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  • Название: Project Management and Leadership Skills for Engineering and Construction Projects
  • Автор: Benator, Barry.; Thumann, Albert.

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Project Management and
Leadership Skills for
Engineering and
Construction Projects
Barry Benator, P.E., C.E.M.
Albert Thumann, P.E., C.E.M.

i

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ii

Project Management and
Leadership Skills for
Engineering and
Construction Projects
Barry Benator, P.E., C.E.M.
Albert Thumann, P.E., C.E.M.

THE FAIRMONT PRESS, INC.
Lilburn, Georgia

MARCEL DEKKER, INC.
New York and Basel

iii

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Benator, Barry.
Project management and leadership skills for engineering and construction projects/Barry Benator, Albert Thumann.
p. cm.
ISBN 0-88173-430-6 (electronic)

1. Facility management. 2. Project management. I. Thumann,
Albert. II. Title.
TS183.3.B45 2003
658.5--dc21

2003044869

Project management and leadership skills for engineering and construction
projects by Barry Benator and Albert Thumann
©2003 by The Fairmont Press. All rights reserved. No part of this
publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or
any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in
writing from the publisher.
Published by The Fairmont Press, Inc.
700 Indian Trail, Lilburn, GA 30047
tel: 770-925-9388; fax: 770-381-9865
http://www.fairmontpress.com
Distributed by Marcel Dekker, Inc.
270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016
tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540
http://www.dekker.com
Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0-88173-430-6 (The Fairmont Press, Inc.)
0-8247-0999-3 (Marcel Dekker, Inc.)
While every effort is made to provide dependable information, the publisher, authors,
and editors cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions.

iv

Contents

Preface .................................................................................................... vi

Acknowledgment ................................................................................. ix

Chapter 1 Overview of Project Management .............................. 1

Chapter 2 Staffing the Project Team ............................................ 13

Chapter 3 Fundamentals of Scheduling ..................................... 29

Chapter 4 Computer Tools for Project Management ............... 37

Chapter 5 Technical, Schedule, Financial Management ........... 53

Chapter 6 Cost Estimating ............................................................. 73

Chapter 7 Leadership Fundamentals ........................................ 101

Chapter 8 Effective Communications ........................................ 141

Chapter 9 Economic Decision Making ...................................... 149

Chapter 10 Contract Planning Essentials .................................... 185

Chapter 11 Commissioning Construction Projects ................... 199

Chapter 12 Case Study: Microbial Abatement

of a Moldy Hotel ........................................................ 215

Bibliography and References .......................................................... 225

Index .................................................................................................... 227


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Preface

A project can be defined as a large or important item of work,
involving considerable expense, personnel, and equipment. It is
typically a one-time endeavor, with a specific result or end-state
envisioned. Examples of projects in the engineering and construction fields could include the upgrade of a building’s heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system, the design and construction
of a new building, relocation of a manufacturing plant, or a comprehensive energy audit.
A project is distinguished from ongoing business activities by
several characteristics:
Uniqueness. A project is typically a specific mission (design
and build a new building or plant, upgrade a computer installation) as contrasted with ongoing business functions such as accounting, human resources, purchasing or manufacturing which
are performed on a day-in, day-out basis, ideally with increasing
productivity.
Duration. A project tends to be of finite duration with a defined start date and a planned completion date. Day-to-day business functions such as human resources, information technology
support, accounting, word processing are typically in place before
a project starts and will continue after the project is concluded.
People. People assigned to a project may come from any part
of an organization or from outside the organization, and depending on the scope and budget of the project, may include engineering, construction, financial, scheduling, cost estimating and other
professionals who can make the project a success. When the
project is completed, these professionals will likely move on to
other projects or back into line functions within the organization.
A project also shares several characteristics with ongoing
business activities:
Budget. A project, like most line functions, has a budget.
vii

Whatever the project is, the project manager will be responsible
for managing his or her project to an on-time, technically sound
result within the project budget.
People. A project is much more than engineering calculations
or construction schedules. It involves people—nothing happens
on a project without good people making it happen. The project
manager will be involved in some or all of these people functions
of project management—selecting, training, coordinating, leading,
coaching, rewarding, disciplining, and supporting. A project manager deals with people all the time. If you are not willing to at
least try to fulfill this responsibility, you should return his book
now and get your money back. If you enjoy working with people
or are willing to try, this book will help you succeed.
Relationships. Related to the people aspect of project management is the project manager’s responsibility to manage relationships associated with the project. Internally, these include the
people in your company who are members of your project team,
your boss, your peers and supporting departments within your
own company. Externally, they include your customer’s people
associated with the project, as well as any subcontractors and
vendors who may be associated with the project.
Is Project Management for you? Is this book for you?
Do you take to the challenge of bringing together multiple
and diverse resources to complete an engineering or construction
project on-time, within-budget and to the customer ’s satisfaction?
Are you are a successful engineer or construction manager seeking overall project responsibility? Do you enjoy working with
people and helping them succeed through teamwork? Do you
seek the professional opportunities and financial rewards of leading projects to successful conclusions?
If you answered yes to one or more of these questions, then
this book is for you. It will give you, in straightforward and practical terms, information and guidance that will help you succeed
in the real-world of engineering and construction project management. Let’s get started!
Al Thumann, P.E. CEM
Barry Benator, P.E., CEM
viii

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge James A. Bent who coauthored Project Management for Engineering and Construction which
this reference is based upon.
The authors also wish to express our gratitude and appreciation for the contributions of the following individuals whose insightful comments and input helped enhance the relevance of this
book for our readers.
Seth Benator, R.A.

Bill Brockenborough, P.E.

Rich Brown, Ph.D.

Barbara Erickson

Ken Forsyth, P.E.

Shirley Hansen, Ph.D.

Bob Hough, P.E.

Yasser Mahmud

Terry Niehus, P.E., CEM

Doug Weiss, P.E.


ix

Overview of Project Management

1

Chapter 1


Overview of

Project Management

Barry Benator

I

f one word could describe the essence of project management
it is responsibility. The project manager (PM) is responsible
for all that happens on a project. This doesn’t mean the project
manager should or could do everything associated with the
project; it does mean the PM owns ultimate responsibility for the
project, regardless of who is on the project team and regardless of
the obstacles encountered along the way to successful completion.
In other words, the buck stops with the project manager. If that
sounds like an awesome responsibility, then you have grasped the
concept of what it means to be a project manager. For many
people, it’s an exciting challenge. Because, in addition to the large
responsibilities of project management, there are numerous rewards for successful project managers. This book will help you
meet those responsibilities and attain the rewards of becoming a
successful project manager.

REWARDS

OF

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

There are a number of rewards associated with being a successful project manager. Listed below are a just few of them.
1

2

Project Management and Leadership Skills



The satisfaction of pulling together a diverse group of people
from different organizations and creating a high performing
project team that accomplishes the project’s mission.



The reward of helping these people perform their responsibilities and achieving success for themselves and the project.



The reward of increased profits and enhanced cash flow to
your company



The reward of a satisfied and appreciative customer.



The reward of repeat business from that customer.



The reward of new business from other customers based on
positive recommendations from your satisfied customer.



The reward of enhanced career opportunities for you and
your project team.

Good project managers are one of the few job functions
which continue to be in demand by companies in almost every
business sector. Good project managers have a bright future ahead
of them. This book will help you achieve that brighter future.

THE PROJECT MANAGER’S RESPONSIBILITY
The technical knowledge and skills required to be a successful engineering or construction project manager are wide-ranging,
but the good news is you don’t need to be an expert in all of them.
In fact, you don’t need to be an expert in any of them; you do,
however, need to have engineering or construction experience.
However, as important as this technical experience is, even more
important is the will and commitment to take on the overall responsibility for your projects. The fact that you are reading this book
is a strong signal of your commitment to learn and practice good

Overview of Project Management

3

leadership and management skills, which will help you fulfill
your project management responsibilities and succeed as project
manager.
A typical engineering or construction project will have many
of the following disciplines associated with it:








Electrical
Mechanical
Process
Structural
Architectural
Civil
Cost estimating








Financial/accounting
Purchasing
Legal/contractual
Insurance/risk management
Purchasing
Drafting/Computer
Aided Design

The project manager’s responsibility is to manage the financial,
technical and schedule requirements of the project in such a manner as to bring the project in on-time, within budget and with a
technical quality that meets or exceeds the contractual performance specifications.

SKILLS

OF A

SUCCESSFUL PROJECT MANAGER

While experience in engineering and construction is important, the critical skills you need to be a successful project manager
(PM) are not technical. They are leadership and management
skills—skills that will help you lead and manage the project in
such a manner that the project’s objectives are achieved.
While there are a number of definitions for leadership and
management, we will use the following for the purpose of discussing project management in this book:
Leadership—the process of influencing individuals or groups to
accomplish an organizational goal or mission

4

Project Management and Leadership Skills

Management—the process of planning, organizing, directing and
controlling a project or activity
Often the exercise of leadership and management overlap,
but the general meaning and intent is typically clear, so there is no
need to become overly academic about these terms. As a general
statement, leadership implies a people-based set of activities such
as communicating, coaching, setting a personal example, providing recognition and feedback, supporting, etc. while managing
tends to imply a more systematic set of activities such as planning,
organizing, directing and controlling.

PLANNING

THE

PROJECT

Perhaps the best way for us to obtain an overview of the
project management process is to look in detail about how to plan
a project. Then in subsequent chapters, we will delve into specifics
about each of the skills and activities associated with turning a
project plan into a successful project.
In the author ’s experience of managing more than 300
projects and teaching more than 200 workshops on project management and leadership, one of the activities project managers
tend to like the least and avoid the most is planning. Reasons
vary but they seem to fall in the realm of “planning is not
fun.” Engineering project managers and construction managers
tend to enjoy doing things—designing, coordinating, negotiating,
installing, solving problems, etc. Planning, on the other hand,
requires a more contemplative, long-term view of the project,
and may encompass planning for activities that are “over the
horizon” in terms of when they will occur. It requires more
thinking than doing and often receives insufficient attention because it’s not hands-on or immediate in its urgency. Yet, good
planning is a cornerstone of a good project. Careful planning,
along with good execution, almost always leads to a successful
project. Poor planning, on the other hand, even with good ex-

Overview of Project Management

5

ecution, may lead to a successful project, but often one that is
fraught with crises, stress and loss of opportunities because the
PM and his or her team were bailing out the project instead of
looking ahead for other opportunities.
So, what are the ingredients of a successful project plan?
Details vary from project to project, but the following elements are
part of virtually every good project plan.
Deliverables
What are the deliverables and when are they due? A deliverable is anything specified in the contract that the engineer, construction firm, vendor or supplier has agreed to deliver to the
customer. Examples of deliverables include specifications, drawings, cost estimates, project schedule, equipment, buildings, systems, training, etc. In the planning phase of a project, it is
important to identify these deliverables, when they are due, and
who has prime responsibility for each deliverable (the PM has the
overall responsibility for each deliverable). Oftentimes a table that
extracts from the contract all the specific deliverables is a good
vehicle for getting everyone on the same page as to what is to be
delivered and when. See Figure 1-1 for an example of such a deliverable table.
Resources
You will need a variety of resources to lead and manage
successful projects. You will need:


People—from your firm, your contractors, your consultants,
your vendors and your customers.



Technology—computers (for scheduling, budgets, word processing, calculations, drafting, project tracking, progress reports, e-mail, etc.), communications equipment (phones,
pagers, faxes, etc.), Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), etc.



Budget—a clear picture of financial resources available to
complete the project.

6

Figure 1-1. List of Deliverables (Example)
——————————————————————————————————————————
Deliverable

Prime Responsibility

List of Deliverables

Project Manager

Project Schedule

Project Manager

Bore Samples Report

ABC Soils Firm

10% Drawings

Cognizant Engineers/Architects

30% Drawings

Cognizant Engineers/Architects

60% Drawings

Cognizant Engineers/Architects

60% Specifications

Cognizant Engineers/Architects

60% Cost Estimate

ABC Cost Estimating Firm

90% Drawings

Cognizant Engineers/Architects

90% Specifications

Cognizant Engineers/Architects

90% Cost estimate

ABC Cost Estimating Firm

Date Due to
PM/Customer

——————————————————————————————————————————

——————————————————————————————————————————

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Project Management and Leadership Skills

——————————————————————————————————————————

Cognizant Engineers/Architects

100% Specifications

Cognizant Engineers/Architects

100% Cost E