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  • Название: Integrated E-learning: Implications for Pedagogy, Technology and Organization
  • Описание: Education, Politics & IR, Sociology & Social Policy
  • Автор: Wim Jochems, Jeroen van Merrienboer and Rob Koper (edt)

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Integrated E-learning

It is widely recognized that online and e-learning is no longer an exclusive approach
used only in distance education and in isolation from traditional education programmes. A real difficulty facing educators and trainers is how to integrate these
new learning methods and embed them in established and existing forms of
learning, teaching or training.
This book forms a serious, in-depth study of the subject and proposes that
e-learning is not simply a matter of ‘digitizing’ traditional materials, but involves a
new approach, which must take into account pedagogical, technological and
organizational features to form a well-designed education system.
A practical focus is maintained throughout, with advice on implementation and
case studies drawn from the contributors’ considerable experience.
Integrated E-Learning is essential reading for anyone wanting to implement, design,
develop or deliver e-learning or training courses.
Wim Jochems, Jeroen van Merriënboer and Rob Koper are professors at the
internationally-renowned Educational Technology Expertise Centre at the Open
University of the Netherlands, Heerlen. Wim Jochems is also General Director
of the Educational Technology Expertise Centre at the University.

Open and Flexible Learning Series
Series Editor: Fred Lockwood
Activities in Self-Instructional Texts, Fred Lockwood
Assessing Open and Distance Learners, Chris Morgan and Meg O’Reilly
Changing University Teaching, Terry Evans and Daryl Nation
The Costs and Economies of Open and Distance Learning, Greville Rumble
Delivering Digitally, Alistair Inglis, Peter Ling and Vera Joosten
Delivering Learning on the Net: The Why, What and How of Online Education, Martin
Weller
The Design and Production of Self-Instructional Materials, Fred Lockwood
Developing Innovation in Online Learning, Maggie McPherson and Miguel Baptista
Nunes
E-Moderating, Gilly Salmon
Exploring Open and Distance Learning, Derek Rowntree
Flexible Learning in a Digital World, Betty Collis and Jef Moonen
Improving Your Students’ Learning, Alistair Morgan
Innovation in Open and Distance Learning, Fred Lockwood and Anne Gooley
Key Terms and Issues in Open and Distance Learning, Barbara Hodgson
The Knowledge Web: Learning and Collaborating on the Net, Marc Eisenstadt and Tom
Vincent
Learning and Teaching in Distance Education, Otto Peters
Learning and Teaching with Technology, Som Naidu
Making Materials-Based Learning Work, Derek Rowntree
Managing Open Systems, Richard Freedman
Mega-Universities and Knowledge Media, John S Daniel
Objectives, Competencies and Learning Outcomes, Reginald F Melton
The Open Classroom: Distance Learning In and Out of Schools, Edited by Jo Bradley
Open and Distance Learning: Case Studies from Education, Industry and Commerce,
Stephen Brown
Open and Flexible Learning in Vocational Education and Training, Judith Calder and Ann
McCollum
Planning and Management in Distance Education, Santosh Panda
Preparing Materials for Open, Distance and Flexible Learning, Derek Rowntree
Programme Evaluation and Quality, Judith Calder
Reforming Open and Distance Learning, Terry Evans and Daryl Nation
Reusing Online Resources, Allison Littlejohn
Student Retention in Online, Open and Distance Learning, Ormond Simpson
Supporting Students in Open and Distance Learning, Ormond Simpson
Teaching with Audio in Open and Distance Learning, Derek Rowntree
Teaching Through Projects, Jane Henry
Towards More Effective Open and Distance Learning, Perc Marland
Understanding Learners in Open and Distance Education, Terry Evans
Using Communications Media in Open and Flexible Learning, Robin Mason
The Virtual University, Steve Ryan, Bernard Scott, Howard Freeman and Daxa Patel

Integrated E-learning
Implications for Pedagogy, Technology
and Organization
Edited by
Wim Jochems,
Jeroen van Merriënboer
and
Rob Koper

First published 2004 by RoutledgeFalmer
11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by RoutledgeFalmer
29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001
This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2004.

RoutledgeFalmer is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group
© 2004 Wim Jochems, Jeroen van Merriënboer, Rob Koper and the
individual contributors.
The right of Wim Jochems, Jeroen van Merriënboer, Rob Koper and the
indivdiual contributors to be identified as the authors of this work has
been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced
or utilised in any form or by an electronic, mechanical, or other means,
now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording,
or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in
writing from the publishers.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Integrated e-learning : implications for pedagogy, technology and
organization / edited
by Wim Jochems, Jeroen van Merriënboer, and Rob Koper
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-415-33502-7 (hard) -- ISBN 0-415-33503-5 (pb) 1. Internet
in higher education. 2. Employees--Trainingof--Computer-assisted
instruction. 3. Instructional systems--Design. 4. Education, Higher-Effect of technological innovations on. I. Jochems, Wim, 1947- II.
Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G. van, 1959- III. Koper, Rob, 1957LB1044.87.1547 2003
378.1’7344678--dc21
2003013860
ISBN 0-203-41636-8 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-43846-9 (Adobe eReader Format)
ISBN 0-415-33502-7 (hbk)
ISBN 0-415-33503-5 (pbk)

Contents
Notes on the editors
Series editor’s foreword
Preface
An introduction to integrated e-learning
Wim Jochems, Jeroen van Merriënboer and Rob Koper

vii
ix
xi
1

1.

Instructional design for integrated e-learning
Jeroen van Merriënboer, Theo Bastiaens and Albert Hoogveld

13

2.

Designing integrated collaborative e-learning
Paul Kirschner, Jan-Willem Strijbos and Karel Kreijns

24

3.

Performance assessment in integrated e-learning
Dominique Sluijsmans and Rob Martens

39

4.

Virtual business e-learning: an approach to integrating
learning and working
Darco Jansen, Marc van Laeken and Wessel Slot

51

Learning technologies in e-learning: an integrated
domain model
Rob Koper

64

5.

v

vi

Contents

6.

Educational Modelling Language
Henry Hermans, Jocelyn Manderveld and Hubert Vogten

7.

Interface design for digital courses
Huib Tabbers, Liesbeth Kester, Hans Hummel and Rob Nadolski

100

8.

Usability evaluation of integrated e-learning
Fred Paas and Olga Firssova

112

9.

Work processes for the development of integrated
e-learning courses
Kathleen Schlusmans, Rob Koper and Wil Giesbertz

126

Learning objects: are they the answer to the knowledge
economy’s predicament?
Peter Sloep

139

10.

11.

Management and organization of integrated e-learning
Marcel van der Klink and Wim Jochems

12.

Coaching and training in integrated electronic learning
environments (IELEs)
Henny Boshuizen and Paul Kirschner

80

151

164

13.

Implementing integrated e-learning: lessons learnt from the
OUNL case
176
Wim Westera

14.

Evaluating integrated e-learning
Theo Bastiaens, Jo Boon and Rob Martens

187

15.

Epilogue
Wim Jochems, Jeroen van Merriënboer and Rob Koper

199

Index

207

Notes on the editors
Wim Jochems, Jeroen van Merriënboer and Rob Koper are currently full professors in the Educational Technology Expertise Centre (ETEC) of the Open
University of the Netherlands (OUNL).
Wim M G Jochems holds a Master’s degree in psychology of learning and
methodology from Utrecht University, the Netherlands, and a doctor’s degree in
technical sciences from Delft University of Technology (DUT), the Netherlands.
He was a full professor of educational development and the dean of the faculty of
Humanities at DUT. Since 1998, he has been a full professor of educational
technology and general director of ETEC at the OUNL. His focus is now on the
transformation of higher education institutes in relation to the use of educational
technology, especially with respect to e-learning.
E-mail: wim.jochems@ou.nl
Jeroen J G van Merriënboer holds a Master’s degree in experimental and
cognitive psychology from the Free University of Amsterdam and a doctor’s degree
in instructional technology, with honours, from the University of Twente. He was
associate professor of educational psychology at the University of Maastricht and
since 1998 he has been a full professor of educational technology at the OUNL.
His main research topics include instructional design for complex learning,
intelligent performance support for instructional design, and interactive computerbased learning environments for complex skills. He heads the research programme
of ETEC (www.ou.nl/otecresearch).
E-mail: jeroen.vanmerrienboer@ou.nl

vii

viii

Notes on the editors

Rob Koper holds a Master’s degree in educational psychology from Tilburg
University, the Netherlands, and a doctor’s degree in educational technology from
the OUNL. He was director of a company for teacher training before he became
the head of ICT application development (e-learning infrastructures and educational software development) at the OUNL. Since 1998 he has been a full professor
of educational technology, specifically in e-learning technologies. He was programme manager for the development of Educational Modelling Languages. His
research focuses on personalized instructional, Web-based learning environments.
He heads the technology development programme of ETEC (www.learning
networks.org).
E-mail: rob.koper@ou.nl

Series editor’s foreword
We are all aware that the educational environment in which we are working is
changing, and changing dramatically; it is an environment that is responding to
increasing numbers of learners, mature and part-time, often within a shrinking
resource allocation. It is an environment in which governments typically stress the
importance of investing in people via education and training, note the power of
the knowledge economy and expound the potential of the new technologies –
particularly e-learning. The government push, combined with the pull from
learners – the growing expectations of our learners to study at their own pace,
where and when they want – is transforming conventional teaching institutions
into flexible learning institutions. The massive growth in the number of distance
learning courses available (see http://icdl.open.ac.uk), and online courses available
(see http://www.dlcoursefinder.com) is not just occurring in educational institutions but is mirrored in industrial, commercial and public service contexts. In my
own university, for example, every faculty learning and teaching plan has identified
e-learning as a priority, with the projected growth in the number of staff involved
in designing and delivering online components of courses set to triple over the
next two years (see http://www.mmu.ac.uk/vitael). I suspect a similar picture
exists in your institution.
There is no shortage of virtual learning environments, technical fixes and
enthusiasts. Furthermore, there is no shortage of content available; content that is
often dumped onto the WWW and which has been termed computer supported
page turning. However, where is the advice and assistance, based on models and
theories, research evidence and good practice, that will help you and me design,
produce and present our courses so as to make the most effective use of existing
media and to provide a high quality learning experience? The answer is simple –
ix

x Series editor’s foreword

the collection of chapters in this book, and the associated Web site (www.iel.nl).
This book is noteworthy for several reasons. First, the editors explain how an
integrated approach to e-learning can contribute to societal and technological
changes: changes that are based on the most appropriate use of the different media
used in teaching, not just those associated with communications and information
technology. Second, the book seeks to balance the pedagogic, technical and
organizational elements that must be in harmony if any course is to be successful.
The three-part structure addresses the instructional design issues associated with
e-learning, the role of learning technologies in the development of integrated elearning, and its implementation and evaluation. Third, it presents accounts from
almost 30 scholars who have come together to share their thinking with you.
Whether you regard yourself as a teacher or trainer, instructional designer or
course developer, I believe the insights, models, arguments and examples this book
provides, positioned firmly within a constructivist perspective, are likely to be
invaluable to you and your learners. If we are to meet the challenge presented by
the changes we face, we need more books like this one.
Fred Lockwood
Manchester, April 2003

Preface
Integrated e-learning refers not only to Web-based learning but also to using the
Web for learning in such a way that it is effectively embedded in a well-designed
educational system with pedagogical, technological and organizational features that
contribute to achieving its goals. Integrated e-learning often reflects elements from
face-to-face learning, distance education, and where appropriate forms of structured on-the-job training and practical work. Because of the deliberate mix of Webbased learning, classroom learning, self-study and learning on the job, integration
is needed so that the various elements are combined in the best possible way in
order to facilitate reaching the desired learning goals. The main issues discussed in
this book are not about e-learning as a solitary mode of learning, but rather about
how to arrive at a form of e-learning which has manifest added value with regard
to effectiveness, efficiency and attractiveness when compared with more conventional ways of learning.
The most common approach to e-learning is characterized by adding new technology to conventional forms of education.The traditional pedagogical approaches
to learning generally remain unchanged in spite of the fact that the introduction
of the new medium typically demands new instructional methods. At the Open
University of the Netherlands, more than five years of hands-on experience with
Web-based distance learning has demonstrated that e-learning is not simply a
matter of ‘digitizing’ traditional learning materials. Moreover, several research
projects have revealed more effective approaches to incorporating e-learning into
educational programmes. The results of our practical experience and of these
research projects are reflected in this book. Our starting point is not e-learning as
one specific educational method. Instead we set out from an analysis of integrated
learning goals or complex professional skills, and ask which instructional processes
xi

xii

Preface

can (and not ‘must’) be supported by a combination of e-learning and other
educational methods in order to reach those goals.
The main reason for writing this book is that the Educational Technology
Expertise Centre of the Open University of the Netherlands receives a large number of enquiries pertaining to the design, development and implementation of elearning in the field of higher education, both from traditional, campus-based
institutes and institutes for distance education. We felt that our hands-on experience with e-learning and the results of our research projects would be of interest
to our colleagues in the field of post-secondary higher education, and business and
industrial training. It was therefore decided to treat a number of important aspects
of integrated e-learning in a more or less structured fashion, which is possible
because most of the contributions result from an integrated research and technology development programme on instructional design and learning technologies
conducted by the Educational Technology Expertise Centre.
This book is intended for instructional designers, developers of course materials,
educational technologists, consultants, training department managers, faculty
managers, course directors, teachers and trainers at the post-secondary level, and
students in educational sciences who are interested in introducing e-learning and
developing e-learning materials. Guidelines and dos and don’ts are presented in
each chapter, and examples have been included where necessary. Extracts from
e-learning materials are available on the accompanying Web site: www.iel.nl.
However, it should be noted that purely technical and infrastructural issues
concerning e-learning environments fall beyond the scope of this book.
We should like to thank all our colleagues who have contributed to this volume,
not only by writing their articles, but also by providing valuable comments on
successive drafts both of the individual chapters and of the work as a whole. In
particular we should like to mention Marion Timmermans, who provided invaluable organizational support and kept an eagle eye on the timetable; Chris Sion for
editing our English; and Rinnie Oey who assisted in finalizing the manuscript
according to the editorial guidelines.We should also like to thank Jeroen Berkhout
and Jeroen Storm for developing the Web site that accompanies this book. Finally,
we should like to express our appreciation to Fred Lockwood who encoura