S. Kanazawa - The Common Origin of the Japanese and Korean languages

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Cornell University Library
PL 524.K16
The common origin of the Japanese and Kq
3 1924 023 352 994


The original of tliis book is in
tine Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.

Introductory Notes
Chap. I. The Japanese and Korean Sounds ..
Chap. II. A Grammatical Survey
I. Indeclinable Words.
(1) The Noun
(2) The Pronoun
(3) Numerals
II. Declinable Words.
(1) Nouns derived from Verbs
(2) Derived Adverbs
(3) The Verb oH
(4) Transitive, Intransitive and Passive Verbs
(5) Honorific Verbs
(6) Tense-forming Auxiliary Verbs
(7) Negative Verbs
III. Particles.
(1) Particles denoting the Nominative Case
(2) Genitive Particles
(3) Particles indicating the Instrumental Case
(4) Optative and Exclamatory Particles ...
(5) Interrogative Particles
(6) Particles denoting Contrast and Opposition

The Korean language belongs to the same family
of tongues as the language of Japan ; it is in fact
a branch of Japan ese, like the native language of
the Loo-choo Isles. The relation may be compared
to that existing between the German, and Dutch
languages, both being branches of the same Teutonic
tree, or between the French and another Romance
language, Spanish. This is by no means a new-
discovery ; scholars, both foreign and Japanese have
frequently manifested the same opinion and no one
who has studied Old J apanese can fail to arrive at
the same conclusion.
That intercourse was held between the people of
Japan and Korea in the earliest times is evident
from the account of Prince Susa-no-wo's advent at
Sosimori in the Korean province of Silla, the allusion
to a number of Korean temples in our Engishiki^
and Fudoki,^ and the presence of the surname of
Shiragi^ in the Shinsen-shojiroku.^ ProJfessor Hoshi-
no goes further :^ he ventures to affirm that in ancient
times, Japan and Korea were not separate lands
1. Engi Book of Rituals.
2. Topography of Provinces.
3. The Japanese pronunciation of Silla.
4. Catalogue of Family Names.
5. See his essay in the Shigaku Zasshi Vol. I. No. 11.

[ 2 ]
and that pur Imperial ancestors ruled over Silla.
Nor is this all. We see in Korean records them-
. selves that Tharhai-nisakeunj, the kin^ of Silla was
^ a native of Tabsma,^ Perhaps a province of Japan, and
in the yearTrhiraccession (57 A. D.) he appointed
a Japanese named Hokong to the office of Taipo, the
Prime Minister. The naturalization of Prince Ama-
rno-Hihoko and many other Koreans as Japanese sub-
I jects, too, throws further light on the relation of
'; the two countries in early days.
What seems strange to us is that while they had
,, evidently much to do with one another, little diffi-
culty seems, to have been experienced in the matter
of language. Nothing is on record about translation
when the Korean ambassadors Achiki and Wani
were sent to Japan. We find mention made of inter-
preters in later history, when intercourse between
the two countries became somewhat less. The Nihon
; Shoki^ tells us that Boannawas the official translator
in the 7th year of the Emperor Yuryaka (4S3 A. D.),
/ and Kamsaki the Interpreter in the 2nd year of the
Emperor Tenchi (683 A. D.) ; and that in the 9th
year of Temmu (681 A. D.) " Silla sent tributes by
two officials, Kon-Jakuhitsu and Kon-Gwensho, ac-
companied by three interpreters." Likewise the
Shoku Nihongi' records, " In the 4th year of the Era
1. " Tabana, a province one hundred ri in the north-east of
Japan."— 'Sansokushiki (The Chronicle of Three Nations in
2. Chronicles of Japan.
3. Chronicles of Japan Continued.

[ 3 ]
1 TerapyS Boji C^9^„DJ in the reign of Junnin, SiUa
* sent tributes by Kon Jokwan, but since none of the
party had acquaintance with the language and man-
ners of the Sacred Court two translators were em-
pfeyedT In the following year oilers were given to
the two provinces Mino and Musashi that they should
each choose twenty youths and instruct them in the
language of Silla. This was to prepare for invading
^ Silla." In the Nihon Isshi we find
In the 4th year
of Konin (813 A. D.) in the reign of Saga they
, abolished the Secretary of Tsushima and instituted
^ the Translator of the language of Silla."
From these accounts it will be easy to see that in
ancient days the difference between Korean and
Japanese was not very great.
In recent years the comparative study of the two
languages has been more and more vigorously pushed
among scholars. Some foreign philologists have
tried to prove a likeness between Japanese and the
Aryan languages, Finnish, Turkish or Burmese, but .
their efforts have not obtained the support of others.
Mr. Aston^ and Prof. Chamberlain, celebrated au-
thorities on Japan, have published the opinion,
strongly advocating the affinity of Korean and
Japanese, and they havfe not so far met with a single
dissenting voice.
Among our contemporary scholars Prof. Shiratori
and Prof. Miyazaki have studied this subject, the
1. "A. Comparative study of the Japanese and Korean Lan-
sruages " by Aston, London 1879.

[ 4- ]
one from a historical and the other from a le^
stand-point. They both agreed on the common ori-
gin of the two languages.
We much regret that this fact, after so much has
;been said about it, should still be almost unknown
to the general public. It is really surprising that
many Japanese who can speak Korean— nay even
scholars who pretenir to make a special study of
languages, often fail to recognize any fea tur es of
resemblance between that tongue and our own. But
four regret is the keenest when we reflect upon the
I indifference which our countrymen show in Oriental
1 studies, while foreigners pursue their investigations
s with unab ating zeal.
Nations rise and fall, but language, which is be-
yond the control of man, retains the traces of its
oldest aspects. Is it not then the proper task not
only of spe'cialists but of all who love their country
and especially of those who deal officially or privately
with Koreans, to pay attention to the linguistic
problems ? Moved by these thoughts I have taken
up my pen, and it is my sincere hope that, in spite of
the ine vitabl e dryness of the subject, the reader
will endure to the end.
1. See the Koku-gaku-in Zasshi Vol. IV No. 4 and after "
' Comparison of Old Japanese and Korean" by Prof. Shiratori.
The Shigaku Zasshi Vol. XVI No. 2 and after " A Comparative
Study of Japanese and Foreign Languages" by the same
writer. The Shigaku Zasshi Vol. XVII No. 7 and after "The
Japanese and Korean Languages Compared " by Prof. Miyazaki.
The Shigaku Zasshi Vol. XV No. 7 "The Position of Korean in
the Historical Study of the Japanese Law " by the same writer.

[ 5 J
In the study of language speech sounds are at once
the basis of comparison and the cause of errors. As
a language consists of sounds our study must proceed
upon phonetic investigation, yet if we allow our-
selves to be led by mere outward effect we are apt to
fall into mistakes. Every change in sound is subject
to a strict law, and sounds now different from one
another may sometimes be traced to a common
origin, while analogous sounds are often found to
have come from totally different sources. It is,
therefore, dangerous as well as difficult to compare
languages by their external appearance. Moreover,
where nations are in close contact^ there is sure to be
1. " In the fourth year of the Emperor Tenchi's reign four
' hundred men and women of Kudara {Paih-chySi) came to our
land, and they were put in Kamsaki county in the province of
Omi. Also two thousand men and women of Kudara were
placed in Eastern Provinces, and they were, whether priests or
laymen, fed by the Government"— FusS RyakkL "In the
second year of Reiki in the reign of Genshd one thousand seven
hundred and ninety-nine people of Koma (Ko^ryo) were trans-
ferred from the seven provinces, Suruga, Kahi, Sagami, Kazusa,
Shimousa, Hidachi and Shimotsuke to Koma county in the
provinceof Musashi. In the second year of Tempy6-H6ji in the
reign of KSken, the naturalized people of Silla— thirty-two
priests, two nuns, nineteen laymen, twenty-one laywomen—
were transferred Jto_a quiet place in Musashi. This was the
origin of Shiragi {Silla) county."— Shoku NihongL

[ 6 ]
much borrowing of words, and the discrimination
between native and borrowed words is very often
difficult, especially when thfere exist accidental
coincidences to confuse us. Hence the morghological
side of language study is of comparatively little
consequence, and it is better to attach greater
importance to the internal structure.
Following, I give a list of Korean and Japanese
words not so much for the purpose of showing the
external analogy between each pair of words, as to
pave my way for explaining certain phonetic laws
underlying the two languages.

[ 7 1

r 8 ]

[ 9 ]

[ 10 ]

C 11 ]
, , (3) Jap. Aa

Kov. pyo.
Ha (tooth) is probably connected with pyo, (Korean
word for bone). H in Jap. is always p in Korean as
hiide (Jap. writing-brush) put (Kor. the same), hata
(Jap. field) pat (Kor. field). It is believed that where
we have h now, p was pronounced in Old Japanese
as in Modern Korean. Since the tooth is the bony
substance most exposed and visible in a living
creature, the Koreans gave it a name which later
became the general name of bones, whereas in Japa-
nese ho-ne (bone ; literally the root of the tooth) was
evolved out of the same word. MiMie (breast;
literally the root of the body) was formed by the
same process.
(4) Jap. ha — Kor. pa.
The pai-ticle ha has no independent meaning in
Modern Japanese but in Old Japanese the Chinese
character signifying "thing" was employed to
represent this particle. When we see Korean pa
signifies likewise "thing" or "place" we may be
fairly certain that both particles were originally one
and the same word.
(5) Jap. hachi — Kor. por.
Although there seems to be little likeness between
hachi and por, yet they are etymologically connected
with each other. I have already explained that the
Jap. h corresponds to the Kor. p and we may also in-
fer that t which stood for ch in 0. J. is connected with

[ 12 ]
the Kor. r. Japanese phoneticians discovered long
ago the phonetic proximTty^3tKe liability to mutual
shifting between t, n and r. Tsuruga, Harima,
Heguri are instances wherein n was replaced by r
while in tsuta (ivy) tsuna (cord) tsu.ru (tendril) etc.,
they are used interchangeably. And if we compare
chir and syor (Korean pronunciation of the Chinese
ideographs ^ and Wt) with the Japanese pronunci-
ation of the same ideographs in such proper names
as Chichi-bu and ShitoHra, or Jap. midzu (water)
with Kor. mur (water) we shall easily see the same
shifting of t and r in the process of operation
between Korean and Japanese, and that hacM and
p'or must be etymologically the same.
(6) Jap. hamp-rKor. pdiam.
Jap. heU (snake) hahu (trimeresurus riukiuanus)
hami (viper) and hamo (sea-eel) are all derived from
the same word and cognate with the Korean paiam
(7) Jap. ^ara— Kor. para.
The Japanese word hara (field) haru-ka (distant)
hiro (broad) hari (cultivated ground) haru (to become
fine) etc. are supposed to be offspring of one parent.
In Korean, likewise, words like para (to look over)
paro (direct) pari (to be spread in a line) are similar
both in sound and sense.
(8) Jap. Aoio— Kor. -pi-tark.
Hato (pigeon) is an abbreviation of ha-tori (ha-

[ 13 ]
bird) and probably cognate with the Korean word
fn-tdrk. Tori in Japanese is a name for the whole
family of birds, whereas tark in Korean signifies
' cock ' or
hen ' and does not include other winged
creatures. The extra k at the end of tark may
have originally stood for the whole bird family,
since we find it in many names of birds both in
Jap, and Kor : e.g. Kor. kir&ki (Kor. wild-goose.
cf . the Japanese name kari) sa-gi (Jap. snowy heron)
sirgi (Jap. snipe) tsvrki (Jap. ibis nippon). sa«a-M
(Jap. wren), etc.
(9) Jap. hige — Kor. ip.
It is not hard to conceive that the ge in hi-ge
(Jap. moustache) is identical with ke (hair). In
Korean ip means
mouth ' and might not the hi
be an old form of ip ?
(10) Jap. hiraku — Kor. park.
The Japanese verbs hiraku (to open) and borake
in asa^borake (day-break)^ are related to the verb
haru (to become fine). In Korean park (rosy, said
of dawn) is evidently derived from para (to be open
to view) and pori (to scatter). Clearly there is a
resemblance between the two sets of words.
(11) Jap. hukube— Kor. pak.
Hukube (Jap. gourd) is probably the same word as
pak (Kor. gourd), the termination be in the former
1. See Note 7.

[ 14 ]
vessel ' as it may be seen in some words,
as na-be (cooking kettle), tururbe (bucket), imu-be
(sacred vessel), «:^a/ii-6e (ceremonial vessel), etc.
(12) Jap, ,/iMre— Kor. par.
Hure is an old Japanese word meaning 'village,'
and we may find it in old geographical names I-hare,
Na-hori, Ka-heru, Na-bari, Ka-haru, etc. In Korean,
too, por signifies village and is transcribed by various
Chinese characters, as, ^S.,%,7f: m, ^, ^B, jAc, etc. A
large village was called ko-hure, whence came kohori
(Jap. county), and ko&wr (Kor. county). From
these words the system of kohori and hure seems to
have been instituted in a very early time both in
Korea and Japan.
(13) Jap. huru — Kor. pur.
In Modern Japanese huru (to fall) is the verb for
rain and huku (blow) for wind, but in Korean jmr is
the verb for wind. Yet we see yama-buri instead
of yamorbuki (Jap. globe-flower) in Mannyo and
huru kaze (wind that blows) in Kojiki; so in 0.
J. huru seems to have been the verb for wind.
(14) Jap. imM— Kor. muip.
These two words signify " to shun. " The terminal
p in muip corresponds to the Jap. termination hu
in tororhu (Jap. to catch ; derivative of toru) uta-hu
(Jap. to sing ; derivative of vim, to hit) nega-hu (Jap.
to pray ; derivative of negu).

[ 15 ]
(15) Jap. ka—Kor. hho.
As is the case with ip (Kor. mouth) and ihu (Jap.
to say) ka (Jap. odour), ka-gu (Jap. to smell) and kho
(Kor. nose) seem to be related. The same is the case
with kui (Kor. ear) ko-we (Jap. voice) and ki-ku (Jap.
to hear). We must also note that the Japanese verb
kata-gu (to carry on the back) was derived from kata
(back), and tsuna-gu (to fasten) from tsuna (rope).
(16) Jap. karu — Kor. ka.
The Japanese root ka in sa-ku (to shun) sa-ka-ru (to
separate) ma-ka-ru (to retire) is probably identical
with the Korean ka (to go).
(17) Jap. kazu — Kor. kaji.
There is no doubt that kazu (Jap. number) kusa
(Jap. diversity) and kaji (Kor. kind) are all related.
(18) Jap. kiru — Kor. khar.
Kiru and khar are related as ka-hu (Jap. to buy)
and kap (Kor. price) are : in Japanese it is a verb,
while in Korean it is a noun. In Japanese also
we have nouns derived from defining words, e.g.
ta-tsu (to cut) tachi (sword) ; tsumugari (to cut
with a clean stroke), tsurugi (dagger).
(19) Jap. kohu — Kor. kop.
Kohu (Jap. to love) and kuha-shi (Jap. pretty)._are
both connected with kop (Kor. pretty). Kuha-shi

[ 16 ]
is an old word meaning
' pretty ' and used in com-
pounds: korkuhashi (fragrant), ura-kuhad (gentle-
hearted), etc.
(20) Jap. konami — Kor. kheunomi.
Konami signifies 'legal wife.' In Jikyoi the
Chinese ideograph ^ is given to represent it. Evi-
dently this is the blending of the two characters ic
and S-— a woman-master. This word corresponds to
Kheun-bmi (Kor. legal wife). Kheun is connected
with ika and signifies 'great,' whereas omi as the
Jap. into means 'woman.' Hence kheun-'dmi and
konami mean 'great woman' and consequently
signifies a legal wife both in 0. J. and 0. K.
(21) Jap. koyomi — Kor. hai.
In Japanese koyomi (almanac) is equivalent in
signification to hi-yomi (day-reading). The ka in
hutsvrka (two days), mi-ka (three days), etc. signifies
day ' and is cognate with hai.
(22) Jap, made— Kor. mit.
The Japanese words made (until) and mits-uito fill),
are mutually related, and express the sense of
completion. Mit and mir are the Korean for them.
(23) Jap. Mane— Kor. man.
In Japanese mane is the root of a-mane-shi (all over),
etc. and kindred with man (Kor. many). It is likely
1. The Mirror of Words: a Lexicon.

[ 17 ]
that momo (Jap. a hundred) is also of the same family,
as well as moro (Jap. divers) mure (Jap. crowd) ; mora
(Kor. all) muri (Kor. group), etc.
(24) Jap. sitUo— Kor. seui.
Siuto (Jap. parent-in-law) is an abbreviation of si-
hito, of which the si has its counterpart in the Korean
seui, and probably denotes the masculine gender.
Likewise se (Jap. male) and the Kor. su are probably
cognate words and denote
husband ' or
to the husband.'
(25) Jap. soko — Kor. sok.
The old sense of soko (Jap. bottom, base) is probably
sok-u (to retire). If this is correct sok (Kor. inside)
appears to be a kindred word.
(26) Jap. take — Kor. tai.
The final ki in hino-ki (Jap. chamaecyparis abtusa)
tsuba-ki (camelia) yana-gi (willow) etc. means
Take is another example, and the root ta is the tai in
Korean. Ikada (Jap. raft) is possibly ika-da (large
bamboo) ; the Korean name for it is ttoi.
(27) Jap. uhanarir— Kor. myonari.
In Japanese uhanari is generally said to signify
'second wife.' In the Jikyo, however, the charac-
ter M. is given as its Chinese equivalent. It is made
up of ^ and -k, an additional woman— probably an
old name for concubine. The u in Vrhanari denotes
upper.' Formerly upper and lower meant later and

C 18 ]
former respectively, as we see it from uha-wo (second
husband) and shitorwo (first husband). Since hanari
bears some resemblance with myonari (Kor. woman)
Vrhanari probably meant ' second woman ' — a woman
whom one has taken after the legal wife, viz. a
(28) Jap. wase—Kar. os'd.
In Japanese wase means early rice and rice only,
but in 0. J. any kind of early plant was called wase.
From this we see that the original sense of wase was
early and probably cognate with oso (Kor. early).
From the foregoing comparison of Japanese and
Korean words it is not hard to see the phonetic rela-
tion between the two languages. I shall now point
out a few of the most conspicuous points.
(a) The Korean h is always k in Japanese.
The Chinese characters ^,® and m are pronounced
in Jap. gahu, kan and kai respectively, but hak, han
and hai in Korean. The same tendency may be
found in the native words of Korean and Japanese :
the fea'in hutsu-ka and mi-ka and the ko in Ico-yomi,
to both of which I have alluded, and the ke in the
phrase ' asa ni ke ni' all signify 'day,' the Korean
for which is Mi. This k sound is occasionally drop-
ped, as in Ohoita (formerly Ohokita; name of a place);
Aika (formerly akika; also name of a place), and many
others; The same is the case with tori (Jap. bird
l^or. tark) and. kari (Jap. wild goose ; Kor. kiroki).

[ 19 ]
(6) The interchangeability of i, « and n
"The three consonants t, n and r are liable to inter-
change in both languages, as Sara-ra (a place in
Japan) expressed by the ideographs^ (san) and S
(ro) ; Tadji-hi (a place) expressed by fl- {tan) and Jt
{hi) ; I «a^ (name of a god) expressed by ifg (ina) and
^ ini) ; etc.
(c) The dislike to place r at the head of words.
This is a characteristic of both languages. At the
beginning of Japanese intercourse with Russia the
name of that country was pronounced Orosha, and
in Korean it is still pronounced Arasa.
R, moreover, is' often omitted in the middle of
words ; e.g. toamiiov tori-ami (Jap. bird's net), kano
for karino (Jap. hunting-grpund) tsukumo-dokoro for
tsukurimono-dokoro (artisans' bureau), etc., and in
Korean iarA;,(bird) and heurk (mud) are sometimes
pronounced tdk and heuk. We see ap (Kor. forward)
written arp in old manuscripts.
The Korean for the Japanese verb ari (to be) is ir,
and the r is apt to be dropped in conjugation, as may
also be seen in kuram (Kor. cloud) /cMmo (Jap. cloud)
kuro (Jap. black) kom (Kor. black). If we may
suppose that kumo (Jap. spider), komeui (Kor.
spider); kuma (Jap. bear), kom (Kor. bear) are all
derived from an adjective meaning 'black,' herelis
another instance of the elimination of r.
(d) The p in Korean is always h in Japanese.
In 0. J. p was used much more than now, for h was

C 20 ]
hardly ever pronounced in those days. The arrange-
ment of the On-mun,^ as we liave in the Hun-min-
chy6ng-eum,2 was, like the Gojiion', based on the
Indian sound-table Devanagari. Comparing these
tables we find the p column both in the Indian and
Korean tables where we have h in the Japanese ; con-
sequently the order of the columns in the table of
the Korean alphabet is k, t, n, p, m, s, y, w, r.
In Korean h and w are apt to interchange as
they are in Japanese. We say wadzuka (few) for
hatsuka, awatsu (to be alarmed) for ahatsu, kvisuhoru
(collapse) for kvtsuworu, and similarly the Korean
words pata (sea) and pat (to receive) are in Jap. wada
(sea) and wata-su (O. J. to receive). Moreover many
of the Korean roots ending in p replace the p with
w in conjugation ; e. g. muip (to dislike) muiw.
There are many other points which I might explain
in connection with sounds, but I have touched upon
only those that are directly concerned with my article.
1. The Korean alphabet.
2. The Teaching of Correct Sounds.
3. The table of the Japanese alphabet.

[ 21 ]
In the foregoing chapter I attempted to point put
the phonological or morphological analogy between
the two languages ; now let us consider the internal
or grammatical side of the study in the following
order. 1. Indeclinable- words. 2. Declinable words. 3.
(1) The Noun.
A majority of the so-called indeclinable words are
nouns. In European languages a substantive has a
number, a gender and a case, but in Japanese particles
mainly take the place of cases. We will therefore
consider ^number and gender only.
(a) Number. Neither Korean nor Japanese has a
special grammatical form to show the number.
When it is desired to show plurality it is done by
means of reduplication or the addition of suffixes, as
Japanese Korean
ihe-ihe (houses) chip-chip (houses)
hito-bito (people) saram-saram (people)
hi-bi (days) na-nar (days)
tsuki-dzuki (nionths) ta-tar (months)
In Japanese the final tachi ov.dochi denotes the
plural nCimber, as in tomo-dachi (triends), kifirdouihi

[ 22 ]
(noble's children), go-tachi (ladies), wonmxrdocM (wo-
men), inurdochi (dogs), and the Korean suffix corres-
ponding to this is teur, and it may be added both to
animate and inanimate beings :

singular. plural.
saram (man) saram-teur (people)
mar (horse) mar-temr (horses)
chhaik (book) chhaik-teur (books)
As I explained in the former chapter r and t are
interchangeable ; and if we compare the t in tati and
doti, old forms of tachi and dochi, with teur, it is by-
no means hard to see an affinity between them. In
Japanese, too, we have such words as tsure (company)
tsura (line)— words denoting plurality or multiplicity.
The Korean for tsure is tari, the same word as the
tari in hu-tari (Ja^). two persons) and mi-tori (three
persons). It was originally a plural termination, but
in the course of time, the combination hi-tori (one
person) came into existence by analogy.
(6) Gender. As in the case of number neither
language has a special form for gender. When it is
desired to define the sex, prefixes or suffixes meaning
man or woman is added.
In O. J. imo and se were used to distinguish man
and woman, as imo-hito (female person) se-hito (male
person), whence came imo-uto (younger sister) and
se-vto (later Jap. elder brother), while the compound
imo-se now means husband and wife. As I have
said, however, the original sense of imo and se was
nothing but female and male, and a brother some-
times a4<^essed his elder sister by the -name of imo.

[ 23 ]
The Korean for imo and se are am and su, but their
use is confined to animals :

so (bull or cow) am-SO (cow) SlirSO (bull)
tdrk (fowl) am-tdrk (hen) su-tark (cock)
fcai (dog or bitcb) am^kai (bitch) sw-kai (dog)
In Japanese, too, imo and se are sometimes used
to denote the sex of animals as si-ka (stag) and
me-ka (doe). Though to-day sika is the general name
for deer, formerly ka alone denoted the common
gender, e. g. ka-no-ko (the young of a deer). Some
think meuga (mioga ginger) and sheuga (ginger) are
really me-ka (female ginger) and se~ka (male ginger).
(2) The Pronoun.
(a) Personal Pronouns. It is maintained by
Prof. Miyazaki that the old form of the first person
of the Korean personal pronoun na was, like the
Japanese, a. The plural is urir—a word not unlike
the Japanese wa-re, while the second person is no in
Korean and na in O. J.
(6) Demonstrative Pronouns. In Japanese ka
(that) is applied to a thing more remote and so less
remote. The corresponding demonstrative pronouns
are keu (that near) and eho (that far), and appear to
be connected with the Japanese words, the only
difference being the reverse in the order of distance.
(c) Interrogative Pronouns. The Korean 6t
stands for the Japanese idsu in idsuykd (where) idsu-
chi (what direction) and itsu (when), and it, too, is
capable of forming compounds, as oddi (what place)
ot-cfd (how), etc. Compare :

I 24 ]
Japanese Korean
a, ware (I, we) a, uri (I, we)
na (you) no (you)
ka (that far) keu (that near)
so (that near) cho (that far)
idsu (what) ot (what)
(3) Numerals.
While Korean and Japanese are nearly related
in many respects, in numerals alone the resemblance
is so faint that Mr. Aston deems the two languages
to have separated previous to the formation of
numerals. Nevertheless in certain words relating
to the notion of number we do see some analogy.
Besides the very words kazu (Jap. number) and
kaji (Kor. kinds) we have
Japanese Korean
yoro-dsu (ten thousand) ybrO (many)
moro (various) mora (all)
mure (crowd) muri (group)
mane-shi (universal) man (many)
mina (all) man (many)
(1) Nouns derived from Verbs.
In 0. J. there were a great many nouns derived
from verbs and adjectives, though the number of
such words much diminished in later periods. In
Korean this process is still greatly at work both in
verbs and adjectives, and there is a great similarity

[ 25 ]
between the two languages in the formation of
derived words.
(a) Derived nouns ending in i. Both in Japanese
and Korean there are derived nouns ending in i :

utah-u (to sing) udahri (song)
arn^ (to knit) am-i (net)
tsuhak-u (to spit) tsuhak-i (saliva)
oh-U (to tie) oh-i (girdle)
tat (to shut) taj-i (screen)
nor (to play) nor-i (sport)
ur (to weep) urd^i (thunder)
Kor (to walk) Icor-i (street)
txm (hot) fow-i (heat)
chhiw (cold) chhiw-i (coldness)
It is unnecessary to go into further details on this
point, but I must draw the reader's attention to the
fact that in Korean there is no distinction, so far as
inflection is concerned, between adjectives and verbs,
i.e., the two parts of speech are inflected in the same
way, as the above list shows. Japanese grammar
itself had at first no distinction of adjectives and
verbs, and Korean is thought to preserve the old
(6) Derived nouns ending in mi. In Japanese
derived nouns ending in mi are derived only from
adjectives, but in Korean, they are derived from
verbs as well as from adjectives.

[ 26 ]

[ 27 ]
This form, frequent as it is now, was once even
more frequent, and words like mira-ht (seeing)
kohura-ku (love) uke-ku (what is detestable), etc.
were in existence. The corresponding termination
in Korean is ki, and it may be added alike to verbs
and adjectives :

sar (to live) sar-ki Giving)
po (to see) po-ki (appearance)
top (hot) top-ki (heat)
chkip (cold) chhip-ki (cold)
nor (to play) nor-ki (play)
mok (to eat) mok-ki (eating)
The ge added to the adjective roots as in yo-ge
(Jap. goodness), ureshi-ge (Jap. joy), etc. may also be
looked upon as a noun-forming inflection.
(2) Derived Adverbs.
In Japanese thei-e are two kinds of derived ad-
verbs. One of them is always used in conjunction
with verbs, as kohi in kohi-negahu (to hope) kaheri
in kaheri-miru (to look back). By grammarians they
are called renyo-gen (wovds co-ordinated with inflected
words), but in function they are adverbs more than
anything else. Korean also has derived adverbs end-
ing in i, which is usually affixed to adjectives :

sui (easy) sui-i (easily)
mor (far) ,mor-i (afar)
Tnan (many) man-hi (much)
kip (deep) kip-hi (deeply)
chbk (small) chok-i (little)
kat (same) kat-chi (similarly)

[ 28 ]
The second class of derived adverbs in Japanese
are those ending in ku. as yo-ku (well), chika-ku
(near), etc. In Old Japanese Uiese were not derived
from adjectives alone ; for such forms as kohura-ku
omoheba (lovingly do I think of thee) were admissible.
The corresponding termination in Korean is koi, and
it may be affixed to verbs' as well as adjectives.
kat (same) kat-koi (similarly)
man (many) man-kbi (universally)
chok (small) chok-koi Qittle)
chop (narrow) chop-koi (narrowly)
ka (to go) ka-koi (so as to go)
nira (to say) nira-kbi (so as to say)
(3) The Verb aW.
In Japanese grammar the verb ari (to be) plays an
important part : it forms the passive voice, as homer-
aru (to be praised) mir-aru (to be seen) ; the present
perfect, as yuke-ri (has gone), ose-ri (has pushed);
past auxiliary verbs, as nctrri, ta-ri, ke-ri. Also it
is employed to turn a noun into a verb, as kage-ru
(to become shady, from kage shade), une-ru (to wind,
from une ridge in the field), yado-ru (to lodge, from
yado residence), kumo-ru (to be clouded, from kumo
cloud), etc.
Precisely the same is the case with Korean. The
Korean verb corresponding to the Japanese art is ir,
but r being apt to drop or change into t, the verb has
assumed the form of i or it, and its modified form bt
has a transitive sense like the Japanese er-u (to get).

[ £9 ]
Though there are thus numerous forms of the verb
to be their origin is one and the same ir.
The Korean ir, like its Japanese counterpart ari
performs many verbal functions. The present per-
fect auxiliary verb t'&ra, past auxiliary nira, etc., are
all compounds formed by the addition of ir.
Japanese. Korean.
ari ir
tari tora
nari nira
Ir, moreover, is employed to form intransitive verbs,
the passive voice and causative verbs, as in Japanese.
(4) Transitive, Intransitive and Passive Verbs.
In Japanese the passive form of verbs may be
obtained by adding ari to the roots, as
Active. Passive.
yurm-U (to pardon) yurus-aru (to be pardoned)
homer-u (to praise) homer-aru (to be praised)
mir-u (to see) mir-aru (to be seen)
OS-U (to push) OS-aru (to be pushed)
Most of the transitive and intransitive verbs are
also formed in the same way
Intransitive. Transitive.
SUt-aru (*° <^i^ ""*) suts-u (to abandon)
has-iru (to run) has-U (to make run)
kah-aru (to change) kahrU (to change)
suw-aru (to sit) suw-u (to set)
In Korean, too, the same method is resorted to in
obtaining passive and intransitive forms of verbs,
or to turn the active into the passive voice :—

[ so ]
chap (to catch) chap-i (to be caught)
po (to see) po-i (to be seen)
na (to come out) no-i' (to put out)
ssa (to pile) ssa-i (to be piled)
sok (to deceive) sok-i (to be deceived)
chuk (to die) chuk-i (to kill)
cha (to sleep) cha-i (to put to sleep)
mbk (to eat) mbk4 (to feed)
ar (to know) aro-i (to acquaint)
Thus it will be seen that ari is an important
element in the conjugation of verbs both in Korean
and Japanese.
(5) Honorific Verbs.
In Japanese there are many classes of honorific
verbs, and the commonest of them is formed by the
addition of ari (to be) to the root of the verb, as,
tor-aru (to take), yuk-aru (to go). The second class
takes the suffix su (to do), as, tora-su (to take), yuka-
su (to go). Tora-ser-aru (to take) is the combination
of the two polite forms.
Besides these there is another class of verbs which
may be called honorific. They have the termination
hu, as, nora-hu (to tell), kakuro-hu (to hide), matsit-
ro-hu (to submit), and they may be looked upon as
a polite form of noru (to tell), kakuru (to hide),
matsuru (to worship)^ In Loo-chooan the polite
verbs are conjugated as ' h-verhs,' e. g. the honorific
of yiibunito call) is yvAa-Un ; that of tuyun (to take)
is tiiya-Mn, similar in structure to the Japanese yoba-

[ 31 ]
hu (to call) and tora-hu (to catch). Korean has all
the three classes of honorific verbs, as will be seen
in the following list.
(o) Honorific Verbs in ari.
Ordinary form.
mir-u (to see)
yuk-u (to go)
yom-U (to read)
ha-o (to do)
i-0 (to be)
po-0 (to see)
mo-O (to be far)
Polite form.
The i termination of the Korean verbs is an short-
ened form of ir, and it is, as I said, cognate with the
Japanese aru.
(6) Honorific Verbs in su.
Ordinary form.
tor-u (to take)
[ 32 ]
avA (to sit) ant-ki (to seat)
kam (to bathe) kaWrki (to cause to bathe)
nom (to overflow) mom-ki* (to cause to overflow)
From the causative verb si-ki we may infer that a
verb si (to do) existed in Old Korean.
(c) Honorific Verbs of the /^-Conjugation.
In this way the Korean and Japanese languages
not only coincide in the structure of honorific forms
but also in the practise of doubling and trebling
polite words, as kik-^, kika-su, kika-ser-aru (Jap.
to hear), hd, hd-si, hd-si-op (Kor. to do).
(6) Tense-forming Auxiliary Verbs.
In Japanese, the auxiliary verb tsu is used as the
sign of the present perfect tense, as naga-nagashi hi
wo kefu mo kurashi tsu (Another day have 1 1 ived,
a long tedious day !); sometimes ari is added to it, as
Mikaki ga hara wa kasumi kome tari (Lo ! The plain
of Mikaki the mist hath enclosed). The Korean tsu
and tari are to and tora, and though they, too, denote
Ordinary form
yobu (to call)
kakuru (to hide)

[ 33 ]
the present perfect tense, the latter by itself is used
conclusively, as ir-tora (has been).
Korean has no word exactly corresponding to the
Japanese past auxiliary verb nu, but it has the
^-termination denoting the past tense. As there is
tdra for the present perfect to, the n also has its cor-
responding form nira~a word not unlike the Japan-
ese auxiliary verb nari.
tdrk-ira It is a fowl.
tark4-t6ra It has been a fowl.
tdrk-i-nira It has been a fowl.
It is generally accepted that the Japanese past
auxiliary verb keri was derived from ki, the present
perfect auxiliary verb tari from tm, and the future
auxiliary verb meri from mu. If this is correct it
seems reasonable to infer the demonstrative auxiliary
verb nari was derived from the past auxiliary nu,
i.e. it is structually the same as the Korean nira.
To go a step farther nari is an abbreviation of
ni ari, and we may think the particle ni itself
evolved from the past auxiliary nu.
As two or more auxiliary verbs are put together
in Japanese, e. g. nir-keri, tari-keri, so in Korean
forms like to-nira are sometimes used.
(7) Negative Verbs.
In Japanese the negative auxiliary verbs nu, ne,
the adverb of prohibition na,^ the adjective norsi
(not any) and the adverb ina (no), all convey the
1. As in na-chirimidare so (Wither not, scatter not, flowers).

[ 34 ]
negative sense. The adverb anV- and the inter-
rogative pronoun nani^ (what) also have a negative
force. All these words may probably be traced to
a common origin. In Korean, negation is expressed
by ami, and the only point on which it differs from
Japanese negatives is that it is always placed before
the verb, like the Japanese na, e.g. na-yuki (go not),
na-ko (come not).
It is highly probable that all negative words were
placed before the verbs in Old Japanese, as na-yuki,
of which the modern form is yulm-na.
Japanese. Korean.
ari (is) ir (is)
ara-nu (is not) an-ir (is not)
There is another set of negative words which are
believed to be cognate : the Korean mot and the
Japanese imada. They are both adverbs meaning
not yet,' and the latter is supposed to be a shortened
form of ima-dani (even now), but as a matter of fact
it is always used in the negative sense. As an adjec-
tive it is mada-shi and as a verb mada-ku, both
signifying incompleteness. It is not hard, therefore,
to conceive the relation between imada and mot,
which are similar in sound and identical in sense.
L Ani. meya (how can it be ?) as,
Atahe naki takara to ifu tomo hitotsuki no nigoreru sake
ni ani masara meya ? (A. jewel beyond price, nay, can it
be worth a cup of sake, unrefined though it be ?)
2. As, Hana in akorde nani kaheruran? (What! Can I
return before I am sated with flowers ?)

[ 35 1
In the category of particles I include not only the
so-called teniwoha (postpositions) but all words which
by themselves are meaningless. Yet they had in-
dependent meanings at first, and if investigations
were made we should arrive at their original shapes.
Were it for the achievement of this object alone, the
comparative study of Korean and Japanese will be
highly useful.
(1) Particles denoting the Nominative Case.
In Old Japanese, nouns were often followed by the
particle i, whose sense is somewhat obscure, as Ki no
sekimori-i (this guardsman" of Ki !), ihe naru imo-i,
(My beloved at home !). In Korean, however, i is
affixed even to-day to indicate the nominative case of
mur (water) mur-i
kas (hat) kas-si
tdrk (fowl) tark-i
In Japanese i was formerly placed after the verb
to indicate the agent, as kore wo motsur^i (he who
hath it), and in Korean, we see
hdnarv-i (the person who is doing)
hWnA (the person who has done)
har-i (the person who will do)
The Japanese derived nouns tsukah-i (messenger)
samurah-i (attendant) am-i (net), etc., belong to the
same class of words, and all the kinds of i given
above are in all probability genealogically related.

[ 38 ]
Ka is a nominative particle both in Japanese and
usi (bull or cow) vsi-gg,
umi (sea) umirga
wa (I) wa-ga
SO (bull or cow) SO-ka
pata (sea) patorka
uri (I) urirka
The affinity between the two languages in this
particle, too, is unquestionable.
(2) Genitive Particles.

In Old Japanese tsu was the sign of the genitive
case, as ama-tsu-kaze (heavenly wind) niha-tsu-tori
(the bird of the yard ; chicken), .miwo-tsUrkusM
(pilots' marks), kw-da-mono (things of the tree
fruit), ke-da-mono (a thing of hair ; beast), omo-tsw-he
(about the face; surface), and in Korean also, we see
a trace of this archaic word :

Korean. Japanese.
pata-t-mur wada-tsw-mi (sea's water)
pai-tsardm funa-tsutrbito (boat-man)
(3) Particles indicating the
Instrumental Case.
In Japanese there is no special particle to indicate
the instrumental case, but in Korean ro is used for
that purpose, as

[ 37 ]
pci'irro (with or by a boat)
Vldr-eu-ro (with a horse)
X>ata-ro (from the sea)
But what seems t6 suggest the existence in Old
Japanese of some word cognate with ro is that in a
dialect of Japanese we see a peculiar use of hara
viz. fune kara yuku (to go by boat), uma kara yuku
(to go on horseback)!
The ka in kara signifies 'place' as in sumi-ka
(living-place ; abode) wo-ka (high-place ; hill), ku-ga
(land-place ; land) miya-ko (palace-place ; metropolis).
Again yori often loses its ri and we see "Tago-mo-
urayu (from Tago-no-ura)." When we consider
these facts we feel justified in separating ra from
kara and ri from yori.
To and from are opposite in sense, yet kara (from)
and gari in such compounds as tomo-gari (to the
friend's) imo-gari (to one's sweet-heart's) are ety-
mologically related. If we consider, in addition to
the above, the ro in hodo-ro (e.g. yoru no hodoro in the
night) and the ra in sakashi-ra (sakashi clever, saka-
shirra in a clever way : cunningly) we become more
and more convinced that a particle corresponding to
the Korean ro existed in early Japanese.
(4) Optative and Exclamatory Particles.
In Japanese wish is expressed by kana, kamo, etc.
1. In the Nihon Shoki the Chinese characters ]fM:'M are ren-
dered by the kana "fune kara ni yuku " and i? 01 by the kana
"fune yori." In Manny^ " Uma yori yuku."

[ 38 ]
as tanomo-shiki kana (how hopeful it is !) ideshi tsuki
kamo (Oh, the moon that rose I)
Korean has the particle ko or kona to express the
same sense, as iro-kona, which answers to the Japan-
ese aru-kana (how there is !) The analogy between
rolcona and the Japanese rokamo is remarkable.
Compare :

Japanese. Korean.
ka ko
kana kona
ro-kamo ro-kona
(5) Interrogative Particles.
. In Japanese ya and ka are the interrogative parti-
cles ; the former is joined to the conclusive base and
the latter to the adjective base, as arPya, nashi-ya ?
(Is there or is there not ?) aru-ka, naki-ka ? (Is there
or is there not ?) Korean also has ya and ka, of which
the latter is always joined to the adjective base of
the verb when it is in the future tense.

[ 89 ]
bases. I can only say whereas in Japanese zo, namu,
ya, ka, koso, are all followed by their respective
verbal bases, in Korean ya is the only particle having
si;ch a base, while in Loochooan zo and ya take their
bases, though the rule is not strictly followed in
that language.
From this fact we see that koso is youngest, zo
intermediate, and ya the oldest, while koso seems to
have evolved after Korean and Japanese became two
distinct languages.
(6) Particles denoting Contrast or Opposition.
In Japanese tomo and domo are generally regarded
as particles expressing contrast, but the mo is really
an interjection. For the particle proper to or do
Korean has to :—
Japanese. Korean.
are-do vra-to (it is but)
tare-do torai-to (it was but)
The foregoing is by no means intended to exhaust
the subject. More points of analogy may be found
in the order of words and phrases and in the forms
of idioms. Indeed the two languages are so much
alike that it is hard to find features in which they
are radically different.
This little article is, as I said in the introduction,
addressed to the general public rather than to
specialists, and my object in writing it has been to
show that the language spoken by the people of our

[ 40 ]
protectorate is a branch of our own, and they are,
therefore people related to us at least linguistically.
Moreover I have hoped, on the one hand, that my
writing may be of some help to Japanese officials and
educationists working in Korea, and on the other
hand, to increase people's interest in the comparative
study of oriental languages and in classical studies.
I have, therefore, tried to avoid technical discussion
as far as possible and to base my argument on facts
simple and plain.
I wish to conclude with expressing my hopes. The
Japanese nation has hitherto been extremely indif-
ferent to the study of Oriental languages, especially
to Korean, and it is to be greatly regretted not only
from the scientific point of view but also for more
practical considerations. If there had been better
linguistic understanding between the two nations, the
numerous political and diplomatic troubles in the
past might never have taken place. We remember
with horror how the wrath of Tai-won-kun occasioned
the murder of tens of thousands of Christians and
how it was all caused on account of an error com-
mitted by a French missionary in the use of Korean
honorific terms. Is this not a lesson for all ?
Fortunately the languages of the two countries are,
as I have tried to prove, the same in origin. When
the relation between them is made clear, each nation
will doui)tless find much of the difficulty lying in the
way of mastering the other's language has been
removed. Will the time come when perfect under-
standing is attained between the two peoples and

[ 41 ]
when mutual assimilation is possible as it was in olden
times ? I cannot but hope that the Japanese people,
high and low, will pay more attention to the matter
of languages.