лекции по неорг. химии

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33.02.01 «»
18.02.01« »





2016

2


………………………………………………………... 4

. . . …………………………………………....
5
…………………………………. 14
………………… ………………………………….. 23
……………………………………………………………………….. 30
……………………………………. 38
………………………………………………………………... 47
…………………………………………………………... 52
- ( )……….... 61
………………………………………………………………………...
67
……………………………………………………………………...
74
V ……….... 86
IV , …….….. 98
III ……….... 109
. ……………. 117
……………………………………………………………. 127
I . , …………... 133
II . , ……………..
138
VI . …………………... 144
VII . …………….. 149
VIII . ………………. 154
………………………………………………………………………
161

3



« »
, 33.02.01 «», 18.02.01
« »

40 .

,
, ,
.

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.

(2014 .).

:

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;
;
;
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– .

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1. .
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5

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– ,
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1913 . .
- - , (
)
. . .
- - –
, :

.


. . .
,
.
– ,
.
( )
( ).

6




I, II, III IV, V, VI, VII
– ,
.
. : I Cu (II), Au (III), VI O (II), VII ,
F (I). : .
,
.



2.
,
.
. .
, -
( . nucleus – ).
– , .
+1. –
1 1
.
- , 0.

0 1 n.
, ,
. .
, . .
.
+1, .
,
. –1. –
-.
,
. ,
( 1).

( )

, d - f -


(A)

,
s - p -

7

1.


.
Z.
Z, .
,
35
17 Cl 37 17 Cl
Z, .
,
40
18 Ar 4019 K
. .
- :

1.
= = =



= +
( )

2.
.
3.
( )
.

3. .

.
20- XX . ,
: .
9,1 · 10
-28 1,6 · 10 -19 .
: .

8


- .
,
,
.
, -
,
-
:
.
,
( 90%), .

,
.
.
n
. 1,2,3,4,5, …
. n , .
: (n=1), L ( n=2), (n=3), N ( n=4), …


- = 2 n 2 . , n =1,
- = 2, n =2, - = 8 , n = 3, - = 18 . .
l .

.
0 (n-1). :
, l … 0 1 2 3
( )…………. s p d f
0, s- .

( ).
1 p- .
,
.
2 d- .
, p- .
3 f- .
, d - .


- = 2(2 l+1). s 2, p 6, d 10, f 14.
m
l
.
–l +l, 0. m
l

9

, s (l=0) (m l=0),
p (l=1) – (m
l = -1, 0, +1), d (l=2)
(m
l =-2, -1, 0, +1+2).

.
, s-
- –

d - -

f - –
m
s.
,
. m
s +1/2 –1/2
.

. +1/2 ,
-1/2: .
,
: n, l, m
l , m s

4.

.

.

- .

(n), (s, p, d, f ),
.
:
1. .

. .
2. . .
n+l ,
n+l n .
:
1 s 2s 2p 3 s 3 p 4 s 3 d 4p 5 s 4 d 5 p 6 s 4f 5 d 6 p7s

10

d- f-
,
(Cu, Ag, Cr .).
3. . ,
: n, l, m
l , m s. ,
,
( ) , . .



4. . ,
.
.

.
, ,
.
,
…2s
22p 3
:
…2s
22p 4 -

4 :
s- - s-
. I II .
p- – p- .
III – VIII .
d- – d-
. d – .
f- – f-
. f- ,
.

5.

.

11

(
) ( ).
– .
.
- ,
, . . .
, ,
.

.
.
– ,
, . .
.
,
, .

( ).
( ) –
,
.

.
, .
, .
,



1 8








, .
.

12

. ,
1 2 – s-
- 4 ,
,
4 .
10 ( )
d- . d -
. d - ,
( , ,
).
d - 4 ( 1,3 1,9)
( ) -
,
3 8.
.

( 1,6
2,8).
,
:











. – ,
.
s- p - , ,
. d -
(2 1),
.

:
1. , 11 12 .
?

13

2.
, n= 4 l = 1?
?
3. :
) F ) Br
) Cl ) I

2
:

:
1) .
2)
.
3) .

1.
100 .
.
, .
.
,
( , . .
).
,
, , , .
– , ,
-2.
m n
: K
2O, CaO, SO 2, P 2O 5

( ).
– ,
.
, : CO, SiO, NO, N
2O.
– ,
. ,
Na
2O + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H 2O
SO
2 + 2NaOH = Na 2SO 4 + H 2O
.
(
). ,
Na
2O + H 2O = 2Na
SO
2 + H 2O = 2SO 4

14

,
, .
– .

: , , .
— , .
: Na
2O NaOH, CaO Ca(OH) 2, CuO Cu(OH) 2.
.
, ( . BeO,
ZnO, PbO, SnO – .).
— , .
: CO
2 H 2CO 3, SO 3 H 2SO 4, P 2O 5 H 3PO 4.
.
.
: CrO
3 (VI), Mn 2O 7 (VII).
— ,
. : ZnO Zn(OH)
2 = H 2ZnO 2
A1
2O 3 A1(OH) 3 = H 3A1O 3
, III-
IV .
, ;
, .

. .
– ,
– .
( )
, – ,
.
: NaOH, ( )
2, Al(OH) 3
:
- , : NaOH, KOH
.
- ( , ),
: C(OH)
2, Fe(OH) 3 .
:
- ( ): NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)
2 .
- : Cu(OH)
2, Fe(OH) 3 .
– , ,
. :
( ), –
( . acidum – ), – ,
.
: HCl, H
2SO 4, H 3PO 4
:

15

- , , : HCl, HNO 3,
HCN .
- ( , ), ,
: H
2SO 4, H 3PO 4 .
:
- : H
2SO 4, H 3PO 4 .
- : HCl, H
2S, HCN .
- ,
.
.
:
Zn(OH)
2 = H 2ZnO 2
AI(OH) = H
3AIO 3

: Zn(OH)
2 - = H 2ZnO 2
- ,

. :
HCI NaCI
Ca(OH)
2 Ca(NO 3)2

Me
x(Ac) y
– , y – .

. ,
.
,
NaCl
K
2SO 4
Cu(NO 3)2 (II)

.
– (
-)
,
NaHCO
3 –
KHS –
NaH
2PO 4 –

.
– (
-)
,
MgOHNO
3 –

16

FeOHCl 2 – (III)
Al(OH)
2NO 3-
— , .
:
.
,
.
,
KAl(SO 4)2 – – , ( )
NH
4MgPO 4 – – ;
(NH
4)2Fe(SO 4)2 – (II) – .

2.



1.
1.



:
1. 2Mg + O
2 = 2MgO
2. CH
4 + 2O 2 = CO 2 + 2H 2O
t 0
3. Cu(OH) 2 = CuO + H 2O
t 0
4. CaCO
3 = CaO + H 2O
5. H
2SO 3 H 2O + SO 2

1.

17

1.








1 2 -
+ 2 - + 2
( ) + 2 + 2
-
-

:
1.
2. ,
(IV) SiO
2


2.
2.


:
1. 2Na + 2H
2O = 2NaOH + H 2

2. Na
2O + H 2O = 2NaOH

3. 2KCl + 2H
2O ======== H 2 + Cl 2 + 2KOH

4. FeSO
4 + 2NaOH = Fe(OH) 2 + Na 2SO 4

2.

18

2.




Me y+ + yOH - -
+ 2 ( )
+ 2 -
+
() -

- + 2
,



+ 2


3.
3.



1.
+,
:

+ + -

2. + ( , ) = + 2
2HCl + CaO = CaCl
2 + H 2O

3. + = +
2
HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H
2O

19


4. + = +
2
2HCl + Zn(OH)
2 = ZnCl 2 + 2H 2O

5. + = . + . ( )
HCl + AgNO
3 = HNO 3 + AgCl
2HCl + Na
2CO 3 = 2NaCl + H 2O + CO 2

6. + = +
2
* . H
2SO 4 HNO 3
.
**






1. ( )
.
.
H
+ OH -
Zn
2+ + 2OH - Zn(OH) 2 2H + + ZnO 22-

2.
+ = +
2
Zn(OH)
2 + 2HCl = ZnCl 2 + 2H 2O

3. + = +
2
Zn(OH)
2 + 2NaOH ( .) = Na 2ZnO 2 + 2H 2O ( )
Zn(OH)
2 + 2NaOH ( - ) = Na 2[Zn(OH) 4]


4.

20

4.


1. + =
CuSO
4 +5 H 2O = CuSO 4 · 5H 2O

2. + = . + . ()
AgNO
3 + KCl = KNO 3 + AgCl

3. + = . + ()
FeCl
3 + 3NaOH = 3NaCl + Fe(OH) 3
+ = +
2
NaHCO
3 + NaOH = Na 2CO 3 + H 2O

4. + = . + . ( )
BaCl
2 + H 2SO 4 = BaSO 4 + 2HCl
+ = +
2
CuOHCl + HCl = CuCl
2 + H 2O
5. + (1) = . + (2)*

CuSO 4 + Fe = FeSO 4 + Cu
* :
.
t
0
6.
MgCO
3 = MgO + CO 2



.
3.

21

3.





- +… +

-
+ -
- + + +

- - + +

3.

.

,
.
5.



.
- ,
,
.

:
1.
:
) , (IV),
) , ,
) , ,

2. :
)

22

)
)
)

3. (II),
(II):
) NaOH
) Fe(OH)
2
) H
2O
) H
2SO 4
3

:
:
1) .
2) .
3) .
.
4) .
5) .
6) .

1.

, .
.
,
, . , ,
,
, , , -
.
12 – .
, ,
, . ,
Fe
2+ Fe 3+
K
3[Fe(CN) 6] K 4[Fe(CN) 6],
( ).

,
,
, .
:
CoCl
3· 6NH 3 1798 .
.
, .

23


. 1891-1893 . . ( ,
, ).
,
. . ,
. . , .

2.
1.
.

2. - ,
.
.
- .
d- .

3. -
, (
. liqo- ) .
:
:
I- - , Cl - - , Br - - , OH - - , CN - - , NO -
2 – ,
- NH
2-,
SO 42- -
, - S 2O32- ,
– SCN -
- CO
32- ,
- C 2O 42-
:
NH 0
3 – , H 2O0 – , 0 – , NO -

4. ( ),
- , .
, , , 2
.


1.



+1

2

(

)
+2

4, 6
+3
6, 4
+4 8,
6

24

1.

5. ( )
- .
,
.
6. , , .
- , .
- , .
.

:


Na +[Al 3+(OH) - 4]-




Al
3+- -
OH- -
= 4

[Cu(NH
3)0 4]2+SO 4 2
- (II)




Cu
2+ - -
NH
3 0 –

= 4

3. .


.



-
2 Cu + , Ag + , Au +

4 Cu 2+, Co 2+ , Zn 2+ , Pb 2+ , Pt 2+ , Al 3+ , Au 3+

6 Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , Co 3+ , Ni 2+ , Al 3+ , Cr 3+ , Pt 4+ , Pb 4+

25


.
, - , ,
.
:
Al(OH)
3 + NaOH = Na[Al(O ) 4]
uSO
4 + 4N 3 = [u(N )4]SO 4
FeS
4 +6KCN = K 4[Fe(CN) 6] + K 2S 4



p- , d- ( s -).
(III):
Co
3+










4
s 3 d 4p


:

Co 3+





4
s 3 d 4p
, ,
: NH
3.
Co 3+
.
.

Co 3+

NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 NH 3
· ·



·
· · ·
· · · · · ·
4 s 3 d 4p
: …
- ,
, .


4.
1. :
- ( ), , K
3+[Fe(CN) 6]3-
-
( ), , [Cu(NH 3)4]2+SO 42-

26

- ( ), ,
[Cu(NH
3)4]2+[PtCl 4]2-
- ( ), , [Fe(C) 5]0

2.
- H[AuCl
4]
- [Aq(NH 3)2]OH
- K
3[Fe(CN) 6], Na 3[AlF 6]
- K
3[Fe(CN) 6]
- [Pt(NH
3)2 Cl 2]0

3. , ,
:

- : lig N 3
[ u(N
)4]S 4
- : lig
2
[ (
2 ) 6]3l; [ r( 2 ) 6] l 3; [ l( 2 ) 6]3l
- : lig -
K
2[PtC1 4]; K 4[Fe(CN) 6]; K 2[CoC1 4]
- : lig -
Na
2[Sn(OH) 4]; Na 2[Zn(OH) 4]; [ l( ) 6]
- ( ) . :
(
)
[ t(N
)4l] l; [ t(N 3) l 3];
- ( )
, . .
« » .
.
, - ( )
Fe
2+ ( 1).


1

27

,
( 2).


2

5.

1. ( , , . .)
2. -
« » (
- - , l - - , NO 2- -
. .).
, (N
3 –
,
2 – ).
, (2 -
, 3 – , 4 – , 5- , 6- . .)
3. –
.
,
.
, [Aq(NH
3)2]Cl – (I)
[Co(NH
3)4 Cl 2]Cl – (III)


1. -
« » (
- - , l - - , NO 2- -
. .).
, (N
3 –
,
2 – ).
, (2 -
, 3 – , 4 – , 5- , 6- . .)
2. –
– «» (Fe – , Cu – ,
Ag – , Zn – , Hg – ,Co – , Cr –

28

. .) ,
.
3.
.
, K
4[Fe(CN) 6] – (II)
Na[Al(OH)
4 ] –

6.
1. .
, ,

:
[Cu(NH
3)4]SO 4 [Cu(NH 3)4]2+ + SO 4 2-
, ,
,
, , .

.

2. :
4FeCl
3 + 3K 4[Fe(CN) 6] Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6]3 + 12KCl

« »

[Cu(NH
3)4]SO 4 + BaCl 2 [Cu(NH 3)4]Cl 2 + BaSO 4

3. :
[Cu(NH
3)4]SO 4 + 4HCl 4NH 4Cl + CuSO 4

4. :

[Aq(NH
3)2]Cl + KI AgI + KCl + 2NH 3

-
2[Aq(NH
3)2]OH + R – COH 2Ag + RCOONH 4 + H 2O + 3NH 3

:

1. :
K
2[Cu(CN) 4], [C (N 3)5SO 4]NO 3, [Ni(N 3)6]Cl 2

2. ,
:
Zn(OH)
2 + NaOH
. . = 4

29

4
:

:
1) . .
2) . . .
3) .
4) .

1. . .
.

– .
,
.
,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
– ,
.
:
(. - , . - ),
(. - , . - ),
, (. - , . - ),
: ( . – ,
. - ), ( . – , . – )
: , , ,
: , (. – ,
. - ).

, . . .
, ,
( ) 100
( )
100 1 ( 1).
1 ,
– .

30

1.


– ,
100 . ,
.
.
:
- ( – )
- ( – , – )
- – .
.


– ,
100 1 . ,
.
( ) ( ).
, .
,

– .
( , – , )
( , , ,
, . .). , ,
, .
.
« » -
. . ,
,

( )
(
)

31

,
. ( 1).




1 –

– ,
. .
( ,
) - .

, , ,
. ,
, , ,
: , , . .
- .
.

2. . .
– ,
( ).
- ,
.
,
. ,
, , .
, , ,
, . ,

32

, 5-9% ,
( – ).
, . . 70-
80%, , .
- ,
.
1887 . . . ( )
.

.
- . ,
, .

, ,
.
,
.

. , ()
CuSO
4, , .
,
: CuSO
4·5H 2O.
:
CuSO
4 + nH 2O CuSO 4·n H 2O CuSO 4·5H 2O

, ,
. , ,
.
,
:
CuSO
4· 5H 2O - , (II);
Na
2SO 4· 10H 2O - , ;
Na
2CO 3· 10H 2O - , ;
MgSO
4· 7H 2O - , .
, , .
.
.
,
:
1.
. , ,

0
2. ( ) .
, ,
0

33


:

= +

1.
, 0 -
. .
, NaN
3; KC1; K 2SO 4 N 3; NH 4Cl .
2.
, 0 -
, .
gN
3; NaOH; ; ZnSO 4; H 2SO 4 .

: - -
, ,
.

3.
, .
– ,
1000 .
> 10 . 1000 ;
– 10 0, 01 . 1000 ;
< 0,01 . 1000 .
,
, , ( ,
, –
).

:
1. :
( , , )
( , )
( , )
2. :
( - )
( - , , , . .)
3. :
-

- ,

– ,
,
-
. , 100 30

34

. (30 100
)
-
. , 100 0,2
(0,2 100 ).

:
• — —
( , , . .);
• - — ( ,
.);
• — ( , , —
NaOH, K2S04, HN03, 1 4).
4.
,
.



1. ( )
( );

2. ( )
( );
( )

()
(m
- ) (m - ).
.


1.
=
 .  
  · 100%
m
.- - ,
m
- –

2.
m
. - = ·рра


%

3.
m
- = m - - m -

35


V=


ρ – (/ )

1.
m
- m - 2 = m - 1 + m( 2)
m
-


2 = р.вва
рра·



2.
m
- m - 2 = m - 1 - m( 2)
m
-


2= р.вва
рра·




3.
m
-
m
- 2 = m - 1 + m . -
m
. -
m
. - 2 = m .- 1 + m . -


2=  .  
   ·  100%
( )

4.

3 = ·  ·
 
( ) ( )
, ,
.
:

( ) =



( ) – , /
n -
V – ( )

36

. . n =

М ,
( )
= 
(л)·М(Х) ( ) = ·


(мл)·М(Х)

m = ( ) · V( ) · ( ) m
= С(Х)·(мл)·М(Х)





( ,
)


(
1/z X) = ( /)
(л) = 
( /)·(л) ( 1/z X) = ·


( /)·( )

m
= ( 1/z X) · M( 1/z X) · V( ) m = С( /)·( /)∙(мл)





1/z f () - - ,

.
z – , ,
· ,

M(
1/z X) – M( 1/z X) = 1/z X · M(X)

,
M(
1/2 H 2SO 4) = 1/2 · M(H 2SO 4) = 1/2 · 98 = 49

M( 1/2 Na 2CO 3) = 1/2 · M(Na 2CO 3) = 1/2 · 106 = 53

KMnO 4 - - ,
Mn +7 + 5 - Mn +2
M( 1/5 KMnO 4) = 1/5 · M(KMnO 4) = 1/5 · 158 = 31,6

– , 1 .
:

= 
 ( / )
=
С( /)·М( /)







( 1/z X) = ··
( /)

37


( ) = ··


( ) =  · 


( 1/z X) = ·
 

:
1. ?
2. -
?
3. 0,9% .
100 . ?
5

:
:
1) .
2) .
3) . .
4) .
5) . .

1.

,
, .
( 1).

1.

( ),
.

38

,
.
, .
, .


19 . .
.

– ,
. , , .


– ,
. ,
. ,
, , – , , ,
.

.
(1887 .).
,

. . . . .
. . .

:
1.
.

( )
– ,
(Na
+ , S 2-, NO 3-
.)
2. .


( ),
( ).
– ,
– .

+, NH 4+,

Na +, Cu 2+ , Al 3+ .
– - , – Cl -
SO
4 2- , PO 43-
.

39

3. – . ,
: ( , )
( , ).
,
( ).
, Mg(NO
3)2 Mg 2+ + 2NO 3-

. , Mg(NO
3)2
.
, . . .
4.
.
5. – .

2.

. . . ,

.
, ,
. .
2
,
.
( 2).

– 2.

40


,
, NaCl,
-
.
- Cl
-,
-
Na
+.



.
, .

, ,
. . ( 3.)

3.




4.






.
,
,
HCl:
,
.


( 4.)


,
.
.
: H
+, Mg 2+, NO 3-
. .

, ,
– ,

+
:

41

HCl H + + Cl -
H 2SO 4 2H + + SO 42-

.
H
x(Ac), – .
,
H
2CO 3 H + + HCO 3-
HCO 3-
H + + CO 32-

1 > K 2 ( – )
, , ,

+
(
3 +).
- ,
- -
-.
( )
NaOH Na
+ + OH -
Ba(OH)
2 Ba 2+ + 2OH -
.
( )
, -
.

42

,
Fe(OH)
2 FeOH + + OH -
FeOH + Fe 2+ + OH -
1 > K 2 ( – )
.
-
-.
– ,

+ -
- , . . .
Zn(OH)
2

2H
+ + ZnO 2 2-
H 2ZnO 2 = Zn(OH) 2 Zn 2+ + 2OH -

( ) – ,
.
K
2CO 3 2K + + CO 32-
Al
2(SO 4)3 2Al 3+ + 3SO 42-

– ,
, .
,
NaHCO
3 Na + + HCO 3- (
– ) = 1
( - ) :

3 -
+ + 32-
<< 1
– ,
,

-.
,
Fe(OH)
2Cl Fe(OH) 2+ + 2Cl -
= 1
FeOH 2+ ,
<< 1:
Fe(OH)
2 +
FeOH 2+ + OH -
FeOH 2+ Fe 3+ + OH -


3. .
.

. ,
.

, .
- , ,
.

= числомолекул,распавшихсянаионы
общеечислорастворенныхмолекул

43

( )
, , .
, . . ,
, . .
.
, ,
.

.
– ,
, . .
1 (100%). :
1) ,
2) (HClO
4, HClO 3, HNO 3, H 2SO 4, HCl, HBr, HI .)
3) (NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)
2, Ca(OH) 2 .)
– ,
, . . 1
(100%), .
:
1) c ( H
3PO 4, H 2S, H 2SO 3, H 2SiO 3, H 2CO 3, HCN, HNO 2, HF,
CH
3COOH .)
2) (Cu(OH)
2, Fe(OH) 3 .)
3)
4)



. ,
,
.

nBm :

nBm n m+ + mB n-

,
:
K
p = [ m+ ]n · [B n-]m/ [ nBm]

(
)

. > ,
.

, .
,
.

44

4.
,
.
, , .

:
1) ( )
2)
3) -
:

1. ,
AgNO
3 + HCl AgCl + HNO 3
Ag + + NO 3 - + H + + Cl -
AgCl + H + + NO 3-
Ag + + Cl -
AgCl

2. ,
Na
2CO 3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + CO 2 + H 2O
2Na + + CO 32- + 2H + + 2Cl -
2Na + + 2Cl - + CO 2 + H 2O
CO
3 2- + 2H +
CO 2 + H 2O

3. , (
)
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H
2O
Na + + OH - + H + + Cl - Na + + Cl - + H 2O
OH - + H + H 2O

, , . .
.
,
Cu(OH)
2 + 2HCl CuCl 2 + 2H 2O
Cu(OH)
2 + 2H + Cu 2+ + 2H 2O

,
, .
,
2NaCl + Ca(NO
3)2 2NaNO 3 + CaCl 2

5. .
– .
: H
2O H + + OH -
25 0 [ +] = [ -] = 10 -7 / .

45

-
(
2 )
(
2 ) – , 25 0
(
2 ) = [ +] · [ -] = 10 -7 · 10 -7 = 10 -14

- ,
, .


+ - -.
: ,
.
– ,
-
[
+] = [ -] = 10 -7 / .
– ,
-
[
+] < [ -] [ +] < 10 -7 / .
– ,
-
[
+] > [ -] [ +] > 10 -7 / .


.


= - lg [
+]
[+] = 10 -7 / , = - lg 10 -7 = 7
[ +]< 10 -7 / , > 7
[ +] > 10 -7 / , < 7

, ,
[
+] = 10 -12 / .
: = - lg [ +], , = - lg 10 -12 = 12
> 7, .
, , -
[
-] = 10 -4 / .
: [+] · [ -] = 10 -14 , [ +] = 10 -14 /10 -4 = 10 -10 /
, = - lg 10 -10 = 10, .

.
.
: , , ,
( 1).

46

1




, . .
.
, , ,
.
.

+ .
, 1,7
1,5-2.

:
1.
:
1) (- )
2) ( )
3) (- ) (- )
4) (- ) (- )

2. : Zn 2+ + 2OH - Zn(OH) 2
:
1) ZnSO
4 Fe(OH) 3
2) ZnCl
2 NaOH
3) Zn KOH
4) ZnO H
2O

3. ,
10 -12 ?

47

6
:

:
1) . .
2) .

1.
,
( .
). , , –
.

+, – -. , ,
+, -,
.
,
, , ,
,
. ,
+
,

- -. ,
.
– . « »
(« » - , « » - ).
,
, .

-
- + .
(
).
:

2 + + - ( )

+
-, .
, (Kat- ,An-
):
Kat
n+ + HOH KatOH (n-1)+ + H +
An
n- + HOH HAn (n-1)- + OH -

.
.
– h.

:

48


h =

2 ∙ 100%
n – , ; N -
.
, ,
. ,
.

2.
.

.
4 .
1.
: NaCl, K
2SO 4, Ba(NO 3)2
2.
: NaCN, K
2CO 3, Li 2S
3.
: uCl
2, FeSO 4, Al(NO 3)3
4.
: (NH
4)2S, Al 2S3, Pb(NO 2)2


.
1. , ,
. (pH=7).
NaCl - NaOH
HCl. :
NaCl Na
+ + Cl -
,
,
. Na
+ Cl -
H + OH -, ?
Na + - Na .
– .
Na
+ - . H + Cl -
: HCl -
.
,
. .

2. , ,
.
(pH>7).

49

, :
KN
2 K + + N 2-
.

:
KN
2 + HOH KOH + HN 2


:
K
+ + N 2 - + H 2O K + + OH - + HN 2


:
N
2- + H 2O
OH - + HN 2

OH -.
, >7
,
.

KN
2 + H 2O HN 2 + KOH -


, .

- :
Na
2S 2Na + + S 2-
.
:
Na
2S + HOH NaOH + Na S

:
2Na
+ + S 2- + H 2O Na + + OH - + Na + + HS -

:
S
2- + H 2O OH - + HS -

,
.
2 - ,
:
Na S
+ HOH NaOH + H 2S

Na + + S - + 2 Na + + OH - + H 2S

HS - + H 2 - + H 2S

,
.

50

3 . , ,
. ,
(pH<7).

NH
4Cl:

NH
4C l NH 4+ + Cl -


:
NH
4C l + HOH HCl + NH 4

:
NH
4 + + Cl - + H 2O
NH 4OH + H + + Cl -

:
NH
4 + + H 2O
NH 4OH + H +
H
+.
, <7
,
.


, .

– Zn(NO
3)2
Zn(NO 3)2 Zn 2+ + 2NO 3-
.
Zn(NO 3)2 + HOH
ZnOHNO 3 + HNO 3

Zn 2+ + 2NO 3- + H 2
ZnOH + + NO 3-
+ H + + NO 3 -

Zn 2+ + H 2
Zn + + +

,
.
2 – ,
:
ZnOHNO
3 + HOH Zn(OH) 2 + HNO 3

Zn + + NO 3- + H 2
Zn( ) 2 + + + NO 3-
Zn
+ + H 2 Zn( ) 2 + +

51

, .

4. ,
, .
,
,
, .

, .
:
CH
3COONH 4 + HOH CH 3COOH + NH 4OH

:
CH
3COO - + NH 4 + + H 2O CH 3COOH + NH 4OH

( = 7) , . .
(CH 3COOH) = (NH 4OH)
,
,
. , . .
.
( ) ,

. .

.
,
:
Al
2S3+ 3H 2O = 2 Al(OH) 3 +3H 2S

.

.
,
3K
2S + 2FeBr 3 = Fe 2S3 + 6KBr

Fe
2S3 + 6H 2O = 2Fe(OH) 3 + 3H 2S

, :
3K
2S + 2FeBr 3 + 6H 2O = 2Fe(OH) 3 + 3H 2S + 6KBr

3S
2- + 2Fe 3+ + 6H 2O = 2Fe(OH) 3 + 3H 2S

52

:
1. ?
2. Na
2CO 3, CuCl 2?
.
3. :
1) ZnCl
2
2) Na
2SO 4
3) Na 2S
4) CuCO
3
7

:
:
1)
2) . ,
.
3) . , .
4) - . .

1.
- ,
, ( ) .
, . .
.
1.
 - ,
:
+ =
,
S + O
2 = SO 2
BaO + H
2O = Ba(OH) 2

 - ,
:
= +
,
2HgO = 2Hg + O
2 (t 0)
2KMnO
4 = K 2MnO 4 + MnO 2 + O 2 (t 0)

 - ,
,
:
+ = +
,

53

Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl 2 + H 2
Fe + CuSO
4 = Cu + FeSO 4

 – , ,
:
+ = +
,
NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H
2O
CuSO
4 + 2NaOH = Na 2SO 4 + H 2O

2.
 - - ,
.
, . . ,
,
.
,
WO
3 + 3H 2 = W + 3H 2O
Cu + 2H
2SO 4 = CuSO 4 + SO 2 + 2H 2O
 - - ,


3.
 - .

. N
2 + O 2 =2NO – Q
H
2 + I 2 = 2HI – Q
, ,
.
,
+
2 = 2 + Q
 - .

,

3 = + 2 – Q


.

54

4. ( )
 - ,
.
,
H
2 ( ) + Cl 2 ( ) = 2HCl ( )
NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H 2O

 – ,
.
,
Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl
2 + H 2

( ) + 2 ( ) = 2 + Q

5.
 - , .
,
2
2 2 = 2 2 + 2 (kat – MnO 2)

 – ,
,
CuSO
4 + 2NaOH = Na 2SO 4 + Cu(OH) 2

6.
 -
.
,
N
2 + 3H 2 2NH 3

 – .
, , ,
( ).

2. . ,
.
.
. ,
,
. , .
,
, .
,
-
.

55

, ,
,
. .

:

= 3
34∙

n – ( ,
), ( );
t – (, );
V – ()
n / V = C ( ),


= 3С
34  ( / ∙ )
,
( , )
, ( ,
),
.
.

:

= 3
34∙5

n – ( ), ( );
t – (, );
S – (
2, 2)
?
,
.
.
, . ,
, ,
.

.
, ,
( ,
, ).

56

( ) ,
, .

, ( ).
1) : , =>

, ;

< 40 / , ,
,
.
, . .
, .

> 120 / , ,
.
. ,
.

(40 – 120 / ),
.
, .
2) : t 10
0 , 2-4 ( - ).


2 = 1 · t/10

t, (
) .

3) : , .
mA + nB = C :
= k ·
A m
· C B n
k – ;
– ( / )

:

, ,
.
. . . ,
, . .
.

4) – , ,

=> .

.

57

, + =
,
, : + = .
, .

, : + = + .
.
– ,

5) :
.
,
.

« ».

3. . , .

(
, , , .)
, AgNO
3 + HCl AgCl + HNO 3

( ).
, N
2 + 3H 2 2NH 3

,
=
.
– .
,
. ,
, ,
- (1844 .):
, ,
( t, , ), ,
.
:
1)
( ),

( ) ;
2) p ( ) - ,
– V;
,
.
3) t – (- Q),
t – (+ Q).

58

, .

4. - .
- ,
,
, .

- :
1. - ;
.
Al
0 - 3 Al +3
2. - ;
.
S
0 +2 S -2
3. – , ,
.
4. – , ,
.
,
.
-
:



, ,
, ,
.


.
,
.
.
, , , . .
.
, ,
, ( ).
, ,
, ( ).
n -


+ =

59

, ,
- ,
, , .
,

2S+6 4 – . .,

2S-2 – . ., ;

2S+4 3 - . .,
:
) –
- F
2, O 2
) ,
- KMnO
4, 2CrO 4

2Cr 2O7, HNO 3 – ,
H
2SO 4, (IV) bO 2 .
:
) – .
, Mg, Al,
Zn.
) ,
– NH
3, H 2S ,
(HCl, HBr, HI) ,
Na
3N, Ca 3P2 .
)

2, ( ) (II).
, ,
,
.
– Cl
2, Br 2,
HClO , KClO
3 ., MnO 2 (IV),
(III) FeCl
3 .
– Na
2SO 3, (II)
FeSO
4 .

-
.
1.
.
:
NH
3 + O 2 NO + H 2O
:
-3 0 +2 –2 - 2
NH 3 + O 2 NO + H 2O
:
- 3 +2

60

N N
0 - 2
2 2

( ,
):
- 3 +2
N - 5 N
0 - 2
2 +4 2
( ) :
- 3 +2
N - 5 N 4
0 - 2 20

2 +4 2 5

4NH 3 + 5O 2 4NO + 6H 2O
:
1. 2
– , – .
.
2. 2 +
2 2 2 + Q
) ;
)
3.
)
)

8

: - ( )

:
1) .
2) - ( )

1.
- ,
, - .
,
– , , .

61

-
,
( 1).
1.







… + 2nH + nH 2O + …
… + nH 2O
2 nH + + …
… + nH 2O 2 nOH - + …
… + nH 2O
2 nH + + …
… + nH 2O 2 nOH - + …
… + 2 nOH -
nH 2O + …

« »
( ), ( ).
« » , , (
) ( ).

2. - ( )

( ) (
). :

.
:
1. .
, , Mn
+7, Cr +6, S +6 , MnO 4-, CrO 42- , SO 42- .
2.
,
.
3. ,

4. .
- .
5. ,
.
:
.

-
.
, KMnO
4
( 1).

62




1 KMnO
4 .

63

( < 7)

KMnO 4+ Na 2SO 3 +H 2SO 4 MnSO 4+ K 2SO 4 + Na 2SO 4 + H 2O

,

.

K+ +MnO 4 -+2Na + + SO 32- + 2H + +SO 4 2
Mn 2+ +SO 42- + 2K +
+SO 42- +2Na + + SO 42- +
H2O


, :
MnO 4 -
Mn 2+
SO 32-
SO 42-


:

MnO 4 - +8H ++5
Mn 2++ 4H 2O
, , , +,
– 2. .

MnO 4 - +8H +
Mn 2++ 4H 2O


+7 +2

5 .

SO 32- + H 2O - 2
SO 42- +2H +

, ,
2, - + . .

SO 32- + H 2O
SO 42- +2H +


-2 0

-2 0 2 .

,
:

MnO 4 - +8H ++5
Mn 2++ 4H 2O 5 2
10
SO 32- + H 2O - 2
SO 42- +2H + 2 5

64




2MnO 4 - +16H ++ 5SO 32- + 5H 2O
2Mn 2++ 8H 2O + 5SO 42- +10H +




2MnO 4 - +6H ++ 5SO 32-
2Mn 2++ 3H 2O + 5SO 42-


,
.
K 2SO 4
.

2KMnO 4+5 Na 2SO 3 +3H 2SO 4 2MnSO 4+ K 2SO 4 + 5Na 2SO 4 + 6H 2O

( =7)

(IV)
KMnO
4 + Na 2SO 3 + H 2O MnO 2 +Na 2SO 4 + KOH

K
+ + MnO 4 -+2Na + + SO 32- + H 2O
Mn 2+2Na + + SO 42- + K + +OH -

, :
MnO 4 -
Mn 2
SO 32-
SO 42-

MnO 4- + 2H 2
+3 = MnO 2 + 4OH - 3 2
6
SO 32- + H 2O - 2
SO 42- +2H +
- 2 3



2MnO 4 - +4H 2O + 3SO 32- + 3H 2O
2MnO 2 + 8OH - + 3SO 42- +6H +


6
2 + 2 -

2MnO 4 - + 3SO 32- + H 2O
2MnO 2 + 2OH - + 3SO 42

65

2KMnO 4 + 3Na 2SO 3 + H 2O 2MnO 2 +3Na 2SO 4 + 2KOH
( > 7 )
- -
MnO
4 2-

KMnO
4 + Na 2SO 3 + KOH
K 2MnO 4 +Na 2SO 4 + H 2O



K
+ + MnO 4 -+2Na + + SO 32- + K + +OH -
2K + +MnO 42-
+2Na + + SO 42- + H 2O

, :
MnO 4 -
Mn 42-
SO 32-
SO 42-

MnO 4- +1
MnO 42- 1 2
2
SO 32- + 2
H - - 2 SO 42- + H 2 2 1




2MnO
4 - + SO 32- + 2
H - 2MnO 42- + SO 42- + H 2


2KMnO
4 + Na 2SO 3 + 2KOH 2K 2MnO 4 +Na 2SO 4 + H 2O

-
.
, ( )
:

1) KMnO
4 + …. + H 2SO 4 K 2SO 4 + MnSO 4 + ….. + H 2O
- -

2) KMnO
4 + …. + HCl KCl + MnCl 2 + ….. + H 2O
- -

3) KMnO
4 + …. + KOH K 2Mn O 4 + …. + H 2O
- -

66


4) KMn +7O 4 + …. + H 2O MnO 2 + …. + KOH
- -

5) K
2CrO 4 + ….. + H 2SO 4 K 2SO 4 + Cr 2 (SO 4)3 + ….. + H 2O
K
2Cr 2O 7
- -

,
2 3.
2.








MnO 4- Mn 2+ MnO 4- + 8H + +5 = Mn 2+ 4H 2O
MnO 4-
MnO 2
MnO
4- + 2H 2
+3 = MnO 2 + 4OH -
MnO 4-
MnO 42-
MnO
4- +
= MnO 42-
HNO 3( )

NO 2

NO
3- + 2H + +
= NO 2 + H 2O
HNO 3( )

NO NO 3- + 4H + + 3
= NO + 2H 2O
HNO 3 ( )


NO NO 3- + 4H + + 3 = NO + 2H 2O
HNO 3 ( )

NH 3, NH 4NO 3 NO 3- + 10H + + 8
= NH 4+ + 3H 2O
Cr 2O 72- Cr 3+
Cr
2O 72-- + 14H + + 6
= 2Cr 3+ + 7H 2O

O 2 O -2 O 02+ 4 =2 O -2

H 2 O 2 H 2O H 2 O 2 + 2H + + 2 = 2H 2O

H 2S 4( )
SO 2 S
42-+ 4H + + 2 = SO 2+2H 2O

67

3.



:

1. , ( )
ClO
3 - + …
Cl -
) +
) 2
) -
.

2. - :
KI + KNO
3 + H 2SO 4 I 2 + K 2SO 4 + NO + H 2O
K2rO 4 + NaNO 3 +H 2SO 4 ….+…. +…. + …..

9

:

:
1) VII . .
.
2)
3) , , .
4) .
5) . , - .





H 2
H 2O
H
20 - 2
= 2H +

H 2S
S H 2S- 2
= S +2H +

SO 32-
SO 42-
SO 32- + H 2O - 2
= SO 42-+2H +
Hal -
Hal
2
Hal
- - 2
= Hal 2

Cr 3+
CrO 42- Cr 3++ 8 OH - - 3
= CrO 42-+4H 2O

Cr 3+ Cr 2O 72- Cr 3+- + 7H 2O - 6 = Cr 2O 72-+14H +

Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Fe 2+ - = Fe 3+

68

1. VII
. . .
7 -
9F, 17Cl, 35Br,

53I, 85At.
,
( ,
).
… s
2 np 5.
p - .

.
:


np
5
s 2

, I.
,
,
III, V, VII.
,
I:


:

III

69

V
VII

-1.
, ( F
-)
.
- :
Cl
- Br - I -
, ,
+1, +3, +5, +7.

HCl
- HCl +1O HCl +3O 2 HCl +5O 3 HCl +7O 4

,
( )







,
:


2.
.
: – 0,045%, – 0,027%,
– l,6 · I0
-4 %, 3·10 -5 %.

70

.
CaF
2,
N
3[ lF 6] 5( 4)3F.
( ) NaCl, KCl · NaCl .
( ) .

. , .

:
,
F
2 – - ,
Cl
2 - - , ,
Br
2 – - ,

I2 - - .
.
. ,
, – .
.
– , .
, , .

3. , ,

1.
2NaCl ( ) 2Na + Cl
2

2.
4 l( .) + n
2 = nC1 2+ Cl 2 + 2 2

16HCI( ) + 2K nO 4 =2 l + 2MnCl 2 + 5Cl 2 + 8 2 ( )



.
1. :
2Na + Cl
2 = 2NaCl

2. ( , , .) :

2 + Cl 2 =2HCl

.

( – ).
: Cl
2 2Cl ∙

71

,
:
Cl
. + 2 = l + H .
. + Cl 2 = I + Cl .
.
3. :
Cl
2 + H 2O = l + lO

4. ( )
,
Cl
2 + 2 = l + lO + 2

l00
0,
KlO
3:
l
2 + 6 = 5l + lO + 3 2
2 l
2 + 2 ( ) 2 = l 2 + ( lO) 2 + 2 2
« »

5.
– ,
.
F
2 1 2 r 2 I 2.
, ,
.
2 r + l
2 = Br 2 + 2KCl
2 I + l
2 = I 2 + 2KCl
2KI + Br
2 = I 2 + 2KCl


, , ,
, , :
Br
2+ 5Cl 2 + 12KOH = 2K rO 3 + 10KCl + 6 H 2O

4.
, , ,
.
lO
n ( = 1 – 4)
.
,
( 1).

72

1.





ClO +1

HClO 2
+3
HClO 3 +5

HClO 4 +7


lO – lO
4.

.
. lO – lO
4 ,
. ,
, , , ,
OCI .
,
.
-
- ,
.

( ) lO
3 (" ») .
:
2Cl
2 + Ca(OH) 2 = CaCl 2 + ( l) 2 + 2 2.


5.
- HF, HCI,
, HI – ,
.
: ( ) HF,
( ) HCI, , HI.
– ,
, HF
(IV), :
4HF+ SiO
2 = SiF 4 + 2H 2O

73

.
HF – HCI – – HI .

, .
HI ,
.

.
HF
:
CaF
2+ H 2SO 4 = CaSO 4 + 2HF
HCI
– :

2 + Cl 2 = 2HCl

:
NaCl + H
2SO 4 = NaHSO 4 + l
HI
:

2 + Br 2 = 2HBr

2 + I 2 = 2HI
( )
. l 20
0
40%. , ,
.
,
, ,
, :
Mg + 2 l = MgCl
2+ H 2
Na 2O + 2 l = 2NaCl + H 2O
u( ) 2 + 2 l = u l 2 + 2H 2O
Pb(NO 3)2 + 2 l = PbCl 2+ 2N 3

.
:
, , .
CI, , HI,
,
HCI HI. HF
:
MnO
2 + 4HCl = MnCl 2 + Cl 2 + 2H 2O
2KMnO
4 + 10KI + 8H 2SO 4 = 2MnSO 4 + 6K 2SO 4 + 5I 2 + 8H 2O

74

-, - -
( ) ,
:
Cl
- + Ag + = AgCl
Br -+ Ag += AgBr
I - + Ag+ = AgI

:
AgCl, - AgBr, AgI.

:
1. ?
?
2. ?
3. - ?
10

:

:
1) VI
. . .
2) .
3) , , ,
.
4) -2, +4, +6. , ,
.

1. VI
. .
VI : 8,
16S, 34Se, 52Te, 84Po ( - ).
« », "
".

…. s 2 p 4. p - .

.
:


np
4
s 2

75

2-
. , d-
( ) , . . .
, – 2 +2.


, ,
+4, +6.
– , , .
2

– 2.
0 + 2 - -2

: 20 – S 0 – Se 0 – Te 0



-2 - 2 - 0

- :
-2 – S -2 – Se -2 – Te -2

2R.
( ).
,
2S, 2Se, 2.
, ,
RO 2, R 3, 2RO 4, 2R .
.

:







2. .

- .

. 20,95%
23,15% . 58% -
(47% ). (
), ,

76

, , ,
.
.


- , , .
( 1 20 31 ),
, , .
1,429/ . -183 0
101,325 .
, , -218,7° ,
.
16 , 17, 18.
.
-
,
, .

3 – 20-25
« »,
; -
, , ,
. -192,7
0 , -
111,9 0 . .
- .
:

3 = 2 +

.
, :
+
3 = 3

- .

:
3
2 = 2 3

.
:
, ,
.
:
.

77


( )
.
-
.
, .
, , , –
:
2 + 2= 2
2 + 2 = 2
2Na + O 2 = Na 2O 2

, , .

1200 0 :
N2 + 2 = 2N

:
2 2 + 2 = 2 2

.
;
.

- .
( , , ).
.
4Al + 3O 2 = 2Al 2O 3

, ,
, .

. ,
- .
4+2 2= 2+ 2 2
2S+ 2=2S 2 +2 2
4N 3+ 2=2N 2+6 2
4CH 3NH 2 + 9O 2 = 4CO 2 + 2N 2 + 10H 2O


.
- .
– 2 2
– ,
.

78

. :
:
2 2 = 2 + 2

, , ,
.
= - 1, . .
(-2)
(0),
- .
, ,
, :

H 2O 2 + 2KI + H 2SO 4 = K 2SO 4 + I 2 + 2H 2O

3. , , ,
.

16S 3 , 6 , .

r (S) = 32 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 4

2 . s- p –
3d – .
: -2, 0, +4, +6.


:
0,05%.
( ) -
. : FeS
2,
F uS
2, HgS, CuS, PbS,
( ) Na
2SO 4·10 2O, CaSO 4· 2H 2O.
, , (
).



.

:
2H
2S + O 2 = 2H 2O + 2S
2H
2S + H 2SO 3 = 3H 2O + 3S

: - , ,
- , , , .

79

,
.
- ,
.
S
8,
.
– ,
, CS
2,
, +112,8 0C,
2,07 / 3.
- ,
119,3
0 , 1,96 / 3.

- ,
S
x ( x ).


– .
. ,
. - ,
.
S
0 + 2e - S -2 ( , , ,
, )
S
0


1. .
, , ,
:
2Na + S = Na
2S
F + S = FeS
, , .

2. .
( , ,
, .).
(IV) , – :
S +
2 = S 2
( ,

, , -
) - 2e - S +2
- 4e - S +4
- 6e - S +6

80

2 + S = H 2S
.

3. .
, ,
, :
S + 6 N
3 = 2SO 4+ 6NO 2 + 2 2
( .)

S + 4 N
3 = 2SO 4 + 4NO
( .)

S + 2H
2SO 4 = 3SO 2+ 2 2;
( .)

4. ( , ).
, :
3S + 6N == 2Na
2S + N 2S 3 + 3 2

4. -2, +4, +6. ,
, .

– H
2S

1. t – 300 0
H 2 + S = H 2S

2. :
Na
2S + 2HCl =2NaCl + H 2S


, , , , ,
.

-
1. – –
, :
H
2S HS - + H +
HS - H - + S 2-

2. , ,
, , :
H
2S + Ca = CaS + H 2
H
2S + CaO = CaS + H 2O

81

H 2S + 2NaOH = Na 2S + 2H 2O
H
2S + CuSO 4 = CuS + H 2SO 4
– – .
- - – :
,
, , ,

( ):
3CuS + 8HNO
3=3Cu(NO 3)2 + 3S + 2NO + 4H 2O

– :
Na
2S 2Na + + S 2-
S2- + HOH HS - + OH -
Na
2S + 2 Na S + NaOH


( . . - S
2-)
, PbS :
Na
2S + Pb(NO 3)2 = 2NaNO 3 + PbS
Pb 2+ + S 2- = PbS

-
, . .
-2
1.
) :
2H
2S-2 + O 20 = S 0 + 2H 2O -2
) :
2H
2S + 3O 2=2SO 2 + 2H 2O

2. ( ):
H
2S-2 + Br 2=S 0 + 2HBr -1

3. HNO
3:
H
2S + 2HNO 3 ( .) = S + 2NO 2 + 2H 2O
) (KMnO
4, K 2CrO 4 ):
2KMnO
4 + 3H 2SO 4 + 5H 2S = 5S + 2MnSO 4 + K 2SO 4 + 8H 2O
) ,
, , (III), . .
2FeCl
3 + H 2S = 2FeCl 2 + S + 2HCl
H
2SO 3 + 2H 2S = 3S + 3H 2O

82


SO
2 - (IV), , ,

1. :
S + O
2 = SO 2
2.
2:
2H
2S + 3O 2 = 2SO 2 + 2H 2O
3. :
2CuS + 3O
2 = 2SO 2 + 2CuO

4. :
Na
2SO 3+ H 2SO 4=Na 2SO 4 + SO 2 + H 2O

5. (
2) . H 2SO 4:
Cu + 2H
2SO 4 = CuSO 4 + SO 2 + 2H 2O


, , , ,
, 2 , (
40 ).

:
-
SO
2 – .
1. , :
2KOH + SO
2 = K 2SO 3 + H 2O
KOH + SO
2 = K SO 3 + H 2O

2. :
K
2O + SO 2 = K 2SO 3

3. :
H
2O + SO 2 = H 2SO 3

, ,
.

4. – – SO
32 –
:
Na
2SO 3 + 2HCl = 2Na 2Cl + SO 2 + H 2O

-
, ,
SO
2 +4.

83

:
SO
2 + 2H 2S = 3S + 2H 2S
:
2SO
2 + O 2 = 2SO 3

Cl
2 + SO 2 + 2H 2O = H 2SO 4 + 2HCl

2KMnO
4 + 5SO 2 + 2H 2O = K 2SO 4 + 2H 2SO 4 + 2MnSO 4

(VI) SO 3 ( )

:
2SO
2 + 2 = 2SO 3 (t 0, kat )

, 17 0
. ,
700
0. ,

SO
3+ H 2SO 4 = H 2S2O 7


-
.
1. , :
2KOH + SO
3 = K 2SO 4 + H 2O
KOH + SO
3 = K SO 4 + H 2O

2. :
+ SO
2 = SO 4
3. :
H
2O + SO 3 = H 2SO 4

-
(VI) – , SO
2:
3SO
3 + H 2S = 4S 2 + H 2O

H
2SO 4

:
1.
4FeS
2 + 11O 2 = 2Fe 2O 3 + 8SO 2
2. SO
2 SO 3
2SO 2 + 2 = 2SO 3 (t 0, kat )

84

3. SO 3
n SO
3 + H 2SO 4 = H 2SO 4 · n SO 3 ( )
H
2SO 4 · n SO 3 + 2 = H 2SO 4

H 2SO 4 - , , .
,
,
, ( , ,
)
H
2SO 4 70%
, 70% - .


-

. :
H
2SO 4 2H +
+ SO 42-
1.
:
MgO + H
2SO 4 = MgSO 4 + H 2O
2. :
2NaOH + H
2SO 4 = Na 2SO 4 + 2H 2O
3. :
BaCl
2 + H 2SO 4 = BaSO 4 + 2HCl
Ba 2+ + SO 4 2- = BaSO 4
( )
- SO
42-

,
:
NaCl + H
2SO 4 = HCl + NaHSO 4

-
H
2SO 4 +,
– – SO
42
,
,
Zn + H
2SO 4 = ZnSO 4+ H 2

. , ,
.

1.

85

1.
H
2SO 4 ( ) S +6



Al, Fe, Cr -


Cu, Hg, Ag

Au,Pt

H 2S 2S
S SO 2 -




Zn + 2H
2SO 4 = ZnSO 4 + SO 2 + 2H 2O
3Zn + 4H
2SO 4 = 3ZnSO 4 + S + 4H 2O
4Zn + 5H 2SO 4 = 4ZnSO 4 + H 2S + 4H 2O
( ,
, .), (IV):
S + 2H
2SO 4 = 3SO 2 + 2H 2O
C + 2H
2SO 4 = 2SO 2 + CO 2 + 2H 2O


H
2SO 4+ 8HI = 4I 2 + H 2S + 4 H 2O
H
2SO 4 + 2HBr = Br 2 + SO 2 + 2H 2O

2 :
.
. (Na, K, Ba)
1000
0,
(Al, Fe, Cu)
CuSO
4 = CuO + SO 3

. .

2S2O 3 –
S +4 S 0


, .
- .
Na
2S2O 3 · 5 2.

- ,
, .

86



1.
2. :
2Na
2S2O 3 + I 2 = 2NaI + Na 2S4O 6 –
3. :
Na
2S2O 3 + H 2SO 4 = Na 2SO 4 + H 2S2O 3
H 2S2O 3 S + SO 2 + 2

H
2S2O 3 S, SO 2

2 ,
– S
2O 32-

4.
:
Na
2S2O 3+ Br 2 + H 2O = 2HBr + S + Na 2SO 4

:
1. .
2. - .
3. :

1. S
2- a) Ba 2+ )
2. SO
3 2- b) H +
)
3. SO
4 2-
c) Pb 2+ )
4. S
2O 3 2-
)

11

: V

:
1) V
. . .
2) , , ,
.
3) , , . .
4) , , .
.
5) .

1. V
. .
N, P, As,
Sb Bi.

87

…ns 2np 3, - .
,
III:


np
3
s 2
, ,

s- ,
V:


nd
1
np 3
s 1

-3
+5, .
, , – , .
:
-
-
-
-

R
2O3 R 2O 5,
HRO
2 H 3RO 3 HRO 3 H 3RO 4.
, - , .

RH
3.

2. , , ,
.
-
7N = 14.
N
2,
, .
: -3, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5.


4/5 , . . 78,2% .
NaNO
3 — ,
.

88

.
.
, .


1.
,
-196
0 .
2.
:
NH
4NO 2 = N 2 + 2H 2O


— , ,
: 100 0° 2,33 .
-196
0 .


– .
, . . ,
.
(!)
:
3Li + N
2 = 2Li 3N ( )

, ,
.

N
2 :
1. :
N
2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 + Q

.

2. :
N
2 + 3Ca = 3N 2

N 2 :
1. ( , 1500° ):
N
2 + 2 = 2NO
( )

2. :
N
2 +3F 2 = 2NF 3

89

3. , , .
.
NH
3 = 17, ,
,
- .


1. :
N
2 + 3H 2 2NH 3

2.
:
(NH
4)2SO 4 + 2NaOH = Na 2SO 4 + 2NH 3 + 2 2
2NH
4C1 + ( ) 2 = 1 2 + 2NH 3 + 2 2


— .
( 1 20° 700 NH
3).
, 25% N
3, .


-

1. :
NH
3+ 2 NH 4 NH 4+ +
-
.

2. , :
NH
3 + HC1 = NH 4Cl

3.
– :
CuSO
4 + 4NH 3 = [Cu(NH 3)4]SO 4

-
.
, -3
.
:
8NH
3 + 2 = N 2 + 6NH 4Br
- :
4NH
3 + 3O 2 = 6 2 + 2N 2

, (II):
4NH
3 + 5O 2 = 6H 2O + 4NO

90

,
.
,
:
3CuO+ 2NH
3 = N 2 + 3Cu + 3H 2O.

300 °C ,
- :
6NH
3 + 8 1O 3 + 6NaOH = 6NaNO 3 + 8 1 +12H 2 O.


NH 4+
.
,
.
( ,
, )
1. :
NH
4C1 + Na = N1 + NH 3 + 2
NH
4+,

.

2. :
NH
4C1 + AgNO 3 = NH 4NO 3 + AgCl

3. :
NH
4C1 + HOH NH 4OH + HCl

, - , .
,
,
:
NH
4C1( ) NH 3( ) + HCl( )
,
:
(NH
4)2SO 4 NH 3 + NH 4HSO 4
,
, -
, .
NH
4+
, — :
NH
4NO 3 = N 2O + 2 2

91

(NH 4)2Cr 2O 7 = N 2 + 2O 3 + 4 2O .
2N
+4O 2 + H 2 = HN +5 3 + HN +3 2
4. , , .



:
NaNO
3 + H 2SO 4 = NaHSO 4 + HNO 3


:
4NH
3 + 5O 2 = 4NO + 6H 2O
2NO + O
2 = 2NO 2
4NO
2 + 2 2 + 2 = 4HN 3


— , ,
, - 42° .
« », .
,
NO
2, .
.
.


-
.

+ NO 3-.
, :
1. :
MgO + 2HNO
3 = Mg(NO 3)2 + H 2O
2. :
NaOH + HNO
3 = NaNO 3 + H 2O

3. :
Na
2CO 3 + 2HNO 3 = 2NaNO 3 + CO 2 + H 2O

-
.
+5.
(IV)
:
4HNO
3 = 4NO 2 + O 2 + 2 2

92

,

, , .
- ,
, ,
.
:
,
:


NO 2, NO, N 2O, N 2, NH 4NO 3, NO 2,NO, N 2O, N 2, NH 4NO 3


1
.

1.




HNO 3
, ,
, N 2O
N 2
, , , ,
, , ,
NO 2

HNO 3
, ,
, ,
NH 3
NH 4NO 3
, , ,
NO

3Cu + 8 HNO
3 = 3Cu(NO 3)2 + 2NO + 4H 2O
4Ca + 10HNO
3 = 4Cu(NO 3)2 + N 2O + 5H 2O
,
(!).

,
NO
2 NO:
S + 2HNO
3 H 2SO 4 + 2NO

93

+ 5HNO 3 3 4 + 5NO 2 + 2

, 1 3
, .
,
. , HNO
3
.
:
HNO
3 + 3 1 = 3C1 + NO + 2 2O

:
u + HNO
3 + 1 = AuCl 3 + NO + 2H 2O

- ,
. ,
.
, ,
:
Cu
2+ + HOH CuOH + + H + < 7
Cu(NO
3)2 + H 2O CuOHNO 3 + HNO 3
O 2,
.
Mg = MeNO
2 + O 2
2KNO
3 2KNO 2 + O 2

M Mg Cu = MeO + NO 2 + O 2

2Cu(NO 3)2 2CuO + 4NO 2+ O 2
2Pb(NO 3)2 2PbO + 4NO 2+ O 2
Cu = Me + NO 2 + O 2

2AgNO 3 2Ag + 2NO 2+ O 2

5.

15 - 3 5 . .
. A
r (P) = 31. -3, +1, +3, +5

2 5, 3


;
0,12% ( .).
(
.)
.
-
3( 4)2,

94

.
, ,
3( 4)2,
CaF
2 ( ) CaC1 2 ( ).
, , ,
, .
,
.

.


.
,
.
,

4.
.
.
« », « ».
, .
; .
, 15
0
.
– , ( )
.
, ,
, .
250-300
0 ,
, - .
, , .
Kpa ,
, . .
: - ,
, ,
260
0 , , .
200 0 ,
, ( ).
.
, ,
. ,
; 2,7 /
3. - .

.

95

.
, , ,
,
32, g 32 .
,
( )!
;
,
.
, ,
:
1. – ,

(III), (V):
4P + 5O
2 = 2P 2O 5
4P + 3O 2 = 2P 2O 3
2P + 3 Br
2 = 2PBr 3
2P + 5 Br 2 = 2PBr 3
2.
:
3Mg + 2P = Mg
3P2
3.
:
4P + 3NaO + 3H
2O = PH 3 + 3 NaH 2PO 2
8P + 3Ba(OH) 2 +6H 2O = 2PH 3 + 3Ba(H 2PO 2)2



3 2 – ,
+1
4. ,
:
3P + 5HNO
3 + 2H 2O = 3H 3PO 4 + 5NO
P + 5HNO
3 = H 3PO 4 + 5NO 2 + H 2O
2P + 5H
2SO 4 = 2H 3PO 4 + 5SO 2 + 2H 2O

,
, PH
3

1. :
4P + 3NaO + 3H
2O = PH 3 + 3 NaH 2PO 2

2.
2:
32 + 6l = 3CaCl 2 + 2 3

96


- , !
, .

-
, .
1. , ,
:

3 + 2 3 · 2 ( 4 ) 4 + + - (
= 4 · 10 -25 )


= 1,8 · 10 -5

2.
3 :
PH
3 + HCl = PH 4Cl
PH
3 + HClO 4 = PH 4ClO 4

- ;
.
3. :
2
3 + 4 2 = 2 5 + 3 2



1. 2 3 :

2 3 + 2 = 3 3

2. (III):
PCl
3 + 3H 2O = 3 3 + 3HCl

, .


, :
3Zn + H
3PO 3 + H 2SO 4 = 3ZnSO 4 + PH 3 + H 2O

2AgNO
3 + H 3PO 3 + H 2O = 2Ag + H 3PO 4 + 2HNO 3


:
4
3 3 = 3 3 4 + 3

( )

1. 2 5 :

97

2 5 + 3 2 = 2 3 4

2. :
3( 4)2 + 3H 2S 4 = 3CaS 4+ + 2 3 4

3.
30%- N
3:
3 + 5 N
3 + 2 2 = 3 3 4 + 5NO


, 42 0,
.


.
1. :

4 + + 2 4-
2 4-
+ + 42-
42-
+ + 43-

.

2. ,
, .
-
( . . +5 ).
, :
.
N
3 4 3( 4)2 - ,
Na
2HP 4 4 - ,
NaH
2P 4 ( 2 4)2 - ,
,
.
,
, . .
:

4 3- +
42- + OH -
N
3 4 + 2 N 2 4 + NaOH

4 2-
,
- ,
.
-
:

4 2- +
2 2 4- + OH -
N
2 4+ 2 N 2 4 + NaOH

2 4 -
2 4-
+ + 42-

98


-, ,
.

-
H
2P 4- +
2 3 4 + NaOH
NaH
2P 4 + 2 3 4 + NaOH

2 4-
+ + 42-

, - ( )
+ ( ),
.

:
) :
3Ag + PO
4 3- = Ag 3PO 4


)
:
Na
2HPO 4 + NH 3 + MgCl 2 = MgNH 4PO 4 + 2NaCl

:
1. V?
2. ?
3. , ?
12
: IV

:
1) IV
2) . . .
3) , , ,
.
4) .
5) .

1. IV .
.


6, pe 14Si, 32Ge, 50Sn
82Pb. - , , – .
ns 2np 2,
- .

99

II, . .
:


np
2
s 2
s- p -
, .
IV IV.
-2, +2, +4.
, ,
, .
,
+2, .
,
.

+2 +4.
,
:
- ,
- ,
- .
– R
2, – R 4

2. , , , ,


+6 = 12
… 2s 2np 2
IV.
,
- .


, ,
.
:
.

.

, , ,

100

,
CaCO
3 – , , , CaCO 3 · MgCO 3 –
.
,
,
, .
. ,
,
.


: , , , .
– –
.
- , ,
, .
s
3-
.
( 1).

. ( 1010 )
3000
0 .
, .
, .
- , -
, .
( 1).
s
2 - :
— ,
120
0.
,
, .
,
.
.
,
, .
. ,
, , ,
. -
.
,
, .

101



1 –

u ,
. ,
.
. - - .

( ):
- ::: - ::: -
- ,
:
- = = =-
.
-
.
, 60, 70, 76, 84 . .


- (C 60),
, 20 12
( 2).



2 –
60


.

102


1. :
t0
+ 2 = 2 + Q
(II):

t0
2 + 2 = 2
2. ,

t0
+ 2S = CS
2
3.
, :
t0
+ 2 = + 2
4. :
t0
CuO + C = Cu + CO


1.
:
t0
+ 2 = 2
2. :
t0
+ 2 2 = 4

3.

(II) ( )

: - .
, , , –
:


1. :

t0
+ 2 =

103

2. 400-500 0
:

t0
+ 2 = 2
3.
:

t0 H2SO 4
= + 2


, , ,
, , ;
. ,
,
.
( )
, .



1. :

t0
FeO + CO = Fe + CO 2

C ,
.

2. :
2 +
2 = 2 + Q
3. ,
:
CO + NaOH = HCOONa

4. :
+ Cl
2 = COCl 2

5. (II) , u
Fe(CO)
5,
Ni(CO)
4. ,
. - .
, .
,
. ,
.

104

(IV) 2 ( , ,
)
.
:
= =

1. :
+
2 = 2+ Q

2.
( , )

3. :

3 = + 2

4. :
Na
2CO 3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H 2O + CO 2

3 + 2HCl = CaC1 2 + 2 + 2


- , 1,5
, , ,
. : 1 20
0,88
2, 0 - 1,7 .

2
- « » - ,
, ,
.

2
,

2 3



1. :

2 + 2 2 3

,

2 .

2. , :

2 + 3
2 + 2Na H Na 2 3 + H 2O

105

3. :
t 0
CO 2 + 2Mg = 2MgO + C



2 3
.
– (
= 4,5· 10 -7).

– , – :

2 3 + + 3-

3 -
+ + 32-


,
.
:
NaOH +
2 = N 3
N
3 + NaOH = N 2 3 + 2
BaCl
2 + N 2 3 = 3 + 2NaCl


, u
2( 3)( ) 2.
.
, , , -
. ( )


2, ( ) 2:
Na
2CO 3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + CO 2 + H 2O
( )
2 + 2 = 3 + 2
,
2 ,

.
:

3 + 2 + 2 = ( 3)2

, ,

2.
.
:
g
3 = MgO + 2

3 = + 2

106

.
:
2N
3 = N 2 3 + 2+ 2
,
:
N
2 3 + 2 = N 3 + NaOH

4. .
, IV

+14 Si. = 28.
…3ns 2np 2.

- 4 ( SiH
4, Mg 2Si, Ca 2Si)
0 ( Si)
+4 ( IV - SiO
2, H 2SiO 3)
+4.



, 27,6 %.
– ,
.
.

( ) Si
2.
( , , ,
, , .). - .
,
.
- ,
. ,
, : Al
2O 3 · 2SiO 2 · 2H 2O,
K
2O · Al 2O 3 · 6SiO 2, K 2O · Al 2O 3 · 6SiO 2 · H 2O.

, , , , .


1. .

( ):
SiO
2 + 2 = Si + 2
2. :
SiO
2 + 2Mg = Si + 2Mg

107

3.
:
SiCl
4 + 2H 2 = Si + 4HCl
SiCl
4 + 2Zn = Si + 2ZnCl 2


2 :
.
– 1420
0.

.
– -cep
, - .
.
,
, ,
.


,
.
, .
1. ( )
,
:
Si + 2F
2 = SiF 4

400-600 0 :
Si + 2Cl
2 = SiCl 4
Si + 2Br 2 = SiBr 4

:
Si+
2 = SiO 2
:
3Si + 2N
2 = Si 3N 4 ( )
Si + C = SiC ( , )

2. .
.

( , , , ,
) , :
Si + 2Mg = Mg
2Si

108

,
SiH
4 :
Mg
2Si + 2H 2S 4 = Si 4 + 2gS 4

Si
4 – .
, , , ,
, .

3. .

:
Si + 2 + H
2O = 2SiO 3 + 2 2

, HF ,
:
Si + 4HF = SiF
4 + 2H 2
3Si + 12HF + 4HNO 3 = 3SiF 4 + 4NO + 8H 2O

(IV) SiO
2 ( , )
, .
SiO
2 - . .
1.
-
:
SiO
2 + 2 = K 2SiO 3 + 2

2. ,
:
SiO
2 + Na 2 3 = Na 2SiO 3 + O 2

3. SiO 2.
( ):
SiO
2 + 4HF = SiF 4 + 2H 2O



2SiO 3
( ).
,
, .
SiO 2 ,
xSiO 2 × yH 2O, — :
1) = 1, = 1, . . SiO 2 × H 2O, . . H 2SiO 3 — ;
2) = 1, = 2, . . SiO 2 × 2H 2O, . . H 4SiO 4 — .

109

2SiO 3,
,
:



.

2SiO 3
( ),

SiO
2. -
, :

2SiO 3 + 2 I = 2SiO 3+ 2 l
SiO
3 2- + 2
+ = 2SiO 3
.

(IV):

2SiO 3 = SiO 2 + H 2O
- - (
).
N
2Si 3 2Si 3 .
, ,
:
Na
2SiO 3 + 2 Na SiO 3 +Na
,
, . .

:
1. .
2. - ?
3. ?
?
13

: III

:
1) III
. . .

110

2) . , .
3) . .
.

1. III
. .
III B, Al,
Ga, In, Tl.
, , – ,
,
( ).

. ….ns
2 np 1, –
.
+3.
,
, .
:
,
,
,
,
(
),
,
.

2. . , .
1808 . -
« »
.
. .
1815 . . . « ».
- 1s
22s 22p 1
I (. .
), ,
+ 1, .
– , . .
. – III,
+3.

111


:
5 · 10 -4% .
H
3BO 3
: B
4O 7 . 4H 2O, 2Mg 3B8O 15.
g l 2 .


:
3Mg + B
2O 3 =3MgO +2B
.


1200
0 :
2BCl
3 = 2B + 3Cl 2


.
.
.
– .

,
.
, .
– % -
.


,
.

1. , 700
0
, :
4B + 3O
2= 2B 2O 3

2. :
2B + 3F
2= 2BF 3

3. 900 0 , :
2B + N
2= 2BN

4. :
2B + 3Mg= Mg
3B2

112


1. 550 0 :
2B + 3H
2O= B 2O 3 + 3H 2

2. ,
:
B + 3HNO
3 = H 3BO 3 + 3NO 2

3. ,
:
2B +2NaOH + 2 H
2O = NaBO 2 + 3H 2
.

:
2B +6KOH
2KBO 2 + 2K 2O + 3H 2
, ( )
: .
,
2 6, 4 10, 5 11, 6 10, 10 11.

B
2O 3
.


,
H
3BO 3:
B
2O 3 + 3H 2O= 2H 3BO 3

H 3BO 3

,
:
Na
2B4O 7 + H 2SO 4 + 5H 2O = 4H 3BO 3 + Na 2SO 4
Na 2B4O 7 + 2HCl + 5H 2O = 4H 3BO 3 + 2NaCl


, ,
.
, .


, .
1. :

113

2H 3BO 3= B 2O 3 + 3H 2O
, .
– -
.
2. :

4H
3BO 3 + 2NaOH = Na 2B4O 7+ 7H 2O
Na
2B4O 7 · 10 2 - .

3.

,
-

,
.
, ,
,
. , .
.
( )
.
,

.

3. . .
.
… 3s
23p 1.
s-
p- , III
+3.
d -
.
([1( )
4]-), – ([1( ) 6]3-).


,
8, 8%.

114

.
– :
Al
2O 3 · 2SiO 2 · 2H 2O, K 2O · Al 2O3 · 6SiO 2, K 2O ·
Al
2O 3 · 6SiO 2 · H 2O

1
2 3 · n 2, 1 2 3 1F 3 · 3NaF.



1
2 3 .
1
2 3

2 1
2 3 = 4 1 + 3 2 (950 0C, 1F 3 · 3NaF, . )
:
1
3+ + 3 - = Al 0
.


, - , ,
.
(0,00001 ),
,
.
.
( 0,005 )
.


,
– .
1. ,
( 1
2 3).
( 10 -5 ), .

:
4Al + 3O
2 = 2Al 2O 3

2. :
,
- :
2Al + 3Cl
2 = 2AlCl 3
2Al + 3S= Al 2S3
3.
:

115

2Al + N 2 = 2AlN
4Al + 3 = Al
43

C .

4. .
,
:
2Al + 6
2 = 2Al( ) 3 + 3H 2

5.
(HCl, H
2SO 4)
:
2Al + 6HCl = 2AlCl
3 + 3H 2


.
. :
8Al + 15H
2SO 4 = 4Al 2(SO 4)3 + 3H 2S + 12H 2O

NO:
Al + 4HNO
3 = Al(NO 3)3 + NO +2H 2O

6.
, ,
, .
, ,
1
2 3.
1
2 3 , - ,
:
1
2 3 + 2NaOH + 3 2 = 2Na[Al( ) 4]
, , ,
:
2Al + 6
2 = 2Al ( ) 3 + 3H 2
, ,
:
l( )
3 + NaOH = Na[Al(OH) 4]
:
2Al + 2NaOH + 6
2 = 2Na[Al ( ) 4 ]+ 3H 2

1
2 3
, ,
20500 .
1
23 - .

116

- – - -
- .
, ,
, . .



1. :
1
2 3 +6HCl = 2AlCl 3 + 3H 2O
2. :
1
2 3 + 2NaOH – 2NaAlO 2 + H 2O
Al 2O 3 + 2NaOH + 5H 2O = 2Na[Al(OH) 4(H 2O)]

3.
,
. Al ( )
(Cr, , V, W .)
:
2 1 + WO
3 = 1 2 3 + W

4. , ,
:
Al
2O 3 + Na 2CO 3 = 2NaAlO 2 + CO 2
.
l( )
3
l( ) 3 ,
, .
, , .

:
AlCl
3 + 3NaOH = Al(OH) 3 + 3NaCl
Al 3+ + 3OH - = Al(OH) 3
Al 3+


1. :
Al(OH)
3 +3HCl = 2AlCl 3 + 3H 2O
2.
:
NaOH + l( )
3 = Na[Al(OH) 4]
3. :
2Al(OH)
3 = Al 2 3 + 3H 2O

117

, ( < 7)
Al 3+ + + - Al 2+ + +
Al(NO
3)3 + H 2O AlOH(NO 3)2 + HNO 3


( )
Al
2S3+ 3H 2O = 2Al(OH) 3 +3H 2S

.

, .
.
( 0,005 )
.
Al
2O 3 –
( , Almagel),
.
Al(SO
4)3 12H 2 –
, .
.
(CH
3COO) 3Al - - 8%
,
.
, ,
.
AlCl
3 - .
Al
2(SO 4)3 · 18 H 20 – .

:
1. III .
.
2. .
- ?
3. ?
14

: .

:
1) .
2) II
. . .
3) .

118

4) .
5) .

1.
,
,
.
s- ( ), d- f -
. - .

.
1 3 . : Ge, Sn,
Pb , Sb
Bi – , Po – .
( )
.
.

,
.


1. – ( . );
2. .
,
;
3. – .
,
.
– , , ;
4. , ,
. , .
.
,
.
– .
. ,
, - ( ); –
.

. – (t
. = -38,9 0),
– (t
. =3380 0)
.
( , );

119

( , , );

( , , ).




, . .
.
.

; – .
,
,
.

.
1. – :
Mg
0 + Cl 2 Mg +2Cl 2

t0
2Cu 0 + O 2 2Cu +2O
t0
Fe 0 +S Fe +2S
t 0
a 0 + 2C Ca +2C2
Na 0 + H 2 Na +H 2 ( )

2. .
) , ( Li Na),
:
2Na
0 + 2H 2O 2Na +OH + H 2
) , ,
( . HNO
3)
:
2Al
0 + 6HCl 2Al +3Cl 3 + 3H 2
) ,
,
:
Fe + CuSO
4 FeSO 4 + Cu
) :
2C
2H5OH + 2Na 2C 2H 5ONa + H 2
2CH
3Cl + 2Na C 2H 6 + 2NaCl

120


( , , , .)
(
): , , .
– .

;
;
.

: C,
(II) CO, H
2, (Al, Mg).
t 0
FeO + C Fe +CO
t 0
Cr 2O 3 + 2Al 2Cr + Al 2O 3
t 0
WO 3 + 3H 2 W + 3H 2O

– ,
: 1) ( )
, ; 2)
.
CuO +H
2SO 4 CuSO 4 + H 2O
CuSO
4 + Fe Cu + FeSO 4

.
.
- ,

.

,
: ( ),
( ).
.
.

.

121

:
NaCl Na + + Cl -
(-) (+)
Na + +1 - Na 0 2Cl - Cl 20


2NaCl = 2Na + Cl
2

, – .
.

+ - -
.
.

2. II
. .
II , g
- C, Sr, R . ,
,
,
« ».
,
,
…. ns
2 , s- .
, +2.
- , ,
, .
,
.
.
IIA , ,
(RO),
R(OH).
( )
R ( ).
( )
2 - .
g .
, g - ,
:
R + 2H
2O=R(OH) + H 2


RH
2

122

3.

.
.
,
, .
,
, ,

3, SO 4·2 2 , Ca 3(PO 4)2, .

.
- - , ,
1,55 / 3, , .


.
1. , ,
:
2 +
2 = 2

2. , , :
+ l
2= CaCl 2
C + S = CaS

, , :
3 + N
2 = Ca 3N 2
Ca + C = CaC 2
Ca + H 2 = CaH 2

3. , :
+ 2
2 = ( ) 2 + 2
+ 2 l = CaCl
2 + 2


- ,
« » .
,
:
t
0
CaCO 3 = CaO + CO 2 - Q

– .
1. , :
+
2 = ( ) 2 H = 68 /

123

2. :
+
2 = 3
+ 2NO 3 = (NO 3)2+ 2

3. , :
+ 3 =
2 +

( )
2
( ) 2- , ,
, :
a(OH)
2 + CO 2 = CaCO 3 + H 2O
CaCO
3 + H 2O + CO 2 = Ca(HCO 3)2
Ca(OH) 2 + H 2SO 4 = CaSO 4 + H 2O
3Ca(OH)
3 + 2FeCl 3 = 2Fe(OH) 2 + 6HCl

Ca
2+
) :
Ca 2+ + (NH 4)2C2O 4 = CaC 2O 4 + 2NH 4+

,
, .
) :

2+ + SO 4 2- =
SO 4
,
.


SO
4 · 2 2 , , -
;
(SO
4)2 · H 2O ;

3( 4)2 -
, ;
l
2 · 6 2 ,
l
2 - ,
, , ,
;
F
2- ,

, , ;

2 , ;
l
2 + ( lO) 2 ,
, ,
.

4.

124

. 1,4
%. .
, g
3, 3 ·
g
3, l · gCl 2 · 6 2, gCl 2 · 6 2. g
, .


g - - , 5 , 1,5 ,
t = 65 0.


1. g
, :
2 g +
2 = 2g

2. , :
3 g + N
2 = g 3N2

3. , :
g +
2 = gH 2

4. ,
:
g + 2H
2O= g(OH) 2+H 2

5. NO 3
:
4 g + 6HNO
3 = 4 g(NO 3)2 + NH 4NO 3 + 3H 2O
g 0 - 2 = g 2+
N +5 + 8 = N -3

6. l, H
2SO 4 :
g + 2HCl = gCl
2 + 2

g
g , , ,
:
g + 2 l= gCl
2 + 2
MgO + CO
2 =MgCO 3
MgO + 2 = g( ) 2

g(OH)
2
g(OH)
2 -

125


:
gCl
2 + 2 = g(O ) 2 + 2 l

1. :
g(OH)
2 + 2HN 3 = g(NO 3)2 + 2 2

2. :
g(OH)
2 = gO + 2


MgSO
4 · 7H 2O , ,
,
;
Mg
2Si 3O 8 · nH 2O – ,
,
;
gCO
3 · g(OH) 2 · H 2O
, ,
;
MgCl
2 · 6H 2O , ,
. ;
MgCO
3 – .

Mg
2+ Na 2HPO 4

NH 4Cl
MgSO 4 + Na 2HPO 4 + NH 4OH = MgNH 4PO 4 + Na 2SO 4 + H 2O
- .

5.


2+ g 2+.
, ,
– .
-
. ,
.

.
, . .
,
.

, . .

126

, ,
, .

( )
2+ g 2+, 1 .
:
) 1,5 /
) 1,5 4 /
) 4 8 /
) 8 12 /
) 12 /
-
7 / .


1.
g.
:
)
(
3)2 = 3 + 2 + 2

)
( )
2 + ( 3)2 = 2 3 + 2 2
(
3)2 + N 2 3 = 3 + 2N 3

2.
g.
:
SO
4 + N 2 3 = 3 + N 2S 4
gS 4 + N 2 3 = g 3 + N 2 3


.
.
,
, .
, ,
:
Na
2R + 2+ = 2Na + + R
Na
2R + Mg 2+ = 2Na + + MgR


2+ g 2+,
Na +, .

127

:
1. .
2.
?
3. +
2 ( ) 2 +
4. ?

15

:

:
1) I . .
.
2) . . .

1. I .
.
I . .
-
3Li, 11Na, 19, 37Rb, 55Cs

87Fr.
. -
, . .
.
.
s-
, ….ns
1, s -
,
,
+ 1.

,
,
,
,
.

2. . . .
11Na
19
….n s 1 , I, +1
.
, . .
. .

128

2,64 %, - 2,60 %.
, .
- ,
.
, ,
( ) NaCl, ,
Na
2SO 4· 10H 2O.
NaCl · KCl,
KCl ·MgC1
2· 6H 2O.


.
1.
( ) .
:
NaCl N
++ l -
Na + ,
l -:
(-) Na + + 1 - = Na
(+) 2Cl - - 2e -= Cl 2

2NaCl
= 2Na + l 2

, .
NaOH:
NaOH Na
+ + OH -

(-) Na + + 1- = Na
(+) 4 --4e-= 2 2 + 2

4NaOH
= 4Na + 2 2 + 2

2.
:
Na
2CO 3 + 2 = 2Na + 3CO
, .

.
1.
:
KCl + Na = K + NaCl
, ,
.

129

2.
(KCI, ).


- -
,
.
.
. -
, 0,534 /
3 (20 0 ).
, Na, , Rb Cs ,
. . ,
28,5
0,
(180,5 0 ).
- .


,
LiNa K Rb Cs Fr.
.
1. .
,
. :
4Li + O
2 = 2Li 2O
:
2Na + O
2 = Na 2O2
,
, ( ) :
+ O
2 = KO 2

2. , , ,
, :
2Na + Br
2 =2Nr

3.
( , , , , , ).
, :
2 Na + S = Na
2S

4. ,
:
2Na +
2 = 2NaH

5. .
,

130

, Li 2Zn 3, N 2Sn.
6 . .
,
, :
2Na + 2
2 = 2NaOH + H 2
.
, ,
.

7 .

:
2Na + 2 l = 2NaCl + H
2

:
8Na + 5H
2SO 4 = 4Na 2SO 4 + H 2S + 4 2

(IV) .


,
- (I):
8Na + 10 NO
3 ( .) = 8N NO 3 + N 4NO 3 + 3 2
8K+ 10HNO
3 ( .) = 8KNO 3 + N 2O + 5H 2O
, , .

8.

:
+ Na= + Na
2O
l
2 + 2Na = + 2NaCl
.


: Li
2O, Na 2O, K 2O, Rb 2O,
Cs
2O. - ,
, - , - .
- ,
,
.

.

131

. ,
:
Na
2O 2 + 2Na = 2Na 2O
2NaOH + 2Na = 2Na
2O + 2

,
:
Na
2O + H 2O = 2NaOH
Na
2O + CO 2 = Na 2CO 3
Na 2O + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H 2O


: LiOH, NaOH
( ), ( - ).
.
,
- .
, , ,
.
LiOH CsOH.

:
2 + 2
2 = 2 + 2
Na 2O + H 2O = 2NaOH

, ,

.

: ,
, , :
2NaOH + SO
2 = Na 2SO 3 + H 2O
2NaOH + ZnO = Na
2ZnO 2 + H 2O
KOH + HCl = KCl + H
2O
2KOH + Zn(OH)
2 = K 2[Zn(OH) 4]
3KOH + AlCl
3 = Al(OH) 3 + 3KCl

,
( , , , .), :
Zn + 2NaOH + 2
2 = Na 2[Zn(O ) 4] + H 2


.

132

, :
K
2O+ 2 N 3 = 2 N 3 + 2
2 +
3O 4 = 2HO 4 + 2 2O

:
2K + S = K
2S
2Na + I
2 = 2NaI

,
.

, :
N
2 3 + 2 = N 3 + NaOH

3 2- +
2 = 3- + OH -

, (NaCl, KCl,
Na
2SO 4 .) .
, -
. .


Na + - , + -
,
.
- , ,
– , .
.
,
,
.
,
.
NaCl (0,9%
)
,
Na
2SO 4 Na 2SO 4·10H 2O (
) ,
N
3 ( ), -
.
, – ,
l .

:
1. .

133

2. ?
3. -
-
Li+ NO
3 ( .) = ….. + …. + ….

16

: I . ,

:
1) I
. . .
2) . .
3) C . .

1. I .
. .
, , 1
d- .
:
Cu …3 d
104s 1
Ag ….4 d 105s 1
.
, , d - ,
, .
: +1, +2; +1;
+1, +3.
, ,
.
, , , ,
, , .
, , ,
.

2. .
5-6 . . 3 . .
.
.
– .

,
:
CuCO
3 · Cu(OH) 2 – ,
CuFeS
2 ,
2CuCO
3· Cu(OH) 2 ,

134

Cu 2O ,
CuS
Cu
2S


- , , - .
: ( + ), ( + ).
,
.
, ,
.


1. :
2Cu + O
2 2CuO

2. , ,
:
2Cu + H
2O + O 2 + CO 2 = (CuOH) 2CO 3

3. :
Cu + Cl
2 = CuCl 2

4. ( ),
– ( . . ,
. ):
Cu + 2H
2SO 4 = CuSO 4 + SO 2 + 2H 2O

3Cu + 8HNO 3 ( .) = 3Cu(NO 3)2 + 2NO + 4H 2O

Cu + 4HNO 3 ( .) = Cu(NO 3)2 + 2NO 2 + 2H 2O
+1 +2.
(II) , (I). (I) (II)
, Cu
+
2, Cu 2+ - 4.

(I) u 2O
- , .

4CuO = 2Cu 2O + O 2
.
1. :
Cu
2O + 2HCl = CuCl + H 2O

2. :

135

Cu 2O + 4NH 3 + H 2O = 2[Cu(NH 3)2]OH
– CuOH –
, (I) Cu
2O /

(II) CuO
,

1. :
2Cu + O 2 2CuO

2. :
Cu(OH)
2 = CuO + H 2O

3. :
(CuOH)
2CO 3 = 2CuO + CO 2 + H 2O


.
1. :
CuO + 2HCl = CuCl
2 + H 2O

2.
:
t0
CuO + H 2 = Cu + H 2O

CuO .

(II) Cu(OH)
2

(II)
, (II):
CuCl
2 + 2NaOH = Cu(OH) 2 + 2NaCl
Cu 2+ + 2Cl - + 2Na + + 2OH -= Cu(OH) 2 + 2Na + + 2Cl -
Cu +2 + 2OH - = Cu(OH) 2

1. :
Cu(OH) + 2HCl = CuCl
2 + 2H 2O

2. (II)
:
Cu(OH)
2 + 2NaOH = Na 2[Cu(OH) 4 ]

(II)
.

136


3. :
Cu(OH)
2 + 4NH 4OH = [Cu(NH 3)4](OH) 2 + 4H 2O


4. :
t
0

3 + u(OH) 2 = CH 3COOH + Cu 2O + H 2O

(II)
(II)
[Cu(H
2) 4]2+, -
, Cu2+.
(II),
.
Cu
2+
) :
Cu
2+ + 2OH - = Cu(OH) 2
) :
Cu
2+ + 4NH 3 = [Cu(NH 3)4]2- -

3. .
« »
. , « »,
« », . « »
, .

,
. : Ag
2S , AgCl
, , ,
.


– - , , ,
. .


1. .
, Ag
2S
2. .
3. :
2Ag + I
2 = 2AgI

137

, ( )
.
4. Ag
2S
4. (
, ).
5.
:
3Ag + 4HNO
3 = 2AgNO 3 + NO + 2H 2O
2Ag + 2H
2SO 4 = Ag 2SO 4 + SO 2 + 2H 2O

Ag
2O

AgNO 3 + NaOH = NaNO 3 + AgOH
2AgOH = Ag
2O + H 2O


1. Ag 2O +2HNO 3 = 2AgNO 3 + H 2O
2. Ag
2O + 4NH 4OH = 2[Ag(NH 3)2]OH + 3H 2O

Ag
+:
) :
Ag
+ + Cl -=AgCl
AgCl - ,
:
AgCl + 2NH
3 = [Ag(NH 3)2]Cl

) :
2AgNO
3 + Na 2S2O3 = Ag 2S2O3 + 2NaNO 3
Ag 2S2O 3 + H 2O = Ag 2S + H 2SO 4
Ag 2S2O 3,
, Ag
2S.



, – ,
AgNO
3 ,
.
AgNO
3
. , ,
, . (2 – 5 - 10%),
(1 - 2%). , , ,
.

138

– 7,8 - 8,3% . ,
.
, , -
( , ) . ,
,
. :
( ), , , ,
, .
,
.
– – - -
, .
0,2 - 1% , 1 - 2%
, 2 - 5% .

:
1. ?
?
2. :
, . , , ,
(II)? .
3. ?
?
17

: II . ,

:
1) II
. . .
2) . . .
3) . .

1. II
. . .
II .

30Zn, Cd, 80Hg
:
(n-1)s
2p6d10ns 2, d- .
… 3d 104s 2, …4d 105s 2,
…5d 106s 2.

, , ,
+2 ( +1).

139


, .
, ,
, .
.
, IIB (Zn, Cd, Hg) ,
I (Cu, Ag, Au).
RO,
R(O )
2. .

2. . . .

5.10 -3 %.
, Zn – , ZnS – ( ) ,
Zn
3 – ( )

:
2ZnS +3O
2 = 2ZnO + 2SO 2
Zn 3 = ZnO + 2
:
ZnO + = Zn + CO

.


- - .
,
.
, 100-150
0
, -
oc .


- .
1. :
2Zn +
2 = 2ZnO

2. ( , ):
Zn + S = ZnS

3. ,
.
.

140

4. HCl, H 2S 4,
N
3 ; , :
Zn + 2 CI = ZnCl
2 + 2
4Zn + 10 N 3 ( .) = 4Zn(N 3)2 + N 4N + 3H 2O
Zn + 2NaO + 2
2 = N 2[Zn() 4] + 2


+2.
ZnO - , ,
. .
, pe
:
ZnO + 2I = ZnCl
2 + 2
ZnO + 2 +
2 = K 2 [Zn(OH) 4]

Zn(OH)
2
:
ZnSO
4 + 2NaOH = Zn(OH) 2
Zn 2+ + 2 - = Zn(OH) 2

Zn 2+.
- .
:
Zn( )
2 +2HCl = ZnCl 2 + 2 2
Zn( )
2 + 2NaOH = Na 2ZnO 2 + 2 2 -
Zn(OH)
2 + 2NaOH = Na 2[Zn(OH) 4] -
.
[Zn(N
3)4]2+:
Zn( )
2 + 4N 3 = [Zn(N 3)4](O) 2

Zn(OH)
2 - . , ,
:
Zn(NO
3)2 Zn 2+ + 2NO 3-
Zn 2+ + + - Zn + + + , < 7
Zn(NO 3)2 + 2 Zn NO 3 + HNO 3

3. . .

;
10 -6 % ( ).
, ;
- HgS, .

141


.
:
HgS + O
2 = Hg + SO 2


- ,
, - .
,
, , .
,
. ,
.
.
,
.
. ,
.
, .
,
. , ,
.
( ).
, 20%- F l ,
, , 10%-
nO
4, .



.
1. .
300° ,
(II) HgO,
. +2:
2Hg +
2 = 2HgO
2HgO =2Hg +
2

,
+ 1, (I) Hg
2O.

2. :
Hg + S = HgS

3. :
Hg + Cl
2 = HgCl 2

142


4.
. ,
.
. . . :
Hg + 4HNO
3 ( .) = Hg(NO 3)2 + 2NO 2 + 2H 2O
6Hg + 8HNO
3 ( .) = 3Hg 2(NO 3)2 + 2NO + 4H 2O
Hg + 2H
2SO 4 = HgSO 4 + SO 2 + 2H 2O

5.
(II) (I):
Hg + Hg(NO
3)2 = Hg 2(NO 3)2
Hg + HgCl
2 = Hg 2Cl 2
, - , .


(I) ,
– Hg
2 – (– Hg – Hg –).
, ,

. (I),
. , (I),
R, HgR,
Hg
2R2 ( , Hg 2CI 2).
,
. , ,
.
, (I)
- (I):
g
2(N 3)2 + 2NaOH =Hg 2 + 2N N 3 + 2
Hg
2 2+ + 2
- = Hg 2O + 2

(II) (II):
Hg
2+ + 2 - = HgO + 2.

,
(II).
Hg
2+


(I) g
2(N 3)2 - (I).

:
6Hg + 8N
3 = 3 g 2(N 3)2 + 2NO + 4 2.

143


(I) Hg
2C1 2, , ,
. , HgCl
2 :
HgC1
2 + Hg = Hg 2C1 2

(I):
Hg
2 2+ + 2
l - = Hg 2Cl 2

(II) g(N
3)2
:
Hg + 4HNO
3 ( .) = Hg(NO 3)2 + 2NO 2 + 2H 2O

.

g · g(N
3)2.
, (II).

(II), , HgC1
2
. ,
(6,6 100 20
0).
, 100 0C 58
100 . HgC1
2 .
, (II) :
HgS
4 + 2NaCl = Na 2S 4 + HgC1 2

;
.
. , - ,
.
, , - .
, , ,
,
.

(II) HgI
2 -
(II):
Hg
2+ + 2I - = HgI 2
,
K
2[HgI 4]:
HgI
2 + 2 I = K 2[HgI 4]

Hg
2+, .

144

(II) HgS

(II):
Hg + S = HgS
g(N
3)2 + H 2S = gS + 2HN 3


(II)
- .

:
1. II ?
2. ?
3. Hg
2+?
18

VI .

:
1) VI .
. .
2) , , , .
3) . , .
4) . . (VI).

1. VI .
.
VI ( )
-
24, 42 74W.
– .
,
:
… d
54s',
...4d55s 1,
W ... 4f 145d 46s 2
d- , d- .
« » :
d - ,

.
,
6 (
), 4.

145

6.
+6.
,
+1 + 6.
, +2,
+3, +6; +6.

2. , , ,

0,003 %.
.
:
, , Fe(CrO
2)2 Fe· Cr 2O 3
Cr
2O3
, , PbCrO
4


( )
t0
Cr 2O 3 +2Al = 2Cr +Al 2O 3

- - ,
. , -
. 1890
0, 7,19
/ 3.

.
1.
Cr
2O 3
4Cr +3O 2 = 2Cr 2O 3

,


2. .
.
, , , :
2Cr + 3Cl
2 = 2CrCl 3

3.
:
2Cr + 3
2 = Cr 2 3 + 3H 2
4.

Cr
2+:

146

Cr + 2 l = CrCl 2 + H 2
,
, .

— ,
. ,
( ), .
,
.
,
. (III) .
(VI) , .

3. . , .

+2 +2 +3 +3 +6 +6
CrO Cr(OH), r
2O 3 r( ) 3, 3 H 2CrO 4, H 2 r 2O 7

(II) CrO – ,
(II) Cr(OH)
2 –
CrO Cr(OH)
2 ,
CrO + 2 l = CrCl
2 + H 2O
( )
2 + 2HCl = rCl 2 + 2 2

(II) (II)
rCl
2 + 2Na = Cr(OH) 2 + 2NaCl
r 2+ + 2 - = Cr(OH) 2

r 2+

(II)
2 r( )
3 = 2 3 + 2

(II) .

4CrCl
2 + 2 + 4 l = 4 l 3 + 2 2

(III) Cr 2O 3 (III) ( ) 3 -
.
r
2O 3 ( ) 3 (III)
r
2O 3 + 6HCl = 2C l 3 + 3 2
2 ( )
3 + 3H 2SO 4 = r 2(S 4)3 + 6 2

147

r 2O 3 + 6NaOH + 3 2 = 2N 3[ ( ) 6]

-
(III):

2 3 + 2Na = 2Na 2+ 2



2 3 + Na 2 3 = Na 2+ 2


2 3 + 6Na = 2Na 3 3+ 3 2


Cr 2O 3 — ,

Cr
2O 3 + 3KNO 3 + 2Na 2CO 3 2Na 2CrO 4 + 3KNO 2 + 2CO 2


Cr
2O 3 + 2Al Al 2O 3 + 2Cr

(III) ( ) 3
(NH
4)2Cr 2O 7:
2 ( )
3 = r 2O 3 + 3 2;
(NH
4)2Cr 2O 7 = r 2 3 + N 2 + 4 2

(III) (
) (III)
Cr l
3 + 3 = ( ) 3 + 3K l
r 3+ + 3 - = Cr(OH) 3
-
r 3+

(III)
2 r( )
3 = 2 3 + 2

(III)
.
(VI)- ( ) (
), :
2NaCrO
2 + 3Br 2 + 8NaOH = 2Na 2CrO 4 +6NaBr +4H 2O
5Cr
2(SO 4)3 + 6KMnO 4 + 11H 2O = 3 K 2 r 2O 7 + 2H 2r 2O7 + 6MnSO 4 + 9 H 2SO 4

(VI) r
3- .
(VI) : H
2CrO 4
H
2 r 2O 7. .
xpoa (VI).
r
3 + 2 ( ) = 2r 4
2 r 3 + 2 ( ) = 2r 2 7

148

r 3
r
3 + 2NaOH = Na 2CrO 4 + 2

, ,

.
+2 +3 +6
CrO r
2O 3 3

Cr(OH)
2 r( ) 3 =H 3CrO 3 H 2CrO 4, H 2r 2O 7.


4. . . (VI).
xp , , K 2CrO 4 - .
: K
2r 2O 7 -
.
r
3
:
r
3 + 2NaOH = Na 2CrO 4 + 2


2Na
2 rO 4 + H 2SO 4 = N 2r 2O7 -+ Na 2SO 4 + H 2O

exo :
N
2r 2O7 +2NaOH = 2Na 2CrO 4 + H 2O

-
:
2 rO
42- + 2H + =
r 2O 72- + H 2O


r
2O 72- +2OH - = 2CrO 4 2-
+ H 2O


,
( ), -
( ).

Xpo a - .
:
K
2 r 2O 7 + 3N 2S 3 + 4H 2SO 4 = Na 2SO 4+ 2( SO 4)3 + 2SO 4 +4H 2O
K
2 r 2O 7 + 6KI + 7H 2SO 4 = 4K 2SO 4+ 2( SO 4)3 + 3I 2 +7H 2O
( )

K
2r 2O 7 -

149

,
.


:
1. , « » .
?
2. -
?
3. -
- :
K
2 rO 4 + NaNO 2 + H 2SO 4 = ….+…..+….+……

19

: VII .

:
1) VII
. . .
2) , , , .
3) . , .
4) , ,
.

1. VII
. .
VII , ,

25n, 43 75Re.

:
n … d
54s 2
…4 d 55s 2,
Re ….4 f 145d 56s 2
s- ,
5 d-
, ,
(n-1)d
5 ns 2.
,
d - , ns
2 –

.
,
, 1 7.

150

,
II, IV, VII.
,
.
+2,+3, +4,+6,+7, +4, +6,+7.

2. , , ,

:
0,09 %. .
: - n
2,
Mn
3O 4, Mn 2O 3, MnO 3 ( ).



:
3MnO
2 + 4Al = 3Mn + 2Al 2O 3


- - , ,
. 1245 0,
7,44 / 3.


.
,
.
:
Mn + O
2 = MnO 2

1.
, , , ,
. :
3 n + 2N
2 = n 3N4

(
),
.
2. .
:
n + 2H
2O = Mn(O ) 2 + 2

3.
( )
n
2+:

151

n + H 2SO 4 = MnSO 4 + 2


( ).
:
3 n + 8 N
3 ( .) = 3 n(N 3)2 + 2NO + 4 2O
n + 2H
2SO 4 = MnSO 4 + SO 2 + 2 2

4.
:
n + CuSO
4 = MnSO 4 + Cu

3. . ,
.
+2 +3 +4 + 7
n n
2O3 nO 2 n 2O 7

(II) n n( )
2 -
.
(II):
MnO + 2 l = MnCl
2 + 2 2O
Mn(OH)
2 + 2 l = MnCl 2 + 2 2O

Mn(OH)
2 Mn 2+:
MnCl
2 + 2NaOH = Mn(OH) 2 + 2 2O
Mn 2+ + 2OH - = Mn(OH) 2

- Mn(OH)
2 , Mn(OH) 4:
2Mn(OH)
2 + 2 + 2 2O = 2Mn(OH) 4

Mn 2+.
Q (IV), ,
2
n( )
4 .
n
2
(IV):
n
2 + 2H 2SO 4 = Mn(SO 4)2 + 2 2O

2
(IV),

4MnO 4:
n
2 + 4K = K 4MnO 4 + 2 2O
(IV) , ,
, :

152

4 l + n 2 = nCl 2 + Cl 2 + 2 2O
2 nO
2 + 3 b 2 + 6 N 3 = 2 n 4 + 3 b(N 3)2 + 2 2O
n
2 , -
.

(VII) n
2O 7 .

n
4, :
n
2O7 + 2O = 2H nO 4

n
2O 7 . :
2KMnO
4 + H 2SO 4 = K 2SO 4 + Mn 2O 7 + H 2O

(VII) :
2Mn
2O 7 = 4MnO 2 + 3O 2

n
2O 7 HnO 4 .
,
:
,
.

4. , ,
.
.
n
4 -
, .
n
4 - , –
, n
4-
:
2KMnO
4 = K 2MnO 4 + MnO 2 + O 2

,
.
.

1.

153

1.


( ,
):
<7 ( )

5K
2SO 3 + 2KMnO 4 + 3H 2SO 4= 2 nSO 4 + 6K 2SO 4 + 3 2O

MnO 4 - +8H ++5
Mn 2++ 4H 2O 5 2
10
SO 32- + H 2O - 2
SO 42- +2H + 2 5

2MnO 4 - +16H ++ 5SO 32- + 5H 2O
2Mn 2++ 8H 2O + 5SO 42- +10H +
2MnO 4 - +6H ++ 5SO 32-
2Mn 2++ 3H 2O + 5SO 42-
= 7 9 )
3K
2SO 3 + 2KMnO 4 + H 2O = 2 nO 2 + 3K 2SO 4 + 2KOH

MnO 4 - + 2H 2
+3 = MnO 2 + 4OH - 3 2
6
SO 32- + H 2O - 2
SO 42- +2H +
- 2 3
2MnO 4 - +4H 2O + 3SO 32- + 3H 2O
2MnO 2 + 8OH - + 3SO 42- +6H +


6
2 + 2 -
2MnO 4 - + 3SO 32- + H 2O
2MnO 2 + 2OH - + 3SO 42

>7 ( )

K
2SO 3 + 2KMnO 4 + 2KOH = 2K 2 nO 4 + K 2SO 4 + 2O

154

MnO 4 - +1
MnO 42- 1 2
2
SO 32- + 2
H - - 2 SO 42- + H 2 2 1
2MnO
4 - + SO 32- + 2
H - 2MnO 42- + SO 42- + H 2

n
4
, ,
. . - n
4
.
.
n
4 ( ,
(%)
2 2).

:
1. ?
2.
?
3. ?

20

: VIII .

:
1) VIII .
. .
2) , , , .
3) . , .
4) . (II, III).
5)

1. VIII
. . .

d -
.
, ,
- , - , .

.

; .

.

155

-
, , .
, ,


1.
1.

Fe +2,
+3 , +6 +2, +3 Ni +2, +3
Ru +4, +6, +8 Rh
+2, +3 Pd +2, +4
Os
+6, +8 Ir
+3, +4 Pt +2, +4


.
: (Fe, Ru,
Os), ( , Rh, Ir) (Ni, Pd, Pt).

. ,
, –
.
[ (N
3) 6] 3,
- .

, , ,
,
. .

.

2. , , , .
.
,
, .
5,10 %.
.
, ( Fe
3O 4),
( Fe
2O 3), ( Fe 2O 3·H 2O
2Fe
2O 3·3H 2O), ( FeCO 3)



( ) (II)
(500-700
0):
Fe
3O 4 + CO =3FeO + CO 2

156

FeO +CO = Fe + CO 2


- .
, .
-
. ,
. .
.


.
1. .
( ,
, , , ):
Fe + S = FeS
2F + 3 1
2= 2F l 3

( ):
4F + 6H
2O + 3 2 = 4Fe(OH) 3

2. .

( 700
0 ):
3F + 4H
2O = Fe 3O 4 + 4H 2

3. .
,
( ) :
Fe + H
2SO 4 = FeSO 4 + 2


:
2Fe + 6H
2SO 4 = Fe 2(SO 4)3 + 3SO 2+ 6 2O


,
.

, :
4Fe + 10 NO
3 = 4F (N ) 2 + N 4N 3 + 3 2O
Fe + 6 NO
3 = F (N ) 2 + 3N 2 + 3 2O
4. .
( ,
, ) :

157

F + CuSO 4 = FeSO 4 + u

5. (II).
, c (II),
:
F + 5 = [F ( O)
5]

- ,
( , ) .
.
:
, .
,
.

- , 2,14%
4 %. , ,
( , ).
- , 2,14%.
,
( ),
.

.

3. . , .
F, F
2O 3, F 3 4
F ( )
2, F( ) 3.

(II) F (II) F(OH)
2 -
, :
Fe(OH)
2 + H 2SO 4 = FeSO 4 + 2O

(II) , (III) :
Fe
2O 3 + H 2 = 2FeO + 2

(II)
(II):
FS
4 + 2NaOH = Fe(OH) 2 + Na 2SO 4
F 2+ + 2OH - = Fe(OH) 2
-
.
(II) (III):
4Fe(OH)
2 + O 2 + 2 2 = 4F ( ) 3

158

F 2+

F( )
2 (II):
F ( )
2 = F O+ 2

(III) F 2O 3 (I) F ( ) 3
, :
F
2O 3+ 6 l = 2F l 3 + 2
F
2O 3 + 2KOH = 2KFeO 2 + 2
( FeO
2)

F ( )
3 + 3 l = F l 3 + 2
F ( )
3 + 3KOH = K 3[F( ) 6]

(III) pa
, - .

(III) (III):
F l
3 + 3 = F( ) 3+ 3K I
F 3+ + 3 - = F ( ) 3
F 3+

F( )
3 (III):
2F ( )
3 = F 2O 3+ 2

(II, III) F
3 4 F
F
2O 3. FeO · F 2O 3

.
(II) (III):
F
3 4 + 4H 2SO 4 = FeSO 4 + F 2(S 4)3 + 4 2

4. . (II, III).
+2, +3.
(II) , ( III),
.
(II)
. ,
(III): 10FeSO
4 + 2KMnO 4 + 8H 2 SO 4 = 5Fe 2(SO 4)3 + 2nSO 4 + K 2SO 4 + 8 2

(III) - .
(II):
2FeCl
3 + 2 I = 2FeCl 2 + I 2 + 2KCl

159

pa p (II) (III)
.
(II)
K
3[F(CN) 6],
. - (
):
3FeSO
4 + 2K 3[F (CN) 6] = F 3[Fe(CN) 6]2 + 3K 2SO 4
3Fe 2+ + 2[F (CN) 6]3- F 3[Fe(CN) 6]2

(III)
K
4[F (CN) 6]. O (III),
:
4FeCl
3 + 3K 4[F (CN) 6] = F 4[Fe (CN) 6]3 + 12KCl
4Fe 3+ + 3[F (CN) 6]4- = F 4[Fe (CN) 6]3
Fe
3+ KSCN
NH
4 SCN:
F l
3 + 3KSCN -= Fe(SCN) 3 + 3 l
F 3+ + 3S N - = Fe(NCS) 3
po a o - .

5.
– –

.
(
; ).
(III) F
2O 3 ,
, , , , ,
.
(III) F l
3
.
(III) Fe(NO
3)3· 9H 2O .
(II) FeSO
4 FeSO 4 · 7H 2O
,
FeS
2 ( )
.

.
4 Fe. (70%),
, -
, , .
.
,

160

- ( ).
,
: (II); « »
( (II) ); « », « ».

:
1. ?
2. Fe
2+ Fe 3+?
3. .

161




/
,

(-),
(-),
(-)
,
,
-


1 2 3 4 5 6
1
:
. .

. . , . .
, . .

. : -
, 2013.
95




/
,

(-),
(-),
(-)
,
,

-


1 2 3 4 5 6
1

[
] : .


1 ,

33.02.01 - . -
:
http://krasgmu.vmede.ru
/index.php?page[commo
n]=elib&cat=&res_id=5
1539
. . .
, . .
, . .

:
, 2015.

2

[
] : . .


.
( .)

33.02.01 -
(
). -
:
. . .
, . .

:
, 2015.

162

http://krasgmu.vmede.ru
/index.php?page[commo
n]=elib&cat=&res_id=5
1650
3

[
] : . .

.


33.02.01 -
(
). -
:
http://krasgmu.vmede.ru
/index.php?page[commo
n]=elib&cat=&res_id=5
3380
. . .
, . .

:
, 2015.

4 :

. . ;
. . . ,
. .
. : -
, 2012.
2

:
1. "Colibris";
2. ;
3. iBooks;
4. eLibrary