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0003

ROUTLEDGE LIBRARY EDITIONS: JAPAN
AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE
JAPANESE LANGUAGE
0003

AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF
THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE
With Easy Progressive Exercises
TATUI BABA
Revised by
G.UKITA
With an introduction by
ARTHUR DIÓSY
Volume 56

LONDON AND NEW YORK
0003

First published in 1904
This edition first published in 2011
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016
This edition published in the TaORU )UDQFLVH/LEUDU\.
To purchase RXURZQFRS of this or anRI
TaORU )UDQFLVRU5RXWOHGJHVFROOHFWLRQRIWKRXVDQGVRIH%RRNV
please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 1904 Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd.
All rights reserved. No part of this book maEHUHSULQWHGRUUHSURGXFHGRU
utilised in anIRUPRUE anHOHFWURQLFPHFKDQLFDORURWKHUPHDQVQRZ
known or hereafter invented, including photocopLQJDQGUHFRUGLQJRULQDQ
information storage or retrieval sVWHPZLWKRXWSHUPLVVLRQLQZULWLQJIURPWKH
publishers.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0-203-84403-3 Master e-book ISBN
ISBN 13: 978-0-415-56498-4 (Set)
eISBN 13: 978-0-203-84317-8 (Set)
ISBN 13: 978-0-415-58836-2 (Volume 56)
eISBN 13: 978-0-203-84403-8 (Volume 56)
Publisher’s Note
The publisher has gone to great lengths to ensure the qualitRIWKLVUHSULQWEXW
points out that some imperfections in the original copies maEHDSSDUHQW.
Disclaimer
The publisher has made everHIIRUWWRWUDFHFRSright holders and would
welcome correspondence from those theKDYHEHHQXQDEOHWRWUDFH.

AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF
THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE
WITH
Easy Progressive Exercises
BY
TATUI BABA
THIRD EDITION
REVISED BY
G.UKITA,
CHANCELLOR OF THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE LEGATION IN LONDON,
HON. SECRETARY, JAPAN SOCIETY
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
ARTHUR DIÓSY, F.R.G.S.,
VICE-PRESIDENT, JAPAN SOCIETY
LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & CO. LTD.
DRYDEN HOUSE, 43, GERRARD STREET, W.
1904

LONDON: GILBERT AND RIVINGTON LTD., ST. JOHN’S HOUSE, CLERKENWELL, F.C.

TO
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE
THE LORD HOUGHTON
THE FIRST EDITION OF THIS BOOK WAS
RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY
THE AUTHOR
0003

PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION
IN revising this book, so well known to students, I have sought to avoid, as far as ma
be practicable, an radical change in its arrangement, or an serious disturbance of the
author’s main idea, whilst bringing the whole work essentiallXSWRGDWH.
But as in recent times a certain uniformitRIWUDQVOLWHUDWLRQKDVIRUWXQDWHO been agreed
upon amongst scholars, and the earlier editions of the book were produced prior to this
agreement, it is requisite to point out that whereas in the following pages
the letter is spelt it is now usuallVSHOW
and pronounced

… si … … shi

… ti … … chi

… tu … … tsu

… di … … ji

… du … … dzu or zu.
Nevertheless, owing to the facilitZKLFKLWJLYHVIRUWDEXODWLQJWKHVRXQGVDFFRUGLQJWRWKH
Go-ju On, or “fiftVllables,” method, and for the convenience of explaining inflection of
verbs, &c., it has been deemed advantageous to retain the old form of spelling in the bod
of the work.
G.UKITA.
LONDON,
October, 1904.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
WHEN this book was published in 1873, the object was twofold. The first was to protest
against an idea entertained bVRPHRIP countrPHQWKDWWKH-DSDQHVHODQJXDJHLVYHU
imperfect, and therefore it must be exterminated. This idea, however, appears to have been
given up as altogether preposterous and extravagant. The second was to give a general idea
of the Japanese language as it is spoken. Maturer thought suggests to me some alterations,
but I found that no material change is necessary, I have added several new Exercises which
I deemed advisable; and trusting that in its new form it will prove acceptable, I have the
pleasure of submitting a second edition of the work.
THE AUTHOR.
NEW YORK,
January, 1888.

INTRODUCTION
IF the proof of the pudding be, proverbially, in the eating, the test of an “Elementar
Grammar” un-doubtedl lies in the practical results achieved b the stud of its pages.
In wishing success to this new edition of Baba’s Elementary Grammar of the Japanese
Language, revised b m friend Mr. G.Ukita, I venture to give what ma be considered
a striking instance of the benefit derived b an earnest student of this useful work in the
form in which it was originallSXEOLVKHG UVWHGLWLRQ $VWKHVWXGHQWKDSSHQHGWR
be mVHOI,ZRXOGUDWKHUOHDYHWKHQDUUDWLRQRIWKHLQFLGHQWWRDQRWKHUVSHQDQGWKHUHIRUH
reproduce the following extract from a biographical sketch in a London weekl review,
The World, of 26th February, 1902. Describing mHDUO efforts to learn Japanese bVHOI-
tuition, the author of that article wrote:—
“What progress he made in acquiring that most difficult language maEHJDWKHUHGIURP
what happened in 1876, when he found himself one night at the LFHXPLQWKHQH[WVWDOO
to a Japanese gentleman. The opportunitZDVWRRJRRGWREHORVWDQGLQDQLQWHUYDORIWKH
pla the RXQJ student, with a beating heart and blushing cheeks, addressed a remark in
Japanese to his neighbour, who, not catching the tremulous accents ver clearly, replied
in English, ‘I beg RXU pardon?’ Mr. Diós repeated his remark, whereupon the other in
amazement exclaimed, ‘WhWKDWV-DSDQHVH,QWKHHQVXLQJFRQYHUVDWLRQVWLOOFDUULHGRQ
in Japanese, the Oriental asked Mr. DiósKRZORQJKHKDGEHHQLQ-DSDQDQGFRXOGKDUGO
believe that, at that time, he had never been there. Mr. DiósH[SODLQHGKHKDGFKLH learnt
from Baba’s Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language, and, with the deep-drawn
breath wherewith Japanese express surprise and pleasure, his neighbour answered, ‘ I am
Baba!’”
Trul a remarkable meeting, for I do not suppose it has often been given to a self-
taught student, making his first attempt to speak the language he is acquiring to a native, to
address, unwittingly, the author of the Grammar over which he has been poring. The ver
strangeness of the fact that he was the first Japanese to whom I spoke in the language I had
studied from his pages, and the mutual gratification at finding that studVXIFLHQWWRHQDEOH
me to converse in his native tongue, caused a warm friendship to spring up that lasted until
the death, in the prime of manhood, of the accomplished, warm-hearted, high-spirited,
rather waZDUGDQGLPSHWXRXVJUHDWO-gifted BABA Tatui. *
* In Japanese, the familQDPHFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRRXUVXUQDPHFRPHV before the personal appellation
answering to our Christian name. Here, “Baba” is the famil name and “Tatui” the personal, or
given, name (pronounced Tatsui, as explained in the Preface to this Revised Edition).

Introduction ix

To his simple, lucid attempt to present the essentials of the grammar of his language,
shorn of the serious difficulties that usuallDSSDOWKHEHJLQQHU,IRURQHDPGHHSO indebted.
In slight token of gratitude, and in memorRIDGHDUIULHQG,ZULWHWKHVHIHZOLQHVZLVKLQJ
ever student of his work as much delight as I have derived from the knowledge it has
placed within mUHDFK.
ARTHUR DIÓSY.
London, October, 1904.

JAPANESE GRAMMAR
I. THE ALPHABET, OR THE IROHA.
THE letters used in Japanese are fortHLJKW7KH have two different forms, one of which
is called Kata-kana, and the other Hirakana . We give the Katakana, as under:—

These letters are called in Japanese:—
i ro ha ni ho he to ti ri nu ru wo wa ka yo ta
re so tu ne na, ra mu u i no o ku ya ma ke fu
ko ye te a sa ki yu me mi si e hi mo se zu n.
The whole sVWHPRIWKHOHWWHUVLVFDOOHG,URKDIURP
the names of these first three
letters.
2. THE VOWELS.
Of the above fortHLJKW five
are vowels; the sounds of these five
letters are as follows:—
a
has the sound of a in master, or mama.
i
„ „ i in inland.
u
„ „ u in queen.

2 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
e
„ „ e in echo.
o
„ „ o in month.
The rest of the letters are arranged according to these five vowels, as follows:— *

a
i
u
e
o

ka
ki
ku
ke
ko

sa
si
su
se
so

ta
ti
tu
te
to

na
ni
nu
ne
no

ha
hi
fu
he
ho

ma
mi
mu
me
mo

ya
yi
yu
ye
yo

ra
ri
ru
re
ro

wa
wi
wu
we
wo

When the sign
or
is marked on the head of a letter, as
or
it changes its sound;

(ka) becomes
(ga), and
(ha),
(pa), These changes will be seen in the following
table:—

ga
gi
gu
ge
go

za
zi
zu
ze
zo

da
di
du
de
do

ba
bi
bu
be
bo

pa
pi
pu
pe
po

* The above arrangement is called Go-ju-on or fift sOODEOHV It will be observed that the n of the
Iroha is an addition, whereas the yi, ye, and wu in this table have been inserted to fill up the breaks
in the series.

Japanese Grammar 3

e and
ye,
i and
wi,
o and
wo, are distinguished bDQFLHQWXVDJHEXWDW
the present time the distinction is no longer observed.
Most Japanese pronounce
di and
zi,
du and
zu, almost alike, although,
properlVSHDNLQJWKHUHDUHVOLJKWGLIIHUHQFHVEHWZHHQWKHP.
II. THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
Words are divided into eight classes, that is, parts of speech—Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns,
Verbs, Adverbs, Postpositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections.
Note —There is nothing in Japanese to answer to the English Articles, definite or
indefinite.
OF NOUNS.
A Noun is the name of anSHUVRQSODFHRUWKLQJDV niwa, garden; Nippon, Japan.
Nouns are either Proper or Common:—
1. A Proper Noun is the name of an particular person, place, or thing, as Yokohama,
Kosi.
2. A Common Noun is a name given in common to everWKLQJ of the same kind, as
tukuye, table.
Nouns are varied by number and gender.
Of Number.
There are two numbers, the Singular and the Plural.
In Japanese, nouns change their forms in a few cases; generall the have the same
forms, both in the plural and singular, But when the change their forms the plural is
rendered by adding domo, gata, or ra to the singular; as ko, child; danna, gentleman;
shosei, student, in the singular; and kodomo, dannagata, shoseira, in the plural.
The number of nouns generallDUHGLVWLQJXLVKHGE numeral adjectives; as, hito hitori,
one person; hito futari, two persons.
Of Gender.
Nouns have three genders—the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
The masculine denotes the male sex; as, otoko, man. The feminine denotes the female
sex; as onna, woman. The neuter denotes whatever is without sex; as, yuma, mountain.
There are two different waVRIGLVWLQJXLVKLQJWKHVH[—
1. BGLIIHUHQWZRUGVDV—

Masculine. Feminine.
otoko, man. onna, woman.
teishu, husband. niyobo, wife.
sō, monk. ama, nun.

4 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

yamome, widower. goke, widow.
segare, son. musume, daughter.
titi, father. haha, mother.
oji, uncle. oba, aunt.
oi, nephew. mei, niece.
hana muko, bridegroom. hana yome, bride.
danna, gentleman. fuzin, lady.
2. BSUH[LQJDQRWKHUZRUGDV—

Masculine. Feminine.
otoko no ko, male child. onna no ko, female child.
on-tori, male bird. men-tori, female bird.
Tei, Emperor. Niyo-tei, Empress.
Ō, King. NiR, Queen.
Of Case.
There are three cases; namely, the Nominative, Possessive, and Objective.
The nominative is rendered by placing the sign wa, ga, or mo after nouns; as, otoko ga
or wa, mo, ikimasu, man goes.
The possessive is formed bSXWWLQJWKHVLJQ no after nouns; as, otoko no kimono, man’s dress.
The objective is rendered bWKHVLJQ wo, ni, or ga—Otoko ga onna wo utimasita, A man
has beaten a woman. In the potential mood, ga is used as a sign of the objective case.
Note —The signs of the nominative, wa and mo are used in opposition to each other. When
two things or persons do the same actions, mo is used; as, Onna mo otoko mo ikimasu, Both
man and woman go. But when the do some different actions, wa is used; as, Onna wa
kayeri-masu ga (but) otoko wa orimasu, Woman goes away, but man staV.
Ga is sometimes used in an emphatic sentence; as, Watakusi ga simasita, I have done it.
Ni, the sign of the objective case, answers to the dative in Latin; and in English it ma
be translated into “to” or “for;” as Kane wo otoko ni yare, Give money to the man.
OF ADJECTIVES.
An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun.
Adjectives have three degrees of comparison—the Positive, Comparative, and
Superlative.
The comparative is formed bSODFLQJ yori or yorimo (more than) before the positive;
as, yori yoi, better; and the superlative bSXWWLQJWKHZRUGV ichi ban, or mottomo, before
the positive; as, iti ban, or mottomo yoi, best.
There are three kinds of adjectives, namely, qualificative, quantitative, and
demonstrative:—
1. Qualificative adjectives express the qualitDV kireina shomotu, fine books.
2. Quantitative adjectives express the quantitDV takusanna shomotu, manERRNV.
3. Demonstrative adjectives serve to point out; as, kono shomotu, this book; sono
shomotu, that book.

Japanese Grammar 5

OF PRONOUNS.
A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun. There are three kinds of pronouns—Personal,
Interrogative, and Demonstrative.
Note —Relative Pronouns are not used in conversation.
1. Personal Pronouns are used to represent the three persons, namely, first, second, and
third person. The have numbers and cases, but the are applied both to feminine and
masculine without distinction.
The whole of the personal pronouns in their simple forms maEHUHSUHVHQWHGWKXV—
First Person. Second Person. Third Person.
Singular watakusi, anata, are, or kare.
Plural… watakusi domo, anata-gata, are-ra, or kare-ra.
The cases are rendered by placing ni, no, and the other particles after pronouns, as in cases
of watakusi ga, or wa, I; watakusi ni, me.
Are and arera are seldom used in conversation. Generall the names of persons are
repeated, or else demonstrative adjectives and hito or okata (person) are used; as, Kono
okata ga ikimasu, This person goes.
2. Interrogative Pronouns are used to ask questions.
There are three kinds of interrogative pronouns— dare, which is applied to persons;
nani, which is applied to things, or inferior animals; and dore, which is used when a choice
is expressed.
The cases are rendered by the particles no, ni, wa, and the others as in case of a noun.
Examples:— Sokoni dare ga imasu ka ? Who is there? Sokoni nani ga imasu ka ? What is
there? Dore wo anata wa torimasu ka ? Which do RXWDNH?
Note —When anTXHVWLRQLVDVNHGWKHVLJQ ka is alwaVSXWDWWKHHQGRIWKHVHQWHQFH.
3. Demonstrative Pronouns serve to point out the object spoken of.
There are two kinds of demonstrative pronouns, namely, kore and sore, which
correspond to “this” and “that” in English. TheKDYHFDVHVZKLFKDUHUHQGHUHGOLNHFDVHV
of a noun: theKDYHWKHVDPHIRUPVERWKLQWKHSOXUDODQGVLQJXODU([DPSOHV.RUH wo
ō-torinasare, Take this; Watakusi ni sore wo kudasare, Give me that.
OF VERBS.
A Verb is a word used to express existence or action. Verbs are of three kinds—Active,
Passive, and Neuter.
1. An Active Verb expresses action passing from an actor to some object; as, Watakusi
wa shomotu wo mimasu, I see or read a book.
2. A Passive Verb expresses the suffering of an action performed bDQRWKHUDV Watakusi
wa hito ni * miraremasu, I am seen bSHRSOH.

* Here ni means ‘bLQ(QJOLVK.

6 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
3. A Neuter Verb is neither active nor passive; it expresses existence, condition of being,
and action limited to the actor; as, Watakusi wa nemurimasu, I sleep.
INFLECTION OF VERBS.
Verbs are inflected to express voices, moods, and tenses. There are three kinds of Japanese
verbs—first, utu, to strike; second, nageru, to throw; third, suru, to do, or make.
1. Active Voice .
When the verbs are used in conversation, u of the verbs of the first kind is substituted b i,
and masu in an affirmative sentence, or masen in a negative sentence is added, as utimasu
or utimasen; ru of that of the second is taken away, and masu or masen is put, as nagemasu
or nagemasen; uru of that of the third is substituted b i, and masu or masen is added, as
simasu or simasen .
2. Passive Voice .
In the case of passive voices, u of the verb of the first kind is substituted b are, and masu
or masen; as, Utare masu, Are or is beaten. This rule applies to the verbs of the second
kind; as, Nagerare masu, Is or are thrown down. Uru of that of the third kind is substituted
by erare, and masu or masen is added; as, Kerai ni serare masu, He is, or theDUHPDGH
a servant or servants.
Of Moods.
Verbs have five moods—the Indicative, Potential, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive.
1. The Indicative Mood is the simple affirmation of a fact; as, Watakusi ga mimasu, I
see (it).
2. The Potential Mood expresses the power of doing an action; as, Watakusi wa sore ga
miHPDVXRU Watakusi wa sore wo miru koto ga dekimasu, I can see it or that.
3. The Subjunctive Mood represents a thing under a condition, and is preceded b a
conjunction (mosi), and followed bDQRWKHUFRQMXQFWLRQ( nara or naraba ); as, Moshi anata
ga ikimasu nara, If RXJR6RPHWLPHVWKHZRUG mosi is omitted; as, Anata ga ikimasu nara,
If RXJR.
4. The Imperative Mood commands or entreats, as, Miyo or Mite-kudasare, See, or Pra
see.
5. The Infinitive Mood expresses an action without regard to persons or numbers; as,
Miru koto, To see.
Of Tenses.
Verbs have three tenses—the Present, the Past, and the Future.
1. The Present Tense expresses what is going on at present; as, Watakusi ga RPLPDVX
I read, or am reading.
2. The Past Tense represents an action as finished; as, Watakusi wa kono shomotu wo
RPLPDVLWD,KDYHUHDGRU,UHDGWKLVERRN.

Japanese Grammar 7
3. The Future Tense represents an action which is HW to be done; as, Watakusi wa
RPLPDVKR,VKDOOUHDG.
CONJUGATION OF VERBS.
Verbs are divided into three classes. These are distinguished b the termination of the
present infinitive. The first ends in u, as sukhu, to like; the second ends in ru, as kangayeru,
to think; the third ends in uru, as suru, to make.
Conjugation of Regular Verbs.
First Conjugation ending in U— Iku, To go.
Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.
Watakusi wa ik-imasu, I go. Watakusi domo wa ik-imasu, we go.
Anata wa ik-imasu, you go.
Are wa ik-imasu, he or she goes. Anatagata wa ik-imasu, you go.
Arera wa ik-imasu, they go.
Past Tense.
Watakusi wa ik-imasita, I went or
have gone.
Watakusi domo wa ik-imasita, we
went.
Anata wa ik-imasita, RXZHQWRU
have gone.
Anatagata wa ik-imasita, RXZHQW.
Are wa ik-imasita, he went, or has gone. Arera wa ik-imasita, theZHQW.
Future Tense.
Watakusi wa ik-imasho, I shall go. Watakusi domo wa ik-imasho, we
shall go.
Anata wa ik-imasho, RXZLOOJR. Anatagata wa ik-imasho, RXZLOOJR.
Are wa ik-imasho, he or she will go. Arera wa ik-imasho, theZLOOJR.
Potential Mood.

Present Tense.
Watakusi wa ik-emasu, I can go. Watakusi domo wa ik-emasu, we can go.
Anata wa ik-emasu, you can go. Anatagata wa ik-emasu, you can go.
Are wa ik-emasu, he can go. Arera wa ik-emasu, they can go.
Past Tense.
Watakusi wa ik-emasita, I could go. Watakusi domo wa ik-emasita, we
could go.
Anata, wa ik-emasita, you could go. Anatagata waik-emasita, you could go.
Are wa ik-emasita, he could go. Arera wa ik-emasita, they could go.

8 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

Future Tense.
Watakusi wa ik-emasho, I shall be
able to go.
Watakusi domo wa ik-emasho, we
shall be able
to go.
Anata wa ik-emasho, RXZLOOEHDEOH
to go.
Anatagata wa ik-emasho, RXZLOO
be able to go.
Are wa ik-emasho, he will be able to
go.
Arera wa ik-emasho, theZLOOEH
able to go.
Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.
Mosi watakusi ga ik-imasu nara, if
I go.
Mosi watakusi domo ga, ikimasu
nara, if we go.
Mosi anata, ga ik-imasu nara, if RX
go.
Mosi anatagata, ga ik-imasu nara,
if RXJR.
Mosi are ga ik-imasu nara, if he or
she go.
Mosi arera ga ik-imasu nara, if the
go.

Past Tense.
Mosi watakusi ga ik-imasita nara, if I
went, or have gone.
Mosi watakusi domo ga ikimasita
nara, if we went, or have gone.
Mosi anata ga ik-imasita nara, if RX
went, or have gone.
Mosi anatagata, ga ik-imasita, nara,
if RXZHQWRUKDYHJRQH.
Mosi are ga ik-imasita nara, if he
went, or has gone.
Mosi arera ga ik-imasita nara, if
theZHQWRUKDYHJRQH.
Imperative Mood.
Command…. Ike,


I-tte-okure, Go.
Entreaty…. I-tte-kudasare,
Infinitive Mood.
Iku koto, To go.
The same form of verbs is used for all the persons, singular or plural; so, hereafter , the
verbs for the first persons onlZLOOEHUHSHDWHG.
Second Conjugation ending in RU—Miru, to see.
Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.
1. Watakusi wa mi-masu, I see. 1. Watakusi domo wa mimasu, we see.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .

Japanese Grammar 9

Past Tense.
1. Watakusi wa mi-masita, I saw, or
have seen.
1. Watakusi domo wa mi-masita, we
saw, or have seen.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .

Future Tense.
1. Watakusi wa mi-masho, I shall see. 1. Watakusidomo wa mi-ma-sho, we
shall see.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Potential Mood.

Present Tense.
1. Watakusi wa miru koto ga,
dekimasu, I can see.
1. Watakusi domo wa miru koto ga
dekimasu, we can see.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Past Tense.
1. Watakusi wa miru koto ga
dekimasita, I could see.
1. Watakusi domo wa miru koto ga,
dekimasita, we could see.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Future Tense.
1. Watakusi wa miru koto ga
dekimasho, I shall be able to see.
1. Watakusi domo wa miru koto ga
dekimasho, we shall be able to see.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.
1. Mosi watakusi ga mimasu nara, if
I see.
1. Mosi watakusi domo ga mimasu
nara, if we see.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .

Past Tense.
1. Mosi watakusi ga mimasita nara, if
I saw, or have seen.
1. Mosi watakusi domo ga mimasita
nara, if we saw, or have seen.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .

10 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
Imperative Mood.
Command…. Miyo,


Mi-te-okure, See.
Entreaty… Mi-te-kudasare,
Infinitive Mood.
Miru koto, to see.
Conjugation of Third Verb— Kuru, to come.
Indicative Mood.

Past Tense.
1. Watakusi wa kimasita, I came.1. Watakusi domo wa kimasita, we
came.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Future Tense.
1. Watakusi wa kimasho, I shall come. 1. Watakusi domo wa kimasho, we
shall come.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Potential Mood.

Present Tense.
1. Watakusi wa kuru koto ga
dekimasu, I can come.
1. Watakusi domo wa kuru koto ga
dekimasu, we can come.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Past Tense.
1. Watakusi wa kuru koto ga
dekimasita, I could come.
1. Watakusi domo wa kuru koto ga
dekimasita, we could come.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Future Tense.
1. Watakusi wa kuru koto ga
dekimasho, I shall be able to come.
1, Watakusi domo wa kuru koto
ga dekimasho, we shall be able to
come.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .

Japanese Grammar 11
Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.
1. Mosi watakusi ga kimasu nara, if
I come.
1. Mosi watakusi domo ga kimasu
nara, if we come.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Past Tense.
1. Mosi watakusi ga kimasita nara, if
I came.
1. Mosi watakusi domo ga kimasita
nara, if we came.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Imperative Mood.
Command…. Kitare,

Entreaty…
Ki-te-okure, Come.
Ki-te-kudasare,
Infinitive Mood.
Kuru koto, to come.
The Verb used Negatively.
Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.
1. Watakusi wa ikimasen, I do not go. 1. Watakusi domo wa iki-masen, we
do not go.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Past Tense.
1. Watakusi wa ikimasen-anda, I did
not go.
1. Watakusi domo wa ikima-
senanda, we did not go.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Future Tense.
1. Watakusi waikimasumai, I shall
not go.
1. Watakusi domo wa ikimasumai,
we shall not go.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .

12 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
Potential Mood.

Present Tense.
1. Watakusi wa ikemasen, * I cannot
go.
1. Watakusi domo wa ikemasen, we
cannot go.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .

Past Tense.
1. Watakusi wa ikemasen-anda, I
could not go.
1. Watakusi domo wa ikemasenanda,
we could not go.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Future Tense.
1. Watakusi wa ikemasumai, I shall
not be able to go.
1. Watakusi domowa ikemasumai,
we shall not be able to go.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.
1. Mosi watakusi ga ikimasen nara, if
I do not go.
1. Mosi watakusi domo ga ikimasen
nara, if we do not go.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Past Tense.
1. Mosi watakusi ga ikimasenanda
nara, if I did not go.
1. Mosi watakusi ga ikimasenanda
nara, if we did not go.
2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .
3. . . . . . 3. . . . . .
Imperative Mood.
Command…
Iku-na,

Do not go. Entreaty…. I-tte-kudasaruna,
OF ADVERBS.
An Adverb is a word which qualifies a verb, an adjective, or other adverb; as, kono kodomo
wa shomotu wo RNX yomimasu, These children read books well.

* There is another form of potential mood— iku koto ga dekimasen .

Japanese Grammar 13

Adverbs maEHGLYLGHGLQWRWKHIROORZLQJVL[FODVVHV—
1. Adverbs of time— ima, now; hayaku, quickl sudeni, already; konniti, to-day; miyo-
niti, to-morrow; and others.
2. Adverbs of place— sokoni, there; kokoni, here; tikaku, nearly, &c.
3. Adverbs of qualitDV yoku, well; kireini, beautifull kitaini, wonderfully, &c.
4. Adverbs of quantitVXNRVLOLWWOH takusan, much.
5. Adverbs of sequence or order—dai-ittini, firstl dai-nini, secondly.
6. Adverbs of mood—saRMXVWVR hai, yes; zituni, truly; īH, no, &c.
OF POSTPOSITIONS.
A Postposition is a word put, in Japanese, after nouns and pronouns, to show the relation
between them; as, Watakusi wa Nippon kara France ni ikimasu, I go from Japan to France.
A List of Postpositions.
Tameni, for; wuyeni, above; atoni, after; utini, within, or in; mayeni or mayewo, before;
aidani, between; sitani, below; hokani, out of, or without; tikani, near; hōni, toward. (These
are used with the article no; as, iye no uchini, in the house; kuni no tameni, for the country,
or for the sake of the country.— Made, into, or to; mukatte, against; oite, in. (These are used
with ni; as, London ni made, to London.)— Koyete, beyond; han arete, off; mikete or tōsite,
through. (With wo; as, mado wo nukete, through the window.)— Kara, from; ni or ye, to;
made, into; to, witht; nasini, without:—without an additional word; as, London kara,
from London; kono tokoro ni, in this place.
OF CONJUNCTIONS.
A Conjunction is a word which joins words and sentences together; as, Watakusi to kono ko
ga Asakusa ye ikimasu, I and this child go to Asakusa.
There are two kinds of conjunctions, namely, copulative and disjunctive.
1. Copulative conjunctions are— momata, also; to, and; kara, since; naraba or nara, if;
dakara, therefore, &c.
2. Disjunctive conjunctions are— keredomo, although; ga, but; sikasi, yet; aruiwa or
matawa, or; yorimo, than, &c.
OF INTERJECTIONS.
An Interjection expressess some sudden wish or emotion of the mind; as, Ā do itasimasho,
Ah! what shall I do?
The principal interjections are— Ō, Ā, Ha-hā, Nasakenai, ODRa, Are, Naruhodo, &c .
SYNTAX.
There are two kinds of sentences—simple and compound.
1. A simple sentence; as, Kono hito wa kasikō gozarimasu, He is clever.
2. A compound sentence; as, Kono hito wa kasiko gozarimasu keredomo hatarakimasen,
He is clever, but he does not work.

14 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

RULES.
I. A verb must be put after its object; as, Watakusi we hana wo konomimasu, I like
flowers.
In this sentence the object hana is placed before the predicate konomimasu .
II. Prepositions are placed after nouns which theJRYHUQDQGZKLFKDUHVDLGWREHLQWKH
objective case; as, Watakusi wa Tokio H mairimasu, I go to Tokio.
III. When two or more nouns or pronouns are coupled with to (and), the signs of cases
are put after the last nominative; as, Watakusi to anata ga, ikimasu, I and you go.
IV. When two or more nouns or pronouns are connected b matawa (or), the particle
ka is put immediatel after the nouns or pronouns; as, Watakusi ka matawa anata ka ga
mairimasu, I or you go.
V. Conjunctions couple the same tenses of verbs; as, Watakusi wa sore wo sukimasu
keredomo kore wo kiraimasu, I like that, but (I) do not like or dislike this.
Conjunctions couple the same cases of nouns and pronouns; as, Watakusi to anata ga
ikimasu, I and you go.
VI. One verb governs another in the infinitive mood; as, Watakusi wa sake wo nomu koto
wo konomimasen, I do not like to drink saké, or spirit of rice.
When the verbs in the infinitive mood are governed by an active verb, or used as nouns,
the signs of cases, ga, wa, or wo, are added to the simple forms of the verbs in the infinitive
mood; as, nomu koto wa, or nomu koto wo, to drink. But when the verbs in the infinitive
mood are governed bDQHXWHUYHUE u of the verb of the first kind, and uru of that of the third
kind are taken away, and i and ni are added; in the case of the verbs of the second kind, ru
is substituted by ni; as, Watakusi wa mini, or asobini ikimasu, I go to see (something), or to
amuse mVHOI+HUH u of asobu and ru of miru are taken away, and i and ni, or ni, is put.
VII. When two nouns, or one pronoun and a noun come together, one signifLQJDSRVVHVVRU
and the other a thing possessed, the former is put in the possessive case; as, Yamasiroya no
shomotu, YamasiroDVERRNRU Anata no shomotu, Your book.
VIII. When the verb gozarimasu or arimasu (“is” or “are”) is used, a noun or pronoun
which comes immediatelEHIRUHWKHYHUEVUHTXLUHVWKHZRUG de after it; as, Watakusi wa
Yamatoya de gozarimasu, I am (Mr.) YamatoD.
IX. Sentences which implFRQWLQJHQF and futuritUHTXLUHWKHVXEMXQFWLYHPRRGDV
Mosi watakusi ga mairimasu nara, or Mosi watakusi ga mairimasho nara, Watakusi ga sore
wo mimasho, If I go (there), I shall see that.
X. Some conjunctions have their correspondent conjunctions; thus, to (and) is sometimes
repeated after each noun or pronoun; as, Watakusi to anata to ga ikimasu, I and you go.
Mosi … … nara or naraba, if.
Tatoye … … nisiro or sitemo, though.
Nazenareba … … kara, because.
XI. When the verbs in the infinitive mood are used as nouns, theUHTXLUHWKHVLJQVRIWKH
case; as, Niti ya watakusi no suwatte-iru koto ga yamai no moto de gozarimasu, My sitting
daDQGQLJKWLVWKHFDXVHRIP illness.

Japanese Grammar 15

XII. Relative pronouns are generall omitted in conversation; as, Sore wa, watakusi
ga kosirayemasita hako de gozarimasu, or Watakusi ga kosirayemasita hako wa sore de
gozarimasu, That is a box which I have made. Here the relative pronoun tokorono (“which”
or “that”) ought to be put between the verb kosiraye-masita and the object hako; but in
conversation tokorono is not used.
XIII. Adverbs are placed before adjectives and verbs; as, Sore wa hanahada 
gozarimasu, That is very good; and Watakusi wa haDNX mairimasho, I shall go quickly.
XIV. When nouns or pronouns are compared with each other, a noun or pronoun which
comes directlEHIRUHWKHZRUG yori or yorimo (“than”) does not require the sign of case;
as, Anata wa watakusi RUL takō gozarimasu, You are taller than I.
XV. After the names of places, ye corresponds in English to “to”; Watakusi wa Tokio ye
ikimasu, I go to Tokio. Ni corresponds to “in” or “at”; as, Watakusi wa Asakusa ni or Tokio
ni orimasu, I live at Asakusa or in Tokio.
XVI. Adjectives for the most part are placed before nouns, but numeral adjectives ma
be placed after nouns as well as before them; as, hito san nin or san nin no hito, three
persons. When numeral adjectives are applied to persons, nin must be added; and when
theDUHSODFHGEHIRUHQRXQV no must be put after nin; as, san nin no hito . There are other
words applied to point out the numbers of beasts, birds, trees, &c.
Table.
Hiki, piki, or biki is used for quadrupeds:—

itt-piki, one horse.
Uma ni-hiki, two horses.
san-biki, three horses.
Generally, hiki is used for all the numbers except 10, 20, 30, up to 100, for which piki is
used merel for the sake of pronunciation. Biki for three, and thousands; as, zitt piki no
uma, 10 horses; ni sen biki no uma, 2,000 horses.
Pa, wa, or ba, is used for birds:—

iti wa, one bird.
Tori ni, wa, two birds.
san ba, three birds.
Wa is used generally; pa is for 10, 20, 30, &c.; up to 100. ba for 3, and 1,000, 2,000, &c.
Pon, hon, or bon is used for a number of trees or plants:—

itt-pon, one tree.
Ki ni-hon, two trees.
saw bon, three trees.
Hon is of general use; pon for 10, 20, 30, &c.; bon for 3 and 1,000; as, Watakusi wa
konnichi tori san ba, or (san ba no tori) to san nin no hito, or hito san nin to uma san biki,

16 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

or san biki no uma to sanbon no ki, or ki sanbon wo mimasita, I have seen to-day three birds
and three persons, and three horses, and three trees.
XVII. Are or arera, the personal pronouns of the third person, are seldom used; generall
the demonstrative adjectives kono (this), or sono (that), and the nouns hito or okata (person),
are used instead; as, Watakusi wa kono okata wo sakuzitu mimasita, I have seen him (or this
person) HVWHUGD\.
XVIII. When anDGMHFWLYHTXDOLHVDQRXQZKLFKLVXQGHUVWRRGWKHDGMHFWLYHFKDQJHV
its termination, as follows:—
Adjectives ending na, such as kireina, ōkina, &c., change their terminations into ni, or de.
Kore wa kireina niwa de gozarimasu, It is a beautiful garden.
Kono niwa wa kireini gozarimasu, That garden is a beautiful (one).
Kireina, kireini, beautiful, fine.
Akirakana, akirakani, clear, bright.
Attakana, attakani, warm.
Wazukana, wazukani, or wazukade, little, few.
Takusanna, takusanni, much, many.
Ōkina, ōkini, ōkiwu, large tall.
Adjectives ending in ai or oi change their terminations into long ō:
Kore wa katai isi de gozarimasu, This is a hard stone.
Kono isi wa katō gozarimasu, This stone is a hard (one).
Katai, katō, hard.
Takai, takō, dear in price, or tall.
HaDLKDō, quick.
Yowai, RZ, weak.
&c.
Kono ko wa kasikō gazarimasu, This child is a wise (one).
Kasikoi, kasikō, wise, clever.
Tattoi, tattō, precious, worthy.
Tuwoi, tuwō, strong.
Towoi, towō, far.
Those ending in si change their terminations into shu:
Kono samusa wa kibishu gozarimasu, This winter, or cold, is a severe (one).
Kibisī, kibishu, severe.
Atarasī, atarashu, new.
Tadasī, tadashu, right.
Osorosī, Osoroshu, fearful, horrible.
Otokorasī, otokorashu, manly.
&c.
There are a few exceptions:—Numerical adjectives do not change their terminations, but
de must be put after them; as, Watakusi domo wa sannin de gozarimasu, We are there.

JAPANESE AND ENGLISH EXERCISES.
I.

Watakusi no, my. Segare, son.
Anata no, your. Tomodati, friend.
Kiodai, brother. Musume, daughter, girl.
To, and.
1. Watakusi no kiodai . 2. Anata, no tomodati . 3. Watakusi no kiodai to anata no tomodati .
II.
1. MGDXJKWHU<RXUIULHQG<RXUVRQDQGP brother.
III.

Kireina,*kireini, beautiful. Gozarimasu, is, or are.
Sinsetuna, sinsetuni, kind.
1. Sinsetuna tomodati . 2. Kireina musume . 3. Watakusi no tomodati wa sinsetuni gozarimasu .
4. Anata no musume wa kireini gozarimasu . 5. Anata no kiodai wa watakusi no tomodati
de gozarimasu .
IV.
1. A beautiful girl. 2. Your son is kind. 3. Your daughter is beautiful. 4. MIULHQGLVNLQG
5. A kind friend.
V.

Watakusi domo no, our. Anata gata no, your.
1. Watakusi domo no tomodati . 2. Anatàgata no kiodai . 3. Watakusi domo no tomodati wa
sinsetuni gozarimasu . 4. Anatagata no musume wa kireini gozarimasu . 5. Watakusi domo
no kiodai wa sinsetuni gozarimasu .
VI.
1. Our friend. 2. Your daughter. 3. Your daughter is beautiful. 4. Our friend is kind. 5. Your
brother is kind.
* See Rule XVIII.

18 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
VII.

Kono, this, these. Sono, that, those.
1. Kono musume . 2. Sono tomodati . 3. Sono musume wa kireini gozarimasu . 4. Kono
tomodati wa sinsetuni gozarimasu . 5. Kono segare wa sinsetuni gozarimasu . 6. Sono
sinsetuna tomodati . 7. Kono kireina musume .
VIII.
1. That son. 2. This friend. 3. This girl is beautiful. 4. That brother is kind. 5. This friend is
kind. 6. That beautiful girl. 7. This kind friend.
IX.

Watakusi wa, I. Motteimasu, has, or have.
Anata wa, you.
1. Watakusi wa kiodai wo motteimasu . 2. Watakusi wa musume wo mottiemasu . 3. Anata
wa sinsetuna tomodati wo motteimasu . 4. Watakusi no tomodati wa kireina musume wo
motteimasu . 5. Anata no kiodai wa kireina musume wo motteimasu . 6. Kono musume wa
sinsetuna tomodati wo motteimasu . 7. Sono tomodati wa sinsetuna kiodai wo motteimasu .
X.
1. MEURWKHUKDVDEHDXWLIXOGDXJKWHU<RXUIULHQGKDVDNLQGEURWKHU7KDWJLUOKDV
a kind brother. 4. I have a beautiful daughter. 5. You have kind brothers. 6. I have kind
friends. 7. That beautiful girl has a kind brother.
XI.

Ōkina, ōkiwu, large. Tisai, tisana, tisou, *
small, or little.
Shomotu, book.
1. Watakusi no shomotu wa ōkiwu gozarimasu . 2. Anata no shomotu wa tisou gozarimasu .
3. Watakusi no kiodai wa ōkina shomotu wo motteimasu . 4. Anata no tomodati wa tisana
shomotu wo motteimasu . 5. Watakusi no tomodati no shomotu wa ōkiwu gozarimasu . 6.
Anata no kiodai wa ōkina shomotu wo motteimasu . 7. Watakusi no tisana segare ga sono
ōkina shomotu wo motteimasu . 8. Anata no ōkina kiodai wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu .
XII.
1. MERRNLVVPDOO<RXUERRNLVODUJH<RXUEURWKHUKDVDVPDOOERRN0 friend
has a large book. 5. Your father has a small book. 6. MEURWKHUVVRQKDVWKDWODUJHERRN
7. That book is large. 8. This book is small.
* See Rule XVIII.

Japanese and English Exercises. 19
XIII

Watakusi wa, or ga, motteimasu,
I have.
Watakusi ga motteimasu ka? Have I?
Anata wa, or ga, motteimasu, you
have.
Anata ga motteimasu ka? Have RX?
Ka is alwaVSXWDWWKHHQGRIDQLQWHUURJDWLYHVHQWHQFH.
1, Watakusi ga sono shomotu wo motteimasu ka . 2. Anata wa kono shomotu wo
motleimasu ka . 3. Anata no tomodati wa shomotu wo motteimasu ka . 4. Watakusi no
tisana segare wa sono ōkina shomotu wo motteimasu ka . 5. Anata no kodai wa segare
wo motteimasu ka . 6. Watakusi no musume wa kono tisana shomotu wo motteimasu ka . 7.
Anata wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu ka . 8. Watakusi wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu .
XIV.
1. Have RXEURWKHUV",KDYHDEURWKHU+DYH,WKDWERRN"+DYHou that small book?
5. Has RXUVRQWKLVERRN"+DVP daughter that book? 7. Have RXUEURWKHUVWKHVHODUJH
books? 8. MEURWKHUVKDYHWKRVHVPDOOERRNV.
XV.

Watakusi domo wa, or ga, we. Anatagata wa, or ga, RX
Niwa, garden.
1. Watakusi domo wa ōkina niwa wo motteimasu . 2. Anatagata wa sono shomotu wo
motteimasu ka . 3. Watakusi domo wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu . 4. Watakusi domo
wa sono tisai shomotu wo motteimasu . 5. Anatagata wa kiodai wo motteimasu ka . 6.
Anatagata wa musume wo motteimasu ka . 7. Watakusi domo wa tisai niwa wo motteimasu .
8. Anatagata wa niwa wo motteimasu ka . 9. Watakusi domo wa niwa wo motteimasu .
XVI.
1. We have a garden. 2. You have a small garden. 3. Have RXEURWKHUV":HKDYHEURWKHUV
5. We have daughters. 6. We have large books. 7. You have small books. 8. Have RXDVRQ"
9. I have a son.
XVII.

Watakusi domo no, our. Anatagata no, your.
Motteimasita, had.
1. Watakusi domo no segare ga sono shomotu wo motteimasita . 2. Anatagata no tomodati
wa kiodai wo motteimasita . 3. Watakusi wa segare wo motteimasu . 4. Anatagata no musume
wa kono shomotu, wo motteimasita ka . 5. Watakusi domo no kiodai ga sono ōkina, shomotu
wo motteimasita . 6. Anatagata no niwa wa ōkiwu gorazimasu ka . 7. Watakusi domo no
niwa wa ōkiwu gozarimasu . 8. Anata no niwa wa tisō gozari-masu .

20 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
XVIII.
1. Your garden is large. 2. Your garden is small. 3. Our garden is small, 4. Have RXU
brothers a garden? 5. M brothers have a garden. 6. Have our sons a large book? 7. Our
daughter has a small book.
XIX.
Kono

or okata or hito, this or that person.
Sono
Either of these words is used instead of are or kare .
* De is put after nouns which are placed immediatelEHIRUH Gozarimasu .
1. Kono hito ga sono skomotu wo motteimasu . 2. Sono okata wa tisai shomotu wo
motteimasu . 3. Sono hito wa watakusi no kiodai de gozarimasu . 4. Kono okata wa anata
no tomodati de gozarimasu ka . 5. Sono hito wa watakusi no segare de gozarimasu . 6. Sono
hito wa kiodai wo motteimasu . 7. Watakusi no musume wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu .
8. Anata no shomotu wa tisō gozarimasu .
XX.
1. That person has a book. 2. This person is mEURWKHU+DVWKDWSHUVRQEURWKHUV"7KDW
person is RXUIULHQG,VWKLVSHUVRQour son? 6. That person is mEURWKHU+DYHou
sons? 8. I have a son. 9. Have RXGDXJKWHUV",KDYHDGDXJKWHr .
XXI.

Tokei, watch, clock. Bosi, hat.
Uma, horse. Hōchō, knife.
Usinaimasita, lost, or has or have lost.
Midasimasita, found, or has or have found.
1. Watakusi wa tokei wo usinaimasita . 2. Anata wa anata no tokei wo midasimasita ka .
3. Watakusi wa hōchō wo usinaimasita . 4. Watakusi no segare wa bosi wo motteimasu . 5.
Anatagata no uma wa ōkiwu gozarimasu . 6. Watakusi no musume wa kasa wo usinaimasita .
7. Anatagata wa bosi wo motteimasu ka . 8. Watakusi domo wa uma wo motteimasu . 9.
Watakusi no bosi wa ōkiwu gozarimasu . 10. Anata no bosi wa tisō gozarimasu ka . 11.
Watakusi no bosi wa ōkiwu gozarimasu .
XXII.
1. Have RXORVWour hat? 2. I have lost a hat. 3. Has RXUVRQDKDW"+H (are wa) has
a hat. 5. Your daughter’s hat is large. 6. Our hats are small. 7. We have lost a knife. 8. We
have found a watch. 9. Has RXUEURWKHUORVWDZDWFK",KDYHIRXQGWKHZDWFK.

* See Rule VIII.

Japanese and English Exercises. 21
XXIII.

Tegami, letter. Uketorimasita, received, or
has or have received. Ye, to.
Ikimasu, go or goes. Mimasita, saw, or has or have
seen. Dokoye, where?
1. Watakusi wa tegami wo uketorimasita . 2. Watakusi wa Tokio ye ikimasu . 3. Anata wa Tokio
ye ikimasu ka . 4. Anata wa tegami wo uketorimasita ka . 5. Watakusi no segare ga tegami
wo uketorimasita . 6. Anatagata wa dokoye ikimasu ka . 7. Watakusi domo wa Kanagawa ye
ikimasu . 8. Watakusi wa anata no kiodai wo mimasita . 9. Watakusi no musume wa Asakusa
ye ikimasita . 10. Anata no kiodai wa tegami wo uketorimasita ka . 11. Watakusi no kiodai
ga tegami wo uketorimasita .
XXIV.
1. I have received a letter. 2. You have seen m daughter. 3. I have lost m watch. 4.
You go to Tokio, 5. Where are RX going? 6. We are going to Asakusa. 7. M son went
(ikimasita) to Kanagawa, 8. We have sons. 9. We went to Yokohama. 10. Your brother went
to Tokio. 11. I have beautiful girls. 12. We have found beautiful books. 13. Our daughters
are beautiful.
XXV.
Kara, from; Watakusi no kiodai kara, from mEURWKHU Watakusi no haha kara, from m
mother.

Konniti, to-day. Yoi, good.
Konchō, this morning. Warui, bad.
Sakuzitu, yesterday. Mainiti, every day.
1. Watakusi wa konniti watakusi no kiodai kara tegami wo uketorimasita . 2. Anata wa
sakuzitu watakusi no haha kara tegami wo uketorimasita . 3. Watakusi domo wa mainiti
kono hito wo mimasu . 4. Anatagata wa konniti tegami wo uketorimasita ka . 5. Watakusi
domo wa konniti watakusi domo no haha kara tegami wo uketorimasita . 6. Anata wa yoi
tokei wo motteimasu . 7. Watakusi wa konniti tokei wo usinaimasita . 8. Watakusi domo no
segare ga sono tokei wo midasimasita . 9. Sakuzitu watakusi wa kono okata wo mimasita .
10. Konniti watakusi wa Tokio ye ikimasu . 11. Watakusi domo wa sakuzitu Asakusa ye
ikimasita . 12. Watakusi wa anata no tomo-dati wo konchō mimasita .
XXVI.
1. I have received a letter from RXUEURWKHU:HKDYHUHFHLYHGDOHWWHUIURPRXUIDWKHU
(titi) . 3. Have RXUHFHLYHGDOHWWHUIURPP brother? 4. We have received a letter from RXU
brother to-day. 5. We are going to Asakusa to-day. 6. We went to Kanagawa HVWHUGD\,
have seen RXUIULHQGWKLVPRUQLQJ+DYHou seen RXUPRWKHUWRGD? 9. We have lost

22 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
our watches. 10. We have found RXUZDWFKHV7KDWSHUVRQKDVVHHQour daughter. 12.
This person has found RXUZDWFK,JRWR.DQDJDZDHYHU day .
XXVII.
Ye, to.
Ni, to, for. *

Watakusi no haha ni, to my mother. Rondon ye, to London.
Okurimasita, sent, or has or have sent.
Watakusi no titi ni, to mIDWKHU.
Okurimasu, send or sends.
1. Watakusi wa kono tokei wo haha ni okurimasu . 2. Anatagata wa sono tokei wo anata no
tomodati ni okurimasu ka . 3. Watakusi domo wa kono tokei wo watakusi domo no msume
ni okurimasu . 4. Watakusi ua tegami wo watakusi no haha ni okurimasu . 5. Sa-kuzitu
watakusi wa tegami wo watakusi no haha kara uketorimasita . 6. Anata wa mainiti tegami
wo anata no tomodati ni okurimasu ka . 7. Watakusi wa tegami wo watakusi no haha ni
mainiti okurimasu . 8. Watakusi no segare ga watakusi ni konniti tegami wo okurimasita .
9. Anata wa sakuzitu Asakusa ye ikimasita ka . 10. Watakusi wa sakuzitu Kanagawa ye
ikimasita . 11. Anata wa Kanagawa ye mainiti ikimasu ka . 12. Watakusi wa Yokohama ye
mainiti ikimasu .
XXVIII.
1. I have sent a letter to mIDWKHU'Rou send a letter to RXUEURWKHUHYHU da":H
send a letter to our mother every day. 4. Our daughter sent a letter to us (Watakusi domo
ye) HVWHUGD\:HKDYHUHFHLYHGDOHWWHUIURPRXUIULHQGVWKLVPRUQLQJ'Rou receive
a letter from RXUEURWKHUHYHU da",UHFHLYHDOHWWHUIURPP friends everGD\,
received a letter from mEURWKHUesterday, 9. We have lost a watch. 10. That person has a
good watch. 11. This person has a small (tisana) watch.
XXIX.

Kore ga, wa, wo, &c., this or these. Hito, person.
Wakai, Wakō, young.
Sore ga, wa, &c., that or those. Iye, house.
Ki, tree.
Oji, uncle. Hana, flower.
Tomodati, friend. Binbōna, * Binboni or Binbōde, poor.
Ko, child.
1. Watakusi no oji wa wakō gozarimasu . 2. Anata wa kore wo motteimasu ka . 3. Watakusi wa
sore wo motteimasu . 4. Watakusi wa ōkina ki wo mimasita . 5. Anata wa sakuzitu kireina hana
wo mimasita ka . 6. Watakusi wa ‘konniti sore wo mimasita . 7. Anatagata wa kono hana wo

* See Note, page 6.
* See Rule XVIII.

Japanese and English Exercises. 23
motteimosita ka . 8. Watakusi wa sore wo motteimasita . 9. Kono ko wa tokei wo usinaimasita .
10. Watakusi wa binbōni gozarimasu . 11. Anata wa konniti binbona hito wo mimasita ka .
XXX.
1. I have seen mXQFOH+DYHou seen beautiful flowers? 3. We have seen large trees. 4.
That person is poor. 5. MXQFOHLVoung. 6. We have lost a watch. 7. We have seen RXU
friends. 8. We went to RXUKRXVH+DYHou a garden? 10. We have gardens. 11. I sent a
letter to mEURWKHUWRGD\<RXUHFHLYHGDOHWWHUIURPour father this morning.
XXXI.

Yorimo or yori, more than.
Yorimo, ōkiwu, or
ōkina, * larger than.
Watakusi no, mine.
Anata no, yours.
Yorimo tisana, or tisō,
smaller than.
Watakusi domo no, ours.
Anatagata no, yours.
Watakusi no niwa wa anata no RULPRNLZX
gozarimasu, my garden is larger than yours.
1. Watakusi no shomotu wa anata no RULPRWLVJR]DULPDVu . 2. Anata no uma wa watakusi
no RUL ōkiwu gozarimasu . 3. Anata no shomotu wa watakusi no RULPR  gozarimasu .
4. Anatagata no uma wa watakusi no yorimo kireini gozarimasu . 5. Anatagata no hōchō
wa watakusi domo no RUL ōkiwu gozarimasu . 6. Kono hito wa watakusi RULPR binbōni
gozarimasu . 7. Kono hana wa sono hana yori kireini gozarimasu . 8. Anata wa kono
niwa RUL ōkina niwa wo motteimasu ka . 9. Watakusi wa kono niwa RUL ōkina no * wo
motteimasu . 10. Kono hito wa sono hito RURPL wakō gazarimasu . 11. Kono ki wa sore
RULPR ōkiwu gozarimasu . 12. Watakusi no iH wa anata no RULPR tisō gozarimasu . 13.
Anata wa kore RULPR tisana hōchō wo motteimasu . 14. Watakusi wa sore yorimo tisana
hōchō wo motteimasu .
XXXII.
1. M house is larger than RXUV 2. Your garden is larger than mine. 3. Your flowers are
more beautiful than ours. 4. Our house is larger than yours. 5. That person is poorer than this
person. 6. Your father is RXQJHUWKDQPLQH0 friend is RXQJHUWKDQours. 8. Our house
is smaller than yours. 9. Have you a smaller garden than this? 10. I have a smaller garden than
this. 11. Your brother is taller (ōkiwu) than mine. 12. We have a larger house than this.
XXXIII.

Mu tukasī, Mutukashū, difficult. Neko, cat.
Mati, town or city.
* See Rule XVIII.
Here no maEHWUDQVODWHGLQWRRQH”

24 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

Yasui, Yasuwu, easy,
cheap.
Tuki, moon.
Hosi, star.
Inu, dog. Hi, sun.
1. Anata wa neko wo motteimasu ka . 2. Watakusi wa inu wo motteimasu . 3. Anata wa kono
shomotu wo mimasita ka . 4. Sono shomotu wa mutukashu gozarimasu . 5. Watakusi no
shomotu wa Anata no yorimo yasuwu gozarimasu . 6. Hi wa tuki RULPRNLZXJR]DULPDVu .
7. Tokio wa ōkina mati de gozarimasu . 8. Watakusi no tomodati wa Tokio ye ikimasita . 9.
Anata wa konniti Asakusa ye ikimasu ka . 10. Watakusi wa konniti yokohama ye ikimasu .
11. Anata no neko wa watakusi no RULNLZXJR]DULPDVu . 12. Anata no kiodai wa niwa,
wo motteimasu ka . 13. Watakusi no titi ga ōkina niwa wo motteimasu .
XXXIV.
1. MGRJLVODUJHUWKDQours. 2. Have RXDFDW",KDYHDFDW0 house is smaller
than RXUV7RNLRLVDODUJHFLW\7KHVXQLVODUJHUWKDQWKHPRRQ7KLVERRNLVHDVLHU
than that. 8. Your book is larger than mine. 9. MERRNLVPRUHGLIFXOWWKDQours. 10. Do
RXJRWR7RNLRWRGD\,JRWR<RNRKDPDWRGD\.
XXXV.

Ni, in, or at. Orimasu, live, lives, is, are.
Niwa ni, in the garden.
Uti ni, in the house, or at home. Orimasita, lived, was were.
1. Watakusi wa Yohohama ni orimasu . 2. Anata wa Yokohama ni orimasu ka . 3. Watakusi
wa Kanagawa ni orimasu . 4. Watakusi wa Tokio ni orimasita . 5. Konniti watakusi wa
uti ni orimasu . 6. Anatagata wa sakuzitu uti ni orimasita . 7. Kireina hana ga niwa ni
gozarimasu . 8. Anata no niwa ni kireina hana ga gozarimasu ka . 9. Watakusi no niwa ni
ōkina ki ga gozarimasu . 10. Anata wa Asakusa ni orimasita ka . 11. Watakusi wa Yokohama
ni orimasita . 12. Anata no niwa ni neko ga orimasu .
XXXVI.
1. Do RXOLYHLQ7RNLR",OLYHLQ<RNRKDPD%HDXWLIXORZHUVDUHLQour garden. 4.
Large trees are in mJDUGHQ$UH WKHUH EHDXWLIXORZHUVLQour garden? 6. Did RX
live in Tokio? 7. I lived in Kanagawa. 8. Your cat is in mJDUGHQ+DYHou a dog? 10.
I have a large dog. 11. Your garden is larger than mine.
XXXVII

Hana, flower. Sukimasu, like, likes.
Ringo, apple. Sukimasita, liked, or has or
have liked. Nasi, pear.
Itudemo, alwaV. Watakusi wa hana wo su
Tabitabi, often. kimasu, I like flowers.

Japanese and English Exercises. 25
1. Anata no niwa ni hana ga gozarimasu ka . 2. Watakusi no niwa ni hana ga gozarimasu . 3.
Anata wa Asakusa HWDELWDELNLPDVXNa . 4. Watakusi wa Yohohama ye tabitabi ikimasu . 5.
Anatagata wa ringo wo sukimasu ka . 6. Watakusi domo wa nashi wo sukimasu . 7. Watakusi
domo no niwa ni kireina hana ga gozarimasu . 8. Kono hana wa sono hana yori kireini
gozarimasu . 9. Watakusi wa itudemo uti ni orimasu . 10. Anata no tomodati wa tabitabi
Tokio ye ikimasu ka . 11. Watakusi no tomodati wa tabitabi Kanagawa ye ikimasu .
XXXVIII.
1. Do RXOLNHRZHUV",OLNHRZHUV'Rou go to Tokio often? 4. I go to Tokio often.
5. We like pears. 6. You like apples. 7. Have RXRZHUV",KDYHDQDSSOH%HDXWLIXO
flowers are in RXUJDUGHQ,OLYHLQ7RNLR:HRIWHQJRWR7RNLR,KDYHVHHQ
beautiful flowers in RXUJDUGHQ.
XXXIX.

Iti, one. Ju siti, seventeen.
Ni, two. Jū hati, eighteen.
San, three. Jū ku, nineteen.
Si, four. Ni ju, twenty.
Go, five. Ni ju iti, twentRQH.
Roku, six. Ni ju ni, twentWZR.
Siti, seven. San ju, thirty.
Hati, eight. Si ju, forty.
Ku, nine. Go ju, fifty.
Jū, ten. Roku ju, sixty.
Jū iti, eleven. Siti ju, seventy.
Jū ni, twelve. Hati ju, eighty.
Jū san, thirteen. Ku ju, ninety.
Jū si, fourteen. H’yaku, hundred.
Jū go, fifteen. Sen, thousand.
Jū roku, sixteen. Man, ten thousand. *
Hítotu, one. Muttu, six.
Futatu, two. Nanatu, seven.
Mittu, three. Yattu, eight.
Yottu, four. Kokonotu, nine.
Itutu, five. Tō, ten. †

Itigatu, January. Sitigatu, July.
Nigatu, February. Hatigatu, August.
Sangatu, March. Kugatu, September.
* This number is used for weight, measure, hours, or money.
† This is for counting ordinarDUWLFOHVVXFKDVFKDLUVWDEOHV F.

26 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

Sigatu, April. Jūgatu, October.
Gogatu, May. Jūittigatu, November.
Rokugatu, June. Jū nigatu, December.
Heya, room. Hiroi, or hirō, wide.
Tukuye, table. Kaimasu, buy, or buV.
Kosikake, chair. Kaimasita, bought, or has
or have bought. Nen, year.
Tuki, month. Wurimasu, sell, sells.
Takusan, many. Wurimasita, sold, or has
or have sold. Hikui, or hikuwu, low.
1. Anata wa kiodai wo takusan motteimasu ka . 2. Watakusi wa kiodai wo takusan motteimasu .
3. Anata wa tukuye wo motteimasu ka . 4. Watakusi wa hitotu tukuye wo motteimasu . 5.
Anata no niwa ni ki ga futatu gozarimasu . 6. Watakusi no iye ni heya ga mittu gozarimasu .
7. Jū ni tuki ga iti nen de gozarimasu . 8. Anata wa kosikake wo motteimasu ka . 9. Watakusi
wa kosikake wo futatu motteimasu . 10. Kono kosikake wa hikuwu gozarimasu . 11. Anata
wa sono kosikake wo wurimasu ka . 12. Watakusi wa kono kosikake wo wurimasu . 13.
Anata wa kono iye wo kaimasu ka . 14. Watakusi wa kono iye wo kaimasu .
XL.
1. Do RXVHOOWKLVFKDLU",VHOOWKDWFKDLU'Rou buWKDWRZHU",EX this table. 5.
We have three tables. 6. We have two rooms in (m KRXVH,VROGWKLVRZHU'LGou
live in Tokio? 9. I lived in Tokio three (mi) months. 10. Twelve months make (gozarimasu)
one HDU:HKDYHPDQ chairs. 12. You have manKRXVHV:HKDYHWKUHH (mittu)
houses.
XLI.

Ni, or san gō, two or three go,
the gō being a measure for
liquids and grains.
Ni sun, two inches.
Ni, or san toki, two or three
hours.
Ni yen, four shillings.
Ni means ‘bZKHQLWLVSXWEHIRUHWKHZRUGVEX’ and ‘sell,’ as the words for or with is
used in English.
Watakusi wa sono kosikake wo san yen de kaimasita, or wurimasita, I sold or bought
that chair for three shillings.

Yen, two shillings. Simasu cost, present.
Toki, hour. Simasita cost, past.
Gō, a measure for liquids and
grain.
Ikura, or ikurani, how much?

Japanese and English Exercises. 27
1 Anata no shomotu wa ikura simasita ka . 2. Watakusi no shomotu wa san yen simasita . 3.
Anata no iye wa ikura simasita ka . 4. Watakusi no iye wa h’yaku yen simasita . 5. Anata wa
kono tukuye wo ikurade kaimasita ka . 6. Watakusi wa kono tukuye wo san yen de kaimasita .
7. Anata wa, kono tukuye wo ikurani wurimasu ka . 8. Watakusi wa kono tukuye wo ni yen
ni wurimasu . 9. Kono mati (street) wa hirō gozarimasu . 10. Nijū si toki ga iti niti (da de
gozarimasu . 11. Anata wa kono hana wo kaimasu ka . 12. Watakusi wa sono ki wo kaimasu .
13. Anata wa Tokio ni orimasita ka . 14. Watakusi wa Tokio ni iti nen orimasita .
XLII.
1. How much did RXUERRNFRVW"0 book cost three yen . 3. How much did RXSD
for (bu WKDWWDEOH",ERXJKWWKDWWDEOHIRUWZR yen . 5. We sold that chair for two yen .
6. TwentIRXUKRXUVDUHRQHGD\7ZHOYHPRQWKVDUHRQHear. 8. How much does that
table cost? 9. That table costs three yen . 10. How much did RXUKRXVHFRVW ou)? 11. M
house cost (me) a hundred yen . 12. I have a garden. 13. Are there flowers in RXUJDUGHQ"
14. In mJDUGHQ WKHUH DUHWKUHHWUHHV.
XLIII.
Ni, or san nin, for numbers of persons. Hiki, piki, or biki, for number of quadrupeds; as,
Uma san biki, three horses; wa, or ba, pa, for birds. *
Tori san ba, or jit pa, three or ten birds. Biki or hiki, wa, ba, or pa, are placed after as
well as before nouns which theTXDOLI\. *
Anata no niwa ni tori ga san ba orimasu. There are three birds in your garden.

Niwatori, cock or hen. Yamagara, bullfinch.
Suzume, sparrow. Kamo, wild duck.
Inu, dog. Ike, pond.
Neko, cat. Kawa, river.
Sakana, fish.
1. Anata no niwa ni tori ga orimasu ka . 2. Watakusi no niwa ni tori ga san ba orimasu . 3. Ike
ni kamo ga san ba orimasu . 4. Anata no iye ni neko ga orimasu ka . 5. Watakusi no iye ni neko
ga si hiki orimasu . 6. Watakusi wa suzume wo go wa mimasita . 7. Anatagata wa watakusi
no inu wo mimasita ka . 8. Watakusi domo wa anato no neko wo mimasita . 9. Anata no ike
ni kamo ga san ba orimasita . 10. Kono kawa ni sakana ga orimasu . 11. Anata no nina ni
yamagara ga si wa orimasu . 12. Konchō watakusi wa suzume wo ju ni wa mimasita .
XLIV.
1. In your garden there are three sparrows, 2. In your pond there is a fish. 3. Have you seen m
dog? 4. We have seen your cat. 5. Have you three brothers? 6. I have three daughters. 7. We have
three horses. 8. Have RXPDQ (takusan) houses? 9. We have three houses. 10. My brother has
a wild duck. 11. In your garden there are many birds. 12. We have seen three bullfinches this
morning. 13. You have seen mJDUGHQ,Qour pond there are three fishes.

* See Rule XVI.

28 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
XLV.
De means ‘in’ when it is placed before aimasu or mimasu, meet, or see. Watakusi wa kono
okata ni mati de aimasita, I met with this person in the street.
Doko, what place or where?
When ‘to see,’ or ‘meet,’ is used? ni must be put after doko; thus, Doko de anata wa kono
hito ni aimasita ka? Where have RXPHWZLWKKLP?
When ‘to live,’ or ‘to be,’ is used, ni must be put after doko; thus, anata wa doko ni
orimasu ka, Where do RXOLYH?

Kami, God. Oka, land.
Sekai, world. Aimasu, meets, or meet.
Umi, sea, or ocean. Aimasita, met, or has or have met.
Kosirayemasu, makes, or make.
Konniti, to-day.
Kosirayemasita, made, or has or
have made.
Mainiti, every day.
1. Kami ga sekai wo kosirayemasita . 2. Anata wa mainiti kono hito ni aimasu ka . 3.
Watakusi wa sono hito ni mainiti aimasu . 4. Anata ua doko de sono hito ni aimasu ka . 5.
Watakusi wa kono hito ni Yokohama de aimasu . 6. Anatagata wa doko ni orimasu ka . 7.
Watakusi domo wa Tokio ni orimasu . 8. Watakusi no inu wo anata wa doko de mimasita ka .
9. Anata no inu wo watakuzi wa mati de mimasita . 10. Watakusi wa anata no tomodati ni
konniti aimasita . 11. Watakusi wa tori wo san ba anata no niwa de mimasita . 12. Anata no
neko ga watakusi noniwa ni orimasu .
XLVI.
1. Where do RXOLYH",OLYHDW<RNRKDPD:KHUHKDYHou seen that person? 4. I have
seen (him) in Tokio. 5. Do RXVHHP friends everGD? 6. I see RXUIULHQGVHYHU day.
7. I go to Kanagawa. 8. We met with RXUEURWKHUWRGD\:KHUHKDYHou met with m
brother? 10. I met with RXU brother in the street. 11. God created the world, 12. In RXU
garden I saw two cats.
XLVII.

Itu, when, used interrogatively. Kane, money or metal.
Koko, here.
Nan doki ni, at what time or hour? Made, into.
Kara, from.
Nan yen, how man yen ? Suguni, immediately.
Zinmin, people.
Nan ri,* howmanPLOHV? Mai-niti, every day.
Nan nin, how manSHUVRQV? Minato, seaport.
* After the words nan ri, the sign of case is not put.

Japanese and English Exercises. 29
1. Koko kara minato made nan ri gozarimasu ka . 2. San ri gozarimasu . 3. Anata wa
Yokohama ye itu ikimasu ka . 4. Watakusi wa Yokohama ye konniti ikimasu . 5. Anata wa
kono iye wo kaimasita ka . 6. Watakusi wa kono iye wo kaimasita . 7. Anata no iye wa nan
yen simasita ka . 8. Watakusi no iye wa h’yaku yen simasita . 9. Anata wa nan doki ni Yoko-
hama ye ikimasu ka . 10. Watakusi wa Yokohama ye ju ni zi ni (12 o’clock) ikimasu . 11.
Anata no iye ni hito ga nan nin orimasu ka . 12. Watakusi no iye ni hito ga roku nin orimasu .
13. Ikura anata wa kane wo motteimasu ka . 14. Watakusi wa kane wo ju yen motteimasu .
XLVIII.
1. How much moneKDYHou? 2. I have three yen . 3. At what time do RXJRWR7RNLR",
go to Tokio at 12 o’clock. 5. How manPLOHVDUHWKHUHIURPKHUHWR.DQDJDZD" 7KHUH
are three miles from here to Kanagawa. 7. How manSHUVRQVDUHWKHUHLQour house? 8.
There are ten persons in mKRXVH:KHQDUHou going to RXUIULHQGVKRXVH",JR
to mIULHQGVKRXVHWRGD\,JRWRP house immediately.
XLIX.
Takusan, much, or many. Watakusi wa saé wo takusan nomimasita, I have drunk much
rice-spirits.
Watakusi wa takusan shomotu wo motteimasu, I have manERRNV.
Wazuka, a little or few.
Watakusi wa wazuka kane wo motteimasu, I have a little money.
Watakusi wa wazuka shomotu wo motteimasu, I have a few books.

Pan, bread. Nomimasu, drinks, or drink.
Niku, meat. Tabemasita, ate, or has or have
eaten. Saké, rice-spirit.
Midu, water. Nomimasita, drank, or has or have
drunk. Tabemasu, eats, or eat.
1. Kono okata, wa niku wo tabemasu ka . 2. Kono okata wa pan wo tabemasu . 3. Anata wa niku
wo takusan motteimasu ka . 4. Watakusi wa wazuka niku wo motteimasu . 5. Anata no tomodati
wa saé wo nomimasu ka . 6. Watakusi no tomodati wa midu wo nomimasu . 7. Watakusi domo wa
niku wo takusan tabemasita . 8. Watakusi no kiodai wa sake wo wazuka nomimasu . 9. Anata wa
kane wo takusan motteimasu ka . 10. Watakusi wa wazuka kane wo motteimasu . 11. Ikura anata
wa kane wo motteimasu ka . 12. Watakusi wa kane wo san yen motteimasu . 13. Anata no niwa ni
takusan hana ga gozarimasu ka . 14. Wa-takusi no niwa ni wazuka hana ga gozarimasu .
L.
1. Have RXPDQ books? 2. I have a few books. 3. Are there manWUHHVLQour garden?
4. There are a few trees in mJDUGHQ:HKDYHPXFKULFHVSLULW'Rou eat meat? 7.
I eat bread. 8. Do RXGULQNZDWHU",GULQNULFHVSLULW,KDYHGUXQNDOLWWOHULFHVSLULW
11. We have eaten much meat. 12. You have drunk much water, 13. We have manKRXVHV
14. You have manIULHQGV.

30 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
LI.
Amari, too.
Anata wa amari takusan kane wo motteimasu. You have too much money.
To, …to, and.
Watakusi to anata to ga ikimasu. I and you go.
Watakusi wa konniti inu to neko to wo mimasita. * I have seen a dog and cat to-day.

Satō, sugar. Kiraimasu, dislike, or
dislikes. Konniti, to-day.
Sumi, ink. Hiru maye, before noon.
Kurō, kuroi, black. Urimasita, sold, or has or
have sold. Sukimasu, like, or likes.
1. Anata wa satō wo sukimasu, ka . 2. Watakusi wa satō wo kiraimasu . 3. Kono sumi wa
amari kurō gozarimasu . 4. Konniti hirumaye ni watakusi domo wa Tokio ye ikimasu . 5.
Anata wa itu Yokohama ye ikimasu ka . 6. Watakusi wa Yokohama ye konniti ikimasu . 7.
Watakusi wa watakusi no kiodai to anata no tomodati wo mimasita . 8. Mai-niti watakusi
wa anata no kiodai to tomodati wo mimasu . 9. Watakusi wa saké to midu wo sukimasu . 10.
Anata no iye wa ikura simasita ka . 11. Watakusi no iye wa h’yaku yen simasita . 12. Anata
wa anata no neko wo urimasita ka . 13. Watakusi wa watakusi no inu wo urimasita .
LII.
1. You have too much money. 2. You and I go to Yokohama. 3. We have too manWUHHVLQ
our garden, or, There are too manWUHHVLQRXUJDUGHQ,VDZP brother and RXUIULHQG
5. When are RXJRLQJWR<RNRKDPD":HDUHJRLQJWR<RNRKDPDWRGD\'Rou see
RXUIULHQGHYHU da",VHHP friend everGD\0 mother and father go to Tokio
to-day. 10. How much did RXU brother’s house cost? 11. Your brother’s house cost 200
HQ<RXKDYHWRRPDQ horses. 13. We saw a cat and dog in RXUJDUGHQWRGD\.
LIII.
Dare ga, no, or wo, who, whose, or whom? in the interrogative sense.
Dare ga kimasita ka, who came (here)?
Dare wo anata wa mimasita ka, whom have RXVHHQ?
Nani ga, wo, or no, what?
Anata wa nani wo mimasita ka, what have RXVHHQ?
Anata no niwa ni nani ga orimasu ka, what is there in RXUJDUGHQ?

Hako, box. Cha, tea.
Kutu, boot, or shoe. Tebukuro, glove.
Yempitu, pencil.
1. Dare ga watakusi no hako wo motteimasu ka . 2. Anata no tomodati ga anata no hako
wo motteimasu . 3. Anata wa dare wo mimasita ka . 4. Watakusi wa anata no kiodai wo
* See Rule III.

Japanese and English Exercises. 31
mimasita . 5. Anata no niwa ni nani ga orimasu ka . 6. Watakusi no niwa ni tori ga orimasu .
7. Anata wa nani wo motteimasu ka . 8. Watakusi wa kane wo motteimasu . 9. Anata wa
konniti nani wo mimasita ka . 10. Konniti watakusi wa uma wo mimasita . 11. Anata wa dare
no shomotu wo motteimasu ka . 12. Watakusi no tomodati no shomotu wo motteimasu . 13.
Anata wa nani wo sukimasu ka . 14. Watakusi wa cha wo sukimasu . 15. Anata no tebukuro
wa ikura simasita ka . 16. Watakusi no tebukuro wa san yen simasita .
LIV.
1. What have RX",KDYHJORYHV:KRPKDYHou seen? 4. I have seen RXUEURWKHU
5. Who has m books? 6. M friend has RXU books. 7. What have RX seen in (de) my
garden? 8. I have seen a cat in RXUJDUGHQ'Rou drink tea? 10. I drink water. 11. Do
RXOLNHVXJDU",OLNHVXJDU:KRVHERRNKDYHou? 14. I have mERRN+RZ
much did RXUSHQFLOFRVW"0 pencil cost (si-sen) a penny.
LV.

Ōkina,

large, or great
Yorimo, ōkiwu, or ōkina,
Okiwu, or Yori, larger, or greater.
Itiban
ōkiwu,
largest, or
greatest. ōkina,
Yoi,
good. Yori

Yori
yoi,
better. * Itiban
yoi, best
Yō, , ,

Chonin, merchant. Tisai, tisō, small.
Yama, mountain. Jobu, jobuni, strong.
Tori, bird.
1. Watakusi no iye wa anata no (RXUV RUL ōkiwu gozarimasu . 2. Anata no niwa wa
watakusi no RUL tisō gozarimasu . 3. Kono tori wa sono tori RUL ōkiwu gozarimasu . 4.
Anata wa kore (that) RULNLQDLe wo motteimasu ka . 5. Kono iye ga watakusi no itiban
ōkina iHGHJR]DULPDVu . 6. Watakusi no iye wa jobuni gozarimasu . 7. Anata no niwa wa
watakusi no RULō gozarimasu . 8. Anata no shomotu ga itiban JR]DULPDVu . 9. Anata no
niwa ni tori ga orimasu ka . 10. Tori wa yama ni takusan orimasu . 11. Anata wa chonin de
gozarimasu ka . 12. Watakusi wa chonin de gozarimasu . 13. Anata wa kore RULNLQDNXWX
wo motteimasu ka . 14. Kore ga itiban ōkina kutu de gozarimasu .
LVI.
1. Your book is better than mine. 2. Have RXDODUJHUKRXVHWKDQWKLV"7KLVLVP largest
house. 4. MKRXVHLVVPDOOHUWKDQours. 5. Have RXODUJHUERRWVWKDQWKHVH"7KHVHDUH
mODUJHVWERRWV$UHWKHUHPDQ birds in the mountains? 8. There are manELUGVLQWKH
mountains. 9. Are RXDPHUFKDQW",DPDPHUFKDQW.

32 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
LVII.

Dare kara, from whom? Dare ni, or ye, to whom?
Dare no de, whose one?
Itiban, first. Rokuban, sixth.
Niban, second. Sitiban, seventh.
Sanban, third. Hatiban, eighth.
Siban, fourth. Kuban, ninth.
Goban, fifth. Juban, tenth.
Nitiyobi, Sunday. Mokuyobi, Thursday.
Gretuyobi, Monday. Kinyobi, Friday.
K’wayobi, Tuesday. Doyobi, Saturday.
Suiyobi, Wednesday.
Genan, or boku, servant. Orimasita, lived, or has or
have lived. Gejo, maidservant.
Kokoni, here. [day. Uketorimasu, receives, or
receive. Konniti, to-day, or this
Sokoni, there. Uketorimasita, received, or
has or have received. Orimasu, lives, or live.
1. Kono shomotu wa dare no de gozarimasu ka . 2. Sono shomotu wa watakusi no de
gozarimasu . 3. Konniti dare kara tegami wo uketorimasita ka . 4. Konniti watakusi wa
tegami wo watakusi no tomodati kara uketorimasita . 5. Konniti wa nitiyobi de gozarimasu
ka. 6. Konniti wa getuyobi de gozarimasu . 7. Anata no boku wa kokoni orimasu . 8. Anata
no gejo wa sokoni orimasu . 9. Kono tegami wo anata wa dare ye okurimasu ka (send). 10.
Watakusi wa kono tegami wo kiodai ye okurimasu . 11. Anata wa sono tegami wo anata no
tomodati ye okurimasu ka . 12. Watakusi wa kore wo watakusi no haha ni okurimasu .
LVIII.
1. To whom do RXVHQGWKLVOHWWHU",VHQGWKDWWRP friend. 3. Where is mVHUYDQW"
4. Your servant is here. 5. Is mPDLGVHUYDQWWKHUH"+HUHLVour maidservant. 7. From
whom have RX received that letter? 8. I have received this letter from m brother. 9.
Whose is this book? 10. That is mine. 11. Is this da0RQGD? 12. This daLV7XHVGD\.
LIX.
Indicative Mood. Present.
Motteiru, to have.
Watakusi ga, or wa motteimasu, I have.
Anata „ „ you have.
Kono
or
Sono
hito or okata
„ „ she or he has.
Watakusi domo „ „ we have.

Japanese and English Exercises. 33
Anatagata „ „ you have.
*Kono
or
Sono

hito, or
okatagata „ „ they have.

Kane, money. Tanmono, cloth.
Bosi, hat. Haori, coat.
Heya, room. Kushi, comb.
1. Anata wa kane wo motteimasu ka . 2. Watakusi wa kane wo takusan motteimasu . 3.
Anatagata wa bosi wo motteimasu ka . 4. Watakusi domo wa bosi wo motteimasu . 5. Kono
okata wa heya wo motteimasu ka . 6. Kono okata wa heya wo motteimasu . 7. Anata no
tomodati wa ōkina niwa wo motteimasu ka . 8. Watakusi no tomodati wa ōkina iH wo
motteimasu . 9. Anata no kiodai wa tanmono wo motteimasu ka . 10. Watakusi no tomodati
wa haori wo motteimasu .
LX.
1. Have RXDFRPE",KDYHDFRPE+DYHou hats? 4. We have hats. 5. He has a coat.
6. Has she cloth? 7. She has cloth. 8. Has RXUEURWKHUDURRP"0 brother has a room.
10. Have RXUIULHQGVPXFKPRQH? 11. MEURWKHUVKDYHPXFKPRQH\.
LXI.
Indicative Mood. Past.
Watakusi ga, or wa motteimasita I had.
Anata „ „ you had.
Kono

or okata „ „ he had.
Sono
Watakusi domo wa motteimasita . we had.
Anatagata . „ „ . you had.
Kono

or okata . „ „ . he had.
Sono

Izen, formerly. Imani, presently.
Ima, now, this time. Suguto, directly.
1. Anata wa kono shomotu wo ima motteimasu ka . 2. Watakusi wa kono shomotu wo izen
motteimasita . 3. Anatagata wa heya wo motteimasu ka . 4 Watakusi domo wa heya wo
motteimasu . 5. Anata wa kane wo motteimasita ka . 6. Watakusi wa kane wo motteimasita .

* As we have the same form of the verb in all persons, singular or plural, we do not repeat them all
here.

34 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
7. Anata no tomodati wa iye wo motteimasu ka . 8. Watakusi no tomodati wa izen iye wo
motteimasita . 9. Watakusi no kiodai wa takusan kane wo motteimasu ka . 10. Sono chonin
wa tanmono wo motteimasita . 11. Kono chōnin wa tanmono wo motteimasu .
LXII.
1. Had RXDKRXVH":HKDGDKRXVH+DGou this book? 4. I had that book formerly.
5. We had a horse. 6. Had RXU brother a room? 7. M brother had a room. 8. Have RX
manIULHQGVQRZ",KDGPDQ friends. 10. We had manERRNV.
LXIII.

Indicative Mood. Present, negatively.
Motteimasen, have not, or has not.
Watakusi wa or ga motteimasen I have not.
Anata wa „ „ you have not.
Kono

she or he has not.
or okata wa „ „
Son
Watakusi domo wa „ „ we have not.
Anatagata wa „ „ you have not.
Kono

or okatagata
wa
„ „ they have not.
Sono
Toki ni or niwa, when, or at the
time.
Orimasu, live.
Orimasita, lived.
Kara, because. Sakuzitu, yesterday.
Nippon, Japan. Ye, to.
Ni, in, or at. [speaks. Kotoba, word, or language.
Hanasimasu, speak, or
Anata wa Nippon ni orimasita tokini (*anata wa) takusan kane wo motteimasita ka, or
Nippon ni orimasita tokini, anata wa takusan kane wo motteimasita ka . Had you much
moneZKHQou were in Japan? Nippon ni orimasita kara, watakusi wa Nippon kotoba wo
hanasimasu. I speak Japanese because I lived in Japan.
1. Anata wa kane wo motteimasu ka . 2. Watakusi wa kane wo motteimasen . 3. Anatagata
wa heya wo motteimasu ka . 4. Watakusi domo wa heya wo mottei-masen. 5. Anata wa
takusan tomodati wo motteimasu ka . 6. Watakusi wa takusan tomodati wo motteimasen .
7. Anata no tomodati wa uma wo motteimasu ka . 8. Watakusi no tomodati wa uma wo
motteimasen . 9. Nippon ni orimasita tokini anata wa kane wo takusan motteimasita ka . 10.
Watakusi wa, Nippon ni orimasita tokini, takusan kane wo motteimasita . 11. Watakusi wa

* Here anata wa (RX LVJHQHUDOO understood.

Japanese and English Exercises. 35
Nippon ni orimasita kara, Nippon kotoba wo hanasimasu . 12. Anata wa izen Yokohama ni
orimasita ka . 13. Watakusi wa izen Tokio ni orimasita . 14. Ima anata wa doko ni orimasu
ka. 15. Ima watakusi wa Yokohama ni orimasu .
LXIV.
1. Have RXPXFKPRQH? 2. I had much moneZKHQ,ZDVLQ-DSDQ+DYHou a horse?
4. I have no (have not) horse. 5. Had RXPDQ houses when RXZHUHLQ(QJODQG (Igilisu) .
6. We had three houses when we were in England. 7. Has RXUEURWKHUDURRP"+HKDV
no room. 9. Did RXOLYHLQ7RNLRIRUPHUO? 10. I lived formerlLQ<RNRKDPD:KHUH
do RXOLYHQRZ",OLYHLQ7RNLRQRZ.
LXV.
Indicative Mood. Past Tense, negatively.
Watakusi wa motteimasenanda, I had not.
Anata „ „ you had not.
Kono

or okata „ „ she or he had not.
Sono
Watakusi-domo wa motteimasenanda, we had not.
Anatagata „ „ you had not.
Kono

or okata „ „ she or he had not.
Sono

Mi tuki izen ni, three months ago.
Roku nen izen ni, six years ago.
Kimasita, came, or has or
have come.
Ikura, how much.
Kaimasu, buy, or buV.
Ikutu, how old, how
many.
Haori, coat.
Kimono, dress.
1. Anata wa mi tuki izen ni Nippon ye kimasita ka . 2. Watakusi wa iti nen izen ni Nippon
ye kimasita . 3. Anata no kiodai wa ikutu de gozarimasu ka . 4. Watakusi no kiodai wa
ju ni de gozarimasu . 5. Kono okata wa Yokohama kara kimasita ka . 6. Sono okata wa
Tokio kara kimasita . 7. Anata wa Yokohama ni orimasita tokiniwa, takusan tomodati
wo motteimasenanda ka . 8. Watakusi wa Yokohama ni orimasita tokiniwa tomodati wo
motteimasenanda . 9. Kono haori wa, ikura simasita ka . 10. Kono haori wa san yen simasita .
11. Anata wa sono kimono wo kaimasu ka . 12. Watakusi wa sono kimono wo kaimasen .
LXVI.
1. When RX were in Japan, had RX man friends? 2. When I was in Japan, I had man
friends. 3. How much does this coat cost? 4. This coat cost three HQ 5. We have man

36 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
houses in Tokio. 6. Did RXFRPHWR-DSDQWKUHHGDs (mikka izen) ago? 7. I came to Japan
three months ago. 8. How old are RX" 9. I am twelve (HDUV old). 10. Do RX bu this
dress? 11. I do not buWKLVGUHVV.
LXVII.
Indicative Mood. Future.
Watakusi wa or ga motteimasho, I shall have.
Anata „ „ RXZLOOKDYH.
Kono okata „ „ she or he will
have.
Watakusi domo „ „ we shall have.
Anata gata „ „ RXZLOOKDYH.
Kono okata gata „ „ theZLOOKDYH.
Miyo-niti, to-morrow.
Miyo-ban, to-morrow evening.
Miyo-asa, to-morrow morning.
Ikimasho, will or shall go.
Uketorimasho, will or shall receive.
Mimasho, will or shall see.
1. Watakusi ga sono hako wo motteimasho (shall hold). 2. Anata no tomodati wa Asakusa
ye miyo-niti ikimasu ka . 3. Watakusi no tomodati wa miyo-asa Asakusa ye ikimasho . 4.
Watakusi wa sono shomotu wo miyo-ban mimasho . 5. Itu anata no tomodati ga kono tegami
wo uketorimasho ka . 6. Watakusi no tomodati ga sono tegami wo miyo-ban uketorimasho .
7. Watakusi domo wa miyo-niti Anata no iye wo mimasho . 8. Watakusi wa sono kane wo
miyo-niti uketorimasho . 9. Itu kono okata wa Tokio ye ikimasho ka . 10. Sono okata wa Tokio
ye miyo-niti ikimasho . 11. Itu anata wa kono tegami wo uketorimasita ka . 12. Watakusi wa
kono tegami wo sakuzitu uketorimasita .
LXVIII.
1. When will RXJRWR7RNLR",VKDOOJRWR7RNLRWRPRUURZ6KDOO,KROGWKLVER["
I shall hold that book. 5. When do RXUHFHLYHour mone",VKDOOUHFHLYHP mone
to-morrow morning. 7. You will go to Asakusa to-morrow evening. 8. Shall we see that
book to-da":HVKDOOVHHWKLVERRNWRPRUURZ:KHQKDYHou seen (did RXVHH
mIULHQG",KDYHVHHQ VDZ our friend HVWHUGD\.
LXIX.
Indicative Mood. Future, negatively.
Watakusi wa wotteimasumai, I shall not have.
Anata „ „ RXZLOOQRWKDYH.
Kono okata „ „ he will not have.
Watakusi domo „ „ we shall not have.

Japanese and English Exercises. 37

Anatagata „ „ RXZLOOQRWKDYH.
Kono okatagata „ „ theZLOOQRWKDYH.
Ikimasumai, shall or will not go.
Mimasumai, shall or will not see.
Kimasumai, shall or will not come.
Made, till.
1. Anata no tomodati wa konniti Tokio ye ikimasu ka . 2. Watakusi no tomodati wa konniti
Tokio ye ikimasen . 3. Anata wa miyo-niti Asakusa ye ikimasho ka . 4. Watakusi wa miyo-
niti Asakusa ye ikimasumai . 5. Anata no kiodai wa miyo-ban Kanagawa ye ikimasho ka .
6. Watakusi no kiodai wa miyo-ban Kanagawa ye ikimasumai . 7. Anata no tomodati wa
miyo-niti anata no iye ni kimasho ka . 8. Watakusi no tomodati wa miyo-niti watakusi no iye
ni kimasumai . 9. Kono hito wa sono kane wo miyo-ban made motteimasho ka (will keep)?
10. Sono hito wa kono kane wo miyo-ban made motteimasumai . 11. Anata wa kono okata
wo miyo-niti mimasho ka . 12. Watakusi wa kono hito wo miyo-niti mimasumai .
LXX.
1. I shall not go to Tokio to-morrow. 2. Shall we go to Yokohama? 3. We shall not go to
Yokohama to-morrow. 4. Will RXUIULHQGVFRPHWRP house? 5. MIULHQGVZLOOQRWFRPH
to RXUKRXVH<RXZLOOVHHP friend to-day. 7. I shall not see RXUEURWKHUWRPRUURZ
because I shall go to Tokio. 8. Where will RX go to-morrow? 9. I shall go to Kanagawa
to-morrow. 10. I shall wait (matteimasho) till RXFRPH+RZPXFKGLGWKLVFRDWFRVW"
12. This coat cost three HQ.
LXXI.

Iku, to go. Hasiru, to run.
Kiku, to hear. Sosiru, to steer at.
Suku, to like.
Indicative. Present.
Ikimasu, go, or goes.
Kikimasu, hear, or hears.
Sukimasu, like, or likes.
Ikimasen, do not go, or does not go.
Kikimasen, do not hear, or does not hear.
Sukimasen, do not like, or does not like.
1. Nani wo anata wa sukimasu ka . 2. Watakusi wa saké wo sukimasu . 3. Konniti anata wa
dokoye ikimasu ka . 4. Watakusi wa konniti Tokio ye ikimasu . 5. Anata no tomodati wa sono
shomotu wo sukimasen ka . 6. Watakusi no tomodati wa sono shomotu wo sukimasen . 7. Anata
wa konniti Asakusa ye ikimasen ka . 8. Watakusi wa konniti ikimasen . 9. Anata no kiodai wa
hana wo sukimasu ka . 10. Watakusi no kiodai wa hana wo sukimasen . 11. Anata no musume wa
konniti Kanagawa ye ikimasu ka . 12. Watakusi no musume wa konniti Kanagawa ye ikimasen .

38 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

LXXII.
1. Do RXOLNHRZHUV",GRQRWOLNHRZHUV:KHUHGRou go? 4. I go to Tokio. 5.
When do RXJRWR$VDNXVD",JRWR$VDNXVDWRGD\'RHVour brother like saké? 8.
MEURWKHUGRHVQRWOLNHVDNp'RHVour son like meat (niku) ? 10. MVRQOLNHVPHDW
11. Where does RXUIULHQGJR"0 friend goes to his room (heya) .
LXXIII.
Indicative. Past.
Sukimasita, liked, or has or have liked.
Ikimasita, went, or has or have gone.
Kikimasita, heard, or has or have heard.
Hasirimasita, ran, or has or have run.
Sosirimasita, sneered at, or has or have sneered at.
Negatively.
Sukimasenanda, has or have not liked.
Ikimasenanda, has or have not gone.
Kikimasenanda, has or have not heard.
Hasirimasenanda, has or have not run.
Sosirimasenanda, has or have not sneered.

Hanasi, story. Hayaku, quickly.
Sinbun, news. Hito, person, or others.
1. Sakuzitu anata wa Tokio ye ikimasita ka . 2. Watakusi wa sakuzitu Tokio ye ikimasenanda .
3. Doko ye anata no kiodai wa ikimasita ka . 4. Watakusi no kiodai wa Kanagawa ye
ikimasita . 5. Itu anata wa sono sinbun wo kikimasita ka . 6. Watakusi wa sono sinbun wo
sakuzitu kikimasita . 7. Anata wa kono hanasi wo kikimasita ka . 8. Watakusi wa sono hanasi
wo kikimasenanda . 9. Anata no segare wa hayaku hasirimasu ka . 10. Watakusi no segare
wa hayaku hasirimasen . 11. Anata wa izen kono hana wo sukimasita ka . 12. Watakusi wa
izen sono hana wo sukimasita .
LXXIV.
1. Did RXOLNHP house? 2. I liked RXUKRXVH'LGou hear that news? 4. I heard that
news HVWHUGD\'LGou run quickl",GLGQRWUXQTXLFNO\'RHVP friend sneer at
others? 8. Your friend sneered at others HVWHUGD\'LGou go to RXUEURWKHUVKRXVH"
10. I went to mEURWKHUVKRXVH.
LXXV.
Indicative Mood. Future.
Sukimasho, will or shall like.
Ikimasho, will or shall go.
Kikimasho, will or shall hear.

Japanese and English Exercises. 39

Hasirimasho, will or shall run.
Sosirimasho, will or shall sneer at.
Sukimasumai, will or shall not like.
Ikimasumai, will or shall not go.
Kikimasumai, will or shall not hear.
1. Anata no kiodai wa sono shomotu wo sukimasho ka . 2. Watakusi no kiodai wa sono
shomotu wo sukimasho . 3. Anata wa miyo-niti Tokio ye ikimasho ka . 4. Watakusi wa miyo-
niti Tokio ye ikimasumai . 5. Watakusi domo wa sono hanasi wo miyo-niti kikimasho . 6.
Anata no musume wa kono hana wo sukimasho ka . 7. Watakusi no musume wa sono hana
wo sukimasumai . 8. Anata wa doko ye ikimasu ka . 9. Watakusi wa Kanagawa ye ikimasu .
10. Itu anata no tomodati wa Asakusa ye ikimasita ka . 11. Watakusi no tomodati wa sakuzitu
Asakusa ye ikimasita . 12. Watakusi no kiodai wa miyo-niti Tokio ye ikimasumai .
LXXVI.
1. Will RX go to Tokio to-morrow? 2. I shall not go to Tokio to-morrow. 3. Where will
RXUEURWKHUJR"0 brother will go to Asakusa. 5. Will RXUGDXJKWHUOLNHWKDWRZHU"
6. MGDXJKWHUZLOOQRWOLNHWKDWRZHU:HVKDOOKHDUWKDWVWRU tomorrow evening. 8.
Does RXUEURWKHUUXQTXLFNO? 9. MEURWKHUUXQVTXLFNO\:KHUHGLGour friend go?
11. MIULHQGZHQWWR.DQDJDZD.
LXXVII.

Tokeru, to melt. Okiru, to get up.
Kangayeru, to think. Miru, to see.
Taduneru, to seek. Otiru, to fall
Indicative. Present.
Tokemasu, melt or melts.
Kangayemasu, think or thinks.
Tadunemasu, look for or looks for.
Okimasu, get up or gets up.
Mimasu, see or sees.
Otimasu, fall or falls.
Tokemasen, has or have not melted.
Kangayemasen, has or have not thought

Ame, rain. Iti zi, one o’clock.
Yuki, snow. Ni zi, two o’clock.
Maiasa, every morning. Hati zi, eight o’clock.
Mainiti, every day. Tenki, weather.
Attakani, warm.
1. Nan doki ni anata wa maiasa okimasu ka . 2. Watakusi wa maiasa hati zi ni okimasu . 3.
Nani wo anata wa mainiti mimasu ka . 4. Watakusi wa mainiti shomotu wo mimasu . 5. Tenki
ga attakani gozarimasu kara yuki ga tokemasu . 6. Anata no tomodati wa mainiti anata no

40 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

kiodai wo mimasu . 7. Konniti wa attakani gozarimasu kara yuki ga tokemasu . 8. Anata wa
nani wo kangayemasu ka . 9. Watakusi wa shomotu wo kangayemasu . 10. Anata no musume
wa nani wo tadunemasu ka . 11. Watakusi no musume wa shomotu wo tadunemasu . 12.
Anata no tomodati wa mainiti nan doki ni okimasu ka . 13. Watakusi no tomodati wa maiasa
hati zi ni okimasu . 14. Yuki ga tokemasen . 15. Watakusi wa konniti tomodati wo mimasen .
LXXVIII.
1. At what time do RXUIULHQGVJHWXS"7KH get up at eight o’clock. 3. What does RXU
brother look for? 4. MEURWKHUORRNVIRU KLV ERRNV:KDWGRou think of? 6. Do RX
see RXUIULHQGVHYHU da",VHHP friends everPRUQLQJ,WKLQNDERXW P) books.
9. Do RXJHWXSHYHU morning at eight? 10. I get up at eight everPRUQLQJ'Rour
daughters see books? 12. MGDXJKWHUVVHHERRNV,GRQRWVHHour friends. 14. I do
not look for books.
LXXIX.
Indicative Mood. Past.
Tokemasita, melt, or has or have melted.
Kangayemasita, thought, or has or have thought.
Tadunemasita, looked for, or has or have looked for.
Okimasita, got up, or has or have got up.
Mimasita, saw, or has or have seen.
Okimasita, fell, or has or have fallen.
Tokemasenanda, has or have not melted.
Kangayemasenanda, has or have not thought.
Tadunemasenanda, has or have not looked for.

Konchō, this morning. Dōsite, how.
Naze, why. Kimono, dress.
Koto, matter.
1. Yuki ga konohō tokemasita . 2. Anata wa konchō nan doko ni okimasita ka . 3. Watakusi
wa konchō hati zi ni okimasita . 4. Konniti wa attakani gozarimasen kara yuki ga
tokemasen . 5. Anata wa kono koto wo kangayemasita ka . 6. Watakusi wa sono koto wo
kangayemasenanda . 7. Anata wa sakuzitu nani wo Asakusa de mimasita ka . 8. Watakusi wa
sakuzitu Asakusa de tori wo mimasita . 9. Anata wa nani wo tadunemasu ka . 10. Watakusi
wa kimono wo tadunemasu . 11. Anata wa naze kono shomotu wo sukimasen ka . 12. Sono
shomotu wa omosiroku (amusing) gozarimasen kara watakusi wa sukimasen . 13. Anata
wa konniti watakusi no segare wo mimasita ka . 14. Watakusi wa anata no tomodati wo
mimasita .
LXXX.
1. Have RXWKRXJKWDERXWWKDWPDWWHU",GLGQRWWKLQNDERXWWKDWPDWWHU:KDWDUHou
looking for? 4. I look for RXUEURWKHUVERRN:KDWWLPHGLGou get up this morning?

Japanese and English Exercises. 41

6. I got up this morning at eight o’clock. 7. WhKDYHou not seen mIULHQGesterda"
8. I have not seen RXUIULHQGesterday, because I did not go to Yokohama. 9. Where did
RXJResterda",ZHQWWR$VDNXVDesterday. 11. What does RXUEURWKHUORRNIRU"
12. MEURWKHUORRNVIRU KLV ERRN.
LXXXI.
Indicative Mood. Future.
Tokemasko, will or shall melt.
Kangayemasho, will or shall think.
Tadunemasho, will or shall look for.
Okimasho, will or shall get up.
Mimasho, will or shall see.
Tokemasumai, will or shall not melt.
Kangayemasumai, will or shall not think.
Okimasumai, will or shall not get up.

Miyo-niti, to-morrow. Hayaku, early.
Miyo-asa, to-morrow morning.
1. Miyo-niti yuki ga tokemasho ka . 2. Miyo-niti yuki wa tokemasumai . 3. Anata no tomodati
wa miyo-asa nan doki ni okimasho ka . 4. Watakusi no tomodati wa miyo-niti hatti zi ni
okimasho ka . 5. Anata wa miyo-asa hayaku, okimasho ka . 6. Watakusi wa miyo-asa hayahu
okimasumai . 7. Anata wa nani wo usinaimasita ka . 8. Watakusi wa kane wo usinaimasita .
9. Anata wa sore wo tadunemasita ka . 10. Watakusi wa sore wo tadunemasenanda . 11.
Anata no kiodai wa miyo-niti watakusi no tomodati wo mimasho ka . 12. Watakusi no kiodai
wa miyo-niti Tokio ye ikimasen kara, Anata no tomodati wo mimasumai . 13. Naze anata
no kiodai wa miyoniti Tokio ye ikimasumai ka . 14. Watakusi no kiodai wa biyokide (ill)
gozarimasu kara ikimasumai .
LXXXII.
1. What time will RXJHWXSWRPRUURZPRUQLQJ",VKDOOJHWXSWRPRUURZPRUQLQJDW
eight o’clock. 3. Will RX see me to-morrow in Tokio? 4. I shall not see RX to-morrow.
5. Does RXU daughter get up earl ever morning? 6. She gets up ever morning at six
o’clock (roku zi) . 7. Wh do RXU friends go to Tokio to da" 8. M friends go to Tokio
because (the have (their) houses (there). 9. What do RX look for? 10. I look for m
books. 11. Have RXORVW our) mone",KDYHORVWP knife (hōchō) .
LXXXIII.

Indicative. Present.
Kuru, to come. Zonzuru, to know.
Suru, to do. Kurū, to be wild.
Kioiku suru, to educate. Kanzuru, to admire.

42 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

Kimasu, come or comes.
Simasu, do or does.
Kioiku simasu, educate or educates.
Kanzimasu, admire or admires.

Ki, mind. Saiku, workmanship.
Zinmin, people. Ye, picture.
Dō or Dosite, how.
1. Anata wa mainiti nani wo simasu ka . 2. Watakusi wa mainiti shomotu wo yomimasu
(read). 3. Anata no tomodati wa mainiti nani wo simasu ka . 4. Watakusi no tomodati
wa mainiti ye wo kakimasu (paints). 5. Anata no kiodai wa konniti koko ye kimasu ka .
6. Watakusi no kiodai wa konniti koko ye kimasu . 7. Anata wa kono saiku wo mimasita
ka. 8. Watakusi wa mada (HW kono saiku wo mimasenanda . 9. Anata wa kore wo do
omoimasu (think of) ka. 10. Watakusi wa sore ni kanzimasu . 11. Zinmin wo kioiku suru ga
JR]DULPDVu . 12. Anata wa kono saiku ni kanzimasu ka . 13. Watakusi wa sono saiku ni
kanzimasu . 14. Anata wa konniti watakusi no iye ye kimasu ka . 15. Watakusi wa konniti
anata no iye ye ikimasen .
LXXXIV.
1. Who comes here? 2. Your brother comes here. 3. Do RX not know m name? 4. I do
not know RXUQDPH'Rou admire this workmanship? 6. I admire this workmanship.
7. What do RX do to-da" 8. I read m books to-day. 9. Where do RX go? 10. I go to
Asakusa. 11. Do RXOLNHSLFWXUHV",OLNHSLFWXUHV.
LXXXV.
Indicative Mood. Past.
Kimasita, came, or has or have come.
Simasita, did, or has or have done.
Kioiku simasita, educated, or has or have educated.
Kimasenanda, has or have not come.
Simasenanda, has or have not done.

Sibai or Sibaya, theatre. Sitateya, tailor.
Tera, church. Kutuya, shoemaker.
1. Anata wa koko ye itu kimasita ka . 2. Watakusi wa koko ye sakuzitu kimasita . 3. Sakuzitu
anata wa nani wo simasita ka . 4. Sakuzitu watakusi wa shomotu wo yomimasita . 5. Anata
wa konniti sibai ye ikimasu ka . 6. Watakusi wa konniti tera ye ikimasu . 7. Dare ga kimasita
ka. 8. Sitateya ga kimasita . 9. Anata wa kimono wo kosirayemasu (make) ka. 10. Watakusi
wa haori wo kosirayemasu . 11. Anata wa konchō nani wo simasita ka . 12. Watakusi wa
konchō sinbunsi (newspaper) wo yomimasita . 13. Anata wa kono saiku ni kanzimasita ka .
14. Watakusi wa kono saiku ni kanzimasita .

Japanese and English Exercises. 43

LXXXVI.
1. Where did RX go HVWHUGD? 2. I went to Asakusa. 3. Did RX read the newspaper
HVWHUGD? 4. I read the newspaper HVWHUGD\ 5. Did RX come to m house last night
(saku-ya) ? 6. I came to RXUKRXVHODVWQLJKWEXWou were not at home. 7. Did RXJRWR
church this morning? 8. Who came here HVWHUGD? 9. A shoemaker came here HVWHUGD\
10. YesterdaDWDLORUFDPHKHUH'Rou make a coat? 12. I make a cloak (tonbi) . 13.
Do RXFRPHKHUHHYHU morning? 14. I come here everPRUQLQJ.
LXXXVII.
Indicative Mood. Future.
Kimasho, shall or will come.
Simasho, shall or will do or make.
Kanzimasho, will or shall admire.
Kimasumai, will or shall not come.
Simasumai, will or shall not do or make.
1. Itu anata no tomodati wa koko ye kimasho ka . 2. Watakusi no tomodati wa koko ye
kimasumai . 3. Dokoye anata wa ikimasu ka . 4. Watakusi wa konniti Yokohama ye ikimasu .
5. Nani wo watakusi wa miyo-niti simasho ka . 6. Anata wa miyo-niti tera ye ikimasho . 7.
Konniti anata no kiodai wa watakusi no iye ye kimasumai ka . 8. Watakusi no kiodai wa
konniti anata no iye ye kimasumai . 9. Anata wa mainiti nani wo simasu ka . 10. Watakusi
wa mainiti shomotu wo yomimasu . 11. Anata no tomodati wa mainiti gakkō (school) ye
ikimasu ka . 12. Watakusi no tomodati wa mainiti gakkō H ikimasen . 13. Sono okata wa
kono saiku ni kanzimasuka ka . 14. Kono okata wa sono saiku ni kanzimasho . 15. Anata wa
watakusi no tomodati wo itu, mimasita ka . 16. Watakusi wa anata no tomodati wo sakuzitu
mimasita . 17. Tenki ga JR]DULPDVu .
LXXXVIII.
1. What did RXGResterda",ZHQWWR<RNRKDPD:KDWGRHVour brother do ever
da" 4. M brother goes to school ever day. 5. Where are RX going? 6. I am going to
Asakusa. 7. When will RXU friend come to m house? 8. M friend will come to RXU
house to-morrow evening. 9. Do RX go to church often (tabitabi) ? 10. I go to church
sometimes (toki-doki) . 11. Will RXUEURWKHUDGPLUHWKLVZRUNPDQVKLSLI KH VHHV LW "

MEURWKHUZLOODGPLUHWKLVZRUNPDQVKLS6KDOOZHJRWR<RNRKDPDWRQLJKW"0
brother will go to Yokohama to-morrow evening. 15. Do RXOLNHWHD",OLNHWHD'R
RXGULQNVDNp",GULQNVDNp.
LXXXIX.

Matu, to wait. Usinau, to lose.
Utau, to sing. Kaku, to write, or to
paint.
* Here nominative and objective are understood in the Japanese sentence.

44 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

Konomu, to like. Uru, to sell.
Hanasu, to speak.
In conversation, * relative pronouns are alwaV understood; thus, Sore wa watakusi ga
mimasita hito de gozarimasu, He is the man whom I have seen; Sore wa watakusi no iye ni
kimasita hito de gozarimasu, He is the man who came to mKRXVH.

Nasi, pear. Igilisu kotoba or Ei-go,
English language. Kudamono, fruit.
Mikan, orange. Furansu, kotoba or Futugo,
French language. Uta, song.
Tegami, letter.
1. Anata wa tegami wo kakimasita ka . 2. Watakusi wa tegami wo kakimasita . 3. Kore wa
anata ga mimasita shomotu de gozarimasu ka . 4. Kore wa watakusi ga mimasita shomotu
de gozarimasu . 5. Anata wa dokoye ikimasu ka . 6. Watakusi wa anata ga sakuzitu ikimasita
tokoro (the place) ye ikimasu . 7. Anata wa uta wo utaimasu ka . 8. Watakusi wa uta wo
utaimasen ga (but) watakusi no musume ga utaimasu . 9. Anata no tomodati wa nasi wo
konomimasu ka . 10. Watakusi no tomodati wa mikan wo konomimasu . 11. Sono okata wa
Igilisu kotoba wo hanasimasu ka . 12. Kono okata wa Furansu kotoba wo hanasimasu . 13.
Anata wa kokode dare wo matimasu ka . 14. Watakusi wa kokode watakusi no tomodati
wo matimasu . 15. Anata wa kudamono wo konomimasu ka . 16. Watakusi wa kudamono
wo konomimasen ga watakusi no musume ga konomimasu . 17. Dare ga kono shomotu wo
urimasu ka . 18. Shomotuya (bookseller) ga kono shomotu wo urimasu .
XC.
1. Does RXU brother speak the French language? 2. M brother speaks the English
language. 3. Did RXZULWHour letters last night? 4. I did not write mOHWWHUVODVWQLJKW
but m brother wrote (them). 5. Is that the man whom RX saw HVWHUGD? 6. That is the
man whom I saw HVWHUGD\'RHVour friend like oranges? 8. MIULHQGOLNHVRUDQJHV
9. Is this the man who sells cloth? 10. This is the man who sells cloth. 11. Do RX wait
here for RXUEURWKHU",ZDLWKHUHIRUP daughter. 13. How much does this book cost
(simasu) ? 14. This book costs four shillings (yo yen) . 15. Does RXUIULHQGVLQJDVRQJ"
MIULHQGGRHVQRWVLQJDVRQJ.
XCI.

To…to, and. Iro, colour.
Keredomo, but. Kireina, kireini, beautiful
Watakusi no, mine. Hanahada, very.
Atai, price. Mairimasu, go, or goes.
* See Rule XII.

Japanese and English Exercises. 45
1. Watakusi to watakusi no kiodai to ga konniti Asakusa ye mairimasu (go). 2. Watakusi
wa Igilisu kotaba wo hanasimasen keredomo watakusi no kiodai ga hanasimasu . 3. Anata
wa ima doko ni orimasu ka . 4. Watakusi wa ima Yokohama ni orimasu . 5. Kono shomotu
wa anata no de gozarimasu ka . 6. Kono shomotu wa watakusi no kiodai no de gozarimasu .
7. Kono shomotu wa watakusi no de gozarimasen . 8. Kono tanmono no atai wa ikura de
gozarimasu ka . 9. Kono tanmono no ati wa go yen de gozarimasu . 10. Anata no kimono
no iro wa, kireini gozarimasu . 11. Anata no niwa ni arimasu hana wa hanahada kireini
gozarimasu . 12. Anata no tomodati wa watakusi no niwa wo mimasita ka . 13. Watakusi no
tomodati wa mada (HW anata no niwa wo mimasenanda . 14. Sakuzitu anata wa nani wo
simasita ka . 15. Sakuzitu watakusi wa tomodati no iye ye ikimasita . 16. Anata no tomodati
wa dokoni orimasu ka . 17. Watakusi no tomodati wa Tokio ni orimasu . 18. Anata wa konniti
tegami wo anata no tomodati ye okurimasu (send) ka. 19. Watakusi wa konniti tegami wo
watakusi no haha ni okurimasu . 20. Konchō anata wa sinbunsi (newspaper) wo mimasita
ka. 21. Watakusi wa koncho mada sinbunsi wo mimasenanda.
XCII.
1. The flowers (which) are in RXUJDUGHQDUHYHU beautiful. 2, Do RXOLNHRZHUV",
like flowers, 4. Where do RXJRWR",JRWRP friend’s house. 6. What do RXGRHYHU
da",UHDGERRNVHYHU day. 8. Did RXUHFHLYHP letter HVWHUGD? 9. I received RXU
letter this morning. 10. I do not like those pictures, but m friends like (them). 11. This
is the workmanship (which) I saw three HDUV ago. 12. Who came here to-da" 13. The
tailor and draper (tanmonoya) came here to-day. 14. How much does this cloth cost? 15.
That cloth costs three HQ:LOOour friends come to RXUKRXVHWKLVHYHQLQJ"0
friends will come to mKRXVHWKLVHYHQLQJ.
XCIII.

Mosi…nara, if. Tatoye…nisiro or sitemo, although.
Mosi watakusi ga sono okata wo mimasita nara kono tegami wo watasimasho. If I see him,
(I) shall deliver letter (to him).
Tatoye konniti wa yoi tenki de gozarimasu nisiro, miyoniti wa uten de gozarimasho.
Although it maEHQHWRGD\et to-morrow it will rain.

Onazi, koto or mono, the same
thing.
Kanniti wa, * good day.
Sayo or hai, yes.
Kinu, silk. Īe or ĪD, no.
Sazi, spoon. Wasuremasita, has or have
forgotten or forgot. Sayonara, good-bye.
1. Mosi watakusi ga konniti anata no tomodati wo mimasita nara, kono kinu wo
watasimasho . 2. Anata no shomotu to watakusi no wa onazi koto de gozarimasu ka . 3. ĪH
* Kanniti wa yoi tenki de gozarimasu, “This daLVDQHGD\LVFRQWUDFWHGLQWR Konniti wa .
* Here is the difference between HVDQG hai .

46 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
watakusi no shomotu to anata no wa onazi koto de gozarimasen . 4. Anata wa konniti gakkō
ye ikimasenanda ka . 5. Hai watakusi wa konniti gakkō HLNLPDVHQDQGD. * 6. Naze (wh
anata no tomodati wa konniti watakusi no iye ye kimasen ka . 7. Watakusi no tomodati
wa konnchō Tokio H ikimasita kara anata no tokoro H kimasen . 8. Anata wa kono kinu
wo ikura de kaimasita ka . 9. Watakusi wa sono kinu wo itt-shaku (one foot) ni yen de
kaimasita . 10. Anata wa London ni orimasita ka . 11. Hai watakusi wa London ni san nen
orimasita . 12. Anata wa Igilisu no kikō (English climate) wo konomimasen ka . 13. Hai
watakusi wa Igilisu no kiko wo konomimasen . 14. Itu mata (again) anata wa Tokio ye
ikimasu ka . 15. Miyoniti watakusi wa Tokio ye ikimasu . 16. Watakusi wa konniti tegami
wo watakusi no haha kara uketorimasita . 17. Mai tuki (everPRQWK anata wa tegami wo
anata no tomodati ni okurimasu ka . 18. Hai watakusi wa mai tuki tegami wo watakusi no
tomodati ni okurimasu .
XCIV.
1. Although it is fine now, it will rain presentl (imani) . 2. Have RXIRUJRWWHQPH"1R,
have not forgotten RX:KHUHDUHou living now? 5. I am living in Tokio. 6. When are
RXFRPLQJWRP house? 7. I am going to RXUKRXVHWRGD\+DYHou bought this silk?
9. Yes, I bought that silk, 10. How much did that cost? 11. This cost three HQDIRRW (itt-
shaku) . 12. If I see RXUIULHQGWRGD\ZKDWVKDOO,VD (to him)? 13. If RXVHHP friend
to-day, deliver (watasite kudasare) this letter (to him). 14, Did RXOLYHLQ(QJODQGDORQJ
time (nagaku) ? 15. I lived in England three HDUV,KDYHORVWP book.
XCV.
Yakusoku suru, To promise, to make an agreement.
The word to (with) must be put after the names of persons to whom we make a
promise.
Watakusi wa anata to miyo-niti Tokio ye iku yakuso ku simasita. I promised you to go
to Tokio tomorrow.

Watasu, to deliver. Shabon, soap.
Tou, to ask. Tenugui, towel.
1. Anata wa konchō anata no tomodati ni tegami wo okurimasita ka . 2. Watakusi wa tegami
wo sakuzitu okurimasita . 3. Anata wa kono kane wo dare ni watasimasu ka . 4. Watakusi wa
kono kane wo watakusi no tomodati ni okurimasu . 5. Itu anata wa sono kane wo kono okata
ni watasimasita ka . 6. Sakuzitu watakusi wa sono kane wo kono okata ni watasimasita . 7.
Anata wa sono koto wo anata no tomodati ni toimasita ka . 8. ĪHZDWDNXVLZDVRQRNRWRZR
mada toimasenanda . 9. Anata wa watakusi no segare to miyo-niti Tokio ye iku yakusoku
simasita ka . 10. ĪHZDWDNXVLZDDQDWDQRWRPRGDWLWR<RNRKDPDe iku DNXVRNXVLPDVLWa .
11. Sakuya anatagata wa sibai ye ikimasita ka . 12. ĪHZDWDNXVLGRPRZDVDNX]LWX$VDNXVD
ye ikimasita . 13. Anata wa konniti tegami wo anata no kuni (countr kara uketorimasita
ka. 14. Sayo, watakusi wa tegami wo watakusi no haha kara uketorimasita .

Japanese and English Exercises. 47

XCVI.
1. From whom did RXUHFHLYHWKLVOHWWHU",UHFHLYHGWKDWOHWWHUIURPP father. 3. How
much did RXUKRUVHFRVW"0 horse cost 100 HQ:KHUHDUHou going to-da":H
are going to Yokohama. 7. What do RXGRHYHU da",UHDGERRNVHYHU day. 9. Where
do RXOLYHQRZ",OLYHLQ7RNLR7RZKRPGRou send that letter? 12, I send that
letter to mIDWKHU'LGou promise that person to go to Tokio to-da"1R,GLGQRW
promise that person to go to Tokio to-day. 15. Did RXDVNour brother (about) this matter?
16. No, I have not asked mEURWKHU DERXW WKLVPDWWHUet (mada) .
XCVII.
In Japanese, when we appl ko (son), kanai (wife), and kiodai (brother) to those of others,
we prefix o or go before these words merelWRH[SUHVVRXUUHVSHFWWRRWKHUV.
Watakusi no ko, my son.
Anata no o ko [special courtes@our son.
Watakusi no kanai, mZLIH.
Anata no go kanai [special courtes@our wife.

Noru, to ride. Kayeru, to return.
Jōkisen or kisen, steamer. Jōkisha or kisha, railwaWUDLQ.
1. Watakusi wa konniti anata no go kanai wo mimasita . 2. Anata wa doko de watakusi no
kanai wo mimasita ka . 3. Watakusi wa anata no go kanai wo jōkisha de mimasita . 4. Anata
wa konniti Yokohama kara jōkisha de kimasita ka mata (or) jōkisen de kimasita ka . 5.
Watakusi wa jōkisha de kimasita . 6. Anata no o ko wa ikutu de gozarimasu ka . 7. Watakusi
no ko wa ju ni de gozarimasu . 8. Anata wa jōkisha ni noru koto wo konomimasu ka . 9. ĪH
watakusi wa jōkisha ni noru koto wo konomimasen . 10. Anata no go kiodai wa konniti doko
ye ikimasita ka . 11. Watakusi no kiodai wa konniti Tokio ye ikimasita . 12. Kono okata wa
anata no otomodati de gozarimasu ka . 13. Sayo, kono okata wa watakusi no tomodati de
gozarimasu . 14. Anata no kuni ni jōkisha ga gozarimasu ka . 15. Hai, watakusi no kuni ni
jōkisha ga gozarimasu .
XCVIII.
1. Did RXFRPHKHUHE a train or steamer? 2. I came bDVWHDPHU$UHWKHUHUDLOZDs
in RXU countr" 4. There is a railwa in m country. 5. Is RXU wife in RXU house? 6.
No, mZLIHZHQWWR<RNRKDPD,VWKDWour brother? 8. No, that is mIULHQG,KDYH
seen RXUGDXJKWHULQ$VDNXVD:KHQGLGou see mGDXJKWHULQ$VDNXVD",VDZ
RXUGDXJKWHUWKUHHGDs ago. 12. When will RXUEURWKHUUHWXUQIURP.DQDJDZD"0
brother will return to-day. 14. Did RXULGHLQWKHWUDLQRIWHQ (tabitabi) ? 15. No, I rode in
the train three times (san do) .
XCIX.
When we appl haha (mother) and titi (father) to those of others, we add the word sama, or
sometimes we use altogether different words:— Okkasan for mother, and ottosan for father.

48 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

Anata no titisama or ottosan, RXUIDWKHU.
Watakusi no haha or titi, mPRWKHURUIDWKHU.

Oji, uncle. Oba, aunt.
Asa-mesi, breakfast. Taberu, to eat.
Hiru-mesi, dinner. Nomu, to drink.
Ban-mesi, supper. Sakana, fish.
1. Watakusi wa sakuzitu anata no hahasama wo mimasita . 2. Anata wa doko de watakusi no
haha wo mimasita ka . 3. Watakusi wa anata no okkasan wo Asakusa de mimasita . 4. Anata
wa konchō asa-meshi wo tabemasita ka . 5. Hai watakusi wa konchō asameshi wo tabemasita .
6. Anata wa ban-meshi ni itudemo (alwaV saké wo nomimasu ka . 7. ĪHZDWDNXVLZDEDQ-
meshi ni cha wo nomimasu . 8. Anata wa hiru-meshi ni nani wo tabemasu ka . 9. Watakusi
wa hiru-meshi ni sakana to niku wo tabemasu . 10. Konniti anata no titisama or ottossan wa
doko ye ikimasita ka . 11. Watakusi no titi wa Tokio ye ikimasita . 12. Anata no hahasama wa
itu Tokio kara kayerimasu ka . 13. Miyo-niti watakusi no haha wa kayerimasu . 14. Kore wa
anata no ojisama de gozarimasu ka . 15. Hai kore wa watakusi no oji de gozarimasu . 16. Sono
okata wa anata no obasama de gazarimasu ka . 17. Hai kono okata wa watakusi no oba de
gozarimasu . 18. Anata wa konniti Tokio ye ikimasen ka . 19. Hai watakusi wa ikimasen .*
C.
1. Where is RXUEURWKHU"0 brother is in the house. 3. I have seen RXUPRWKHULQWKH
garden. 4. Did RXQLVK (sumimasita) RXUEUHDNIDVW"C<HV,QLVKHGP breakfast. 6.
At what time does RXUIDWKHUJHWXS"0 father gets up at seven o’clock. 8. What do
RXHDWDWGLQQHU",HDWPHDWDQGVK'RHVour mother like meat? 11. MPRWKHU
likes meat. 12. At what time do RXHDWVXSSHU",HDWVXSSHUDWVL[RFORFN'Rou
write a letter to RXUIDWKHUHYHU da"<HV,ZULWHDOHWWHUWRP father everGD\
Will RXUEURWKHUUHWXUQKHUHWRGD? 17. I do not know (zonzimasen) . 18. Have RXVHHQ
the railwaWUDLQV"<HV,URGHLQWKHWUDLQRIWHQ (tabitabi) .
CI.
Sosiraremasu, is, or are sneered at.
Sosiraremasita, was, or were sneered at.
Wutaremasu, is, or are beaten.
Wutaremasita, was, or were beaten.
Miraremasu, is, or are seen or looked at.
Miraremasita, was, or were seen or looked at.

Hana mi ni, to see the flower. Sakura, cherrWUHHRURZHU.
Fune, ship, or boat. Sakuzitu, yesterday.
Inu, dog. Mati, street.
Sono hito, that person. Kisi, bank.
Kawa, river. Fuzin, lady.
* In some cases Hai and ĪH do not correspond to the English ‘HV and ‘no’; or, as the examples
above show, there is a difference in the idiomatic use of these words in the two languages.

Japanese and English Exercises. 49
1. Kono inu wa hito ni wutaremasu ka . 2. ĪH kono inu wa hito ni wutaremasen . 3. Sono
inu wa sakuzitu hito ni wutaremasita . 4. Sono fuzin wa hito ni miraremasu ka . 5. Kono
fuzin wa sakuzitu hito ni miraremasita . 6. Dokode sono fuzin wa hito ni miraremasita ka .
7. Mati de miraremasita . 8. Itudemo kireina fuzin wa hito ni miraremasu . 9. Anata wa
hana mini ikimasita ka . 10. Watakusi wa fune de hana mini ikimasita . 11. Sakura wa doko
ni gozarimasu ka . 12. Sakura wa kawa no kisi ni gozarimasu . 13. Sakura wa fune kara
miraremasu ka . 14. Hai fune kara miraremasu . 15. Sakura wa kireina hana de gozarimasu
ka. 16. Sakura wa hanahada kireini gozarimasu . 17. Sono fuzin wa hito ni sosiraremasu
ka. 18. ĪH kono fuzin wa hito ni homeraremasu (is praised). 19. Sono hito wa hito ni
homeraremasu ka matawa sosiraremasu ka . 20. Kono hito wa hito ni homeraremasu . 21.
Mainiti tenki ga  gozarimasu kara, sakura no hana ga kireini gozarimasho . 22. Dare
ga hana mini ikimasu ka . 23. Watakusi no tomodati to watakusi ga hana mini ikimasu . 24.
Hana wa doko ni takusan arimasu ka . 25. Muko-zima ni arimasu .
CII.
1. Was this lad seen b the people HVWHUGD? 2. Yes, this lad was seen b the people.
3. Where was that ladVHHQE the people? 4. This beautiful ladZDVVHHQE the people
ever where (dokodemo) . 5. Where did RX go HVWHUGD? 6. I went to see the flower. 7.
Where is the flower? 8. (It) is on the bank of a river. 9. When did RXJRWRWKHWKHDWUH"
I went to the theatre HVWHUGD\:DVWKDWSHUVRQVQHHUHGDWE the people? 12. No, that
person was not sneered at bWKHSHRSOH+RZGLGou go to see the flower? 14. I went in
a boat. 15. Who was beaten HVWHUGD? 16. This dog was beaten HVWHUGD\'Rou write
a letter to-morrow? 18. I write a letter to-morrow. 19. Are (there) cherrWUHHVLQWKHVWUHHW"
20. Yes, there are cherrWUHHVLQWKHVWUHHW7KHRZHURIDFKHUU-tree is beautiful. 22.
I do not go to see the flower, but mIULHQGJRHV.
CIII.
Miyemasu,
can see.
Miru koto ga dekimasu,
Ikemasu,
can go.
Iku koto ga dekimasu,
Yomemasu,
can read.
Yomu koto ga dekimasu,
Kakemasu,
can paint or write.
Kaku koto ga dekimasu,

50 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

Mono, thing. Tada ima, just now.
Tōku,

distance.
Yōzi, business.
Yenpo Megane, spectacle.
Musi, insect. Saka duki, saké cup.
1. Konniti sibai ye anata wa ikemasu ka . 2. Hai watakusi wa konniti sibai ye iku koto ga
dekimasu . 3. Anata wa kono tisana musi wo miru koto ga, dekimasu ka . 4. ĪHVRQRPXVL
wa miyemasen . 5. Anata ma yenpo ga miyemasuka . 6. Watakusi wa megane nasini yenpo
ga miyemasen . 7. Anata wa tada ima Yokohama ye iku koto ga dekimasu ka . 8. Watakusi
wa itudemo ikemasu . 9. Konniti anata wa hana mini iku koto ga dekimasu ka . 10. Watakusi
wa konniti hana mini iku koto ga dekimasu . 11. Anata wa kono tisai mono wo megane
nasini miru koto ga dekimasu ka . 12. ĪHZDWDNXVL wa megane nasini sore wo miru koto
ga dekimasen . 13. Izen anata wa dokoni orimasita ka . 14. Watakusi wa izen Nagasaki
ni orimasita . 15. Mata anata wa Nagasaki ye ikimasu ka . 16. Hai, watakusi wa, ]L ga
arimasu kara, Nagasaki ye ikimasu . 17. Anata wa Nagasaki kara hayaku kayeru koto ga
dekimasu, ka . 18. ĪHZDWDNXVLZDKDaku kaHUXNRWRJDGHNLPDVHn . 19. Sokoni sakaduki
ga arimasu ka . 20. ĪHNRNRQLVDNDGXNLZDDULPDVHn . 21. Anata wa kono shomotu wo yomu
koto ga dekimasu ka . 22. ĪHZDWDNXVLZDVRQRVKRPRWXZRomu koto ga dekimaisen . 23.
Anata wa ye ga kakemasu ka . 24. Watakusi wa ye ga kakemasu .
CIV.
1. Have you any business to-day? 2. No, I have not any business. 3. Can you go to Asakusa
this morning? 4. I can go (there) just now. 5. Can you read this book? 6. I can read that book.
7. Can you write a letter to-day? 8. Yes, I can write a letter to-day. 9. Can you see this small
insect without spectacles? 10. Yes, I can see (it). 11. Where do you go every day? 12. I go to
see the flower every day. 13. Can you go to see the flower every morning? 14. I can go to see
the flower every morning. 15. Was this dog beaten by the people last night? 16. Yes, this dog
was beaten last night. 17. Can you paint a picture? 18. Yes, I can paint a picture. 19. Can you
go to Nagasaki in a ship? 20. Yes, I can go to Nagasaki in a ship. 21. Can you see that? 22. I
can see that. 23. Can RXUHDGWKLV(QJOLVKZRUG"<HV,FDQUHDG LW .
CV.
Ikemasita,

could go. Iku koto ga dekimasita,
Ikemasen,

cannot go. Iku koto ga dekimasen,

Japanese and English Exercises. 51
Miyemasen,

cannot see. Miru koto ga dekimasen,

Kumo, spider. Tōmegane, telescope.
Inaka, country. Hai, fly.
Turi, fishing. Hane, wing.
Kenbikiyo, microscope. Asi, foot, or feet.
1. Anata wa konniti sibai ye ikemasu ka . 2. ĪH watakasi wa konniti ikemasen . 3. Anata
wa sakuzitu Asakusa ye iku koto ga dekimasita ka . 4. Hai, dekimasita . 5. Anata wa kono
hai wo kenbi kiyo de mimasita ka . 6. Watakusi wa sono hai no hane wo kenbikiyo de
mimasita . 7. Anata wa sono hane wo yoku miru koto ga dekimasita ka . 8. Hai, watakusi
wa sore wo yoku miru koto ga dekimasita . 9. Watakusi wa kumo no asi wo kenbikiyo nasini
yoku miru koto ga dekimasen . 10. Anata wa konchō inaka HLNXNRWRJDGHNLPDVXNa . 11.
ĪHNRQFKRZDWDNXVLZDLNXNRWRJDGHNLPDVHn . 12. Anata wa mainiti turi ni iku koto ga
dekimasu ka . 13. ĪHZDWDNXVLZDPDLQLWLWXULQLLNXNRWRZDGHNLPDVHn . 14. Itu anata wa
inaka ye iku koto ga dekimasu ka . 15. Koncho watakusi wa ikimasu . 16. Anata wa nani
wo tōmegane de mimasu ka . 17. Watakusi wa tōmegane de hosi wo mimasu . 18. Anata wa
sore wo tōmegane nasi ni miru koto ga dekimasu ka . 19. Watakusi wa tomegane nasi ni
miru koto ga dekimasu . 20. Anata wa sakuzitu hana mini iku koto ga dekimasita . 21. Hai,
sakuzitu hana mini iku koto ga dekimasita . 22. Anata wa kono musi no asi wo kenbikiyo de
miru koto ga dekimasita ka . 23. Hai, miru koto ga dekimasita . 24. Anata wa kono shomotu
wo yomu koto ga dekimasita ka . 25. Hai, sono shomotu wo yomu koto ga dekimasita .
CVI.
1. Could RXJRWRDWDLORUesterda"<HV,FRXOGJRWRDWDLORUesterday. 3. When did
RX go to a shoemaker? 4. I went to a shoemaker HVWHUGD\ 5. Could RX see this small
wing with, a microscope? 6. Yes, I saw it with a microscope. 7. Wh could RX not go
to see the flower HVWHUGD? 8. I could not go to see the flower HVWHUGD\ because I had
business (or there was business). 9. How did RXJRWR1DJDVDNL",ZHQWLQDVKLS
At what time can RXJRWR<RNRKDPDWRGD? 12, I can go to Yokohama directly. 13. Can
RXVHHWKLVVPDOOZRUNZLWKRXWDPLFURVFRSH"1R,FDQQRWVHHWKLVVPDOOZRUNZLWKRXW
a microscope. 15. Have RXVHHQWKHZLQJRID with a microscope? 16. Yes, I have seen
(it). 17. Can RXVHHWKHIRRWRIDVSLGHUZHOOZLWKRXWDPLFURVFRSH"1R,FDQQRWVHH LW
well. 19. When RXZHUHLQ-DSDQGLGou go to Asakusa? 20. Yes, when I was in Japan, I
went to Asakusa. 21. When RXZHUHLQ-DSDQZHUHou able to go to see the flower? 22.
When I was in Tokio, I went in a boat to see the flower. 23. Was this small dog beaten b
the people HVWHUGD? 24. No, this small dog was not beaten.
CVII.
Miyemasho,

Will, or shall be able to see. Miru koto ga dekimasho,

52 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
Miyemasumai,
Will, or shall not be able to
see. Miru koto ga dekimasumai,

Ikemasho,

Will, or shall be able to go. Iku koto ga dekimasho,
Ikemasumai,

Will, or shall not be able to go. Iku koto ga dekimasumai,
Kaze, wind. Koye, sound, or voice.
Kiku, chrysanthemum. Tori, bird.
Yuri, lily. Wuguisu, nightingale.
Ayame, sweet flag. Wataru, to cross.
Kakitubata, iris. Sewashū, busy.
1. Miyo-niti watakusi wa yuri no hana wo miru koto ga dekimasho ka . 2. Hai Anata, wa
miyoniti yuri no hana wo miru koto ga dekimasho . 3. Nitiyobi ni watakusi wa sono ye wo
miru koto ga dekimasho ka . 4. ĪHQLWLobi ni wa miru koto ga dekimasen ga getuRELQL
dekimasho . 5. Asakusa ye watakusi wa miyoniti fune de iku koto ga dekimasho ka . 6. Hai,
dekimasho . 7. Wumi wo fune de wataru koto ga dekimasu ka . 8. Konniti anata wa fune de
wataru koto ga dekimasen . 9. Miyoniti fune de wumi wo wataru koto ga dekimasho ka . 10.
Hai, miyoniti anata wa fune de wataru koto ga dekimasho . 11. Naze konniti wataru koto
ga dekimasen ka . 12. Konniti wa kaze ga tu gozarimasu kara, dekimasen . 13. Anata
wa tokei wo kosirayeru koto ga dekimasu ka . 14. Hai, watakusi wa tokei wo kosirayeru
koto ga dekimasu . 15. Anata wa Nippon no kotoba wo hanasu koto ga dekimasu ka . 16.
Watakusi wa Nippon no kotoba wo sukosi hanasu koto ga dekimasu . 17. Miyoniti watakusi
domo wa kiku no hana wo miru koto ga dekimasho ka . 18. Anata gata wa miyoniti kiku no
hana wo miru koto ga dekimasumai . 19. Anata wa konnen (this HDU wuguisu no koye wo
kikimasita ka . 20. Haru (Spring) ga kimasen kara, mada watakusi wa wuguisu no koye wo
kikimasen . 21. Anata wa ayame no hana wo mimasita ka . 22. ĪHPDGDZDWDNXVLZDDame
wo mimasen ga kakitubata wo mimasita .
CVIII.
1. Will RXEHDEOHWRJRWRWKHWKHDWUHWRPRUURZ"<HV,VKDOOEHDEOHWRJRWRWKHWKHDWUH
to-morrow. 3. Will RXU friend be able to go to Sinagawa tomorrow morning (miyocho) ?
4. Yes, mIULHQGZLOOEHDEOHWRJRWR6LQDJDZDWRPRUURZPRUQLQJ:LOOou be able
to see that bird to-morrow? 6. Yes, I shall be able to see that bird to-morrow. 7. Will RX
be able to see that lilWRPRUURZHYHQLQJ"<HV,VKDOOEHDEOHWRVHHWKDWOLO\6KDOO
we be able to hear the voice of the nightingale in this place (koko de) ? 10. You will not be
able to hear the voice of a nightingale here. 11. Shall we be able to cross the sea to-da"
You will be able to cross the sea if there is no wind. 13. Will RXEHDEOHWRUHDGWKLVERRN
to-morrow? 14. No, I shall not be able to read that book, because I am busy. 15. Will RX

Japanese and English Exercises. 53
be able to see this wing of a flZLWKDPLFURVFRSHWRPRUURZ",VKDOOEHDEOHWRGRVR
(Dekimasho) . 17. Shall we be able to go to Mukozima in a boat to-morrow? 18. We shall
be able to go to Mukozima in a boat to-morrow. 19. Have RXVHHQWKDWEHDXWLIXOELUG"
I have seen that beautiful bird. 21. Will RXEHDEOHWRJRWR6LNRNXQH[Wear? 22. We shall
not be able to go to Sikoku next HDU.
CIX.

Mosi …nara, if. Iku koto, to go.
Miyo, see (command). Miru koto,

to see. Mite kudasare, praVHH HQWUHDW). Mini, *
Yomu koto,

to read. Ikee, go (command). Yomini, *
Itte kudasare, praJR HQWUHDW). Kiku koto,

to hear. Kikini, *
1. Sore wo miyo . 2. Sore wo mite kudasare . 3. Soko ye ike . 4. Soko ye itte kudasare . 5.
Anata wa Yokohama ye ikimasu nara, watakusi no tomodati no iye ye itte kudasare . 6.
Anata wa konniti ]L ga gozarimasen nara, watakusi no shomotu wo mite kudasare . 7.
Anata wa hanasi wo kiku koto wo sukimasu ka . 8. Hai, watakusi wa hanasi wo kiku koto wo
sukimasu . 9. Anata wa itu hanasi wo kikini ikimasu ka. 10. Watakusi wa hanasi wo maiban
kikini ikimasu . 11. Anata wa sibai ye iku koto wo sukimasu ka . 12. Hai, watakusi wa sibai
ye iku koto wo sukimasu . 13. Nippon no fuzin wa sibai ye iku koto wo sukimasu ka . 14. Hai,
Nippon no fuzin wa sibai ye iku koto wo suki masu . 15. Hanasi wo kiku koto wa hanahada
JR]DULPDVu . 16. Sibai wo miru koto wa hanahada omosirō gozarimasu . 17. Shomotu wo
yomu koto wa hanahada taisetu de gozarimasu (important). 18. Anata wa doko ye shomotu
wo yomini ikimasu ka . 19. Watakusi wa shomotu wo yomini gakko ye ikimasu . 20. Anata wa
gakko ye iku koto wo sukimasu ka . 21. Hai, watakusi wa gakko ye iku koto wo sukimasu .
22. Anata wa wuguisu no koye wo kiku koto wo sukimasu ka . 23. Watakusi wa wuguisu no
koye wo kiku koto wo sukimasu . 24. Anata wa kenbikiyo de tisai mono wo miru koto wo
sukimasu ka . 25. Kenbikiyo de tisai musi wo miru koto wa omosiro gozarimasu .
CX.
1. Do RXOLNHWRUHDGERRNV"<HV,OLNHWRUHDGERRNV:KDWERRNGRou like to read?
4. I like to read a novel (shosetu) . 5. To read a novel is amusing, but to read a histor (rekisi)
is important. 6. Go to the left. 7. See that man. 8. Do RXRIWHQJRWR VHH DWKHDWUH",GR
not go to (see) the theatre often. But I like to go to the theatre. 10. Does RXUIULHQGOLNHWR
hear an amusing stor"<HVP friend likes to hear an amusing story. 12. Will RXEH
* This form of the infinitive mood is used when it is governed bDQLQWUDQVLWLYHYHUE.

54 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
able to go to hear a storWRGD? 13. No, I shall not be able to do so. 14. Will RXEHDEOH
to go to see the flower to-morrow morning? 15. I shall not be able to do so. 16. WhFDQ
RXQRWJRWRWKHWKHDWUHWKLVHYHQLQJ",FDQQRWJRWRWKHWKHDWUHWRGD\EHFDXVH,KDYH
business (there is business), 18. If RXJRWR$VDNXVDSUD go to the house of mEURWKHU
19. If RXFRPHWRP house, praVHHP picture. 20. PraVHHWKDWERRN:KHUHGRou
go to read books? 22. I go to read books in the school. 23. Do RXOLNHWRJRWRWKHVFKRRO
everGD? 24. Yes, I like to do so.
CXI.
Oide nasare, go.
Oide nasareta, went.
Oide nasaren, does, or do not go.
Oide nasarenanda, did not go.
These forms of the verb are emploHG to address the second person when respect is
expressed. For instance, Dokoye anata wa oide nasaru ka instead of Doko ye anata wa
ikimasu ka . Where do RX go? The latter wa of expression is quite intelligible, but the
former is preferable as a more polite expression.
Goran nasaru, see.
Goran nasaren, does, or do not see.
Okiki nasaru, hear.
Okiki nasaren, does, or do not hear.
Oyomi nasaru, read.
Oyomi nasaren, does, or do not read.
Owuketori nasaru, receive.
Owuketori nasaren, does, or do not receive.
Okonomi nasaru, like.
Okonomi nasaren, does, or do not like.
Okosiraye nasaru, make.
Okosiraye nasaren, does, or do not make.
Onomi nasaru, drink.
Onomi nasaren, does, or do not drink.
Okirai nasaru, dislike.
Okirai nasaren, does, or do not like.
Otadune nasaru, seek, or look for.
Otadune nasaren, does, or do not seek.
Okangaye nasaru, think.
Okangaye nasaren, does, or do not think.
1. Anata wa konchō doko HRLGHQDVDUXNa . 2. Watakusi wa Yokohama ye ikimasu . 3. Anata wa
konniti Asakusa ye oide nasaru ka . 4. ĪHNRQQLWLZDWDNXVLZDLNLPDVHn . 5. Anata wa sakuzitu
Sinagawa ye oide nasareta ka . 6. ĪH watakusi wa sakuzitu Sinagawa H ikimasenanda . 7.
Anata wa konban Kanagawa ye oide nasaru ka . 8. Īye, wata-kusi wa konban Kanagawa ye

Japanese and English Exercises. 55
ikimasen . 9. Anata wa nani wo sakuzitu goran nasareta ka . 10. Watakusi wa sakuzitu hana
wo mimasita . 11. Anata wa sakuzitu omosiroi hanasi wo okiki nasareta ka . 12. Hai, sakuzitu
watakusi wa omosiroi hanasi wo kikimasita . 13. Konniti anata wa shomotu wo oyomi nasaru
ka. 14. Hai, watakusi wa shomotu wo yomimasu . 15. Koncho anata wa watakusi no tegami wo
owuketori nasareta ka . 16. Hai, watakusi wa anata no otegami wo koncho wuketorimasita .
17. Anata wa sibai ye iku koto wo okonomina saru ka . 18. Watakusi wa sibai ye iku koto wo
konomimasu . 19. Anata ga kono kireina hako wo okosiraye nasareta ka . 20. Hai, watakusi
ga kosirayemasita . 21. Anata wa sake wo onominasaru ka . 22. Īye, watakusi wa sake wo
nomimasen . 23. Anata wa kono tisai inu wo okirai nasaru ka . 24. Īye, watakusi wa sono inu
wo sukimasu . 25. Soko de anata wa nani wo otadune nasaru ka . 26. Watakusi wa watakusi
no tomodati no shomotu wo tadune masu .
CXII.
1. What do RXWKLQN DERXW HYHU da",WKLQNRIVRPHWKLQJDERXWWKHERRNV (shomotu
no koto wo) . 3. Do RXJRWRVHHDSLFWXUHWRGD? 4. No, I go to see the flower. 5. Did RX
receive mOHWWHUesterda"GLGQRWUHFHLYHour letter HVWHUGD\'LGou hear an
amusing storODVWQLJKW"<HV,KHDUGDQDPXVLQJVWRU last night, 9. What did RXUHDG
HVWHUGD morning? 10. I read an amusing book HVWHUGD morning. 11. Did RXQRWVHHWKH
beautiful flowers in Asakusa? 12, I saw the beautiful flowers in OkuDPD:KDWGRou
drink everGD? 14. I drink tea everGD\'LGou not drink saké last night? 16. I drank
saké last night. 17. Did RXGLVOLNHWKHJDUGHQRI$VDNXVD",GLGQRWGLVOLNHLW'LG
RXPDNHWKDWEHDXWLIXOFDELQHW (tedansu) ? 20. Yes, I made that cabinet. Do RXOLNH LW "
21. Yes, I like (it). 22. Have RXQRWVHHQWKLVSLFWXUHet (mada) ? 23. No, I have not seen
(it) HW:KDW (dō) do RXWKLQNRIWKDW",WKLQNWKDWJRRG (yoi to) .
CXIII.

Oide nasaru koto ga dekimasu, can go.
Oide nasaru koto ga dekimasen, cannot go.
Oide nasaru, koto ga dekimasita, could go.
Oide nasaru koto ga dekimasenanda, could not go.
Teduma, conjuring. Katana, sword.
Tedumasi, conjurer. Karuwaza, acrobatic feats
Odori, dancing. Karuwazasi, acrobat.
Wuta, song. Hebitukai, snake tamer.
In conversation, the relative pronoun is not used. For instance, Kore wa watakusi ga
yomimasita shomotu de gozarimasu . This is the book I read.
…to yuwu …called. For example, Sumida to yuwu kawa, a river called Sumida, Tokio to
yuwu mati, citFDOOHG7RNLR F.

Gei, acting, or art. Tokoro, scene or place.
Gedai, the title of a play. Yakusha, actor.
Hanasika, storyteller.
Yekaki, painter. Koshakusi, lecturer.

56 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language

Awarena, sorrowful or
touching.
Kadi, blacksmith.
Kenbutunin, spectator.
Sansui, landscape. Nadakai, famous.
1. Miyoniti anata wa sibai ye oide nasaru koto ga dekimasu ka . 2. Hai, watakusi wa iku
koto ga dekimasu ga doko no sibai ye anata wa oide nasaru ka . 3. Watakusi wa miyoniti
Asakusa no sibai ye ikimasho . 4. Nan to yuwu sibai no gedai de gozarimasu ka . 5.
Tiwusingura to yuwu gedai de gozarimasu . 6. Sono sibai ni wa awarena tokoro ga takusan
gozarimasu ka . 7. Tiwusingura, ni wa takusan awarena tokoro ga gozarimasu . 8. Nan to
yuwu yakusha ga Asakusa no sibai ni orimasu ka . 9. Danjurō to XZXakusha ga orimasu .
10. Danjurō wa watakusi ga maHQLPLPDVLWDakusha de gosarimasu . 11. Konniti anata
wa Meguro to yu tokoro ye oide nasaru koto wa dekimasen ka . 12. Konniti watakusi wa
dekimasen . 13. Sakuzitu anata wa karuwaza wo goran nasaru koto ga dekimasita ka . 14.
Hai, dekimasita . 15. Kenbutunin ga takusan orimasita ka . 16. Ken-butunin ga takusan
orimasita . 17. Sono atode (after that) nani wo goran nasareta ka . 18. Sono atode hebitukai
to tedumasi wo mimasita . 19. Sono atode oyado ye (to RXU house) okayeri nasareta ka .
20. ĪH sore kara mata hanasika to koshakusi wo kiki ni ikimasita . 21. Dare ga kono
katana wo kosirayemasita ka . 22. Sore wa Mosamune to yuwu katana de gozarimasita .
23. Sakuzitu odori wo goran nasaru koto ga dekimasita ka . 24. ĪHRGRULZRPLUXNRWRZD
dekimasenanda ga wuta wo kiki ni iku koto ga dekimasita . 25. Nan to yuwu wuta wo okiki
nasoreta ka . 26. Yugure * to yuwu wuta wo kikimasita .
CXIV.
1. Could RXJRWRVHHGDQFLQJesterda"1R,FRXOGQRWJRWRVHHGDQFLQJesterday,
but I saw a snake-tamer. 3. Did RXFRPHKRPHDIWHUWKDW"1R,ZHQWWR VHH DWKHDWUH
after that. 5. What (Doko no) theatre did RX go to? 6. I went to a theatre in Asakusa. 7.
What is the name of the pla" 8. It is a piece called Awanonaruto. 9. Is it amusing? 10.
No, it is touching. 11. Could RX go to the place called Ozi HVWHUGD? 12. Yes, I could
go (there). 13. Could RXQRWJRWRVHHFRQMXULQJesterda"1R,FRXOGQRWJRWRVHH
conjuring, but I went to see (some) pictures. 15. What pictures did RXVHHesterda",
saw landscapes. 17. Who painted them? 18. A famous painter called Hokusai painted them.
19. Where do RXJRWRGD? 20. I go to hear a storWHOOHU:KDWVWRU (Nan to yuwu
hanasi) are RXJRLQJWRKHDU",DPJRLQJWRKHDUWKHVWRU of Tiwusingura. 23. Who is
the storWHOOHU",GRQRWNQRZ KLV QDPH7LZXVLQJXUDLVWKHVWRU I heard before.
CXV.
Where two or more verbs are connected bWKHFRQMXQFWLRQDQGLQDQ(QJOLVKVHQWHQFH
the verbs in a Japanese sentence change their termination except a final one, in order to
avoid the repetition of masu, masen, &c. For instance, Watakusi wa Asakusa ye itte, hana,
wo mite, sore kara kayerimasho . I shall go to Asakusa, see the flower and then return. Here
the words iku, “to go,” and miru, “to see,” are respectivel changed into itte and mite .
These forms of the verbs remain the same whether the tense is present, past, or future.
* “Twilight.”

Japanese and English Exercises. 57
Where a verb is governed b a relative pronoun in an English sentence, the verb in a
Japanese sentence often changes its termination. For instance, Sore wa watakusi ga mita
shomotu de gozarimasu, That is the book (which) I have seen. Here the verb miru, “to see,”
is changed into mita . The following is the declension of the verb ending in ku.
Iku, to go,

Itte.
Itta.
Hataraku, to work,

Hataraite.
Hataraita.
Nabiku, to incline,

Nabīte.
Nabīta.
Taku, to burn,

Taite.
Taita.
Kiku, to hear,

Kīte.
Kīta.
Aruku, to walk,

Aruite.
Aruita.
Tataku, to beat,

Tataite.
Tataita .
Nageku, to mourn,

Nageite.
Nageita.
Kaku, to write or paint,

Kaite.
Kaita.
Maneku, to beckon,

Maneite.
Maneita.
Toku, to solve, or dissolve,

Toite.
Toita.

58 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
Yaku, to toast, or burn,

Yaite.
Yaita.
Hiku, to draw, or pull, Hīte.
Hīta.
Naku, to cry, or weep,

Naite.
Naita.
Tutu, to stab,

Tuite.
Tuita.
Sirizoku, to retire,

Sirizoite.
Sirizoita.
1. Kore wa Kanaoka ga kaita ye de gozarimasu ka . 2. ĪHVRUHZD+RNXVDLWRuwu HNDNL
ga kaita ye de gozarimasu . 3. Watakusi wa kono tegami wo kaite okurimasu . 4. Watakusi
wa sore wo itte mimasho . 5. Sore wa watakusi ga kīta hanasi de gozarimasu . 6. Watakusi
wa sono koto wo kīte kanasimimasita (lamented). 7. Watakusi wa mainiti hataraite hi wo
okurimasu . 8. Kore wa watakusi ga sakuzitu aruita miti de gozarimasu . 9. Anata wa konniti
Asakusa made aruite oide nasaru ka . 10. Hai, watakusi wa konniti Asakusa made aruite
ikimasu . 11. Sono hito ga kono inu wo tataite korosimasita (killed). 12. Sore wa kono hito
ga tataita hito de gozarimasu . 13. Watakusiwa kore wo midu ni toite ye wo kakimasu . 14.
Kono hito ga sono neko wo yari (spear) de tuite korosimasita . 15. Watakusi wa miyoniti
soko ye itte sono hana wo mimasho . 16. Watakusi wa sakuzitu Asakusa ye itte sono tori
womimasita . 17. Watakusi wa hataraite kane wo mōkemasu (earn mone  Watakusi ga
Yokohama ye ikimasita tokini minato ni takusan fune ga orimasita . 19. Kono hito ga sono
ami (net) wo kīte sakana wo torimasu . 20. Anata wa Mukozima ye oide nasareta tokini
sakura wo goran nasareta ka . 21. ĪHZDWDNXVLJD0XNR]LPDe ita tokini sakura wa mada
gozarimasenanda .
CXVI.
1. I heard the storDQGUHWXUQHG,ZHQWWKHUHKHDUGWKDWVWRU\DQGUHWXUQHG,VKDOO
go there to-morrow, hear that story, and return. 4. When I went to Sinagawa, I saw a large
dog in the street. 5. That is the stor,KHDUGODVWQLJKW,ZHQWWR0XNR]LPDDQGVDZWKH
flower of the cherrWUHH 7. This man has beaten this dog, and killed it. 8. I shall paint a
picture and send it to mIULHQG,VKDOOEXUQWKLVVWRQH (isi) and make it (or reduce it to)
powder (ko) . 10. This child heard that news and wept. 11. I shall work and earn money. 12.
That is the letter I wrote HVWHUGD\7KDWLVWKHERRN,ZURWH,VKDOOZULWHDOHWWHUWR-
morrow and send it to that person. 15. Is this the dog which barked last night? 16. No, that
is not the dog which barked last night. 17. Who painted this picture? 18. That is the picture
Kanaoka painted. 19. Who sent that picture? 20. MIULHQGSDLQWHGDQGVHQWLWWRPH.

Japanese and English Exercises. 59
CXYII.
The verbs ending in au.
Au, to meet,

Ōte.
Ōta.
Tatakau, to fight,

Tatakōte.
Tatakōta.
Mau, to dance,

Mōte.
Mōta.
Hau, to creep,

Hōte.
Hōta.
Nerau, to aim,

Nerōte.
Nerōta.
Warau, to laugh,

Warōte.
Warōta.

Kau, to buy. Sitagau, to obey.
Usinau, to lose. Utagau, to doubt.
The Verbs ending in mu and imu .
Konomu, to like,

Kononde.
Kononda.
Nomu, to drink,

Nonde.
Nonda .
Tutusimu, to revere, or
to be reverential,

Tutusinde.
Tutusinda.
Kanasimu, to lament.

Kanasinde.
Kanasinda.

60 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
Yomu, to read.

Yonde.
Yonda.
Tanomu, to trust,

Tanonde .
Tanonda.
Tanosimu, to enjoy,

Tanosinde.
Tanosinda.
Kurusimu, to suffer,

Kurusinde.
Kurusinda.

Kabe, wall. Wakareru, to part.
Tuta, ivy. Sina, article or thing.
Meirei, command. Osiye, instruction.
Mise, shop. Teppo, gun, rifle.
Tobu, to flRUMXPS. Tuye, stick.
Katana, sword.
1. Watakusi wa miti de sono hito ni ōte hanasi wo kikimasita . 2. Kono hito wa watakusi ga
sakuzitu Asakusa de ōta hito de gozarimasu . 3. Kireina tuta ga kabe ni hōte orimasu . 4.
Sakuzitu watakusi ga kōta tokei wo konniti usinaimasita . 5. Kore wa watakusi ga sakuzitu
kōta sina de gozarimasu . 6. Watakusi ga teppo de nerōta tori wa tobimasita . 7. Watakusi wa
anata no osiHQLVLWDJWHNRQRNRWRZRVLPDVKo . 8. Kono hito wa anata no meirei ni sitagōte
konniti kono tokoro ye kimasita . 9. Kono hito ga sono hito wo warōte sosirimasita . 10. Kore
wa Watakusi ga sakuzitu usinota sina de gozarimasu . 11. Sono hito wa hito wo utagote
sono tegami wo watasimasen . 12. Anata wa kono sake wo kononde onomi nasaru ka . 13.
Watakusi wa kononde nomimasu . 14. Kono hito wa mainiti kono tokoro ye kīte sake wo nonde
tanosimimasu . 15. Kore wa watakusi ga nonda sake de gozarimasu . 16. Sono hanasi wo kīte
kanasinda hito wa kono hito de gozarimasu . 17. Watakusi wa sono sina wo kōte, kono hito ni
tanonde, watakusi no tomodati ni okurimasho . 18. Watakusi wa sakuya hanasika no seki ye
itte, omosiroi hanasi wo kīte, tanosinde kaHULPDVLWa . 19. Kono shomotu wo yonde kurusinda
okata wa dare de gozarimasu . 20. Sore wa watakusi de gozarimasu . 21. Sore wa watakusi
ga kono mise de kōta sina de gozarimasu . 22. Watakusi wa sono koto wo kīte, tegami ni kaite
okurimasita . 23. SakuDNRQRNRZDDZDUHQDKDQDVLZRNWHQDLWHNDQDVLPLPDVLWa .
CXVIII.
1. This is the person I met in the street HVWHUGD\7KLVLVWKHDUWLFOH,ERXJKWLQWKHVKRS
HVWHUGD\,VKDOOREH RXUFRPPDQGDQGGRWKLVPDWWHU'RHVWKLVSHUVRQOLNHVDNp
and drink much? 5. Yes, this person likes saké and drinks much. 6. I bought that article in

Japanese and English Exercises. 61
this shop and sent it to RXMXVWQRZ,ZHQWWRDVWRU-teller, heard an amusing story, and
then returned. 8. This child heard a touching storDQGFULHG:KDWGLGou see when RX
went to Asakusa? 10. I saw birds when I went to Asakusa. 11. I wrote a letter and sent it to
mIULHQG:KDWGLGou write in the letter which RXVHQWWRour friend? 13. I wrote
an amusing storLQP letter, which I heard last night. 14, I suffered, worked, and earned
money. 15. That man has beaten this dog with a stick, stabbed it with a sword, and then
killed it. 16. That person met me in the street and (we) parted just now. 17. This is the thing
I bought HVWHUGD at Sinagawa. 18. This is the place where I came HVWHUGD\7KDWFKLOG
heard that storDQGFULHG,ZHQWWRP friend’s house just now and returned. 21. I shall
go to this story-teller and return.
CXIX.
Atumeru, to collect,

Atumete.
Atumeta.
Oboyeru, to remember,

Oboyete.
Oboyeta.

Tokeru, to melt. Nigeru, to run away.
Miru, to see. Taduneru, to look for.
Homeru, to praise. Okiru, to get up.
Kangayeru, to think. Nagameru, to gaze.
The Verbs ending in aru .
Atumaru, to assemble.

Atumatte.
Atumatta.
Suwaru, to sit down,

Suwatte .
Suwatta,
Hasiru, * to run.

Hasitte.
Hasitta.
Kiru, * to cut.

Kitte.
Kitta.
* This verb changes its termination in the same waDVWKRVHHQGLQJLQ aru.
* These verbs change their termination in the same waDVWKRVHHQGLQJLQ aru.

62 An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Language
Ikaru, to become angry,

Ikatte.
Ikatta.
Tomaru, to stop,

Tomatte.
Tomatta.
Uketoru, * to receive,

Uketotte.
Uketotta.
Uru, * to sel1,

Utte.
Utta.
The Verbs ending in uru .
Kuru, to come,

Kite.
Kita.
Bassuru, to punish,

Bassite.
Bassita.
Suru, to do, or to make,

Site.
Sita.
Hassuru, to start,

Hassite.
Hassita.
Tassuru, to reach,

Tassite.
Tassita.
Hossuru, to wish, or to intend,

Hossite.
Hossita.

Hei, army. Yubin kiyoku, post-office.
Noti, future, or after. Yubin, mail, or post.
Na, name. Tuini, finally.
Yo, generation. Minato, harbour.
Kō, Lord, or a term of respect. Mukasi, ancient times.
Ikusa, battle.
Seifu, government. Makeru, to be defeated.
Wasureru, to forget.

Japanese and English Exercises. 63
1. Kono tokoro wa mukasi HideRVLNJDKHLZRDWXPHWDWRNRURGHJR]DULPDVu . 2. Yubin
wa itu kono minato wo hassite itu Osaka ye tassimasu ka . 3. Kono yubin wa konniti kono
tokoro wo hassite miyoniti Osaka ye tassimasu . 4. Sono zainin wo bassita hito wa dare
de gozarimasu ka . 5. Sono zainin wo bassita hito wa seifu de gozarimasu . 6. Watakusi wa
tadaima tegami wo kaite yubin kiyoku ye okurimasita . 7. Sakuzitu anata wo hometa hito wa
kono hito de gozarimasu . 8. Mituhide wa Yamasaki ni hei wo atumete HideRVLWRWDWDNWH
tuini makemasita . 9. Masasige kō wa Minatogawa no ikusa ni utizini wo site noti no RQL
na wo nokosimasita . 10. Watakusi wa sono hanasi wo kīte, oboHWHKLWRXLKDQDVLPDVKo .
11. Yuki ga tokete, kawa no midu ga masimasita (increased). 12. Kore wa watakusi ga
sakuzitu uketotta tegami de gozarimasu . 13. Kono inu wa naite orimasu . 14. Watakusi
wa kosikake ni suwatte, shomotu wo yonde, tanosimimasu . 15. Watakusi wa kono tokoro
ni tomatte miyoasa kayerimasho . 16. Watakusi wa miyoasa hayaku okite, sitaku wo site,
kayerimasho . 17. Sono hito wa kono tuye wo katana de kirimasita . 18. Shomotu wo yoku
yonde kangayeta hito wa yonda koto wo wasuremasen . 19. Watakusi ga taduneta hito wa
sono hito de gozarimasu . 20. Kono hito wa kokoni atumatte sore kara dokoye itte, nani wo
simasu ka . 21. Kono hito wa kokoni atumatte, hanasi wo kite tanosimimasu . 22. Maiban
watakusi wa kono tokoro ye kite, kireina hana wo mite tanosimimasu . 23. Kono hito wa
shomotu wo yonde, sore wo oboyete, sosite hito ni hanasimasu . 24. Kono tegami ga tassite,
sono henzi (repl wa itu kimasho ka . 25. Sore wa miyoniti kimasho .
CXX.
1. Who punished that criminal? 2. The Government punished that criminal. 3. Is this the
place where HideRVLFROOHFWHGKLVDUP? 4. No, this is the place where Yosimoto collected
his arm and fought against Nobunaga. 5. What is this place called? 6. This is the place
called Okehazama of Narumi. 7. Do RXVWD here and amuse (RXUVHOI "<HV,VKDOOVWD
here, see this place, and then return. 9. WhGRWKHVHSHRSOHDVVHPEOHWRJHWKHUKHUH"DQG
where do these people go? 10. These people go to a storWHOOHUVKRXVHDQGKHDUWKHVWRU\
11. I shall consider this matter (koto) and do it. 12. When does this mail start from this
harbour and reach Yokohama? 13. The mail will start from this harbour to-daDQGUHDFK
Yokohama to-morrow evening. 14. I met that person in the street and told that story. 15. I
bought that article in this shop and sent it to mIULHQG,VWKLVWKHSODFH ZKHUH ,KDYH
lost a knife, and looked for it HVWHUGD? 17. Yes, this is the place where RXKDYHORVWour
knife. 18. Is this the name of a person who came here HVWHUGD? 19. Does this child read
that book and remember (it) well? 20. Yes, that child reads that book, remembers it well,
and tells the other people what he has read (yonda koto) . 21. Did RXUHFHLYHWKLVOHWWHUDQG
read it HVWHUGD? 22. I received this letter HVWHUGD and read it this morning. 23. Did RX
hear an amusing storesterday, write it in a letter, and send it to RXUIULHQG"<HV,
wrote in a letter an amusing storZKLFK,KHDUGODVWQLJKWDQGVHQWLWWRP friend.