Шевцов В.В. Правительственная периодическая печать Сибири. Томск, 2016

Формат документа: pdf
Размер документа: 5.62 Мб




Прямая ссылка будет доступна
примерно через: 45 сек.



  • Сообщить о нарушении / Abuse
    Все документы на сайте взяты из открытых источников, которые размещаются пользователями. Приносим свои глубочайшие извинения, если Ваш документ был опубликован без Вашего на то согласия.

K?JBY
LJ:GKKB;BJKDBC
G:MQGUCIMLV

N?>?J:EVGH?=HKM>:JKL<?GGH?:<LHGHFGH?
H;J:AH<:L?EVGH?MQJ?@>?GB?
<UKR?=HH;J:AH<:GBY
G:PBHG:EVGUCBKKE?>H<:L?EVKDBC
LHFKDBC=HKM>:JKL<?GGUCMGB<?JKBL?L»
<<. R?<PH<
IJ:<BL?EVKL<?GG:Y
I?JBH>BQ?KD:YI?Q:LV
KB;BJB
<LHJ:YIHEH<BG: XIX –
G:Q:EH XX <?D:)
Ba^Zl_evkl\hLhfkdh]hmgb\_jkbl_lZ
2016

;;D 76.02 (253)
M>D 070 (571.1/5) (091) <18/19>
R 378
J_p _ga_glu:
^jbkl. gZmd, ijhn_kkhjW<. E_l_gdh\ (KI[=M)
^jbkl. gZmd, ijhn_kkhjK:. DjZkbevgbdh\
BgklblmlbklhjbbKHJ:G)
^jbkl. gZmd, ijhn_kkhj<G. <eZ^bfbjh\ (:el=M)
^jbkl. gZmd, ijhn_kkhjEF. >Zf_r_ d (B=M)
J_^Zdlhj – ijhn_kkhj<I. Abghv_\ (L=M)
R_\ph<<.
R 378 IjZ\bl_evkl_ggZyi_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlvKb[bjb (\lhjZy
ihehbgZ XIX – gZqZeh XX \_dZ). – Lhfkd: Ba^\hLhf. mglZ,
2016. – 622 k.
ISBN 978-5-7511-2394-9
DOI: 10.17223/9785751123949
Bkke_^m_lky bklhjby ijZbl_evkl\_gghc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb Kb[bjb –
Lhfkdb o», «Lh[ hevkdb o», «Bjdmlkdb o» b «?gb k_ckdb o» ] m[ _jgkdb o \ _^hfhkl_c
h[s_f dhgl_dkl_ bklhjbb hnbpbZevghc ]m[_jgkdhc ij_kku b h[s_kl\_ggh-
iheblbq_kdhc `bagb Jhkkbb. HoZjZdl_jbahZgu hkghgu_ gZijZ\e_gby bamq_gby
]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c  ^hj_\hexpbhgghc, kh\_lkdhc b kh\j_f_gghc hl_q_kl_g-
ghcbklhjbh]jZnbb. IhdZaZguhkghgu_baf_g_gbyijZh\hc[Za_ba^Zgby]m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhkl_c, jZkkfhlj_gu ijZbl_evkl\_ggu_ ijh_dlu bo j_nhjfbjhZgby.
Hij_^_e_gu mkehby \hagbdgh\_gby b nmgdpbhgbjhZgby, j_^Zdlhjkdbc b Zlhj-
kdbc khklZ\, qblZl_evkdZyZm^blhjby hnbpbZevghc]Za_lghci_jbh^bdb. JZkdjulh __
agZq_gb_  kbkl_f_ ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h mijZ\e_gby, jZablbb ijhbgpbZevghc i_jbh-
^bq_kdhc i_qZlb, kZfhb^_glbnbdZpbb kb[bjkdh]h khpbmfZ, gZmqghf bkke_^hZgbb
j_]bhgZ. IjhZgZebabjhZgu l_fZlbq_kdh_ gZiheg_gb_ g_hnbpbZevguo qZkl_c kb-
[bjkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, ijbqbgu baf_g_gby bo kh^_j`Zgby, bklhqgbdb
bgnhjfZpbb, nhjfu ih^Zqb ]Za_lguo fZl_jbZeh\. Ijb\_^_gu nZdlu, hijh\_j]Zx-
sb _ mklhy\r__ky \ b kke_^ h\Z l_ev kdhc eb l_jZ lmj_ fg _gb _ h g _`bag _ki hkh[g hklb b
[_kkh^_j`Zl_evghklb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, dhlhju_ gZ ijhly`_gbb \k_c k\h_c
bklhjbbjZabZebkv, b^hbaf_gyebkvbh[jZahuZebj_]bhgZevgu_ZjbZglu.
>ey bklhjbdh\, `mjgZebklh\, iheblheh]h\, khpbZevguo Zgljhiheh]h\
bk_o bgl_j_kmxsboky bklhjb_c Jhkkbb, Kb[bjb, i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb,
aZbfhhlghr_gbyfbeZklbbh[s_klZ.
Bkke_^h\Zgb_\uiheg_ghijbnbgZgkh\hcih^^_j`d_]jZglZIjZ\bl_evkl\ZJNI 220
No 14.<25.31.0009 (ijh_dl «Q_eh\_d\f_gyxs_fkyfbj_. Ijh[e_fub^_glbqghklb
bkhpbZevghcZ^ZilZpbb\bklhjbbbkh\j_f_gghklb»). Bkihevah\Zguj_amevlZlu,
ihemq_ggu_\oh^_\uiheg_gbyijh_dlZ «Bklhjbybamq_gbybhk\h_gbyKb[bjb»
bkke_^h\Zl_evkdh]hp_gljZL=M «LjZgkkb[bjkdbcgZmqgucimlv»
ISBN 978-5 -7511-2394-9 © Lhfkdbc]hkm^Z jkl\_ggucmgb\_jkbl_l, 2016
© <<. R_ph\, 2016

NATIONAL RESEARCH TOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY
V.V. SHEVTSOV
GOVERNMENTAL PERIODICALS
IN SIBERIA
(THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH
CENTURY AND BEGINNING OF THE
20TH CENTURY)
Tomsk state university publishing house
2016

Reviewers:
Prof.?.V. Letenkov (Saint Petersburg State University),
Prof.S.A. Krasilnikov(Institute of History of SB RAS)
Prof.L.M. Dameshek (Irkutsk State University),
Prof.V.N. Vladimirov (Altai State University)
Editor – Prof. V.P. Zinoviev (Tomsk State University)
Shevtsov V.V.
Governmental Periodicals in Siberia (the second half of the 19th
century and beginning of the 20th century). – Tomsk: Tomsk
State University Publishing House, 2016. – 622 p.
ISBN 978-5-7511-2394-9
DOI: 10.17223/978-5-7511-2394-9
The study is devoted to the history of government-owned periodicals in Sibe-
ria (the Tomsk Provincial Gazette, Tobolsk Provincial Gazette, Irkutsk Provincial
Gazette and Yenisei Provincial Gazette) in the context of the history of the official
provincial press and the social-political life in Ru ssia. The main directions in the
stu dy of provincial gazettes in pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern Russian histori-
ogra phy ar e chara cterized. The book shows the main cha nges in the legal framework
of provincial sheet publishing and reviews government projects for their reform. This
research describes the conditions of emergence and functioning of provincial gov-
ernment-owned periodicals, the main stages of their history, their editorial boards, au-
thors and readership. The monograph highlights their role in the state administrative
system, the development of provincial periodicals, self-identification of the Siberian
society and academic study of the region. The author analyzes the thematic content of
the non-official parts of Siberian provincial gazettes, r easons behinds their changing,
information sources, a nd forms in which the material of newspapers wa s presented.
This stu dy contains facts that argue a gainst the esta blished opinion that provincial ga-
zettes were insignificant and non-via ble. It shows that provincial gazettes were i n
constant development, changing and forming regional variants.
This monograph will be of interest to historian, journalists, political scientists,
social anthropologists and for everyone who is interested in Russia n or Siberia n his-
tory, the history of periodicals, and state and society relations.
Written within the framework of the project “Man in a Changing World. Problems
of identity and social adaptation in history and at present” (the RF Government
grant I 220 No. 14.B25.31.0009). The results obtained while conducting project
“History of studying and development of Siberia” of the scientific center
"Transsiberian Scientific Way", TSU.
ISBN 978-5-7511-2394-9
©National Research Tomsk State University, 2016
©V.V. Shevtsov, 2016

<<?>?GB?
G_kfhljy gZ jZkijhkljZg_gb_ we_dljhgguo kj_^kl\ fZkkhhc
bgnhjfZpbb, «[mfZ`gZy ij_kkZ» ihij_`g_fm khojZgy_l khc mgb-
_jkZevguc oZjZdl_j, ijh^he`Zy b]jZlv _^msmx jhev  kbkl_f_
mijZe_gby b nhjfbjhZgby h[s_kl_ggh]h fg_gby. AZdhgh^Zl_ev-
gu_ZdluklmiZxlkbemihke_im[ebdZpbbbo\ «Jhkkbckdhc]Za_-
l_». Wlh ba^Zgb_ khj_f_ggh]h jhkkbckdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\Z, bf_xs__
nbebZeu  djmiguo ]hjh^Zo kljZgu b kh^_j`Zs__ j_]bhgZevgu_
deZ^db, fh`gh kqblZlv ij__fgbp_c ^hj_\hexpbhggh]h «IjZb-
l_evkl_ggh]h _klgbdZ» dZd ]hehgh]h i_qZlgh]h hj]ZgZ  h[s_bf-
i_jkdhc k_lb ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c. Ijb F<> JN
^_cklm_l «MijZe_gb_ ih aZbfh^_cklbxk bgklblmlZfb]jZ`^Zg-
kdh]h h[s_klZ b kj_^klZfb fZkkhhc bgnhjfZpbb»,  nmgdpbb
dhlhjh]h oh^bl bgnhjfZpbhggh_ khijh\h`^_gb_ ^_yl_evghklb fb-
gbkl_jklZ, aZbfh^_cklb_ k `mjgZebklZfb b h[s_kl_ggufb hj-
]ZgbaZpbyfb. Bklhjbq_kdb i_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv Jhkkbb hagbdeZ
ih bgbpbZlb_ _johghc eZklb b jZab\ZeZkv ih^ __ g_ihkj_^kl-
_gguf mijZe_gb_f beb hihkj_^hZgguf dhgljhe_f. >ebl_evgh_
j_fy  ijhbgpbb djm] ba^Zgbc h]jZgbqb\Zeky _^bgkl_gghc hnb-
pbZevghc]Za_lhc, Z]hhjblvhqZklguo, hlghkbl_evghg_aZbkbfuo,
p_gljZevguoba^Zgbyohafh`gh lhevdh kdhgpZ 50-o ]]. XIX \. GZ-
qZluc «<j_f_ggufb ijZbeZfb h i_qZlb» 1865 ]. whexpbhgguc
imlv jmkkdh]h h[s_klZ d kh[h^_ i_qZlb b^_cklbl_evgmx j_Zeb-
aZpbxwlh]h ijbgpbiZ \ i_jbh^ khpbZevguodZlZdebafh\ 1905–1907
b 1917 ]].  kh_lkdbc i_jbh^ kf_gbeZ iZjlbcgh]hkm^Zjkl_ggZy
fh^_ev __ jZablby, ijb ^_deZjZlb\ghf oZjZdl_j_ k\h[h^u kehZ b
bkihevahZgbb^eygm`^ghhcdeZkkh\hcb^_heh]bbij_`gbobfi_-
jZlbguo nhjf dhffmgbdZpbb eZklv – h[s_kl\h. < khj_f_gguo
mkehbyo wlb h[klhyl_evklZ fh`gh hkijbgbfZlv dZd g_dbc bklh-
jbq_kdbc ]jma, ijbh^ysbc d mklhcqb\hfm hkijhba_^_gbx  gZ-

<\_^_gb_
8r_c kljZg_ hij_^_e_gguohkh[_gghkl_c __ jZablby, lZd b dZq_kl-
_ hlijZghc lhqdb \ hkfuke_gbb hafh`ghkl_c, ij_^_eh b i_j-
ki_dlb ebygby ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h ZiiZjZlZ gZ bgnhjfZpbhggmx
kn_jm. «?keb[uijbrehkvu[bjZlv: bf_lvijZbl_evklh [_a]Za_l
beb ]Za_lu [_a ijZbl_evklZ, – y [u g_ jZa^mfuZy u[jZe lh-
jh_», – ]hhjbe LhfZk >`_n_jkhg. H^gZdh bklhjbq_kdbc hiul jhk-
kbckdh]hh[s_klZbaZ^Zqb, klZxsb_gZ_]himlb, g_ij_^iheZ]Zxl
ih^h[gh]h u[hjZ ( jZfdZo Znhjbklbq_kdh]h km`^_gby ijbf_gb-
l_evgh d kh[kl\_gghc kljZg_ hklZebkv b kehZ b^_heh]Z aZiZ^ghc
^_fhdjZlbb), Z kdhj__ khhl_lkl\mxl ukdZauZgbx RZjey ^_ =he-
ey: «Fbgbkljg_^he`_g`ZehZlvkygZ]Za_lub^Z`_qblZlvbo. Hg
^he`_gboibkZlv».
< bklhjbb Jhkkbb hj]ZgbaZlhjhf fh^_jgbaZpbhgguo ijhp_kkh\
k_]^Z uklmiZ_l ]hkm^Zjkl\h, ij_h[jZamxs__ khpbZevgu_ b wdhgh-
fbq_kdb_ hlghr_gby, iheblbq_kdmx kbkl_fm, baf_gyxs__ f_`^m-
gZjh^guc klZlmk kljZgub _kvh[ebd jhkkbckdhc pbbebaZpbb. H^-
gh ba a_gv_ bgnhjfZpbhggh]h, ijZhh]h b b^_heh]bq_kdh]h
h[_ki_q_gby wlhc ^_yl_evghklb – i_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv, hklj_[h-
ZggZy j_]meyjguf bfi_jkdbf ]hkm^Zjklhf  dZq_kl_ h^ghc ba
jZpbhgZevguo _jhi_ckdbo nhjf ihur_gby wnn_dlbghklb b aZ-
dhgghklb  kn_j_ Z^fbgbkljbjhZgby. Bklhjby lhjbl khx i_qZlv
b\lh`_\j_fyhljZ`Z_lky\g_c. JZa\b\Zykv\kbemk\h_]hijhbk-
oh`^_gbybgZagZq_gbydZd\gmljbkbkl_fu]hkm^Zjkl_gghci_qZlb,
lZd b, b^m kh_c kljmdlmju (gZebqby g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb),  kh-
klZ_ i_qZlbijhbgpbZevghc, ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb h[gZjm`bZxl
lbiheh]bq_kdh_ koh^kl\h b jy^ ehdZevguo hkh[_gghkl_c, k\yaZgguo
kkhpbhdmevlmjghckZfhb^_glbnbdZpb_cjZaebqguoj_]bhgh\ – P_g-
ljZevghc Jhkkbb, K__jgh]h DZdZaZ, Jmkkdh]h K__jZ, Kb[bjb
b>Zevg_]h <hklhdZ. Kh^_j`Zsb_ky  ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo fZl_-
jbZeu yeyxlky p_gguf, aZqZklmx mgbdZevguf bklhqgbdhf ih bk-
lhjbb, wlgh]jZnbb, wdhghfbd_, `mjgZebklbd_, lbih]jZnkdhfm ^_em,
h[s_kl_gghc b ihk_^g_ghc `bagb ijhbgpbZevghc Jhkkbb. =m-
[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb ijhkms_kl\ hZeb \hk_fv^_kyl e_l \ __ _\jhi_c-
kdhc qZklb b r_klv ^_kylbe_lbc \ Kb[bjb, bouoh^ g_ ij_juZeky
p_gamjgufb khh[jZ`_gbyfb, kf_ghc j_^Zdlhjh\, nbgZgkhufb aZ-
ljm^g_gbyfbbebbaf_g_gbyfbhgmlj_gg_ciheblbd_. F_`^ml_f
bo bklhjby dZd  fZkrlZ[Zo k_c Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb, lZd b __ hl-
^_evguo[hevrboj_]bhgh_s_g_gZibkZgZ.

<\_^_gb_
9AgZqbl_evgZyjhevKb[bjbwdhghfbq_kdhfb]_hiheblbq_kdhfgZ-
klhys_f b [m^ms_f Jhkkbb hij_^_ey_l bkke_^hZl_evkdbc bgl_j_k
dbklhjbq_kdhfm ijhrehfm wlh]h j_]b hgZ, _] h wdhghfb dh]_h]jZnbq_k-
dbf, bklhjbdhdmevlmjguf b iheblbdhZ^fbgbkljZlbguf hkh[_ggh-
klyf. H]jhfgZy ijhly`_gghklv l_jjblhjbb b __ m^Ze_gghklv hl iheb-
lbq_kdh]h p_gljZ, hdjZbgguc lbi mijZe_gby, wlgbq_kdb jZaghjh^guc
khklZgZk_e_gby, gZebqb_g_fi_j_k_e_gq_kdh]hbkkuevgh]hwe_f_g-
lZ, keZ[h_ jZablb_ khpbZevghc bgnjZkljmdlmju \uklmiZeb \ dZq_kl-
_ nZdlhjh\, ^_l_jfbgbjmxsbo hkh[_gghklb bfi_jkdh]h mijZe_-
gby \ Kb[bjbb f_klZ g_c hnbpbZevghc i_qZlb. Jy^ Zlhjbl_lguo
km`^_gbc, hlghkysboky _s_ d i_jbh^m uoh^Z ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_c, ijb^Ze bkke_^hZl_evkdhfm gbfZgbx d wlhfm bklhqgbdm h^-
ghklhjhggbcbh]jZgbq_ggucoZjZdl_j. <lh`_j_fyhnbpbZevgu_
]Za_lu Kb[bjb gZ k_f ijhly`_gbb kh_]h kms_kl\h\Zgby yeyebkv
g_hlt_fe_fhcqZklvxkbkl_fui_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbj_]bhgZb\k_c
h[s_jhkkbckdhc i_qZlb. H[jZs_gb_ d bokh^_j`Zgbxghkbl deZ^
 bamq_gb_ jZablby h[s_kl_ggh]h kZfhkhagZgby, nhjfbjhZgby
km[dmevlmju kb[bjkdhc bgl_eeb]_gpbb, ijhp_kkh ohayckl_ggh]h
bgZmqgh]h hk\h_gby djZy, hkh[_gghkl_c b l_fZlbdb «kb[bjkdh]h
l_dklZ», qlh,  dhg_qghf blh]_, kihkh[kl\m_l jZkrbj_gbx
b^_lZebaZpbbdZjlbgubklhjbbbdmevlmjuKb[bjb.

=eZ\Z 1
=M;?JGKDB?<?>HFHKLB
<HL?Q?KL<?GGHCBKLHJBH=J:NBB
I?JBH>BQ?KDHCI?Q:LB
1.1.>HJ?<HEXPBHGGUCI?JBH>
Bgl_j_k d ]m[_jgkdbf \_^hfhklyf dZd ijh\bgpbZevghc ij_kk_ b
im[ebdm_fufgbofZl_jbZeZfhagbd\kj_^__^hfkl_gguohnb-
pbZevguoba^Zgbc. M`_ kimkly k_fv e_l ihke_ gZqZeZ fZkkhh]h\u-
oh^Z ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c, \ 1845 ]., «Jmkkdbc bg\Zeb^» khh[sZe
khbfqblZl_eyf: «Hl^ZZyihqlb _`_f_kyqghhlq_l hlhf, qlhaZ-
f_qZl_evgh]h ij_^klZeyxl khbf qblZl_eyf gZrb klhebqgu_
`mjgZeu, fu ^h kbo ihj gbq_]h g_ ]h\hjbeb h[ bo f_gvrbo
[jZlvyo, ]m[_jgkdbo i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbyo, _s_ fZeh jZa\b\-
rboky, _s_ fZeh ba\_klguo, gh fh]msbo kh \j_f_g_f k^_eZlvky
p_gljZfbf_klghcijhbgpbZevghcebl_jZlmju. <…> Fu\bghZ-
lui_j_^gbfb, ihlhfmqlhkZfbg_j_^dhihevam_fkykhh[sZ_fu-
fbbfb k_^_gbyfb»1
. AZ ukhdbc mjh\_gv iheb]jZnbq_kdh]h bk-
iheg_gby hlf_qZebkv «Ikdhkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb»,
ZdZq_kl\_ emqrbo ih kh^_j`Zgbx g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb – «KZ-
jZlh\kdb_» b «Hjeh\kdb_», ZlZd`_ «Gb`_]hjh^kdb _», j_^Zdlhjhf
dhlhjuo \ 1845 ]. klZe [m^msbc Z\lhj agZf_gblhc ^beh]bb
IB. F_evgbdh\. ;_^gh_ kh^_j`Zgb_ ^jm]bo \_^hfhkl_c h[tykgyehkv
l_f, qlhijhbgpbZevgu_ebl_jZlhjubaZlhjkdh]h kZfhex[byg_im[-
ebdmxlky  gbob ijb wlhf «g_ ^Zxl ihdhy klhebqguf `mjgZebklZf b
aZZeb\Zxl bo dZ[bg_lu ]jm^Zfb k\hbo klZl_c … h^bg j_^Zdlhj g_ \
kbeZo ^Zlv rbjhdbc oh^ k\h_fm ba^Zgbx, b hgh, [_^gh_ kj_^klZfb,
yey_lky  `Zedhf b^_, gZ k_jhc h[_jlhqghc [mfZ]_, i_qZlZ_lky g_md-
ex`bfb [mdZfb, dZdbfb i_qZlZe =mll_g[_j], – b f_klgu_ qblZl_eb
kfhljylgZg_]hkij_g_[j_`_gb_f»2
.1
@mjgZevgu_hlf_ldb // JmkkdbcbgZeb^. 1845. ‹ 82. 12 Zij. K. 325.
2
LZf`_.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
11< 1848–18513
 b 1852–1855 ]].4
 \ «@mjgZe_ Fbgbkl_jklZ gZ-
jh^gh]h ijhk\_s_gby» uoh^beh «H[haj_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
kl_c k 1842 ih 1847 ].» b «H[haj_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c
k 1848 ih 1850 ].» qbghgbdZ=eZ\gh]hmijZe_gbyiml_ckhh[s_-
gby BI. ;hjbq_\kdh]h, aZgbfZ\r_]hky mq_gufb jZaukdZgbyfb
h[eZklb bklhjbb, wlgh]jZnbb b Zjo_heh]bb. < «H[haj_gbb» ih
gZaZgbyf, Z\lhjZf b ghf_jZf \_^hfhkl_c, bf_rbf g_hnbpb-
Zevguchl^_e, [uebkbkl_fZlbabjhZguklZlvb, dZkZxsb_kybklh-
jbb Jmkkdhc ijZ\hkeZghc p_jd\b, Zjo_heh]bq_kdbo gZoh^hd,
yaudhagZgby, [bh]jZnbc \u^Zxsboky bklhjbq_kdbo ebp, Zjob\-
guo ^hdmf_glh\, ]_h]jZnbb, klZlbklbdb b wlgh]jZnbb. «GZi_qZ-
lZggu_ \ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo klZlvb, aZdexqZxsb_ \ k_[_ bk-
lhjbq_kdh]_h]jZnbq_kdb_ k\_^_gby, ]_h]jZnbx b klZlbklbdm,
^he`gu [ulv hlg_k_gu d qbkem fZl_jbZeh\, ^jZ]hp_gguo ^ey
gZmdb: hgbkhklZ\e_gu[hevr_xqZklvxex^vfb, `bmsbfb\l_o
kZfuof_klZo, dhlhju_ hibku\Zxl, b ijblhfih bf_xsbfky lZf
^hdmf_glZf, ojhgbdZf, gZjh^ghciZfylbbli.»5
. <wlhfukdZau-
Zgbb b^gu haZ[hq_gghklv ZlhjZ khojZgghklvx fZl_jbZeh hnb-
pbZevguo ]m[_jgkdbo ]Za_l b khhl_lklmxsbc wiho_ ih^oh^
dhij_^_e_gbx bo bklhqgbdh_^q_kdhc agZqbfhklb, dh]^Z ibkvf_g-
gZy nbdkZpby b ebl_jZlmjgZy h[jZ[hldZ dZdh]heb[h kb^_l_evklZ
iheZ]Zebkv ^hklZlhqguf hkghZgb_f ^ey ijbagZgby _]h ^hklh_j-
ghklb: «Wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ klZlvb, ihf_s_ggu_ ]m[_jgkdbo _-
^hfhklyo, bf_xl hkh[_ggh Z`gh_ agZq_gb_: [m^mqb kibkZgu
kgZlmju, hgb ghkyl oZjZdl_j g_khfg_gghc bklbgu, bfgh]b_ ba
gbo agZdhfyl k lZdbfb ij_^f_lZfb, dhlhjuo ^h kbo ihj g_ dZkZ-
ehkvgbqv_i_jh»6
.3
;hjbq_\kdbc BI. H[haj_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c k 1842 ih 1847 ]]. // @mjgZe
Fbgbkl_jklZ gZjh^gh]h ijhk_s_gby. KI[., 1848. Q. 58. Hl^. 6. K. 265–312; Q. 59.
Hl^. 6. K. 207–250; 1849. Q. 61. Hl^. 6. K. 279–326; Q. 63. Hl^. 6. K. 324–362; 1850. Q. 65.
Hl^. 6. K.133–164; Q. 67. Hl^. 6. K. 79–116; Q. 68. Hl^. 6. K. 1–27; 1851. Q. 69. Hl^. 6.
K. 116–146; Q. 72. Hl^. 6. K. 1–16.
4
;hjbq_\kdbc BI. H[haj_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c k 1848 ih 1850 ]]. // @mjgZe
Fbgbkl_jklZ gZjh^gh]h ijhk\_s_gby. KI[., 1852. Q. 75. Hl^. 6. K. 1–28; Q. 76. Hl^. 6.
K. 129–172; 1853. Q. 80. Hl^. 6. K. 1–27; 1854. Q. 83. Hl^. 6. K. 232–246; 1855. Q. 85. Hl^. 6.
K. 133–158.
5
;hjbq_\kdbcBI.H[haj_gb_]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c k 1842 ih 1847 ]. KlZlvy\hkv-
fZy. Bklhjbq_kdh]_h]jZnbq_kdb_ k\_^_gby, ]_h]jZnbybklZlbklbdZ // @mjgZe Fbgbkl_j-
kl\ZgZjh^g h]hi jhk\_s_gby. KI[., 1851. Q. 69. Hl^. 6. K. 116.
6
;hjbq_\kdbcBI.H[haj_gb_]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_ck 1842 ih 1847 ]. KlZlvy^_y-
lZy b ihke_^gyy. Wlgh]jZnby // @mjgZe Fbgbkl_jklZ gZjh^gh]h ijhk_s_gby. KI[.,
1851. Q. 72. Hl^. 6. K. 1.

=eZ\Z 1
12JZ[hlZ BI. ;hjbq_\kdh]h [ueZ ijh^he`_gZ bklhjbdhf jmkkdhc
ebl_jZlmju b [b[ebh]jZnhf =G. =_ggZ^b – \ «<_klgbd_ Bfi_jZ-
lhjkdh]hJmkkdh]h=_h]jZnbq_kdh]hh[s_klZ» \ 1852–1859 ]]. i_qZ-
lZeky «MdZaZl_ev ]_h]jZnbq_kdbo, wlgh]jZnbq_kdbo b klZlbklbq_-
kdbo klZl_c, ihf_s_gguo  ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» 1851–1856 ]].7
:\lhj iulZeky jZkdjulv «[h]Zlmx b fZehba\_klgmx h[eZklv ijh-
bgpbZevghc ebl_jZlmjghmq_ghc ^_yl_evghklb»8
. G_dhlhju_ ba
klZl_c ij_^Zjyebkv g_[hevrbfb ZgghlZpbyfb. Ijbf_gbl_evgh
d 1857 ]. ihybebkv kibkdb klZl_c, him[ebdhZgguo \ g_hnbpb-
Zevguo qZklyo «Bjdmlkdbo», «Lh[hevkdbo» b «Lhfkdbo» \_^hfh-
kl_c9
. < k[hj_ wlgh]jZnbq_kdbo b nhevdehjguo k\_^_gbc
=G. =_ggZ^b, ^ey mkbe_gby «f_klgh]h agZq_gby» _^hfhkl_c, j_-
dhf_g^hZebf ijb^_j`bZlvkyijh]jZffuJmkkdh]h ]_h]jZnbq_-
kdh]h h[s_kl\Z, khklZ\e_gghc \ 1848 ]. GZdhg_p, ^jm]bf qe_ghf
Jmkkdh]h ]_h]jZnbq_kdh]h h[s_kl\Z – wlgh]jZnhf b Zjo_heh]hf
:B. IbkdZj_\uf – d 1860 ]. [ueaZ\_jr_gfZkrlZ[gucljm^ih
khklZ\e_gbx «:enZblghkbgl_lbq_kdh]h mdZaZl_ey k\_^_gbc
hJhkkbb, aZdexqZxsbokyg_hnbpbZevghc qZklb]m[_jgkdbo_-
^hfhkl_c», k 1838 ih 1851 ].10
;he__ ijhkljZggufb oZjZdl_jbklbdZfb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
kl_c kdjZldbf \hkijhba\_^_gb_f kh^_j`Zgby him[ebdhZgguo
\gbo fZl_jbZeh\ hlebqZebkv h[ahju \ qZklguo ebl_jZlmjgh-
im[ebpbklbq_kdbo `mjgZeZo – «Kh\j_f_ggbd_»11
, «Jmkkdhf \_klgb-7
=_ggZ^b=G.MdZaZl_ev]_h]jZnbq_kdbo, wlgh]jZnbq_kdbob klZlbklbq_kdbo klZl_c,
ihf_s_gguo  ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo 1851–59 ]]. // <_klgbd Bfi_jZlhjkdh]h Jmkkdh]h
=_h]jZnbq_kdh]h h[s_klZ. KI[., 1852. Q. 5, dg. 3. JZa^_e IV. C. 1–47; 1853. Q. 8, dg. 3.
JZa^_e IV. C. 1–46; 1854. Q. 11, dg. 3. JZa^_e IV. C. 1–41; 1855. Q. 14, dg. 4. JZa^_e IV. C. 1–
60; 1856. Q. 18, dg. 5 JZa^_e IV. C. 1–28; 1858. Q. 23, dg. 5. JZa^_e IV. C. 1–22; 1859. Q. 25,
dg. 3. JZa^_e IV. C. 17–51.
8
=_ggZ^b=G.MdZaZl_ev]_h]jZnbq_kdbo, wlgh]jZnbq_kdbob klZlbklbq_kdbo klZl_c,
ihf_s_gguo  ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo 1851 ]h^Z // <_klgbd Bfi_jZlhjkdh]h Jmkkdh]h
=_h]jZnbq _kdh]hh[s_kl\Z. KI[., 1852. Q. 5, dg. 1. JZa^_e IV. C. 1.
9
=_ggZ^b=G.MdZaZl_ev]_h]jZnbq_kdbo, wlgh]jZnbq_kdbob klZlbklbq_kdbo klZl_c,
ihf_s_gguo  ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo 1857 ]h^Z // <_klgbd Bfi_jZlhjkdh]h Jmkkdh]h
=_h]jZnbq _kdh]hh[s_kl\Z. KI[., 1859. Q. 25, dg. 3. JZa^_e IV. C. 24–25, 39–43.
10
IbkdZj_\ :B. :enZblghkbgl_lbq_kdbc mdZaZl_ev k\_^_gbc h Jhkkbb, aZdexqZx-
sbokyg_hnbpbZevghcqZklb]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c // <_klgbdBfi_jZlhjkdh]hJmkkdh-
]h =_h]jZnbq_kdh]h h[s_klZ. KI[., 1857. Q. 18, dg. 3. JZa^_e IV. K. 1–40; 1857. Q. 20,
dg. 4. JZa^_e IV. K. 41–72; 1860. Q. 29, dg. 6. JZa^_e IV. K. 1–34; 1860. Q. 29, dg. 7. JZa-
^_e IV. K. 35–59.
11
:nZgZkv_ :G. H[haj_gb_ jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmju aZ 1849 ]h^ // Khj_f_ggbd. KI[.,
1850. L. 19. K. 13–36;:nZgZkv_ :G.H[haj_gb_ jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmju aZ 1850 ]h^ // Kh-
\j_f_ggbd. KI[., 1851. L. 26. K. 3–45.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
13d_»12
 b «Hl_q_kl\_gguo aZibkdZo»13
. < «H[haj_gbb jmkkdhc ebl_jZ-
lmju» :G. :nZgZkv_\Z d «gZb[he__ aZf_qZl_evguf» \_^hfhklyf,
uoh^brbf \ 1849 ]., hlghkbebkv «Gh]hjh^kdb_», «:joZg]_ev-
kdb_», «DZaZgkdb_», «Hj_g[mj]kdb_» b «KZjZlhkdb_», im[ebdhZ\-
rb_ f_klgu_ fZl_jbZeu, dhlhju_  kbem kh_]h oZjZdl_jZ b «ba-
ebrg_c kdjhfghklb» Zlhjh fh]eb g_ uaZlv bgl_j_kZ
mp_gljZevguoba^Zgbc, gh ij_^klZeyebp_gghklv^ey gZmdb: «Hl_-
q_kl_ggZy bklhjby, wlgh]jZnby, Zjo_heh]by, ]_h]jZnby, klZlbklbdZ
b nbeheh]by k^_eZebkv[u ykg__ b iheg__, _keb[u dZ`^Zy kdhevdh-
gb[m^v aZf_qZl_evgZy f_klghklv h[ke_^hZgZ [ueZ ^h f_evqZcrbo
ih^jh[ghkl_c. Gh fgh]b_ eb ba gZrbo mq_guo fh]ml ihk_lblv k_
aZf_qZl_evgu_ f_klZ h[rbjghc Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb. <...> <hl
a^_kvbyeyxlkygZfgZihfhsv]m[_jgkdb_]Za_lu»14
.
< 1850 ]. lhi _^hfhkl_c jZkrbjbeky ^h 23 gZbf_ghZgbcba 45
ba^Z\Z_fuo ]m[_jgkdbfb ijZe_gbyfb: «:joZg]_evkdb_», «:kljZ-
oZgkdb_», «<be_gkdb_», «<eZ^bfbjkdb_», «<heh]h^kdb_», «<hjh-
g_`kdb_», «DZaZgkdb_», «DZem`kdb_», «Db_kdb_», «Dh_gkdb_»,
Dmjkdb_», «Fbgkdb_», «Fh]be_\kdb_», «Gb`_]hjh^kdb_», «Gh\]h-
jh^kdb_», «Hehg_pdb_», «Hj_g[mj]kdb_», «IhelZ\kdb_», «KZjZlh\-
kdb_», «KlZ\jhi hevkdb_», «L\ _jkdb_», «Q_jgb]h\kdb _» b «YjhkeZ\-
kdb_». «H[haj_gb_» ij_^u^ms_] h ]h^Z \ua\Zeh bgl_j_k d «wlhfm
bklhqgbdm ijhbgpbZevghc ebl_jZlmju» m qblZl_e_c «Kh\j_f_ggb-
dZ», dhlhju_, ih keh\Zf :G. :nZgZkv_\Z (bf_\rbf \b^ kdjulh] h
ijbau\Z d mqZklbx f_klghc bgl_eeb]_gpbb  gZiheg_gbb g_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb ]Za_lu), «hldjh_ggh khagZZebkv, qlh ^h l_oihj _^Z
agZebhkms_klhZgbb]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c; ^jm]b_ – _kebbagZ-
eb, lhg_^mfZebgZclb\gboklhevdhbgl_j_kgh]h»15
.
:G. ?]mgh \ «Jmkkdhf _klgbd_» b «Hl_q_kl_gguo aZibkdZo»
ZgZebabjhZe kh^_j`Zgb_ «<eZ^bfbjkdbo», «<heugkdbo», «Db_\-
kdbo», «I_jfkdbo», «Kbf[bjkdbo» b ^jm]bo _^hfhkl_c 1855–
1856 ]. k lhqdb aj_gby im[ebdZpbb  gbobklhjbq_kdbo ^hdmf_glh\,12
?]mgh :G.H[haj_gb_]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c // Jmkkdbc_klgbd. @mjgZeebl_jZ-
lmjgucbiheblbq_kdbc. F., 1856. L. 1, dg. 2. K. 222–229; L. 2, dg. 1. K. 51–63; L. 3, dg. 2.
K. 132–143.
13
?]mgh :G. H[ ha j_gb _ ]m[ _jg kdb o \_^hfhkl_c // H l_q _kl\ _ggu_ aZibkdb. Mq _gh-
ebl_jZlmjguc `mjgZe. KI[., 1856. L. 108, dg. 10. K. 137–148; L. 109, dg. 11. K. 25–38;
L. 111, dg. 3. K. 25–44.
14
:nZgZkv_ :G.H[haj_gb_ jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmjuaZ 1849 ]h^ // Kh\j_f_ggbd. KI[.,
1850. L. 19. K. 15.
15
:nZgZkv_ :G.H[haj_gb_ jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmju aZ 1850 ]h^ // Khj_f_ggbd. KI[.,
1851. L. 26. K. 3.

=eZ\Z 1
14klZlbklbq_kdbo ^Zgguo b wlgh]jZnbq_kdbo hq_jdh\. :lhj hlf_qZe
agZq_gb_ f_klguo ijZbl_evkl_gguo ]Za_l dZd «khdjhbsgbpu
Z`g_crbo klZlbklbq_kdbo fZl_jbZeh\, l_f [he__ qlh fZl_jbZeu
wlbq_jiZxlkyh[udgh_gghbahnbpbZevguo, gZb[he__^hklh_jguo
bklhqgbdh\»16
. <f_kl_ kl_f:G. ?]mgh mdZauZegZlh, qlhijbh-
^brb_ky_^hfhklyohibkZgby]m[_jgbc, m_a^h\, hl^_evguo]hjh-
^h b k_e ghkbeb ebrv ehdZevguc nZdlh]jZnbq_kdbc oZjZdl_j, [_a
iheghp_ggh]h kZfhklhyl_evgh]h hkfuke_gby b h[sbo \u\h^h\. Gh-
u_ ihj_nhjf_ggu_ mkehby kms_klhZgby i_qZlb, h[klZghdZ h[-
s_kl_ggh]h ih^t_fZ b «ijh[m`^_gby ijhbgpbb» ^ZZeb hkghZ-
gby ^ey hij_^_e_gguo gZ^_`^  hlghr_gbb l_fZlbdb b kh^_j`Zgby
hnbpbZevguo ijhbgpbZevguo ]Za_l kh klhjhgu «klZjrbo dhee_]»,
]hlhuo aylv gZ k_[y «r_nklh» gZ^ _^hfhklyfb: «… <gbfZgb_
>klhebqghc `mjgZebklbdb] g_ ijhiZeh [u ^Zjhf b, _jhylgh, hgh
ihklZbeh[u]m[_jgkdmxebl_jZlmjmgZemqrmxkl_i_gv, g_`_ebgZ
dZdhc hgZ l_i_jvklhbl: `mjgZeufh]eb [u mdZaZlvimlv, ih dhlhjh-
fm ^he`gZ ke_^hZlv hgZ, b[h g_ dZ`^hfm ibrms_fm ba_klgh,
hq_fbf_gghibkZlvbqlh[he__g_h[oh^bfh…»17
.
Eb[_jZebaZpbyiheblbq_kdh]h j_`bfZbihye_gb_mij_kkugh-
uo hafh`ghkl_c ebygbygZ eZklvb h[s_kl\h ijb\_ebd ^hihe-
g_gbx [b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbo h[haj_gbc ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c bgl_-
j_khf d gbf dZd h^ghfm ba hkghguo b^h f_klghc i_jbh^bdb.
<klhebqguo ba^Zgbyo gZqZeky h[f_g fg_gbyfb ih ihh^m gZijZ\-
e_gby_^hfhkl_c, bojhebh[s_kl_gghc`bagbbf_klZkdeZ^u-
Zxs_cky kbkl_f_ jhkkbckdhc i_qZlb. GZqZehf wlhc ^bkdmkkbb
fh`gh kqblZlv jy^ im[ebdZpbc \ 1859 ]. \ «Jmkkdhf ^g_gbd_», ba-
^Zl_e_fj_^Zdlhjhfdhlhjh]h[ueIB. F_evgbdhI_q_jkdbc18
.
Fhkdhkdb_ _^hfhklb» hldebdgmebkv klZlv_c ba DZaZgb, h[t-
ykgyy, qlh f_klgu_ \_^hfhklb «aZ^Z\e_gu» klZlvyfb «h [eZ]hkhk-
lhygbb djZy, h [eZ]h^_l_evguo jZkihjy`_gbyo f_klgh]h gZqZevkl\Z
b [eZ]hkdehggufb hlauZfb h[ wn_f_jguo m^h\hevklbyo ijhbg-
pbb»19
, ihlhfm qlh \ bo jZkihjy`_gbb bf_xlky lhevdh hq_gv kdm^-
gu_ fZl_jbZevgu_ kj_^klZ, Z j_^Zdlhj gZoh^blky  aZbkbfhf hl16
?]mgh :G. H[haj_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c (ghy[jy b ^_dZ[jv 1855 ].) // Jmk-
kdbc\_klgbd. F., 1856. L. 2, dg. 1. K. 51.
17
?]mgh :G. H[haj_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c (ghy[jv b ^_dZ[jv 1855 ].) // Jmk-
kdbc\_klgbd. @mjgZeebl_jZlmjgucbiheblbq_kdbc. F., 1856. L. 1, dg. 2. K. 44.
18
Ijh\bgpbZe L. G_qlh h ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo // Jmkkdbc ^g_gbd. 1859. ‹ 112.
29 fZy; ‹ 113. 30 fZy; ‹ 114. 31 fZy; ‹ 115. 3 bxgy; ‹ 116. 4 bxgy; ‹ 117. 5 bxgy.
19
GI. [G:. Ihih\ – ?] DZaZgkdb_ ibkvfZ. «=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» hh[s_ b «DZ-
aZgkdb_» \hkh[_gg hklb // Fhkdh\kdb_\_^hfhklb. 1859. ‹ 28. 1 n_\j. K. 215.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
15gZqZevklZiheh`_gbb. Memqrblvkh^_j`Zgb_g_hnbpbZevghcqZklb
\ wlbo mkeh\byo fh]eh [u jZaf_s_gb_ \ gbo ihykgyxsbo b jmdh\h-
^ysboklZl_cdim[ebdZpbyfqZklbhnbpbZevghc. «<k_, bamqZxsb_
gZklhys__bijhreh_Jhkkbb, khagZxlg_h[oh^bfhklvagZdhfklZkh
klZlvyfb f_klgh]h bgl_j_kZ, ihf_sZxsbfbky  gZrbo ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhklyo»20
, – ibkZeb ^Ze__ «Fhkdh\kdb_ _^hfhklb», ijbh^y
ihke_^mxsbo ghf_jZo wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ k_^_gby ba «<heh]h^-
kdbo», «Q_jgb]h\kdbo», «YjhkeZ\kdbo», «DZaZgkdbo», «OZjvdh\-
kdbo», «DZem`kdbo», «Hj_g[mj]kdbo», «KZ jZlh\kdbo» b «Lhfkdbo»
\_^hfhkl_c21
. Ih fg_gbx ]Za_lu, j_^Zdlhjhf \_^hfhkl_c ^he`_g
[ue [ulv mqbl_ev ]bfgZabb beb ebph, bf_xs__ mgb\_jkbl_lkdh_
h[jZahZgb_. H[ahjkhj_f_gguohijhkh\, aZljZ]b\Z_fuc]m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhklyo, – ^_yl_evghklv dj_klvygkdbo dhfbl_lh\, `_gkdh_
h[jZahZgb_, mkljhcklh l_e_]jZnguo ebgbc, hj]ZgbaZpby im[ebq-
guo[b[ebhl_d – \wlhf`_, 1859 ]h^m, ^_eZe`mjgZe «K_f_cguc
djm]»22
, h[tykgyyg_^hklZlhqgh_gbfZgb_dwlbfhijhkZfl_f, qlh
qbghgbdb, ihahebrb_ k_[_ «i_qZlZgh hldjulv aZ_km ijhbgpb-
Zevghc `bagb», fh]ml ihj_^blv kh_c dZjv_j_ b bf_lv g_ijbylgh-
klb hl \ukr_]h gZqZevklZ23
. < p_ehf, kheb^Zjbabjmykv k «Fhkdh\-
kdbfb\_^hfhklyfb» \ hlghr_gbb lh]h, qlh \ \_^hfhklyo «fh]eb [u
ukdZauZlvkyf_klgu_ihlj_[ghklb, kj_^klZdbkijZe_gbxh[s_-
kl_gguog_^hklZldh\», ZlhjkqblZe, qlhwlh]hg_ijhbkoh^blg_ih
hj]ZgbaZpbhgguf ijbqbgZf: «Fgh]b_ ^mfZxl, qlh ]m[_jgkdb_ _-
^hfhklbg_^hklb]Zxlkh_cp_ebihlhfm, qlhba^Zxlkyijb]m[_jg-
kdhf ijZe_gbb, b qlh _keb [u j_^Zdpbx g_hnbpbZevghc bo qZklb
ihjmqblv f_klguf ]bfgZabyf, hgb [u i_j_f_gbeb khc oZjZdl_j, –
_^Z eb lZd»24
. <dexqb\rbcky  ^bkdmkkbx «Fhkdhkdbc _klgbd»
lZd`_ kqblZe, qlh _^hfhklb ^he`gu hk_sZlv «ijhye_gby gZjh^-20
;. [;Z[klBD. – ?] Ebl_jZlmjgu_aZf_ldb. Wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_bbklhjbq_kdb_klZlvb
]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c // Fhkdh\kdb_\_^hfhklb. 1859. ‹ 56. 6 fZ jlZ. K. 41.
21
S. [S_idbgFI. – ?] H[haj_gb _]m[_jg kdbo\_^ hf hkl_c // Fhkdh\ kdb_\_^hf hklb.
1859. ‹ 255. 27 hdl. K. 1832–1833;S. H[haj_gb_ ] m[_jg kdbo \ _^ hfhkl_c // Fhkdh\kdb _
_^hfhklb. 1859. ‹ 256. 28 hdl. K. 1838–1840; <ihke_^g_f kemqZ_ «Fhkdhkdb_\_^hfh-
klb» h[jZlbeb gbfZgb_ gZ klZlvx HI. – H=. IZehZ «HibkZgb_ ijbkh_^bg_gby d jhk-
kbckdbf \eZ^_gbyf x`ghc qZklb AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb» (Lhfkdb_ ]m[_jg kdb _ \_^ hf hklb.
1859. ‹ 2, 3, 5, 6, 12, 13, 19, 20, 24).
22
Ekdbc B. [K:. EZ^u`_gkdbc – ?] H[ahj «=m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» // K_f_cguc
djm]. @mjgZe ebl_jZlmju, bkdmkkl\Z, gZmd, l_ogheh]bb, ijhfure_gghklb, ohayckl\Z, ^hfh-
\h^klZ, hohlubfh^. KI[., 1859. ‹ 5. K. 214–288; ‹ 6. K. 198–209; ‹ 7. K. 224–233.
23
EkdbcB.H[ahj «=m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» // K_f_cgucdjm]. KI[., 1859. ‹ 5. K. 215.
24
LZf` _. K. 216.

=eZ\Z 1
16ghc `bagb, [ulZ bgjZh gZjh^Z, _]h gm`^ b ihlj_[ghkl_c»25
. Kj_-
^b lZdbo ijhbgpbZevguo ]Za_l \u^_eyebkv «DZem`kdb_», «KZfZj-
kdb_», «Hj_g[mj]kdb_» b «Bjdmlkdb_» _^hfhklb. H[tykgyykl_i_gv
bkihevahZgby 54 f_klguoebl_jZlmjguohj]Zgh\ dZq_kl_bklhq-
gbdZ ^ey gmlj_gg_]h h[haj_gby, «Fhkdh\kdb_ \_^hfhklb» \ 1860 ].
u^_eyebkj_^bgbo «emqrb_hj]ZguijhbgpbZevghc`bagb», dhlh-
ju_ khh[sZeb «ij_djZkguc fZl_jbZe ^ey bklhjbb, klZlbklbdb b wl-
gh]jZnbb Jhkkbb» beb hl^ZZeb [hevr__ ij_^ihql_gb_ l_dmsbf
ba_klbyf, «klZjZykv[ulvhl]hehkdhfZ`g_crbogm`^bihlj_[gh-
kl_c k\h_]h djZy»26
. Wlh «DZem`kdb_», «KZjZlh\kdb_», «Hj_g[mj]-
kdb_», «KZfZjkdb_», «YjhkeZ\kdb_», «<eZ^bfbjkdb_», «<heh]h^-
kdb_», «Gb`_]hjh^kdb_», «Q_jgb]h\kdb_», «Jy aZgkdb_» b «Hjeh\-
kdb_» _^hfhklb («Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» kj_^b wlh]h
kibkdZ m`_ g_ [ueh). ;hevrZy `_ qZklv _^hfhkl_c h]jZgbqb\ZeZkv
ebrvi_j_i_qZldZfb beb «hq_gv iehobfb» n_ev_lhgZfb. Kh_l, dh-
lhjuc^ZZeb «Fhkdhkdb__^hfhklb» k\hbfijhbgpbZevgufdhe-
e_]Zf b dhlhjuc fgh]bfb ba gbo m`_ hiehsZeky, – i_qZlZlv gZ
khbo kljZgbpZo klZlbklbq_kdb_, wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ b bklhjbq_kdb_
fZl_jbZeu, kh[bjZ_fu_ f_klgufb ]m[_jgkdbfb klZlbklbq_kdbfb
dhfbl_lZfb.
Bklhjbd b `mjgZebkl J=. B]gZlv_\, jZ[hlZrbc \ «Gh]hjh^-
kdbo», Z aZl_f\ «Hj_g[mj]kdbo» ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo,  `mjgZe_
BeexkljZpby» \ 1860 ]. lZd`_ ughkbe kmjhuc ijb]hhj l_f f_-
klguf dZa_gguf ]Za_lZf, dhlhju_ me_dZebkv i_j_i_qZldZfb, ij_-
g_[j_]Zy bgl_j_kZfb f_klghc `bagb. Hg ij_^eZ]Ze ^himklblv gZ
kljZgbpug_hnbpbZevghcqZklb[_ee_ljbklbdmbba^ZZlv__hl^_ev-
gh ih^ jmdh\h^kl\hf qZklgh]h ebpZ «\g_ \kydh] h \ebygby ]m[_jg-
kdboeZkl_c»27
. KlZlvyuaZeZ\u]hhjp_gahjmbij_^mij_`^_gb_
j_^Zdlhjm, ihkdhevdm [ueZ gZi_qZlZgZ [_a ij_^Zjbl_evgh]h kh]eZ-
khZgbykFbgbkl_jkl\hfgmlj_ggbo^_e, _^_gbbdhlhjh]hgZoh-
^bebkv ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb28
. Ih ih\h^m klZlvb J=. B]gZlv_\Z
Fhkdhkdb__^hfhklb» \ 1862 ]. him[ebdhZebfg_gb_bak_eZ;_-
j_klhZ, \ dhlhjhf [hevr__ beb f_gvr__ agZq_gb_ \_^hfhkl_c b hl-
ghr_gb_ d gbf qbghgh]h h[s_klZ p_ebdhf b iheghklvx kyauZ-25
[Ie_s__\:G. – ?] AZf_ldZdh_hq_f // Fhkdh\kdbc\_klgbd. 1860. ‹ 27. K. 432–435.
26
<gmlj_ggyy dhjj_kihg^_gpby. «=m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» b ]m[_jgkdb_ klZlbklbq_-
kdb_dhfbl_lu // Fhkdh\kdb__^hfhklb. 1861. ‹ 3. 4 yg\. K. 19.
27
B]gZlv_ J=. <hijhk h ij_h[jZahZgbb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c // BeexkljZpby.
KI[., 1860. ‹ 146. 24 ghy[. K. 326–327.
28
J=B:. N. 772. Hi. 1. Q. 2. >. 5510. 1860 ]. E. 11–12.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
17ehkv k nb]mjhc ]m[_jgZlhjZ,  m[_`^_gbyo dhlhjh]h «aZdexqZ_lky
jZablb_ beb kh_jr_ggh_ mgbqlh`_gb_ ^_yl_evghklb j_^ZdlhjZ
g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c». :lhj ij_^eZ]Ze
khojZgblv ^he`ghklv j_^ZdlhjZ  khklZ_ ]m[_jgkdh]h qbghgh]h
ZiiZjZlZ b kh_^bgblv __ k ^he`ghklvx k_dj_lZjy klZlbklbq_kdh]h
dhfbl_lZ, k `ZehZgv_f \ 1600 jm[.  ]h^ b kmffhc \ 600 jm[. ^ey
uieZlu Zlhjkdbo ]hghjZjh\. GZagZq_ggZy aZdhghf ijh]jZffZ ]Z-
a_lu «fh]eZ[u[ulvjZkrbj_gZ^ha\he_gb_fihf_sZlvg_cih_k-
lb, jZkkdZaubhh[s_klZlvb, bf_xsb_ ihk\h_fm kh^_j`Zgbxeb-
l_jZlmjghh[s_kl_gguc bgl_j_k»29
. < ijh^he`_gb_ ^Zevg_crbo
rZ]h\ ih j_nhjfbjh\Zgbx «hl`b\rbo» b «g_fuo» ]m[_jgkdbo
\_^hfhkl_c J=. B]gZlv_ ij_^eZ]Ze i_j_^Zlv \_^hfhklb b ]m-
[_jgkdb_ lbih]jZnbb  Zj_g^m qZklguf ebpZf b mijZa^gblv ]Z-
a_lguc klhe, hldjulv  \_^hfhklyo xjb^bq_kdbc hl^_e, hl^_e
djblbdbb[b[ebh]jZnbb, ^himkdZlvg_hnbpbZevghcqZklb «[_e-
e_ljbklbdm, jZkkdZau, klbohl\hj_gby, mq_gu_klZlvbij_bfms_kl-
\_ggh f_klgh]h bgl_j_kZ, bf_lv ihklhygguc iheblbq_kdbc hl^_e
b l_e_]jZngu_ ^_i_rb»30
. :gZeh]bqgh_ fg_gb_ ukdZaZe
KG. L_jib]hj_\, hlijZb\ \ 1862 ]. \ «=hehk» klZlvx «=m[_jg-
kdb_ _^hfhklb» h i_j_^Zq_ bo «ebl_jZlmjguf dZlhj`gbdZf» ba
i_l_j[mj]kdboj_^Zdpbc. H^gZdhihp_gamjgufkhh[jZ`_gbyfwlZ
im[ebdZpbyg_khklhyeZkv31
.
< 1861 ].  ]Za_l_ eb[_jZevgh]h gZijZe_gby «Jmkkdh_ kehh»
ihybebkv^ZghuojZa^_eZ – «Khj_f_ggZye_lhibkv» b «>g_gbd
l_fgh]hq_eh_dZ», – dhlhju__eb=?. ;eZ]hk_lehb>>. FbgZ_\,
bae_dZy ba _^hfhkl_c bgnhjfZpbx h «f_jahklyo b iZdhklyo», kh-
_jrZ_fuo ih k_c Jhkkbb (gZijbf_j, nhjfbjmy ba ojhgbdbijhbk-
r_klbc «ojhgbdmih[h_\»), bhlimkdZyhklju_aZf_qZgbyihihh^m
lhjq_klZijhbgpbZevguoebl_jZlhjh\. GZijbf_j, \ «Kbf[bjkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» 1862 ]. «dZdhclh ijhbgpbZevguc “Zn-
lhj”» ba\_sZe k\hbo a_feydh\ h lhf, qlh «\ I_l_j[mj]_ ih mebpZf
oh^yldZdb_lhlmjdb\fZkdZobj_`ml\k_o, dl hih^ jmdmgbih^\_j-
g_lky». <wlhc`_klZlv_h[ty\eyeZkvgh\hklv, qlhgbh^ghjmkkdh_
bfy g_ gZqbgZ_lky k [mdu «@» – «hldjulb_ wlh ^h lZdhc kl_i_gb
aZf_qZl_evgh_, qlh hgh, _jhylgh, [m^_l i_j_i_qZlZgh h \k_o ]Za_-29
G±h\ (K_eh;_j_klhh, 17 ^_dZ[jy 1860 ].) H]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo // Fhkdhkdb_
_^hfhklb. 1861. ‹ 38. 16 n_\j. K. 310–311.
30
B]gZlv_ J. ?s_ h ]m[ _jgkdbo \ _^hfhklyo (k. Lmg]ZlZ jh\ h Hj_g[ mj]kdhc ]m[ _j-
gbb, 2 Zij_ey) // Fhkdh\kdb_\_^hfhklb. 1861. ‹ 155. 15 bxey. K. 1249.
31
J=B:. N. 777. Hi. 26. >. 27. 1863 ]. E. 1–3.

=eZ\Z 1
18lZo»32
. H[jZsZykv d f_klguf dhjj_kihg^_glZf, «l_fguc q_eh_d»
bjhgbabjhZe: «<Zfebhki_Zlvijbjh^mk __ lZbgklZfb  ms_j[
lZbgklZfijhbgpbZevguokm^h\, dZgp_eyjbcbij. b. ij.? Bebm`_
hdjm`ZxsZy \Zk kj_^Z h[jZlbeZkv  kqZklebmx :jdZ^bx?»33
. «Kh-
j_f_gguc e_lhibk_p» ijbauZe ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb jZajZ[Zlu-
Zlvf_klgu_ hijhku,  hkh[_gghklb dZkZxsb_ky dj_klvygkdhc j_-
nhjfu, dZdwlh^_eZeb «YjhkeZkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb», b[ulv
l_f kZfuf «ohjhrbf ih^kihjv_f ^ey gmlj_gg_c ojhgbdb klhebq-
guo]Za_lb`mjgZeh\»34
.
< bkihevahZgbb im[ebdZpbc  _^hfhklyo  dZq_kl_ aZkem`b-
Zxs_]h ^h_jby hnbpbZevgh]h bklhqgbdZ ^Zevr_ k_]h,  bgl_j_-
kZo «hkh[h^bl_evgh]h ^b`_gby», ihreb ba^Zgby j_\hexpbhggh-
^_fhdjZlbq_kdh]h gZijZ\e_gby. K 1860 ]. \ «Kh\j_f_ggbd_» \uoh-
^beh «<gmlj_gg__ h[haj_gb_» – «ihklhyggZy ojhgbdZ gmlj_gg_c
`bagbgZr_]hhlq_klZ», dhlhjmx_eKL. KeZmlbgkdbc35
. <h^ghf
ba ibk_f d g_fm G:. >h[jhex[h ijbauZe «]jmiibjhZlv nZdlu
jmkkdhc `bagb, lj_[mxsb_ ihijZ\hd b memqr_gbc», qlh[u «dhehlv
]eZaZ kydbfb f_jahklyfb, ij_ke_^hZlv, fmqblv, g_ ^ZZlv hl^u-
om»36
. G_kfhljy gZ lh, qlh G:. >h[jhex[h\ \ ij_^bke h\bb d j_p_g-
abb gZ «I_jfkdbc k[hjgbd» (FhkdZ, 1859) kqblZe, qlh uoh^ysb_
_^hfhklb «^hlh]hkmob_, qlhbgh]^Zgbop_euc]h^gbq_]hg_ih-
f_sZ_lky, djhf_ i_j_i_qZldb h[tye_gbc \ghv uoh^ysbo dgb`_d
i_l_j[mj]kdbobfhkdh\kdbo`mjgZeh\»37
, \k\h_cklZlv_ «Hiulhlm-
q_gby ex^_c hl ibsb» (gZijZe_gghc ijhlb ^_yl_evghklb h^gh]h
bahldmisbdh\) hghkghuZekygZklZlv_ «G_[uZeh_hafms_gb_»,
gZi_qZlZgghc \ «KZfZjkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo» boj_^Zdlhjhf
>E. Fhj^h\p_\uf38
. FZl_jbZeu «Hj_g[mj]kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhkl_c» G:. >h[jhex[h\ bkihevah\Ze ^ey h[gZjh^h\Zgby nZdlh\
aylhqgbq_klZ b ki_dmeypbb f_klguo qbghgbdh\, Z «KZfZjkdb_
]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb» – \ghv\klZlv_ «HjZkijhkljZg_gbblj_a\h-32
>g_\gbdl_fgh]hq_eh_dZ // Jmkkdh_keh\h. 1862. FZjl. Hl^. 3. K. 18–19.
33
LZf`_. FZc. Hl^. 3. K. 37.
34
Kh\j_f_ggZye_lhib kv // Jmkkdh_keh\ h. 1862. FZjl. Hl^. 3. K. 19.
35
>h[jhex[h\ G:.,KeZ\mlbgkdbc KL.<gmlj_gg__ h[haj_gb_ // Khj_f_ggbd.
1860. ‹ 3. K. 231–235;>h[jhex[h\ G:.Kh[jZgb_khqbg_gbc : < 9 l. F.; E., 1963.
L. 6. K. 150–154.
36
I_j_ibkdZG:. >h[jhex[hZkK=. KeZmlbgkdbf // H]gb: Bklhjby. Ebl_jZlmjZ. I].,
1916. Dg. 1. K. 67–68.
37
>h[jhex[h\G:.Ghu_dgb]b // Kh\j_f_ggbd. 1859. ‹ 10. Hl^. 2. K. 358.
38
>h[jhex[h\G:.Hiul hlmq_gbyex^_chlibsb // >h[jhex[hG:. Kh[jZgb_kh-
qbg_gbc : < 9 l. F.; E., 1963. L. 7. K. 438–460.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
19klb  Jhkkbb». D nZdlZf ba «Db_kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»
b]Za_lu «DZdZa» h[jZsZekylZd`_bG=. Q_jgur_kdbc39
.
<k_jhkkbckdmx h]eZkdm ihemqZeb k_^_gby ba ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhkl_c\ «Dhehdhe_» :B. =_jp_gZ, kemqZ__kebbohafh`gh[ueh
bgl_jij_lbjhZlv dZd hq_j_^gh_ «aeh^_ckl\h» ijZbl_evklZ beb
ihf_sbdh\40
. Khc i_juc hiul j_^Zdlhjkdhc b im[ebpbklbq_kdhc
^_yl_evghklb =_jp_g ijbh[j_eh <eZ^bfbj_, dh]^Z\ 1838 ]., ihke_
i_j_\h^Zbaylkdhckkuedb, hg[ueaZqbke_g\dZgp_eyjbx]m[_jgZ-
lhjZ b klZe j_^Zdlhjhf «Ijb[Ze_gbc» d «<eZ^bfbjkdbf ]m[_jg-
kdbf \_^hfhklyf». H[ wlhc jZ[hl_ «^\hjygkdbc j_\ hexpbhg_j» hk-
lZbe kZjdZklbq_kdmx oZjZdl_jbklbdm, khhl_lklmxsmx _]h
a]ey^ZfgZ kZfh^_j`Zb_ b ^_yl_evghklv_]h ZiiZjZlZ: «MgZkijZ-
bl_evklh, ij_abjZy kydmx ]jZfhlghklv, bf__l [hevrb_ ijblyaZ-
gbygZebl_jZlmjm, blh\j_fydZd:g]ebb, gZijbf_j, khk_fg_l
dZa_gguo `mjgZeh\, m gZk dZ`^h_ fbgbkl_jklh ba^Z_l k\hc, ZdZ^_-
fbybmgb_jkbl_lu – khb. <…> <ayrbk_fhghihebb, ijZ\bl_ev-
klhayehbfhghihebx[helhgb, hgh_e_ehk_ffheqZlvbklZeh
]hhjblv[_a mfhedm»41
.
=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» b bo Zlhju klZeb ij_^f_lhf kZlbju
mF?. KZeludhZS_^jbgZ,  _^_gbb dhlhjh]h  i_jbh^ jZ[hlu
jyaZgkdbf bp_]m[_jgZlhjhf \ 1858–1860 ]]. gZoh^bebkv «JyaZg-
kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb». < n_ev_lhg_ «Ebl_jZlhjuh[uZl_eb»
(1861) hg \u_enb]mjm ijhbgpbZevgh]h h[ebqbl_ey DhjulgbdhZ,
dhl hjucfgh]hke h\gh, kh kf_r_gb_f\ukhdh]h klbeyh[sbojZkkm`-
^_gbc knZdlZfb f_edboZ^fbgbkljZlbguoijZhgZjmr_gbc jZkkm-
`^Ze h[ mfkl_gghf b ]jZ`^Zgkdhf jZablbb: «< lh j_fy dZd lu
fmqbrvky  ihlm]Zo jh`^_gby, qlh[ [jhkblv fbjm dZdmxgb[m^v
ukhdhiZjgmxfukev hq_eh_q_kl_bihkl_i_gghfihklmiZgbb_]h39
Dh\Ze_\Z FF. JmkkdZy ijhbgpbZevgZy i_qZlv  hp_gd_ `mjgZeZ j_hexpbhgghc
^_fhdjZlbb «Khj_f_ggbd» // KlZghe_gb_ b jZablb_ f_klghc i_qZlb Jhkkbb : F_`m-
ahkdbck[hjgbdljm^h\. <hjhg_`, 1985. K. 29.
40
Kf.:;mjfbkljh\ZEI.IjhbgpbZevgZy]Za_lZwihomjmkkdboijhk\_lbl_e_c (=m-
[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklbIh\he`vybMjZeZ 1840–1850 ]].). DZaZgv, 1985. K. 30–32.
41
=_jp_g :B. ;ueh_ b ^mfu. Dmc[ur_\, 1975. K. 319–320. K e_]dhc jmdb =_jp_gZ
hreh  ebl_jZlmjm ml_j`^_gb_, qlh «;em^h u^mfZe “=m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb”»
kf., gZijbf_j:?kbg ;B. JmkkdZy^hj_\hexpbhggZy]Za_lZ. 1702–1917 ]]. F., 1971. K. 21;
FboZceh\Z F?. «:kljZoZgkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb»  dhgl_dkl_ h[s_kl\_ggh-
dmevlmjghc `bagb :kljZoZgkdhc ]m[_jgbb (1838–1917 ]].) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl.
gZmd. <he]h]jZ^, 2006. K. 28). Ohly fbgbkljhf gmlj_ggbo >G. ;em^h klZe \ 1832 ].,
ZaZdhghijh_dl 1830 ]. h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \ur_e  i_jbh^ mijZe_gby
fbgbkl_jklhf ::. AZdj_kdbf (<ZjZ^bgh\G<.Bklhjby Fbgbkl_jklZgmlj_ggbo^_e.
KI[., 1862. Q. 3, dg. 1. K. 10).

=eZ\Z 1
20gZ imlb kh_jr_gklhZgby, lj_aZy b g_ih^dmigZy ^_cklbl_ev-
ghklv kbehc ijbdhuZ_l l_[y d l_kghc lh_c jZdhbg_, d jh^ghfm
l\h_f m=e mih\m! B\uoh^bllmlg_qlhg_e_ih_: =emi h\ – bq_eh\_q_-
klh, km^vyEZimrgbdh\ – b_qgu_aZdhguijZ^u...» 42
. <n_ev_lh-
g_ «GZrZh[s_kl_ggZy `bagv» (1863) ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb  kh-
_c [eZ]hgZf_j_gghklb b ljZnZj_lghklb hibkZgbc hnbpbZevguo
lhj`_kl\ klZ\bebkv \ h^bg jy^ k «=hehkhf» («Dmjbguf wohf»)
b «Jmkkdbf ebkldhf» ( «M[h]bf ebkldhf») dZd ijbf_ju «dZjlhgghc
ebl_jZlmju»: «“Ba JyaZgb ibrml, qlh \u[hju ijhba\_^_gu \ kh\_j-
r_gg_cr_f ihjy^d_”; “Ba KZjZlhZ ibrml, qlh ih kemqZx mijZa^-
g_gby hldmih\ h`b^Zeb g_dhlhjuo [_ki hjy^dh\, h^gZdh \k_ h[hr-
ehkv kfbjgh: gZjh^ ibe^_r_dm b iho\Zeb\Ze”; “BaDZem]bibrml,
qlh lZf, ih kemqZx gZagZq_gby ghh]h ]m[_jgZlhjZ, ^hjyg_ j_rb-
ebkv ^Zlv [Ze”; “Ba Dhkljhfu ibrml, qlh lZf ^hjyg_ j_rbebkv
^Zlv[Ze[_akydh]h kemqZy”. <...> LZdh]h jh^Zkiehrguf[eZ]hjh^-
kl\hf ^Z\gh m`_ k \_ebqZcrbf mki_ohf aZgbfZxlky \k_ ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb h[rbjghc Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb. G_m`_eb `_ gZrZ ebl_-
jZlmjZ hkm`^_gZ ij_jZlblvky  ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb? m`_eb h[-
s_klh, ^eydhlhjh]hebl_jZlmjZk_lZdbkem`blhj]Zghf, ^himklbl
lZdh_g_e_ih_ij_jZs_gb_?»43
. <ijh^he`_gb_l_fu, i_j_i_qZldmba
L\_jkdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» ]Za_l_ «>_gv» – «HibkZgby^\mo
^g_c ijZa^gbdZ ih kemqZx ih^g_k_gby ^hjygZfb b dj_klvygZfb DZ-
rbgkdh]h m_a^Z L\_jkdhc ]m[_jgbb, IV fbjh\h]h mqZkldZ, dm[dZ k\h-
_fm fbjh\hfm ihkj_^gbdm I_ljm GbdheZ_bqm =hehbgm», gZibkZg-
gmx \ khhl\_lklbb kh klbe_f «l_hjbb hnbpbZevghc gZjh^ghklb»,
KZeludh\S_^jbghij_^_ebedZd`Zgj «[Ze_lghcwlgh]jZnbb»44
.
Dhee_]b deZkkbdZ jmkkdhc kZlbju ih j_hexpbhggh^_fh-
djZlbq_kdhfm eZ]_jx [ueb k gbf kheb^Zjgu \ hlghr_gbb
d]m[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf. Im[ebpbkl G<. R_e]mgh  klZlv_-
hq_jd_ «=jZ`^Zgkdb_we_f_gluBjdmlkdh]hdjZy» (1863)45
ibkZe, qlh42
KZeludh\S_^jbg F?. Ebl_jZlhjuh[uZl_eb // Khj_f_ggbd. 1861. ‹ 2.
K. 371–408.
43
KZeludh\S_^jbg F?. GZrZ h[s_kl_ggZy `bagv // Kh\j_f_ggbd. 1863. ‹ 3.
K. 175–202.
44
LZf`_. ‹ 12. K. 197–242.
45
KlZlvy [ueZ gZibkZgZ ih j_amevlZlZf ih_a^db G<. R_e]mghZ  Kb[bjv
dFE. FboZceh\m, khkeZgghfmgZdZlhj]mih^_emh jZkijhkljZg_gbb j_\hexpbhgguoijhdeZ-
fZpbc. < k_gly[j_ 1862 ]. ihke_ ijb[ulby gZ DZaZdh\kdbc ijbbkd, ]^_ kh^_j`Zeky FboZceh\,
R_e]mgh [ue Zj_klhZg. IhelhjZ ]h^Z hg kh^_j`Zeky  I_ljhiZeh\kdhc dj_ihklb, Z  dhgp_
1864 ]. \ukeZg\<heh]h^kdmx]m[_jgbx (Jmkkdb_ ibkZl_eb. ;bh[b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbc kehZjv /
ih^ j_^. I:. GbdheZ_Z. F., 1990. L. 2. K. 401). LZdbf h[jZahf, jZ^bdZevghj_\hexpbhggh_

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
21<_^hfhklb» «klZeb db^Zlvky  ebl_jZlmjghklv; hl wlh]h  gbo
hlghkbl_evgh m[Z\behkv ^_eZ b ijb[Z\behkv ebrgbo keh\», f_`-
^m l_f hgb ^he`gu [ulv kijZhqgbdhfojhgbdhc ijhbgpbZev-
guo kh[ulbc b ijhbkr_kl\bc, «kdeZ^hf nZdlh\» ^ey qZklguo,
[he__ k_jv_aguobb^_cguo ]Za_l: «Imklv im[ebdmxl hgb \k_, qlh
kemqblky  ]m[_jgbb – ]jZ[_`b, m[bckl\Z, djZ`b, [ZgdjhlklZ,
imklv ^Zxl klZlbklbq_kdb_ k\_^_gby h[ wdhghfbq_kdhf [ul_
k_evkdbob]hjh^kdbokhkehbc, hex^yo[_^guob[h]Zluo, hlhf,
dZd `bml qbgh\gbdb, hlhf, dZd gZ`b\Zxlky dmipu, h lhf, dZd
kms_kl\mxl dj_klvyg_ bf_sZg_»46
. <:. Ke_iph\, \ukf_y\rbc
ihiuldb gZjh^ghc `mjgZebklbdb»  \b^_ `mjgZeh\ «Fbjkdhc
\_klgbd» b «Fbjkdh_ keh\h»47
, \ klZlv_ «=m[_jgkdZy ij_kkZ»
(1865), gZi_qZlZgghc \ «Kh\j_f_ggbd_», hij_^_ebe ]m[_jgkdb_
\_^hfhklb dZd «f_jlhjh`^_ggu_ ^_lbsZ jZaguo ]m[_jgkdbo
ijZe_gbc», dhlhju_ ibrml «g_ im[ebpbklu, Z dZgp_eyjkdb_
kem`bl_eb, krbZxl klhjh`Z b i_qZlv gZde_bZxlhgb `_»48
. DZ-
l_]hjbqghklv b \ujZabl_evghklv wlhc nhjfmebjh\db lZd ihex[b-
eZkvg_dhlhjufbklhjbdZfi_qZlb, qlhhgZklZeZijbh^blvkyijb
kemqZ_, dh]^Z g_h[oh^bfh [ueh djZldh b oe_kldh \ujZablv k\h_
hlghr_gb_ d ]m[_jgkdbf\_^hfhklyf \hh[s_ beb d hl^_evguf bo
gZbf_gh\Zgbyf \ qZklghklb49
. K bjhgb_c ijhc^ykv ih kh^_j`Z-
gbx b «ijh]j_kkb\guo hj]Zgh ijhbgpbZevghc `mjgZebklbdb»,
ghkysbo ih^jZ`Zl_evguc oZjZdl_j klhebqguf fhkdhkdbf ]Za_-
lZf, Ke_iph\ aZdexqZe k\hx klZlvx \u\h^hf, qlh «q_]hgb[m^v
hkh[_ggh ghh]h  ij_^_eZo ijhbgpbZevghc `mjgZebklbdbb kh-
\k_fgbdh]^Zg_[uZ_l»50
.Jmkkdh_ kehh» (`mjgZeaZdjul\ 1866 ].) jZaf_sZeh gZ k\hbo kljZgbpZo klZlvx g_ ijhklh
g_[eZ]hgZ^_`gh]hZlhjZ, Ziheblbq_kdh]haZdexq_ggh]h.
46
R_e]mgh  G<. =jZ`^Zgkdb_we_f_gluBjdmlkdh]hdjZy // Jmkkdh_keh\h. 1863.
K_gly[jv. K. 21–22.
47
Ke_iph\ <:. Ihiuldb gZjh^ghc `mjgZebklbdb // Khj_f_ggbd. 1863. ‹ 3.
K. 131–144.
48
Ke_iph\<:. =m[_jgkdZyij_kkZ // Khj_f_ggbd. 1865. ‹ 9. K. 43.
49
Kf.:=ebgkdbc;;.JmkkdZyi_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlvijhbgpbb // Bklhjbq_kdbc
_klgbd. 1898. ‹ 1. K. 305;KlZgvdh :B. Jmkkdb_ ]Za_lu i_jhc ihehbgu XIX \.
Jhklh g>, 1969. K. 108;;meZp_\ OK. Ibhg_ju ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb (I_ju_
rZ]b ^_fhdjZlbq_kdhc ij_kku jhkkbckdhc ijhbgpbb lhjhc ihehbgu XIX \.).
E., 1981. K. 4;FZg^jbdZXE. «=heh^gbdh\kdbci_jbh^» kha\mq_g k «e_^gbdh\uf»…
// Lh[hevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb. Khljm^gbdb b Z\lhju : Zglheh]by lh[ hevkdhc
`mjgZebklbdbdhgpZ XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. / khkl. XE. FZg^jbdZ. Lxf_gv, 2004. Dg. 1.
K. 4.
50
Ke_iph\<:.MdZa. khq. K. 53.

=eZ\Z 1
22< klZlbklbd_ jmkkdbo i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbc, dhlhjmx ijbh-
^beZ ]Za_lZ «=hehk» (1865), ba 325 gZbf_ghZgbc ([_a Ihevrb
bNbgeyg^bb) 127 ijbgZ^e_`Zeb ijZ\bl_evkl_gguf mqj_`^_gbyf
ba gbo 55 – ba^Zgby ]m[_jgkdboijZe_gbc), 40 – jZaebqgufh[s_-
kl\Zf b 161 – qZklguf ebpZf. <u\h^ \ hlghr_gbb ijh\bgpbZevguo
]Za_lbf_klZgbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_cghkbe[_aZi_eeypbhgguc
oZjZdl_j: «AZbkdexq_gb_f … “H^_kkdh]h_klgbdZ”, “Db_eygbgZ”,
DjhgrlZ^lkdh]h _klgbdZ”, “GbdheZ_kdh]h \_klgbdZ”, ihevamx-
sboky [hevr_x ba_klghklvx, ijhqb_ ba ijhbgpbZevguo ba^Zgbc,
uoh^ysbo gZ jmkkdhf yaud_, d kh`Ze_gbx, ij_^klZeyxl _kvfZ
fZeh bgl_j_kZ. Hkh[_ggh ih]j_rZxl  wlhf hlghr_gbb ]m[_jgkdb_
\_^hfhklb, ba dhlhjuo g_dhlhju_ ij_^klZ\eyxl g_ [he__, dZd fZdm-
eZlmjgmx[mfZ]m»51
.
Ba_klguc [b[ebh]jZn <B. F_`h\ (1870), gZauZy emqrbfb
kj_^b \_^hfhkl_c «:joZg]_evkdb_», «;_kkZjZ[kdb_», «Hehg_pdb_»,
I_jfkdb_», «LZjbq_kdb_», «L_jkdb_», «OZjvdhkdb_» b «YjhkeZ\-
kdb_», Z «<be_gkdb_», «Dh_gkdb_», «?dZl_jbghkeZkdb_», «Fhk-
dh\kdb_», «K.-I_l_j[mj]kdb_», «Kf he_gkdb_» b «Lmevkdb_», i j_^-
klZeyxsb_ ba k_[y «kl_iv KZoZjm», lZd `_ dZd b J=. B]gZlv_\,
ij_^eZ]Ze i_j_^Zlv hnbpbZevgu_ ]Za_lu  Zj_g^m qZklguf ebpZf:
IjZbl_evklh i_j_klZeh [u ljZlblv ^_gv]b [hevr_x qZklvx g_-
ijhbah^bl_evgh; h[s_kl\h bf_eh [u g_kdhevdbfb ^_kyldZfb aZgb-
fZl_evguobihe_aguo]Za_l [he__… Z qlh  dZ`^hf]m[_jgkdhf]h-
jh^_ ^hklZlhqgh o\Zlbeh [u bgl_ee_dlmZevguo kbe gZ ba^Zgb_
k_jv_agh]h hj]ZgZhl_q_kl\h_^_gby, lh wlhfg_ fh`_l [ulvgbdZ-
dh]h khfg_gby. <…> B lZd, ^Z`_ b ijb gZklhys_f ihjy^d_ _s_c,
_^Z h[_ki_qb\Zxs_f kms_klhZgb_ f_klguo dZa_gguo hj]Zgh\
i_qZlb, gZoh^ylky ex^b [_kdhjuklgh ij_^Zggu_ ^_em bkke_^hZgby
bhibkZgbyba_klgh]hdjZy»52
.
< 70-o]]. ^bkdmkkbxhkhhlghr_gbbp_gljZevgh]hb j_]bh-
gZevgh]h k_dlhjh\ jhkkbckdhc i_qZlb \dexqbebkv [urb_ kh-
ljm^gbdb ]m[_jgkdbo hnbpbZevguo ba^Zgbc – >E. Fhj^hp_\
\ 1856–1862 ]]. j_^Zdlhj «KZjZlh\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
kl_c») b :K. =Zpbkkdbc (k_dj_lZjv gb`_]hjh^kdh]h ]m[_jgkdh]h
klZlbklbq_kdh]h dhfbl_lZ). < 1869 ]. gZ kljZgbpZo «Gb`_]hjh^kdbo
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» :K. =Zpbkkdbc hij_^_eye aZ^Zqb ijhbg-51
KlZlbklbdZjmkkdboi_jbh^bq_kdboba^Zgbc\ 1865 ]h^m // =hehk. =Za_lZiheblb-
q_kdZybebl_jZlmjgZy. 1866. ‹ 21. 21 yg\. K. 1–2.
52
F_`h\ <B. DjZldbc klZlbklbq_kdbc b [b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbc h[ahj jmkkdh]h hl_q_-
kl\h_^_gbyaZ 1859–1868 ]]. KI[., 1870. K. 14–15.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
23pbZevghc i_qZlb dZd jZajZ[hldm f_klguo «kljh]hbklhjbq_kdbo,
klZlbklbq_kdbo, wlgh]jZnbq_kdbo, a_fkdbo b l^. bgl_j_kh\», Z g_
kha^Zgb_ «^hfhjhs_gghc im[ebpbklbdb»  ih^jZ`Zgb_ i_l_j[mj]-
kdhc53
. K\h_ m[_`^_gb_ hg ih^dj_ieye dhgdj_lghc ^_yl_evghklvx,
gZqZ ba^Zgb_ ijh^he`Zxs_]hky «Gb`_]hjh^kdh]h k[hjgbdZ»
\ 1867–1890 ]]. \ureh 10 lhfh\), ihkys_ggh]hiheh`_gbxb [ulm
dj_klvyg, wdhghfbq_kdhfmjZablbx]m[_jgbb, khklhygbxg_ckbk-
l_fu h[jZahZgby b a^jZhhojZg_gby. >E. Fhj^h\p_\, gZijhlb\,
ij_^kdZauZe, qlh jhkl klhebp – «k_e_gkdbo kijmlh\», khkj_^hlh-
qbZxsbo  k_[_ \k_ emqrb_ ^mohgu_ b wdhghfbq_kdb_ kbeu kljZ-
gu, ijb_^_l d hdhgqZl_evghc p_gljZebaZpbb i_qZlb, h[j_dZy ijh-
bgpbZevguo «khjZ[hlgbdh\» klhebqguoba^Zgbc gZ «baf_evqZgb_»
b «^mo h\gh_ m[h`_kl\h»54
(kZf Fhj^h\p_\ \ 1872 ]. hdhgqZl_evg h
i_j_[jZeky ba KZjZlhZ  I_l_j[mj], ]^_ gZqZe k_jbxbklhjbq_kdbo
jhfZgh\, khklZbrbo _fm ba_klghklv m kh\j_f_ggbdh\55
). <lh`_
\j_fy \ k\hbo jZkkm`^_gbyo Fhj^h\p_\ ijhlb\hj_qbe k_[_, ijb\h-
^y fg_gb_ =Zpbkkdh]h dZd «kZfh]h b^gh]h ij_^klZbl_ey» ijhbg-
pbZevghc i_qZlb h lhf, qlh i_qZlv ijhbgpbb fh`_l jZkkdZaZlv h[
bklhjbq_kdhf ijhrehf dZ`^hc hl^_evghc l_jjblhjbb \h \k_o f_ev-
qZcrbo ih^jh[ghklyo, g_^hklmiguo beb [_augl_jkguo bklhjbdm-
p_gljZebklm. =Zpbkkdbchldjulhfibkvf_Fhj^hp_mukdZaZeky
ijhlbfhghihebbklhebqghc`mjgZebklbdb, gZoh^ys_ckyg__^_-
gbbhlhf, qlh^_eZ_lkyijhbgpbb, ]Za_ludhlhjhck_j_^bg_ 70-o]].
klZebjZajZ[Zlu\Z_l l_fu, g_fukebfu_ 10–15 e_l gZaZ^, i_j_klZZy
[ulv «dZ[Zevghc [ZljZqdhc» i_l_j[mj]kdhc i_qZlb. < hlghr_gbb
f_klZ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c kj_^b ijh\bgpbZevguo ba^Zgbc =Z-
pbkkdbcibkZe, qlhbokms_klhZgb_hk_g_f_rZ_ljZablbxqZ-
klghcij_kku: «;ueZ[u]Za_lZohjhrZ, Zih^ibkqbdb__ih^^_j`Zl.
… “=m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb” imklv bo [m^ml “=m[_jgkdbfb \_^hfh-
klyfb”; mgbqlh`_gb_ `_ bo bkdmkkl_gghc fhghihebb bf_ggh
kp_evx kha^Zgby beb ih^^_j`Zgby ^jm]hc bkdmkkl\_gghc fhghih-
ebb qZklguo ]Za_l, ih f_gvr_c f_j_ g_ihke_^hZl_evgh»56
. < wlhc
ihe_fbd_ ijbgyeb mqZklb_ «DZfkdh<he`kdZy ]Za_lZ», «Kb[bjv»53
=Zpbkkdbc :. K. H f_klg hc i_qZ lb b h «Gb`_] hjh^ kdb o ]m[ _jg kdb o \_^hf hklyo»
\hkh[_gghklb // Gb`_] hjh^kdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1869. ‹ 3. 15 yg\. K. 18.
54
Fhj^h\p_\>E.I_qZlv\ijh\bgpbb // > _eh. 1875. ‹ 9. K. 44–70; ‹ 10 . K. 1–32.
55
>Zgbbe Emdbq Fhj^hp_\ (G_djheh]) // Bklhjbq_kdbc _klgbd. KI[., 1905. L. 101,
dg. 7. K. 210–214.
56
=Zpbkkdbc :K. Kf_jlv ijhbgpbb beb g_l. Hldjulu_ ibkvfZ >E. Fhj^hp_m.
G. Gh]hjh^, 1876. K. 16–17.

=eZ\Z 1
24b «Lbnebkkdbc _klgbd». >bkdmkkby g_ aZ_jrbeZkv ijbfbj_gb_f57

\ 1877 ]. >E. Fhj^hp_  hl_l gZ ibkvfh :K. =Zpbkkdh]h «<Zrm
jmdm, lh\Zjbs!» \ «G_^_e _» hl\_lbe, qlh hg «g_ mklmibe» b «g_ hl-
klmibe» hllh]h, qlh ]h\hjbe \ «>_e_». DZ`^Zybaklhjhg, ^_eZe u-
h^OK. ;meZp_\, «ihke_^he]bokihjhb “h[tykg_gbc” hklZeZkvgZ
bkoh^guoihabpbyo»58
.
< 1896 ]. \. `mjgZe_ «Gh\h_keh\h» ihybeZkvhp_gdZ, ZgZeh]bq-
gZy fg_gbx <:. Ke_iphZ, «ba]hgyxsZy», ih kehZf j_^ZdlhjZ
I_jfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c», ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb ba «h[-
s_c k_fvb jmkkdhc i_qZlb»: «=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb, aZ fZeuf bk-
dexq_gb_f, g_\kbeZob^lb\mjh_gvkjhklhfgZr_ch[s_kl_gghc
`bagb … I_k_gdZ bo ki_lZ, _keb lhevdh hgb dh]^Z eb[h i_eb __.
Hgb g_ fh]ml aZf_gblv f_klguo qZklguo hj]Zgh\, qlh b ^hdZaZeb
kh_c ihem_dh\hc ^j_fhlhc b `Zedbf[_kp_lgufijhay[Zgb_f»59
.
Ohly kZf Zlhj, jZkkfZljbZ\rbc ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb dZd «ij_-
a_jZlb\guc» hj]Zg f_klghc Z^fbgbkljZpbb ijhlb\ qZklguo ba^Z-
gbc, ijbagZ\Ze, qlh  bo jy^m _klv b l_, dhlhju_ «aZgyebkv [_kijb-
kljZklguf bamq_gb_f f_klguo b h[s_]hkm^Zjkl_gguo gm`^,
klZjZykv hl_qZlv gZ hijhku, dhlhju_ klZbl gZrZ `bagv» (dZd,
gZijbf_j, «I_jfkdb_», «LZf[hkdb_», «Gb`_]hjh^kdb_», «<ylkdb_»
b^jm]b_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb).
KZfb_^hfhklbklZebaZyeylvhk_[_ihf_j_gZdhie_gbyfZl_-
jbZehbog_hnbpbZevguoqZklyo, qlhijbh^behdg_h[oh^bfhklb
khklZe_gby l_fZlbq_kdbo b ojhgheh]bq_kdbo mdZaZl_e_c. >_ckl-
mxsb_ j_^Zdlhju beb ebpZ, dh]^Zeb[h bkihegyrb_ wlm ^he`-
ghklv, kfhljbl_eb lbih]jZnbc beb k_dj_lZjb ]m[_jgkdbo klZlbklb-
q_kdbo dhfbl_lh\ (qZklh wlb ^he`ghklb khf_sZebkv) klZghbebkv
i_jufb ZlhjZfb hq_jdh bklhjbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, kh^_j-
`Zsbo  k_[_ bf_gZ bo khljm^gbdh\, k_^_gby h lbjZ`_, i_jbh^bq-
ghklb, l_fZlbd_ jZa^_eh\, aZbfhhlghr_gbyok eZklvx b qZklgufb
ba^Zgbyfb. >eykhklZe_gbymdZaZl_e_cijh^_eu\ZeZkvlblZgbq_kdZy
jZ[hlZ. LZd, BB. <Zkbev_uf [ueh ijhkfhlj_gh [he__ iylb lukyq
ghf_jh\ «I_ga_gkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» aZ 50 e_lboba^Zgby,57
Kmg^b_Z ::. Dmevlmjguc b h[s_kl_gguc kfuke ^bkdmkkbb h ijhbgpbZevghc
i_qZlb (70-_]]. XIX \.) // IjhbgpbZevguc]hjh^: dmevlmjgu_ljZ^bpbbbkhj_f_gghklv.
F., 2000. K. 120.
58
;meZp_\ OK. Ibhg_ju ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb (I_ju_ rZ]b ^_fhdjZlbq_kdhc
ij_kkujhkkbckdhcijhbgpbblhjhcihehbgu XIX \.). E., 1981. K. 133–134.
59
F. D–ic. IjhbgpbZevgZy i_qZlv. =m[_jgkdZy ij_kkZ // Ghh_ kehh. @mjgZe gZmq-
ghebl_jZlmjgucbiheblbq_kdbc. KI[., 1896. ‹ 12. K. 168.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
25u^_e_gh 3 lukyqb im[ebdZpbc, jZkij_^_e_gguo ih 25 jm[jbdZf.
>>. Kfurey_ jZkiheh`beih l_fZlbq_kdhfm ijbgpbim 1 885 im[-
ebdZpbc g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «I_jfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»
aZ 1838–1885 ]]., Z bf_gghc mdZaZl_ev kh^_j`Ze 494 nZfbebb Zlh-
jh\60
. KhklZbl_eb ba[bjZeb jZaebqgu_ kihkh[u mihjy^hqb\Zgby
fZl_jbZeZ – ih ojhgheh]bq_kdhf m, ij_^f_lghfm, Z\lhjkdhfm b ]_h-
]jZnbq_kdhfm ijbgpbiZf. D dhgpm XIX \. ureh 120 mdZaZl_e_c ih
32 ]m[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf ba 40 ba^Z\Z\rboky gZ l_jjblhjbb Jhk-
kbckdhc N_^_jZpbb61
. Hgb im[ebdhZebkv  b^_ hl^_evguo jZ[hl,
kZfbo _^hfhklyo b ^jm]bo f_klguo ba^Zgbyo – «Ljm^Zo»
b «?`_]h^gbdZo» ]m[_jgkdboklZlbklbq_kdbodhfbl_lh\, «IZfylguo
dgb`dZo», «Ljm^Zo» Zjob\guodhfbkkbc.
<kie_kd bgl_j_kZ d _^hfhklyf ijbr_eky gZ 1888 ]., dh]^Z
[hevrbgklh ba gbo hlf_qZeh k\h_ iylb^_kylbe_lb_ b m f_klguo
ebl_jZlmjguo kbe ihybeZkv hafh`ghklv ih^\_klb hij_^_e_ggu_
blh]b jZablby ]Za_lu, u^_eblv wlZiu __ bklhjbb, ij_^klZblv
j_ljhki_dlbm klZl_c g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb. LZdhu jZ[hlu
G?. ?jfbehZ h[ «:joZg]_evkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» (1888)62
,
<<. Khehkdh]h h «LZf[h\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» (1888)63
,
I:. :ev[bpdh]h h «Gb`_]hjh^kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo»
(1888)64
, BB. <Zkbev_\Z h «I_ga_gkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo»
(1889)65
, G<. <hkdj_k_gkdh]h h «<hjhg_`kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
klyo» (1888–1890)66
 b ^j. Klhe_lb_ ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb lZd`_60
Dmklh<:. =Za_lZ «I _jfkdb_]m[ _jg kdb _\ _^hf hklb» k 1838 ih 1917 ]]. (DjZ _\ _^-
q_kdbchq_jd) // YaudbbhghfZklbdZIjbdZfvy: K[hjgbdklZl_c. I_jfv, 1973. K. 117.
61
Ha_jh\Z =:. Bklhqgbdb djZ__^q_kdhc [b[ebh]jZnbb (]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb
bmdZaZl_eb bo kh^_j`Zgby) // Ljm^u =IB; bf. F?. KZeludhZS_^jbgZ. E., 1957.
L. 3(6). K. 133.
62
?jfbeh\G?.1838–1888. Iylb^_kylbe_lb_ba^Zgby «:joZg]_evkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_-
^hfhkl_c». :joZg]_evkd, [[].];?jfbeh\ G?.Iheguc kbkl_fZlbq_kdbc mdZaZl_ev klZl_c,
ihf_s_gguo  g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «:joZg]_evkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» aZ 1882–
1887 ]]. :joZg]_evkd, 1888.
63
Kheh\kdbc <<. MdZaZl_ev klZl_c, ihf_s_gguo \ «LZf[hkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
klyo» k 1838 ih 1888 ]h^. LZf[h\, 1888.
64
:ev[bpdbcI.Babklhjbbf_klghci_qZlb. Bklhjbdhebl_jZlmjguc hq_jd (ihihh-
^m iylb^ _kylb e_lby «=m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c») // Gb`_]hjh^kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb.
1888. ‹ 6. 10 n_\j. K. 2–3; ‹ 7. 17 n_\j. K. 2–3; ‹ 8. 24 n_\j. K. 2–3; ‹ 10. 9 fZjlZ. K. 2–3;
‹ 11. 16 fZjlZ. K. 2–4; ‹ 12. K. 2–3; ‹ 13. 30 fZjlZ. K. 2; ‹ 15. 13 Zij. K. 5; ‹ 19. 11 fZy.
K. 2; ‹ 21. 25 fZy. K. 4; ‹ 22. 1 bxgy. K. 5; ‹ 23. 8 bxgy. K. 3.
65
<Zkbev_\ B. B. «I_ga_g kdb_ ]m[ _jgkdb_ \_^ hf hklb». I_j\ h_ iylb^_kylb e_lb _.
1839–1888. Hl^_eg_hnbpbZevguc: kbkl_fZlbq_kdbc k\h^ klZl_c, hlghkysboky dI_ga_g-
kdhfmdjZx, ojhgheh]bq_kdbcbZenZblgucmdZaZl_eb. I_gaZ, 1889.
66
<hkdj_k_gkdbc G<. Iylb^_kylbe_lb_ «<hjhg_`kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c». Bk-
lhjbq_kdbchq_jdk[bh]jZnbyfbj_^Zdlhjhbkhljm^gbdh\. <hjhg_`, 1888.

=eZ\Z 1
26klZghbehkv ihh^hf ^ey h[jZs_gby d bklhjbb ba^Z\Z_fhc  g_c
]Za_lu. <:. Kdjbibpbg (1895) g_ [_a ]hj^hklb ibkZe h «KZjZlh\-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» ihke_ baf_g_gby ijh]jZffu bo ba^Z-
gby\ 1888 ].: «G__ebdgZrh]hg_d, ghbkeZ[uc[e_kdf_jpZxs_]h
^Zeb h]hgvdZ uh^bl aZ[em^br_]hky imlgbdZ gZ ^hjh]m»67
. ?]h
dhee_]Z, <F. OhjhfZgkdbc (1895), ih^jh[gh jZkkdZaZe h[ bklhjbb
kZjZlhkdhc ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb, khklhygbb b h[ghe_gbb __
h[hjm^hZgby, mkehbyo jZ[hlu b dZebnbdZpbb lbih]jZnkdbo jZ-
[hqbo68
. <_^hfhklb, dhlhju_ gZqZeb uoh^blv ihke_ 1838 ]., hlf_-
lbeb kh_ iylb^_kylbe_lb_ ZgZeh]bqgufb im[ebdZpbyfb iha^g__,
gZijbf_jklZlvy;F. =hjh^_pdh]hh «Dm[Zgkdboh[eZklguo_^hfh-
klyo» (1913)69
.
;eZ]h^Zjy mdZaZl_eyf ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c bo kh^_j`Zgb_
dexqZehkv  h[s_jhkkbckdh_ bgnhjfZpbhggh_ b gZmqgh_ ijh-
kljZgklh, ^_eZehkv ^hklmiguf ^ey jZablby «jh^bgh_^_gby»
b «hl_q_klh_^_gby», qlh hlf_qZehkv j_p_ga_glZfb  p_gljZevguo
ba^Zgbyo: «G_hnbpbZevguc hl^_e gZrbo “=m[_jgkdbo <_^hfhkl_c”
khklZ\ey_l ^h kbo ihj ^ey dZ`^h]h bkke_^hZgby gZr_c ijh\bgpb-
Zevghc `bagb kh_jr_gguc e_k ^j_fmqbc. Kj_^b m`Zkg_cr_]h oeZ-
fZ,  fZkk_ fZl_jbZeZ, i_qZlZ_fh]h \ “G_hnbpbZevghf hl^_e_”, ih-
iZ^Zxlky ^jZ]hp_gghklb, dhlhju_ ijhiZ^Zxl ihqlb [_kke_^gh»70
.
JZablb_ jmkkdhc bklhjbb b wlgh]jZnbbihurZeh p_gghklvg_hnb-
pbZevguo qZkl_c ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  dZq_kl_ bklhqgbdZ7167
Kdjbibpug<:. «KZjZlhkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb». QZklvg_hnbpbZevgZy. 1838–
1894 ]]. Hq_jdkhklZe_gdh^gxijZa^ghZgbyklhe_lby]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb. KZjZlh\,
1895. K. 20.
68
OhjhfZgkdbc<F.Klhe_lb_lbih]jZnbbKZjZlh\kdh]h]m[_jgkdh]hijZ\e_gby. 1794–
1894 ]]. KZjZlh\, 1895.
69
=hjh^_pdbc;F. Ih ihh^m 50-e_lby ba^Zgby «Dm[Zgkdbo h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c»
(1863–1913): ;b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbcgZ[jhkhd // Dm[Zgkdbck[hjgbdgZ 1914 ]. ?dZl_jbgh^Zj,
1914. <ui. 19. K. 623–644.
70
I. IZfylgZy dgb`dZ j_^Zdpbb g_hnbpbZevgh]h hl^_eZ «LZf[hkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c» ih ihh^m bo iylb^_kylbe_lby (1838–1888 ]].). KhklZbe <<. Kheh\kdbc.
LZf[h\, 1888 // Bklhjbq_kdbc \_klgbd. 1888. L. 34. >_dZ[jv. K. 779. :gZeh]bqgmx iheh-
`bl_evgmxj_p_gabx\klj_qZ_f\^jm]hfghf_j_`mjgZeZ:Lj\K.I_ga_gkdb_]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb. I_jh_ iylb^_kylbe_lb_. 1839–1888. Hl^_e g_hnbpbZevguc: kbkl_fZlbq_kdbc
kh^klZl_c, hlghkysbokydI_ga_gkdhfmdjZx, ojhgheh]bq_kdbcbZenZblgucmdZaZl_eb.
KhklZbe BB. <Zkbev_\. I_gaZ, 1889 // Bklhjbq_kdbc _klgbd. 1890. L. 39. YgZjv.
K. 206–207.
71
Kf., gZijbf_j:;Zjkh\?<.H[ahjwlgh]jZnbq_kdbo^Zgguo, ihf_s_gguo\jZaguo
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo aZ 1873 ]. // Ba_klby Bfi_jZlhjkdh]h H[s_klZ ex[bl_e_c _kl_-
kl\hagZgby, Zgljhiheh]bb b wlgh]jZnbb. L. 13, ui. 1. Ljm^u wlgh]jZnbq_kdh]h hl^_eZ.
Dg. 3, ui. 1: Ijhlhdheu aZk_^Zgbc Hl^_eZ (k 22 ^_dZ[jy 1867 ih 23 Zij_ey 1874 ].). F.,
1874. K. 77–83.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
27bklZ\beh aZ^Zqm _]h «h[ke_^hZgby»  fZkrlZ[Zo k_c kljZgu. Bk-
lhjbd b wlgh]jZn GN. Kmfph\ hlf_qZe, qlh «\ h[s_c ]jhfZ^ghc
fZkk_ h[eZklguo \_^hfhkl_c \klj_qZxlky \_kvfZ p_ggu_ ghf_jZ»,
wlbkdjhfgu_ba^ZgbyghkbebijhbgpbZevgmx]emrvdh_dZdb_
k_^_gby h fbj_ b ex^yo», b iylb^_kylbe_lgbc x[be_c bo ba^Zgby
\ 1888 ]. ^he`_ghagZf_ghZlvkykhklZe_gb_fh[s_]hbih^jh[gh]h
mdZaZl_eybokh^_j`Zgby»72
.
GZ g_h[oh^bfhklv khojZg_gby b bamq_gby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_c Kb[bjb «^ey ihevau gZmdb b  \b^Zo kh^_cklby f_klguf bk-
ke_^hZl_eyf» mdZauZeB<. S_]eh\ (1883). Ih fg_gbx kha^Zl_ey
i_jhc kb[bjkdhc ojhgbdb, _^hfhklb khojZgbeb gZ khbo kljZ-
gbpZo fgh`_klh ex[hiulguo fZl_jbZeh\ ^ey f_klghc bklhjbb,
wlgh]jZnbb, klZlbklbdb, ebg]\bklbdb, f_l_hjheh]bb b ij. DZd
gbfZl_evguc d dZ`^hfm nZdlm b kh[ulbx ijhreh]h bklhjbd,
B<. S_]eh hlf_qZe, qlh «wlb ba^Zgby m`_ k^_eZebkv [b[ebh]jZ-
nbq_kdhx j_^dhklvx» b g_h[oh^bfh ba^ZZlv mdZaZl_eb kh^_j`Z-
sboky  gbo klZl_c, Z gZb[he__ p_ggu_ b bgl_j_kgu_ ba gbo h[h[-
sblvk[hjgbd_73
.
< i_jhf h[h[sZxs_f bkke_^hZgbb, ihkys_gghf bklhjbb
BjdmlkdZ (1891), gZibkZgghf GG. ;Zof_lv_uf b hlj_^ZdlbjhZg-
ghf bjdmlkdbf ]hjh^kdbf ]heh\hc <IKmdZq_\uf, klZlvb «Bjdml-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» bkihevahZebkv  dZq_kl_ bklhqgbdZ
ih bklhjbb h[s_kl_gghc `bagb, jZablbxh[jZahZgby, khklhygbx
wdhghfbdb <hklhqghc Kb[bjb74
. Bklhjbd <K. Bdhggbdh  kh_f
Hiul_jmkkdhcbklhjbh]jZnbb» (1891) dexqbe]m[_jgkdb_b_iZj-
obZevgu_ _^hfhklb  jZajy^ bklhqgbdh ih jmkkdhc bklhjbb
bij_^klZbe djZldbc h[ahj hl^_evguo j_]bhgZevguo k[hjgbdh\,
i_j_i_qZluZ\rboboklZlvb75
.
<dhgp_ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. ba^Zl_eb, ]Za_lgu_jZ[hlgbdb, `mj-
gZebklu, [b[ebh]jZnu ih^h^beb g_dhlhju_ blh]b jZablby jhk-
kbckdhc i_qZlb, dhlhjhc \ 1903 ]. bkihegbehkv 200 e_l. Im[ebpbkl
bba^Zl_ev ;;. =ebgkdbc  hq_jd_ h[ bklhjbb b khj_f_gghf iheh-
`_gbb ijhbgpbZevghc i_jbh^bdb (1898) aZdexqZe, qlh d dhgpm72
Kmfph GN. =m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb dZd ihkh[b_ ijb bamq_gbb jmkkdhc bklhjbb
bwlgh]jZnbb. Hllbkd ba n_jZevkdhc dgb`db `mjgZeZ «Db_\kdZy klZjbgZ». Db_\, 1888.
K. 2, 7–8.
73
S_]eh\B<. Ojhgheh]bq_kdbci_j_q_gvZ`g_crbo^Zgguobabklhjbb Kb[bjb (1032–
1882). Kmj]ml, 1993. J_ijbgl. hkij. ba^. 1883, ih^j_^. ::. Ij_h[jZ`_gkdh]h. K. 348.
74
KmdZq_\ <I. Bjdmlkd: ?]h f_klh b agZq_gb_ \ bklhjbb b dmevlmjghf jZablbb <hk-
lhqghcKb[bjb. F., 1891.
75
Bdhggbdh\<K.Hiuljmkkdhcb klhjbh] jZnbb. Db _\, 1891.L. 1, dg. 1. K. 329.

=eZ\Z 1
28XIX \. «f_qlZ gZrbo h[eZklgbdh k[ueZkv: ijhbgpbZevgZy i_qZlv
h k_o ]m[_jgkdbo p_gljZo aZh_ZeZ k_[_ ijZh ]jZ`^ZgklZ
by\ey_lky ^_ckl\bl_evghc jmdhh^bl_evgbp_c f_klgh]h h[s_kl-
Z»76
. < hlghr_gbb `_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c ;;. =ebgkdbc ^_eZe
\u\h^, qlh «i jZ\bl_evkl\m, khkj_^hlhqb\r_fm \ k\hbo jmdZo ]m-
[_jgkdmx ij_kkm, g_kfhljy, fh`_l [ulv, gZ kZfu_ [eZ]b_ ih[m^b-
l_evgu_ gZf_j_gby, g_ m^Zehkv k^_eZlv ba gbo ebyl_evguob jmdh-
h^ysbo hj]Zgh i_qZlb, b ky bo jhev khreZ gZ jhev kijZhqguo
ba^Zgbc ih qZklb hnbpbZevguo h[tye_gbc, ihebp_ckdbo jZkihjy-
`_gbcbdZa_gguoh[tye_gbcgZjZagu_lhj]b»77
.
Ba_klguc jmkkdbc ibkZl_ev <=. Dhjhe_gdh  klZlv_ «Ba bklh-
jbb h[eZklghc i_qZlb» (1897), ihkys_gghc iZfylb :K. =Zpbkkdh-
]h, ij_^klZbe ijhp_kk «h`be_gby» ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c dZd
ljZ]bdhf_^bx, ^_ckl\mxsb_ ebpZ dhlhjhc – ijhk_s_gguc Z^fb-
gbkljZlhj, ihdjhbl_evklmxsbci_qZlghfmkeh\m, bij_^klZbl_eb
]m[_jgkdhc bgl_eeb]_gpbb, «k `Zjhf b iuedbfb gZ^_`^Zfb» ijb-
gbfZxsb_ky aZ g_hnbpbZevgmxqZklv. «< i_jhf^_cklbb – h[s__
[eZ]hhe_gb_ b ijbau\u “d khf_klghfm ljm^m gZ ihevam djZy”. <h
lhjhf – ihye_gb_i_j\h]h h[ghe_ggh]hb “h`be_ggh]h” gmf_jZ,
agZf_gmxs_]h gZqZeh ijhp_lZgby f_klghc ij_kku. Ihlhf – i_j-
u_ lmqb gZ ykghf g_[_. H^ghc klhjhg_ dZaZehkv, qlh ^hklZlhqgh
^h[jh]h `_eZgby, qlh[u k_ ijhp_eh \h “_j_gghf djZ_”, b qlh
l_i_jv “l_fgu_ klhjhgu” fh]ml kms_kl\ hZlv jZa\_ lhevdh \ khk_^-
gbo ]m[_jgbyo. >jm]Zy `^ZeZ, qlh _c ihahe_gh [m^_l jZkdjuZlv
[_^ghklv b g_kh_jr_gkl\Z gZr_c `bagb” b ijbauZlv emqr__ [m-
^ms__. GZ wlhc ihq\_ aZbfgu_ g_^hjZamf_gby jZklml, dZd ]jb[u,
h`b\e_gb_” kdhj_dhgqZ_lkykj_^bh[hx^gh]hhoeZ`^_gbybg_^h-
hevklZ, g_hnbpbZevguc hl^_e bkq_aZ_l beb ijbgbfZ_l qbklh dZg-
p_eyjkdbc oZjZdl_j…»78
. H^gZdh  dZ`^hf ]m[_jgkdhf ]hjh^_ _klv
khc =Zpbkkdbc «[hevrbo beb f_gvrbo jZaf_jh\»79
, aZdexqZe
<=Dhjhe_gdh k\ hx oZjZdl_jbklbdm wlh]h h^g h]h ba \u^Zxsboky
^_yl_e_c ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb. «JZ[hlZ \ “=m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
klyo”  lm ihjm (60–70-_ ]h^u) bf_eZ kh_jr_ggh ki_pbnbq_kdh_
agZq_gb_ dZd Z`guc b^ h[s_kl_ggh]h kem`_gby b ijbe_dZeZ76
=ebgkdbc;;.JmkkdZyi_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlvijhbgpbb // Bklhjbq_kdbc_klgbd.
Bklhjbdhebl_jZlmjguc`mjgZe. 1898. ‹ 1. K. 320.
77
LZf`_. K. 305.
78
Dhjhe_gdh<=.Babklhjbb h[eZklghci_qZlb (iZfylb :K. =Zpbkkdh]h) // K[hjgbd
iZfylv:e_dkZg^jZK_jZnbfhbqZ=Zpbkkdh]h. G. Gh]hjh^, 1897. K. 10–11.
79
=hjh^_pdbc;F.MdZa. khq. K. 27.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
29emqrbo ij_^klZbl_e_c f_klghc ijh]j_kkbghc b ^_fhdjZlbq_kdhc
bgl_eeb]_gpbb»80
, – lZdh_ km`^_gb_ <=. Dhjhe_gdh ijbh^be
\ «Bklhjbb jmkkdhc nhevdehjbklbdb» FD. :aZ^hkdbc. J_^Zdlhju
`_, klmiZrb_  ^he`ghklv g_ ih ijbaZgbx, Z ebrv ih he_ ]m-
[_jgZlhjZ, ihfg_gbx^jm]h]hij_^klZbl_eyijhbgpbZevghcij_k-
kuF. Lmjbgkdh]h, hlghkbebkvdk\h_fm^_emebrvdZdih^qbg_ggu_
qbghgbdb: «lhevdh [u dh]h g_ ijh]g_Zlv! <…> B hl baaZ lZdbo
qbklh khh[jZ`_gbc j_^Zdlhju hohlgh ^ZZeb f_klh bklhjbq_kdbf
hq_jdZf, hibkZgbyff_klguo^j_ghkl_c, h[uqZ_\, gZjh^guoij_^Z-
gbcbli.»81
.
<k[hjgbd_klZl_c, ijbmjhq_gghfdx[be_xjmkkdhci_jbh^bq_-
kdhc i_qZlb (1903), ijZa^gh\Zgb_ dhlhjh]h «\uebehkv \ jZa] h\hj
h[_kijZghf, m]g_l_gghf iheh`_gbb ij_kku  Jhkkbb»82
, GF. Eb-
khkdbc hij_^_eye ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb ebrv dZd «klhe[pu hnb-
pbZevguo k_^_gbc b dZa_gguo h[tye_gbc»83
. K lhqdb aj_gby jZk-
klhygby, ijhc^_ggh]hi_qZlvxdgZqZem XX \. bklZ\rboi_j_^g_c
d wlhfm \j_f_gb h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdboaZ^Zq_^hfhklb (dZd b
ky ij_kkZ ^hj_nhjf_ggh]h i_jbh^Z) dZaZebkv fZehagZqbl_evgufb
ih kh^_j`Zgbx b agZq_gbx. «>Z, hq_gv, hq_gv gbqlh`gZ [ueZ _`_-
^g_gZyij_kkZ 1848–1855 ]]., gbqlh`gZ, gZqbgZyknhjfZlZ, – ibkZe
K:. <_g]_jh\, – Z gZ dZ`^uc ^_gv ]Za_lu ^hhevkl\h\Zebkv aZbfkl-
\h\Zgbyfbba “=m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c” hlhf, qlh\lZdhflh]hjh^_
klZeZ j_dZ, gZc^_g deZ^, ijhe_l_e f_l_hj, ijb[ue ij_hkys_gguc,
jh^bekyl_e_ghd hr_klbgh]Zobl^. <…> “=m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb”,
khklhyrb_ b khklhysb_ ih^g_kv ba jZkihjy`_gbc ]m[_jgkdh]h
ijZe_gbybwlgh]jZnbq_kdbok_^_gbc, fu, dhg_qgh, g_dexqZ_f\
qbkeh ]Za_l»84
. J_^Zdpby i_qZlZeZ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «k_, qlh
gbihiZ^ZehkvgZ]eZaZ»», ibkZeGG. Klheiygkdbchg_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb «Hj_g[mj]kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c». «IhiZeZkv klZlvy
h\j_^_ lZ[ZdZ”, b hgZ ihf_sZeZkv, ij_^eh`be dZdhcgb[m^v ba
ij_^klZbl_e_c f_klgh]h [hfhg^Z gZi_qZlZlvklbob – b hgbihyey-80
:aZ^h\kdbcFD.Bklhjbyjmkkdhcnhevdehjbklbdb. F., 1963. L. 2. K. 215.
81
Lmjbgkdbc F. =Za_lu  ijhbgpbb (<hkihfbgZgby b gZ[ex^_gby) // Bklhjbq_kdbc
_klgbd. Bklhjbdhebl_jZlmjguc`mjgZe. KI[., 1912. ‹ 4. K. 154–155.
82
FZohgbgZKY.Bklhjbyjmkkdhc` mjgZebklbdbgZqZeZ XX \_dZ. F., 20 04. K. 17.
83
Ebkh\kdbc GF. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv  Jhkkbb 1703–1903. KlZlbklbdh-
[b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbc h[ahj jmkkdbo i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbc (k ^bZ]jZffZfb) // K[hjgbd klZl_c
ihbklhjbbbklZlbklbd_jmkkdhci_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb. 1703–1903. KI[., 1903. K. 18–19.
84
<_g]_jh\K:. ?`_^g_gZyi_qZlvdhgpZ^hj_nhjf_gghcwihob // K[hjgbdklZ-
l_c ih bklhjbb b klZlbklbd_ jmkkdhc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb. 1703–1903. KI[., 1903.
K. 101–102, 105.

=eZ\Z 1
30ebkv gZ klhe[pZo ]m[_jgkdh]h hj]ZgZ, gZdhg_p, hlhaZeky ba ]emrb
jZ[hlgbdihbklhjbb, ]_h]jZnbb, wlgh]jZnbbbij. djZy – b_]hjZ[h-
lZijbgbfZeZkvkih^h[guf`_jZ^mrb_f»85
.
I_juc h[ahj bklhjbb kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb ihybeky \ 1885 ].
bijbgZ^e_`Ze GF. Y^jbgp_m – im[ebpbklm, h[s_kl_gghfm ^_y-
l_ex, mq_ghfm b h^ghfm ba b^_heh]h kb[bjkdh]h h[eZklgbq_klZ.
<ijbeh`_gbb d «<hklhqghfm h[haj_gbx» – «Kb[bjkdhf k[hjgb-
d_» – [ueZ ihf_s_gZ klZlvy «GZqZeh i_qZlb  Kb[bjb»,  dhlhjhc
\lhjhc jZa^_e  [ue ihk\ys_g «=m[_jgkdbf \_^hfhklyf»86
. «DjZcg_
m[h]bfbbg_ijb]ey^gufbyeyxlkywlbij_^klZbl_ebi_qZlb\b-
^_k_j_gvdboebklbdhbkg_f_g__ m[h]bffZl_jbZehf»87
, – lZdhl-
djuZeZkv oZjZdl_jbklbdZ «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c».
Lhfkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb» hagbdeb «ijb_s_[he__kdm^guo
kbeZo» b\ukhdhhp_gb\Zebkvkyabkim[ebdZpbyfbgbo=G. Ih-
lZgbgZ b kZfh]h GF. Y^jbgp_Z: «…\ 1858 ]. ihyey_lky klZlvy
_^hfhklyo ^Z`_ =G. IhlZgbgZ…»; «< 1865 ]., h j_fy j_^Zdpbb
>E. Dmag_phZ, gZkf_gmij_`gboebl_jZlhjhyeyxlky\ “=m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhklyo” i_ju_ kbeu kb[bjkdhc mgb\_jkbl_lkdhc fheh^_-
`bbijh[mxlk^_eZlv]Za_lmebl_jZlmjghc, ghihiuldZwlZyey_lky
djZldhj_f_gghc…»88
. ;he__ \ukhdhc hp_gdb m^hklhb ebkv «Bjdml-
kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» [eZ]h^Zjy ijbe_q_gbx ]_g_jZe-
]m[_jgZlhjhf GG. FmjZ\v_uf d jZ[hl_  g_c kkuevguo F<. I_l-
jZr_kdh]h b G:. Ki_rg_Z. GF. Y^jbgp_ ijbh^be fg_gb_
<B. <Z]bgZ: «=Za_ldZ [“Bjdmlkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb”] ijbgyeZ
h[ebqbl_evguc oZjZdl_j b ijblhf ^h lZdhc kl_i_gb `bhc b kf_-
euc, qlh  wlhf hlghr_gbb _^Z eb fh]eh jZgylvky k g_c dZdh_-
gb[m^v ^jm]h_ ba^Zgb_ lh]h j_f_gb  Jhkkbb. <…> Im[ebdZ kdhjh
ihgyeZ^mo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c, b  j_^ZdpbxihkuiZebkvh[eb-
qbl_evgu_ dhjj_kihg^_gpbb g_ lhevdh ba k_o f_kl <hklhqghc, gh
bba AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb. =Za_ldZ k^_eZeZkv ]jhahc k_o aylhqgbdh\,
dZaghdjZ^h\ b dmeZdh\»89
. «MiZ^hd» _^hfhkl_c gZklmibe k 1860 ].
^ey «Bjdmlkdbo» ( kyab k gZqZehf ba^Zgby «:fmjZ»), k 1866 ]. –85
KlheiygkdbcGG.HnbpbZevgZybhnbpbhagZyij_kkZHj_g[mj]kdhfdjZ_ // Ljm-
^u Hj_g[mj]kdhc mq_ghc Zjobghc dhfbkkbb. Hj_g[mj], 1903. <ui. 12, l. 12: D 200-e_lg_f m
x[be_xjmkkdhcij_kku. K. 1–63.
86
Y^jbgp_\ GF. GZqZeh i_qZlb  Kb[bjb // Kb[bjkdbc k[hjgbd. Ijbeh`_gb_
d «<hklhqghfmh[haj_gbx» aZ 1885 ]. KI[., 1885. K. 367–375.
87
LZf`_. K. 367.
88
LZf`_. K. 369–370.
89
LZf`_. K. 372.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
31^ey «Lhfkdbo» (Zj_klZ h[eZklgbdh\)90
, k 1868 ]. – ^ey «Lh[hevkdbo»
k moh^hf k ihklZ ]m[_jgZlhjZ :B. >_kihlA_g h\bqZ) \_^hfhkl_c.
<_^hfhklb ?gbk_ckdhc ]m[_jgbb, AZ[ZcdZevkdhc, :dfhebgkdhc
bK_fbiZeZlbgkdhc h[eZkl_c hk_ g_ ij_^klZeyeb gbdZdh]h bgl_-
j_kZ: «g_dhlhju_ g_ b^ml ^Zevr_ h^gh]h ebklbdZ k h[udgh_ggufb
f_klgufb jZkihjy`_gbyfb»91
. < p_ehf, GF. Y^jbgp_ h[jZsZe
gbfZgb_ gZ p_gghklv ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  dZq_kl_ bklhqgbdZ
ih bklhjbb b wlgh]jZnbb Kb[bjb b jhev, dhlhjmx hgb ku]jZeb
h[s_kl_gghcbgZmqghc`bagbdjZydhgp_ 50-o – gZqZe_ 60-o]].:
<h k_ j_fy kh_]h kms_klhZgby ^h hagbdgh_gby qZklghc eb-
l_jZlmjghc ^_yl_evghklb  Kb[bjb b mq_guo h[s_kl ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb [ueb _^bgkl_gguf ijb[_`bs_f ibrmsbo h[jZahZg-
guoex^_cKb[bjb»92
. GZklhys__b[m^ms__]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c
b^_ehkv GF. Y^jbgp_m ebrv  dZq_kl_ hnbpbZevgh]h hj]ZgZ:
<kydZy ihiuldZ dhgdmjbjhZlv k qZklgufb ba^Zgbyfb ih qZklb
ebl_jZlmjgh]h fZl_jbZeZ, ^Z _s_ _klb k gbfb ihe_fbdm, h[udgh-
_gghb^hihke_^g_]h\j_f_gbdhgqZ_lkyieZq_gh. … “=m[_jgkdb_
<_^hfhklb” ^he`gu ihemqblv [he__ l_kgh_ hnbpbZevgh_ agZq_gb_,
Z\k_, qlhdZkZ_lkyebl_jZlmjubgZmqguobkke_^hZgbc, \u^_ebehkv
bagbo»93
.
>Zgguc hq_jd iheghklvx \hr_e \ ]eZ\m h aZjh`^_gbb b jZa-
blbbf_klghci_jbh^bdbhlhjhfjZkrbj_gghfba^Zgbbdgb]b
GF. Y^jbgp_\Z «Kb[bjv dZd dhehgby» (1892)94
. < i_jhf ba^Zgbb
(1882), ijbmjhq_gghfd 300-e_lbxijbkh_^bg_gbyKb[bjbdJhkkbb,
]eZ_h[ h[jZahZgbbKb[bjbh^ghfZ[aZp_[uegZf_q_gieZg-
dhgki_dl hq_jdZ (\ dhl hjhf g_ [ueh f_klZ «=m[_jgkdbf \_^hfh-
klyf») – bjdmlkdZy ]Za_lZ «:fmj», «Kb[bjkdbc _klgbd» ;:. Fb-90
Ihke_ 1866 ]. GF. Y^jbgp_ hlf_qZe agZqbl_evguc deZ^  gZiheg_gb_ g_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» G:. Dhkljh\Z, <B. <_j[bpdh]h
bKB. =mey_Z, gh \ wlh «ibehlgh_» hibkZgb_ bklhjbb ]Za_lu djZeZkv h^gZ nZdlbq_kdZy
hrb[dZ, g_ebyxsZygZkh^_j`Zgb_beh]bdmbaeh`_gby, h^gZdh, \b^bfh, kbemZlhjbl_lZ
Z\lhjZih\lhjy_fZy  g_dhlhjuo kh\j_f_gguo bkke_^h\Zgbyo (kf.:FZg^jbdZXE.Ijhbg-
pbZevgZy qZklgZy i_qZlv: kihjgu_ hijhku klZghe_gby i_jbh^bdb Kb[bjb. Lxf_gv, 2007.
K. 18). G:. Dhkljhohlyb[ue]eZgufkhljm^gbdhfg_hnbpbZevghcqZklb, ghg_[ue__
j_^Zdlhjhf. Wlm ^he`ghklv  [hevrbc i_jbh^ jZ[hlu  ]Za_l_ DhkljhZ aZgbfZe
GB. Kl_nZgh\ (k 12–13 1866 ]. ih 30 1873 ]. bk 20 1877 ]. ih 25 1880 ].).
91
Y^jbgp_\GF.GZqZehi_qZlb\Kb[b jb… K. 371.
92
LZf`_. K. 373.
93
LZf`_. K. 374.
94
Y^jbgp_\ GF. Ebl_jZlmjZ h Kb[bjb b aZjh`^_gb_ f_klghc i_qZlb // Y^jbgp_\
GF.Kb[bjv dZd dhehgby  ]_h]jZnbq_kdhf, wlgh]jZnbq_kdhf b bklhjbq_kdhf hlghr_-
gbb. 2-_ba^. KI[., 1892. K. 662–697.

=eZ\Z 1
32exlbgZ, «Dyolbgkdbc ebklhd» b, gZdhg_p, «Kb[bjv», dhlhjZy, «ijb-
e_drb emqrb_ f_klgu_ kbeu b klZ h ]eZ_ jZajZ[hldb f_klguo
\hijhkh\, kem`bl m`_ g_kdhevdh e_l kb[bjkdhfm h[s_kl\m»95
. «=m-
[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf» [ueh m^_e_gh [he__ ih^jh[gh_ gbfZgb_
\ 1885 ]. g_lhevdhihijbqbg_lh]h, qlh hgbbklhjbq_kdbij_^r_kl-
hZebqZklghc ]Za_lghc i_jbh^bd_, ghb b^m g_h[oh^bfhklb jZk-
klZblv`_eZ_fu_ijbhjbl_lubk_lhqdbgZ^ «i» kihj_y^jbgp_\-
kdh]h «<hklhqg h]h h[haj_gby» kh k\ hbfb dhgdmj_glZfb –
Lhfkdbfb ]m[_jgkdbfb _^hfhklyfb» i_jbh^Z j_^ZdlbjhZgby bo
g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ?<. Dhjr_f \ 1882–1883 ]]. b «Kb[bjkdbf
_klgbdhf» <I. DZjlZfur_\Z, gZqZrbf \uoh^blv k 1885 ].: «Ih
kf_jlb dgyay Dhkljh\Z “Lhfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb” kh_jr_g-
gh iZ^Zxl. <_^hfhklb j_^ZdlbjhZebkv  wlh j_fy dZdbflh kh-
keZggufaZ ih^eh]bZ^hdZlhf?]. Dhjr_f, dhlhjuc aZijZeye]m-
[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnb_c b hnbpbZevghc ]Za_lhc. < 1883 ]. yey_lky
ihiuldZ klmiblv  [hjv[m k f_klghc qZklghc i_qZlvx, gh wlZ ih-
iuldZ yey_lky klhev `Zedhc, qlh kh_jr_ggh ^bkdj_^blbjm_l hnb-
pbZevguc hj]Zg b ijbh^bl d mgbqlh`_gbx kydhc g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb. =m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb g_ fh]eb m`_ khi_jgbqZlv k hagbd-
r_x \ Lhfkd_ qZklghx i_qZlvx»96
; «Lhevdh [eZ]h^Zjy mkbebyf
bihke_^hZl_evghklb bjdmlkdhc ]Za_lu [«Kb[bjb»] we_f_gl kkuev-
guofhr_ggbdhg_ihemqbelZdh]hagZq_gbybg_aZeZ^_eh[s_kl-
_gghc `bagvx  Bjdmlkd_, dZd wlh kemqbehkv  Lhfkd_»97
; «Gh hj-
]Zg wlhl [«Kb[bjkdbc _klgbd»] khklZbe, ih kh_fm gZijZe_gbx,
bkdexq_gb_baf_klghckb[bjkdhci_qZlb. Ohlyg_kdhevdhe_l^h-
[beky agZqbl_evgh]h jZkijhkljZg_gby»98
. < ihke_^g_f kemqZ_
GF. Y^jbgp_k_ `_ ijh]hZjbZeky, ihkdhevdm «Kb[bjkdbc _kl-
gbd iheblbdb, ebl_jZlmju b h[s_kl_gghc `bagb» \ jy^m g_fgh]h-
qbke_gguo kb[bjkdbo ]Za_l [ue g_ f_g__ ihimeyj_g, q_f «Kb[bjkdZy
]Za_lZ» b «<hklhqgh_ h[haj_gb_», gh ^Zggu_ bf hp_gdb knhjfbjhZeb95
Y^jbgp_\ GF. H[jZahZgb_  Kb[bjb // Y^jbgp_ GF. Kb[bjv dZd dhehgby :
dx[be_x lj_okhle_lby : kh\j_f_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ Kb[bjb. ?_ gm`^u b ihlj_[ghklb. ?_
ijhreh_b[m^ms__. KI[., 1882. K. 396.
96
Y^jbgp_\GF.GZqZehi_qZlb\Kb[bjb…K. 370–371; <hlhjhfba^Zgbb «Kb[bjv
dZd dhehgby» bfy j_^ZdlhjZ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb hnbpbZevghc ]Za_lu m`_ g_ m^hklZb-
Zehkv mihfbgZgby: «“<_^hfhklb” j_^Zdlbjh\Zebkv  wlh j_fy dZdbflh khkeZgguf gZ
ih^eh]bZ^\hdZlhf, dhlhjucaZijZ\eye]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnb_c…» (Y^jbgp_GF.Ebl_jZ-
lmjZhKb[bjbbaZjh`^_gb_f_klghci_qZlb // Y^jbgp_GF.Kb[bjvdZddhehgby]_h]jZ-
nbq_kdhf, wlgh]jZnbq_kdhfbbklhjbq_kdhfhlghr_gbb. 2-_ba^. KI[., 1892. K. 670).
97
Y^jbgp_\GF.Ebl_jZlmjZhKb[bjbbaZjh`^_gb_f_klghci_qZlb… K. 683.
98
LZf`_. K. 685.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
33ij_^klZe_gb_ h[ ZlhjZob j_^ZdlhjZo «Kb[bjkdh]h _klgbdZ» dZd hj-
]ZgbaZlhjZo «ijh^Z`gh]h j_ilbevgh]h hj]ZgZ»99
, ohly\gZklhys__
j_fygZf_lbeZkvl_g^_gpbydij_h^he_gbxwlhclhqdbaj_gby100
.
Fg_gb_ h ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyoGF. Y^jbgp_Z [ueh ih^dj_-
ie_ghhkihfbgZgbyfb^jm]h]heb^_jZh[eZklgbq_kdh]h^b`_gby –
=G. IhlZgbgZ, dhlhjuc ibkZe, qlh «gZklhysZy kb[bjkdZy ij_kkZ
gZqbgZ_lky lhevdh k Y^jbgp_Z»101
, b mihfbgZe ebrv hdjZr_ggu_
h[ebqbl_evguf beb h[eZklgbq_kdbf kh^_j`Zgb_f klZlvb _^hfh-
kl_c: «< i_juo `_ ghf_jZo [“Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c”],
dhlhju_ j_^ZdlbjhZe i_ljZr__p Ki_rg_\, ihybeZkv klZlvy
h\bgguo hldmiZo. HgZ lhlqZk `_ [ueZ hlf_q_gZ \ i_ljh]jZ^kdbo
]Za_lZo b i_j_i_qZlZgZ. Wlh [ue i_juc m^Zj, gZg_k_gguc kbkl_f_
i_qZlvx, _jhylgh, k[eZ]hkeh_gbybjdmlkdh]h]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjZ
FmjZ\v_\Z:fmjkdh]h. <…> Fu k Y^jbgp_\uf gZ klhe[pZo “Lhf-
kdbo _^hfhkl_c” ihf_sZeb klZlvb ih mgb_jkbl_lkdhfm \hijhkm
Kb[bjb, h jZgh_kbb h[eZklgh]h [x^`_lZ k ]hkm^Zjkl_gguf,
h\j_^ghfebygbbkkuedbgZkb[bjkdb_gjZubli. Dhg_qgh, lZdhc
ebl_jZlmj_g_f_klh\hnbpbZevguohj]ZgZo»102
.
< ihke_^mxsbooZjZdl_jbklbdZo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c «GZqZ-
eh i_qZlb  Kb[bjb» (1885) GF. Y^jbgp_Z [jZehkv aZ hkgh\m, ^h-
ihegyykvk_^_gbyfbhkhj_f_gghfboiheh`_gbbbb^hbaf_gyykv
\g_dhlhjuoqZklyo, _kebZ\lhjbf_ek\h_hkh[h_fg_gb_. LZd, «Lh-
[heyd» (\haf h`gh, j_^Zdl hj g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Lh[hevkdbo ]m-
[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» DF. =heh^gbdh\103
), i_j_kdZauZy l_dkl99
«<hl wlZ ljhbpZ [<I. DZjlZfur_\, IF. Iheygkdbc, ?<. Dhjr] ijb ih^^_j`d_ ]m-
[_jgZlhjZ [BB. DjZkhkdh]h] kha^ZeZ i_juc ijh^Z`guc j_ilbevguc hj]Zg – ]Za_lm “Kb-
[bjkdbc\_klgbd”. ?_ kh^_j`Zgb_[uehgZkd\havijhgbaZgh^mohfij_^ZgghklbkZfh^_j`Zbx
b yjhc jZ`^_[ghklb d ^_fhdjZlbq_kdhfm eZ]_jx. “Kb[bjkdbc \_klgbd” klZe ribhghf b ^h-
ghkqbdhf j_Zdpbhg_jZ DZldhZ  Kb[bjb. Aeh[gZy de__lZ gZ “Kb[bjkdmx ]Za_lm”, bjdmlkdmx
Kb[bjv” b “<hklhqgh_ h[haj_gb_” klZeZ]eZguf kh^_j`Zgb_f _]h[_kkeZghc^_yl_evghklb»
(Ex[bfhEK.Bklhjbykb[bjkdhci_qZlb. Bjdmlkd, 1982. K. 77).
100
XE. FZg^jbdZkhbojZ[hlZoihdZau\Z_l, qlhkjZ\g_gbbk «Kb[bjkdhc]Za_lhc»
Kb[bjkdbc _klgbd» ih nhjf_ b jZaghh[jZabx ih^Zqb bgnhjfZpbb i_j_b]ju\Ze khbo
dhgdmj_glh\, djhf_ lh]h, lZd`_ bkiulu\Ze k_jv_agu_ ijh[e_fu h \aZbfhhlghr_gbb
k\eZklvx (kf.:FZg^jbdZXE.IjhbgpbZevgZyqZklgZy]Za_lZ. Kihjgu_hijhkuklZghe_-
gbyi_jbh^bdbKb[bjb. Lxf_gv, 2007;FZg^jbdZXE.GZklhys__y^jbgp_\kdh_ «<hklhqgh_
h[haj_gb_» // I_l_j[mj]]Za_lguc: 1711–1917. Lxf_gv, 2009. K. 121–149).
101
IhlZgbg =G. <hkihfbgZgby // Ebl_jZlmjgh_ gZke_^klh Kb[bjb. Ghhkb[bjkd,
1983. L. 6. K. 279.
102
LZf`_. K. 280.
103
FZg^jbdZ XE. Phdhevguc wlZ` bklhjbb i_qZlb Kb[bjb ihkl_i_ggh kljhblky...
J_p_gaby : Bklhjby kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb XVIII – gZq. XX \. Oj_klhfZlby \ 5 dg. / khkl.

=eZ\Z 1
34GF. Y^jbgp_\Z  klZlv_ «Klhe_lb_ kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb» (1889)
\ «Kb[bjkdhf \_klgbd_», hlf_qZe, qlh \ «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^h-
fhklyo» \ i_jbh^ jZ[hlu \ gbo ?<. DhjrZ «fu gZoh^bf g_kdhevdh
^_evguoklZl_c b dhjj_kihg^_gpbb ba AZiZ^ghc b <hklhqghc Kb[b-
jb. Djhf_ lh]h,  ]Za_l_ bgh]^Z ihyeyebkv bgl_j_kgu_ klZlbklbq_-
kdb_ b wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ klZlvb, dZd, gZijbf_j, GI. =jb]hjhkdh]h.
< “<_^hfhklyo” aZ wlh j_fy ^Z`_ i_qZlZebkv i_j_^hu_ klZlvb,
bgm`gh hl^Zlv kijZ_^ebhklv – ^h\hevgh kh^_j`Zl_evgu_ b ^_ev-
gu_»104
. < dZq_kl_ ijbqbg «hkdm^_gby gmlj_gg_]h kh^_j`Zgby»
_^hfhkl_c,  hkh[_gghklb \ 80-_ ]]., «Lh[heyd» gZau\Ze mahklv bo
ijh]jZffu, g_ih^]hlhe_gghklv j_^Zdlhjh d ebl_jZlmjghc ^_y-
l_evghklb b ihye_gb_ qZklguo, Z lZd`_ gZmqguo hj]Zgh i_qZlb,
dhlhjuo klZe im[ebdhZlvky ij_`gbc «gZkmsguc oe_[» _^hfh-
kl_c – wlgh]jZnbq_kdbcbbklhjbq_kdbcfZl_jbZe.
<uh^ GF. Y^jbgp_\Z h lhf, qlh «^h hagbdgh_gby qZklghc
ebl_jZlmjghc ^_yl_evghklb  Kb[bjb b mq_guoh[s_kl ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb kem`beb ijb[_`bs_f ibrmsbo h[jZahZgguo ex^_c
Kb[bjb», ihlhjbebklhjbd:B. >fbljb_FZfhghjZ[hl_kZgZ-
eh]bqguf gZa\Zgb_f «GZqZeh i_qZlb  Kb[bjb» (1900)105
. 40-e_lb_
kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb [ueh hlf_q_gh klZlv_c bklhjbdZ b ]_h]jZnZ
IF. =hehZq_Z «Km^v[u “=m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c”  Kb[bjb»
(1897), Z  k\yab k h[s_jmkkdbf __ x[be__f \ «<hklhqghf h[haj_-
gbb» bf[ueZ him[ebdhZgZ [hevrZy klZlvy «Ijhreh_ b gZklhys__
kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb» (1903). Ke_^my ba_klghc dZg_, \ hibkZgbb jZg-
g_c bklhjbb _^hfhkl_c, k mihfbgZgb_f deZkkbq_kdbo b agZdhuo
y^jbgp_kdboukdZau\Zgbc h lhf, qlh i_juc ghf_j «Lh[hevkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» gZqbgZeky k «j_p_ilZ q_jgbe», Z k 1866 ].
Lhfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» «himkdZxlky ^h ij_`g_]h mjhgy
b gZihegyxlky h^gbf kujuf wlgh]jZnbq_kdbf b bklhjbq_kdbf fZ-
l_jbZehf»106
, IF. =hehZq_ khh[sZe h ihiuldZo «h`be_gby»
?gbk_ckdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» \ 1891 ]. ]m[_jgZlhjhf
ED. L_eydhkdbf107
, h «[hjv[_ aZ ebl_jZlmjgh_ kms_klhZgb_»EK. Ex[bfh\ // BgnhjfZpbhggh_ijhkljZgklhLxf_gkdhch[eZklb : K[. gZmq.-ijZdl. lj.
Lxf_gv, 2005. <ui. 3. K. 155.
104
Lh[heyd.Klhe_lb_kb[bjkdhci_qZlb (1889) // JhkkbckdZyijhbgpbZevgZyqZklgZy
]Za_lZ / ih^j_^. E?. DjhcqbdZbXE. FZg^jbdb. Lxf_gv, 2004. K. 37 4.
105
>fbljb_\FZfhgh:B.GZqZehi_qZlb\Kb[b jb. KI[., 1900. K. 68.
106
=heh\Zq_\ IF. Ijhreh_ b gZklhys__ kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb // <hklhqgh_ h[haj_gb_.
1903. ‹ 17. 21 yg\. K. 2–3.
107
<hafh`gh, wlh\gbfZgb_[uehh[mkeh\e_ghl_f, qlhkZfIF. =heh\Zq_\\ 1892 ].
i_qZlZeky\ «?gbk_ckdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhklyo».

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
35Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» \ 1893–1897 ]]. b h jZkrbj_-
gbb ijh]jZffug_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Bjdmlkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^h-
fhkl_c» \ 1900 ]. ijb ]m[_jgZlhj_ BI. Fhee_jbmk_. H[sbc \uh^
IF. =hehZq_Z bkdexqZe _^hfhklb ba qbkeZ «ebl_jZlmjguo» ba-
^Zgbc: «Hgb ^he`gu kms_klhZlv bkdexqbl_evgh dZd k[hjgbdb
pbjdmeyjh p_gljZevgh]h ijZbl_evklZ b ijbdZah ]m[_jgkdhc Z^-
fbgbkljZpbb»108
. :gZeh]bqgZy fukev [ueZ \ukdZaZgZ gZjh^hhev-
p_f <<. E_hgh\bq_f \ klZlv_ «Ba l_dms_c `bagb. G_kdhevdh keh\
hdZa_gghc i_qZlb  Kb[bjb» (1897): «… ]]. [xjhdjZlZf ke_^hZeh [u
ebrvhldZaZlvky hla]ey^hgZ “<_^hfhklb” dZdgZ]Za_lmb aZl_fijb-
agZlv bo aZ hj]Zg ^ey i_qZlZgby fZl_jbZeh b klZl_c ih bklhjbb djZy,
_]hwlgh]jZnbb, ]_h]jZnbb, Zjo_heh]bb, klZlbklbd_bli.»109
.
?^Z eb g_ _^bgkl_ggu_ k_^_gby h[ baf_g_gbyo, ijhbahr_^-
rbo k ]m[_jgkdbfb _^hfhklyfb  gZqZe_ XX \. b  i_jbh^ i_j\hc
jmkkdhc j_\hexpbb, kh^_j`Zlky  x[be_cghc klZlv_ kb[bjkdh]h
`mjgZebklZ b h[s_kl_ggh]h ^_yl_ey D<. >m[jhkdh]h (1907)110
.
Djhf_ djZldh]h i_j_kdZaZ klZlvb IF. =heh\Zq_\Z, Z\lhj mi hfygme
h^_yl_evghklb j_^ZdlhjZ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Bjdmlkdbo]m[_jg-
kdbo _^hfhkl_c» \ 1900–1905 ]]. :B. <bgh]jZ^h\_ b h ihhjhl_
]Za_lu «ijZh», dhlhjuc kyauZeky k klmie_gb_f  ^he`ghklv
bjdmlkdh]h ]m[_jgZlhjZ bp_]m[_jgZlhjZ <:. FbrbgZ, kf_gbr_-
]h BI. Fhee_jbmkZ. Wlb k_^_gby ba «gh_cr_c» bklhjbb «Bjdml-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» [ueb hkijhba_^_gu  hq_jd_ «I_-
jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv ]hjh^Z BjdmlkdZ» (1916) bklhjbdZ b [b[ebh-
]jZnZ GK. JhfZgh\Z111
. < i_jbh^ mijZe_gby AZ[ZcdZevkdhc h[eZ-
klvx ?H. FZpb_kdbf, Z aZl_f BI. GZ^Zjhuf [ueZ jZkrbj_gZ
ijh]jZffZ «AZ[ZcdZevkdbo h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c», h q_f [eZ]h`_-
eZl_evgh khh[sZeb j_^Zdlhj qZklghc ]Za_lu «AZ[ZcdZev_»
IF. FZjlugh\ (1904)112
 b kZf j_^Zdlhj «AZ[ZcdZevkdbo h[eZklguo
_^hfhkl_c» \ 1902–1905 ]]. G>. DZjZfur_\ (1909)113
. «=hehk Kb-108
=. [=heh\Zq_\ IF.] Km^v[ u ]m[_jg kdbo \_^hfhkl_c \ Kb[bjb // Kb[bjv. 1897.
‹ 150. 21 ^_d. K. 2–3.
109
<. :gkdbc. Ba l_dms_c`bagb. G_kdhevdh keh hdZa_gghci_qZlbKb[bjb // Kb[bjv.
1897. ‹ 121. 15 hdl. K. 4.
110
>m[jh\kdbcD<.KljZgbqdZbabklhjbbkb[bjkdhci_qZlb (D 50-e_lbx «Bjdmlkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c») // Kb[b jv. 1907. ‹ 186. 3 bxgy. K. 2; ‹ 188. 6 bxgy. K. 2.
111
JhfZgh\ GK. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv  ]. Bjdmlkd_ // Kb[bjkdZy e_lhibkv. 1916.
‹ 9–10. K. 400–401.
112
IF. FZl_jbZeu ^ey [m^ms_c bklhjbb ]Za_lgh]h ^_eZ  AZ[ZcdZev_ // AZ[ZcdZev_.
1904. ‹ 66, 67, 68.
113
DZjZfur_\G>.Db klhjbb]Za_lgh]h^_eZ\Qbl_ // >ZmjkdZy\ hegZ. 1909. ‹ 88.

=eZ\Z 1
36[bjb» (1911), k aZ[hlhc h [m^ms_f bklhjbd_ kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb, hi-
j_^_ebe h[Z hj]ZgZ ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf: «… dZd “AZ[ZcdZev_”, lZd
bg_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv “H[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c”, [ueb [_au^_cgu-
fbmebqgufbebkldZfbkkbevgufq_jghkhl_ggufihrb[hf»114
.
< hq_jd_ «I_jb h^bq_kdZy i_qZlv \ Lhfkd_» <kF. Djmlh\kdh]h
(1912) agZqbl_evgZy qZklv ^Zgguo ih bklhjbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_c ghv [ueZ aZbfklhZgZ ba klZlvb «GZqZeh i_qZlb  Kb[bjb»
GF. Y^jbgp_\Z. Lhevdhihijbqbg_jZ[hlui_jhclhfkdhc]Za_l_
=G. IhlZgbgZ, GF. Y^jbgp_Zb >E. Dmag_phZ Z\lhjm «g_ba[_`-
gh» ijbrehkv «kdZaZlv g_kdhevdh ke h\» h «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_-
^hfhklyo» 1863–65 ]].: «gb ^h wlh]h, gb ihke_ g_ [ueh lZdh]h [e_-
klys_]h khklZZ khljm^gbdh\», ij_jZlbrbo “aZloeu_” _^hfhklb
\ «u^Zxsmxky ^ey k\h_]h \j_f_gb ih kh^_j`Zgbxb gZijZe_gbx
]Za_lm»115
. <b^bfh, ih ZgZeh]bb^bkdmkkbb f_`^m «<hklhqguf h[h-
aj_gb_f» b «Kb[bjkdbf _klgbdhf» <I. DZjlZfur_Z  jZ[hl_
<k. F. Djmlhkdh]h \hagbdeZ «^bkdmkkby» f_`^m «Kb[bjkdbf _kl-
gbdhf» ;:. FbexlbgZ b «Lhfkdbfb ]m[_jgkdbfb _^hfhklyfb»:
GZkljZgbpZo “g_hnbpbZevgh]hhl^_eZ” GF. Y^jbgp_^_[Zlbjm_l
h]jhfghcZ`ghklbhijhk: “Kb[bjv, lZeb`_Jmkv?” hl_lgZu-
ah\, dZd fu m`_ ]h\hjbeb, ;:. FbexlbgZ \ “Kb[bjkdhf _klgb-
d_”»116
. < ^_cklbl_evghklb klZlvy «Kb[bjv – lZ `_ Jmkv» [ueZ gZ-
i_qZlZgZ\ «:fmj_» \ 1861 ].117
, i_j_i_qZlZgZ\ 1862 ]. \ «Bjdmlkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo\_^hf hklyo»118
bkh^_j`ZeZk_[_k_]hebrvjZkkm`^_-
gby h g_h[oh^bfhklb i_j_g_k_gby  Kb[bjv l_o h[s_kl_gguo mq-
j_`^_gbc, dhlhju_ ihemqZeb jZkijhkljZg_gb_  ?\jhi_ckdhc Jhk-
kbb. Ih^ hl_lghc klZlv_c GF. Y^jbgp_Z «Kb[bjv, lZ eb `_
Jmkv?» <k. F. Djmlhkdbc, b^bfh, bf_e\b^mklZlvx «Kb[bjvi_-
j_^km^hfjmkkdhcebl_jZlmju»119
.114
Z. Db klhjbbaZ[ZcdZevkdhci_qZ lb // =hehkKb[bjb. 1911. ‹ 262. 23 ghy[.
115
Djmlh\kdbc <kF.I_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv\Lhfkd_ // =hjh^Lhfkd. Lhfkd, 1912.
K. 286; Lh\Zjbsb <kF. Djmlh\kdh]h ih «hk\ h[h^b l_evg hfm ^\b`_gb x» \hh[s_ hldZau-
Zeb _^hfhklyf  ijZ\_ bf_ghZlvky ]Za_lhc. LZd, KE. Qm^gh\kdbc  klZlv_ «I_jZy
]Za_lZLhfkd_» ibkZeh «Kb[bjkdhc]Za_l_» (Qm^gh\kdbcKE.I_jZy]Za_lZ\Lhfkd_. Ba
\hkihfbgZgbckkuevgh]h // MljhKb[bjb. 1912. ‹ 58. K. 2–3).
116
Djmlh\kdbc<kF.I_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv\Lhfkd_... K. 286.
117
– c.Kb[bjv – lZ`_Jmkv // :fmj. 1861. ‹ 84. 28 hdl. K. 797–798.
118
Bjdmlkdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1862. ‹ 47. 24 ghy[.
119
Y^jbgp_\GF.Kb[bjvi_j_^km^hfjmkkdhcebl_jZlmju // Lhfkdb_]m[_jgkdb__-
^hfhklb. 1865. ‹ 9. 5 fZjlZ. <hafh`gh, imlZgbpZ ijhbahreZ b baaZ ihye_gby klZlvb
kZgZeh]bqguf gZaZgb_f \ 1863 ]. – R_e]mgh G<. Kb[bjv – lZ eb `_ Jmkv? (Jmkkdh_
Kehh. 1863. K_gly[jv. K. 25–40).

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
37AZdexqZ_l ^hj_hexpbhggmx bklhjbh]jZnbx ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhkl_c Kb[bjb jZ[hlZ «I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv  Kb[bjb» (1919)
:<. :^jbZghZ – wlgh]jZnZ b ijhk_lbl_ey, ihke_^g_]h ij_^klZb-
l_ey kb[bjkdh]h h[eZklgbq_klZ. ?s_ jZgvr_ :<. :^jbZgh ibkZe
h^_yl_evghklb =G. IhlZgbgZ, GF. Y^jbgp_\Z b >E. Dmag_phZ
\ «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo», ijbh^bek\_^_gbyhih^ibkd_
b lbjZ`Zolhfkdbo]Za_l120
. < djZldhc «Bklhjbb ihj_f_gghc i_qZ-
lbKb[bjb», ijbaZgghcihdZaZlvimlvboZjZdl_j__jZablbyd 1919 ].,
[ueZ ij_^klZe_gZ k_ lZ `_ h[eZklgbq_kdZy dhgp_ipby kb[bjkdhc
i_jbh^bdb,  dhlhjhc _^hfhklb jZkkfZljbZebkv dZd i_jbqguc
wlZi «mfkl_ggh]h jhklZ» f_klghc bgl_eeb]_gpbb. Ijb wlhf kZfZ
dhgp_ipbybae_dZeZ «nZdlu» m`_ kZfZba k_[y – hrb[hqgh_ ml_j-
`^_gb_ <kF. Djmlh\kdh]h h «^_[ZlZo» f_`^m «Lhfkdbfb ]m[_jg-
kdbfb _^hfhklyfb» b «Kb[bjkdbf _klgbdhf» [ueh ih^Zgh m`_
b^_ «iheblbq_kdbo klZl_c» GF. Y^jbgp_Z ijhlb ;:. Fbex-
lbgZ, «^hdZauZ\r_]h, qlh “Kb[bjv – lZ `_ Jmkv”»121
. Kj_^b _^m-
sbo b ihklhygguo khljm^gbdh g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Bjdmlkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» :<. :^jbZgh gZauZe nZfbebb SmdbgZ
bR_rmgh\Z122
. GK. Smdbg – hkghghc h[bgy_fuc ih ^_em h kb-
[bjkdbok_iZjZlbklZo, khklZbl_evebl_jZlmjgh]h k[hjgbdZ «Kb[bj-
kdb_ jZkkdZau» b hj]ZgbaZlhj ebl_jZlmjghim[ebpbklbq_kdh]h `mj-
gZeZ «Kb[bjyd», \uimkd dhl hjh]h g_ khklhyeky123
. G=. R_rmgh\
k 1893 ]. [ue\j_f_gguf j_^Zdlhjhf «<hklhqgh]h h[haj_gby»124
. Gh
hgb h[Z gbdh]^Z g_ im[ebdhZebkv \ «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhklyo»125
. K\hx jZ[hlm :<. :^jbZgh\ aZ\_jrZe \ mke h\byo, dh] ^Z
lbibqgu_ kh_lkdb_ ]Za_lu khreb kh kp_gu \ Kb[bjb ih f_j_ hk-
h[h`^_gby__l_jjblhjbbhl [hevr_bdhbboaZkbevy»126
. H^gZdh120
:^jbZgh\ :<.QlhqblZ_lLhfkd\ 1889 ]. // :^jbZgh\:<. =hjh^Lhfkd
ijhrehf b gZklhys_f. Lhfkd, 1890. K. 81–82;:^jbZgh :<.F_klgZyi_qZlv // LZf`_.
K. 116–119;:^jbZgh\ :<. Kb[bjkdZy bgl_eeb]_gpby  Lhfkd_ // :^jbZgh :<. LhfkdZy
klZjbgZ. Lhfkd, 1912. K. 43–52.
121
:^jbZgh\:=.I_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlvKb[bjb : kmdZaZl_e_fba^Zgbc\ 1918 ]h^m.
Lhfkd, 1919. K. 3.
122
:^jbZgh\:=.I_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv… K. 3.
123
Rbeh\kdbc F<. >_fme_g ba BjdmlkdZ (G. K. Smdbg) // Kb[bjv  khklZ\_ Jhkkbb
XIX – gZq. OO\\.: K[hjgbdgZmqguoljm^h\. Lhfkd, 1999. K. 79–86.
124
=hev^nZj[K. B.=Za_lZ «<hklhqgh_h[haj_gb_» (1882–1906). Bjdmlkd, 1997. K. 88.
125
 KlZlvy «Kf_jlghklv  Bjdmlkd_», gZi_qZlZggZy   10 «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo
\_^hfhkl_c» hl 6 fZjlZ 1858 ]. bih^ibkZggZydZd «G. Smdbg. KI;. 11 ^_d. 1857 ].»,
km^yih __ kh^_j`Zgbxbklbex, ijbgZ^e_`bl^y^_biheghfml_ad_b^_heh]Zkb[bjkdh]h
h[eZklgbq_klZ – ibkZl_exbdjZ__^mGbdheZxK_f_ghbqmSmdbgm (1792–1883).
126
:^jbZgh\:=.I_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv\Kb[b jb. Lhfkd, 1919. K. 24.

=eZ\Z 1
38wlh]h g_ kemqbehkv. G_dh]^Z hiihabpbhggZy kZfh^_j`Z\bx eb[_jZev-
gZy «Kb[bjkdZy `bagv» ^ey ghhc \eZklb klZeZ «q_jghkhl_ggh-
ijh\hdZlhjkdhc»127
. < fZjl_ 1920 ]. __ ihke_^gbc j_^Zdlhj[ue jZkklj_-
eygihijb]h\hjmLhfkdhcQD (j_Z[beblbjh\Zg\^_dZ[j_ 1991 ].)128
.
BlZd, bkke_^hZl_evkdbc bgl_j_k d ]m[_jgkdbf_^hfhklyf ^hj_-
hexpbhgguci_jbh^[ueij_^klZe_gke_^mxsbfbgZijZe_gbyfb:
1.KhklZe_gb_  gZmqghkijZhqguo p_eyo [b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbo
h[ahjh kh^_j`Zgby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c \ \_^hfkl\_gguo, gZ-
mqguo b ebl_jZlmjghim[ebpbklbq_kdbo i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbyo,
ZaZl_f kZfbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo. <_^hfhklb ijb wlhf ^bnn_-
j_gpbjhZebkvihgZmqghcagZqbfhklbim[ebdm_fuogbofZl_jbZ-
eh\. Hiul khklZe_gby h[sbo mdZaZl_e_c aZ hij_^_e_ggu_ i_jbh^u
[ueg_^he]bf – 40–50-_]]. (jZ[hluBI. ;hjbq_kdh]h, =G. =_ggZ-
^b, :B. IbkdZj_Z, :G. :nZgZkv_Z, :G. ?]mghZ) – bf gZ kf_gm
ijbreb mdZaZl_eb j_]bhgZevgu_, dhlhju_ khklZeyebkv [urbfb
beb ^_cklmxsbfb khljm^gbdZfb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, k_dj_lZ-
jyfb klZlbklbq_kdbo dhfbl_lh\. Hgb klj_fbebkv  h[s_bklhjbq_-
kdbobdjZ__^q_kdbop_eyokhojZgblv[b[ebh]jZnbq_kdb_ k_^_gby
hklZlyoihbklhjbb, ]_h]jZnbb, wlgh]jZnbbbklZlbklbd_djZy, ba[b-
jZy ^ey bo hibkZgby b ]jmiibjhdb jZaebqgu_ ijbgpbiu b ihlhfm
mqbluZy ^Ze_dh g_ k_ im[ebdm_fu_  g_hnbpbZevguo qZklyo ]m-
[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_cfZl_jbZeu. <dhgp_ 80-o]]. i_j_^bklhjbdZfb,
wlgh]jZnZfb b [b[ebh]jZnZfb klhyeZ aZ^ZqZ kha^Zgby h[s_]h ^ey
k_o _^hfhkl_c mdZaZl_ey beb mdZaZl_ey ^ey mdZaZl_e_c, dhlhjZy
^Zevg_cr_f ijbh[j_lZeZ k_ [hevr_ Zdlbguo klhjhggbdh\, gh
lZdbg_[ueZj_r_gZ.
2.BkihevahZgb_fZl_jbZeh]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_cdZq_kl\_
bklhqgbdZ ^ey «gmlj_ggbo h[ahjh\»  p_gljZevguo ba^Zgbyo.
<wlhf kemqZ_ ih^o h^ d \_^hfhklyf [ue km]m[h mlbeblZjguf, ba
ijhkfhlj_gguo ]Za_l hl[bjZeky ebrv gm`guc, k lhqdb aj_gby j_-
^Zdpbb, fZl_jbZe, Z k_ hklZevgh_ reh \ «hl[hc» dZd kms_kl_ggh_
b\Z`gh_ ebrv ^ey k_jhc ijhbgpbZevghc ^_cklbl_evghklb. <_^h-
fhklb ^bnn_j_gpbjhZebkv, gh m`_ ih kl_i_gb hljZ`_gby bfb
^_cklbl_evguo nZdlh\» h[s_kl_gghc `bagb – kj_^b gbo127
KZ]ZeZ_\ :F., Djxdh\ <F.IhlZgbg: Ihke_^gbc wgpbdehi_^bkl Kb[bjb. Lhfkd,
2004. K. 198.
128
:f_evygqbd G:. :^jbZgh :e_dkZg^j <Zkbev_bq // Lhfkd hl : ^h Y : DjZldZy
wgpbdehi_^by ]hjh^Z / ih^ j_^. GF. >fbljb_gdh. Lhfkd, 2004. K. 7; EZjvdh\ GK.
Iheblbq_kdZy ^_yl_evghklv :<. :^jbZghZ  ]h^u =jZ`^Zgkdhc \hcgu // <_klgbd Lhfkdh]h
]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]hmgb\_jkbl_lZ. Bklhjby. 2013. ‹1 (21). K. 88–96.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
39 ihdeZkkbnbdZpbb :G. Ie_s__\Z) u^_eyebkv «[_a]eZkgu_»,
k^_j`Zggu_» b «khqmkl\mxsb_ ghuf b^_yf». J_hexpbhggh-
^_fhdjZlbq_kdb_ ba^Zgby – «Kh\ j_f_ggbd», «Jmkkdh_ keh\h», «Dh-
ehdhe» – h[jZsZebkvd gbfdZdgZ^_`ghfm hnbpbZevghfm bklhqgb-
dm  iheblbq_kdbop_eyobijbau\Zebf_klguoj_^Zdlhjh jZ[hlZlv
\ \_^hfhklyo bf_ggh \ wlhf dexq_, [ulv bo k\h_h[jZagufb «j_]bh-
gZevgufbij_^klZbl_eyfb» jZajZ[hld_ «f_klguo\hijhkh\».
3.>bkdmkkby dhgpZ 50-o – gZqZeZ 70-o ]]. ih ihh^m kh^_j`Zgby
bgZijZe_gby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c \ kj_^_ h[s_kl\_gguo ^_yl_-
e_c, im[ebpbklh\, `mjgZebklh\, fgh]b_badhlhjuo[uebijbqZklgu
dba^Zgbx_^hfhkl_c. <wlhc^bkdmkkbbjy^Zlhjh\ (J=. B]gZlv_\,
KG. L_jib]hj_\, <B. F_`h\)  kyab k jZablb_f qZklghc ij_kku
hldZauZeb i_j_gpZf ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb  `bag_kihkh[ghklb
bkqblZeb g_h[oh^bfuf bo j_nhjfbjhZgb_, ]eZguf h[jZahf, im-
l_f ijb\e_q_gby d jZ[hl_ \ \_^hfhklyo g_aZ\bkbfuo bgl_ee_dlm-
Zevguokbe, ij_l_g^mxsbogZjZkrbj_gb_iheykh_cebl_jZlmjghc
bh[s_kl_gghc ^_yl_evghklb, mqZklmy  ]hkm^Zjkl_gghc i_qZlb.
Kgbkoh^bl_evghbjhgbqgh_ hlghr_gb_ d «]m[_jgkdhc ebl_jZlmj_»
ujZabe F?. KZeludhS_^jbg, h __ f_kl_qdhhklb b ih^jZ`Z-
l_evghklb ibkZeb G<. R_e]mgh\, <:. Ke_iph b >E. Fhj^hp_\.
Ijhlb fhghihebb qZklguo ]Za_l uklmibe :K. =Zpbkkdbc, dhlh-
juckhbfijbf_jhf^hdZauZehafh`ghklvkms_klhZgbyihegh-
p_gghc ijhbgpbZevghc ij_kku. Ih _]h fg_gbx, «khc imlv» ^ey
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c aZdexqZeky  gZmqghf bamq_gby ehdZevghc
bklhjbb\khbaf_j_gbb__kkhj_f_gghklvx, qlh^Zklij_^klZe_gb_
h[h \k_o jZaghh[jZaguo f_klghklyo Jhkkbb. Kt_a^ ij_^klZ\bl_e_c
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, hj]ZgbahZgguc =eZ\guf mijZe_gb_f ih
^_eZfi_qZlb\ 1901 ]., ghvh`b\be^bkdmkkbxhijhrehfb[m^m-
s_f ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c f_`^m klhebqgufb ba^Zgbyfb, dhlh-
ju_, [hevrbgkl_k\h_f, g_kqblZeb_^hfhklb]Za_lhc (deZ^u\Zy
 wlh ihgylb_ ij_`^_ k_]h h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdbc kfuke),
bkZfbfb\_^hfhklyfb, j_^ZdlhjudhlhjuohlklZbZebkh_ijZhgZ
hk_s_gb_ f_klghc `bagb b \ujZ`_gb_ f_klguo bgl_j_kh  hnb-
pbZevghf «g_iZjlbcghf» ba^Zgbb.
4.Hij_^_e_gb_f_klZ]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_cbklhjbbijh\bg-
pbZevghc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb. < 1888 ]. 50-e_lgbc x[be_c [hev-
r_c qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c Jhkkbb klZe ihh^hf ihye_gby
jy^Z hq_jdh\, ihkys_gguo bklhjbb bo hagbdgh_gby, jZablby b
jheb bamq_gbb djZy. KZfb j_^Zdlhju b khljm^gbdb _^hfhkl_c,

=eZ\Z 1
40khkj_^hlhqb\ZykvgZf_evqZcrboih^jh[ghklyokms_klhZgby]Za_-
lu, kqblZeb, qlh hgZaZgbfZ_l^hklhcgh_f_klh jy^mijhbgpbZev-
guoba^Zgbcb, g_kfhljygZdjblbdm, ijh^he`Z_l\ghkblvkhc\deZ^
bklhjbxjhkkbckdhci_qZlb. <xfhjbklbq_kdhfdexq_d «h`be_-
gbx» \_^hfhkl_c ih^hr _e <=. Dhjhe_gdh, ohly hg kdhj__ ih^l\_j-
^be heghh[jZaguc oZjZdl_j bo jZablby, aZ\bkysbc hl f_klgh]h
]m[_jgZlhjZ b j_^ZdlhjZ. < h[sbo h[ahjZo i_qZlb \_^hfhklb lbib-
abjhZebkv dZd g_ khhl_lklmxsb_ djbl_jbx h[s_kl_ggh-
iheblbq_kdhc agZqbfhklb b  p_ehf hij_^_eyebkv dZd dZa_ggu_
kijZhqgu_ i_jbh^bq_kdb_ ba^Zgby (;;. =ebgkdbc, GF. Ebkh\-
kdbc, K:. <_g]_jh\). Bf_ggh ]hehk ihke_^gbo knhjfbjhZe g_ba-
f_ggh_ b Zlhjbl_lgh_ fg_gb_  hlghr_gbb ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c
dZd g_ b]jZrbo gbdZdhc jheb \ «hk\h[h^bl_evghf ^b`_gbb», dh-
lhjh_ [ueh hkijbgylh b ]_g_jZebabjhZgh  ihke_^mxs_c kh_l-
kdhcbklhjbh]jZnbb.
Hq_gv hij_^_e _ggh \ebygb_ Z\lhjbl_lg h]h fg_gby \ nhjfbjh-
Zgbbhlghr_gbyd]m[_jgkdbf_^hfhklyfijhke_`bZ_lkyKb[b-
jb. < 1885 ]. ijbeh`_gbbd «<hklhqghfmh[haj_gbx» GF. Y^jbg-
p_Z \ureZ _]h klZlvy «GZqZeh i_qZlb  Kb[bjb», dhlhjZy kha^ZeZ
]m[_jgkdbf_^hfhklyfdZdj_ljhki_dlbgmx, lZdbi_jki_dlbgmx,
gZ _kv i_jbh^ bo kms_kl\hZgby, j_imlZpbx. < 1864–1865 ]]., dZd
b^jm]hc b^_heh] h[eZklgbq_klZ b [m^msbc fwlj kb[bj__^_gby
=G. IhlZgbg, GF. Y^jbgp_\ ijbgbfZe mqZklb_ gZiheg_gbb g_-
hnbpbZevghcqZklb «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c». Bf_gghwlhl
dhjhldbc i_jbh^ (Z ^ey «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» i_jb h^
1857–1859 ]]., dh]^Z  gbo jZ[hlZeb kkuevgu_ i_ljZr_pu) klZe
hp_gbZlvky dZd ibd jZablby ]Za_lu, ihke_ q_]h hgZ klmibeZ
i_jbh^ «miZ^dZ»». F_klh b agZq_gb__^hfhkl_c bklhjbb kb[bj-
kdhci_qZlbhij_^_eyebkvGF. Y^jbgp_ufklhqdb aj_gbygZqZev-
gh]h wlZiZ hagbdgh_gby g_aZbkbfuo bhiihabpbhgguo eZklyf
qZklguo ba^Zgbc («ih^ebgghc f_klghc i_qZlb»). Ij_^r_kl\mxsb_
]h^ukms_kl\hZgbyg_hnbpbZevguoqZkl_c]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c,
dZd b ihke_^mxsb_ ihke_ «^_eZh[eZklgbdh\», hp_gbZebkvk lhqdb
aj_gby bo khhl_lklby (_jg__, g_khhl_lklby) aZ^ZqZf f_klgh]h
i_qZlgh]h hj]ZgZ, ihwlhfm g_ aZkem`bZebijbklZevgh]h bkke_^hZ-
l_evkdh]h \gbfZgby. Ihke_^mxsb_ Z\lhju – «Lh[heyd», :B. >fbl-
jb_FZfhgh\, IF. =hehZq_\, D<. >m[jhkdbc, GK. JhfZgh\ –
hkijhbah^beb b ^hihegyeb lhqdm aj_gby i_j\hijhoh^pZ qZklghc
kb[bjkdhc `mjgZebklbdb, bgh]^Z bkdZ`Zy __  ^_lZeyo

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
41 <kF. Djmlhkdbc, :<. :^jbZgh\), ghg_ \ jZa b gZ\k_]^Z ^Zgguo
\ 1885 ]. hp_gdZo. I_jbh^ \uoh^Zj_nhjfbjh\ZgguoijZ\bl_evkl-
\hf ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \h \j_fy i_j\hc jmkkdhc j_\hexpbb
b \j_fy, ij_^r_kl\mxs__ Hdly[jvkdhc j_\hexpbb, \hh[s_ \u-
iZeb ba ihey aj_gby bklhjbdh i_qZlb eb[_jZevgh]h b h[eZklgb-
q_kdh]hgZijZe_gby, ZibkZlv h[wlhf ihke_ mklZghe_gby kh_l-
kdhc eZklb m`_ [ueh g_dhfm, g_aZq_f, ^Z b g_[_ahiZkgh. LZd,
h[eZklgbq_kdZy dhgp_ipby bklhjbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, gZjZk-
lbrZy bklhjbh]jZnbq_kdbc Zlhjbl_l, b ^h gZklhys_]h j_f_gb
\k\h_c nZdlheh]bq_kdhc b l_hj_lbq_kdhc qZklyo ijh^he`Z_l [ulv
hkghhc ^ey hk_s_gby jZgg_c bklhjbb kb[bjkdhc i_jbh^bq_kdhc
i_qZlb129
. Fg_gby i_juo Zlhjh bklhjbb kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb b __ g_-
ihkj_^kl\_gguomqZklgbdh Z`gu b, [_amkehgh, aZkem`bZxl gbfZ-
gby, gh, dZd bkoh^ysb_ hl ij_^klZbl_e_c dhgdmjbjmxs_c qZklghc
ij_kkubghkbl_e_cbguoiheblbq_kdboa]ey^h\, hgbg_fh]mlij_l_g-
^hZlv gZ ^h[jh`_eZl_evghklv, a\_r_gghklv b gbfZl_evgh_ hlghr_-
gb_ dh k_f h[klhyl_evklZf [bh]jZnbb f_klguo ijZbl_evkl\_gguo
]Za_laZklhev^ebl_evguchlj_ahdj_f_gb.
1.2. KH<?LKDBCBIHKLKH<?LKDBCI?JBH>
>ey^Zevg_cr_]hZgZebaZjZ[hl, ihkys_gguo]m[_jgkdbf_^h-
fhklyf dZd kZfhklhyl_evghfm ij_^f_lm bamq_gby, lZd b \ dZq_kl\_
bklhqgbdZbgnhjfZpbb, g_h[oh^bfhhlhclbhlklZr_]hijbuqguf
jZa^_e_gby gZ kh_lkdbc b ihklkh_lkdbc i_jbh^u. BaukdZgby kh-
_lkdbo Zlhjh\, ohly b hlebqZebkv hij_^_e_gghc l_hj_lbq_kdhc
bf_lh^heh]bq_kdhc ki_pbnbdhc b [ueb kyaZgu k jZajZ[hldhc dZ-
dh] heb[h h^gh]h kx`_lZ, k\yaZggh]h k \_^hfhklyfb, \ ihklkh\_l-
kdh_ \j_fy [ueb ijh^he`_gu b ^_lZebabjh\Zgu \ mkeh\byo f_lh^h-
eh]bq_kdh]h iexjZebafZ b f_`^bkpbiebgZjghklb, klZeb hkgh\hc
^eyhagbdgh_gbyghuobkke_^hZl_evkdbogZijZ\e_gbcbbkihev-
ahZgby bklhqgbdhh]h ihl_gpbZeZ _^hfhkl_c ijb jZkdjulbb gh-
uo l_f. Fh`gh u^_eblv ke_^mxsb_ ijh[e_fghl_fZlbq_kdb_ gZ-
ijZe_gbywlh]hbamq_gby:
– bklhjbyijhbgpbZevghci_qZlb;
– h[s_kl_ggh_^b`_gb_;
– kbkl_fZijZ\bl_evkl_gguoi_jbh^bq_kdboba^Zgbc;129
Kf., gZijbf_j:@beydh\ZG<.@mjgZebklbdZ]hjh^ZLhfkdZ (XIX – gZqZeh XX _-
dZ): klZgh\e_gb_bjZablb_. Lhfkd, 2011. K. 23–33.

=eZ\Z 1
42– aZbfhhlghr_gbyi_qZlbbf_klguo]m[_jgkdboeZkl_c;
– ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb dZd bklhqgbd ^ey bamq_gby ehdZevghc
bklhjbb;
– wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_im[ebdZpbb\]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo;
– j_]bhgZevgh_ebl_jZlmjh_^_gb_;
– bklhjbylbih]jZnkdhba^Zl_evkdh]h^_eZ;
– bklhqgbdh_^_gb_b[b[ebh]jZnby]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c.
>Zggu_ gZijZ\e_gby g_ fh]ml g_ [ulv \aZbfhkyaZgu f_`^m kh-
[hc130
. LZd, gZijbf_j, ijb oZjZdl_jbklbd_ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]Z-
a_lu h[s_kl_gghc`bagbbeb^eyhk_s_gbykihfhsvx__fZl_-
jbZeh dZdh]heb[h kx`_lZ f_klghc bklhjbb g_evay g_ h[jZlblvky,
imklv^Z`_\kZfhfh[s_f\b^_, dh\j_f_gbbh[klhyl_evkl\Zf\ha-
gbdgh_gby ba^Zgby, __ j_^Zdlhjkdhfm khklZm, `Zgjhhfm kh_h[-
jZabxklZl_c, hlghr_gbckp_gamjguf_^hfklhf. <khxhq_j_^v,
jZablb_ jmkkdhc i_qZlb g_hafh`gh bamqZlv g_ kyab k h[s_kl-
_gghiheblbq_kdhc fukevx. JZ[hlu, ihkys_ggu_ uye_gbx bk-
lhqgbdh_^q_kdh]h ihl_gpbZeZ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, fh]ml kh-
^_j`Zlv ZgZeba dhgdj_lguo im[ebdZpbc, dZkZrboky wlgh]jZnbb,
wdhghfbdb, kbkl_fu h[jZah\Zgby, ^jm]bo \hijhkh\ dmevlmjghc
bh[s_kl_gghc `bagb j_]bhgZ. JZkkfhlj_gb_ ebl_jZlmjguoim[eb-
dZpbcgZkljZgbpZo_^hfhkl_c, dZdijZbeh, ij_^Zjy_lh[jZs_gb_
ZlhjZ d ijh]jZff_ ]Za_lu, dhlhjZy j_]eZf_glbjhZeZ __ kh^_j`Z-
gb_. Kbgl_lbq_kdbc oZjZdl_j fZl_jbZeh ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c
ijbh^bl d lhfm, qlh ^bkk_jlZpbhggu_ bkke_^hZgby gZ bo hkgh\_
uihegyxlky dZd ih ki_pbZevghklb «Hl_q_kl_ggZy bklhjby», lZd
bih ki_pbZevghklb «@mjgZebklbdZ». LZd, gZijbf_j, jZ[hlu, ih-
kys_ggu_ dhj_gghfm gZk_e_gbx Kb[bjb gZ kljZgbpZo «Lhfkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» (=:. DZaZjbgZ) bb^_heh]bbh[eZklgbq_kl-
Z  i_qZlb ^hj_\hexpbhggh]h LhfkdZ (G<. @beydhZ), aZsbs_gu
ih wlhc ki_pbZevghklb, ohly aZye_ggu_ l_fu jZ\ghc kl_i_gb fh-
]ml [ulv hkfuke_gu  kn_j_ bklhjbq_kdh] h agZgby. G_kfhljy gZ lh,
qlh\ \_^hfhklyo [ueh aZij_s_gh jZaf_sZlv ih_klb b jZkkdZau, gZ
jZaebqguo wlZiZo kh_]h jZablby hgb fh]eb ijbh[j_lZlv oZjZdl_j130
 <ZjbZlbghklv bkke_^hZl_evkdbo ih^oh^h d i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb  dZq_kl_
bklhqgbdZ b jZaghh[jZab_ khpbZevguo, iheblbq_kdbo, wdhghfbq_kdbo, dmevlmjguo
bbguo bklhjbq_kdbo kx`_lh\, jZkkfhlj_gguo gZ bo hkgh_, ijh^_fhgkljbjhZeb
mqZklgbdbdhgn_j_gpbb, ihkys_gghcx[be_xkb[bjkdhc i_qZlb (150 e_li_jbh^b-
q_kdhci_qZlbKb[bjb : fZl_jbZeuj_]bhgZevghcgZmqghcdhgn_j_gpbb, ihkys_g-
ghc 150-e_lbxba^ZgbyKb[bjb «=m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» (Lhfkd, 19–20 Zij_ey 2007 ].).
Lhfkd, 2007. 294 k.).

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
43ebl_jZlmjghim[ebpbklbq_kdh]h ba^Zgby, hljZ`Zr_]h dmevlmjgmx
`bagvh[jZahZgguokeh_ ijhbgpbZevgh]h ]hjh^Z. «< j_]bhg_ i_-
jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv –  [hevr_c kl_i_gb ebl_jZlmjgh_ ye_gb_, g_-
`_eb kj_^klh fZkkh\hc bgnhjfZpbb, ihlhfm fh`gh kdZaZlv, qlh
ebl_jZlmjgucijhp_kkijhbgpbbl_kghkyaZgkbklhjb_cklZgh\-
e_gbybjZa\blbyf_klghci_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb», – lZd hij_^_ebeZ
hafh`ghklv ijbe_q_gby ]Za_lguo fZl_jbZeh ^ey bkke_^hZgby
dmevlmjghebl_jZlmjghc `bagb Gh]hjh^Z ?<. BZghZ131
. LZd,
hq_jdb b n_ev_lhgu «Dm[Zgkdbo h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c» (1893–
1902) k^_eZebhafh`gufboZgZebaklhqdbaj_gbykbgl_aZom^h`_-
kl_gghc b gZjh^ghc e_dkbdb (^bkk_jlZpby GG. I_ljhhc, uihe-
g_ggZy ih ki_pbZevghklyf «Jmkkdbc yaud» b «@mjgZebklbdZ»). Hl-
ghkysb_ky d j_]bhgZevghc ebl_jZlmjghc `bagb im[ebdZpbb
YjhkeZ\kdbo» b «Dhkljhfkdbo» (1850–1880), «Lh[hevkdbo» (1857–
1860), «L_jkdbo» (1854–1880), «Gh]hjh^kdbo» (1845–1863)
b «I_jfkdbo» (1890–1910) _^hfhkl_c iha\hebeb ijhZgZebabjhZlv
bo \ jZfdZo ki_pbZevghklb «JmkkdZy ebl_jZlmjZ» (^bkk_jlZpbb
EE. Kfbjghhc, ?<. Dhkl_pdhc, ?<. BZghhc, B<. Fbjhgh\hc,
LG. FZkZevp_hc). Djhf_ lh]h, ke_^m_l hlf_lblv b ihye_gb_ klZ-
l_c, dhlhju_ ijbe_dZxl fZl_jbZeu ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c ^ey bk-
lhjbdhijZhuobkke_^hZgbc132
.
Bklhjby ijh\bgpbZevghc i_qZlb__ kh_lkdbfb bkke_^hZl_-
eyfb \ukljZb\ZeZkv  khhl_lklbb kh a]ey^Zfb <B. E_gbgZ gZ
hk\h[h^bl_evgh_ ^b`_gb_», kh]eZkgh dhlhjuf jZablb_ i_jbh^b-
q_kdhc i_qZlb kyauZehkv k ijbgpbihf iZjlbcghklb b lj_fy wlZ-
iZfb h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdhc `bagb kljZgu: ^hjygkdbf (1825–
1861 ]].), [mj`mZagh^_fhdjZlbq_kdbf (1861–1895 ]].) b ijhe_lZj-
kdbf (1895–1917 ]].)133
. P_gghklv dZ`^h]h ba wlZih hij_^_eyeZkv
ihf_j_ijb[eb`_gbydaZ\_jrZxs_fmwlZimjZablbyk_ckbkl_fu
^hhdly[jvkdhc i_qZlb – ijhe_lZjkdhfm. Ij_^u^msbc wlZi eb[h131
B\Zgh\Z ?<. Ebl_jZlmjgZy `bagv Gh]hjh^Z gZ kljZgbpZo f_klghc i_jbh^bdb
1838–1917 ]h^h\ : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. L\_jv, 2004. K. 3.
132
=Z^`b_\Z >D. HljZ`_gb_  ]m[_jgkdhc i_qZlb ebygby fh^_jgbaZpbb gZ jZab-
lb_ ]jZ`^ZgkdhijZ\huo hlghr_gbc  Jhkkbb dhgpZ XIX \_dZ // Ba\_klby Jhkkbckdh]h
]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h i_^Z]h]bq_kdh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ bf. :B. =_jp_gZ. 2008. ‹ 86. K. 310–
317;;hjr_\kdbc:., KhkgZ:. «;_kkZjZ[kdb_h[eZklgu_ (]m[_jgkdb_) \_^hfhklb» dZdp_g-
guc bklhqgbd bkke_^hZgby ^_yl_evghklb fbjhhc xklbpbb ;_kkZjZ[bb (60–70-_ ]].
XIX \.) // Fbjhhckm^vy. 2009. ‹ 6. K. 2–4.
133
 Kf., gZijbf_j::gl xobg =<. E_gbgkdh_ mq_gb_ h i_qZlb b jZablb_ lbiheh]bq_-
kdhc kbkl_fu f_klghc `mjgZebklbdb ih hkghguf wlZiZf __ bklhjbb (gZ fZl_jbZeZo
^hhdly[jvkdbo ba^Zgbc P_gljZevghQ_jgha_fgh]h j_]bhgZ) // KlZghe_gb_ b jZablb_
f_klghci_qZlbJhkkbb: F_`\mahkdbck[hjgbdljm^h\. <hjhg_`, 1985. K. 5–30.

=eZ\Z 1
44hlfbjZe», eb[h aZgbfZe jZ`^_[gmx ihabpbx d ihke_^mxs_fm
dZdbdeZkku, ku]jZrb_khxbklhjbq_kdmxjhev). <hagbdgh_gb_
[hevr_bklkdbo hj]Zgh i_jbh^bdb klZghbehkv ]eZguf ye_gb_f
__ f_klghc bklhjbb, hk_s_gb_ dhlhjhc ijhbkoh^beh  dZl_]hjbyo
agZqbl_evguc» – «g_agZqbl_evguc», «fZ]bkljZevguc» – «lhjh-
kl_i_gguc», «i_j_^h\hc» – «j_Zdpbhgguc». >ey hij_^_e_gby «eb-
pZ» ba^Zgby g_h[oh^bfh [ueh h[hagZqblv _]h b^_cgmx gZijZe_g-
ghklv b ihf_klblv \ khhl\_lkl\mxsmx deZkkh\mx ]jmiim. Fh`g h
[ueh ]hhjblv ebrv h g_dbo j_]bhgZevguo hkh[_gghklyo b ki_pb-
nbd_ «gmljb» h[s_jhkkbckdbo aZdhghf_jghkl_c. LZd, ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb ibkuZebkv  i_juc, ^hjygkdbc, wlZi hkh[h^b-
l_evgh]h ^\b`_gby, ]eZ\gufb ba^Zgb_f dhlhjh]h [ue «Dhehdhe»
:B. =_jp_gZ, dhlhjuc j_^ZdlbjhZe ijb[Ze_gb_ d «<eZ^bfbj-
kdbf ]m[_jgkdbf \_^hfhklyf» (qlhklZeh «agZf_gZl_evguf» nZd-
lhf bhkgh\guf ijbf_jhf ^ey oZjZdl_jbklbdb mqZklby «i_j_^h-
uo kbe ^hjygklZ»  ba^Zgbb hnbpbZevgh]h hj]ZgZ). GZ
[mj`mZagh^_fhdjZlbq_kdhf wlZi_ hk\h[h^bl_evgh]h ^\b`_gby
hlf_qZehkv mqZklb_ \ g_hnbpbZevguo qZklyo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
kl_c (beb \gbfZgb_ d gbf) ij_^klZ\bl_e_c jZaghqbggh]h ^_fh-
djZlbq_kdh]h eZ]_jy, i_j_^h\uo ebl_jZlhjh\ b^_yl_e_c gZmdb.
GZ ijhe_lZjkdhf wlZi_ \_^hfhklyf m`_ g_ [ueh f_klZ, hgb eb[h
hk_ g_ mihfbgZebkv, eb[h hlghkbebkv d hj]ZgZf j_Zdpbhggh-
hojZgbl_evgh]heZ]_jy.
H]jZgbq_gghklv lZdbo l_hj_lbq_kdbo ihkljh_gbc hkhagZ\ZeZkv
m`_i_jbh^bohagbdgh_gby. <uoh^baiheh`_gbygZoh^bekyim-
l_f hij_^_e_gby ih^oh^ysbo ijbagZdh  dZq_kl_ lbiheh]bq_kdbo
beb \ aZmZebjhZgghfhloh^_ hl deZkkhuo hkghZgbc deZkkbnbdZ-
pbb. GZijbf_j, «IZfylgu_ dgb`db» ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc 60-o ]].
ljZdlhZebkv dZd lbi ba^Zgby, khhl_lkl\mxsbc [mj`mZagh-
^_fhdjZlbq_kdhfm wlZim, ihkdhevdm  gbo kh^_j`Zeky fZl_jbZe
hkhklhygbb ijhfure_gghklb, k_evkdh]h ohaycklZ b lhj]heb, qlh
hl_qZeh aZ^ZqZf jZablby dZiblZebafZ. «?iZjobZevgu_ _^hfh-
klb», ihye_gb_ dhlhjuo lZd`_ uiZ^Zeh gZ wlhl i_jbh^ b g_ [ueh
kyaZgh k h[kem`bZgb_f bgl_j_kh jZabZxs_cky [mj`mZabb,
ijboh^behkv hij_^_eylv ih hlghr_gbx d ba^Zl_eyf – p_jdhgu_
hj]Zgui_qZlb, ijbgZ^e_`Zsb_^moh_gkl\m134
. GZ>Zevg_f<hklhd_
jZ[hq_c i_qZlb g_ [ueh ^h i_jhc jmkkdhc j_hexpbb, ihwlhfm gZ
fg_gb_ deZkkbdZ ijb\h^beZkv kkuedZ ^ey h[hkghZgby ojhgheh]bq_-134
:glxobg=<.E_gbgkdh_mq_gb_hi_qZlb… K. 11–13.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
45kdbojZfhdu[jZgghcl_fu, Z^Zevg_cr__baeh`_gb_nZdlbq_kdh]h
fZl_jbZeZreh\g_\kydhckyabkg_c135
.
DhgnjhglZpbhggZy fZjdkbklkdZy iZjZ^b]fZ  khq_lZgbb k h[eZ-
klgbq_kdhc hp_gdhc hj]Zgh i_qZlb klZeZ b^_heh]bq_kdhc hkghhc
^ey klZlvb «=Za_lu» g_aZ_jr_gghc «Kb[bjkdhc kh\_lkdhc wgpbd-
ehi_^bb» (1929)136
. Bklhjby ^hj_\hexpbhgghc f_klghc i_jbh^bdb
hibkuZeZkv  dhgl_dkl_ j_ij_kkbguo f_j pZjbafZ  hlghr_gbb
hiihabpbhgguo ba^Zgbc, [hjv[u ^_yl_e_c i_qZlb k p_gamjguf
bZ^fbgbkljZlb\guf ]g_lhf. H[ «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
klyo» mihfbgZehkv ebrv  kyab k jZ[hlhc  gbo kkuevguo i_ljZ-
r_p_\, h «Lhfkdbo» –  kyab k h[eZklgbdZfbb ^_yl_evghklvx ]m-
[_jgZlhjZ <B. F_jpZehZ ih jZkrbj_gbx g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb
_^hfhkl_c  ijhlbh_k «Kb[bjkdhc ]Za_l_». < «Wgpbdehi_^bb»
hlf_qZebkv p_gghklv djZ__^q_kdbo klZl_c, im[ebdZpbc Zjobguo
^hdmf_glh\, wdki_^bpbhgguo, klZlbklbq_kdbo b Zjo_heh]bq_kdbo
fZl_jbZeh\. Hl^_evgmx klZlvx h \_^hfhklyo aZdexqZe u\h^:
Iha^g__, k ihye_gb_f qZklguo ]Za_l, “=<.” \eZqbeb `Zedh_kms_-
klhZgb_, i_qZlZy hnbpbZevguc fZl_jbZe; k_ ihiuldb h`be_gby
wlboba^Zgbcmki_oZg_bf_eb»137
.
Ojhg heh]bq_kdb_ jZfdb lhfh\ h[s _]h kijZ\hqgh]h ba^Zgby ih
^hj_\hexpbhgghc i_qZlb b ihke_^hZl_evghklv bo uoh^Z lZd`_
khhl\_lkl\h\Zeb hk\h[h^bl_evghfm \_dlhjm jZa\blby jmkkdhc i_-
jbh^bdb, aZ^Zxs_fm __ bklhjbb deZkkhuc ^bgZfbaf138
. < klZlv_
?I. IjhohjhZ (1958), ihkys_gghc ]m[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf, hgb
hp_gbZebkv dZd \ujZ`Zrb_ hnbpbZevgmx lhqdm aj_gby b \uklm-
iZrb_ ijhh^gbdZfb ijZ\bl_evkl_gghc iheblbdb b b^_heh]bb.
Ba_klgh_iheh`bl_evgh_agZq_gb_bf_ebbklhjbq_kdb_, ]_h]jZnb-
q_kdb_, lhih]jZnbq_kdb_ b klZlbklbq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu. <g_dhlhjuo
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo”, dh]^Z jmdh\h^bl_eyfb g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb klZghbebkv ijh]j_kkbgh gZkljh_ggu_ ^_yl_eb, i_qZlZebkv
fZl_jbZeu,  lhc beb bghc f_j_ r_^rb_ jZaj_a k hnbpbZevghc135
Kd\bjkdZyEF.<hagbdgh_gb_bjZablb_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbgZ>Zevg_f<hk-
lhd_\h\lhjhcihehbg_ XIX \_dZ : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. F., 1971. K. 7.
136
Lmjmgh\ :G. =Za_lu, i_jbh^ ^hj_hexpbhgguc (1857–1916) // Kb[bjkdZy kh_l-
kdZywgpbdehi_^by. Ghhkb[bjkd, 1929. L. 1. K. 591–600.
137
:L. [Lmjmgh\:G.] =m[_jgkdb_bh[eZklgu_\_^hfhklb // LZf`_. K. 755–756.
<klZlv_ hrb[ hqgh mdZaZgZ ^ZlZ \uoh^Z i _j\ h]h ghf_jZ «Lhfkdb o ]m[_jg kdbo \ _^hfh-
kl_c» – 16 Z]mklZf_klh 15 Z]mklZ 1857 ].
138
JmkkdZyi_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv (1895 – hdly[jv 1917) : kijZ\hqgbd / Q_j_iZoh\ FK.,
Nbg]_jblF?. F., 1957;JmkkdZyi_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv (1702–1894) : kijZ\hqgbd / >_f_glv-
_Z:=., AZiZ^h\ :<., Q_j_iZohZFK. F., 1959.

=eZ\Z 1
46lhqdhc aj_gby»139
. Ih ijbqbg_ hnbpbZevgh]h oZjZdl_jZ ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c ^Z`_ \ 1860-_ ]]., dh]^Z \ gbo im[ebdhZebkv «ZdlmZev-
gu_ wdhghfbq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu,  lhfqbke_ klZlvbb aZf_ldb h[ hk-
h[h`^_gbb dj_klvyg», «klZlvb iheblbq_kdh]h oZjZdl_jZ», hgb g_
klZeb «k_jv_aghch[s_kl_gghckbehc»140
.
H nZdl_ ba^Zgby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c (dZd bfimevk_ d jZab-
lbx ]Za_lgh]h ^_eZ  ijhbgpbb) [_a gbfZgby d baf_g_gbyf, ijh-
bahr_^rbf k gbfb  ^Zevg_cr_f, khh[sZehkv \ «Bklhjbb jmkkdhc
`mjgZebklbdb» :<. AZiZ^hZ (1963)141
. < kijZhqghc klZlv_
:F. JZa]hgZ\ «Kh_lkdhcbklhjbq_kdhcwgpbdehi_^bb» (1963) ijh-
_dl f_klghc ijZbl_evkl_gghc i_qZlb ihemqZe b^_heh]bq_kdmx
gZ]jmadm: «<_^_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c gZ f_klZo khiZeh
kj_ij_kkbgufb f_jZfb ijhlb i_j_^hhc i_qZlb»142
. Ijh]jZffZ
\_^hfhkl_c «^hi hegyeZkv b baf_gyeZkv \ hkg h\ghf \ klhjhg m ^Zev-
g_cr_c j_]eZf_glZpbb b [xjhdjZlbq_kdh]h h]jZgbq_gby bo ijZ\»,
ohly  ^_cklbl_evghklb ijZbl_evklh ihkl_i_ggh jZkrbjyeh ijh-
]jZffmg_hnbpbZevghcqZklb.
H khljm^gbq_kl\_ k «Bjdmlkdbfb ]m[_jgkdbfb \_^hfhklyfb»
iheblbq_kdbo kkuevguo b f_klghc jZaghqbgghc bgl_eeb]_gpbb
mihfbgZehkv  h[h[sZxs_f ZdZ^_fbq_kdhf ba^Zgbb ih bklhjbb
Kb[bjb (1965, 1968)143
. Hlf_qZeky mgbdZevguc oZjZdl_j fgh]bo
im[ebdZpbc  g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb _^hfhkl_c, ihkdhevdm «f_kl-
guf ZlhjZf m^ZZehkv mehblv b aZnbdkbjhZlv lh, qlh ih jZaguf
ijbqbgZf,  lhf qbke_ b iheblbq_kdh]h oZjZdl_jZ, mkdhevaZeh hl
gbfZgby ijb_a`bo kh[bjZl_e_c b ^Z`_ p_euo gZmqguo wdki_^b-
pbc»144
. G_kdhevdh ke h\ h ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo, \ k\yab k oZjZdl_-
jbklbdhc ijhbgpbZevguo ]Za_l 60-o ]]., [ueh kdZaZgh  hq_jd_139
Ijhohjh\?I.=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb // JmkkdZyi_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv (1702–1894)
: kijZhqgbd / ih^ j_^. :. =. >_f_glv_Z, :. <. AZiZ^hZ, F. K. Q_j_iZohZ. F., 1959.
K. 256.
140
Ijhohjh?. I.=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb… K. 258. <kijZ\hqgbd_qZklhg_lhqghmdZau-
\ZeZkv i_jbh^bqghklv \uoh^Z \_^hfhkl_c. GZijbf_j, «?gbk_ckdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb»
k 1900 ]. uoh^beb g_^Z, ZljbjZaZg_^_ex, k 1901 – q_luj_, Zk 1902 ]. ghv_jgmebkv
d^\mfghf_jZf\g_^_ex.
141
Bklhjbyjmkkdhc`mjgZebklbdb XVIII–XIX \. / ih^j_^. :<. AZiZ^hZ. F., 1963.
K. 151–152.
142
JZa]hg :F. =m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb // Kh\_lkdZy bklhjbq_kdZy wgpbdehi_^by. F.,
1963. L. 4. K. 869–871.
143
BklhjbyKb[bjbk^j_\g_crbo\j_f_g^hgZrbo^g_c : \ 5 l. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1965.
L. 3: Kb[bjv \ wihom dZiblZebafZ (1861–1917). K. 195–210;Bklhjby Kb[bjb. Kb[bjv
wihomdZiblZebafZ. E., 1968. L. 3. K. 390–400.
144
BklhjbyKb[bjb. Kb[b jv\wihomdZiblZebafZ. E., 1968. L. 3. K. 133.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
47<=. ;_j_abghc (1969)145
. B^_heh]bq_kdh_ gZagZq_gb_ g_hnbpbZev-
ghc qZklb _^hfhkl_c ih^q_jdbZe :B. KlZgvdh (1969): «Ih^ ijb-
djulb_f hnbpbZevghc ]eZkghklb ha^_cklhZlv gZ mfu ijhbgpb-
Zevguo qblZl_e_c  fhgZjobq_kdhf ^mo_», b kZf `_ ijhlbhj_qbe
wlhfm ml\_j`^_gbx: «;hevrbgkl\h \_^hfhkl_c ij_\jZlbehkv
k[hjgbdb ihklZghe_gbc b jZkihjy`_gbc eZkl_c b g_ ihevahZ-
ebkvhkh[_gghcihimeyjghklvxmqblZl_e_c»146
.
Jy^ jZ[hl h ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo dZd h i_juo ]Za_lZo gZ gZ-
pbhgZevguo hdjZbgZo ihybeky \ 1966 ]. H i_j_h^_ gZ dZaZokdbc
yaud ]Za_lu «Lmjd_klZgkdb_ _^hfhklb», uoh^br_c \ 1870–
1882 ]]., b ijb[Ze_gbb d «:dfhebgkdbf h[eZklguf _^hfhklyf» –
Dbj]bakdhc kl_ighc ]Za_l_» (1888–1902) – ibkZe A. LmjZj[_dh\147
.
DjZldZy bgnhjfZpby h «L_jkdbo _^hfhklyo» (1868–1917), uihe-
gyrbo jhev «kh[bjZl_evgbpu bklhjbb gZjh^h\, gZk_eyxsbo L_j-
kdmx h[eZklv», kh^_j`blky \ kijZ\hqghc jZ[hl _ X<. Ohjm_\Z148
.
<^bkk_jlZpbhgghfbkke_^hZgbbZlhj hlf_qZe, qlh]Za_lm jhkkbc-
kdh]h ijZbl_evklZ gZ K__jghf DZdZa_ ha]eZbe ij_^klZbl_ev
dhj_ggh]hgZjh^Z – Z^u]__p:^bev=bj_cD_r_\, dhlhjuc «ijbe_d
d mqZklbx \ ]Za_l_ ]hjkdmx bgl_eeb]_gpbx, __ emqrb_ l\hjq_kdb_
kbeu»149
. I_jhc jmkkdhc hnbpbZevghc ]Za_l_ gZ DZ\dZa_ – «Lbn-
ebkkdbf _^hfhklyf» (1828–1832) – ihkys_gu jZ[hlu ]jmabgkdbo
bklhjbdh >E. <Zl_crbeb (1973)150
 b G:. FZoZjZ^a_ (1975)151
,
dhl hju_ ihq_f mlh bkdexqZxlky ba bklhjb h]jZnbq_kdbo h[ahjh\
jmkkdhc ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb b ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, ohly
Lbnebkkdb_ _^hfhklb» [uebhj]ZgbahZgu ih bolbim b i_jufb
ba ijhbgpbZevguo ]Za_l ghkbeb gZbf_ghZgb_ _^hfhkl_c.
G:. FZoZjZ^a_ (1982) [ueZ ih^]hlhe_gZ hl^_evgZy jZ[hlZ h «AZ-
dZdZakdhf _klgbd_» (1838–1851) – ]jmabgkdhf ZjbZgl_ ]m[_jg-
kdbo _^hfhkl_c, ijbkh_^bg_gguo \ 1851 ]. d qZklghfm hnbpbham –145
;_j_abgZ <=. =Za_lu 1860-o ]]. // Hq_jdb ih bklhjbb jmkkdhc `mjgZebklbdb b djb-
lbdb. E., 1969. K. 51–52.
146
KlZgvdh:B.Jmkkdb_]Za_lui_jhc ihehbgu XIX \. Jhklhg>, 1969. K. 108.
147
LmjZj[_dh\A. Ba hiulZ i_j_h^Z ^hj_hexpbhgghc dZaZokdhc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_-
qZlb (lhjZy ihehbgZ XIX – gZqZeh OO \.) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. ... dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. :efZ-
:lZ, 1966. 30 e.
148
Ohjm_ X<. 109 ]hehkh\: KijZ\hqgbd i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbc gZ L_j_d_ (1863–
1917 ]].). Hj^`hgbdb^a_, 1966. K. 15–17.
149
Ohjm_X<.Bklhjbyi_qZlbgZL_j_d_ (1863–1907 ]].) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl.
gZmd. FZoZqdZeZ, 1966. K. 7.
150
<Zl_cr\beb >E.JmkkdZy h[s_kl\_ggZy fukev b i_qZlv gZ DZ\dZa_  i_j\hc lj_lb
XIX \_dZ. F., 1973. 460 k.
151
FZoZjZ^a_G:.I_jZyjmkkdZy]Za_lZgZDZdZa_ (1828–1832). L[bebkb, 1975. 164 k.

=eZ\Z 1
48]Za_l_ «DZdZa»152
. «;_kkZjZ[kdb_ h[eZklgu_ \_^hfhklb» (k 1873 –
]m[_jgkdb_), hagbdrb_ ih^ ebygb_fDjufkdhc hcgu 1853–1856 ]].,
klZebij_^f_lhffhgh]jZnbb ;:. Ljm[_pdh]h h[ bklhjbb i_jbh^b-
q_kdhc i_qZlb ;_kkZjZ[bb (1989)153
. =Za_lu gZpbhgZevguo hdjZbg
uihegyeb nmgdpbx ^mklhjhgg_c dhffmgbdZpbb – k h^ghc klhjh-
gu, jmkkdb_ qblZl_eb magZ\Zeb h[ bklhjbb, ohayckl_, [ul_, nhevd-
ehj_ dhj_ggh]h gZk_e_gby, k ^jm]hc – f_klgu_ `bl_eb agZdhfbebkv
kjZaghh[jZaghc bgnhjfZpb_c bklhjbq_kdh]h, h[jZahZl_evgh]h,
ebl_jZlmjgh]h, gZmqgh]hoZjZdl_jZhJhkkbbbfbj_.
<h[s_coZjZdl_jbklbd_^hj_hexpbhgghci_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZ-
lbgZ>Zevg_f<hklhd_, ]^_qZklgZyi_qZlv – ]Za_lZ «<eZ^bhklhd» –
hagbdeZ jZgvr_ hnbpbZevghc, EF. Kd\bjkdZy (1971), hp_gbZy
AZ[ZcdZevkdb_ h[eZklgu_ _^hfhklb», «DZfqZlkdb_ _iZjobZevgu_
_^hfhklb» b «IjbZfmjkdb_ _^hfhklb», k^_eZeZ g_h`b^Zgguc ^ey
kh_]h j_f_gb \uh^: «HnbpbZevgZy ]Za_lZ, ihemqZxsZy ]hkm^Zj-
kl\_ggu_ km[kb^bb b ihwlhfm f_g__ kl_kg_ggZy \ kj_^kl\Zo, bf_x-
sZy hnbpbZevgu_ (h_ggu_) dZgZeu kyab, ^h]h\hju h[ h[f_g_ ba-
_klbyfbk ^jm]bfb ]Za_lZfb (lZd, “IjbZfmjkdb_ _^hfhklb” bf_eb
lZdb_ ^h]h\hju k 45 jmkkdbfb ba^Zgbyfb), klZghbeZkv kZfuf gZ-
^_`gufb[hevrbgkl\_kemqZ_\_^bgkl\_ggufbklhqgbdhf\k_jhk-
kbckdhc b aZjm[_`ghc bgnhjfZpbb g_ lhevdh ^ey gZk_e_gby, gh
b^eyqZklguoba^Zgbc»154
.
< djZldhf hq_jd_ bklhjbb ^hj_\hexpbhgghc `mjgZebkldb
;B. ?kbgZ (1971), gZibkZgghf ij_`^_ k_]h  mq_[guo p_eyo, bklh-
jby ijhbgpbZevguo]Za_l gZqbgZeZkvk ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c, dh-
lhju_, ku]jZ khx jhev, «lZd b hklZebkv kmobfb dZa_ggufb ebkl-
dZfb». Wlh [ueb «hq_gv m[h]b_ ba^Zgby» b ^Z`_ «mqZklb_
\g_dhlhjuo ]Za_lZo ^_fhdjZlbq_kdbo `mjgZebklh\ jh^_ :B. =_j-
p_gZ [ueh [_kkbevgh bo baf_gblv, h`bblv»155
. <^jm]hck\h_cjZ-
[hl_, ihkys_gghcl_hj_lbq_kdbfbf_lh^heh]bq_kdbfaZ^ZqZfbam-
q_gby i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb (1981), ;B. ?kbg dhgklZlbjhZe, qlh
bklhjby ]Za_l b]Za_lgh]h ^_eZ Jhkkbb hklZ_lky gZbf_g__ bamq_g-152
FZoZjZ^a_G:.JmkkdZy]Za_lZgZDZdZa_\ 40–50-_]h^u XIX _dZ («AZdZdZakdbc
_klgbd» b «DZdZa» \ 1845–1856 ]].). L[bebkb, 1984. 233 k.
153
Ljm[_pdhc;:.Babklhjbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb;_kkZjZ[bb (1854–1916 ]].).
2-_ba^. Dbrbg_\, 1989. K. 14–23.
154
Kd\bjkdZyEF.<hagbdgh_gb_bjZablb_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbgZ>Zevg_f<hk-
lhd_\h\lhjhcihehbg_ XIX \_dZ : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. F., 1971. K. 17.
155
?kbg ;B. JmkkdZy ^hj_hexpbhggZy ]Za_lZ. 1702–1917 ]]. DjZldbc hq_jd. F.,
1971. K. 22, 42.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
49ghcijh[e_fhcijhreh]hhl_q_kl_gghci_qZlb»156
, bkj_^b]eZ\guo
ijbqbg lZdh]h iheh`_gby gZau\Ze g_bamq_gghklv j_Zevgh]h kh^_j-
`Zgby ]Za_l. ;B. ?kbguf ij_^eh`_gZ «Ijbf_jgZy ijh]jZffZ bam-
q_gby ]Za_l», dhlhjZy [ueZ ijbaZgZ klbfmebjhZlv ^Zevg_cr__
bamq_gb_ nhjf, kh^_j`Zgby b mkehbc nmgdpbhgbjhZgby ^hj_h-
expbhgguoi_qZlguoba^Zgbc.
H[h[sZxs_c jZ[hlhc ih bklhjbb kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb, ho\Zlu-
Zxs_c i_jbh^ k 1789 ]. (gZqZeh ba^Zgby «BjlurZ, ij_jZsZx-
s_]hky \ Bihdj_gm») ^h 1888 ]. (aZdjulb_ «Kb[bjkdhc ]Za_lu»),
klZeh mq_[gh_ ihkh[b_ EK. Ex[bfh\Z (1982), dhlhjh_ ^h gZklhy-
s_]h j_f_gb ZdlmZevgh  h[jZahZl_evghc b gZmqghc ijZdlbd_.
Kh]eZkgh h[eZklgbq_kdhc dhgp_ipbb kb[bjkdhc i_jbh^bdb, \u-
[hjhqgh_ hk\_s_gb_ ihemqbeb ebrv l_ kljZgbpu bklhjbb «Bj-
dmlkdbo» b «Lhfkdbo» ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, dhlhjuf \hafh`-
gh [ueh ijb^Zlv iheblbq_kdmx hdjZkdm. >_yl_evghklv =G. Ih-
lZgbgZ b GF. Y^jbgp_Z \ Lhfkd_ \ 1864–1865 ]]. jZkrbj_gZ ^h
fZkrlZ[h\ «djm`dZ», jZa\_jgm\r_]h «[hevrmx mklgmx b ijhiZ-
]Zg^bklkdmx jZ[hlm» b bkihevah\Z\r_]h «Lhfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_
\_^hfhklb» \ k\hbo p_eyo. <wlhf «djm`d_» khklhyeb lZd`_
GK. Smdbg, NG. Mkhb >E. Dmag_ph\157
, ohlyi_jucgZoh^be-
ky \ Bjdmlkd_, \lhjhc – \ Hfkd_, qlh `_ dZkZ_lky j_^ZdlhjZ g_-
hnbpbZevghc qZklb >E. Dmag_phZ, lh hg kdhj__ [ue agZdhf kh
a]ey^Zfb h[eZklgbdh\, q_f jZa\b\Zeb ijhiZ]Zg^bjhZe bo. Ih-
ke_ ^_eZ h «kb[bjkdbo k_iZjZlbklZo» ]Za_lZ «m`_ gbdh]^Z g_
kfh]eZ hijZ\blvky, b ky __ ihke_^mxsZy bklhjby jZa\b\ZeZkv
ih^ agZdhfg_ij_ju\gh]h m]ZkZgby»158
. Bjdmlkdbc «:fmj», hij_-
^_ey_fuc dZd g_aZbkbfZy qZklgZy ]Za_lZ, ijbgye wklZn_lm «i_-
j_^h\h]hhj]ZgZ» m «Bjdmlkdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c», dhl hju_
ihke_ wlh]h «mljZlbeb \kydh_ h[s_kl\_ggh_ agZq_gb_»159
. H[sbc
\u\h^ EK. Ex[bfhZ \ hlghr_gbb «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^h-
fhkl_c» ihke_ 1860 ]. khamq_g knhjfbjh\Z\r_fmky fg_gbx
\hlghr_gbb \k_c ]m[_jgkdhc hnbpbZevghc ij_kku: «Ih^h[gh
^jm]bf ijhbgpbZevguf dZa_gguf ba^Zgbyf, hgb klZeb aZihe-
gylvky hkgh\ghf jZaebqgufb hlq_lZfb, pbjdmeyjZfb, jZkihjy-
`_gbyfb, bae_q_gbyfbbaf_klguoZjobhbh[tye_gbyfb. G_-156
?kbg ;B. JmkkdZy ]Za_lZ b ]Za_lgh_ ^_eh  Jhkkbb. AZ^Zqb b l_hj_lbdh-
f_lh^heh]bq_kdb_ijbgpbiubamq_gby. F., 1981. K. 10.
157
Ex[bfh\EK.Bklhjbykb[bjkdhci_qZlb. Bjdmlkd, 1982. K. 36.
158
LZf`_. K. 39.
159
LZf`_. K. 44.

=eZ\Z 1
50hnbpbZevgZy qZklv [ueZ k\_^_gZ d gmex, b gbdZdb_ ihiuldb j_-
^Zdlhjhihke_^mxs_fg_baf_gbebiheh`_gby»160
.
H «g_^he]hf i_jbh^_ ih^t_fZ» \_^hfhkl_c Lhfkdhc b Bjdml-
kdhc ]m[_jgbc, dhl hju_ ihke _ wlh]h «h[jZs_gu [ueb kgh\Z \ kmob_
kem`_[gu_ [xee_l_gb, ebr_ggu_ h[s_kl_ggh]h bgl_j_kZ b agZqb-
fhklb», ibkZeEE. ?jfhebgkdbc (1985). Ihfg_gbxZlhjZ, ]m[_jg-
kdb__^hfhklbkljZg_ «bf_ebg_]eZkgh_gZagZq_gb_ – ij_iylklh-
Zlv ihye_gbx ghuo i_jbn_jbcguo ba^Zgbc»161
. < djZldhf
kl_j_hlbighf h[ahj_ bklhjbb kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb ?:. Dmdebghc
(1989) djm] khljm^gbdh\ «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» ihihe-
gbekyKK. RZrdhuf162
, ohlygZkljZgbpZolhfkdhc]Za_lug_[ueh
gbh^ghcklZlvb, ijbgZ^e_`Zr_cwlhfmZ\lhjm.
H[h[sZxsb_ uh^u kh_lkdhc bklhjbh]jZnbb  hlghr_gbb
]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_cij_^klZe_gufhkdhkdbobi_l_j[mj]kdbo
mgb_jkbl_lkdbo mq_[gbdZo ih bklhjbb jmkkdhc ^hj_hexpbhgghc
`mjgZebklbdb. :ghgkbjhZggZyij_^bkehbbdZd «h^gZbaaZf_qZ-
l_evguo dgb], ba^Zgguo \ k_jbb “DeZkkbq_kdbc mgb\_jkbl_lkdbc
mq_[gbd”» jZ[hlZ;B. ?kbgZ (2008) ihkljmdlmj_bkh_cnZdlheh-
]bq_kdhc b dhgp_ilmZevghc qZklyo ij_^klZey_l kh[hc hkijhba_-
^_gb_ ZgZeh]bqgh]h ba^Zgby 1989 ]. Lj_lv_fm, «bkijZe_gghfm»,
ZjbZglm ^ZZeb hp_gdm l_ `_ j_p_ga_glu, qlh b \ 1989 ]. –
:B. KlZgvdhbmr_^rbcba`bagb=<. :glxobg163
. Ba^Zgbyf, ih^-
qbg_gguf dZgp_eyjbyf ]m[_jgZlhjh\, m^_e_gh g_kdhevdh kljhd,
Z «Lh[hevkdb_» _^hfhklb ghv hrb[hqgh gZaZgu «Lxf_gkdb-
fb»164
. Ghhfm ihdhe_gbx klm^_glh\, g_ bf_xsbo fZjdkbklkdh-
e_gbgkdhc «ijbbdb», ^ey kha^Zgby «kbkl_fZlbq_kdh]h b mgb_j-
kZevgh]h baeh`_gby bklhjbb hl_q_kl_gghc `mjgZebklbdb» ij_^eZ-
]Zxlky ij_`gb_ [_aZi_eeypbhggu_ b ^Z`_ g_ hlj_lmrbjhZggu_
nhjfmebjhdb, bf_rb_ _s_ [he__ jZggb_ bklhdb165
: «Wlh [“Fhk-
dhkdb_ _^hfhklb”] lbibqgh fhgZjobq_kdh_ ba^Zgb_ ijhh^beh160
Ex[bfh\EK.Bklhjbykb[bjkdhc i_qZ lb… K. 44.
161
?jfhebgkdbcEE.Kb[bjkdb_]Za_lu 70–80-o]]. XIX \_dZ. Bjdmlkd, 1985. K. 4–5.
162
DmdebgZ ?:. E_lhibkv kb[bjkdhc i_jbh^bdb 1875–1916 ]]. // LjZ^bpbb b l_g^_g-
pbbjZablbyebl_jZlmjghcdjblbdbKb[bjb. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1989. K. 215.
163
?kbg;B.Bklhjbyjmkkdhc`mjgZebklbdb XIX _dZ : mq_[gbd^eyklm^_glh\mah\,
h[mqZxsbokyihgZijZe_gbxbki_pbZevghklb «@mjgZebklbdZ». 3-_ba^., bkij. F., 2008.
304 c.
164
?kbg;B.Bklhjbyjmkkdhc`mjgZebklbdb XIX \_dZ : mq_[gbd^eyklm^_glh\mah\ih
ki_pbZevghklb «@mjgZebklbdZ». F., 1989. K. 116;?kbg;B.Bklhjbyjmkkdhc`mjgZebklbdb
XIX \_dZ : mq_[gbd ^ey klm^_glh\ \mah\, h[mqZxsboky ih gZijZ\e_gbx b ki_pbZevghklb
@mjgZebklbdZ». 3-_ba^., bkij. F., 2008. K. 148.
165
?kbg;B.JmkkdZy`mjgZebklbdZ 70–80-o]]. XIX \_dZ. F., 1963. K. 157.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
51a]ey^u gZb[he__ j_Zdpbhgguo keh_ ihf_sbdh b ^moh_gklZ.
<…> < 70–80-_]]. \uoh^beZ_s_h^gZ]Za_lZ, g_f_g__j_ZdpbhggZy
b _jghih^^Zggbq_kdZy, – “=jZ`^Zgbg”. Ba^Z\Ze __ dgyav <I. F_-
s_jkdbc, fhgZjobkl, _s_[he__aeh[guc, q_fDZldh\. <…> G_dhlh-
jh_\j_fyKm\hjbg_e “Ghh_\j_fy” eb[_jZevghhiihabpbhgghf
^mo_, qlh ijbe_dZeh ih^ibkqbdh b `mjgZebklh\, gh, ihkl_i_ggh
jZa[h]Zl_\, baf_gbeihabpbxbij_jZlbe]Za_lm  j_Zdpbhgguc hj-
]Zg, dhlhjuc klZe aZsbsZlv bgl_j_ku kZfh^_j`Zby b [xjhdjZlb-
q_kdhc agZlb, ljZblv “bghjh^p_\”, jZ[hqbo b j_hexpbhggmx bg-
l_eeb]_gpbx»166
.
< «Bklhjbb jmkkdhc `mjgZebklbdb XVIII–XIX _dh\», ur_^-
r_c ih^ j_^Zdpb_c EI. =jhfh\hc \ 2003 b 2005 ]].167
,  ih^oh^_
dbklhjbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c aZf_lgu ebygb_ gh_crbo l_g-
^_gpbc \ bamq_gbb ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb b ij__fkl_gghklv
kij_`gbfb mklhyrbfbky ih^oh^Zfb d __ bklhjbb. <_^hfhklb hi-
j_^_e_gudZd «kZfZy[hevrZy]jmiiZkj_^biheblbq_kdbo]Za_ldhg-
pZ 1830-o ]h^h\»168
, dhlhju_ ijh\h^beb ijZbl_evkl_gguc dmjk
bijbe_dZeb d khljm^gbq_klm k g_hnbpbZevghc qZklvx f_klguo
ebl_jZlmjguo ^_yl_e_c. < jZa^_e_ «IjhbgpbZevgZy i_qZlv» hlf_-
q_gZ whexpby hnbpbZevgh]h hj]ZgZ \ 80–90-_ ]].: «Baf_g_gby
wdhghfbq_kdhc, khpbZevghc, iheblbq_kdhc `bagb kljZgu, jhkl
dmevlmjguo kbe b qbkeZ qblZl_e_c \ ijhbgpbb, ihye_gb_ dhgdm-
j_glh \ ebp_ qZklguo ]Za_l – \k_ wlh aZklZ\beh f_klgu_ \eZklb ^m-
fZlv h[ memqr_gbb khbo ba^Zgbc, Z bo j_^Zdpbhggu_ dhee_dlbu
lhedZehdl\hjq_kdhfmihbkdm. <…> J_^Zdpbb^h[b\ZebkvjZkrbj_-
gby ijh]jZffu ]Za_lu, qlh ihaheyeh h[h]Zlblv __ kh^_j`Zgb_
bbgnhjfZpbx. Wlh ijhbahreh k I_ga_gkdbfb, KZjZlhkdbfb, L_j-
kdbfb, Hj_g[mj]kdbfb, Bjdmlkdbfb b ^jm]bfb ]m[_jgkdbfb _^h-
fhklyfb»169
. Ihkdhevdm ojhgheh]bq_kdb_ jZfdb mq_[gbdZ h]jZgbq_-
gudhgphf XIX \., g_fhlf_qZ_lky, qlh «ihf_j_ jZablbyqZklghc166
?kbg;B.Bklhjbyjmkkdhc`mjgZebklbdb XIX _dZ : mq_[gbd^eyklm^_glh\mah\
ih ki_pbZevghklb «@mjgZebklbdZ». F., 1989. K. 200–203;?kbg ;B. B klhjb y jmkkdhc
`mjgZebklbdb XIX _dZ : mq_[gbd ^ey klm^_glh mah\, h[mqZxsboky ih gZijZ\e_gbx
bki_pbZevghklb «@mjgZebklbdZ». 3-_ba^., bkij. F., 2008. K. 259, 261–262.
167
Bklhjby jmkkdhc `mjgZebklbdb XVIII–XIX _dh\ : mq_[gbd / >:. ;Z^Zeyg,
EI. =jhfhZ, =<. @bjdh b ^j.; ih^ j_^. EI. =jhfhhc. KI[., 2003. 669 k.;Bklhjby
jmkkdhc `mjgZebklbdb XVIII–XIX _dh\ : mq_[gbd / EI. =jhfhZ, FF. DhZe_Z,
:B. KlZgvdh, X<. Kl_ggbd b ^j.; ih^ j_^. EI. =jhfhhc. 2-_ ba^., bkij. b ^hi. KI[.,
2005. 600 k.
168
Bklhjbyjmkkdhc` mjgZebklbdb XVIII– XIX \_dh\ … KI[., 2003. K. 251.
169
LZf`_. KI[., 2003. K. 653–654.

=eZ\Z 1
52ij_kkuagZq_gb_ “=m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c” ihrehgZm[uev»170
. Hk-
ghguf ijbf_jhf ijhbgpbZevgh]h j_^ZdlhjZ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_cklZe:B. =_jp_g, dhlhjuciheh`begZqZehj_hj]ZgbaZpbb]Za_-
lu, «bkdmkgh» bkihevahZ __ klZlbklbq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu ^ey
^_fhgkljZpbb [_^kl_ggh]h iheh`_gby dj_klvygklZ171
. <p_ehf`_
:B. =_jp_g ke_^hZe hnbpbZevghc ijh]jZff_, imgdlZf dhlhjhc
ijb l\hjq_kdhf b mf_ehf ih^oh^_ \hafh`gh [ueh ijb^Zlv jZkrb-
j_ggh_ lhedhZgb_. LZdbo ijbf_jh fh`gh h[gZjm`blv fgh`_klh,
gh agZdhuc oZjZdl_j nZfbebb j_^ZdlhjZ «Ijb[Ze_gbc» «<eZ^b-
fbjkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» ijb^Ze wlhc ^_yl_evghklb oZjZd-
l_j «ijh]jZffu» ih «j_hj]ZgbaZpbb g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb», ijh-
^he`_gghc\ 40-_]]. f_klghcbgl_eeb]_gpb_c172
. G_f_pdbcbkke_^h-
\Zl_ev D. ;Zmp, f_g__ \he_q_gguc \ hl_q_kl\_gguc bklhjbq_kdbc
^bkdmjk, kqblZe, qlh «^_yl_evghklv =_jp_gZ b IjhlhihihZ [ke_-
^mxs_]h j_^ZdlhjZ] _s_ g_evay kqblZlv kb^_l_evklhf bklbggh]h
f_klgh]hkZfhkhagZgby, Zkdhj__k_]h – aZgylb_fh[jZahZgguoex-
^_c gZ ghhf ihijbs_  mdZaZgguo ijZ\bl_evklhf p_eyo ijhk_-
s_gby gZjh^guo fZkk. H[Z hgb ihdbgmeb <eZ^bfbjkdmx ]m[_jgbx
ijb i_jhc hafh`ghklb ihiZklv \ h^gm ba klhebp, h [hevrhc ijb-
yaZgghklbdwlhfmdjZxg_fh`_l[ulvbj_qb»173
.
Ba khj_f_gguo jZ[hl, ihkys_gguo l_hj_lbq_kdhfm hkfuke_-
gbx bklhjbb ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb, m bklhdh dhlhjhc klhyeb
]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb, ke_^m_l hlf_lblv fhgh]jZnbx FI. FhogZ-
q_hc (1999)174
,  dhlhjhc ij_^klZe_g hiul kbkl_fgh]h ZgZebaZ
`mjgZevghc bklhjbh]jZnbb» 1830–1870-o ]]. Wlhl iylb^_kylbe_l-
gbc i_jbh^ jZablby `mjgZebklbdb hij_^_e_g Zlhjhf  dZq_kl_
_^ms_c ebgbb jhklZ bklhjbq_kdh]h b  _s_ [hevr_c kl_i_gb bk-
lhjbh]jZnbq_kdh]h agZgby gZ hkgh_ b^_cguo aZbfklhZgbc m aZ-
iZ^gh_jhi_ckdhc gZmqghc fukeb b kZfhjZablby hl_q_kl_gghc
dmevlmju»175
. «Mq_gu_ \lhjh]h ieZgZ», \ gZklhys__ \j_fy ba\_kl-170
Bklhjbyjmkkdhc` mjgZebklbdb XVIII– XIX \_dh\… KI[., 2003. K. 480.
171
LZf`_. K. 252.
172
KlZgvdh :B. Jmkkdb_ ]Za_lu i_j\hc ihehbgu XIX \. Jhklh g>, 1969. K. 109;
IZeh <:. Hj_g[ mj] kdb _ b I_jf kdb _ ]m[ _jg kdb _ \_^ hfhklb // IZ\eh\ <:. Hq _jdb bklh-
jbb`mjgZebklbdbMjZeZ. ?dZl_jbg[mj], 1992. L. 1. K. 187–188.
173
;Zmp D. «=m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» dZd bklhqgbd ih bklhjbb f_klgh]h kZfhkhagZgby
]m[_jgbyo Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb (ih fZl_jbZeZf «<eZ^bfbjkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»,
1838–1888 ]].) // JhkkbckdZyijh\bgpby XVIII–XIX \\.: j_Zebbdmevlmjghc`bagb: FZl_jbZ-
eu III <k_jhk. gZmq. dhgn. I_gaZ, 1996. Dg. 2. K. 15.
174
FhogZq_\ZFI.@mjgZebklbdZbbklhjbq_kdZygZmdZ : \ 2 dg. Dg. 2: @mjgZebklbdZ
bbklhjbh] jZnbq_kdZyljZ^bpby\Jhkkbb 30–70-o]]. XIX \. F., 1999. 511 k.
175
FhogZq_\ZFI. @mjgZebklbdZbbklhjbq_kdZygZmdZ… Dg. 2. K. 350.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
53gu_ lhevdh madhf m bkke_^h\Zl_evkdhfm djm]m bklhjbdb, `mjgZeb-
klu, ebl_jZlhju, im[ebpbklu, djblbdb, [ueb lZdbfb `_ iheghijZ\-
gufbmqZklgbdZfb «gZmdhlhjq_klZ»176
 bnhjfbjhZgby fZkkh\h]h
bklhjbq_kdh]h khagZgby, dZd b l_ bo dhee_]b, qvb bf_gZ h[jZahZeb
ba_klguc b Zlhjbl_lguc bklhjbh]jZnbq_kdbc jy^. I_jbh^bq_kdZy
i_qZlv b oh^ysb_  __ kljmdlmjm ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb ij_^klZ\-
eyxl kh[hc «ihebnmgdpbhgZevguc bklhjbh]jZnbq_kdbc bklhqgbd,
nbdkbjmxsbc gZmdhlhjq_kdb_ ijhp_kku  gZb[he__ ih^b`ghc
im[ebqghcnhjf_fZl_jbZebaZpbbZlhjkdh]h (dhee_dlbgh]h) he_-
batye_gby bklhjbq_kdh]h khagZgby, fh^_ebjmxs_]h bklhjbx jZa-
blby h[s_kl\Z»177
. G_hnbpbZevgu_ qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c,
iheguc h[ahj dhlhjuo, ih aZf_qZgbx FI. FhogZq_hc, oh^bl
\ «dhehkkZevguc h[t_f jZ[hlu» ih uye_gbx gZmdh_^q_kdh]h
agZq_gby b dmevlmjheh]bq_kdbofZkrlZ[h `mjgZevghc bklhjbh]jZ-
nbb, m`_ ijb i_j\hf, kZfhf h[s_f «h[ke_^hZgbb» ihahebeb u-
yblv «^_kyldbg_ba_klguobf_gih^b`gbdhgZmdbbklhjbb», dh-
lhju_ aZqZklmx khf_sZeb k\hx l\hjq_kdmx ^_yl_evghklv
kbkiheg_gb_f h[yaZgghkl_c mqbl_ey, kys_ggbdZ beb qbghgbdZ.
JZkkfhlj_gb_ g_hnbpbZevguo qZkl_c «:kljZoZgkdbo», «<hjhg_`-
kdbo», «<eZ^bfbjkdbo» b «YjhkeZkdbo» ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c
dZd «l_dklZbklhqgbdZ», dhgklZlbjhZeZFI. FhogZq_Z, jZajmrZ_l
keh`brbcky mklhcqb\uc kl_j_hlbi h «lhjbqghklb b ihimebaf_
kh^_j`Zr_cky  g_f bgnhjfZpbb ih hijhkZf bklhjbb»178
. I_j-
ki_dlbghc  bkke_^hZl_evkdhf hlghr_gbb yey_lky b hlf_q_ggZy
Zlhjhf g_h[oh^bfhklv bamq_gby l_o khpbZevguo f_oZgbafh\,
ij_^f_lguo ihe_c b ^_l_jfbgZgl gZmqgh]h ^bkdmjkZ, dhlhju_ ih-
a\heyeb h^gbf Z\lhjZf ml\_j^blvky \ klZlmk_ «gZklhys_]h» mq_gh] h
^ey ihke_^mxsbo ihdhe_gbc, Z ^jm]bf – hdZaZlvky  jheb h[s_gZ-
mqgh]hlhjhkl_i_ggh]hnhgZbihihegblvkhfgbl_evgmxdZl_]hjbx
mq_gh]hkhke h\by».
AZ ihke_^gb_ ^Z^pZlv e_l bklhjby hl^_evguo ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhkl_c klZeZ ij_^f_lhf ih^jh[gh]h bamq_gby j_]bhgZevguo bkke_-
^hZl_e_c. < «Hq_jdZo ih bklhjbb `mjgZebklbdb MjZeZ» <:. IZ\-176
 Ihgylb_ «gZmdhlhjq_klh», dZd b «`mjgZevgZy bklhjbh]jZnby», _^_gu
FI. FhogZq_hc  gZmqguc h[hjhl i_ju_, «k ihfhsvx p_ehc kbkl_fu nbehkhnkdbo
bebg]bklbq_kdbo ^hdZaZl_evkl\» (Ijbk_gdh =I. J_p_gaby // FhogZq_Z FI. @mjgZeb-
klbdZ b bklhjbq_kdZy gZmdZ. < 2 dg. Dg. 1 : @mjgZebklbdZ  dhgl_dkl_ gZmdhlhjq_klZ
Jhkkbb XVIII– XIX \\. F., 1998. // Hl_q_kl\_ggu_Zjob\u. 1999. ‹ 1. K. 104).
177
FhogZq_\Z FI. @mjgZebklbdZ b bklhjbq_kdZy gZmdZ. Dg. 2: @mjgZebklbdZ
bbklhjbh] jZnbq_kdZyljZ^bpby\Jhkkbb 30–70-o]]. XIX \. F., 1999. K. 9.
178
FhogZq_\ZFI.@mjgZebklbdZbbklhjbq_kdZygZmdZ… C. 86.

=eZ\Z 1
54ehZ (1992) [hevrhc jZa^_e ihkys_g «Hj_g[mj]kdbf»
b «I_jfkdbf» ]m[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf – l_ogbq_kdhfm khklhygbx
ba^Zxsbo bo ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc, kljmdlmj_ ]Za_l, bo j_^Zdlh-
jZfbkhljm^gbdZf179
. G_m^ZrbckyObbgkdbcihoh^ 1839–1840 ]].,
ij_^ijbgyluchj_g[mj]kdbf]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjhf<:. I_jhkdbf,
ihfg_gbx<:. IZehZ, [uehk_s_g\ «Hj_g[mj]kdbo]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhklyo» mqZklhZrbf  wlhcwdki_^bpbb <B. >Ze_f. < hlgh-
r_gbb kh^_j`Zgby mjZevkdbo _^hfhkl_c Zlhj ukdZau\Z_l hij_-
^_e_ggu_ijhlbhj_qb\u_km`^_gby, kh^ghcklhjhgu, hgml_j`^Z-
_l, qlh, «kha^ZZy kh[kl_ggu_ i_qZlgu_ jmihju  ijhbgpbb,
kZfh^_j`Zb_ aZjZg__ gZdbgmeh gZ gbo ma^m  b^_ `_kldhc ijh-
]jZffu, hl dhlhjhc g_evay [ueh hlklmiZlv gb gZ chlm», k ^jm]hc –
ibr_l h lhf, qlh j_^Zdpby «Hj_g[mj]kdbo ]m[_jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c»,
hibjZykvgZ hnbpbZevgh jZaj_r_ggu_ jm[jbdb ]Za_lu, \ 1847 ]. gZ-
f_lbeZ kms_kl_ggu_ baf_g_gby  bo kh^_j`Zgbb: «HklZZykv
\jZfdZo ^hahe_ggh]h, j_^Zdpby ij_^iheZ]ZeZ khkj_^hlhqblv gb-
fZgb_ ihqlb bkdexqbl_evgh gZ f_klghc `bagb»180
. Baf_g_gby, dh-
lhju_ ijhbkoh^bebk hnbpbZevghc ]Za_lhc, ijbh^bebd ^hckl_g-
ghfm uh^m  hlghr_gbb bo p_gghklb dZd bklhqgbdZ bgnhjfZpbb
hdj_klvygkdhf gZk_e_gbb j_]bhgZ: _^hfhklb «khagZl_evgh g_ fh]-
ebhljZ`Zlv^_cklbl_evghc`bagb, l_f[he__`bagbgZjh^guofZkk,
\h \k_c __ iheghl_ b ijZ\^b\hklb», gh \ lh `_ \j_fy \ i_j\hc iheh-
bg_ 1850-o ]]. g_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv «Hj_g[mj]kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _-
^hfhkl_c» klZeZ «gZklhysbf deZ^_a_f gZmqghdjZ_\_^q_kdbo fZl_-
jbZeh\, dhlhju_fh]ebmdjZkblvex[h_ba^Zgb_Jhkkbb»181
.
K hagbdgh_gby «I_jfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» gZqbgZ_l
bkke_^hZgb_ mkehbc b aZdhghf_jghkl_c jZablby i_qZlb  I_jf-
kdhc ]m[_jgbb ::. <Zojmr_\ (1994)182
. Bklhjby «Mnbfkdbo ]m-
[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c», g_hnbpbZevgZyqZklvdhlhjuok 1906 ]. klZeZ
_`_^g_ghc «iheblbdhh[s_kl_gghc b ebl_jZlmjghc» ]Za_lhc
MnbfkdbcdjZc», jZkkfhlj_gZ<<. Im]Zq_uf (2004)183
. <bklhjbb
Hj_g[mj]kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c», ^h u^_e_gby \ 1865 ].
Mnbfkdhc ]m[_jgbb ba Hj_g[mj]kdhc, :G. Ebolbg (2005) hij_^_-179
IZeh\<:.Hj_g[mj]kdb_bI_jfkdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb // IZeh<:. Hq_j-
dbbklhjbb`mjgZebklbdbMjZeZ. ?dZl_jbg[mj], 1992. L. 1. K. 162–210.
180
LZf`_. K. 166, 191.
181
LZf`_. K. 185, 194.
182
<Zojmr_\ ::. KlZgh\e_gb_ b jZablb_ i_qZlb <ylkdhc ]m[_jgbb (XIX – gZqZeh
XX \_dZ) : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. ... dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. Jhklh\g>, 1994. 18 k.
183
Im]Zq_ <<. MnbfkdZy dgb`ghklv. W\hexpby ]Za_lgh]h, `mjgZevgh]h, lbih]jZn-
kdh]hbdgb`gh]h^_eZ : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … ^jZnbehe. gZmd. <hjhg_`, 2004. 39 k.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
55ebe ljb wlZiZ: 1843–1853 ]]., dh]^Z ]Za_lZ [ueZ «[he__ ihoh`Z gZ
k[hjgbd-“kdeZ^” kZfuo jZaghh[jZaguo fZl_jbZeh\»; 1854–1859 ]].,
dh]^Z]Za_lZu]ey^_eZba^Zgb_fklZlbklbq_kdh]hdhfbl_lZ»; 1859–
1865 ]]., dh]^Z «j_^Zdpby klj_fbeZkv ijb^Zlv g_hnbpbZevghfm hl-
^_emb^qZklghcijhbgpbZevghc]Za_lu»184
. JZ[hlZ:G. EbolbgZ –
j_^dbc ijbf_j kdhagh]h bkke_^hZgby i_qZlb, ho\ZluZxs_]h
__bklhjbx \ hl^_evghf j_]bhg_ \ ^hj_\hexpbhgguc, kh_lkdbc
bihklkh\_lkdbc i_jbh^u. < ^bkk_jlZpbb :<. KlZjuo (2010) kh^_j-
`Zlky jZa^_eu, ihkys_ggu_ n_ev_lhgm  g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb
Hj_g[mj]kdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c», bf_r_cq_jlug_]Za_lgh-
]h`ZgjZ, Zhl^_eZ, \dhlhjhfihf_sZebkvjZaghh[jZagu_fZl_jbZeu
ebl_jZlmjgh]h, gZmqgh]h, [bh]jZnbq_kdh] h, gh\hklgh]hoZjZdl_jZ185
.
< dhgl_dkl_ klZghe_gby b jZablby i_qZlb >hgZ b K__jgh]h
DZ\dZaZ h f_klguo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo ibr_l :B. KlZgvdh186
.
Dbklhjbb hagbdgh_gby «Dm[Zgkdbo hckdhuo _^hfhkl_c»
b^_yl_evghklbi_juoj_^Zdlhjh]Za_lu \ 1863–1872 ]]. h[jZlbeky
X<. Emqbgkdbc (2003)187
. AZdhghf_jghklb jZablby `ZgjZ n_ev_-
lhgZ, _]h lbiheh]bq_kdb_ ijbagZdb b l_fZlbq_kdh_ gZiheg_gb_ ih
fZl_jbZeZf]Za_lghc i_jbh^bdb Dm[Zgb (dexqZy «Dm[Zgkdb_ h[eZ-
klgu_ \_^hfhklb») klZeb ij_^f_lhf ^bkk_jlZpbhggh]h bkke_^hZ-
gbyH:. ;helmp (2006)188
.
H^bg ba jZa^_eh  fhgh]jZnbyo HB. E_ibedbghc (2005
b 2010) ihkys_g hibkZgbx lbiheh]bq_kdbo oZjZdl_jbklbd
KlZ\jhihevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»189
. < 2011 ]. HB. E_-184
Ebolbg:. G.Bklhjby]Za_ljhkkbckdhcijhbgpbb\ijhp_kk_aZbfhhlghr_gbck
hj]ZgZfb ]hkm^Zjkl\_gghc eZklb (gZ fZl_jbZeZo Hj_g[mj]kdh]h djZy XIX–XXI \_dh\) :
^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Hj_g[mj], 2005. K. 23–24.
185
KlZjuo :<. KlZghe_gb_ n_ev_lhgZ  jmkkdhc ijhbgpbZevghc qZklghc ]Za_l_ :
]Za_lZ «Hj_g[mj]kdbc ebklhd» 1876–1879 ]]. : Zlhj_n. ^bk. ... dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. <hjh-
g_`, 2010. 17 k.
186
KlZgvdh :B. @mjgZebklbdZ >hgZ b K_\_jgh]h DZdZaZ. Jhklh g>, 1990. 122 k.;
KlZgvdh :. B.Ij_kkZx`gh]hj_]bhgZJhkkbb (XIX _d). DjZkgh^Zj, 1998. 114 k.;KlZgv-
dh :B. Bklhjby `mjgZebklbdb >hgZ b K__jgh]h DZdZaZ (XIX _d). Jhklh g>,
2006. 173 k.
187
EmqbgkdbcX<. «IjhbgpbZevgu_[jZlvy»: dm[ZgkdZyfh^_ev]m[_jgkdbo_^hfh-
kl_c // @mjgZebklbdZ: bklhjbdhebl_jZlmjguc dhgl_dkl : k[hjgbd klZl_c b fZl_jbZeh\.
DjZkgh^Zj, 2003. <ui. 2. K. 9–21.
188
;helmpH:.IjhbgpbZevguc]Za_lgucn_ev_lhg: hlhl^_eZd`Zgjm (gZfZl_jbZ-
e_ dm[Zgkdhc i_jbh^bdb jm[_`Z XIX–XX \.) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. DjZk-
gh^Zj, 2006. 20 k.
189
E_ibedbgZ HB. Bklhjby klZ\jhihevkdhc `mjgZebklbdb. Q. 1: XIX – gZqZeh
XX \. (^hhdly[jvkdbc i_jbh^). KlZjhihev, 2005. 168 k.;E_ibedbgZ HB. KlZgh\-
e_gb_ kbkl_fu i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbgZKlZ\jhihev_\ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. KlZ\-

=eZ\Z 1
56ibedbghc [ueZ aZsbs_gZ ^hdlhjkdZy ^bkk_jlZpbb ih ki_pbZev-
ghklb «@mjgZebklbdZ», ihkys_ggZy hkh[_gghklyf b aZdhgh-
f_jghklyf lbiheh]bq_kdhc ljZgknhjfZpbb kbkl_fu jmkkdhc
ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb XVIII – gZqZeZ XX \.190
 GZhkgh\_
kljmdlmjghlbiheh]bq_kdbo ijbagZdh ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb
Zlhjhf[ueb u^_e_gZlZdb_ __nZdlhju, dZd «lbihh[mkeheb-
Zxsb_» (ijZ\h\h_ijhkljZgkl\h, p_gamjgZyijZdlbdZ, ebqghklv
j_^ZdlhjZ (ba^Zl_ey), ijh]jZffZ ba^Zgby, p_e_\h_ gZagZq_gb_),
lbihhij_^_eyxsb_» (nhjfZl ba^Zgby, i_jbh^bqghklv, h[eZklv
bgnhjfZpbhggh]h gbfZgby, oZjZdl_j bgnhjfZpbb, __ Z^j_kZl)
b «lbihaZbkbfu_» (nmgdpbb, gmlj_ggyy kljmdlmjZ, `Zgjhu_
nhjfu, Zlhjkdbc khklZ\)191
. < i_jbh^baZpbb bklhjbb ijhbg-
pbZevghc i_qZlb k ]m[_jgkdbfb _^hfhklyfb kyaZg wlZi 1838–
1858 ]]., dh]^Z hgb b]jZeb ^hfbgbjmxsmx jhev, yeyykv hkgh\-
guf bklhqgbdhf bgnhjfZpbb ^ey ]hjh^kdh]h b k_evkdh]h qblZ-
l_ey b ihkem`b lbiheh]bq_kdhc fh^_evx ^ey ihke_^mxsbo
f_klguoi_jbh^bq_kdbohj]Zgh\192
.
WlZiZf b hkh[_gghklyf ba^Zl_evkdh]h ^_eZ  KlZjhihevkdhc
]m[_jgbb, jZablbx dhlhjh]h kihkh[kl\hZe uoh^ k 1850 ]. «KlZ\-
jhihevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c», ihkys_gZ jZ[hlZ I=. G_-
fZrdZehZ (2006)193
. Bklhjby «KlZ\jhihevkdbo ]m[_jg kdbo \_^hfh-
kl_c»  kbkl_f_ f_klghc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb [ueZ aZljhgmlZ
^bkk_jlZpbb =B. FZey\bghc (2008)194
. GZ hkgh_ bkke_^hZgby
gZi_qZlZggh]h fZl_jbZeZ ih bklhjbb djZy, _]h l_fZlbdb b ]em[bgu
ZgZebaZ Zlhjhf[ueZij_^eh`_gZ i_jbh^baZpbyi_j\hc ]m[_jgkdhc
]Za_lu. Ij_^f_lgh_ bkke_^hZgb_ «KlZ\jhihevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_-
^hfhkl_c» hkms_klbeZ X:. De_p (2009), uy\b ij_^ihkuedb bo
hagbdgh_gby, lbiheh]bq_kdb_hkh[_gghklbbhkgh\gu_aZdhghf_j-jhihev, 2010. 180 k.; Kf. lZd`_:E_ibedbgZ HB. =m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb dZd lbi
ba^Zgby XIX \_dZ // <_klgbd KlZ\jhihevkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h mgb\_jkbl_lZ.
2005. ‹ 41. K. 175–183.
190
E_ibedbgZ HB. Cljmdlmjghlbiheh]bq_kdZy ljZgknhjfZpby kbkl_fu jmkkdhc
ijhbgpbZevghcij_kku\ XVIII – gZqZe_ XX \. : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … ^jZnbehe. gZmd. Jhk-
lh g>, 2011. 37 k.;E_ibedbgZ HB.Kbkl_fZ jmkkdhc ijhbgpbZevghc i_jbh^bq_kdhc
i_qZlb (XVIII – gZqZeh XX \.). F., 2010. 364 k.
191
E_ibedbgZHB. Cljmdlmjghlbiheh]bq_kdZyljZgknhjfZpby ... K. 8.
192
E_ibedbgZHB. Cljmdlmjghlbiheh]bq_kdZyljZgknhjfZpby… K. 9.
193
G_fZrdZeh\I=.Ba^Zl_evkdh_^_ehjhkkbckdhcijhbgpbb\ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \.
gZfZl_jbZeZoKlZjhihevkdhc]m[_jgbb) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. KlZjhihev,
2006. 25 k.
194
FZey\bgZ =B.KlZghe_gb_ b jZablb_ KlZjhihevkdhc i_qZlb  KlZjhihevkdhc
]m[_jgbb (XIX – gZqZeh XX \\.) : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. KlZ\ jhihev, 2008. 23 k.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
57ghklb jZablby195
. >hihegb fZl_jbZeu «KlZjhihevkdbo ]m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhkl_c» f_klgufb _iZjobZevgufb \_^hfhklyfb,
B<. <Zkbe_gdh (2010) jZkkfhlj_eZwlb hj]Zguj_]bhgZevghci_jbh-
^bdb  dhgl_dkl_ h[s_kl_gghdmevlmjghc `bagb KlZjhihevkdh]h
djZy b k lhqdb aj_gby `Zgjh\hc ijbgZ^e_`ghklb ihf_s_gguo ]Z-
a_lZofZl_jbZeh\196
.
< fhgh]jZnbb =<. :glxobgZ (1973) h[ bklhjbb i_qZlb <hjh-
g_`kdh]h djZy hl^_evguc jZa^_e ihkys_g «<hjhg_`kdbf ]m[_jg-
kdbf_^hfhklyf», klZrbfi_jhcihehbg_ 1850-o]]. «h^ghcba
emqrbo b ijh]j_kkbguo ]Za_l, uoh^brbo  ]m[_jgkdbo ]hjh^Zo
Jhkkbb»197
. G:. =mlhjhZ  ^bkk_jlZpbhgghf bkke_^hZgbb, l_fZ
dhlhjh]h – i_qZlv JyaZgkdhc ]m[_jgbb (2009), k^_eZeZ \uh^, qlh
hiul ba^Zgby b fh^_ev «JyaZgkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» [ueb
hkijbgylu ^jm]bfb ba^Zgbyfb, jZa\blb_ dhlhjuo k^_j`bZehkv
[ebahklvx j_]bhgZ d Fhkd_, m^he_l\hjyr_c bgnhjfZpbhggu_
ihlj_[ghklb f_klguo qblZl_e_c198
. Ih fg_gbx K:. DhaehZ (2011),
\ «Gh]hjh^kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo»  gZqZe_ 1850-o ]]. «ijh-
ybebkv hkhagZggh b kbkl_fgh we_f_glu f_klghc l_fZlbq_kdhc
`mjgZebklbdb b ZlhjkdZy, h[s_kl_ggZy ihabpby j_^ZdlhjZ»199
.
Jm[jbdZ «F_klgZy ojhgbdZ» \ 1853–1862 ]]. ij_^klZeyeZ kh[hc
j_^Zdlhjkdbc ^g_\gbd», \ dhlhjhf iml_f kebygby jZaebqguo `Zg-
jh j_^Zdlhj nhjfbjhZe bgnhjfZpbhgguc jy^ ijhbgpbZevghc
`bagbg_[h]Zlh]hkh[ulbyfbGh]hjh^Z. Ihij_^iheh`_gbxZlhjZ,195
De_p X:. «KlZjhihevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» (1850–1917 ]].): bklhjby ba-
^Zgby b ljZgknhjfZpby lbiheh]bq_kdbo ijbagZdh\ : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd.
Jhklhg>, 2009. 24 k. Kf. lZd`_:De_pX:., E_ibedbgZHB.LjZgknhjfZpbybgnhjfZpb-
hgghc iheblbdb hnbpbZevgh]h f_klgh]h ba^Zgby  gZqZe_ XX _dZ (GZ fZl_jbZe_ «KlZ\-
jhihevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c») // <_klgbd Dhkljhfkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h mgb\_jkb-
l_lZ bf. G:. G_djZkhZ. 2006. L. 12, ‹ 6. K. 82–86;De_p X:., E_ibedbgZ HB.
KlZ\jhihevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb (1850–1917 ]].) \ jZagu_ i_jbh^u jZablby: baf_g_-
gbylbiheh]bq_kdbooZjZdl_jbklbd // <_klgbdKlZjhihevkdh]h]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]hmgb_jkb-
l_lZ. 2008. ‹ 57. K. 101–106.
196
<Zkbe_gdh B<. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv dZd we_f_gl khpbhdmevlmjgh]h ijhkljZgkl\Z
jhkkbckdhc ijh\bgpbb h lhjhc iheh\bg_ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. (gZ fZl_jbZeZo «KlZjh-
ihevkdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» b «KlZ\jhihevkdbo_iZjobZevguo\_^hfhkl_c») : Z\lhj_n.
^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. KlZjhihev, 2010. 26 k.
197
:glxobg =<. Hq_jdb bklhjbb i_qZlb <hjhg_`kdh]h djZy (1798–1917). <hjhg_`,
1973. K. 54.
198
=mlhjh\ZG:.I_qZlv JyaZgkdhc]m[_jgbb (1838–1917 ]].): aZjh`^_gb_, jZablb_,
lbiheh]by : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. KI[., 2009. 24 k.
199
DhaehK:. «F_klgZyojhgbdZ» gZkljZgbpZo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c: ihbkd`ZgjZ
b klbey («Gh]hjh^kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb», 1853–1862 ]].) // <_klgbd Q_ey[bgkdh]h
]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]hmgb_jkbl_lZ. 2011. ‹ 17 (232). K. 71.

=eZ\Z 1
58l_ZljZevgu_ im[ebdZpbb», \gZqZe_ ij_^klZeyrb_ kh[hc «wkl_lb-
q_kdb_ i_j_`bZgby qZklgh]h ebpZ», k u^\b`_gb_f  gbo nb]mju
gZqZevgbdZ ]m[_jgbb dZd bgbpbZlhjZ kljhbl_evklZ a^Zgby ]hjh^-
kdh]h l_ZljZ ijbh[j_eb oZjZdl_j «bgkljmf_glZ mijZe_gby h[s_kl-
\_gguffg_gb_f»200
.
K lhqdb aj_gby «gZqZevgh]h wlZiZ klZghe_gby jhkkbckdhc ijh-
bgpbZevghc i_qZlb» b «ijbgpbih j_]bhgZevguo h[s_kl_gguo
haaj_gbc» d im[ebdZpbyf g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Lh[hevkdbo ]m-
[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» 1857–1860-o ]]. ih^hreZ GG. :e_dkZg^jhZ
(1996)201
. Ih fg_gbxZlhjZ, h[s_kl\_ggZy Zlfhkn_jZ dZgmgZ _eb-
dbo j_nhjf b ijbgZ^e_`ghklv lh[hevkdh] h ]jZ`^Zgkdh]h ]m[_jgZ-
lhjZ <:. :jpbfh\bqZ d «dh]hjl_ wglmabZklh\j_nhjfZlhjh\» ki h-
kh[kl\h\Zeb lhfm, qlh «Lh[hevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb»
ijbh[j_eb ijhk_lbl_evkdh_ gZijZe_gb_ – «im[ebdZpby gZmqguo
fZl_jbZeh\, hlghkysboky d bamq_gbx kh_]h djZy, hk_s_gb_ jZ[h-
lu ]m[_jgkdbo dhfbl_lh b ^jm]bo ]hkm^Zjkl_gghh[s_kl_gguo
hj]ZgbaZpbc»202
. <u\h^ Z\lhjZ h lhf, qlh «]Za_lZ kihkh[kl\h\ZeZ
ih^gylbx h[jZahZgghklb  AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb, qlh kh^_ckl\hZeh
fbjghfm ij_h[jZahZgbxjhkkbckdhc `bagb  p_ehf»203
, fh`gh hl-
g_klb ebrv d [bh]jZnbyf qe_gh Zlhjkdh]h dhee_dlbZ ]Za_lu.
<i_jbh^gZibkZgby^bkk_jlZpbb, dh]^Z^eyihkljh_gbyhkgh]jZ`-
^Zgkdh]h h[s_klZZdlmZevghcb^_eZkvhafh`ghklvkhljm^gbq_kl-
Z ]hkm^Zjkl_gguohj]Zgh k eb[_jZevghcbgl_eeb]_gpbc, ^_yl_ev-
ghklv <:. :jpbfhbqZ  Lh[hevkd_ hp_gbZeZkv dZd ihablbguc
j_ljhki_dlbguc ijbf_j bo khf_klghc jZ[hlu «\ h^ghf khab^Z-
l_evghf gZijZe_gbb», ohly, dZd ibr_l kZfZ GG. :e_dkZg^jhZ,
mqZklb_  ]Za_l_ ijbgyeb g_ ij_^klZbl_eb g_aZ\bkbfhc qZklghc
h[s_kl_gghklb (lZdhhck_j_^bg_ XIX \. Kb[bjbijhklhg_[u-
eh), Zl_`_qbghgbdbbebkys_ggbdb: kh_lgbdK_fbiZeZlbgkdh]h
h[eZklgh]h ijZe_gby G:. :[jZfh\, qbghgbd hkh[uo ihjmq_gbc
F:. Kfhe_gkdbc, ohjmg`bc Kb[bjkdh]h dZaZqv_]h \hckdZ =G. Ih-
lZgbg, kh_lgbd ]m[_jgkdh]h mijZe_gby <:. Bevbg, ijhlhb_j_c200
DhaehK:.L _ZljZevgZy `mjgZeb klbdZ «G h\]hjh^ kdb o ]m[ _jg kdb o \_^hf hkl_c»
dZd bgkljmf_gl nhjfbjhZgby iheh`bl_evgh]h bfb^`Z j_]bhgZ (1850–1860-_ ]].) // Ba-
_klby MjZevkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. K_j. 1: Ijh[e_fu h[jZahZgby, gZmdb
bdmevlmju. 2011. ‹ 3 (92). K. 53.
201
:e_dkZg^jh\ZG. G.H[s_kl_ggZy`bagvAZiZ^ghcKb[bjbk_j_^bg_ 50-o – gZqZe_
60-o ]]. XIX \_dZ (ih fZl_jbZeZf «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c») : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. ...
dZg^. bkl. gZmd. F., 1996. 33 k.
202
LZf`_. K. 24.
203
LZf`_. K. 25.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
59bij_ih^ZZl_ev Lh[hevkdhc ^mohghc k_fbgZjbb :B. Kmehpdbc.
Dh]^Z «d dhgpm 1858 ]. j_^Zdpby knhjfmebjh\ZeZ ijh]jZffm g_hnb-
pbZevghc qZklb»204
, :jpbfhbq m`_ g_ [ue lh[hevkdbf ]m[_jgZlh-
jhf – 16 fZjlZ 1858 ]. hg u_oZe  I_l_j[mj]205
, b, lZdbf h[jZahf,
_]h g_ihkj_^kl_ggh_ ebygb_ gZ ih^_^hfkl_ggmx ]Za_lm [ueh
h]jZgbq_gh ebrv h^gbf ]h^hf, gh, [_amkehgh, kh^_j`Zl_evgu_
bhj]ZgbaZpbhggu_ijbgpbiuijbmqj_`^_gbb «Lh[hevkdbo]m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhkl_c», ku]jZeb Z`gmx jhev \ boihke_^mxs_c bklhjbb
bhij_^_e_gbbf_klZjy^mZgZeh]bqguohj]Zghkb[bjkdhci_qZlb.
GG. :e_dkZg^jhZ ukdZaZeZ ij_^iheh`_gb_ h lhf, qlh «j_^Zdlhj-
kdb_ h[yaZgghklb ^h k\h_]h hlt_a^Z uihegye beb <:.:jpbfhbq,
beb [ebadb_ _fm ex^b», kj_^b dhlhjuo [ue II. ?jrh\. ?fm ijb-
gZ^e_`ZeZ «j_rZxsZy jhev  hij_^_e_gbb h[s_]h b^_cgh]h dmjkZ
]Za_lu», b hg, ih fg_gbx ZlhjZ, «g_khfg_ggh, ^he`_g [ue ibkZlv
fZl_jbZeu ^ey klhev [ebadhc _fm ]Za_lu»206
(wlh ij_^iheh`_gb_
^Zevg_cr_f jZabeb LI. KZq_gdhZ207
 b?<. Dhkl_pdZy208
 b ih^-
_j]khfg_gbxXE. FZg^jbdZ209
).
?kebFI. FhogZq_\ZjZkkfhlj_eZlhjq_kl\hZlhjhg_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c k lhqdb aj_gby bo hlghr_gby
dbklhjbq_kdhfm agZgbx, lh __ qblbgkdZy dhee_]Z AY. BZghZ
(1997) h[jZlbeZkv d uy\e_gbx nbehkhnkdbo b^_c wihob, k ihfh-
svx dhlhjuo kkuevgu_ F<. I_ljZr_\kdbc, G:. Ki_rg_\,
NG. Ev\h\ \ «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo» b «:fmj_» hib-
kuZeb ijbjh^gu_ ye_gby, khklhygb_ wdhghfbdb, h[s_kl_ggu_204
:e_dkZg^jh\ZG. G.MdZa. khq. K. 24.
205
=:JN. N. 815. Hi. 1. >. 62. E. 4–6.
206
:e_dkZg^jh\Z GG. KlZgh\e_gb_ i_jhc ]hkm^Zjkl_gghc ]Za_lu  Kb[bjb («Lh-
[hevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» \ 1857–1861 ]].) // <_klgbd Fhkdh\kdh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ.
K_jby 10: @mjgZebklbdZ. F., 1998. ‹ 1. C. 106–107.
207
KZ\q_gdh\ZLI.I_ljIZ\eh\bq?jrh\b _]h dhjj_kihg^_glu gZ kljZgbpZo ]Z-
a_lu «Lh[ hevkdb _ ]m[ _jg kdb _ \ _^hf hklb» // <jZ lZ Kb[bjb : ebl_jZ lmjg hom^ h` _kl-
_gguc b bklhjbdhdjZ__^q_kdbc ZevfZgZo. Lxf_gv, 2008. ‹ 1 (24). K. 221–229;KZ\-
q_gdh\ZLI.I_ljI_ljhbq?jrh\ (1815–1869). :jobgu_gZoh^dbb[b[ebh]jZnbq_kdb_
jZaukdZgby. Brbf, 2011. K. 145–159.
208
Dhkl_pdZy?<. Q_jlu _jrh\ kdh]h klbey \ klZlvy o «L h[hevkdbo ]m[ _jgkdb o \ _^h-
fhkl_c» h ijZa^gbqghc dmevlmj_  Lh[hevkd_ // :dlmZevgu_ ijh[e_fu nbeheh]bb, bklh-
jbb b dmevlmjheh]bb. Lh[hevkd, 2009. <ui. 4. K. 155–161;Dhkl_pdZy ?<. II. ?jrh\ –
ij_^iheZ]Z_fuc Zlhj ]Za_lu «Lh[hevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» // <_klgbd Q_ey[bg-
kdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. Nbeheh]by. Bkdmkklh_^_gb_. 2012. ‹ 32 (286).
K. 62–67.
209
FZg^jbdZ XE. Hl DhgvdZ=hj[mgdZ gZ dhgvd_ ]hj[Zlhf (_s_ h^gZ ]bihl_aZ
hlhjq_kl_ II. ?jrhZ) // <_klgbd Lxf_gkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. 2012.
‹ 2. K. 227–234.

=eZ\Z 1
60hlghr_gbyb`bag_ggucmdeZ^gZk_e_gbyKb[bjb. :lhjhf^_eZ_lky
ihiuldZ Zljb[mlbjhZlv jy^ im[ebdZpbc  i_juo hklhqghkb[bj-
kdbo]Za_lZo, qvyijbgZ^e_`ghklvuau\Z_lkihjumbkke_^hZl_e_c
kb[bjkdhc `mjgZebklbdb. >ey wlhc p_eb AY. BZghZ ijbe_dZeZ
klZlvb, ijbkeZggu_ ba Kb[bjb  p_gljZevgu_ ]Za_lu, i_j_ibkdm,
him[ebdhZggu_ b khojZgbrb_ky  q_jghbdZo ijhba_^_gby i_l-
jZr_\p_\210
.
Bklhjbb «?gbk_ckdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» ihk\ys_ghg_-
kdhevdhkljZgbp \ ^bkk_jlZpbb :I. FboZg_Z (1998)211
, ihkdhev-
dm kbem kh_]h Z^fbgbkljZlb\gh]h oZjZdl_jZ b `_kldh]h p_g-
amjgh]hdhgljheyhgb, ihfg_gbxZ\lhjZ, «g_fh]ebmqZkl\h\Zlv\
h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdhc `bagb ]m[_jgbb»212
. P_gguc fZl_jb-
Ze ih h[s_kl\_gghiheblbq_kdbf mkeh\byf, \ dhlhjuo [ueb u-
gm`^_gu kms_kl\hZlv djZkghyjkdb_ ba^Zgby, kh^_j`blky \ fh-
gh]jZnbb EI. ;_j^gbdh\Z (1995)213
. <^Zevg_cr_fd «?gb-
k_ckdbf ]m[_jgkdbf \_^hfhklyf» djZkghyjkdb_ Z\lhju h[jZsZ-
ebkv \ «x[be_cguo» klZlvyo dZd d gZqZevghc lhqd_ hlkq_lZ bklh-
jbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbdjZy214
, ^hdeZ^ZogZgZmqguodhgn_-
j_gpbyo ijb h[s_c oZjZdl_jbklbd_ kh^_j`Zgby uoh^b\rbo \
?gbk_ckdhc ]m[_jgbb ba^Zgbc b bo lbiheh]bb215
,  kyab
kim[ebdZpbyfb \ ]Za_l_ \ 1900–1902 ]]. klZl_c b khh[s_gbc h210
B\Zgh\ZA. Y.Bklhdbkb[bjkdhc`mjgZebklbdb (BgnhjfZpby. Nbehkhnby. Khpbheh-
]by). QblZ, 1997. 186 k.
211
FboZg_ :I. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv DjZkghyjkdZ  h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdhc
`bagb ?gbk_ckdhc ]m[_jgbb lhjhc ihehbgu XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. : ^bk. ... dZg^. bkl.
gZmd. DjZkghyjkd, 1998. 181 k.
212
FboZg_\ :I. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv DjZkghyjkdZ  h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdhc
`bagb?gbk_ckdhc]m[_jgbblhjhcihehbgu XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^.
bkl. gZmd. DjZkghyjkd, 1998. K. 27.
213
;_j^gbdh\ EI.<ky djZkghyjkdZy eZklv : Hq_jdb bklhjbb f_klgh]h mijZe_gby
bkZfhmijZe_gby (1822–1916) : NZdlu, kh[ulby, ex^b. DjZkghyjkd, 1995. 310 k.
214
;jh^g_\Z:<. 150 e_l kh ^gy uoh^Z  k_l i_jh]h ghf_jZ ]Za_lu «?gbk_ckdb_
]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» // DjZc gZr DjZkghyjkdbc : dZe_g^Zjv agZf_gZl_evguo b iZfyl-
guo ^Zl gZ 2007 ]h^. DjZkghyjkd, 2006. K. 53–55;DZjimobg D.I_j\ hc djZ kghyjkdhc
]Za_l_ – ihelhjZ \_dZ // K_]h^gyrgyy ]Za_lZ. 2007. 14 bxey. ‹ 76. K. 4;LxevdZgh\Z ?B.
DjZkghyjkdhc ij_kk_ – 150 e_l: kljZgbpu bklhjbb // V X^bgkdb_ ql_gby : fZl_jbZeu
gZmqghijZdl. dhg n. (DjZkghyjkd, 9–12 hdly[jy 2007 ].). DjZkghyjkd, 2008. K. 158–165.
215
=hgbgZ G<. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv DjZkghyjkdZ dZd bklhjbq_kdbc bklhqgbd
(1857–1917) // >moh\ghbklhjbq _kdb _ ql_gby: L_ab ku ^hdeZ^h\ f_`\mah\ kdhc gZmqgh-
ijZdlbq_kdhc dhgn_j_gpbb 16 fZy 1998 ]. DjZkghyjkd, 1998. <ui. 3. K. 53–57;Dhklydh-
ZX;. I_ju_ `mjgZebklu ?gbk_ckdhc ]m[_jgbb // Bklhjby gZmdb, h[jZahZgby
bdmevlmju  Kb[bjb : k[hjgbd fZl_jbZeh\ <k_jhkkbckdhc gZmqghc dhgn_j_gpbb k f_`-
^mgZjh^gufmqZklb_f, DjZkghyjkd, 23–24 hdly[jy 2007 ]. DjZkghyjkd, 2008. K. 241–247.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
61gmlj_gg_c b g_rg_c iheblbd_ Yihgbb216
, uy\e_gb_f  jZa^_e_
H[ty\e_gby» fZl_jbZeh\ j_deZfgh]h oZjZdl_jZ217
. < ihke_^g_f
kemqZ_ Zlhj b^_glbnbpbjhZe dZa_ggu_ fZ]Zabgu ^ey aZ]hlhdb b
ojZg_gby a_jgZ k khj_f_ggufb fZ]ZabgZfb, Z]m[_jgkdbf _^hfh-
klyf ijbibku\Ze g_ khckl_ggu_ bo i_jhgZqZevghc ijh]jZff_
p_eb – «hk_s_gb_ ghhkl_c iheblbdb» b «ijhiZ]Zg^Z dmevlmjguo
p_gghkl_c»218
.
G_kdhevdh ke h\ h «Yd mlkdbo h[eZklguo \_^hfhklyo», gZqZrbo
uoh^blv k 1892 ]., kdZaZgh  jZ[hl_ H>. YdbfhZ, ihkys_gghc
i_qZlb gZpbhgZevguo hdjZbg Kb[bjb b >Zevg_]h <hklhdZ (2000).
:lhj aZf_qZ_l, qlh «ba^Zgb_ ]Za_lu Z^fbgbkljZpby ayeZ  khb
jmdb, mklZghb `_kldbc ihjy^hd ^himkdZ fZl_jbZeh d him[ebdh-
Zgbx»219
, h^gZdh p_gamjbjhZgb_ hnbpbZevghc qZklb bp_-
]m[_jgZlhjhf, Z g_hnbpbZevghc – hkh[ufqbghgbdhfih^ ]m[_jgZ-
lhjkdbfdhgljhe_fh\k_g_khklZeyehbkdexq_gbyijbf_gbl_evgh
d «Ydmlkdbf h[eZklguf \_^hfhklyf», Z [ueh aZdhgh^Zl_evgh i jh-
ibkZgguf h[sbf ihjy^dhf ^ey \k_o \_^hfhkl_c. Hkghgu_ nZdlu
ba bklhjbb hagbdgh_gby «AZ[ZcdZevkdbo h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c»
baeh`_gu  ^bkk_jlZpbb LK. :_jyqdbghc (2005), ihkys_gghc i_-
jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb AZ[ZcdZevkdhc h[eZklb220
(ij_^r_kl_ggbdZfb
Z\lhjZ [ueb djZ__^u ?>. I_ljy_\ (1954)221
 b E=. Dhil_eh\
(1978)222
). Hq_jd bklhjbb i_j\hc lhfkdhc ]Za_lu ij_^klZ\e_g  fh-
gh]jZnbb G<. @beydhhc (2011)223
. < __ ^bkk_jlZpbb (2012) h[
b^_heh]bbh[eZklgbq_klZ \ ]Za_lguob `mjgZevguoba^Zgbyo^hj_-216
Oh`Z_ :K.?gbk_ckdZyij_kkZb Yihgbydhgp_ XIX – gZqZe_ XX _dZ (gZijb-
f_j_]Za_lu «?gbk_ckdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb»)» // KhojZg_gb_baZbfhijhgbdgh_gb _
gZpbhgZevguo dmevlmj dZd nZdlhj mklhcqbh]h jZablby Ijb_gbk_ckdh]h djZy : fZl_jbZ-
eugZmqghijZdlbq_kdhcdhgn_j_gpbb, 4–5 ghy[jy 2003 ]h^Z. DjZkghyjkd, 2004. K. 238.
217
Khlgbdh\Z EG. J_deZfZ dZd khklZeyxsZy wdhghfbq_kdhc b khpbZevghc `bagb
?gbk_ckdhc ]m[_jgbb lhjhc ihehbgu XIX \. (gZ ijbf_j_ ]Za_lu «?gbk_ckdb_ ]m[_jg-
kdb _ \_^ hf hklb») // FZjlvyg h\kdb _ djZ _\_^q _kdb_ ql_gby. DjZ kghyjkd, 2008. <ui. 5.
K. 266–268.
218
LZf`_. K. 266–267.
219
Ydbfh\H>.I_qZlvgZpbhgZevguo j_]bhghKb[bjbb>Zevg_]h <hklhdZ: Hlha-
gbdgh_gby^hgZrbo^g _c. Gh\hkb[b jkd, 2000. K. 37.
220
:\_jyqdbgZ L. K. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv AZ[ZcdZevkdhc h[eZklb (lhjZy ihehbgZ
XIX \. – n_\jZev 1917 ].) : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. ... dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Bjdmlkd, 20 05. 34 k.
221
I_ljy_\ ?>.Bkke_^hZl_eb b ebl_jZlhju klZjh]h AZ[ZcdZevy. QblZ, 1954.
K. 168–169.
222
Dhil_eh\ E?. =Za_lZ b j_fy. Jh^hkehgZy AZ[ZcdZevkdhc i_jbh^bdb. Bjdmlkd,
1978. K. 14–20.
223
@beydh\ZG<.@mjgZebklbdZ]hjh^ZLhfkdZ (XIX – gZqZeh XX \_dZ): klZghe_gb_
bjZablb_. Lhfkd, 2011. K. 38–99.

=eZ\Z 1
62hexpbhggh]h LhfkdZ bkke_^hZgb_ ijhp_kkh\ nhjfbjhZgby
bijhiZ]Zg^bjhZgby h[eZklgbq_kdbo b^_c [ueh gZqZlh k g_hnbpb-
ZevghcqZklb «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» 1864–1865 ]].224
K bkihevahZgb_f (ih kh[kl_gghfm ijbagZgbx Z\lhjZ) lZdbo
ijb_fh ba `mjgZebklkdh]h Zjk_gZeZ, dZd k_gkZpby, jZah[eZq_gb_,
ijh\hdZpby (^ey lh]h, qlh[u ua\Zlv ^bkdmkkbx b ih^lhedgmlv
d^Zevg_cr_fm bklhqgbdh\_^q_kdhfm ihbkdm), h ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
klyo ibr_l XE. FZg^jbdZ. Hl^ZZy ijbhjbl_l bkdexqbl_evgh bk-
lhqgbdhhfm – ]Za_lghfm b Zjob\ghfm fZl_jbZem (aZqZklmx h^b-
fhfmgZmqguch[hjhli_ju_), h[hkghuZydj_Zlbgu_]bihl_au
b gZoh^y keZ[u_ f_klZ  mklhyrboky ij_^klZe_gbyo, XE. FZg^-
jbdZ \f_kl_ k l_f bkiuluZ_l [hevrmx «keZ[hklv d g_]Zlb\m»225
,
kha^Z_l Zlfhkn_jm lZbgkl\_gghklb (lZf, ]^_ __ g_l)226
, ^bZljb[ghc
nhjf_ mij_dZ_l kh\j_f_gguo kb[bj__^h  g_djblbqghf ke_^hZ-
gbb kh_lkdhc bklhjbq_kdhc ljZ^bpbb, ^himkdZy  iuem [hjv[u
kihjh`^_ggufb_xfbnZfb g_ \iheg_ Zj]mf_glbjhZggu_ ij_^ih-
eh`_gbybkZjdZklbq_kdb_oZjZdl_jbklbdb227
. Ihabpby «g_aZbkbfh-
]h bkke_^hZl_ey», ibrms_]h \ `Zgj_ \hafmlbl_ey ZdZ^_fbq_kdh] h
khh[s _kl\Z b hq_gv j_\gb\h hlghkys_] hky d j_amevlZlZf jZ[hlu
k\hbo dhee_] nbeheh]h\ b bklhjbdh\, ijb\_eZ, ]eZ\guf h[jZahf,
dlhfm, qlh \ [hevrbgkl\_ bklhjbh]jZnbq_kdbo h[ahjh\ bamq_gby
kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb ijbkmlkl\m_l ebrv mihfbgZgb_ h ^bkk_jlZpbb
XE. FZg^jbdb (2004), \ dhlhjhc [ueb jZkkfhlj_g u lbihh[jZamx-
sb_ ijbagZdb g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-224
@beydh\Z G<. @mjgZebklbdZ Lhfkdhc ]m[_jgbb lhjhc ihehbgu XIX – gZqZeZ
XX \_dZ: b^_yh[eZklgbq_kl\Z : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … ^jZnbehe. gZmd. KI[., 2012. 48 k.
225
FZg^jbdZ XE. Ihke_ ]h^Z kljZmkh\h]h ycpZ // <_klgbd Hfkdh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ.
2012. ‹ 2. K. 36.
226
FZg^jbdZX. E.LZcgZ «=m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c»: dbklhjbbi_juoihj_f_gguo
ba^Zgbcjhkkbckdhcijhbgpbb (1857–1917 ]].) // ;b[ebhkn_jZ. 2012. ‹ 2. K. 9–14.
227
 LZd, gZijbf_j, kh kkuedhc gZ «;_kdhg_qguc lmibd» >?. =Zedhkdh]h,
XE. FZg^jbdZ ml\_j`^Z_l, qlh F<. I_ljZr_\kdbc b G:. Ki_rg_\, jZ[hlZ\rb_
g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» b \ «:fmj_», [ueb khljm^-
gbdZfb III Hl^_e_gby, «l_. ih f_jdZf kh\_lkdh]h \j_f_gb – ijh\hdZlhjZfb» (FZg^jb-
dZXE. H i_qZlb Kb[bjb b jmke_ kh_lkdhc ljZ^bpbb // <_klgbd Lxf_gkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl-
_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. Lxf_gv, 2009. ‹ 7. K. 202). < wlhc `_ j_p_gabb klj_qZ_f lZdh_
ukdZauZgb_, dhlhjh_, ohlybkdZaZgh «ih^_em», bf__lb^ «djZkgh]hkehpZ»: «Bibghd
Z^j_k dZjlZfur_\kdh]h “Kb[bjkdh]h \_klgbdZ” fh`gh \klj_lblv g_j_^dh jZ[hlZo
b^jm]bo hkiblZggbdh dZn_^j bklhjbb DIKK» (LZf `_. K. 202). J_qv b^_l hjZ[hl_
=G. IhlZgbg: Hiul hkfuke_gby ebqghklb» (Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1991), Zlhju dhlhjhc –
:F. KZ]ZeZ_ b <F. Djxdh\, h[mqZrb_ky gZ bklhjbdhnbeheh]bq_kdhf nZdmevl_l_
Lhfkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ, gbdh]^Z g_ [ueb ijbqZklgu d mihfygmlhc dZ-
n_^ j_.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
63fhkl_c»228
, b h khklZe_gghc Zlhjhf lj_olhfghc «:glheh]bb lh-
[hevkdhc`mjgZebklbdb»229
.
Ih m[_`^_gbx Z\lhjZ, d dhgpm 1890-o ]]. ijhbahreh «hlfbjZ-
gb_» g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c «dZd ba^Zgby ]Z-
a_lgh]h lbiZ gZ l_jjblhjbb k_c <hklhqghc Jhkkbb»230
, qlh hij_^_-
ebeh \_jogxx ojhgheh]bq_kdmx ]jZgbpm bkke_^h\Zl_evkdh] h
bgl_j_kZ d bklhjbb dZa_gghc ]m[_jgkdhc ij_kku dZd hkghZgby ^ey
ihke_^mxs_]h ihye_gby b jZablby ij_kku qZklghc. < ihke_^mx-
sbo klZlvyo XE. FZg^jbdb jZkkfZljbZebkv ihe_fbdZ «Lh[hev-
kdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» kqZklgufb]Za_lZfb231
, kljZl_]by jZa-
blby hnbpbZevghc ij_kku (gZ ijbf_j_ i_juo e_l ba^Zgby
Lh[hevkdbo» b «Lhfkdbo» _^hfhkl_c)232
, wdhghfbq_kdh_ iheh`_-
gby lbih]jZnbc ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZ\e_gby (h[t_dl bkke_^hZgby ih-
fh]eb hij_^_eblv lhfkdb_ Zjob\gu_ fZl_jbZeu)233
, lbihnhjfb-
jmxsb_ ijbagZdb \_^hfhkl_c (\ 1857–1865 ]]. «Lh[hevkdb_
]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» bf_eb ljb lblmevguo bf_gb – «1-c hl-
^_e», «2-chl^_e» b «G_hnbpbZevgZyqZklv»)234
. L_hj_lbq_kdbfdhg-228
FZg^jbdZXE.G_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c dZd lbi ijhbgpb-
Zevgh]h ba^Zgby (GZ fZl_jbZe_ «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c») : Zlhj_n. ^bk. …
dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. <hjhg_`, 2004. 25 k.
229
 Lh[hevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb. J_^Zdlhjkdbc dhjimk : Zglheh]by lh[hevkdhc
`mjgZebklbdb dhgpZ XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. / khkl. XE. FZg^jbdZ. Lxf_gv, 2004. 648 k.;
Lh[hevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb. Khljm^gbdb b Zlhju : Zglheh]by lh[hevkdhc `mjgZ-
ebklbdb dhgpZ XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. / khkl. XE. FZg^jbdZ. Lxf_gv, 2004. Dg. 1. 624 k.;
Dg. 2. 512 k.; Ba^Zgb_ fh`gh kqblZlv b Zglheh]b_c dZjbdZlmj ba «Bkdju» b «FZeyjZ»,
dhlhjufb khklZbl_ev s_^jh khijhh^beim[ebdZpbbg_hnbpbZevghcqZklb «Lh[hevkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c», b^bfh, g_ihgZ^_yrbkvgZbgl_j_kqblZl_eydbokh^_j`Zgbx.
230
FZg^jbdZ XE. Wdhghfbq_kdh_ iheh`_gb_ ijhbgpbZevghc dZa_gghc ij_kku (gZ
fZl_jbZe_ «Lhfkdb o ]m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c» // <_klgbd <hjhg _`kdh]h ]hkm^Z jkl\_gg h] h
mgb\_jkbl_lZ. K_jby: Nb eheh]by. @mjgZebklbdZ. 2007. ‹ 1. K. 174.
231
FZg^jbdZXE.=hkm^Zjkl\_ggZybqZklgZyi_qZlv: hiulq_jgbevguohcg (GZfZ-
l_jbZe_ «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c») // JhkkbckdZy ijh\bgpbZevgZy qZklgZy
]Za_lZ. Lxf_gv, 2004. K. 236–250.
232
FZg^jbdZXE.I_ju_ba^ZgbyKb[bjb: ]_g_abkijh\bgpbZevghcij_kku, __j_]bh-
gZevgZyb^_glbqghklvbkljZl_]byjZa\blby // <_klgbd<hjhg_`kdh]h]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]hmgb-
\_jkbl_lZ. K_jby: Nbeheh]by. @mjgZebklbdZ. 2005. ‹ 1. K. 187–196;FZg^jbdZXE. I_q Z lv
 Kb[bjb: j_]bhgZevgZy b^_glbqghklv ijhbgpbZevghc ij_kku // >j_\g_jmkkdh_ ^mohgh_
gZke_^b_ \ Kb[bjb: gZmqgh_ ba^Zgb_ iZfylgbdh ljZ^bpbhgghc jmkkdhc dgb`ghklb gZ \hk-
lhd_Jhkkbb. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 2008. L. 2. K. 421–438. H[_klZlvbijZdlbq_kdbb^_glbqgu.
233
FZg^jbdZ XE. Wdhghfbq_kdh_ iheh`_gb_ ijhbgpbZevghc dZa_gghc ij_kku (gZ
fZl_jbZe_ «Lhfkdb o ]m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c» // <_klgbd <hjhg _`kdh]h ]hkm^Z jkl\_gg h] h
mgb\_jkbl_lZ. K_jby: Nb eheh]by. @ mjgZ ebklbdZ. 2007. ‹ 1. K. 168–175.
234
FZg^jbdZXE.=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklbgZmqghciZjZ^b]f_ // Ba_klbyMjZevkdh-
]h ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. K_jby 1: Ijh[e_fu h[jZahZgby, gZmdb b dmevlmju.
2010. ‹ 3(78). K. 168–176.

=eZ\Z 1
64kljmdpbyffZjdkbklkdhe_gbgkdhcb^_heh]bbbklhjbbi_qZlb[ueZ
ihkys_gZ fhgh]jZnby «IjhbgpbZevgZy qZklgZy i_qZlv: kihjgu_
hijhku klZghe_gby i_jbh^bdb Kb[bjb» (2007)235
. >ey bamq_gby
djm]Z kb[bjkdbo Zlhjh p_ggu ij_^iheh`_gby XE. FZg^jbdb
hijbgZ^e_`ghklb <B. <Z]bgm jy^Z im[ebdZpbc \ «Kb[bjkdhf
\_klgbd_»236
, DF. =he h^gbdh\ m – ik_\^hgbfZ «Lh[heyd» (bf [ueZ
ih^ibkZgZ klZlvy «Klhe_lb_ kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb»)237
, ;:. Fbexlb-
gm – ik_\^hgbfZ «Hli_luc»238
bhg_hafh`ghklbjZ[hlup_gahjZg_hnb-
pbZevghc qZklb «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» II. ?jrh\ Z \ ]Z-
a_l_ \ dZq_kl\_ __ Z\lhjZ239
. LZd`_ [eZ]h^Zjy XE. FZg^jbd_
ijb[ebabeZkv j_Z[beblZpby «Kb[bjkdh]h _klgbdZ iheblbdb, ebl_-
jZlmjubh[s_kl_gghc`bagb» <I. DZjlZfur_\Zb?<. DhjrZ, aZ
dhlhjuf g_hijZ^Zggh aZdj_ibeZkv j_imlZpby «ijh^Z`gh]h j_i-
lbevgh]h hj]ZgZ»240
. Fhgh]jZnby «P_gamjZ ihwlbdb b ihwlbdZ p_g-
amju» (2013), gZibkZggZyg_ lhevdh ih fZl_jbZeZf ghuo Zjob\guo
^hdmf_glh\, gh b gZ hkgh\_ ebqgh]h `mjgZebklkdh]h, j_^Zdl hjkdh] h
b ba^Zl_evkdh]h hiulZ Z\lhjZ, klZ\bl i_j_^ bkke_^h\Zl_eyfb ^hj_-
hexpbhgghc i_qZlb aZ^Zqm ihkljh_gby dhgp_ilmZevgh]h b kh[h^-
gh]h hl b^_heh]bq_kdh]h Zg]Z`bjhZgby b^_gby aZbfhhlghr_gbc
ijhbgpbZevghcij_kkubj_]bhgZevguoij_^klZbl_e_cp_gamjgh]h
_^hfklZ241
.
K g_dhlhjufb iheh`_gbyfb, dhlhju_ XE. FZg^jbdZ ihke_^h-
Zl_evgh ijhh^bl  khbo jZ[hlZo, fh`gh ihkihjblv242
. LZd, gZ-235
FZg^jbdZ XE. Ijh\bgpbZevgZyqZklgZy i_qZlv: kihjgu_hijhku klZghe_gbyi_-
jbh^bdbKb[bjb. Lxf_gv, 2007. 104 k.
236
FZg^jbdZ XE. H i_qZlb Kb[bjb b jmke_ kh\_lkdhc ljZ^bpbb // <_klgbd Lxf_g-
kdh]h]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]hmgb_jkbl_lZ. 2009. ‹ 7. K. 198.
237
FZg^jbdZ XE. Phdhevguc wlZ` bklhjbb i_qZlb Kb[bjb ihkl_i_ggh kljhblky...
J_p_gaby : Bklhjby kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb XVIII – gZq. XX \.: Oj_klhfZlby \ 5 dg. / khkl.
EK. Ex[bfh\ // BgnhjfZpbhggh_ ijhkljZgkl\h Lxf_gkdhc h[eZklb : k[hjgbd gZmqgh-
ijZdlbq_kddboljm^h\. Lxf_gv, 2005. <ui. 3. K. 155.
238
FZg^jbdZXE.N_ev_lhgdZd jZa]hhj kqblZl_e_f: ijhbgpbZevgZy _jkby // Ba-
_klbyMjZevkdh]h]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]hmgb\_jkbl_lZ. 2010. ‹ 1 (71). K. 87.
239
FZg^jbdZ XE. Hl DhgvdZ=hj[mgdZ gZ dhgvd_ ]hj[Zlhf (_s_ h^gZ ]bihl_aZ
hlhjq_kl_ II. ?jrhZ) // <_klgbd Lxf_gkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. 2012.
‹ 2. K. 227–234.
240
FZg^jbdZXE.IjhbgpbZevgZyqZklgZy]Za_lZ. Kihjgu_\hijhkuklZgh\e_gbyi_jbh-
^bdbKb[bjb. Lxf_gv, 2007. K. 3–6, 57–72;FZg^jbdZXE.GZ klhys__y^ jbgp _\ kdh_ «<hklhq-
gh_h[haj_gb_» // I_l_j[mj]]Za_lguc: 1711–1917. Lxf_gv, 2009. K. 121–149.
241
FZg^jbdZ X. E. P_gamjZ ihwlbdb b ihwlbdZ p_gamju. Dhee_dpby k\_^_gbc h kb-
[bjkdhc qZklghc i_qZlb dhgpZ XIX – gZqZeZ XX \.  `Zgj_ patchword. Q. 1: P_gamjZ ih-
wlbdbb… Lxf_gv, 2013. 300 k.
242
 < [he__ iha^gbo klZlvyo,  hlghr_gbb g_dhlhjuo ij_^iheh`_gbc, ukdZaZgguo
^bkk_jlZpbb, Zlhj ij_^ihq_e ijb[_]gmlv d «nb]mj_ mfheqZgby». GZijbf_j, h ijbgZ^-

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
65ijbf_j, fZkkhh_ ba^Zgb_ dgb`ghc ijh^mdpbb \ Kb[bjb k\yaZgh
k^_yl_evghklvx qZklguo lbih]jZnbc (1880-_ ]].), Z g_ k hl-
^_evgufbhllbkdZfbba g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb _^hfhkl_c243
, dh-
lhju_uoh^bebg_[hevrbfblbjZ`Zfb, qZklhlhevdhdZq_kl\_
hagZ]jZ`^_gby ^ey ZlhjZ. Bo ]Za_lgh_ ijhbkoh`^_gb_ g_ lj_-
[hZehih\lhjgh]hijhoh`^_gbyp_gamjubg_ghkbehdhff_jq_-
kdh]h oZjZdl_jZ. Keh`gh kh]eZkblvky k ihiuldhc jZkkfhlj_gby
XE. FZg^jbdhc ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c dZd «kbkl_fu k_gZlkdhc
i_jbh^bdb»244
. >eyba^Zgby]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c[uebjZajZ[hlZ-
gu hl^_evgu_ maZdhg_gby, dZkZrb_ky bo hj]ZgbaZpbb, kh^_j`Zgby
b kljmdlmju («K_gZlkdb_ _^hfhklb» g_ ij_^mkfZljbZeb g_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb). <gboi_qZlZebkvjZkihjy`_gby p_gljZevgh]h ijZb-
l_evklZ b ]m[_jgkdh]h gZqZevklZ, dZkZrb_ky lhevdh ^Zgghc ]m-
[_jgbb. < mdZaZgghf iZjZ]jZn_ «IjZbe ^ey ba^Zgby k_gZlkdbo
_^hfhkl_c» ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb klZghbebkv bo ijh^he`_gb_f
lhevdh  lhf kfuke_, qlh im[ebdZpbb  gbo maZdhg_gbc b jZkihjy-
`_gbc, dZd b\ «ba^Zgbb K_gZlkdhf», ijbh[j_lZeboZjZdl_j h[gZjh-
^hZgby b\oh`^_gby \ aZdhggmx kbem ijb j_r_gbb jZaebqguo ^_e
fZkrlZ[Zo]m[_jgbb. GZdhg_p, g_ke_^m_laZ[uZlv, qlh\mkehbyo
jZaebqguo]m[_jgbc_^hfhklbdZdhnbpbZevghc, lZdbg_hnbpb-
ZevghcqZklbbf_ebkhbhkh[_gghklb.
GZ hkgh\_ bkke_^hZl_evkdbo ih^oh^h <=. ;_j_abghc
b:B. KlZgvdh lbi dZ`^hc ba qZkl_c \_^hfhkl_c  hij_^_ey_lky
XE. FZg^jbdhc hl^_evgh: hnbpbZevgZy qZklv b ijb[Ze_gby – dZd
[xee_l_gv, g_hnbpbZevgZyqZklv – dZdwhexpbhgbjhZ\rZyhlZev-
fZgZoZ ^h ba^Zgby `mjgZevgh]h lbiZ245
. ;xee_l_gv, kh]eZkgh hij_-e_`g hklbi k_\^hgbfZ «=h\ hjmg» \ «Lh[ hevkdbo] m[_jg kdbo\ _^hfhklyo» GF. Y^ jbgp_\m
beb =G. IhlZgbgm, ijbuqgu_ h[jZau dhlhjuo klZeb ij_^f_lhf ^ey «jZah[eZq_gby»
klZlvyolxf_gkdh]hbkke_^hZl_ey.
243
FZg^jbdZX. E.LZcgZ «=m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c»: dbklhjbbi_juoihj_f_gguo
ba^Zgbcjhkkbckdhcijhbgpbb (1857–1917 ]].) // ;b[ebhkn_jZ. 2012. ‹ 2. K. 9–14.
244
FZg^jbdZXE. G_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c dZd lbi ijhbgpb-
Zevgh]h ba^Zgby: gZ fZl_jbZe_ «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» : Zlhj_n. ^bk. …
dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. <hjhg_`, 2004. K. 9.
245
 :lhjZ fh]eh ih^\_klb d fukeb h[ hl^_evghf uoh^_ wlbo qZkl_c lh h[klhyl_ev-
kl\Z, qlh \ ;b[eb hl_d_ :dZ^ _fbb gZmd ]h^ h\u_ ih^ rb\db «Lh[ hevkdbo ]m[ _jgkdb o \_^h-
fhkl_c» 1857–1860 ]]. ojZgylky g_ ih ihjy^dm ghf_jh\, Z ih hl^_eZf – hl^_e i_juc,
hl^_elhjhcb hl^_elhjhc, qZklvg_hnbpbZevgZy. Ohly kZfhf h[tye_gbb h[ba^Zgbb
]Za_lu kdZaZgh, qlh «Lh[ hev kdb _ ]m[ _jg kdb _ \_^ hf hklb», lZd ` _ dZd b \k_ i jhqb _ \_^ hfh-
klb, khklhyl bo ^\mo qZkl_c hnbpbZevghc b g_hnbpbZevghc (H[ty\e_gb_ h[ ba^Zgbb Lh-
[hevkdb o ]m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c \ 1860 ]h^m // Lh[ hevkdb _ ]m[ _jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb. 1859.
‹ 50. 12 ^_d. K. 579).

=eZ\Z 1
66^_e_gbx, fh`_l bf_lv dZd i_jbh^bq_kdbc, lZd b ijh^he`Zxsbcky,
l_. g_j_]meyjguc, oZjZdl_j b i_qZlZ_lky  b^_ kZfhklhyl_evgh]h
ba^Zgby. Ih «Mqj_`^_gbx ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc» 1845 ]. hnbpb-
ZevgZy b g_hnbpbZevgZy qZklb uoh^beb f_kl_, khklZeyy iheguc
ghf_j \_^hfhkl_c, bf_xsbo j_]meyjgmx i_jbh^bqghklv246
. Kh]eZk-
ghmdZam 20 fZjlZ 1865 ]. ^eykhdjZs_gbyba^_j`_dgZba^Zgb_]Za_-
lug_hnbpbZevgZyqZklvi_j_klZeZgZqbgZlvkykghh]hebklZb[ueZ
ibkZgZh[smxdhfihabpbxghf_jZk h[s_cgmf_jZpb_c. Dlhfm
`_ im[ebdZpby hnbpbZevguo fZl_jbZeh oh^bl  aZ^Zqbg_ lhevdh
[xee_l_gy, gh b ]Za_lgh]h ba^Zgby. :evfZgZo ih^jZamf_Z_l h[t_-
^bg_gb_ ih dZdhfmeb[h ijbagZdm ebl_jZlmjghom^h`_kl_gguo
ijhba_^_gbc (beb bo njZ]f_glh\), im[ebdm_fuo \i_ju_.
<hlebqb_ hl ]Za_lu beb `mjgZeZ, \uoh^ysbo q_j_a hij_^_e_ggu_
ijhf_`mldbj_f_gbkihklhyggufqbkehfghf_jh\, ZevfZgZobf__l
g_i_jbh^bq_kdbc oZjZdl_j b ijh^Z_lky [_a ij_^Zjbl_evghc ih^-
ibkdb. @mjgZeu  Jhkkbb lhjhc ihehbgu XIX \., dZd ijZbeh,
bf_eb _`_f_kyqgmx i_jbh^bqghklv,  lh j_fy dZd _^hfhklb –
_`_g_^_evgmx beb ^\Z jZaZ  g_^_ex. Im[ebdm_fu_ gZ kljZgbpZo
`mjgZehklZlvbebl_jZlmjgh]hbiheblbq_kdh]hoZjZdl_jZg_^he`-
gu [uebi_qZlZlvky _^hfhklyo, kh]eZkgh boi_jhgZqZevghc ijh-
]jZff_. Ih nhjf_ `mjgZebf__l b^ ba^Zgby, kdj_ie_ggh]h  dhj_rd_
kfy]dhcbebl_j^hc h[eh`dhc, \_^hfhklb`_ [uebebklhufba^Zgb-
_f, ijb h[j_lZxsbf nhjfm dgb`db lhevdh \ ke mqZ_ [jhrxjh\db hl-
^_evgh]h ghf_jZ ]Za_lu beb krbdb ]h^hh]h dhfie_dlZ. < g_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c i_qZlZebkv ghhklb, dhjj_k-
ihg^_gpbb, i_j_^hu_ klZlvb, j_deZfgu_ h[tye_gby, hl_qZxsb_
lj_[hZgbyf]Za_lgh]h`ZgjZ. GZdhg_p, ]Za_lhcgZauZeb_^hfhklb
kh\j_f_ggbdb – Zlhju, qblZl_eb, Z lZd`_ j_^Zdlhju bqbghgbdb,
jZ[hlZrb_\]Za_lghf, Zg_`mjgZevghfklhe_.
Bamq_gb_h[s_kl_ggh]h ^\b`_gby ih fZl_jbZeZf]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c i_ju_ [ueh ij_^ijbgylh EI. ;mjfbkljh\hc (1968).
<jZfdZo dhgp_ipbb h i_jhc j_hexpbhgghc kblmZpbb  Jhkkbb
EI. ;mjfbkljhZ ihdZaZeZ, dZdbf h[jZahf iml_f ]jmiibjhdb
bdhff_glbjhZgby bgnhjfZpbhgguo aZf_lhd b qZklguo nZdlh\,
khh[sZ_fuo ]m[_jgkdbfb_^hfhklyfbDZaZgb, KZfZju b KZjZlhZ,
j_\hexpbhggh^_fhdjZlbq_kdZy i_qZlv («Khj_f_ggbd» b «Dheh-246
<ukhqZcr_ ml\_j`^_ggh_ mqj_`^_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo ijZ\e_gbc. 2.01.1845. Kl. 151 //
Ihegh_ kh[jZgb_ aZdhgh\ Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb (IKA). Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1846. L. 20. Hl^. 1.
‹ 18580.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
67dhe») ihemqZeZhafh`ghklv^bklZgpbhggh, baK.-I_l_j[mj]ZbEhg-
^hgZ, djblbdhZlv jZaebqgu_ klhjhgu jhkkbckdhc ijhbgpbZevghc
`bagb, ^_eZlv Zdp_gl gZ [_^kl_gghf iheh`_gbb ihj_nhjf_gghc
^_j_gb. J_^Zdlhjuf_klguoe_]Zevguoba^Zgbcihihegyebj_hex-
pbhggh^_fhdjZlbq_kdbc eZ]_jv b dexqZebkv  qbkeh klhjhggbdh\
^jm]bo iml_c» ij_h[jZahZgby hdjm`Zxs_c ^_cklbl_evghklb (oh-
ly kZfh]h i h^o h^ys_] h gZ wlm jhev j_^ZdlhjZ «KZfZjkdbo ]m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhkl_c» >E. Fhj^h\p_\Z EI. ;mjfbkljh\Z g_ fh]eZ
kiheghc m_j_gghklvx ihklZblv  h^bg jy^ k l_fb, dlh _jbe
\\hafh`ghklv b ]hlh\be dj_klvygkdmx j_\ hexpbx247
). < ^bkk_jlZ-
pbhgghfbkke_^hZgbb, ihkys_gghf]m[_jgkdbf_^hfhklyf DZaZ-
gb, KZfZju, KZjZlhZ, Gb`g_]h Gh]hjh^Z b I_jfb dZd bklhqgbdm
^ey bamq_gby Zglbdj_ihklgbq_kdbo a]ey^h f_klghc jZaghqbgghc
bgl_eeb]_gpbb, EI. ;mjfbkljhZhij_^_ebeZj_^Zdlhjhbjy^dhj-
j_kihg^_glh g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb jm[_`Z 50–60-o ]]. dZd jZagh-
qbgp_ijhk\_lbl_e_c, klhyrbo, khh[jZaghdeZkkhhcljZdlhd_, gZ
eb[_jZevghj_nhjfbklkdbo beb j_hexpbhggh^_fhdjZlbq_kdbo
ihabpbyo. Hl^_evgu_ jZa^_eu ^bkk_jlZpbb [ueb ihkys_gu \uy\-
e_gbx kh^_j`Zsboky  ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo fZl_jbZeh ^ey bam-
q_gby a]ey^h b fZl_jbZevgh]h iheh`_gby jZaghqbgp_\, hlghr_-
gbc f_`^m ihf_sbdZfb b dj_klvygZfb, hkh[_gghkl_c dmevlmjghc
`bagb ijhbgpbb248
. < [he__ iha^g_c b h[h[sZxs_c fhgh]jZnbb
IjhbgpbZevgZy]Za_lZwihomjmkkdboijhk_lbl_e_c. =m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb Ihhe`vy b MjZeZ 1840–1850 ]].» (1985) l_fZ agZq_gby
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  h[s_kl_gghc `bagb kljZgu i_jbh^Z «gZ-
jZklZgby i_jhc j_\hexpbhgghc kblmZpbb» ihemqbeZ ^Zevg_cr__
jZablb_. :lhj khhlghkbl i_jbh^u bo «h`be_gby» beb «miZ^dZ»
k «ih^t_fZfb» beb «kiZ^Zfb» h[s_kl_gghc `bagb lhjhc ihehb-
gu XIX \., Z lZd`_ h[jZsZ_l \gbfZgb_ gZ «deZkkhu_ ihabpbb h[h-
aj_Zl_ey»  h[ahjZofZl_jbZeh g_hnbpbZevguo qZkl_c ]m[_jgkdbo
\_^hfhkl_c. JZaghh[jZab_ ]Za_lgh]h b Zjob\gh]h fZl_jbZeZ, _]h lsZ-
l_evgucZgZebaiha\hebebEI. ;mjfbkljh\hca]eygmlvgZ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb agZqbl_evgh rbj_ – g_ lhevdh k lhqdb aj_gby hafh`ghklb247
;mjfbkljh\Z EI. BkihevahZgb_ «]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» gZ kljZgbpZo «Kh-
j_f_ggbdZ» b «DhehdheZ» wihomiZ^_gbydj_ihklgh]hijZZ // Hq_jdbbklhjbbgZjh^h\
Ihhe`vybIjbmjZevy. DZaZgv, 1967. <ui. 1. K. 125–198.
248
;mjfbkljh\ZE. I. «=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb» dZdbklhjbq_kdbcbklhqgbdwihobiZ-
^_gby dj_ihklgh]h ijZZ (gZ fZl_jbZe_ Ihhe`vy b MjZeZ) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. ... dZg^. bkl.
gZmd. DZaZgv, 1968; Kf. lZd`_:;mjfbkljh\ZE. I.Dbamq_gbxdhjj_kihg^_glkdh]hkhklZ-
\Z «]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» Ih\he`vybMjZeZ (dhg_p 50-o – gZqZeh 60-o]].) // Hq_jdb
bklhjbbIh\he`vybIjbmjZevy. DZaZgv, 1968. <ui. 2–3. K. 102–125.

=eZ\Z 1
68e_]Zevghc ijhiZ]Zg^bklkdhc b ijhk_lbl_evkdhc ^_yl_evghklb jZagh-
qbgghc bgl_eeb]_gpbb, gh b dZd p_ggh]h bklhqgbdZ ^ey bamq_gby wdh-
ghfbq_kdhc b dmevlmjghc `bagb gZjh^h <he]hMjZevkdh]h j_]bhgZ.
<dZq_kl_ hl^_evguo kZfhklhyl_evguo kx`_lh [ueb jZkkfhlj_gu
mkehby ba^Zgby b p_gamjbjhZgb_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, bo j_^Zd-
lhjkdbc b dhjj_kihg^_glkdbc khklZ\, ^bkdmkkby  i_qZlb ih ih\h^m
gZijZe_gbyg_hnbpbZevghcqZklbdZa_gghc]Za_lu249
.
< khhl\_lklbb k dhgp_ipbc h jZkrbj_gbb kh^_j`Zgby g_hnb-
pbZevghc qZklbi_jbh^ i_jhc j_hexpbhgghc kblmZpbb BB. Ih-
ih\ (1976) jZkkfhlj_e klZlvb h kn_j_ h[jZahZgby, [b[ebhl_qghf
^_e_, jZkijhkljZg_gbb lj_a\hklb  gZjh^ghc kj_^_ \ «JyaZgkdbo»,
L\_jkdbo», «DZem`kdbo» b «Gb`_]hjh^kdbo» \_^hfhklyo dZd hljZ-
`_gb_ ih^t_fZ h[s_kl_ggh]h ^b`_gby  wlbo ]m[_jgbyo.
<hlghr_gbb «JyaZgkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» Zlhj g_kdhevdh
kdhjj_dlbjhZe uh^ K:. FZdZrbgZ250
hlhf, qlhkh^_j`Zgb_
bgZijZ\e_gb_ ]Za_lu  i_jbh^ p_gahjklZ bp_]m[_jgZlhjZ
F?. KZeludhZS_^jbgZ g_ baf_gbehkv. < `Zeh[_ jyaZgkdhfm ]m-
[_jgZlhjm ]m[_jgkdh]h ij_^\h^bl_ey ^\hjygkl\Z mdZauZehkv gZ lh,
qlh ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb, i_j_i_qZluZy klZlvb ba p_gljZevguo
]Za_l h ij_^klhys_c dj_klvygkdhc j_nhjf_, ijbgbfZxlky f_klguf
dj_klvygkl\hf aZ «hnbpbZevguc hl]hehkhd ijZ\bl_evkl\Z», qlh fh-
`_l\uaZlvkj_^bgbo\heg_gby251
.
Klhqdbaj_gbyijbmq_gbyijhbgpbZevgh]hgZk_e_gbydql_gbx
bihemq_gbyebl_jZlmjgh]h hiulZ[m^msbfbkhljm^gbdZfbqZklguo
ba^Zgbc ^ZgZ hp_gdZ ]m[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf OK. ;meZp_uf
(1981). Bkke_^hZl_evkdbc bgl_j_k ZlhjZ khkj_^hlhq_g gZ [he__
yjdbo «i_j_gpZo ijh]j_kkbghc f_klghc i_qZlb» – bjdmlkdhf
:fmj_» (1860–1862), ZkljZoZgkdhc «<he]_» (1862–1865), dZaZgkdhc
DZfkdh<he`kdhc ]Za_l_» (1872–1874), dhlhju_ hoZjZdl_jbah\Zgu
k lhqdb aj_gby bo h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdhc ihabpbb252
. Ijb oZ-249
;mjfbkljh\Z EI. IjhbgpbZevgZy ]Za_lZ  wihom jmkkdbo ijhk\_lbl_e_c (=m-
[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklbIh\he`vybMjZeZ 1840–1850 ]].). DZaZgv, 1985.
250
FZdZrbg K:. KZelud h\ S_^jbg gZ jm[ _`_ 1850–1860 ]h^h\. ;bh]jZnb y. F.,
1972. K. 239–244.
251
IhihBI. F_klgZy hnbpbZevgZyi_jbh^bdZ]h^ui_j\hcjmkkdhc j_\hexpbhg-
ghckblmZpbb (ihfZl_jbZeZfp_gljZevguo]m[_jgbc) // Ijh[e_fubklhjbbh[s_kl_gghc
fukebbbklhjbh]jZnbb. F., 1976. K. 155–165.
252
;meZp_\ OK. Ibhg_ju ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb (I_ju_ rZ]b ^_fhdjZlbq_kdhc
ij_kku jhkkbckdhc ijhbgpbb lhjhc ihehbgu XIX \.). E., 1981. 141 k.;;meZp_\ OK.
J_\hexpbhggh_ ^b`_gb_  Jhkkbb lhjhc ihehbgu O,O \. – gZqZeZ OO _dZ b f_klgZy
^_fhdjZlbq_kdZyi_qZlv : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … ^jZbkl. gZmd. E., 1982. 32 k.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
69jZdl_jbklbd_ kh^_j`Zgby ]m[_jgkdhc hnbpbZevghc ij_kku aZ _kv
i_jbh^ bo kms_kl\hZgby OK. ;meZp_\ h]jZgbqbeky hij_^_e_gb_f
Kh\j_f_ggbdZ» h «[_afhe\ghf jy^_ ]jh[h\», ^h[Z\b\ d wlhfm, qlh
hgb, «[m^mqb hj]ZgZfb Z^fbgbkljZlbghc eZklb … _jghkem`beb
kZfh^_j`Zghfm kljhx b wdkiemZlZlhjkdbf deZkkZf» b d 70-f ]].
iheghklvx[uebhll_kg_gugZlhjhcieZgqZklgufb]Za_lZfb253
.
KlZlvy E<. Q_dmjbgZ (1984)254
 ihkys_gZ hljZ`_gbx h[s_kl-
_ggh]h^b`_gby\ «JyaZgkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo», gZkljZgb-
pZo dhlhjuo «kdhav p_gamjgu_ ij_]jZ^u ijh]ey^uZeZ [hjv[Z eb-
[_jZevguo b ^_fhdjZlbq_kdbo kbe k fhgZjobq_kdbfb we_f_glZfb
bdj_ihklgbq_kl\hf»255
(j_qv reZ h i_j_i_qZldZo \_^hfhklyfb klZ-
l_c ba p_gljZevguo ba^Zgbc ih dj_klvygkdhfm hijhkm, klZlvyo h[
h[jZahZgbb b wdhghfbq_kdhf iheh`_gbb ]m[_jgbb, ijZbl_evkl-
_gghf khh[s_gbb h \uklmie_gbb dj_klvyg  k. ;_a^gZ DZaZgkdhc
]m[_jgbb).
H[rbjgZy ]jmiiZ jZ[hl ihkys_gZ iheblbq_kdbf kkuevguf
dZd khljm^gbdZf i_juo hklhqghkb[bjkdbo ]Za_l, qvy ^_yl_ev-
ghklv jZkkfZljbZeZkv  dhgl_dkl_ bklhjbb j_\hexpbhggh]h
^b`_gby Jhkkbb b _]h ebygby gZ kb[bjkdh_ h[s_kl\h. < jZ-
[hlZo ;=. Dm[ZehZ, <=. DZjp_Z, :<. >mehZ (dhg_p 1950-o –
k_j_^bgZ 1960-o ]].) ij_[uZgb_ G:. Ki_rg_Z, NG. EvhZ
bF<. I_ljZr_kdh]h Bjdmlkd_ jZkkfhlj_gh k lhqdb aj_gby
^_yl_evghklb hj]ZgbahZggh]h bfb j_\hexpbhggh]h djm`dZ,
jZkijhkljZgyr_]h ijh]j_kkbgu_ h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdb_
a]ey^u (eb[_jZevgu_, ^_fhdjZlbq_kdb_ b ^Z`_ khpbZebklbq_-
kdb_) b \ha]eZbr_]h [hjv[m f_klghc bgl_eeb]_gpbb, ijh]j_k-
kbgh]h dmi_q_klZ b qbghgbq_klZ k Z^fbgbkljZlbguf ijh-
bahehf (bkoh^ysbf  lhf qbke_ b hl «kdbgm\r_]h ebqbgm
eb[_jZebafZ» GG. FmjZv_Z). I_ljZr_pZf hlh^beZkv jhev
hj]ZgbaZlhjh\» b «jmdh\h^ysbo khljm^gbdh\» g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb «Bjdmlkdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c», ZaZl_f «:fmjZ», kbo
ihfhsvx ]Za_lu ijbgyeb «h[ebqbl_evgh_ gZijZ\e_gb_»256
. DZd253
;meZp_O. K.Ibhg_juijhbgpbZevghci_qZlb… K. 7–9.
254
Q_dmjbg E<. HljZ`_gb_ h[s_kl\_ggh]h ^b`_gby gZ kljZgbpZo «JyaZgkdbo ]m-
[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» // H[s_kl_ggh_ ^b`_gb_  p_gljZevguo ]m[_jgbyo Jhkkbb h
lhjhc ihehbg_ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. : f_`\mahkdbc k[hjgbd gZmqguo ljm^h\. JyaZgv,
1984. K. 71–90.
255
LZf`_. K. 71–72.
256
Dm[Zeh\ ;=. :B. =_jp_g b h[s_kl\_gghklv Kb[bjb. Bjdmlkd, 1958;Dm[Z-
eh;=. I_j\_g_p qZklghc kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb ]Za_lZ «:fmj» (1860–1862 ]].) // AZibkdb
Bjdmlkdh]h h[eZ klg h]h djZ_\ _^q_kdh]h fma_y. Bjdmlkd, 1961. <ui. 2. K. 55–87;DZj-

=eZ\Z 1
70h^gh ba ijhye_gbc h[ebqbl_evghc ^_yl_evghklb ^_dZ[jbklh\
jZkkfhlj_gZ N:. Dm^jy\p_\uf (1975)257
 gZi_qZlZggZy \ «Bjdml-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» 1859 ]. klZlvy <N. JZ_kdh]h
K_evkdb_ kp_gu». Ba khj_f_gguo Z\lhjh\ jhev im[ebpbklbdb
^_dZ[jbklhbi_ljZr_\p_\bklhjbbh[s_kl_ggh]h^b`_gbyb
kb[bjkdhc`mjgZebklbdb ijh^he`Z_lbkke_^h\Zlv:D. ;h[dh\258
.
L_fmh[s_kl_ggh]hih^t_fZi_jbh^j_\hexpbhgghckblmZpbb
dhgpZ 50-o – gZqZeZ 60-o]h^h\ XIX \. gZfZl_jbZeZog_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» jZabeZ GI. FZloZgh-
Z259
. KlZlvy «Khljm^gbq_klh iheblbq_kdbo kkuevguo b h[s_kl-
\_gguo ^_yl_e_c <hklhqghc Kb[bjb» (1978) k fhf_glZ uoh^Z b ^h
gZklhys_]h \j_f_gb khojZgy_l ZdlmZevguc oZjZdl_j, [_a kkuedb gZ
g__ g_ h[oh^blky ijZdlbq_kdb gb h^gh bkke_^hZgb_, ihkys_ggh_
]m[_jgkdbf_^hfhklyf Kb[bjb. Ih fg_gbxZlhjZ, g_hnbpbZevgZy
qZklv i_jhc bjdmlkdhc ]Za_lu \ 1857–1860-o ]]. ijbgyeZ eb[_jZev-
gh_ «h[ebqbl_evgh_» gZijZe_gb_ g_ lhevdh ih ijbqbg_ lh]h, qlh
GG. FmjZv_ ijbe_d d jZ[hl_ iheblbq_kdbo kkuevguo –
F<. I_ljZr_kdh]h, NG. EvhZ b G:. Ki_rg_\Z (h q_f ibkZeb
;=. Dm[Zehb:<. >meh\), ghb[eZ]h^Zjyij_^klZbl_eyff_klghc
jZaghqbgghc «ijh]j_kkbghc» bgl_eeb]_gpbb, kj_^b dhlhjuo –
F<. AZ]hkdbg (klZrbcj_^Zdlhjhfg_hnbpbZevghcqZklbihke_
G:. Ki_rg_Z), KK. RZrdh\, GK. Smdbg, FI. R_klmgh\,p_<=. F<. ;mlZr_bqI_ljZr_\kdbc  i_jbh^ j_\hexpbhgghc kblmZpbb dhgpZ 1850-o –
gZqZeZ 1860-o ]h^h\ // Mq_gu_ aZibkdb DZebgbgkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h i_^Z]h]bq_kdh]h
bgklblmlZ. DZebgbg, 1963. L. 35. K. 137–169;>meh :<. H[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdZy ^_y-
l_evghklv b w\hexpby a]ey^h i_ljZr_p_  Kb[bjb : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd.
Bjdmlkd, 1965. 23 k.
257
Dm^jyp_ N:.>_dZ[jbklu – khljm^gbdb kb[bjkdbo]Za_l // IZfylb ^_dZ[jbklh\:
d 150-e_lbxkh^gyhkklZgby. Bjdmlkd, 1975. K. 145–154.
258
;h[dh\ :D. Im[ebpbklbdZ ^_dZ[jbklh  kb[bjkdhc `mjgZebklbd_ // KljZgbpu
bklhjbb jhkkbckdhc `mjgZebklbdb: hl GbdheZy Ihe_h]h ^h gZrbo ^g_c : fZl_jbZeu
f_`^mgZjh^ghc gZmqhc dhgn_j_gpbb d 210-e_lbx GbdheZy Ihe_\h]h (Bjdmlkd, 4 hdl.
2006 ].). Bjdmlkd, 2007. K. 22–26;;h[dh\:D.<ebygb_kb[bjkdhcim[ebpbklbdb^_dZ[jb-
klh b i_ljZr_p_ gZ kb[bjkdh_ h[s_kl\h (d bklhjbh]jZnbb hijhkZ) // <lhju_ mgb_j-
kbl_lkdb_ khpbZevgh]mfZgblZjgu_ql_gby 2008 ]h^Z : fZl_jbZeu. Bjdmlkd, 2008. K. 390–
395;;h[dh\:D.Im[ebpbklbdZi_ljZr_p_\]Za_lZo «Bjdmlkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb»
b «:fmj» // Ebl_jZ. <_klgbd nZdmevl_lZnbeheh]bbb`mjgZebklbdb Bjdmlkdh]h]hkm^Zj-
kl\_ggh]hmgb\_jkbl_lZ. Bjdmlkd, 2008. <ui. 3. K. 97–105;;h[dh\:D.Kb[bjkdZyim[eb-
pbklbdZ ^_dZ[jbklh b i_ljZr_p_\ 1856–1861 ]]. // 150 e_l i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb  Kb-
[bjb. Lhfkd, 2007. K. 39–45.
259
FZloZgh\ZGI.Khljm^gbq_kl\hiheblbq_kdbokkuevguobh[s_kl\_gguo^_yl_e_c
<hklhqghcKb[bjb // KkuedZbh[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdZy`bagv Kb[bjb (XVIII – gZqZeh
XX \.). Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1978. K. 205–223.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
71BK. K_evkdbc, IB. I_`_fkdbc260
. G_kfhljy gZ k\hckl\_ggu_ \j_-
f_gb gZibkZgby klZlvbb^_heh]bq_kdb_ h]jZgbq_gby, dh]^Z j_\hex-
pbhgghfm imlb i_j_mkljhcklZ h[s_klZ hl^ZZehkv ij_^ihql_gb_
i_j_^ ijZbl_evkl_gguf j_nhjfbafhf, GI. FZloZghZ k^_eZeZ
\Z`guc u\h^ h lhf, qlh, «ihfbfh lhc dhgdj_lg hc ihfhsb, dhl h-
jmx fh]eZ hdZaZlv ]Za_lZ h[ebqbl_evgh]h gZijZe_gby \ [hjv[_
kfhr_ggbq_klhf dmiph b aehmihlj_[e_gbyfb f_edbo qbgh\gb-
dh\, g_ f_g__ \Z`guf, Z fh`_l [ulv, b ]eZ\guf, ^ey mfgh]h ]_g_-
jZe]m[_jgZlhjZ[uehklj_fe_gb_mdj_iblvZlhjbl_l\eZklb»261
.
Baf_g_gb_ kh^_j`Zgby g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Bjdmlkdbo ]m-
[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»  klZlv_ GI. FZloZghhc, dZd b  jZ[hlZo
;=. Dm[ZehZ b :<. >mehZ, kyau\Z_lky k «bjdmlkdhc ^mwevx»,
klZr_c ijbqbghc mom^r_gby hlghr_gbc kkuevghc b f_klghc bg-
l_eeb]_gpbb (h[jZahZr_c  Bjdmlkd_ «eb[_jZevgh^_fhdjZlb-
q_kdbc[ehd»262
) k ]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjhf, __ «\uoh^Z» ba \_^hfhkl _c
b «hkgh\Zgb_f» \ 1860 ]. gh\hc qZklghc ]Za_lu «:fmj». < lh `_
\j_fy «:f mj», ohly b g_ [ue iheghklvx fmjZ\v_\kdbf ijh_dlhf
b\kbem kh_c ijh]jZffuh[eZ^Ze[hevr_c l_fZlbq_kdhc ZjbZlb\-
ghklvx,  Z^fbgbkljZlbghf, nbgZgkhhf b b^_cghf hlghr_gbyo
[uekdhj__ hnbpbhaguf, q_f «g_aZ\bkbfuf» ba^Zgb_f263
. Djblbq_-
kdh_ gZijZe_gb_ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _-
^hfhkl_c» ijhke_`b\Z_lky lhevdh k dhgpZ 1858 ]. (bf_ggh \ 1859 ].
gZ djblbdm ba BjdmlkdZ klZeb hl_qZlv «?gbk_ckdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _-
^hfhklb»). Hkghghc fZkkb im[ebdZpbc ]Za_lu  i_jbh^ j_^Zdlhj-
kl\Z G:. Ki_rg_\Z g_k \ k_[_ wdhghfbq_kdmx, djZ_\_^q_kdmx
bjZae_dZl_evgmxbgnhjfZpbx (ihe_fbdZf_`^mqblZl_eyfblZd`_
qZklh jZahjZqb\ZeZkv ih qbklh h[uZl_evkdbf hijhkZf), Z p_euc
jy^ klZl_c[ueu^_j`Zg_jghih^^Zggbq_kdhf^mo_ (lZdbfh[jZ-
ahf, «g_mf_j_ggu_ hklhj]b  Z^j_k FmjZv_Z»264
 ihybebkv  ]Z-
a_l_ g_ k 1860 ]., dh]^Z hg m`_ m_oZe ba Kb[bjb, Z k kZfh]h i_j\h]h260
 Ke_^m_l hlf_lblv, qlh deZ^ mihfygmluo Z\lhjh  gZiheg_gb_ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb
[ue jZaebq_g dZd  dhebq_kl\_gghf, lZd b  dZq_kl_gghf hlghr_gbb, Z gZ kljZgbpZo ]Za_lu
\wlhl i _jb h^ hi m[ ebdh\Z eb kv (g _dhlhju_ g _ _^bg h`^ u) _s_ g_ f_g__ 25 q_eh\ _d jZaebqg h] h
khpbZevgh]h ijhbkoh`^_gby b a]ey^h\, Z h [he__ q_f 60 ba_klgu lhevdh bgbpbZeu
bik_^hgbfu).
261
FZloZghZGI. Khljm^gbq_klhiheblbq_kdbokkuevguo… K. 209.
262
LZf`_. K. 217.
263
K 1861 ]. «:fmj», dhlhjucklZe\uoh^blv^\ZjZaZ\g_^_ex, ihemqbe]jhfdbc
ih^aZ]hehhd «=Za_lZ <hklhqghc Kb[bjb», qlh fh`gh ihgbfZlv b dZd ]Za_lZ <hklhqgh-
kb[bjkdh]h]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjklZ.
264
FZloZgh\ZGI.Khljm^gbq_kl\hiheblbq_kdbokkuevguo… K. 223.

=eZ\Z 1
72]h^Z uoh^Z ]Za_lu). DZd ihdZaZeZ  kh_f g_^Zg_f bkke_^hZgbb
ebl_jZlmjh_^ EB. KZjZkdbgZ, G:. Ki_rg_  kb[bjkdhc kkued_
jZkklZekykhkhbfbjZ^bdZevgufba]ey^Zfbb, ^eylh]hqlh[u_j-
gmlvky gZ jh^bgm, klj_fbeky aZjmqblvky [eZ]h`_eZl_evgufhlghr_-
gb_f g_ lhevdh FmjZv_Z, gh b «]hgbl_ey» _]h lh\ZjbsZ (I_ljZ-
r_kdh]h) – FK. DhjkZdhZ265
.
KlZrbc k fZjlZ 1859 ]. j_^Zdlhjhf g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb
F<. AZ]hkdbg, h[eZ^Zrbc qbklhc  iheblbq_kdhfhlghr_gbb [bh-
]jZnb_c b g_ kdhZgguc g_h[oh^bfhklvx «ijbf_jgh]h ih_^_gby»,
ih_e ]Za_lm [he__ j_rbl_evgh (ijb wlhf dhebq_klh im[ebdZpbc
ijhlb\ «lma_fp_\» aZf_lgh ij_urZeh djblbq_kdb_ klZlvb ijhlb\
gZhaguo» – «fmjZv_p_\»). Baf_g_gby  gZijZ\e_gbb «Bjdml-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» ijhbahreb g_ ihke_ moh^Z F<. AZ-
]hkdbgZ  gZqZe_ 1860 ]. k ihklZ j_^ZdlhjZ b gZagZq_gby gZ wlm
^he`ghklvFG. FZkehkdh]h, dZd h[wlhfibr_lGI. FZloZghZ, Z
 k_j_^bg_ 1860 ]., dh]^Z j_f_ggh bkihegylv wlb h[yaZgghklb klZe
KI. SZih\, ZDhjkZdhijbgyej_r_gb_hkm[kb^bjh\Zgbb «:fmjZ»
dZd f_klgh]h hnbpbhaZ, ih^ j_^Zdl hjkl\hf m`_ ijh\_j_ggh]h _] h
ij_^r_kl_ggbdhfF<. AZ]hkdbgZ. Hl_lFG. FZkehkdh]hZlhjm
ba Qblu266
 dZd hldjulh_ aZye_gb_ j_^Zdpbb «h kh_f hldZa_ hl
ij_`g_cebgbbbhghhfgZijZe_gbb]Za_lu»267
 \hk_ g_ kh^_j`Ze
 k_[_ lZdh]h ml\_j`^_gby. GZijhlb\, ghuc j_^Zdlhj ih^q_jdbZe,
qlh]Za_lZihij_`g_fmyey_lkyhj]Zghf]eZkghklb. Djblbdm «:fm-
jZ» kh klhjhgu «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» lZd`_ fh`g h
ihklZblv ih^ khfg_gb_. HljbpZl_evguc hlau\268
 gZ f_klgh_ h[h-
aj_gb_ \ i_j\hf ghf_j_ «:f mjZ» (Z\lhjhf h[haj_g by, ih fg_gbx,
GI. FZloZghhc, [ue F<. I_ljZr_kdbc) fh] ijbgZ^e_`Zlv …
kZfhfm F<. I_ljZr_kdhfm, dhlhjuc ibkZe ih^ ik_^hgbfhf
IjZa^ghrZlZxsbcky»269
 b, lZdbfh[jZahf, ijh^he`Zekhljm^gbq_-
klh k ]m[_jgkdbfb _^hfhklyfb (AY. B\ZghZ iheZ]Z_l, qlh ih^
wlbf ik_^hgbfhf kdjuZeky mqZklgbd i_l_j[mj]kdh]h «lZcgh]h
h[s_klZ» 1848 ]., khkeZgguc  I_ljhaZh^kd, :I. ;ZeZkh]eh. Hg265
KZjZkdbgZ EB. GbdheZc Ki_rg_\. G_k[urZyky km^v[Z. F., 2000. K. 264, 495–
496, 500–504.
266
G_h[oh^bfh_ h[tykg_gb_ j_^Zdpbb // Bjdmlkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb. 1860.
‹ 11. 12 fZjlZ. K. 10–13.
267
FZloZgh\ZGI.Khljm^gbq_kl\hiheblbq_kdbokkuevguo… K. 223.
268
<i_qZle_gb_ hl i_j\h]h g hf_jZ ]Za_lu «:fmj», ba aZf_lhd «IjZa^g hrZlZxs_] h-
ky» // Bjdmlkdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1860. ‹ 4. 23 yg\. K. 1–2.
269
FZkZgh\ BN. KehZjv ik_^hgbfh jmkkdbo ibkZl_e_c, mq_guo b h[s_kl_gguo
^_yl_e_c: \ 4 l. F., 1957. L. 2. K. 376.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
73`_ [ue Zlhjhf n_ev_lhgh \ «:fmj_», ih^ibkZgguo ik_^hgbfhf
Hli_luc»270
).
G_h`b^Zggh_ a\mqZgb_ ijbh[j_lZxl ijb_^_ggu_  klZlv_
GI. FZloZghhc kehZ dyolbgkdh]h ih]jZgbqgh]h dhfbkkZjZ
<>. DZjihZ, dhlhjuc ihke_ im[ebdZpbb n_ev_lhgZ <N. JZ_kdh]h
K_evkdb_ kp_gu»271
 ukdZaZeky ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf: «K dZ`^uf
gmf_jhf]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c _^ml dh]hgb[m^vba gZkgZ jZkiy-
lb_, Z fu jmdhie_s_f – ^h[_jmlky, gZdhg_p, b ^h k_o»272
. < 1864 ].
aZ ih^ibkvx DZjihZ \ «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» ureZ
klZlvy, dhlhjhc hg hp_gbZe ijZe_gb_ FmjZv_Z dZd wihom
[hjv[u kfhghi heb_c, wdkiemZlZpb_c qm`h] h ljm^Z, dZaghdjZ^kl-
hf b aylhqgbq_kl\hf», dhlhjZy «ijb_eZ d hqbs_gbx gjZkl_g-
guoihgylbc h[s_klZ»273
. LZdbfh[jZahf, ijb_^_ggh_ ukdZau\Z-
gb_fh`ghjZkkfZljbZlvdZdbjhgbx, Zg_dZdbkim]aZqbghgbdh\
k\h_]h \_^hfkl\Z b k\h_ kh[kl\_ggh_ iheh`_gb_. LZd ih f_gvr_c
f_j_ ehyevguc FmjZv_m kem`Zsbc ij_jZlbeky \ «h^gh]h ba eb-
oh^___]hhdjm`_gbb»274
.
GI. FZloZgh\Z  klZlv_ «:lhju b qblZl_eb kb[bjkdbo ]m-
[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \i_ju_ ]h^u boba^Zgby» (1991) jZkrbjb-
eZoZjZdl_jbklbdmkh^_j`ZgbybgZijZe_gby]m[_jgkdbo_^hfh-
kl_c Kb[bjb gZ ijbf_j_ «Lhfkdbo», «Lh[hevkdbo» b «?gb-
k_ckdbo» ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c275
. < fZkrlZ[ghf ljm^_, ihky-
s_gghf ^_yl_evghklb ]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjkdhc eZklb <hklhqghc270
B\Zgh\Z AY. Bklhdb kb[bjkdhc `mjgZebklbdb (BgnhjfZpby. Nbehkhnby. Khpbh-
eh]by). QblZ, 1997. K. 8–9, 12. Klj_fe_gb_ kyaZlv Zlhjklh ijhbgpbZevghc im[ebdZ-
pbb, uoh^ys_c ih kh_fm kh^_j`Zgbx ba bo h[s_]h jy^Z, k ba_klghc ebqghklvx g_
k_]^Z hijZ^Zgh. LZd, gZijbf_j, i_j_\h^ khqbg_gby g_f_pdh]h ebl_jZlhjZ =. D_gbg]Z
Hq_jdb jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmju» (KI[., 1862), uiheg_gguc mqbl_e_f jmkkdh]h yaudZ
bkeh\_kghklb bjdmlkdhc ]bfgZabb GB. Ihihuf (h[ wlhf khh[sZehkv \ «Bjdmlkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo»   4 hl 26 ygZjy 1863 ].), [ue kdjhfgh ih^ibkZg bgbpbZeZfb
GI.», qlh _eh  aZ[em`^_gb_ kh\j_f_gguo ebl_jZlmjh\_^h\, b^_glbnbpbjmxsbo
i_j_h^ «Literarische Bilder aus Rusland» (1837) =. D_gbg]Z dZd ijbgZ^e_`Z\rbc fhkdh\-
kdhfmeb l_jZlhjm GN. IZ\eh\m (kf.:Dmah\dbgZL>.Jhevdgb]b=. D_gbg]ZjZa_gqZgbb
[me]Zjbgkdh]h fbnZ // Ljm^u ih jmkkdhc b keZygkdhc nbeheh]bb. Ebl_jZlmjh_^_gb_.
V (Gh\Zyk_jby). LZjlm, 2005. K. 125).
271
K_evkdb_ kp _gu. Ij_^b keh\b_ // Bjdmlkdb_ ] m[_jg kdb _ \_^ hfhklb. 1859. ‹ 18.
30 Zij. K. 5–7.
272
Ebl_jZlmjgh_gZke_^kl\h. =_jp_gbH]Zj_\. F., 1956. L. 63. K. 236.
273
DZjih\ <. Hl_l gZ dhjj_kihg^_gpbb ba BjdmlkdZ // Bjdmlkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^h-
fhklb. 1864. ‹ 13. 28 fZjlZ. K. 5.
274
Kf.:KZjZkdbgZEB.GbdheZcKi_rg_\… K. 275.
275
FZloZgh\ZGI. :\lhju bqblZl_eb kb[bjkdbo]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \i_j\u_ ]h-
^uboba^Zgby // Dgb`gh_^_ehKb[bjb (dhg_p XVIII – gZqZeh XX \.). Ghhkb[bjkd, 1991.
K. 49–58.

=eZ\Z 1
74Kb[bjb  k_j_^bg_ XIX \., Zlhj lZd`_ h[jZsZeZkv d kx`_lm bk-
ihevah\Zgby GG. FmjZ\v_\uf «Bjdml kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c»
b «:fmjZ» dZq_kl\_bgkljmf_glh^ey «ijhiZ]Zg^umki_ohkhbo
gZqbgZgbcbghuoijh_dlh\»276
.
F_klgZy bklhjbq_kdZy b wlgh]jZnbq_kdZy l_fZlbdZ  _^h-
fhklyo, hdZaZrboky aZ ij_^_eZfb jhkkbckdh]h gZmqgh]h ijh-
kljZgklZ, [ueZ i_j_hkfuke_gZ k lhqdb aj_gby nhjfbjhZgby
gZpbhgZevgh]h kZfhkhagZgby. LZd,  dZg^b^Zlkdhc ^bkk_jlZpbb
KF. Khjhdh (2001), aZsbs_gghc ih ki_pbZevghklb «@mjgZeb-
klbdZ», «<bl_[kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» hp_g_gu k lhqdb aj_-
gby h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdh]h kh^_j`Zgby, ijbq_f \ 60-_ ]].
^Z`_ hlebqgh]h hl hnbpbZevghc b^_heh]bb. GZ ijhly`_gbb
80 e_l]Za_lZijh\h^beZb^_x «kZfhklhyl_evgh]himlbbklhjbq_-
kdh]h jZablby ;_ehjmkkbb», kihkh[kl\hZeZ nhjfbjhZgbx
b^_heh]bb aZiZ^ghjmkbafZ, Z  dhgp_ XIX \. «ml_j^beZ ijZ\h
[_ehjmkkdh]hyaudZgZkZfhklhyl_evgh_ kms_kl\h\Zgb_»277
. Im[-
ebdZpbb \ «<bl_[kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo», aZdexqZ_l
<F. Khjhdh, iha\heyxl ij_^iheh`blv, qlh «nhjfbjhZr__ky
\ XIX \. l_q_gb_ h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdhc fukeb gZ ;_eZjmkb
ujZ`Zehkv\wde_dlbq_kdhfkh_^bg_gbb hkgh]hkm^Zjkl\_gghc
iheblbdb Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb, gZpbhgZevguo bgl_j_kh\ [_eh-
jmkh bijh]j_kkbguo _\jhi_ckdbo khpbZe^_fhdjZlbq_kdbo
b^_c»278
.
Jy^hf bkke_^hZl_e_c hlf_q_gZ jZ[hlZ \ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo
u^Zxsboky ij_^klZbl_e_c jmkkdhc h[s_kl_gghc fukeb, ebl_jZ-
lmju b gZmdb. GG. ;ZeZg^bgZ (1958) jZkkfhlj_eZ l_ baf_g_gby
kh^_j`Zgbb b gZijZ\e_gbb «Ijb[Ze_gbc» d «<eZ^bfbjkdbf ]m-
[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf», dhlhju_ kyaZgu k bo j_^ZdlbjhZgb_f
\ 1838–1839 ]]. :B. =_jp_ghf. Kihjgu_hijhk_Z\lhjklZim[eb-
dZpbb hij_^_e_gu dZd ijbgZ^e_`Zsb_ =_jp_gm, dhlhjuc jmdh\h-
^klhZeky k\hbfb ijbgpbiZfb  hl[hj_ b ih^Zq_ bgnhjfZpbb
hnbpbZevghf ba^Zgbb279
. Hl^_evgZy ]eZZ, ihkys_ggZy j_^Zdlb-
jhZgbx=_jp_ghf i_j\hc eZ^bfbjkdhc ]Za_lu b _]h deZ^m  jZa-276
FZloZgh\Z GI. =_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhju <hklhqghc Kb[bjb k_j_^bgu XIX \_dZ:
<Y. Jmi_jl, GG. FmjZv_\:fmjkdbc, FK. DhjkZdh\. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1998. K. 205.
277
KhjhdhKF. «<b l_[ kdb _ ] m[_jg kdb _ \ _^hf hklb» \ kb kl_f_ [_ehjmkkdhc ^ hj_\h-
expbhgghci j_kku : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. Fbgkd, 2001. K. 12.
278
LZf`_.K. 13.
279
;ZeZg^bgZ GG. :B. =_jp_g b «<eZ^bfbjkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» // Mq_gu_
aZibkdb<eZ^bfbjkdh]hi_^Z]h]bq_kdh]hbgklblmlZ. Dh\jh\, 1958. K. 133–166.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
75blb_ f_klgh]h djZ__^_gby, kh^_j`blky  fhgh]jZnbb JN. KZb-
ghhc (1982)280
.
>_yl_evghklv ijhn_kkhjZ YjhkeZ\kdh]h >_fb^hkdh]h ebp_y,
[m^ms_]hb^gh]hjmkkdh]hi_^Z]h]Z D>. Mrbgkdh]hdZq_kl_ j_-
^ZdlhjZ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «YjhkeZkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_c» fZjl_ – fZ_ 1848 ]. ijhZgZebabjhZgZjZ[hl_:G. BZghZ
(1963)281
. AZ g_ijh^he`bl_evgh_ \j_fy k\h_]h mqZklby  ]Za_l_
D>. Mrbgkdbc him[ebdhZe^_ylvklZl_c wdhghfbq_kdh]h, bklhjb-
q_kdh]h b ]_h]jZnbq_kdh]h oZjZdl_jZ, ihkys_gguo ]eZ\guf h[jZ-
ahf Ih\he`kdhfm djZx. <hlebqb_ hl j_^Zdlhjh\ «L\_jkdbo»,
KlZ\jhihevkdbo», «Gh\]hjh^kdbo» b ^jm]bo \_^hfhkl_c, dhlhju_,
im[ebdmy klbob f_klguo Zlhjh\, gZjmrZeb ijZ\beZ h gZiheg_gbb
g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb, D>. Mrbgkdbc h[jZlbeky kh kljZgbp ]Za_lu
khke_^mxsbfjZatykg_gb_f: «AZijbkueZ_fu_ klbob ^eyihf_s_-
gby \ ]Za_lm gZrZ j_^Zdpby qmklbl_evgh [eZ]h^Zjbl ijbku-
eZxsbo, \ukhdh p_gbl ^hklhbgkl\Z bo ijhba_^_gbc, gh ihf_-
sZlv g_ fh`_l, ihlhfm qlh ij_^_eu gZr_c ]Za_lu l_kgh
hij_^_e_guaZdhghf»282
.
F?. KZeludhS_^jbg, dhlhjuc\ 1858–1860 ]]. [uejyaZgkdbf
\bp_]m[_jgZlhjhf b [hjheky k ijhba\hehf f_klguo qbgh\gbdh\
bihf_sbdh\, dZd ihdZaZe K:. FZdZrbg (1972), g_ ijb[_]Ze d ih-
fhsb p_gamjbjm_fuo bf «JyaZgkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c». Bo
oZjZdl_j, p_ehf, g_baf_gbeky, Zlhjm «=m[_jgkdbohq_jdh\» ijb-
gZ^e_`Zeb ebrv ljb [_ahl_lguo h[jZs_gby d qblZl_eyf
kijbauZfb ijbgylv mqZklb_  g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb (k ij_^eh`_-
gb_f]hghjZjZ\ 12 jm[. k_j. aZi_qZlgucebkl)283
. GZihklml_jkdh]h
bp_]m[_jgZlhjZ \ 1860–1862 ]]. KZeludhS_^jbg lZd`_ gbq_]h g_
ibkZe_^hfhklb, ghijhqbluZebodZdp_gahj. Hkh^_j`Zgbb «L_j-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»  wlhl i_jbh^ _klv klZlvy <. ?jhobgZ
bF. DhjZ[e_Z (1996), dhlhju_ iml_f h[jZs_gby d ]Za_lguf im[ebdZ-
pbyf k^_eZeb ihiuldm hlh[jZablv `bagv ijhbgpbZevgh]h ]hjh^Z,
dhlhjhfjZ[hlZeibkZl_evqbghghc^he`ghklb284
.280
KZ\bgh\ZJN.:B. =_jp_gh<eZ^bfbj_. 1838–1840. YjhkeZev, 1982. 143 k.
281
B\Zgh:G.DhgklZglbg>fbljb_bqMrbgkdbcYjhkeZe_. Bkke_^hZgbyb^hdmf_glu
hgZmqghi_^Z]h]bq_kdhcbebl_jZlmjghc^_yl_evghklb. YjhkeZev, 1963. K. 339–427.
282
LZf`_. K. 346.
283
FZdZrbg K:. KZelud h\ S_^jbg gZ jm[ _`_ 1850–1860 ]h^h\. ;bh]jZnb y. F.,
1972. K. 239–244.
284
?jhobg <., DhjZ[e_\ F. L_jkdZy h[s_kl_ggZy `bagv 1860–1862 ]].: ih fZl_jbZ-
eZf ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c // F?. KZeludh\S_^jbg: L\_jkdb_ kljZgbpu `bagb. L\_jv,
1996. K. 71–84.

=eZ\Z 1
76EF. Jm^g_Z (1996)  k\h_c ^bkk_jlZpbb h jZgg_f lhjq_kl\_
IB. F_evgbdhZI_q_jkdh]h k^_eZeZ uh^ h lhf, qlh i_jbh^ j_^Zd-
lhjklZ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Gb`_]hjh^kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_c» \ 1845–1850 ]]. kihkh[klhZe l\hjq_kdhfm b dZjv_jghfm jhklm
ibkZl_ey – ]Za_l_ hg him[ebdhZeagZqbl_evgmxqZklvk\hbobkke_^h-
Zl_evkdbo jZ[hl b h[t_^bgbe hdjm] g__ f_klgu_ gZmqghebl_jZ-
lmjgu_ kbeu, qlh h[jZlbeh gZ k_[y gbfZgb_ ur_klhys_]h gZqZevkl-
Z; F_evgbdhI_q_jkdbc [ue ijbqbke_g gZ kem`[m \ Fbgbkl_jkl\h
gmlj_ggbo ^_e285
. G_dhlhju_ k_^_gby h j_^Zdlbjh\Zgbb ]Za_lu
IB. F_evgbdhufI_q_jkdbflZd`_ kh^_j`Zlky klZlvyo:<. =jbg_-
bpdhc (1937)286
bNG. ;hjhgbgZ (1981)287
.
<hkihfbgZgby GB. DhklhfZjhZ b Zjob\gu_ ^hdmf_glu ih-
a\hebeb LI. QZehc (2006) ^Zlv h[smx oZjZdl_jbklbdm jZ[hlu
bklhjbdZ \ «KZjZlh\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo». HlijZe_g-
guc \ 1848 ]. KZjZlh ih h[bg_gbx  mqZklbb  Dbjbeeh-
F_nh^b_\kdhf h[s_kl_ DhklhfZjh[uegZagZq_g\ 1849 ]. f_-
klguf ]m[_jgZlhjhf gZ ^he`ghklv gZqZevgbdZ ]Za_lgh]h klheZ
bj_^ZdlhjZ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c. D k\h_c ^he`ghklb hg hl-
ghkbeky «ijhoeZ^gh», «kZf ibkZe fZeh b, ih fg_gbx kh\j_f_g-
gbdh\, g_ hkh[h klZjZeky ijbe_dZlv dkhljm^gbq_kl\m f_klgu_
lZeZglu»288
. < 1851 ]. [ue hlklZ\e_g kihklZ j_^ZdlhjZ «aZ g_-
kihkh[ghklv» ihke_ him[ebdhZgby h[tye_gby h ijh^Z`_ «ih^-
qZedh\» – ijbp_iguo ]jmahuo km^h\, dhlhju_ fh`gh [ueh b-
^_lv  ]m[_jgkdhf ijZe_gbb «\h \kydh_ \j_fy». Im[ebdZpby
DhklhfZjhuf ([_a mdZaZgby k\h_]h bf_gb)  g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb]Za_lugZjh^guoi_k_gKZjZlh\kdhc]m[_jgbb[ueZijbhk-
lZghe_gZ \ 1854 ]. i_l_j[mj]kdbf p_gahjhf, dhlhjuc mkfhlj_e
 gbo [_agjZkl_gghklv b k^_eZe aZf_qZgb_ ijhimklbr_fm bo
i_qZlv^bj_dlhjm]bfgZabb289
. < 1857 ]., m`_ihke_hk\h[h`^_-
gbyhlihebp_ckdh]hgZ^ahjZ, DhklhfZjh\ him[ebdhZe\ «KZjZ-285
Jm^g_\Z EF. IB. F_evgbdh\I_q_jkdbc \ 1830–1860-_ ]h^u: <hijhku [bh]jZ-
nbbbl\hjq_kl\Z : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. ... dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. KZjZlh\, 1996. 21 k.
286
=jbg_\bpdZy:. <. «Gb` _]hjh^ kdb _]m[ _jg kdb _\_^ hf hklb» // =hjvdh\kdZy h[eZ klv.
?`_f_kyqguc `mjgZe BkihedhfZ H[eZklgh]h Kh\_lZ ^_imlZlh ljm^ysboky. =hjvdbc.
1938. ‹ 9. K. 110–116.
287
;hjhgbg NG. I_jZy ]m[_jgkdZy ]Za_lZ (ba bklhjbb gb`_]hjh^kdhc i_qZlb) // AZ-
ibkdbdjZ_\_^h\. =hjvdbc, 1981. K. 74–81.
288
QZeZy LI. GB. DhklhfZjh\ (1817–1885 ]].): h[s_kl\_gghiheblbq_kdb_ a]ey^u
b^_yl_evg hklv : ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. <hjhg_`, 2006. K. 137.
289
QZeZy LI. GB. DhklhfZjh\… K. 141;DhklhfZjh\GB.Ebl_jZlmjgh_gZke_^b_.
:lh[bh]jZnby. Klbohlhj_gby. Kp_gu. Bklhjbq_kdb_ hljudb. FZehjmkkdZy gZjh^gZy
ihwaby. Ihke_^gb_jZ[ hlu. KI[., 1890. K. 75.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
77lh\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» klZlbklbq_kdh_ hibkZgb_ m_a^-
gh]h]hjh^Z<hevkdZ290
.
G_fgh]hqbke_ggmx ]jmiim khklZ\eyxl jZ[hlu h[ baf_g_gbb
gZijZe_gby b kh^_j`Zgby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  i_jbh^ i_j-
\hc jmkkdhc j_\hexpbb. K<. KZ\_gdh\ (2005) \ ^bkk_jlZpbhgghf
bkke_^hZgbbhjheb]m[_jgkdhcij_kku\nhjfbjh\Zgbbh[s_kl-
\_ggh]h fg_gby\ Hjeh\kdhc ]m[_jgbb\ 1865–1905 ]]. hij_^_ebe
f_klgu_ ]m[_jgkdb_ b _iZjobZevgu_ \_^hfhklb dZd «gZb[he__
mklhcqb\u_ \k\hbo \a]ey^Zo, kh^_j`Zgbb b \ i_jbh^bqghklb»,
qlh g_ ihf_rZeh bf \ i_jbh^ gZjZklZgby j_hexpbb \ke_^ aZ
klhebqghc ij_kkhc ijbh[j_klb h[ebqbl_evgh_ gZijZe_gb_291
.
IH. Dh\lmg_gdh \ g_[hevrhc klZlv_ (2008) bkihevah\Ze fZl_-
jbZeu «I_jfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» ^ey ^hdZaZl_evklZ
kyabm]hehgh]hl_jjhjZkwdkijhijbZpbyfbbihdmr_gbyfbdZd
nhjfZfb j_\hexpbhgghiheblbq_kdhc [hjv[u \ i_jbh^ 1905–
1907 ]].292
Hi_j_oh^_ «Dm[Zgkdboh[eZklguo_^hfhkl_c» \ «ih-
eblbdhijhiZ]Zg^bklkdmx ih^kbkl_fm» i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb
ibkZeZXE. OhoeZq (2011)293
.
< bkke_^hZgbyo, ihkys_gguo i_qZlb i_jbh^Z J_hexpbb
1917 ]. b =jZ`^Zgkdhc hcgu, _^hfhklb aZl_jyebkv kj_^b jZaghh[-
jZaguo iZjlbcguo hj]Zgh\, ohly ]Za_lu ijh^he`Zeb uoh^blv ih^
khbf ij_`gbf beb baf_g_gguf gZaZgb_f. Fh`gh gZa\Zlv ebrv
g_kdhevdh jZ[hl, Z\lhju dhlhjuo jZkkfZljb\Zxl \_^hfhklb \ jy^ m
^jm]bo ba^Zgbc <j_f_ggh]h ijZbl_evklZ b Zglb[hevr_bklkdbo
ijZbl_evkl\. H>. Ydbfh\ (2005) hlghkbehnbpbZevgu_ «Ba_klby»
b «<_^hfhklb» kb[bjkdh]h j_]bhgZ d ba^ZgbyfdhZebpbhgguohj]Z-
gh eZklb, kha^ZZ_fuo ihke_ fZjlZ 1917 ]. dZ^_lZfb b ijZhkh-290
Ebl\Zd ;=. GbdheZc BZghbq DhklhfZjh\. Hq_jd `bagb b lhjq_klZ // Dhklh-
fZjh GB. Hq_jd ^hfZrg_c `bagb b gjZh_ebdhjmkkdh]h gZjh^Z \ XVI b XVII klhe_-
lbyo. F., 1992. K. 29.
291
KZ_gdh K<. Hjeh\kdZy ]m[_jgkdZy ij_kkZ (1865–1905 ]].)  nhjfbjhZgbb h[-
s_kl\_gg h]hfg_gby] m[_jgbb : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Hj_e, 2005. 26 k.
292
Dhlmg_gdh IH. M]hehguc l_jjhj  IjbdZfv_ gZdZgmg_ j_\hexpbb 1905–
1907 ]]. (ih fZl_jbZeZf g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «I_jfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c») //
<_klgbdKZfZjkdh]h]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]hmgb_jkbl_lZ. 2008. ‹ 63. K. 151–155.
293
OhoeZq XE. Iheblbq_kdZy ljZgknhjfZpby «Dm[Zgkdbo h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c»
i_jbh^ i_j\hc jmkkdhc j_\hexpbb // DmevlmjgZy `bagv X]Z Jhkkbb. 2010. ‹ 4 (38).
K. 111–112;OhoeZq XE. H[ ZlhjZo fhgZjobklkdhc b eb[_jZevghc gZijZe_gghklb gZ
kljZgbpZo dm[Zgkdhc i_qZlb: bo im[ebdZpbb b km^v[u // DmevlmjgZy `bagv X]Z Jhkkbb.
2011. ‹ 3 (41). K. 76–78.

=eZ\Z 1
78pbZebklbq_kdbfb iZjlbyfb294
. < ^bkk_jlZpbb G:. Kdhjbdh\hc
(2004), ihkys_gghcbjdmlkdhc]m[_jgkdhcZ^fbgbkljZpbb\i_jbh^
^_fhdjZlbq_kdhc dhgljj_\hexpbb» b dheqZdh\kdh]h j_`bfZ, kh-
^_j`Zlky p_ggu_ k_^_gby h ijh]jZff_, j_^ZdlhjZo b ihke_^gbo
ghf_jZo «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c», klZrbo i_qZlguf
hj]Zghf bjdmlkdh]h ]m[_jgkdh]h dhfbkkZjZ (ijb :<. DheqZd_ –
mijZ\eyxs_]h]m[_jgbc) I>. Ydh\e_\Z295
.
<kbkl_f_ ijZbl_evkl\_gguo i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbc ]m-
[_jgkdb_ b h[eZklgu_ _^hfhklb ij_^klZeyeb kh[hc gbahh_ j_-
]bhgZevgh_ a_gh, ljZgknhjfbjhZr__ky \ kyab k baf_g_gbyfb
iheblbdb kZfh^_j`Zby  hlghr_gbb ijbgZ^e_`Zsbo _c i_qZlguo
hj]Zgh\. < kh_lkdhc bklhjbh]jZnbb wlZ l_fZ [ueZ ih^gylZ
KB. KludZebguf (1973), dhlhjuc _e  gZmqguc h[hjhl Zjobgu_
^hdmf_glu F<>ih j_hj]ZgbaZpbb k_]f_glZ hnbpbZevghc b hnbpb-
haghc ij_kku \ 1905 ].296
 W<. E_l_gdh\ (1973) jZkkfhlj_e ^_yl_ev-
ghklv ijZbl_evkl_gguo bgnhjfZpbhgguo mqj_`^_gbc, hj]Zgbah-
Zgguo b km[kb^bjm_fuo F<>, – Hk_^hfbl_evgh]h [xjh, KZgdl-
I_l_j[mj]kdh]h l_e_]jZngh]h Z]_glklZ b ;xjh jmkkdbo `mjgZeb-
klh\297
. < jZ[hl_ K<. KfbjghZ (1981) h ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo
mihfbgZehkv dZd h ijhbgpbZevghf k_]f_gl_ ijZbl_evkl_gghc
i_qZlb, j_hj]ZgbahZggu_ p_gljZevgu_ hj]Zgu dhlhjhc [ueb ijb-
aZgu ^_j`Zlv gZjh^ «bkl_jaZgghc b bafmq_gghc Jhkkbb» \ «j_eb-
]bhaghojbklbZgkdhc, kZfh^_j`Zghihebp_ckdhc ma^_», m[_`^Zlv
_]h\ «g_ijbdhkgh_gghklba_f_evghcbkydhcbghcqZklghckh[kl-
_gghklb, khkehgh^hjygkdbo b ihf_sbqv_qbghguo deZkkhuo
bgl_j_kh b ijbbe_]bc»298
. H ^_yl_evghklb ijZbl_evklZ ijhlb-
h_k j_\hexpbhgguf hj]ZgbaZpbyf ih jZkijhkljZg_gbx dgb] ^ey294
Ydbfh\H>.I_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv<hklhqghcKb[bjb\ 1917 ]h^m // <_klgbd
Ydmlkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ bf_gb FD. :ffhkhZ. 2005. L. 2, ‹ 4.
K. 23–31.
295
Kdhjbdh\Z G:. Hj]ZgbaZpby b ^_yl_evghklv Bjdmlkdhc ]m[_jgkdhc Z^fbgbkljZ-
pbb (bxev 1918 – ^_dZ[jv 1919 ]].) : ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Bjdmlkd, 2004. 246 k.;Kdhjb-
dh\Z G:. Hj]ZgbaZpby b ^_yl_evghklv Bjdmlkdhc ]m[_jgkdhc Z^fbgbkljZpbb (bxev
1918 – ^_dZ[jv 1919 ]].) : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Bjdmlkd, 2004. 27 k.
296
KludZebg KB. Jmkkdh_ kZfh^_j`Zb_ b e_]ZevgZy i_qZlv 1905 ]h^Z (D \hijhkm
hijh_dlZo kha^Zgby hnbpbhaghc ij_kku) // Ba bklhjbb jmkkdhc `mjgZebklbdb dhgpZ
XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. F., 1973. K. 67–98.
297
E_l_gdh\W<. DbklhjbbijZbl_evkl\_gguobgnhjfZpbhgguop_gljhJhkkbb
(1906–1917 ]].) // <_klgbd E_gbg]jZ^kdh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. K_jby «Bklhjby, yaud, ebl_jZ-
lmjZ». 1973. ‹ 20. K. 80–88.
298
Kfbjgh\ K<. E_]ZevgZy i_qZlv  ]h^u i_j\hc jmkkdhc j_hexpbb. E., 1981.
K. 24, 29.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
79gZjh^gh]hql_gbybhojZgbl_evguoi_jbh^bq_kdboba^Zgbc, ZlZd`_
h qbke_gghklb b khpbZevghf khklZ_ qblZl_evkdhc Zm^blhjbb  ^h-
j_\hexpbhgghc Jhkkbb jZkkdZauZ_lky  klZlvyo :<. ;exfZ,
<?. D_evg_jZ, G=. IZljmr_\hcb:B. J_cl[eZlZaZdexqbl_evghf
lj_lv_flhf_fhgh]jZnbb «Dgb]ZJhkkbb» (1991)299
. M^_eyy, ]eZ\-
guf h[jZahf, \gbfZgb_ ijh_dlZf ij_h[jZahZgby k_dlhjZ p_g-
ljZevghc hnbpbZevghc b hnbpbhaghc i_qZlb  ]h^u i_jhc jmk-
kdhc  j_\ hexpbb, h iheh`_gbb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \ kljmdl mj_
ijhbgpbZevghci_qZlbibkZeZKY. FZohgbgZ (1991)300
.
<^bkk_jlZpbhgghcjZ[hl_:<. EbohfZghZ (1995), ZlZd`__]h
fhgh]jZnbb (1997)301
, jZkkfhlj_gZ ^_yl_evghklv ij_fv_jfbgbkljh\
KX. <bll_ b I:. KlheuibgZ ih j_hj]ZgbaZpbb ]Za_l F<>
(«IjZ\bl_evkl_ggh]h _klgbdZ» b «K_evkdh]h _klgbdZ») b hl-
djulbxghuo ba^Zgbc – hnbpbZevghc ]Za_lu «Jmkkdh_ ]hkm^Zj-
kl\h» b qZklgh]h hnbpbhaZ «Jhkkby». Djbabkb^_heh]bbkZfh^_j`Z-
by bijb_j`_gghklv eZklb d kbehuf f_lh^Zf ha^_cklby, ih
fg_gbx ZlhjZ, ijb_eb d lhfm, qlh «ijZbl_evkl_ggZy i_qZlv
\ 1905–1907 ]]. g_ kfh]eZ \uihegblv haeh`_ggmx gZ g__ aZ^Zqm
kha^Zgby[eZ]hijbylgh]h^eyeZklbh[s_kl_ggh]h fg_gby, bhlqm-
`^_gb_f_`^mpZjbafhfbih^^Zggufbijh^he`ZehgZjZklZlv»302
.
Ijh[e_fghl_fZlbq_kdhf m kh^_j`Zgbx, kljmdl mj_ b j_^Zdl hj-
kdhfm khklZm «IjZbl_evkl_ggh]h _klgbdZ» dZd p_gljZevghfm
hj]Zgm  kbkl_f_ ]hkm^Zjkl_gghc i_qZlb ihkys_gZ ^bkk_jlZpby
F?. :ihg (1997)303
. Ijhp_kku jZablby bijZhh]h j_]mebjhZgby
ijZbl_evkl_gghc i_qZlb  dhgp_ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. ih^jh[gh
jZkkfhlj_gu?<. :ofZ^mebguf (2000)304
.299
;exf :<., D_evg_j <?., IZljmr_Z G=. Ba^Zgb_ «dgb] ^ey gZjh^Z» // Dgb]Z
Jhkkbb. 1861–1881 : \ 3 l. / ih^ h[s. j_^. BB. Njhehhc. F., 1991. L. 3. K. 7–28;J_cl-
[eZl:B.QblZl_evkdZyZ m^blhjby // LZf`_. K. 69–86.
300
FZohgbgZ KY. JmkkdZy ^hj_\hexpbhggZy i_qZlv (1905–1914). F., 1991. K. 30–31,
145–174; Kf. lZd`_:FZohgbgZK. Y. Bklhjby jmkkdhc`mjgZebklbdb gZqZeZOO_dZ. F.,
2008. K. 48.
301
EbohfZgh\ :<. ;hjv[Z kZfh^_j`Zby aZ h[s_kl\_ggh_ fg_gb_ \ 1905–1907 ]].
KI[., 1997. 133 k.
302
EbohfZgh\ :<. KZfh^_j`Zb_  [hjv[_ aZ h[s_kl_ggh_ fg_gb_ \ ]h^u i_j\hc
jmkkdhc j_\hexpbb (IjZbl_evkl_ggZy i_qZlv \ 1905–1907 ]].) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^.
bkl. gZmd. KI[., 1995. K. 17.
303
:ihg F?. =hkm^Zjkl\_ggZy kem`[Z  Jhkkbb b ]Za_lZ «IjZbl_evkl\_gguc \_kl-
gbd» (1869–1881 ]].) : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. KI[., 1997.
304
:ofZ^mebg?. <.IjZbl_evkl_ggZyi_qZlvJhkkbb (dhg. XIX \. – n_j. 1917 ].). Jhk-
lhg>, 2000. 77 k.

=eZ\Z 1
80L_fm ghjfZlb\ghijZ\h\hc [Zau, hj]ZgbaZpbhgghc kljmdl m-
ju, nmgdpbc b jheb  ]hkm^Zjkl_gghf f_oZgbaf_ =eZgh]h
mijZe_gbyih^_eZfi_qZlbbkha^Zggh]hijbg_fHk_^hfbl_ev-
gh]h [xjh (k 1915 ]. – ;xjh i_qZlb) ijh^he`Z_l :<. :f[jhkv_\305
.
<^bkk_jlZpbb, aZsbs_gghc ih ki_pbZevghklb «L_hjby b bklhjby
ijZ\Z b ]hkm^Zjkl\Z» (2012), Z\lhj aZdexqZe, qlh «\ gZqZe_ \lhjhc
ihehbgu XIX _dZ eZklv klZeZ jZkkfZljbZlv i_qZlv dZd \Z`guc
nZdlhj  nhjfbjhZgbb h[s_kl_ggh]h fg_gby. Dhgljhev aZ i_qZ-
lvx, p_gamjgu_ nmgdpbb [ueb i_j_^Zgu ba _^_gby Fbgbkl_jklZ
gZjh^gh]h ijhk\_s_gby \ F<>, ij_`^_ \k_] h ihlhfm, qlh p_gamjZ
i_j_klZeZjZkkfZljbZlvky dZd qZklvijhp_kkZ b^_heh]bq_kdh]h hk-
iblZgbybklZeZZ`ghcqZklvx_]h\gmlj_gg_ciheblbdb»306
.
<aZbfhhlghr_gby i_qZlb b f_klguo ]m[_jgkdbo eZkl_c,
dhlhju_  kh_lkdbc i_jbh^ h^ghagZqgh hij_^_eyebkv dZd k^_j`b-
Zxsbc jZablb_ f_klghc ij_kku Z^fbgbkljZlb\guc dhgljhev
bih^^_j`dZ «j_ilbevguo» hj]Zgh\,  gZklhys__ \j_fy klZeb ij_^-
f_lhf hl^_evgh]h gbfZgby bkke_^hZl_e_c, nhjfbjmxsbo ghh_
b^_gb_ wlhc ijh[e_fu. M`_ \ 1990 ]. G=. IZljmr_Z \ jZ[hl_
hp_gamjghc j_nhjf_  Jhkkbb 1865 ]. (hij_^_ey\r_c iheh`_gb_
jmkkdhc i_qZlb ^h 1905 ].) k^_eZeZ Z`guc \ f_lh^heh]bq_kdhf hl-
ghr_gbb\uh^hlhf, qlh «iheh`_gb_i_qZlb\kljZg_hij_^_eyehkv
 hkghghf g_ kh^_j`Zgb_f ^_cklmxs_]h aZdhgZ, Z lhc gmljbih-
eblbq_kdhc h[klZghdhc,  mkehbyo dhlhjhc wlhl aZdhg ijbf_gye-
ky»307
. F:. Ir_gbqgZy (2002) jZkkfhlj_eZ ijZdlbdm p_gamjgh]h
dhgljhey ijbf_gbl_evgh d ]Za_lZf KlZjhihevkdhc ]m[_jgbb b Dm-305
:f[jhkv_:<. >_yl_evghklv =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb ih dhgljhex
aZ kj_^klZfb fZkkhhc bgnhjfZpbb b jZkijhkljZg_gbx i_qZlghc ijh^mdpbb // <_klgbd
Fhkdhkdh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ F<>Jhkkbb. 2011. ‹ 12. K. 282–284;:f[jhkv_:<. Hk\ _^h-
fbl_evgh_[xjhijb=eZghf mijZe_gbbih^_eZfi_qZlbFbgbkl_jklZgmlj_ggbo^_e
Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb: kljmdlmjZ b hj]ZgbaZpby ^_yl_evghklb // Bklhjby ]hkm^ZjklZ
bijZZ. 2011. ‹ 17. K. 30–35;:f[jhkv_:. <. GhjfZlbghijZhh_ j_]mebjhZgb_ ^_y-
l_evghklb =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih^_eZfi_qZlb F<> Jhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb\lhjhciheh-
\bgu XIX – gZqZeZ XX \\. // Bklhjby] hkm^Zjkl\ZbijZ\Z. 2012. ‹ 5. K. 26–30.
306
:f[jhkv_ :. <. Hj]ZgbaZpbhgghijZhu_ hkghu ^_yl_evghklb ]eZgh]h mijZ\-
e_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb (1865–1917 ]].) :
Zlhj_n. ^bk. ... dZg^. xjb^. gZmd. F., 2012. K. 22. < hp_gd_ p_gamjghc ijZdlbdb ^hj_\h-
expbhgghc Jhkkbb Zlhj kqblZ_l «bkihevahZgb_ b h[h[s_gb_» hiulZ ^_yl_evghklb
=eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb «h^gbf ba mkehbc kh_jr_gklhZgby ^_yl_evgh-
klb kljmdlmjguo ih^jZa^_e_gbc kbkl_fu F<>Jhkkbckdhc N_^_jZpbb, hl_qZxsbo aZ
kyav k h[s_kl_gghklvx, mqZklmxsbomq_l_b nhjfbjhZgbbh[s_kl\_ggh]h fg_gby»
(:f[jhkv_:. <.MdZa. khq. K. 3).
307
IZljmr_ZG. =.P_gamjgZy j_nhjfZJhkkbb 1865 ]. : Zlhj_n. ^bk. ... dZg^. bkl.
gZmd. E., 1990. K. 17.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
81[Zgkdhc h[eZklb, kj_^b dhlhjuo «Dm[Zgkdb_ h[eZklgu_ _^hfhklb»
g_kfhljy gZ khc hnbpbZevguc klZlmk) aZ jZaf_s_gb_ djblbq_kdbo
b aeh[h^g_guo im[ebdZpbc \ 1901–03 ]]. ihemqbeb jy^ aZf_qZgbc
hl =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb308
. GG. FhjhahZ (2009)
h[jZlbeZkv d «Lhfkdbf» b «Lh[hevkdbf» \_^hfhklyf \ dhgl_dkl_
iheblbdb ]m[_jgkdbo eZkl_c ih bo bkihevahZgbx «^ey jZ[hlu
kh[s_kl\hf»309
 b ijbgylby mijZe_gq_kdbo j_r_gbc. :lhj ^_eZ_l
uh^, qlh Z^fbgbkljZpby AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb ku]jZeZ j_rZxsmx
jhevhagbdgh_gbb]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c, Zf_klgu_qbghgbdb
uklmiZebdZq_kl_Zlhjh__g_hnbpbZevghcqZklb (qlhjZkp_gb-
Z_lkydZdihdZaZl_evebygby\ukr_cZ^fbgbkljZpbbAZiZ^ghcKb-
[bjbgZba^Z\Z_fu_bfb]Za_lu)310
. H^bgbal_abkhGG. Fhjhah\hc
h lhf, qlh h[s_kl\_ggh_ agZq_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c aZ\bk_eh
hl eb[_jZevguo a]ey^h ]m[_jgZlhjZ b _]h ihdjh\bl_evkl_ggh]h
hlghr_gby d ij_kk_, g_ ih^l_j`^Z_lky kblmZpb_c k «Lhfkdbfb
]m[_jgkdbfb \_^hfhklyfb» k_j_^bgu 60-o ]]., dh]^Z \ mkeh\byo hl-
kmlklby m f_klguo eZkl_c lZdbo dZq_kl ]Za_lZ klZeZ ijhiZ]Zg^b-
jhZlvh[eZklgbq_kdb_\a]ey^u.
<^hdlhjkdhc^bkk_jlZpbb?<. Dmj[Zdhhc (2009), ihkys_gghc
uye_gbxaZdhghf_jghkl_cbnhjfaZbfhebygby]m[_jgkdboeZ-
kl_c b f_klghc i_qZlb (gZ ijbf_j_ DZaZgkdhc b Gb`_]hjh^kdhc ]m-
[_jgbc), g_[hevrhc jZa^_e ihkys_g h[klhyl_evkl\Zf \uoh^Z (\_j-308
Ir_gbqgZy F. :. =hkm^Zjkl\_ggZy iheblbdZ  h[eZklb p_gamju i_qZlb  Jhkkbb
XIX – gZqZeZ XX \_dh\ : ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. KlZ\jhihev, 2002. K. 146–148.
309
Fhjhah\ZGG.:^fbgbkljZpbyAZiZ^ghcKb[bjbbf_klgZyij_kkZ (1857–1866) : Z\-
lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 2009. 23 k.
310
 JZ[hlZ GG. Fhjhah\hc g_ kh[h^gZ hl g_dhlhjuo g_agZqbl_evguo, gh ^hkZ^guo
nZdlbq_kdbo hrb[hd, dhlhju_  ^Zevg_cr_f fh]ml lbjZ`bjhZlvky ijb h[jZs_gbb
d^Zgghfm l_dklm. LZd, g_\_jgh mdZaZgZ dhg_qgZy ^ZlZ j_^ZdlhjklZ gZ^ g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklvx «Lhfkdb o ]m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c» >E. Dmag _ph\Z – 1866 ]. (16 k_gly[ jy 1865 ].
>E. Dmag_ph[ueZj_klhZgih^_emh[eZklgbdhb j_^ZdlhjhfgZagZq_g :J. GbdheZ_\,
ijbklmibrbc d khbf h[yaZgghklyf k  36 hl 17 k_gly[jy 1865 ].). <l_dkl_ lZd`_ ml-
_j`^Z_lky, qlhg_hnbpbZevgZyqZklv «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» gZqZeZuoh^blv
k 1858 ]. (\ 1857 ]. uoh^beZdhebq_kl\_g_kdhevdbojZajhag_gguoghf_jh\, ojZgysboky
JG;), ]Za_lZuimkdZeZkvdhebq_kl\_ 51 ghf_jZ]h^m (dhebq_kl\hghf_jhjZagbehkv
hl 50 ^h 52), \ 1866 ]. uoh^g_hnbpbZevghcqZklb[ueg_ihklhygguf (\ 1866 ]. g_hnbpb-
ZevgZy qZklv ijh^he`ZeZ uoh^blv gZjy^m k hnbpbZevghc, k  17 hl 6 fZy 1866 ]. h[_
qZklb i_qZlZebkv khf_klgh, Z ghf_jZ ]Za_lu k g_hnbpbZevghc qZklvx, hlkmlkl\mxsb_
\G;L=MbG=HG; – ‹‹ 9, 41, 43–47, ij_^klZ\e_gu\]Za_lghfnhg^_;:G). >_eh
Hihjmq_gbb p_gamjbjhZgby g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c Lh[hevkdhc
b Lhfkdhc ]m[_jgbc ^bj_dlhjZf mqbebs wlbo ]m[_jgbc», 21 fZy – 21 bxgy 1857 ].
N. 772. Hi. 1. Q. 2. >. 4149. 1857 ]. 3 e.) ihhiehrghklb^Zlbjh\Zgh 1851 ]., bgZwlhf
hkghZgbb^_eZ_lkyij_^iheh`_gb_h kyabwlh]h^hdmf_glZk j_bab_cAZiZ^ghcKb[bjb
GG. :gg_gdh\uf 1851 ].

=eZ\Z 1
82g__, g_uoh^Z) «DZaZgkdbo» b «Gb`_]hjh^kdbo» ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfh-
kl_c \ 1830 ].311
«Gb`_]hjh^kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» \ 1890 ].,
gZjZ\g_ k qZklgufb ]Za_lZfb, ijbgyeb mqZklb_ \ «^_kljmdlbghc
djblbd_» f_klguo eZkl_c, h[mkehe_gghc «g_`_eZgb_f ij_^klZb-
l_e_c `mjgZebklkdh]h p_oZkihkh[klhZlvdhgkljmdlb\ghfm ij_h[-
jZahZgbx ihk_^g_ghc j_Zevghklb»312
. <uh^u, k^_eZggu_ Z\lh-
jhf, ihaheyxl ]hhjblv h g_dh_f «iZjZ^b]fZlbq_kdhf k^b]_»
hp_gdZodhgk_jZlbghhojZgbl_evguobj_hexpbhgguoba^Zgbc,
dhlhju_ ihemqZxl ghu_ gZbf_ghZgby – «ij_kkZ dhgkljmdlbgh]h
ih^oh^Z», gZkljZbZ\rZy qblZl_ey gZ «ihk_^g_gmxfbjgmxjZ[h-
lm», b «ij_kkZ ^_kljmdlbgh]h ih^oh^Z», ijbauZ\rZy «gZ [hjv[m
k “eZklvx” b “m]g_lZl_eyfb”», g_^jyrZy  fZkkhh_ khagZgb_
e_]dh_kgu_, ghgZ]g_lZxsb_gZijy`_gghklvb^_b», ijbe_dZ\rZy
ghuo ^_yl_e_c  jy^u wdklj_fbklh\». J_hexpbhggh_ ^b`_gb_
gZqZeZ XX \. lZd`_ hkh\j_f_gbZ_lky b ihemqZ_l khhl_lklmxsmx
bg\_jkb\gmx hp_gdm \ hij_^_e_gbb «wdklj_fbklkdh_ ^\b`_gb_».
Bgl_j_k_g lZd`_ ihhjhl  hp_gd_ ijbuqguo ^h]fZlh h[ Z^fbgb-
kljZlbghf b p_gamjghf ^Ze_gbb f_klguo eZkl_c gZ qZklgmx i_-
qZlv – dZaZgkdb_ bgb`_]hjh^kdb_ ]m[_jgZlhju «g_ lhevdh g_ qbgb-
eb ij_iylklbc ^ey hagbdgh_gby ghuo ba^Zgbc, gh klj_fbebkv
Zdlb\gh g_^jylv i_jbh^bdm  fZkku», gZebqb_ `_ p_gahjZ –
lj_lv_]h ebpZ», ihkj_^gbdZ f_`^m qblZl_e_f b `mjgZebklhf –
jZajZsZeh» ihke_^g_]h «ebqghc xjb^bq_kdhc [_agZdZaZgghklvx
b\hafh`ghklvx hijZ^uZlv khc g_ijhn_kkbhgZebaf lZd gZau-
Z_fuf “ijhbahehf p_gamju”». «;m^msbc bklhjbd l_i_j_rg_c
kfmlukijZ_^ebh hp_gbl^Z`_fZe_crb_gZrbmkbebydkiZk_gbx
Jh^bgu, dhkklZghe_gbx__kbeu, p_evghklbbwg_j]bbbebkmjh\h
aZde_cfblgZrmyehklv, jZgh^mrb_be_gv, ijbb^_lh]h, dZd]b[-
gml lukyq_e_lgb_ ljm^u b aZ[hlu gZrbo ij_^dh\, kha^ZZrbo _-
ebdh_ p_eh_ – Jhkkbx», – lZd pblZlhc ba «H[ghe_gby» (1906, ‹ 1,
10 yg\.) – i_qZlgh]h hj]ZgZ dZaZgkdbo hdly[jbklh\ (dhlhju_, ih aZ-
f_qZgbx kZfh]h ZlhjZ, [ueb b^_cgh [ebadb «ijZuf», l_. q_jgh-311
Dmj[ZdhZ ?<. Bklhjby dZaZgkdhc b gb`_]hjh^kdhc ij_kku 1811–1917 ]].:
eZklvbh[s_kl\_ggu_gZkljh_gbyjhkkbckdhcijhbgpbb. G. Gh]hjh^, 2008. K. 13–
17;Dmj[Zdh\Z?<.=m[_jgkdZyeZklvbij_kkZjhkkbckdhcijhbgpbb\ 1811–1917 ]].
gZfZl_jbZeZo DZaZgkdhc b Gb`_]hjh^kdhc ]m[_jgbc) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. ... ^jZ bkl.
gZmd. G. Gh]hjh^, 2009. 55 k.
312
Dmj[Zdh\Z ?<. Bklhjby dZaZgkdhc b gb`_]hjh^kdhc ij_kku 1811–1917 ]]. …
K. 185, 189–190.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
83khl_gpZf) – lhj`_kl_ggh aZ_jrZ_lky jZ[hlZ h aZbfhhlghr_gbyo
eZklbbijhbgpbZevghci_qZlb313
.
L_fm \aZbfhhlghr_gbc p_gamjguo mqj_`^_gbc b Z^fbgbkl-
jZpbb jZaebqguo mjhg_c k «i_jbn_jbcghc i_jbh^bdhc» \ fZk-
rlZ[Zok_cJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb\ 1830–1905 ]]. ijh^he`be<N. ;eh-
obg (2011)314
. P_gamjgh_ \_^hfkl\h jZkkfhlj_gh Z\lhjhf g _
lhevdh klhqdbaj_gbyk^_j`bZgbyjZa\blbyijhbgpbZevghci_-
qZlb (dhlhjZy kha^ZZeZ ]m[_jgkdbf eZklyf b p_gahjZf lhevdh
^hihegbl_evgu_ ijh[e_fu), gh b \ dZq_kl\_ «iZjlg_jZ», ohly
bg_\hevgh]h, gh kihkh[gh]h \Zjvbjh\Zlv f_`^m iZjZ]jZnZfb
p_gamjguo mklZ\h \khhl\_lkl\bb k h[s_kl\_ggufb gZkljh_gby-
fb, iheblbdhc_johghc\eZklb, l_fZlbq_kdbfbij_^ihql_gbyfb
kZfhcij_kku: «=Za_lgu_fZl_jbZeu^ebl_evgh_\j_fy\uklmiZeb
k\h_h[jZaguf j_amevlZlhf khl\hjq_kl\Z j_^Zdpbc b bgklblmlZ
ij_^Zjbl_evghc p_gamju, hljZ`Z\r_c a]ey^u ijZ\bl_evkl\Z
bf_klguo eZkl_c gZ ijhbkoh^b\rb_  kljZg_ kh[ulby»315
. «=h-
ehkhf ]hkm^Zjkl\Z» \nhjfbjh\Zgbb h[s_kl\_ggh]h fg_gby
bha^_cklbbgZ «gbarbobkihegbl_e_c» ^he`gu[ueb klZlv]m-
[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb, gh «^Ze_dh g_ \k_ ba gbo kmf_eb  mkehbyo
lhqgh]hbkiheg_gbyaZdhghh[boba^Zgbb, `_kldhcaZ\bkbfhklb
hl ]m[_jgkdh]h gZqZevkl\Z uklmiZlv ^hklhcgufb dhgdmj_glZfb
qZklghcijhbgpbZevghcij_kku»316
. Nmgdpbxijh_^_gbyijZb-
l_evkl_gghciheblbdblZd`_uihegyebihemhnbpbZevgu_hj]Z-
gu, hldjulh beb g_]eZkgh nbgZgkbjm_fu_ f_klgufb eZklyfb –
hnbpbhau beb ij_keh\mlu_ «j_ilbebb», dhlhju_ <N. ;ehobg
jZfdZo gZf_lbr_]hky «iZjZ^b]fZlbq_kdh]h k^b]Z» baysgh
hij_^_ey_l dZd «ijhbgpbZevgmx km[kb^bjhZggmx i_qZlv»317
.
Ba kb[bjkdbo ]Za_l d lZdh\uf fh`gh hlg_klb «:fmj», dhl hjuc
Z\lhj \k_ `_ ihf_sZ_l \ jZa^_e «I_ju_ qZklgu_ fZkkhu_ ijh-
\bgpbZevgu_]Za_lu\Jhkkbb». <dZq_kl\_h^ghcbaijbqbgihy\-
e_gby \ Kb[bjb \ 1860-_ ]]. ]Za_l g_]hkm^Zjkl\_gghc nhjfu kh[-
kl\_gghklb <N. ;ehobg gZau\Z_l «hlkmlkl\b_ \ Fbgbkl_jkl\_
\gmlj_ggbo ^_e k\h[h^guo kj_^kl\ gZ kha^Zgb_ ijZ\bl_evkl\_g-313
Dmj[Zdh\Z ?<. Bklhjby dZaZgkdhc b gb`_]hjh^kdhc ij_kku 1811–1917 ]. ...
K. 231–235, 285.
314
;ehobg<. N.KlZghe_gb_bjZablb_]m[_jgkdhci_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbb:
\lhjZylj_lv XIX – gZqZeh XX \. : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. ... ^jZbkl. gZmd. KI[., 2011. 33 k.
315
LZf`_.MdZa. khq. K. 14.
316
LZf`_.K. 18–19.
317
LZf`_. K. 19.

=eZ\Z 1
84guo hj]Zgh\ i_qZlb  wlhf j_]bhg_ kljZgu»318
, ohly wlb kj_^klZ, ih
gh\ufrlZlZf^eykb[bjkdbo]m[_jgbc, ml_j`^_gguf 6 ^_dZ[jy 1856 ].,
dZd jZa b ihkem`beb hkghZgb_f ^ey mqj_`^_gby \ 1857 ]. ]m[_jgkdbo
\_^hfhkl_c\Lh[hevkd_, Bjdmlkd_, DjZkg hyjkd_bLhfkd_.
D bamq_gbx ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c b bo hlghr_gbc k ]hkm^Zj-
kl_ggufbhj]ZgZfbeZklbh[jZsZxlkybaZjm[_`gu_bkke_^hZl_-
eb. Jhev _^hfhkl_c  nhjfbjhZgbb ]jZ`^Zgkdh]h h[s_klZ klZeZ
ij_^f_lhfbkke_^hZgby KxaZg KfblI_l_j «JmkkdZy ijhbgpbZev-
gZy]Za_lZb__qblZl_eb, 1788–1864 ]].» (2008). GZijbf_j_, ]eZ\guf
h[jZahf, «YjhkeZ\kdbo» b «<eZ^bfbjkdbo» \_^hfhkl_c Z\lhj ijb-
oh^bl d uh^m, qlh jZablb_ ]Za_lu g_ k^_j`bZehkvdhgljhe_f kh
klhjhgu eZkl_c, gZ __ whexpbx ebyeb jZaghh[jZagu_ f_klgu_
mkehby, aZbfhhlghr_gby j_^ZdlhjZ k ]m[_jgZlhjhf, bgbpbZlb\u
ij_^klZbl_e_c h[jZahZgghc h[s_kl_gghklb319
. DZgZeh]bqghfm
uh^mijboh^blDhgjZ^;Zmp (1996): «Ijh]jZffZ`_kh^_j`Zgbywlhc
qZklb [g_hnbpbZevghc] ij_^klZeyeZ jZfdb, ba dhlhjuo uclb g_ ^h-
imkdZehkv, ghgmljbdhlhjuoj_^Zdlhjfh]^Zlv]Za_l_^Z`_yghh^gh-
klhjhgg__gZijZe_gb_. P_gghklv]Za_luaZbk_eZhl j_^ZdlhjZ, Zg_ hl
]m[_jgZlhjZb_]hfgbfh]hijhba\heZ»320
.
=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb dZd bklhqgbd ^ey bamq_gby ehdZevghc
bklhjbboZjZdl_jbahZebkvklhqdbaj_gbybobklhqgbdh_^q_kdh]h
ihl_gpbZeZbebbkihevahZebkvhk_s_gbbjy^Zdhgdj_lguobklh-
jbq_kdbo kx`_lh\. N:. Ebl\bgZ (1969) h[jZlbeZkv d \_^hfhklyf
dhgpZ 1850-o – gZqZeZ 1860-o]]. dZdbklhqgbdm^eybamq_gbykhklZZ
mqZklgbdh\ b ijh]jZff ebl_jZlmjguo \_q_jh\, hj]Zgbam_fuo «ijh-
]j_kkbghcbgl_eeb]_gpb_c» i_jbh^ih^]hlhdbbj_ZebaZpbbdj_-
klvygkdhc j_nhjfu321
. <:. Dmklh\ (1973) k^_eZe\u\h^hlhf, qlhg_-318
;ehobg <. N. KlZghe_gb_ b jZablb_ ]m[_jgkdhc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb  Jhk-
kbb… K. 22.
319
Susan Smith-Peter. The Russian Provincial Newspaper and its Public, 1788–1864. Pitts-
burgh, 2008;KfblIbl_jK. Bklhdb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c: 1831 – gZqZeh 1850-o]].
// IjhbgpbZevgZy`mjgZebklbdZb`bagvJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb\ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. I_l-
jhaZ\h^kd, 2008. K. 23–51;;hevrZdh\ZH<.KfblIbl_jK. JmkkdZyijhbgpbZevgZy]Za_lZ
b __ qb lZl_eb, 1788–1864 // KhpbZevgu_ b ]mfZgblZjgu_ gZmdb. Hl_q_kl_ggZy b aZjm[_`gZy
ebl_jZlmjZ. K_jby 5: Bklhjby. J_n_jZlbguc`mjgZe. 2010. ‹ 2. K. 65–69.
320
;ZmpD.=m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb» dZdbklhqgbdihbklhjbbf_klgh]hkZfhkhagZgby
 ]m[_jgbyo Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb (ih fZl_jbZeZf «<eZ^bfbjkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
kl_c», 1838–1888 ]].) // JhkkbckdZyijhbgpby XVIII – XIX \.: j_Zebbdmevlmjghc`bagb :
fZl_jbZeu III <k_jhkkbckdhcgZmqghcdhgn_j_gpbb. I_gaZ, 1996. Dg. 2. K. 19.
321
Ebl\bgZ N:. «=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» dZd bklhqgbd ^ey bamq_gby ebl_jZlmjguo
_q_jh wihob iZ^_gby dj_ihklgh]h ijZZ // Hq_jdb bklhjbb Ih\he`vy b IjbmjZevy:
k[hjgbd klZl_c. DZaZgv, 1969. <ui. 2–3. K. 130–133;Ebl\bgZ N:. Ebl_jZlmjgu_ _q_jZ

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
85hnbpbZevgZyqZklv «I_jfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» yey_lkyh^gbf
ba «Z`guo bklhjbq_kdbo bklhqgbdh\, ba dhlhjh]h fh`gh ihq_jigmlv
jZaghh[jZagu_ – Z ih^qZk b _^bgkl\_ggu_  kh_f jh^_ – k\_^_gby ba
bklhjbbKj_^g_]hMjZeZ, _]hwdhghfbdb, dmevlmju, wlgh]jZnbb, nhevd-
ehjZ b li.»322
. =N. Qm^hZ (1981) mklZghbeZ Z\lhjkl\h klZl_c, ihky-
s_gguo<yld_ b <ylkdhc ]m[_jgbb, im[ebdhZrboky \i_j\h_ ^_kylb-
e_lb_ uoh^Z «<ylkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»323
, Z::. Ohoeh\
(1995) deZkkbnbpbjhZeboih 19 jZa^_eZf324
.
Ij_^f_lhf ^bkk_jlZpbhggh]h bkke_^hZgby <<. >_f_glv_hc
(1985) klZeijhp_kk hj]ZgbaZpbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  YjhkeZ\-
e_, <eZ^bfbj_, Dhkljhf_, L_jb, kh^_j`Zgb_ im[ebdZpbc hnbpb-
Zevghcbg_hnbpbZevguoqZkl_c\dZq_kl_bklhqgbdZihkhpbZevgh-
wdhghfbq_kdhfm jZablbx Jhkkbb325
. Im[ebdZpbb  ]m[_jgkdbo _-
^hf hklyo <_jog_]h Ih\he`vy [ueb ijhZgZebabjh\Zgu Z\lhjhf i h
ke_^mxsbf ]jmiiZf: djbabk ihf_sbqv_]h ohaycklZ, bklhjby lhj-
]heb b dj_klvygkdh]h ohaycklZ, jZablb_ ijhfure_gghklb b we_-
f_glh dZiblZebafZ  ^_j_g_. Kh^_j`Zl_evgZy p_gghklv ^Zgguo
fZl_jbZeh jZaebqgZ: «yeyxsb_ky hkghguf b kZfhklhyl_evguf
bklhqgbdhf ^ey oZjZdl_jbklbdb hl^_evguo khpbZevghwdhghfb-
q_kdbo ijhp_kkh\», «im[ebdZpbb, ihaheyxsb_ dhjj_dlbjhZlv
bkms_kl_ggh ^hihegylv ^Zggu_ ^jm]bo bklhqgbdh\», «im[ebdZ-
pbb, kem`Zsb_ kihfh]Zl_evguf bklhqgbdhf ^ey bamq_gby hij_^_-
e_gghc l_fu»326
. Ml_j`^_gb_ h[ «h`be_gbb» _^hfhkl_c dZd h[-
s_c^ey\k_ogbol_g^_gpbb\ 50-_]]. XIX \. <<. >_f_glv_\Z
^hihegbeZ hq_gv p_gguf \uh^hf h lhf, qlh «i_jbh^u h`be_gby
bih^t_fZ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb yeyxlky lZdhufb lhevdh ih hl-wihob iZ^_gby dj_ihklgh]h ijZZ: ba bklhjbb h[s_kl\_ggh]h ^b`_gby b dmevlmjghc
`bagbJhkkbb : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. DZaZgv, 1970. 21 k.
322
Dmklh\ <:. =Za_lZ «I_jfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» k 1838 ih 1917 ]]. (DjZ_-
_^q_kdbchq_jd) // Yaudbb hghfZklbdZIjbdZfvy : k[hjgbd klZl_c. I_jfv, 1973. K. 113–
128.
323
Qm^h\Z=. N. < l_ ^Zezdb_ ]h^u : Hq_jdb ih bklhjbb djZ_\_^_gby <ylkdhc ]m[_j-
gbb. Dbjh\, 1981. 160 k.
324
Ohoeh ::. «<ylkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» dZd bklhqgbd bamq_gby <ylkdh]h
djZy // <ylkdZy a_fey  ijhrehf b gZklhys_f: fZl_jbZeu III gZmqghc dhgn_j_gpbb, ih-
kys_gghc 50-e_lbxIh[_^u\<_ebdhcHl_q_kl\_gghc\hcg_. Dbjh\, 1995. K. 53–56.
325
>_f_glv_\Z<<.=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb<_jog_]hIhhe`vy 1831–1861 ]]. dZdbk-
lhqgbd ih khpbZevghwdhghfbq_kdhc bklhjbb Jhkkbb : ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. F., 1985.
251 c. AZye_gguc h \_^_gbb l_abk ZlhjZ h lhf, qlh  _^hfhklyo «iheblbq_kdb_
bh[s_kl_gghb^_heh]bq_kdb_ hijhku gZreb hljZ`_gb_ …  fbgbfZevghf h[t_f_»
k. 3), hijh_j]Z_lky iheblbdhc p_gljZevguo b f_klguo eZkl_c ih ijb^Zgbx ]Za_l_ h[-
s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdh]hoZjZdl_jZi_jbh^i_jhcjmkkdhcj_hexpbb.
326
LZf`_. K. 190–191.

=eZ\Z 1
86ghr_gbx d kh^_j`Zgbx _^hfhkl_c h^ghc hl^_evgh aylhc ]m[_j-
gbb»327
. Ihgylby «miZ^hd» b «ih^t_f» lZd`_ mkehgu – ih gZ[ex-
^_gbx ZlhjZ, «<eZ^bfbjkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb»  i_jbh^
miZ^dZ» [ueb ]hjZa^h [he__ jZaghklhjhggbfb b bgnhjfZpbhggh
gZkus_ggufb, q_f «L\_jkdb_»  i_jbh^ bo «ih^t_fZ». >ey gZqZev-
ghc bklhjbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, dhlhjZy h[uqgh kyau\Z_lky k bo
fZkkh\uf ihye_gb_f \ 1838 ]., Z`gh h[jZs_gb_ <<. >_f_glv_\hc
dnZdlm uoh^Z «YjhkeZ\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» k 1831 ]., \ khhl-
\_lklbbk «Iheh`_gb_fh[ba^Zgbb]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» 1830 ].328
F:. <blmoghkdZy (1992) jZkkfhlj_eZ kh^_j`Zgb_ b djm] Zlh-
jh\ «Hehg_pdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c», dhl hju_, «ihklmiZl_evgh
jZabZykvbkh_jr_gklmykv», ddhgpm XIX \. «klZebkh^_j`Zl_ev-
guf djZ__^q_kdbf hj]Zghf»329
. RbjhdZy l_fZlbq_kdZy iZghjZfZ
im[ebdZpbc «L_jkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» – hl bklhjbq_kdbo
bklhqgbdh\ XVII \. ^h khh[s_gbc h oh^_ hk\h[h`^_gby dj_ihklguo
dj_klvyg – ij_^klZe_gZ  klZlv_ EB. >_fbghc b FI. FhogZq_\hc
(1994)330
. Kh^_j`Zgb_ «L_jkdbo» b «Hjehkdbo» \_^hfhkl_c ijbf_-
gbl_evgh d f_klghc bklhjbb djZldh aZljhgmlh  klZlvyo <A. BkZdhZ
(1997)331
 b :B. Dhg^jZl_gdh (1999)332
. >bkk_jlZpby L<. Ijm^dh]ey^
(2000) ihkys_gZ jheb i_qZlb >Zevg_]h <hklhdZ  khpbZevgh-327
>_f_glv_\Z<<.=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb<_jog_]hIhhe`vy … K. 54.
328
 Wlhfm Z`ghfm «fbdjhhldjulbx» ihkys_gZ hl^_evgZy klZlvy:>_f_glv_\Z <<.
Ba bklhjbb hagbdgh\_gby «YjhkeZ\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» // Kh_lkdb_ Zjobu.
F., 1981. ‹ 6. K. 43–45. Gh nZdl\uoh^Z «YjhkeZ\kdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» k 1831 ].
nbdkbjhZe m`_ h^bg ba i_juo mdZaZl_e_c ]Za_lu (kf.:Ebibgkdbc F:. MdZaZl_ev d g_-
hnbpbZevg hfm hl^ _em «YjhkeZ\kdb o ]m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c» k 1831 ih 1881 ]]. // Ljm^u
YjhkeZ\kdh]h ]m[_jgkdh]h klZlbklbq_kdh]h dhfbl_lZ. F., 1885. L. 9. 357 k.) < 1963 ].
:G. BZghlZd`_mdZauZe\_jgmx^ZlmgZqZeZba^Zgby]Za_lu (BZgh:G.DhgklZglbg
>fbljb_bq Mrbgkdbc  YjhkeZe_ // Bkke_^hZgby b ^hdmf_glu h gZmqgh-
i_^Z]h]bq_kdhcbebl_jZlmjghc^_yl_evghklb. YjhkeZev, 1963. K. 339). < 1971 ]. gZdjm]-
emx^Zlmbklhjbb «YjhkeZ\kdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» h[jZsZehkvgbfZgb_f_klguo
dmevlmjghijhk\ _lb l_evkdb o jZ[hlgbdh\ (BZgh :G. «YjhkeZkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfh-
klb» (d 140-e_lbx kh ^gy uoh^Z i_jh]h ghf_jZ ]Za_lu. 18 fZjlZ 1831 ].) // < ihfhsv
djZ_\_^q_kdhcjZ[hl_[b[ebhl_d. YjhkeZev, 1971. K. 19–21).
329
<blmogh\kdZy F:. Ba bklhjbb jhkkbckdhc ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb (Hehg_pdb_
]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb  dhgp_ XIX \_dZ) // Wdhghfbq_kdb_ b khpbZevghiheblbq_kdb_
ijh[e_fuhl_q_kl\_gghcb klhjbb. F.; KI[., 1992. K. 115.
330
>_fbgZ EB., FhogZq_\Z FI. KljZgbpu bklhjbb L\_jkdh]h djZy  hk_s_gbb
L\_jkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» k_j_^bgu XIX \. // L\_jkdZy a_fey  ijhrehf
bgZklhys_f : k[hjgbdklZl_c. L_jv, 1994. K. 48–56.
331
BkZdh\<A. «L\_jkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb» – i_jZyl_jkdZy]Za_lu // <_klgbd
ZjobbklZ. ‹ 1(37). F., 1997. K. 36–41.
332
Dhg^jZl_gdh :B. <hagbdgh\_gb_ b jZablb_ i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb  Hjehkdhc
]m[_jgbb // DjZ_\_^q_kdb_ aZibkdb. K[hjgbd. <ui. 3: FZl_jbZeu gZmqghc dhgn_j_gpbb.
Hj_e, 1999. K. 50–58.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
87wdhg hfbq_kdhf b dmevlmjg hf jZa\blbb j_]b hgZ333
. KlZlbklbq_kdb_ fZ-
l_jbZeu «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» [ueb ijbe_q_gu ^ey oZ-
jZdl_jbklbdbwdhghfbq_kdhc`bagb^hj_\hexpbhggh]hLhfkdZfhgh-
]jZnbb GF. >fbljb_gdh (2000)334
. GZhkgh\_im[ebdZpbc\ «Yjh-
keZ\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo» h ^_yl_evg hklb YjhkeZ\kdhc ]hjh^-
kdhc^mfuibkZebI=. :]Znhgh\, B<. <hedhZ, H<. KmkehZ (2001)335
.
FZl_jbZeZf, hljZ`Zxsbf jhkkbckdhkdZg^bgZkdb_ lhj]hu_ hlgh-
r_gby, bj_deZfgufh[tye_gbyf «:joZg]_evkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfh-
kl_c» i hk\ys_guklZlvbF:. Kfb jgh\hc336
.
JZaebqgu_klhjhgudmevlmjghc`bagbDhkljhfkdhc]m[_jgbb –
h[jZahZgb_ b ijhk_s_gb_, j_eb]by b [eZ]hl\hjbl_evghklv, ih-
k_^g_guc [ul b ijZa^gbdb – gZ fZl_jbZeZo f_klghc i_jbh^bq_-
kdhc i_qZlb (\dexqZy «Dhkljhfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb») [ueb
jZkkfhlj_gu H<. ;_j^h\hc (2002)337
. :K. <_j_sZ]bg (2003) mklZ-
ghbe, qlh «Mnbfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb», uoh^brb_
\ 1867–1917 ]]. (k 1906 ]. g_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv ba^ZZeZkv hl^_ev-
ghdZd «MnbfkdbcdjZc»), kh^_j`Zl[h]ZlucfZl_jbZe (lhfqbke_
bf_xsbc oZjZdl_j i_jhbklhqgbdZ) ih wdhghfbq_kdhfm iheh`_-
gbx hl^_evguo keh_ gZk_e_gby ]m[_jgbb, k\_^_gby h[ mjh`Z_
bp_gZo gZ ijh^mdlu, hq_jdb ih bklhjbb b wlgh]jZnbb djZy, khh[-
s_gby ]m[_jgkdh]h klZlbklbq_kdh]h dhfbl_lZ, l_ZljZevgmx ojhgb-
dm338
. ??. RmjmihZ (2005) jZkkfhlj_eZ l_fZlbdm b `Zgjh\ h_
k\h_h[jZab_ fZl_jbZeh ih bklhjbb Jmkkdh]h K_\_jZ, him[ebdh-
Zgguo \ «:joZg]_evkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo», dZd nZdlhj
dhgkheb^Zpbb ijhbgpbZevghc bgl_eeb]_gpbb, hkms_kleyr_c333
Ijm^dh]ey^ L<. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv b __ jhev  khpbZevghwdhghfbq_kdhf
bdmevlmjghfjZablbb>Zevg_]h<hklhdZJhkkbb (1865–1917) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl.
gZmd. <eZ^b\hklhd, 2000. 29 k.
334
>fbljb_gdhGF.Kb[bjkdbc]hjh^Lhfkd\ XIX – i_j\hclj_lb XX _dZ : mijZ\-
e_gb_, wdhghfbdZ, gZk_e_gb_. Lhfkd, 2000. 284 k.
335
:]Znhgh\ I=., <hedh\Z B<., Kmkeh\Z H<. Jhev b nmgdpbb ]hjh^ kdh]h ]heh\ u
YjhkeZey hlhjhcihehbg_ XIX _dZ (ihfZl_jbZeZf]Za_lu «YjhkeZkdb_]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb») // <eZklvb]hjh^: bklhjbybkhj_f_gghklv. YjhkeZev, 2001. K. 26–30.
336
Kfbjgh\Z F:. HljZ`_gb_ kya_c k__jguo kljZg k Jhkkbckdbf K_\_jhf gZ kljZ-
gbpZo «:joZg]_evkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» (1839–1859) // :joZg]_evkd b k__jgu_
kljZgu dhgpZ XIV – gZqZeZ XX _dZ. :joZg]_evkd, 1999. K. 125–128;Kfbjgh\Z F:.J_d-
eZfgu_ h[tye_gby  ^hj_hexpbhgghc f_klghc i_qZlb dZd bklhqgbd bgnhjfZpbb
ihfZl_jbZeZf «:joZg]_evkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c») // FZkkhu_bklhqgbdbbklhjbb
bdmevlmjuJhkkbb XVI – XX \. :joZg]_evkd, 2002. K. 272–276.
337
;_j^h\Z H<. DmevlmjgZy `bagv Dhkljhfkdhc ]m[_jgbb  a_jdZe_ i_jbh^bq_kdhc
i_qZlbdhgpZ XIX – gZqZeZ XX _dZ. DhkljhfZ, 2002. 360 k.
338
<_j_sZ]bg :K. Bklhjby djZy  ]Za_l_ «Mnbfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb». MnZ,
2003. 52 k.

=eZ\Z 1
88bklhjbdhdjZ_\_^q_kdb_ baukdZgby, \ jZfdZo k\h_c ijhn_kkbh-
gZevghc ^_yl_evghklb b ih ebqguf fhlbZf339
. :X. Ibl_jh\Z
(2005) bkihevahZeZ fZl_jbZeu «I_ga_gkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
kl_c» 1864–1915 ]]. ^ey bamq_gby ijh\h^bfuo f_klguf a_fkl\hf
f_jhijbylbc  wdhghfbq_kdhc b khpbZevghc kn_jZo340
. GG. Q_l-
_jldhZ (2007) lZd`_ gZ hkgh\_ ^Zggh]h bklhqgbdZ k^_eZeZ uh^
h lhf, qlh qbghgbdb, hj]Zgu kZfhmijZ\e_gby b qZklgu_ ebpZ kh-
f_klgufb b jZaghgZijZe_ggufb mkbebyfb kihkh[kl\hZeb m\_-
ebq_gbx dhebq_klZ h[jZahZl_evguo mqj_`^_gbc I_ga_gkdhc
]m[_jgbb  gZqZe_ XX \.341
 ?>. <u`bfh\ (2007) h[jZlbeky
dkh^_j`Zgbx «LZf[h\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» kp_evx u-
ye_gby hlghr_gby `bl_e_c ]m[_jgbb d kh[ulbyf Djufkdhc \hc-
gu b k^_eZe uh^ h[ h]jZgbq_gguo \hafh`ghklyo ^Zggh]h bklhq-
gbdZ, ihkdhevdmijZbl_evkl\h_ehaZij_lgZim[ebdZpbxklZl_c
h oh^_ \h_gguo ^_cklbc342
. H jheb bklhjbq_kdbo, wlgh]jZnbq_-
kdbobwdhghfbq_kdbofZl_jbZeh\ «Hehg_pdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfh-
kl_c» \ dhgkljmbjhZgbb «]m[_jgkdh]h iZljbhlbafZ» ibr_l
:<. =hem[_\ (2008)343
.
< h[s_kl_gghdmevlmjghc `bagb :kljZoZgkdhc ]m[_jgbb f_kl-
gu_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb, ih fg_gbxF?. FboZcehhc (2006), aZ-
gbfZebjZaebqgh_f_klh: \ 1838–1857 ]]. \gboim[ebdhZebkv «ijh-
k_lbl_evkdb_» klZlvb ih bklhjbb, wlgh]jZnbb, ]_h]jZnbb
bklZlbklbd_ djZy; \ 1858–1904 ]]. hkghghc l_fZlbdhc klZeZ khj_-
f_ggZywdhghfbq_kdZybdmevlmjgZy`bagv]m[_jgbb; \ 1905–1907 ]].
b 1914–1917 ]]. ]Za_lZ\uihegyeZiheblbq_kdb_Z]blZpbhggu_nmgd-339
Rmjmih\Z ??. «=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» b nhjfbjhZgb_ bgl_j_kZ d f_klghc bk-
lhjbb  ^hj_hexpbhgghc jhkkbckdhc ijhbgpbb (gZ fZl_jbZeZo :joZg]_evkdhc ]m[_j-
gbb) : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. :joZg]_evkd, 2005. 26 k.
340
Ibl_jh\Z :X. I_ga_gkdZy ]m[_jgkdZy i_qZlv h ^_yl_evghklb a_fklZ  i_jbh^
k 1864 ih 1917 ]. (gZijbf_j_ «I_ga_gkdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» b «<_klgbdZI_ga_g-
kdh]ha_fkl\Z») : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. KZjZg kd, 2005. 22 k.
341
Q_l_jldh\Z GG.GZjh^gh_ h[jZahZgb_I_ga_gkdhc]m[_jgbbgZqZe_ XX _dZ
(1900–1905 ]].). IhfZl_jbZeZf «I_ga_gkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» // Ba_klbyI_ga_g-
kdh]h ]hkm^Z jkl\ _ggh]h i _^Z]h]bq_kdh]h mgb\ _jkbl_lZ. K_dlhj fheh^uo mq _guo. 2007.
‹ 3(3). K. 140–143.
342
<u`bfh ?>. «LZf[h\kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» dZd bklhqgbd bamq_gby iZljbhlb-
q_kdhc ^_yl_evghklb`bl_e_c]m[_jgbbi_jbh^ Djufkdhc\hcgu 1853–56 ]]. // <_klgbdLZf-
[h\kdh]h]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]hmgb\_jkbl_lZ. 2007. <ui. 2 (46). K. 129–131.
343
=hem[_ :<. Jhev f_klghc ij_kku  klZghe_gbb j_]bhgZevghc b^_glbqghklb
Hehg_pdhc]m[_jgbb k_j_^bg_ XIX \. (ihfZl_jbZeZf «Hehg_pdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfh-
kl_c») // IjhbgpbZevgZy `mjgZebklbdZ b `bagv Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb \ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \.
I_ljhaZh^kd, 2008. K. 114–128.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
89pbb344
. :lhj ibr_l h ukhdhc wnn_dlbghklb b^_heh]bq_kdh]h
ebygby]Za_lugZgZk_e_gb_i_jbh^ijZe_gbyGbdheZy I345
, h^gZ-
dh ij_^klZ\ey_lky, qlh hkgh\hc ^ey lZdh]h \u\h^Z y\eyxlky g_
klhevdh ]Za_lgu_ im[ebdZpbb _^hfhkl_c, kdhevdh h[sZy khpb-
Zevghiheblbq_kdZy kblmZpby dhgpZ 30-o – gZqZeZ 50-o ]]., dh]^Z
^Z`_ klhebqgu_ hnbpbhau g_ uoh^beb aZ ij_^_eu h]eZr_gby
nZdlh\ ^_yl_evghklb ijZbl_evklZ, [_a dZdboeb[h h[tykg_gbc
bdhff_glZjb_\, Z  Ziheblbqghc b g_]jZfhlghc  k\h_c fZkk_ ijh-
bgpbbg_ [ueh dZd hiihabpbhgguogZkljh_gbc, lZd b Zevl_jgZlb\-
guo ijZbl_evkl_gguf ]Za_l. < hlghr_gbb k_]h dhjimkZ ]m[_jg-
kdbo b h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c bgl_j_k_g uh^ F?. FboZcehhc
hlhf, qlh «dZdlhevdh\kh^_j`Zgbb]Za_lugZf_qZebkveb[_jZevgu_
l_g^_gpbb, klmiZrb_  ijhlbhj_qb_ k b^_heh]b_c fhgZjobafZ,
eZklyfbijbgbfZebkvf_judijb_^_gbx]Za_lujZfdbhnbpbhaZ
gZagZq_gb_ ^jm]h]h j_^ZdlhjZ, im[ebdZpby fZl_jbZeh\, u^_j`Zg-
guo_jghih^^Zggbq_kdhf^mo_)»346
.
<uye_gbxbklhqgbdhnhjfbjhZgbybkh^_j`Zl_evguooZjZd-
l_jbklbd h[jZaZ Kb[bjb  h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdbo b hljZke_uo
_`_f_kyqguo `mjgZeZo lhjhc ihehbgu XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. ih-
kys_gZ ^hdlhjkdZy ^bkk_jlZpby GG. Jh^b]bghc (2006). Ohly jZ[h-
lZ\uiheg_gZgZbghfbklhqgbdhhffZl_jbZe_, gh\uh^hlhf, qlh
ijZbl_evkl_ggu_ f_jhijbylby  hlghr_gbb Kb[bjb uklmiZeb
dZq_kl_ nZdlhjZ ZdlmZebaZpbb kb[bjkdhc l_fu, Z b^_cgh-
iheblbq_kdZy gZijZe_gghklv ba^Zgby ijbh^beZ d jZaebqghc bg-
l_jij_lZpbb b hp_gd_ «kb[bjkdbo l_fZlbafh\», ijbf_gbl_e_g
bdkh^_j`Zgbx g_hnbpbZevguo qZkl_c ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo_-
^hf hkl_c, Z\lhju dhl hjuo lZd`_ \ghkbeb k\hc \deZ^ \ jZajZ[hldm
kb[bjkdh]h kx`_lZ». <uye_ggu_ Zlhjhf lZdb_ dhfihg_glu h[-
jZaZ Kb[bjb, dZd fZehba_klguc oZjZdl_j j_]bhgZ; l_jjblhjby ijb-
ly`_gby Zf[bpbhaghc fheh^_`b; hlklZeZy  dmevlmjghf kfuke_
ijhbgpby, gm`^ZxsZykyijhk\_s_gbbb_jhi_baZpbb; f_klhqb-
ghgbqv_]h ijhbaheZ; kljZgZ dZlhj]b b ba]gZgby; oheh^gZy kljZgZ,
gZk_e_ggZy^jm]bfb / qm`bfbgZjh^Zfb; [h]Zl_crZydeZ^hZybfi_-
jbb; dj_klvygkdh_ Wev^hjZ^h b, gZdhg_p, ij_^klZe_gb_ h Kb[bjb
dZd^jm]hcJhkkbb, [ueboZjZdl_jgug_lhevdh^eyklhebqgh]h `mj-344
FboZceh\Z F?. «:kljZoZgkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb» dhgl_dkl_ h[s_kl_ggh-
dmevlmjghc `bagb :kljZoZgkdhc ]m[_jgbb (1838–1917 ]].) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl.
gZmd. <he]h]jZ^, 2006. 31 k.
345
LZf`_. K. 13.
346
LZf`_. K. 29.

=eZ\Z 1
90gZevgh]h ^bkdmjkZ, gh b ^ey kb[bjkdhc ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb,
nhjfbjh\Z\r_c «Z\lhh[jZa j_]bhgZ»347
.
FZkrlZ[gh_bkke_^hZgb_hihk_^g_ghc`bagbLhfkdZ, ohayc-
kl_gguo aZgylbyo _]h `bl_e_c, kn_j_ [eZ]hmkljhcklZ b jZablbb
h[jZahZgby gZ fZl_jbZeZo «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»
b^jm]bo i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbc uiheg_gh :G. @_jZbghc
(2010)348
. «< ]Za_lguo fZl_jbZeZo hdZaZeky kdhgp_gljbjhZgguf
bklhjbq_kdbc hiul ]hjh^kdhc `bagb, bf_xsbc k_]h^gy g_ lhevdh
gZmqgmx agZqbfhklv»349
, – ibr_l :G. @_jZ\bgZ  aZdexq_gb_ k\h-
_c jZ[hlu. < ij_^r_kl\mxsbo klZlvyo Z\lhjhf jZkkfhlj_gu b h[h-
agZq_gu i_jki_dlbu bkke_^hZgby gZ hkgh_ ]Za_lguo fZl_jbZeh\
lZdbo l_f, dZd kn_jZ h[jZahZgby b khljm^gbq_klh k i_j\hc lhf-
kdhc ]Za_lhc mqbl_e_c ]m[_jgkdhc ]bfgZabb350
, ihk_^g_gZy `bagv
^hj_\ hexpbhggh]h klm^_gq_kl\Z351
, bklhjby kb[bjkdh]h ij_^ijbgb-
fZl_evklZ352
.
< 2013 ]. J<. Fblbghc [ueZ aZsbs_gZ ^bkk_jlZpby, ihkys_ggZy
bklhqgbdh\_^q_kdhfm ihl_gpbZem «I_jfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»
k lhqdb aj_gby j_dhgkljmdpbb wdhghfbq_kdhc, khpbZevghc b dmevlmj-
ghc bklhjbb j_]bhgZ. KlZ \ 1894 ]. kZfhklhyl_evguf ba^Zgb_f, g_-
hnbpbZevgZyqZklv\_^hfhkl_c\klmibeZi_jbh^jZkp_lZbZdlbgh]h
mqZklby  h[s_kl\_gguc `bagb, dhlhjuc ijh^he`Zeky ^h 1910 ].
\ 1903 ]. m]Za_lu[ueh 9 luk. ih^ibkqbdh\). L_fkZfufhijh_j]Z_lky
mklhyrZykyebl_jZlmj_lhqdZaj_gby, qlhkgZqZehf XX \. _^hfhklb
klmibebi_jbh^g_ba[_`gh]hm]ZkZgby353
.347
Jh^b]bgZ GG. H[jZa Kb[bjb  jmkkdhc `mjgZevghc ij_kk_ lhjhc ihehbgu
XIX – gZqZeZ XX \_dZ : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … ^jZbkl. gZmd. Hf kd, 2006. 39 k.
348
@_jZ\bgZ:G.Lhfkdlhjhcihehbgu XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. (ihfZl_jbZeZf^hj_-
\hexpbhgg hci_qZ lb). Lhfkd, 2010. 402 k.
349
LZf` _. K. 390.
350
@_jZ\bgZ:G.Babklhjbb]bfgZabq_kdh]h h[jZahZgbyLhfkd_ // <_klgbdLhf-
kdh]h]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. 2003. ‹ 276. K. 195–204;@_jZ\bgZ:G. «Hl_q_kl-
m b gZmd_» – ^_ba mgb_jkbl_lkdbo klm^_glh ^hj_\hexpbhggh]h LhfkdZ // <_klgbd
Lhfkdh]h]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]hmgb_jkbl_lZ. 2005. ‹ 289. K. 158–167.
351
@_jZ\bgZ :G. Ihk_^g_gZy `bagv klm^_glh Lhfkdh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ gZ jm-
[_`_ XIX–XX _dh\ // <_klgbd Lhfkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. 2004.
‹ 281. K. 207–215.
352
@_jZ\bgZ:G.I_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv^hj_\hexpbhggh]hLhfkdZdZdbklhqgbd^ey
bamq_gbyqZklgh]hij_^ijbgbfZl_evklZ\Kb[bjb // Jmkv, Jhkkby. Kj_^g__dhv_bGhh_
j_fy. 2009. ‹ 1. K. 121–123.
353
FblbgZ J<. =Za_lZ «I _jfkdb _ ]m[ _jg kdb _ \_^hf hklb» (1838–1917 ]].) dZd bklh-
jbq_kdbcbklhqgbd : ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. ;ZjgZme, 2013. K. 99; Kf. lZd`_:FblbgZJ<.
HnbpbZevgZy ]Za_lZ «I_jfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» XIX – gZqZeZ XX \_dZ: bklhjbh-

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
91LZd`_ ke_^m_l hlf_lblvjy^ jZ[hl, ihkys_gguohl^_evgufj_-
^ZdlhjZf b ZlhjZf ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c b bo deZ^m  bamq_gb_
bklhjbb j_]bhgZ: j_^Zdlhjm g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «<hjhg_`kdbo
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» \ 1865–1867 ]]. =F. <_k_ehkdhfm354
, ih-
fhsgbdm j_^ZdlhjZ «YjhkeZkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» \ 1856–
1866 ]]. EG. Lj_nhe_m355
, khljm^gbdZf «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_-
^hfhkl_c» \ 1864–1865 ]]. =G. IhlZgbgm356
 b GF. Y^jbgp_\m357
,
j_^Zdlhjm__g_hnbpbZevghcqZklb>E. Dmag_phm358
.
Wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ im[ebdZpbb  ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo.Ih
fg_gbx\u^Zxs_]hkynhevdehjbklZbebl_jZlmjh\_^ZFD. :aZ^h\-
kdh]h (1963), «f_klgu_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklbybebkvdZd[ug_dbf
j_a_jmZjhf f_klguo bgl_j_kh b khojZgbeb gZ khbo kljZgbpZo
p_gg_crb_ fZl_jbZeu, khh[s_ggu_ f_klgufb kh[bjZl_eyfb b [u-
lhibkZl_eyfb, l_f [he__ p_ggu_, qlh qZklh bf_eb mgbdZevguc oZ-
jZdl_j»359
. < fhgh]jZnbb «JmkkdZy nhevdehjbklbdZ Kb[bjb (XIX –
gZqZeh XX \.)» YJ. Dhr_e_\hc (1962) ^ZgZ oZjZdl_jbklbdZ ^_y-
l_evghklb G:. :[jZfh\Z, FN. DjbhrZidbgZ, GB. DZrbgZ,
<B. <_j[bpdh]h, G:. DhkljhZ, =G. IhlZgbgZ b GF. Y^jbgp_-
\Z ih k[hjm bim[ebdZpbb \ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo nhevdehjgh-
wlgh]jZnbq_kdbo fZl_jbZeh\, ihaheyrbo jZa\bZlv l_fm kZfh-
[ulghklb mklgh]h l\hjq_kl\Z b h[jy^ghklb m jmkkdh]h gZk_e_gby
Kb[bjb, h[hkgh\uZlv «kb[bj_nbeZf» l_abk h dmevlmjghc
b (i_jki_dlb_) iheblbq_kdhc Zlhghfbb ^ey «jmkkdhkb[bj-
kdhcgZjh^ghklb»360
.]jZnbq_kdb_ Zki_dlu // <_klgbd Q_ey[bgkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. Bklhjby.
2012. ‹ 7 (261). K. 142–146.
354
Kheh^h\q_gdhK:.=F. <_k_eh\kdbc – djZ_\_^, h[s_kl\_gguc^_yl_evb j_^Zdlhj
// <_klgbd LZf[hkdh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. K_jby: =mfZgblZjgu_ gZmdb. 2009. <ui. 1 (69).
K. 196–201.
355
Kujph\ :<. Im[ebpbklbq_kdbc Zki_dl dmevlmjgh]h gZke_^by EG. Lj_nhe_Z //
<_klgbd YjhkeZ\kdh]h]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ. K_jby=mfZgblZjgu_gZmdb. 2012.
‹ 2 (20). K. 45–48.
356
KZ]ZeZ_\ :F., Djxdh\ <F. =G. IhlZgbg: hiul hkfuke_gby ebqghklb. Ghhkb-
[bjkd, 1991. 228 k.; KZ]ZeZ_ :F., Djxdh <F. IhlZgbg, ihke_^gbc wgpbdehi_^bkl Kb-
[bjb: Hiulhkfuke_gbyebqghklb. Lhfkd, 2004. 208 k.
357
Q_j_^gbq_gdhB=.GbdheZc FboZcehbqY^jbgp_\ – im[ebpbkl, l_hj_lbdb hj]Z-
gbaZlhjijhbgpbZevghci_qZlb. Bjdmlkd, 1999. 179 k.
358
>fbljb_gdhGF.Dg_fmklj_fbehkv\k_ohjhr__bk\_leh_ // Kb[bjkdZyklZjbgZ :
djZ_\_^q_kdbcZevfZgZo. Lhfkd, 1995. ‹ 10 (15). K. 30–33.
359
:aZ^h\kdbcFD.Bklhjbyjmkkdhcnhevdehjbklbdb. F., 1963. L. 2. K. 215.
360
Dhr_e_\Y. J. JmkkdZy nhevdehjbklbdZ Kb[bjb (XIX – gZqZeZ XX \.). Lhfkd,
1962. K. 90–129.

=eZ\Z 1
92H[ bklhjbq_kdbo i_kgyo, kh[jZgguo GB. DhklhfZjh\uf
bhim[ebdh\Zgguo \ 1854 ]. \ «KZjZlh\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
klyo», ibkZeZ H;. :e_dk__Z (1961)361
; h nhevdehjguo fZl_jbZ-
eZo\ «I_jfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo» – F:. =ZgbgZ (1966)362
.
Ij_l_gabb «Dhfbl_lZ 2 Zij_ey 1848 ]h^Z» d j_^ZdlhjZf ]m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhkl_c, im[ebdhZrbo mklgu_ ij_^Zgby h «\he`kdbo
jZa[hcgbdZo» beb «g_ijbebqgu_» ihkehbpu b ih]hhjdb, jZk-
kfhlj_gu  klZlv_ :<. ;exfZ (1971)363
. Hnhevdehjghwlgh]jZ-
nbq_kdbo im[ebdZpbyo \ «L_jkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo» dZd
\_^ms_f `Zgj_ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ibr_l B?. BZghZ
(2005)364
. < ^jm]hc k\h_c jZ[hl_ (2006) gZ ijbf_j_ hq_jdZ «G_-
kdhevdh keh\ ba `bagb [he]Zj», ihyb\r_]hky gZ kljZgbpZo ]Za_-
lu \i_jbh^ Jmkkdhlmj_pdhc \hcgu 1877–1878 ]]., Z\lhj ^_eZ_l
uh^, qlh wlh [ueZg_ijhklZy bgnhjfZpbhgghwlgh]jZnbq_kdZy
aZjbkhdZ; «\gmlj_gg_ hgZ gZp_e_gZ gZ h[gZjm`_gb_ h[sghklb b
jZaghklb^mokeZygkdbodmevlmj, gZml_j`^_gb_kyabkwlbf
iZljbhlbq_kdhc b^_b h lhf, qlh [he]Zjkdbc gZjh^ gm`^Z_lky
\ih^^_j`d_ [jZlkdh]h keZ\ygkdh]h gZjh^Z»365
. :i_eeypbxd jmk-
kdhfm gZpbhgZevghfm fbjh\hkijbylbx B?. BZgh\Z (2006) h[-
gZjm`b\Z_l b \ jy^_ j_deZfguo l_dklh\, ihf_s_gguo \ «L_j-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo». LZd, gZijbf_j, `Zgj [ZeZ]Zgguo
ijbau\h\l_dklZoh[tye_gbc h[_ki_qb\Ze\ha^_ckl\b_gZ dmev-
lmjgh_ ih^khagZgb_ qblZl_ey bihl_gpbZevgh]h ihdmiZl_ey. H[t-
ye_gb_ hl j_^Zdpbb ]Za_lu «Ghhklb» [ueh ijbaZgh uaZlv
`Zehklv (ukhdb_ aZljZlu gZ m_ebq_gb_ nhjfZlZ b lbjZ`Z ]Za_-
lu, ihdmidZ ^hjh]bo aZ]jZgbqguo fZrbg, khojZg_gb_ ij_`g_c361
:e_dk__\Z H;. Bklhjbq_kdb_ i_kgb  im[ebdZpbyo GB. DhklhfZjhZ b :G. Fhj-
^h\p_\Z // Jmkkdbc nhevdehj. FZl_jbZeu b bkke_^h\Zgby. F.; E., 1961. L. 6. K. 329–343;
:e_dk__\ZH;. Ba p_gamjguo fZl_jbZeh h gZjh^guoi_kgyo // Jmkkdbcnhevdehj. FZl_jbZ-
eubbkke_^h\Zgby. F.; E., 1961. L. 7. K. 374–376.
362
=ZgbgZ F:. Nhevdehj I_jfkdhc ]m[_jgbb  `mjgZebklbd_ b im[ebpbklbd_
1860-o]]. // <_klgbdE_gbg]jZ^kdh]hmgb_jkbl_lZ. 1966. ‹ 2, ui. 1. K. 99–110.
363
;exf :<. Nhevdehjghwlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu «=m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»
hp_gd_ pZjkdhc p_gamju (Ih ^hdmf_glZf «Dhfbl_lZ 2 Zij_ey 1848 ].») // Kh_lkdZy wl-
gh]jZnby. 1971. ‹ 1. K. 111–114.
364
B\Zgh\Z B?. Nhevdehjghwlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ im[ebdZpbb \ «L\_jkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhklyo» 1850–1860-o]]. // F_`dmevlmjgZy dhffmgbdZpby khj_f_gghfkeZygkdhf
fbj_ : fZl_jbZeu I_jhc f_`^mgZjh^ghc gZmqghc dhgn_j_gpbb. L\_jv, 2005. L. 1.
K. 191–195.
365
B\Zgh\Z B?. D ijh[e_f_ gZpbhgZevghc ki_pbnbqghklb (ih fZl_jbZeZf «L\_j-
kdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» lhjhcihehbgu XIX \_dZ) // H[t_^bg_ggucgZmqguc`mj-
gZe. F., 2006. ‹ 18. K. 50.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
93klhbfhklb ba^Zgby) b, khhl\_lkl\_ggh, klj_fe_gb_ ihfhqv ]Za_l_
k\h_cih^ibkdhc366
.
Wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ klZlvb «YjhkeZ\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c»
 dZq_kl_ bklhqgbdZ bamq_gby yjhkeZkdbo ]h\hjh jZkkfhlj_eZ
@D. =ZihghZ (2007)367
. H[ hkghguo l_g^_gpbyo  jZablbb
nhevdehjbklbdb Jmkkdh]h K__jZ gZ fZl_jbZeZo, him[ebdhZgguo
\ «:joZg]_evkdbo» ]m[_jgkdbo b _iZjobZevguo _^hfhklyo, ibr_l
HG. ;he]hZ (2009)368
. @Zgjm wlgh]jZnbq_kdh] h hq_jdZ h dhj_ggu o
gZjh^ZoKb[bjbg_hnbpbZevghcqZklb «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^h-
fhkl_c» 1858–1883 ]]. ihkys_gZ ^bkk_jlZpby =:. DZaZjbghc
(2009)369
. Im[ebdZpbb ih «bghjh^q _kdhfm \hijhkm» \ hkgh\ghf g h-
kbeb hibkZl_evguc b g_djblbqguc oZjZdl_j, ij_ke_^my p_ev bkke_-
^hZgbybijhk_s_gby, – dlZdhfmuh^mijboh^blZlhj. G_h[oh-
^bfh ^h[Zblv, qlh g_ ke_^m_l khf_sZlv a]ey^u gZ bghjh^q_kdbc
hijhk eb^_jh h[eZklgbq_kl\Z h lhjhc ihehbg_ XIX \.
kfZl_jbZeZfb l_oklZl_c, dhlhju_ hgb im[ebdhZeb\ «Lhfkdbo]m-
[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» \ 1864–1865 ]]. AZ bkdexq_gb_f g_dhlhjuo
im[ebdZpbcjZa^_e_ «F_edb_ba_klby» bklZlvb «Wlgheh]bq_kdb_
hkh[_gghklb kb[bjkdh]h gZk_e_gby» =G. IhlZgbg b GF. Y^jbgp_\
g_ h[jZsZebkv d bghjh^q_kdhfm hijhkm gZ kljZgbpZo i_jhc lhf-
kdhc ]Za_lu, g_ mihfbgZeb kZfm wlm dZl_]hjbx  __ ijh[e_fguo,
Zg_wlghdmevlmjguooZjZdl_jbklbdZo.
J_]bhgZevgh_ebl_jZlmjh_^_gb_h[jZsZ_lkydg_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c dZd d «iehsZ^d_», ]^_ j_ZebahuZ-
ebkvom^h`_kl_ggu_hiuluijhbgpbZevguoZlhjh\, g_ihiZrbo
gZ kljZgbpu «[hevrhc» ebl_jZlmju b im[ebpbklbdb. GZ agZq_gb_
g_hnbpbZevghcqZklb «Bjdmlkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» \ «h[s_-
kl_gghdmevlmjghf b ebl_jZlmjghf ^b`_gbb Kb[bjb»370
 h[jZlb e
gbfZgb_ =N. Dmgm]jh\ (1965). Ebl_jZlmjgu_ `Zgju klZl_c «Lhf-366
B\Zgh\Z B?. HljZ`_gb_ jhkkbckdhc f_glZevghklb \ j_deZfghf l_dkl_: j_deZfZ
ijhbgpbZevghc i_jbh^bd_ 1880-o ]]. (ih fZl_jbZeZf ]Za_lu «L\_jkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb») // H[t_^bg_ggucgZmqguc`mjgZe. F., 2006. ‹ 17. K. 16–27.
367
=Zihgh\Z @D.YjhkeZkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» dZd bklhqgbd bamq_gby fh-
eh] kdbo ]h\ hjh\ XIX \. // <_klgbd Dhkljhfkdh]h ] hkm^Z jkl\_ggh]h mgb\_jkbl_lZ
bf. G:. G_djZkhZ. 2007. L. 13, ‹ 3. K. 85–89.
368
;he]h\Z HG. <hijhku ljZ^bpbhgghc dmevlmju gZ kljZgbpZo ZjoZg]_evkdhc i_-
jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb XIX \_dZ // <_klgbdIhfhjkdh]hmgb_jkbl_lZ. K_jby: =mfZgblZjgu_
bkhpbZevgu_gZmdb. 2009. ‹ 1. K. 73–79.
369
DZaZjbgZ=:.Dhj_ggh_gZk_e_gb_Kb[bjbgZkljZgbpZo «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_-
^hfhkl_c» \h lhjhc ihehbg_ XIX \.: Zlhju, ijh[e_fZlbdZ, `Zgju : Zlhj_n. ^bk. …
dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. Gh\ hkb[bjkd, 2009. 24 k.
370
Dmg]mjh=. N.Kb[bjvbebl_jZlmjZ. Bjdmlkd, 1965. K. 103.

=eZ\Z 1
94kdbo» b «Bjdmlkdbo» ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c, hkghghfhihj_gZ
klZlvx GF. Y^jbgp_Z «GZqZeh i_qZlb  Kb[bjb», jZkkfhlj_gu
N:. Dm^jyp_uf (1974)371
. «Hq_jdb jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmju Kb[bjb»
(1982) mihfbgZeb h g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _-
^hfhkl_c» 1864–1865 ]]. dhgl_dkl_^_yl_evghklbdjm`dZ «fheh^uo
iZljbhlh Kb[bjb»372
, Z lZd`_ khh[sZeb h im[ebdZpbyo BB. AZ\Z-
ebrbgZ (BB. IjbdZfkdh]h) \ «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo»
\ 1863 ]. bklZlv_KK. RZrdh\Zh[ul_bgjZ\Zo[mjyl\ «Bjdmlkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo» 1858 ].373
< 1976 ]. \k[hjgbd_ «Ba bklhjbbebl_jZlmjuKb[bjb» \ureZ
klZlvy ;:. QfuoZeh h gZqZevghf wlZi_ klZghe_gby i_qZlb
?gbk_ckdhc ]m[_jgbb, dhlhjuc hldjuZeb «?gbk_ckdb_ ]m[_jg-
kdb_ \_^hfhklb»374
. :\lhj ih^jh[gh hklZgZ\eb\Zeky gZ kh^_j`Z-
gbb, om^h`_kl_gguo ^hklhbgklZo b g_^hklZldZo ^mo jZkkdZah\,
i_j_i_qZlZgguo \ «?gbk_ckdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhklyo» \ 1861 ]. ba
Jmkkdh]h fbjZ» – BiiheblZ IjbdZfkdh]h (BB. AZZebrbgZ)
bN. =m[ZghZ. Iheblbq_kdbc dZiblZe kb[bjkdh]h ahehlhijhfur-
e_ggbdZ J:. Q_jghkblhZ, dZd b fgh]bo ^jm]bo hkm`^_gguo ih
ijbqbg_ ihk_s_gby i_l_j[mj]kdbo «iylgbp» F<. I_ljZr_kdh]h,
kihkh[klhZe ih^jh[ghfm jZkkfhlj_gbx _]h klZlvb h[ «Zf_jbdZg-
kdhf» kihkh[_ ^h[uqbahe hlZ – «f_lh^_ IZdme_\Z» – bhlg_k_gbx__
d`Zgjm «iZfne_lZ». H^gbfbaZlhjh]Za_lu, ^eydhlhjh]h «oZjZd-
l_jg h ]em[hdh_ ijhgbdgh\_gb_ \ kmsghklv ij_^f_lh\, h dhl hjuo hg
[_j_lky ibkZlv»375
, [ue G:. Dhkljh\, gZqbgZrbc khc lhjq_kdbc
imlv \ «?gbk_ckdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo»376
. >jm]hc Z\lhj –
FN. Djb\hrZidbg – uklmiZe kh kljZgbp «?gbk_ckdbo ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c» dZd wlgh]jZn b [ulhibkZl_ev `bagb ?gbk_ckdh]h hdjm]Z
60-o]]. XIX _dZ. <h[s_chp_gd_kh^_j`Zgby «?gbk_ckdbo]m[_jgkdbo371
Dm^jyp_ N:.I_qZlv\ 50–60-o]]. // Bklhjby jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmjuKb[bjb :
\ 2 l. (FZd_l). Ghhkb[bjkd: [b., 1974. L. 1. JZa^_e 4: Ebl_jZlmjZKb[bjblhjhcihehb-
gu XIX \_dZ. K. 18–25.
372
Hq_ j db jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmju Kb[bjb. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1982. L.1 : >hj_hexpbhgguc
i_jbh^. K. 343–344.
373
LZf`_.K. 362, 371.
374
QfuoZeh ;:. D bklhjbb klZghe_gby i_qZlb ?gbk_ckdhc ]m[_jgbb // Ba bklhjbb
ebl_jZlmjuKb[bjb. DjZkghyjkd, 1976. <ui. 1. K. 45–59.
375
LZf`_. K. 48.
376
H^gZdhhp_gdZG:. DhkljhZdZd «ba_klgh]h lh\j_fywlgh]jZnZ» u]ey^blg_-
kd hev dh i j_`^ _\ j_f_gg h – h[ wlhf \hafh`g h ]h\ hjblv eb rv i jbf_gb l_evgh dd hgp m 70-o ] ].,
dh]^Z _]h wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ klZlvb [ueb h[h[s_gu \ hl^_evguo i_qZlguo jZ[hlZo, Z bo
Zlhj[uehlf_q_gf_^ZevxJmkkdh]h]_h]jZnbq_kdh]hh[s_klZ; g_[ueDhkljhbj_^Zd-
lhjhf «Lhf kdbo]m[ _jg kdb o\ _^hf hkl_c».

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
95_^hfhkl_c» ;:. QfuoZeh ke_^hZe aZ fg_gb_f h «g_aZ^Zqebhf dZ-
a_gghf kh[jZl_» qZklguo ]Za_l GF. Y^jbgp_Z, baeh`_gguf  klZlv_
GZqZeh i_qZlb  Kb[bjb» (1885). < ^bkdmkkbb djZkghyjkdhc b bjdml-
kdhc]Za_lu\ 1859 ]. ihihh^maZ^Zq]eZkghklbZ\lhjg_hevghaZgbfZe
klhjhgm ihke_^g_c, kh`Ze_y, qlh «?gbk_ckdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb»,
\ hlebqb_ hl «Bjdmlkdbo», «g_ lhjhibebkv gZdbgmlv “ma^m” gZ
om^uo” ex^_c]m[_jgbb»377
(kZfZlZdZyhafh`ghklv^eyhnbpb-
Zevghc ]Za_lu ijbf_gbl_evgh d k_j_^bg_ XIX \. g_ ih^_j]ZeZkv
khfg_gbx ih ijbqbg_ lh]h, qlh fg_gb_ h[ «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jg-
kdbo_^hfhklyo» i_jbh^Zj_^ZdlhjklZG:. Ki_rg_\Z, dZd kih-
kh[guo «j_adh djblbdh\Zlv ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggu_ ihjy^db», klZeh h[-
sbff_klhf\bkke_^hZl_evkdhcebl_jZlmj_).
K k_j_^bgu 1990-o ]]. ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb gZqZebjZkkfZljb-
Zlvky  ebl_jZlmjh_^q_kdbo^bkk_jlZpbhgguojZ[hlZo. Ijhbgpb-
ZevgZyihwabybwlgh]jZnbq_kdbchq_jdgZkljZgbpZo «YjhkeZkdbo»
b «Dhkljhfkdbo» ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c klZeb ij_^f_lhf bkke_^h-
Zgby EE. Kfbjghhc (1996)378
. Ih fg_gbxZlhjZ, `Zgjh\h_ kh_-
h[jZab_ _^hfhkl_c beexkljbjm_l hkh[_gghklb jZkijhkljZg_gby
ebl_jZlmjguo hjb_glbjh  ijhbgpbb: «=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb
ij_^klZeyxl kh[hc ijbqm^ebuc fhglZ`, gZijbf_j, m`_ mr_^rbo
ba “[hevrhc” ebl_jZlmju jhfZglbq_kdbol_g^_gpbc ihwabbb m`_
gZf_lbrboky bkdZgbc gZlmjZevghc rdheu»379
. Bgl_j_k_g h[gZjm-
`_gguc EE. Kfbjghhc nZdl h[jZs_gby :N. Ibk_fkdh]h d fZl_-
jbZeZf hnbpbZevghc qZklb f_klguo _^hfhkl_c ijb \u[hj_ bf_g
]_jh_ b kh[ulbc ba bo qbgh\ghc [bh]jZnbb  jhfZg_ «LukyqZ
^mr». GG. I_ljhZ (1997) uy\beZ lZdb_ yaudhu_ b klbebklbq_-
kdb_ hkh[_gghklb «Dm[Zgkdbo h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c» dhgpZ XIX –
gZqZeZ XX \., dZd bkihevahZgb_ klZg^Zjlguo eZdhgbqguo nhjfme
ojhgbdZevguo im[ebdZpbyo, hihjZ gZ dZgp_eyjbafu  hnbpbZev-
ghc qZklb, rZ[ehgghklv j_p_gabc gZ l_ZljZevgu_ ihklZghdb
bdgb]b, kf_r_gb_gZjh^ghjZa]hhjgh]h b om^h`_kl_ggh]h klbe_c
hq_jdZo, klbe_hcdhgljZklbijbf_g_gb_njZa_heh]bafhn_ev_-377
QfuoZeh;:.DbklhjbbklZghe_gbyi_qZlb?gbk_ckdhc]m[_jgbb… K. 51.
378
Kfbjgh\Z EE. IjhbgpbZevgZy i_jbh^bdZ dZd bklhqgbd fZl_jbZeZ ^ey bamq_gby
ebl_jZlmjghc`bagb<_jog_he`vyO,O\. : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. Q_j_ih-
\ _p, 1996. 15 k.;Kfbjgh\Z EE. «YjhkeZkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» \ 1870–1880-_ ]]. // DZ-
jZ[boZ. YjhkeZ\ev, 2009. <ui. 6. K. 333–343.
379
Kfbjgh\Z EE. H oZjZdl_j_ ebl_jZlmjguo im[ebdZpbc gZ kljZgbpZo «=m[_jgkdbo
\_^hfhkl_c» <_jog_\ he` vy \ 1850–1880-o ]]. // G_djZkh\ \ dhgl_dkl_ jmkkdhc dmevlmju :
fZl_jbZeugZmqghcdhgn_j_gpbb. YjhkeZev, 2008. K. 80.

=eZ\Z 1
96lhgZo380
. Ihwlbq_kdb_ ijhba\_^_gby f_klguo Z\lhjh\ «Gh\]hjh^-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» 1845–1863 ]]., ihfg_gbx?<. BZgh-
hc (2004), oZjZdl_jbamxlky dZd ih^jZ`Zl_evghklvx Zlhjbl_lguf
h[jZapZf deZkkbpbafZ b jhfZglbafZ, lZd b j_]bhgZevghc kZfh[ul-
ghklvx, kyaZgghc k bklhjbq_kdbf ijhreuf dheu[_eb jmkkdhc ]h-
km^Zjkl_gghklb381
.
LG. FZkZevp_\Z (2006) ijh_eZZgZebahjb]bgZevguoZlhjkdbo
ebl_jZlmjghdjblbq_kdbo klZl_c g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «I_jfkdbo
]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» \ hlg hr_gbb gh\bghd jmkkdhc ebl_jZlmju,
nhjfbjhZrbo ebl_jZlmjguc dmk b bgl_j_k m ijhbgpbZevgh]h
qblZl_ey d ijhba_^_gbyf, gZibkZgguf  `Zgj_ j_ZebafZ b fh^_j-
gbafZ382
. Bkke_^hZgb_ B<. Fbjhgh\hc (2006),  dhlhjhf  dZq_kl-
_ h^gh]h ba bklhqgbdh uklmiZxl «L_jkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfh-
klb», ihahebehjZkrbjblvkh\j_f_ggu_agZgbyhdmevlmjghc`bagb
L_jkdhc ]m[_jgbb b h[gZjm`blv ljb g_ hr_^rbo  kh[jZgby kh-
qbg_gbc ijhba_^_gby NG. =ebgdb383
. <_kvfZ kdjhfguc, ijZdlbq_-
kdb _^bgbqguc ebl_jZlmjghom^h`_kl\_gguc fZl_jbZe «KlZjh-
ihevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» 1850–1870-o ]]. ijbe_deZ ^ey
bamq_gby ebl_jZlmjguo ijhp_kkh gZ KlZjhihev_ H:. EhldhZ
(2007)384
. ?<. Dhkl_pdZy (2013) jZkkfhlj_eZ hq_jdb g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» 1857–1860-o ]]. dZd h[-
eZ^Zxsb_ijbagZdZfbebl_jZlmjgh]hlhjq_klZ: Zlhjkdbfklbe_f,
h[jZaghklvx, ihwlbdhc hibkZgby kb[bjkdh]h bklhjb dhdmevlmjg h]h
ijhkljZgklZ, gZijZe_gghklvxgZwkl_lbq_kdh_hkijbylb_]Za_lgh-
]hfZl_jbZeZ385
.
Bklhjby lbih]jZnkdhba^Zl_evkdh]h ^_eZ^h gZklhys_]h
\j_f_gb y\ey_lky g_^hklZlhqgh bamq_gghc. Hi_j\hf jmkkdhf jm-380
I_ljhZ GG. Bklhjbq_kdb_ hkghu klZghe_gby f_lZyaudh\hc km[klZgpbhgZev-
ghklbim[ebpbklbdbgZDm[Zgb (gZfZl_jbZeZo]Za_lu «Dm[Zgkdb_h[eZklgu_\_^hfhklb»)
: Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. DjZkgh^Zj, 1997. 25 k.
381
B\Zgh\Z ?<. Ebl_jZlmjgZy `bagv Gh]hjh^Z gZ kljZgbpZo f_klghc i_jbh^bdb
1838–1917 ]h^h\ : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. L\_jv, 2004. 16 k.
382
FZkZevp_\Z L. G. Ebl_jZlmjgZy djblbdZ ]Za_lu «I_jfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfh-
klb»: 1890–1917 ]h^u : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. ... dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. I_jfv, 2006. 24 k.
383
Fbjhgh\Z B<. Ebl_jZlmjgZy `bagv L\_jkdhc ]m[_jgbb lhjhc ihehbgu XIX \_-
dZ : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. L\_jv, 2006. 19 k.
384
Ehldh\ZH:. KlZgh\e_gb_ ebl_jZlmjgh]hijhp_kkZgZKlZjhihev_\ XIX – gZqZ-
e_ XX \. (ih fZl_jbZeZf j_]bhgZevghc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^.
nbehe. gZmd. KlZ\jhihev, 2007. 18 k.
385
Dhkl_pdZy ?<. «Lh[hevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» b ebl_jZlmjgZy `bagv Lh-
[hevkdhc ]m[_jgbb 1850–1860-o ]]. : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. Lxf_gv, 2013.
26 k.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
97dhh^kl_ ih i_qZlghfm ^_em – «Ih^jh[ghf hibkZgbb lbih]jZn-
kdbo ^he`ghkl_c, k ijbeh`_gb_f h ijZhibkZgbb h[tykg_gby,
dZdbf h[jZahf q_j_a dhjhldh_ \j_fy hghfm gZmqblvky fh`gh» –
ibkZe :<. ;exf (1962). < wlhf hjb]bgZevghf l_dkl_, gZi_qZlZg-
ghf \ 1796 ]. mijZ\eyxsbf i_jfkdhc ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnb_c
I_ljhf Nbebih\uf, kh^_j`blky bgnhjfZpby h ^he`ghklguo
h[yaZgghklyo lbih]jZnkdbo kem`Zsbo b hkghguo l_ogheh]bq_-
kdboijhp_kkZoijb jZ[hl_ gZ jmqghfi_qZlghfklZgd_386
. Im[eb-
dZpbb gZ kljZgbpZo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c jZ[hl f_klguo djZ_-
_^h h i_juo ijhbgpbZevguo lbih]jZnbyo klZeb h^gbf ba
bklhqgbdh ^bkk_jlZpbb :<. ;exfZ (1966), ihk\ys_gghc bklh-
jbb ijhbgpbZevgh]h dgb]hi_qZlZgby  ^hj_nhjf_gghc i_jbh^.
G_kfhljy gZ g_h[oh^bfuc \jZ[hl_ ihklmeZl h pZjbaf_, dhlhjuc
k_fbkbeZfbk^_j`b\ZejZa\blb_ijhbgpbZevgh]hlbih]jZnkdh-
]h ^_eZ, 1838 ]. hij_^_eyeky \dZq_kl\_ ghhc lhqdb hlkq_lZ \ _]h
jZablbb: ba^Zgb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c hdZaZeh «agZqbl_evgh_
ebygb_ b gZ jZa\blb_ dgb]hba^Zl_evkl\Z, b gZ mdj_ie_gb_ f_kl-
ghc iheb]jZnbq_kdhc [Zau», ihahebeh «ijb ihkl_i_gghf jZk-
rbj_gbb ijh]jZff dZa_gguo hj]Zgh i_qZlb ij_^hklZblv ba-
\_klgmx\hafh`ghklv^eyim[ebdZpbbkhh[s_gbcbbkke_^hZgbc
f_klguodjZ_\_^h\»387
.
Bkke_^hZl_e_f bklhjbb hnhjfe_gby b l_ogbdb jmkkdhc ^hj_\h-
expbhgghc ]Za_lu :I. Dbk_e_\uf (1990) jZkkfhlj_gu l_fZlbq_-
kdb_ b `Zgjh\u_ oZjZdl_jbklbdb, kljmdlmjZ hl^_eh\, \b^u \_jkldb
brjbnlh\ «K.-I_l_j[mj]kdbo» b «Fhkdh\kdbo» \_^hfhkl_c, ihem-
hnbpbZevghc «K__jghc iq_eu», h^ghc ba i_juo i_j_gyr_c
hnhjfbl_evkdb_ hkh[_gghklb _jhi_ckdhc ij_kku388
. Bf_ggh wlb
]Za_lu klZeb h[jZapZfb ^ey hj]Zgbam_fhc ijZbl_evklhf k_lb ]m-
[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, \g_rgyy koh`_klv dhlhjuo f_`^m kh[hc
bkp_gljZevgufb ba^Zgbyfb ^he`gZ [ueZ ih^q_jdgmlv bo ijbgZ^-
e_`ghklv d h[s_fm lbiheh]bq_kdhfm jy^m ba^Zgbc ]hkm^Z jkl\_ggh-
]hgZagZq_gby.386
;exf :<. I_jZy jmkkdZy dgb]Z ih lbih]jZnkdhfm ^_em // Dgb]Z. Bkke_^hZgby
bfZl_jbZeu. F., 1962. L. 7. K. 343–353.
387
;exf:<.F_klgZydgb]Zbp_gamjZ^hj_nhjf_gghcJhkkbb (1784–1860) : Zlhj_n.
^bk. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. F., 1966. K. 12.
388
Dbk_e_\ :I. Whexpby nhjfu jmkkdhc ]Za_lu (1702–1917 ]].). Hkghgu_ wlZiu
bnZdlhju nhjfhh[jZahZgby : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. ... ^jZ nbehe. gZmd. F., 1990. 50 k.; Dbk_-
e_:I.Bklhjbyhnhjfe_gbyjmkkdhc]Za_lu (1702–1917 ]].). F., 1990. 192 k.

=eZ\Z 1
98H l_ogbq_kdhf hkgZs_gbb kb[bjkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc,
bo nbgZgkbjhZgbb, ghf_gdeZlmj_ uimkdZ_fhc ijh^mdpbb ibkZeb
<<. ;Zlhjh\ (1969)389
, :N. <heh^d_bq (1986)390
, GF. >fbljb_gdh
(1991)391
, ?G. Dhkuo (1994)392
. < ^bkk_jlZpbb ?G. DhghZeh\hc
(1996) ih^jh[g h jZkkfhlj_gZ bklhjby lbih]jZnbb Lh[hevkdh]h ]m-
[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby. <uoh^ «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»,
ih fg_gbx Z\lhjZ, kihkh[kl\hZe __ l_ogbq_kdhfm i_j_hkgZs_gbx
b ZdlbbaZpbb ba^Zl_evkdhc ^_yl_evghklb. Fh^_jgbaZpby h[hjm^h-
Zgby ijh^he`beZkv b  i_jbh^ ihye_gby qZklguo lbih]jZnbc
(1970–1990 ]].),  j_amevlZl_ q_]h klZe hafh`guf \uoh^ ijbeh`_-
gbc d _^hfhklyf: «Hl^_e k_evkdh]h ohaycklZ b dmklZjghc ijh-
fure_gghklb» (1896–1906) b «Rdhevguchl^_e» (1907–1917)393
.
H jZkijhkljZg_gbb i_jbh^bq_kdbo i_qZlguo ba^Zgbc \ kb[bj-
kdhc ^_j_g_ gZ hkghZgbb fZl_jbZeh Zgd_l ijZ\bl_evkl_gguo,
gZmqguo b h[s_kl_gguo mqj_`^_gbc ibkZeb <:. b D?. A\_j_u
(1991)394
 b =<. H]e_ag_Z (1999, 2001)395
. < dhgl_dkl_ kha^Zgby
bjZkijhkljZg_gby dgb`ghc ijh^mdpbb dZd dexqZxs_c  k_[y \k_
b^u i_qZlguo fZl_jbZeh h ^_yl_evghklb ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc
jZkkdZauZ_lky \ «Hq_jdZo bklhjbb dgb`ghc dmevlmju Kb[bjb
b>Zevg_]h <hklhdZ» (2000)396
. <hijhku ba^Zl_evkdhc ^_yl_evghklb
lbih]jZnbc lhfkdbo h[s_kl_gguo hj]ZgbaZpbc, _^hfkl b qZkl-
guo ]Za_l jZkkfZljbZxl  khbo jZ[hlZo LI. DZjlZrhZ (2008,389
;Zlhjh\ <<.Mbklhdh\dgb`gh]h^_eZ\Lhfkd_ (1819–1876 ]].) // Babklhjbb
dgb]b, [b[ebhl_qgh]h^_eZb[b[ebh]jZnbb\Kb[bjb. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1969. K. 27–35.
390
<heh^d_\bq :N. Hj]ZgbaZpby b gZqZeh ^_yl_evghklb i_j\hc lhfkdhc lbih]jZnbb //
Dgb`gh_^_eh\Kb[bjbb>Zevg_]h<hklhdZ\ XIX – XX \. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1986. K. 34–39.
391
>fbljb_gdh GF. Lbih]jZnbb klZjh]h LhfkdZ (i_jZy ihehbgZ XIX – gZqZeh
XX \.) // <lhju_FZdmrbgkdb_ql_gby (23–24 fZy 1991 ]., Lhfkd). Lhfkd, 1991. K. 29–32.
392
Dhkuo ?G. Iheb]jZnbq_kdZy ijhfure_gghklv Kb[bjb (dhg_p XIX – 1919 ].) //
Bklhjbq_kdbc hiul ohayckl\_ggh]h hk\h_gby AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb XVIII–XX \. Lhfkd, 1994.
K. 83–96.
393
Dhgh\Zeh\Z ?G. Dgb]hba^Zgb_ Lh[hevkdhc ]m[_jgbb (lhjZy ihehbgZ XIX – gZ-
qZeh XX \_dZ) : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. ?dZl_jbg[mj], 1996. 21 k.
394
A_j_ <:., A_j_ZD?.JZkijhkljZg_gghklvi_qZlguoba^Zgbc k_e_gbyoKb[bjbih-
j_nhjf_ggh]hi_jbh^Z (1861–1904 ]].) // Dgb`gh_^_ehKb[bjb (dhg_p XVIII – gZqZeh XX \.).
Gh\hkb[bjkd, 1991. K. 118–139.
395
H]e_ag_ Z =<. JZkijhkljZg_gb_ i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb  ^_j_g_ <hklhqghc Kb-
[bjb  dhgp_ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. // FZl_jbZeu <k_khxaghc ;ZcdZevkdhc bklhjbq_kdhc
rdheu «Bklhjby b h[s_klh  iZghjZf_ \_dh\», 19–24 bxgy 1990 ]. Bjdmlkd, 1990. Q. 1.
K.167–170;H]e_ag_\Z =<. QblZl_evkdZy Zm^blhjby BjdmlkdZ h lhjhc ihehbg_ XIX –
gZqZe_ XX \_dh\ // A_feyBjdmlkdZy. 2001. ‹ 17. K. 68–72.
396
Hq_jdb bklhjbb dgb`ghc dmevlmju Kb[bjb b >Zevg_]h <hklhdZ. L. 1: Dhg_p XVIII –
k_j_^bgZ 90-o]h^h\ XIX _dZ / hl\. j_^. <G. <hedhZ. Ghhkb[bjkd, 2000. K. 112–114.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
992011)397
 b <:. ?kbihZ (2012)398
. Hl^_evguc jZa^_e h jZablbb ih-
eb]jZnbb b ba^Zl_evkdh]h ^_eZ kh^_j`blky  dhee_dlbghc fhgh-
]jZnbb «Dgb`gZydmevlmjZLhfkdZ (XIX – gZqZeh XX \.)» (2014)399
.
K_^_gby h[ h[klhyl_evklZo hldjulby Ydmlkdhc h[eZklghc lb-
ih]jZnbb \ 1859 ]. b nbgZgkhhf iheh`_gbb _gbk_ckdhc b bjdml-
kdhc ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc \ 60-o ]]. XIX \. kh^_j`Zlky  bkke_-
^h\Zgbb KB. =hev^nZj[Z (2002), ihk\ys_ggh]h [he__ rbjhdhc
bfZehbkke_^hZgghc l_f_ – ]Za_lghfm ^_em  Kb[bjb dZd h[t_^b-
gyxs_fm dhff_jq_kdmx, l_ogbq_kdmx, bgl_ee_dlmZevgmx, dZ^jh-
mxbijZhmxkn_jukms_kl\hZgbykb[bjkdhc]Za_lu400
. Ihfg_-
gbx ZlhjZ, h]jZgbq_gby, ^_cklhZ\rb_  kn_j_ p_gamju, g_
k^_j`bZeb ijhp_kkZ dZiblZebaZpbb ij_kku  _jhi_ckdhc qZklb
Jhkkbbb\Kb[bjb, ij_jZs_gby]Za_lu\h[t_dlbae_q_gbyijb[u-
eb, Z `mjgZebklkdh]h ljm^Z –  ijhn_kkbx. < hlghr_gbb`_ ijZ\b-
l_evkl\_ggh]h k_]f_glZ i_jbh^bdb KB. =hev^nZj[ ^_eZ_l ke_^mx-
sbc \uh^: «<k_ ihiuldb kha^Zlv fhsguc ba^Zl_evkdbc dhfie_dk,
hkghmdhlhjh]hkhklZbeb[u]hkm^Zjkl_ggu_ba^Zgby, g_ijb_eb
d mki_om. KZfufb qblZ_fufb [ueb djmigu_ qZklgu_ ]Za_lu»401
.
IjboZjZdl_jbklbd_]jmiiuhnbpbZevguoba^Zgbc\Kb[bjb\fhgh-
]jZnbb bkihevahZgu lZdb_ p_ggu_ Zjob\gu_ bklhqgbdb, dZd aZf_-
qZgby p_gamju gZ fZl_jbZeu, him[ebdhZggu_ \ 1901–1902 ]].
\ «AZ[ZcdZevkdbo», «Bjdmlkdbo» b «?gbk_ckdbo» _^hfhklyo, Z lZd-
`_ k_^_gby h ijh]jZffZo hnbpbZevguo ]Za_l Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb,
ij_^klZe_ggu_ =eZ\guf mijZe_gb_f ih ^_eZf i_qZlb \ «Dhfbk-
kbx ^ey i_j_kfhljZ ^_ckl\mxsbo ijZbe h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo397
DZjlZrh\Z LI.Ba^Zl_evkdZy b dgb]hlhj]hZy ^_yl_evghklv H[s_kl\Z ihi_q_gby
hgZqZevghfh[jZahZgbb\]. Lhfkd_ // J_]bhgZevgh_dgb]h\_^_gb_: Kb[bjvb>Zevgbc<hklhd :
k[hjgbd gZmqguo klZl_c. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 2008. K. 142–155;DZjlZrh\Z LI. Dhijhkm h j_i_j-
lmZj_ lhfkdbo lbih]jZnbc dhgpZ XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. (Ih fZl_jbZeZf dhee_dpbb lhfkdbo
ba^ZgbcHJDI) // FZl_jbZeugZmqghijZdlbq_kdh]hk_fbgZjZ «Q_eh\_dbdgb]Zkh\j_f_gghf
fbj_ (khpbZevgZyZjo_h]jZnby)», ihkys_ggh]h 65-e_lbx hl^_eZ jmdhibk_cbdgb`guoiZfyl-
gbdh G; L=M b 25-e_lbx lhfkdhc Zjo_h]jZnbq_kdhc wdki_^bpbb, Lhfkd, 13–15 k_gly[jy
2011 ]h^Z. URL: http://www.lib.tsu.ru/ win/dokument /ork/4.pdf (^ZlZh[jZs_gby 28.12.13).
398
?kbih\Z<:.FZeZyiheb]jZnby\Lhfkd_\dhgp_ XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. (ihfZ-
l_jbZeZf HJDI G; L=M) // >hdmf_gl: bklhjby, l_hjby, ijZdlbdZ: fZl_jbZeu V <k_-
jhkkbckdhc gZmqghijZdlbq_kdhc dhgn_j_gpbb k f_`^mgZjh^guf mqZklb_f. Lhfkd,
2012. K. 227–232.
399
Dgb`gZydmevlmjZLhfkdZ (XIX – gZqZeh XX \.) / :cabdh\ZB:., <hjh[v_\ZLE.,
=gxkhZ BN., ?kbihZ<:., BZghkdZy ?<., DZjlZrhZ LI., FZdZjhZ ?:. Lhfkd, 2014.
K. 13–87.
400
=hev^nZj[ KB. =Za_lgh_ ^_eh  Kb[bjb. I_j\Zy ihehbgZ XIX – gZqZeh XX \. Bj-
dmlkd, 2002. K. 66–76.
401
LZf`_. K. 283.

=eZ\Z 1
100bh[eZklguo_^hfhkl_c», ^_ckl\hZrmx\ 1901 ]. (ijZ^Z, uims_gu
bgl_j_kgu_ dhff_glZjbb gZ iheyo ^hdmf_glZ, b f_klh 73 gZbf_-
ghZgbc]Za_lijbkmlkl\mxllhevdh 67)402
.
< ^bkk_jlZpbb :I. RbgdZj_\hc «KlZghe_gb_ b jZablb_ ba^Z-
l_evkdh]h^_eZ\Bjdmlkd_ (XIX – gZqZeh XX \.)» (2011) jZkkfhlj_gZ
^_yl_evghklv hnbpbZevguo b qZklguo lbih]jZnbc  Bjdmlkd_.
<bklhjbb bjdmlkdhc ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb Zlhj \u^_ey_l ^Z i_-
jbh^Z – «^h]Za_lguc» b «]Za_lguc». <uoh^ «Bjdmlkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c» kihkh[kl\hZe jZablbx fZl_jbZevghl_ogbq_kdhc [Zau
lbih]jZnbbb jhklmijhn_kkbhgZevgh]h mjhgy__jZ[hlgbdh\. <^Zev-
g_cr_f, k jZablb_fqZklgh]h ba^Zl_evkdh]h ^_eZ, ]m[_jgkdZy lbih]jZ-
nbykhojZgbeZkhbihabpbbgZi_qZlghfjugd_djZy403
.
Bklhqgbdh\_^_gb_ b [b[ebh]jZnby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c.
H[sb_ ijbgpbiu bamq_gby ^hj_\hexpbhgghc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZ-
lb bdjZldb_ h[ahju kh^_j`Zgby hkghguo ba^Zgbc ijbh^ylky
mq_[gbdZo ih bklhqgbdh_^_gbx404
. Ki_pbZevguo jZ[hl, ihky-
s_gguo bgnhjfZpbhgghfm ihl_gpbZem ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, g_-
fgh]h. Ijb h[jZs_gbb d wlhc h[rbjghc ]jmii_ bklhqgbdh\ ^h
gZklhys_]h \j_f_gb khojZgbe k\hx ZdlmZevghklv kijZ\hqgh-
[b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbc h[ahj, \uiheg_gguc =:. Ha_jh\hc (1957)405
.
< g_f ih^q_jdgmlh h[s__ agZq_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c dZd
f_klguoe_lhibk_c XIX \_dZ», khojZgbrbo «fgh`_kl\hf_edbo
nZdlh\, oZjZdl_jguo ^ey k\h_]h f_klZ b \j_f_gb»406
, g_ hleh-
`b\rboky beb g_ khojZgbrboky ]m[_jgkdboZjob\Zo. :lhjhf
ijhZgZebabjhZgu djbl_jbb hl[hjZ fZl_jbZeZ b hkh[_gghklb ih-
kljh_gby mdZaZl_e_c ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, ijb\h^ylky bo hk-
ghgu_ gZbf_gh\Zgby. «Fbgkdb_», «=jh^g_gkdb_» b «Fh]be_\-
kdb_» ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb k lhqdb aj_gby kh^_j`Zsboky \ gbo
mgbdZevguo fZl_jbZeh\ [ueb jZkkfhlj_gu GG. MeZsbdhf
(1957): «P_gghklv _^hfhkl_c jZaguo ]m[_jgbc dZd bklhqgbdZ402
=hev^nZj[KB.=Za_lgh_^_ehKb[bjb… K. 214–220, 223–227.
403
RbgdZj_\Z :I. KlZgh\e_gb_ b jZablb_ ba^Zl_evkdh]h ^_eZ  Bjdmlkd_ (XIX –
gZqZeh XX \.) : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Bjdmlkd, 2011. K. 18.
404
 Kf., gZijbf_j:N_^hk__ B:. Bklhqgbdh\_^_gb_ bklhjbb KKKJ XIX – gZqZeZ
XX \_dZ. F., 1970. K. 254–267;Dh\Zevq_gdh B>. Bklhqgbdh_^_gb_ bklhjbb KKKJ. F.,
1973. K. 257–273, 373–392;Bklhqgbdh\_^_gb_: L_hjby. Bklhjby. F_lh^. Bklhqgbdb jhk-
kbckdhcbklhjbb : mq_[gh_ihkh[b_ / BG. >Zgbe_kdbc, <<. DZ[Zgh\, HF. F_^mr_\kdZy,
FN. Jmfygp_Z. F., 1998. K. 451–465.
405
Ha_jh\Z =:. Bklhqgbdb djZ__^q_kdhc [b[ebh]jZnbb (]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb
bmdZaZl_eb bo kh^_j`Zgby) // Ljm^u =IB; bf. F?. KZeludhZS_^jbgZ. E., 1957.
L. 3(6). K. 123–141.
406
LZf`_. K. 129, 131.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
101hq_gv g_h^bgZdhZ, gh ijb k_f kh_f jZaebqbb hgb kh^_j`Zl
h]jhfgh_ dhebq_kl\h ^Zgguo h f_klghf djZ_, l_f [he__ \Z`guo,
qlhg_j_^dhih^h[gucfZl_jbZegb\dZdbo^jm]bobklhqgbdZog_
\klj_qZ_lky»407
. GZ g_^hklZlhqgmx bkke_^hZgghklv bklhqgbdh-
\_^q_kdhf ieZg_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c b p_gghklv bo fZl_jbZ-
eh\^eybamq_gbyg_jmkkdbogZjh^h\Kj_^g_]hIh\he`vyh[jZsZe
gbfZgb_ =G. :cieZlh\ (1968): «< ]Za_lZo [ueh gZi_qZlZgh h]-
jhfgh_ dhebq_kl\h aZf_lhd, klZl_c b hq_jdh\ ih bklhjbb, wlgh-
]jZnbb, Zjo_heh]bb, klZlbklbd_, wdhghfbd_, f_l_hjheh]bb f_kl-
gh]h djZy, g_ ihl_jyrbo kh_]h agZq_gby b  gZklhys__
j_fy»408
. Hdmevlmjghbklhjbq_kdhf agZq_gbb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^h-
fhkl_c dZd i_juo f_klguoi_jbh^bq_kdbo hj]ZgZo, ijbmqZ\rbo
d ql_gbx jhkkbckdmx ijh\bgpbx b h[t_^bgy\rbo \hdjm] k_[y
f_klgu_ djZ_\_^q_kdb_ kbeu, ibkZeZ :<. Kmhjh\Z (1975)409
.
<hl^_evghc klZlv_ (1978) _x [ueb u^_e_gu hkgh\gu_ q_jlu
^hj_hexpbhgguo mdZaZl_e_c i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb: g_ihke_^h-
Zl_evghklv b g_iheghlZ mq_lZ uoh^b\rbo ba^Zgbc, hlkmlklb_
_^bghh[jZabybohibkZgbb, h[mkehe_gghklvuoh^ZmdZaZl_e_c
bgl_j_kZfb f_klguo bkke_^hZl_e_c, kf_r_gb_ [b[ebh]jZnbq_-
kdboh[ahjh\khq_jdZfbh[bklhjbbijh\bgpbZevghcij_kku410
.
< 1978 ]. \ k[hjgbd_ «<kihfh]Zl_evgu_ bklhjbq_kdb_ ^bkpb-
iebgu» [ueZ him[ebdhZgZ klZlvy =F. >_cqZ, hldjuZ\rZyky
l_abkhf h lhf, qlh «]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb y\eyxlky h^gbf ba
p_gguo, fgh]h]jZgguo b fZehbkke_^hZgguo bklhqgbdh ih bk-
lhjbb KKKJ»411
, ijbf_gbl_evghg_lhevdhdhj_f_gb\uoh^Z\_-
^hfhkl_c, gh b d XIII–XVIII \., ihkdhevdm gbo im[ebdh\Zebkv
Zdlu, ]jZfhlu, f_fmZju, ebl_jZlmjgu_ iZfylgbdb b ^jm]b_ bk-
lhqgbdbihwlhfmi_jbh^m. >Ze__dhgklZlbjhZekynZdlg_^hklZl-407
MeZsbd GG. «Fbgkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» dZd bklhjbq_kdbc bklhqgbd //
Ijh[e_fubklhqgbdh_^_gby. F., 1957. <ui. 7. K. 149.
408
:cieZlh\=G.=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklbdZdbklhjbq_kdbcbklhqgbd (ihfZl_jbZeZf
g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «DZaZgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» // XXI =_jp_gh\kdb_ ql_gby (F_`mah\-
kdZy dhgn_j_gpby). Bklhjbq_kdb_ gZmdb. DjZldh_ kh^_j`Zgb_ ^hdeZ^h\. 5–26 Zij_ey
1968 ]. E., 1968. K. 43.
409
Km\hjh\Z :<. DjZ__^q_kdbc oZjZdl_j f_klghc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb // <hijhku
djZ_\_^q_kdhc [b[ebh]jZnbb : k[hjgbd gZmqguo ljm^h\. Ghhkb[bjkd, 1975. <ui. 24.
K. 61–77.
410
Km\hjh\Z :<. MdZaZl_eb f_klghc i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb (h[ahj ba^Zgbc aZ 1848–
1917 ]].) // <hijhkubklhjbbkh\_lkdhcdgb]bb[b[ebh]jZnbb : k[hjgbdljm^h\. E., 1978.
K. 139–165.
411
>_cq =F. =m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb dZd bklhjbq_kdbc bklhqgbd // <kihfh]Zl_evgu_
bklhjbq_kdb_^bkpbiebgu. F., 1978. L. 9. K. 236.

=eZ\Z 1
102dZ bkke_^hZgbc, ihkys_gguo ki_pbZevgh ]m[_jgkdbf \_^hfh-
klyf beb bkihevamxsbo bo fZl_jbZeu, \ lh \j_fy dZd «\b^g_c-
rb_ bklhjbdb XIX – gZqZeZ XX \. ihgbfZeb bhp_gbeb agZq_gb_
wlbo ]Za_l dZd \Z`g_cr_]h bklhqgbdZ ih bklhjbb gZr_c kljZ-
gu»412
. <klZlv_kh^_j`blkyoZjZdl_jbklbdZZjob\guofZl_jbZeh\
P=B: (\gZklhys__ \j_fy – J=B:) hijh_dl_ kha^Zgby ]m[_jg-
kdbo _^hfhkl_c, jZkihjy`_gbyo F<>, dZkZrboky bo kh^_j`Z-
gby, ^_yl_evghklb «Dhfbkkbb ^ey i_j_kfhljZ ^_ckl\mxsbo ijZ-
\be h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo \_^hfhkl_c» 1901 ].
bkt_a^Z ij_^klZbl_e_c ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo \_^hfhkl_c
1916 ]. < dhgp_ k\h_]h djZldh] h bklhjbh]jZnbq_kdh]h b bklhqgb-
dh\_^q_kdh]h h[ahjZ =F. >_cq knhjfmebjh\Ze bkke_^h\Zl_ev-
kdmx aZ^Zqm, ZdlmZevgmx ^h gZklhys_]h \j_f_gb, – «kbkl_fZlb-
abjh\Zlv b h[h[sblv \k_ lh, qlh m`_ [ueh k^_eZgh bkke_-
^h\Zl_eyfb» b «jZajZ[hlZlv ki_pbZevgmx ijh]jZffm h[ke_^h\Z-
gby bbkke_^hZgby ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c dZd bklhjbq_kdh]h
bklhqgbdZ» \ mkeh\byo hlkmlkl\by iheguo dhfie_dlh\ \_^hfh-
kl_c^Z`_p_gljZevguo[b[ebhl_dZokljZgu413
.
K_^_gbyhf_kl_ojZg_gbybdhfie_dlghklb]m[_jgkdbo_^hfh-
kl_c Kb[bjb, bo i_jbh^bqghklb, j_^ZdlhjZo b uoh^brbo ijbeh-
`_gbyo ij_^klZe_gu  [b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbo mdZaZl_eyo EG. ;_ey_-
hc, FD. Abghv_Z b FF. GbdbnhjhZ414
; :<. E_[_^_\ hc415
;
>K. Kbjhlu b :<. Km\hjh\hc416
; ?G. Dhkuo417
. MdZaZl_ev hnb-412
>_cq=F.=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklbdZdbklhjbq_kdbcbklhqgbd… K. 244.
413
>_cq=F.=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklbdZdbklhjbq_kdbcbklhqgbd… K. 252–253.
414
;_ey_\Z EG., Abgh\v_\Z FD., Gbdbnhjh\ FF.;b[ebh]jZnbyi_jbh^bq_kdboba-
^Zgbc Jhkkbb, 1901–1916 / ih^ h[s. j_^. <F. ;ZjZr_gdhZ, H>. =hem[_\hc,
GY. FhjZq_kdh]h. E., 1958. L. 1; 1959. L. 2; 1960. L. 3.
415
Kh^guc dZlZeh] i_jbh^bdb AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb (1789–1959 ]].) / khkl.
:<. E_[_^_Z. Q. 2: =Za_lu (1857–1959). <ui. 1: :dfhebgkdGhhkb[bjkdZy h[eZklv.
Ghhkb[bjkd, 1974. 252 k.;Kh^gucdZlZeh]i_jbh^bdbAZiZ^ghcKb[bjb (1789–1959 ]].) /
khkl. :<. E_[_^_Z. Q. 2: =Za_lu (1857–1959). <ui. 2: HfkdZyh[eZklv – YfZehG_g_pdbc
gZpbhgZevguchdjm]. Ghhkb[bjkd, 1974. K. 253–518.
416
I_jbh^bq_kdb_ba^ZgbyAZiZ^ghcKb[bjb 1789–1955 ]].: ij_^Zjbl_evguckibkhd
/ khkl. >K. Kb jhlZ, :<. Kmhjh\Z. Ghhkb[bjkd, 1961. Q. 1–2. 329 k.
417
Dhkuo ?G., Fhkb gZ B=. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv Kb[bjb (\lhjZy iheh\bgZ XIX \. –
n_jZev 1917 ].) : mq_[. ihkh[b_. Lhfkd, 1991. 96 k.;Dhkuo ?G., Fhkb gZ B=. I_jbh^bq_kdZy
i_qZlv Kb[bjb (\lhjZy ihehbgZ XIX \. – n_\jZev 1917 ].). MdZaZl_ev ]Za_l b `mjgZeh\ : mq_[.
ihkh[b_. Ba^. 2-_. Lhfkd, 2001. 94 k.;Dhkuo ?G., Ydh_gdh :<.Ih\j_f_ggZy i_qZlv Kb[bjb
lhjZy ihehbgZ XIX \_dZ – n_\jZev 1917 ].) : k\h^guc mdZaZl_ev i_jbh^bq_kdbo b ijh^he-
`Zxsboky ba^Zgbc. Lhfkd, 2011. 376 k.;Dhkuo ?G. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv Kb[bjb (fZjl
1917 – fZc 1918 ]].) : mdZaZl_ev ]Za_l b `mjgZeh\ : ihkh[b_ ^ey klm^_glh\. Lhfkd, 1989. 85 k.;
Dhkuo?G.I_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlvKb[bjb (fZjl 1917 – fZc 1918 ]].) : mdZaZl_ev]Za_lb`mjgZ-

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
103pbZevguo]Za_lJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb, khklZ\e_ggucW<. E_l_gdh-
\uf (2005)418
, k g_[hevrbfb ihijZdZfb XE. FZg^jbdb419
, fh-
`_l uihegylv nmgdpbx iml_h^bl_ey b i_jbqgh]h agZdhfkl\Z
kbklhjb_c b kh^_j`Zgb_f dZa_gguo ^hj_hexpbhgguo ba^Zgbc.
JZ[hlZ ih khklZe_gbxih^jh[guo mdZaZl_e_c ^ey hl^_evguo_-
^hfhkl_c \_^_lky \ gZklhys__ \j_fy gZ [Za_ gZmqguo [b[ebhl_d
bhl^_evgufbbkke_^hZl_eyfb. LZdhu, gZijbf_j, mdZaZl_evklZ-
l_c djZ_\_^q_kdh]h kh^_j`Zgby g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «DZem`-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» aZ 1900–1910 ]].420
, mdZaZl_ev klZ-
l_c g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Lh[hevkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c»
k 1868 ih 1897 ].421
, mdZaZl_ev klZl_c g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «Lhf-
kdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» 1857–1917 ]].422
GZ fZl_jbZeZo «I_jfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» bklhqgbdh-
_^q_kdbfbbf_lh^heh]bq_kdbfbijh[e_fZfbjZajZ[hldbiheghl_d-eh\ : ihkh[b_ ^ey klm^_glh\. Ba^. 2-_. Lhfkd, 1990. 85 k.;Dhkuo ?G. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv
Kb[bjb (fZjl 1917 – fZc 1918 ]].) : mdZaZl_ev]Za_lb`mjgZeh\. Lhfkd, 2009. 144 k.
418
E_l_gdh\W<.=m[_jgkdb_, h[eZklgu_, \hckdhu_, _iZjobZevgu_\_^hfhklb 1837–
1917. KI[., 2005. 148 k.
419
 Bklhjby ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c gZqbgZ_lky g_ k «Iheh`_gby h ihjy^d_ ijhba\h^klZ
^_e  ]m[_jgkdbo ijZ\e_gbyo» 1837 ]. (k 1838 ]. ]Za_lhc h[aZ\_ebkv 42 ]m[_jgbb b h[eZklb),
Zk 1831 ]., dh]^Z klZeb\uoh^blv «YjhkeZ\kdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb», ba^Zgb_ dhlhjuo [ueh
ij_^mkfhlj_gh «Iheh`_gb _f h[ ba^Zgbb ] m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c» 1830 ]. (h \uoh^ _ ]m[ _jg-
kdb o \ _^hfhkl_c k 1831 ]. \ ^jm]b o iylb ]m[ _jgbyo – :kljZ oZg kdhc, DZaZg kdhc, Db _\ kdhc, Gb-
`_]hjh^kdhc b Keh[h^kdhMdjZbgkdhc – k\_^_gbc g_ gZc^_gh). «:dfhebgkdb_ h[eZklgu_ \_-
^hfhklb», ba^ZZ_fu_  Hfkd_, hlg_k_gu mdZaZl_e_ d Kj_^g_c :abb –  ^_cklbl_evghklb
:dfhebgkdZy h[eZklv [ueZ khklZghc qZklvx AZiZ^ghKb[bjkdh]h ]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjklZ,
p_gljhf dhlhjh]h [ue Hfkd. Djhf_ lh]h, XE. FZg^jbdZ mdZaZe gZ g_h[oh^bfhklv i_j_ijh-
_jdb «de visu» k\_^_gbc hi_jbh^bqghklb \_^hfhkl_c b \j_f_gb \uoh^Z bo ijbeh`_gbc, aZ-
nbdkbjhZgguokijZ\hqgh[b[ebh]jZnbq_kdhcebl_jZlmj_, bkihevahZgghcW<. E_l_gdhuf
ijb khklZ\e_gbb mdZaZl_ey (FZg^jbdZ XE.Iml_\h^bl_ev\bgmxwihom // :dp_glu. Gh\h_
fZkkh\hc dhffmgbdZpbb. :evfZgZo. <ui. 3–4 (66–67). K. 117–118). 1917 ]h^ dZd dhg_qgZy
^ZlZ  bklhjbb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \_kvfZ mkehgZ. GZijbf_j, «LZ\jbq_kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb» uoh^beb^h 1920 ]., dh]^ZDjufhdZaZekyjmdZoDjZkghc:jfbb (Nbebfhgh\K;.
Ihke_^gbc j_^Zdlhj «LZ\jbq_kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» (>_eh GI. Qh]eZdhZ) // Nbebfh-
gh K;. LZcgu djufkdbo aZkl_gdh\: ^hdmf_glZevgu_ hq_jdb h `_jlZo iheblbq_kdbo j_ij_k-
kbc  Djufm \ 1920–1940-_ ]h^u. Kbfn_jhihev, 2003. K. 153–155). «Gh]hjh^kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_
\_^hfhklb» ba^Z\Zebkv^h 1 (14) n_jZey 1918 ]. (BZghZ ?<. Ebl_jZlmjgZy`bagvGh]hjh^Z
gZ kljZgbpZo f_klghc i_jbh^bdb 1838–1917 ]h^h\ : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. L\_jv,
2004. K. 10).
420
DZem`kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb / DZem`. h[e. gZmq. [dZ bf. <=. ;_ebgkdh]h.
III uimkd. Ojhgheh]bq_kdZyjhkibkvklZl_cdjZ_\_^q_kdh]hkh^_j`ZgbyaZ 1900–1910 ]]. /
khkl. =F. FhjhahZ. DZ em]Z, 2000. 109 k.
421
Lh[hevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb. Khljm^gbdb b Zlhju / khkl. XE. FZg^jbdZ.
Lxf_gv, 2004. Dg. 1. K. 544–597; Dg. 2. K. 190–245.
422
MdZaZl_evg_hnbpbZevghcqZklb «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» 1857–1917 ]].
1 we_dljhg. hil. ^bkd // R_ph <<. «Lhfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» (1857–1917 ]].)
\khpbhdmevlmjg hfb bgnhjfZpbhgg hfi jhkljZg kl\ _Kb[b jb. Lhfkd, 2 012.

=eZ\Z 1
104klh\hc [Zau ^Zgguo k khojZg_gb_f g_rg_]h h[ebdZ, kh^_j`Zgby,
kljmdlmju b fZj]bgZebc bklhqgbdZ, gh k hafh`ghklyfb khj_f_g-
gh]hij_^f_lghl_fZlbq_kdh]hihbkdZaZgbfZ_lky]jmiiZbkke_^hZ-
l_e_c eZ[hjZlhjbb bklhjbq_kdhc b iheblbq_kdhc bgnhjfZlbdb
I_jfkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h mgb\_jkbl_lZ – KB. Dhjgb_gdh,
K<. Ib]Ze_Z, G=. =hj[Zq_Z, J<. FblbgZ b ^jm]b_423
. H[jZs_gb_
d bgnhjfZpbhgguf l_ogheh]byf ihahey_l bae_qv ba [hevrh]h
fZkkb\Z l_dklh kdjulmx bgnhjfZpbx, hkms_kleylv jZaghh[jZa-
gu_ ihbkdhu_ aZijhku b l_fZlbq_kdmx ]jmiibjh\dm im[ebdZpbc,
ih^gylvky ^h mjhgy [he__ rbjhdbo uh^h\, q_f ijb ijbf_g_gbb
ebrvf_lh^hljZ^bpbhggh]hbklhqgbdh_^q_kdh]hZgZebaZ.
BlZd, bamq_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \ kh_lkdhc bklhjbq_kdhc
gZmd_gZqZehkvkk_j_^bgu 60-o]]. XX \., hghrehbb^_l, ]eZgufh[jZ-
ahf, ihf_klm uoh^Z ba^Zgby (MjZe, Ihhe`v_, X] Jhkkbb, Jmkkdbc K_-
_j b Kb[bjv). <_^hfhklb bkihevahZebkv dZq_kl\_ bklhqgbdZ ^ey
djZ__^q_kdbob wlgh]jZnbq_kdbobkke_^hZgbc, ^ey beexkljZpbb jZa-
blbyhk\h[h^bl_evgh]h ^b`_gby,  dhgl_dkl_bamq_gby h[s_kl_ggh-
dmevlmjghc `bagb ijhbgpbb,  bklhqgbdh\_^_gbb [ueZ h[hagZq_gZ
ijh[e_fZ g_^hklZlhqghc bamq_gghklb b bkihevahZgby ijZbl_evkl-
_gguo]Za_ldZq_kl_bklhjbq_kdh]hbklhqgbdZ. H[jZs_gb_lhevdh d
dZdhclh h^ghc ijh[e_fZlbd_, gZb[he__ ujZ`_gghc gZ dZdhfeb[h ba
wlZih kms_kl\hZgby _^hfhkl_c, ^Ze_dh g_ bkq_jiuZeh jZaghh[jZ-
ab_ bo kh^_j`Zgby b aZ j_^dbf bkdexq_gb_f khijh\h`^Zehkv iheguf
bih^jh[guf bkke_^hZgb_f k_]h bklhjbq_kdh]h imlb ]Za_lu
bijhbkoh^brbokg_xbaf_g_gbc. Knhjfbjh\Z\rbcky kh_lkdbci_-
jbh^ b^_heh]bq_kdb h[mkeh\e_ggucih^oh^ d bklhjbbi_qZlb, \ khhl\_l-
kl\bb k dhlhjuf ukljZbZeky bklhqgbdhuc fZl_jbZe bhij_^_eyebkv423
<he]bj_\Z =E., Dhjgb_gdh KB., Ib]Ze_\Z K<. Bklhqgbdh\_^q_kdbc ZgZeba ]Za_lu
I_jfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» (XIX – gZqZeh XX \.) dZd hkghZ ^ey ijh_dlbjhZgby
bkha^Zgby bgnhjfZpbhgghc kbkl_fu // <_klgbd I_jfkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h mgb_jkbl_lZ.
K_jby «Bklhjbybiheblheh]by». 2007. ‹ 3. K. 79–88;Dhjgb_gdhKB., =Z]ZjbgZ>:., =hj[Zq_-
Z G=., Ib]Z e_Z K<. =Za_lZ «I_jfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» 1838–1844 ]].: ijh[e_fu bk-
lhqgbdh\_^q_kdh]h bkke_^hZgby b khojZg_gby bklhjbdhdmevlmjgh]h iZfylgbdZ // BgnhjfZ-
pbhgguc [xee_l_gv ZkkhpbZpbb «Bklhjby bdhfivxl_j» ‹ 35. BgghZpbhggu_ ih^oh^u
bklhjbq_kdbo bkke_^hZgbyo: bgnhjfZpbhggu_ l_ogheh]bb, fh^_eb b f_lh^u. FhkdZ; ;Zj-
gZme, 2008. K. 134–136;Ib]Ze_\Z K<., Dhjgb_gdh KB., =Z]ZjbgZ >:., =hj[Zq_\Z G=. =Za_lZ
I_jfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» (1838–1844 ]].): ljZ^bpbhgguc bklhqgbdh\_^q_kdbc ZgZeba
b bgnhjfZpbhggu_ l_ogheh]bb // <_klgbd I_jfkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]h mgb\_jkbl_lZ. 2008.
‹ 7 (23). K. 72–76;FblbgZ (KZeyob_\Z) J<.Kljmdlmjgucbkh^_j`Zl_evgucZgZebabklhjbq_-
kdh]h bklhqgbdZ (gZ ijbf_j_ bgnhjfZpbhgghc kbkl_fu «=Za_lZ «I_jfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^h-
fhklb») // BgnhjfZpbhgguc[xee_l_gvZkkhpbZpbb «Bklhjbybdhfivxl_j». ‹ 36: FZl_jbZeu
XII dhgn_j_gpbbZkkhpbZpbb «Bklhjbybdhfivxl_j». Hdly[jv 2010 ]. F., 2010. K. 120–121.

=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb\hl_q_kl\_gghcbklhjbh]jZnbbi_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb
105bkke_^h\Zl_evkdb_ ij_^ihql_gby, ijbh^be \ hlghr_gbb \_^hfhkl_c
dl_g^_gpbhagufaZ^Zggufuh^Zf (i_j_^ZZrbfkyhlZlhjZdZ\lhjm
bi_j_ghkbfuokh^ghc]Za_lugZ^jm]mx) bba[bjZl_evghfmh[jZs_gbx
dbofZl_jbZeZf (bebboiheghfmb]ghjbjh\Zgbx).
K 1990-o ]]. ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb hl^_evguo j_]bhgh\ klZebuklm-
iZlv \ dZq_kl_ kZfhklhyl_evgh]h ij_^f_lZ bkke_^h\Zgby, dZd h[eZ^Zx-
sb_ hij_^_e_ggufb lbiheh]bq_kdbfb oZjZdl_jbklbdZfb, hj]ZgbaZpbhg-
gufb b kh^_j`Zl_evgufb hkh[_gghklyfb \ kbkl_f_ ijZbl_evkl_gghc
bijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb, dZd mgbdZevguc bklhqgbd ih h[s_kl\_gghc
bihk_^g_\ghc `bagb jhkkbckdhc ijhbgpbb. FZl_jbZeu g_hnbpbZev-
guo qZkl_c ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c klZeb bkihevahZlvky ^ey bamq_gby
ebl_jZlmjguo ijhp_kkh ijhbgpbb, bgnhjfZpbhgghc iheblbdb f_kl-
ghc Z^fbgbkljZpbb, jZa\blby lbih]jZnkdhba^Zl_evkdh]h b dgb`gh]h
^_eZ. FZeh jZ[hl, hk_sZxsbo bklhjbx f_klghc hnbpbZevghc ij_kku
gZqZe_ XX \., ihiuldb __ j_nhjfbjhZgby, baf_g_gb_ kh^_j`Zgby b
gZijZe_gby \_^hfhkl_c \ i_jbh^ j_hexpbc b =jZ`^Zgkdhc \hcgu.
NjZ]f_glZjgh b bahebjhZggh ij_^klZ\e_gZ bklhjby ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhkl_c Kb[bjb, dhlhju_  agZqbl_evghc kl_i_gb ijh^he`Zxl g_klb gZ
k_[_ i_qZlv h[eZklgbq_kdhc bklhjbh]jZnbb. >Zevg_crb_ i_jki_dlbu
bamq_gby ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c b bkihevahZgby bo bklhqgbdh_^q_-
kdh]h ihl_gpbZeZ kyaZgu k \\_^_gb_f \ gZmqguc h[hjhl ghuo bklhq-
gbdh p_gljZevguo b f_klguo Zjob\h\, i_j_h^hf ]Za_lguo dhee_dpbc
_^hfhkl_c  we_dljhggmx nhjfm, kha^Zgb_f iheguo mdZaZl_e_c b [Za
^Zgguo bo kh^_j`Zgby, ujZ[hldhc ghuo bkke_^hZl_evkdbo ih^oh^h\
d ZgZebam ]Za_lguo l_dklh\, khojZg_gb_f ^bkdmkkbhggh]h oZjZdl_jZ l_h-
j_lbq_kdbo ihkljh_gbc b \uh^h  hlghr_gbb bklhjbb j_]bhgZevghc
i_qZlb, k h[t_^bg_gb_f bkke_^hZl_evkdbo mkbebc Zlhjh\, bamqZxsbo
]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklbjZaebqguoj_]bhghkljZgu.

=eZ\Z 2
IJ:<H<H?IHEH@?GB?
HNBPB:EVGHC=M;?JGKDHCIJ?KKU
<KBKL?F?I?JBH>BQ?KDHCI?Q:LB
JHKKBCKDHCBFI?JBB
2.1. IJ?>UKLHJBY, HKGH<GU?IHEH@?GBY
BJ?:EBA:PBYIJH?DL:J?=BHG:EVGHC
IJ:<BL?EVKL<?GGHCI?Q:LB
< 1830–1854 ]].
I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv Jhkkbb bagZqZevgh hagbdeZ dZd i_qZlv
hnbpbZevgZy – \ p_eyo h[_ki_q_gby bgl_j_kh ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h
mijZe_gby kljZghc. < dhgp_ 1702 ]. \ i_jbh^ g_m^Zq  K__jghc
hcg_ I_lj I gZqZe ba^Z\Zlv «<_^hfhklb h h_gguo b bguo ^_eZo,
^hklhcguoagZgby b iZfylb, kemqb\rboky \ Fhkdhkdhf ]hkm^Zjkl-
_bhbguohdj_klguokljZgZo»1
. Ba\_klbykl_ZljZ\h_gguo^_ckl-
bc b «gmlj_ggbo njhglh\» g_[uZeuo ij_h[jZahZgbc, jZaf_-
sZ_fu_ih^ dhgljhe_f kZfh]h pZjy, ^he`gu [uebm[_^blv`bl_e_c
Jhkkbbb?jhiukdhjhfihjZ`_gbbr_^kdhcZjfbb, mki_oZojmk-
kdhc lhj]h\eb b ijhfure_gghklb, fhsb \ha\h^bfh]h nehlZ. G_\u-
]h^gZy ^ey q_klb b keZ\u kljZgu ^_fhjZebamxsZy bgnhjfZpby g_
im[ebdhZeZkv. Ke_]dhcjmdbI_ljZkeh\h, i_j__^_ggh_k]heeZg^-
kdh]h ( «…DmjZglu, ihgZr_fm <_^hf hklb…»), klZeh mihlj_[eylvky
kfuke_ «]Za_lZ», qlhlh`_hq_gvihdZaZl_evgh. G_ihgylby «dmjZg-
lu» (nj. courant – «l_dmsbc» beb courantes – «kemob»), «]Za_lZ» (bl.
gazzZ – «khjhdZ» beb gazzetta – «f_edZy fhg_lZ»), mihlj_[eyrb_ky
\agZq_gbb «lhj]hucebklhd», b^Z`_g_iheg_jmkkdb_keh\Z «\_k-
lb» beb «ba_klby», Z bf_ggh «_^hfhklb» (^j_g_jmk. _^Zlv –1
AZ]heh\hdk 1704 ]. Kf.:JmkkdZy i_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv (1702–1894) : kijZhqgbd /
ih^ j_^. :=. >_f_glv_Z, :<. AZiZ^h\Z, FK. Q_j_iZoh\Z. F., 1959. K. 13. H \uoh^_i_j-
\h]hghf_jZi_ljh\kdhc]Za_lug_k 1703 ], Zk^_dZ[jy 1702 ]. kf.:=jhfh\Z EI.
Mbklhdhjhkkbckdhc`mjgZebkldb (bahiulZbamq_gby «<_^hfhkl_c») // G_\kdbcgZ[ex-
^Zl_ev. KI[., 2002. ‹ 1. K. 90–94.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
107agZlv», «mijZeylv») klZeb h[hagZqZlv i_jh_ i_qZlgh_ i_jbh-
^bq_kdh_ ba^Zgb_. L_f kZfuf I_lj ih^q_jdb\Ze, qlh qblZl_ex
[m^ml khh[sZlvky hldjulh (Z g_ lZcgh, dZd \ kemqZ_ k «DmjZglZ-
fb» fhkdhkdbo pZj_c) b hl ebpZ ]hkm^ZjklZ kZfu_ ijZ^b\u_
nZdlu, agZgby, k_jv_agZy, Z g_ jZae_dZl_evgZy bgnhjfZpby. < 1728 ].
ba^Zgb_ «<_^hfhkl_c» [ueh i_j_^Zgh :dZ^_fbbgZmd, b hgbgZqZeb
uoh^blv ih^ gZaZgb_f «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdb_ _^hfhklb», ijh-
^he`Zy bgnhjfbjhZlv h ijZbl_evkl_gguo jZkihjy`_gbyo
b\g_rg_iheblbq_kdbo kh[ulbyo. < dZq_kl_ ijbeh`_gby d gbfba-
^ZZebkv «F_kyqgu_ bklhjbq_kdb_, ]_g_Zeh]bq_kdb_ b ]_h]jZnbq_-
kdb_ ijbf_qZgby \ <_^hfhklyo», p_evx dhlhjuo [ueh h[tykg_gb_
l_jfbgh b bf_g, klj_qZ\rboky  hkghghc ]Za_l_. «Ijbf_qZgby»
kqblZxlky i_juf hl_q_kl_gguf `mjgZehf, gh, dZd hlf_qZeZ
W:. EZaZj_\bq, ih k\h_f m h[ebdm, h[t_f m (\hk_fv kljZgbp), i_jbh-
^bqghklb (^\Z jZaZ  g_^_ex) b kh^_j`Zgbx «Ijbf_qZgby» i_juo
e_l hklZZebkv [ebadb ]Za_l_ b lhevdh iha^g__ klZeb gZmqgh-
ihimeyjguf «`mjgZevguf ba^Zgb_f»2
. K 1756 ]. ijb Fhkdhkdhf
mgb_jkbl_l_ klZeb ba^ZZlvky «Fhkdhkdb_ _^hfhklb»,  dhlhjuo
gZjy^m k hk_s_gb_f \gmlj_gg_c `bagb kljZgu agZqbl_evgh_ \gb-
fZgb_ m^_eyehkv ^_yl_evghklb mgb\_jkbl_lZ b ZdZ^_fbq_kdbo mqj_-
`^_gbc3
.
< 50-o]]. XVIII \.  Jhkkbb ihybebkvgZmqgu_ b ebl_jZlmjgu_
`mjgZeu. <khhl_lklbbkijhh^bfhc_xiheblbdhcijhk_s_ggh-
]hZ[khexlbafZ?dZl_jbgZ II ebd\b^bjhZeZ]hkm^Zjkl_ggmxfhgh-
ihebx gZ lbih]jZnkdbc klZghd b kihkh[klhZeZ hagbdgh_gbx
qZklghc`mjgZebklbdb, gZ^_ykvgZih^^_j`dmkhboij_h[jZahZgbc
bm_dh_qb\Zgb_boi_qZlghfkeh_. H^gZdhg_h`b^Zggh^eyk_[y
bfi_jZljbpZ ihemqbeZ  __ ebp_ g_ ih^^_j`dm, Z hiihabpbhggmx
kbem: ]jmiiZ `mjgZehgZqZeZihe_fbdmkh kh_c «ijZ[Z[dhc». DZd
 blh]_ keh`beZkv km^v[Z h^gh]h ba ]eZguo mqZklgbdh wlhc ihe_-
fbdb – ba_klgh, dZd ba_klgZ b km^v[Z dgb]b, ba^Zgghc  h^ghc ba
hevguolbih]jZnbc». <_johgZy eZklv, klZgZ imlv^hims_gby
kh[h^u i_qZlgh]h kehZ, kZfZ `_ gZqZeZ dhgljhebjhZlv b j_]meb-
jhZlv__, qlh[uh]jZgbqblvihlhddjblbdbkhcZ^j_k. LZdihyb-
eZkvp_gamjZ, dhlhjZyaZdhgh^Zl_evghbhj]ZgbaZpbhgghhnhjfbeZkv
\ 1804 ].2
Kf.:EZaZj_\bq W:. DZd gZqZeZkv jhkkbckdZy `mjgZebklbdZ // Ijbjh^Z. ?`_f_kyqguc
ihimeyjguc_kl_kl\_gghgZmqguc`mjgZe:GKKKJ. F., 1974. ‹ 4. K. 56–63.
3
Kf.:;_jdh\IG.Bklhjbyjmkkdhc`mjgZebklbdb XVIII \. F.; E., 1952. K. 108–115.

=eZ\Z 2
108<i_jhcihehbg_ XIX \. klhebqgu__^hfhklbijh^he`Zebhk-
lZZlvky _^msbfb hnbpbZevgufb ba^Zgbyfb. DZd mklZghbe
:I. Dbk_e_\, nhjfu ih^Zqb fZl_jbZeZ b l_fZlbq_kdbc khklZ\
h[_bo ]Za_lZo [ueb koh`b – jm[jbdb «<gmlj_ggb_ ba_klby»,
BghkljZggu_ ba_klby», «Kf_kv», dZa_ggu_ b qZklgu_ h[tye_gby.
< «Fhkdh\kdbo \_^hfhklyo», \ hlebqb_ hl «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdbo»,
lZd`_i_qZlZebkvm_a^gu_ghhklb, gZmqgu_klZlvb, hlq_luFhkdh\-
kdh]hmgb\_jkbl_lZ4
.
< 1809–1819 ]]. ihqlhuf ^_iZjlZf_glhf Fbgbkl_jklZ gml-
j_ggbo ^_e uimkdZeZkv «K__jgZy ihqlZ, beb GhZy KZgdl-
I_l_j[mj]kdZy ]Za_lZ» dZd hnbpbZevgh_ h[s_jhkkbckdh_ ba^Zgb_,
hjb_glbjhZggh_ ij_bfms_kl\_ggh gZ khh[s_gb_ «gmlj_ggbo ba-
\_klbc b ijhbkr_kl\bc, ^hgZr_]h hl_q_kl\Z dZkZxsboky», \dexqZy
ba_klby ba ijhbgpbZevguo ]m[_jgkdbo b m_a^guo ]hjh^h\5
.
K 1809 ]. ^eyijbgylbydbkiheg_gbxbf_gguomdZahbihklZghe_-
gbc K_gZlZ klZeb ba^Z\Zlvky «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdb_ k_gZlkdb_ _^h-
fhklb», Z^j_khZggu_ ]eZ\guf h[jZahf h[yaZl_evguf ih^ibkqb-
dZf – qbghgbdZf ijbkmlkl_gguo f_kl. <ebyl_evghc qZklghc ]Za_-
lhc, ijhh^br_chnbpbZevgmxb^_heh]bx, klZeZ «K__jgZyiq_eZ»
(1825–1864). ?_ hkghZl_ev N<. ;me]Zjbg hq_gv ykgh knhjfmebjh-
Ze g_h[oh^bfhklv ijhijZbl_evkl_gghc i_qZlb dZd ^ey ijh_^_-
gbyhij_^_e_ggh]hiheblbq_kdh]hdmjkZ, lZdb^eyihemq_gbykm[kb-
^bc ^ey kh_c ]Za_lu. < 1826 ].  aZibkd_ gZ bfy gZqZevgbdZ
=eZgh]h rlZ[Z BB. >b[bqZ hg ibkZe: «Qlh[u mijZeylv h[sbf
fg_gb_f, gZ^h agZlv _]h klbobb b we_f_glu. Kh_jr_ggh_ [_afhe-
b_ ihjh`^Z_l g_^h_jqb\hklv b aZklZey_l ij_^iheZ]Zlv keZ[hklv;
g_h]jZgbq_ggZy ]eZkghklv ijhbah^bl k\h_\heb_; ]eZkghklv `_,
^hoghe_ggZykZfbfijZbl_evklhf, ijbfbjy_lh[_klhjhgub^ey
h[_boihe_agZ. KhklZbh[s__ fg_gb_, _kvfZ e_]dhmijZeylvbf,
dZdkh[kl_gguf^_ehf, dhlhjh]hfuagZ_fk_lZcgu_ijm`bgu»6
.
< jhkkbckdhc ijhbgpbb i_jZy ]Za_lZ ihybeZkv  LZf[hkdhc
]m[_jgbb\ 1788 ]. ihbgbpbZlb_=J. >_j`ZbgZ – h^gh]hbakZfuo
h[jZahZgguo ]m[_jgZlhjh _dZl_jbgbgkdhc wihob, aZj_dhf_g^h-4
Dbk_e_\:I.Bklhjbyhnhjfe_gbyjmkkdhc]Za_lu (1702–1917). F., 1990. K. 46–53.
5
Dbk_e_\:I.MdZa. khq. K. 45. <uimkd «K__jghcihqlu» ij_djZlbeky kh kf_jlvx\
1819 ]. __hkghZl_eyb jmdh\h^bl_eyHI. Dhah^Ze_Z, aZgbfZr_]h k 1808 ]. ^he`ghklv
aZf_klbl_ey, Z k 1811 ]. – fbgbkljZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e (<G. IjZbl_evkl_ggZy i_jbh^bq_-
kdZyi_qZlvJhkkbb. Bklhjbq_kdbchq_jd (1702–1894) // <k_fbjguc_klgbd. KI[., 1903.
‹ 2. N_jZev. K. 70).
6
<b^hdNb]eyjbg. IbkvfZbZ]_glmjgu_aZibkdbN<. ;me]ZjbgZ\ III Hl^_e_gb_. F.,
1998. K. 46.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
109Z\r_]hk_[y j_ghklgufkem`bl_e_faZdhgZ7
. «=m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfh-
klb», dZdgZau\Zebo=J. >_j`Zbg\khbo «AZibkdZo», g_khojZgb-
ebkv^hgZr_]hj_f_gbhjb]bgZevghfb^_. Ba_klguebrvdhibb
g_kdhevdboklZl_cba «LZf[hkdboba_klbc 1788 ]h^Z», ^Z^_kyldZ
ghf_jh dhlhjuo kemqZcgh [ueb h[gZjm`_gu \ h^ghc ba ]hjh^kdbo
dgb`guo eZ\hd8
. HkghgZy p_ev «LZf[hkdbo ba_klbc» khklhyeZ
khdjZs_gbb [mfZ`ghc i_j_ibkdb b ^hg_k_gbb ^h qbghgbdh\
baZbgl_j_khZgguo ebp p_gljZevguo b f_klguo jZkihjy`_gbc. =Z-
a_lZ kh^_j`ZeZ  k_[_ l_ `_ Z^fbgbkljZlbgu_ b wdhghfbq_kdb_
k\_^_gby, dhlhju_ gZc^ml k\h_ f_klh \ hl^_eZo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
kl_c, – h gZagZq_gbyo b ijh_a`Zxsbo, h ih^jy^Zo b hldmiZo, h[
mjh`Z_ blhj]h\uo p_gZo, h [_]euo j_djmlZo. K ihfhsvx f_klghc
ojhgbdb b dhjj_kihg^_gpbc ba m_a^guo ]hjh^h h[u\Zl_ey bgnhj-
fbjhZeb h ^_yl_evghklb hnbpbZevguo ebp b mqj_`^_gbc. Kms_kl-
hZe \ «LZf[hkdbo ba_klbyo» b g_hnbpbZevguc hl^_e – \ «Ijb-
[Ze_gbb» d 39 «LZf[hkdbo ba_klbc» [ueh gZi_qZlZgh
ihmqbl_evgh_ kehh _ibkdhiZ LZf[hkdh]h b I_ga_gkdh]h N_hnbeZ.
>ey ba^Zgby ]Za_lu [ue mqj_`^_g hl^_evguc klhe kh klhehgZqZev-
gbdhf b ^mfy ibkpZfb, dhlhju_ ]hlhbeb ghf_j («_`_g_^_evguc
j__klj»), ml\_j`^Z_fuc kh\_lgbdhf ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZ \e_gby j_ahex-
pb_c «im[ebdhZlv». Hli_qZlZggu_  km[[hlm b hkdj_k_gv_ ebklu
ihg_^_evgbdjZkkueZebkv]hjh^gbqbf, dhlhju_jZkijhkljZgyebbo
ih ijbkmlkl_gguf f_klZf b  gb`gbc a_fkdbc km^, ^Ze__ ]Za_lZ
jZkoh^beZkv ih \k_fm m_a^m9
. Ihke_ hlt_a^Z >_j`ZbgZ ba LZf[hZ
]Za_lZi_j_klZeZuimkdZlvky, g_gZc^yih^^_j`dbgbkj_^bf_klgh-
]h qbghgbq_klZ, gb m ur_klhys_]h gZqZevklZ – ]_g_jZe-
]m[_jgZlhjm b gZf_klgbdm JyaZgkdhc b LZf[hkdhc ]m[_jgbc
B<. =m^hbqm g_ ihgjZbebkv klZlvb h jZa[hcgbqv_c rZcd_ b h[
mims_gbyo qbghgbdh ih kem`[_. Hg ihlj_[hZe, qlh[u d g_fm
dhibyo ^ey k\_^_gby» ^hklZ\eyebkv [u «\k_ ba\_klby, dZdb_ i_qZ-7
?dZl_jbgbgkdbc «GZdZa» Meh`_gghcdhfbkkbb>_j`Zbghkijbgye dZdiheblbq_-
kdmxijh]jZffmkZfhcbfi_jZljbpu, _]hklZlvbklZeb^eyg_]hjmdh\h^kl\hfd^_cklbx,
ijZbeZfb  [hjv[_ k g_ijZ_^ghc qbghghc kbkl_fhc. «Ijhklh_ kehh AZdhg  jmkkdhf
lh]^Zrg _f \ha^ mo_i jha\ mqZehdZd hldjh\ _gb_. >ey>_j`Z\bgZhghk^_eZ ehkv bklhqgbdhf
kZfuo ukhdbo b qbkluo qmkl\, ij_^f_lhf k_j^_qgh]h mfbe_gby. AZdhg klZe dZd [u gh-
hc_]hj_eb]b_c, _]hihwabbkehhAZdhg, dZd;h], klZehhdjm`_ghex[hvxbkljZohf»
(Oh^Zk_\bq<K.> _j`Z\bg. F., 1989. K. 102).
8
K_f_ggb dh <I. >hihegbl_evgu_ fZl_jbZeu ^ey bklhjbb ijhbgpbZevguo lbih-
]jZnbc XVIII bgZqZeZ XIX \_dZb^ey[b[ebh]jZnbbdgb], gbogZi_qZlZgguo // Jmkkdbc
[b[ebhnbe. 1913. ‹ 7. K. 65–68.
9
>_j`Z\bg=J.AZibkdb 1743–1812 ]]. F., 1860. K. 269, 284–285.

=eZ\Z 2
110lZlvky [m^ml». DZd ibkZebkke_^hZl_ev `bagb b lhjq_klZ >_j`Z-
bgZ YD. =jhl, «=m^hbq `_eZe b^_lv  i_qZlb lhevdh ba_klby
hlhf, qlhk_ih]m[_jgbbh[klhbl[eZ]hihemqgh, bijbkZb\Zek_[_
ijZhp_gamjugZ^im[ebdZpbyfb]m[_jgZlhjZ»10
.
I_jufb ijhbgpbZevgufb ]Za_lZfb k [he__ ^ebl_evghc bklh-
jb_cbj_]bhgZevghcki_pbnbdhcklZeb «DZaZgkdb_ba_klby», ba^Z-
Z_fu_ \ 1811–1820 ]]. ijb DZaZgkdhf mgb_jkbl_l_, «<hklhqgu_
ba_klby», uoh^brb_ \ 1813–1816 ]].  :kljZoZgb, b «=jmabgkdZy
]Za_lZ», mqj_`^_ggZy \ 1819 ]. ]eZghmijZeyxsbf =jmab_c
:I. ?jfhehuf b ijhkms_kl\hZrZy ^h 1822 ].11
 Wlb i_qZlgu_
hj]Zguim[ebdhZeb hnbpbZevgmxbgnhjfZpbx, klZlvbih wlgh]jZ-
nbb, wdhghfbd_bh[s_kl_gghc`bagb. =Za_luh[jZsZebkvg_lhev-
dhdjmkkdhyauqgufqblZl_eyf – «<hklhqgu_ba\_klby» \ 1816 ].
i_qZlZebkv k i_j_\h^hf gZ Zjfygkdbc yaud, «DZaZgkdb_ ba_klby»
ihf_sZebh[tye_gbygZlZlZjkdhfyaud_, «=jmabgkdZy]Za_lZ» ihe-
ghklvx uoh^beZ gZ jh^ghf yaud_. Ih^jZ`Zy kljmdlmj_ klhebqguo
ba^Zgbc, «DZaZgkdb_ba_klby» bf_ebbk\hbhlebqbl_evgu_q_jlu –
g_dhlhju_ ghf_jZ hldjuZebkvi_j_^h\hc klZlv_c gZ f_klgmx l_fm
k aZ]hehdhf «DZaZgv, ^ZlZ»12
. LZd, «ki_pbnbq_kdh_, h[eZklgh_ \k_
aZf_lg__ [jZeh _jo gZ^ ih^jZ`Zl_evkdbf, h[sbf, nhjfbjmy lbi
f_klghc]Za_lu»13
.
I_juf hiulhfba^Zgby j_]bhgZevghc jmkkdhc ijZ\bl_evkl_g-
ghc ]Za_lu ke_^m_l kqblZlv «Lbnebkkdb_ \_^hfhklb», k oh^ZlZckl-
hf h[ ba^Zgbb dhlhjuo 31 bxey 1827 ]. BN. IZkd_bq h[jZlbeky
dgZqZevgbdm=eZgh]hrlZ[ZBB. >b[bqm: «… Mqj_^blvLbnebk_
i_jbh^bq_kdh_ ba^Zgb_, dhlhjh_, [u m^Ze_gh hl kydhc iheblbq_-
kdhc p_eb, \f_sZeh [u lhevdh: hnbpbZevgu_ ba_klby, jZagu_ h[t-
ye_gby, ]eZ\gu_ h[sb_ ghhklb, ^ey djZy ex[hiulg_crb_, b hh[-
s_ kydb_ k_^_gby, kh]eZkgu_ k b^Zfb ijZ\bl_evklZ»14
.
Kihfhsvx i_qZlgh]h kehZ ghuc gZf_klgbd DZdZaZ ieZgbjhZe
khh[sZlv h oh^_ h_gguo ^_ckl\bc k Lmjpb_c, m^h\e_lhjblv jZk-
lmsbcbgl_j_kdDZdZamkhklhjhgujmkkdboqblZl_e_c, ZlZd`_ih-
imeyjbabjhZlv kh[kl_ggmx ebqghklv kj_^b f_klgh]h gZk_e_gby10
=jhlYD.@bagv>_j`ZbgZih _]h khqbg_gbyfbibkvfZfbihbklhjbq_kdbf^h-
dmf_glZf. KI[., 1880. K. 477.
11
 Kf.:<Zl_cr\beb >E. JmkkdZy h[s_kl_ggZy fukev b i_qZlv gZ DZdZa_  i_j\hc
lj_lb XIX \_dZ. F., 1973. K. 86–100.
12
JmkkdZy i_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv (1702–1894)… K. 136–137, 145;Dbk_e_\ :I. Bklh-
jbyhnhjfe_gbyjmkkdhc]Za_lu… K. 71–72.
13
Dbk_e_\:I.Bklhjbyhnhjfe_gbyjmkkdhc]Za_lu… K. 72.
14
<Zl_cr\beb>E.JmkkdZyh[s_kl\_ggZyfukev… K. 120.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
111b\klhebpZo Jhkkbb15
. < dhgp_ Zij_ey 1828 ]. ihke_^hZeh «ukh-
qZcr__khbahe_gb_» gZba^Zgb_]Za_lu, b «Lbnebkkdb__^hfhklb»,
k i_j_\h^Zfb gZ ]jmabgkdbc, Z aZl_f i_jkb^kdbc yaud, k 4 bxey
1828 ]. klZeb\uoh^blv_`_g_^_evgh (k 1830 ]. ^Z jZaZ g_^_ex) aZ
ih^ibkvxlbnebkkdh]h\h_ggh]h]m[_jgZlhjZ. <i_juc]h^ba^Zgby
lbjZ` ]Za_lu khklZbe 1200 wda_fieyjh gZ jmkkdhf b 400 gZ ]jm-
abgkdhf yaud_16
. L_fZlbq_kdh_ b `Zgjhh_ kh_h[jZab_ «Lbnebk-
kdbo_^hfhkl_c», klmibrboihe_fbdmk hojZgbl_evghcklhebq-
ghc `mjgZebklbdhc, [ueh hlf_q_gh :K. Imrdbguf, dhlhjuc
kqblZe lbnebkkdmx ]Za_lm, g_kfhljy gZ __ hnbpbZevguc ijhnbev,
_^bgkl_gghc ba jmkkdbo ]Za_l, dhlhjZy bf__l kh_ ebph b \ dhlh-
jhc klj_qZxlky klZlvb, ij_^klZeyxsb_ ^_cklbl_evguc,  _jh-
i_ckdhf kfuke_, bgl_j_k»17
. Wlhfm kihkh[kl\hZeb f_g__ kl_kg_g-
gu_ p_gamjgufb h]jZgbq_gbyfb mkehby h_gghc h[klZghdb
bZ\lhjkdbc dhee_dlb\, kj_^b dhlhjuo [ueb kkuevgu_ ^_dZ[jbklu,
h[jZahZggu_hnbp_jubf_klgZy]jmabgkdZybgl_eeb]_gpby. L_fg_
f_g__ ba^Zgb_ [ueh m[ulhqguf (^Z`_ ijb ihklhygghf ihur_gbb
p_gu gZg_]h – k 3 ^h 6 jm[. k_j. \ 1829 ]. b ^h 7 jm[. k_j. \ 1830 ].)
bgm`^Zehkv  ihklhygghc ih^^_j`d_ kh klhjhgu f_klghc Z^fbgb-
kljZpbb. K dhgqbghc __ ^_yl_evgh]h j_^ZdlhjZ IK. KZgdhkdh]h,
ayr_]h gZ k_[y Zj_g^m ]Za_lu b __ lbih]jZnbb, gh lZd b g_ j_-
rb\r_]hhijhkZhihemq_gbbhq_j_^ghcdZa_gghckm[kb^bb, «Lbn-
ebkkdb__^hfhklb» ij_djZlbebkv (\ 1832 ]. g_dhlhjh_\j_fyf_klh
gbo \uoh^beb «Lbnebkkdb_ _^hfhklb. Hl^_e_gb_ ebl_jZlmjgh_»).
Kh[kl_ggh,  jZfdZo ijh_dlZ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  Lbnebk_
k 1838 ]. gZqZeba^ZZlvky «AZdZ\dZakdbc\_klgbd», dhlhjuc\ 1851 ].
[ueijbkh_^bg_g dZd hnbpbZevgh_ ijbeh`_gb_ d qZklghfm hnbpbh-
am]Za_l_ «DZdZa».
Hiul ba^Zgby «Lbnebkkdbo \_^hfhkl_c», \hafh`gh, [ue bk-
ihevahZg ijb jZajZ[hld_ ijh_dlZ ]m[_jgkdbo ijZbl_evkl_gguo
ba^Zgbc, dhlhjuc klZe h[km`^Zlvky  ijZbl_evkl_gguo djm]Zo
ihke_ gZqZeZ \uoh^Z dZdZakdhc hnbpbZevghc ]Za_lu. Fbgbklj nb-
gZgkh ?N. DZgdjbg 31 ^_dZ[jy 1828 ]. h[jZlbeky Dhfbl_l fbgb-
kljh k ij_^eh`_gb_f ba^ZZlv hnbpbZevgu_ ]Za_lu ijb dZ`^hf
]m[_jgkdhfijZe_gbbkhdZaZgb_fihkh[bc^eymemqr_gbyiheh`_-15
FZoZjZ^a_G:.I_jZyjmkkdZy]Za_lZgZDZdZa_ (1828–1832). L[bebkb, 1975. K. 4–
9;<Zl_cr\beb>E.JmkkdZyh[s_kl\_ggZyfukev… K. 114–124.
16
<Zl_cr\beb>E.JmkkdZyh[s_kl\_ggZyfukev… K. 139, 203.
17
FZoZjZ^a_G:.I_j\ZyjmkkdZy]Za_lZ… K. 24.

=eZ\Z 2
112gby ]m[_jgkdbolbih]jZnbc18
. K ihfhsvx hnbpbZevguo ]Za_l ij_^-
iheZ]Zehkv khdjZlblv jZkoh^u ih ^_ehijhbah^kl_gghc qZklb
bkh^_ckl\hZlvjZablbxf_klghclhj]hebbijhfure_gghklb (qlh
kmebeh^hihegbl_evgu_k[hju\dZagm). 5 yg\Zjy 1829 ]. Dhfbl_l
fbgbkljh h^h[jbe ij_^eh`_gb_ ?N. DZgdjbgZ, b 19 yg\Zjy ijb
Fbgbkl_jkl\_ gmlj_ggbo^_e[ue h[jZahZg dhfbl_l ^ey jZajZ[hl-
db aZdhghijh_dlZ h f_klguo hnbpbZevguo ba^Zgbyo19
. LZd Gbdh-
eZc I, ba[jZrbc ijbf_jhf ^ey ih^jZ`Zgby i_jh]h jhkkbckdh]h
bfi_jZlhjZ, jZkrbjbe ijh_dl ba^Zgby «<_^hfhkl_c» ^h fZkrlZ[h\
k_c kljZgu. IZjZee_evgh k jZajZ[hldhc wlh]h ijh_dlZ [ueb ij_^-
ijbgylu rZ]b ih jZkrbj_gbx k_dlhjZ p_gljZevguo ijZbl_evkl-
_gguo ba^Zgbc, dhlhju_ ^he`gu [ueb ^hh^blv ^h k_^_gby f_kl
bebp khb jZkihjy`_gby. 12 ghy[jy 1828 ]. GbdheZc I «ijbagZeih-
e_aguf» ba^Zgb_ «@mjgZeZFbgbkl_jklZgmlj_ggbo^_e» bml_j-
^be _]h ijh]jZffm20
. < _]h pZjklhZgb_ lZd`_ hagbdeb lZdb_ _-
^hfkl_ggu_ ba^Zgby, dZd «@mjgZe Iml_c Khh[s_gby» (1826),
Bg`_g_jgu_ aZibkdb» (1826), «<h_gguc `mjgZe» (1827), «AZibkdb
Mq_gh]h dhfbl_lZ Fhjkdh]h rlZ[Z» (1828), «E_kghc `mjgZe»
(1833), «A_fe_^_evq_kdZy ]Za_lZ» (1834), «AZibkdb =b^jh]jZnbq_-
kdh]h ^_ih» (1835), «AZibkdb <h_gghlhih]jZnbq_kdh]h ^_ih»
(1837)21
.
27 hdly[jy 1830 ]. ureh «Iheh`_gb_ h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo
\_^hfhkl_c», khklhy\r__ ba 7 jZa^_e h\ b 65 iZjZ]jZnh\22
. <g_f
j_]eZf_glbjhZebkvijhp_kkba^Zgby, kh^_j`Zgb_bkljmdlmjZ_^h-18
J=B:. N. 560. Hi. 14. >. 36. E. 1–2.
19
J=B:. N. 560. Hi. 14. >. 36. E. 3.
20
J_^Zdlhjghh]hba^ZgbyGB. =j_q, lZd`_ dZdN<. ;me]Zjbg, gZf_j_Zekyg_u-
oh^blv aZ jZfdb «b^h\» ijZbl_evklZ b ke_^hZlv dmjkm j_]mebjm_fhc ]eZkghklb. Hg
khh[sZe qblZl_eyf, qlh ba^Zgb_ [m^_l klZjZlvky «kh^_ckl\hZlv bkiheg_gbx [eZ]bo gZ-
f_j_gbc ukr_]h gZqZevklZ, bf_\r_]h  b^m mkdhjblv jZkijhkljZg_gb_ h[s_ihe_aguo
k_^_gbc b ^Zlv khbf khh[jZ`_gbyf hafh`gmx ]eZkghklv, kihki_r_klmxsmx
dbkiheg_gbx f_j ]hkm^Zjkl\_gguo b d m^hklh\_j_gbx ih^^Zgguo, qlh bo [_ahiZkghklv,
kihdhcklb_, [eZ]h^_gklb_ b gjZkl_gghklv khklZeyxl ]eZguc ij_^f_l ihi_q_gby
fhgZjoZ» (<G. IjZbl_evkl\_ggZy i_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv  Jhkkbb... K. 75, 77). < 1862 ].
@mjgZeF<>» [uej_hj]ZgbahZg]Za_lm «K__jgZyihqlZ», ijbgZ^e_`Z\rmxlhfm`_
fbgbkl_jklm (:ihg F?.=hkm^Zjkl\_ggZykem`[ZJhkkbbb]Za_lZ «IjZbl_evkl_gguc
\_klgbd» (1869–1881 ]].) : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. KI[., 1997. K. 12).
21
Ebkh\kdbc GF. I_jbh^bq_kdZy i_qZlv  Jhkkbb 1703–1903: KlZlbklbdh-
[b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbch[ahjjmkkdboi_jbh^bq_kdboba^Zgbck^bZ]jZffZfb // K[hjgbdklZl_cih
bklhjbbbklZlbklbd_jmkkdhci_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb 1703–1903. KI[., 1903. K. 18.
22
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c.
27.10.1830 // Ihegh_ kh[jZgb_aZdhghJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb (IKA). Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1830.
L. 5. Hl^. 2. ‹ 4036.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
113fhkl_c, mkehby ih^ibkdbgZ ]Za_lm, ihjy^hd bkiheg_gby him[ebdh-
Zgguo \ g_c jZkihjy`_gbc. Ba^Zgb_ ij_^iheZ]Zehkv hkms_klblv
lhevdh  r_klb ]m[_jgbyo ?jhi_ckdhc Jhkkbb: :kljZoZgkdhc, DZ-
aZgkdhc, Db_kdhc, Gb`_]hjh^kdhc, Keh[h^kdhMdjZbgkdhc
bYjhkeZkdhc, kl_fqlh[u, _keb «mki_ohijZ^Z_lh`b^Zgb_ijZ\b-
l_evklZ», gZqZlv ba^Zgb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c ihkl_i_ggh
b\^jm]bo]m[_jgbyo.
Hkghgu_ aZ^Zqb hnbpbZevghc f_klghc ]Za_lu aZdexqZebkv
khdjZs_gbb dZgp_eyjkdhc i_j_ibkdb b ihemq_gbb ijbkmlkl_g-
gufb f_klZfb b qZklgufb ebpZfb k_^_gbc d bkiheg_gbx beb kh-
h[jZ`_gbx («gbdZdh_ ba f_kl b ebp g_ fh`_l hl]hZjbZlvky g__-
^_gb_f lh]h, qlh h[tye_gh [ueh hnbpbZevgh q_j_a ]m[_jgkdb_
\_^hfhklb»). >h i hy\e_gby hnbpbZevghc ]Za_lu mdZau b jZkihjy`_-
gby i_qZlZebkv  f_klguo lbih]jZnbyo b «h[gZjh^hZebkv» beb
mklgh, iml_f bo ijhql_gby ihebp_ckdbfb qbgZfb, beb iml_f u_-
rb\ZgbygZklhe[_bodhibc (dhlhju_fh]eb[ulvkgylubebaZdju-
lu ^jm]bfb h[tye_gbyfb)23
. =m[_jgkdb_ lbih]jZnbb, bkihevamx-
sb_ky ^ey gZ[hjZ b lbjZ`bjhZgby jZaebqguo ijbdZah\,
ihklZghe_gbc, h[tye_gbc b ij., ijhbah^beb ijh^mdpbx  jZa-
ebqghf dhebq_kl_, g_h^bgZdhh]h nhjfZlZ, [_a kydhc gmf_jZpbb
bkbkl_fZlbabjhZggh]h ojZg_gby. F_ju ih mf_gvr_gbx h[t_fh\
bkoh^ysbo b \oh^ysbo [mfZ], \_^_gbx gh\uo ijZ\be bnhjf ih
mihjy^hq_gbx ^_ehijhba\h^klZ [ueb ij_^ijbgylu \ 1831 ]. b \ hl-
ghr_gbbfbgbkl_jkl\24
.
GZ ukr_f mjh\g_ jmdh\ h^kl\h ]m[_jgkdbfb \_^hfhklyfb hkm-
s_kleye fbgbklj gmlj_ggbo ^_e, gZ f_klghf – ]m[_jgZlhj b qb-
ghgbd ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby – «mijZeyxsbc j_^Zdpb_c». Hg hi-
j_^_eye j_^ZdlhjZ ]Za_lu b ^jm]bo __ khljm^gbdh\. <rlZlghf
hlghr_gbb ]Za_lZ ieZgbjhZeZkv dZd «^h_khd» d m`_ bf_xs_cky
ghf_gdeZlmj_ – ghu_ ^he`ghklb ^ey h[_ki_q_gby uoh^Z _^hfh-
kl_c g_ h^bebkv, bo aZgbfZeb qbghgbdb ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby
bebkem`Zsb_ih «qZklbmq_ghc», ihemqZyijb[Zdmd`ZehZgvxih
hkg h\ghfm f_klm jZ[hlu. Ba^Zgb_ \_^hfhkl_c hkms_kl\eyehkv ]m-
[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnb_c ba khbo j_kmjkh\, fh`gh [ueh lZd`_ jZk-
kqblu\ZlvgZihkh[b_badZagZq_cklZ.23
MklZ\ [eZ]hqbgby, beb ihebp_ckdbc. 8 Zij_ey 1782 ]. Kl. 51–52, 143, 192, 233 //
Jhkkbckdh_aZdhgh^Zl_evkl\h X–XX \_dh\. F., 1987. L. 5.
24
<ZjZ^bgh\ G<. Bklhjby Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e. KI[., 1862. Q. 3, dg. 1.
K. 42, 303–304.

=eZ\Z 2
114Ih «Iheh`_gbx» 1830 ]. ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb bf_eb 4 hl^_e_-
gby: «1) IhklZghe_gby b ij_^ibkZgby, 2) H[tye_gby dZa_ggu_,
3) Ba\_klby, 4) H[ty\e_gby qZklgu_». H[jZapZfb ^ey kljmdlmju b
kh^_j`Zgby hl^_eh\ ihke m`beb «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdb_» b «Fhkdh\-
kdb_» _^hfhklb25
.
< i_jhf hl^_e_gbb ^he`gu [ueb ihf_sZlvky h[s_]hkm^Zjkl-
_ggu_ aZdhgu b jZkihjy`_gby f_klguo eZkl_c: bfi_jZlhjkdb_
fZgbn_klu b mdZau; k_gZlkdb_ mdZau b ij_^ibkZgby fbgbkl_jkl\,
dZkZxsb_ky ^Zgghc ]m[_jgbb; jZkihjy`_gby ]m[_jgZlhjh\, ]m[_jg-
kdh]h ijZe_gby b dZa_gghc iZeZlu. F_klgu_ ihklZghe_gby
bij_^ibkZgbyfh]ebdZkZlvkykZfuojZaghh[jZaguoklhjhgZ^fbgb-
kljZlbghc, h[s_kl_gghcbohayckl_gghc`bagb]m[_jgbb: mqj_`-
^_gb_ ghuo ijbkmlkl_gguo f_kl; hij_^_e_gb_ b uah\
d^he`ghklyf qbghgbdh\; kjhdb b mqZklgbdb ^hjygkdbo \u[hjh\;
ijhbah^kl\h  qbgu; gZ]jZ`^_gb_, mhevg_gb_ beb m^Ze_gb_
k^he`ghklb; rljZnu b \u]hhju gZqZevklZ; ij_^Zgb_ km^m; hi_dZ
bf_gbc; jZkdeZ^dZ ih^Zl_c, a_fkdbo ihbgghkl_c b g_^hbfdb ih
gbf; ij_^ibkZgby d bkiheg_gbxbeb k_^_gbxihebpbb b dZa_gghc
iZeZlu; lZdku k[hjh aZ i_j__a^ q_j_a fhklu b i_j_ijZu; hlijZ\-
e_gb_ j_djmlkdhc ihbgghklb; ijb]eZr_gby d dZdbfeb[h ih`_jl-
hZgbyf beb mqZklbx  jZaj_r_gguo h[s_klZo; ihj_`^_gb_ ih-
k_hkZjZgqhcbkj_^klZd__bklj_[e_gbx; k_^_gbyh[wib^_fbyo
bwibahhlbyokbaeh`_gb_fkihkh[hboij_^hljZs_gby.
<lhjh_hl^_e_gb_[uehij_^gZagZq_gh^eyjZaf_s_gbydZa_gguo
h[tye_gbc ke_^mxs_]h kh^_j`Zgby: «aZij_s_gb_ b jZaj_r_gb_
bf_gbc», uahdj_^blhjhb^he`gbdh]hkm^Zjkl_gguomqj_`^_-
gbc, \uah d kemrZgbx j_r_gbc km^Z, j_r_gby ijbkmlkl_gguo
f_kl ih ijhr_gbyf, ijh^Z`Z k im[ebqgh]h lhj]Z, uahu gZ hldmiZ
b ih^jy^u, aZljZlu gZ ihklZdm j_djmlh\, kukd ijhiZrbo ex^_c
b\_s_c, kkuedZ gZ ihk_e_gb_, h gbsbo b [jh^y]Zo, h [Zgdjhlkl_
b\u[ulbbba]bev^bb, \uahugZke_^gbdh\, hy[_^gbdZobebr_gbb
q_klb, h ihl_j_ iZkihjlh b Zdlh\, h gZc^_gguo m[bluo beb mf_j-
rbo, ihqlhu_ h[tye_gby, h[tye_gbyb \uahu jZaebqguomqj_`-
^_gbc (jZq_[ghc mijZu, mqbebs, dZa_gguob qZklguoohayckl_g-
guo aZ\_^_gbc). Wlb h[ty\e_gby jZaf_sZebkv \ \_^hfhklyo
[_kieZlgh (uahudlhj]ZfbhldmiZfim[ebdhZebkvljbjZaZ). H^-
gZdh`_dZa_ggZyiZeZlZ^he`gZ[ueZ\u^_eblv_^hfhklyfbakh_c
dZgp_eyjkdhc kmffu 300 beb [he__ jm[e_c  ]h^ aZ\bkbfhklb hl
dhebq_klZim[ebdZpbckhboh[tye_gbc.25
<G.IjZbl_evkl\_ggZyi_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlvJhkkbb… K. 62–63.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
115Lj_lv_ hl^_e_gb_ ij_^gZagZqZehkv ^ey ba\_klbc, kihkh[kl\mx-
sbo lhj]he_, ijhfure_gghklb b hh[s_ «^hklhcguo \gbfZgby
`bl_e_c]m[_jgbb»: ijh_a^ukhqZcrbobagZlguohkh[, ijhbkr_kl-
by, g_djheh]b h[ ba_klguo ex^yo, im[ebqgu_ Zdlu b bkiulZgby
mq_[guo aZ_^_gbyo, khklhygb_ b hldjulb_ dZa_gguo b qZklguo
ij_^ijbylbc, hldjulby  kn_j_ ijhfure_gghklb, iZl_glu gZ bah-
[j_l_gby, kihkh[u d ihur_gbx ijhbah^bl_evghklb k_evkdh]h oh-
aycklZ, j_fyhldjulbybaZdjulbyyjfZjhd, p_gugZlhZju, ihjy-
^hd km^hoh^klZ, dmjk ahehlZ b k_j_[jZ, f_l_hjheh]bq_kdb_ ^Zggu_,
klZlbklbq_kdb_ b bklhjbq_kdb_ ba_klby (h[ hkghZgbb ]hjh^h\, ih-
kljhcd_a^Zgbc, gZc^_gguo^j_ghklyo, qbke_`bl_e_cbboijbjhk-
l_, dhebq_kl_ [jZdh\, khklhygbb aZ_^_gbc ijbdZaZ h[s_kl_ggh]h
ijbaj_gby, kjZgbl_evgu_ _^hfhklb h ihk__ b mjh`Z_). KlZlvb
lj_lv_]hhl^_e_gbyfh]ebi_qZlZlvkylhevdhkjZaj_r_gby]m[_jgZlhjZ.
< q_l\_jlhf hl^_e_gbb im[ebdhZebkv qZklgu_ h[ty\e_gby, h[y-
aZl_evgh ih^ibkZggu_ Zlhjhf: h dmie_ijh^Z`_ g_^b`bfhc
b^b`bfhc kh[kl_gghklb, h k^Zq_  gZ_f^hfh b dj_ihklguoex-
^_c, h[ mkem]Zo, h ih[_]Zo dj_ihklguo, h ihl_jygguo b mdjZ^_gguo
_sZo, h[ mgbqlh`_gbb ^h_j_gghkl_c bZdlh\, h uahZo qZklgufb
ebpZfbdj_^blhjhb^he`gbdh\, «hh[s_ba_klbybh[tye_gby, g_
dehgysb_ky gb d dZdhfm \j_^m, b h[h k_o l_o ij_^f_lZo, h dhbo
^ha\hey_lky i_qZlZlv \ \_^hfhklyo h[_bo klhebp»26
. AZqZklgu_h[t-
ye_gbymklZgZeb\ZeZkvieZlZhl ¼ ^h ½ dhi. aZ[md\m.
Ihjy^hd ke_^hZgby «hl^_e_gbc» jZkklZeye ijbhjbl_lu
ihevami_juo^mo – «ihklZghe_gbybij_^ibkZgby» b «dZa_ggu_
h[tye_gby». Lj_lbc hl^_e b hl^_e qZklguo h[tye_gbc i_qZlZebkv
gZ hklZrboky ebklZo. Kh]eZkgh «Iheh`_gbx», ih^ibkgZy ieZlZ
bqZklgu_ h[tye_gby ^he`gu [ueb ihdjuZlv k_ ba^_j`db gZ ba-26
Bf_ggh\ «K.-I_l_j[mj]kdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb» k h[tye_gb_f hijhiZ`_ghkZh[-
jZlbeky ]h]he_\kdbc fZchj DhZe_\, «k h[klhyl_evguf hibkZgb_f k_o dZq_kl\, ^Z[u \kydbc,
klj_lb\rbc _]h, fh]  lm `_ fbgmlm _]h ij_^klZblv d g_fm beb, ih djZcg_c f_j_, ^Zlv agZlv
hf_kl_ ij_[uZgby». Gh ihemqbe hldZa, g_ kh]eZkb\rbkv gZ h[yaZl_evgh_ mihfbgZgb_ k\h_c
nZfbebbbihijbqbg_, qlh «]Za_lZfh`_lihl_jylv j_imlZpbx». Ghf_gdeZlmjZ^jm]boijbgb-
fZ_fuo «]Za_lghc wdki_^bpb_c» im[ebdZpbc (ijb\_^_gguo GbdheZ_f <Zkbev_bq_f g_ [_a
kfukeZ) [ueZ ke_^mxsZy: «< h^ghf agZqbehkv, qlh hlimkdZ_lky  mkem`_gb_ dmq_j lj_a\h]h
ih\_^_gby;  ^jm]hc – fZehih^_j`ZggZy dheykdZ, u\_a_ggZy \ 1814 ]h^m ba IZjb`Z; lZf
hlimkdZeZkv ^\hjhZy ^_dZ ^_ylgZ^pZlb e_l, mijZ`gy\rZyky  ijZq_qghf ^_e_, ]h^gZy b ^ey
^jm]bo jZ[hl; ijhqgu_ ^jh`db [_a h^ghc j_kkhju; fheh^Zy ]hjyqZy ehrZ^v k_juo y[ehdZo,
k_fgZ^pZlb e_l hl jh^m; ghu_, ihemq_ggu_ ba Ehg^hgZ, k_f_gZ j_iu bj_^bkZ; ^ZqZ kh \k_fb
m]h^vyfb: ^mfy klhceZfb ^ey ehrZ^_c b f_klhf, gZ dhlhjhf fh`gh jZa_klb ij_hkoh^guc
[_j_ah\uc beb _ehuc kZ^; lZf `_ gZoh^beky uah `_eZxsbo dmiblv klZju_ ih^hr\u,
kijb]eZr_gb_fyblvkydi_j_lhj`d_dZ`^uc^_gvhlhkvfb^hlj_oqZkhmljZ».

=eZ\Z 2
116^Zgb_\_^hfhkl_c, hieZlmljm^ZmijZeyxs_]hj_^Zdpb_c, j_^ZdlhjZ
b ibkph\. < kemqZ_ g_^hklZlhqghklb ^hoh^h ij_^mkfZljbZeZkv
nbgZgkhZyihfhsv]m[_jgkdh]hijZe_gby.
Im[ebdZpby klZl_c gZ iheblbq_kdb_ l_fuaZij_sZeZkv. Hq_b^-
gh, GbdheZc I kqblZe^hklZlhqgufgZijZe_gb_klhebqguo]Za_ldZd
h[s_jhkkbckdbo, hl_qZxsbo aZ bgnhjfZpbhggh_ h[_ki_q_gb_
bih^^_j`dmijZbl_evkl_gghc iheblbdb.
HnbpbZevgZy ]Za_lZ ^he`gZ [ueZ uoh^blv h^bg beb ^\Z jZaZ
g_^_ex «gZklhevdboebklZo, kdhevdhdZ`^ucjZaihlj_[gh», i_qZ-
lZlvkyohjhrbfrjbnlhf, gZ[mfZ]_ «emqr_] hdZq_kl\Z», «\q_l\_j-
dm  ^Z klhe[pZ». < aZ]eZ\bb jZaf_sZeky ]m[_jgkdbc ]_j[. Klhb-
fhklv ]h^hh]h dhfie_dlZ \_^hfhkl_c ij_^iheZ]ZeZkv g_ \ur_
10 jm[. Ih^ibkdZfh]eZijbgbfZlvkydZdkZfhcj_^Zdpbb, lZdbih
ihql_. >ey ^he`ghklguo b qZklguo ebp, g_ k\yaZgguo k ]m[_jgkdbf
mijZe_gb_f, mklZgZ\ebZeZkvieZlZaZi_j_kuedm\jZaf_j_ 2 jm[.
Ih^ibkqbdb jZa^_eyebkv gZ ^_ dZl_]hjbb – h[yaZl_evgu_
bg_h[yaZl_evgu_. <k_ ijbkmlkl\_ggu_ f_klZ b ^he`ghklgu_ ebpZ
]m[_jgbb [ueb h[yaZgu \uibkuZlv ]Za_lm, klhbfhklv dhlhjhc
m^_j`bZeZkv dZa_gghc iZeZlhc ba hlimkdZ_fuo bf gZ kh^_j`Zgb_
dZgp_eyjkdbo kmff. H[yaZl_evgufb ih^ibkqbdZfb _^hfhkl_c y\-
eyebkv lZd`_ ]hjh^kdb_ ^mfu, fZ]bkljZlu b jZlmrb, \ghky aZ g__
^_gv]b ba ]hjh^kdbo k[hjh\. =Za_lZ ^he`gZ [ueZ ^hklZeylvky k_f
hehklyfdZa_gguodj_klvyg, oh^y  kq_l \hehklguoihbgghkl_c. Eb-
pZ b f_klZ, g_ ijbgZ^e_`Zrb_ d ]m[_jgkdhfm ZiiZjZlm, gh ijbgZ^e_-
`Zrb_ d fbgbkl_jklZf b mijZe_gbyf (gmlj_ggbo ^_e, nbgZgkh\,
\h_gg hfm, fhjkdhfm, ^moh\ghfm, mi jZ\e_gbx iml_c khh[s _gby, m^_ev-
ghfm\_^hfkl\m), h[yau\ZebkvihemqZlv]Za_lmihjZkihjy`_gbxk\h_]h
gZqZevklZ. ;_kieZlgh _^hfhklb hlkueZebkv  fbgbkl_jklZ, ihqlh-
mx ]m[_jgkdmx dhglhjm b ^he`ghklguf ebpZf, dhlhjuf g_ [ueh gZ-
agZq_gh ^_g_] gZ dZgp_eyjkdb_ jZkoh^u. Ihke_ bkiheg_gby ij_^ibkZ-
gbc _^hfhklb  i_j_ie_l_gghf b^_ i_j_^ZZebkv  ]m[_jgkdh_
ijZe_gb_, khklZeyy Zjob\ aZdhgh^Zl_evklZ, dZkZxs_]hky ]m[_jgbb.
G_h[yaZl_evgufb ih^ibkqbdZfb fh]eb [ulv qZklgu_ ebpZ, ijh`b-
Zxsb_\^Zgghcbebex[hc^jm]hc]m[_jgbb.
=Za_lm gZihegyeb g_ lhevdh hnbpbZevgu_ fZl_jbZeu, hagb-
dZxsb_ «kZfbkh[hc» ih kem`_[ghc g_h[oh^bfhklb, gh b bgnhjfZ-
pbhgghih_klhZl_evgu_ klZlvb («h[h k_o l_o ij_^f_lZo, h dhbo
^ha\hey_lky i_qZlZlv \ \_^hfhklyo h[_bo klhebp»), dhl hju_ ^he `gu
[ueb[ulvd_flhgZibkZgubebohly[ukhklZe_gu, qlh^hklZeyeh

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
117^hihegbl_evgu_ aZ[hlu j_^Zdlhjm ba^Zgby. GhZy gZ]jmadZ ij_^ih-
eZ]ZeZkv^ey ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb. Qlh[u l_ogbq_kdb ^Zlv`bagv
g_ h^ghfm wda_fieyjm ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, gZ [mfZ]_ «emqr_] h
dZq_klZ», lbih]jZnby ^he`gZ [ueZ «ih^_eblvky» ^hoh^Zfb hl qZ-
klguoaZdZah\. FZl_jbZevgu_ aZljZlugZih^ibkdm eh`bebkvgZf_-
klgu_\eZklgu_mqj_`^_gby, dhlhju_^he`gu[uebhieZqb\Zlv__ba
[x^`_lguo kmff beb f_klguo k[hjh\. Ba wlbo `_ kj_^kl\ hkms_kl-
eyeZkv ih^ibkdZ gZ _s_ h^gh h[yaZl_evgh_ ba^Zgb_ – «KZgdl-
I_l_j[mj]kdb_k_gZlkdb_\_^hfhklb»27
.
DZdm`_ mihfbgZehkv, ijh_dlba^Zgbyh^ghlbighcijZ\bl_ev-
kl_gghc ]Za_lu ^he`_g [ue[ulvZijh[bjhZg r_klb ]m[_jgb-
yo. H[jZa_pnhjfu]Za_lu, kb^_glbqgufl_dklhf, [uegZi_qZlZg
^ey :kljZoZgkdhc, DZaZgkdhc, Db_kdhc, Gb`_]hjh^kdhc b Keh-
[h^kdhMdjZbgkdhc ]m[_jgbc28
. H[jZsZ_l gZ k_[y gbfZgb_, qlh
wlh [ueb fgh]hgZk_e_ggu_ b jZablu_  wdhghfbq_kdhf hlghr_-
gbb l_jjblhjbb, bf_rb_ ^ebl_evgmx,  lhf qbke_ b gZpbhgZev-
gmx, bklhjbx. Djhf_ lh]h, \ DZaZgb b :kljZoZgb m`_ bf_eky
hiul ba^Zgby ]Za_l. Fbgbkl_jklh nbgZgkh ihjmqbeh wdki_^b-
pbb aZ]hlhe_gby ]hkm^Zjkl_gguo [mfZ] (ij_^r_kl\_ggbdm kh-
\j_f_ggh]h =hkagZdZ) ba]hlh\blv d 1 yg\Zjy 1831 ]. g_h[oh^bfh_
dhebq_kl\h rjbnlh\ (pbp_jh b dhjimkZ), hjeh\ b ]_j[h\ ]m[_j-
gbc. <l_q_gb_ ^\mo g_^_ev aZdZa [ue \uiheg_g, b ysbdb \_khf
ihqlb \ 41 im^ kh_j_f_ggh ihemq_gu f_klgufb eZklyfb. H^-
gZdh \ 1831 ]. m\b^_eb k\_l lhevdh «YjhkeZ\kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_-
^hfhklb», dhl hju_ k Zij_ey 1831 ]. klZeb \ukueZlvky fbgbkljm
nbgZgkh\29
. < hklZevguo iylb ]m[_jgbyo\uoh^m ]Za_lu ihf_rZ-
eb hj]ZgbaZpbhgghnbgZgkhu_, Z^fbgbkljZlbgu_ bl_ogbq_k-
db_ ljm^ghklb30
. LZd, \ :kljZoZgb, dm^Z ih hrb[d_ [ueb hlijZ\-
e_gu ]_j[u Keh[h^kdhMdjZbgkdhc ]m[_jgbb b ]^_ [ueZ g_^hih-
emq_gZ qZklvebl_j, ]m[_jgkdZy lbih]jZnby fh]eZ h[_ki_qblvi_-
qZlv lhevdh lj_o kljZgbp ]Za_lu, Z ijb [hevr_f bo dhebq_kl_27
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c.
27.10.1830 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1830. L. 5. Hl^. 2. ‹ 4036.
28
J=B:. N. 560. Hi. 14. >. 36. E. 47–50, 52.
29
J=B:. N. 560. Hi. 14. >. 36. E. 9, 19, 30, 44–46, 60–61, 83.
30
>_f_glv_Z<<.Babklhjbbhagbdgh_gby «YjhkeZ\kdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c»
// Kh\_lkdb_ Zjobu. F., 1981. ‹ 6. K. 43–45;Dmj[Zdh\Z ?<. Bklhjby dZaZgkdhc
bgb`_]hjh^kdhc ij_kku 1811–1917 ]].: eZklv b h[s_kl_ggu_ gZkljh_gby jhkkbckdhc
ijhbgpbb. Gb`gbcGh]hjh^, 2008. K. 14–16;FboZceh\ZF?. «:kljZ oZgkdb _]m[ _jg kdb _
_^hfhklb»  dhgl_dkl_ h[s_kl_gghdmevlmjghc `bagb :kljZoZgkdhc ]m[_jgbb (1838–
1917 ]].) : Z\lhj_n. ^b k. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. <he]h]jZ^, 2006. K. 16.

=eZ\Z 2
118ij_`gbcgZ[hj g_h[oh^bfh [ueh jZa[bjZlv^ey ihlhjgh]h bkihev-
ahZgby31
.
G_dhlhju_ ]m[_jgZlhju ih kh[kl_gghc bgbpbZlb_klj_fbebkv
jZkrbjblv h]jZgbq_ggmx ijZbl_evklhf «wdki_jbf_glZevgmx
iehsZ^dm» ih ba^Zgbx ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c. < dhgp_ 1830 ].
hj_g[mj]kdbc h_gguc ]m[_jgZlhj II. Kmol_e_g h[jZlbeky  Fb-
gbkl_jkl\h gmlj_ggbo ^_e k ijhkv[hc gZqZlv ba^Zgb_ «Hj_g[mj]-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» k ihkh[b_f hl dZagu\ 700 jm[. ^ey
h[gh\e_gby lbih]jZnkdh]h h[hjm^h\Zgby32
. ;m^msbc jmdh\h^b-
l_ev ijh_^_gby dj_klvygkdhc j_nhjfu dhkljhfkdhc ]m[_jgZlhj
KK. EZgkdhc  ^_dZ[j_ 1831 ]. ijhkbe m ?N. DZgdjbgZ jZaj_r_gby
ba^Z\Zlv «Dhkljhfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» b oh^ZlZcklhZe
hkgZ[`_gbb f_klghc lbih]jZnbb ghufb rjbnlZfb. H^gZdh _fm,
dZd b II. Kmol_e_gm, wlhf [ueh hldZaZgh k h[tykg_gb_f, qlh
d «h[s_c f_j_ [m^_l ijbklmie_gh g_ ij_`^_, dZd ih m[_`^_gbb gZ
kZfhfhiul_\iheva_hg hcbm^h[ghklb»33
.
3 bxgy 1837 ]. GbdheZ_f I [uehml_j`^_gh «Iheh`_gb_hihjy^d_
ijhba\h^klZ^_e]m[_jgkdboijZe_gbyo», dhlhjh_ih^jh[gh hij_^_-
eyeh ijZZ b h[yaZgghklb gZqZevgbdh ]m[_jgbc, mdj_ieyeh bo eZklv
ih hlghr_gbxdhk_f]m[_jgkdbf, m_a^gufb]hjh^kdbfijbkmlkl_g-
guf f_klZf34
. Kh]eZkgh «Iheh`_gbx», _^hfhklb h[yauZebkv i_qZ-
lZlv k_ ]m[_jgbb b h[eZklb Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ ih-
ij_`g_fm ij_^iheZ]ZeZkv «^ey h[e_]q_gby bkhdjZs_gby kghr_gbc
]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby b ^hklZe_gby dZd ijbkmlkl_gguf f_klZf
b^he`ghklguf ebpZf, lZd b hh[s_ k_f bdZ`^hfm m^h[g_cr_]h
kj_^klZ ihemqZlv  gZ^e_`Zs__ j_fy k\_^_gby h ihklZghe_gbyo
bjZkihjy`_gbyo ]m[_jgkdh]h gZqZevklZ, ZjZgh b h ^jm]bo ij_^f_-
lZo, ke_^mxsbo d h[s_fm k\_^_gbx»35
. Fbgbkljhf gmlj_ggbo ^_e
>G. ;em^huf _s_ \ 1833 ].,  ijh^he`_gb_ f_j k\h_]h ij_^r_kl_g-
gbdZ ::. AZdj_\kdh]h ih mijhs_gbx^_ehijhba\h^kl\Z, [ueh ij_^eh-
`_gh aZf_gblv pbjdmeyjgu_ ij_^ibkZgby fbgbkl_jklZ ]m[_jgkdbf
ijZe_gbyf, ihebp_ckdbfqbgZf, km^_[gufaZk_^Zl_eyfih hl^_evguf31
J=B:. N. 560. Hi. 14. >. 36. E. 84, 91, 94h[.
32
Ebolbg:. G. Bklhjby ]Za_l jhkkbckdhc ijhbgpbb  ijhp_kk_ aZbfhhlghr_gbc
khj]ZgZfb]hkm^Zjkl_gghceZklb (gZfZl_jbZeZoHj_g[mj]kdh]hdjZy XIX–XXI \_dh\) :
^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Hj_g[mj], 2005. K. 18.
33
J=B:. N. 560. Hi. 14. >. 36. E. 53–54, 58–58h[., 62–71h[., 78.
34
<ZjZ^bgh\ G<. Bklhjby Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e. KI[., 1862. Q. 3. Dg. 2.
K. 275.
35
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ h ihjy^d_ ijhbah^klZ ^_e  ]m[_jgkdbo
ijZe_gbyo. 3.06.1837 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1838. L. 12. Hl^. 1. ‹ 10304. § 86–96.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
119]m[_jgbyfh^gbfh[sbfpbjdmeyjhf, dhlhjuc[uoh^bebij_^ibkZ-
gby b hlghr_gby Fbgbkl_jkl\Z \gmlj_ggbo ^_e ih \k_f ]m[_jgbyf:
hjhaukd_, hij_^tye_gbb km^_[guo j_r_gbc, h[ wib^_fbyo b wib-
ahhlbyo, hi_j_f_s_gbyo qbghgbdh\, h gZ]jZ^Zo b l^., l_. k_ l_
k\_^_gby, dhlhju_ khklZ\beb kh^_j`Zgb_ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]m-
[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c, ghm`_g_lhevdhih\_^hfkl\mF<>, gh
b^jm]bffbgbkl_jklZf36
.
< p_ehf ijh]jZffZ b kh^_j`Zgb_ ]Za_lu khhl\_lkl\hZeb «Iheh`_-
gbx h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» 1830 ]., k g_[hevrbfb kljmd-
lmjgufbbaf_g_gbyfbbmlhqg_gbyfboZjZdl_jZim[ebdm_fhcbgnhjfZ-
pbb. LZd, ]Za_lZjZa^_eyeZkvgZ^_qZklb: hnbpbZevgmx, f_klb\rmx^Z
i_j\uo hl^_e_gby, b g_hnbpbZevgmx («Ijb[Ze_gby»), \f_klbrmx
lj_lv_ b q_l\_jlh_. Ij_^iheZ]Zehkv, qlh hgb fh]ml ba^Z\Zlvky hl^_evgh,
kkZfhklhyl_evghc gmf_jZpb_c ebklh\ b\hafh`ghklvx jZa^_evghc ih^-
ibkdb. HieZlZ ]Za_lu hkms_kl\eyeZkv ba dZgp_eyjkdbo kmff, a_fkdbo
k[hjh\, ]hjh^kdbob\hehklguoihbgghkl_c.
HnbpbZevgZy qZklv ml_j`^ZeZkv ih^ibkvx bp_]m[_jgZlhjZ
bjZkkueZeZkv ^he`ghklguf ebpZf,  Fbgbkl_jklh gmlj_ggbo
^_e, ZlZd`_^jm]b_]m[_jgbb. LZdbfh[jZahf, _^hfhklbijbh[j_-
lZeb q_jlu h[yaZl_evgh]h j_]bhgZevghpbjdmeyjgh]h ba^Zgby. <u-
]hhju, jZkihjy`_gby h[ m^Ze_gbb k ^he`ghklb b ij_^Zgbb km^m,
h[tye_gby h[ wib^_fbyo b wibahhlbyo fh]eb ihyblvky gZ kljZgb-
pZo]Za_lu, lhevdh_keb]m[_jgkdh_gZqZevklhkhql_lwlhg_h[oh^b-
fuf. JZaj_rZehkvim[ebdhZlvh[tye_gby «h[hlebqguo^_cklbyo
dh]heb[h ba qbghgbdh beb h[u\Zl_e_c, gZ ihevam kem`[u b ^ey
[eZ]Z h[s_]h». Gb  dh_f kemqZ_ g_ jZaj_rZehkv i_j_i_qZlu\Zlv
ihklZghe_gby b h[tye_gby ba «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdbo k_gZlkdbo
_^hfhkl_c». G_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv ihij_`g_fm kh^_j`ZeZ lhj]h-
hijhfure_ggu_, k_evkdhohayckl_ggu_ b bklhjbdh]_h]jZnb-
q_kdb_ k\_^_gby, Z lZd`_ qZklgu_ h[ty\e_gby37
. Imgdl h \ukhqZc-
rbo bagZlguo hkh[Zo bkq_a ba i_j_qgy \hafh`guo l_f, h q_f _s_
\ 1831 ]. urehhkh[h_maZdhg_gb_38
.36
<ZjZ^bgh\ G<. Bklhjby Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e. KI[., 1862. Q. 3, dg. 1.
K. 48–50.
37
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ h ihjy^d_ ijhbah^klZ ^_e  ]m[_jgkdbo
ijZe_gbyo. 3.06.1837 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1838. L. 12. Hl^. 1. ‹ 10304. §. 86–96.
38
Bf_gghc, h[tye_gguc fbgbkljm gZjh^gh]h ijhk_s_gby fbgbkljhf bfi_jZlhj-
kdh]h ^\hjZ, h aZij_s_gbb i_qZlZlv  im[ebqguo \_^hfhklyo ba\_klby, dZkZxsb_ky ^h
hkh[u ]hkm^Zjy bfi_jZlhjZ b qe_gh bfi_jZlhjkdhc nZfbebb, [_a hkh[h]h gZ lh ukh-
qZcr_]hjZaj_r_gby. 2.01.1831 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1831. L. 6. Hl^. 1. ‹ 4236.

=eZ\Z 2
120<dhgp_ 1838 ]. hehg_pdbfbih^hevkdbf]m[_jgZlhjZfb[ueZm_eb-
q_gZp_gZgZ]h^h\h_ba^Zgb_f_klguo\_^hfhkl_c[hevr_hij_^_e_gguo
Iheh`_gb_f» 10 jm[. Dhfbl_l fbgbkljh\ ihklZghbe, qlh p_gZ aZ \_-
^hfhklb ^he`gZ [ulv «kZfZy mf_j_ggZy», qlh[u «ihkj_^kl\hf k_]h kih-
ki_r_kl\h\Zlv jZkijhkljZg_gbx l_o \_^hfhkl_c b ^Zlv ebpZf \k_o kh-
kehbc hafh`ghklv ihemqZlv hgu_». G_ ^himkdZehkv ihur_gb_
klhbfhklb ]Za_lub ^eyqZklguoih^ibkqbdh\. >ey ijbkmlkl\_gguof_kl
b ^he`ghklguo ebp klhbfhklv fh]eZ [ulv m\_ebq_gZ ^h 20 jm[. b^m
g_^Zg_]h mkbe_gby kmff ijbkmlkl\_gguo f_kl gZ dZgp_eyjkdb_ jZkoh-
^u» b «^eyihdjulbyba^_j`_d]m[_jgkdbolbih]jZnbc»39
.
K 1838 ]. ]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklbklZebba^ZZlvky\ 42 ]m[_jgbyo
b h[eZklyo ?jhi_ckdhc Jhkkbb. < 1835 ]. gZ mkbe_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo
ijZe_gbc, dZgp_eyjbc b lbih]jZnbc [ueZ u^_e_gZ kheb^gZy kmf-
fZ – 632 703 jm[., Z gZqZevgbdb ]m[_jgbc ihemqbeb hafh`ghklv
hlijZeylv mq_gbdh ^ey ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc  lbih]jZnbx
F<>40
. <_^hfhklb [ueb myaZgu k «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdbfb k_gZl-
kdbfb _^hfhklyfb» b klZghbebkv bo ijh^he`_gb_f dZd f_klgh]h
bklhqgbdZ hnbpbZevghc bgnhjfZpbb41
. «Iheh`_gb_ h ihjy^d_ i jh-
bah^klZ ^_e  ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbyo» b «IjZbeZ ^ey ba^Zgby
k_gZlkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» [uebijh^m[ebjh\Zgu\ «K\h^_aZdhgh\Jhk-
kbckdhcbfi_jbb» 1842 ].42
H^gZdhwlbaZdhgug_jZkijhkljZgyebkv
gZ Kb[bjkdbc b Hkla_ckdbc djZc b h[eZklb DZdZakdmx b ;_kkZ-
jZ[kdmx», Z lZd`_ gZ =jmabxb AZdZdZav_ dZd bf_xsb_ «k\hb hkh-
[u_ mqj_`^_gby»43
. <lh `_ \j_fy k 1838 ].  Lbnebk_ klZeZ uoh-
^blvihijh]jZff_]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_cijZbl_evkl_ggZy]Za_lZ
^ey k_]h DZdZaZ – «AZdZ\dZakdbc _klgbd». < <ZjrZ_ \ 1838 ].
gZqZehkvba^Zgb_ «HnbpbZevghc]Za_luPZjklZIhevkdh]h»44
.39
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ Dhfbl_lZ fbgbkljh h[ mklZghe_gbb p_gu
aZ ]h^hh_ ba^Zgb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c. 27.12.1838 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1839.
L. 13. Hl^. 2. ‹ 11889.
40
<ZjZ^bgh\ G<. Bklhjby Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e. KI[., 1862. Q. 3, dg. 2.
K. 52, 112–113.
41
<ukhqZcr_ ml\_j`^_ggu_ ijZbeZ h[gZjh^hZgby i_qZlgufb kh[jZgbyfb b ebklZfb
maZdhg_gbc b jZkihjy`_gbc ijZbl_evklZ, b h[ty\e_gbc ih km^_[guf b ijZbl_evkl\_gguf
^_eZf. 16.02.1838 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1839. L. 13 . Hl^. 1. ‹ 10978. § 22.
42
K\h^ aZdhgh Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ 1842 ]h^Z. KI[., 1842. L. 1, q. 2.
Kl. 753–763; L. 1, q. 1. Kl. 493. Ijbe. 1–22.
43
<ukhqZcr_ ml\_j`^_gguc h[sbc gZdZa ]m[_jgZlhjZf. 3.06.1837 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_.
KI[., L. 12. Hl^. 1. ‹ 10303. I. 2.
44
FZoZjZ^a_G:.JmkkdZy]Za_lZgZ DZdZa_\ 40–50–_]h^u XIX _dZ («AZdZdZakdbc
_klgbd» b «DZdZa» \ 1845–1856 ]].). L[bebkb, 1984. K. 9;>_cq =F. =m[ _jg kdb _ \_^ hf h-

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
121H^bg wda_fieyj \_^hfhkl_c h[yaZl_evgh ^he`gh [ueh ihemqZlv
III Hl^_e_gb_?B<. DZgp_eyjbb, aZ_]hk\h_\ j_f_ggmx^hklZ\dmg_keb
hl\_lkl\_gghklv f_klgu_ \eZklb45
. < n_jZe_ 1838 ]. p_gahj «Hjeh\-
kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c», ^himklbrbc d i_qZlb bgnhjfZpbx
hij_[uZgbb \ Hje_ qe_gh bfi_jZlhjkdhc k_fvb ( gZjmr_gb_ mdZaZ
1831 ].46
), ugm`^_g[ue^ZZlvihwlhfmih\h^m h[tykg_gbyfbgbkljm
gmlj_ggbo ^_e >G. ;em^h\m. <ij_^v j_^Zdlhju \_^hfhkl_c h[yau\Z-
ebkv kh]eZkhuZlv ih^h[gu_ im[ebdZpbb k:O. ;_gd_g^hjnhf47
.
R_n `Zg^Zjfh ijbauZe ]m[_jgZlhjh h[jZsZlv gbfZgb_, qlh[u
klZlvb h qj_auqZcguo ijhbkr_klbyo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo «g_
aZdexqZeb  k_[_ ba_klbc h g_ihbgh_gbb dj_klvyg ihf_sbdZf,
hihdmr_gbyo bo gZ `bagv khbo ]hkih^ beb h `_klhdhf h[jZs_gbb
ihf_sbdh k dj_klvygZfb, b[h … ih^h[gu_ k\_^_gby fh]ml bf_lv
j_^gh_\ebygb_bijhba_klbgZijZkgmxlj_\h]mmfZo»48
.
Ke_^mxsb_ baf_g_gby  ijh]jZff_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c ijh-
bahreb \ 1845 ].  kyab k ba^Zgb_f «Mqj_`^_gby ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_-
gbc». KljmdlmjZ ba^Zgby ghv f_gyeZkv – ]Za_lZ jZa^_eyeZkv gZ ^Z
hl^_eZ: h[sbc, yeyrbcky iheghklvx hnbpbZevguf, b f_klguc, kh-
klhysbcba hnbpbZevghcbg_hnbpbZevghcqZkl_c. H[Zhl^_eZ^he`gu
[ueb i_qZlZlvky f_kl_ b khklZeyeb iheguc ghf_j ]Za_lu. H[tye_-
gbyhkukdZohlbf_gbijZbl_evklZfh]ebim[ebdhZlvkyijb[Ze_-
gbbdhnbpbZevghcqZklb. Wda_fieyju, ij_^gZagZq_ggu_^eyjZkkuedb
ih ^jm]bf ]m[_jgbyf, g_ dexqZeb k_[y g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb b u-
kueZebkv [_kieZlgh. Qbkeh h[yaZl_evguo ih^ibkqbdh\ m_ebqbZehkv
iml_f ^h[Ze_gby d gbf ]hjh^kdbo b k_evkdbo p_jdhguo ijboh^h\,
dhlhju_uibkuZeb]Za_lmaZkq_l]hjh^kdboba_fkdbok[hjh\49
.klb dZdbklhjbq_kdbcbklhqgbd // <kihfh]Zl_evgu_bklhjbq_kdb_^bkpbiebgu. F., 1978.
L. 9. K. 238;JmkkdZyi_jbh^bq_kdZyi_qZlv (1702–1894)… K. 263–270.
45
Bf_gghc, h[tye_gguc ]jZ`^Zgkdbf ]m[_jgZlhjZf mijZeyxsbf Fbgbkl_jklhf
gmlj_ggbo ^_e, h ij_^hklZe_gbb \ III Hl^_e_gb_ Kh[kl_gghc ?B<. DZgp_eyjbb ih
h^ghfm wda_fieyjm k_o i_qZlZ_fuo  lbih]jZnbyo ]Za_l, `mjgZeh\ b ZevfZgZoh\.
25.03.1831 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1831. L. 6. Hl^. 1. ‹ 4451.
46
Bf_gghc, h[tye_gguc fbgbkljm gZjh^gh]h ijhk_s_gby fbgbkljhf bfi_jZlhj-
kdh]h ^\hjZ, h aZij_s_gbb i_qZlZlv  im[ebqguo \_^hfhklyo ba\_klby, dZkZxsb_ky ^h
hkh[u ]hkm^Zjy bfi_jZlhjZ b qe_gh bfi_jZlhjkdhc nZfbebb, [_a hkh[h]h gZ lh ukh-
qZcr_]hjZaj_r_gby. 2.01.1831 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1831. L. 6. Hl^. 2. ‹ 4236.
47
FboZceh\Z F?. «:kljZoZgkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb»  dhgl_dkl_ h[s_kl\_ggh-
dmevlmjghc`bagb:kljZoZgkdhc]m[_jgbb (1838–1917 ]].) : ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. <he]h-
]jZ^, 2006. K. 37.
48
IZeh <:. H j_g[mj]kdb _ b I _jf kdb_ ]m[ _jg kdb _ \ _^hf hklb // IZ\eh\ <:. Hq_j-
dbbklhjbb`mjgZebklbdbMjZeZ. ?dZl_jbg[mj], 1992. L. 1. K. 166–167.
49
 < 1862 ]. ]hjh^kdb_, Z k 1868 ]. – k_evkdb_ p_jdhgu_ ijboh^u, m_a^gZy ihebpby
bij_^\h^bl_eb^hjygklZ[uebbkdexq_gubaqbkeZ h[yaZl_evguoih^ibkqbdh]m[_jg-

=eZ\Z 2
122HnbpbZevgZy qZklv f_klgh]h hl^_eZ ^he`gZ [ueZ kh^_j`Zlv
k_[_ ij_^ibkZgby f_klghc eZklb b dZa_ggu_ h[tye_gby: jZkih-
jy`_gby ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby b ]m[_jgZlhjZ; _`_f_kyqgu_ k_^_-
gby h khklhygbb ^_ehijhbah^klZ  ijbkmlkl_gguo f_klZo; kjhdb
khauZ ^hjygklZ b ]hjh^kdboh[s_kl gZ \u[hju b qj_auqZcgu_
kh[jZgby; qZklgu_ ij_^ibkZgby b jZaj_r_gby, dhlhju_  ih^h[guo
kemqZyo fh]eb kem`blv d jmdh\h^kl\m i hebpbb ^jm] bo m_a^h\; h[t-
ye_gbyhZdZglguof_klZo; h[hldZa_m^he_lhj_gbbijhr_gbc;
h j_r_gbyoihijhr_gbyf, _kebf_klh`bl_evklZijhkbl_e_cg_ba-
_klgh; h[ mqj_`^_gbb ghuo f_kl b ^he`ghkl_c; h[ hij_^_e_gbb,
i_j_f_s_gbb, mhevg_gbb b h gZ]jZ^Zo qbghgbdh\; h[ «hlebqguo
^_cklbyo» qbghgbdh beb h[u\Zl_e_c; h jZaebqguo lZdkZo;
hrljZnZo aZ h[f_j, h[\_k b ^jm]b_ lhj]h\u_ ij_klmie_gby; uah\u
ex^_c, f_klh `bl_evklZ dhlhjuo g_ba_klgh; h[tye_gby h ihc-
fZgguo bh[tyb\rboky [jh^y]Zo, g_ ihfgysbo jh^klZ; h gZc^_g-
guo f_jluo l_eZo k hibkZgb_f bo ijbf_l; h ihl_j_ iZkihjlh\
bZdlh\; h[tye_gby hl ihebpbbh gZc^_gguo_sZob li.; h[tye_-
gby h uah_ d lhj]Zf, ihklZdZf, hldmiZf b ih^jy^Zf; h j_amevlZ-
lZo lhj]h\; hkf _l_ ]hjh^kdbo ^ho h^h\ b jZkoh^h\; h[ty\e_gby
him[ebqghc ijh^Z`_ bfms_kl\; uahu d lhj]Zf gZ bkijZe_gb_
a_fkdbo ihbgghkl_c; «ij_^hojZgbl_evgu_ h[tye_gby» ]hjh^kdbf
bk_evkdbfh[uZl_eyfhihZevguo[he_agyobkdhlkdboiZ^_`Zo,
k gZklZe_gbyfb hl jZq_[ghc mijZu; «ij_^hkl_j_]Zl_evgu_
h[ty\e_gby» hihye_gbbkZjZgqbbeb^jm]bo\j_^guogZk_dhfuo
beb`b\hlguo; \uah\u, m\_^hfe_gbybh[ty\e_gbyhl\k_oijhqbo
dZa_gguo f_kl; h[ty\e_gby hi_j_oh^_ gZk_e_gguobf_gbc hl h^-
gh]h ebpZ d^jm]hfm; h[ty\e_gby khe^ZldZf h kf_jlb bo fm`_c;
h[ty\e_gbyh\uah_dukemrbZgbxj_r_gbcbdjmdhijbdeZ^kl-
m (gh lhevdh him[ebdhZggu_ \ «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdbo k_gZlkdbo
\_^hfhklyo»); h\uah\_ dj_^blhjh\, ^he`gbdh\ b  gZke_^gbdh\;
hg_khklhyl_evghklbdmiph\; h[hldjulbbbij_djZs_gbbdhgdmjkh\;
hg_ieZl_`_Zi_eeypbhgguo^_g_].
Ijh]jZffZg_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ih^jh[gh j_]eZf_glbjhZeZkv,
gh iml_f i_j_qbke_gby ^himkdZ_fuo l_f hafh`gh ]hhjblv h __kdbo\_^hfhkl_c (:enZ\blgucmdZaZl_evdk[hjgbdmpbjdmeyjhbbgkljmdpbcFbgbkl_j-
klZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e aZ 1858–1868 ]]. / >. Qm^gh\kdbc. KI[., 1874. K. 26;<ukhqZcr_ ml-
_j`^_ggh_ fg_gb_ =hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h Kh\_lZ, jZkim[ebdhZggh_ 6 bxey, h[ hlf_g_ h[y-
aZl_evghc gZ kq_l a_fkdbo k[hjh \uibkdb k_gZlkdbo b ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c ^ey
m_a^ghcihebpbb, k_evkdbop_jdhguoijbqlhbij_^\h^bl_e_c^\hjygklZ, 24.06.1868 //
IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1868. L. 43, q. 1. ‹ 46029).

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
123kms_kl_gghf jZkrbj_gbb,  kjZg_gbb k i_jhgZqZevguf ijh_d-
lhf]Za_lu: «ba_klbybklZlvbkydh]hjh^Z, hlghkysb_ky, [he__beb
f_g__, ^h f_klghklb; k\_^_gby ]_h]jZnbq_kdb_, lhih]jZnbq_kdb_,
bklhjbq_kdb_, Zjo_heh]bq_kdb_, klZlbklbq_kdb_, wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_
bijhq.; h qj_auqZcguo ye_gbyo b ijhbkr_klbyo  ]m[_jgbb;
hy\e_gbyo f_l_hjheh]bq_kdbo; klZlvb b k\_^_gby h k_evkdhf ohayc-
kl_, h[ mjh`Z_, ijhfukeZo, lhj]he_, nZ[jbdZo, yjfZjdZo, jugdZo,
km^ho h^kl\_, h jughqguo b kijZ\hqguo p_gZo, khklhy\rboky lhj]h-
uo b ^jm]bo h[s_klZo, h u^Zgguo ijbbe_]byo gZ bah[j_l_gby;
g_djheh]bba_klguo]m[_jgbbebpbijhq.». Djhf_lh]h, g_hnb-
pbZevghcqZklbihij_`g_fmfh]ebi_qZlZlvkyqZklgu_h[tye_gby,
h [_]euo b [_a _klb ijhiZrbo, h ihl_jyo b djZ`Zo, h[ mgbqlh`_-
gbb^h_j_gghkl_cb^jm]boZdlh\, uahudj_^blhjhb^he`gbdh\
b^jm]b_ «ijbebqgu_bmf_klgu_h[tye_gbyqZklguoex^_c»50
.
Hl_lkl\_gghklv aZ kh^_j`Zgb_ hnbpbZevgh]h hl^_eZ haeZ]Z-
eZkv gZ bp_]m[_jgZlhjZ, dhlhjhfm gZqZevgbd ]Za_lgh]h klheZ
^he`_g [ue ij_^hklZblv iheguc hli_qZlZgguc wda_fieyj \_^h-
fhkl_c ^ey g_k_gby baf_g_gbc b ml\_j`^_gby. Lhevdh ihke_ lh]h
dZd bp_]m[_jgZlhj ibkZe  aZ]heh\d_ «gZi_qZlZlv» b kdj_ieye
k\h_c ih^ibkvx ghf_j ih ebklZf, hg uoh^be k\_l. Ih g_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb nmgdpbb p_gahjZ uihegye ]m[_jgZlhj. Klhbfhklv
_^hfhkl_c[ueZmklZghe_gZ^ey^he`ghklguoebp\ 3 jm[. k_j. gZ
ijhklhc[mfZ]_ (wlZkmffZ\hagbdeZijbi_j_kq_l_ij_`gbo 10 jm[.
Zkkb]gZpbyfbgZk_j_[jh51
).
LZd, \ 1845 ]. _^hfhklbijbh[j_ebaZdhgq_ggmxkljmdlmjmkh-
hl_lklbb k jZa^_e_gb_f fZl_jbZeZ, bkoh^ys_]h ba p_gljZ b dZ-
kZxs_]hky `bagb j_]bhgZ. Kha^ZZeZkv ki_pbZebabjhZggZy rlZl-
gZy kljmdlmjZ ^ey ih^]hlhdb ]Za_lu – ]Za_lguc klhe. Kh^_j`Zgb_
ba^Zgby j_]eZf_glbjhZehkv b gZoh^behkv ih^ dhgljhe_f f_klghc
Z^fbgbkljZpbb. <_jhylgh, gZ wlb baf_g_gby ihebye b k_fbe_lgbc
hiul ih^]hlhdb b ba^Zgby _^hfhkl_c. <Z`gh hlf_lblv, qlh «Mq-
j_`^_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc» 1845 ].  hlebqb_ hl «Iheh`_gby
hihjy^d_ ijhbah^klZ ^_e  ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbyo» 1837 ]. g_
kh^_j`Zeh  k_[_ h]jZgbqbl_evguo imgdlh hlghkbl_evgh ba^Zgby
_^hfhkl_cgZgZpbhgZevguohdjZbgZob\Kb[bjb.50
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ mqj_`^_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc. 2.01.1845. Kl. 142–
175 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1846. L. 20. Hl^. 1. ‹ 18580.
51
K_gZlkdbc, h i_j_eh`_gbb gZ k_j_[jh jZaguo k[hjh ih k_gZlkdhc lbih]jZnbb.
21.02.1840 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1841. L. 15. Hl^. 1. ‹ 13198.

=eZ\Z 2
124J_hexpby 1848–1849 ]].  ?jhi_ ijb_eZ d m`_klhq_gbx p_g-
amju Jhkkbb, qlhaZljhgmehb]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb. 2 Zij_ey 1848 ].
[uekha^Zg «Dhfbl_l^eyukr_]hgZ^ahjZaZ^mohfbgZijZe_gb_f
i_qZlZ_fuo  Jhkkbb ijhba_^_gbc», ihemqb\rbc ih nZfbebb kh-
_]h i_j\h]h ij_^k_^Zl_ey >I. ;mlmjebgZ gZa\Zgb_ «;mlmjebgkdbc
dhfbl_l». Bf [ueh aZij_s_gh ijhimkdZlv  i_qZlv ijhba_^_gby,
fh]msb_ ^Zlv ihh^ d hkeZ[e_gbx ihgylbc h ih^qbg_gghklb beb
fh]msb_ \ha[m`^Zlvg_ijbyagvb aZbklebh_ qmklh h^gbokhkeh-
bc ijhlb ^jm]bo»52
. Ih fg_gbx F?. FboZcehhc, ihye_gbx
wlh]h jZkihjy`_gby kihkh[kl\hZeZ klZlvy eblhkdh]h bklhjbdZ
H;. Yjhr _\bqZ \ «=jh^g_gkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo», \ dhlhjhc
]hhjbehkv h g_aZbgl_j_khZgghklb dj_ihklguo dj_klvyg ]m[_jgbb
j_amevlZlZokh_]hljm^Z. <blh]_]m[_jgZlhjZf[uejZahkeZgpbj-
dmeyj F<>, ij_^ibkuZxsbc g_ ^himkdZlv  _^hfhklyo im[ebdZ-
pbc h `bagb ihf_sbqvbo dj_klvyg53
. 21 fZjlZ 1848 ]. ihke_^hZeh
\ukhqZcr__ ih\_e_gb_ h lhf, qlh[u «j_^Zdlhj i h i_j\hfm lj_[h\Z-
gbx ijZ\bl_evklZ h[tyeye bfy b f_klh `bl_evklZ ZlhjZ», im[-
ebdhZr_]hky\`mjgZeZob]Za_lZoZghgbfgh54
. 15 fZy 1848 ]. F<>
[uejZahkeZgpbjdmeyj h ^hklZe_gbb Bfi_jZlhjkdmxim[ebqgmx
[b[ebhl_dm]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_clhlqZk`_ihbo\uoh^_, q_fhl-
f_gyekyij_`gbcihjy^hd^hklZdb\_^hfhkl_cihlj_lyf]h^Z55
.
Ljb qbgh\gbdZ «Dhfbl_lZ 2 Zij_ey 1848 ].» j_] meyjgh, \iehlv
^h _]h aZdjulby 6 ^_dZ[jy 1855 ]., ih^]hlZeb\Zeb kh^db h kh^_j-
`Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, aZij_sZy im[ebdZpbb h gZjh^guo
h[jy^Zo, i_kgyo, ihkehbpZo, ih]hhjdZobaZ]Z^dZo, dhlhju_fh]eb
[ugZjmrblv «^h[ju_ gjZ\u» b^Zlvih\h^ «d e_]dhfuke_gghfmbeb
ij_jZlghfm km`^_gbx h ij_^f_lZo kys_gguo»56
. LZd,  kibkhd52
@bjdh\=<.Bklhjbyp_gamju\Jhkkbb XIX–XX \\. F., 2001. K. 90.
53
FboZceh\Z F?. «:kljZoZgkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb»  dhgl_dkl_ h[s_kl\_ggh-
dmevlmjghc`bagb:kljZoZgkdhc]m[_jgbb (1838–1917 ]].) : ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. <he]h-
]jZ^, 2006. K. 40–41.
54
K\h^ mklZh hp_gamj_ 1857 ]. (p_gamjgucmklZ\ 1828 ]h^Z k^hiheg_gbyfbih 1857 ].)
b q_luj_ d g_fm ijh^he`_gby // K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc b ihklZghe_gbc ih p_gamj_
k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[., 1862. K. 328.
55
B\Zgh :G. DhgklZglbg >fbljb_bq Mrbgkdbc  YjhkeZe_. Bkke_^hZgby b ^h-
dmf_gluhgZmqghi_^Z]h]bq_kdhcbebl_jZlmjghc^_yl_evghklb. YjhkeZev, 1963. K. 350.
56
;exf :<. Nhevdehjghwlgh]jZnbq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu «=m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c»
hp_gd_ pZjkdhc p_gamju (Ih ^hdmf_glZf «Dhfbl_lZ 2 Zij_ey 1848 ].») // Kh_lkdZy wl-
gh]jZnby. 1971. ‹ 1. K. 112. LZd, gZijbf_j, «Dhfbl_lhf 2 Zij_ey 1848 ].» [uehh[jZs_gh
gbfZgb_ gZ g_^himklbfhklv im[ebdZpbb \ «Dmjkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo» \ 1853 ].
aZ]Z^hd, dhlhju_ «g_l gbdZdhc ihevau khojZgylv  gZjh^ghc iZfylb q_j_a i_qZlv»:
«1. Jh^beky – g_dj_klbeky, // Mf_j – g_kiZk, // ;h]hghkp_f[ue (Hk_e). 2. GZk_l_`be, //

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
125aZij_s_gguo d i_qZlb  i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbyo ihiZeb k_ khqb-
g_gby b klZlvb, dZkZrb_ky hkklZgbc ?B. Im]Zq_\Z b KL. JZabgZ,
dZd «g_mf_klgu_ b hkdhj[bl_evgu_ ^ey gZjh^gh]h qmklZ»57
.
27 Zij_ey 1851 ]. [ueh him[ebdhZgh ml_j`^_ggh_ GbdheZ_f I ih-
eh`_gb_ Dhfbl_lZ fbgbkljh h ih^qbg_gbb g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb
h[s_cp_gamj_ – i_j_^Zq_p_gamjug_hnbpbZevghcqZklb]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c hl bp_]m[_jgZlhjh f_klguf p_gamjguf dhfbl_lZf,
ZaZbohlkmlklb_f – ijhn_kkhjmbebqbghgbdm mqbebsZ, ihij_^-
klZe_gbxihi_qbl_e_cmq_[guohdjm]hbkml_j`^_gbyfbgbkljZ
gZjh^gh]hijhk_s_gby58
. Wlh i_j_i h^qbg_gb_ [ueh \ua\Zgh lj_[h-
Zgb_f Dhfbl_lZ 2 Zij_ey 1848 ].  kyab k him[ebdhZggufb
\ «Dmjkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo» klZlvyfb jZqZ <D. =mlp_clZ
H[ bkdhiZ_fuo Dmjkdhc ]m[_jgbb»59
, \ dhlhjuo «fbjhkha^Zgb_
bh[jZahZgb_gZr_cieZg_lubkZfh_ihye_gb_gZk\_lq_eh_dZ
bah[jZ`Zxlky b h[tykgyxlky ih ihgylbyf g_dhlhjuo ]_heh]h\,
\hk_ g_ kh]eZkguf k dhkfh]hgb_c Fhbk_y b _]h dgb] ;ulby»60
.
Kh^ghc klhjhgu, ihye_gb_ ^ey g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ki_pbZev-
gh]h p_gahjZ, ih^qbg_ggh]h =eZ\ghfm mijZe_gbx p_gamju,
fh`gh jZkp_gb\Zlv dZd mkbe_gb_p_gamju, k ^jm]hc – dZd __ ijh-
n_kkbhgZebaZpbx.
GZ bkoh^_ gbdheZ_kdh]h pZjklhZgby aZdhgh^Zl_evguc j_]eZ-
f_gl ^ey ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c ihihegbeky ghufb jZaj_rbl_ev-
gufb imgdlZfb. < 1849 ]. «ijhklhgZjh^gu_ _^hfhklb» gZ wklhg-
kdhf b eZlurkdhf yaudZo, kh^_j`Zsb_ Z^fbgbkljZlbghohayckl-
\_ggu_ k\_^_gby, dZkZxsb_ky dj_klvyg, mqj_`^Zebkv \ Ebneyg-
^bb61
. < 1852 ]. «Mqj_`^_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc» 1845 ]. jZk-
ijhkljZgyehkv gZ kx Ijb[Zelbdm, ]^_ jZaj_rZehkv ba^Zgb_ _^h-B;h]mkem`be, // :mf_jgb\k\yluo, gb\]j_rguo (Lh`_). 3. <ur_e^_^ // K_fv^_kyl
e_l, // <ug_kgmqdm // KlZjr_k_[y (?Zg]_eb_)» (K[hjgbdjZkihjy`_gbcbihklZgh\e_gbc
ihp_gamj_k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[., 1862. K. 288–289).
57
K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc b ihklZghe_gbc ih p_gamj_ k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[., 1862.
K. 298.
58
<ukhqZcr_ml\_j`^_ggh_iheh`_gb_Dhfbl_lZfbgbkljhhih^qbg_gbbg_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c h[s_c p_gamj_. 27.02.1851 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[.,
1852. L. 26. Hl^. 1. ‹ 24979.
59
=mlp_cl<.H[bkdhiZ_fuoDmjkdhc]m[_jgbb // Dmjkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb.
1850. ‹ 16. 22 Zij. K. 136–139; ‹ 17. 29 Zij. K. 145–148;=mlp_cl <.Hg_dhlhjuo nhk-
kbevguo am[Zo, gZc^_gguo  Dmjkdhc ]m[_jgbb // Dmjkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb. 1851.
‹ 7. 17 n_j. K. 64–66.
60
J=B:. N. 772. Hi. 1. >. 2451. E. 1–1h[.
61
<ukhqZcr_ ml\_j`^_ggh_ ebneyg^kdh_ dj_klvygkdh_ iha_f_evgh_ meh`_gb_.
9.07.1849 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1849. L. 24. ‹ 23385. § 805.

=eZ\Z 2
126fhkl_cgZg_f_pdhf, eZlurkdhfbwklhgkdhfyaudZo62
. < 1850 ]. ^h-
imkdZehkv im[ebdhZlv ba_klby h i_j_f_s_gbyo ih kljZg_ qe_gh\
bfi_jZlhjkdhc nZfbebb [_a «hkh[h]h ukhqZcr_]h jZaj_r_gby»63
.
Ijb[Ze_gby d _^hfhklyf jZkrbjyebkv iml_f dexq_gby  gbo
f_^bpbgkdbo gZklZe_gbc h ij_^hljZs_gbb jZkijhkljZg_gby wib-
^_fbc b wibahhlbc (1851)64
bh[ty\e_gbch\uah\_dlhj]ZfihdZ-
a_gguf ih^jy^Zf (1852)65
. < 1852 ].  ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo k jZaj_-
r_gby ^mohguo p_gamjguo dhfbl_lh klZeh hafh`guf jZaf_sZlv
ijhih\_^b, kehZb j_qb^mohguoebp66
. GZdhg_p, \ 1853 ]. _^hfh-
klyo aZiZ^guo ]m[_jgbc jZaj_rZehkv im[ebdhZlv khh[s_gby h eb-
r_gbb ^he`ghkl_c mijZeyxsbo ihf_klvyfb, ij_\ukbrbo khb
iheghfhqby67
.
< oh^_ Djufkdhc \hcgu ijZbl_evkl\h g_ bkihevah\Zeh bgnhj-
fZpbhgguc j_kmjk ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c ^ey hk_s_gby [h_uo
^_cklbc biheblbq_kdhc kblmZpbb ?jhi_. 15 ^_dZ[jy 1853 ]. gZ-
qZevgbdZf ]m[_jgbc [ue jZahkeZg pbjdmeyj F<>, aZij_sZrbc
i_qZlZlvklZlvbh<hklhqghchcg_hk_of_klguoba^Zgbyo, djhf_
H^_kkdh]h _klgbdZ». 30 fZy 1854 ]. [ueh jZaj_r_gh im[ebdhZlv
khh[s_gby h [h_uo ih^b]Zo jmkkdbo khe^Zl, _keb hgb [ueb ih^-
l_j`^_gu Zjf_ckdbf dhfZg^hZgb_f68
. IjZ\hf khh[sZlv «gh\_c-
rb_ ba_klby h h_gguo ^_cklbyo» h[eZ^Ze «Jmkkdbc bg\Zeb^»,
hldm^Z ^jm]b_ ba^Zgby fh]eb i_j_i_qZluZlv bo, gh «g_ bgZq_, dZd62
Bf_gghc, ^ZggucK_gZlm, h[baf_g_gbyob^hiheg_gbyo mqj_`^_gbb]m[_jgkdbo
ijZe_gbc 2 ygZjy 1845 ]h^Z, b h rlZlZo ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc b dZgp_eyjbc ]jZ`^Zg-
kdbo ]m[_jgZlhjh hkla_ckdbo ]m[_jgbc. 13.05.1852 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1852. L. 27.
‹ 26269. Kl. 140.
63
Bf_gghc, h[tye_gguc K_gZlm fbgbkljhf bfi_jZlhjkdh]h ^hjZ, h i_qZlZgbb ba-
_klbchqe_gZobfi_jZlhjkdhcnZfbebb. 5.09.1850 // IKA. KI[., 1850. L. 25. ‹ 24460.
64
Bf_gghc, h[tye_gguc K_gZlm mijZeyxsbf Fbgbkl_jklhf gmlj_ggbo ^_e,
hih\k_f_klghf jZkijhkljZg_gbb f_^bpbgkdbo gZklZe_gbc dZkZl_evgh f_j ijb ihye_-
gbbwib^_fbq_kdbo[he_ag_cbkdhlkdboiZ^_`Zo. 15.08.1851 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1852.
L. 26. Hl^. 1. ‹ 25500.
65
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ fg_gb_ =hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h kh\_lZ, jZkim[ebdhZggh_
12 n_jZey, h khdjZs_gbb ^_ehijhbah^klZ b i_j_ibkdb ih ]jZ`^Zgkdhfm mijZe_gbx.
28.01.1852 //IKA. Kh[j. 2-_ . KI[., 1852. L. 27. ‹ 25944.
66
K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc b ihklZghe_gbc ih p_gamj_ k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[., 1862.
K. 479.
67
<ukhqZcr_ml\_j`^_ggh_iheh`_gb_Dhfbl_lZfbgbkljh hijZbeZo^ey hij_^_-
e_gby qZklguo ebp d mijZe_gbx ihf_sbqvbfb bf_gbyfb  ]m[_jgbyo: Db_\kdhc, Ih-
^hevkdhc, <heugkdhc, <be_gkdhc, =jh^g_gkdhc, Fbgkdhc, Dh\_gkdhc, <bl_[kdhc
bFh]b e_\kdhc, 30.06.1853// IKA. Kh[j. 2-_ . KI[., 1853. L. 28. ‹ 27405. Kl. 5.
68
<u`bfh\ ?>. «LZf[hkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» dZd bklhqgbd bamq_gby iZl-
jbhlbq_kdhc ^_yl_evghklb `bl_e_c ]m[_jgbb  i_jbh^ Djufkdhc hcgu 1853–56 ]]. //
<_klgbdLZf[hkdh]h]hkm^Zjkl\_ggh]hmgb_jkbl_lZ. 2007. <ui. 2 (46). K. 129.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
127keh\h  keh\h, [_a fZe_crbobaf_g_gbc». JZkihjy`_gb_f 6 hdly[jy
1855 ].  ijZbl_evkl_gghc ]Za_l_ «DZdZa» b ijhbgpbZevguo _-
^hfhklyo ^himkdZeZkv im[ebdZpby j_eypbc h ^_cklbyo jmkkdbo
hckd, gh bo i_j_i_qZldZ klhebqgufb ]Za_lZfb fh]eZ ijhbkoh^blv
lhevdhk h^h[j_gby\h_gghp_gamjgufdhfbl_lhf69
.
BlZd, ]Za_lgZy b `mjgZevgZy i_jbh^bdZ hagbdeb \ Jhkkbb ih
bgbpbZlb_ ]hkm^ZjklZ ^ey b^_heh]bq_kdh]h b bgnhjfZpbhggh]h
h[_ki_q_gby ijh\h^bfhc bf iheblbdb. ?_ jZablb_ reh ih imlb
jZkrbj_gby djm]Z ijZ\bl_evkl_gguo, _^hfkl_gguo b qZklguo
ba^Zgbc, dhlhju_ hk_sZeb b jZajZ[ZluZeb jZaebqgu_ l_fu, kh-
klZeyrb_djm]]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]hmijZe_gbybh[s_kl_gghc`ba-
gb (iheblbdZ, wdhghfbdZ, gZmdZ, bklhjby, ebl_jZlmjZ, h[jZahZgb_,
jZae_q_gb_ qblZxs_c im[ebdb). < i_jhc ihehbg_ XIX \. hkgh\-
gufb hnbpbZevgufb ]Za_lZfb, i_qZlZrbfb maZdhg_gby ukr_]h
ijZbl_evklZ, ojhgbdb l_dmsbo kh[ulbc b l_fZlbq_kdb_ klZlvb,
y\eyebkv «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdb_ \_^hf hklb» b «Fhkdh\kdb_ \_^hf h-
klb». K_dlhj djmiguo ]Za_l ^hihegyeb qZklgu_ b _^hfkl_ggu_
klhebqgu_ ba^Zgby – «K__jgZy iq_eZ», «Dhff_jq_kdZy ]Za_lZ»,
<_^hfhklb KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdhc ]hjh^kdhc ihebpbb», «Jmkkdbc
bgZeb^». Kh^_j`Zgb_wlbo]Za_llZd`_lhcbebbghckl_i_gbdhg-
ljhebjhZehkv ]hkm^Zjklhf, qlh h[_ki_qb\Zeh bo «[eZ]hgZf_j_g-
guc» bihemhnbpbZevgucoZjZdl_j.
Ijhh[jZahf ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c ih kljmdl mj_, kh^_j`Zgbx
bihjy^dm ih^]hlhdb fh`gh kqblZlv «LZf[hkdb_ ba_klby», ba^Z-
Z\rb_ky \ 1788 ]. =J. >_j`Zbguf. Bo g_h[oh^bfhklv [ueZ u-
aZgZ kZfhc `bagvx – h[gZjh^hZgb_ dZkZxsboky ]m[_jgbb jZkih-
jy`_gbc, khdjZs_gb_ [mfZ`gh]h b ibkvf_ggh]h ^_ehijhbah^klZ,
ij_k_q_gb_ aZur_gby p_g ijb dZa_gguo ihklZdZo. Bklhjby wlh]h
i_j_gpZijhbgpbZevghcdZa_gghci_qZlb[ueZg_^he]hc. >eylh]h
qlh[u f_klgh_ qbghgbq_klh ih^^_j`Zeh b h[_ki_qbeh ghmx i_-
qZlgmx ijZdlbdm bgnhjfZpbhggh]h h[f_gZ, g_h[oh^bfh [ueh beb
ukhqZcr__ih_e_gb_», bebgZebqb_^hklZlhqghcijhkehcdbh[jZ-
ahZgguobaZbgl_j_khZgguoex^_c (dZdijbba^Zgbb\ 1811 ]. «DZ-
aZgkdbo ba_klbc», ih^^_j`Zgguo DZaZgkdbf mgb_jkbl_lhf).
M^Zqgufhiulhfba^Zgby ]Za_lu, hl_qZ\r_c «b^ZfijZbl_evkl-
Z»,  ih]jZgbqghf j_]bhg_ klZeb «Lbnebkkdb_ _^hfhklb» (1828–
1832). B^_yhj]ZgbaZpbbi_jbh^bq_kdboba^Zgbc\ijhbgpbbbf_eZ69
K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc b ihklZghe_gbc ih p_gamj_ k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[., 1862.
K. 303.

=eZ\Z 2
128khbo klhjhggbdh b mqZklgbdh\, gh ij_h[eZ^Zxsbfb ih bgnhjfZ-
pbhgghc gZiheg_gghklb b agZq_gbx ijh^he`Zeb hklZZlvky p_g-
ljZevgu_ ijZbl_evkl\_ggu_ b ijhijZ\bl_evkl\_ggu_ i_qZlgu_ hj-
]Zgu. Ij_h^he_lv ^hfbgbjhZgb_  bgnhjfZpbhgghf ijhkljZgkl_
klhebqguo]Za_lg_m^ZZehkvkbemfgh]boh[klhyl_evkl\ (hlghr_-
gb_ _johghc eZklb d ih^h[guf bgbpbZlbZf, khklhygb_ lbih-
]jZnkdh]h ^_eZ, djm] ihl_gpbZevguo qblZl_e_c, hlkmlkl\b_ f_klguo
`mjgZebklkdbokbe).
Ihy\e_gb_\ 30-o]]. XIX \. k_lb_^bghh[jZaguoihnhjf_
bkh^_j`ZgbxhnbpbZevguoijZbl_evkl_gguoba^Zgbc [ueh hij_^_-
e_gh dmjkhf GbdheZy I gZ mijhq_gb_ aZdhgghklb  mijZ\e_gbb, mihjy-
^hqbZgb_ ^hdmf_glhh[hjhlZ  ]m[_jgbyo, kha^Zgb_ mgbnbpbjhZgghc
bgnhjfZpbhgghckbkl_fujZaebqguoj_]bhgZobmkbe_gb_]hkm^Zjkl-
_gghc hi_dbgZ^ h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdhc`bagvx kljZgu. <_^hfh-
klb mqj_`^Zebkv dZd, ]eZguf h[jZahf, Z^fbgbkljZlbghbgnhjfZ-
pbhggh_ba^Zgb_, hj]ZgbaZpbhggh, xjb^bq_kdbbnbgZgkhh\oh^br__
\kbkl_fm]m[_jgkdh]hmijZ\e_gby. HldjulZyb^hklmigZyim[ebdZpby
jZkihjy`_gbc p_gljZevguo bf_klguo eZkl_c hagZqZeZ h[yaZl_ev-
gh_ijbgylb_bodk_^_gbxbebbkiheg_gbx (^eykhhl_lklmxsbo
hlf_lhd ij_^gZagZqZebkvrbjhdb_ ihey). Djhf_ lh]h, ]eZkghc b hl-
djulhc klZghbeZkv g_dhlhjZy qZklv \gmlj_gg_]h qbghgh]h ^_eh-
ijhbah^klZ b ^_ehijhba\h^klZ ih ]jZ`^Zgkdbf ^_eZf. =hkm^Zj-
kl\h klj_fbehkv h[_ki_qblv rbjhdh_ jZkijhkljZg_gb_ k\h_]h
ba^Zgby b mkbeblv _]h fZl_jbZevgmx [Zam aZ kq_l hieZlu dZa_gguo
h[tye_gbcbh[yaZl_evguoih^ibkqbdh\ (nZdlbq_kdbwlhfh`ghjZk-
kfZljbZlvdZddhk\_ggh_nbgZgkbjhZgb_, ihkdhevdmih^ibkdZhkms_-
kleyeZkvgZ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggu_`_kj_^klZ).
2.2. BAF?G?GBY<IJH=J:FF?BKH>?J@:GBB
=M;?JGKDBO<?>HFHKL?C< 1855–1881 ]].
<hgmlj_gg_ciheblbd_:e_dkZg^jZ II b_]heb[_jZevguofbgb-
kljh\ – KK. EZgkdh]h (1855–1861) b I:. <Zem_Z (1861–1868) –
]eZkghklv klZeZ h^gbf ba bgkljmf_glh ha^_cklby gZ h[s_kl_g-
gh_ fg_gb_, ihur_gby wnn_dlbghklb kbkl_fu mijZe_gby iml_f
ijbe_q_gby bgl_ee_dlmZevguokbedZd ba gZoh^ysboky gmljb kZ-
fhc ]hkm^Zjkl\_gghc kbkl_fu, lZd b ba qbkeZ gZb[he__ h[jZahZg-
guo b Zdlb\guo ij_^klZbl_e_c h[s_kl_gghklb (kZf I:. <Zem_\
gZqZe khc imlv d^he`ghklb fbgbkljZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e k aZibkdb
>mfZ jmkkdh]h», hlijZe_gghc _ebdhfm dgyax DhgklZglbgm Gb-

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
129dheZ_bqm). Khhl_lkl\mxsb_jZkihjy`_gbyk_]^Zkhijh\h`^Zebkv
^hihegbl_evgufb jZatykg_gbyfb b h]jZgbq_gbyfb k p_evx ijb^Z-
gby ]eZkghklb dhgljhebjm_fh]h b gZijZey_fh]h oZjZdl_jZ. < 1856 ].,
ihke_ aZdexq_gby IZjb`kdh]h fbjZ, [ueh jZaj_r_gh i_qZlZlv
\ «hkh[uoebkldZo» bebijb[Ze_gbyod_^hfhklyfklZlvbgZiheb-
lbq_kdb_l_fu, ghlhevdhl_bagbo, dhlhju_[uebjZaj_r_gup_gam-
jhc Fbgbkl_jklZ bghkljZgguo ^_e d gZi_qZlZgbx  i_qZlghf hj-
]Zg_kZfh]hfbgbkl_jklZ – «Journal de St. Petersbourg»70
.
22 n_jZey 1855 ]. :e_dkZg^j II ml_j^be Iheh`_gb_ Dhfbl_lZ
fbgbkljh\, \\h^b\r__ [he__ q_ldmx nhjfmebjh\dm ijh]jZffu g_-
hnbpbZevghc qZklb (kljhdZ «… ba_klby b klZlvb kydh]h jh^Z, hl-
ghkysb_ky, [he__ beb f_g__, ^h f_klghklb…» [ueZ aZf_g_gZ gZ
«… hlghkysb_ky ^h f_klghklb k_^_gby b fZl_jbZeu…»), k ijbf_-
qZgb_f, h]jZgbqbZxsbf ]Za_lm jZfdZfb ^hdmf_glZevgh]h ih_kl-
hZgby: «Khh[sZ_fu_  g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ba_klby, k_^_gby
bfZl_jbZeu g_ ^he`gu h[e_dZlvky  nhjfu lZdbo ebl_jZlmjguo
klZl_c,  dhlhjuo h[udgh_ggh bf__l f_klh ufuk_e beb g_ ijb-
gZ^e_`ZsZydkZfhfmij_^f_lmh[klZghdZ, dZdhuih_klb, jZkkdZ-
au bli.»71
. Wlb baf_g_gby hreb  ghuc «Kh^ aZdhgh Jhkkbc-
kdhcbfi_jbb» 1857 ].72
< 1858 ]. F<> jZkihjy^behkv im[ebdhZlv klZlbklbq_kdb_ k_-
^_gby  hnbpbZevguob qZklguo]Za_lZok p_evx «ha[m^blvdjblb-
q_kdbc jZa[hj, hkh[_ggh [eb`Zcrbc f_klguc, b l_f agZqbl_evgh
kihkh[klhZlv dZd d bkijZe_gbx, ihiheg_gbx b mkh_jr_gkl\h-
ZgbxhagZq_gguokibkdhbklZl_c, lZdbdij_^Zjbl_evghfmhagZ-
dhfe_gbxkgbfb f_klguo `bl_e_cbim[ebdbhh[s_»73
. Bf_gguf
mdZahf 1858 ]. :e_dkZg^j II ih_e_ei_j_i_qZluZlvhk_o]m[_jg-
kdbo _^hfhklyo ukhqZcrb_ j_kdjbilu, fbgbkl_jkdb_ hlghr_gby
b ihklZghe_gby ^hjygkdbo dhfbl_lh ih mkljhcklm [ulZ ihf_-
sbqvbo dj_klvyg74
. < 1859 ]. Kh_l fbgbkljh ijbagZe, qlh «h]eZ-70
K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc b ihklZghe_gbc ih p_gamj_ k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[.,
1862. K. 305.
71
<ukhqZcr_ ml\_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ Dhfbl_lZ fbgbkljh\, jZkim[ebdhZggh_
22 fZjlZ, h[ baf_g_gbb ijh]jZffu ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, 22.02.1855 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_.
KI[., 1855. L. 30. ‹ 29059;K[hjgbdjZkihjy`_gbcbihklZghe_gbcihp_gamj_k 1720 ih
1862 ]. KI[., 1862. K. 390.
72
K\h^aZdhghJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ 1857 ]. KI[., 1857. L. 2, q. 1. Kl. 853–
889.
73
=hkm^Zjkl\_ggucZjob\Lhfkdhch[eZklb (=:LH). N. 234. Hi. 1. >. 2. E. 38.
74
Bf_gghc, h[ty\e_gguc gZqZevgbdZf ]m[_jgbc fbgbkljhf gmlj_ggbo ^_e, h jZa-
j_r_gbb i_j_i_qZluZlv h \k_o ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo ukhqZcrb_ j_kdjbilu ih mkl-
jhcklm[ulZihf_sbqvbodj_klvyg, kh ke_^mxsbfbdgbffbgbkl_jkdbfbhlghr_gbyfb

=eZ\Z 2
130r_gb_  i_qZlguo khqbg_gbyo b `mjgZevguo klZlvyo h kms_kl\mx-
sbo [_kihjy^dZo b aehmihlj_[e_gbyo fh`_l [ulv ihe_aguf \ lhf
hlghr_gbb, qlh wlbf kihkh[hf ij^hklZey_lky ijZbl_evklm \ha-
fh`ghklv ihemqZlv k_^_gby g_aZbkbfh hl hnbpbZevguo bklhqgb-
dh\, bg_dhlhju_ ba wlbok\_^_gbc fh]mlkem`blvihh^hfd ih\_jd _
k_^_gbc hnbpbZevguo b d ijbgylbx gZ^e_`Zsbo ih mkfhlj_gbx
f_j»75
. 8 fZjlZ 1860 ]. ihybekyki_pbZevgucpbjdmeyj>_iZjlZf_g-
lZ ihebpbb bkihegbl_evghc, dZkZrbcky bf_ggh ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhkl_c, \dhlhjhf ml\_j`^ZeZkv\haf h`ghklvb^Z`_g_h[oh^bfhklv
ihf_sZlv  gbo klZlvb, «bf_xsb_ g_ lhevdh f_klguc, gh b h[sbc
bgl_j_k», b f_kl_ k l_f ]m[_jgZlhjZf ij_^ibku\Zehkv «g_ ^himk-
dZlv  i_qZlb klZl_c, g_ kh]eZkguo k gZijZe_gb_f, mdZaZgguf ^ey
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  aZdhgZo»76
. P_gamjZ \_^hfhkl_c kfy]qZ-
eZkv – aZ fZjl 1859 – Zij_ev 1862 ].  hlq_lZo, gZijZey_fuo  Fb-
gbkl_jkl\h gZjh^gh]h ijhk_s_gby hkh[uf qbghgbdhf, ijhkfZl-
jbZxsbf kj_^b ijhqbo ba^Zgbc, 19 ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c
?jhi_ckdhc Jhkkbb, g_ khh[sZehkv gb h[ h^ghf gZjmr_gbb bfb
p_gamjguoijZbe77
.
Ihkj_^klhf _^hfhkl_c h[gZjh^hZeky FZgbn_kl 19 n_jZey
1861 ]., «kh kljh]bf kh[ex^_gb_f, qlh[u ijb wlhf g_ [ueh k^_eZgh
gbdZdbohrb[hdbg_[ueh ^hims_ghgbdZdboi_qZlbg_bkijZ\gh-
kl_c»78
. < 1861 ]., ih ij_^klZ\e_gbyf f_klguo eZkl_c, [ueh jZaj_-
r_gh im[ebdhZlv  ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo ihklZgh\e_gby ]m[_jg-
kdh]hihdj_klvygkdbf^_eZfijbkmlklby, dZkZrbokydj_klvygkdhc
j_nhjfu, ghih^ hl_lkl_gghklv]m[_jgZlhjZbkij_^hklZe_gb_f
 F<> ^_kylb hllbkdh gZi_qZlZggh]h79
. < wlhf `_ ]h^m p_gamjg h_
\_^hfkl\h jZkijhkljZgbeh pbjdmeyj, aZij_sZ\rbc \dexqZlv dhf-
f_glZjbbl_dklh[gZjh^m_fuo\]Za_lZoijZ\bl_evkl_gguojZkih-b ihklZghe_gbyfb ^hjyg ih k_fm ij_^f_lm. 3.02.1858 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1863.
L. 36. ‹ 32737Z.
75
K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc b ihklZghe_gbc ih p_gamj_ k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[.,
1862. K. 479.
76
K[hjgbd maZdhg_gbc b jZkihjy`_gbc ijZbl_evklZ ih ^_eZf i_qZlb. KI[.,
1878. K. 212.
77
J=B:. N. 772. Hi. 1. >. 4841. 1859 ]. 51 e.
78
Bf_gghc, h[tye_ggucgZqZevgbdZf]m[_jgbcpbjdmeyj_Fbgbkl_jklZ\gmlj_g-
gbo ^_e, h ihjy^d_ jZkkuedb ukhqZcr_]h fZgbn_klZ b ijhqbo aZdhghiheh`_gbc
hdj_klvygZo, uoh^ysbo ba dj_ihklghc aZbkbfhklb. 21.02.1861 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[.,
1863. L. 36. ‹ 36685.
79
K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc b ihklZghe_gbc ih p_gamj_ k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[., 1862.
K. 458; J=B:. N. 772. Hi. 1. >. 5681. 1861 ]. E. 1–4

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
131jy`_gbc80
. < gZqZe_ 1862 ]. ^ey lh]h, qlh[u «hdZaZlv [eZ]hlhjgh_
ebygb_ gZ fbjguc b gjZkl_gguc oh^ dj_klvygkdh]h ^_eZ»,
\_^hfhklyo, k h^h[j_gby _ibkdhiZ b [_a h[jZs_gby d p_gljZevguf
^mohgufp_gamjgufdhfbl_lZf, [ueh jZaj_r_gh i_qZlZlvijhih\_^b,
ijhbag_k_ggu_^mohgufbebpZfbf_klguop_jdyo81
.
K 1 ygZjy 1862 ]. ihklZsbdhf bgnhjfZpbb, dhff_glZjb_\
bkhhl_lkl\mxsbo gZkljh_gbx eZklb hp_ghd klZe hnbpbZevguc
i_qZlguc hj]Zg F<> – «K__jgZy ihqlZ». «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdb_
\_^hfhklb» b «Fhkdhkdb_ \_^hfhklb», ohly b bf_eb hnbpbZevguc
oZjZdl_j, g_ yeyebkv  ijyfhf kfuke_ ]hkm^Zjkl_gghc kh[kl_g-
ghklvxbba^Z\Zebkvkhhl_lkl_ggh:dZ^_fb_cgZmdbFhkdhkdbf
mgb_jkbl_lhfkijZ\hfi_j_^ZqbZj_g^mqZklgufebpZf. < 1869 ].
K_\_jgZy ihqlZ» [ueZ j_hj]ZgbahZgZ \ «IjZbl_evkl_gguc_kl-
gbd», bf_\rbc ijZh i_j_gklZ  im[ebdZpbb k_o ijZ\bl_evkl-
_gguo jZkihjy`_gbc b klZrbc ]hehguf hj]Zghf  kbkl_f_ ]m-
[_jgkdbohnbpbZevguo]Za_l.
AZibkdZ fbgbkljZ \gmlj_ggbo ^_e I:. <Zem_Z «H gmlj_gg_f
khklhygbb Jhkkbb» (1862) ihahey_l mb^_lv, dZd aZ g_^he]h_ j_fy
mkehbyoeb[_jZebaZpbbiheblbq_kdh]hj_`bfZbaf_gbehkvagZq_-
gb_ij_kkubdZdb_ghu_aZ^ZqbklZebi_j_^g_cdZdijhh^gbdhf
ijZbl_evkl_ggh]h ebygby: «Hj]Zgu ij_kku yeyxlky beb hldju-
lufbb g_ijbfbjbfufb jZ]Zfb, beb hq_gv keZ[ufb b g_^h[jh`_-
eZl_evgufb ^jmavyfb, dhlhju_ b^ml ^Zevr_ p_e_c, dZdb_ klZbl k_-
[_ ijZbl_evklh. ?]h kh[kl_ggu_ hj]Zgu g_kihkh[gu
biZjZebahZgu. <…> >ey lh]h, qlh[u ijZbl_evkl_ggZy ij_kkZ
fh]eZ]hhjblv, gm`gZbijh]jZffZ, bg_dhlhjZykh[h^ZkehZ. Fu
g_ bf__f gb lh]h, gb ^jm]h]h. <…> Gh hnbpbZevgu_ hj]Zgu g_
khklhygbb ]hhjblv, ^Z`_ _keb [u hgb ihemqbeb jZaj_r_gb_ u-
kdZauZlvky. Hgb g_ gZc^ml kihkh[guo b Zdlb\guo khljm^gbdh ^h
l_o ihj, ihdZ iheblbdZ ijZ\bl_evklZ khojZgbl khc gug_rgbc g_-
j_rbl_evguc b baf_gqb\uc oZjZdl_j»82
. < ^hdeZ^_ I:. <Zem_Z
Hf_jZo ^ey ijhlbh^_cklby iml_f i_qZlb gug_rg_fm gZijZ\e_-
gbx ebl_jZlmju» (1862) fukev h[ hiihabpbhgghc ijZbl_evklm80
K[hjgbdjZkihjy`_gbcihp_gamj_k 1828 ih 1862 ]. KI[., []. K. 93.
81
E_kdh\ GK. F_ju ^mohgh]h gZqZevklZ d gjZkl_gghfm h[jZahZgbx gZjh-
^Z. K.-I_l_j[mj], kj_^Z, 25-]h Zij_ey 1862 ]h^Z // E_kdh GK. Ihegh_ kh[jZgb_ khqbg_-
gbc\ 30 lhfZo. F., 1996. L 3: Khqbg_gby 1862–1864 ]]. K. 519–520.
82
Ij_^eh`_gby b ijh_dlu I:. <Zem_Z ih hijhkZf gmlj_gg_c iheblbdb (1862–
1866 ]].). H gmlj_gg_f khklhygbb Jhkkbb. 26 bxgy 1862 ]. // Bklhjbq_kdbc Zjob\. 1958.
‹ 1. Yg\Zjv – n_jZev. K. 142.

=eZ\Z 2
132ij_kk_ ihlhjyeZkv b jZabZeZkv ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf: «<k_ g_^hk-
lZldb, [_kihjy^db beb aehmihlj_[e_gby kbkl_fZlbq_kdb uh^ylky gZ
i_jucieZgbh[jZsZxlkyij_^f_lg_ij_juguokm`^_gbc, kyghx
p_evx jZa^jZ`_gby mfh\. <…> Dhev kdhjh ^himkdZ_lky  ebl_jZlmj_
h[km`^_gb_ g_dhlhjuo h[s_kl_gguo b Z^fbgbkljZlbguo hijhkh\,
ijZbl_evkl\h g_ fh`_l [_a^_yl_evgh hklZZlvky  klhjhg_ b^hhev-
kl\hZlvky p_gamjgufb ij_^hklhjh`ghklyfb. Gm`gh mihlj_[eylv lh
kZfh_ hjm`b_, dhlhjh_ mihlj_[ey_lky ijhlb ijZ\bl_evklZ _]h g_^h[-
jh`_eZl_eyfb, b ijhlb\hihklZblv i_qZlghfm keh\m i_qZlgh_ `_ keh-
h»83
. Jmdhx :e_dkZg^jZ II gZ ^hdeZ^_ [ueh gZibkZgh: «Fukev wlZ kh-
_jr_gghkh]eZkgZkl_f, qlhy^Zgh`_eZe»84
.
< jy^m ijhqbo f_j i h ijZdlbq_kdhfm \hiehs_gbx wlhc fukeb
g_h[oh^bfh [ueh ihukblv agZq_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c. < aZ-
ibkd_I:. <Zem_\Z 7 k_gly[jy 1863 ]. d]eZ\ghmijZ\eyxs_fm II Hl-
^_e_gb_f Kh[kl_gghc ?B<. DZgp_eyjbb [Zjhgm F:. Dhjnm
HjZkrbj_gbb ijh]jZffu ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» ijbagZ\Zehkv,
qlh bo ql_gb_ fZeh jZkijhkljZg_gh f_`^m qZklgufb ebpZfb ih
ijbqbg_gbadh]h mjhgyim[ebdm_fuofZl_jbZeh\: «F_klgu_k_^_-
gbyb fZl_jbZeu klZlbklbq_kdh]h, bklhjbq_kdh]h b wlgh]jZnbq_kdh-
]h oZjZdl_jZ, dhlhju_ jZaj_r_gh i_qZlZlv, gm`^Zxlky b h[jZ[hld_
ki_pbZebklZfb, g_^hklZlhd dhlhjuo hsmlbl_e_g ^Z`_ b  emqrbo
klhebqguo `mjgZeZo»85
. >eyijb^Zgby _^hfhklyf[hevr_c ihim-
eyjghklb \ aZibkd_ ij_^eZ]Zehkv beb i_j_^Zlv bo \ Zj_g^gh_ kh-
^_j`Zgb_, gh lh]^Z ijZ\bl_evkl\h «\^jm] kha^Zeh [u fgh`_kl\h
hj]Zgh\, dhlhju_ fh]eb [u b^lb kh\_jr_ggh \jZaj_a k _]h klj_fe_-
gbyfb, Z ijb m^h[ghf kemqZ_ k^_eZlvky [u ^Z`_ jZ`^_[gufb
_fm»86
, beb jZkrbjblv ijh]jZffm ba^Zgby iml_f jZaj_r_gby i_j_-
i_qZlhd iheblbq_kdboba_klbcb jmdhh^ysbo klZl_cba hnbpbZev-
guo «K_\_jg hc ihqlu», «Jmkkdh]h bg\Zeb^Z» b «Journal de S. Pe-
tersburg». < wlhf kemqZ_ ijh\bgpbZevgh_ gZk_e_gb_, g_ bf_xs__
kj_^kl\ \uibkuZlv ^hjh]hklhysb_ klhebqgu_ ]Za_lu, ihemqbl \ha-
fh`ghklv «aZ ^_r_\mxp_gm bf_lvjZa beb ^\Zg_^_ex k_^_gby h
Z`g_crbo\gmlj_ggbokh[ulbyokbodjZldhxdjblbdhx»87
.
F:. Dhjn, [urbc ihke_^gbf ij_^k_^Zl_e_f «Dhfbl_lZ 2 Zi-
j_ey 1848 ]h^Z» b oh^ZlZcklhZrbc i_j_^ bfi_jZlhjhf h _]h aZ-83
J=B:. N. 1282. Hi. 2. >. 1940. 1862 ]. E. 2–4.
84
J=B:. N. 1282. Hi. 2. >. 1940. 1862 ]. E. 1.
85
J=B:. N. 775. Hi. 1. >. 239. E. 1–1h[.
86
J=B:. N. 775. Hi. 1. >. 239. E. 2h[.
87
J=B:. N. 775. Hi. 1. >. 239. E. 4.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
133djulbb, ^Zekh]eZkb_gZjZkrbj_gb_ijh]jZffu]m[_jgkdbo_^hfh-
kl_c, ghlhevdh^ey^molj_o]m[_jgbc, qlh[ugZ «hiul_ m[_^blvky
 iheva_ hl k_]h ^ey ij_^gZagZq_gghc p_eb b g_ ihklZblv k_[y
\g_h[oh^bfhklv ihlhf kgh\Z kl_kgylv wlm ijh]jZffm»88
, dZdwlh
[ueh ihke_ ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh]h iheh`_gby Dhfbl_lZ fbgb-
kljh\ 22 n_jZey 1855 ]. G_\ukhdbc h[jZah\Zl_evguc mjh\_gv f_-
klgh]h h[s_klZ, _]h iZkkb\ghklv b ih]ehs_gghklv h[u^_ggufb
bgl_j_kZfb, ih fg_gbx DhjnZ, h[mkeheb\Zeb keZ[uc b kemqZc-
guc bgl_j_k d ]Za_lghfm kehm b, ke_^hZl_evgh, kgb`Zeb ha-
fh`ghklv ebylv gZ mfhgZkljh_gby ijhbgpbZevghc im[ebdb.
;hevrZyqZklv]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_cba_^ZeZgZhiul_, ^hdZ-
dhckl_i_gbijhklbjZ_lkyjZgh^mrb_ijh\bgpbZevgh]hh[s_kl\Z
dql_gbx^Z`_lh]h, qlhg_ihkj_^kl\_gghdZkZ_lky_]hfZl_jbZev-
gh]h [eZ]hkhklhygby. LZd, gZijbf_j … jZkihjy`_gby =eZ\gh]h
dhfbl_lZihdj_klvygkdhfm ^_embijhlhdheu]m[_jgkdboijbkml-
klbcbfbjhuokt_a^hihqlbg_m_ebqbebqbkeZih^ibkqbdh\.
Lh `_ kZfh_ [m^_l, [_a khfg_gby, b ij_^v, ihdZ g_ \ha[m^blky
\[hevrbgkl\_ ijh\bgpbZevgh]h h[s_kl\Z khqmkl\by d gZmd_,
iheblbd_ b ebl_jZlmj_, beb, ^jm]bfb kehZfb, g_ haukblky
\g_f mjh\_gv h[jZah\Zgghklb. >h l_o ihj _^\Z eb dZdh_eb[h
jZkrbj_gb_ ijh]jZffu ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c me_q_l wlh
[hevrbgkl\hdbo\uibkd_, bhgh\h[udgh\_ggh_\j_fy_s_^he-
]h [m^_l ^hhevkl\hZlvky, dZd l_i_jv, bamklgufb jZkkdZaZfb h
k_o [he__ djmiguo ye_gbyo\g_rg_c b \gmlj_gg_c gZr_c `ba-
gb, beb aZiha^Zeuf ql_gb_f jZajhag_gguo ghf_jh\ ]Za_l, \u-
ijhr_gguom khk_^Z»89
. L_ `_ ebpZ, qvb bgl_j_ku b mklj_fe_gby
uoh^yl aZ ij_^_euihk_^g_\ghklb, [m^ml kfhlj_lv gZ dZa_ggh_
ba^Zgb_ kij_^m[_`^_gb_f dZd gZ y\gmx ihiuldm ijZ\bl_evkl\Z
gZklZeylv b jmdhh^blv», «iZjZebahZlv  ]m[_jgbb kydh_
`mjgZevgh_ ij_^ijbylb_» b «hklZ\blv aZ kh[hx h^gbf fhghih-
ebxa]ey^ZgZnZdlubbohp_gdb»90
.
Bgl_j_k d f_klguf ]hkm^Zjkl_gguf ba^Zgbyf \ ihj_nhj-
f_ggh_ \j_fy ijhy\eyeb b hiihabpbhggu_ ijZbl_evkl\m kbeu.
KhjZlgbd :B. =_jp_gZ, ihwl bim[ebpbkl GI. H]Zj_ ij_^eZ]Ze
qe_gZf f_klguo j_hexpbhgguo hj]ZgbaZpbc ^_eZlv \uibkdb ba
]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_cbi_j_kueZlvbo\Ehg^hgba^Zl_eyf «Dh-88
J=B:. N. 775. Hi. 1. >. 239. E. 16.
89
J=B:. N. 775. Hi. 1. >. 239. E. 13h[–14h[.
90
J=B:. N. 775. Hi. 1. >. 239. E. 15h[.

=eZ\Z 2
134ehdheZ»91
. DZd ihdZaZeZ  kh_fbkke_^hZgbb EI. ;mjfbkljhZ,
i_j_^hZy jZaghqbggZy bgl_eeb]_gpby hohlgh hldebdgmeZkv gZ
wlhlijbaubihg_keZk\hbfZl_jbZeu\f_klgu_\_^hfhklb, ijh-
\h^beZ lZf k\hb \a]ey^u, g_kfhljy gZ p_gamjm»92
. FZkrlZ[guc
ijh_dl j_nhjfbjhZgby ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c gZ u]h^guo (ih
fg_gbx _]h Z\lhjZ) ^ey ijZbl_evklZ mkehbyo ij_^eh`be
KG. L_jib]hj_\ – [u\rbc klm^_gl xjb^bq_kdh]h nZdmevl_lZ
K.-I_l_j[mj]kdh]h mgb\_jkbl_lZ, bkdexq_gguc aZ mqZklb_ \ [_k-
ihjy^dZo ([m^ms_fklhebqgucn_ev_lhgbklb[_ee_ljbkl, Zlhj
hq_jdh\ «Hkdm^_gb_», ijbg_krbo Z\lhjm ebl_jZlmjgmx ba\_kl-
ghklv). < dhgp_ 1862 ]. KG. L_jib]hj_\ hlijZ\be \ «=hehk»
[hevrmxklZlvx «=m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb», \dhlhjhchlebpZ «eb-
l_jZlmjgh]h khkeh\by» ij_^eZ]Ze ijZbl_evkl\m «dj_idbc khxa»
gZ hkgh\_ i_j_^Zqb g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb \_^hfhkl_c
\ 60 ]m[_jgbyo kihkh[guf «ebl_jZlmjguf dZlhj`gbdZf» ba i_-
l_j[mj]kdbo j_^Zdpbc. Wlhl ^_kZgl ba klhebpu ^he`_g [ue ih^-
gylv\_^hfhklb ^h mjh\gy f_klgh]h ebl_jZlmjgh]h hj]ZgZ. Ghuc
j_^Zdlhj, hg `_ p_gahjg_hnbpbZevghc qZklb, ^he`_g [ulvg_aZ-
bkbfuf hl f_klghc eZklb, ihemqZlv `Zeh\Zgv_ g_ f_g__
1,5 luk. jm[. \ ]h^, hl^_evguc ]hghjZj aZ k\hb klZlvb b hklZlhd
kmff hl ba^Zgby ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c. <u]h^u `_ ijZbl_ev-
kl\Z aZdexqZebkv ihemq_gbb g_ij_^aylhc bgnhjfZpbb k f_kl,
jZajZ[hld_ f_klguo hijhkh\, khh[s_gbyo fg_gbc `bl_e_c
hjZkihjy`_gbyo f_klghc Z^fbgbkljZpbb. < g_hnbpbZevghf hl-
^_e_ «^he`gZ \ujZ`Zlvky `bagv gZjh^gZy, `bagv kh k_fb __
hkh[_gghklyfb, ^hklhbgkl\Zfb, g_^hklZldZfb». <k_]h keh\h «gZ-
jh^» b h[jZam_fu_ hl g_]h ijhba\h^gu_ («gZjh^gu_ ihlj_[gh-
klb», «gZjh^gZy gjZkl_gghklv» b ^j.) mihlj_[eyebkv 29 jZa.
H[jZs_gb_ ZlhjZ d ijZ\bl_evklm b_]h i_qZlghfm hj]Zgm k ih-
abpbb ^he`_gkl\h\Zgby («^he`gh», «lhevdh \lZdhf kemqZ_»,
djZcg_ g_h[oh^bfh» b l^.) \klj_qZ_lky  l_dkl_ 21 jZa. ;ueb
gZf_db b gZ \hafh`ghklv q_j_a j_nhjfbjh\Zggu_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_-
^hfhklb ijhlbhklhylv b^_yf khpbZebafZ bm^_j`b\Zlv hl hiih-
abpbhgghklb f_klguo eb[_jZevguo im[ebpbklh\93
. Bgufb kehZ-
fb, ih^ ij_^eh]hf (ohly b h[hkgh\Zgguf) ijZ\bl_evkl\_gghc91
;mjfbkljh\Z EI. «=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» dZd bklhjbq_kdbc bklhqgbd wihob iZ-
^_gby dj_ihklgh]h ijZZ (gZ fZl_jbZe_ Ih\he`vy b MjZeZ) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl.
gZmd. DZaZgv, 1968. K. 1.
92
LZf`_. K. 3.
93
J=B:. N. 777. Hi. 26. >. 27. 1863 ]. E. 1–3.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
135ihevauij_^eZ]Zeky \uh^ dZa_gghcij_kku baih^ ]hkm^Zjkl_g-
gh]h dhgljhey b ij_h[jZah\Zgb_ k_lb m`_ kms_kl\mxsbo ijh-
\bgpbZevguo ijZbl_evkl\_gguo ]Za_l  ihdZ _s_g_ kms_kl\mx-
smx k_lv ijh\bgpbZevguo ]Za_l qZklgh]h dhff_jq_kdh]h
oZjZdl_jZ. Kebygb_ ^he`ghklb j_^ZdlhjZ b p_gahjZ hagZqZeh ^_-
nZdlh ijh\_^_gb_ \ bo hlghr_gbb ijbgpbiZ g_ih^p_gamjghklb
bijbh[j_l_gb_ ]Za_lZfb g_aZ\bkbfhklb  hlghr_gbb f_klguo
eZkl_c. KblmZpby i_juo ihj_nhjf_gguo e_l b [_a lh]h [ueZ
gZijy`_gghc, ihwlhfmg_[uehykgh, dZdb_ «jZatykg_gbyk_oy\-
e_gbc gZr_c gmlj_gg_c, h[s_kl_gghc `bagb» [m^ml ^ZZlv
q_klgu_ ex^b», klZ\rb_ h ]eZ_ 60 ]Za_l bfi_jbb, bdZdhf
gZijZe_gbb ihc^_l «jZa\blb_» bo qblZl_e_c. <_jhylgh, ih wlhc
ijbqbg_ klZlvy KG. L_jib]hj_Z g_ lhevdh g_ [ueZ ijbgylZ h
\gbfZgb_, gh b g_ [ueZ ^hims_gZ kZgdli_l_j[mj]kdbf p_gamj-
gufdhfbl_lhfdim[ebdZpbb.
10 fZjlZ 1862 ]. =eZgh_ mijZ\e_gb_ p_gamju mijZa^gyehkv,
Znmgdpbbk_lkdhcp_gamju jZa^_eyebkvf_`^m Fbgbkl_jkl\hf
gZjh^gh]h ijhk\_s_gby,  _^_gbb dhlhjh]h hklZZehkv gZ[ex-
^_gb_aZba^Zgbyfb, ih^e_`Zsbfbh[s_cp_gamj_, ^_yl_evghklv
f_klguo p_gamjguo dhfbl_lh b hl^_evguo p_gahjh\, b Fbgb-
kl_jkl\hf gmlj_ggbo ^_e, gZ dhlhjh_ haeZ]Zehkv gZ[ex^_gb_
aZ kh^_j`Zgb_f i_qZlguo ba^Zgbc ]hkm^Zjkl_gguo mqj_`^_-
gbc. =m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb, dZd b k_ ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggu_ ba^Zgby,
hk\h[h`^Zebkv hl h[s_c p_gamju, gh gZ^ gbfb khojZgyeky ijZ-
bl_evkl_gghZ^fbgbkljZlbguc dhgljhev. =m[_jgZlhju fh]eb
ihjmqZlv bkiheg_gb_ p_gahjkdbo nmgdpbc «ebpZf ih k\h_fm
u[hjm, k l_f qlh[u  khfgbl_evguo lhevdh kemqZyo ebpZ kbb
h[jZsZebkv d p_gahjZf Fbgbkl_jklZ gZjh^gh]h ijhk_s_gby,
Z]^_ hguo g_ iheZ]Z_lky – d ^bj_dlhjZf mqbebs»94
. «<h \j_-
f_gguo ijZbeZo ih p_gamj_» 12 fZy 1862 ]. i_j_qbkeyebkv l_-
fu, aZij_s_ggu_ d i_qZlb, bkhojZgyrb_ k\hxkbem ij_^r_kl-
hZrb_ jZkihjy`_gby ih p_gamj_95
. 14 ygZjy 1863 ].
p_gamjgu_ dhfbl_lu b hl^_evgu_ p_gahju [ueb i_j_^Zgu ba94
Bf_gghc, ^Zgguc K_gZlm, jZkim[ebdhZgguc 19 fZjlZ, h ij_h[jZahZgbb p_gamj-
gh]hmijZe_gbybmijZa^g_gbbdZgp_eyjbbFbgbkljZgZjh^gh]hijhk_s_gby. 10.03.1862
// IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1865. L. 37. ‹ 38040. I. 5;K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc
bihklZgh\e_gbc ih p_gamj_ k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[., 1862. K. 466–468; J=BN. N. 776.
Hi. 20. >. 412. 1881 ]. E. 1–5 h[.
95
K[hjgbd jZkihjy`_gbc b ihklZghe_gbc ih p_gamj_ k 1720 ih 1862 ]. KI[., 1862.
K. 469–482.

=eZ\Z 2
136_^_gby Fbgbkl_jklZ gZjh^gh]h ijhk_s_gby \Fbgbkl_jkl\h
gmlj_ggbo ^_e96
, Z «<j_f_ggufb ijZbeZfb hi_qZlb 1865 ]h^Z»
ijbF<>kha^ZZehkv=eZgh_mijZe_gb_ih^_eZfi_qZlb, klZr__
hkghguf mqj_`^_gb_f p_gamjgh]h _^hfklZ Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb
^h 1917 ]h^Z. Ij_^Zjbl_evgZyp_gamjZklhebqguob\k_oijZbl_ev-
kl_gguoba^Zgbchlf_gyeZkv. <kemqZ_gZjmr_gbybfbaZdhghhgb
ih^_j]Zebkv km^_[ghfm ij_ke_^hZgbx, Z  kemqZ_ «aZf_q_ggh]h
gboj_^gh]h gZijZe_gby» – Z^fbgbkljZlbguf aukdZgbyf (qlh
hklZ\eyeh aZ ]hkm^Zjkl\hf \haf h`ghklv \g_km^_[gh]h \ha^_ckl\by
gZi_qZlv)97
.
< jZfdZo j_nhjfu i_qZlb b p_gamju I:. <Zem_uf [ueb j_Z-
ebahZgu ij_^eZ]Z_fu_ bff_ju d jZkrbj_gbxijh]jZffu]m[_jg-
kdbo _^hfhkl_c. 15 ghy[jy 1863 ]. :e_dkZg^j II ml_j^be khhl_l-
klmxs__ iheh`_gb_ Dhfbl_lZ fbgbkljh\:  _^hfhklyo, « b^Zo
[hevr_]h jZkijhkljZg_gby bo  gZjh^_ b ^ey haf_s_gby ba^_j`_d
gZ bo ba^Zgb_», [ueh jZaj_r_gh i_j_i_qZluZlv «iheblbq_kdb_ ba-
_klby», «ijZbl_evkl_ggu_jZkihjy`_gby» b «jmdhh^ysb_klZlvb
ih ij_^f_lZf g_rg_c iheblbdb b \gmlj_gg_]h mijZe_gby»
bahnbpbZevguoba^Zgbc – «K__jghc ihqlu», «Jmkkdh]h bg\Zeb^Z»
b «Journal de S. Petersburg». AZbfklhZgb_ klZl_c ba p_gljZevguo
ijZbl_evkl_gguo hj]Zgh ba[Z\eyeh bo hl p_gamju gZ f_klZo,
ij_^mkfZljbZehkvebrv «gZ[ex^_gb_» aZlZdbfbi_j_i_qZldZfbkh
klhjhgu \bp_]m[_jgZlhjZ. >hoh^u hl ba^Zgby _^hfhkl_c ih jZkrb-
j_gghcijh]jZff_fh]ebbkihevahZlvky^eyhagZ]jZ`^_gbyj_^ZdlhjZ
]Za_lu98
. Kh]eZkgh ij_^eh`_gbx II Hl^_e_gby ?B<. DZgp_eyjbb,
jZkrbj_gb_ ijh]jZffu ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c hkms_kleyehkv « b-
^_ hiulZ» b dZkZehkv lhevdh Dhkljhfkdhc, KZjZlhkdhc, LZf[hkdhc,
Dmjkdhc b Q_jgb]hkdhc ]m[_jgbc, gh  ^Zevg_cr_f, ih oh^ZlZckl-
Zf ]m[_jgZlhjh\, \ 1864 ]. wlh iheh`_gb_ [ueh jZkijhkljZg_gh gZ96
Bf_gghc, ^Zgguc K_gZlm, h i_j_^Zq_ p_gamjguo dhfbl_lh b hl^_evguo p_gahjh\
ba Fbgbkl_jklZ gZjh^gh]h ijhk\_s_gby  Fbgbkl_jklh gmlj_ggbo ^_e. 14.01.1863 //
IKA. Kh[j. 2 -_. KI[., 1866. L. 38. ‹ 39162.
97
Bf_gghc, ^Zgguc K_gZlm, h ^ZjhZgbb g_dhlhjuo h[e_]q_gbc b m^h[kl hl_q_kl-
_gghc i_qZlb. 6.04.1865 IKA. KI[., 1867. Kh[j. 2-_. L. 40. ‹ 41988;<ukhqZcr_ ml_j-
`^_ggh_ fg_gb_ =hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h kh_lZ, h g_dhlhjuo i_j_f_gZo b ^hiheg_gbyo
^_cklmxsbo gug_ p_gamjguo ihklZgh\e_gbyo. 6.04.1865 // IKA. KI[., 1867. Kh[j. 2-_.
L. 40. ‹ 41990.
98
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ Dhfbl_lZ fbgbkljh\, h[tye_ggh_ K_gZlm
fbgbkljhfgmlj_ggbo^_e, hjZkrbj_gbbijh]jZffug_dhlhjuo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c.
15.11.1863 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1866. L. 38. ‹ 40271.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
137<ylkdmx, I_jfkdmx, Hehg_pdmx, KZjZlh\kdmx, L\_jkdmx, Z  Z\]m-
kl_ 1865 ]. – gZLhfkdmx]m[_jgbx99
.
K ihye_gb_f ghuo ihj_nhjf_gguo mqj_`^_gbc ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb klZeb im[ebdhZlv bgnhjfZpbhggu_ fZl_jbZeu, dZkZx-
sb_kybo^_yl_evghklb, – kf_lu, jZkdeZ^db, ]h^hu_hlq_lua_fkdbo
mijZ\ (ih Iheh`_gbxh a_fkdbomqj_`^_gbyo 1 yg\Zjy 1864 ].); hi-
j_^_e_gby ]hjh^kdbo ^mf, hlq_lu ]hjh^kdbo mijZ h ^b`_gbb ]h-
jh^kdbo kmff, ^mfkdb_ ihklZghe_gby ih ijh[e_fZf ]hjh^kdh]h
[eZ]hmkljhcklZ, kf_lu ]hjh^kdbo ^hoh^h b jZkoh^h\ (ih =hjh^h-
hfm iheh`_gbx 16 bxgy 1870 ].)100
. 27 ^_dZ[jy 1866 ]. Fbgbkl_j-
klh gmlj_ggbo ^_e ih kh]eZkhZgbx k Fbgbkl_jklhf xklbpbb
m^he_l\hjbeh oh^ZlZcklZg_dhlhjuogZqZevgbdh ]m[_jgbc h[ hl-
djulbb \ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo «xjb^bq_kdbo hl^_eh\» ^ey im[-
ebdZpbbkl_gh]jZnbq_kdbohlq_lhhoh^_km^_[guoaZk_^Zgbc101
.
Hk\h[h`^_gb_ \_^hfhkl_c hl h[s_c p_gamju, ^hims_gb_ \ gbo
jmdhh^ysboklZl_cbklZl_cgZiheblbq_kdb_l_fu, h[sb_eb[_jZev-
gu_gZkljh_gby\heZklbbh[s_kl_ijb_ebdlhfm, qlh]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb^_nZdlhklZebjZa\b\Zlvky\g_imgdlhjZaj_r_gghcijZ-
bl_evklhfijh]jZffu, g_h]jZgbqb\Zykvi_j_i_qZldZfbbai_l_j-
[mj]kdbo hnbpbZevguo ]Za_l102
. < \_^hfkl\_gghf k_dj_lghf h[ah-
j_ hl_q_kl\_gghc `mjgZebklbdb aZ 1863–1864 ]]. hlf_qZehkv, qlh
hgZ hldehgbeZkv hl aZ^mfZggh]h ijZ\bl_evklhf gZijZe_gby
[eZ]h^_l_evghc ]eZkghklb» \ klhjhgm «h^ghklhjhgg_]h kem`_-
gby \j_f_gguf iheblbq_kdbf, ]jZ`^Zgkdbf b h[s_kl\_gguf \h-
ijhkZf» b ijbh[j_eZ «h^ghklhjhggxx gZdehgghklv d h[ebq_gbx,
dkZfh[bq_Zgbx»103
. Wlh dZkZehkv b ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, kj_^b99
J=B:. N. 775. Hi. 1. >. 239. 1863 ]. E. 38–39h[., 40–42, 43–44h[., 45–49h[., 59–60,
73–74h[.
100
K[hjgbd maZdhg_gbc b jZkihjy`_gbc ijZbl_evklZ ih ^_eZf i_qZlb. KI[.,
1878. K. 206.
101
FZl_jbZeu, kh[jZggu_ hkh[hx dhfbkkb_x, ukhqZcr_ ml\_j`^_gghx 2 ghy[jy
1869 ]., ^eyi_j_kfhljZ^_cklmxsboihklZghe_gbchp_gamj_bi_qZlb. :^fbgbkljZlb\-
gu_jZkihjy`_gby. QZklv\lhjZy. KI[., 1870. K. 197; J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 3. >. 370. E. 1–3.
102
 GZijbf_j,  kbem Z`ghklb b hkljhlu ^ey p_gljZevguo ]m[_jgbc \ «KZjZlh\-
kdbo», «DZaZgkdbo», «Gb`_]hjh^kdbo» b ^jm]bo \_^hfhklyo jZaf_sZebkv djblbq_kdb_
fZl_jbZeu ih dj_klvygkdhfm hijhkm (;mjfbkljh\Z EI. MdZa. khq. K. 17–18;<mevn-
khg=G., ;mjfbkljh\ZEI. «=m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb» dZdbklhqgbd^eybamq_gbyZglbn_h-
^Zevguo a]ey^h ijhk\_lbl_e_c wihob iZ^_gby dj_ihklgh]h ijZZ // Hq_jdb bklhjbb
gZjh^hIh\he`vybIjbmjZevy. DZaZgv, 1967. <ui. 1. K. 200–217).
103
Kh[jZgb_ fZl_jbZeh h gZijZ\e_gbb jZaebqguo hljZke_c jmkkdhc keh_kghklb aZ
ihke_^g__ ^_kylbe_lb_  hl_q_kl_gghc `mjgZebklbd_ aZ 1863 b 1864 ]]. KI[., 1865.
K. I, 208.

=eZ\Z 2
138dhlhjuo hlebqbebkv «I_jfkdb_», im[ebdhZrb_ k\_^_gby h [_amk-
i_rguo ihiuldZo fbkkbhg_jh h[jZlblv jZkdhevgbdh  ijZhkeZ-
b_; «<eZ^bfbjkdb_», hj]ZgbahZ\rb_ ihe_fbdm f_`^m qZklguf
b^he`ghklguf ebpZfb h aehmihlj_[e_gbyo \ jZkij_^_e_gbb d\Zj-
lbjghc ihbgghklb, b «Gb`_]hjh^kdb_», ukdZaZ\rb_ fg_gb_ «h
g_dhlhjhc ^Z`_ iheva_ dhffmgbklbq_kdbo b khpbZebklbq_kdbo mq_-
gbc»104
. J_^Zdpbb «<hjhg_`kdbo» b «Fhkdhkdbo» _^hfhkl_c, ih
gZ[ex^_gbyf F<>, hk_ «mkljZgbebkv hl kh_]h hnbpbZevgh]h
oZjZdl_jZ», iulZykvbih kh^_j`Zgbx, b ih kihkh[m baeh`_gby klZ-
l_ckjZgylvkykqZklgufbklhebqgufbba^Zgbyfb.
< bxe_ 1863 ]. ]m[_jgZlhju [ueb ij_^mij_`^_gu h g_^hims_-
gbb h]eZr_gby \ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ba_klbc, dhlhju_ aZdexqZ-
xl  k_[_ «dZd gZiZ^db gZ Z^fbgbkljZpbx hh[s_, lZd b djblbdm
^_yl_evghklb f_klguo mqj_`^_gbc beb hibkZgby aehmihlj_[e_gbc
]m[_jgkdbo b m_a^guo ^he`ghklguo ebp». LZdb_ im[ebdZpbb hij_-
^_eyebkv dZd «g_mf_klgu_  ijZbl_evkl_gghf ba^Zgbb f_klghc
Z^fbgbkljZpbb, ij_^gZagZq_gghf ^ey kem`_gby bgl_j_kZf ]m[_jg-
kdh]h b m_a^gh]h mijZe_gby, gh hlgx^v g_ ^ey mdZaZgbc gZ _]h g_-
khklhyl_evghklv». H[ «mims_gbyo» f_klghceZklbfh`gh[uehib-
kZlv lhevdh k __ `_ kZgdpbb, k mdZaZgb_f «ijbgyluo m`_
dmgbqlh`_gbxbof_j b [_a kydhc aZl_f^Zevg_cr_c ihe_fbdbih
k_fm ij_^f_lm…»105
. < Z\]mkl_ 1864 ]. ihke_^hZeh pbjdmeyjgh_
ij_^ibkZgb_ F<> gZqZevgbdZf ]m[_jgbc h g_^hims_gbb ihe_fbdb
f_`^m kem`Zsbfb ebpZfb b ijZ\bl_evkl_ggufb mqj_`^_gbyfb»
 ]m[_jgkdbo hnbpbZevguo hj]ZgZo i_qZlb106
. < fZjl_ 1865 ].
I:. <Zem_ibkZedkh_fmaZf_klbl_ex:=. Ljhcgbpdhfm: «<u[u
fgh]h f_gy h^he`beb khklZe_gb_f pbjdmeyjgh]h ibkvfZ d ]m[_j-
gZlhjZf, qlh[u h[jZlblv bo gbfZgb_ gZ “=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb”.
Hgb khk_f g_ gZ[ex^Zxl aZ hdjZkdhx wlbo ba^Zgbc! : f_`^m l_f
hgb, [_amkehgh, h[yaZgu bfb aZgbfZlvky. Hgb, gZijbf_j, ^himkdZ-
xl gZiZ^db gZ deZkkbq_kdb_ ]bfgZabb, ihye_gb_ kydbo klZl_c ih
dj_klvygkdhfm^_emb iha_fkdbf mqj_`^_gbyf, g_ kh]eZkguo k ^_c-
klbyfb fbgbkl_jklZ, b hibkZgb_ kydbo ijhbgpbZevguo kdZg^Z-104
Kh[jZgb_ fZl_jbZeh b gZijZe_gbb jZaebqguo hljZke_c jmkkdhc keh_kghklb…
K. 295–296.
105
Dhgnb^_gpbZevgh_ij_^eh`_gb_fbgbkljZgmlj_ggbo^_egZqZevgbdZf]m[_jgbb,
31 bxey, ‹ 3.144 (>_eh Kh_lZ fbgbkljZ ih ^_eZf dgb]hi_qZlZgby, 1863, ‹ 13) // K[hj-
gbdjZkihjy`_gbcih^_eZfi_qZlb (k 1863 ih 1 k_gly[jy 1865 ]h^Z). KI[., 1865. K. 13–14.
106
Pbjdmeyjgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ fbgbkljZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e gZqZevgbdZf ]m[_jgbc,
20 Z]mklZ 1864 ]. ‹ 150 // K[hjgbdjZkihjy`_gbcih^_eZfi_qZlb (k 1863 ih 1-_k_gly[-
jy 1865 ]h^Z). KI[., 1865. K. 34.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
139eh\, kp_gamjghclhqdbaj_gby[he__q_fkhfgbl_evguo. GZ^hiheh-
`blv dhg_p \k_fm wlhfm»107
. J_amevlZlhfwlhc ijhkv[u klZek_dj_l-
guc pbjdmeyj F<> hl 24 fZjlZ 1865 ].,  dhlhjhf h[jZsZehkv gb-
fZgb_, qlh _^hfhklb,  gZjmr_gb_ kh_c ijh]jZffu im[ebdmxl
f_ehqgu_ k\_^_gby h jZaguo f_klguo [_kihjy^dZo, g_\_jgu_ kem-
ob, kh[eZagbl_evgu_bebkdZg^Zevgu_jZkkdZauhf_klguoijhbkr_-
klbyo … lhedb h g_^hklZldZo, g_ijZbevguo beb g_hklhjh`guo
^_cklbyo f_klghc Z^fbgbkljZpbb beb ]hjh^kdhc b a_fkdhc iheb-
pbb bli. k_^_gby h ^_cklbl_evguoijhbkr_klbyo, kemqb\rboky
]m[_jgbb, qZklh h[e_dZxlky  nhjfm xfhjbklbq_kdbo, gZkf_reb-
uo b ihemufure_gguo jZkkdZah\». Ijb h[gZjh^h\Zgbb ijZ\b-
l_evkl\_gguoihklZgh\e_gbc b f_klguojZkihjy`_gbc\_^hfhklb
imkdZxlky bgh]^Z  kh_jr_ggh g_mf_klgu_ bklhedh\Zgby
b^haheyxl k_[_ g_ lhevdh h[km`^_gb_, gh b ijyfh_ hkm`^_gb_
f_jhijbylbc ijZ\bl_evkl\Z». < h^ghc ]m[_jgbb g_hnbpbZevgZy
qZklv uoh^beZ k aZ]heh\dhf «=Za_lZ a_fkdbo b ^mfguo ^_e, h[-
s_kl_ggZy, iheblbq_kdZybebl_jZlmjgZy». LZdZykblmZpbyhij_-
^_eyeZkv dZd g_^himklbfZy, ih^q_jdb\Zehkv, qlh hj]Zgu ijZ\b-
l_evklZ b f_klghc Z^fbgbkljZpbb ^he`gu «kms_kl_ggh
hlebqZlvky hl qZklguo ba^Zgbc, ij_^ijbgbfZ_fuo jZagufb eb-
pZfbkp_evxebl_jZlmjghx, mq_ghx, ijhfure_gghxbebijhklh
ki_dmeylb\ghx»108
.
27 bxey 1865 ]. ihke_^hZeh \lhjh_ dhgnb^_gpbZevgh_ ij_^-
eh`_gb_ F<> ]m[_jgZlhjZf c ijbau\hf «gZ\_klb ihjy^hd» \ ^_e_
ba^Zgby \_^hfhkl_c, dhlhju_, g_kfhljy gZ g_h^ghdjZlgu_ «ih^-
l_j`^_gbyhg_mdehgghfbkiheg_gbbij_^ibkZgghcihaZdhgm^ey
wlbo ba^Zgbc ijh]jZffu», ijh^he`Zxl hlklmie_gby hl g__. Ijb
gZjmr_gbyo «j_^ZdlhjZfb b p_gamjmxsbfb ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb
qbghgbdZfb ihklZghe_gguo ijZbe» ]m[_jgZlhju ^he`gu [ueb
ijb[_]gmlv «d g_f_^e_gghc bo aZf_g_ ^jm]bfb, [he__ [eZ]hgZ^_`-
gufbebpZfb»109
. GZijhly`_gbb 1866 ]. =eZgh_mijZe_gb_ih^_-
eZf i_qZlb gZdhibeh p_eh_ ^_eh h uoh^_ aZ jZfdb hnbpbZevghc107
Ibkvfh I:. <Zem_Z d :=. Ljhcgbpdhfm, 15 fZjlZ 1865 ]. // JmkkdZy klZjbgZ.
1899. K_gly[jv. K. 696.
108
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 34. >. 13. E. 31–32 h[; N. 776. Hi. 34. >. 14. E. 23–24 h[;Pbjdm-
eyjgh_dhgnb^_gpbZevgh_ij_^eh`_gb_fbgbkljZgmlj_ggbo^_egZqZevgbdZf]m[_jgbc,
24 fZjlZ, ‹ 551 (>_eh K.-I_l_j[ mj] kdh]h p _gamjgh] h dhfbl_lZ, 1865 ]., ‹ 1) // K[hjgb d
jZkihjy`_gbcih^_eZfi_qZ lb (k 1863 ih 1 -_k_gly[jy 1865 ]h^Z). KI[., 1865. K. 42–48.
109
Dhgnb^_gpbZevgh_ij_^eh`_gb_fbgbkljZgmlj_ggbo^_egZqZevgbdZf]m[_jgbc,
h[ty\e_ggh_pbjdmeyjgh, 27 bxey 1865 ]., ‹ 137 // K[hjgbdjZkihjy`_gbcih^_eZfi_qZ-
lb (k 1863 ih 1 -_k_gly[jy 1865 ]h^Z). KI[., 1865. K. 52.

=eZ\Z 2
140ijh]jZffu ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c DZem]b, I_jfb, <yldb, Dhkljh-
fu, Kfhe_gkdZb^jm]bo]hjh^h\110
.
7 ghy[jy 1865 ]. =eZgh_mijZe_gb_ih^_eZfi_qZlbhlghkbl_evgh
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c jZkijhkljZgbeh jZatykg_gb_, qlh ^ey gbo kh-
ojZgy_lky p_gahjkdbc ijhkfhlj «gZ hkghZgbb ij_`^_ ba^Zgguo ih
k_fm ij_^f_lm ijZbe» k h[yaZl_evguf h[hagZq_gb_f gZ dZ`^hf wd-
a_fieyj_ «p_gahjkdh]h ^hahe_gby»111
, l_. _^hfhklb g_ ihemqZeb klZ-
lmkZ iheghklvx [_kp_gamjguo ba^Zgbc b gZ^ gbfb khojZgyeky ij_^Z-
jbl_evguc Z^fbgbkljZlbguc dhgljhev. ?keb h[sZy p_gamjZ (^h __
hlf_gu  klhebpZo) fh]eZ ^himklblv d i_qZlb h[ebqbl_evgmx klZlvx
beb klZlvx, kh^_j`Zsmx ufuk_e, lh p_gamjZ Z^fbgbkljZlbgZy g_
fh]eZ bo ^Z`_ ijbgbfZlv d jZkkfhlj_gbx, dZd bagZqZevgh oh^brb_
ijhlbhj_qb_kijh]jZffhcf_klghcijZbl_evkl_gghc]Za_lu112
.
< 1870 ]. Fbgbkl_jklhfgmlj_ggbo^_e[ueh^Zghkh]eZkb_gZ
i_qZlZgb_ \ h^bggZ^pZlb _^hfhklyo l_e_]jZff, iheblbq_kdbo ba-
\_klbc, ojhgbdbb l^. >_kylb\_^hfhklyf [ueb ^Zgu jZaj_r_gby gZ
im[ebdZpbxi_j_^huoklZl_c, klZl_cihh[s_kl\_gguf, gZmqgufb
ebl_jZlmjguf hijhkZf113
. Wlh fh`gh jZkp_gb\Zlv dZd mklmidm k h
klhjhgu p_gamjgh]h _^hfklZ, ijbagZr_]h, qlh g_hnbpbZevgu_
qZklb _^hfhkl_c ijh^he`Zxl jZa\bZlvky \g_ jZfhd jZaj_r_g-
ghc aZdhghf ijh]jZffu dZd f_klgu_ ijh\bgpbZevgu_ h[s_kl-
\_ggu_ ba^Zgby. < 1871 ]. =eZgh_ mijZ\e_gb_, gZ hkgh\Zgbb gZ-
[ex^_gby aZ 52 ]m[_jgkdbfb ba^Zgbyfb, \ghv hlf_qZeh, qlh
\\_^hfhklyo dZd ih nhjf_, lZd b ih kh^_j`Zgbx «\ihke_^g__
j_fy aZf_qZxlky _kvfZ qZklh hlklmie_gby hl ijZ\be» (gZijb-
f_j, k_gZlkdb_ mdZau b fbgbkl_jkdb_ pbjdmeyju i_qZlZebkv ih-
ke_ jZkihjy`_gbc f_klgh]h gZqZevklZ, g_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv
jZaf_sZeZkv «ih^\Ze_» hnbpbZevghcqZklb), lhfqbke_^himk-
dZxlky im[ebdZpbb klZl_c, dhlhju_ «ih oZjZdl_jm k\h_fm \hk_
g_ mf_klgu_ \ hnbpbZevguo ba^Zgbyo, dZd, gZijbf_j: kemob
hjZaguo ^_cklbyo beb ij_^iheh`_gbyo ijZ\bl_evkl\Z, klZlvb110
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 3. >. 372. 1866 ]. 28 e.
111
Ih=eZghfmMijZe_gbxih^_eZfi_qZlb. 7 ghy[jy 1865 ]. ‹ 453. H[h[hagZq_-
gbb p_gahjkdh]h ^hahe_gby gZ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c // K[hjgbd
pbjdmeyjh\ b jZkihjy`_gbc F<>, hlghkysboky ^h ]m[_jgZlhjZ, bp_]m[_jgZlhjh\, kh-
_lgbdh ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc, dZgp_eyjbc ]m[_jgZlhjh\, ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc,
kljhbl_evguob\jZq_[guohl^_e_gbc, ZlZd`_^h]hjh^kdboba_fkdbomqj_`^_gbc, k 1858
ih 1896 ]. F., 1896. K. 255.
112
K[hjgbd maZdhg_gbc b jZkihjy`_gbc ijZbl_evklZ ih ^_eZf i_qZlb. KI[., 1878.
K. 191–193.
113
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 62h[.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
141ihe_fbq_kdb_ b jZagh]h ^jm]h]h kh^_j`Zgby…»114
. < 1870–1871 ]].
OZjvdhkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» ihemqbeb q_luj_ aZf_qZ-
gby – aZ ihf_s_gb_ \ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]eZkghc `Zeh[u
bhl_lZ gZ g__, i_j_^hmx klZlvx h g_rg_c iheblbd_ Jhkkbb
kfg_gb_f j_^Zdpbb, klZlvx h_\j_ckdhf ih]jhf_ \ H^_kk_ b klZ-
lvx «QlhlZdh_dhffmgZ». <ihke_^g_fkemqZ_g_ba\_klgucZ\lhj
hijZ\^uZe ijhbkoh^b\rb_ \h NjZgpbb j_\hexpbhggu_ kh[u-
lby, ml\_j`^Zy, qlh «^ey h^gbo dhffmgZ k^_eZeZkv kbghgbfhf
im]ZeZ, djh\Z\h]h ijbajZdZ l_jjhjZ, ^ey ^jm]bo `_ – agZf_g_f
q_klb b k\h[h^u, k\yluf keh\hf ex[\b b ijh]j_kkZ». «KZjZlh\-
kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» aZ hlq_lguc i_jbh^ aZjZ[hlZeb ^\Z
aZf_qZgby – ihijbqbg_i_j_i_qZldbbaklhebqguo[_kp_gamjguo
ba^Zgbc kemoh h ^_cklbyoijZ\bl_evklZb aZ klZlvx «HohlZ aZ
h[b^Zfb» – h ihye_gbb  KZjZlh_ kh j_f_gb \_^_gby ghuo
km^_[guo mqj_`^_gbc «p_eh]h iheqbsZ Z^hdZlh bih_j_gguo
ih ^_eZf». Kljh]h_ \aukdZgb_ aZ klZlvx «L_fgu_ hlghr_gby»,
h[ebqZ\rmx f_klgh_ a_fkl\h \ ihlhjkl\_ jZkijhkljZg_gbx oh-
e_ju, ihemqbebp_gahj b j_^Zdlhj g_hnbpbZevghcqZklb «KZfZj-
kdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c». >himkdZebkvklZlvbihe_fbq_kdh]h
oZjZdl_jZ, ebl_jZlmjgh]h kh^_j`Zgby b i_j_i_qZldb ba [_kp_g-
amjguo ba^Zgbc \ «O_jkhgkdbo», «YjhkeZ\kdbo», «K_fbiZeZlbg-
kdbo», «<eZ^bfbjkdbo», «Hehg_pdbo», «>hgkdbo» \_^hfhklyo115
.
Lhevdh l_ \_^hfhklb g_ ^Zeb «ih\h^Z d hkh[uf aZf_qZgbyf», dh-
lhju_ h]jZgbqbebkv «\_kvfZ kdm^guf kh^_j`Zgb_f k\h_c g_hnb-
pbZevghcqZklb»116
.
< 1871 ]. qe_g kh_lZ =eZ\gh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb
I:. <ZdZjkh_f^hdeZ^_ hlf_qZe, qlh kyabkNjZgdhijmkkdhc
hcghc b j_hexpbhggufb kh[ulbyfb h NjZgpbb «OZjvdhkdb_
]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» i_qZlZxl i_j_^hu_ iheblbq_kdb_ klZlvb,
ih^jh[gu_ba_klbyhh_gguo^_cklbyo, wibah^uba`bagbbZg_d-
^hluhGZihe_hg_ III b;bkfZjd_, i_j_i_qZluZybogZijyfmx, ki_-
j_\h^hf, ba njZgpmakdbo, Zg]ebckdbo b g_f_pdbo ba^Zgbc. Djhf_
lh]h, gZkljZgbpZo]Za_lu^himkdZebkvihe_fbq_kdb_klZlvbhlebpZ114
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 2. >. 9. 1871 ]. E. 600h[.–603h[.; N. 776. Hi. 39. >. 14. E. 4–4h[;
=:LHN. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1108. E. 385.
115
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 5. >. 16. 1872 ]. E. 22–25.
116
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 5. >. 16. 1872 ]. E. 25. Wlh ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb «Kbf[bj-
kdb _», «LZf[h\kdb _», «Q_jgb]h\ kdb _», «<Z jrZ\ kdb_», «DZem` kdb_», «D_e_pdb _», «Ehf-
`bgkdb_», «Ex[ebgkdb_», «I_ljhdh\kdb_», «Ihehpdb_», «JZ^hfkdb_», «KmZedkdb_»
b «K_^e_pdb_».

=eZ\Z 2
142kZfhcj_^Zdpbbbf_`^m jZaebqgufbqZklgufbebpZfbbh[s_klZ-
fb. «Kbf[bjkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb»  ihbkdZo aZ]jZgbqgh]h
fZl_jbZeZ, dhlhjuc fh] aZbgl_j_khZlv qblZl_ey, h[jZsZebkv
d «Fhkdh\kdbf \_^hfhklyf» b «GZjh^ghc beexkljZpbb», «KZjZlh\-
kdb_» – d «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdbf\_^hfhklyf» b «;bj`_\uf\_^hfh-
klyf», l_. d ba^Zgbyf, g_ oh^brbf  dhjhldbc kibkhd ihklZgh\-
e_gby Dhfbl_lZ fbgbkljh\ 1863 ]. Fg_gb_ I:. <ZdZjZ h lhf, qlh
lhevdh «IjZbl_evkl_gguc_klgbd» fh`_l[ulvbklhqgbdhfaZbf-
klhZgby ^ey ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, [ueh  blh]hhc j_ahexpbb
=eZgh]h mijZe_gby kfy]q_gh – i_j_i_qZldb fh]eb [ulv b ba ^jm-
]bo ba^Zgbc, gh ijb mkehbb, «qlh[u u[hj b baeh`_gb_ lZdhuo
klZl_cbba_klbckljh]h khh[jZahuZebkvk^mohfbgZijZe_gb_f
wlhchnbpbZevghc]Za_lu»117
. «OZjvdhkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb»,
i_j_i_qZlZrb_ bklhjbq_kdmx klZlvx h \hcg_ 1812 ]. ba «Fhkdh\-
kdbo_^hfhkl_c», ghv\uaZebaZf_qZgb_khklhjhguI:. <ZdZjZ
\ 1872 ]., b \ j_amevlZl_ kh_l =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb
jZaj_rbe dZd «OZjvdh\kdbf», lZd b ^jm]bf _^hfhklyf i_j_i_qZlu-
Zlv bklhjbq_kdb_ b Zjo_heh]bq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu ba ^jm]bo ]Za_l, kih-
kh[kl\mxsb_hagZdhfe_gbxkbklhjbq_kdbfijhreuf]m[_jgbb118
.
Klj_fe_gb_j_^Zdpbc\_^hfhkl_cdjZkrbj_gbxg_hnbpbZevguo
qZkl_c khbo ba^Zgbc,  gZjmr_gb_ ijh]jZffu b  ms_j[ qZklb
hnbpbZevghc, ijb_eh d h[jZahZgbx \ 1878 ]. \ Fbgbkl_jkl\_
gmlj_ggbo ^_e «Dhfbkkbb ^ey i_j_kfhljZ maZdhg_gbc h[ ba^Zgbb
]m[_jgkdbob h[eZklguo_^hfhkl_c». Ih\h^hfd __ kha^Zgbx klZeZ
bgbpbZlbZ k f_kl – ibkvfh ba <bl_[kdZ k ijh_dlhf «H aZf_g_ ]m-
[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c [he__ p_e_khh[jZaguf ijhbgpbZevguf i_-
jbh^bq_kdbf ba^Zgb_f b h[ mijZa^g_gbb ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc»,
Z\lhjhf dhlhjh]h[ue dhee_`kdbc Zk_kkhj :B. B\_jk_g119
. <gZqZe_
g_ij_f_gguc aZk_^Zl_ev \bl_[kdh]h m_a^gh]h ihebp_ckdh]h mijZ\-
e_gby ihiulZeky h[jZlblvky  F<> q_j_a ]m[_jgZlhjZ, gh, ihemqb\
hldZa120
, gZijZ\bekh_fg_gb_gZijyfmxEK. FZdhm, h[hkghuZy
_]h g_ lhevdh g_h[oh^bfhklvx kh_jr_gkl\hZgby bgnhjfZpbhggh-
]h h[_ki_q_gby ihebp_ckdhc qZklb, gh b hiulhf «ij_`gbo j_^Zd-
lhjkdbo b lbih]jZnkdbo aZgylbc»121
. «<k_f ba_klgh, – ibkZe
:B. B\_jk_g, – qlh ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb \_a^_ khklZ\eyxl kZfh_117
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 2. >. 7. 1870 ]. E. 478–481h[., 483.
118
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 2. >. 10. 1872 ]. E. 461–463.
119
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 5–11h[., 32–45h[.
120
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 3.
121
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 49Z.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
143g_agZqbl_evgh_, g_ihimeyjgh_ b kdmqgh_ i_jbh^bq_kdh_ ba^Zgb_.
Ihwlhfmim[ebdZg_uibku\Z_lbg_qblZ_lwlbo]Za_l <…> Dehqdb
]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\klj_qZxlky\_a^_, ]^_lhevdh[u\Z_lgm`gu
h[_jldb, hde_cdb b h[rbdb»122
. =eZghc ijbqbghc wlh]h [ueZ g_-
kh\j_f_gghklv bo ijh]jZffu, h^gZdh, ih fg_gbx B_jk_gZ, mkbeb-
Zlv b jZkrbjylv g_h[oh^bfh [ueh g_ g_hnbpbZevgmx qZklv, dhlh-
jZy lhevdh kgb`ZeZ Zlhjbl_l f_klgh]h dZa_ggh]h hj]ZgZ123
,
Z, gZijhlb\, hnbpbZevgmx, ^ey ijb^Zgby _fm kljh]h]h b h[rbjgh]h
ojhgheh]bq_kdh]h k[hjgbdZ ijZ\bl_evkl_gguo jZkihjy`_gbc,
pbjdmeyjh\, m_^hfe_gbc, k_^_gbcbh[tye_gbck_o[_abkdexq_-
gby eZkl_c b f_kl p_ehc ]m[_jgbb»124
. LZdZy ijh]jZffZ ih kh_fm
^mom [ueZ [ebadZ i_jhgZqZevghfm, ij_bfms_kl_ggh kem`_[ghfm
oZjZdl_jm \_^hfhkl_c dZd f_klbebsm ijZh\hc bgnhjfZpbb, gh
ghuo mkehbyo ihj_nhjf_ggh]h mijZe_gby. G_hnbpbZevgZy
qZklv^he`gZ[ueZijbh[j_klbg_h[yaZl_evgucoZjZdl_jb^_ha-
fh`gh]h ijbeh`_gby d _^hfhklyf, j_^Zdpby dhlhjuo ba mijZa^-
gy_fh]h]Za_lgh]hklheZi_j_oh^beZdhee_]bZevgucj_^Zdpbhgguc
dhfbl_l, khklhysbc ba f_klguo ij_^klZbl_e_c k_o ijZ\bl_evkl-
_gguo _^hfkl\. Djm] h[yaZl_evguo ih^ibkqbdh jZkrbjyeky aZ
kq_l _^Z ebg_ k_oohaycklmxsbob ijZhuo km[t_dlh  ]m[_j-
gbb: ijhfure_ggu_blhj]hu_aZ_^_gby, ljZdlbjubm_k_ebl_ev-
gu_ f_klZ, Zil_db, a_fe_eZ^_evpu, ^hfhohay_Z, g_]hkm^Zjkl_g-
gu_h[s_kl_ggu_hj]ZgbaZpbbbl^., ijbwlhf «ih^ibkgZyp_gZgZ
ba^Zgb_^he`gZ[ulvkdhev\hafh`ghh[s_^hklmigZb[_^gufdeZk-
kZf ex^_c»125
. >ey wdhghfbb kj_^kl gZ ba^Zgb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ lbih-
]jZnbb ^he`gu [ueb [ulv i_j_^Zgu  Zj_g^m qZklguf ebpZf ih^
bf_g_f «qZklguo]m[_jgkdbolbih]jZnbc»126
.
Fg_gb_ B_jk_gZ khiZ^Zeh k fg_gb_f qe_gZ kh_lZ =eZgh]h
mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb G<. <ZjZ^bghZ, dhlhjuc, bkoh^y ba k\h-
_]h ^Z^pZlbe_lg_]h kem`_[gh]h hiulZ, lZd`_ ml_j`^Ze, qlh
_^hfhklyo «hnbpbZevgZy qZklv ihf_sZ_lky ebrv jZ^b h^ghc nhj-122
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 5–5h[.
123
«GZaZ^gboklhe[pZodZ`^h]h\uimkdZklZebhfgh`_kl\_ihyeylvkyjZagu_[_e-
e_ljbklbq_kdb_ [_a^_emrdb, f_edb_ jZkkdZau, Zg_d^hlu, hibkZgby jZaguf ij_^f_lZf b
ijhbkr_klbyf, aZbfklm_fu_ klhebqguoi_jbh^bq_kdboba^Zgbyo, gZdhg_p, iheblbq_-
kdb_l_e_]jZffubdehqdbiheblbq_kdbojZkkm`^_gbc, uoZq_gguo[_alhedmbihke_^h-
Zl_evghklb ba “IjZbl_evkl\_ggh]h _klgbdZ” gZm^Zqm…» (J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55.
1878 ]. E. 7 h[.)
124
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 8h[.
125
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 10.
126
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 11h[.

=eZ\Z 2
144fZevghklb, h ba[_`Zgb_ ygh]h gZjmr_gby ij_^ibkZgbc h g_c aZdhgZ;
ky `_ ^_yl_evghklv j_^Zdpbc wlbo ba^Zgbc gZijZe_gZ gZ g_hnbpb-
ZevgmxqZklv, dhlhjZyba^Z_lky, h^gZdh, lZd, qlh=eZgh_mijZe_gb_ih
^_eZf i_qZlb [ueh ihklZey_fh  g_h[oh^bfhklv mdZauZlvgZ hlklmi-
e_gbywlhcqZklb]m[_jgkdbobh[eZklguo_^hfhkl_chlmklZghe_gghc
^eyg__aZdhghfijh]jZffu»127
. Kh]eZkghaZdexq_gbxkh_lZ=eZgh]h
mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb, fbgbklj gmlj_ggbo ^_e ijbagZe ijh_dl
B_jk_gZ «aZkem`bZxsbf ihegh]h gbfZgby» b [eZ]h^Zjbe aZ _]h
khh[s_gb_128
. 18 Z\]mklZ 1878 ]. F<> ml\_j^beh «Dhfbkkbx ^ey i_j_-
kfhljZ maZdhg_gbc h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c»
khklZ_ qbghgbdh\ – hl =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb
G<. <ZjZ^bgh\, I>. Klj_fhmoh\), ^_iZjlZf_glZ h[sbo ^_e (<H. B]-
gZlv_\), ihebpbb bkihegbl_evghc (>G. Qm^h\kdbc), ohayckl\_ggh]h
:B. ;_ai_jqbc) ba_fkdh]h (<<. :beh\) hl^_eh\129
. >ey mqZklby
jZ[hl_ «Dhfbkkbb» [ue uaZg \ I_l_j[mj] b kZf :B. B_jk_g. Ba
khojZgbr_]hky Zjob\gh]h ^_eZ g_ ykgh, dZdb_ \hijhku h[km`^ZeZ
Dhfbkkby» bdZdb_ij_^eh`_gby__[uebujZ[hlZgu. H[sZygmljb-
iheblbq_kdZykblmZpby\kljZg_f_gyeZkvhq_gv[ukljh. EK. FZdhZgZ
_]hihklmkf_gbeFE. EhjbkF_ebdh\, Zfbgbkljhfgh\h]hijZbl_ev-
klZ klZe GI. B]gZlv_\. :B. B_jk_g klmibe kfbgbkl_jkl\hf
gZklhysmx i_j_ibkdm, hlijZb hk_fv aZibkhd bibk_f, jZkrbjy\-
rbo b mlhqgyrbo ijh_dl i_j_mkljhcklZ _^hfhkl_c b ]m[_jgkdbo
lbih]jZnbc, g_ aZ[uZy mihfbgZlv  gbo nZdl ug_k_gghc _fm  i_j-
uc jZa fbgbkl_jkdhc [eZ]h^Zjghklb. 7 n_jZey 1881 ]. <ZjZ^bgh hl-
^_evgufb ibkvfZfb m_^hfeye k_o qe_gh\ «Dhfbkkbb» ijb[ulv gZ
aZk_^Zgb_ 12 n_jZey 1881 ]., h^gZdh gZdZgmg_, 11 n_jZey, m`_ ij_^m-
ij_`^Ze, qlh aZk_^Zgb_ g_ khklhblky130
. <hafh`gh, :e_dkZg^jm II g_
m^Zehkv ih^ibkZlv g_ lhevdh i_j\mx jhkkbckdmx dhgklblmpbx, gh127
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 2. >. 18. 1878 ]. E. 316–316h[.
128
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 15h[. <q_jgh\hf\ZjbZgl_ibkvfZ[ueZ
uq_jdgmlZ njZaZ h lhf, qlh fbgbklj «ihjmqbe =eZghfm mijZe_gbx ih ^_eZf i_qZlb
ih^jh[gmx jZajZ[ hldm \ ha[m`^ _ggh] h \hijhkZ». Hq_\b^gh, qlh[u ijbhjbl_l  wlhf ^_e_
ijbgZ^e_`Ze kZfhfm ijZ\bl_evklm, Z g_ ijh\bgpbZevguf ijh`_dl_jZf. Kf_ehklv k\h_c
bgbpbZlbu ijb g_jZghf b_jZjobq_kdhf iheh`_gbb ihgbfZe b kZf B_jk_g, ijb[_]Zy
djZaghh[jZaguf m\Z`bl_evguf dZgp_eyjbafZf: «…hkqZklebe_gguc \gbfZgb_f \Zr_]h
\ukhdhij_\hkoh^bl_evkl\Z d fh_fm ljm^m…» (e. 26h[); «H^bg ba f_edbo ijh\bgpbZevguo
qbghgbdh\ iha\hey_l k_[_, ihfbfh ]m[_jgkdh]h k\h_]h gZqZevklZ, mljm`^Zlv hkh[m \Zrm
gZklhys_c ihqlbl_evg_cr_c ijhkv[hc» (e. 48); «Ihaheyx k_[_ ih\_j]gmlv ijb k_f gZ
[eZ]hmkfhlj_gb_ \Zr_]h ij_\hkoh^bl_evkl\Z ijb k_f aZibkdm, ijhky h [eZ]hkdehgghf Z-
r_fdwlhfmljm^m\gbfZgbbbhZr_cdhfg_fbehklb\hc[eZ]hkdehgghklb» (e. 57h[).
129
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 16–21, 47.
130
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 49h[–50.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
145b\g_klb baf_g_gby  ijh]jZffm \_^hfhkl_c (dZd wlh[ueh k^_eZgh bf
\ 1857 b 1863 ]].). ?keb klhjhggbd «^bdlZlmju k_j^pZ» FE. Ehjbk-
F_ebdh ihkh\_lhZe ijb^Zlv ujZ`_ggu_ :B. B_jk_ghf fukeb
]eZkghfm h[km`^_gbx iml_f i_qZlb», lh dhgk_jZlbgh gZkljh_gguc
GI. B]gZlv_h]jZgbqbekyhlibkdhchlhf, qlhgZklhys__\j_fyijh-
bkoh^blh[sbci_j_kfhljiheh`_gbch]m[_jgkdbobm_a^guomijZe_-
gbyo. GZ ihke_^g_fibkvf_ B_jk_gZ  dhgp_ 1881 ].  =eZgh_ mijZ\-
e_gb_ ih ^_eZf i_qZlb [ueZ gZeh`_gZ g_^hmf_ggZy j_ahexpby _]h
ghh]h gZqZevgbdZ I:. <ya_fkdh]h: «Ijhrm h[tykgblv, dZdZy wlh dh-
fbkkby?»131
, Z\ 1884 ]. ^_iZjlZf_glh[sbo^_eF<>aZijZrb\Ze=eZ\-
gh_ mijZe_gb_, «\ dZdhfiheh`_gbb gZoh^blky ^_eh hkh[hc dhfbkkbb
ih i_j_kfhljm maZdhg_gbc ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c?»132
.
Hq_b^gh, qlhbaf_g_gby\h[s_fiheblbq_kdhfdmjk_bkf_gZ khklZZ
ijZbl_evklZ g_ fh]eb g_ ihebylv gZ hlghr_gb_ d wlhfm \hijhkm,
b^_yl_evghklv «Dhfbkkbb ^ey i_j_kfhljZ maZdhg_gbc h[ ba^Zgbb ]m-
[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c» beb ihkl_i_ggh khreZ gZ g_l, beb
ij_djZlbeZkv h^ghfhf_glgh. B]jZ eb[_jZebaf k uah\Zfb  klhebpm
baijhbgpbZevguo]hjh^haZdhgqbeZkv, gh]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklbk_-
lZdbaZljhgmebbaf_g_gby, dZkZrb_kyihjy^dZbop_gamjbjhZgby.
< gZqZe_ k\h_]hijZe_gby, 30 k_gly[jy 1881 ]., :e_dkZg^j III
ih ^hdeZ^m GI. B]gZlv_\Z hk\h[h^be ]m[_jgkdb_ b h[eZklgu_
_^hfhklb hl ij_^Zjbl_evghc p_gamju dZd ijZ\bl_evkl_ggu_
ba^Zgby, «kl_f, qlh[u hgb ba^ZZebkv ih^ hl_lkl\_gghklvx ]m-
[_jgkdh]h gZqZevkl\Z»133
. IjbqbgZfbwlh]h[uehg_lhevdhnhj-
fZevgh_ ijhlb\hj_qb_ «<j_f_gguo ijZ\be h i_qZlb 1865 ]h^Z»
m`_ hlf_gyrbo ij_^Zjbl_evgmx p_gamjm k_o ijZbl_evkl_g-
guoba^Zgbc, k ijh^he`b\rbf kms_kl\hZgb_ihjy^dhf boij_^-
Zjbl_evgh]h ijhkfhljZ ]m[_jgZlhjZfb b \bp_]m[_jgZlhjZfb
gZwlh F<> h[jZsZeh\gbfZgb_ II Hl^_e_gby ?B<.), ghbg_h[-
oh^bfhklv gZijZ\blv kj_^klZ, \u^_ey_fu_ gZ \hagZ]jZ`^_gb_
qbghgbdh\, ^_cklbl_evghklb (Zg_ih[md_aZdhgZ) hkms_kl\-
eyrbo lZdhc ijhkfhlj, gZ p_eb p_gamjbjhZgby i_qZlb qZkl-
ghc134
. < ijhbgpbZevguo]hjh^Zo, g_ bf_\rborlZlguop_gamj-
guo mqj_`^_gbc, ihyeyebkv «_kvfZ kheb^gu_ hj]Zgu i_qZlb,
krbjhdbfb ijh]jZffZfb b [h]Zluf fZl_jbZehf ^ey bamq_gby f_kl-131
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 60
132
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 55. 1878 ]. E. 61.
133
IKA. Kh[j. 3-_. KI[., 1885. L. 1. ‹ 420; J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 5. >. 45. 1871 ]. E. 11–
11h[.
134
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 412. 1881 ]. E. 1–3h[.

=eZ\Z 2
146guomkehbc [ulZ bgm`^ gZk_e_gby»135
. < 1865 ]., ih ih^kq_lZf =eZ\-
gh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb, lZdbo hj]Zgh [ueh 19, Z\ 1881 ]. –
m`_ 81, \ 49 ]hjh^Zo, ijbq_f 20 ba^Zgbc bf_eb i_jbh^bqghklv [he__
lj_o jZa  g_^_ex136
. <uk\h[h^brboky, lZdbf h[jZahf, kj_^kl \k_
jZgh  blh]_ g_ o\Zlbeh, b ]m[_jgZlhju \ 80–90-o]]. oh^ZlZckl\hZeb
h[ mqj_`^_gbb ^he`ghklb hl^_evgh hieZqbZ_fh]h p_gahjZ. LZd, gZ-
ijbf_j, \ 1887 ]. kZjZlhkdbc ]m[_jgZlhj khh[sZe F<> h lhf, qlh
p_gamjbjhZgb_ «KZjZlhkdh]h ebkldZ» b «KZjZlhkdh]h ^g_gbdZ»
hkms_kleyehkv hl^_evgufb kh\_lgbdZfb ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby, dh-
lhju_  \haf_s_gb_ ihl_jb \j_f_gb b ljm^Z ihemqZeb k_jo _`_]h^gh
hlimkdZ_fuo =eZguf mijZe_gb_f ih ^_eZf i_qZlb 100 jm[.  ]h^,
_s_ih 720 jm[. hlkZfbo]Za_l. LZdhc «mklZghbrbcky]h^ZfbijZdlb-
db ihjy^hd» ]m[_jgZlhj ijbagZZeg_ghjfZevguf – p_gahju, gZoh^b\-
rb_ky nZdlbq_kdb gZ kh^_j`Zgbb m j_^Zdpbc, ^_eZeb jZaebqgu_ ih-
keZ[e_gbybijhimkdZebi_qZlvklZlvbbba_klby, dhlhju_ «ijb[he__
ijZbevghcihklZghd_p_gamjug_fh]eb[u[ulvl_jibfu»137
.
AZdhgh^Zl_evgZy hlf_gZ ij_^Zjbl_evghc p_gamju ^ey ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c \ 1881 ]. ghv g_ hkh[h`^ZeZ bo hl dhgljhey kh klhjhgu
]m[_jgkdhc eZklb. =eZgh_ mijZe_gb_ ih ^_eZf i_qZlb (dZd b ijb hk-
h[h`^_gbb_^hfhkl_c hlh[s_c p_gamju \ 1862 ].) 29 hdly[jy 1881 ].
jZkijhkljZgbeh ^hihegbl_evgh_ jZatykg_gb_, qlh ]m[_jgZlhju b gZ-
qZevgbdb h[eZkl_c ^he`gu ijbgylv «k_ aZbkysb_ hl gbo f_ju d lh-
fm, qlh[u ijb^Zlv f_klguf hnbpbZevguf hj]ZgZf lh agZq_gb_ b lhl
oZjZdl_j, dhlhju_lj_[mxl hlgbo^hklhbgklhijZbl_evklZbihevau
^_eZ», b ghv gZihfbgZeh h lhf, qlh[u  g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb _^h-
fhkl_c g_ ihyeyebkv «g_mf_klgh j_adb_ aZye_gby b km`^_gby h jZk-
kfZljbZ_fuo nZdlZo b \hijhkZo, klZlvb ihe_fbq_kdb_, xfhjbklbq_-
kdb_ i_j_i_qZldb ba qZklguo ba^Zgbc, ba_klby b kemob h
ij_^iheZ]Z_fuo f_jZo b jZkihjy`_gbyo ijZbl_evkl\Z, Z jZgh Zg_d-
^hlu b hh[s_ klZlvb e_]dh]h b lZd gZauZ_fh]h n_ev_lhggh]h kh^_j-
`Zgby»138
. Pbjdmeyj 30 Zij_ey 1882 ]. ghv hkijhba\h^be nhjfmeb-
jhdm h aZij_s_gbb i_qZlZlv _^hfhklyo «kemob h jZaguo^_cklbyo
bebij_^iheh`_gbyoijZbl_evklZ»139
, Zke_^aZwlbf, kmqj_`^_gb_f135
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 412. 1881 ]. E. 4.
136
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 412. 1881 ]. E. 4h[.
137
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 20. >. 412. 1881 ]. E. 110–110h[.
138
=eZgh_mijZ\e_gb_ih^_eZfi_qZlb. 29 hdly[jy 1881 ]. ‹ 4279. H[hk\h[h`^ _gbb
]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c hl ijhkfhljZ ij_^Zjbl_evghc p_gamju // K[hjgbd pbjdmeyjh b
jZkihjy`_gbcF<>… K. 256.
139
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 34. >. 14. E. 128.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
147 K.-I_l_j[mj]_ 23 fZy 1882 ]. «K__jgh]h l_e_]jZngh]h Z]_glklZ»,
F<>pbjdmeyjhfhl 5 ^_dZ[jy 1882 ]. u^Zeh jZaj_r_gb_gZbkihevah-
Zgb_  _^hfhklyo _]h k_^_gbc h gmlj_gg_c b bghkljZgghc iheblb-
d_, h[s_kl_gghcbwdhghfbq_kdhc`bagb140
.
< kyab k jZkijhkljZg_gb_f k dhgpZ 70-o ]]. j_\hexpbhgguo [jh-
rxj ( lhfqbke_klbebahZgguoihnhjf_ih^em[hqgu_ba^Zgby) gh-
h_ dhgk_jZlbgh_ ijZbl_evkl\h hl ihiulhd gZijZblv ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb  gm`gh_ ^ey k_[y jmkeh i_j_reh dkha^Zgbx ghh]h p_g-
ljZevgh]h hojZgbl_evgh]h hj]ZgZ ^ey gZjh^Z – «K_evkdh]h _klgbdZ».
Djhf_ lh]h, [ueZZdlbbabjhZgZ jZ[hlZ ih uimkdm ebl_jZlmju j_eb-
]bhaghgjZkl\_ggh]h b iZljbhlbq_kdh]h kh^_j`Zgby. <^hdeZ^ghc aZ-
ibkd_ <I. F_s_jkdh]h «Hkh[hfm kh_sZgbx ih hijhkm h[ ba^Zgbb
]Za_lu ^ey gZjh^Z», kha^Zgghfm 30 bxgy 1881 ]. ih bgbpbZlb_
GI. B]gZlv_Z141
, ujZ`ZeZkvlj_h]Z, qlh, «_kebk_]h^gyijZbl_evkl-
hg_ihaZ[hlblky hlhf, qlh[udj_klvyg_ jZafureyebijZbevghbyk-
gh, aZljZ ihaZ[hlylky hijhlbhiheh`ghfjZ]bijZbl_evklZ, b ihq-
Z dj_klvygkdh]h mfkl_ggh]h fbjZ fh`_l hq_gv kdhjh mclb baih^
ebygby ijZbl_evklZ, dZd mreZ ihq\Z bgl_eeb]_glh\»142
. «K_evkdbc
_klgbd» klZeuoh^blv k 1 k_gly[jy 1881 ]. _`_g_^_evgh bjZkkueZeky
[_kieZlgh gZqZevgbdZf ]m[_jgbc, hehklguf ijZe_gbyf, bkijZgb-
dZf, klZghuf b ^jm]bf ij_^klZbl_eyf f_klghc Z^fbgbkljZpbb.
< 1882 ]. lbjZ`]Za_lu ^hklb] 24000 wda_fieyjh\, ba dhlhjuo ihqlb
13,5 lukyq jZkkueZebkv [_kieZlgh. GZ ba^Zgb_ ]Za_lu ijZbl_ev-
klhljZlbeh 15 500 jm[. ]h^ 143
.
BlZd, ^Z`bagvf_klghci_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlb, ijZbl_evklhay-
ehgZk_[ynmgdpbbdhgljheyaZkh[kl\_gghcij_kkhc, j_]eZf_glbjmyl_
hnbpbZevgu_ b g_hnbpbZevgu_ kx`_lu, dhlhjuo fh]eZ dZkZlvky ]Za_-
lZ, b bkdexqZy jZkijhkljZg_gb_ g_gm`guo lhedh bkemoh gZ hkghZ-
gbb ijhqblZggh]h. <_^hfhklb dZd k_lv dZa_gguo ba^Zgbc gZoh^bebkv
\_^_gbb Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e, kljmdlmjZ b ijh]jZffZ ]Za_-
lu, bo baf_g_gb_, ihjy^hd p_gamjgh]h dhgljhey j_]eZf_glbjhZebkv
hl^_evgufb aZdhghiheh`_gbyfb b pbjdmeyjgufb ij_^ibkZgbyfb.
< «Iheghf kh[jZgbb aZdhgh Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb» aZ 1830–1881 ]].
kh^_j`blky [he__ 30 maZdhg_gbc, dZkZrboky _^hfhkl_c. ;he__ 20 hk-140
F. D–ic.IjhbgpbZevgZyi_qZlv. =m[_jgkdZyij_kkZ // Ghh_kehh. @mjgZegZmq-
ghebl_jZlmjgucbiheblbq_kdbc. KI[., 1896. ‹ 12. K.11.
141
;exf :<., D_evg_j <?., IZljmr_Z G=. Ba^Zgb_ «dgb] ^ey gZjh^Z» // Dgb]Z
\Jhkkbb. 1861–1881 : \ 3 l. / ih^h[s_cj_^. BB. Njheh\hc. F., 1991. L. 3. K. 7–28.
142
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 33. >. 18. 1881 ]. E. 371h[.
143
;exf:<., D_evg_j <?., IZljmr_ ZG=.Ba^Zgb_ «dgb]^eygZjh^Z» … K. 21–22.

=eZ\Z 2
148ghguo pbjdmeyjh p_gamjgh]h _^hfklZ aZ wlhl i_jbh^ jZatykgyeb,
^hihegyebbdhjj_dlbjhZebaZdhgh^Zl_evgucklZlmk_^hfhkl_c.
=m[_jgZlhju b j_^Zdlhju _^hfhkl_c fh]eb ihemqZlv aZf_qZgby
bgZklZ\e_gbyhlp_gamjgh]h_^hfklZ, gZjZ\g_kba^Zl_eyfbbj_^Zdlh-
jZfb qZklguo ba^Zgbc, _keb ]Za_lZ \uoh^beZ aZ jZfdb ijh]jZffu
bgZjmrZeZ p_gamjguc mklZ\, gh ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb jZa\b\Zebkv
\hkh[uo mkeh\byo – ijb aZdhgh^Zl_evgh h[mkeh\e_gghf kms_kl\h\Zgbb
Fbgbkl_jkl\h \gmlj_ggbo ^_e g_ fh]eh ijbhklZgh\blv beb aZij_lblv
\_^hfhklb, bf_y \hafh`ghklv lhevdh Z^fbgbkljZlbgh]h \ebygby gZ
j_^ZdlhjZ, \iehlv ^h _]h aZf_gu. Ijb [x^`_lghf nbgZgkbjh\Zgbb g_
[ue ^ey _^hfhkl_c, dZd ^ey qZklgh]h ba^Zgby, lZd `bag_ggh \Z`_g h-
ijhk lbjZ`Z. Ij_^eh`_gb_ h i_j_^Zq_ ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc (h[j_f_-
g_gguo h[yaZl_evgufb aZdZaZfb) b ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c (bkiuluZ\-
rbo ojhgbq_kdbc djbabk g_ieZl_`_c kh klhjhgu h[yaZl_evguo
ih^ibkqbdh\) qZklgu_jmdbg_fh]ehgZclbih^^_j`db. Khfgbl_evguf
wlh [ueh b k lhqdb aj_gby ]hkm^Zjkl_gghc ihevau – _keb kfhljbl_ev
lbih]jZnbb, hg `_ gZqZevgbd ]Za_lgh]h klheZ, oh^be \ kbkl_fm ]m[_jg-
kdh]h mijZ\e_gby, [ue ebphf aZ\bkbfuf b ih^dhgljhevguf, g_ bf_x-
sbfijZ\ZhldZaZlvukued_\_^hfhkl_cbim[ebdZpbbgZqZevkl_gguo
jZkihjy`_gbc, g_kfhljygZbf_xsb_ky^he]b, lhjZkkqblu\ZlvgZlh, qlh
qZklgh_ebph[m^_lihklhygghoh^blvaZljm^gbl_evgu_fZl_jbZevgu_
iheh`_gby qbghgbdh\, g_ ijboh^behkv. LZdhc juqZ] g_wdhghfbq_kdh-
]h\ha^_ckl\by, dZdaukdZgb_ihkem`[_, hdZau\Zekyg_^_ckl\bl_evguf.
JZaghh[jZab_ b kl_i_gvjZajZ[hlZgghklb «hlghkysboky ^h f_kl-
ghklb k_^_gbc», hlghr_gb_ d ]Za_l_ ]m[_jgkdhc eZklb, ebqghklv
j_^ZdlhjZ, Zdlb\ghklv ijhbgpbZevghc h[jZahZgghc h[s_kl_ggh-
klb ijbh^beb d lhfm, qlh g_hnbpbZevgu_ qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhkl_c hi_j_`Zeb xjb^bq_kdb_ jZfdb k\h_c ijh]jZ ffu, \ dhlhju_
k aZ\b^guf ihklhygkl\hf \ 60–70-_ ]]. iulZebkv __ \_jgmlv pbjdm-
eyju =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb. Ke_^m_l lZd`_ hlf_-
lblv, qlhbkZfZwlZijh]jZffZ, kh^_j`ZsZyjZaghh[jZagu_bh[sb_
imgdlu, fh]eZ ljZdlhZlvky jZkrbjbl_evgh b aZ^ZZeZ ^hhevgh
ih^b`gu_ ]jZgbpu ^ey gZiheg_gby. Ihemqb\ «u]hhj ba I_l_j-
[mj]Z», ]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklbghvhajZsZebkvij_`gb_ij_^_-
eu, gh dZd lhevdh bgpb^_gl aZ[u\Zeky, Z eZklv f_gyeZkv, ihyey-
eZkv hafh`ghklv, qlh gZau\Z_lky, aZf_kblv ghh_ l_klh, dhlhjhfm
klZghbehkvl_kgh\aZdhgh^Zl_evghhij_^_e_gghc «dZ^d_»144
.144
LZd, gZijbf_j, \ 1871 ]. «KZjZlhkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb» aZklZlvxh «g_fp_,
gZ^mr_f jmkkdh]h» ebrbebkv k\h_]h j_^ZdlhjZ <brg_\kdh]h b hl im[ebdZpbb f_klghc

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
1492.3. IJH?DLUJ?NHJFU
IJ:<BL?EVKL<?GGHCI?Q:LB< 1901–1916 ]].
< gZqZe_ XX \. ]m[_jgkdb_ b h[eZklgu_ _^hfhklb dZd kh-
klZgu_ qZklb kbkl_fu ijZbl_evkl\_gghc i_jbh^bdb ghv h[-
jZlbebgZ k_[ygbfZgb_ eZkl_c. < ygZj_ 1901 ]. ijb =eZghf
mijZe_gbb ih ^_eZf i_qZlb, ha]eZey_fhf dgya_f G<. RZoh-
kdbf, [ueZ kha^ZgZ «Dhfbkkby ^ey i_j_kfhljZ ^_ckl\mxsbo
ijZbe h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c» ih^
ij_^k_^Zl_evkl\hf ]eZgh]h j_^ZdlhjZ «IjZbl_evkl\_ggh]h
_klgbdZ», ihwlZ b ibkZl_ey DD. Kemq_\kdh]h. Hkghgh_ gZagZ-
q_gb_ «Dhfbkkbb» – h[ghe_gb_ ijh]jZffu _^hfhkl_c  khhl-
_lklbb k ghufb h[s_kl\_gghiheblbq_kdbfb mkehbyfb,
ijb_^_gb_ bod _^bghh[jZabxb mklZghe_gb_ bgnhjfZpbhggh-
]h aZbfh^_cklby dZd f_`^m \_^hfhklyfb, lZd b k «IjZbl_ev-
kl\_gguf _klgbdhf» dZd ]hehguf hj]Zghf145
. >ey hagZdhfe_-
gby k iheh`_gb_f gZ f_klZo k 9 ih 19 Zij_ey 1901 ].  klhebp_
[ue ijh_^_g kt_a^ j_^Zdlhjh ijhbgpbZevguo ijZbl_evkl-
\_gguo ]Za_l. Ijb[ueh 16 q_eh\_d – ba<bl_[kdZ, =jh^gh, DZem]b,
?dZl_jbgh^ZjZ, Gb`g_]h Gh]hjh^Z, Hehg_pdZ, I_jfb, YjhkeZey,
IhelZu, LZf[hZ, Lmeu, OZjvdhZ, Fh]be_Z, FblZ\u, <eZ^bdZdZ-
aZ, LZrd_glZ. AZhqgh (\ \b^_ ibk_f \ «Dhfbkkbx») [ueb ij_^klZ\-
e_gu «KZjZlhkdb_», «?dZl_jbghkeZkdb_» b «<ylkdb_» ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb. >_e_]Zlh hl Kb[bjb g_ [ueh, ZabZlkdmx qZklv Jhkkbbdhjj_kihg^_gpbb, n_ev_lhgh b j_p_gabc hajZlbebkv ghv d h[tye_gbyf, gh
k 1879 ]., dh]^Z j_^Zdlhjhf klZe ij_^k_^Zl_ev klZlbklbq_kdh]h dhfbl_lZ :B. Khdh-
eh\, gZkljZgbpZo]Za_luklZebihf_sZlvkyklZlvbihbklhjbb, Zjo_heh]bbbwlgh]jZ-
nbb, Z\ 1888 ]. kZjZlhkdbc ]m[_jgZlhj :B. Dhkbq ihklZbe i_j_^ ghuf j_^Zdlh-
jhf GN. OhZgkdbf aZ^Zqm k^_eZlv «KZjZlh\kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» ba^Zgb_f
^ey gZjh^gh]h ql_gby (Kdjbibpug <:. «KZjZlhkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb». QZklv
g_hnbpbZevgZy. 1838–1894 ]]. KZjZlh\, 1895. K. 6–9); :gZeh]bqguc ijbf_j gZoh^bf
 hlghr_gbb «Dm[Zgkdbo h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c», gZ kljZgbpZo dhlhjuo \ 1881 ].
gZqZevgbd Dm[Zgkdhc h[eZklb GG. DZjfZebg (dZd \ 1858 ]. GG. FmjZv_  Bjdml-
kd_) ijbaZek_o`_eZxsbo «h[ebqZlvk_l_fgh_, bamqZlvbihmqZlv». <j_amevlZl_
\ 1883 ]. j_^Zdlhj «Dm[Zgkdboh[eZklguo_^hfhkl_c» ?>. N_ebpbgj_r_gb_f km^Z
[ueijb]hhj_gdrljZnmih h[bg_gbx^bnnZfZpbbaZihf_s_ggu_]Za_l_dhj-
j_kihg^_gpbb. Ihke_ q_]h dm[ZgkdZy hnbpbZevgZy ]Za_lZ «agZqbl_evgh dZdlh ih-
[e_deZ», ghk 1889 ]. __ijh]jZffZghvklZeZjZkrbjylvky, Zk 1893 ]. hgZklmibeZ
\ «i_jbh^ ij_h[jZah\Zgbc beb `b\h]h keh\Z», ijh^he`Z\rbcky ^h 1902 ]. (=hjh^_p-
dbc ;F.Ih ihh^m 50-e_lby ba^Zgby «Dm[Zgkdbo h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c» (1863–
1913): ;b[ebh]jZnbq_kdbc gZ[jhkhd // Dm[Zgkdbc k[hjgbd gZ 1914 ]. ?dZl_jbgh^Zj,
1914. <ui. 19. K. 631–644).
145
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 1–4.

=eZ\Z 2
150ij_^klZeyeb lhevdh «Lmjd_klZgkdb_ \_^hfhklb», uoh^brb_
ih^j_^Zdlhjkl\hfdZiblZgZK:. =_ii_g_jZ146
.
Ijh]jZffu 73 ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo \_^hfhkl_c [ueb k\_^_-
guihfhsgbdhfijZbl_ey^_e=eZgh]h mijZe_gbyih^_eZfi_qZ-
lb G:. :]Zihuf  lZ[ebpm b ^_fhgkljbjhZeb kh\_jr_ggh_ jZa-
ghh[jZab_ ih kh^_j`Zgbx, ih^ibkghc p_g_ b i_jbh^bqghklb.
R_klgZ^pZlvba^Zgbc \uoh^beb _`_^g_gh, hl ^\mo ^h q_luj_o jZa
\ g_^_ex – 43, _`_g_^_evgh – 14. ;he__ ukhdbc mjh_gv i_jbh^bq-
ghklb, ih aZf_qZgbx KB. =hev^nZj[Z, k\b^_l_evklh\Ze h lhf, qlh
]Za_lZ «bf_eZg_iehoh_wdhghfbq_kdh_iheh`_gb_bfh]eZi_qZlZlvky
\lZdhfgZijy`_gghfj_`bf_, h[eZ^ZeZ^hklZlhqgufkhklZ\hfj_^Zd-
pbhgguo jZ[hlgbdh\»147
. Ih^ibkgZy p_gZ dhe_[ZeZkv hl 2 (g_hnbpb-
ZevgZy qZklv «KZjZlh\kdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c») ^h 10 jm[.
(«OZjvdh\kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb»). Ih kh^_j`Zgbx hnbpbZev-
gu_ ]Za_lu jZa^_eyebkvgZ ljb ]jmiiu – «gbq_fg_ hlebqZ_fu_ dZd
ih nhjfZlm, lZd b ih kh^_j`Zgbx hl qZklguo ba^Zgbc» («OZjvdh\-
kdb_», «I_jfkdb_» b «<bl_[kdb_» ]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb); ki_pbZeb-
abjhZggu_dZd «gZjh^gZy]Za_lZ» («KZjZlhkdb_») bebdZdk_evkdh-
ohayckl_ggZy («<ylkdb_») b, gZdhg_p, kljh]h ijb^_j`bZxsb_ky
mklZghe_gghcaZdhghfijh]jZffu148
.
MqZklgbdZf kt_a^Z [ueh ij_^eh`_gh hl_lblv gZ 29 hijhkh\
hlghkbl_evghl_dms_]hiheh`_gby_j_gguobf]Za_l. <j_amevlZl_
\uykgbehkv, qlh\[hevr_cqZklb\_^hfhkl_c[ueh^\Zj_^ZdlhjZ –
h^bg ^ey hnbpbZevghc, ^jm]hc ^ey g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb. J_^Zdlhj
hnbpbZevghcqZklb, khrlZlgufhdeZ^hf 750 jm[., [ueh^ghj_f_g-
ghgZqZevgbdhf]Za_lgh]hklheZ, Zbgh]^Zbkfhljbl_e_f]m[_jgkdhc
lbih]jZnbb. J_^Zdlhju g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb, dZd ijZbeh, jZ[hlZ-
eb  h^bghqdm b gZoh^bebkv \ «bkdexqbl_evgh ohjhrbo mkehbyo»
ebrv  <bl_[kd_, I_jfb, LZf[h_ b OZjvdh_. >hklZlhqgh_ \hagZ-
]jZ`^_gb_ ihemqZeb j_^Zdlhju g_hnbpbZevguo qZkl_c «Dm[Zg-
kdbo», «L_jkdbo» b «Lmjd_klZgkdbo» _^hfhkl_c. J_^Zdlhj «Ex[-
ebgkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» hk_ gbq_]h g_ ihemqZe aZ khc
ljm^, Z «:joZg]_evkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» – 25 jm[. f_kypaZ
j_^ZdlbjhZgb_, dhjj_dlbjhZgb_bgZ]hghjZjkhljm^gbdZf. HieZlZ
dhjj_kihg^_glZf kms_kl\h\ZeZ \ «I_jfkdbo», «<bl_[kdbo», «Ihe-146
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 136–136h[.; N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 5–6, 19–
19h[., 20, 21, 52.
147
=hev^nZj[ KB. =Za_lgh_ ^_eh  Kb[bjb. I_jZy ihehbgZ XIX – gZqZeh XX \.
Bjdmlkd, 2002. K. 220.
148
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 62, 65.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
151lZ\kdbo», «Hehg_pdbo», b «Lmevkdbo» \_^hfhklyo. GZ \hijhk h lhf,
bf__lky eb hafh`ghklv ijbe_q_gby f_klguo ebl_jZlmjguo kbe,
[hevrbgklh uaZgguo j_^Zdlhjh hl_qZeb, qlh bo «ihqlb _a^_
^hklZlhqghbqlhk_^_ehfZl_jbZevguokj_^klZo»149
.
<bp_]m[_jgZlhj O_jkhgkdhc ]m[_jgbb <I. Mjmkh ij_^eh`be
ba^ZZlv \_^hfhklb g_ f_g__ lj_o jZa \ g_^_ex, ihkdhevdm wlh m_-
ebqbl dhebq_klh h[tye_gbc b k^_eZ_l bo im[ebdZpbx [he__ hi_-
jZlbghc ^ey aZbgl_j_khZgguo ebp. Djhf_ lh]h, hg ij_^eZ]Ze h[y-
aZlv k_ dhff_jq_kdb_ hj]ZgbaZpbb, gZoh^ysb_ky  ^Zgghc
]m[_jgbb, im[ebdhZlv khb hlq_lu b [ZeZgku lhevdh  ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhklyo, Z g_  qZklguoba^Zgbyo150
. <wlhf hlghr_gbb «Dhfbk-
kby» ijbgyeZj_r_gb_khf_klghk «IjZbl_evkl_gguf_klgbdhf»
 dhlhjhf lZd`_ hdheh 1/3 mqj_`^_gbc g_ i_qZlZeb khbo h[yaZ-
l_evguo h[ty\e_gbc) ih^]hlh\blv kibkhd «mdehgyxsboky» dhff_j-
q_kdbokljmdlmj.
J_^Zdlhj g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «:joZg]_evkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _-
^hfhkl_c» :<. BZghkdbc, Zll_klhZrbc k_[y dZd «]Za_lguc ljm-
`_gbd k ^Ze_dh]h K__jZ», gZ hkghZgbb kibkdZ ijbqbg, g_ ihah-
eyrbo\u_klbjmdhh^bfh_bfba^Zgb_ «gZgZ^e_`Zsmx\ukhlm»,
ij_^eZ]Ze ke_^mxs__: ijb^Zlv _^hfhklyf ihk_f_klgh _`_^g_\-
guc oZjZdl_j; i_qZlZlv g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb g_ lhevdh jmdhh^y-
sb_ klZlvb ih f_klguf hijhkZf, gh b h[s_]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h oZ-
jZdl_jZ151
,  khhl_lklbb k iheh`_gbyfb l_hjbb hnbpbZevghc
gZjh^ghklb152
; ij_^hklZblv j_^Zdlhjm b dhjj_kihg^_glZf hafh`-149
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 63–64.
150
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 51–52h[.
151
«H^bgf_klgucwe_f_glm`_g_khklhygbbm^he_lhjblvkhj_f_ggh]hqblZl_ey
]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, b ijbf_j emqrbo ba gbo ihdZauZ_l (lZdh\u _^hfhklb “OZjv-
dhkdb_”, “I_jfkdb_”, “<bl_[kdb_”, “?gbk_ckdb_”, [urb_ “Ih^hevkdb_”, “Bjdmlkdb_”,
[urb_ “YjhkeZkdb_”, “IhelZkdb_”, “;_kkZjZ[kdb_”, “<ylkdb_”, “=jh^g_gkdb_”, “Dm-
[Zgkdb_”, “KZjZlhkdb_”, “Gb`_]hjh^kdb_”, “Lmevkdb_”, “Hehg_pdb_”, “DZem`kdb_”,
L\_jkdb _”, “;Zdbg kdb _”, “Fh]be_\ kdb_” b  ^j.), q _f ^ he`gu [ulv ] m[ _jg kdb _ \ _^hf hklb,
Z bf_ggh: hijylghc, ohjhr_c ]Za_lhc, kh[h^ghc hl madhc iZjlbcghklb bl_g^_gpbb-
haghklb, khckl_gghc qZklguf ba^Zgbyf,  dhlhjhc hlh^behkv [u ^hklZlhqgh f_klZ ^ey
kem`_gby gZkmsguf bgl_j_kZf b ^ey uykg_gby f_klguo gm`^ b iheva, gh hlgx^v g_ bk-
dexqbl_evghf_klghc]Za_lhc» (J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 60).
152
«…`_eZl_evgh, qlh[u ]Za_lZ h k_o hlghr_gbyo kem`beZ _jguf b hafh`gh
iheguf hljZ`_gb_f b bklhedhZl_e_f `bagb f_klghc, hl_q_kl_gghc b aZ]jZgbqghc,
ijb^_j`bZykv gZijZ\e_gby, mkh_ggh]h “IjZbl_evkl_gguf _klgbdhf” b emqrbfb ba
]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c ^jm]bo ]m[_jgbc b bf_y ^_bahf ihegmx ij_^Zgghklv hkghguf
gZqZeZf, gZdhlhjuoab`^_lkyfh]ms_klh, _ebqb_bkeZZJhkkbb, bf_gghIjZhkeZbx,
KZfh^_j`Zbx b Jmkkdhc KZfh[ulghklb, g_ jZ[kdb ij_dehgyxs_cky ij_^ \k_f bgha_f-

=eZ\Z 2
152ghklv djblbdhZlv ^_yl_evghklv f_klguo eZkl_c153
; hk\h[h^blv ]m-
[_jgkdb_ lbih]jZnbb k h[hjhlhff_g__ 25 luk. jm[. hl k[hjh b gZ-
eh]h b uieZqbZlv bf ]hkm^Zjkl_ggu_ km[kb^bb aZ [_kieZlgu_
lbih]jZnkdb_ jZ[hlu; m_ebqblv hagZ]jZ`^_gb_ j_^Zdlhjm g_hnb-
pbZevghc qZklb aZ kq_l 15–20 % hlqbke_gbc hl ih^ibkghc ieZlu
b 15 % hl ieZlu aZ h[tye_gby; ij_^hklZblv j_^Zdlhjm g_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb ijZ\Z ]hkm^Zjkl_gghc kem`[u; ij_^mkfhlj_lv ]hgh-
jZj f_klguf dhjj_kihg^_glZf (fbgbfmf ih 1 dhi. aZ kljhqdm);
kfy]qblv iheh`_gby aZdhgZ h ebl_jZlmjghc kh[kl\_gghklb, l_. jZk-
rbjblv hafh`ghklb i_j_i_qZlhd klZl_c ba g_hnbpbZevguo qZkl_c
^jm]bo _^hfhkl_c; h[jZsZlvky gZijyfmx  =eZgh_ mijZe_gb_ ih
^_eZf i_qZlb k jmdhibkyfb, g_ ijhims_ggufb f_klghc p_gamjhc;
\haeh`blv hl_lkl\_gghklv aZ klZlvb \ g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb gZ j_-
^ZdlhjZ, Z g_ gZ p_gahjZ, qlh[u ihke_^gbc g_ fh] bf_lv ijZZ gZ
baf_g_gb_bokh^_j`Zgby; ij_^hklZblvj_^ZdpbbijZh[_kieZlghc
i_j_kuedb ihqlhhc dhjj_kihg^_gpbb b [_kieZlgh]h ihemq_gby
IjZbl_evkl_ggh]h _klgbdZ»; k^_eZlv hafh`guf uimkd g_dh-
lhjuo ghf_jh ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c k beexkljZpbyfb, ieZgZfb
bdZjlZfb154
.
Gbq_]h dhgdj_lgh g_ ij_^eZ]Zy, gh k ijhkljZgguf b ijhgbdgh-
_gguf ibkvfhf «DZd ih]b[eb “?dZl_jbghkeZkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _-
^hfhklb”», h[jZlbeky d «Dhfbkkbb» bo j_^Zdlhj I. Kheyguc (X`-
guc). Ba wlh]h l_dklZ magZ_f, qlh  ?dZl_jbghkeZe_ k ihye_gb_f
qZklguoba^Zgbc\ 80-o]]. ]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklbm`_ «g_fh]eb, dZd
ij_`^_, aZfudZlvky  madb_ jZfdb f_jl_gghc dZa_gsbgu b, ihkl_-
i_ggh hk\ h[h`^Zykv hl hdh\ jmlbgu bkdexqbl_evgh nhjfZevgh]h
hlghr_gby d ^_em [urbo dZgp_eyjbklh\, lhqgh  gZkf_rdm h[au-
Z_fuo “j_^ZdlhjZfb”, ij_jZlbebkv, gZdhg_p, ba qZoeuo “_^hfh-
kl_c”  ^hhevgh h[klhyl_evgmx k jZaghoZjZdl_jguf kh^_j`Zgb_f
[hcdmx “]Za_lm”». L_f g_ f_g__ «?dZl_jbghkeZkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb» g_kfh]ebu^_j`Zlvdhgdmj_gpbbkqZklgufb]Za_lZfb
bdgZqZem\_dZ «ih]b[eb»155
.guf, Z khagZl_evgh u[bjZxs_c ebrv h^gh ohjhr__, ihe_agh_ b  gZmqghf kfuke_ [_k-
kihjgh_» (J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 62).
153
«…kh]eZkgh k b^Zfb IjZbl_evklZ, ^ey mdj_ie_gby  gZjh^_ ^h[jhkh\_klghklb
b ijZhkhagZgby ij_^hklZblv ]m[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf [he__ k\h[h^u  [hjv[_ k obsgb-
q_klhf b g_ijZ^hc kydh]h jh^Z,  bkdhj_g_gbb aehmihlj_[e_gbc,  h[ebq_gbb
bjZkdjulbb \k_hafh`guo ya b g_^m]h l_dms_c ^_cklbl_evghklb» (J=B:. N. 785.
Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 62h[.).
154
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 55–63h[.
155
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 94–106.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
153K lhqdb aj_gby hdmiZ_fhklb ba^Zgby k_ mqZklgbdb kt_a^Z m^hklh-
_jbebnZdl, qlh wlh ^_eh «gbdh]^Z g_ ^Z_l m[uldZ», ghijb[uev dhe_-
[ZeZkvaZbkbfhklbhlih^ibkdb, dhebq_klZh[tye_gbcbjhagbqghc
ijh^Z`b. GZb[hevr__ qbkeh ih^ibkqbdh [ueh m «I_jfkdbo»
(1 507 h[yaZl_evguo b 3 090 g_h[yaZl_evguo) b «OZjvdhkdbo ]m[_jg-
kdbo _^hfhkl_c» (500 h[yaZl_evguo b 3 800 g_h[yaZl_evguo). Jhagbq-
gZy ijh^Z`Z [ueZ agZqbl_evgZ m l_o ba^Zgbc, dhlhjuf [ue jZaj_-
r_g uoh^ ih jZkrbj_gghc ijh]jZff_. GZb[hevrbc ^hoh^ hl
h[tye_gbc ihemqbeb \ 1900 ]. «OZjvdhkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfh-
klb» – 27 luk. jm[., «I_jfkdb_» – 20 luk. jm[., «IhelZkdb_» –
15 luk. jm[. b «<bl_[kdb_» – 12 luk. jm[. H^gZdh  [hevrbgkl_
kemqZ_\ (10 ba 16) ^hoh^u hl ba^Zgby ]Za_lub qZklguoaZdZah reb
g_gZmemqr_gb_ba^ZgbybjZablb_lbih]jZnbb, ZgZihkh[bybgZ-
]jZ^u qbgh\gbdZf ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby. ?^bgh]eZkgh [ueh hlf_-
q_gh, qlh ]m[_jgkdb_ ijZe_gby «hdZauZxl ly]hklgh_ dZd gjZkl-
_ggh_, lZd b fZl_jbZevgh_ ebygb_ gZ jZa\blb_ g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb\_^hfhkl_c».
Ijb h[km`^_gbb `_eZl_evguo baf_g_gbc  ijh]jZff_ _^hfh-
kl_c «Dhfbkkby» _^bgh]eZkgh ukdZaZeZkv aZ h^gh]h j_^ZdlhjZ dZd
hnbpbZevghc, lZd b g_hnbpbZevghc qZkl_c k `ZehZgv_f hl 300 ^h
1 200 jm[.  ]h^ b ihfhsgbdhf, ihemqZxsbf hl 600 ^h 1 500 jm[.
wlhf kemqZ_ ^he`ghklv gZqZevgbdZ ]Za_lgh]h klheZ mijZa^gyeZkv
aZ g_gZ^h[ghklvx). J_^Zdlhj ^he`_g [uegZoh^blvky  ijyfhfih^-
qbg_gbb m ]m[_jgZlhjZ b gZagZqZlvky bf k m_^hfe_gby =eZgh]h
mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb. LZd`_ [ueh ijbagZgh `_eZl_evguf
oh^ZlZckl\h\Zlv h \hafh`gh [ukljhf khh[s_gbb  \_^hfhklyo ba-
_klbc hl ij_^klZbl_e_c f_klghc Z^fbgbkljZpbb h l_dmsbo kh[u-
lbyobo\_^hfklZo».
Hj]ZgbaZpbhggh b nbgZgkhh _^hfhklb ^he`gu [ueb [ulv hl-
^_e_gu hl ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb,  _^_gbb dhlhjhc hklZZebkv
lhevdhbkiheg_gb_aZdZaZgZgZ[hjblbjZ`bjhZgb_. FbgbfZevguc
[x^`_l ba^Zgby gZ hkghZgbb kh[kl_gguo ^hoh^h hp_gbZeky
\ 20 luk. jm[., [_a hlimkdZ dZdboeb[h kmff ba ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h
dZagZq_ckl\Z. Ij_^mkfZljbZehkv ba^Zgb_ h[_bo qZkl_c _^hfhkl_c
– hnbpbZevghc b g_hnbpbZevghc – khf_klgh gZ h^ghf ebkl_, k i_-
jbh^bqghklvx 6 jZa  g_^_ex. Hkh[h_ fg_gb_ gZwlhl kq_l ukdZaZe
j_^Zdlhj g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «KZjZlhkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_c» <:. Kdjbibpug, dhlhjuckh_fibkvf_mdZaZe, qlhg_h[yaZ-
l_evgu_ih^ibkqbdbwlhfkemqZ_fh]mlij_^ihq_klvqZklgmx]Za_-

=eZ\Z 2
154lm, k\h[h^gmx hl ebrg_]h hnbpbZevgh]h «[ZeeZklZ». J_^Zdlhj
Lmjd_klZgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» K:. =_ii_g_j b^m g_^hklZldZ
kj_^kl\ gZ hieZlm Zlhjkdbo fZl_jbZeh ijbaZe «g_ nhjkbjhZlv,
hij_dbf_klgufmkehbyf, ]Za_lm, ugm`^Zy__uoh^blv_`_^g_\-
gh, Zij_^hklZ\blvhijhkhkjhd_uoh^Zj_r_gbxgZf_kl_»156
.
JZaghh[jZagu_ fg_gby [ueb \ukdZaZgu \ hlghr_gbb imgdlh\
hkh^_j`Zgbb g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, dhlh-
ju_^he`gu[ueb[ulviheh`_gu hkgh\m^eybaf_g_gbyijh]jZf-
fu \k_o hnbpbZevguo ba^Zgbc. >bkdmkkbx \ua\Ze \hijhk, qlh
^he`gu khh[sZlv _^hfhklb – hp_gdm kh[ulbc b, agZqbl, ebqgu_
a]ey^uj_^ZdlhjZbebbkdexqbl_evghnZdlu? >he`gZeb]Za_lZhk-
_sZlv bkdexqbl_evgh f_klgu_ hijhku beb dZkZlvky b h[s_]hkm-
^Zjkl_gguo?
G:. Ha_jh\, j_^Zdlhj g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb «<ylkdbo ]m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhkl_c», \ ibkvf_ d DD. Kemq_\kdhfm ij_^eZ]Ze ij_`^_
\k_]h hk_sZlv g_ h[sb_ \hijhku, gZoh^ysb_ky \ _^_gbb klhebq-
ghc ij_kku, Z jZab\Zlv hl^_eu f_klghc ojhgbdb b dhjj_kihg^_g-
pbc, «qlh[u ^Zlv _jgh_ hibkZgb_ `bagb k_o m]hedh ]m[_jgbb».
J_^Zdpby ]Za_lu ^he`gZ [ulv jZkrbj_gZ ^h 5–6 q_eh_d, «lh]^Z
lhevdh \hafh`gh [m^_l jZah[jZlvky \h \k_f fZl_jbZe_, u[jZlv
bgl_j_kgh_ ^ey i_qZlb b ^Zlv  dZ`^hf ghf_j_ g_kdhevdh kZfh-
klhyl_evguo klZl_c b aZf_lhd». >ey ihklZghdb ^_eZ gZ gh\uo
hkghZgbyohafh`gZ[ueZk^ZqZ]Za_lu\Zj_g^mqZklgufebpZf.
<dZq_kl\_^hdZaZl_evklZlh]h, qlh, g_kfhljygZh[beb_^_r_uo
qZklguo ba^Zgbc, ihlj_[ghklv \ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo kms_kl-
m_l, Ha_jh ijbh^be nZdl, klZ\rbc hafh`guf [eZ]h^Zjy _]h
kh[kl_gghc ^_yl_evghklb: m_ebq_gb_ ieZlguo ih^ibkqbdh ]Z-
a_luk 32 ^h 1 500157
.
<hijhk h[ mkbe_gbb q_j_a ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb hij_^_e_gghc
h[s_]hkm^Zjkl_gghc ijZbl_evkl_gghc ebgbb hkljh hsmsZeky
k__jhaZiZ^guo]m[_jgbyo. Ihfg_gbx]jh^g_gkdh]h]m[_jgZlhjZ
GI. MjmkhZ,  p_eyo dhgljijhiZ]Zg^u b^_yf ihevkdh]h gZpbhgZ-
ebafZ _^hfhklb ^he`gu ij_^klZeylv jmkkdb_ bgl_j_ku, gmrZlv
fukebhij_hkoh^kl_ijZhkeZgh]h_jhbkih_^Zgbybij_^Zggh-
klb kZfh^_j`Zbx158
. < aZibkd_ MjmkhZ aZljhgml [ue b _j_ckdbc156
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 65–71h[.; N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 55. 1901. E. 190.
157
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 109–112.
158
«…g_hnbpbZevguc hl^_e ]Za_lu ^he`_g [ulv jZkrbj_g ij_^hklZe_gb_f ijZZ
ihf_sZlv  g_f kZfhklhyl_evgu_ jmdh\h^ysb_ b ^jm]b_ klZlvb khhl_lklmxs_]h b^Zf
IjZbl_evklZ gZijZe_gby, qlh hkh[_ggh Z`gh b^m ijhiZ]Zg^u, ih^^_j`bZ_fhc

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
155hijhk – q_j_a_^hfhklbg_h[oh^bfh[uehijhh^blvb^_bmkljhc-
klZ kkm^ghk[_j_]Zl_evguo dZkk b ihlj_[bl_evkdbo dhhi_jZlbh\
^ey ijhlbh^_cklby «aZo\Zlm _\j_yfb» f_klghc ijhfure_gghklb
blhj]h\eb159
.
< j_amevlZl_ im[ebdZpby  _^hfhklyo «klZl_c h[s_]h oZjZdl_-
jZ» [ueZ ijbagZgZ g_h[oh^bfhc, gh ij_bfms_klh hl^ZZehkv k_
`_ f_klguf \hijhkZf. Ijb wlhf ih^q_jdb\Zehkv, qlh ijb hk\ _s_-
gbb b l_o b ^jm]bo ke_^m_l jmdhh^kl\hZlvky «kljh]h ijh_j_ggu-
fb^Zggufb». Ijb gZebqbb qZklguo]Za_l, bf_xsbo hij_^_e_ggmx
iZjlbcgmx» hdjZkdm, hp_gdb, ^ZZ_fu_ q_j_a ijZbl_evkl_gguc
hj]Zg kh[ulbyf f_klghc `bagb, fh]eb ihgbfZlvky qblZl_e_f dZd
[_kijbkljZklgu_ b h[t_dlbgu_, «klhysb_ g_ kydbo iZjlbcguo
bgl_j_kh\». < lh `_ j_fy [ueh ijbagZgh g_h[oh^bfuf hklZblv
g_rg_iheblbq_kdbc hl^_e lhevdh  b^_ nZdlbq_kdbo h[haj_gbc,
[_aebqguojZkkm`^_gbcZlhjZbebj_^ZdlhjZ.
Ijb h[km`^_gbb lZdh]h g_ijhklh]h \hi jhkZ, dZd «khhl\_lkl\m_l
eb oZjZdl_jm \_^hfhkl_c djblbq_kdh_ hlghr_gb_ d ijZ\bl_evkl\_g-
guf b Z^fbgbkljZlbguf f_jhijbylbyf b jZkihjy`_gbyf», [hev-
rbgklh fg_gbc kdehgbehkv d ^hims_gbx lZdh]h h[km`^_gby, «gh
lhg_ ihqlbl_evghfb ^jm`_ex[ghf». «Dhfbkkb_c» [ueZ^Z`_ u-
jZ[hlZgZ nhjfmebjh\dZ, dhl hjZy fh]eZ \hclb \ gh\h_ aZdhghiheh-
`_gb_ h ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo: «< ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo fh]ml
[ulv h[km`^Z_fu ijZ\bl_evkl_ggu_ b Z^fbgbkljZlb\gu_ f_jh-
ijbylby, gh hlgx^vg_  hljbpZl_evghfkfuke_». Koh`Zy nhjfmeb-
jhdZ, g_ mfZeyxsZy agZq_gbybebygby _^hfhkl_c, [ueZ ijbgylZ
b  hlghr_gbb ihe_fbdb k qZklgufb i_qZlgufb hj]ZgZfb: «Ihe_-
fbdZ \ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo ^hi mkdZ_lky lhevdh i h \hijhkZf f_-
klguf beb ^ey hkklZghe_gby nZdlbq_kdhc klhjhgu hijhkZ, gh
hlgx^v g_ ih hijhkZf ebqguf b g_ij_f_ggh  kihdhcghf lhg_».
Kh_jr_ggh g_ijb]h^gufb `ZgjZfb ^ey hl_lZ hafh`guf hiih-
g_glZf [ueb ijbagZgu rZj`, iZfne_l b kZlbjZ. >jm]b_ kZfhh]jZ-
gbq_gby \ ijh]jZff_ dZkZebkv [_ee_ljbklbq_kdbo ijhba_^_gbc.
Hgbfh]ebim[ebdhZlvkylhevdh\lhfkemqZ_, _kebhgbg_gZijZey-
ebkv gZ hkdhj[e_gb_ j_eb]bhaguo qm\kl\, g_ ihky]Zeb gZ «^h[jmx
gjZkl_gghklv» beb g_ ih^juZeb mZ`_gb_ d aZdhgm, ]hkm^Zjkl\_g-AZiZ^ghfdjZ_, ihkj_^kl\hfjZkijhkljZg_gbygZjh^_m[_`^_gbc, j_^guobgl_j_kZo
jmkkdh]h ^ _eZ. < gb o, f_`^m ijhqbf, ijh\ h^blky fukev, qlh ]m[ _jgbb wlh]h djZy b kdhgb
khklZeyeb qZklv [u\r_c <_ebdhc Ihevrb, qlh  [ueh_ \j_fy gZk_e_gb_ djZy bkih_^h-
ZehdZlhebpbaf…» (J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 104h[.–105).
159
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 354. E. 104–105h[.

=eZ\Z 2
156ghfm ihjy^dm b eZklyf. Km^_[gZy ojhgbdZ ijbh^beZkv [_a h[km`^_-
gbykm^_[guoj_r_gbcb[_ahlq_lh\ «hibdZglguoijhp_kkZo».
Ihjy^hd p_gamjgh]h ijhkfhljZ \_^hfhkl_c ^he`_g [ue khhl\_lkl-
hZlv «ukhqZcr_fm ih\_e_gbx» 1881 ]., hk\h[h`^Zr_fm bo hl
ij_^Zjbl_evghc p_gamju dZd ba^Zgby ijZbl_evkl\_ggu_. <lh `_
j_fyihke_^hZrbcwlhf`_]h^mpbjdmeyj=eZgh]hmijZe_gbyih
^_eZf i_qZlb ij_^mkfZljbZe «g_ihkj_^kl_ggh_ gZ[ex^_gb_» aZ kh-
^_j`Zgb_f g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb kh klhjhgu gZqZevgbdh ]m[_jgbc,
qlh^Z\ZehbfhkghZgb_lj_[hZlv]Za_lmdk_[_gZp_gamjm. Ihkdhevdm,
ih fg_gbx «Dhfbkkbb», j_^ZdlhjZfb _^hfhkl_c yeyxlky ebpZ, «h[-
e_q_ggu_ ebqguf ^h\_jb_f ]m[_jgZlhjZ b ihemqZxsb_ g_ihkj_^kl-
_ggh hl g_]h mdZaZgby», lh ijbhjbl_lguf yey_lky mdZa 1881 ]., Z g_
jZatykg_gb_=eZgh]hmijZe_gbyih^_eZfi_qZlb160
.
>_yl_evghklv «Dhfbkkbb ^ey i_j_kfhljZ ^_ckl\mxsbo ijZ\be
h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c» 1901 ]. rbjhdh
hk_sZeZkv gZ kljZgbpZo klhebqguo b ijhbgpbZevguo ]Za_l. Fg_-
gbyjZa^_ebebkvijZdlbq_kdbihjhgm: \ 16 im[ebdZpbyoZlhjuu-
kdZauZeb djblbq_kdb_ km`^_gby hlghkbl_evgh p_e_khh[jZaghklb
bi_jki_dlb\ j_nhjfu ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c161
, \ 17, gZijhlb\,160
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 73h[.–77.
161
«G_l, g_ fh]ml [ulv “=m[_jgkdb_ <_^hfhklb” ijh\h^gbdZfb\kydhc dmevlmjghc
b^_b, g_fh]mlhgb^Z`_ohly[ulhevdhbijhklhhljZ`Zlvf_klgmx`bagvkg_h[oh^bfhc
ijZ^bhklvx» (>Zebg. Q_fhgbg_fh]ml[ulv… // Jhkkby. ‹ 696); «… bo kms_kl\hZ-
gbb_klv k_jv_agh_aeh; ij_`^_k_]hhgb, g_khfg_ggh, lhjfhayljZa\blb_qZklghci_jbh-
^bq_kdhc i_qZlb…» (K\hc. =m[ _jgkdb _ \_^hfhklb // Jmkkdh_ keh\h. ‹ 92); «Fh] ml eb hgb
h[km`^Zlvkba_klghcijyfhlhcdZdhcgb[m^v\hijhk^mo_, g_kh]eZkghfka]ey^ZfbgZ
wlh \hi jhk p _gljZ evgh] h \_^hfkl\Z, fh] ml eb hgb k\h[ h^gh jZa[bjZ lv b hk\ _sZ lv gh\ h_
f_jhi jbylb _, aZdhgh^Z l_evguc Zdl? » (K\hc. ?s_ h «=m[ _jgkdbo <_^hfhklyo» // Jmkkdh_
kehh. ‹ 94); «… j_nhjfZ “=m[_jgkdbo <_^hfhkl_c” kbevgh aZ^_j`ZeZ [u jhkl ijhbg-
pbZevghc i_qZlb b kha^ZeZ [u g_`_eZl_evgmx fhghihebx i_qZlgh]h kehZ» (K\hc.
H «=m[ _jg kdb o <_^hfhklyo» // Jmkkdh_ keh\ h. ‹ 95); «… i mklv emqr_ “=m[ _jg kdb _ <_^h-
fhklb” [m^mllhevdh “=m[_jgkdbfb<_^hfhklyfb”, Z]Za_luimklvba^Zxlkyg_]m[_jgkdbf
gZqZevkl\hf, imklvbj_^Zdlbjmxlky, bkhklZeyxlkyg_qbghgbdZfb (ohly[ubihhev-
ghfm gZcfm), Z k\h[h^gufb ibkZl_eyfb» (>Zebg. Q_f hgb ^he`gu [ulv… // Jhkkby.
‹ 701); «… f_klgZy i_qZlv ij_^klZe_gZ “<_^hfhklyfb”, dhlhju_, dhg_qgh, ke_^m_l hl-
g_klb d kmjjh]ZlZf ]eZkghklb» (Ghh_ \j_fy. ‹ 9022); i_j_i_qZldb ba klZlvb «Gh\h]h
\j_f_gb», «D \hi jhkm h i j_h[ jZah\Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» («Ijb^g _ijh\kdb c
djZc». ‹ 1163); «… kdmqgh, hq_gvkdmqghb^Z`_^eya^hjhvyg_[_ahiZkghqblZlvihklh-
yggh b ih^he]m “=m[_jgkdb_ <_^hfhklb”» (Kj_^b h[uZl_e_c // Gh\hklb. ‹ 98); «… g_
ihe_ag__ [u [ueh kha^Zlv mkehby, ijb dhlhjuo qZklgZy i_qZlv fh]eZ [u uihegblv wlm
dmevlmjgmx fbkkbx; Zg_ijhbah^bl_evgu_ aZljZlu, dZdb_ uaZeh [u ba^Zgb_ “=m[_jg-
kdbo <_^hfhkl_c”, mihlj_[blv gZ kh^_j`Zgb_ hl^_evguo p_gahjh\» (;_kkZjZ[_p. ‹ 94);
«“=m[_jgkdbf <_^hfhklyf” emqr_ \k_]h hklZZlvky l_f `_ hnbpbZevguf hj]Zghf ^ey
i_qZlZgbyjZkihjy`_gbc, pbjdmeyjhb^b`_gbcih kem`[_, dZdhuf hgbb[ueb^h kbo
ihj» (X`Zgbg. ‹ 93); «Bkdmkkl\_ggh_ jZablb_ g_hnbpbZevgh]h hl^_eZ ]m[_jgkdbo \_-

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
157h^h[jyeb hafh`gu_ ij_h[jZahZgby b nhjfmebjhZeb khb ij_^-
eh`_gby ih memqr_gbx iheh`_gby f_klghc ijZbl_evkl_gghc ]Z-
a_lu162
. < «[hevrhc ij_kk_» («Jhkkby», «Jmkkdh_ ke h\h», «KZgdl-^hfhkl_cfh`_l khkem`blv ebrv hq_gv^mjgmxkem`[m k_jv_aghfm^_emgZkZ`^_gbyijh-
bgpbZevghc i_qZlb…» (;urbc j_^Zdlhj. D j_nhjf_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c // ;bj`_-
u_ _^hfhklb. ‹ 97); «IhdZ “=m[_jgkdb_ <_^hfhklb” [m^ml hklZZlvky dZa_gguf hj]Z-
ghf, jmdhh^bfuf ]m[_jgkdbfb qbghgbdZfb, [hevr_ ihfureyxsbfb h lbih]jZnkdbo
kmffZo, q_f h[ bgl_j_kZo bo ih^g_\hevguo ih^ibkqbdh\, – gZ^_`^u gZ bo ijh]j_kk g_
fgh]h» (X`guc djZc. ‹ 6990); «… “<_^hfhklb” gb gZ rZ] g_ ih^bgmebkv i_j_^
kfuke_ k\h_]h gmlj_gg_]h kh^_j`Zgby, dhlhjh_ ihij_`g_fm ihqlb p_ebdhf bkq_jiu-
Z_lky ijZbl_evkl_ggufb jZkihjy`_gbyfb, h[tye_gbyfb h i_j_f_s_gbb qbghgbdh\,
khh[s_gbyfb h ih`ZjZo ih ]m[_jgbb b li.» (:e_dkZg^j Dhjhlg_\. Ih ij_^iheZ]Z_fhc
j_nhjf_ «=m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c» // KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdb_ \ _^hfhklb. ‹ 105); «Ba^Zgb _
]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c, [m^mqb\iheg_h[_ki_q_ghfZl_jbZevghfhlghr_gbbdZa_ggufb
h[ty\e_gbyfb, lhjfhabl f_klgu_ ]Za_lu \k_\hafh`gufb imlyfb…» («Gb ]Za_lZ, gb ijb-
dZa» // Ghh_j_fy. ‹ 9047); «… hgbkem`Zlij_djZkgufkj_^klhf^eykZfh\hkoZe_gby
jZaguo ]m[_jgkdbo ^_yl_e_c ba “gZqZevklZ” bo ih^qbg_ggufb, b kemqZ_lky, qlh lZdb_
j_deZfu kihkh[klmxl ^Z`_ ihur_gbx  kem`_[ghc dZjv_j_» (<. BkiheZlh\. DZa_ggZy
]Za_lZb]m[_jgkdZylbih]jZnby // ;bj`_u__^hfhklbxx. ‹ 134); «=m[_jgkdbf_^hfh-
klyf bo g_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv kh_jr_ggh g_ gm`gZ, hgb g_ agZxl, qlh k g_c ^_eZlv?
Bhlebqgh, – hl^Zcl_ wlm qZklv a_fkdbf jZ[hlgbdZf» (IjhbgpbZe. =m[_jgkdb_ a_fkdb_
_^hfhklb // KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdb__^hfhklb. ‹ 178).
162
«<_^hfhklb, _kebbogZ^e_`Zs_ihklZblv, ^he`guyblvkyijbf_jhfkihdhcghc,
kijZ\_^ebhck\hbo km`^_gbyobhlauZo]Za_lu, klZys_ck_[_ h^gmp_ev – uykg_gb_
k_]hki_pbZevgh]hagZq_gbyf_klguobgl_j_khkh]eZkbbkbgl_j_kZfbh[s_]hkm^Zjkl-
_ggufb» (<. <±gt. Bgl_j_ku ^gy // Gh\hklb ^gy. ‹ 6391); «… fu k]em[hdhc ijbagZ-
l_evghklvx \kihfbgZ_f … gZrbo ihql_gguo dhjj_kihg^_glh\, y\ey\rboky ujZabl_ey-
fb f_klguo gm`^ b k^_eZrbo “Fh]be_kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb” f_klguf hj]Zghf.
Bffuh[yaZguZlhjbl_lgufijbagZgb_fihe_aghklbgZrbo “<_^hfhkl_c”…» (Fh]be_\-
kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb. ‹ 22); «AZ^ZqZ “=m[. <_^.” – kem`blv f_klguf ]m[_jgkdbf
hj]Zghf ^ey bamq_gby ]m[_jgbb, hj]Zghf ^ey f_klgh]h klZlbklbq_kdh]h dhfbl_lZ, dhlh-
juc, ih b^__ _]h mqj_`^_gby, ^he`_g khklZeylv dZd [u f_klgh_mq_gh_ h[s_kl\h ] m[_j-
gbb…» (N.N. «=m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb» b ]m[_jgkdb_ klZlbklbq_kdb_ dhfbl_lu // Jhkkby.
‹ 705); «KhagZl_evgh hlghkysbcky d ^_em j_^Zdlhj “=m[. <_^.” kfhljbl gZ k\hb h[yaZg-
ghklb ]hjZa^h rbj_,  hkh[_gghklb, _keb hg agZ_l k\hc djZc: ij_^ _]h djm]hahjhf klZ_l
lZdZy fZkkZ k_jv_aguo \hijhkh ih uykg_gbx ^mohguo b fZl_jbZevguo gm`^ gZk_e_-
gby, qlh djblbdZ – fh`_l [ulv, b g_ k_]^Z m^Zqguo, gh h kydhf kemqZ_ j_f_gguo
bkdhjhij_oh^ysbo – jZkihjy`_gbc f_klghc Z^fbgbkljZpbb, ijb gZebqghklb \hijhkh\
i_j\hc Z`ghklb, kh\k_f g_ \oh^yl  _]h ijh]jZffm» (Fh]be_kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfh-
klb. ‹ 23); «… “=m[_jgkdb_ <_^hfhklb” b]m[_jgkdb_ lbih]jZnbb ^Ze_dh g_ khklZeyxl
lhjfhaZ qZklguf ba^Zl_evkdbf beb lbih]jZnkdbf ij_^ijbylbyf  ijhbgpbb» (=m[_jg-
kdb _ \ _^hf hklb // <he]Zjv. ‹ 97); «OZjvdh\ kdb_, \ylkdb _, i helZ\kdb_, dm[Zg kdb _, ehf-
`bgkdb_ b _s_ g_dhlhju_ ^jm]b_ \_^hfhklb gZkqbluZxl k\hbo ih^ibkqbdh lukyqZfb
lhevdh ihlhfm, qlh m\_ebqbeb khb g_hnbpbZevgu_ hl^_eu» (;. ;h]^Zghbq. ?s_ ih \h-
ijhkmh j_nhjf_ «=m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» // ;_kkZjZ[kdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb. ‹ 81);
«… gbdlh b g_ ]hhjbl hlhf, qlh kj_^b “]m[_jgkdbo” ebl_jZlhjh kb^yl dZdb_gb[m^v
]_gbb, dZdb_gb[m^v\u^Zxsb_kyfm^j_pu. Gm`ghebrv, qlh[uhdZaZebkvkZfu_ijhklu_,
q_klgu_ex^b, mf_xsb_]jZfhlghujZ`ZlvkhbfukebbihgbfZxsb_f_klgu_gm`^u»
K. H., «Ghhklb ^gy». ‹ 6406; i_j_i_qZldZ ba «Ghhkl_c ^gy» «Dhijhkm h j_nhjf_
=m[_jg kdbo \ _^hfhkl_c” » // «I_jfkdb_ ]m[ _jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb». ‹ 89); «Kh[ jZ\r_cky

=eZ\Z 2
158I_l_j[mj]kdb_ \_^hfhklb», «Gh\h_ \j_fy», «;bj`_\u_ \_^hfhklb»)
ukdZauZehkv hiZk_gb_, qlh ih^^_j`dZ ]hkm^Zjkl\hf ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c b jZkrbj_gb_ bo ijh]jZffu ihj_^yl jZablbx f_kl-
guo qZklguo ba^Zgbc, ijb_^ml d fhghihebaZpbb i_qZlgh]h kehZ
jmdZo Z^fbgbkljZpbb. >_eZy Zdp_gl gZ g_h[oh^bfhklb jZablby
kh[h^ghc, djblbq_kdbgZkljh_gghcqZklghci_qZlb, g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb \_^hfhkl_c \ bo kh\j_f_gghf b [m^ms_f j_nhjfbjh\Zgghf
b^_ hldZauZehkv  gZbf_ghZgbb «]Za_lZ» dZd hj]Zg_, kihkh[ghf
hljZ`Zlv b ujZ`Zlv dZdb_eb[h h[s_kl_ggu_ b^_b. LZd `_, dZd
\ 1862 ]. KG. L_jib]hj_\, Z\lhju aZf_lhd ij_^eZ]Zeb ihklZblv h
]eZ_ g_hnbpbZevguo qZkl_c qZklguo g_aZbkbfuo ebp beb i_j_-
^Zlv bo  jZkihjy`_gb_ a_fkl\, qlh nZdlbq_kdb hagZqZeh k_jluZ-
gb_ ijh_dlZ j_]bhgZevguo ]hkm^Zjkl_gguo ba^Zgbc. G_fgh]hqbk-
e_ggu_ p_gljZevgu_ ba^Zgby («Ghhklb ^gy», «Dmjv_j»), Z lZd`_
kZfb ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb, \klZ\rb_ gZ k\hx aZsblm («Fh]be_\-dhfbkkbb, ke_^hZl_evgh, ij_^klhbl h[km^blv ij_`^_ k_]h bf_ggh hijhk h[ mkehbyo,
lhjfhaysbojZablb_ “=m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c”. IjbmkljZg_gbbwlbomkehbchgbyylky
klhev `_ `_eZgguf ]hkl_f qblZl_ey, dZd b kydZy qZklgZy ]Za_lZ…» (J_nhjfZ «=m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhkl_c» // Dmjv_j. ‹ 109); «Ohjhrh ihklZe_ggZy ]m[_jgkdZy ]Za_lZ k^_eZ_lky
g_h[oh^bfhklvx ^ey dZ`^h]h ]jZfhlgh]h `bl_ey ]m[_jgbb b ihkem`bl p_eyf kZfhh[jZ-
ahZgby, Z k gbf b jhklm ]m[_jgbb b ih^t_fm kbe b kihkh[ghkl_c gZk_e_gby» (G. Ha_jh\.
J_nhjfZ ]m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c» // Ijb eh` _gb _ d «<ylkdbf ] m[_jgkdbf \_^hfhklyf».
‹ 43); «… g_dhlhjuf]m[_jgkdbf_^hfhklyfm^Z_lkyihbgl_j_kmbdhebq_klmfZl_jbZ-
eZ gbkdhevdh g_ mklmiZlv ^Z`_ [he__ beb f_g__ kheb^guf qZklguf ijhbgpbZevguf
hj]ZgZf» (=. OfZ jh\ // IjbZah\kdbc djZc. ‹ 103); «…qZklgZy i_qZlv, lZd g_kl_kgy_f h
kZfZbk_k_[_[_a\kydbobkdexq_gbcu^ZxsZyihoZevgucebkl, ijb]hZjbZylh`_
j_fyhnbpbhagmxdkf_jlghcdZagb, jZa_ kbeZo^hdZaZlv, qlhkeh\hqZklgucjZghagZ-
qZs_ keh\ m –q_klguc…» (KlZjucijhbgpbZevguc`mjgZebkl. <_^Zxlebqlh lhjyl? //
I_jfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb. ‹ 88); «G_l, g_ mgbqlh`_gby “=m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c”
ke_^m_l `_eZlv, Z ^hims_gby k^Zqb bo  Zj_g^m qZklguf ebpZf, ohly [u b k dZa_ggufb
lbih]jZnbyfb f_kl_» (?s_ d hijhkm gm`gu eb ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb // Ijbeh`_gb_
d «<ylkdbf ]m[_jgkdbf _^hfhklyf». ‹ 46); «WlZ dhfbkkby hklZbl, g_khfg_ggh, [hev-
rhcke_^bklhjbb=m[_jgkdbo<_^hfhkl_c. Bf_rb_kqZklv_mqZklhZlvg_cj_^Zdlh-
ju <_^hfhkl_c m\_aeb k kh[hx,  khb ijhbgpbZevgu_ m]eu, kZfu_ jZ^m`gu_ gZ^_`^u
hlg hkbl_evgh [m^ ms_]h lh]h ^ hjh]h ^ _eZ, dhlhjhfm hgb kem`Z l…» (Dhfb kkby ih i_j_-
kfhljm^_ckl\mxsboijZbeh[ba^Zgbb=m[_jgkdbo<_^hfhkl_c // Hehg_pdb_]m[_jgkdb_
\_^hfhklb. ‹ 46); «IhjZ[um`_ihgylv, qlh^_ehg_\qbgh\gbd_, Z\q_eh\_d_, qlhbg_
qbghgbdebl_jZlhjfh`_l[ulv_ebdZy[_a^Zjghklv, ^jygvbimklhf_eybqlh, gZh[hjhl,
ebl_jZlhjqbghgbdfh`_lhdZaZlvkygZukhl_ibkZl_evkdh]haZgby, bk[hevrbflZeZg-
lhf b mf_gb_f _klb ]Za_lm» (H =m[_jgkdbo <_^hfhklyo // «KZjZlh\kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_-
^hfhklb». ‹ 31; «=Za_lZ []m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb] ^he`gZ [ulv ijhh^gbdhf  f_klgmx
`bagva^jZ\uo,lj_auobq_klguo \a]ey^h\, aZ[hlb lvky h jZaguo klhjhgZ oh[s_]h[eZ ]Z
bihjy^dZ \ `bagb» (?s_ h «=m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhklyo» // KZ jZlh\kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \ _^hfh-
klb. ‹ 38); «<ujZ[hlZggu_dhfbkkb_cijZbeZbf_xlb^mkha^Zgb_ijhbgpbblZdbo
i_qZlguo hj]Zgh\, dhlhju_yeyebkv[uqm`^ufb\kydhc l_g^_gpbhaghklbb kem`beb[u
p_eyfgZjh^ghijhk\_lbl_evguf» (Mnbfkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb. ‹ 135).

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
159kdb_», «;_kkZjZ[kdb_», «<ylkdb_», «I_jfkdb_», «Hehg_pdb_», «L_j-
kdb_», «KZjZlhkdb_», «Mnbfkdb_»), gZijhlb\, ml_j`^Zeb, qlh ijb
hlkmlklbb beb g_jZablhklb ijhbgpbZevghc qZklghc ij_kku h[-
ghe_ggu_ ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb k m`_ bf_xs_cky fZl_jbZevghc
[Zahc b ijbe_q_gb_f f_klguo bgl_ee_dlmZevguo kbe kfh]ml u-
ihegylv nmgdpbb hk_s_gby f_klghc `bagb b \ujZ`_gby f_klguo
bgl_j_kh\, Z bo hnbpbZevguc oZjZdl_j m[_j_`_l ]Za_lm hl Zg]Z`b-
jh\Zgghklb b kem`_gby iZjlbcguf bgl_j_kZf. J_^Zdlhju \_^hfh-
kl_c j_ahggh hajZ`Zeb, qlh qbgh\gbdebl_jZlhj gbqmlv g_ om`_
k\h[h^g h]h`mjgZebklZ (keh\h «qZklguc» g_ jZ\ghagZqghkeh\m «q_-
klguc»), b _]h ^_yl_evghklv gZ ihklm j_^ZdlhjZ kh[h^gZ hl g_r-
gbo ebygbc  lhc `_ kl_i_gb, dZd b \ qZklghc ]Za_l_, ]^_ j_^Zdlhj
aZbkblhlmqj_^bl_eybba^Zl_ey. ?keb`__^hfhklb, ihfukebklh-
ebqguo ]Za_l, fh]ml ij_iylklhZlv jZablbx qZklghc i_qZlb, lh,
klZeh[ulv, hgbg_klhyebgZf_kl_kh_fjZablbbbij_^klZeyxl
bgl_j_k ^ey khbo ih^ibkqbdh\. GZebqb_ g_aZ\bkbfh]h hj]ZgZ ]m-
[_jgkdhc Z^fbgbkljZpbb gZjmrZ_l fhghihebx «a]ey^Z gZ nZdlu»
kZfhc qZklghc ij_kku b fh`_l lhevdh kihkh[kl\h\Zlv dhgdmj_gl-
gufk g_xhlg hr_gbyf, hlq_] h\ dhg_qg hfblh]_\ub]ju\Zelhevdh
qblZl_ev, ihemqZxsbchafh`ghklvu[bjZlvbkjZgb\Zlv.
GZ aZdexqbl_evghf, hkvfhf, aZk_^Zgbb «Dhfbkkbb ^ey i_j_k-
fhljZ ^_cklmxsboijZbeh[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbob h[eZklguo_-
^hfhkl_c» [ueZknhjfmebjhZgZghZyj_^Zdpbyijh]jZffu]Za_lu,
dhlhjZy ^he`gZ [ueZ hclb \ «Mqj_`^_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc»
L. 2, q. 1, kl. 453, 460, 532–594) Kh^Z aZdhgh Jhkkbckdhc bfi_-
jbb163
. <ghkbebkv kms_kl\_ggu_ baf_g_gby  kZfb hkgh\gu_ p_eb
ba^Zgby: «1) ^ey kdhj_cr_]h h[gZjh^hZgby jZkihjy`_gbc ]m[_jg-
kdh]hgZqZevkl\Zb ^jm]bo ba\_klbc, ke_^mxsbo d \k_h[s_fmk\_^_-
gbxbebbkiheg_gbx; 2) ^ey\uykg_gbydZdh[sbo, lZdbij_bfms_-
kl_ggh f_klguo hijhkh gZ hkghZgbb kljh]h ijh\_j_gguo
^Zgguob 3) ^eyijhk_lbl_evguop_e_c\hh[s_»164
.
< 1903 ]. p_gahj :<. <_j_sZ]bg ij_^klZbegh\hfm gZqZevgb-
dm =eZgh]h mijZ\e_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb G:. A_j_\m ^hdeZ^gmx
aZibkdm h j_nhjfbjhZgbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, khklZe_ggmx
gZ hkgh\_ iheh`_gbc, ujZ[hlZgguo «Dhfbkkb_c». =Za_lZ ^he`gZ
[ulv khjb_glbjhZgZ gZ rbjhdmx dj_klvygkdmx kj_^m k p_evx
ijh\_^_gby  `bagv gZqZe ijZ^u b ^h[jZ», ih^^_j`Zgby «g_ih-163
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 77h[.–80; J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 55. E. 186.
164
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 55. E. 189–189h[.

=eZ\Z 2
160dhe_[bfh]h khagZgby gZpbhgZevghc jmkkdhc fhsb  l_kghc kyab
kkms_kl\mxsbfb m gZk hkgh\Zgbyfb gZjh^ghc `bagb»165
. H^gZdh
g_kfhljy gZ [hevrhc h[t_f ijh^_eZgghc jZ[hlu b h[s_kl\_gguc
j_ahgZgk, knhjfmebjhZggu_ gZ hkgh\_ ebqgh]h j_^Zdlhjkdh]h
hiulZ dhgdj_lgu_ b _kvfZ mf_j_ggu_ \_jghih^^Zggbq_kdb_
ij_^eh`_gby kf_kl, lhj`_kl\_ggu_ nhjfmebjh\db p_e_c h[gh\-
e_ggh]hba^ZgbykhklhjhgukZfh]hp_gamjgh]h\_^hfklZ, gbdZdbo
baf_g_gbckms_kl\mxsb_aZdhghiheh`_gby hijh]jZff_]m[_jg-
kdbo _^hfhkl_c g_k_gh g_ [ueh. G_ [ueh ij_^ijbgylh kh klhjh-
gu Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e b dZdboeb[h rZ]h ih maZdhgb-
Zgbxiheh`_gby l_o _^hfhkl_c,  dhlhjuog_hnbpbZevgZy qZklv
[ueZ jZkrbj_gZ ^_nZdlh, b jZkijhkljZg_gby bo ijZdlbq_kdh]h
hiulZ gZ ^jm]b_ ba^Zgby. >_cklhZlv  wlhf gZijZe_gbb ijb-
rehkv m`_ \ mkeh\byo j_\ hexpbb. Ijbqbgu wlh]h \b ^y lky \ h[s _f
dhgk_j\Zlbghf dmjk_ gbdheZ_kdh]h ijZbl_evkl\Z, hiZk_gbb dZ-
dboeb[h ^Z`_ kZfuo g_agZqbl_evguo i_j_f_g  iheh`_gbb i_qZ-
lb. Ijh_dl, ij_^mkfZljb\Zxsbc ba^Zgb_ 73 ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZkl-
guo _^hfhkl_c ih _^bghh[jZaghc ijh]jZff_, baf_g_gby
hj]ZgbaZpbhgguo b fZl_jbZevguo mkehbc j_^Zdlhjkdhc jZ[hlu,
ijb^Zgb_ ]Za_l_ kZfhklhyl_evgh]h oZjZdl_jZ, lj_[hZe hl p_g-
ljZevguobf_klguoeZkl_ci_j\hgZqZevguoeh`_gbc, aZljZ]b\Ze
keh`brb_ky nbgZgkh\u_ hlghr_gby f_`^m ]m[_jgkdbfb \_^hfh-
klyfb, ]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnb_cb]m[_jgkdbfijZe_gb_f, baf_gye
kms_kl\mxs__ jZkibkZgb_ rlZlh\ b hdeZ^h\, klZbe ijh[e_fm
ih^[hjZkihkh[guobb^_heh]bq_kdbgZ^_`guodZ^jh\. Djhf_lh]h,
khojZgyebkvgZ^_`^u\ha^_ckl\hZlvbgl_j_kZoijZbl_evklZgZ
ijhbgpbZevgmxqZklgmxi_qZlv, Zebp_ h[ghe_gguo hnbpbZev-
guo hj]Zgh\, ihemqb\rbo ijZ\h h[km`^Zlv ijZ\bl_evkl\_ggu_
bZ^fbgbkljZlbgu_ f_jhijbylby, eZklvfh]eZihemqblvg_ khxa-
gbdZ, Z ijhlbgbdZ. < j_amevlZl_ ^_yl_evghklv «Dhfbkkbb ^eyi_j_-
kfhljZ ^_cklmxsboijZ\be h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbob h[eZklguo _-
^hfhkl_c» bf_eZ lhevdh bgnhjfZpbhggh_ agZq_gb_ ^ey uykg_gby
iheh`_gby b gm`^ f_klguo dZa_gguo ba^Zgbc, dhlhju_ \ blh]_ ijh-
^he`bebk\h_ «k\h[h^gh_ieZZgb_».
<i_jbh^j_hexpbb 1905–1907 ]]. m`_kms_klhZrb_b\ghv
hldjulu_ ba^Zgby  [hevrhc beb f_gvr_c kl_i_gb, \ aZ\bkbfhklb
hliheblbq_kdhchdjZkdb, uklmibebijhlbijZbl_evklZbijbau-165
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 55. E. 56h[., 57.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
161Zeb gZjh^ d g_ihbgh_gbx166
. Bf_xsb_ky ^hj_\hexpbhggu_ f_-
lh^u p_gamjgh]h ^Ze_gby (rljZnu, aZij_l jhagbqghc ijh^Z`b,
ij_^mij_`^_gby, aZij_lbl_evgu_pbjdmeyju, aZdjulb_) m`_ g_ fh]-
eb^Zlv^he`gh]h wnn_dlZ. J_^Zdlhjkdbc dhee_dlb\ gZqbgZejZ[hlm
ih^ ^jm]bf gZa\Zgb_f, mdZauZebkv aZ_^hfh g__jgu_ uoh^gu_
^Zggu_, jZ[hqb_i_qZlgbdb ij_iylklhZebdhgnbkdZpbb aZij_s_g-
guo ghf_jh beb mlZbZeb bo, hajZklZe ihlhd g_e_]Zevguo ba^Z-
gbc. IhybeZkv b «p_gamjZ kgbam», dh]^Z klZlvb, g_ khhl_lklmx-
sb_ b^_yf «hkh[h^bl_evgh]h ^b`_gby», g_ uoh^beb i_qZlvih
j_r_gbx j_^Zdpbb, lbih]jZnbb beb ih^ ^Ze_gb_fij_^klZbl_e_c
jZ^bdZevguoiZjlbc.
< wdklj_fZevghf b [ukljhl_dms_f bklhjbq_kdhf \j_f_gb j_h-
expbb]hkm^Zjkl_ggmxp_gamjmlhfiZl_jgZebklkdhhjlh^hdkZev-
ghf h[ebd_, \ dhlhjhf hgZ kms_kl\h\ZeZ \ ij_^u^ms_f \_d_,
h[ebd_ DI. Ih[_^hghkp_Z, kqblZr_]h i_jbh^bq_kdmx i_qZlv
h^gbf ba «kZfuo e`b\uo mqj_`^_gbc gZr_]h j_f_gb»167
, fh`gh
mih^h[blv >hgDbohlm, kjZ`Zxs_fmky k iheqbsZfb _ljyguo
f_evgbp. G_[hevrh_ ih rlZlm =eZgh_ mijZe_gb_ ih ^_eZf i_qZlb
ijhklh g_ fh]eh hlke_^blv ijhp_kk \hagbdgh_gby ghuo ]Za_l, ha-
gZdhfblvky k bokh^_j`Zgb_f, hij_^_eblvhkghZgby ^ey Z^fbgbkl-
jZlbgh]h (aZl_f km^_[gh]h) ij_ke_^hZgby. LZ `_ kZfZy kblmZpby
gZ[ex^ZeZkv b  ijhbgpbb, ]^_ p_gahju (aZl_f bgki_dlhju) g_
fh]ebkijZ\blvkykj_adh\hajhkrbfbh[t_fZfbjZ[hlu.
Ijh\ha]eZr_gb_ FZgbn_klhf 17 hdly[jy k\h[h^u keh\Z b hlf_-
gZ «<j_f_ggufb ijZbeZfb h ihj_f_gguo ba^Zgbyo» 24 ghy[jy
1905 ]. ij_^Zjbl_evghc p_gamju kha^Zeb ghu_ mkehby nmgdpbh-
gbjhZgby bgnhjfZpbhgghc kn_ju – ba^Zgb_ fh]eh [ulv aZdjulh
lhevdhih j_r_gbxkm^Z. <eZklv^he`gZ[ueZ^_cklhZlvihaZdh-
gZf, mklZghe_gguf _x kZfhc, gh aZdhggu_ kj_^klZ «h[ma^Zgby»
hiihabpbhgghc i_qZlb hdZauZebkv fZehwnn_dlbgufb. Bkihevah-
Zgb_ \g_km^_[guo Z^fbgbkljZlbguo kZgdpbc ihemqZeh rbjhdmx
h]eZkdm k khhl_lklmxsbfb dhff_glZjbyfb, qlh ih^juZeh b [_a
lh]h g__ebdbc dj_^bl h[s_kl_ggh]h ^h_jby d eZklb. WfZgkbib-166
 >Z`_ hnbpbZevgu_ f_klgu_ ]Za_lu \ke_^ aZ klhebqghc ij_kkhc ijbh[j_eb h[eb-
qbl_evgucoZjZdl_j. LZd, «Hjeh\kdb__iZjobZevgu__^hfhklb» b «Hjeh\kdb_]m[_jgkdb_
_^hfhklb» «aZ h^bg ]h^ ij_jZlbebkv  ihqlb eb[_jZevgu_ ba^Zgby», «hk_gvx 1905 ].
hgb de_cfbeb “klZjuc” iheblbq_kdbc ihjy^hd, kh\k_f g_^Zgh hkoZey\rbcky bfb»
(KZ_gdh K<. Hjeh\kdZy ]m[_jgkdZy ij_kkZ (1865–1905 ]].) nhjfbjhZgbb h[s_kl_g-
gh]hfg_gby] m[_jgbb : Z\lhj_n. ^bk. … dZg^. bkl. gZmd. Hj_e, 2005. K. 25–26).
167
Ih[_^hghkp_\DI.<_ebdZyeh`vgZr_]h\ j_f_gb. F., 1993. C. 124.

=eZ\Z 2
162jhZggZy ij_kkZ klZeZ fhsguf b g_ih^dhgljhevguf kj_^kl\hf
nhjfmebjhZgby b jZkijhkljZg_gby Zevl_jgZlbguo ijZbl_evklm
h[s_kl_gguo a]ey^h\, bgkljmf_glhf [hjv[u aZ baf_g_gb_ kms_-
klhZr_c h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdhc kbkl_fu. < wlbo mkehbyo
^ey ijZbl_evklZ klZghbeky ZdlmZevguf lZdhc f_lh^, dZd dhglj-
ijhiZ]Zg^Zhlghr_gbbjZ^bdZevghj_hexpbhgghcbeb[_jZevghc
b^_heh]bb. FZl_jbZevghc b bgl_ee_dlmZevghc [Zahc ^ey wlh]h
^he`gu[uebklZlvp_gljZevgu_bj_]bhgZevgu_lbih]jZnbbbijZ-
\bl_evkl\_ggu_ba^Zgby.
24 ^_dZ[jy 1904 ]. qe_g Kh_lZ =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf
i_qZlb bklhjbd b ^biehfZl  hlklZd_ KK. LZlbs_  aZibkd_ h[
hj]ZgbaZpbb ijZbl_evkl_gghc ihj_f_gghc i_qZlb hlf_qZe: «GZ-
r_ ijZbl_evklh k_]^Z hlghkbehkv d i_qZlb lhevdh hljbpZl_evgh.
G_ fm^j_gh, qlh ky jmkkdZy ihj_f_ggZyi_qZlvfZehihfZem i_j_-
reZ gZ klhjhgm _]h g_gZ\bklgbdh b aZdeyluo jZ]h\. <gZklhys__
j_fy g_l iheh`bl_evgh gb h^ghc ]Za_lu  Jhkkbb, dhlhjZy m[_`-
^_ggh b m[_^bl_evgh hlklZbZeZ [u gZr bklhjbq_kdbc bkdhgguc
]hkm^Zjkl_gguc kljhc». GZdZgmg_ j_\hexpbb  jy^m g_fgh]bo
gZb[he__ ^Zevghb^guo pZjkdbo qbgh\gbdh LZlbs_ ihgbfZe, qlh
bkdmkklh ebylvgZ h[s_kl_ggh_ fg_gb_ q_j_a i_qZlvkhklZey_l
gZkmsgmxihlj_[ghklv, ghfukevwlZlm]hbebhk_g_ijb\b\Z_lky
 [xjhdjZlbq_kdbo kn_jZo, ijbagZxsbo bgkljmf_gl g_]h^guf
lhevdhihlhfm, qlhg_mf_xlgZg_fb]jZlv»168
.
< Fbgbkl_jklh gmlj_ggbo ^_e ihklmiZeb ij_^eh`_gby b hl
qZklguo ebp, ij_^eZ]Zrbo khb mkem]b ih j_hj]ZgbaZpbb ijZ\b-
l_evkl\_gghc i_qZlb b g_ kl_kgy\rboky  ujZ`_gbyo ih ihh^m qZ-
klghc ij_kku. LZd, dZf_j]_j K:. K_f_gh gZijZbe  fZjl_ 1905 ].
:=. ;meu]bgm aZibkdm h g_k_gbb baf_g_gbc  ihjy^hd ba^Zgby
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c «k p_evx h[jZahZlv ba gbo ^_yl_evgh_
bgZ^_`gh_ hjm^b_^ey[hjv[ukjZkle_Zxsbf\ebygb_feb[_jZev-
gh_\j_ckdhc ij_kku»169
. =m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb, «[m^mqb mf_eh g Z-
ijZey_fu, fh]eb [u ^_cklhZlv mkihdZbZxsbf h[jZahf gZ h[-
s_klh b f_kl_ k l_f [m^blv  g_f khagZgb_ hiZkghklb hl
gmlj_gg_ckfmlu»170
.
J_nhjfZ ijZ\bl_evkl_gghc i_qZlb gZqZeZkv k j_hj]ZgbaZpbb
K_evkdh]h\_klgbdZ». K 8 bxgy 1905 ]. hg[uehl^_e_ghl «IjZ\b-168
 =hkm^Zjkl\_gguc Zjob Jhkkbckdhc N_^_jZpbb (=:JN). N. 597. Hi. 1. >. 952.
E. 27–28.
169
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 84.
170
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 14. >. 44. 1901 ]. E. 86h[.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
163l_evkl_ggh]h_klgbdZ» bklZeuoh^blvljbjZaZg_^_ex (k 1906 ]. –
_`_^g_gh) dZd ihimeyjguc hj]Zg, hjb_glbjmxsbcky gZ dj_klvyg-
klh. Mdj_iblv fZl_jbZevghnbgZgkhh_ iheh`_gb_ ]Za_lu ^he`gZ
[ueZkm[kb^by\jZaf_j_ 150 luk. jm[.171
20 hdly[jy 1905 ]., ih ih-
jmq_gbx i_jh]h ij_fv_jfbgbkljZ Jhkkbb KX. <bll_,
KK. LZlbs_\uf [ue ih^]hlhe_g «Ijh_dl hj]ZgbaZpbb ijZ\b-
l_evkl\_gghc i_qZlb»,  dhlhjhf ]h\hjbehkv h lhf, qlh ghu_
bklhjbq_kdb_ mkehby lj_[mxl hl ijZ\bl_evklZ h[tykg_gby
ih^^Zgguf ^_cklbc b jZkihjy`_gbc fbgbkl_jkl b_^hfkl\,
hijh_j`_gby g_ijZ\bevguo lhedhZgbc ^_yl_evghklb ijZ\b-
l_evklZ, hafh`ghklbim[ebdh\ZlvklZlvbb hijh_j`_gby ^_im-
lZlZf =hkm^Zjkl_gghc >mfu, aZgbfZxsbf ijhijZbl_evkl_g-
gmx b Zglbj_hexpbhggmx ihabpbx. KK. LZlbs_ ij_^eZ]Ze
hldZaZlvky hl nbgZgkbjhZgby hnbpbhaguo ba^Zgbc ih^ \b^hf
qZklguo (lZd gZau\Z_fuo «j_ilbebc») b kha^Zlv ]jmiim hnbpb-
Zevguo ]Za_lb `mjgZeh\, uoh^ysbo [_a ij_^\Zjbl_evghc p_gam-
ju, «ih^ ]hkm^Zjkl_gguf ]_j[hf, k ih^e_`Zs_c ]hkm^Zjkl\_g-
ghfm dhgljhex hlq_lghklvx b k gZagZq_gguf ijZ\bl_evkl\hf
j_^Zdlhjhf»172
. < wlhc «]jmii_» ]m[_jgkdbf \_^hfhklyf hl\h^b-
eZkv jhev ijhh^gbdh ijZ\bl_evkl_ggh]h ebygby ijhbg-
pbZevghf h[s_kl\_. GZkqblu\Zy bo hdheh 75, LZlbs_\ ij_^eZ]Ze
h[yaZlv ]m[_jgZlhjh\ hlj_fhglbjh\Zlv b h[gh\blv lbih]jZnkdh_
h[hjm^hZgb_, ijb]eZkblv  ]Za_lm «lZeZglebh]h, agZxs_]h
bkljh]h dhgk_j\Zlbguo \a]ey^h\ j_^ZdlhjZ, dhl hjuc, \ k\hx
hq_j_^v, gZc^_l ^Zjh\bluo khljm^gbdh\»173
. Ihke_ wlh]h g_h[o h-
^bfh[ueh kh[jZlvI_l_j[mj]_kt_a^ij_^klZbl_e_cijZbl_evkl-
_gghci_qZlb^ey\ujZ[hldbh[s_cijh]jZffu^_cklbc174
.171
KludZebg KB. Jmkkdh_ kZfh^_j`Zb_ b e_]ZevgZy i_qZlv 1905 ]. (d hijhkm
hijh_dlZo kha^Zgby hnbpbZevghc ij_kku) // Ba bklhjbb jmkkdhc `mjgZebklbdb dhgpZ
XIX – gZqZeZ XX \\. F., 1973. K. 86.
172
 Pbl. ih:EbohfZgh\ :<. ;hjv[Z kZfh^_j`Zby aZ h[s_kl\_ggh_ fg_gb_ \ 1905–
1907 ]]. KI[., 1997. K. 33–34.
173
Pbl. ih:KludZebgKB.Jmkkdh_kZfh^_j`Zb_be_]ZevgZyi_qZlv 1905 ]. … K. 86.
PblbjhZgb_ kh^_j`Zgby «Ijh_dlZ hj]ZgbaZpbb ijZbl_evkl_gghc i_qZlb»
KK. LZlbs_Z ih jZ[hlZf KB. KludZebgZ b :<. EbohfZghZ h[mkehe_gh l_f, qlh Zj-
ob\gh_^_eh, gZdhlhjh_kkueZebkv^Zggu_Z\lhju (N. 1326. Hi. 7. >. 10), gug_hlkmlkl-
m_lJ=B:.
174
BgnhjfZpby h «Ijh_dl_ hj]ZgbaZpbb ijZbl_evkl\_gghc i_qZlb» ijhkhqbeZkv
i_qZlv, ghg_kdhevdhbkdZ`_gghfb^_ – «Dgb`guc_klgbd» (1906. ‹ 37. K. 847–848),
ijbh^y hkghgu_ fukeb KK. LZlbs_Z, khh[sZe, qlh ^ey j_nhjfbjhZgby ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_clj_[m_lky 4 fegjm[., lhj_fydZd\ «Ijh_dl_» wlZpbnjZh[hagZqZeZh[smx

=eZ\Z 2
16426 hdly[jy LZlbs_ gZijZ\be KX. <bll_ ibkvfh, kh^_j`Zr__
dhgdj_lgu_ij_^eh`_gbyihj_hj]ZgbaZpbb=eZ\gh]hmijZe_gbyih
^_eZf i_qZlb, dhl hjh_ \ mkeh\byo hlf_gu p_gamju ^he`gh [ueh hk-
\hblv ghmx kn_jm ^_yl_evghklb b kem`blv ghuf p_eyf. LZlbs_\
ij_^eZ]Ze hj]ZgbahZlv  =eZghf mijZe_gbb ljb ghuo hl^_eZ:
gZ[ex^Zl_evguc, kijZhqguc b bkihegbl_evguc. GZ[ex^Zl_evguc
hl^_e ^he`_g [ue khklZ\eylv _`_^g_\gu_ ba\e_q_gby ba hl_q_kl-
_gguo b aZjm[_`guo i_jbh^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbc b ij_^klZeylv bo
fbgbkljmgmlj_ggbo^_e (gZb[he__Z`guokemqZyo – ij_^k_^Zl_-
exKh_lZfbgbkljh\), ke_^blvaZkhhl_lklb_fkh^_j`ZgbyklZl_c
aZdhgZf Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb b oh^ZlZcklhZlv h gZdZaZgbb bo gZ-
jmrbl_e_c (gh m`_ g_  Z^fbgbkljZlbghf, Z  km^_[ghf ihjy^d_).
<\_^_gbb kijZhqgh]h hl^_eZ ij_^iheZ]Zehkv khh[s_gb_ hj]ZgZf
i_qZlb lhqguo b _jguo k_^_gbc h kh[ulbyo b ijhbkr_klbyo,
h[tykg_gb_ ^_cklbc b jZkihjy`_gbc ijZ\bl_evklZ ih l_dmsbf
hijhkZf ]hkm^Zjkl_gghc `bagb. KijZhqguc hl^_e q_j_a jmdhh-
^bl_ey=eZgh]hmijZe_gbyih^_eZfi_qZlb^he`_g[uekgZ[`Zlv-
ky lhqghc b _jghc bgnhjfZpb_c b khhl_lklmxsbfb dhff_glZ-
jbyfb g_ihkj_^kl\_gghba \_^hfkl\, fbgbkl_jkl\ b hl ij_^k_^Zl_ey
Kh_lZ fbgbkljh\. GZ bkihegbl_evguc hl^_e KK. LZlbs_ ij_^ih-
eZ]Ze haeh`blv ijh_^_gb_ ijZ\bl_evkl_gghc fukeb  khagZgb_
jmkkdh]h h[s_klZ. LZdbfb ijh\h^gbdZfb ^he`gu [ueb klZlv g_
lhevdh «IjZbl_evkl_gguc _klgbd» b ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb,
\aZbfhk\yav f_`^m dhlhjufb ^he`gZ [ueZ mkbeblvky, gh b h[Z jhk-
kbckdbo l_e_]jZnguo Z]_glkl\Z – Jhkkbckdh_ l_e_]jZngh_Z]_glkl\h
b K.-I_l_j[mj]kdh_ l_e_]jZngh_ Z]_glkl\h, dhlhju_ h[t_^bgyebkv
\ijZbl_evkl\_ggh_l_e_]jZngh_Z]_glkl\h175
.
Hq_b^gh, qlh j_ZebaZpby ijh_dlZ KK. LZlbs_Z \ iheghfh[t-
_f_ lj_[hZeZ agZqbl_evguo nbgZgkhuo jZkoh^h\, ihbkdZ g_h[oh-
^bfuo dZ^jh  klhebp_ b gZ f_klZo, Z ke_^hZl_evgh, b agZqbl_ev-
gh]h dhebq_kl\Z \j_f_gb. Djhf_ lh]h, hg \klj_lbe ijhlb\h^_ckl\b_
kZfh]h =eZgh]h mijZe_gby, bf_r_]h khb Z^fbgbkljZlb\gh-
nbgZgkhu_ bgl_j_ku. Bkoh^y ba wlbo khh[jZ`_gbc, gZqZevgbd
=eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb :<. ;_ev]Zj^ g_ ih^^_j`Ze
j_n hjfbjh\Zgby \\_j_ggh]h _f m mqj_`^_gby gZ klhev rbjhdbo hk-
ghZgbyo. < ij_^^_jbb hldjulby jZ[hlu i_jh]h jhkkbckdh]h iZj-klhbfhklv h[hjm^hZgby 51 ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb (KludZebg KB. Jmkkdh_ kZfh^ _j`Z-
\b_be_]ZevgZyi_qZlv 1905 ]. … K. 92).
175
EbohfZgh\ :<. ;hjv[Z kZfh^_j`Zby aZ h[s_kl\_ggh_ fg_gb_ \ 1905–1907 ]].
K. 35–38.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
165eZf_glZ g_h[oh^bfu [ueb [uklju_ j_amevlZlu, b \ [hc kj_hex-
pb_c \\h^bebkv m`_ bf_\rb_ky kbeu. Ijh_dl KK. LZlbs_Z klZe
j_ZebahuZlvky hq_gv mk_q_ggh, lhevdh  gZijZe_gbb j_hj]ZgbaZpbb
IjZbl_evkl_ggh]h_klgbdZ». 1 ^_dZ[jy 1905 ]. LZlbs_\, ihijhkv[_
bj_dhf_g^Zpbb<bll_, aZgyeihkl]eZgh]hj_^ZdlhjZ]Za_lu176
.
17 ^_dZ[jy 1905 ]. KK. LZlbs_ ij_^klZbe fbgbkljm gml-
j_ggbo ^_e IG. >mjgh\h hkgh\Zgby, dhlhju_ \ khdjZs_gghf b-
^_y\eyebkh[hcm`_\ukdZaZggu_bfijbgpbibZevgu_iheh`_gby
j_nhjfbjhZgbyijZ\bl_evkl_gghci_qZlb. ?kebg_h[ghe_ggh_
=eZgh_ mijZe_gb_, lh «IjZbl_evkl\_gguc \_klgbd» ^he`_g
[ue klZlv hi_jZlb\guf b wnn_dlb\guf jmihjhf ijZ\bl_evkl\Z,
ihemqblv [hevrmx hj]ZgbaZpbhggmx b nbgZgkh\mx kZfhklhy-
l_evghklv. Ih ij_^eh`_gbx KK. LZlbs_Z «<_klgbd» baufZeky
ba _^_gby =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb, _]h j_^Zdlhjm
ij_^hklZ\eyebkv ijZZ ijyfh]h h[jZs_gby dh \k_f fbgbkl_jkl-
\Zf b_^hfkl\Zf, \dexqZy b ]eZ\m ijZbl_evklZ, hlghkbl_evgh
jZatykg_gbc bo ^_ckl\bc b jZkihjy`_gbc, ij_^hklZ\e_gby ihe-
guo b lhqguo k\_^_gbc ^ey ih^]hlhdb i_j_^h\uo klZl_c \_q_j-
g_]h uimkdZ ]Za_lu. Im[ebdZpby hnbpbZevghc bgnhjfZpbb
^he`gZ [ueZ [ulvbkdexqbl_evghc ij_n_j_gpb_c «IjZbl_evkl-
\_ggh]h \_klgbdZ». L_e_]jZngu_ Z]_glklZ fh]eb khh[sZlv bo
lhevdhihke_ihye_gby\ «<_klgbd_».
>ey hagZ]jZ`^_gby g_rlZlguo khljm^gbdh  jZkihjy`_gb_
j_^ZdlhjZ ij_^hklZeyeZkv ^hihegbl_evgZy kmffZ, \ jZkoh^hZgbb
dhlhjhc hg [ue h]jZgbq_g lhevdh g_h[oh^bfhklvx dZ`^u_ ljb f_-
kypZhlqbluZlvkyi_j_^fbgbkljhfgmlj_ggbo^_e. J_^Zdlhjmij_-
^hklZeyehkvijZh ijbgbfZlvb mhevgylvkhljm^gbdh ]Za_lu, hi-
j_^_eylv jZaf_ju bo hagZ]jZ`^_gbc. Lhevdh  wlhf kemqZ_, kqblZe
KK. LZlbs_\ (Zke_^h\Zl_evgh, bKX. <bll_), \hafh`gh[ueh «im-
l_f jZamfgh]h b m[_^bl_evgh]h ke h\Z, rbjhdh jZki jhkljZg_ggh]h,
ebylvgZ h[s_kl_ggh_ fg_gb_  Jhkkbb»177
. H^gZdh IG. >mjgh\ h
hl_j]hafh`ghklvuoh^Z «<_klgbdZ» ba _^_gby =eZ\gh]h mijZ\-
e_gbyih ^_eZf i_qZlbbij_jZs_gby _]h  gZ^fbgbkl_jkdbc hj]Zg
ijb Ij_^k_^Zl_e_ Kh_lZ fbgbkljh\, k fhghihevguf ijZhf gZ
hnbpbZevgu_k\_^_gby.
< «kh_jr_ggh^h_jbl_evghf» ibkvf_KX. <bll_hl 24 ^_dZ[-
jy 1905 ]. KK. LZlbs_khh[sZe, qlhihabpby>mjgh\h hagZqZ_lg_-176
=:JN. N. 597. Hi. 1. >. 1063.
177
=:JN. N. 597. Hi. 1. >. 966. E. 2–2h[.

=eZ\Z 2
166\hafh`ghklv i hegh]h b ^_ckl\bl_evgh]h h[gh\e_g by «<_klgbdZ».
Hg k kh`Ze_gb_fhlf_qZe, qlh « gZr_fmklZj_ehfb aZj`Ze_gghf
Zjk_gZe_» g_llZdbokj_^klbhjm^bc, ^Z\ghbkiulZgguogZAZiZ^_.
GZauZy k_[y «i_j_^hufaZklj_evsbdhf» gZ imlb j_nhjfuijZb-
l_evkl_gghc i_qZlb, LZlbs_ kqblZe, qlh bf_ggh k __ ihfhsvx
hafh`gh «mklZghe_gb_  kljZg_ ijhqgh]h ijZbl_evkl_ggh]h Z\-
lhjbl_lZ, hkghZggh]hg_gZ]jm[hckbe_, g_gZgZ]ZcdZoblxjvfZo,
gZrludZobbk_ebpZo, ZgZ^hh^ZojZamfZ, ijZZbijZ^u»178
.
21 ^_dZ[jy 1905 ]. ^Zlbjm_lky ih^jh[g_crZy aZibkdZ KK. LZlb-
s_Z h ij_h[jZahZgbb «IjZbl_evkl_ggh]h _klgbdZ», dhlhjuc
_s_fhf_glkh_]h kha^Zgby[ueijbaZgd «bgnhjfbjhZgbxh[-
s_kl\Zhlhfimlb, dhlhjufb^_lijZ\bl_evkl\hihfukebb\he_
]hkm^Zjybfi_jZlhjZ»179
. =Za_lZjZa^_eyeZkvgZhl^_evghba^ZZ_fu_
hnbpbZevguc [xee_l_gv» (kh[kl\_ggh «IjZ\bl_evkl_gguc \_kl-
gbd») b hnbpbZevgmx ]Za_lm, bf_xsmx im[ebpbklbq_kdmx nhjfm
bagZq_gb_ iheblbq_kdh]h hj]ZgZ eZklb. WlZ _`_^g_\gZy \_q_jgyy
hnbpbZevgZy ]Za_lZ ih ij_^eh`_gbx KX. <bll_ [ueZ gZaZgZ «Jmk-
kdh_ ]hkm^Zjkl\h». <_q_jgbc oZjZdl_j ba^Zgby ^he`_g [ueh[_ki_qblv
__ hi_jZlbgh_ j_Z]bjhZgb_ gZ kh[ulby l_dms_]h ^gy b, ke_^hZl_ev-
gh, ihukblvdhgdmj_glhkihkh[ghklvkqZklgufbp_gljZevgufbbijh-
bgpbZevgufb ba^Zgbyfb. Wlhfm `_ ^he`gu [ueb kihkh[kl\hZlv hl-
^_evgZy b g_^hjh]Zy ih^ibkdZ – 3 jm[. 60 dhi. ]h^; p_gZ aZ ba^Zgb_
dhfie_dl_ k «IjZbl_evkl_gguf _klgbdhf» mklZgZeb\ZeZkv
k 12 jm[.  ]h^. < jhagbpm p_gZ «Jmkkdh]h ]hkm^ZjklZ» hij_^_eyeZkv
\ 1 dhi. (]Za_lqbdZf 3 dhi.), f_kl_ k «<_klgbdhf» – 5 dhi. (]Za_lqb-
dZf – 3 dhi.). Ij_^iheZ]ZehkvlZd`_ «qZklh_b[ebadh_h[s_gb_]eZgh-
]hj_^ZdlhjZkKh_lhffbgbkljh\hh[s_bkhl^_evgufbqe_gZfb_]h
 qZklghklb»180
. DZ`^h_ fbgbkl_jkl\h ^he`gh [ueh ^hklZeylv  j_-
^Zdpbxij_^gZagZq_ggu_ ^ey h[gZjh^hZgby k_^_gby jZg__, q_f qZ-
klgu_ba^Zgbybebl_e_]jZngu_Z]_glklZ.
H^gZdh bkiheg_gb_ wlh]h ijh_dlZ [ueh ihjmq_g h ^jm]hfm bklh-
jbdm b qbghgbdm ba [eb`Zcr_]h hdjm`_gby <bll_ – :G. =mjv_m
ohly ihklZ j_^ZdlhjZ «<_klgbdZ» hg g_ aZgbfZe). 12 ygZjy 1906 ].
KK. LZlbs_ hlijZbe kjZam ^Z ibkvfZ k ijhkv[hc h[ hk\h[h`^_-
gbb _]h hl aZgbfZ_fhc ^he`ghklb – fbgbkljm \gmlj_ggbo ^_e
IG. >mjgh\h b fbgbkljm bfi_jZlhjkdh]h ^\ hjZ <;. Nj_^_jbdkm.178
=:JN. N. 597. Hi. 1. >. 971. E. 1–2h[.
179
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 1. 1868 ]. E. 64.
180
=:JN. N. 597. Hi. 1. >. 971. E. 3–17.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
167LZlbs_ `ZehZekygZ [he_agvk_j^pZ181
. Hg \u_oZe :kljbx, ]^_
7 Z]mklZ  f. W]]_g[_j] [eba =jZpZ kdhgqZeky182
, g_ ^h`b\ f_kyp Z
^h kh_]h r_klb^_kylbe_lby. HlklZdZ LZlbs_Z, _jhylgh, [ueZ
ua\ZgZ g_ lhevdh wlbfb i_qZevgufb h[klhyl_evklZfb, gh b _]h
ijbgpbibZevghc ihabpb_c  hlghr_gbb ij_h[jZahZgby ijZ\bl_ev-
kl_gghc i_qZlb. IjZ\bl_evkl_ggZy ]Za_lZ lZd b g_ [ueZ \u_^_gZ
ba _^_gby =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb, Z kZfh hgh j_hj-
]ZgbahZghg_[ueh.
23 ygZjy 1906 ]. KX. <bll_^hdeZ^uZeGbdheZx II, qlhih^]h-
lhdZ ij_h[jZahZgby «IjZbl_evkl_ggh]h _klgbdZ» b^_l _kvfZ
mki_rgh. >ey ih^^_j`db «K_evkdh]h \_klgbdZ» <bll_ mdZau\Ze gZ
g_h[oh^bfhklv ^hihegbl_evguo jZkoh^h\ \ g_kdhevdh khl lukyq
jm[e_cbihbkdZlZeZglebh]hbljm^hkihkh[gh]hebpZ. GbdheZc^Ze
iheh`bl_evgmx j_ahexpbx: «Mkbevl_ kj_^klZ, mf_gvrbl_ ieZlm
bk^_eZcl_ <_klgbd [K_evkdbc] _`_^g_\guf ba^Zgb_f»183
. GZ ZZg-
lxjbklbq_kdh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ <bll_ h jZkijhkljZg_gbb ijZbl_evkl-
\_gguo khh[s_gbc ihkj_^kl\hf khe^Zlkdbo ibk_f k\hbf jh^kl\_g-
gbdZf pZjv hl_lbe hldZahf, ih^q_jdgm\, qlh wlh ^_eh
h[hx^hhkljh_.
K 1 ygZjy 1906 ]. «K_evkdbc \_klgbd» klZe _`_^g_\ghc ]Za_-
lhc184
, Zk 1 n_\jZey 1906 ]. i_j\ucghf_j «Jmkkdh]h]hkm^Zjkl\Z»
mb^_e k\_l. H^gZdh g_kfhljy gZ ]hlhghklv ba^Zgby h[tykgylv
^_yl_evghklv ijZbl_evkl\Z «^hh^Zfb eh]bdb» b ij_^hklZblv
k\hb klhe[pu ^ey \ujZ`_gby k\h[h^gh]h h[s_kl\_ggh]h fg_-
gby»185
, ]Za_lZg_ihevah\ZeZkvrbjhdhcihimeyjghklvx. 3 n_jZ-
ey 1906 ]. =mjv_\^hdeZ^uZe;_ev]Zj^m, qlh «aZi_j\ufghf_jhf
]Za_lugbdlhhl]Za_lqbdhg_y\beky, g_kfhljygZg_h^ghdjZlgu_
ij_^mij_`^_gby h ij_^klhys_f \uoh^_. G_khfg_ggZy aehmfur-
e_gghklv yklm_l m`_ ba lh]h, qlh ]Za_lqbdb g_ [jZeb ba^Zgby
^Z`_^Zjhf, kkueZykvgZhlkmlkl\b_jZaj_r_gbykhklhjhguk\hbo
dhglhj b klZjhkl»186
. =Za_lZjZkkfZljb\ZeZkvdZdjmihjij_^k_^Z-
l_ey Kh_lZ fbgbkljh b\klj_qZeZ g_^h_jb_ b  kj_^_ ijZ\b-
l_evkl\_gguoqbgh\gbdh\.181
=:JN. N. 597. Hi. 1. >. 974, 975.
182
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 1. >. 39. 1906 ]. E. 3.
183
=:JN. N. 543. Hi. 1. >. 234.
184
KfbjghK<.E_]ZevgZyi_qZlv\]h^mi_j\hcjmkkdhcj_\hexpbb. E., 1991. K. 28.
185
Jmkkdh_]hkm^Z jkl\h. KI[., 1906. 1 n_j. ‹ 1.
186
 Pbl. ih:EbohfZgh\ :<. ;hjv[Z kZfh^_j`Zby aZ h[s_kl\_ggh_ fg_gb_ \ 1905–
1907 ]]. … K. 46.

=eZ\Z 2
168Ihke_ hlklZ\dbKX. <bll_, 25 Zij_ey 1906 ]. «Jmkkdh_]hkm^Zj-
klh» [ueh ij_h[jZahZgh  kljh]h hnbpbZevgh_ ba^Zgb_. 15 fZy
\uimkd]Za_lu [ue ij_djZs_g, Z\f_klh g__ klZeh \uoh^blv «<_q_j-
g__ ijb[Ze_gb_ d IjZbl_evkl_gghfm _klgbdm»187
. M[_^bl_evgZy
ih[_^ZiZjlbbdZ^_lhgZ\u[hjZo\ I >mfmbijhZeijZuoiZjlbc
ihdZauZeb, qlh ijh_dl <bll_ g_ kfh] uihegblv khbo Zglbj_h-
expbhgguo ijhiZ]Zg^bklkdbo nmgdpbc. :glbijZbl_evkl_ggZy
jblhjbdZ ^_imlZlh\ I >mfu b ijbau\u d ijh^he`_gbx j_hexpbb
rbjhdhim[ebdhZebkvij_kk_. «<j_f_ggufbijZ\beZfb» 24 ghy[-
jyijZbl_evklhkZfhkyaZehk_[_jmdb. GbdheZc II h^ghfbakh-
boibk_ffZl_jbhlf_qZe, qlh «\k_[ueh[uohjhrh, _keb[ulh, qlh
]hhjblky  >mf_, hklZ\Zehkv  __ kl_gZo. >_eh  lhf, qlh kydh_
keh\h, kdZaZggh_lZf, ihyey_lkygZ^jm]hc^_gvhk_o]Za_lZo, dh-
lhju_gZjh^k`Z^ghklvxqblZ_l»188
.
Ghuc ihoh^ ijhlb j_hexpbhgghc ij_kku ha]eZ\be
I:. Klheuibg. IhgbfZy, qlh dj_^bl h[s_kl\_ggh]h ^h\_jby
d\eZklbfbgbfZe_gbijZbl_evkl_ggZy]Za_lZbagZqZevghh[eZ-
^Z_l j_imlZpb_c j_Zdpbhgghc b ijhpZjbklkdhc, hg j_rbe haeh-
`blvwlbnmgdpbbgZ]Za_lmqZklgmx. ?kl_kl_ggh, qlhih^^_j`dZ
kh klhjhgu ]hkm^ZjklZ ^he`gZ [ueZ [ulv g_]eZkghc. LZdhc qZ-
klghc hnbpbhaghc ]Za_lhc klZeZ «Jhkkby», uoh^brZy kh
2 ghy[jy 1905 ]. K 8 bxgy 1906 ]. hgZklZeZba^Z\Zlvkyih^jmdh\h-
^klhf hl^_eZ ihj_f_gghc i_qZlb, h[jZahZggh]h ijb =eZghf
mijZe_gbb ih ^_eZf i_qZlb. «Jhkkby» (dZd «IjZbl_evkl_gguc
_klgbd», «K_evkdbc _klgbd» b jZg__ «Jmkkdh_ ]hkm^Zjkl\h») [ueZ
hk\h[h`^_gZ hl ihqlhuo jZkoh^h b jZkkueZeZkv[_kieZlgh189
. H^-
gZdh lZcgh_ nbgZgkbjhZgb_ ]Za_lu ijZbl_evklhf hq_gv kdhjh
klZeh ba_klgh rbjhdhc h[s_kl_gghklb. «Klheuibg gZbgh hh[-
jZ`Ze, qlh lZdbf h[jZahf hg _^_l  aZ[em`^_gb_ h[s_kl\_ggh_
fg_gb_, gh, dhg_qgh, wlZ gZbgZy obljhklvgbdh]h  aZ[em`^_gb_ g_
_eZ, kyJhkkbyhlebqghagZ_l, qlh]Za_lZ “Jhkkby” _klvijZbl_ev-
kl_gguc hj]Zg, kh^_j`Zsbcky aZ kq_l ijZbl_evklZ, k_dj_lguo
nhg^h\ b ^hoh^h\ “IjZ\bl_evkl\_ggh]h \_klgbdZ”, bf_xs_]h [hev-
rb_ ^hoh^u \ke_^kl\b_ fZkku h[yaZl_evguo h[ty\e_gbc», –
kg_fZehc ^he_c y^Z ibkZe  khbo hkihfbgZgbyo KX. <bll_190
. Ih-187
Kfbjgh\K<.MdZa. khq. K. 34–35.
188
Ba i_j_ibkdb GbdheZy b FZjbb JhfZghuo \ 1907–1910 ]]. // DjZkguc Zjob\. E.,
1932. ‹ 50–51. K. 180.
189
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 1. >. 39. 1906 ]. E. 2–2h[.
190
<bll_KX.<hkihfbgZgby. F., 1960. L. 3. K. 317.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
169imeyjghklv b \ebyl_evghklv ]Za_lu «Jhkkby», _jhylgh, g_ \uoh^beb aZ
ij_^_eu klhebp. Kj_^g__ dhebq_kl\h ijh^Zgguo wda_fieyjh\ \ bxe_ –
k_gly[j_ 1906 ]. [ueh hlghkbl_evgh g__ebdh – 7 217191
. IjZ\Zy i_qZlv,
dZdb\kemqZ_ k «Jmkkdbf]hkm^Zjkl\hf», g_ kqblZeZnhjfZevghqZklgmx
klheuibgkdmx ]Za_lm «k\hbf», bklbgghiZljbhlbq_kdbf fhgZjobq_kdbf
ba^Zgb_f.
KlheuibglZd`_ij_^ijbgyerZ]bihkha^Zgbxhkh[hcijZ\b-
l_evkl\_gghcbgnhjfZpbhgghc kem`[u. 1 k_gly[jy 1906 ]. ih_]h
jZkihjy`_gbx ijb =eZghf mijZe_gbb ih ^_eZf i_qZlb [ueh
h[jZah\Zgh «Hk\_^hfbl_evgh_ [xjh», dhlhjh_ ^he`gh [ueh
kgZ[`Zlv i_qZlv ^hklh_jgufb k\_^_gbyfb, dZkZxsbfbky ^_ckl-
bc b ij_^iheh`_gbc ijZ\bl_evklZ. «Hk_^hfbl_evgh_ [xjh»
\uimkdZehki_pbZevgu_[xee_l_gb, uoh^b\rb_^ZjZaZkmldb,
b khklZeyehh[ahju i_qZlb\ b^_ _`_^g_\guo^hdeZ^hIj_^k_-
^Zl_ex Kh_lZ fbgbkljh\, fbgbkljm \gmlj_ggbo ^_e b gZqZevgb-
dm =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb kh kh^dZfb fg_gbc
klhebqguo]Za_lihgZb[he__\Z`guf\hijhkZf. Hgh`_kgZ[`Zeh
f_klgu_ \_^hfhklb uj_adZfb ba ]Za_l ih aZy\e_gguf bf l_fZf.
Hk\_^hfbl_evgh_[xjh» ^_ckl\h\Zeh^h 1917 ].192
=m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb dZd f_klgu_ ijZ\bl_evkl_ggu_ hj]Zgu
uihegyeb nmgdpbx Zglbj_hexpbhgghc ijhiZ]Zg^u  jZaebqghc
kl_i_gb, \ aZ\bkbfhklb hl hlghr_gby d ]Za_l_ ]m[_jgZlhjZ, iheblb-
q_kdboa]ey^h __ j_^ZdlhjZ, gZdZeZ j_hexpbhgghc [hjv[u, gZeb-
qby ki_pbZebabjhZgghc iZjlbcghc fhgZjobq_kdhc ij_kku. H^gZdh
gZ ijZhh_ iheh`_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c g_ ihebyeb gb j_-
amevlZlujZ[hlu «Dhfbkkbb^eyi_j_kfhljZ^_ckl\mxsboijZ\beh[
ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c» 1901 ]., gb fg_gby
hlghkbl_evgh bogh\hc jheb \ukrboijZ\bl_evkl\_gguo djm]Zo, gb
ijZdlbq_kdbc hiul ^_yl_evghklb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \h\jZ`^_[-
ghf bgnhjfZpbhgghf hdjm`_gbb. < «K\h^_ aZdhgh\ Jhkkbckdhc bf-
i_jbb» (ih ijh^he`_gbx 1906 ].) gZoh^bf ebrv nhjfmebjh\dm,
h[h[sZxsmx ij_^r_kl\h\Zrb_ aZdhgh^Zl_evgu_ mlhqg_gby:191
EbohfZgh\:<.;hjv[Z kZfh^_j`ZbyaZ h[s_kl\_ggh_fg_gb_\ 1905–1907 ]]. …
K. 111.
192
IheygkdZ y E. :jobgucnhg^=eZgh]h mijZe_gbyih^_eZfi_qZlb. H[ahj // Eb-
l_jZlmjgh_ gZke_^kl\h. 1935. ‹ 22–24. K. 603–634;:f[jhkv_ :<. Hj]ZgbaZpbhggh-
ijZhu_ hkghu ^_yl_evghklb =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_qZlb Fbgbkl_jklZ
gmlj_ggbo ^_e Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb (1865–1917 ]].) : Zlhj_n. ^bk. ... dZg^. xjb^. gZmd.
F., 2012. K. 16–17;D_evg_j <?. Kha^Zgb_ b ^ _yl_evg hklv Hk\_^hfb l_evg h]h [x jh i jb
=eZghf mijZ\e_gbb ih ^_eZf i_qZlb : 1906–1917 ]]. // P_gamjZ  Jhkkbb : bklhjby
bkhj_f_gghklv: k[hjgbdgZmqguoljm^h\. KI[., 2011. <ui. 5. K. 237–243.

=eZ\Z 2
170<]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo g_dhlhjuo ]m[_jgbc jZaj_r_gh i_j_i_-
qZlu\Zlv ba k_o kms_kl\mxsbo m gZk hnbpbZevguo ba^Zgbc iheb-
lbq_kdb_ ba_klby b hh[s_ ijZbl_evkl_ggu_ jZkihjy`_gby, jZ\-
gh dZd aZbfklhZlv ba gbo jmdh\h^ysb_ klZlvb ih ij_^f_lZf
g_rg_c iheblbdb b \gmlj_gg_]h mijZe_gby, ijbq_f: 1) gZ[ex^_-
gb_aZlZdhufbi_j_i_qZldZfbhaeh`_ghgZ[eb`Zcr__ihi_q_gb_
bp_]m[_jgZlhjh\; 2) ih^ibkgZy p_gZ gZ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb hk-
lZe_gZ b  ghhf bo \b^_  ij_`g_f jZaf_j_; 3) ba ^hoh^h\, dZdb_
fh`_l ^hklZeylv ba^Zgb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c ih jZkrbj_gghc
ijh]jZff_, ij_^hklZe_gh ih^e_`Zsbf ]m[_jgkdbf gZqZevklZf, k
jZaj_r_gby fbgbkljZ \gmlj_ggbo ^_e, ^ZZlv hkh[h_ hagZ]jZ`^_-
gb_ebpZf, aZgbfZxsbfkyj_^Zdpb_c\_^hfhkl_c»193
.
I:. Klheuibg m^_eye [hevr__ gbfZgb_ km[kb^bjhZgbx f_-
klguo qZklguo ijhijZbl_evkl_gguo ba^Zgbc b p_gljZevguo, h[-
sbo ^ey k_c bfi_jbb hnbpbhah\ – «Jhkkbb» b «K_evkdh]h _klgb-
dZ», – [_kieZlgZy jZkkuedZ dhlhjuo \h \j_fy ij_^\u[hjghc
dZfiZgbb b  i_jbh^ jZ[hlu aZdhgh^Zl_evguo mqj_`^_gbc, ih fg_-
gbx ij_fv_jfbgbkljZ, kihkh[klhZeZ hagZdhfe_gbx «kh a]ey^Z-
fbbij_^iheh`_gbyfbijZbl_evklZdZd^he`ghklguoebpf_klgh-
]h mijZe_gby, lZd b rbjhdbo keh_ gZk_e_gby»194
. < dZq_kl\_
ijbeh`_gbcd «K_evkdhfm_klgbdm» uimkdZebkvdZe_g^Zjb, ^ey
ih^ibkqbdh jZkijhkljZgyrb_ky [_kieZlgh, Z \ jhagbpm – ih
fbgbfZevghc p_g_ (50 dhi.), \dexqZrb_ \ k_[y djZldh_ baeh`_-
gb_ ^_cklmxsbo aZdhgh h ]hkm^Zjkl_gguo mqj_`^_gbyo, gh-
\_cr__ aZdhgh^Zl_evkl\h ih dj_klvygkdhc j_nhjf_, ijZ\beZ
hi_j_k_e_gbb, h[tykg_gby ijb_fh i_j_oh^Z hl h[sbggh]h a_f-
e_ihevahZgby dbg^b\b^mZevghfm195
. < ^hdeZ^_ GbdheZx II
\n_\jZe_ 1908 ]. I:. Klheuibg ih^q_jdb\Ze, qlh «Zkkb]gh\Zg-
guc\ijhrehf]h^mdj_^blgZih^^_j`Zgb_qZklguoba^Zgbc^Ze
\hafh`ghklv hkgh\Zgby\h fgh]boijh\bgpbZevguo ]hjh^Zo ]Za_l
ijZh]h gZijZe_gby, dhlhjuo jZg__ ihqlb g_ [ueh», h^gZdh bf
k_ _s_ hq_gv ljm^gh dhgdmjbjhZlv k ]Za_lZfb e_h]h gZijZ\-
e_gby, ba dhlhjuo hq_gv fgh]b_ ba^Zxlky gZ ^_gv]b, `_jl\m_fu_
\iZjlbcguop_eyo»196
.193
K\h^aZdhghJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb. <k_ 16 lhfh\, bkijZe_ggu_ihIjh^he`_gbyf
1906 b 1908 ]]. b ^hiheg_ggu_ iha^g_crbfb maZdhg_gbyfb,  q_luj_o dgb]Zo. F., 1910.
L. 2: K\h^] m[_jgkdbomqj_`^_gbc. Kl. 541. Ijbf. 2.
194
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 1. >. 41. 1911 ]. E. 3.
195
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 1. >. 41. 1911 ]. E. 1–2.
196
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 1. >. 41. 1911 ]. E. 3h[.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
171< 1907–1912 ]]. gZ [x^`_l «Jhkkbb» b «ihkh[by» ]Za_lZf dhg-
k_jZlb\gh]h gZijZe_gby ]hkm^Zjkl_ggZy dZagZ ljZlbeZ ih
350 luk. jm[.  ]h^. Wlb kj_^klZ iha\hebeb lZd`_ jZkrbjblv ^_y-
l_evghklv dgb`gh]h kdeZ^Z ijb «K_evkdhf _klgbd_», ba^Zlv b jZk-
ijhkljZgblv kj_^b k_evkdh]h gZk_e_gby jy^ «i he_aguo» [jhrxj,
hdZaZlv ih^^_j`dm hagbdr_fm \ 1910 ].,  I_l_j[mj]_, `mjgZem
«Revue Contemporaine» (ba^ZZeky ^h 1917 ].) b uoh^b\r_fm
\ 1910–12 ]]. «>Zevg_\hklhqghfm h[haj_gbx». 100-e_lgbc x[b-
e_c Hl_q_kl\_gghc \hcgu hagZf_gh\Zeky uimkdhf 30 [jhrxj
b 700 luk. ihjlj_lh b dZjlbg, ihkys_gguo ]_jhyf b kh[ulbyf
1812 ]., Z d 300-e_lbx >hfZ JhfZghuo [ueh ih^]hlhe_gh 40 gZ-
jh^guo ba^Zgbc. < 1913 ]. Zkkb]gh\Zgby m_ebqbebkv ^h 826 300 jm[.
Gh\ufb klZlvyfb jZkoh^h\ klZeb kh^_j`Zgb_ «hkh[h]h hl^_eZ, h[ke_-
^mxs_]h bghkljZggmx b bghjh^q_kdmx i_qZlv» b «;xjh jmkkdbo `mj-
gZebklh\», h[kem`bZxs_]h ijh\bgpbZevgmx ij_kkm. < 1916 ]. jZkoh^u
ih km[kb^bjhZgbx khklZ\eyeb m`_ 1,7 feg jm[., b lZdZy `_ kmffZ aZ-
ijZrb\ZeZkvgZ 1917 ]., gh\u^_e_gh[uehebrv 1,1 fegjm[.197
.
< mkehbyo g_^hnbgZgkbjhZgby ba p_gljZ g_hnbpbZevgu_ qZk-
lb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \ i_jb h^ i hke_ i_j\hc jmkkdhc j_\hex-
pbbklZebmf_gvrZlvky, hajZsZlvkydij_`g_fmiheh`_gbxkijZ-
hqghbgnhjfZpbhgguoijbeh`_gbc, \aZ\bkbfhklbhlbokh[kl_g-
guo ^hoh^h b ih mkfhlj_gbx ]m[_jgkdbo eZkl_c. FZl_jbZevgh_
iheh`_gb_ _^hfhkl_c mom^rbe aZdhg 16 bxgy 1905 ]., h^brbc
k 1 ygZjy 1906 ]. h[yaZl_evgmx hieZlm i_j_kuedb dZa_gguoi_jbh-
^bq_kdbo ba^Zgbc – 1 jm[. 20 dhi. ^ey ]Za_l i_jbh^bqghklvx [he__
^\mojZa\g_^_exb 1 jm[. ^ey]Za_l, \uoh^b\rbog_[he__^\mojZa
\ g_^_ex198
. GZijbf_j, \ 1909 ]. Lh[hevkdh_ ]m[_jgkdh_ ijZe_gb_
^he`gh [ueh aZieZlblv ihqlh\hfm \_^hfkl\m 317 jm[. 73 dhi. aZ i_-
j_kuedm «Lh[hevkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c» ijbkmlkl_gguff_k-
lZf b ^he`ghklguf ebpZf h^ghc lhevdh Lh[hevkdhc ]m[_jgbb199
.
F_`^m]m[_jgkdbfbijZe_gbyfbb=eZ\gufmijZe_gb_fih^_eZf
i_qZlb gZqZeZkv h[rbjgZy i_j_ibkdZ h lhf, qlh h[yaZl_evgu_ ih^-
ibkqbdb, kh]eZkgh Iheh`_gbx h ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo, ^he`gu
ihemqZlvboih p_g_ \ 3 jm[. k ^hklZdhc b i_j_kuedhc. IjZbl_ev-
kl_ggu_ mqj_`^_gby lZd`_ g_ yeyebkv ih^ibkqbdZfb, Z ihemqZeb
_^hfhklb [_kieZlgh ih^_ehijhbah^kl_gghc g_h[oh^bfhklb. H^-197
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 1. >. 42. 1912 ]. E. 5, 11–11h[, 14, 50.
198
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 22. >. 59. 1906 ]. E. 2, 14.
199
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 22. >. 59. 1906 ]. E. 37.

=eZ\Z 2
172gZdh  hl_l gZ wlh F<> jZkijhkljZgyeh jZatykg_gby, qlh «i_j_-
kuedZihihql_dZdboeb[hwda_fieyjh]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c[_k-
ieZlgh g_ fh`_l [ulv ^hims_gZ»200
, hgb «ijbjZg_gu d ba^Zgbyf
qZklgh]h oZjZdl_jZ g_ kydhc aZbkbfhklb hl lh]h, i_j_kueZxlky
ebwlb\_^hfhklbih^ibkqbdZfqZklgufbeb`_h[yaZl_evguf»201
.
G_ jZa  ij_kkm ijhgbdZeb khh[s_gby h ]hlhys_cky k_h[t_f-
exs_c j_nhjf_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c. «Kb[bjkdZy `bagv»  n_\-
jZe_ 1910 ]. ibkZeZ, qlh « kZfhf g_ijh^he`bl_evghf \j_f_gb ih
ij_^eh`_gbx Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e ij_^klhbl baf_g_gb_
ijh]jZffu f_klguo “=m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c”. MijZa^gy_lky g_-
hnbpbZevgZy qZklv wlh]h ba^Zgby, ijbq_f h[tye_gby qZklgh]h oZ-
jZdl_jZ lZd`_ g_ [m^ml ijbgbfZlvky. MijZa^g_gb_ g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb\uaZgh`_eZgb_ffbgbkl_jklZhlkljZgblvkhboqbghgbdh\
hl iheblbdb iZjlbcghklb, mdZauZy bfl_fkZfuf, qlh hgb ^he`gu
ihklmiZlv h k_f kh]eZkgh \he_ aZdhgZ, g_ kijZeyykv kh khbfb
ebqgufb a]ey^Zfb»202
. < bxg_ 1910 ]. «Dm[Zgkdb_ h[eZklgu_ _-
^hfhklb» khh[sZeb qblZl_eyfke_^mxs__: «Fbgbkl_jkl\h gmlj_g-
gbo ^_e khauZ_l hk_gvx kt_a^ kh_lgbdh ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc
bp_]m[_jgZlhjh^eyh[km`^_gbyhijhkZh[ba^Zgbb “=m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c”. J_r_gh  ijbgpbi_ baf_gblv wlb ]Za_lu b gZihegylv
bo pbjdmeyjgh fZl_jbZehf ba “Jhkkbb”, lZd qlh “ebl_jZlmjgZy”
qZklv “=m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c” [m^_l k\h^blvky d ijhklhc i_j_i_-
qZld_ba “qZklgh]h” ba^Zgby»203
. H^gZdhwlbghhklbhdZau\Zebkvg_
[he__ q_f kemoZfb. <_^hfhklb ijh^he`Zeb ba^ZZlvky k g_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklvx, qZklgufb h[tye_gbyfb b ih ij_`g_c mklZj_r_c
ijh]jZff_.
Kt_a^ j_^Zdlhjh b ij_^klZeyrbo ijhbgpbZevgu_ dZa_ggu_
ba^Zgby qbghgbdh [ue hj]ZgbahZg =eZ\guf mijZe_gb_f ih ^_-
eZfi_qZlb (h ]eZ_ k k_gZlhjhf<L. Km^_cdbguf) m`_ mkehbyo200
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 22. >. 59. 1906 ]. E. 40.
201
J=B:. N. 776. Hi. 22. >. 59. 1906 ]. E. 51. ?^bgkl_ggufihkeZ[e_gb_fklZei_j_-
oh^ k 1 ygZjy 1907 ]. k fbgbfZevghc lZdku ihqlh\h]h k[hjZ gZ ijhp_glguc, gh lhevdh
^ey_^hfhkl_c, klhbfhklvih^ibkdbgZdhlhju_g_ij_urZeZ 4 jm[. ]h^. <wlhfkemqZ_
k ]Za_l, uoh^b\rbo [he__ ^mo jZa  g_^_ex, abfZeky 18 % k[hj (k ih^ibkghc ieZlu
\ 3 jm[. hg khklZeye 54 dhi., \ 4 jm[. – 72 dhi., f_klhij_`gbo 1 jm[. 20 dhi.), Zk]Za_l,
ki_jbh^bqghklvxg_[he__^mojZa\g_^_ex, – 16 % (ijbklhbfhklbih^ibkdb\ 3 jm[. –
48 dhi., Z\ 4 jm[. – 64 dhi., \f_klhij_`g_]h 1 jm[.).
202
LhfkdZy`bagv. Baf_g_gb_ ijh]jZffu ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c // Kb[bjkdZy
`bagv. 1910. ‹ 33. 11 n_\j. 1910. K. 3.
203
;helmp H:.IjhbgpbZevguc]Za_lgucn_ev_lhg: hl hl^_eZd`Zgjm (gZfZl_jbZ-
e_dm[Zgkdhci _jbh^bdbjm[_`Z XIX– XX \\.) : ^bk. … dZg^. nbehe. gZmd. DjZkgh^Zj, 2006.
K. 58.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
173I_jhc fbjhhc hcgu – 3–5 n_jZey 1916 ]. I_ljh]jZ^_. Ij_^k_-
^Zl_evkl\mxsbf gZ kt_a^_ [ue ]eZguc j_^Zdlhj «IjZ\bl_evkl\_g-
gh]h _klgbdZ» dgyav KI. Mjmkh\. Fbgbklj gmlj_ggbo ^_e
:G. O\hklh \ k\h_f h[jZs_gbb d mqZklgbdZf kt_a^Z hij_^_eye
i_qZlv dZd «mrb, ]eZaZ b smiZevpZ `bagb» b hlf_qZe ^\Z ]eZguo
ij_bfms_klZ i_j_^ qZklghc ij_kkhc – «g_iZjlbcghklv»
b «^hklh_jgZyhk_^hfe_gghklvbai_juobklhqgbdh\».
DZd b\ 1901 ]., hkghguf [ue hijhk h jZkrbj_gbb g_hnbpb-
Zevghc qZklb _^hfhkl_c dZd ba^Zgby, kihkh[gh]h gZjZguo k qZkl-
gufb ]Za_lZfb hk_sZlv f_klgu_ bgl_j_ku b gm`^u;  wlhc k\yab
h`b^ZeZkv fZl_jbZevgZy ih^^_j`dZ kh klhjhgu ]hkm^ZjklZ.
<mkehbyo hcgu ghufb ijh[e_fZfb, hkeZ[eyrbfb f_klguc
ijZbl_evkl_gguc hj]Zg, klZeb ^_nbpbl [mfZ]b b ijbau \ Zjfbx
j_^Zdlhjh\ blbih]jZnkdbo jZ[hqbo. Ijbkh_^bgyykv d fg_gbx «Dh-
fbkkbb ^ey i_j_kfhljZ ^_ckl\mxsbo ijZbe h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo
bh[eZklguo _^hfhkl_c» 1901 ]., kt_a^ ujZ[hlZe b ^Z ghuo ijbg-
pbibZevguoiheh`_gby^eyf_klgh]hijZbl_evkl\_ggh]h hj]ZgZ: ba^Z-
gb_ _]h gZ f_klguo yaudZo gZ gZpbhgZevguo hdjZbgZob kha^Zgb_ ijb
IjZbl_evkl_gghf _klgbd_» «hk_^hfbl_evghebl_jZlmjgh]h mqj_-
`^_gby» ^ey kgZ[`_gby _^hfhkl_c, h[t_^bg_gguo g_kdhevdh j_]bh-
gZevguo]jmii, bgnhjfZpb_cbklZlvyfb. Djhf_ lh]h, \k_ kj_^klZ, ih-
emqZ_fu_aZh[tye_gbybih^ibkdm, ^he`gu[uebij_^gZagZqZlvky^ey
jZablby g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb, [_a dZdboeb[h i_j_qbke_gbc  Fbgb-
kl_jkl\h gmlj_ggbo ^_e. Ijb g_^hklZlhqghklb kj_^kl\ ieZgbjhZehkv
aZijZrbZlv ihkh[by b kkm^u m ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h dZagZq_ckl\Z
bm «IjZbl_evkl\_ggh]h_klgbdZ»204
.
Blh]huc ijhlhdhe kt_a^Z 1916 ]. ^Z`_ g_ [ue i_j_i_qZlZg gZ-
[_ehbkh^_j`Zejmdhibkgu_ijZdbgZiheyo. G_^hklZlhdnbgZgkh\,
g_`_eZgb_ ij_^hklZblv hnbpbZevguf hj]ZgZf [hevrmx kZfhklhy-
l_evghklv\ghvihkem`bebij_iylkl\b_fdj_rbl_evgufbaf_g_gb-
yfh[ebd_ijZbl_evkl_gghci_qZlb.
Ihke_ N_jZevkdhc j_\hexpbb, 9 fZjlZ 1917 ]., <j_f_ggh_ ijZ-
bl_evklh ebdb^bjhZeh =eZgh_ mijZe_gb_ ih ^_eZf i_qZlb205
.
IjZ\bl_evkl\_gguc \_klgbd» kf_gbeky «<_klgbdhf <j_f_ggh]h
ijZbl_evklZ», \ dhlhjhf im[ebdhZebkv _]h h[jZs_gby, hlq_lu
haZk_^Zgbyo, aZdhgubaZdhghijh_dlu, jZkihjy`_gby, ^biehfZlbq_-
kdb_ ghlu, bgnhjfZpby k njhglh\. =m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb, k ij_`-204
J=B:. N. 785. Hi. 1. >. 356. E. 4–13h[.
205
=:JN. N. 1787. Hi. 1. >. 35. 5 e.

=eZ\Z 2
174gbfbebghuf gZaZgb_f, ihij_`g_fm bkihegyeb nmgdpbx f_kl-
guo ijZ\bl_evkl_gguo hj]Zgh\, Z  mkehbyo =jZ`^Zgkdhc hcgu
bo fZl_jbZevghl_ogbq_kdZy [ZaZ i_j_reZ  jmdb Zglb[hevr_bkl-
kdbo ijZbl_evkl beb kh_lkdhc eZklb. Ihke_^gbf i_qZlguf hj-
]Zghf, khojZgyrbf ij__fkl_gghklv b  gZaZgbb, b  gZagZq_gbb
kpZjkdbfb _^hfhklyfb, [ueb «LZjbq_kdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfh-
klb», uoh^brb_^hiZ^_gbyIjZ\bl_evklZX]ZJhkkbb\ 1920 ].206
BlZd, bagZqZevgh kha^ZZ_fu_ dZd kljhcgZy b kljh]Zy kbkl_fZ
j_]bhgZevguo ijZbl_evkl\_gguo ba^Zgbc \_^hfhklb b^m f_kl-
guo mkehbc, hl^_evguo ^hims_gbc  ijh]jZff_, qZklguo oh^Z-
lZckl ]m[_jgZlhjh ihkl_i_ggh hloh^bebhl ij_^ibkZgguoh]jZgb-
q_gbc, jZa\bZebkvb\b^hbaf_gyebkv – bgh]^Z^hlZdhckl_i_gb, qlh
kh_c g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb \uihegyeb nmgdpbb, khk_f g_ ky-
aZggu_kp_eyfbih^^_j`Zgbybfi_jkdhc]hkm^Zjkl\_gghklb. <blh-
]_, dh]^Z\ 1901 ]. j_^Zdlhju_^hfhkl_c[uebua\Zgu\I_l_j[mj],
l_ ]Za_lu, dhlhju_ kbkl_fZlbq_kdb gZjmrZeb mklZghe_ggmx aZdh-
ghf ijh]jZffm, [ueb hlf_q_gu dZd bgl_j_kgu_ b kh^_j`Zl_evgu_.
<i_jbh^ khpbZevguodZlZdebafhih^h]g_fdjblbdbdZdke_Z, lZd
b kijZZ kZfh^_j`ZgZy eZklv klj_fbeZkv bkihevah\Zlv, j_hj]Zgb-
ahZlv b mkh_jr_gkl\hZlv bf_xsb_ky  __ jZkihjy`_gbb p_g-
ljZevgu_ b f_klgu_ hj]Zgu i_qZlb ^ey klZ[bebaZpbb kblmZpbb
bijh_^_gby dhgljiheblbdb  hlghr_gbb jZ^bdZevghj_hexpbhg-
ghc b eb[_jZevghc b^_heh]bb. G_h[oh^bfhklv kh[ex^_gby ijhha-
]eZr_ggh]h kZfbf`_ijZbl_evklhfijZZkh[h^ui_qZlbkgb`Z-
eZ hafh`ghklb ijbf_g_gby ijb\uqguo Z^fbgbkljZlb\gh-
dZjZl_evguof_j  hlghr_gbbg_m]h^guoba^Zgbc. < jZfdZoj_nhj-
fu ijZbl_evkl_gghc i_qZlb kZfhklhyl_evguf b _`_^g_guf ba-
^Zgb_f k m_ebq_gguf lbjZ`hf klZe «K_evkdbc _klgbd»; i_jbh^
n_jZey – fZy 1906 ]. uoh^beZhnbpbZevgZyijZ\bl_evkl_ggZy ]Z-
a_lZ «Jmkkdh_ ]hkm^Zjkl\h» dZd im[ebpbklbq_kdZy qZklv «IjZb-
l_evkl_ggh]h _klgbdZ»; k bxgy 1906 ]. __ nmgdpbb [uebhaeh`_-
gu gZ qZklgmx, ih^ jmdhh^klhf Fbgbkl_jklZ \gmlj_ggbo ^_e,
]Za_lm «Jhkkby». ;he__ j_rbl_evguc j_nhjfZlhjkdbc ijh_dl
KK. LZlbs_Z, ih^jZamf_Zrbc kha^Zgb_ jZa_le_gghc k_lb ijZ-
bl_evkl_gghc i_jbh^bdb h ]eZ_ k h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdbf
ba^Zgb_f, i_j_h[hjm^hZgb_ ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc, mqj_`^_gb_206
Nbebfhgh\K;.Ihke_^gbcj_^Zdlhj «LZ\jbq_kdbo]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c» (>_eh
GI. Qh]eZdhZ) // Nbebfhgh K;. LZcgu djufkdbo aZkl_gdh\: ^hdmf_glZevgu_ hq_jdb
h`_jlZo iheblbq_kdbo j_ij_kkbc  Djufm \ 1920–1940-_ ]h^Z. Kbfn_jhihev, 2003.
K. 153–155.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
175ijb Kh_l_ fbgbkljh gZ hkgh_ =eZgh]h mijZe_gby ih ^_eZf i_-
qZlb kZfhklhyl_evgh]h bgnhjfZpbhggh]h ij_kkp_gljZ, g_ [ue j_Z-
ebahZg \b^m g_h[oh^bfhklb kms_kl_gguo ]hkm^Zjkl_gguo eb-
Zgbc, g_^hklZldZ j_f_gb,  kbem jb]b^ghklb [xjhdjZlbq_kdh]h
khagZgby. G_dhlhju_ iheh`_gby ijh_dlZ KK. LZlbs_Z j_ZebahZe
I:. Klheuibg,  qZklghklb, b^_x kha^Zgby hkh[h]h bgnhjfZpbhg-
ghkijZhqgh]h hl^_eZ ijb =eZghf mijZe_gbb ih ^_eZf i_qZlb
\\b^_ «Hk\_^hfbl_evgh]h [xjh», kh_^bg_gb_ K.-I_l_j[mj]kdh]h
l_e_]jZngh]hZ]_glkl\Zk «IjZ\bl_evkl\_gguf\_klgbdhf».
Ijhp_kk mkbe_gby ijZbl_evkl\_gghc i_qZlb b^_eky eZklb g_
lhevdh \ im[ebpbklbq_kdhc b ZgZeblbq_kdhc ljZgkeypbb b^_c «mfbjh-
lhj_gby, h[ghe_gby b kiZk_gby Jhkkbb»  ijhlbh\_k «_ebdbf ih-
ljyk_gbyf» j_\hexpbb, gh b  aZdj_ie_gbb aZ hnbpbZevguf ba^Zgb_f
fhghihevgh]h ijZZ gZ kxijZbl_evkl\_ggmxbgnhjfZpbxb\ ]hkm-
^Zjkl_gghf dhgljhe_ aZ jmkkdbf k_dlhjhf fbjh\hc bgnhjfZpbhgghc
l_e_]jZnghc k_lb. < [ukljh f_gyxsboky khpbZevghiheblbq_kdbo mk-
ehbyo lZdhc ih^oh^ u]ey^_e yguf ZgZojhgbafhf b g_ fh] [ulv
hkms_kle_g\iheghfh[t_f_.
< djm]m ukrbo qbghgbdh g_ [ueh _^bgklZ hlghkbl_evgh
kljmdlmju b hkghguo nmgdpbc hnbpbZevghc ijZbl_evkl_gghc ]Za_-
lu, __ j_hj]ZgbaZpby g_ ghkbeZ ihke_^hZl_evgh]h oZjZdl_jZ, dZ`^uc
ba ij_fv_jfbgbkljh\ bf_e k\h_ fg_gb_: KX. <bll_ kqblZe ]Za_lm
agZqbfufkj_^kl\hf^eyijhiZ]Zg^ub^_cFZgbn_klZ 17 hdly[jyb^ey
kh[kl_ggh]h, ujZ`Zykv kh\j_f_gguf yaudhf, «ibZjZ»; BE. =h-
j_fudbg hljbpZe g_h[oh^bfhklv ijZbl_evkl_gghc ]Za_lu, ghkys_c
h[s_kl_gghiheblbq_kdbc oZjZdl_j; I:. Klheuibg lZd`_ hldZauZe
]Za_l_, hldjulh^_deZjbjhZr_ckhxijbgZ^e_`ghklvijZbl_evkl\m,
wnn_dlbghklb, gh\haeZ]ZegZ^_`^ugZqZklgh_ba^Zgb_kh kdjuluf
]hkm^Zjkl_ggufmijZe_gb_fbkm[kb^bjhZgb_f.
JZ[hlZ ih j_hj]ZgbaZpbb ijZbl_evkl_ggh]h ba^Zgby [ueZ ha-
eh`_gZ ijZ\bl_evklhf gZ gZb[he__ kihkh[guo qbghgbdh\, dhlh-
ju_ ^_ckl\hZeb g_ lhevdh ih b^_cguf, gh b ih fZl_jbZevguf
bdZjv_jguf khh[jZ`_gbyf. H^gZdh eZ]_jv ijZuo kbe, ba ij_^klZ-
bl_e_c dhlhjh]h fh]eb j_djmlbjhZlvky khljm^gbdb ]Za_lu, hklZ-
Zeky beb jZgh^mr_g, beb jZ`^_[_g d __ kh^_j`Zgbx (hlZ`b\Z-
ykv ^Z`_ dmkZlv jmdm, dhjfysmx bo kZfbo). =Za_lu «Jmkkdh_
]hkm^Zjkl\h» b «Jhkkby», dZdbkhhl_lkl\mxsb_]eZudZ[bg_lh\, djb-
lbdhZebkv ijZufb aZ g_^hklZlhqgmx `_kldhklv ih hlghr_gbx d j_-
hexpbhgghfm ^b`_gbx b aZ hlklZbZgb_ dmjkZ gZ khojZg_gb_ «h[-

=eZ\Z 2
176ghe_ggh]h» dhgklblmpbhggh]h kljhy. JhkkbckdZy bgl_eeb]_gpby g_
klj_fbeZkv d khljm^gbq_kl\m k ijZbl_evkl_gghc i_qZlvx, hij_^_eyy
ih^h[gmx jZ[hlm dZd [_kkfuke_ggmx b kyaZggmx ^Z`_ g_dhlhjhf
jh^_ k ihahjhf. E:. Lbohfbjh\, khagZl_evgh i_j_r_^rbc ba j_\hex-
pbhggh]h  ijZbl_evkl\_gguc eZ]_jv, gZ ij_^eh`_gb_ KlheuibgZ
dhgp_ 1907 ]. hclb  j_^Zdpbx «Jhkkbb» hl_lbe hldZahf. «;h`_
fhc, dZd g_ klu^gh ^mfZlv hlZdhf a^hj_, dZd qvygb[m^v jZ[hlZ ^ey
Z[khexlgh g_ qblZ_fhc hnbpbhaghc ]Za_lu!», – aZibkZe Lbohfbjh\
kh_f ^g_gbd_207
. IjhZe ba[bjZl_evghc dZfiZgbb h II >mfm ijb-
h^be ijZbl_evkl\h d fukeb h g_wnn_dlb\ghklb ij_kku  [hjv[_ aZ
h[s_kl_ggh_ fg_gb_ b ihgbfZgbx g_h[oh^bfhklb ijbf_g_gby [he__
jZ^bdZevguo f_j \ [hjv[_ k j_\hexpb_c, k \hkklZghe_gb_f dhgljhey
gZ^ qZklghc i_jbh^bdhc. <eZklv i_j_reZ  mki_rgh_ dhgljgZklmie_-
gb_, gh  __ «aZj`Ze_gghf Zjk_gZe_» (ih f_ldhfm ukdZauZgbx
KK. LZlbs_Z) bgl_ee_dlmZevguf f_jZf ha^_cklby [ueZ hl\_^_gZ
^Ze_dhg_i_jZyjhev.
< p_ehf, ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggmx iheblbdm  hlghr_gbb ]m[_jg-
kdbo \_^hfhkl_c, baf_g_gb_ bo ijZ\h\h]h iheh`_gby h \lhjhc
q_l\_jlb XIX – gZqZe_ XX \. fh`ghij_^klZ\blv\ke_^mxs_c
i_jbh^baZpbb:
1828–1830 ]]. – ih^]hlhdZ ijh_dlZ ba^Zgby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_c k mqZklb_f Fbgbkl_jkl\Z nbgZgkh b Fbgbkl_jkl\Z \gmlj_g-
gbo ^_e; hij_^_e_gb_ hkghguo p_e_c b aZ^Zq ba^Zgby, fZl_jbZev-
guobl_ogbq_kdboj_kmjkh^ey_]hhj]ZgbaZpbb.
1830–1837 ]]. – gZqZevguc i_jbh^ ba^Zgby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfh-
kl_c – aZdhgh^Zl_evgh_ hij_^_e_gb_ bo kljmdlmju, kh^_j`Zgby, kh-
klZZ b nmgdpbc j_^Zdpbb, ihjy^dZ uoh^Z, nbgZgkhh]h h[_ki_q_-
gby, p_gamjbjhZgby b jZkijhkljZg_gby _^hfhkl_c; ibehlgh_
ba^Zgb_]Za_lu\YjhkeZkdhc]m[_jgbb.
1838–1845 ]]. – fZkkh\h_ ba^Zgb_ ]m[_jgkdbo b h[eZklguo _^h-
fhkl_c dZd g_hlt_fe_fhc khklZeyxs_c ^_yl_evghklb ]m[_jgkdbo
bh[eZklguoijZe_gbc; i_ju_ hiulu hj]ZgbaZpbbg_hnbpbZevghc
qZklbbp_gamjgu_mlhqg_gbyhlghkbl_evgh__kh^_j`Zgby.
1845–1855 ]]. – jZkrbj_gb_ ijh]jZffu g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb
hnbpbZevguo_^hfhkl_c iml_f__ aZdhgh^Zl_evghc j_]eZf_glZpbb,
mkbe_gb_p_gamjgh]h dhgljhey, gZqZehnhjfbjhZgbyj_]bhgZevguo
ZjbZglh]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c.207
Ba^g_gbdZEvZLbohfbjhZ (i_jbh^klheuibgsbgu) // DjZkgucZjob\. E., 1935.
L. 72. K. 133.

IjZ\h\h_iheh`_gb_ij_kku\kbkl_f_i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb
1771855–1863 – bkihevahZgb_ ijZ\bl_evklhf _^hfhkl_c  iheb-
lbd_ «mijZey_fhc ]eZkghklb», Z eb[_jZevghj_nhjfbklkdbfbb j_-
hexpbhggh^_fhdjZlbq_kdbfb kbeZfb –  kh[kl_gguo b^_heh]b-
q_kdbo p_eyo; hk\h[h`^_gb_ \_^hfhkl_c hl h[s_c p_gamju
kkhojZg_gb_f ij_^Zjbl_evghc Z^fbgbkljZlb\ghc p_gamju); jZa-
j_r_gb_\\_^hfhklyoklZl_cgZh[s_kl\_gghiheblbq_kdb_l_fu.
1864–1881 ]]. – l_g^_gpby d ijbh[j_l_gbx _^hfhklyfb (khbo
g_hnbpbZevguo qZklyo) oZjZdl_jZ kZfhklhyl_evgh]h j_]bhgZevgh]h
ba^Zgby, g_ jZfhd aZdhgh^Zl_evgh hij_^_e_gghc ijh]jZffu b ijhlb-
h^_cklb_wlhcl_g^_gpbbkhklhjhguFbgbkl_jklZgmlj_ggbo^_e.
1881–1900 ]]. – jZablb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  mkehbyo hl-
f_gu ij_^Zjbl_evghc Z^fbgbkljZlb\ghc p_gamju (k khojZg_gb_f
dhgljhey kh klhjhgu ]m[_jgZlhjkdhc eZklb) b Zdlbgh]h jZablby
qZklghc ijhbgpbZevghc i_qZlb; mljZlZ ]hkm^Zjklhf bgl_j_kZ
dkh[kl\_gguff_klgufba^Zgbyf.
1901–1904 ]]. – ihiuldZ ujZ[hldb ghhc j_^Zdpbb ijh]jZffu
ba^Zgby _^hfhkl_c  khhl_lklbb k baf_gbrbfbky h[s_kl_ggh-
iheblbq_kdbfbmkehbyfbbnZdlbq_kdbfjZkrbj_gb_fkh^_j`Zgby
g_hnbpbZevguoqZkl_c ]Za_l, ij_^eh`_gby k f_kl h ij_^hklZe_gbb
_^hfhklyf [hevr_c l_fZlbq_kdhc, hj]ZgbaZpbhgghc b wdhghfbq_-
kdhc k\h[h^u; h[km`^_gb_ [m^ms_]h]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \ i_qZ-
lb; ^Zevg_cr__ jZagh_dlhjgh_ b jZaghmjhg_h_ jZablb_ _^hfh-
kl_c ( aZ\bkbfhklb hl f_klguo mkehbc), [_a baf_g_gby
aZdhgh^Zl_evguohkghZgbcbujZ[hldbh[s_]hgZijZe_gby.
1905–1907 ]]. – j_hj]ZgbaZpby k_dlhjZ ijZbl_evkl\_gghc i_qZlb,
ijh_dl mkbe_gby ijZbl_evkl_ggh]h ebygby  ijhbgpbb q_j_a ]m-
[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb; mqZklb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c \ Zglbj_\hexpb-
hgghc ijhiZ]Zg^_ b uiheg_gb_ bfbnmgdpbc dhgk_j\Zlbguoijhfh-
gZjobq_kdboba^Zgbc (^hihye_gbyf_klguoiZjlbcguoijZuo]Za_l).
1908–1916 ]]. – khdjZs_gb_ ]hkm^Zjkl_ggh]h nbgZgkbjhZgby
bihkl_i_ggZy ^_iheblbaZpby ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c; ihke_^g__
h[km`^_gb_ hafh`ghklb bo j_nhjfbjhZgby  mkehbyo ijb[eb-
`Zxs_ckyj_hexpbb.

=eZ\Z 3
NHJFBJH<:GB?BHKGH<GU?
G:IJ:<E?GBYJ:A<BLBYKB;BJKDBO
=M;?JGKDBO<?>HFHKL?C< 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
3.1. G:Q:EH<UOH>:=M;?JGKDBO<?>HFHKL?C
<KB;BJB (1857 ].) BF:L?JB:EVGHL?OGBQ?KD:Y
;:A:BOBA>:GBY
Bklhjby i_jbh^bq_kdhc i_qZlb Kb[bjb hldjuZ_lky ebl_jZlmj-
gufb `mjgZeZfb, ba^ZZ_fufb  lh[hevkdhc lbih]jZnbb dmipZ
<Y. Dhjgbev_ZII. KmfZjhdhuf\ 1789–1794 ]]. – «Bjlur, ij_-
jZsZxsbckyBiihdj_gm», «@mjgZebklhjbq_kdbc, u[jZggucba
jZaguo dgb]» b «;b[ebhl_dZ mq_gZy, wdhghfbq_kdZy, gjZhmqbl_ev-
gZy, bklhjbq_kdZy b m_k_ebl_evgZy». <i_jhc q_l_jlb XIX \. h[
bklhjbb, wlgh]jZnbb b ]_h]jZnbb kh_]h djZy kb[bjydb ibkZeb
ba^Zgbyo ?jhi_ckdhc Jhkkbb – «DZaZgkdbo ba_klbyo», «Kb[bj-
kdhf\_klgbd_», «:abZlkdhf\_klgbd_», «Fhkdhkdhfl_e_]jZn_».
< 1827 ]. Bjdmlkd_qbghgbdhfbebl_jZlhjhfF:. :e_dkZg^-
jhuf, dmipZfb <G. ;Zkgbguf b KK. >m^hjhkdbf [ueZ ij_^ijb-
gylZ ihiuldZ hkghZlv ebl_jZlmjgmx ]Za_lm «:g]Zjkdbc _klgbd»1
.
<hijhk h[ hldjulbb f_klghc ]Za_lu ih^gbfZeb \ 1828 b 1833 ]].
kZfb bjdmlkdb_ eZklb, gh oh^ZlZcklZ i_j_^ Fbgbkl_jklhf gml-
j_ggbo ^_e lZd b hklZebkv [_a ihke_^klbc2
. G_kfhljygZlh, qlh
Iheh`_gb_ h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» 1830 ]. dZkZehkv1
Y^jbgp_\ GF. Kb[bjv dZd dhehgby  ]_h]jZnbq_kdhf, wlgh]jZnbq_kdhf b bklhjb-
q_kdhfhlghr_gbb. 2-_ba^. KI[., 1892. K. 675–676;=heh\Zq_\IF.Ijhreh_bgZklhys__
kb[bjkdhci_qZlb // <hklhqgh_h[haj_gb_. 1903. ‹ 21. 25 yg\. K. 2–3;Ex[bfhEK.Bklh-
jby kb[bjkdhc i_qZlb. Bjdmlkd, 1982. K. 28;Ex[bfh EK. JhkkbckdZy `mjgZebklbdZ
ijbjZklZeZ Kb[bjvx // 150 e_l i_jbh^bq_kdhci_qZlbKb[bjb : fZl_jbZeuj_]bhgZevghc
gZmqghcdhgn_j_gpbb, ihkys_gghc 150-e_lbxba^Zgby\Kb[bjb «=m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c»
Lhfkd, 19–20 Zij_ey 2007 ].). Lhfkd, 2007. K. 7.
2
 Jhkkbckdbc ]hkm^Zjkl\_gguc bklhjbq_kdbc Zjob\ (J=B:). N. 1286. Hi. 11. >. 645.
1849 ]. E. 2h[.;Ih ih\h^m 35-e_lby ba^Zgby Bjdmlkdb o ]m[ _jgkdb o \_^hfhkl_c // Bjdml-
kdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1892. ‹ 21. 20 fZy. K. 5.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
179lhevdh r_klb ]m[_jgbc ?\jhi_ckdhc Jhkkbb, Z «Iheh`_gb_ h ih-
jy^d_ijhbah^klZ^_e]m[_jgkdboijZ\e_gbyo» 1837 ]. g_jZk-
ijhkljZgyehkv gZ Kb[bjv, \ 1834 ]. ^h g__ ^hr_e pbjdmeyj, aZ-
ijZrbZrbc k_^_gby h khklhygbb ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc ^ey
hkms_kl\e_gby «[_ahklZgh\hqgh]h» \uimkdZ \_^hfhkl_c. < j_-
amevlZl_ uybehkv bo g_m^h\e_l\hjbl_evgh_ khklhygb_. LZd, gZ-
qZevgbdLh[hevkdhc]m[_jgbb^\Z`^u, \ 1834 b 1836 ]]., ij_^klZ-
be  F<> hl_l, qlh «ijb gZklhys_f iheh`_gbb lbih]jZnbb
i_qZlZgb_ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c kh_jr_ggh g_hafh`gh, b[h
\mki_o_ ^_cklbc lbih]jZnbb \klj_qZ_lky f_^e_gghklv b, ijb
bkiheg_gbb lh]h, qlh ^h h[yaZgghklb __ hlghkblky, g_bkijZ\-
ghklv»3
. >ey ijb_^_gby __ \ «gZ^e_`Zs__ mkljhckl\h» lj_[hZ-
ehkv d 2 luk. jm[. Zkkb]gZpbyfb, hlimkdZ_fuo gZ __ kh^_j`Zgb_,
ijb[Zblv _s_ lZdmx `_ kmffm. GZ wlhfi_j_ibkdZ fbgbkl_jkl\Z
b Lh[hevkdh]h ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZ\e_gby ij_djZlbeZkv4
. Dh]^Z\Lh-
[hevkdhf ]m[_jgkdhf ijZ\e_gbb klZeh ba\_klgh h[ «Mqj_`^_gbb
]m[_jgkdboijZe_gbc» 1845 ]., lh hgh ukdZaZeh fg_gb_ h g_h[-
oh^bfhklbih ZgZeh]bb k ^jm]bfb ]m[_jgbyfb mqj_^blvrlZlguc
]Za_lguc klhe, ihkdhevdm i_qZlZgb_  ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb
ij_^ibkZgbc b hlghr_gbc d dZ`^hfm f_klm b ebpm «g_ lhevdh
aZljm^gbl_evgh, gh b hlgbfZ_l hafh`ghklv kh_\j_f_ggh h[gZ-
jh^hZlv mdZau, ihklZgh\e_gby gZqZevklZ b ijhq__»5
. Koh^gZy
kblmZpby [ueZ  Lhfkd_. < 1847 ]. ]m[_jgZlhj II. :ghkh\, ijb
\klmie_gbb\^he`ghklv, aZijhkbeLhfkdh_]m[_jgkdh_ijZ\e_gb_
h \haf h`ghklb ba^ZZlv ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb kh] eZkgh «Mqj_`-
^_gbx]m[_jgkdboijZe_gbc» 1845 ]., gZ qlh ihemqbe hl_l, qlh
kj_^kl ^ey ihdmidb [mfZ]b, ghh]h h[hjm^hZgby, i_qZlZgby
250 h[yaZl_evguo wda_fieyjh b ^ey kh^_j`Zgby g_h[oh^bfuo
jZ[hlgbdh\ (j_^ZdlhjZ, ^\mo gZ[hjsbdh\ b ^\mo «lZjZlhjsb-
dh\»6
) g_^hklZlhqgh. KmffZ, hlimkdZ_fZy lbih]jZnbb lhfkdbf
dZagZq_cklhf (1342 jm[. 50 dhi.), [ueZ[he__q_f\ 1,5 jZaZgb`_
lbih]jZnkdbo jZkoh^h \ 1846 ]. (2 219 jm[. 65 ½ dhi.), dhlhju_
\haf_sZebkv kj_^kl\Zfb hl qZklguo aZdZah\. Lbih]jZnby jZaf_-
sZeZkv  lj_o l_kguo b l_fguo dhfgZlZo gb`g_]h wlZ`Z a^Zgby
]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby. Ljb f_oZgbq_kdbo i_qZlguo klZgdZ (^Z
^_j_ygguob h^bg qm]mgguc), ijhjZ[hlZrboihqlb ljb ^_kyldZ3
J=B:. N. 1286. Hi. 13. >. 400. 1852 ]. E. 3.
4
LZf`_. E. 4.
5
LZf`_. E. 4–4h[.
6
<b^bfh, l_dkl_bf__lkyb^m «l_j_^hjsbd» – lbkdZevsbd, i_qZlgbd.

=eZ\Z 3
180e_l, [ueb g_ ]hlhu d ghhc gZ]jmad_7
(l_fg_f_g__\ 1848 ]. \ih-
f_s_gbb, ]^_jZaf_sZeZkvlbih]jZnby, [uegZqZlj_fhgl8
).
< 1849 ]. ]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhj <hklhqghc Kb[bjb GG. FmjZv_\,
lZd`_ jmdh\h^klmykv «Mqj_`^_gb_f ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc» 1845 ].,
g_ kh^_j`Zsbf h]jZgbqbl_evguo imgdlh \ hlghr_gbb ba^Zgby ]m-
[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  Kb[bjb, ij_^klZbe fbgbkljm gmlj_ggbo ^_e
E:. I_jh\kdhfm hl bf_gb bjdmlkdh]h ]m[_jgZlhjZ <G. AZjbgZ ih^-
jh[gmx aZibkdm h g_h[oh^bfhklb ba^Zgby \ Bjdmlkd_ ]m[_jgkdbo _-
^hfhkl_c^ey h[_ki_q_gbyh[rbjguoijhkljZgkl]m[_jgbbijZbl_ev-
kl_ggufb b f_klgufb jZkihjy`_gbyfb, kh^_cklby jZablbx
ahehlhijhfure_gghklb, jZkijhkljZg_gby «h[s_ihe_aguok_^_gbc ih
jZaguf ij_^f_lZf» b ba_klbc «h a^_rg_f djZ_, klhevdh bgl_j_kghf
h fgh]bo hlghr_gbyo b lZd fZeh _s_ ba_klghf»9
. BklhqgbdZfb ^ey
h[_ki_q_gby uimkdZ ]Za_lu ^he`gu [uebklZlvh[yaZl_evgu_ ih^ibk-
qbdb kj_^b ijbkmlkl_gguo f_kl, p_jdhguo ijboh^h\, \hehklguo
ijZe_gbc, dZa_gguobqZklguoaZh^h\. H^gZdh hl_l ihemq_gg_[ue.
GZ aZibkd_ hklZeZkv j_ahexpby fbgbkljZ – «Ihq_fm fu g_ hl\_qZeb?
Gm`gh»10
. < 1850 ]. GG. FmjZv_ ghv ihlhjbe kh_ oh^ZlZcklh,
bgZ wlhl jZa E:. I_jh\kdbc khh[sZe, qlh «^b`_gb_ k_]h ^_eZ» ijb-
hklZghe_gh g_h[oh^bfhklvx ml\_j^blv Fbgbkl_jkl\hf nbgZgkh gh-
u_ rlZlu Bjdmlkdhc b ?gbk_ckdhc ]m[_jgbc, ij_^mkfZljbZxsb_
hldjulb_\gbo]Za_lguoklheh\11
.
< 1851 ].,  oh^_ j_babb AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb, qe_g =hkm^Zjkl_g-
gh]hkh_lZ, ]_g_jZeZ^txlZglGG. :gg_gdhijbagZeg_h[oh^bfuf
ij_^hklZ\blv h[km`^_gbx lh[hevkdh]h b lhfkdh]h ]m[_jgkdbo kh\_-
lh\ \\_^_gb_ ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c \ \b^m lh]h, qlh «\ \_ebdhjhk-
kbckdbo ]m[_jgbyo ba^Zxlky ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb  b^Zo jZkijh-
kljZg_gby ih ]m[_jgbb k_^_gbc h k_o jZkihjy`_gbyo]m[_jgkdh]h
gZqZevklZ, Z lZd`_ mf_gvr_gbyi_j_ibkdb k m_a^gufb]hjh^hufb
b hehklgufb ijZe_gbyfb». D lhfm `_, ih aZf_qZgbx j_bahjZ,
q_j_a _^hfhklb, kh]eZkgh aZdhgm, g_h[oh^bfh [ueh h[gZjh^hZlv
ihjy^hd ba_s_gby ahehlhijhfure_ggbdh h ghuo aZydZo ijb-
bkdh\»12
. <hijhkh[km`^Zeky\Lh[hevkd_ 7 fZjlZ, Z\Lhfkd_ 18 Zi-7
=hkm^Zjkl\_ggucZjob\Lhfkdhch[eZklb (=:LH). N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 643. E. 1–3; J=B:.
N. 1286. Hi. 13. >. 400. E. 4h[–5h[.
8
=:LH. N. 6. Hi. 1. >. 562; >. 752. E. 146–150.
9
J=B:. N. 1286. Hi. 11. >. 645. 1849 ]. E. 3–4h[.
10
LZf`_. E. 12.
11
LZf`_. E. 13–14.
12
LZf`_. Hi. 13. >. 400. 1852 ]. E. 2.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
181j_ey 1851 ]. < j_amevlZl_ =eZgh_ mijZe_gb_ AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb,
ha]eZey_fh_ ]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjhf =O. =Zknhj^hf, 14 n_jZey
1852 ]. m_j_ggh khh[sZeh ba HfkdZ  I_l_j[mj], qlh g_l gbdZdbo
aZljm^g_gbc  hlghr_gbb mqj_`^_gby _^hfhkl_c  Lhfkdhc b Lh-
[hevkdhc ]m[_jgbyo kh]eZkgh ijZbeZf, dZkZxsbfky gmlj_ggbo
]m[_jgbcJhkkbb, ZlZd`_b «ihiheg_gbbjZkoh^hgZg_h[oh^bfh_
ih wlhfm kemqZx mkbe_gb_ kj_^kl ]m[_jgkdbolbih]jZnbc, lZd dZd,
ijb ijb[ebabl_evghfm khh[jZ`_gbx, k[hj, hij_^_e_gguc aZ jZk-
kuedm]Za_lu \ ijbkmlkl\_ggu_ f_klZ b \h\k_ ]hjh^kdb_ b k_evkdb_
mijZe_gby, fh`_l ihdjulv k ba[uldhf ihlj_[gu_ gZ m_ebq_gb_
khklZZbihf_s_gbclbih]jZnbbba^_j`db»13
. GZ kibkd_k`mjgZeZ
Kh\_lZ jmdhx, \b^bfh, kZfh]h E:. I_jh\kdh]h [ueh gZibkZgh:
M^h[gh eb [m^_l hl^_evgh hl Mqj_`^_gbc [\b^bfh, – ]m[_jgkdbo
ijZe_gbc] b ^ey h^ghc AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb? Bkijhkblv ]_g_jZe-
]m[_jgZlhjZ <hklhqghc Kb[bjb»14
. < dhg_qghf blh]_, hijhk h[
hkghZgbb ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c dZd ^ey <hklhqghc, lZd b ^ey AZ-
iZ^ghc Kb[bjb [ue h[t_^bg_g k hijhkhf h[ mqj_`^_gbb ghuo
rlZlh b gZijZe_g 2 ^_dZ[jy 1853 ]. h <lhjhc Kb[bjkdbc dhfb-
l_l15
, hldjuluc\ 1852 ]. ihblh]Zfj_babbGG. :gg_gdhZ.
G_kfhljy gZ g_ykghklv km^v[u ijh_dlZ h ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfh-
klyo  Kb[bjb \ ukrbo \eZklguo djm]Zo,  Lhfkd_ ih^]hlh\dZ
dbo ba^Zgbx ijh^he`beZkv \ 1854 ]., ijb ghhf ]m[_jgZlhj_
<:. ;_dfZg_. «AZdZ\dZakdbc_klgbd», \uoh^brbck 1838 ]., ba-
^ZZrb_ky k 1853 ]. gZ g_f_pdhf yaud_ «Ebneyg^kdb_ ]m[_jg-
kdb__^hfhklb» b «Dmjeyg^kdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb», Zk 1854 ].
;_kkZjZ[kdb_h[eZklgu_\_^hfhklb» gZqZebihklmiZlv\Lhfkdh_
]m[_jgkdh_ ijZ\e_gb_. Wlh hagZqZeh, qlh h]jZgbq_gby «Iheh`_-
gbyhihjy^d_ ijhba\h^kl\Z^_e\]m[_jgkdboijZ\e_gbyo» 1837 ].
m`_ g_ ^_ckl\mxl b fh`gh jmdh\ h^kl\h\Zlvky «Mqj_`^_gb_f ]m-
[_jgkdbo ijZ\e_gbc» 1845 ]., dhlhjh_ h[yau\Zeh k_ ]m[_jgkdb_
ijZe_gby ba^Z\Zlv k\hx ]Za_lm. Ih ihjmq_gbx ]m[_jgZlhjZ ih^-
]hlh\dhc d hldjulbx ]Za_lu \ dhgp_ 1854 ]. aZgyeky ^bj_dlhj
lhfkdhc fm`kdhc ]bfgZabb b ^bj_dlhj mqbebsLhfkdhc ]m[_jgbb13
J=B:. N. 1286. Hi. 13. >. 400. 1852 ]. E. 7h[.
14
J=B:. N. 1286. Hi. 13. >. 400. 1852 ]. E. 1.
15
 J=B:. N. 1286. Hi. 11. >. 645. 1849 ]. E. 13–17h[; J=B:. N. 1286. Hi. 13. >. 400.
1852 ]. E. 8–9. Hj_babb GG. :gg_gdhZ b jZ[hl_ <lhjh]h Kb[bjkdh]h dhfbl_lZ kf.
ih^jh[g__:<heq_d <:. Hkms_kle_gb_ bfi_jkdhc iheblbdb gZ hklhqguo hdjZbgZo Jhk-
kbb^_yl_evghklb<lhjh]hKb[bjkdh]hdhfbl_lZ. Gh\hkb[bjkd, 2006.

=eZ\Z 3
182NK. F_s_jbg16
, dhlhjuc aZijhkbe ]m[_jgkdh_ ijZe_gb_ h xjb^b-
q_kdbo, fZl_jbZevguo b l_ogbq_kdbo hkghZgbyo d hldjulbx ba^Z-
gby. Q_j_af_kyp, 18 ygZjy 1855 ]., [ueihemq_ghl_lb^_kijZ\-
db, ih^ibkZgghc ij_^k_^Zl_e_f ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby :<. <bgh-
]jZ^kdbfbk_dj_lZj_fijZe_gby:B. EZe_lbguf. <g_c, ihZgZeh-
]bb k _^hfhklyfb jhkkbckdbo ]m[_jgbc, [ue ij_^klZe_g fZd_l
[m^ms_c ]Za_lu, jZa[bluc gZ jm[jbdb k ]bihl_lbq_kdbfb l_dklZfb
b^ZlbjhZgguc 12 n_jZey 1855 ].
< ij_^bkehbbh[hkghZgbb d ijh_dlm kh^_j`Zebkv fukeb,
koh^gu_ k l_fb, dhlhju_ jZg__ ukdZauZeZ kb[bjkdZy Z^fbgbkljZ-
pby: «G_h[oh^bfhklvb ihevaZ ba^Zgby ]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c ijb-
agZgZ m`_ ijZbl_evklhf. G_ jZkijhkljZgyykv h[ wlhf, ^h\hevgh
lhevdh kdZaZlv, qlh b  Lhfkdhc ]m[_jgbb, khklZeyxs_c, lZd kdZ-
aZlv, kj_^hlhqb_ h[_bo qZkl_c Kb[bjb, kh_jr_ggh hsmlbl_evgZ
ihlj_[ghklv \ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, l_f [he__ qlh wlbf
kZfuf^hklb]Z_lkyp_evijZbl_evklZdkhdjZs_gbxdZgp_eyjkdh]h
^_ehijhbah^klZ. H[gZjh^hZgb_jZkihjy`_gbc\ukr_]hbf_klgh-
]hgZqZevkl\ZgZh]jhfghfijhkljZgkl_]m[_jgbb, jZaebqguokeh-
yo h[s_klZ ijb agZqbl_evghklb gZk_e_gby b ijb jZablbb ahehlh-
ijhfure_gghklb lZd g_h[oh^bfh qj_a ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb, qlh
ihevaZ hl gbo g_aZf_gbfZ b g_bkqbkebfZ. G_ f_g__ wlh]h b g_hnb-
pbZevgZy qZklv _^hfhkl_c, ha[m^b d ljm^Zf ih qZklb ijhk_s_-
gby ^hklZe_gb_f k_^_gbc ih ]m[_jgbb ]_h]jZnbq_kdbo, klZlbklb-
q_kdbo, wlgh]jZnbq_kdbo b li., [m^_l bf_lv ebygb_ gZ bgl_j_k
\_^hfhkl_cbgZh[s__khj_\ghZgb_»17
.
=m[_jgkdh_ijZe_gb_lZd`_khh[sZeh, qlhh`b^Z_lkyijb[ulb_
ba Fhkd\u 40 im^h\ gh\uo rjbnlh\ b ebl_j, Z lbih]jZnby fh`_l
h[_ki_qblvh^gbfbalj_oklZgdhi_qZlZgb_]Za_lu\ 3–4 ebklZlj_-
[m_fh]h nhjfZlZ («\ q_l\_jdm») \ dhebq_kl\_ 500 wda_fieyjh\
^_gv. HieZlZ [mfZ]b ^he`gZ [ueZ ijhbah^blvky aZ kq_l ^hoh^h\
hl qZklguo aZdZah b ijh^Z`b kZfbo _^hfhkl_c. Kjhd uoh^Z i_j-16
N_^hjK_f_ghbqF_s_jbgihhdhgqZgbbFhkdhkdhc^mohghcZdZ^_fbbkhkl_-
i_gvx fZ]bkljZ [h]hkehby jZ[hlZe mqbl_e_f JyaZgkdh]h mqbebsZ ^ey dZgp_eyjkdbo
kem`bl_e_c, qbghgbdhfFbgbkl_jkl\_iml_ckhh[s_gby, ZaZl_fxklbpbb. < 1846 ]. hg
i_j__oZe  Lhfkd, ]^_ aZgye ^he`ghklv ^bj_dlhjZ lhfkdbo mqbebs, ijh[u  g_c 13 e_l,
^h 1859 ]. (^hevr_ \k_o i hke_^mxsb o ^b j_dlhjh\). F_s_jbg m m`_ i jboh^behkv \ui he-
gylv ihjmq_gby ]m[_jgkdh]h gZqZevklZ – \ 1849 ]. hg kh[jZe klZlbklbq_kdb_ k\_^_gby h
khklhygbb qZklghc ijhfure_gghklb b lhj]heb  Lhfkdhc ]m[_jgbb (Fbkxj_::.Lhf-
kdZy]m[_jgkdZy]bfgZabyi_jh_iylb^_kylbe_lb__]hkms_klhZgby (1838–1888). Ijb-
eh`_gby. Lhfkd, 1894. K. 14, 18, 20).
17
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 643. E. 5–7.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
183hc lhfkdhc ]Za_lu  k\_l hij_^_eyeky lhjuf ihem]h^b_f 1855 ].
beb gZqZehf 1856 ]. H[yaZl_evguf mkehb_f [ueZ hj]ZgbaZpby gh-
hc kljmdlmju ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby – ]Za_lgh]h klheZ: qbghgbdb
hiZkZebkv, qlhghu_h[yaZgghklbfh]mli_j_eh`blvgZklZju_rlZ-
lu. Dhff_jq_kdbc mki_o ba^Zgby ^he`gu [ueb h[_ki_qblv h[yaZ-
l_evgu_ ih^ibkqbdb. Ijbkmlkl_gguo f_kl b ^he`ghklguo ebp \
]m[_jgbbgZ[bjZehkv 125; p_jdhgu_ijboh^u, lZd`_h[yaZggu_ih-
emqZlv ]Za_lm, b ih`_eZrb_ __ uibku\Zlv qZklgu_ ebpZ fh]eb
m_ebqblv qbkeh wda_fieyjh ^h 300. Ih^ibkdZ ^ey qZklguo ebp
ijbgbfZeZkv gZ ]h^ beb ihe]h^Z  ihqlhuo dhglhjZo beb ^he`gh-
klgufb ebpZfb (]m[_jgkdbf ijZe_gb_f, ihebpf_ckl_jhf, ]hjh^-
gbqbfb, bkijZ\gbdZfb, aZk_^Zl_eyfb, hehklgufb ijZe_gbyfb).
<f_klh iheh`_gguo ih aZdhgm 3 jm[. k_j., «ih mZ`_gbx f_klguo
h[klhyl_evklbihgh\hklbwlh]h^_eZKb[bjb, ZlZd`_ihbgl_j_-
km klZl_c, hlghkysboky ^h fZehba_klghc _s_ ^ey fgh]bo Kb[bjb»,
]h^hZy ih^ibkdZ gZ _^hfhklb mklZgZebZeZkv \ 4 jm[. k_j.
b 3 jm[. k_j. ijb ihemq_gbb lhevdh hnbpbZevghc qZklb. I_j_kuedZ
b^hklZdZgZ^hfm^hjh`ZeZih^ibkgmxp_gmgZ 1 jm[. Ijbkj_^g_c
klhbfhklb 1 wda. ]Za_lu 4 jm[. k_j. aZ lbjZ` 300 wda. ]m[_jgkdh_
ijZe_gb_ ij_^iheZ]Zeh ujmqblv 1 200 jm[. WlZ kmffZ^he`gZ [u-
eZ ihdjulv jZkoh^u gZ [mfZ]m (600 jm[.) b ^jm]b_ ba^_j`db
(400 jm[.). IhemqZehkv, qlh ^Z`_ ijb 300 ih^ibkqbdZo (Z uimkdZlv
fh`gh[ueh b 500 wda.) ]Za_lZ fh]eZ ijbghkblvijb[uev, mqblu\Zy,
qlh kh^_j`Zgb_ lbih]jZnbb  ]h^ (ih ^Zgguf 1846 ].) h[oh^behkv
]hjh^kdhfmdZagZq_cklm\ 1 342 jm[. 50 dhi. <dZq_kl_\Z`ghcklZ-
lvb ^hoh^Z jZkkfZljbZebkv qZklgu_ h[tye_gby, aZ dhlhju_ ij_^-
iheZ]ZehkvabfZlvieZlmih ¼ dhi. k_j. k^_kylbi_qZlguoagZdh\18
.
HieZlZ ebl_jZlmjguo ljm^h ih gZiheg_gbx g_hnbpbZevghc
qZklb g_ ij_^mkfZljbZeZkv. ;he__ lh]h, iheZ]Zehkv, qlh [m^msb_
Z\lhju [m^ml bkoh^blv ba «khj_ghZl_evghklb» b bo klZlvb [m^ml
i_qZlZlvky [_kieZlgh, lhevdh « b^Zo ihhsj_gby». <hijhk h kha-
^Zgbb ijhn_kkbhgZevgh]h dhee_dlbZ «ih gh\hklb wlh]h ^_eZ»
fukebeky  khhl\_lklbb k nhjfZevgufb iheh`_gbyfb aZdhgh^Z-
l_evklZ. Ijb ]m[_jgkdhf ijZe_gbb hldjuZeky ]Za_lguc klhe
b\\h^beZkv ^he`g hklv dhjj_dlhjZ, dhlhjuc aZ\_^h\Ze khjlbjh\dhc
ihklmiZxsboklZl_c, bojZaf_s_gb_fihjm[jbdZf, ihjy^dhfgZ[h-18
 <_jhylgh, wlZ pbnjZ ihybeZkv iml_f i_j_kq_lZ gZ k_j_[jh, k mq_lhf bgneypbb,
lZjbnZ hl ¼ ^h ½ dhi. aZ [mdm, mklZghe_ggh]h «Iheh`_gb_f h[ ba^Zgbb ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_c» 1830 ].

=eZ\Z 3
184jZ bi_qZlZgby. J_^Zdpbxg_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ^he`_g [uehkms_-
kleylv h^bg ba mqbl_e_c lhfkdhc ]bfgZabb ih^ dhgljhe_f __ ^b-
j_dlhjZ. Ih^]hlhe_gguc wda_fieyj ijhkfZljbZeky b ml_j`^Zeky
d i_qZlb ur_klhysbf kh_lgbdhf ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZ\e_gby. Ihke_
gZ[hjZ b hllbkdZ dhjj_dlmjgh]h ebklZ hg ihklmiZe^ey ijZhd b ml-
_j`^_gby j_^Zdlhjm g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb. Ihke_^gxx\bam «I_qZ-
lZlv ^ha\hey_lky» gZdeZ^uZeb ij_^k_^Zl_ev ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby
b^bj_dlhj ]bfgZabb. GZdhg_p, kh_lgbd ijZe_gby ghv ihemqZe aZ-
babjhZggucwda_fieyjbaZdexqZe: «GZ[jZlvbhli_qZlZlv». <k_ dhj-
j_dlmjgu_ebkluojZgbebkvih^gZ^ahjhfdhjj_dlhjZ19
.
H^gZdh ba^Zgb_ «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c» \ 1855–
1856 ]]. lZdbg_gZqZehkv. Hldjulb_]Za_lgh]h klheZlj_[hZeh m_-
ebq_gby rlZlh\. GZ aZk_^Zgbb Lhfkdh]h ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby
21 bxey 1855 ]. [uek^_eZguh^, qlhkj_^klZdba^Zgbx_^hfhkl_c
b g_h[oh^bfu_ gZ wlh ba^_j`db jZkkqblZgu ijbf_jgh. J_adhc djblbd_
ijZe_gb_f [ueb ih^_j]gmlu fZd_l b kh^_j`Zgb_ ]Za_lu, ihkdhevdm
uybebkvgZjmr_gby 28 ba 36 klZl_cihjy^dZ h[gZjh^hZgbyjZkihjy-
`_gbc ukr_]h b f_klgh]h gZqZevklZ q_j_a ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb.
<kZfhc jZajZ[hld_ lZdhc «aZ]hlh\db» ^e y «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^h-
fhkl_c» gZ hkgh_ jhkkbckdbo ZgZeh]h g_ [ueh g_h[oh^bfhklb, ih-
kdhevdm nhjfZ [ueZ ml_j`^_gZ Fbgbkl_jkl\hf gmlj_ggbo ^_e _s_
\ 1837 ]., Z kh^_j`Zgb_ b l_fu q_ldh ijhibkZgu \ aZdhg_20
. Rjbnlu,
uibkZggu_ b m`_ hieZq_ggu_, ba Fhkdu lZd b g_ ijb[ueb. Ghuc
lbih]jZnkdbc klZghd b iylv dZkk rjbnlh\ ( ^hiheg_gb_ d m`_ bkl_j-
rbfky^_kylb) [uebijbh[j_l_gulhevdh\ 1857 ].21
6 ^_dZ[jy 1856 ]. ih ij_^klZe_gbx aZiZ^ghkb[bjkdh]h b hk-
lhqghkb[bjkdh]h ]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjh b jZkkfhlj_gbx Kb[bjkdh-
]h dhfbl_lZ [ue ijbgyl aZdhg «Hg_dhlhjuo baf_g_gbyo ih mijZ\-
e_gbx  <hklhqghc Kb[bjb b AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb», baf_gyrbc
l_jjblhjbZevgh_ mkljhcklh gmljb kb[bjkdbo ]m[_jgbc, m_ebqb-
Z\rbc kh^_j`Zgb_ qbghgbdh b \h^brbc ghu_ rlZlu. < kbk-
l_f_]m[_jgkdh]h mijZe_gbyihyeyeZkvghZy^he`ghklv – «j_^Zd-
lhj ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c, hg `_ gZqZevgbd ]Za_lgh]h klheZ
bgZqZevgbd lbih]jZnbb» – k ]h^h\uf hdeZ^hf \ 400 jm[.22
 P_gamjZ19
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 643. E. 8–16.
20
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 643. E. 25–26.
21
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 36.
22
Bf_gghc, ^ZggucK_gZlm, jZkim[ebdhZgguc 10 ygZjy 1857 ]., hg_dhlhjuobaf_-
g_gbyoihmijZe_gbx<hklhqghcbAZiZ^ghcKb[bjb. 6.12.1856 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[.,
1856. L. 31. ‹ 31222.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
185g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb _^hfhkl_c 8 Z]mklZ 1858 ]. [ueZ ij_^hklZ\-
e_gZ Kb[bjkdbf dhfbl_lhf f_klguf gZqZevgbdZf ]m[_jgbc23
, ijb
hagbdgh_gbb «khfg_gbc» bf g_h[oh^bfh [ueh h[jZsZlvky d f_-
klguf]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjZfdZd\ukr_cp_gamjghcbgklZgpbb24
.
LZdbfh[jZahf,  dhgp_ 1856 ]. aZdhgh^Zl_evgh[ueh jZaj_r_gh
ijbklmiblvdba^Zgbx]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_cKb[bjb, h[_ki_q_g-
guo ]hkm^Zjklhf hj]ZgbaZpbhggh b nbgZgkhh. GZ hklhqghc i_-
jbn_jbbJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbbhgbihybebkvgZ^\Z^pZlve_liha`_,
q_f  p_gljZevghc qZklb25
,  dZq_kl\_ rZ]Z ghh]h ijZbl_evkl\Z
djZkijhkljZg_gbx gZ kx l_jjblhjbx kljZgu _^bghh[jZaguo
ijbgpbih mijZe_gby b jZkrbj_gby fZkrlZ[h _^bghc bgnhjfZ-
pbhgghc kbkl_fu dZa_gguo ba^Zgbc. Kf_gZ _johghc eZklb ijb-
_eZdeh]bq_kdhfmi_j_g_k_gbxijh_dlZihba^Zgbx_^hfhkl_cgZ
kb[bjkdb_]m[_jgbb. Ihk\h_fmaZfukem, kljmdlmj_bkh^_j`Zgbxhgb
yeyebkv ijh^he`_gb_f _^hfhkl_c jhkkbckdbo, l_g^_gpbb d g_dhlh-
jhc ^_fhdjZlbaZpbb dhlhjuo gZf_lbebkv _s_  dhgp_ gbdheZ_kdh]h
pZjkl\hZgby. G_h[oh^bfhklv b keh`ghklv  hj]ZgbaZpbb dZdh]heb[h
ghh]h ^_eZ  kb[bjkdhc ijhbgpbb k_]^Z mjZgh_rbZebkv b g_h[-
oh^bfuf nhjfZevghxjb^bq_kdbf h[hkghZgb_f, b gZebqb_f h[jZah-
Zgguobhl_lkl\_gguobkihegbl_e_c. F_klgZyZ^fbgbkljZpby\iheg_
hkhagZZeZ g_h[oh^bfhklv ba^Zgby hnbpbZevghc ]Za_lu b ijhyeyeZ
khhl_lkl\mxsmx bgbpbZlbm, bkoh^y dZd ba __ khpbZevghwdhgh-
fbq_kdhc b h[s_kl_gghc agZqbfhklb, lZd b ba g_h[oh^bfhklb memq-
r_gby^_ehijhba\h^klZ]m[_jgbyo.
GZ \k_f ijhly`_gbb k\h_]h kms_kl\ hZgby ]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfh-
klb nbgZgkhh b hj]ZgbaZpbhggh [ueb kyaZgu k ]m[_jgkdhc lbih-
]jZnb_c. H[_ wlb kljmdlmju ih^qbgyebkv ]m[_jgkdhfm ijZe_gbx
b\ha]eZeyebkv, kh]eZkgh rlZlghfm jZkibkZgbx, qbghgbdhf, kh-23
<ukhqZcr_ml_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ Kb[bjkdh]h dhfbl_lZ, h[tye_ggh_ K_gZlm
fbgbkljhf gmlj_ggbo ^_e, h ij_^hklZe_gbb f_klguf gZqZevgbdZf ]m[_jgbc p_gamju
g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c, ba^ZZ_fuo  Kb[bjb. 8.08.1858 // IKA.
Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1860. L. 33. Hl^. 2. ‹ 33459. <dZq_kl_ xjb^bq_kdh]h hkghZgby ^ey
wlh]hj_r_gbyDhfbl_lba[jZeijbe. 167 dkl. 648 «Kh^ZaZdhgh\», gh[_aihijZdb, _-
^_gghc iheh`_gb_f Dhfbl_lZ fbgbkljh\ 27 Zij_ey 1851 ]. h hafh`ghklb p_gamjbjhZ-
gbyg_hnbpbZevghcqZklbijhn_kkhjhfbebqbghgbdhfmqbebsZ.
24
Ih <ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_gghfm iheh`_gbx Kb[bjkdh]h dhfbl_lZ. JZkihjy`_gb_
2 k_gly[jy 1858 ]. // K[hjgbdjZkihjy`_gbcihp_gamj_k 1828 ih 1862 ]. KI[., []. K. 64.
25
 < koh^ghc kblmZpbb [ueZ g_ lhevdh Kb[bjv, gh b x`gu_ b ijb[Zelbckdbc l_jjb-
lhjbb. LZd, «KlZjhihevkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» gZqZeb uoh^blv k 1850 ]., «Dmj-
eyg^kdb_» – k 1852 ]., «Ebneyg^kdb_» b «Wkleyg^kdb_» – k 1853 ]., «;_kkZjZ[kdb_h[eZkl-
gu_ \_^hfhklb» – k 1854 ]., Z «Dm[Zgkdb_» b «L_jkdb_» ^Z`_ iha`_ kb[bjkdbo – \ 1863
b 1868 ]].

=eZ\Z 3
186_^bgyxsbfk_[_nmgdpbbgZqZevgbdZ]Za_lgh]hklheZ, kfhljbl_ey
lbih]jZnbb b j_^ZdlhjZ ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c26
. <_^_gb_ g_hnb-
pbZevghcqZklbfh]eh[ulvihjmq_g hhl^_evghfmebpm, ghwlZ^he`-
ghklv lZd`_ [ueZ g_hnbpbZevghc, g_ ij_^mkfZljbZeZ hieZlu b g_
ij_^hklZeyeZijZ\]hkm^Zjkl_gghckem`[u. Lhevdh 8 bxgy 1865 ].
lZdZyhafh`ghklv[ueZijhibkZgZaZdhgh^Zl_evgh, dZdbu^_e_gu
rlZlgu_ _^bgbpu kfhljbl_ey lbih]jZnbbb dhjj_dlhjZ – « kemqZ_
gZ^h[ghklb» b «gZkq_llbih]jZnkdbokmff»27
.
Khklhygb_ ]m[_jgkdbolbih]jZnbc Kb[bjb, hldjuluo\ 1819 ].,
dgZqZemuoh^Z]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c\ 1857 ]. [ueh, p_ehf, g_-
m^h\e_l\hjbl_evguf, dZd \ hlghr_gbb khklhygby lbih]jZnkdh]h
h[hjm^hZgby, lZd b nbgZgkhh]h h[_ki_q_gby ^ey ihdjulby k_o
jZkoh^hihba^Zgbx]Za_l]m[_jgkdboijZe_gbc28
. >eylh]h, qlh[u
ijb_klbbkiheg_gb_aZdhg «Hg_dhlhjuobaf_g_gbyoihmijZe_-
gbx  <hklhqghc Kb[bjb b AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb» 6 ^_dZ[jy 1856 ].,
ij_^ibkuZrbc ba^ZZlv _^hfhklb, ]m[_jgZlhju ij_^ijbgbfZeb
rZ]b ih h[ghe_gbx lbih]jZnkdh]h h[hjm^hZgby. < 1857 ].  i_-
l_j[mj]kdhc kehheblg_ @. J_bevhgZ ^ey Lh[hevkdZ [ue aZdZaZg
h^bg i_qZlguc g_f_pdbc klZghd (klhbfhklvx 350 jm[.) bebl_ju
(1249 jm[.)29
, ghuclbih]jZnkdbcklZghdbiylvdZkkrjbnlh[ueb
ijbh[j_l_gu\Lhfkd_30
.26
K\h^aZdhgh\Jhkkbc kdhcbfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ 1857 ]. KI[., 1857. L. 2, q. 1. Kl. 863.
27
«GZ kq_l lbih]jZnkdbo kmff fh]ml [ulv hij_^_ey_fu,  kemqZ_ gZ^h[ghklb:
1) hkh[ucj_^Zdlhjg_hnbpbZevghcqZklb_^hfhkl_c, [_aij_^hklZe_gby, h^gZdh`_, _fm
ihk_fmaZgbx, ijZ]hkm^Zjkl_gghckem`[u, ihq_fmhgbfh`_l[ulvgZagZqZ_fbaebp
ihklhjhgg_]h _^hfklZ beb hk_ g_ kem`Zsbo; 2) hkh[uc kfhljbl_ev lbih]jZnbb
kijZZfb kem`[u gZjZg_ k ^_ehijhbah^bl_e_f, beb `_ kfhljbl_ev lbih]jZnbb ih^
gZaZgb_f nZdlhjZ, [_a ijZ ]hkm^Zjkl\_gghc kem`[u, b 3) dhjj_dlhj beb k ijZZfb
kem`[u gZjZg_ k ihfhsgbdhf ^_ehijhbah^bl_ey, beb `_ ba ebp, hk_ g_ kem`Zsbo»
(Ihegh_kh[jZgb_aZdhghJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb (IKA). Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1867. L. 40. Hl^. 1.
‹ 42180. Kl. 10).
28
 < p_gljZ evguo ]m[ _jgbyo \_^hfhklb \uoh^beb lh`_ \ mkeh\byo g_\ ukhdh]h mjh\-
gylbih]jZnkdh]h^_eZ. LZd, \ 1837 ]. jZkihjy`_gbbkZjZlhkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb
gZoh^behkv ljb mklZj_rbo klZgdZ b lhevdh 30 im^h ]h^gh]h d mihlj_[e_gbx rjbnlZ.
Ihlj_[hZehkv 5 luk. jm[. ijZbl_evkl\_ggh]h ihkh[by, qlh[u gZqZlv uimkd «KZjZlh\-
kdbo ] m[_jg kdbo \ _^hfhkl_c» (OhjhfZgkdbc <F. Klhe_lb_ lbih]jZnbb KZjZlhkdh]h
]m[_jgkdh]h ijZ\e_gby. 1794–1894 ]]. KZjZlh\, 1895. K. 18–19). <lbih]jZnbb Hj_g[mj]-
kdh]h ]m[ _jgkdh]h ijZ\ e_gby [ueh ^\Z jmqguo klZgdZ, b l_dkl «Hj_g[ mj] kdbo ]m[ _jg kdbo
_^hfhkl_c» i_j\hgZqZevgh i_qZlZeky lhevdh gZ h^ghc klhjhg_ ebklZ (Klheiygkdbc GG.
HnbpbZevgZy b hnbpbhagZy ij_kkZ  Hj_g[mj]kdhf djZ_ // Ljm^u Hj_g[mj]kdhc mq_ghc
Zjobghcdhfbkkbb. Hj_g[mj], 1903. <ui. 12, l. 12. K. 1–2).
29
 Ih ijbqbg_ aZ]jm`_gghklb ^jm]bfb aZdZaZfb @. J_bevhg m\_^hfbe Lh[hevkd
hihemq_gbbbf ^_g_], \ukeZgguo\fZjl_ 1857 ]., lhevdhq_j_ahk_fvf_kyp_\, ihwlhfm
lbih]jZnbyijh^he`beZjZ[hlmgZklZjhfh[hjm^hZgbb (F_klgu_ba\ _klby // Lh[hevkdb_

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
187FZl_jbZevghl_ogbq_kdb_ hkghZgby ba^Zgby ]m[_jgkdbo _^h-
fhkl_cbjZablb_dZa_ggh]hlbih]jZnkdh]h^_eZihaheyxlih^jh[-
g_crbfh[jZahfhk_lblv^hr_^rbc^hgZr_]hj_f_gb, \ohjhr_c
kl_i_gb khojZgghklb b iheghlu, lhfkdbc Zjobguc fZl_jbZe. Hk-
ghgu_klZlvb^hoh^hlhfkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbbkhklZeyeb:
kmffZ rlZlgh]h kh^_j`Zgby (1 200 jm[.), ih^ibkgZy ieZlZ k h[yaZ-
l_evguobqZklguoih^ibkqbdh\ «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c»,
im[ebdZpby qZklguob dZa_gguo h[tye_gbc  ]Za_l_, lbih]jZnkdb_
jZ[hlu (qZklgu_ aZdZau \uihegyebkv k jZaj_r_gby ]m[_jgkdh]h
ijZe_gby b  khhl_lklbb k jZkp_gdhc, hij_^_e_gghc ]m[_jgZlh-
jhf). <hlghr_gbbjZaf_s_gbyh[tye_gbchlijbkmlkl_gguof_kl
^_cklhZeb l_ `_ ijZbeZ, qlh b ^ey «K_gZlkdbo \_^hfhkl_c». AZ
ljh_djZlgh_ gZi_qZlZgb_ dZa_ggh]h h[tye_gby  hnbpbZevghc beb
g_hnbpbZevghc qZklyob qZklgh]h h[tye_gby \ hnbpbZevghc qZklb,
g_ ij_urZxs_]h 50 kljhd b ihf_sZxs_]hky gZ h^ghc kljZgbp_,
abfZeZkvieZlZ 1 jm[. 50 dhi. k_j. (\ 1878 ]. ieZlZaZim[ebdZpbbih
km^_[guf ^_eZf m_ebq_gZ ^h 3 jm[.31
). Klhbfhklv qZklgh]h h[ty\-
e_gby, jZaf_sZ_fh]h  g_hnbpbZevghc qZklb, ml_j`^ZeZkv ]m[_j-
gZlhjhf b khklZeyeZ 3 jm[. < ^he] fh]eb jZaf_sZlvky h[tye_gby
hijh^Z`_a_feb, hibkZgghcaZdZa_ggu_aukdZgby (h[tye_gbyhi-
eZqbZebkv ihke_ ijh^Z`b); h[ hlkljZg_gbb g_bkijZguo kh^_j`Z-
l_e_cibl_cguobkheyguohldmih\, hjhaukd_g_aZdhgguo\h^hqguo
ijhbah^bl_e_c (^_gv]b aukdbZebkv k bghguo); h gZc^_gguo
_sZo b kdhl_ (hieZqb\Zebkv bo eZ^_evpZfb); uahu ^ey ihemq_-
gby iZl_glh b ^jm]bo ^hdmf_glh\ (hieZqbZebkv ihemqZl_eyfb);
h\uah_ihkm^_[guf^_eZf (hieZqb\Zebkvuau\Z_fufb).
HnbpbZevgZybgnhjfZpby, dZd[uehaZ^mfZgh_s_ ijh_dl__-
^hfhkl_c 1830 ]., jZa^_eyeZkv gZ ij_^ibkZgby b jZkihjy`_gby (bf-
i_jZlhjkdb_ b k_gZlkdb_ mdZau, fbgbkl_jkdb_ pbjdmeyju, jZkihjy-
`_gby ]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjZ b ]m[_jgZlhjZ), dhlhju_ im[ebdhZebkv
[_kieZlgh, b dZa_ggu_ h[tye_gby b ba_klby, aZ dhlhju_ abfZeZkv
ieZlZ ba kmff, ij_^gZagZqZ_fuo ijbkmlklbyf b ^he`ghklguf eb-
pZf gZ dZgp_eyjkdb_ jZkoh^u. ;_kieZlgh jZaf_sZebkv h[tye_gby
ih km^_[guf^_eZf,  dhlhjuoijbgbfZeb mqZklb_ dZagZbeb hkib-]m[_jgkdb_ \_^hfhklb. 1857. 14 ‹ 34. 14 ^_d. K. 356;FZe_gvdZy h] h\hjdZ // Lh[hevkdb _
]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1858. ‹ 5. 1 n_\j. K. 79).
30
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 36.
31
K_gZlkdbc, ih ^_em h jZaf_j_ ieZlu  dZa_ggu_ b qZklgu_ h[ty\e_gby, ihf_sZ_-
fu_  ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo, 28.06.1878 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1880. L. 53, q. 1.
‹ 58668.

=eZ\Z 3
188lZl_evgu_^hfZ; h[tye_gby, bkoh^ysb_hlkm^_[ghceZklb; ihm]h-
ehguf^_eZf, jZkkfZljb\Z_fuf K_gZl_; ih uahZf m]hehgu_
iZeZlu ^eyukemrb\Zgby ijb]hhjZ b h ukued_ ebp d ke_^klbx;
ih`Zeh[Zfex^_c, hlukdb\Zxsbokh[h^m»32
.
Hlghkbl_evgh khh[s_gbc, bkoh^ysbo hl ]m[_jgZlhjZ b ]m[_jg-
kdh]h ijZe_gby, ih\b^bfhfm, ^_cklhZeh ijZbeh bo jZa^_e_gby
gZjZkihjy`_gby, jZaf_sZ_fu_[_kieZlgh, bh[tye_gby, aZdhlhju_
abfZeZkv ieZlZ. <h kydhf kemqZ_, bkoh^y ba khojZgbr_cky ^_eh-
ijhbah^kl_gghc^hdmf_glZpbb «Lhfkdbo]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c»,
]jZnZ «>hoh^u hl im[ebdZpbc» jZkijhkljZgyeZkv b gZ wlb \ukrb_
^he`ghklgu_ebpZ.
DZd ihdZaZeZ ijZdlbdZ, nhjfmebjhdZ «^ey kdhj_cr_]h h[gZjh-
^hZgby jZkihjy`_gbc ]m[_jgkdh]h gZqZevkl\Z b ^jm]bo ba_klbc,
ke_^mxsbo dh k_h[s_fm k_^_gbx beb bkiheg_gbx», dhlhjZy hi-
j_^_eyeZ kh^_j`Zgb_ hnbpbZevghc qZklb _^hfhkl_c, hdZaZeZkv ^h-
hevgh jZafulhc b gZ k_f ijhly`_gbb kms_klhZgby ]Za_lu \gh-
kbeZ g_ykghklv hlghkbl_evgh hieZlu i_qZlguo iehsZ^_c. LZd,
hagbdZeb aZijhku ]m[_jgZlhjh h jZatykg_gbb, lj_[hZlv beb g_
lj_[hZlv hieZlu aZ im[ebdZpbx h[tye_gbc h i_j_h^_ i_gkbc ba
h^ghc ]m[_jgbb  ^jm]mx (i_gkbb gZoh^bebkv _^_gbb ijZ\bl_ev-
kl\_ggh]h mqj_`^_gby – Fbgbkl_jkl\Z nbgZgkh\)33
, h ihf_s_gbb
jhkibk_c ih \h^hqghc lhj]h\e_34
 b h i_qZlZgbb ihklZghe_gbc
a_fkl\35
(hgb ke_^hZeb d k_h[s_fm k_^_gbx b bkiheg_gbx).
<i_juo ^mo kemqZyo [ueh ijbgylh j_r_gb_ h [_kieZlghf jZaf_-
s_gbb. < kemqZ_ k ba_klbyfb, hlq_lZfb, kf_lZfb b ^jm]bfb ^hdm-
f_glZfb ghhh[jZahZgguo a_fkdbo mqj_`^_gbc ]m[_jgZlhju ijh-32
K\h^aZdhgh\Jhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ 1857 ]. KI[., 1857. L. 1, q. 1. Kl. 472.
Ijbe. 14. I. 3–5.
33
Ih ^_iZjlZf_glmh[sbo^_e. 18 fZy 1866 ]. ‹ 9208. H[_kieZlghfihf_s_gbb
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo h[tye_gbc, ijbgZ^e_`Zsbo d dZl_]hjbb ijZbl_evkl\_gguo
jZkihjy`_gbc // K[hjgbdpbjdmeyjhbjZkihjy`_gbcF<>, hlghkysboky^h]m[_jgZlhjZ,
bp_]m[_jgZlhjh\, kh\_lgbdh ]m[_jgkdbo ijZ\e_gbc, dZgp_eyjbc ]m[_jgZlhjh\, ]m[_jg-
kdbo lbih]jZnbc, kljhbl_evguo b jZq_[guo hl^_e_gbc, Z lZd`_ ^h ]hjh^kdbo ba_fkdbo
mqj_`^_gbc, k 1858 ih 1896 ]. F., 1896. K. 250.
34
Pbjdmeyj ^_iZjlZf_glZ ihebpbb. 26 ygZjy 1891 ]. ‹ 350. H [_kieZlghf ihf_s_-
gbbhnbpbZevghcqZklb]m[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c khklZe_gguoijbkmlklbyfbihibl_c-
guf ^_eZf jhkibk_c f_klghkl_c gZ jZajy^u ih abfZgbx iZl_glgh]h k[hjZ k aZ_^_gbc
^ey jZa^jh[bl_evghc ijh^Z`b ibl_c // K[hjgbd pbjdmeyjh b jZkihjy`_gbc F<>…
K. 252.
35
Pbjdmeyjih^_iZjlZf_glmihebpbb. 25 fZy 1871 ]. ‹ 113. H[_kieZlghfi_qZlZgbb
 ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhklyo ihklZghe_gbc a_fkdbo mqj_`^_gbc // K[hjgbd pbjdmeyjh\
bjZkihjy`_gbcF<>… K. 251.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
189kbeb h[ hieZl_ a_fklZfb wlboim[ebdZpbc \b^m j_adh]h hajZklZ-
gbygZ]jmadbgZlbih]jZnbbijbg_^hklZld___^hoh^h\36
. H^gZdhih
ba^Zgbx «Kh^Z aZdhgh\» 1876 ]. wlZ bgnhjfZpby aZ_jrZeZ i_j_-
q_gv jZkihjy`_gbc b ba_klbc, dhlhju_ im[ebdhZebkv [_kieZlgh
^Ze__ke_^hZei_j_q_gvdZa_gguoh[ty\e_gbc)37
.
Hkghgufb jZkoh^gufb klZlvyfb lbih]jZnbb yeyebkv: hieZlZ
ljm^Z rlZlguo kem`Zsbo b gZ_fguo jZ[hqbo; ijbh[j_l_gb_ lbih-
]jZnkdh]h h[hjm^hZgby b _]h j_fhgl; ihdmidZ rjbnlh\, [mfZ]b
bdjZkhd; jZkkuedZ hl^_evguo ba^Zgbc lbih]jZnbb b «Lhfkdbo ]m-
[_jgkdbo_^hfhkl_c»38
; hlhie_gb_ b hk\_s_gb_ ihf_s_gby. Djhf_
lh]h, agZqbl_evgZyqZklvlbih]jZnkdbo^hoh^hij_^gZagZqZeZkv^ey
mkbe_gby kj_^kl ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby» b gZ \u^Zqm ij_fbc qb-
ghgbdZf39
(lZ[e. 1).
LZ[ebpZ 1
H[sb_^hoh^ubjZkoh^ulhfkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb\ 1859–1866 ]].40
=h^>hoh^ (\dexqZykmff m
rlZlgh]hkh^_j`Zgbyb
hklZlhdaZijhreuc]h^)JZkoh^HklZlhd18598 312 jm[. 88 ¾ dhi.5 743 jm[. 41 dhi.2 569 jm[. 47 ¾ dhi.18607 268 jm[. 44 ¾ dhi.6 185 jm[. 99 dhi.1 082 jm[. 45 ¾ dhi.18617 129 jm[. 58 ½ dhi.5 710 jm[. 92 dhi.1 418 jm[. 66 ½ dhi.18626 779 jm[. 2 ¾ dhi.5 903 jm[. 67 ¼ dhi.875 jm[. 35 ½ dhi.18635 792 jm[. 42 ¾ dhi.5 530 jm[. 53 ¼ dhi.261 jm[. 89 ½ dhi.18645 489 jm[. 37 dhi.5 330 jm[. 73 ¾ dhi.158 jm[. 63 ¼ dhi.18653 702 jm[. 72 ½ dhi.3 508 jm[. 93 dhi.193 jm[. 79 ½ dhi.18663 386 jm[. 5 ¼ dhi.2 647 jm[. 63 ½ dhi.738 jm[. 41 ¾ dhi.LZdbfh[jZahf, ]h^h\hc h[hjhl lbih]jZnbbb __ ^hoh^ghklvoZ-
jZdl_jbahZebkv l_g^_gpb_c d kgb`_gbx. QZklgu_ aZdZau khdjZsZ-
ebkv b^m g_ukhdh]h dZq_klZ bkiheg_gby. Rjbnlu, dhlhjufb36
Pbjdmeyj ^_iZjlZf_glZ ihebpbb bkihegbl_evghc. 16 fZjlZ 1872 ]. ‹ 55.
H^hklZ\e_gbb k_^_gbc, gZkdhevdh jZkoh^u ih [_kieZlghfm i_qZlZgbx  ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhklyoihklZghe_gbca_fkdbomqj_`^_gbcfh]ml[ulv[_aaZljm^g_gbyihdjuZ_fu
gZklhysbfb ^hoh^Zfb ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc // K[hjgbd pbjdmeyjh b jZkihjy`_gbc
F<>... K. 251.
37
K\h^aZdhgh\Jhkkbc kdhcbfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ 1876 ]. KI[., 1876. L. 2, q. 1. Kl. 766.
38
<dhebq_kl\_^\mowda_fieyjh\\_^hfhklb^he`gu[ueb^hklZ\eylvky\Bfi_jZ-
lhjkdmx im[ebqgmx [b[ebhl_dm,  h^ghf wda_fieyj_ –  Fhkdh\kdbc im[ebqguc fma_c,
P_gljZevguc klZlbklbq_kdbc dhfbl_l, Jmkkdh_ Zjo_heh]bq_kdh_ h[s_klh, :dZ^_fbx
gZmd, :e_dkZg^jhkdbc mgb_jkbl_l  =_evkbg]nhjk_, KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdbc p_gamjguc
dhfbl_l (k 1865 ]. – =eZgh_mijZe_gb_ih^_eZfi_qZlb).
39
K\h^ aZdhgh Jhkkbckdhc bfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ 1857 ]. KI[., 1857. L. 2, q. 1: H[s__
]m[_jgkdh_mqj_`^_gb_. =e. 11: QZklvdZagZq_ckdZy. Kl. 994.
40
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1108. E. 95–96; >. 1916. E. 37.

=eZ\Z 3
190l_q_gb_ 10 e_li_qZlZeZkv]Za_lZ, g_aZf_gyebkvghufb, babf_x-
sboky klZgdh lhevdh ^Z qm]mgguo [ueb  bkijZ\ghf khklhygbb,
Z^Z ^_j_ygguo ijhjZ[hlZeb m`_ 45 e_l41
. LZdZy kblmZpby [ueZ,
p_ehf, oZjZdl_jgZ ^ey ijZbl_evkl_gguo mqj_`^_gbc i_qZlb
hfgh]bojhkkbckdbo]m[_jgbyo.
8 Zij_ey 1865 ]. Fbgbkl_jklh gmlj_ggbo ^_e dhgklZlbjhZeh,
qlh _^hfhklb g_ ijbghkyl lhc kms_kl_gghc ihevau, dhlhjhc ke_-
^hZeh [u hl gbo h`b^Zlv dZd ^ey p_gljZevgh]h mijZe_gby, lZd
b^ey f_klgh]h gZk_e_gby, Z lbih]jZnbb, khklZeyy ^hhevgh h[bev-
guc bklhqgbd ^hoh^Z ^ey memqr_ggh]h ba^Zgby _^hfhkl_c b ^ey
mkbe_gby kj_^kl ]m[_jgkdbo ijZe_gbc, gZoh^ylky  kh_jr_gghf
aZklh_ b  hlghr_gbb ijhbah^bl_evghklb k\h_c ^Ze_dh hlklZxl hl
qZklgh]h lbih]jZnkdh]h ijhbah^klZ. Fbgbklj \gmlj_ggbo ^_e
I:. <Zem_ lZd`_ h[jZsZe gbfZgb_ gZ jhkl g_^hbfhd ih mkem]Zf
lbih]jZnbb b ijbau\Ze d bo ebdb^Zpbb. IjbqbgZfb wlh]h gZauZ-
ebkv «aZims_ggh_ khklhygb_ lbih]jZnkdbo kgZjy^h\» b h]jZgbq_g-
ghklv hagZ]jZ`^_gby j_^Zdlhjm ]Za_lu. GZ hkgh\Zgbb «hiulZ»
baZbfklhZgbc «ba dhff_jq_kdhc ijZdlbdb» F<> ij_^eZ]Zeh jy^
ijZbe» ^ey memqr_gby lbih]jZnkdh]h ^_eZ: memqr_gb_ ba^Zgby
]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c ih nhjf_ b ih kh^_j`Zgbx, mkbe_gb_ dhg-
ljhey aZ ihemqZ_fufb b jZkoh^m_fufb kj_^klZfb, jZkrbj_gb_
djm]ZqZklguoaZdZaqbdh\, khdjZs_gb_ba^_j`_dgZ[mfZ]mb\_jkldm
iml_fg_jZa^_evgh]h i_qZlZgby hnbpbZevghc b g_hnbpbZevghc qZk-
l_c \nhjfZl_ in folio («\ ebkl»). J_dhf_g^h\Zehkv m\_ebqblvi_jbh-
^bqghklv ]Za_lu; ieZgbjhZlv ^hoh^u b jZkoh^u lbih]jZnbb gZ [m-
^msbc]h^ (^hoh^ghjZkoh^gZykf_lZkhklZeyeZkvlhevdhihblh]Zf
]h^Z); ij_^hklZeylv  fbgbkl_jklh g_ lhevdh ]h^hu_, gh b ihem-
]h^hu_ hlq_lu h khklhygbb lbih]jZnkdbo kmff; ih\ukblv fZl_jb-
Zevgmx aZbgl_j_khZgghklv j_^ZdlhjZ ijhp_glZfb hl kmff, ujm-
q_gguo aZ h[tye_gby (25%) b ih^ibkdm (20%) qZklguo ebp
jZkoh^guo klZlvyo lbih]jZnbb ^hihegbl_evgu_ ijhp_glgu_ ha-
gZ]jZ`^_gby, qlh gZau\Z_lky, «k ijh^Z`» gb ^ey j_^ZdlhjZ, gb ^ey
^jm]bo khljm^gbdh g_ agZqbebkv). Hkh[h_ \gbfZgb_ \ fbgbkl_j-
kdhf pbjdmeyj_ h[jZsZehkv gZ g_h[oh^bfhklv ijbh[j_l_gby qZklh
mihlj_[ey_fuo rjbnlh\ (‹ 12, 11, 10, 8), aZf_gu jmqguoi_qZlguo
fZrbg kdhjhi_qZlgufb, hldjulby ijb lbih]jZnbb kh[kl\_gguo
keh\hebl_g. < 1866 ]. ]m[_jgZlhjZf j_dhf_g^h\Zehkv  jZaf_sZlv aZ-41
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1108. E. 104, 105h[.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
191dZau gZ ba]hlhe_gb_ rjbnlh  lbih]jZnbb Fbgbkl_jklZ gml-
j_ggbo^_e, Zg_qZklguoaZ_^_gbyo, qlh[ukhdjZlblvjZkoh^u42
.
Lhfkdh_ ]m[_jgkdh_ ijZe_gb_ i_jhgZqZevgh ihiulZehkvi_j_-
eh`blvk_keh`ghklbbjZkoh^uihmemqr_gbxlbih]jZnkdh]h^_eZ
gZ qZklgh_ ebph – [ueh ih^]hlhe_gh ^Z ZjbZglZ ijh_dlZ h i_j_-
^Zq_dZa_gghclbih]jZnbb\Zj_g^mgZiylvbebgZk_fve_l. :j_g^Z-
lhj^he`_g[ue\l_q_gb_]h^Z (\h\lhjhf\ZjbZgl_ – \i_j\u_
4 f_kypZ) «memqrblv gZklhysbc rjbnl», i_qZlZlv gZ kh_c [mfZ]_
]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb, gZk\h_c`_[mfZ]_ (kihemq_gb_faZg__ieZ-
lu) beb gZ [mfZ]_ ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby i_qZlZlv \ kjhd k_ hnb-
pbZevgu_^hdmf_glu (ijbwlhf «i_qZlv^he`gZ[ulvqbklZy, q_jgZy
b q_ldZy»), hieZqb\Zlv ljm^ lbih]jZnkdbo kem`Zsbo, Z lZd`_ hlh-
ie_gb_ b hk_s_gb_ ihf_s_gbc. <hagZ]jZ`^_gb_f Zj_g^Zlhjm
^he`gu [ueb klZlv ih^ibkgZy ieZlZ aZ _^hfhklb, dhlhjmx lZd`_
gZ^h [ueh aukdbZlv kZfhklhyl_evgh, ieZlZ aZ lbjZ`bjhZgb_ ]m-
[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c  jZaf_j_ 2 jm[. k_j. aZ 100 wda_fieyjh\ (wlhl
imgdl ihybeky lhevdh h lhjhfZjbZgl_), qZklgu_ b dZa_ggu_ aZ-
dZau, dhlhju_ k_ ijbkmlkl_ggu_ f_klZ b ^he`ghklgu_ ebpZ h[y-
auZebkvjZaf_sZlv]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb43
.
=jZnZ «:j_g^gZy ieZlZ» hklZeZkv g_aZiheg_gghc, gh b [_a lh]h
ykgh, qlh hohlgbdh aylv gZ k_[y bkiheg_gb_ k_oimgdlh ij_^eZ-
]Z_fuo «dhg^bpbc» g_ gZrehkv. L_ogbq_kdh_ khklhygb_, \ dhlhjhf
gZoh^beZkv lhfkdZy lbih]jZnby, lj_[hZeh [hevrbo i_jhgZqZev-
guoeh`_gbcbihke_^mxs_cihklhygghc[hjv[ukg_ieZl_`Zfbkh
klhjhgu h[yaZl_evguo ih^ibkqbdh b hnbpbZevguo deb_glh\. Ijb
`_eZgbb hldjulv ba^Zl_evkdh_ ^_eh beb hj]ZgbahZlv ba^Zgb_ ]Za_-
lu [ueh ijhs_ k g mey. K ^jm]hc klhjhgu, \ ^\hckl\_gghf iheh`_-
gbbfh]ebhdZaZlvkyb]m[_jgkdh_ijZe_gb_, b]m[_jgZlhj, ebrZykv
Z^fbgbkljZlb\gh]h dhgljhey gZ^ qZklguf kh^_j`Zl_e_f lbih]jZ-
nbb. ?keb hlghkbl_evgh [_ki_j_[hcgZy jZ[hlZ lbih]jZnbb ijb __
dZa_gghfoZjZdl_j_ hkghuZeZkvgZg_[hevrhf, ghnbdkbjhZgghf
[x^`_lghf kh^_j`Zgbb (1 200 jm[.) b hafh`ghklb aZbfklhZgby
kj_^kl ba dZiblZeh ^jm]bo ijZbl_evkl_gguo mqj_`^_gbc, lh
Zj_g^Zlhj fh] h[_ki_qblv __ jZ[hlm lhevdh \ ke mqZ_ k\h_\ j_f_gghc
hieZlu ih^ibkdb b \uiheg_gby aZdZah\. Hlkmlkl\b_ k\h[h^guo42
Pbjdmeyj >_iZjlZf_glZ ihebpbb. 8 Zij_ey 1865 ]. ‹ 41. H _^_gbb ^_e  ]m[_jg-
kdbo lbih]jZnbyo // K[hjgbd pbjdmeyjh b jZkihjy`_gbc F<>… K. 238–241;Pbjdmeyj
>_iZjlZf_glZh[sbo^_e. 14 Z\]mklZ 1866 ]. ‹ 14615 // LZf`_. K. 257; =:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2.
>. 1108. E. 1–8h[.
43
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1108. E. 89–93h[., 98–105h[.

=eZ\Z 3
192kj_^kl\^eyaZdmidb[mfZ]b, hieZluljm^ZjZ[hqbobih]Zr_gby^jm]bo
jZkoh^guo klZl_c fh]eh ijb_klb d hklZghd_ i_qZlZgby ]m[_jgkdbo
_^hfhkl_cb hnbpbZevguo^hdmf_glh\, Zwlh m`_ hagZqZehgZjmr_gb_
aZdhgZbkmebeh]m[_jgkdhfmgZqZevklmg_fZeu_g_ijbylghklb.
< dhg_qghf blh]_ ij_^ibkZgb_ Fbgbkl_jklZ gmlj_ggbo ^_e
ijbrehkv \uihegylv \ jZkq_l_ lhevdh gZ kh[kl\_ggu_ j_kmjku.
K‹ 17 hl 6 fZy 1866 ]. «Lhfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb» klZeb u-
oh^blv nhjfZl_ in folio; g_hnbpbZevgZy qZklvi_j_klZeZ gZqbgZlv-
ky kgh\h]h ebklZ, ke_^my kjZam aZ qZklvx hnbpbZevghc (ZgZeh]bq-
gu_ baf_g_gby ijhbahreb k [hevrbgklhf _^hfhkl_c). Wlh
kms_kl\_ggh mf_gvrZeh jZkoh^ [mfZ]b b khdjZsZeh dhebq_kl\h hl-
lbkdh\. K 1866 ]. ^eyg_h[yaZl_evguoih^ibkqbdhihurZeZkvih^-
ibkgZy ieZlZ – k 3 jm[. ^h 4 jm[. 50 dhi.44
 Ghf_j gZ [_ehc [mfZ ]_
hp_gbZeky\ 5 jm[. 50 dhi., hl^_evgucwda_fieyj]Za_lufh]ijh^Z-
Zlvky ih 20 dhi.45
 Ih ijbqbg_ baghkZ h[hjm^hZgby b hlkmlklby
[mfZ]b jZ[hlZ lbih]jZnbb qZklh hklZgZeb\ZeZkv, gh ij_^eh`_gb_
hih^kq_l_ieZlugZ[hjsbdZfihdhebq_klmgZ[jZgguokljhd [ueh
hl_j]gmlh, ihkdhevdm  wlhf kemqZ_ «gb h^bg ba gbo g_ hklZg_lky
kem`blv» b lbih]jZnby ebrblky jZ[hlgbdh\, «kem`Zsbo lbih]jZ-
nbbm`_g_kdhevdhe_l»46
.
< 1867 ]. balbih]jZnbbFbgbkl_jklZgmlj_ggbo^_e[uebih-
emq_gu ghu_ rjbnlu gZ kmffm 722 jm[. 73 dhi.47
 <f_klh ihdmidb
^mo ghuo f_oZgbq_kdbo klZgdh  klhebqghf aZ_^_gbb NjZgpZ
FZjdZ\ 1868 ]. jZkkjhqdm[uebijbh[j_l_gukehheblgy^eyba]h-
lhe_gbyrjbnlhbkdhjhi_qZlgZyfZrbgZxjp[mj]kdhc kbkl_fu,
k ijhba\h^bl_evghklvx 2 400 hllbkdh  qZk48
(jmqghc klZghd i_qZ-
lZe 300 hllbkdh\). Lhfkdbc ]m[_jgZlhj G<. Jh^aygdh u^_ebe gZ
ijbh[j_l_gb_fZrbgubkehheblgb 2 340 b 550 jm[. khhl_lkl_ggh
bebqghl_e_]jZnbjhZeNjZgpmFZjdm haZdexq_gbbk^_edb. Kj_^-
klZ gZ wlb p_ebihreb ba lbih]jZnkdbo kmff ( aZbfklhZgbb ba
kkuevghihk_e_gq_kdh]h dZiblZeZ [ueh hldZaZgh fbgbkl_jklhf).
<bxg_ 1868 ]. kfhljbl_ev lbih]jZnbb b j_^Zdlhj _^hfhkl_c
GB. Kl_nZgh[uedhfZg^bjhZgI_l_j[mj]gZljbf_kypZ (gZwlh44
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1108. E. 34.
45
LZf`_. E. 289.
46
LZf`_. E. 87h[.
47
H^bgbaysbdh krjbnlZfb, ih^ibkZgguc «<L. =m[_jg. IjZe.», [ueih hrb[d_
hlijZ\e_g\LZf[h\ (=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1108. E. 273).
48
LZdh_dhebq_kl\hwda_fieyjh\ij_^mkfZljb\ZehkvijbnhjfZl_ 9 ¼ gZ 12 ½ \_jr-
dh\ (41,07 gZ 55,5 kf). NhjfZlhf 12 ½ gZ 19 _jrdh\ (55,5 gZ 84,36 kf) fh`gh[uehi_qZ-
lZlv 1 200 hllbkdh\qZk (=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1108. E. 222h[.).

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
193[ueh aZljZq_gh _s_ 420 jm[.) ^ey bamq_gby f_oZgbafZ fZrbgu, mk-
lZghdb__gZf_kl_b «\hh[s_ ^eybamq_gbylbih]jZnkdh]h^_eZ»49
.
<k_gly[j_ lh]h `_ ]h^Z Kl_nZgh\ \ha\jZlbeky \ Lhfkd, kh[jZe
baZimklbeghh_h[hjm^hZgb_, gZijbh[j_l_gb_b^hklZdmdhlhjh-
]h[uehaZljZq_gh 4013 jm[. 49 dhi.50
>ey ihiheg_gby ^hoh^h b mkbe_gby dhff_jq_kdhc khklZeyx-
s_c ijZ\bl_evkl_gghc ]Za_lu [ueb ihgb`_gu jZkp_gdb gZ lbih-
]jZnkdb_jZ[hlu, ]m[_jgZlhjlZd`_aZ^_cklhZeZ^fbgbkljZlbguc
j_kmjk – \k_ hdjm`gu_ km^u, ihebp_ckdb_ mijZ\e_gby b \hehklgu_
ijZe_gby ]m[_jgbb h[yauZebkv jZaf_sZlv  ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZ-
nbb aZdZau gZ ba]hlhe_gb_ ^_ehijhbah^kl_gguo dgb] b [eZg-
dh\51
. Ijb hlkmlklbb Zevl_jgZlb\u qbghgbdb ugm`^_gu [ueb
ke_^hZlv wlhfm ij_^ibkZgbx. <j_amevlZl_ \ 1869–1870 ]]. ^hoh^u
lbih]jZnbb ihukbebkv  kjZ\g_gbb k 1866 ]. [he__ q_f \ 3,5 jZaZ
lZ[e. 2). GhZyl_ogbdZihfh]eZjZkrbjblvZkkhjlbf_glbdZq_klh
i_qZlghc ijh^mdpbb –  dhgp_ 1870 ]. q_j_a ]Za_lm [ueh h[tye_gh
h[ hldjulbbijb lhfkdhc lbih]jZnbb eblh]jZnbb ^ey ba]hlhe_gby
yjeudh\, bablguo dZjlhq_d, [eZgdh\, iha^jZbl_evguo ibk_f, gZ-
de__d b l^.52
. < 1871 ]. [ue ba^Zg «:ev[hf b^h ]. LhfkdZ b _] h
hdj_klghkl_c» klhbfhklvx 4 jm[. k_j.53
LZ[ebpZ 2
H[sb_^hoh^ubjZkoh^ulhfkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb\ 1869–1876 ]].54
=h^>hoh^JZkoh^HklZlhd186911 618 jm[. 26 ¾ dhi.7 567 jm[. 65 dhi.4 050 jm[. 61 ¾ dhi.187013 288 jm[. 63 dhi.7 750 jm[. 9 dhi.5 538 jm[. 54 dhi.18718 776 jm[. 33 ¼ dhi.8 678 jm[. 87 ¾ dhi.97 jm[. 45 ½ dhi.18728 434 jm[. 47 ½ dhi.7 382 jm[. 24 ½ dhi.1 052 jm[. 23 dhi.187310 383 jm[. 42 ½ dhi.9 590 jm[. 49 ½ dhi.792 jm[. 93 dhi.18749 006 jm[. 16 ½ dhi.8 194 jm[. 82 dhi.811 jm[. 34 ½ dhi.18759 902 jm[. 47 ½ dhi.9 209 jm[. 85 ½ dhi.692 jm[. 62 dhi.18767 504 jm[. 47 dhi.6 935 jm[. 22 dhi.569 jm[. 25 dhi.13 hdly[jy 1876 ]. gZlhfkdhfb h[s_kb[bjkdhf jugd_iheb]jZ-
nbq_kdbo mkem] ihy\behkv g h\h_ ^_ckl\mxs__ ebph – \ ]hjh^_ hl-
djueZkv i_jZy qZklgZy lbih]jZnbb <<. FboZcehZ b IB. FZdm-49
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 11. >. 1378. E. 10h[.–11; Hi. 2. >. 1108. E. 34, 234.
50
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 37–38h[.
51
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 12; >. 1108. E. 116–121.
52
Lhfkdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1870. ‹ 48. 5 ^_d. K. 17.
53
Lhfkdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1871. ‹ 32. 14 Z\]. K. 5.
54
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 39.

=eZ\Z 3
194rbgZ55
. Q_j_a h[ty\e_gb_ \ «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhklyo» hgZ
ijb]eZrZeZaZdZaqbdhdi_qZlZgbxdgb], kq_lh\, jZkq_lguoebklh\,
bablhd, h[tye_gbc, wlbd_lhd b ^jm]bo fZeuo nhjf i_qZlghc ijh-
^mdpbb, \k_]^Z \hklj_[h\Zgghc lhj]h\hc kj_^hc56
. QZklgZy lbih]jZ-
nby bkihegyeZ aZdZau [uklj__, dZq_kl\_gg__ b ^_r_\e_. >hoh^u ]m-
[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb, g_ \u^_j`bZxs_c dhgdmj_gpbb, klZeb
g_mdehgghkgb`Zlvky (kjZg_gbbklj_fyij_^r_klmxsbfb]h^Z-
fb\kj_^g_fgZ 1 800 jm[. ]h^) (lZ[e. 3, 4).
LZ[ebpZ 3
H[sb_^hoh^ubjZkoh^ulhfkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb\ 1877–1879 ]].57
=h^>hoh^JZkoh^HklZlhd18776 129 jm[. 57 dhi.5 772 jm[. 22 dhi.358 jm[. 11 dhi.18787 839 jm[. 61 dhi.6 764 jm[. 87 dhi.1 074 jm[. 74 dhi.18797 051 jm[. 64 dhi.5 767 jm[. 86 dhi.1 283 jm[. 78 dhi.< 1878 ]. ]m[_jgkdh_ ijZe_gb_ ghv ij_^ibkZeh ihebpbbb heh-
klgufijZe_gbyfjZaf_sZlvaZdZau lhevdh ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb,
gh f_jZ wlZ g_ ^hklb]eZ kh_c p_eb. ;he__ lh]h, ijZe_gb_ kZfh bghc
jZa [ueh ugm`^_gh aZdZauZlv g_h[oh^bfmx ^ey khc ^_yl_evghklb
i_qZlgmx ijh^mdpbx m <<. FboZcehZ b IB. FZdmrbgZ. Ihklhyg-
guf deb_glhf qZklghc lbih]jZnbb klZeZ LhfkdZy ^mohgZy dhgkbklh-
jby, ^hwlh]hjZaf_sZrZyaZdZau\]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb58
.
FZl_jbZevgu_ h[klhyl_evklZ ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb b ]Za_lu
mom^rbe mdZa hl 9 fZjlZ 1876 ]., gZ hkghZgbb dhlhjh]h baufZeZkv
ijb[uev lbih]jZnbb ba _^_gby ]m[_jgZlhjh b h[jZsZeZkv
k 1 ygZjy 1878 ]. ^hoh^dZagu»59
. =m[_jgkdZyeZklvebrbeZkvh^-
gh]h ba bklhqgbdh\ ^hoh^Z, dhlhjuf fh]eZ jZki hjy`Zlvky ih kh[kl-
_gghfm mkfhlj_gbx. MdZahf hl 30 fZy 1878 ]. ijZ\bl_evkl_ggu_
lbih]jZnbb h[_ki_qb\Zebkv gZ ljb ]h^Z ^hlZpbyfb  jZaf_j_55
 <lhjuf iheb]jZnbq_kdbf ij_^ijbylb_f LhfkdZ \ 1884 ]. klZeZ lbih]jZnby «Kb-
[bjkdhc ]Za_lu» (\ 1888 ]. ijh^ZgZ :<. :^jbZghuf ?N. Dm^jyp_\m). K 1887 ]. gZqZeZ
^_cklhZlvlbih]jZnby<I. DZjlZfur_Z, ijh^ZggZy\ 1894 ]. ihke_kf_jlb__eZ^_ev-
pZ lhZjbs_klm «=I. Ij_ckfZg b GY. ;_ey_\», \ 1900–1917 ]]. _x eZ^_e D:. Hjeh\
(:^jbZgh\ :<.>hjh]hc =jb]hjbc GbdheZ_bq…»: IbkvfZ =G. IhlZgbgm / khkl. im[e.
G<. <Zk_gvdbg. Lhfkd, 2007. K. 56; DZjlZrhZ LI. G_dhlhju_ Zki_dlu bamq_gby j_]bh-
gZevgh]h dgb`gh]h ^_eZ (GZ ijbf_j_ [b[ebhl_db =D. Lxf_gp_Z) // ;b[ebhl_qgh_ iZjl-
g_jklh ^ey bgnhjfZpbhggh]h jZablby : fZl_jbZeu VI F_`^mgZjh^ghc gZmqgh-
ijZdlbq_kdhcdhgn_j_gpbb, 21–23 k_gly[jy 2004 ]. Lhfkd, 2005. K. 184).
56
Lhfkdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1876. ‹ 41. 16 hdl. K. 4.
57
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 39.
58
=:LH. N. 170. Hi. 2. >. 599, 1789, 2554, 2648; N. 107. Hi. 2. >. 1292.
59
K\h^aZdhghJhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ 1876 ]. KI[., 1876. L. 2, q. 1. Kl. 821.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
195135 luk. jm[., dhlhju_ f_`^m ]m[_jgkdbfb ijZ\e_gbyfb jZkij_^_-
eyefbgbklj\gmlj_ggbo^_e60
.
<dhgp_ 1879 ]. ^_iZjlZf_gl]hkm^Zjkl_gghcwdhghfbbijbjZk-
kfhlj_gbb nbgZgkhhc kf_lu gZ 1880 ]. ghv mdZaZe gZ g_h[oh^b-
fhklv m_ebq_gby ^hoh^h hl ^_yl_evghklb ]m[_jgkdbo lbih]jZnbc
b mkljZg_gby hdZaZr_]hky \ 1878 ]. agZqbl_evgh]h  wlbo ^hoh^Zo
g_^h[hjZ (ba aZieZgbjhZgguo ih kf_l_ 305 459 jm[. ihklmibeh
lhevdh 61 670 jm[.). 29 ygZjy 1880 ]. Fbgbkl_jklh gmlj_ggbo^_e
ba^Zeh pbjdmeyj, dhlhjuc klZbei_j_^ ]m[_jgZlhjZfbaZ^Zqm h[_k-
i_qblv kZfhhdmiZ_fhklv lbih]jZnbc, Z ih hafh`ghklb ij_jZlblv
lbih]jZnkdmx^_yl_evghklvbklhqgbddZa_ggh]h^hoh^Z61
.
LZ[ebpZ 4
>hoh^ulhfkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbbaZ 1878–1879 ]].62
IhklmibehKlZlvy^hoh^ZD 1 ygZjy
1878 ].
g_^hbfd_1878 ].1879 ].1878–
1879 ]].D 1 ygZjy1880 ].
g_^hbfd_=m[_jgkdb_
\_^hf hklb1 925 jm[.989 jm[.
31 dhi.934 jm[.
47 dhi.1 923 jm[.
78 dhi.1 498 jm[.
74 dhi.Im[ebdZpby
h[ty\e_gbc1 706 jm[.
47 dhi.1 636 jm[.
72 dhi.2 069 jm[.
72 dhi.3 706 jm[.
44 dhi.1 630 jm[.
82 dhi.QZklgu_lbih-
]jZnkdb_b
eblh]jZnkdb_
jZ[hlu3 259 jm[.
3 dhi.2 394 jm[.
10 dhi.1 304 jm[.
63 dhi.3 698 jm[.
73 dhi.2 958 jm[.
48 dhi.G_^hbfdbaZ
ijhreu_]h^ u2 464 jm[.
37 dhi.1 668 jm[.
8 dhi.4 132 jm[.
45 dhi.Blh]h6 890 jm[.
50 dhi.7 484 jm[.
50 dhi.5 976 jm[.
90 dhi.13 461 jm[.
70 dhi.6 088 jm[.
4 dhi.G_h[oh^bfhklv hij_^_e_gby h[t_fh nbgZgkbjhZgby dZaghc
jZkoh^h ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb ijb_eZ d g_h[oh^bfhklb khklZ\-
e_gby __ kfhljbl_e_f ihklZl_cguo ]h^huo hlq_lh\ 1878–1880 ]].
h^hoh^Zo (5 klZl_c) b jZkoh^Zo (13 klZl_c). >h wlh]h  rgmjhuo
dgb]Zo nbdkbjh\Zebkv lhevdh h[sb_ kmffu ^ho h^h\ b jZkoh^h\.
Hlq_lu ih^]hlZeb\Zebkv ih ij_^klZe_gghc Fbgbkl_jklhf gml-
j_ggbo^_enhjf_bij_^gZagZqZebkv^ey^_iZjlZf_glZihebpbbbk-
ihegbl_evghc, dhlhjuc k 1819 ]. dhgljhebjhZe ^_yl_evghklv f_kl-
guolbih]jZnbc (lZ[e. 5).60
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 27.
61
LZf`_. E. 3.
62
LZf`_. E. 32.

=eZ\Z 3
196LZ[ebpZ 5
JZkoh^ulhfkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbbaZ 1878–1879 ]].63
KlZlvyjZkoh^h\=h^u187818791878–1879Kh^ _j`Zgb _rlZ lguokem`Zsb o3 058 jm[.
38 dhi.3 228 jm[.
72 dhi.6 287 jm[.
10 dhi.GZ_fjZ[hqbob^jm]boebpIhkh[bybhagZ]jZ`^_gbykem`Zsbf75 jm[.75 jm[.Ijbh[ j_l_gb_rjb nlh\, fZ rbgb^ jm] h]h
lbih]jZnkdh]hbfms_klZ832 jm[. 67 dhi.75 jm[.867 jm[.
67 dhi.J_fhgllbih]jZnkdh]hbfms_klZ16 jm[. 16 dhi.15 jm[.
53 dhi.31 jm[.
69 dhi.IhdmidZ[mfZ]b, djZ khdb^ jm]b o
ijbgZ^e_`ghkl_c^eyi_qZlb1 625 jm[. 2 dhi.752 jm[.
70 dhi.2 377 jm[.
72 dhi.Ba^_j`dbihhl^_evgufba^Zgbyf
lbih]jZnbb295 jm[. 73 dhi.580 jm[.
58 dhi.876 jm[.
31 dhi.JZkoh^uihjZkkued_lbih]jZnkdbo
ijhba\_^_gbc87 jm[. 51 dhi.104 jm[.
99 dhi.192 jm[.
50 dhi.GZ_fihf_s_gby^eylbih]jZnbbJZkoh^ugZhlhie_gb_bhk_s_gb_ lbih-
]jZnkdboihf_s_gbc114 jm[. 90 dhi.166 jm[.
34 dhi.281 jm[.
24 dhi.Ihemq _gb_i jhfukeh\ h]hk\b^_l_evkl\Z
bhp_ghqguck[hj\iheva m]hjh^Z19 jm[. 50 dhi.19 jm[.
50 dhi.39 jm[.MieZlZ^he]h\, k^_eZgguolbih]jZnb_c
\ij_^u^msb_]h^u857 jm[.
47 dhi.857 jm[.
47 dhi.I_j_qb ke_gb _\= hkm^Z jkl\ _ggh_
dZagZq_cklh650 jm[.650 jm[.Blh] h:6 774 jm[.
87 dhi.5 760 jm[.
83 dhi.12 535 jm[.
70 dhi.D 1 yg\Zjy 1880 ]. hklZehkvaZlbi h]jZnb_c^he]h\ 1 089 jm[. 42 dhi.LZdbfh[jZahf, fub^bf, qlhlbih]jZnby\ 1878–1879 ]]. g_^h-
ihemqbeZ q_l\_jlmx qZklv k\hbo ^hoh^h\: mke m] [ueh hdZaZgh gZ
h[smxkmffm 12 659 jm[. 24 dhi., bagboihemq_gh 9 328 jm[. 95 dhi.
(74 %), Z 3 329 jm[. 99 dhi. (26 %) hklZehkv  g_^hbfd_. G_^hbfdZ
kijhreuoe_lih]ZrZeZkv (4 132 jm[. 45 dhi.), ghhah[gheyeZkv
ghv (kmffZ \ 2 758 jm[. 05 dhi. hklZeZkvg_\uieZq_gghc, dg_c
^h[Zbehkv _s_ 3 329 jm[. 99 dhi.), ihkdhevdm qbghgbdb, yey\-
rb_ky h[yaZl_evgufb ih^ibkqbdZfb, i_qZlZ\rb_ [eZgdb b h[t-
ye_gby ih ^_eZf kem`[u, ihemqZeb ba^Zgby b mkem]b  dj_^bl.
JZkoh^u lbih]jZnbb aZ wlhl `_ i_jbh^ h[_ki_qb\Zeb, ]eZguf
h[jZahf, kh^_j`Zgb_ rlZlguo kem`Zsbo (50 %), ijbh[j_l_gb_
[mfZ]bbdjZkhd (19 %) bihdju\Zebba^_j`dblhevdhijbabfZ-
gbbg_^hbfhdkijhreuoe_l.63
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 32.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
197Ijh[e_fZ hieZlu dZa_gguo h[tye_gbc hagbdeZ m`_  i_j-
\uc]h^kms_kl\hZgby]Za_lu, dh]^Zf_`^mLhfkdbf]m[_jgkdbf
ijZ\e_gb_f b ]_g_jZe]m[_jgZlhjhf AZiZ^ghc Kb[bjb hagbdeZ
i_j_ibkdZ hlghkbl_evghihf_s_gby \ ]Za_l_ h[tye_gbc K_fbiZ-
eZlbgkdh]h h[eZklgh]h ijZe_gby, g_ bf_xs_]h lbih]jZnbb
bjZkiheZ]Zxs_]h g_[hevrbfb kj_^klZfb gZ dZgp_eyjkdb_ jZkoh-
^u64
. «Lhfkdb_]m[_jgkdb__^hfhklb» hdZaZebkvkblmZpbb, ZgZeh-
]bqghc lhc,  dhlhjhc [ueb ijZbl_evkl_ggu_ ba^Zgby k h[yaZ-
l_evghc ih^ibkdhc. < 1844 ]. aZ ihemq_gb_ k_gZlkdbo kh[jZgbc
maZdhg_gbc [ueh hij_^_e_gh kjZam `_ uqblZlv ijbqblZxsb_ky
k_gZlkdhclbih]jZnbbkmffufhf_glhlimkdZdZa_gguo, ]hjh^kdbo
beb a_fkdbo kj_^kl gZ dZgp_eyjkdb_ jZkoh^u ijbkmlkl_gguo
f_kl65
(k 1860 ]. kijbkmlklbcklZebabfZlvbkljZohu_aghkugZ
i_j_kuedm ^_g_] q_j_a ihqlm66
). GZqZ\rbc ba^ZZlvky ijb =eZ\ghf
mijZe_gbbih^_eZfi_qZlbk 1869 ]. «IjZbl_evkl_gguc\_klgbd»
lZd`_ g_kh_\j_f_ggh ihemqZe ^_gv]b hl h[yaZl_evguo ih^ibkqb-
dh\67
. «KZgdlI_l_j[mj]kdb_ \_^hfhklb», mljZlb\rb_ hiihabpbhg-
guceb[_jZevgucoZjZdl_jihke_boi_j_^Zqb\ 1875 ]. Fbgbkl_jkl-
m gZjh^gh]h ijhk_s_gby, hdZaZebkv \ «djZcg_ aZljm^gbl_evghf
iheh`_gbb» \b^m «f_^e_ggh]h ihklmie_gby ^_g_]» aZ i_qZlZgb_
h[tye_gbc hl jZaebqguo mqj_`^_gbc68
. Kj_^kl\Z, \u^_ey_fu_ gZ
dZgp_eyjkdb_ jZkoh^u, g_ \k_]^Z [ueb ^hklZlhqgu ^ey k\h_j_f_g-
ghc hieZlu ijZ\bl_evkl_gguo ba^Zgbc. GZijbf_j, \ 1840 ]. ^he`-
ghklgu_ ebpZ DZdZakdhc h[eZklb [ueb hkh[h`^_gu hl uieZlu 5
jm[. k_j. aZ ihemq_gb_ «DZdZakdh]h _klgbdZ», ihkdhevdm «hij_^_-
e_ggZyaZihemq_gb_ihfygmlh]h_klgbdZieZlZkl_kgy_ldZdZakdb_
ijbkmlkl\_ggu_ f_klZ b ^he`ghklgu_ ebpZihg_^hklZlhqghklb ij_-
^hklZe_gguo  jZkihjy`_gb_ bf dZgp_eyjkdbo kmff, ba dhlhjuo
ieZlZkbyijhbah^blky»69
.64
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 643. E. 55–58.
65
K[hjgbdpbjdmeyjhbbgkljmdpbcF<>. 23 ^_dZ[jy 1844 ]. Hihjy^d_ m^_j`Zgby
^_g_]aZk_gZlkdb_ba^Zgby // K[hjgbdpbjdmeyjhbjZkihjy`_gbcF<>… K. 244.
66
Pbjdmeyj ^_iZjlZf_glZ ihebpbb bkihegbl_evghc. 28 hdly[jy 1860 ]. ‹ 143. Hlghkb-
l_evghieZluaZk_gZlkdb_ba^Zgby // K[hjgbdpbjdmeyjhbjZkihjy`_gbcF<>. K. 244–245.
67
Pbjdmeyj F<>. 28 fZjlZ 1880 ]. ‹ 1260. Hihjy^d_ m^_j`Zgbyih^ibkguo^_g_]aZ]Z-
a_lm «IjZbl_evkl\_gguc_klgbd» // K[hjgbdpbjdmeyjh\bjZkihjy`_gbcF<>. K. 245–246.
68
Pbjdmeyj>_iZjlZf_glZh[sbo^_e. 27 Zij_ey 1885 ]. ‹ 5. Hijbgylbbf_jdk\h_\j_-
f_gghcmieZl_^_g_], ke_^mxsboaZh[tye_gby, i_qZlZ_fu_ijb[Ze_gbyod]Za_l_
©K.-I_l_j[ mj] kdb _\ _^hfhklb» // K[ hjgbdpb jdmeyjh\ bjZ kihjy` _gbc F<>. K. 246.
69
<ukhqZcr_ ml_j`^_ggh_ iheh`_gb_ Dhfbl_lZ fbgbkljh\, h[tye_ggh_ mijZ\-
eyxsbf Fbgbkl_jklhf gmlj_ggbo ^_e, h[ hk\h[h`^_gbb ijbkmlkl\_gguo f_kl

=eZ\Z 3
198Ba hlq_lZ lhfkdhc lbih]jZnbb aZ i_jh_ ihem]h^b_ 1880 ].
lZ[e. 6) lZd`_ hq_b^gh, qlh l_dmsZy ihem]h^hZy ijb[uev _^Z
ihdjuZeZ ba^_j`db gZ kh^_j`Zgb_ lbih]jZnbb, Z iheh`bl_evgh_
kZev^h (2 153 jm[. 49 dhi.) ^hklb]Zehkv aZ kq_l abfZgby ijhreuo
^he]h\ b ^h[Z\e_gby hklZldZ k ijhreh]h ]h^Z. Djhf_ lh]h, hlq_l g _
kh^_j`Zek_[_h[s_ckmffudgZqZem]h^Z.
LZ[ebpZ 6
>hoh^ubjZkoh^ulhfkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbbyg\Zj_ – bxg_ 1880 ].70
KlZlvy^ hoh^ h\KlZlvyjZkoh^h\=m[ _jg kdb _\ _^hf h-
klb686 jm[. 30 dhi.Kh^_j`Zgb_rlZlguokem`Zsbo1 717 jm[. 36 dhi.QZklgu_lbih]jZn-
kdb_beblh]jZnkdb_
jZ[hlu1 182 jm[. 20 dhi.:Zgkkfhljbl_ex
lbih]jZnbbgZ
f_ehqgu_jZ koh^u400 jm[.X. GZj[mlaZi_j_-
ie_ldgb]42 jm[. 20 dhi.G_^hbfdbaZlbih-
]jZnkdb_jZ[hlu1 091 jm[. 12 dhi.
<^hoh^k_gZ lkdhc
lbih]jZnbb3 jm[.Blh]h3 032 jm[. 27 dhi.HklZlhdd 1 ygZjy
1880 ].1 283 jm[. 78 dhi.Blh]h4 316 jm[. 5 dhi.Blh]h2 162 jm[. 56 dhi.D 1 bxey\hklZld_ 2 153 jm[. 49 dhi.HklZlhd aZ 1879 ].  jZaf_j_ 1 283 jm[. 78 dhi. f_klh i_j_qbk-
e_gby  ^hoh^ dZagu ihklZghe_gb_f ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby hl
29 ^_dZ[jy 1879 ]. [ue hklZ\e_g \ ki_pbZevguo kj_^klZo lbih]jZ-
nbb. L_fkZfuf[uebgZjmr_gug_lhevdhmdZa 1878 ]. hi_j_qbke_-
gbb ^hoh^h  jZkihjy`_gb_ dZagu, gh b klZlvy Kh^Z aZdhgh\, kh-
]eZkgh dhl hjhc ^hoh^u lbih]jZnbb fh]ml [ulv jZko h^h\Zgu lhevdh
k jZaj_r_gby ]m[_jgZlhjh b lhevdh gZ __ gm`^u71
. Wlh gZjmr_gb_
gh\uc kfhljbl_ev lbih]jZnbb GB. KmohiZjh\ h[tykgbe l_f h[-
klhyl_evkl\hf, qlh «\ yg\Zj_ b n_\jZe_ 1880 ]., \ke_^kl\b_ dhgdm-
j_gpbb qZklghc lbih]jZnbb, g_ ij_^b^blky ^hoh^h ^Z`_ gZ ih-
djulb_ g_h[oh^bfuo \ wlbo f_kypZo lbih]jZnkdbo ba^_j`_d,  lh
j_fy dZd lbih]jZnby ^he`gZ g_f_^e_ggh mieZlblv ^he]b 1879 ].».
>he]b aZ [mfZ]m, rjbnlu b ^jm]b_ lbih]jZnkdb_ ijbgZ^e_`ghklbb^he`ghklguo ebp DZdZakdhc h[eZklb hl ieZlu aZ ihemq_gb_ AZdZdZakdh]h _klgbdZ,
29.10.1840 // IKA. Kh[j. 2-_. KI[., 1841. L. 15. Hl^. 1. ‹ 13902.
70
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 21.
71
K\h^aZdhgh\Jhkkbckdhcbfi_jbb. Ba^Zgb_ 1876 ]. KI[., 1876. L. 2. Q. 1. H[s__
]m[_jgkdh_mqj_`^_gb_. =e. 10: QZklbwda_dmlhjkdZy, kq_lgZybZjobgZy. Kl. 821.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
199khklZeyeb 669 jm[., [he__ 600 jm[. ij_^gZagZqZebkvgZ\uieZlm`Z-
ehZgvylbih]jZnkdbfkem`ZsbfaZi_ju_^Zf_kypZ 1880 ].72
Bkihegyxsbc ^he`ghklv lhfkdh]h ]m[_jgZlhjZ <B. F_jpZeh\
18 fZjlZ 1880 ]., q_j_a 4 ^gy ihke_ hdhgqZl_evgh]h gZagZq_gby73
,
ijhkbe ]m[_jgkdh_ ijZe_gb_ ijbgylv «kZfu_ ^_yl_evgu_ f_ju
d\haf h`ghfm m\_ebq_gbx lbih]jZnkdh]h ^hoh^Z»74
. Iha`_  khbo
hkihfbgZgbyoF_jpZehibkZe: «=m[_jgkdZylbih]jZnbyijbi_j_-
oh^_\fh_jZkihjy`_gb_[ueZiheghfjZkkljhckl_: ^he]hgZg_c
qZklguo[ueh 2 ½ luk., dZa_gguo 6 luk., fZrbgubkihjq_gu, rjbn-
lu i_j_ehfZgu, [mfZ]b gb ebklZ»75
. 5 Zij_ey 1880 ]. ]m[_jgkdh_
ijZ\e_gb_hl_lkl\hZeh, qlhlbih]jZnby, «g_kfhljygZbf_xsmxky
 hghc kdhjhi_qZlgmxfZrbgm, _^Z hljZ[Zlu\Z_l jZkoh^u gZfZl_-
jbZeubg_agZqbl_evgh_ qbkeh kem`Zsbo. Dhgdmj_gpby qZklghc lb-
ih]jZnbb, bf_xs_c ]hjZa^h [hevr_ rjbnlh\, ^\_ kdhjhi_qZlgu_
fZrbgu b khx eblh]jZnbx, iheh`bl_evgh m[beZ ^_eh ]m[_jgkdhc
lbih]jZnbb». ;he__ lh]h, ijb gZebqbb [he__ khklhyl_evgh]h b h[h-
jhlbklh]h dhgdmj_glZ ]m[_jgkdZy lbih]jZnby, g_ bf_xsZy ^_g_]
^Z`_ gZ ijbh[j_l_gb_ ihi_j_qguo ebg__d ^ey dgb]», g_ lhevdh g_
[m^_l «^ZZlv ihkh[b_ ]hkm^Zjkl_gghfm dZagZq_cklm, gh kZfZ
^he`gZ [m^_l oh^ZlZcklhZlv h ihkh[bb hl dZagu»76
. < dZq_kl\_
f_j d ihur_gbx ^hoh^h ij_^eZ]Zehkv ijbf_g_gb_ Z^fbgbkljZ-
lbgh]h j_kmjkZ (ih^h[gh ij_^ibkZgbyf 1869 b 1878 ]].). H^gZdh
ghuc ]m[_jgZlhj kq_e «g_m^h[guf» h[yauZlv ih^_^hfkl_ggu_
mqj_`^_gby ^_eZlvaZdZau dgb]b [eZgdh  ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb
bebrvj_dhf_g^hZebfh[jZsZlvkyd__mkem]Zf.
18 hdly[jy 1880 ]. GB. KmohiZjh gZibkZe ]m[_jgZlhjm ij_^-
klZe_gb_ hlghkbl_evgh m\_ebq_gby ^hoh^h lbih]jZnbb b memqr_-
gby]Za_lgh]h^_eZ. <klmie_gb_, ijZdlbq_kdbkehhkeh\h, hgihaZ-
bfklhZe ba klZlvb ij_^k_^Zl_ey Lhfkdh]h ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby
FG. ;_j_klh\Z «Khklhygb_ lhfkdhc ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb», dhlh-
juc \ 1867–1868 ]]. ihkihkh[kl\h\Ze h[gh\e_gbx lbih]jZnkdh]h
h[hjm^hZgby77
: «KhklhysZy ijb Lhfkdhf ]m[_jgkdhf ijZe_gbb
lbih]jZnby k ijZ\bl_evkl_gghc klhjhgu _klv g_ qlh bgh_, dZd72
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 60.
73
Lhfkdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1880. ‹ 15. 12 Zij. K. 1.
74
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 3–4.
75
F_jpZeh\ <B. Fbfhoh^hf. Fhy ]m[_jgZlhjkdZy wihi_y // JmkkdZy klZjbgZ. 1917.
‹ 4–6. K. 27.
76
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 12–13 h[.
77
;_j_klh\ FboZbe. Khklhygb_ lhfkdhc ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb // Lhfkdb_ ]m[_jg-
kdb__^hfhklb. 1871. ‹ 11. 13 fZjlZ. K. 4–5.

=eZ\Z 3
200kj_^kl\h ^ey mki_rgh]h khh[s_gby ihklZghe_gbc b h[tye_gbc
]m[_jgkdh]h b ij_^ibkZgbc \ukr_]h gZqZevklZ… Gh djhf_ wlh]h
hnbpbZevgh]h agZq_gby, ]m[_jgkdZy lbih]jZnby ijbgbfZ_l gZ k_[y
bbkiheg_gb_qZklguo, g_hnbpbZevguoaZdZahijbmkehbb, _kebgZ
hli_qZlZgb_ aZdZaZ ^Zgh gZ^e_`Zs__ jZaj_r_gb_. A^_kv jmdh\h-
^klhf ^ey aukdZgby ieZlu kem`bl khklZe_ggZy  ]m[_jgkdhf
ijZe_gbb b ml_j`^_ggZy ]. gZqZevgbdhf ]m[_jgbb lZdkZ, ba dhlh-
jhc, dZd ba jZfdb, g_ fh`_l uclb lbih]jZnby. LZdbf h[jZahf, ijb
dZa_gghf oZjZdl_j_ lbih]jZnby ijbgZ^e_`bl f_kl_ k l_f d lhj]huf
mqj_`^_gbyfbwlhfihke_^g_fkemqZ_ihbgm_lkyk_faZdhgZfjug-
dZ, l_. q_f^_r_e_hgZ[_j_laZk\hbjZ[hlu, kjZgbl_evghkqZklgufb
lbih]jZnbyfb, q_f qbs_, djZkb__ b [uklj__ uihegy_l aZdZau, q_f
[he__bf__l aZdZaqbdh\, l_f^hoh^u__agZqbl_evg__, l_fiheh`_gb___
h[_ki_q_gg__bl_f[he__mg_ckj_^kldbkijZghklb»78
.
<dZq_kl\_\hafh`ghkl_cm\_ebq_gby^hoh^hhlba^Zl_evkdhc
^_yl_evghklb KmohiZjh gZau\Ze g_h[oh^bfhklv kgb`_gby jZk-
p_ghd gZ qZklgu_ aZdZau, aZf_gu qZklh f_gyxsboky gZ[hjsbdh\
hiulgufb fZkl_jZfb, jZkrbj_gby gZ[hjZ rjbnlh b lbih]jZn-
kdbo ijbgZ^e_`ghkl_c, ijh^Z`b 100 im^h\ g_]h^gh]h d mihlj_[-
e_gbx rjbnlZ, hp_gbZ_fh]h \ 200 jm[. k_j. =m[_jgkdh_ ijZe_gb_
ijbkh\hdmibehdwlbfij_^eh`_gbyfghvijhkv[m «hij_^ibkZgbb
k_fijbkmlkl_gguff_klZfb ^he`ghklgufebpZf ]m[_jgbb h[-
jZsZlvky k aZdZaZfb  ]m[_jgkdmx lbih]jZnbx, lZd dZd ijb l_i_-
j_rgbomkehbyolbih]jZnkdh]h^_eZwlhij_^ibkZgb_ m`_gbdZdbf
h[jZahf g_ [m^_l gZkbehZgb_f qm`hc heb, Z ijbg_k_l bklbggmx
ihevamdZd aZdZaqbdZf, hlghkbl_evgh^_r_bagu ij_^ qZklgufb lb-
ih]jZnbyfb, lZd b kZfhc lbih]jZnbb, m_ebqb __ ^hoh^u, qlh ih-
klZbl lbih]jZnbx \ hafh`ghklv i_j_^ZZlv  dZagm hklZldb, l_f
[he__, qlhf_jZwlZ[ueZm`_ijbf_gy_fZ\ 1869 ]. b^ZeZ[e_klysb_
j_amevlZlu, haukb ^hoh^ lbih]jZnbb kjZam gZ g_kdhevdh lu-
kyq»79
. 22 b 29 ghy[jy 1880 ]. KmohiZjhihiulZekyihihegblv^hoh-
^u lbih]jZnbb ijh^Z`_c klZjh]h lbih]jZnkdh]h rjbnlZ ih 2 jm[.
aZ im^, ^Z`^u him[ebdhZ h[tye_gb_ h _j_gghc _fm ]Za_l_80
,
gh `_eZxsbo _]h ijbh[j_klb g_ gZrehkv. LZdbf h[jZahf, ]m[_jgkdZy
lbih]jZnby, g_kmsZy gZ k_[_ h[j_f_gbl_evgu_ dZa_ggu_ h[yaZgghklb,
gh ugm`^_ggZy ^_ckl\hZlv  mkehbyo dhgdmj_gpbb bjughqguo hl-78
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 36.
79
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 40–41.
80
Lhfkdb_]m[_jgkdb_\_^hfhklb. 1880. ‹ 46. 22 ghy[. K. 4; ‹ 47. 29 ghy[. K. 4.

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
201ghr_gbc, ^he`gZ [ueZ, ih fg_gbx jmdh\h^klZ, ihemqZlv [x^`_lgu_
^hlZpbbbjZkiheZ]ZlvZ^fbgbkljZlbghcih^^_j`dhc.
=m[_jgZlhjmf_gvrbeieZlmgZaZdZau]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb
b 13 ghy[jy 1880 ]. ihjmqbe ]m[_jgkdhfm ijZe_gbx, «qlh[u k_
ih^_^hfkl_ggu_ qbgu b hehklgu_ ijZe_gby aZdZau\Zeb dgb]b
b[eZgdb  lhfkdhc ]m[_jgkdhc lbih]jZnbb, dhlhjZy ijb l_i_j_rgbo
mkehbyo lbih]jZnkdh]h ^_eZ [m^_l bkihegylv aZdZau ZddmjZlgh b ^_-
r_e_ (aZq_jdgmlhbgZibkZgh «g_om`_») qZklghclbih]jZnbb»81
.
DZdb\ 1879 ]., qbkluc^hoh^lbih]jZnbb\ 880 jm[. 29 dhi.
lZ[e. 7) g_ [ue i_j_qbke_g ]hkm^Zjkl\m, Z hklZe_g  ki_pbZevguo
kj_^klZo lbih]jZnbb ihklZghe_gb_f ]m[_jgkdh]h ijZe_gby hl
30 ^_dZ[jy 1880 ]. ihl_f`_kZfufijbqbgZf: «I_j_qbke_gbywlh]hg_
ij_^klZeyehkv\hafh`gufk^_eZlvb^mlh]h, qlhygZjvbn_jZev
1881 ]., ke_^klb_ dhgdmj_gpbb qZklghc lbih]jZnbb, g_ ij_^klZey_l-
ky ^hoh^h\ ^Z`_ gZ ihdjulb_ g_h[oh^bfuo  wlbo f_kypZo lbih]jZn-
kdbo ba^_j`_d». Djhf_ lh]h, aZ lbih]jZnb_c qbkebehkv 1 438 jm[.
29 dhi. g_hleh`guo^he]haZrjbnlu, [mfZ]mbi_j_ie_l82
.
LZ[ebpZ 7
>hoh^ubjZkoh^ulhfkdhc]m[_jgkdhclbih]jZnbb
k 1 ghy[jy 1880 ]. ih 1 ygZjy 1881 ].83
KlZlvy^ hoh^ h\KlZlvyjZkoh^h\=m[ _jg kdb _\ _^hf hklb282 jm[. 22 dhi.Kh^_j`Zgb_rlZl-
guokem`Zsbo2 004 jm[.86 dhi.QZklgu_lbih]jZnkdb_beblh-
]jZnkdb_jZ[hlu1 954 jm[. 9 dhi.Ijbh[j_l_gb_b^hk-
lZdZrjbnlhb
[mfZ]b1 492 jm[.37 dhi.G_^hbfdbaZlbih]jZnkdb_
jZ[hlu394 jm[. 82 dhi.<u^Zgh^h_j_^Zd-
lhjZ «Lhfkdbo]m-
[_jg kdb o\ _^hf h-
kl_c» Kl_nZgh\hcgZ
ih]j_[_gb _f m`Z50 jm[.:Zgkkfhljbl_ex
lbih]jZnbb430 jm[.G_^hbfdbaZ]m[_jgkdb__^h-
fhklb75 jm[. 90 dhi.
GZ^_ihablihebp_c-
kdh]hmijZ\e_gby3 jm[.Blh]h2 707 jm[. 3 dhi. Blh] h3 980 jm[.23 dhi.HklZlhdd 1 bxey 1880 ].2 153 jm[. 49 dhi.Blh]h4 860 jm[. 52 dhi.AZl_fd 1 yg\Zjy 1881 ]. \hklZld_: 880 jm[. 29 dhi.81
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 48.
82
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 56.
83
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 2. >. 1916. E. 55h[.–56.

=eZ\Z 3
20223 n_jZey 1881 ]. kbeZfb q_luj_o qbghgbdh ]m[_jgkdh]h
ijZe_gbyihf_s_gbblbih]jZnbb[ueZijh_^_gZj_babygZebq-
guo ^_g_] b ^_ehijhba\h^kl\_gghc ^hdmf_glZpbb. <uykgbehkv, qlh
[mfZ]b h ^_eZ_fuo aZdZaZo gZoh^ylky  [_kihjy^d_, lZd qlh g_l
hafh`ghklb hij_^_eblv ^_cklbl_evgmx pbnjm aZdZah\, ba dZdbo
fgh]b_gZijboh^g_aZibkZgu». AZdZau[uebaZibkZgudZjZg^Zrhf
gZ h[uqghf ebkl_, oZhlbq_kdb, g_ ih nhjf_ b [_a \kydhc kbkl_fu.
Fgh]b_ ba gbo g_ agZqbebkv ih ijboh^guf dgb]Zf beb agZqbebkv
g_hieZq_ggufb, ohly, ih kehZfgZ[hjsbdh\, hgb [uebhli_qZlZgu
bdZa_ggZy[mfZ]ZgZgbo[ueZmihlj_[e_gZ. DblZgpbbh[hieZl_aZ
]h^h\u_ dhfie_dlu «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo \_^hfhkl_c» b ijhkv [u
h\ukued_]Za_luqZklgufebpZfbijbkmlkl\_gguff_klZfbf_ebkv
klZg^Zjlguo ebklh ih^ibkdb g_ kms_klhZeh), gh  ^hoh^ wlb
k[hju (3 jm[. \Lhfkdhc]m[_jgbbb 5 jm[. 50 dhi. aZ__ij_^_eZfb)
g_k_gug_[ueb, ZkZfb_^hfhklbg_ukueZebkv84
. <]jZn_ «Ijb-
oh^» g_agZqbehkv 832 jm[. 25 dhi., g_[uehij_^klZ\e_ghhlq_lh\gZ
kmffm 65 jm[. 78 dhi. ih gZebqguf lbih]jZnkdbffZl_jbZeZf b gZ
63 jm[. 58 dhi. ih ohayckl_gghfm ZZgkm. LZdbf h[jZahf, lbih]jZ-
nbb[ueijbqbg_gms_j[\ 961 jm[. 61 dhi.85
25 n_jZey 1881 ]. Km-
ohiZjh[uehlkljZg_ghl^he`ghklbbgZj_fyjZkke_^hZgbyijb-
qbke_g d Lhfkdhfm ]m[_jgkdhfm i jZ\e_gbx. Kfhljbl_e_f lbih]jZ-
nbb [ue gZagZq_g ijhh^brbc j_babx dZagZq_c b wda_dmlhj
G?. <Zkbev_\, j_^Zdlhjhf _^hfhkl_c – klhehgZqZevgbd, dZgp_eyj-
kdbc kem`bl_ev H. <hevkdbc86
, Z k 4 fZjlZ h[_ ^he`ghklb aZgyeqb-
gh\gbd ih hkh[uf ihjmq_gbyf DD. =hjl^_=jhll. ?fm `_ [ueh ih-
jmq_gh\_klb^_ehhg_^hklZld_lbih]jZnkdbokmff.
< jZihjl_ hl 10 Zij_ey 1881 ]. KmohiZjh h[tykgye [_kihjy^db
\^hdmf_glZpbb ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf: «K g hy[jy f_kypZ 1880 ].
y[ue h^_j`bf [he_agbx, khklhys_x  baebrg_f mihlj_[e_gbb
kibjlguo gZibldh\, ke_^klb_ q_]h  dhgp_ n_jZey f_kypZ lhf-
kdbf ]m[_jgkdbf ijZe_gb_f [ue hlijZe_g  lhfkdmx ]hjh^kdmx
[hevgbpm gZ bae_q_gb_, hldm^Z, bae_qb\rbkv, ur_e. Ih uoh^_ ba
[hevgbpu y gZr_e m k_[y  dZjlbj_ g_kdhevdh aZdZah ih lbih]jZ-
nbbbihemq_gguoaZbkiheg_gb_bo^_g_]. ;he_agvfhy, khklhyrZy
 ihke_^g__ \j_fy  ijh^he`bl_evghf [_kiZfylkl_, g_ iha\hey_l84
=:LH. N. 3. Hi. 13. >. 413. E. 4Z.
85
LZf`_. E. 8.
86
Lhfkdb_ ]m[_jgkdb_ _^hfhklb. 1881. ‹ 9. 28 n_j. K. 2. <hevkdbc j_^ZdlbjhZe
lhevdh  9–10 1881 ]. < wlhc ^he`ghklb hg jZ[hlZe b h \j_fy [he_agb GB. Kl_nZghZ
(1880. ‹ 13–17).

Nhjfbjh\Zgb_bgZijZ\e_gbyjZa\blby]m[_jgkdbo\_^hfhkl_c\ 60–90-_]]. XIX \.
203fg_ ml_j^bl_evgh kdZaZlv, [uebebwlb aZdZau aZibkZgu  dgb]m aZdZ-
ah\, Z ihlhfm, ijbeZ]Zy ijb wlhf kZfu_ aZdZau b ^_ylvkhl iylv^_kyl
iylv jm[e_c^_g_], bf_xq_klvihdhjg_cr_ijhkblv]m[_jgkdh_ijZ\e_-
gb_ ^_eZlv jZkihjy`_gb_ – ijh\_jblv lbih]jZnkdb_ dgb]b k bf_xsb-
fbkygZebph^hdmf_glZfbbbaij_^klZe_gguofghx^_g_]uq_klvlh
dhebq_kl\h, dZdh_[m^_lijbqblZlvkyihdgb]Zf…»87
.
<uiheg_gb_ aZdZah [ueh ijh_j_gh ih gZi_qZlZgguf wda_fiey-
jZf «Lhfkdbo ]m[_jgkdbo _^hfhkl_c», dhjj_dlmjZf ^ey lbjZ`bjhZ-
gbybhijhkZflbih]jZnkdbokem`Zsbo. AZi_jbh^dhgpZ 1880 – gZqZeZ
1881 ]. lbih]jZnb_c [ue bkiheg_g lZdhc Zdpb^_glguc gZ[hj: 7 Znbr
ihk_lb\r_]h Lhfkd dhfbdZ KljZmkZ,  dhebq_kl\_ 2 000 wda_fieyjh\
dZ`^h_ (qlh ^ey ijhbgpbZevgh]h ]hjh^Z khklZeyeh agZqbl_evgh_ dh-
ebq_kl\h), ]bfgZabq_kdb_^g_gbdb (400 wda_fieyjh\), yjeudb^eykib-
q_ddmipmH_qdbgm (10 klhi), [eZgdb^ey dhglhjudmiphGG. Lxnb-
gZ (150 wda_fieyjh\) b GB. Fbgkdh]h (5 nhjf), ]ZjZglbcgu_
h[yaZl_evklZ ^ey qZkh\h]h fZk