• Название: Read Better Remember More 2nd Edition
  • Описание: 1576853365

LEARNINGEXPRESS
THE BASICS MADE EASY . . .
IN

20 MINUTES

A

DAY!

A New Approach to “Mastering The Basics.” An innovative 20-step
self-study program helps you learn at your own pace and make
visible progress in just 20 minutes a day.

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS
HOW TO STUDY
IMPROVE YOUR WRITING FOR WORK
MATH ESSENTIALS
PRACTICAL SPELLING
PRACTICAL VOCABULARY
READ BETTER, REMEMBER MORE
THE SECRETS OF TAKING ANY TEST
Become a Better Student–Quickly
Become a More Marketable Employee–Fast
Get a Better Job–Now

READ BETTER,
R EMEMBER MORE
Second Edition

Elizabeth Chesla

®

NEW YORK

Copyright © 2000 Learning Express, LLC.
All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.
Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Chesla, Elizabeth L.
Read better, remember more / Elizabeth Chesla. — 2nd ed.
p. cm.
Rev. ed. of: How to read and remember more in 20 minutes a day. 1st ed. ©1997.
ISBN 1-57685-336-5 (pbk.)
1. Reading comprehension 2. Reading (Adult education)
I. Chesla, Elizabeth L. How to read and remember more in 20 minutes a day II. Title.
LB1050.45.C443 2000
428.4'3—dc21
00-058787
Printed in the United States of America
987654321
Second Edition
For Further Information
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please call or write to us at:
LearningExpress®
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Visit LearningExpress on the World Wide Web at www.LearnX.com

C ONTENTS
Introduction: How to Use This Book
Pre-Test
Section 1: Setting Yourself Up for Reading Success
Pre-Reading Strategies
Getting the Facts
Using the Dictionary
Determining Meaning from Context
Putting It All Together

vii
1
11
13
21
29
41
49

6
7
8
9
10

Section 2: Getting—and Remembering—the Gist of It
Finding the Main Idea
Finding the Supporting Ideas
Highlighting, Underlining, and Glossing
Taking Notes and Outlining
Putting It All Together

55
57
67
79
91
99

11
12
13
14
15

Section 3: Improving Your Reading IQ
Recognizing Organizational Strategies
Distinguishing Fact from Opinion
Recording Your Questions and Reactions
Visualizing to Remember
Putting It All Together

107
109
123
131
141
153

16
17
18
19
20

Section 4: Reader, Detective, Writer
Word Choice and Point of View
Determining Tone
Finding an Implied Main Idea
Putting It in Your Own Words
Putting It All Together

161
163
175
183
191
201

Post-Test
Appendix A: Additional Resources
Appendix B: CommonPrefixes, Suffixes,
and Word Roots
Index

209
219

1
2
3
4
5

225
239

INTRODUCTION
HOW

T

TO

USE THIS BOOK

he 20 practical chapters in this book are

designed to help you better understand and remember what
you read. Because you need to understand what you read in
order to remember it, many chapters focus on reading comprehension
strategies that will help you improve your overall reading ability and
effectiveness.
Each chapter focuses on a specific reading skill so that you can build
your reading skills step by step in just 20 minutes a day. Practice exercises
in each chapter allow you to put the reading strategies you learn into
immediate practice. If you read a chapter a day, Monday through Friday,
and do all the exercises carefully, you should be able to understand—and
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READ BETTER, REMEMBER MORE

remember—much more of what you read by the end of one month of
study.
The 20 chapters are divided into four sections. Each section focuses
on a related set of reading skills:
Section One:
Section Two:
Section Three:
Section Four:

Setting Yourself Up for Reading Success
Getting—and Remembering—the Gist of It
Improving Your Reading IQ
Reader, Detective, Writer

Each section begins with a brief explanation of that section’s focus
and ends with a chapter that reviews the main ideas of that section. The
practice exercises allow you to combine all of the reading strategies you
learned in that section.
Although each chapter is an effective skill builder on its own, it’s
important that you proceed through this book in order, from Chapter 1
through Chapter 20. Each chapter builds on the skills and ideas discussed
in previous chapters. If you don’t have a thorough understanding of the
concepts in Chapter 4, for example, you may have difficulty with the
concepts in Chapters 5-20. The reading and practice passages will also
increase in length and complexity with each chapter. Be sure you thoroughly understand each chapter before moving on to the next one.
Each chapter provides several practical exercises that ask you to use
the strategies you’ve just learned. To help you be sure you’re on the right
track, each chapter also provides answers and explanations for the practice questions. Each chapter also includes practical “skill building”
suggestions for how to continue practicing these skills throughout the
rest of the day, the week, and beyond.

GET “IN THE MOOD” FOR READING
Your success as a reader, much like the success of an athlete, depends not
only on your skills but also upon your state of mind. This book will help
you improve your skills, but you need to provide the proper atmosphere
and attitude.

INTRODUCTION

CREATE AN ATMOSPHERE THAT
INVITES SUCCESS
There are many reasons why people may have difficulty understanding or
remembering what they read. Sometimes they’re too busy thinking about
other things. Sometimes they haven’t gotten enough sleep. Sometimes
the vocabulary is too difficult. And sometimes they’re simply not interested in the subject matter.
Perhaps you’ve experienced one or more of these difficulties. Sometimes these factors are beyond your control, but many times you can help
ensure success in your reading task by making sure that you read at the
right time and in the right place. Though reading seems like a passive act,
it is a task that requires energy and concentration. You’ll understand and
remember more if you read when you have sufficient energy and in an
environment that helps you concentrate.
Therefore, determine when you are most alert. Do you concentrate
best in the early morning? At lunch time? Late in the afternoon? In the
evening? Find your optimum concentration time.
Then, determine where you’re able to concentrate best. What kind of
environment do you need for maximum attention to your task? Consider
everything in that environment: how it looks, feels, and sounds. Do you
need to be in a comfortable, warm place, or does that kind of environment
put you to sleep? Do you need to be in a brightly lit room? Or does softer
lighting help you focus? Do you prefer a desk or a table? Or would you
rather curl up on a couch? Are you the kind of person that likes some background noise—a TV, radio, the buzz of people eating in a restaurant? If you
like music, what kind of music is best for your concentration? Or do you
need absolute silence?
If you’re preoccupied with other tasks or concerns and the reading can
wait, let it wait. If you’re distracted by more pressing concerns, chances
are you’ll end up reading the same paragraphs over and over without
really understanding or remembering what you’ve read. Instead, see if
there’s something you can do to address those concerns. Then, when
you’re more relaxed, come back to your reading task. If it’s not possible
to wait, do your best to keep your attention on your reading. Keep
reminding yourself that it has to get done, and that there’s little you can
do about your other concerns at the moment.

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You may also want to plan a small reward for yourself when you finish
your reading task. This will give you something to look forward to and
give you positive reinforcement for a job well done.

CREATE AN ATTITUDE THAT INVITES
SUCCESS
In addition to creating the right atmosphere, you need to approach reading with the right attitude. The “right” attitude is a positive one. If you
have something to read and you tell yourself, “I’ll never understand this,”
chances are you won’t. You’ve just conditioned yourself to fail. Instead,
condition yourself for success. Tell yourself that no matter how difficult
the reading task, you’ll learn something from it. You’ll become a better
reader. You can understand, and you can remember.
Have a positive attitude about the reading material, too. If you tell
yourself, “This is going to be boring,” you also undermine your chances
for reading success. Even if you’re not interested in the topic you must
read about, remember that you’re reading it for a reason; you have something to gain. Keep your goal clearly in mind. Again, plan to reward yourself in some way when you’ve completed your reading task. (And
remember that the knowledge you gain from reading is its own reward.)
If you get frustrated, keep in mind that the right atmosphere and attitude can make all the difference in how much you benefit from this book.
Happy reading.

READ BETTER,
R EMEMBER MORE
Second Edition

P RE - TEST

B

efore you begin this book, you might want to

get an idea of how much you already know and how much you
need to learn. If so, take the following pretest.
The pretest consists of two parts. Part I contains 10 multiple-choice
questions addressing some of the key concepts covered in this book. In
Part II, you’ll read two passages and answer questions about the ideas
and strategies used in those passages.
Even if you earn a perfect score on the pretest, you will undoubtedly
benefit from working through the chapters in this book, since only a
fraction of the information in these chapters is covered on the pretest.
On the other hand, if you miss a lot of questions on the pretest, don’t
despair. These chapters are designed to teach you reading comprehension and retention skills step by step. You may find that the chapters take
you a little more than 20 minutes to complete, but that’s okay. Take your
time and enjoy the learning process.

2

READ BETTER, REMEMBER MORE

You can record your answers on a separate sheet of paper, or, if you
own this book, you can simply circle the answers below.
Take as much time as you need for the pretest, though you shouldn’t
need much longer than half an hour. When you finish, check your
answers against the answer key provided at the end of the pretest. The
answer key shows you which chapters correspond to each question.
NOTE: Do not use a dictionary for this pretest.

PART I
1. When you read, it’s important to have:
a. complete silence
b. a dictionary
c. a pen or pencil
d. (b) and (c)
e. (a) and (c)
2. Most texts use which underlying organizational structure?
a. cause and effect
b. order of importance
c. assertion and support
d. comparison and contrast
3. The main idea of a paragraph is often stated in:
a. a topic sentence
b. a transitional phrase
c. the middle of the paragraph
d. the title
4. Which of the following sentences expresses an opinion?
a. Many schools practice bilingual education.
b. Bilingual education hurts students more than it helps them.
c. Bilingual classes are designed to help immigrant students.
d. Bilingual classes are taught in a language other than English.
5. A summary should include:
a. the main idea only
b. the main idea and major supporting ideas
c. the main idea, major supporting ideas, and minor supporting

details
d. minor supporting details only

PRE-TEST

6. Before you read, you should:
a. Do nothing. Just jump right in and start reading.
b. Stretch your arms and legs.
c. Read the introduction and section headings.
d. Look up information about the author.
7. Words and phrases like “for example” and “likewise” show readers:
a. the relationship between ideas
b. the main idea of the paragraph
c. the organization of the text
d. the author’s opinion
8. Tone is:
a. the way a word is pronounced
b. the techniques a writer uses to persuade readers
c. the meaning of a word or phrase
d. the mood or attitude conveyed by words
9. When you take notes, you should include:
a. definitions of key terms
b. your questions and reactions
c. major supporting ideas
d. (a) and (c) only
e. (a), (b), and (c)
10. When you read, you should:
a. never write on the text
b. underline key ideas
c. highlight every fact
d. skip over unfamiliar words

PART II
Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Passage 1
Being a secretary is a lot like being a parent. After a while, your boss
becomes dependent upon you, just as a child is dependent upon his or
her parents. Like a child who must ask permission before going out,
you’ll find your boss coming to you for permission, too. “Can I have a
meeting on Tuesday at 3:30?” you might be asked, because you’re the
one who keeps track of your boss’s schedule. You will also find your-

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4

READ BETTER, REMEMBER MORE

self cleaning up after your boss a lot, tidying up papers and files the
same way a parent tucks away a child’s toys and clothes. And, like a
parent protects his or her children from outside dangers, you will find
yourself protecting your boss from certain “dangers”—unwanted
callers, angry clients, and upset subordinates.
11. The main idea of this passage is:
a. Secretaries are treated like children.
b. Bosses treat their secretaries like children.
c. Secretaries and parents have similar roles.
d. Bosses depend too much upon their secretaries.
12. Which of the following is the topic sentence of the paragraph?
a. Being a secretary is a lot like being a parent.
b. After a while, your boss becomes dependent upon you, just as a

child is dependent upon his or her parents.
c. You will also find yourself cleaning up after your boss a lot,
tidying up papers and files the same way a parent tucks away a
child’s toys and clothes.
d. None of the above.
13. According to the passage, secretaries are like parents in which of the
following ways?
a. They make their boss’s life possible.
b. They keep their bosses from things that might harm or bother
them.
c. They’re always cleaning and scrubbing things.
d. They don’t get enough respect.
14. This passage uses which point of view?
a. first person
b. second person
c. third person
d. first and second person
15. The tone of this passage suggests that:
a. The writer is angry about how secretaries are treated.
b. The writer thinks secretaries do too much work.
c. The writer is slightly amused by how similar the roles of secretaries and parents are.
d. The writer is both a secretary and a parent.

PRE-TEST

16. The sentence “=t’Can I have a meeting on Tuesday at 3:30?’ you

might be asked, because you’re the one who keeps track of your
boss’s schedule” is a:
a. main idea
b. major supporting idea
c. minor supporting idea
d. transition
17. “Being a secretary is a lot like being a parent” is:
a. a fact
b. an opinion
c. neither
d. both
18. The word “subordinates” probably means:
a. employees
b. parents
c. clients
d. secretaries

Passage 2
Over 150 years ago, in the middle of the nineteenth century, the
Austrian Monk Gregor Mendel provided us with the first scientific
explanation for why children look like their parents. By experimenting
with different strains of peas in his garden, he happened to discover the
laws of heredity.
Mendel bred tall pea plants with short pea plants, expecting to get
medium-height pea plants in his garden. However, mixing tall and
short “parent” plants did not produce medium-sized “children” as a
result. Instead, it produced some generations that were tall and others
that were short.
This led Mendel to hypothesize that all traits (such as eye color or
height) have both dominant or recessive characteristics. If the dominant characteristic is present, it suppresses the recessive characteristic.
For example, tallness (T) might be dominant and shortness (t) recessive. Where there is a dominant T, offspring will be tall. Where there
is no dominant T, offspring will be short.
Imagine, for example, that each parent has two “markers” for
height: TT, Tt, or tt. The child inherits one marker from each parent.

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If both parents have full tallness (TT and TT), the child will definitely
be tall; any marker the child could receive is the dominant marker for
tallness. If both parents have full shortness (tt and tt), then the child
will likewise be short; there are no dominant Ts to suppress the shortness. However, if both parents have a mix of markers (Tt and Tt), then
there are four possible combinations: TT, Tt, tT, and tt. Of course, TT
will result in a tall child and tt in a short child. If the child receives one
T and one t, the child will also be tall, since ta