States and are Ameri-
can citizens. For instance, TikToks new
chief executive, Kevin Mayer, a former
executive of Disney, lives in Los Ange-
les, they said. ByteDance denies that it shares data with the Chinese government, and it is
distancing itself from its roots in the
Communist nation. The company
stressed that TikTok was not available
in China it offers a similar app called
Douyin there instead and said that
user data was stored in Virginia, with a
backup in Singapore.
Theres a lot of misinformation about
TikTok right now, said Michael Becker-
man, vice president and head of U.S.
public policy at TikTok. TikTok is led by
an American C.E.O., with hundreds of
employees and key leaders across
safety, security, product and public pol-
icy in the U.S.
But some members of Congress still
have suspicions. An aide to Senator
Marco Rubio, a Florida Republican who
requested the foreign investment pan-
els review of TikTok, said ByteDance
had provided conflicting information in
a meeting with representatives of Mr.
Rubios office about where its data was
stored, as well as insufficient informa-
tion about how it controls and censors
its content.
It is no coincidence that every day
more companies and organizations are
asking employees to delete TikTok, Mr.
Rubio said in a statement, referring to
moves by Wells Fargo and others to bar
the app from company devices. TikTok
has yet to provide a real explanation to
Americans about how they protect their
data and how much of it could be made
available to the Chinese Communist
Party. The United States provides a crucial
audience for TikTok. American influenc-
ers have global followings, and the app
has become a center of conversation
about politics, the pandemic and racial
inequality. TikTok users claimed credit
for reserving thousands of seats for Mr.
Trumps campaign rally in Tulsa, Okla.,
last month and then not showing up. But it remains a high bar for Byte -
Dance to convince the U.S. government
that it is not susceptible to the directives
of the Chinese government. Mr. Trump
and his top advisers have increasingly
focused on Chinese technology compa-
nies, including Huawei and ZTE, saying
those firms threaten national security
by providing a conduit for China to infil-
trate American technology. The United
States has already barred dozens of high-tech Chinese companies includ-
ing those specializing in supercomput-
ers, artificial intelligence and facial rec-
ognition from gaining access to
American technology products out of
national security concerns.
What the American people have to
understand is all the data that goes into
those mobile apps that kids have so
much fun with and seem so convenient,
it goes right to servers in China, right to
the Chinese military, the Chinese Com-
munist Party, and the agencies that
want to steal our intellectual property,
Mr. Navarro said over the weekend. The issue of whether TikTok should
be curbed in the United States has taken
on new urgency, in part because of In-
dias decision in late June to ban it and
nearly 60 other Chinese apps, a Trump
administration official said. TikTok has
been downloaded two billion times, with
its biggest markets in India, the United
States and Brazil, according to Sensor-
Tower. Last December, the Pentagon ordered
military personnel to delete the TikTok
app from their phones and some admin-
istration officials have argued that the
United States should retroactively block
ByteDances acquisition of,
which could force the company to divest
its American assets, or at least make
changes to the way it moves and stores
data worldwide. The State Department is considering
expanding its so-called clean networks
program to include apps as it tries to
steer foreign governments away from
unsecure Chinese telecommunications
firms in the name of protecting Ameri-
cans private information, according to
officials familiar with the internal dis-
cussions. TikTok would be considered among
those apps, although officials said the
State Department has not yet designat-
ed companies to be included in the ex-
pansion. Whether its TikTok or any of the
other Chinese communications plat-
forms, apps, infrastructure, this admin-
istration has taken seriously the re-
quirement to protect the American peo-
ple from having their information end
up in the hands of the Chinese Commu-
nist Party, Mr. Pompeo said Wednesday
in an interview with The Hill, a Wash-
ington newspaper. He said he had heard from parents ea-
ger to see TikTok banned: Thats for
the parents to decide their kids usage
on their cellphones. Its our task to make
sure that their childrens information
doesnt end up in the hands of the Chi-
nese Communist Party. Officials have also been considering
potential national security risks from
other Chinese internet and social media services, including Tencents WeChat,
which had more than a billion active
monthly users worldwide in the first
quarter of 2020.
These companies cannot claim that
they dont follow the orders of the party,
thats just not credible, said Derek Scis-
sors, a resident scholar at the American
Enterprise Institute who tracks Chinese
investment worldwide. Chinese firms
dont have a choice.
TikTok and the venture funds it
counts as its major investors have tried
to reassure the Trump administration
including Treasury Secretary Steven
Mnuchin, who is in charge of the na-
tional security review panel that it
has walled off its China operations from
other global activities, people familiar
with the conversations said. The firm re-
cently pulled its operations out of Hong
Kong after the city imposed new na-
tional security laws that could bring Chi-
nese-style censorship to residents. Offi-
cials have also raised potential changes
to its corporate structure that could in-
clude moving its global headquarters
during discussions with U.S. officials,
these people said.
The company has added well-con-
nected lobbyists, including Mr. Becker-
man, the former president of the Inter-
net Association and a longtime Republi-
can congressional aide, and David J. Ur-
ban, who ran Mr. Trumps campaign in
Pennsylvania and has been described
by the president as one of my good
friends. He is also a West Point class-
mate of Mr. Pompeo and Mark T. Esper,
the defense secretary. Mr. Beckerman has hired 15 lobbyists
and communications staff for
ByteDance, including aides to Paul
Ryan, the former Wisconsin lawmaker
and speaker of the House, and Repre-
sentative Jim Clyburn of South Car-
olina, the Democratic whip. ByteDance has also tapped its promi-
nent investors for help. General Atlan-
tic, whose chief executive, William E.
Ford, sits on ByteDances board, has
been advising TikTok on lobbying strat-
egy, and SoftBank, which invested in
ByteDance in 2018, has suggested new
Washington hires in the past, said two
people familiar with the matter.
For the first three months of 2020,
ByteDance spent $300,000 on lobbying,
double the amount it spent in the previ-
ous quarter and the equivalent of its two
quarters of lobbying in 2019. TikToks
lobbying force is not as large as those of
other tech giants like Amazon, Face-
book and Google, but the company has
deployed a defensive army with aston-
ishing speed. Efforts to sway lawmakers have not
always gone smoothly. The company
scheduled meetings last December be-
tween the then-head of TikTok, Alex
Zhu, and lawmakers critical of the com-
pany. It then canceled the meetings,
which irritated lawmakers, who
promptly shared news of the canceled
meetings on Twitter. (TikTok told re-
porters at the time that the meetings
were postponed until after the holi-
days.) Mr. Beckermans staff sends a regular
email newsletter to Capitol Hill with up-
lifting stories about TikTok. They have
highlighted fun videos about the Netflix
series Tiger King and clips related to
Covid-19 prevention. But in recent days, they have taken a
more defensive tone. In the newsletter
sent last Friday, Mr. Beckerman high-
lighted TikToks decision to leave Hong
Kong. We put action behind words, he said.
ByteDance, TikToks owner, spent $300,000 on U.S. lobbying in the first three months of 2020. In the past three months, there have been 50 meetings with officials in Washington.
TikToks all-American bid
Raymond Zhong contributed reporting.WASHINGTON
Social media app enlists
lobbyists in Washington to
help calm fears over China
SAMUEL CORUM FOR THE NEW YORK TIMESClockwise from top left: Secretary of
State Mike Pompeo, who has threatened
to ban Chinese apps like TikTok; Kevin
Mayer, TikToks new chief executive; and
Peter Navarro, the White House trade
adviser, who said the Trump administra-
tion would take strong action against
Chinese social media apps.
Every day more companies
and organizations are asking
employees to delete TikTok.

Your phone alarm goes off at 6 in the
morning. You check some news sites
and Facebook. Its bad news after bad
news. Coronavirus cases keep climb-
ing, and so do deaths. Children cant go
back to school. Your favorite restau-
rant and barbershop are still closed.
People are losing their jobs.Everything is awful. The world as
we remember it has ended. Next thing
you know, its 9 a.m. You havent
climbed out of your despair to even
shower. You repeat this masochistic
exercise during your lunch break
and again while getting ready for bed. This experience of sinking into emo-
tional quicksand while bingeing on
doom-and-gloom news is so common
that theres now internet lingo for it:
doomscrolling. Exacerbating this
behavior, shelter-in-place orders leave
us with little to do other than to look at
our screens; by some measures, our
screen time has jumped at least 50
percent. Were not alone, exactly, with so
many of us going through this. Yet
doomscrolling, combined with screen
addiction, could take a significant toll
on our mental and physical well-being,
according to health experts. The activi-
ty can make us angry, anxious, de-
pressed, unproductive and less con-
nected with our loved ones and our-
selves. Its the path of least resistance
to keep consuming passively through social media, said Dr. Vivek Murthy,
the former U.S. surgeon general, who
has written extensively about the
impact of loneliness on personal
health. You have to pull yourself out
of that. Its not just disengaging but
also dealing with the impact that has
on your mind-set, which can often last
for hours.
Fret not: We arent doomed just yet,
and there are approaches to modifying
our behavior. We can create structure
in our lives, for one, and practice medi-
tation techniques, for another. Heres
what the health and wellness experts
People are, by nature, information
consumers, and the news is like digital
candy being dispensed 24 hours a day.
To resist information bingeing, we can
create a plan to control how much we
consume, as people can create a diet-
ing plan to lose weight, said Adam
Gazzaley, a neuroscientist and co-
author of the book The Distracted
Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech
Step 1 is to acknowledge the burden
that doomscrolling creates for our
health, Dr. Gazzaley said. You have to
realize you dont want to live your life
in a hamster wheel of complete news
consumption, he said. Itll take a toll
on you in the way that stops becoming
valuable, and being an informed per-
son is a diminishing return. Step 2 is to create a realistic plan
that you can stick with and repeat until
it forms a habit. Creating a schedule is an effective
approach. Start by making calendar
appointments for everything, whether
mundane activities like taking a walk
outside or business matters like video-
conferencing meetings. Set aside certain times of the day to
read the news, if you must and if it
helps, set a 10-minute timer to remind you to stop scrolling. Another trick is
to wear a rubber band around your
hand while you are reading the news,
and when you believe you are suc-
cumbing to doomscrolling, snap the
rubber band against your wrist, Dr.
Murthy said.
Its also important to rethink breaks.
Before the pandemic, one of our typical
lunch breaks involved browsing Face-
book. With nowhere to go out for lunch
under shelter-in-place orders, brows-
ing the web has become the default
work break, an obvious trap that could
lead to doomscrolling. Instead of staying glued to a screen,
take a stroll around the block, hop on
the exercise bike, prepare your favor-
ite snack. And, yes, set calendar ap-
pointments even for your breaks, Dr.
Gazzaley said.
Exercises in mindfulness can help us
break the cycle of information bingeing
or prevent us from sinking into a dark
place altogether.
Sharon Salzberg, a meditation
teacher and author of the book Real
Change: Mindfulness to Heal Our-
selves and the World, recommended
this exercise to feel more connected
with others in a time when we cant see
many people: First, take some breaths
and think about the people who have
helped you in the past. This could be
your friends, colleagues and even the
restaurant workers bagging your
takeout food.
Then, while imagining these people,
give them positive wishes. For exam-
ple: May you be happy. May you be
peaceful. May you be safe.
Youre gift-giving, Ms. Salzberg
said. Its a different way of relating
and not feeling isolation.
Dr. Murthys book Together: The
Healing Power of Human Connection in a Sometimes Lonely World under-
lined the importance of spending 15
minutes a day connecting with the
people we care about most. That can
help us feel less alone and resist doom-
But how can we connect with people
when we cant easily see them? In the
beginning of the pandemic, many of us
turned to videoconferencing apps to
virtually connect with friends, col-
leagues and loved ones. Now, more
than four months into the pandemic,
many are experiencing Zoom fatigue. Dr. Murthy said he, too, was getting
tired of the neck strain from constant
video calls and had begun shifting
many work and personal calls to the
phone while taking a walk, which lifts
his energy and helps him stay focused. Dr. Murthy also recommended that
people try to form a moai, a Japanese
word for a social support group. This
could be a small group of friends who
regularly convene on the phone, in
video chat or in person at a safe dis-
tance and agree to look out for one
another. He and two friends formed a
moai, and once a month they spend
two hours catching up in frank conver-
sations about personal issues related
to health, relationships and finances. Changing behavior can be tough to
do on your own. So you could even tell
your moai that you want to stop doom-
scrolling, and the group could hold you
accountable. Dr. Murthy said that his moai con-
versation with his friends was coming
up and that he planned to talk about
having a cleaner relationship with
social media because he, too, occa-
sionally gives in to doomscrolling. The idea of carving time out for
people you care about, whether its 15
minutes or more, is all the more impor-
tant in a world where the lines be-
tween day and night, weekday and
weekend, have been erased, Dr.
Murthy said. How to stop bingeing on bad news
Brian X. Chen
Over the past week, social media has
been flooded with videos of knives slic-
ing into ordinary objects only to reveal
that they are actually made of cake.These hyper-realistic cakes have tak-
en the shape of a bottle of hand lotion, a
chicken thigh, a bar of soap, rolls of toilet
paper and human heads. Its unsettling
to see them cut open to reveal their
sweet insides. The trend took off on July 8 after
BuzzFeed Tasty shared a compilation of
videos from the Instagram feed of a
Turkish baker, @redrose-
cake_tubageckil. These are all cakes,
the caption reads, as a kitchen knife cuts
into what first appears to be a red Croc. You try to call for help but the phone
is a cake, one Twitter user replied.
Help arrives, but they are also cake,
replied another. The bizarre intricacy of the cakes, and
the cabin fever of the moment, has
helped the meme spiral into further ab-
surdity. The BuzzFeed Tasty video
amassed nearly 30 million views as peo-
ple began sharing their own disturbing
cake videos. Natalie Sideserf, owner of Sideserf
Cake Studio in Austin, Texas, saw sev-
eral of her cakes go viral as part of video compilations this past week.
Shes been baking hyper-realistic
cakes for years. Ive always called
them still life cakes, she said. Theyre
like a still life painting. I try to make
them as realistic as possible. She said
she has seen an uptick in orders and just
got a request for a shoe cake this week. Viral cake videos sit at the perfect
nexus of satisfying and gotcha con-
tent. Watching a sharp knife slice
cleanly through what appears to be an
everyday object is surprising and some-
how deeply gratifying. The cake videos are similar in form to
soap-cutting videos in which a person
cleanly slices and dices a bar of soap
which can attract millions of views and have been popular for years. (When a
video shows a bar of soap cut in half
it is revealed to be cake, it becomes dou-
bly intriguing and shareable.) The hyper-realistic cake craze is now
part of the pantheon of illogical internet
food jokes. In 2016, a clip from a Japanese game
show titled Candy Or Not Candy, in
which contestants bit into various
household objects to determine what
was made of candy, became hugely pop-
ular. The video shows a man smiling as
he bites off a doorknob that is revealed
to be made of chocolate. It amassed
more than 25 million views. Before that, in 2008, a stop-motion
video by Adam Pesapane called West- ern Spaghetti met similar acclaim; in
it, Mr. Pesapane prepares an absurdist
meal with inanimate objects including a
Rubiks cube and dice, in the style of a
cooking video. It has more than 212 mil-
lion views and is captioned: The stop-
motion cooking film that started them
Another predecessor to the current
cake meme is 2019s unwittingly gross
bigger than before egg video a how-
to craft video in which an egg is dunked
in vinegar and dye over the course of
several days with the result that it is big-
ger (and bluer) than before. (Why
someone might want that remains any-
ones guess.) Don Caldwell, the editor of Know Your Meme, a website that documents
memes, said that part of the reason
these videos spread so far is that theyre
generic enough to appeal to a broad au-
dience and dont carry a particular polit-
ical view, agenda or message.
They can provoke strong reactions
(shock, surprise, disgust, horror) but
the innocuous subject matter easily
leads the viewer back to humor. Plus,
cake jokes are easy to make in any on-
line format. One big meme right now is two astro-
nauts looking at earth from space, and
one says, Its all cake, Mr. Caldwell
said. The other says, Always has been,
looking at earth being cut in two and re-
vealing a cake. Its ridiculous, yes, but confusion fur-
ther propels the joke. People see the
memes and want to know where the joke
came from, Mr. Caldwell said. So then
theyll watch the video, too. Parodies of cake videos are now circu-
lating in which people attempt to slice
things like a piece of paper or a green
Croc only to discover that the objects
are, unfortunately, real. Ms. Sideserf said the No. 1 thing peo-
ple ask about her hyper-realistic cakes
is whether they taste good. I would
never put this amount of time and effort
into something that doesnt taste as
good as it looks, she said. Weve spent
many years spending time making sure
these flavors are delicious. Though many such cakes are made
using fondant, a type of icing made of
sugar, water, gelatin and vegetable
shortening, Ms. Sideserf said she uses
chocolate molds. She can flavor the
modeling chocolate as she likes, leading
to what she says is a tastier product. Now shes in the midst of building a
cake reproduction of her own head and
torso. When I post a picture of myself
online, people are so used to seeing me
post photos of cakes, so they always say,
Is that a cake? or Are you sure its not a
cake? Ms. Sideserf said. Its about
halfway done and it looks like me. Its
staring at me right now. She plans to post a photo of it online to
see if it will fool people, much like her
other cakes have. A lot of people are
saying Im the reason they have trust is-
sues, Ms. Sideserf said.
Social media mesmerized by a pickle. Its really a cake.
Would you like ice cream with, from left, your pickle, sandwich or onion? The sandwich, for example, actually is red velvet cake with cream cheese buttercream icing.
into surprise concoctions
is the latest big meme
BY TAYLOR LORENZ More than 1,000 companies have halted
their Facebook advertising over the
past month as part of a protest over the
social networks handling of hate
speech, with most major industries rep-
resented in the boycott.
The pharmaceutical companies Pfi-
zer and Bayer have joined the anti-Face-
book campaign. So have Microsoft and
Verizon. Other industries that have
joined include apparel (Levi Strauss,
Eddie Bauer), cars (Ford, Honda),
household products (Unilever, Kim-
berly-Clark) and beverages (Coca-Cola,
Starbucks). But one of Facebooks most important
advertising categories movies has
been noticeably silent, even though
stopping hate speech is one of the enter-
tainment industrys longtime causes. As
of Tuesday, only Magnolia Pictures, a
small distributor of foreign films and
documentaries, and the nonprofit Sesa-
me Street had joined what civil rights
groups are calling the #StopHateFor-
Profit boycott. Where is Hollywood? asked Jona-
than Greenblatt, chief executive of the
Anti-Defamation League, during a dis-
cussion on July 2 with The Wrap, an en-
tertainment news site. Its time. Its
time for them to take a stand. Its time
for them to say that Facebook needs to
stop hate for profit.
Im not sure why they are still silent,
Mr. Greenblatt said in an interview.
Youll have to ask them. Netflix, ViacomCBS, Disney, Warner-
Media, Lionsgate, STX and Sony Pic-
tures Entertainment declined to com-
ment for this article or did not respond
to queries.
NBCUniversal, which is owned by
Comcast, said in a statement: We are
actively engaged in conversations with
Facebook across a number of Comcast
NBCUniversal businesses to address
the use of hate speech and other objec-
tionable content on their platform. Our
brands are monitoring the situation, and
each is evaluating its next steps, includ-
ing altering advertising plans, if neces-
sary. The Walt Disney Company was Face-
books No. 1 advertiser from Jan. 1 to
June 30, spending an estimated $212
million more than twice as much as No. 2, Procter & Gamble, according to
the advertising analytics platform Path-
matics. (Procter & Gamble has not pub-
licly joined the Facebook campaign.)
WarnerMedia, ViacomCBS and Lions-
gate ranked among Facebooks top 15
advertisers during that period.
Hollywood is sitting out the boycott
for a simple reason, said Barry Lowen-
thal, chief executive of Media Kitchen, a
media buying agency: They need
Facebook too much and dont want to
make it mad.
Terry Press, a former president of
CBS Films, noted that entertainment
companies tended to be allergic to con-
troversy and move slowly, even when
they wanted to participate. A few other industries banking,
news media, travel are also largely
absent from the boycott list. Senior officials at multiple studios
said they believed they could be more ef-
fective in pushing Facebook to police
hate speech more rigorously by working
through back channels. Besides, they
said, movie studios are not spending
much money on advertising right now
because theaters are closed. A couple of studios said they were al-
ready doing enough on the topic of social
justice, whether by increasing dona-
tions to organizations like the National
Association for the Advancement of Col-
ored People or announcing inclusion-
oriented hiring programs. Other entertainment executives
noted that marketing new movies and
television shows would be difficult with-
out Facebook, which is both a hammer
(huge audience reach) and a scalpel (of-
fering an ability to precisely target con-
sumers). Hollywoods own advertising
channels for instance, Paramounts
buying time on its corporate sibling CBS
to promote a new movie have become
less effective as viewership has eroded. You can now get more reach on an In-
stagram post than through a prime-time
cable spot, Mr. Lowenthal said. Face-
book owns Instagram. Facebook has defended its policies
while also vowing to do a better job of
combating racism and misinformation.
We know we will be judged by our ac-
tions, not by our words, and are grateful
to these groups and many others for
their continued engagement, Facebook
said in a statement last week, referring
to organizations behind the #StopHate-
ForProfit campaign. But leaders of the boycott still are not
satisfied. They have had our demands for
years, and yet it is abundantly clear that
they are not yet ready to address the vit-
riolic hate on their platform, Rashad
Robinson, president of Color of Change,
a civil rights group, said after meeting
with Facebook leaders last week.
Hollywood keeps silent
on Facebook ad boycott
Though its a big advertiser,
it has done little to protest
the handling of hate speech
Its time for them to say that Facebook needs to stop hate for profit, the chief execu-
tive of the Anti-Defamation League said of the Hollywood studios.

Rain fell in New York City four days
before Christmas of 2018. Francis M.
had planned to be in the city that day for
business, but he had dutifully put aside
time when asked to answer questions at
the Archdiocese of New York offices
about his experiences with Uncle Ted
former Cardinal Theodore McCar-
rick.A tall, broad-shouldered man nearing
60 at the time, with blue eyes and steely
gray hair, Francis had been in enough
depositions in his career as an attorney
to know how these question-and-an-
swer sessions went. He assumed he
would relate the story of his interactions
with Mr. McCarrick, which began when
he was 11, and then he would return to
his usual routine.
Mr. McCarricks downfall had been as
dizzying as his rise. Once the arch-
bishop of Washington D.C., and a cardi-
nal who boasted of his close ties to Pope
Francis, Mr. McCarrick had established
himself as a gifted fund-raiser, helping
to found the Papal Foundation, a charity
with a $200 million endowment. But in
2018, his reputation collapsed in a rush
of accusations that he had sexually
abused adult seminarians and a
teenage boy. More accusations fol-
lowed, and in 2019 Mr. McCarrick was
defrocked the first time an American
cardinal had been removed from the
priesthood. Francis who asked me to refer to
him and his family members only by
their middle names and last initials, to
protect their privacy was not sur-
prised, but neither did he feel that the
news had much to do with him. He
wasnt a victim, he thought. He had
never felt like one. He had explanations
for all the times Mr. McCarrick had
insisted that Francis share a bed with him as a boy and for the ways the man
had touched him when he did. Mr. Mc-
Carrick was lonely, Francis had told
himself; plenty of clergymen were. And
Francis had turned out well: A father of
four with a happy marriage and lucra-
tive work, he had little reason to medi-
tate on the former cardinal.
But as Mr. McCarricks case gained
national attention, Francis began dis-
cussing it with his brothers and male
cousins. He told me that in October
2018, one of his brothers reached out to
the Archdiocese of New York, and by
December, five members of Francis
family, all men, had agreed to testify in
the inquiry the Vatican had ordered it to
undertake. An attorney representing
Mr. McCarrick repeatedly declined to
comment on the allegations made in
this article. As of 2019, Mr. McCarrick
still maintained his innocence. I had anticipated that reciting long-
ago facts wouldnt be upsetting, Fran-
cis told me when we first met in January
of last year, at his vacation home in the
frozen Catskills.
But the more I went over in my mind
the experiences I had and what they
really constituted with the perspec-
tive of an older man I really under-
stood for the first time as an adult the
premeditation and cunning that Ted
brought to his predatory activities, right
under the eyes of my parents and aunts
and uncles. Francis said that he was one of five
members of his family who testified
against Mr. McCarrick in the churchs
inquiry. The experience left him shaken.
There were all of the usual questions
victims ask themselves: How had his
parents missed what Mr. McCarrick
was doing, and why had he allowed
younger family members to wander
into the cardinals grasp? How had it
changed him, and could he recover?
And then there were more fundamental
questions: Could a religion whose earthly stewards sinned so cruelly
really be true? Supposing it wasnt, how
could he leave the only church he had
ever known? Supposing it was, how
could he stay?
Established in 1927 in the Throgs
Neck neighborhood of the Bronx, the
church of St. Frances de Chantal came
into its full glory in 1970, when its severe
brick exterior was finally erected be-
neath a tall, spartan cross. In October of
that year, Cardinal Terence Cooke
visited the parish to celebrate a Mass of
Dedication. Francis recalled that Cardi-
nal Cooke brought with him a delega- tion of clergymen
from the Archdio-
cese of New York,
including an up-
and-coming monsi-
gnor by the name of
Theodore McCar-
rick.A parish priest
introduced the
affable Mr. McCar-
rick to the nine
members of the M.
family, Francis,
who was then 11,
told me. Mr. McCar-
rick was 40, a
slightly built man
with an almost elfin
look. He was just back from a four-year
stint as the president of the Pontifical
Catholic University of Puerto Rico and
had recently been made assistant secre-
tary for education in the archdiocese. In
1971, Cardinal Cooke would make him
his personal priest secretary.
Mr. McCarrick soon became a regular
visitor at the M. household, where his
status in the church made him some-
thing of a celebrity. Francis recalled that
Ted always wore his clerical garb,
unlike the more casual clergymen
around town. When Ted came to din-
ner, he was like the candy man, Francis
told me. He would bring souvenirs:
Rosary beads from Fátima, a medal
blessed by the pope, a necklace from the
Philippines. Mr. McCarricks adventures were of
special interest to the M. boys, Francis
said, because the priest had a custom of
taking boys along with him, from their
extended family and from other families
like theirs: working class, devoutly
Catholic, Irish. Francis father had
immigrated from Ireland and worked as
a bus driver, while Francis mother
stayed home with the children. Our
biggest treat was to go to Howard John-
sons for Easter dinner, Francis said, so
Mr. McCarrick was this window to a
whole new world. Francis recalled that Mr. McCarrick
told him that boys could begin traveling
with him at age 13. But when Francis
was 12, a rare family trip to Ireland
happened to coincide with one of Mr.
McCarricks visits to the old country.
During that trip, Francis said, Mr. Mc-
Carrick took him and his brother to an estate owned by a wealthy Irish-Ameri-
can, where they spent the night togeth-
After that, Francis said, traveling
with Mr. McCarrick became a fairly
regular occurrence. According to Fran-
cis, the eagerly avuncular priest took
him fishing in upstate New York, dined
with him at the Tonga Room in San
Francisco, treated him to a visit to the
La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles and
even took him to Walkers Cay, a pri-
vately owned island in the Bahamas. McCarrick introduced the boys as
nephews, Francis recalled, and they
called him Uncle Ted. Ted told us that
these wealthy people were generous to
him, he explained, but they wouldnt
be generous to some random group of
unrelated boys. They had to stick to
the script or he wouldnt be able to bring
us along. Perhaps enlisting the boys in that
ruse was a kind of overture for what
would follow, habituating them to a
climate of silence and fear. Mr. McCar-
rick routinely booked single hotel
rooms, Francis said, and at night Mr.
McCarrick would peel out of his clothes
to T-shirt and underwear, and energet-
ically jump onto a bed, where he would
arrange himself in a cross-legged posi-
tion, usually next to one of the neph-
ews. The familiarity made Francis
uncomfortable: We came from these
typical Irish Catholic, working-class
households. You still shook hands with
your dad. After Mr. McCarricks exu-
berant displays in the evenings, Fran-
cis remembered, he would recruit one of
his traveling companions to sleep in bed
with him. It was hard for Francis to describe
what happened when it was his turn to
sleep in Mr. McCarricks bed, which he
estimated happened a dozen or more
times, starting when he was 12 and
trailing into his early adulthood. Francis
looked down and spoke quietly when he
said that Mr. McCarrick would usually
offer to scratch his back and that he
would sometimes press his body
against Francis and slip his hands
under the boys shirt or slide his fingers
underneath the waistband of Francis
underwear. While Mr. McCarrick was
touching him, Francis said, he would
murmur little entreaties: You have to
pray for your poor uncle, Francis re-
called his saying, as though it were
Francis responsibility to reconcile the
priest to God, even as he lay helpless
and confused against him. Brendan L., one of Francis cousins,
shared a similar account. Ted would
say, when youre old enough, you can
come travel with me, Brendan remem-
bered, and that became a highly antici-
pated privilege. Brendan said he trav-
eled with Mr. McCarrick up and down
the East Coast and occasionally over-
seas. But when night came, he recalled,
the anxiety set in. It was an accepted
norm, nobody talked about it, you just
kind of did it. You would think, Ah, [expletive], its my turn tonight. I was
always very anxious.
In bed, Brendan said, Mr. McCarrick
would be in his underwear, he would
snuggle up to you, put his legs over your
hips, Brendan recalled uneasily. A
couple of times, he slipped his hand
under the back of my underwear and I
kind of slapped his hand away. Some-
times, Brendan said, he would climb out
of bed and sleep on the floor; on those
occasions, he told me, Mr. McCarrick
would become angry. He estimated he
had slept in bed with Mr. McCarrick
more than two dozen times, beginning
when he was around 12.
Another relative of Francis who did
not want to be named told me that Mr.
McCarrick performed the same back
rub routine on him, but went further,
occasionally sliding his hands beneath
the back of his underwear. He recalled
that at least once, Mr. McCarrick placed
his hands between his legs but did not
touch his genitals. Francis cousin, who
believes he was roughly 18 or 19 when
he began traveling with Mr. McCarrick,
said he was always deeply disturbed by
what happened, thinking: I cant
believe I have to do this and Why do we
have to do this? When it was over, he
said, it would be like such a relief. And I
would say to myself: All right. Ive
probably got another month before he
calls me to come over and do something
He told me he didnt want his name
used because he has never told his
elderly mother about what transpired
between him and Mr. McCarrick. She is
very devout, he told me, and in fact
introduced him to Mr. McCarrick when
her son was drifting from the faith as a
teenager. For my mother, it was, Oh,
became a
figure in the
U.S. Catholic
several boys
from one
family said
he targeted
Elizabeth Bruenig
Pray for your poor uncle, a predatory priest said
Francis M., who
was abused by
former Cardinal
McCarrick, at a
church near his
home.I really
understood for
the first time as
an adult the
and cunning
that Ted
brought to
his predatory
activities, right
under the eyes
of my parents
and aunts and
The offices of the Archdiocese of New York in Manhattan.
St. Frances de Chantal in the Bronx,
Francis M.s childhood church.Opinion

10 |F RIDAY, JULY 17, 2020 THE NEW YORK TIMES INTERNATIONAL EDITION As the coronavirus continues to wreak
havoc across the United States, some
public K-12 schools may be able to
reopen safely, but doing so will not be
cheap. A recent report from the Coun-
cil of Chief State School Officers esti-
mated that public K-12 schools will
need as much as $245 billion in addi-
tional funding to open with the recom-
mended protocols in place from the
Centers for Disease Control and Pre-
vention. Yet with local and state budg-
ets strapped, many schools are likely
to fall short unless they receive consid-
erable federal support.
The Department of Education, how-
ever, has not stepped up to fill that
need. Funding for K-12 schools through
the Cares Act is $13.5 billion well
below $245 billion. Instead, Education Secretary Betsy
DeVos is pressuring schools to open
and threatening to cut off funds to
public schools that dont fully open in
the fall. She has suggested that those
federal funds could be diverted to
families to help pay for private or
religious education. She has already
put in place micro-grants for families
that want to home-school their children
this fall. In other words, Ms. DeVos is not
only failing to provide public schools
the federal money they need to reopen
safely; she is also potentially destabil-
izing the budgets of already struggling
schools. It is hard to say with certainty why
the secretary of education would put
public schools in this difficult position.
But Ms. DeVos is, in effect, promoting
a new form of school choice: If your
childs school cant afford to open
safely, you need to find one that can
probably a private or charter school
or keep your child at home. Unfortunately, as with most forms of
school choice, one result of Ms. De-
Voss actions is likely to be increased
inequality in education. Thats because
families with more resources and more
flexibility will presumably be the ones
most able to keep their children out of
unsafe schools. Wealthy families may
hire private tutors or send their chil-
dren to private schools that can afford
to minimize risk. At the same time, many other fam-
ilies are enrolling their children in
online charter schools or opting to
home-school their children. While
these families might not be as wealthy
as those that choose private schools or
private tutors, there is reason to be-
lieve they generally have more re-
sources and more flexibility than fam-
ilies that are not availing themselves of
these options. In current research on parenting practices during the pan-
demic, my colleagues and I have found
that families with college-educated,
stay-at-home and part-time employed
mothers are especially interested in
home schooling and online learning,
because they want to keep their chil-
dren safe and because they feel confi-
dent in their ability
to help their chil-
dren learn.By contrast,
families with fewer
resources, less
education and less
flexible work
schedules may
have no choice but
to send their chil-
dren to less-than-
safe schools. A
recent national survey of parents
found that many low-income families
are struggling to keep children learn-
ing at home, because of limited techno-
logical resources and a lack of time and
resources. Such findings are consistent
with decades of research highlighting
the challenges that low-income fam-
ilies face in helping their children with homework and preventing learning
loss during summers, when schools are
Low-income families, however, are
not the only families struggling with
at-home learning. Recent research
suggests that other working parents
and especially working mothers are
also facing difficulties. Given those
struggles, it is reasonable to expect
that low-income families and families
without stay-at-home parents will be
less able to keep their children home in
the fall, even if that means exposing
the child and the family to the
possibility of infection. Pushing privileged families out of
public schools has two notable effects,
both of which happen to align with
policies that Ms. DeVos has promoted
throughout her career. First, it has the
potential to shift resources from public
schools. Second, it has the potential to
undermine the publics confidence in
the quality of public education and the
necessity of funding it as a public good.
(As I have found in my research, privi-
leged families play a critical role in
maintaining the financial viability and
perceived quality of public schools.) If privileged families opt out of pub-
lic schooling, they leave behind schools
that even more disproportionately
serve students of color and students
from low-income families. Because of
persistent racism and classism in
America, that shift in school demo-
graphics may make it even easier for
policymakers to underinvest in public
education and push federal funds
toward alternative options.
For Ms. DeVos, then, the current
crisis may be more of an opportunity
than a threat. By pressuring public
schools to open, even if unsafely, she will
compel many privileged families to
abandon those schools. Many less fortu-
nate students will find themselves with
little choice but to attend unsafe schools
with even fewer resources than they
had before. And public schools will take
the blame for the inequalities that will
almost inevitably result. Jessica Calarco
JESSICA CALARCOis an associate profes-
sor of sociology at Indiana University,
Bloomington, and the author, most
recently, of A Field Guide to Grad
School: Uncovering the Hidden Curricu-
What is Betsy DeVos thinking?
The U.S.
secretary is
pushing schools
to reopen
without helping
them to do
so safely.Fourth graders at Public School 130 in Brooklyn in 2017.
Confronted with a deadly virus, many
American colleges and universities are
choosing to protect their communities
by teaching fall classes largely or
entirely online. Last week, the federal
government deliberately disrupted
those plans by proposing a new rule
that would have prevented potentially
hundreds of thousands of foreign stu-
dents from studying in the United
States this fall if their classes were
taught remotely.Harvards president, Larry Bacow,
termed this move cruel and reckless,
a ploy to force institutions to open
classes as if the
pandemic had
vanished. On
Tuesday, respond-
ing to a joint
lawsuit led by
Harvard and my
institution, the
Institute of Tech-
nology, as well as
pressure from
many other quar-
ters, the govern-
ment revoked the
Yet the larger battle is far from over.
This misguided policy was one of many
signals that the administration wants
foreign students to stay away an
attitude that reflects a stark misread-
ing of our national interest.
In any long-running competition, no
one understands your strengths better
than your rivals. At a dinner I attended
a few years back, Chinese tech leaders
contended that Chinas most important
economic advantage is scale: Chinas
vast population and market offer a
permanent leg up. But they also re-
marked on Americas persistent advan-
tage in scientific creativity. What gives the country this advan-
tage? Their explanation surprised me.
Because the U.S. is heterogeneous,
these leaders told me, it draws the best and brightest from all over the world
to work and create together. This, they
said, was much more difficult for
This astute observation perfectly
captures why forcing foreign students
to abandon their studies here would be
disastrously self-defeating for Amer-
ica: Precisely at a time of sharp eco-
nomic rivalries, we are systematically
undermining the very strength our
competitors envy most. Why is foreign talent so important to
the United States? For the same rea-
son the Boston Red Sox dont limit
themselves to players born in Boston:
The larger the pool you draw from, the
larger the supply of exceptional talent.
Moreover, America gains immense
creative advantage by educating top
domestic students alongside top inter-
national student s. By challenging,
inspiring and stretching one another,
they make one another better, just as
star players raise a whole teams level
of play. Unfortunately, when you turn away
great players, rival teams happily sign
them. Other countries are working hard to attract students who have
soured on the United States because of
growing anti-immigrant hostility or
bureaucratic roadblocks.
As a nation, when we turn our backs
on talented foreign students, we not
only lose all that they bring to our
classrooms and laboratories, we also
give up a strategic asset. First, we lose the kind of personal
drive that built this country: the life
force of brilliant young people with the
courage and ambition to leave every-
thing familiar in search of a better
future. Whats more, most students
who come here to earn a Ph.D. stay to
build their families and careers, and
often companies that create thousands
of jobs. Many become citizens.
The latest data show, for example,
that 83 percent of Ph.D. students from
China, the kind of highly trained scien-
tists and engineers who drive Ameri-
can innovation, were still in the United
States five years after completing their
degrees. The percentage would be higher if
longstanding U.S. policies did not
require many students to return home after finishing their education a
system as counterproductive as train-
ing a great player and then insisting
that she go play for a rival team. Re-
cently, the percentage of doctoral
graduates remaining here has begun to
decline, in part because our national
message is that they are not welcome.
As some in Washington have sought
to limit foreign students, especially
those from China, that hostile message
has grown louder. Of course the United States must
screen students seeking visas and
keep out those with dubious back-
grounds. But even the fiercest China
hawks acknowledge that when foreign
interests engage in espionage or intel-
lectual theft, they seek to recruit senior
scientists; only a small number of
Chinese students have been implicated
in such cases. The vast majority we
should welcome, not discourage with
the blunt hostility apparent in recent
policies. I believe profoundly that we must
increase the number of Americans
pursuing training in science and engi-
neering. But we must also understand
that Americas strength in science and
engineering is central to Americas
strength, period and that a core
element of that strength, for decades,
has been our ability to lure the worlds
finest talent. The country derives many intangible
advantages from being a beacon of
hope for people around the world; I
first came to America in 1974 from
Venezuela, where my parents finally
settled as refugees from Hitlers Eu-
rope. I came to improve my own
prospects through a graduate degree.
But I found a culture of openness,
boldness, ingenuity and meritocracy
a culture which taught me that in
coming to America, I had truly come
home. Our competitors openly envy our
capacity to welcome and adopt talent
from everywhere. I fear lately that we
will recognize this strategic U.S.
strength only once it is lost.
L. Rafael Reif
L. RAFAEL REIFis president of the Massa-
chusetts Institute of Technology.
The student visa battle isnt over
scholars the
was threatening
to send home
are vital to
innovation and
competitiveness.M.I.T. had sued the U.S. government over changes in visa rules for foreign students.
Printed inAthens, Denpasar, Beirut, Biratnagar, Doha, Dubai, Frankfurt, Gallargues, Helsinki, Hong Kong, Islamabad, Istanbul, Jakarta, Karachi, Kathmandu, Kuala Lumpur, Lahore, London, Luqa, Madrid, Manila, Milan, Nagoya, Nepalgunj, New York, Osaka, Paris, Rome, Seoul, Singapore, Taipei, Tel Aviv, Tokyo.
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92 01, Commission Paritaire No. 0523 C83099. Printed in France by Paris Offset Print 30 Rue Raspail 93120 La Courneuve African-Americans were nonpersons in the eyes of the
state when the federal government started to name U.S.
Army installations for Confederate officers. Black peo-
ple in the South were being lynched with impunity for
such offenses as seeking the vote, competing with white
people in business or simply failing to give way on the
In Washington, Woodrow Wilson styled the govern-
ment itself as an instrument of white supremacy. His
administration segregated the federal work force, and
decimated the Black middle class by purging African-
Americans from well-paying supervisory positions in
which they had sometimes managed white subordi-
nates. In a process that began under the Wilson administra-
tion in 1917, 10 Southern military installations were
eventually named for the same Confederate officers
who had waged war on the United States with the goal of
preserving and expanding slavery. Among those whose names fly over Southern Army
bases to this day are Henry Lewis Benning, a principal
architect of secession who argued that Black Americans
were suited only for enslavement; the Georgia Ku Klux
Klan leader John Brown Gordon, who helped the Klan
establish itself as a cohesive entity; Robert E. Lee, a
central figure in the war of rebellion whose army kid-
napped free African-Americans for sale into slavery;
and the war criminal George Pickett, who fled to Canada
to escape possible prosecution for wrongfully executing
Union soldiers.
A majority of Americans now reject the notion that
Confederate place names and monuments to white
supremacy deserve to hold pride of place forever in the
civic landscape. This shift in opinion accelerated this year by the
barbaric police killing of George Floyd accounts for
recent decisions by the Marine Corps, the Navy and
NASCAR to ban the display of the Confederate flag. Former Secretary of Defense
Robert Gates cited the Floyd
killing when he called for re-
moving Confederate names
from Southern Army bases as
a way of putting to rest this
dark side of our history.Support for the idea is
clearly building at the Penta-
gon; among influential former
military officers; and in Con- gress, where a pending bill
would require the Defense
Department to strip Confeder-
ate names from military assets including bases, in-
stallations and streets within three years. In other
words, the Confederate base names are destined to be
erased if not during the Trump years, then in the not
distant future. When the search for replacement names gets under-
way, a fine starting point would be the list of more than
2,400 Army service members who have received the
Medal of Honor, the nations highest award for bravery.
To move past the Armys lingering legacy of white su-
premacy, however, the Pentagon will need to look be-
yond the usual white, male suspects.
The Armys Black heritage celebrations make a show
of recognizing African-Americans who have laid down
their lives in the nations wars even as they were being
deprived of full citizenship. The new base names ought
to reflect this understanding. When the Pentagon revis-
its the Civil War in search of such names, it should select
those that convey the true nature of the conflict and the
full range of people who participated in it. The Pentagon also needs to bear in mind that not
everyone who rendered heroic service in the war was
male. One such hero was the former slave Harriet Tub-
man. Mainly known for guiding escaped slaves to free-
dom, Tubman was widely praised during the Civil War
for her work as a Union Army spy and scout. Tubman
has also been described as the only woman to play a
central role in planning and executing a Civil War mili-
tary operation. The Civil War surgeon and spy Dr. Mary Walker the
only woman to be awarded the Medal of Honor is
certainly worthy of consideration. At a time when only a
handful of American women held medical degrees,
Walker left the comfort of her private practice in New
York to treat sick and wounded troops. The Confederate base names are a legacy of a shame-
ful compromise with white supremacy that is thor-
oughly documented in the historical record. Replacing
the names of traitors who waged war on the nation in an
attempt to keep African-Americans in chains will not
make racism magically disappear. But it is clearly an
important step in the right direction. The U.S.
military should
bases named
for Confede-
rates. Better
options are not
hard to find.
DEAN BAQUET, Executive Editor
JOSEPH KAHN, Managing Editor
TOM BODKIN, Creative Director
SUZANNE DALEY, Associate Editor
Chief Executive Officer
STEPHEN DUNBAR-JOHNSON, President, International
CHARLOTTE GORDON, V.P., International Consumer Marketing
HELEN KONSTANTOPOULOS, V.P., International Circulation
HELENA PHUA, Executive V.P., Asia-Pacific
SUZANNE YVERNÈS, International Chief Financial Officer

hes with the bishop and this is terrific,
and oh,
he said, and paused for a mo-
ment, lost in thought. I mean, she was
in her glory about it.
By the mid 1980s, Francis had grown
up and apart from Mr. McCarrick, but
Mr. McCarrick had interwoven himself
so much into the family, that if you really
wanted to completely cut him out, youd
have to cut yourself out of the family,
Francis said. If you went to somebodys
christening or somebodys wedding, he
was there. Francis married a Catholic woman
who had grown up three streets away
from his house in the Bronx. Marie, an
outgoing and independent nurse, never
liked Mr. McCarrick: I would call him
Ted the pedophile, even before we were
married, she said. She and Francis
agreed that Mr. McCarrick would not
officiate their wedding, despite the
objections of Francis family. Instead,
the two of them chose a priest they
respected. Nevertheless, Mr. McCarrick sent a
papal blessing to their priest to be read
aloud during the ceremony, with Mr.
McCarricks name included. Marie was
incensed. It was like, You didnt want
me to be a part of this wedding, but I am
still a part of it, she said. It arrived like
an assertion of control, with a sinister
message: You cant get rid of me.
Francis remained a faithful Catholic,
but disillusionment threatened his
peace, especially as his children grew
older. One Sunday in the early 2000s,
when the sex abuse crisis was first
coming to light, his pastor mentioned
that some parishioners had threatened
to withhold their donations. Francis said
that the priest urged parishioners not to
make their contributions a referendum
on the churchs handling of the crisis,
because those donations supported
local charity work. Francis accepted
that; it made sense. But a year later, he said, the same
pastor was railing about how the media
has sort of blown the whole thing out of
proportion. And he said, And we know
that you didnt fall for it. You know how
we know? Because your donations
never fell off. Francis seethed.
During the summer of 2018, news
broke that the Archdiocese of New York
had found credible the allegation that
Mr. McCarrick had sexually abused a
minor in the early 1970s. A month later,
another man came forward to claim that
he had been abused by Mr. McCarrick
as a minor. In late July, Mr. McCarrick
resigned from the College of Cardinals. In August, an archbishop released an
incendiary letter accusing Pope Francis
of having failed to take action against
Mr. McCarrick, despite the popes being
warned that he was a serial predator.
(The pope later denied this.).
I was a writer at The Washington Post
at the time, and I began working on the
Mr. McCarrick story. I knocked on the
door of the archdiocesan house he had
retreated to, and I requested interviews
through his legal team but received no
answer from him. I was frustrated by
the churchs reticence regarding Mr.
McCarricks career of abuse and dis-
turbed by my increasing difficulty
producing an answer when asked by
friends why I was still Catholic. As Francis watched the story unfold
in the news, he sank into similar spiritu-
al unease. He began to realize that he
had failed to appreciate how extensive
Mr. McCarricks abuses really were. He
was expert in taking boys like me, who
felt like they got lost in big families, and
making them feel special, Francis said.
He mentioned reading about a blog post
written by a former priest secretary of
Mr. McCarricks, K. Bartholomew
Smith, which labeled the disgraced
cardinal a devourer of souls. It rang
true to Francis. Christmas of 2018, after his testimony,
was hard for Francis. Dreams about Mr.
McCarrick began to stir his subcon-
scious. In one nightmare, he confronted the priest, only to find him glib and
evasive, offering a tray of sweets. No
one involved in the churchs investiga-
tion reached out to him with updates or
offers of support. He stopped going to
Mass. The couple of times that I went,
even in the context of funerals or wed-
dings, it was hard for me to sit through it
and look at the priests on the altar and
not question was he, this person, also
an abuser?
Those thoughts distracted Francis as
he searched for the solace and meaning
he had always found in sacred liturgy.
He would go during off hours to the
Church of Our Savior in Manhattan and
sit alone in the golden glory of its vast
sanctuary, listening to Gregorian
chants through earbuds. That was odd
to do that, Francis said. But I felt like I
needed to have some connection, until I
could find my way back in. In the spring of 2019, Francis said that
he, along with the four relatives who
had testified in the Vaticans inquiry,
submitted claims to the Archdiocese of
New Yorks Independent Reconciliation
and Compensation Program. Though
their prior testimonies had been given
at the archdiocesan offices, their state-
ments had been strictly confidential, for
use only in the Vaticans proceedings.
By submitting claims directly to the
compensation program, Francis told
me, he and his family meant to provide
the archdiocese with testimony for use in its own review of
Mr. McCarricks
history.In June 2019,
according to Francis,
the archdiocese
offered him a six-
figure settlement to
relinquish his claim
against the church
regarding Mr. Mc-
Carrick. Francis was
conflicted; he had
agreed to share his
story with the Vatican and the archdio-
cese in solidarity with the other victims
in his family and in hopes of bringing
the truth to light. He had never intended
to litigate his case further or to reap any
monetary award. Ultimately, Francis chose to accept
the settlement, parceling it out for his
children and some home repairs. If he
had been affected by Mr. McCarricks
manipulation and abuse, then so too
had his family been, he reasoned. Francis younger daughter told me
over lunch in February of this year that
she hadnt touched her portion of the proceeds yet and isnt sure that she ever
None of Francis four adult children
describe themselves as practicing
Catholics, in large part because of their
fathers experience with Mr. McCarrick
and the sex abuse crisis. Francis had
been open though not necessarily
explicit with them about Mr. McCar-
ricks behavior; he never wanted to
foster the climate of oppressive secrecy
that had shrouded his childhood. Christianity is supposed to be about
loving your fellow people and doing
good and believing theres good, Fran-
cis older daughter told me. None of
that rings true in any of this. I believe its important to be spiritual
and believe in something, the younger
daughter said, but I dont know if I can
call myself Catholic anymore . . . and
thats really sad.
A note of longing haunts all faith,
especially faith that has been wounded.
Francis wears that weary hope in his
eyes now. In February, I met with him
and his wife on a cool morning in New
York in the vestibule of Our Savior, the
church he had spent hours in searching
a way back into the heart of the faith that sustains him.
Francis greeted me warmly and we
sat together in the pew two lost souls
seeking answers from a God we cant
stop loving. The Corinthian columns of
the apse rose before us, and between
them, flanked by angels, was the image
of Christ, wreathed in a golden halo. His
face was wan and beautiful, with hollow
cheeks and dark, pleading eyes. I was
transfixed by him; I always am. We
sang and offered our open palms, and I
thought of the words of Saint Augustine.
Why do you mean so much to me, he
asked the Lord, help me to find words
to explain. Why do I mean so much to
you, that you should command me to
love you?
Love drew Francis back to Mass on
Christmas last year. He started attend-
ing, not necessarily every Sunday, he
said, but something like every other
Sunday, in a steady, if cautious, rhythm. Faith is really hard to do solo, Fran-
cis explained as we sat together after
Mass, in an empty reception hall with
watery light streaming in through tall
windows. I missed the community
feeling of being in church. He needed
some sign of eternity here in the broken present: The certainty of rituals shared
with others, whose trust in the goodness
of God and the presence of a transcend-
ent love nurtures the faith of those
around them. His parish 30 miles out-
side New York City has a new pastor, a
fresh face sharing no history with the M.
family. Francis is still involved in chari-
table work in the church, applying his
skills as an attorney to help aging nuns
and monks manage their communities
Francis told me he thinks its possible
to distinguish the church from the peo-
ple who have for decades debased it.
How dearly I wanted to hear that; how
crucial it was for me to believe it. Fran-
cis went on in his gentle, searching tone.
All throughout the church, and the
churchs history, you can see times
where there were people who were
really living testaments to their faith,
he said. And you can see people who
took advantage of the power that they
had. And that God allows that is just
kind of, part of the mystery were all
going to have to figure out, when we go
to ask him. Right?
ELIZABETH BRUENIGis an Opinion writer. He was
expert in
taking boys
like me, who
felt like they
got lost in big
families, and
making them
feel special.
Pray for your poor uncle, a predatory priest told his victims
Francis M. has searched for solace and meaning in liturgy. PHOTOGRAPHS BY PHOTO BY DAMON WINTER/ THE NEW YORK TIMES
Rosary beads hung on a statue outside
St. Frances de Chantal in the Bronx. opinion
dole, my friend said, but others were
coming to complain: If your father had
Covid, why did you let him mingle with
our elders? What if he has infected us
The family denied vehemently that he
had died of Covid-19. We have lived on
that street for generations. I can under-
stand why my brothers did it. In Karachi, I called up a doctor to ask
why people were hiding Covid-19
deaths. People dont want to see some
dead body and the police arrive at their
homes at the same time, I was told. Another doctor said to me: There is
fear and shame and stigma attached to
death by Covid, as if you got infected by
this virus by doing something immoral
or filthy, rather than by touching a door
knob. And what if nobody will come to your
loved ones funeral? What if nobody
comes to condole? What if people think
that because you are related to the
deceased you might pass the disease on
to them and their children?
Its best to just deny what happened.
Werent people dying before this virus
anyway? Whats the harm in slightly
shifting the cause of death? Even when
someone dies of Covid-19 they dont
really, really die of Covid-19; they die of
the complications caused by Covid-19. And so you lie and move on. After all,
98 percent of people who get infected do
survive. The longest condolence conversation
Ive had was with a close friend of mine
whose sister passed away at the begin-
ning of the month. She had been suffer-
ing from some unknown illness and was
admitted to a private hospital in Lahore. When her condition worsened, the
family was asked to take her to Services
Hospital, a major government facility
with a designated ward for Covid-19
patients. My friend insisted that his
sister had tested negative for the coro-
navirus, but when they arrived at the
hospital a doctor directed them to the
Covid section. If we had let her into that ward, they
wouldnt even have given us the body,
my friend said.
Some of the myths around the virus
have been propagated by the very
people who were supposed to guide us through this crisis.
Prime Minister
Imran Khan has
said that 90 per-
cent of Covid-19
cases were like a
normal flu and
you dont go to the
hospital when you have the flu. In early May, Asad Umar, the federal
minister for planning, development and
special initiatives and the man in
charge of handling the coronavirus
crisis, gave a briefing about how many
more people in Pakistan die in traffic
accidents than they do because of
Covid-19 and yet, he said, we still allow
cars on roads, because their necessity is
greater than the danger of those acci-
The prime ministers health adviser,
Zafar Mirza, said early this month that
the coming monsoon season would
wash away the coronavirus. But its
too early to tell, he added. As the first
rains fell a few days later news came
that Dr. Mirza had tested positive for
the virus. In late March, during the early weeks
of the pandemics spread in Pakistan, a
telephone call between Nadeem Afzal
Chan, one of the prime ministers advis-
ers and spokesmen, and a political
lieutenant of Mr. Chans was leaked on
social media. Mr. Chan is heard telling
his aide, in rather colorful language, to
forget about political campaigning, go
home and stay there with his kids. After a Punjabi invective that cant be
translated here, Mr. Chan said: Thou-
sands are dying, but the government is
hiding it. Later, Mr. Chan admitted that the
conversation was genuine but said he
had exaggerated the facts because his
lieutenant, a friend, wasnt taking the
threat seriously. Political workers like
him still want to campaign, inaugurate
roads, hold rallies. Mr. Chan was lying to save a friend
from maybe dying, and now people
around me are lying because they dont
want their friends to abandon them
while they bury their dead.
I called up a doctor friend who has lost
two colleagues during the past month,
both of them because of Covid-19. Why
are people still lying about this? I asked,
again. I am, too, he said. On all the death
certificates I issue I write cardiac pul-
monary failure as the cause of death.
That saves them the embarrassment. And maybe then at least some people
will be around when the last spade of
earth is shoveled into those graves.
Covid-death shaming in Pakistan
Whats the
harm in slightly
shifting the
cause of death?
Funeral prayers for a person who died of Covid-19, in Hyderabad, Pakistan, last month.
novels A Case of Exploding Mangoes,
Our Lady of Alice Bhatti and Red
prec ed ent edtimes .
Un parallele dcoverag e.
Subscribe toThe NewY ork Times
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ny tional

Few of us think about our joints until
one starts to hurt when we try to use it
in the way nature intended. Then the
most frequent response seems to be
the proverbial take two aspirin and
call me in the morning.
We hope against hope that time will
be the great healer, and only when that
fails to happen do we consult an expert
who knows better. In this regard, Im
no different from most people. My
general approach when a new ache or
pain develops is to wait two weeks to
see if it will go away on its own. Which accounts for the fact that now,
with summer heat mounting, I find
myself still nursing arm and shoulder
pain that in mid-January began to
impede my ability to swim. At the time,
I was preoccupied with work and
preparing for a trip to Africa, so I put
off seeing my doctor for when I re-
turned in late February, at which point
a notorious virus closed off the oppor-
tunity to do that safely. So, given that the pool was closed
and I couldnt swim anyway, I spent
the next couple of coronavirus-re-
stricted months doing exercises that a
physical therapist had suggested by
phone to ease the pain in my dominant
right arm. Finally in early May, on a
telemedicine visit, my doctor said my
right shoulder most likely had an
injured rotator cuff, the complex of
tendons and muscles that controls the
mobility and strength of the arm. He
ordered a magnetic resonance imaging
test, and although I could still perform
most arm functions with little or no
pain, the scan revealed significant
tears in the tissues of the rotator cuff
that normally give the shoulder full
range of motion without pain.
A healthy shoulder works like a
well-lubricated ball-and-socket joint,
enabling the arm to move up, down,
forward, backward, across the body,
extended out to the side and around in
a circle without causing discomfort. Rotator cuff injuries are extremely
common. They afflict millions of people
worldwide and become more frequent
with age, often as a result of misuse or
overuse of the shoulder, the bodys
most mobile joint. Athletes who spend many hours on
activities like baseball, tennis or swim-
ming, and workers with jobs like house
painting that require repetitive over-
head activity, are especially prone to
rotator cuff injuries. Rotator cuff injuries can also be
acute, resulting from a fall or an acci- dent. I had two such injuries many
years ago when I fell forward while ice
But you dont have to be a superath-
lete or have a stressful occupation to
injure the rotator cuff. It can happen to
anyone through years of general wear
and tear. People over 50 with degener-
ative tears in the rotator cuff often
have no history of traumatic injuries.
At least one person in 10 over age 60
experiences pain, disability and a
diminished quality of life because of
damaged tissues in the rotator cuff. The pain typically localizes in the
upper arm, so those affected may not
even realize that the problem ema-
nates from the shoulder.
Odd though it may seem, many
people with significant rotator cuff
injuries experience no pain, studies
have shown. Only about a third of
rotator cuff tears cause pain. But for those who do hurt, ordinary
activities like throwing a ball, sweep-
ing the walk, raking leaves, fastening a
seatbelt or even slicing bread or meat
can be a challenge. Pushing the arm forward or moving it backward, for
example, when trying to put the arm in
a sleeve or hook a bra can be espe-
cially painful. Likewise, in my case,
lifting a heavy item out of the refriger-
ator or swimming freestyle stroking
with my right arm while turning my
head to the left to breathe can
produce stabbing pain in my upper
right arm.
Given that as my doctor put it I
dont pitch for the Yankees, physical
therapy, not surgery, is the recom-
mended route to relief for me and for most other people with painful rotator
cuff injuries. So with the M.R.I. reveal-
ing the extent of my injury, I consulted
Marilyn Moffat, professor of physical
therapy at New York University, a
trusted source of advice who has often
prescribed helpful conservative ther-
apy for me and many others over the
Dr. Moffats first words were, Dont
do anything that hurts lest it in-
crease the inflammation and worsen
the injury. Continuing to stress torn
tissues in the rotator cuff will only
increase the tears and delay recovery.
Dr. Moffat also cautioned me against
blindly following rotator cuff exercises
posted on the internet that may not be
appropriate at the point youre at. The therapeutic sequence she rec-
ommended starts with rest to calm
inflammation while eliminating aggra-
vating activities, to be followed by
strengthening the muscles and then
stretching to increase the range of
motion of the injured joint. With the Covid-19 lockdown prevent-
ing my daily swim, Id already done
months of enforced rest and learned to
avoid painful movements. Now I am
doing exercises to strengthen the torn
muscles in my rotator cuff. Dr. Moffat
explained that the goal to fill in the
tears with scar tissue without causing
further injury is best accomplished
at first through a series of isometric
exercises that increase muscle
strength but involve no movement that
can cause further injury. Ive already done many weeks of the
recommended isometrics and am now
nearly ready to begin training with
hand weights and stretching exercises.
Although Dr. Moffat said I could try
different strokes in hopes of finding
some that dont hurt, I suspect this will
be a summer with significant limita-
tions on what I can do in the water. Still, some form of swimming is far
better than none.
At the same time, Im chalking up
this experience as a lesson not to put
off until tomorrow what should be done
today. Had I sought medical help before the
trip to Africa, when swimming had
first become a struggle, I might have
been pain free by now. Live and learn.
Its not just athletes who injure rotator cuffs
Personal Health
Around the world, couples are strug-
gling to cope with the stress that comes
with reopening economies (and the
pausing or rolling back that has ensued
in some places). For some, tension has
run high for months: As Eric Spiegel-
man, a podcasting executive based in
Los Angeles, tweeted in April, My wife
and I play this fun game during quaran-
tine, its called Why Are You Doing It
That Way? and there are no winners. That mightve been in jest, but with
the possibility of resuming certain pre-
lockdown activities going to restau-
rants, seeing friends, working out at
gyms couples are addressing differ-
ing comfort levels. One partner might have parents who
are older and at higher risk of complica-
tions from the coronavirus; the other
might be an extrovert who thrives on be-
ing around other people and is, emotion-
ally, at a breaking point. And, together,
they could face questions like: Should
we go to a friends barbecue, even
though it probably wont be rigidly so-
cially distant? Who do we invite to our
daughters birthday party, if we even
have it at all? The traditional marriage vows are
for better or for worse, said Jean Fitz-
patrick, a relationship therapist based in
New York. This is for worse. And so
how do we navigate a time like this? Our
relationships will either grow as a re-
sult, or they will be harmed. Below, some strategies people can use
to find a path forward that works for
both partners.
Soujanya Sridharan, a recent graduate
of a masters program in Bangalore, In-
dia, had started to plan her wedding be-
fore the lockdown; she and her fiancé
expected 300 people to celebrate with
them. Then, the coronavirus reached In-
dia. She wanted to go forward with
fewer guests, but her fiancé was more
reluctant: Some of his family members
wouldnt be able to come, and he is more
worried about contracting the virus
himself. When he resisted the idea of going
ahead with the wedding, it made me
wonder if the lockdown had actually
changed his mind about going ahead at
all, as opposed to getting married at that
time, said Ms. Sridharan, 23. They talked through it and worked to-
gether to find solutions whittling
down their guest list, showing outfits to
each other over Zoom and developing
safety measures. Once you feel respected and heard,
you usually can negotiate anything,
said Deb Owens, a therapist specializing
in relationships who is based in the Phil-
adelphia area. She has been regularly speaking with couples struggling dur-
ing the lockdown.
In difficult situations, therapists often
recommend thinking not just of you
and me, but talking about your rela-
tionship as a third entity. Its not, My needs versus your
needs, and lets negotiate, but asking
the question and having the posture of:
What is best for our relationship?
said Jennifer Bullock, a psychotherapist
in Philadelphia.
Important, too, several psychologists
and counselors recommended
presenting a united front when explain-
ing shared decisions to friends and fam-
ily. Any sort of I would, but hes afraid
seeds resentment and can amplify the
problem far past the boundaries of your
own home.
Its always tempting to drop some
knowledge when youre in the middle of
an argument. But some therapists think
appealing to data, in lieu of listening to
the emotions and concerns of your part-
ner, is a losing strategy. People just need to consistently ask
themselves: Would you rather be right,
or would you rather be in a loving, con-
nected relationship? said Jenny
TeGrotenhuis, a mental health therapist
and certified clinical trauma profes-
sional based in Kennewick, Wash.
David Woodsfellow, a psychologist
and the director of the Woodsfellow In-
stitute for Couples Therapy in Atlanta,
agreed. He said that thinking about
things in terms of right and wrong
was often less helpful than trying to un-
derstand how and what the other person
feels. Try to understand what they are say-
ing and why they are saying it, Dr.
Woodsfellow said.
Some of the most common things that
the psychotherapist Matt Lundquist
hears are: I already know what she is
going to say, or, I already know what he thinks. Its almost always untrue,
I will plead with them to suspend
their disbelief and really work to deeply
and sincerely engage in curiosity, said
Mr. Lundquist, the owner and clinical di-
rector at Tribeca Therapy in New York. In any fraught situation, sit down with
your partner and listen. Instead of offer-
ing rebuttals, try to treat it more like an
interview about where your partner is
coming from. Ms. Fitzpatrick suggests
asking only open-ended questions
which cant be answered with a simple
yes or a no. Some of the most tense
discussions might be about work or
money. You could try, How are you feel-
ing about our finances right now? Karen Osterle, a couples therapist
based in Washington, D.C., said to give
your partner the benefit of the doubt.
She suggests using language like: I
know you probably dont meanto come
across as dismissive or condescending
right now, but when I hear you say I
shouldnt worry, I find myself feeling
disregarded. A partners need might come across
as just a preference for example, if
one of you wants to visit family in a dif-
ferent state, it might seem like some-
thing that can be postponed. But it could
be that a parent really needs help, or
your partner is overwhelmed. Youll find
out whats going on only if you ask. Youll know you have truly listened
when you can describe your partners
perspective in a supportive way re-
gardless of whether you agree.
Maybe youre tired of cooking and
restaurants nearby have tantalizingly
reopened. Or you could be exhausted
from running after your children and
hear of a summer camp with space
available. Ultimately, your well-being
and others should take precedence. Everyones concerns need to be re-
spected, and all of the adults in a family
system need to be respected as full vot-
ing members, but that doesnt mean that
each of the adult concerns are equiva-
lent, Mr. Lundquist said. I do generally
feel that the person who is more con-
cerned about an issue of health and
safety needs to be given a lot of defer-
Making it work as a couple
In any fraught situation, sit down
with your partner and listen. Can a daily drink or two lead to better
For many years, the U.S. govern-
ments influential dietary guidelines im-
plied as much, saying there was evi-
dence that moderate drinking could
lower the risk of heart disease and re-
duce mortality. But now a committee of scientists that
is helping to update the latest edition of
the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is
taking a harder stance on alcohol. The
committee said in a recent conference
call that it plans to recommend that men
and women who drink limit themselves
to a single serving of wine, beer or liquor
per day. Do not drink because you think it will
make you healthier, the committee
says: It wont. And it maintains that
drinking less is generally better for
health than drinking more. That message is a departure from pre-
vious guidelines, which since 1980 have
defined moderate drinking as up to
two drinks a day for men and one for
women. Government agencies have
also long defined a standard drink as 12
ounces of regular beer, five ounces of
wine, or one and a half ounces of distilled
spirits (40 percent alcohol), amounts of-
ten exceeded in Americans typical
drink. From 1990 to 2010, many editions of
the guidelines, which are updated every
five years, discouraged heavy drinking
and warned pregnant women and peo-
ple with certain medical conditions not
to drink. But they also noted that moder-
ate drinking was linked to fewer heart
attacks and lower mortality. The 2010
guidelines mentioned that moderate
drinking may even help to keep cogni-
tive function intact with age. The new recommendation would be a
victory for experts who have long ques-
tioned the health halo around moderate
drinking. They say that studies showing
it can protect health are deeply flawed,
and that any potential cardiovascular
benefits would be outweighed by the
fact that alcohol is a leading preventable
cause of cancer. According to the Na-
tional Cancer Institute, even one drink a
day increases the risk of breast, esopha-
geal and oral cancer. This is significant because the com-
mittee has finally gotten away from this
idea that a small amount of alcohol is
good for you, said Thomas Gremillion,
the director of food policy at the Con-
sumer Federation of America, a public
interest group that has pushed for can-
cer warnings on alcohol. Theyre really
taking a stand and saying drinking less
is always better. Thats the right mes-
sage, and I think they deserve credit for
making that change. The new advice is not yet final. The advisory panel is expected to include it
in a report that it will release publicly in
mid-July and submit to the Department
of Agriculture and the Department of
Health and Human Services. Those two
agencies are scheduled to publish the of-
ficial dietary guidelines later this year.
If accepted, the new recommendation
would make the United States the latest
country to issue stricter guidelines on
alcohol consumption. In recent years, Australia, Britain,
France and other countries have issued
new guidelines lowering their recom-
mended limits on daily and weekly alco-
hol intake. The health authorities in
those countries have said evidence sug-
gests consuming less alcohol is safer
and that even one drink a day increases
cancer risk. The scientific debate over moderate
drinking dates to at least the 1970s,
when researchers in California noticed
that teetotalers seemed to have more
heart attacks than people who drank
moderately. In the decades that fol-
lowed, many observational studies look-
ing at large populations documented
what is known as a J-shape curve be-
tween alcohol and mortality from all
causes, especially heart disease: Mor-
tality rates dipped for moderate
drinkers compared with nondrinkers
and then climbed higher among people
whose intake exceeded one or two
drinks daily. But observational studies
can show only correlations, not causa-
tion. And they have other limitations.
One major confounding factor is that so-
cioeconomic status is a strong predictor
of health and life span and it tracks
closely with drinking levels. Studies
show that compared with heavy
drinkers and abstainers, people who
drink moderately tend to be wealthier
and have higher levels of education.
One study that compared non-
drinkers with moderate drinkers de-
fined as having two drinks daily for men
and one for women found that 27 out
of 30 well-established risk factors for
heart disease were significantly more
prevalent among nondrinkers. Rather
than causing better health, in other
words, moderate drinking may be a
marker for higher socioeconomic status
and other lifestyle factors that promote
a longer life. Another problem with observational studies is selection bias. In some large
studies, people categorized as non-
drinkers may actually be former heavy
drinkers, or they may have health issues
that cause them not to imbibe. Studies
have found that nondrinkers have
higher rates of physical disabilities, psy-
chiatric problems and pre-existing ill-
nesses. When rigorous studies take
these factors into account, they find that
the protective effect of moderate drink-
ing disappears.
The appearance of protection van-
ishes like the mist on an autumn day as
the sun comes up, said Timothy Stock-
well, an alcohol researcher and director
of the Canadian Institute for Substance
Use Research at the University of Vic-
toria. All of these thousands of studies,
when you do a forensic examination of
them, most of them have these horren-
dous flaws and are open to these sys-
tematic biases.
One way to get around these limita-
tions is through genetic studies. Some
people carry a genetic variant that dis-
rupts their ability to metabolize alcohol,
causing them to develop skin flushing,
irritation and other unpleasant symp-
toms when they drink alcohol. As a re-
sult, they tend to abstain or drink very
little. If alcohol was good for heart
health, these people should in theory
have more heart disease than others. In-
stead, as one large analysis published in
BMJ in 2014 found, they have a more
favorable cardiovascular profile and a
reduced risk of coronary heart disease
than those without the genetic variant. The study concluded: This suggests
that reduction of alcohol consumption,
even for light to moderate drinkers, is
beneficial for cardiovascular health.
Not everyone agrees that the health
benefits of moderate drinking are illu-
sory. Alcohol has blood-thinning proper-
ties, and red wine in particular contains
polyphenols that have beneficial effects
on the microbiome, said Dr. Erik
Skovenborg, a family doctor and mem-
ber of the International Alcohol Forum,
an international group of scientists who
study alcohol and health. Alcohol also
raises HDL cholesterol, often referred
to as the good kind, though recent
studies have cast doubt on its being car-
Dr. Skovenborg said the observa-
tional data makes it clear that moderate
drinking is more than a marker for a
healthy lifestyle. In these studies, you have many par-
ticipants that have all the healthy life-
style factors, he said, and if you add
moderate alcohol consumption on top of
that, it increases the benefits regarding
longer life and fewer health problems. Dr. Skovenborg said his general ad-
vice to patients who drink is to follow the
Mediterranean tradition: Have a little
wine with your meals, drink slowly, en-
joy it, and dont drink to get drunk. Exer-
cise regularly, avoid smoking, eat nutri-
tious foods, and maintain a normal
weight. Its a pattern of things you
should be doing, not just one thing, he
A tougher look at drinking
Scientists update guideline
on alcohol consumption,
saying less can be healthier
Even one drink a day can increase the
risk of breast, esophageal and oral cancer.

In his first appearance at a PGA Tour
event in five months, Tiger Woods hit a
majestic iron shot during a practice
round this week that soared toward an
elevated green 250 yards away. When
the ball deftly skirted bunkers protect-
ing the putting surface and settled eight
feet from the 15th hole, one person
among the handful of security officers,
volunteers and media members watch-
ing Woods clapped his hands.
As the faintest possible applause
pierced the stillness at the Muirfield Vil-
lage Golf Club, home to this weeks Me-
morial Tournament, Woods seemed un-
comfortable, or startled. Accustomed to
being surrounded by tens of thousands
of cheering admirers, even during prac-
tice rounds, Woods awkwardly turned to
his one fan, offered a sheepish wave and
smiled. The coronavirus pandemic has meant
that spectators are no longer allowed at
PGA Tour events, including practice
rounds, a situation that has led to quiet,
uneasy non-celebrations, even as a tour-
nament-clinching final putt falls into the
hole. Woods has watched the scenes
from afar on TV, but on Tuesday he got
his first taste of the changed envi-
ronment. He is still trying to adjust.
Ive been there when theyre throw-
ing drinks towards the greens and peo-
ple screaming, high-fiving, people run-
ning through bunkers thats all gone,
Woods said to reporters after his prac-
tice round. Thats our new reality that
were facing.
As Woods spoke, it was as if he were
remembering something he took for
granted and now wished he had not.
Its a very different world out here
not to have the distractions, the noise,
the excitement, the energy that the fans
bring, he said. Its just a silent and dif-
ferent world. Woods added, Very stark, really. He was asked if he could remember
the last time he had played a competi-
tive round without a crowd present.
Maybe in college at Stanford?
Woods slightly shook his head. He
was having none of it and deadpanned:
Even in college I had a few people fol-
lowing. He then grinned. It was perfectly reasonable to expect
that Woods might miss his golf kingdom
during a five-month tour layoff this year,
but who knew he missed his subjects so
much? Even if the course atmosphere on
Tuesday was entirely different at Muir-
field, Woods was still happy to be back and insisted that he was far more fit
than he was for his last tournament ap-
pearance in mid-February, when he fin-
ished last among the golfers who made
the cut at the Genesis Invitational in Los
Angeles. At the time, Woodss surgically
repaired back was stiff and inhibited his
swing. By Mays made-for-TV match at the
Medalist Golf Club in Hobe Sound, Fla.,
where he and Peyton Manning paired to
beat Phil Mickelson and Tom Brady
head-to-head, Woods looked both con-
sistently sharp and powerful.
Ive been able to train a lot, Woods
said Tuesday. Ive been able to do a lot of things that I hadnt done in a very long
time, which is spend a lot of time with
my kids and be around them.
Physically, I feel so much better than
I did then. Ive been able to train and
concentrate on getting back up to speed
and back up to tournament speed. While the five-month break from elite
competitive golf was not expected,
Woods said he had learned to adapt to
such layoffs since they have become a
necessity after his many back recon-
structions. Unfortunately, over the last few
years Ive been used to taking long
breaks and having to build my game to a
level where its at a tour level at home
and play a few tournaments here and
there, he said. This was a forced break
for all of us, but Im excited to get back
into playing again.
Woods is the last American golfer
ranked in the top 30 to return to the tour,
and he admitted he weighed whether to
come back sooner. (Some top golfers
from other countries have not played in
the United States because of mandatory
quarantine restrictions.) But in the end,
it was Woodss popularity that factored
heavily in his decision. Im used to playing with lots of peo-
ple around me or having lots of people
have a direct line to me and that puts not
only myself in danger but my friends
and family, he said, adding that he ulti-
mately felt it was safer to remain at
home in Florida. Im used to having so many people
around me or even touch me just go-
ing from green to tee, he said. Thats
something that I looked at and said, Im
really not quite comfortable with that
whole idea. Lets see how it plays out
In returning now, Woods comes back
to something of a second home at the
Memorial Tournament, a place where
he has won five times and he said he felt
comfortable. Until, perhaps, he hit a truly spectacu-
lar shot and only one person clapped.
Tiger Woods returns, without roars
After a five-month layoff,
golf s superstar enters a
silent and different world
MADDIE MCGARVEY FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Unfortunately, over the last few
years Ive been used to taking
long breaks and having to build
Answers to Previous Puzzles
Created by Peter Ritmeester/Presented by Will Shortz
SUDOKU No. 1707
Fill the grid so
that every row,
column 3x3 box
and shaded 3x3
box contains
each of the
1 to 9 exactly
Fill the grids with digits so as not
to repeat a digit in any row or
column, and so that the digits
within each heavily outlined box
will produce the target number
shown, by using addition,
subtraction, multiplication or
division, as indicated in the box.
A 4x4 grid will use the digits
1-4. A 6x6 grid will use 1-6.
For solving tips and more KenKen
kenken. For Feedback: nytimes@
For solving tips
and more puzzles:
KenKen® is a registered trademark of Nextoy, LLC.
Copyright © 2018 All rights reserved.
(c) Distributed by The New York Times syndicate
Solution No. 1607 CROSSWORD | Edited by Will Shortz
1 Clear, as the deck
5 Nuts (over)
9 Some office workers on “Mad Men”
11 Greek god of the winds
13 Literary profile
16 Speed
17 Links things?
18 Romance novelist Roberts
19 Womans name that means life
22 Bud
23 It forms at the mouth
25 Majors in acting
26 Not be stuck in one’s ways
28 Close ones
31 Be a bad winner
32 Home where the heart is?
33 Pinball player’s undoing
36 Is blessed with
37 Flood
38 Title locale for a Hemingway novel, with “the”
41 Sews up
42 Strain
43 Woman’s name in English that’s a man’s name in Catalan
45 What a “R-r-r-ring!” in the kitchen signifies
46 Slips, e.g.
54 Person with no one to play with
55 Names
1 Worker in Albany or Sacramento, say
2 “Now ___ talking!”
3 Tokyo-based carrier
4 Game played on a 90-foot- long court
5 Painter’s mixture
6 “Peachy!”
7 A stream might run through it
8 Hose and belt sellers
9 Bald-faced
10 Joey Dee’s backup group in 1960s pop, with “the”
on the curve?
12 Rows
13 Street ___
14 Western New York natives
15 Discontinue
20 Choke
21 Faint prints, in detective work
24 Like Wookiees
27 Member of the South Asian diaspora
29 One of the Wayans brothers
30 Classic western hero who says “A man has to be what he is, Joey. Can’t break the mold”
33 Nails for kites
34 Word on a French wine bottle
35 Like bad, bad Leroy Brown vis-à-vis a junkyard dog, in song
36 Mideast traveler, of a sort
39 Double or triple feat in the Olympics
44 View from Memphis
45 “Nuts!”
With ___” (2017 documentary)
49 Annual three- day celebration
50 Tide competitor
51 In the back
52 Luau offering
53 Backing
PUZZLE BY RICH PROULX Solution to July 16 Puzzle
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12
13 14 15
16 17 18
19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30
31 32
33 34 35
36 37 38 39
40 41 42
43 44 45
46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

In 1937, the Swiss artist Sophie Taeuber-
Arp wrote a letter to a friend, noting her
exclusion from an avant-garde exhibi-
tion in Paris. While a male Belgian artist
in her circle was refused entry too, as a
woman it is ten times harder to hold
your position in this caldron.
And therein lies a tale, one that may
be receiving an updated ending. Taeu-
ber-Arp (1889-1943), a pathbreaking
artist, is the only woman on a Swiss
bank note, and she has been featured
previously in major museum exhibi-
tions. But her name is hardly bandied
about certainly not with the fre-
quency of her husbands, Jean (Hans)
Arp and some influential people in the
art world are collectively looking to
change that. Among her advances was using inte-
rior design as an artistic tool, an early
version of installation art, and when she
wasnt painting she made textiles, cos-
tumes and sculptures and edited maga-
zines. She was a dancer, too. Beginning with a current online show
from the gallery Hauser & Wirth, the
artist is getting a too-rare spotlight,
which intensifies next year with the mu-
seum survey, Sophie Taeuber-Arp: Liv-
ing Abstraction. That exhibition is
scheduled to debut in March at the Kun-
stmuseum Basel in Switzerland, and
then travels to the Tate Modern in Lon-
don and the Museum of Modern Art in
New York. Jointly organized by the
three institutions, it was originally
scheduled to begin this year and will be
the most comprehensive show of her
work to appear in the United States. Taeuber-Arp excelled in many media,
and the exhibition shows her lifelong de-
votion to abstraction, represented in
canvases, works on paper and gouaches
on cardboard that range in style from as-
semblages of slightly biomorphic
shapes to hard-edge geometries.
She and her husband, the noted
French-German painter and poet, were
key members of the Dada movement af-
ter World War I, and both had avant-
garde careers after Dada petered out.
For a while now, museums and gal-
leries have been assiduously scouring
the past, looking to highlight artists who
werent given their due in their lifetime,
particularly women and people of color.
The constant question is: What did we
miss, or gloss over too quickly?
According to Anne Umland, the cura-
tor at the Museum of Modern Art who
co-organized the show that will stop
there, Taeuber-Arp was a multidisci-
plinary artist when it was radical to be
so, and not de rigueur as it is today.
She proposed a both-and model, Ms.
Umland said. Applied arts and abstrac-
tion, not one or the other. She conjured a
language of abstraction from a back-
ground of arts and crafts. Ms. Umland said too that the show did
fit the larger trend.
With the clarity of hindsight, we can
see whos left out, how incomplete the
stories we have told are, and how exclu-
sionary they are, she said, adding, We
have a huge task. Hauser & Wirth recently took over
representation of Taeuber-Arps estate,
which had never been commercially
represented. The online show features
Taeuber-Arp works made from 1916 to
1942, the year before she died of acciden-
tal carbon monoxide poisoning. Mostly
a non-selling exhibition, the survey is a
useful Taeuber-Arp 101 course. It also gives a sense of her 3-D work,
which is even more varied. Her mario- nettes of 1918, tiny and elaborately con-
structed, seemingly derived from a dark
fairy tale, will be a revelation for many.
So will Pompadour (1920), a purse in
silk, cotton and glass beads.
People always ask why she is not
more known, said Iwan Wirth, Hauser
& Wirths co-founder, who is Swiss him-
self. Shes one of the great known-un-
known artists of the century. He added, Shes on the 50 franc note,
but still many people in Switzerland
dont know who that is. The Hans Arp and Sophie Taeuber-
Arp Foundation administers both es-
tates, and Mr. Wirth, who already repre-
sents Arps estate, had been pursuing
hers for a decade. Theres a small but impressive trove
of works, Mr. Wirth said, adding that he
thought her geometric reliefs of the
1930s like the 1936 Rectangular Re-
lief With Cutout Rectangles, Applied
Rectangles and Rising Cylinders in the
online show were her strongest mode. Arie Hartog, the coordinator of the So-
phie Taeuber-Arp Research Project and
a scholar of Arps work who advises the
foundation, said that Taeuber-Arps
known oeuvre is around 1,200 works. Mr. Hartog, who is also the director of
Gerhard-Marcks-Haus in Bremen, Ger-
many, has spent much time in the cou- ples archives. Having a renowned artist
for a husband and collaborator helped
ensure that her work would be known to
a certain degree but also overshad-
owed. She was a strong woman in a mi-
lieu of modernist males, he said.
Mr. Hartog pointed to a famous 1928
collaboration of the Dutch artist Theo van Doesburg with Arp and Taeuber-
Arp for the design of LAubette, a leisure
complex in Strasbourg, France, meant
to be a complete work of art and a show-
place for the new de Stijl movement.
Im a Dutch art historian, and when
we learned about this in school, we were
told it was by van Doesburg, who brought his friend Arp, who brought his
wife, Mr. Hartog said. She was un-
Taeuber-Arp, he added, made the
color scheme for one of the spaces. She
was one of the first artists in Europe who
understood that with color, you can
make space, he said. Born in Davos, Switzerland, Taeuber-
Arp studied art in Munich before return-
ing to her native country. She met Arp in
1915 in Zurich, and from 1916 to 1929 she
taught textile design at the School of Ap-
plied Arts there. She kept the couple afloat, said Pipi-
lotti Rist, a contemporary Swiss artist
who admires Taeuber-Arp. Im absolutely inspired by her, said
Ms. Rist, perhaps best known for her
video installations. The idea of doing
applied art, fine art and things in be-
tween, that was big for me as a young
Zurich was a hub of Dada activity, and
Taeuber-Arps 1920 painted sculpture
Dada Head is one of her key works,
Ms. Umland, the curator, said. It represented the cross-pollination
that Taeuber-Arp was so deft at, com-
bining turned-wood construction and
painted abstract patterns over the vis-
age, she said. Ms. Umland said that she discovered
the artists works in the early 1980s,
guided by an older colleague, and then
included Taeuber-Arps art in a 2006
Dada show. But that exhibition covered
the work only until 1920, and I wanted
to see more, she said. After 1929, Taeuber-Arp and her hus-
band lived much of their life in France.
Their relationship is a source of fascina-
tion for scholars. From reading her letters, and letters
from people who knew her, my impres-
sion was that she was friendly and orga-
nized, Mr. Hartog said. Hans was more
impulsive. If Arp was sensibility, Taeuber-Arp
was sense. Mr. Hartog quoted a letter that Taeu-
ber-Arp wrote to her husband in 1919,
when the Dada movement was at a fever
pitch, with its devotees penning mani-
festoes left and right: Im furious. What is this nonsense,
radical artist. . . . It must only be the
work, to manifest oneself this way is
more than stupid. . . . Nobody cares if
youre always hopping around on your
vanity like this. The Los Angeles-based artist
Christina Forrer, who is Swiss and
makes tapestries among other works,
said she had always admired that Taeu-
ber-Arp was unpretentious, attribut-
ing it at least partly to heritage. Swiss
Germans arent flowery, she said. In particular, Ms. Forrer cited Taeu-
ber-Arps use of color in textiles, an ap-
proach that suffused her work in other
media. With her, color is part of the ma-
terial, she said. Its not additive or su-
perficial. Although Taeuber-Arp was eclipsed
by her husband during her lifetime, her
reputation was tended by Arp himself. He did amazing work for her after
she died by writing about her, publish-
ing a catalog raisonné, Ms. Umland
said. He donated her work to European
institutions, and he made sure she
stayed in the public eye. Taeuber-Arps complicated legacy is
exactly what appeals to contemporary
artists like Sheila Hicks, who is known
for her sculptural textiles and counts
herself as a Taeuber-Arp fan. But Ms. Hicks who is based in
Paris, a foreigner in the city as Taeuber-
Arp was has her own take on the gen-
der politics of the past. Her husband had a powerful person-
ality, and it was a free ride into the inner
circle, Ms. Hicks said. She wouldnt
have had that without him. She added,
It was a challenge to live in those times
and achieve her goals. I hope they dont make her out to be a
tragic figure, Ms. Hicks said of Living
Abstraction. I love the agility of this person who
was multitalented, and who was part-
nered with this super-popular guy, she
said. It was a win-win.
A Dada pioneer, no longer on the sidelines
Sophie Taeuber-Arp was
a multidisciplinary artist
when it was radical to be so
Dada-Head (1920), is now coming out
of her husbands shadow. From top: One
of her marionettes (1918); Pompadour,
a purse in silk, cotton and glass beads;
Composition With S Forms (1927).
Aldous Huxleys 1932 novel Brave
New World famously imagined a
future society in which people were
enslaved to pleasure. The futures
diversions were so absorbing that they
commanded attention over everything
else.If only you could say that about its
latest TV adaptation. Dull, generic and
padded, the series, one of the premiere
offerings for NBCUniversals Peacock
streaming service, which began on
Wednesday, transmutes a provocative
warning into a vision of a sci-fi world
that feels neither brave nor new. The premise, as in so many new
series based on pre-existing intellectu-
al property, is essentially that of the
novel, but stretched out. We arrive in
New London, the gleaming citadel of a
hedonistic society that has snuffed out
discontent with three rules No
privacy, no family, no monogamy
and an endless supply of soma, a feel- good drug dispensed like Pez.
The citizens, stratified into castes
labeled Alpha, Beta and so on,
shrug off the class inequities with the
help of pills, orgies and feelies, tactile
entertainments in which a populace
mostly alienated from physical strug-
gle can experience virtual thrills like
getting punched in the face.
Outside the city, savages still
practice primitive rites like having
babies biologically, and perform at
theme parks for the amusement of
their safariing betters. (Brave New
World shares with Westworld a
faith in the future health of the live-
amusements industry.) Bernard (Harry Lloyd), a supercil-
ious Alpha, strikes up a friendship with
Lenina (Jessica Brown Findlay), a
Beta whom hes investigated for hav-
ing sex too often with the same man
a transgression of solipsism against
the social body, in which everyone
belongs to everyone else. After a
getaway to the Savage Lands adven-
ture park goes awry, they return to
New London with a fugitive native,
John (Alden Ehrenreich), whose defi-
ant authenticity makes him a subject of
fascination. That John will threaten the compla-
cency of New London by teaching its
citizens how to feel is no surprise.
Brave New World, while an enduring tale, was also a product of a time con-
cerned with totalitarianism and threats
to the individual. The job of any adap-
tation is to retain the DNA of the origi-
nal while mutating it to the times, and
thats where this version fails.
Brave New World was originally
developed for NBCUniversals Syfy
channel, then for USA, and its future
feels off-the-rack. Its one of those dystopias in which the prosperous
locations vaguely resemble the World
Trade Center Oculus and the impover-
ished zones are strewn with fires burn-
ing in oil drums. Its main distinction
from basic-cable fare is the copious
nudity in the orgies, which are none-
theless antiseptic and unsexy.
And this world is populated with flat
characters. Demi Moore has little to do as Johns drunk, idle mother, and the
antagonists back in New London
suspicious of Johns popularity and of
Bernards interest in him are one-
note sneering technocrats.
The series doesnt lack for dystopian
pedigrees. The showrunner, David
Wiener, hails from Amazons Home-
coming and it shares a director, Owen
Harris, with Black Mirror. But it
doesnt compare well with either pred-
ecessor, each of which better explored
the dangers of digitally and biologi-
cally fine-tuning humanity. The one area in which this World
is reimagined to relate to 2020 is its
focus on social technology. The deni-
zens of New London are equipped with
eye implants that not only apply a
digital overlay to everything they see
but connect them to a universal net-
work, in which they can see through
the eyes of anyone else in the system.
Its the ultimate overshare: Facebook
for your face. This builds on Huxleys original idea
of an anti-individualist society. But
more thought seems to have gone into
the design of the optical device (a lens
with a nerve-like wire, unsettling for
those of us who dont even like putting
contacts in) than to what led this soci-
ety to fetishize radical openness. In theory, Brave New World is ripe
for a newly relevant update. After the 2016 election, there was renewed inter-
est in George Orwells 1984, with its
warnings about totalitarian politics and
language. But as the media critic Neil
Postman wrote in his 1985 fire alarm
Amusing Ourselves to Death (revivi-
fied after that same election), the
Huxleyan warning was in many
ways more relevant to Western cul-
ture, in which the populace was often
seduced by entertainments rather than
bludgeoned by blunt force.
This speaks to 2020 to a point.
One difference is how our societys
versions of soma Twitter, YouTube
algorithms as often seek to inflame
as to pacify us. If youre not going to
delve into what Huxley has to say to a
future nearly a century later, why
bother making another adaptation? There are a few, welcome flashes of
life. Lloyd gives Bernard a pitiable
desperation as he comes to find his
accustomed life more and more empty.
(Everybodys happy unless they
choose not to be! he tells himself,
crankily popping a soma.) And by late
in the season, the series starts to loos-
en up and have dark-humored fun with
its premise.
But its not enough to be worth the
wait. For the most part, were left with
an unsexy portrait of decadence, a
thriller without thrills, a prescription
thats less soma than Sominex.
Hedonism that somehow still falls flat
Latest screen version
of Brave New World is
tame, despite the orgies
BY JAMES PONIEWOZIK Jessica Brown Findlay in Brave New World, on NBCUniversals Peacock platform.

Ashanti Floyd couldnt sleep.
As a Black man, Mr. Floyd was accus-
tomed to being agonized by cases like
that of Elijah McClain, a 23-year-old who
died while being detained by the police
in Aurora, Colo., last summer. But as he
read in June about the case, one of many
deadly encounters between Black peo-
ple and the police that are receiving new
scrutiny in recent months, a detail
grabbed Mr. Floyd: Mr. McClain had
been a violinist, just like him. All I remember is praying for peace,
Mr. Floyd said on a recent Zoom call. I
felt like that boy could have been me.
He tossed and turned all night after he
found this out. And when he learned
through social media the following
morning about a vigil being planned in
Aurora, where violinists and other
string musicians would perform at a
park to honor Mr. McClains memory,
Mr. Floyd decided he had to be there.
He booked a flight from Atlanta and
packed his violin. When he landed in
Colorado, he was picked up by a friend
and fellow violinist, Lee England Jr.,
who had just arrived from New York. Af-
ter they spoke with the people putting
the event together, they began creating
sheet music.
We worked in partnership with the
organizers, Mr. England said on the
same Zoom call as Mr. Floyd. But when
it came to the music, we basically took
When they arrived at the vigil on June
27, the pair performed with dozens of
other string musicians, playing songs
like Amazing Grace and Hallelujah.
Onlookers recorded videos of the per-
formance, which members of the Mc-
Clain family attended, and also captured
footage of the Aurora Police Depart-
ment intervening with riot gear and tear
gas canisters after officers declared the
gathering unlawful. Demonstrators
locked arms in a circle around the play-
ers. We could hear them as we were play-
ing, Mr. England said. But I knew I
was just going to continue playing. The incident went viral. Mr. Floyd and
Mr. England hadnt expected similar
vigils elsewhere but one was sched-
uled in New York, two days later. Then
there was one in Boston the following
day, and another in Portland, Ore. a dozen in two weeks. In cities including
New Orleans, Chicago and Bowling
Green, Ohio, musicians and community
organizers have continued to host violin
vigils almost 20, and counting in
honor of Mr. McClain, attracting hun-
dreds, sometimes thousands, of partici-
I remember just making a poster for
the vigil on my phone, said Karla Mi
Lugo, a performance artist who helped
organize the initial event in Aurora.
Ive had at least 10 different people in
different cities who have reached out to
me about organizing their own. The renewed attention to the circum-
stances of Mr. McClains death has had
an impact. Gov. Jared Polis of Colorado
has appointed a special prosecutor to in- vestigate the case. And three Aurora po-
lice officers have been fired over photos
taken near a memorial set up in Mr. Mc-
Clains memory that show two of them
grinning and mocking his death.
As the violin vigils proliferate, hordes
of classically trained performers are at
the ready: Concert halls have been
closed for months because of the spread
of the coronavirus, leaving musicians
out of work around the country. Organ-
izers in Boston; Columbus, Ohio; and
Portland, Ore., all reported a similar pat-
tern: Events planned in just a few days
are receiving swift bursts of response
and impressive turnouts.
We had no idea this was going to hap-
pen, Mr. Floyd said. We didnt think
wed create these waves. But I guess thats what happens when youre a mu-
sician and all you have is time on your
Alexandra Newman, a lead organizer
of the Chicago vigil, pointed to two local
classical music standbys that were can-
celed this summer, the Grant Park Mu-
sic Festival and the Ravinia Festival, as
an explanation for the interest in the
event there. There are people who want to hear
music, and there are people who want to
perform it, Ms. Newman said. Theres
also a community aspect, and its a way
to bring out that connection. Without any national umbrella orga-
nization, the vigils have been put togeth-
er by local residents. While organizers
have tended to handle the logistics, pick- ing the location and spreading the word,
musicians have created sheet music and
distributed it. Violins, of course, have
been the most popular choice at the
events, though violas, cellos and other
string instruments have made appear-
ances. There has been an effort to in-
clude music by Black composers, or
songs that are important to the Black
community, like Lift Every Voice and
Its been something weve been try-
ing to change, not using so many Euro-
pean composers, said Kevin Hagans, a
violinist who is Black and Japanese and
who helped to organize the vigil in Co-
lumbus. The issue is that weve always
had to go searching for these com-
posers; theyre not taught to us like white composers are.
While many musicians are joyful at
getting any chance to perform after
months without concerts, they noted
that this occasion is somber. Im really
conflicted, Zach Brock, a violinist for
the band Snarky Puppy, said about his
experience helping organize the vigil in
Maplewood, N.J. It felt horrible that the
first time I got to perform since the pan-
demic was because a Black man was
killed by the police. I missed playing for
people, because its been so long. But I
was really just there because I wanted
to help.
This sentiment is shared by Mr. Floyd
and Mr. England, who were at first con-
cerned that people might confuse the
vigils for self-promotion or celebration.
Its all in the name of Elijah McClain,
Mr. England said. And I really hope that
people see that theres more than just
one way to protest. We dont want this to
just be some P.R. thing. Mr. England recalled an exchange
with the Aurora mayors communica-
tions office, which contacted him a few
days after the vigil there. The mayors
office, he said, knew that they had
messed up because the police depart-
ment had interfered with the protest,
and wanted to make it up to him and
Mr. Floyd. I told them that they need to do what
needs to be done for the McClain family,
Mr. England said. Its not about any of
us. We were there for the family.
Strings united in memory and outrage
Musicians play to honor
a young violinist who died
after a police encounter
CARLOS JAVIER ORTIZ FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Jeff Hughes, above, played at a vigil in
June in Aurora, Colo., for another violin-
ist, Elijah McClain, 23, who died last year
in police custody. Left, tributes to Mr.
McClain in Oz Park in Chicago this month.
Ashanti Floyd, an artist in Georgia, said,
I felt like that boy could have been me.
Desert Notebooks:
A Road Map for the End of Time
By Ben Ehrenreich. 325 pp. Counter-
point. $26.
William Atkins is the author of The
Immeasurable World: Journeys in
Desert Places.
Joshua Tree National Park in California.

With the physical, emotional and eco-
nomic miseries delivered by the pan-
demic, the continuing national debate
over racial justice and the myriad daily
shockers that have battered the na-
tional equanimity, Ive learned its
possible to feel hopeful and despondent
at the same time.
Add to that, its summer, and though
were no longer stuck indoors exactly,
the usual seasonal pleasures seem a
distant fantasy. In these strange times, I find
grounding in wine. Not through self-
medication, though I do not disparage
the buzz. But simply through the fasci-
nating combination of grape, place and
person that can make every good
bottle either a new adventure or an old,
beloved story. I went in search of thrills and values
late last month. Or rather, I did it pan-
demic style, letting my fingers do the
shopping through the online inven-
tories of New York wine shops. I tried
them all at home and have come up
with what I think is an excellent and
unusual assortment of 20 wines under
$20. They come from 11 different coun-
tries, in quite different proportion from
my usual array. For one thing, five of the wines are
American, four from California and one
from Washington. I dont want to say
thats unprecedented, but California,
for numerous reasons, is not usually
fertile ground for good values. Perhaps
bottles generally destined for restau-
rants ended up instead at retailers. Or
maybe producers in California have
finally taken up the challenge of mak-
ing interesting, honest, moderately
priced wines.
With these wines, dont expect the
most famous grapes from the most
prized vineyard areas. Indeed, the two
reds from California are blends, lead-
ing with carignan and petite sirah from
various sites in the
sweeping North
Coast appellation.
One of two whites is
a blend of pinot gris
and pinot blanc. The
other is a chardon-
nay, though from the
wilds of Mendocino.These 20 bottles
include none from
Spain, usually a
wonderful source of great values. Why
not? I dont know. Earlier this year
Spanish bottles dominated a roundup
of wines under $15, so dont hesitate to
experiment with a few on your own.
Now, I cant emphasize this enough:
I am not asserting that these 20 bottles
are the best values in the world under
$20. They are all excellent deals, but
they represent simply a cross-section
of what I could find on the websites of
Manhattan retail shops in June 2020.
That, I am sorry to say, will differ
from whats available in Atlanta or
Dallas, or Milwaukee or Salt Lake City,
to say nothing of all the countries
within reach of this column. Some of
these bottles you may find, others not. What to do if you cant find a specific
bottle? I recommend these steps:
Find a good wine shop. The most
important step toward improving your
drinking is to shop at a store that loves
wine, rather than treating it as a ran-
dom consumer product. It will have
assembled an inventory of scrupu-
lously made wines from meticulously
farmed grapes. These 20 bottles are
not all big brands. You wont find them
at supermarkets.
If a good retailer does not have a
bottle, ask the merchant to suggest an
equivalent wine. Most shops will be
happy to take on this challenge. If they
dont have, say, a Croatian posip or a
German weissburgunder, perhaps the
two most esoteric bottles in this selec-
tion, they may find something equally
obscure that they esteem. Why not try
something new on a recommendation?
Use an online tool, like wine-, to track down bottles.
You might find them in other stores.
For American wines, dozens of states
permit you to buy directly from winer-
ies and have it shipped to your home.
Consult previous 20 Under $20 col-
umns. Most of these bottles are still
excellent deals, though some prices
may have crept up slightly.
If all else fails I dont expect any-
body to find all these bottles in one
place; I sure didnt its nice to know
that these wines exist in the world,
even if they are not immediately avail-
able. Seriously, in the days before
theater and restaurants closed down, I
enjoyed reading about a play that
opened in London or a restaurant in
Los Angeles without the immediate
expectation of experiencing either. You
may not find this bottle now, but it may
show up in the future if you keep your
eyes open. And its great to know
wines like these exist. Thinking seasonally, this list empha-
sizes whites, sparklers and rosés, but it
does include eight red wines, because,
well, one always needs reds. Here are
the 20 bottles, in no particular order.
Inexpensive wines that feed the soul
Zlatan Otok Hvar Posip 2018 $17.99
This bottle from Croatia may seem obscure.
But this sumptuous white, made from the
indigenous grape posip, is rich, herbal,
savory and deliciously refreshing. For now,
wines like this, made from grapes little
known to Americans in regions yet to
achieve international popularity, are great
values. Zlatan Otok, on the island of Hvar,
was established in 1991. Its now one of the
larger wineries in the country. (Vinum USA,
Basking Ridge, N.J.) Le Vigne di Alice Vittorio Veneto Tajad
Frizzante NV $18.99
This gently sparkling wine is a modern
interpretation of the wines made in an era
before the glera grape came to dominate
Prosecco. Its a blend of indigenous varie-
ties, including 40 percent boschera, 40
percent verdiso and 20 percent glera. Cinzia
Canzian, the winemaker, achieves the
bubbles through the bulk-production Char-
mat method, also used for industrial Pros-
ecco. But this wine seems easygoing and
refreshing. (PortoVino, Buffalo) Troupis Arcadia Moschofilero Hoof & Lur
2019 $19.99
Moschofilero, like pinot gris and its Greek
cousin, roditis, is a pink-skinned grape. If the
juice sits briefly with the skins before vinifi-
cation, it develops a pale salmon color, so
lets call Hoof & Lur a rosé. This wine, made
without added yeast or filtration in the
Peloponnese region of Greece, is fragrant
and floral, bone-dry and lightly fruity. (DNS
Wines/T. Elenteny Imports, New York) Broc Cellars North Coast Love Red 2018
Broc Cellars is one of my favorites among
the new wave of California producers. Chris
Brockway, the proprietor, specializes in
tracking down well-farmed grapes, no mat-
ter how obscure, from undervalued vine-
yards around the state. The wines in Brocs
Love series are lower-priced and made to
quench thirsts. With its lively fruit flavors,
this red, a blend mostly of carignan, with
some valdigué and syrah thrown in, is per-
fect for an outdoor barbecue. Dirty & Rowdy North Coast Unfamiliar Red
2017 $19.99
Dirty & Rowdy operates very much like Broc,
prospecting California for grapes and vine-
yards off the beaten trail, though with a
more puckish attitude. The 2017 Unfamiliar
Red is more structured than the Broc Love
Red. Its primary component is petite sirah, a
notoriously tannic grape. The tannins are
apparent here but very much in check.
Zinfandel, carignan and mourvèdre round
out the blend. Its fresh and fruity and would
be just right with juicy burgers off the grill. PHOTOGRAPHS BY TONY CENICOLA/THE NEW YORK TIMES
Brand Pfalz Weissburgunder Trocken
2018 1 liter $19
Daniel and Jonas Brand, two brothers, work
in the northern reaches of the Pfalz region of
Germany, where they farm organically and
make a wide selection of excellent wines,
many of them, like this one, sold in 1-liter
bottles. This is made of weissburgunder, also
known as pinot blanc. Its a creamy, textured
wine that feels so good in the mouth you just
want to keep drinking it, rolling it around and
seeking out nuances. (Vom Boden, Brook-
lyn, N.Y.) Niepoort Douro Tinto Twisted 2018 $19
Dirk Niepoort is one of Portugals most
interesting and influential producers. Based
in Douro, port country, he pioneered the
movement toward making lighter, fresher
wines that aimed for finesse rather than
power. Twisted is a perfect example. Its a
field blend of port varieties, a wine that
maybe 15 years ago would have been heavy
and jammy. Its far more of a precise wine
these days, lightly tannic and fresh, reminis-
cent of port. It will improve for a few years,
too. (Polaner Selections, Mount Kisco, N.Y.) Chiara Condello Romagna Sangiovese
Predappio 2016 $19.99
In Italy, sangiovese is not only grown Tus-
cany. Its the countrys most abundant red
grape and has been cultivated in Emilia-
Romagna for centuries. Chiara Condello, a
young producer from a family of winemak-
ers, makes this wine for her own label. It is
100 percent sangiovese, and its more
overtly fruity than, say, a Chianti Classico.
But it carries similarly dusty tannins and is
nuanced and energetic. (Bowler Wine, New
York) Meinklang Osterreich Prosa Sparkling
Rosé 2019 $17.96
Meinklang, the biodynamic estate in the
Burgenland region of Austria, almost never
fails to delight. Whether blaufränkisch,
grüner veltliner or anything else, the wines
are always pure, fresh and delicious. This
lightly sparkling rosé is made of pinot noir,
tastes gently of red fruit and flowers, and will
go with burgers, grilled salmon or even just
by itself. (Zev Rovine Selections, Brooklyn,
N.Y.) Mother Rock Swartland Force Celeste
Sémillon 2018 $17.99
Sémillon makes wonderful wines, but you
dont see them often. Its a crucial compo-
nent of Sauternes and the dry whites of
Graves. Excellent, age-worthy versions
come from the Hunter Valley of Australia,
while California and Oregon make a few.
This, from Mother Rock, is the first South
African sémillon that Ive tried. Its bone dry
and full of the grapes characteristic aromas
and flavors of beeswax, lemon and honey.
(Vine Street Imports, Mount Laurel, N.J.)
Leitz Rheingau Sylvaner Trocken Alte
Reben 2016 $19.96
Sylvaner, or silvaner as they spell it in Al-
sace, is a perpetually underrated grape.
When conscientiously farmed and made
with care, like this one, its a perfect spring
or summer white. This wine, tangy and light,
yet with flavors that resonate, wont be easy
to find. But I include it because its excellent,
and perhaps it will inspire you to try a syl-
vaner, whether this one or from another
producer like Stefan Vetter, Ostertag or
Dirler-Cadé. (Schatzi Wines, Milan, N.Y.) Gaspard Vin de France Sauvignon Blanc
2018 $16.96
Jenny & François is one of the pioneering
American importers of natural wines. Gas-
pard is the name of its private label, and this
wine is delicious. Made from sauvignon
blanc grown in the Touraine region of the
Loire Valley, this wine will not remind you of
the more pungent sauvignon blanc associ-
ated with New Zealand. Its a more gentle,
resonant style reminiscent of a restrained
Sancerre. (Jenny & François Selections, New
York) Familie Bauer Wagram Terassen Roter
Veltliner 2018 $16.96
What is roter veltliner, you ask, grüner
veltliners whirling sibling? The grapes are
actually unrelated, the ampelographers say,
though it does have some similarities, like a
pleasing peppery spiciness. But this wine,
made from organic grapes, is richer and
rounder, pure, clear and deep. It would
make an interesting alternative to chardon-
nay. (Savio Soares Selections, New York) Fabien Jouves Cahors Haute Côt(e) de
Fruit Malbec 2018 $17.99
Fabien Jouves is one of the best young
producers in Cahors in southwest France.
Those wines meant to reflect the character-
istics of particular terroirs are bottled with
the name of his estate, Mas del Périé. Those
intended primarily for thirst-quenching, like
this one, carry his own name. The red grape
of the region, malbec, is also known as côt,
hence the pun on the label. Whichever name
you choose, this wine is fruity yet tapered
and lightly mineral. (Zev Rovine Selections) Porter-Bass Poco à Poco Mendocino
County Chardonnay 2018 $19.99
Poco à Poco is the budget label of Porter-
Bass Vineyard and Winery, a producer in the
Russian River Valley that is committed to
biodynamic farming. This bottle, from a
biodynamic vineyard in Mendocino County,
is lean and lively with lovely citrus and
herbal flavors, a blessed relief from heavy,
oaky California chardonnays.
Au Bon Climat Santa Barbara County
Pinot Gris/Pinot Blanc 2018 $19.99
Jim Clendenen is the man, or as he prefers
to put it, the mind, behind Au Bon Climat.
Im not sure he is exactly unsung, but he is a
hero for his advocacy both of the Santa
Barbara region and for wines of restraint and
subtlety. And its worth remembering what
good wine he makes year after year. This
white blend, two-thirds pinot gris, one-third
pinot blanc, is savory and sumptuous, not at
all heavy but quite refreshing. It would be
great with richer fish or chicken off the grill. Punt Road Airlie Bank Yarra Valley Gris on
Skins 2019 $19.99
Clear glass bottles are almost always unfor-
tunate, as they expose wines to possible
damage from light. But they seem irresist-
ible to rosé producers, as they show off the
variety of pink colors. This Australian one is
a pale maraschino, and it is quite beautiful.
More important, its absolutely dry and
refreshing, with the faintest rasp of pleasant
tannin. It is made of pinot gris fermented on
its skins, which accounts for that lovely
color. (Little Peacock, New York) Seresin Marlborough Momo Pinot Noir
2018 $18.99
Inexpensive pinot noir is often a dicey propo-
sition. Too often the money-saving compro-
mises mean that this difficult-to-grow grape
was planted in the wrong place, or that the
production process cut multiple corners. But
this wine, made from organic grapes grown
in the Marlborough region of New Zealand,
is true to the spirit of pinot noir, resulting in
a refreshing wine redolent of flowers and red
fruit. Drink lightly chilled. (The Sorting Table,
Napa, Calif.) Rasa Vineyards Occams Razor Columbia
Valley Red Wine Blend 2017 $19.99
This blend of cabernet sauvignon and syrah
calls for steaks grilled over coals. Its got the
substance and body 14.5 percent alcohol
to handle fatty, juicy beef, yet it wears its
heft without feeling heavy or syrupy. As
befitting the name Occams Razor, which
postulates that the simplest explanation is
the most likely, this wine is not complicated,
its just satisfying. Pierre & Rodolphe Gauthier Domaine du
Bel Air Bourgueil Jour de Soif 2019 $17.99
Domaine du Bel Air, run by a father-and-son
team, makes fine, age-worthy wines from
organic cabernet franc. Jour de Soif is their
entry-level bottle, made from younger vines,
which are nonetheless still 20 years old. Yet
this is no mere vin de soif. You can sense
the structure of the other cuvées in the fine
tannins that give shape to this otherwise
fresh and juicy wine. Not shy at 14.3 percent
alcohol, it, too, would be great for grilled
meats. (Polaner Selections)The Pour
Its nice to
know that
these wines
exist, even if
they are not