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    Survival Handbook

    Survival Handbook
    By Joshua Piven and David Borgenicht

    C H R O N I C L E


    SAN F R A N C I S C O

    The authors wish to thank all the experts
    who contributed to the making of this book,
    as well as Jay Schaefer, Laura Lovett, Steve
    Mockus, and the entire team at Chronicle Books.
    Copyright © 1999 by book soup publishing, inc.
    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in
    any form without written permission from the publisher.
    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available.
    ISBN 0-8118-2555-8
    Printed in the United States of America
    Designed by book soup publishing, inc.
    Typeset in Adobe Caslon, Bundesbahn Pi, and Zapf Dingbats
    Illustrations by Brenda Brown
    a book soup publishing book

    Distributed in Canada by Raincoast Books
    9050 Shaughnessy Street
    Vancouver, British Columbia V6P 6E5

    20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
    Chronicle Books LLC
    85 Second Street
    San Francisco, California 94105

    When a life is imperiled or a dire situation is at
    hand, safe alternatives may not exist. To deal with
    the worst-case scenarios presented in this book,
    we highly recommend—insist, actually—that the
    best course of action is to consult a professionally
    trained expert. Do NOT ATTEMPT TO UNDERTAKE
    YOURSELF. But because highly trained professionals
    may not always be available when the safety of
    individuals is at risk, we have asked experts on
    various subjects to describe the techniques they
    might employ in those emergency situations. THE
    ANY LIABILITY from any injury that may result from
    the use, proper or improper, of the information
    contained in this book. All the information in this
    book comes directly from experts in the situation
    at hand, but we do not guarantee that the information contained herein is complete, safe, or accurate,
    nor should it be considered a substitute for your
    good judgment and common sense. And finally,
    nothing in this book should be construed or interpreted to infringe on the rights of other persons
    or to violate criminal statutes: we urge you to obey
    all laws and respect all rights, including property
    rights, of others.
    —The Authors

    Foreword by "Mountain"
    Preface.. .14

    Great Escapes and Entrances. . .17
    How to Escape from Quicksand... 18
    How to Break Down a Door... 20
    How to Break into a Car... 24
    How to Hot-wire a Car... 28
    How to Perform a Fast 180-Degree Turn
    with Your Car... 31

    How to Ram a Car.. .34
    How to Escape from a Sinking Car.. .36
    How to Deal with
    a Downed Power Line.. .39
    The Best Defense... 41
    How to Survive a Poisonous Snake Attack... 42
    How to Fend Off a Shark...46
    How to Escape from a Bear.. .50
    How to Escape from a Mountain Lion... 54

    How to Wrestle Free from an Alligator...57
    How to Escape from Killer Bees...60
    How to Deal with a Charging Bull...64
    How to Win a Sword Fight...66
    How to Take a Punch.. .69
    Leaps of Faith...73
    How to Jump from a Bridge or Cliff into
    a River...74
    How to Jump from a Building into
    a Dumpster...77
    How to Maneuver on Top of a Moving Train
    and Get Inside...79
    How to Jump from a Moving Car...82
    How to Leap from a Motorcycle to a Car...84
    Emergencies... 87
    How to Perform a Tracheotomy...88
    How to Use a Defibrillator
    to Restore a Heartbeat...91
    How to Identify a Bomb...94
    How to Deliver a Baby in a Taxicab...99

    How to Treat Frostbite...103
    How to Treat a Leg Fracture.. .106
    How to Treat a Bullet or Knife Wound...109
    Adventure Survival...113
    How to Land a Plane...114
    How to Survive an Earthquake... 120
    How to Survive Adrift at Sea... 125
    How to Survive When Lost in the Desert...129
    How to Survive If Your Parachute
    Fails to Open...l37
    How to Survive an Avalanche... 140
    How to Survive If You Are in the Line
    How to Survive When Lost
    in the Mountains.. .146
    How to Make Fire Without Matches... 150
    How to Avoid Being Struck by Lightning... 155
    How to Get to the Surface
    If Your Scuba Tank Runs Out of Air...l60
    The Experts... 163
    About the Authors...176

    By "Mountain" Mel Deweese

    I am a Survival Evasion Resistance Escape
    Instructor. I have developed, written, attended,
    and taught courses around the world to more
    than 100,000 students—civilians, naval aviators,
    and elite Navy SEAL teams. I have more than
    30 years of survival training experience, from
    the Arctic Circle to the Canadian wilderness,
    from the jungles of the Philippines to the
    Australian desert.
    Let's just say that I've learned a few things
    about survival over the years.
    Whatever the situation, whether you're out
    in the mountains, on board a plane, or driving
    cross-country, to "survive" means "To outlive, to
    remain alive or in existence; live on. To continue
    to exist or live after." After all, that's what it's
    really all about—about continuing to exist, no
    matter how dire the circumstances.
    • You have to be prepared—mentally, physically,
    and equipment-wise.
    I would have to call my training in the

    Arctic Circle the ultimate survival adventure.
    The Arctic is an extremely harsh and unforgiving
    environment, and yet the Inuit people (Eskimos)
    not only survive, they live here at the top of
    the world. Most of the items you need for Arctic
    survival must come with you when you go—
    the Arctic offers little for improvisation.
    One morning, as we huddled inside our
    igloo drinking tea to warm up, I noticed that
    our senior Inuit guide drank several more cups
    of tea than the rest of us. "He must be thirsty,"
    I thought. We then proceeded outside for our
    morning trek across the frozen landscape. After
    we reached our camp, the senior instructor
    walked over to a small knoll. Our young Inuit
    guide interpreted his words: "This is where the
    fox will come to seek a high lookout point. This
    is a good place to set a trap." The older man
    then took out his steel trap, set it, laid out the
    chain, and to my surprise, urinated upon the
    end of the chain!
    The younger instructor explained: "That's
    why he drank all that tea this morning—to
    anchor it!" Indeed, the chain had frozen securely
    to the ground.
    The lesson: Resources and improvisation
    equals survival.

    • You must not ignore the importance of the
    mental aspects of survival; in particular, you must
    stay calm and you must not panic. And remember
    that willpower is the most crucial survival skill
    of all—don't catch that terrible disease of "Giveup-itis." All these mental strengths especially
    come into play when someone makes a mistake—
    which is inevitable.
    One trip into the jungles of the Philippines,
    our old guide Gunny selected and gathered various
    plants while we were trekking. Upon arrival at
    the camp, Gunny skillfully prepared bamboo to use
    for cooking tubes. To these he added leaves, snails
    (he claimed only the old men catch snails because
    they are slow—young men catch fast shrimp),
    and a few slices of green mango. He also added
    a few things I could not discern. Topping this off
    with leaves from the taro plant, he added water
    and placed the bamboo cooking tube on the fire.
    After the jungle feast, we settled into
    the darkness for sleep. During the night, I
    experienced pain, contraction, and itching in
    my throat. We were in pitch darkness, far from
    civilization, and my airways were progressively
    closing. The following morning, the condition
    worsened and my breathing was becoming restricted. I questioned the instructor, and he agreed he

    had the same problem. That we shared our
    distress was reassuring and it led to our determining the source of the problem. It turned out
    we had not boiled the taro leaves long enough.
    Recovering hours later, I mentally logged this as
    a lesson learned the hard way: Even the old man
    of the jungle can make mistakes.
    We all make mistakes. Overcoming them is
    survival as well.
    • You must have a survival plan. And your
    plan should consider the following essential
    elements: food, fire, water, and shelter, as well
    as signals and first aid.
    I remember a military survival training course
    I took in another jungle. A tropical environment
    is one of the easiest to survive, if you know where
    to look. It offers all of the needs for survival—
    food, fire, water, shelter. We needed water badly
    but could not head for the major streams, rivers,
    or bodies of water to quench our thirst, as the
    "enemy" was tracking us. The enemy knew our
    dire need for water, and he would be watching
    those areas. Looking into the jungle foliage, our
    guide Pepe pulled his jungle bolo (a large knife)
    from its wooden case and pointed to a thick,
    grapelike vine, 3-4 inches in diameter. He cut the

    vine at the top, then sliced off a 2-3 foot section,
    motioned to me, and held it above my parched
    lips. Excellent! In total, it produced almost a large
    glass of water. Then he cut into a rattan vine that
    provided nearly the same amount.
    That evening we tapped into the trunk of
    a taboy tree, placed bamboo tube reservoirs we
    had constructed beneath the tap, and left them
    overnight. Early the next morning, I was surprised
    to find 6-8 quarts of water in our reservoirs.
    The next morning in the rain, Pepe stopped to
    cut a tall bundle of grass. He selected a smoothbarked tree and wrapped the grass around the
    tree to form a spigot. He then placed his bamboo
    drinking cup under the grass spigot. I was not
    convinced about the quality of his filter, but it was
    a good way for us to gather rainwater. That night,
    after we had reached the safe area, the jungle
    darkness fell upon us and we sat in the flicker of
    the bamboo fire. Pepe smiled at me and said,
    "Once again we've evaded the enemy and learned
    to return."
    That simple phrase became our motto—and
    in fact, is the motto of every survival trainer,
    whether or not they know it. "Learn to return."
    This guide might help you do just that.

    Anything that can go wrong will.
    —Murphy's Law

    Be prepared.
    —Boy Scout motto
    The principle behind this book is a simple one:
    You just never know.
    You never really know what curves life will
    throw at you, what is lurking around the corner,
    what is hovering above, what is swimming
    beneath the surface. You never know when you
    might to be called upon to perform an act of
    extreme bravery and to choose life or death with
    your own actions.
    But when you are called, we want to be sure
    that you know what to do. And that is why we
    wrote this book. We want you to know what to
    do when the pilots pass out and you have to land
    the plane. We want you to know what to do
    when you see that shark fin heading toward you.
    We want you to know how to make fire in the
    wilderness without any matches. We want you to
    know what to do in these and in dozens of other
    life-threatening situations, from being forced to

    jump from a bridge to being forced to jump
    from a car, from taking a punch correctly to
    outsmarting a charging bull, and from escaping
    a sniper to treating a bullet wound.
    We were not survival experts ourselves when
    we undertook this project—just regular, everyday
    folk like you. Joshua grew up in the East—a
    street-smart city boy. David grew up in the West
    and spent his youth hiking and camping and fishing (even though his family used a Volkswagen
    van most of the time). We were just a couple of
    inquisitive journalists from different backgrounds
    who worried a lot and were interested in knowing
    how to survive a variety of crisis situations, likely
    or unlikely (mostly the latter). Together, we consulted experts in a variety of fields to compile the
    handbook you have before you. The information
    in this book comes directly from dozens of expert
    sources—stuntmen, physicians, EMT instructors,
    bomb squad officers, bullfighters, survival experts,
    scuba instructors, demolition derby drivers,
    locksmiths, sky divers, alligator farmers, marine
    biologists, and avalanche rescue patrol members,
    to name a few.
    Within this book, you will find simple, stepby-step instructions for dealing with 40 life- and
    limb-threatening situations, with instructive

    illustrations throughout. We've also provided
    other essential tips and information—marked
    with red bullets—that you must know. Any
    and each of them could save your life. Ever
    wonder how you would deal with the kinds of
    situations that usually only come up when you
    are a movie action hero? Now you can find
    out. And then, like the Boy Scouts, you too will
    be prepared.
    So keep this book on hand at all times. It is
    informative and entertaining, but useful, too. Get
    a copy and keep it in your glove compartment.
    Take it with you when you travel. Give a copy
    to your friends and loved ones. Because the Boy
    Scouts know what they're talking about.
    And you just never know.
    —Joshua Piven and David Borgenicht



    When walking in quicksand country, carry
    a stout pole—it will help you get out should
    you need to.
    As soon as you start to sink, lay the pole on the
    surface of the quicksand.
    Flop onto your back on top of the pole.
    After a minute or two, equilibrium in the quicksand
    will be achieved, and you will no longer sink.
    Work the pole to a new position: under your hips
    and at right angles to your spine.
    The pole will keep your hips from sinking, as you
    (slowly) pull out first one leg and then the other.
    Take the shortest route to firmer ground,
    moving slowly.

    Quicksand is just ordinary sand mixed with upwelling
    water, which makes it behave like a liquid. However,
    quicksand—unlike water—does not easily let go. If
    you try to pull a limb out of quicksand, you have
    to work against the vacuum left behind. Here are a
    few tips:

    •The viscosity of quicksand increases with
    shearing—move slowly so the viscosity is as low
    as possible.
    • Floating on quicksand is relatively easy and is
    the best way to avoid its clutches. You are more
    buoyant in quicksand than you are in water.
    Humans are less dense than freshwater, and
    saltwater is slightly more dense. Floating is easier
    in saltwater than freshwater and much easier in
    quicksand. Spread your arms and legs far apart
    and try to float on your back.
    When in an area with quicksand, bring a stout pole
    and use it to put your back into a floating position.

    Place the pole at a right angle from your spine
    to keep your hips afloat.

    Give the door a well-placed kick or two to the lock
    area to break it down.
    Running at the door and slamming against it with
    your shoulder or body is not usually as effective as
    kicking with your foot. Your foot exerts more force
    than your shoulder, and you will be able to direct this
    force toward the area of the locking mechanism more
    succinctly with your foot.

    Alternate Method
    (if you have a screwdriver)
    Look on the front of the doorknob for a small
    hole or keyhole.
    Most interior doors have what are called privacy sets.
    These locks are usually installed on bedrooms and
    bathrooms and can be locked from the inside when
    the door is shut, but have an emergency access hole in
    the center of the door handle which allows entry to
    the locking mechanism inside. Insert the screwdriver
    or probe into the handle and push the locking mechanism, or turn the mechanism to open the lock.

    If you are trying to break down an exterior door, you
    will need more force. Exterior doors are of sturdier
    construction and are designed with security in mind,
    for obvious reasons. In general, you can expect to see
    two kinds of latches on outside doors: a passage- or
    entry-lock set for latching and a dead-bolt lock for
    security. The passage set is used for keeping the door
    from swinging open and does not lock. The entrylock set utilizes a dead latch and can be locked before
    closing the door.

    Exterior doors are of
    sturdier construction.
    Kick at the point where
    the lock is mounted.

    Give the door several well-placed kicks at the point
    where the lock is mounted.
    An exterior door usually takes several tries to break
    down this way, so keep at it.
    Alternate Method
    (if you have a sturdy piece of steel)
    Wrench or pry the lock off the door by inserting
    the tool between the lock and the door and prying
    back and forth.
    Alternate Method
    (if you have a screwdriver, hammer, and awl)
    Remove the pins from the hinges (if the door opens
    toward you) and then force the door open from the
    hinge side.
    Get a screwdriver or an awl and a hammer. Place the
    awl or screwdriver underneath the hinge, with the
    pointy end touching the end of the bolt or screw.
    Using the hammer, strike the other end of the awl or
    screwdriver until the hinge comes out.

    Interior doors in general are of a lighter construction
    than exterior doors and usually are thinner— 1 3/8"
    thick to 1 5/8" thick—than exterior doors, which generally are 1 3/4" thick. In general, older homes will be
    more likely to have solid wood doors, while newer
    ones will have the cheaper, hollow core models.
    Knowing what type of door you are dealing with will

    help you determine how to break it down. You can
    usually determine the construction and solidity of a
    door by tapping on it.
    HOLLOW CORE. This type is generally used for
    interior doors, since it provides no insulation or
    security, and requires minimal force. These doors
    can often be opened with a screwdriver.
    SOLID WOOD. These are usually oak or some other
    hardwood, and require an average amount of force
    and a crowbar or other similar tool.
    SOLID CORE. These have a softwood inner frame
    with a laminate on each side and a chipped or
    shaved wood core, and require an average amount
    of force and a screwdriver.
    METAL CLAD. These are usually softwood with
    a thin metal covering, and require average or above
    average force and a crowbar.
    HOLLOW METAL. These doors are of a heavier
    gauge metal that usually has a reinforcing channel
    around the edges and the lock mounting area,
    and are sometimes filled with some type of
    insulating material. These require maximum force
    and a crowbar.

    Most cars that are more than ten years old have vertical, push-button locks. These are locks that come
    straight out of the top of the car door and have rods
    that are set vertically inside the door. These locks can
    be easily opened with a wire hanger or a Slimjim, or
    picked, as described below. Newer cars have horizontal locks, which emerge from the side of the car door
    and are attached to horizontal lock rods. These are
    more difficult to manipulate without a special tool but
    can also be picked.

    Take a wire hanger and bend it into a long J.

    Square off the bottom of the J so the square is
    l 1/2 to 2 inches wide (see illustration).
    Slide the hanger into the door, between the
    window and the weather stripping.
    Open the door by feel and by trial and error. Feel for
    the end of the button rod and, when you have it, pull
    it up to open the lock.

    Take a wire
    hanger and bend
    it into a long ].

    Square off

    Slide hanger in
    door between glass
    and weather stripping. Feel for the
    end of the button
    rod and lift up.


    A Slimjim is a thin piece of spring steel with a notch in
    one side, which makes it easy to pull the lock rod up.
    They can be purchased at most automotive supply stores.
    Slide the tool gently between the window and the
    weather stripping.

    Some cars will give you only a quarter of an inch of
    access to the lock linkage, so go slowly and be patient.
    Do not jerk the tool trying to find the lock rod.
    This can break the lock linkage, and on auto-locks it
    can easily rip the wires in the door.
    Move the tool back and forth until it grabs the lock
    rod and then gently move it until the lock flips over.


    Slide the Slimjim between the glass and the weather stripping.
    Feel for the lock rod. Move the tool back and forth gently until
    the lock flips over.

    You will need two tools—one to manipulate the
    pins or wafers inside the lock core and one to turn
    the cylinder.
    You can use a small Allen wrench to turn the lock and
    a long bobby pin to move the pins and wafers. Keep
    in mind that many car locks are harder to pick than
    door locks. They often have a small shutter that covers and protects the lock, and this can make the
    process more difficult.
    While the bobby pin is in the lock, exert constant
    and light turning pressure with the wrench.
    This is the only way to discern if the pins or wafers—
    which line up with the notches and grooves in a
    key—are lined up correctly. Most locks have five pins.
    Move the bobby pin to manipulate the pins or
    wafers until you feel the lock turn smoothly.

    Alternate Method
    Use a key from a different car from the same
    There are surprisingly few lock variations, and the
    alien key may just work.

    Be Aware
    We of course assume you are seeking to enter your
    own car.

    HOW TO
    Hot-wiring a car without the owner's permission is
    illegal, except in repossessions. Hot-wiring can be
    dangerous; there is a risk of electrical shock. Hotwiring will not work on all cars, particularly cars
    with security devices. Some "kill switches" can prevent hot-wiring.
    Open the hood.
    Locate the coil wire (it is red).
    To find it, follow the plug wires, which lead to the coil
    wire. The plug and coil wires are located at the rear of
    the engine on most V-8s. On six-cylinder engines, the
    wires are on the left side near the center of the engine,
    and on four-cylinder engines, they are located on the
    right side near the center of the engine.
    Run a wire from the positive (+) side of the battery
    to the positive side of the coil, or the red wire that
    goes to the coil.
    This step gives power to the dash, and the car will not
    run unless it is performed first.
    Locate the starter solenoid.
    On most GM cars, it is on the starter. On Fords, it is
    located on the left-side (passenger-side) fender well.

    Run a wire from the positive (+) side
    of the battery to the red coil wire.

    to positive battery cable
    Cross the terminals with a screwdriver or pliers (Ford).

    An easy way to find it is to follow the positive battery
    cable. You will see a small wire and the positive battery cable. Cross the two with a screwdriver or pliers.
    This cranks the engine.

    Unlocking the Steering Wheel

    Place screwdriver
    at top center of
    steering column.

    GM solenoid

    If the car has a standard transmission, make sure
    it is in neutral and the parking brake is on.
    If it has an automatic transmission, make sure it is
    in park.
    Unlock the steering wheel using a flat blade
    Take the screwdriver and place it at the top center of
    the steering column. Push the screwdriver between
    the steering wheel and the column. Push the locking
    pin away from the wheel. Be very firm when pushing
    the pin; it will not break.

    HOW TO
    Put the car in reverse.
    Select a spot straight ahead. Keep your eyes on it,
    and begin backing up.

    Jam on the gas.
    Cut the wheel sharply ninety degrees around
    (a quarter turn) as you simultaneously drop the
    transmission into drive.
    Make sure you have enough speed to use the momentum of the car to swing it around, but remember that
    going too fast (greater than forty-five miles per hour)
    can be dangerous and may flip the car (and strip your
    gears). Turning the wheel left will swing the rear of
    the car left; turning it right will swing the car right.
    When the car has completed the turn, step on the
    gas and head off.

    From reverse'

    While backing
    up, jam on
    the gas. Cut the
    wheel a quarter
    turn, and
    drop into drive.

    pivots at
    the rear

    The momentum of the
    car effectuates the turn.

    at speeds no greater than 45mph

    While in drive, or a forward gear, accelerate to a moderate
    rate of speed (anything faster than forty-five miles per hour
    risks flipping the car).
    Slip the car into neutral to prevent the front wheels
    from spinning.
    Take your foot off the gas and turn the wheel ninety degrees
    (a quarter turn) while pulling hard on the emergency brake.
    As the rear swings around, return the wheel to its original
    position and put the car back into drive.
    Step on the gas to start moving in the direction from
    which you came.

    Be Aware
    • The 180-degree turn while moving forward is more
    difficult for the following reasons:
    • It is easier to swing the front of the car around, because it is
    heavier and it will move faster with momentum.
    • It is harder to maintain control of the rear of the car—it is
    lighter and will slip more easily than the front. Spinning
    out of control, or flipping the car, are potential dangers.
    • Road conditions can play a significant role in the
    success—and safety—of this maneuver. Any surface without sufficient traction (dirt, mud, ice, gravel) will make
    quick turns harder and collisions more likely.

    HOW TO
    Ramming a car to move it out of your way is not easy
    or safe, but there are some methods that work better
    than others and some that will minimize the damage
    to your vehicle. Keep in mind that the best way to hit
    a car blocking your path is to clip the very rear of it,
    about one foot from the rear bumper. The rear is the
    lightest part of a car, and it will move relatively easily.
    Hitting it in the rear can also disable the car—with
    the rear wheel crushed, you have time to get away
    without being pursued.
    Disable your air bag, if you can.
    It will deploy on impact and will obstruct your view
    after it deploys.
    Wear a seat belt.
    Accelerate to at least twenty-five miles per hour.
    Do not go too fast—keeping the car at a slow speed
    will allow you to maintain control without slowing
    down. Then, just before impact, increase your speed to
    greater than thirty miles per hour to deliver a disabling
    crunch to the rear wheel of the obstacle car.
    Ram the front passenger side of your car into the
    obstacle car at its rear wheel, at a ninety-degree
    angle (the cars should be perpendicular).

    If you are unable to hit a car in the rear, go for the
    front corner.
    Avoid hitting the car squarely in the side; this will not
    move it out of your way.
    The car should spin out of your way—hit the gas,
    and keep moving.

    Ram the obstacle car with the
    passenger side of your car, and
    deliver a disabling crunch to its
    rear wheel.

    If you are unable to hit the car in
    the rear, go for the right corner.

    HOW TO
    As soon as you hit the water, open your window.
    This is your best chance of escape, because opening
    the door will be very difficult given the outside water
    pressure. (To be safe, you should drive with the windows and doors slightly open whenever you are near
    water or are driving on ice.) Opening the windows
    allows water to come in and equalize the pressure.
    Once the water pressure inside and outside the car is
    equal, you'll be able to open the door.
    If your power windows won't work or you cannot
    roll your windows down all the way, attempt to
    break the glass with your foot or shoulder or a heavy
    object such as an antitheft steering wheel lock.
    Get out.
    Do not worry about leaving anything behind unless it
    is another person. Vehicles with engines in front will
    sink at a steep angle. If the water is fifteen feet or
    deeper, the vehicle may end up on its roof, upside
    down. For this reason, you must get out as soon as
    possible, while the car is still afloat. Depending on the
    vehicle, floating time will range from a few seconds to
    a few minutes. The more airtight the car, the longer it
    floats. Air in the car will quickly be forced out

    As soon as you hit the water open your window. Otherwise, the
    pressure of the water will make it very difficult to escape.
    If you were unable to exit before hitting the water, attempt to
    break a window with your foot or a heavy object.

    through the trunk and cab, and an air bubble is
    unlikely to remain once the car hits bottom. Get out
    as early as possible.
    If you are unable to open the window or break it,
    you have one final option.
    Remain calm and do not panic. Wait until the car
    begins filling with water. When the water reaches your

    head, take a deep breath and hold it. Now the pressure
    should be equalized inside and outside, and you should
    be able to open the door and swim to the surface.


    • Cars and light trucks need at least eight inches of
    clear, solid ice on which to drive safely.
    • Driving early or late in the season is not advisable.
    • Leaving your car in one place for a long period of
    time can weaken the ice beneath it, and cars should
    not be parked—or driven—close together.
    • Cross any cracks at right angles, and drive slowly.
    • New ice is generally thicker than old ice.
    • Direct freezing of lake or stream water is stronger
    than refreezing, freezing of melting snow, or
    freezing of water bubbling up through cracks.
    • If there is a layer of snow on the ice, beware: a
    layer of snow insulates the ice, slowing the freezing
    process, and the snow's weight can decrease the
    bearing capacity of the ice.
    • Ice near the shore is weaker.
    • River ice is generally weaker than lake ice.
    • River mouths are dangerous, because the ice near
    them is weaker.
    • Carry several large nails in your pocket, and a
    length of rope. The nails will help you pull yourself
    out of the ice, and the rope can be thrown to
    someone on more solid ice, or can be used to help
    someone else.

    High-voltage power lines, which carry power from
    plants and transformers to customers, can come crashing down during severe storms. If you are in a car when
    a pole or line falls, you are much safer remaining inside
    a grounded vehicle than being on foot. If the wire falls
    on the car, do not touch anything—wait for help.
    Assume that all power lines, whether sparking or not,
    are live.
    Stay far away from downed lines.
    Current can travel through any conductive material, and
    water on the ground can provide a "channel" from the
    power line to you. An electrical shock can also occur when
    one comes in contact with the charged particles near a
    high-voltage line; direct contact is not necessary for electrocution to occur. Never touch a vehicle that has come in
    contact with a live wire—it may still retain a charge.
    Do not assume that a nonsparking wire is safe.
    Often, power may be restored by automated equipment,
    causing a "dead" wire to become dangerous. Stay away
    from downed lines even if you know they are not electric
    lines—the line could have come in contact with an electric line when it fell, causing the downed line to be "hot."

    If a person comes into contact with a live wire, use a
    nonconductive material to separate the person from
    the electrical source.
    Use a wooden broom handle, a wooden chair, or a dry towel
    or sheet. Rubber or insulated gloves offer no protection.
    Avoid direct contact with the skin of the victim or
    any conducting material touching it until he or she is
    disconnected; you may be shocked also.
    Check the pulse and begin rescue breathing and
    CPR if necessary.
    Never touch a vehicle that has come into contact with a live wire.
    Even when the wire is removed, it may retain a charge.

    Do not assume that
    a nonsparking wire is safe.
    Current can travel through any
    conductive material such as water.



    Because poisonous snakes can be difficult to identify—
    and because some nonpoisonous snakes have markings
    very similar to venomous ones—the best way to avoid
    getting bitten is to leave all snakes alone. Assume that
    a snake is venomous unless you know for certain that it
    is not.

    Wash the bite with soap and water as soon as
    you can.
    Immobilize the bitten area and keep it lower than
    the heart.
    This will slow the flow of the venom.
    Get medical help as soon as possible.
    A doctor should treat all snakebites unless you are willing to bet your life that the offending snake is
    nonpoisonous. Of about eight thousand venomous
    bites a year in the U.S., nine to fifteen victims are
    killed. A bite from any type of poisonous snake should
    always be considered a medical emergency. Even bites
    from nonpoisonous snakes should be treated professionally, as severe allergic reactions can occur. Some

    Mojave rattlesnakes carry a neurotoxic venom that can
    affect the brain or spinal cord, causing paralysis.
    Immediately wrap a bandage tightly two to four
    inches above the bite to help slow the venom if you are
    unable to reach medical care within thirty minutes.
    The bandage should not cut off blood flow from a vein
    or artery. Make the bandage loose enough for a finger
    to slip underneath.
    If you have a first aid kit equipped with a suction
    device, follow the instructions for helping to draw
    venom out of the wound without making an incision.
    Generally, you will need to place the rubber suction
    cup over the wound and attempt to draw the venom
    out from the bite marks.

    • Do not place any ice or cooling element on the
    bite; this will make removing the venom with
    suction more difficult.
    • Do not tie a bandage or a tourniquet too tightly.
    If used incorrectly, a tourniquet can cut blood flow
    completely and damage the limb.
    • Do not make any incision on or around the
    wound in an attempt to remove the venom—there
    is danger of infection.
    • Do not attempt to suck out the venom. You do not
    want it in your mouth, where it might enter your

    Snakes coil before they strike.

    Snakes can strike at a distance approximately half their length;
    half their body does not leave the ground.

    Unlike poisonous snakes, pythons and boas kill their
    prey not through the injection of venom but by
    constriction; hence these snakes are known as constrictors. A constrictor coils its body around its prey,
    squeezing it until the pressure is great enough to kill.
    Since pythons and boas can grow to be nearly
    twenty feet long, they are fully capable of killing a
    grown person, and small children are even more vulnerable. The good news is that most pythons will
    strike and then try to get away, rather than consume
    a full-grown human.

    Remain still.

    This will minimize constriction strength, but a
    python usually continues constricting well after the
    prey is dead and not moving.
    Try to control the python's head and try to
    unwrap the coils, starting from whichever end
    is available.

    • Do not try to get a closer look, prod the snake to
    make it move, or try to kill it.
    • If you come across a snake, back away slowly and
    give it a wide berth: snakes can easily strike half
    their body length in an instant, and some species
    are six feet or longer.
    • When hiking in an area with poisonous snakes,
    always wear thick leather boots and long pants.
    • Keep to marked trails.
    • Snakes are cold-blooded and need the sun to
    help regulate their body temperature. They are
    often found lying on warm rocks or in other
    sunny places.

    Hit back.
    If a shark is coming toward you or attacks you, use
    anything you have in your possession—a camera,
    probe, harpoon gun, your fist—to hit the shark's eyes
    or gills, which are the areas most sensitive to pain.
    Make quick, sharp, repeated jabs in these areas.
    Sharks are predators and will usually only follow
    through on an attack if they have the advantage, so
    making the shark unsure of its advantage in any way
    possible will increase your chances of survival.
    Contrary to popular opinion, the shark's nose is not
    the area to attack, unless you cannot reach the eyes or
    gills. Hitting the shark simply tells it that you are not

    • Always stay in groups—sharks are more likely to
    attack an individual.
    • Do not wander too far from shore. This isolates
    you and creates the additional danger of being too
    far from assistance.
    • Avoid being in the water during darkness or
    twilight hours, when sharks are most active and
    have a competitive sensory advantage.

    Strike with your fist
    at the eyes or the gills.

    The nose is NOT as sensitive as the above-mentioned areas,
    a common misconception.

    • Do not enter the water if you are bleeding from an
    open wound or if you are menstruating—a shark is
    drawn to blood and its olfactory ability is acute.
    • Try not to wear shiny jewelry, because the
    reflected light resembles the sheen offish scales.
    • Avoid waters with known effluents or sewage
    and those being used by sport or commercial
    fishermen, especially if there are signs of bait fish
    or feeding activity. Diving seabirds are good
    indicators of such activity.
    • Use extra caution when waters are murky and
    avoid showing any uneven tan lines or wearing
    brightly colored clothing—sharks see contrast
    particularly well.
    • If a shark shows itself to you, it may be curious
    rather than predatory and will probably swim on

    and leave you alone. If you are under the surface
    and lucky enough to see an attacking shark, then
    you do have a good chance of defending yourself
    if the shark is not too large.
    • Scuba divers should avoid lying on the surface,
    where they may look like a piece of prey to a
    shark, and from where they cannot see a shark
    • A shark attack is a potential danger for anyone
    who frequents marine waters, but it should be
    kept in perspective. Bees, wasps, and snakes are
    responsible for far more fatalities each year, and
    in the United States the annual risk of death
    from lightning is thirty times greater than from
    a shark attack.

    "HIT AND RUN" ATTACKS are by far the most
    common. These typically occur in the surf zone,
    where swimmers and surfers are the targets.
    The victim seldom sees its attacker, and the shark
    does not return after inflicting a single bite or
    slash wound.
    "BUMP AND BITE" ATTACKS are characterized by
    the shark initially circling and often bumping the
    victim prior to the actual attack. These types of
    attacks usually involve divers or swimmers in
    deeper waters, but also occur in nearshore shallows
    in some areas of the world.

    "SNEAK" ATTACKS differ: the strike can occur
    without warning. With both "bump and bite"
    and "sneak" attacks, repeat attacks are common
    and multiple and sustained bites are the norm.
    Injuries incurred during this type of attack are
    usually quite severe, frequently resulting in death.
    Be Aware
    Most shark attacks occur in nearshore waters, typically inshore of a sandbar or between sandbars where
    sharks feed and can become trapped at low tide. Areas
    with steep drop-offs are also likely attack sites. Sharks
    congregate in these areas, because their natural prey
    congregates there. Almost any large shark, roughly six
    feet or longer in total length, is a potential threat to
    humans. But three species in particular have repeatedly attacked man: the white shark (Carcharodon
    carcharias), the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvieri), and
    the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas). All are cosmopolitan in distribution, reach large sizes, and consume
    large prey such as marine mammals, sea turtles, and
    fish as normal elements of their diets.

    Lie still and quiet.
    Documented attacks show that an attack by a mother
    black bear often ends when the person stops fighting.
    Stay where you are and do not climb a tree to
    escape a bear.
    Black bears can climb trees quickly and easily and will
    come after you. The odds are that the bear will leave
    you alone if you stay put.
    If you are lying still and the bear attacks, strike
    back with anything you can.
    Go for the bear's eyes or its snout.

    Make your presence known by talking loudly,
    clapping, singing, or occasionally calling out.
    (Some people prefer to wear bells.) Whatever you
    do, be heard—it does not pay to surprise a bear.
    Remember, bears can run much faster than humans.
    Keep children close at hand and within sight.
    There is no guaranteed minimum safe distance
    from a bear: the farther, the better.
    If you are in a car, remain in your vehicle. Do not
    get out, even for a quick photo. Keep your windows
    up. Do not impede the bear from crossing the road.

    While all bears are dangerous, these three situations
    render even more of a threat.

    protecting cubs

    Bears habituated
    to human food.

    Bears defending
    a fresh kill.

    • Reduce or eliminate food odors from yourself,
    your camp, your clothes, and your vehicle.
    • Do not sleep in the same clothes you cook in.
    • Store food so that bears cannot smell or
    reach it.
    • Do not keep food in your tent—not even a
    chocolate bar.
    • Properly store and bring out all garbage.
    • Handle and store pet food with as much care
    as your own.
    • While all bears should be considered dangerous
    and should be avoided, three types should be
    regarded as more dangerous than the average bear.
    These are:
    Females defending cubs.
    Bears habituated to human food.
    Bears defending a fresh kill.
    Be Aware
    There are about 650,000 black bears in North
    America, and only one person every three years is
    killed by a bear—although there are hundreds of
    thousands of encounters. Most bears in the continental U.S. are black bears, but black bears are not always
    black in color: sometimes their fur is brown or blond.
    Males are generally bigger than females (125 to 500
    pounds for males, 90 to 300 pounds for females).

    • Bears can run as fast as horses, uphill or
    • Bears can climb trees, although black bears
    are better tree-climbers than grizzly bears.
    • Bears have excellent senses of smell and hearing.
    • Bears are extremely strong. They can tear cars
    apart looking for food.
    • Every bear defends a "personal space." The
    extent of this space will vary with each bear and
    each situation; it may be a few meters or a few
    hundred meters. Intrusion into this space is
    considered a threat and may provoke an attack.
    • Bears aggressively defend their food.
    • All female bears defend their cubs. If a female
    with cubs is surprised at close range or is separated
    from her cubs, she may attack.
    • An aggressive reaction to any danger to her cubs is
    the mother grizzly's natural defense.
    • A female black bear's natural defense is to chase
    her cubs up a tree and defend them from the base.
    • Stay away from dead animals. Bears may attack to
    defend such food.
    • It is best not to hike with dogs, as dogs can
    antagonize bears and cause an attack. An
    unleashed dog may even bring a bear back to you.

    HOW TO
    Do not run.
    The animal most likely will have seen and smelled
    you already, and running will simply cause it to pay
    more attention.

    Try to make yourself appear bigger by opening
    your coat wide.
    The mountain lion is less likely to attack a larger
    Do not crouch down.
    Hold your ground, wave your hands, and shout. Show
    it that you are not defenseless.
    If you have small children with you, pick them up—
    do all you can to appear larger.
    Children, who move quickly and have high-pitched
    voices, are at higher risk than adults.
    Back away slowly or wait until the animal
    moves away.
    Report any lion sightings to authorities as soon as

    Upon sighting a mountain lion, do not run.
    Do not crouch down. Try to make yourself appear
    larger by opening wide your coat.

    If the lion still behaves aggressively, throw stones.
    Convince the lion that you are not prey and that you
    may be dangerous yourself.
    Fight back if you are attacked.
    Most mountain lions are small enough that an average size human will be able to ward off an attack by
    fighting back aggressively. Hit the mountain lion in
    the head, especially around the eyes and mouth. Use
    sticks, fists, or whatever is at hand. Do not curl up
    and play dead. Mountain lions generally leap down
    upon prey from above and deliver a "killing bite" to
    the back of the neck. Their technique is to break the
    neck and knock down the prey, and they also will rush
    and lunge up at the neck of prey, dragging the victim
    down while holding the neck in a crushing grip.
    Protect your neck and throat at all costs.

    Mountain lions, also called cougars, have been known
    to attack people without provocation; aggressive ones
    have attacked hikers and especially small children,
    resulting in serious injury. Still, most mountain lions
    will avoid people. To minimize your contact with
    cougars in an area inhabited by them, avoid hiking
    alone and at dusk and dawn, when mountain lions are
    more active.

    If you are on land, try to get on the alligator's back
    and put downward pressure on its neck.
    This will force its head and jaws down.
    Cover the alligator's eyes.
    This will usually make it more sedate.
    If you are attacked, go for the eyes and nose.
    Use any weapon you have, or your fist.
    If its jaws are closed on something you want to remove
    (for example, a limb), tap or punch it on the snout.
    Alligators often open their mouths when tapped lightly.
    They may drop whatever it is they have taken hold of,
    and back off.
    If the alligator gets you in its jaws, you must prevent
    it from shaking you or from rolling over—these
    instinctual actions cause severe tissue damage.
    Try to keep the mouth clamped shut so the alligator
    does not begin shaking.
    Seek medical attention immediately, even for a small
    cut or bruise, to treat infection.
    Alligators have a huge number of pathogens in their

    To get an alligator to release something it has
    in its mouth, tap it on the snout.

    While deaths in the United States from alligator
    attacks are rare, there are thousands of attacks and
    hundreds of fatalities from Nile crocodiles in Africa
    and Indopacific crocodiles in Asia and Australia. A
    few tips to keep in mind:
    • Do not swim or wade in areas alligators are known
    to inhabit (in Florida, this can be anywhere).
    • Do not swim or wade alone, and always check out
    the area before venturing in.
    • Never feed alligators.
    • Do not dangle arms and legs from boats, and avoid
    throwing unused bait or fish from a boat or dock.

    • Do not harass, try to touch, or capture any
    • Leave babies and eggs alone. Any adult alligator
    will respond to a distress call from any youngster.
    Mother alligators guarding nests and babies will
    defend them.
    • In most cases the attacking alligators had been
    fed by humans prior to the attack. This is an
    important link—feeding alligators seems to
    cause them to lose their fear of humans and
    become more aggressive.

    If bees begin flying around and/or stinging you,
    do not freeze.
    Run away; swatting at the bees only makes them
    Get indoors as fast as you can.
    If no shelter is available, run through bushes
    or high weeds.
    This will help give you cover.
    If a bee stings you, it will leave its stinger in
    your skin.
    Remove the stinger by raking your fingernail across it
    in a sideways motion. Do not pinch or pull the stinger
    out—this may squeeze more venom from the stinger
    into your body. Do not let stingers remain in the skin,
    because venom can continue to pump into the body
    for up to ten minutes.
    Do not jump into a swimming pool or other body of
    water—the bees are likely to be waiting for you
    when you surface.

    If bees begin flying around and/or stinging you,
    DO NOT freeze; DO NOT swat them. Run away.
    If no shelter is available, run through bushes or high -weeds.

    If a bee stings you, remove the stinger by raking your fingernail
    across it in a sideways motion. Do not finch the area.

    The Africanized honeybee is a cousin of the run-ofthe-mill domesticated honeybee that has lived in the
    United States for centuries. The "killer bee" moniker
    was created after some magazine reports about several
    deaths that resulted from Africanized bee stings some
    years back. Africanized honeybees are considered
    "wild;" they are easily angered by animals and people,
    and likely to become aggressive.
    Bees "swarm" most often in the spring and fall.
    This is when the entire colony moves to establish a
    new hive. They may move in large masses—called
    swarms—until they find a suitable spot. Once the
    colony is built and the bees begin raising their young,
    they will protect their hive by stinging.

    While any colony of bees will defend its hive,
    Africanized bees do so with gusto. These bees can
    kill, and they present a danger even to those who are
    not allergic to bee stings. In several isolated instances,
    people and animals have been stung to death. Regular
    honeybees will chase you about fifty yards. Africanized honeybees may pursue you three times that
    Most often, death from stings occurs when people are not able to get away from the bees quickly.
    Animal losses have occurred for the same reasons—
    pets and livestock were tied up or penned when they
    encountered the bees and could not escape.

    • Avoid colonies by filling in holes or cracks in
    exterior walls, filling in tree cavities, and putting
    screens on the tops of rainspouts and over water
    meter boxes in the ground.
    • Do not bother bee colonies: if you see that bees
    are building—or have already built—a colony
    around your home, do not disturb them. Call a
    pest control center to find out who removes bees.

    HOW TO
    Do not antagonize the bull, and do not move.
    Bulls will generally leave humans alone unless they
    become angry.
    Look around for a safe haven—an escape route,
    cover, or high ground.
    Running away is not likely to help unless you find an
    open door, a fence to jump, or another safe haven—
    bulls can easily outrun humans. If you can reach a safe
    spot, make a run for it.
    If a safe haven is not available, remove your shirt,
    hat, or another article of clothing.
    Use this to distract the bull. It does not matter what
    color the clothing is. Despite the colors bullfighters
    traditionally use, bulls do not naturally head for red—
    they react to and move toward movement, not color.
    If the bull charges, remain still and then throw your
    shirt or hat away from you.
    The bull should head toward the object you've thrown.

    If you cannot find safe cover from a charging bull, remove
    articles of clothing and throw them away from your body.
    The bull will veer and head toward the moving objects.

    If you encounter a stampede of bulls or cattle, do not
    try to distract them. Try to determine where they are
    headed, and then get out of the way. If you cannot
    escape, your only option is to run alongside the stampede to avoid getting trampled. Bulls are not like
    horses, and will not avoid you if you lie down—so
    keep moving.

    Always keep your sword in the "ready" position—held
    in front of you, with both hands, and perpendicular to
    the ground. With this method, you can move the
    sword side to side and up and down easily, blocking
    and landing blows in all directions by moving your
    arms. Hold the tip of the sword at a bit of an angle,
    with the tip pointed slightly toward your opponent.
    Picture a doorway—you should be able to move your
    sword in any direction and quickly hit any edge of the

    Step up and into the blow, with your arms held
    against your body.
    React quickly and against your instincts, which will tell
    you to move back and away. By moving closer, you can
    cut off a blow's power. Avoid extending your arms,
    which would make your own counterblow less powerful.
    Push or "punch" at the blow instead of simply trying
    to absorb it with your own sword.
    If a blow is aimed at your head, move your sword
    completely parallel to the ground and above your
    head. Block with the center of your sword, not the
    end. Always move out toward your opponent, even if
    you are defending and not attacking.

    How to Deflect a Blow

    If a blow is aimed at your head,
    move your sword parallel to the
    ground and above you.

    How to Attack


    Wait for your attacker to make a mistake.
    Deflecting a blow to the side will throw
    your opponent off balance.

    Move the sword in steady, quick blows up and down
    and to the left and right.
    Assuming you must disable your attacker, do not try
    to stab with your sword. A stabbing motion will put
    you off balance and will leave your sword far out in
    front of you, making you vulnerable to a counterblow.
    Do not raise the sword up behind your head
    to try a huge blow—you will end up with a sword
    in your gut.
    Hold your position, punch out to defend, and
    strike quickly.
    Wait for your attacker to make a mistake.
    Stepping into a blow or deflecting it to the side will
    put him/her off balance. Once your opponent is off
    balance, you can take advantage of their moment of
    weakness by landing a disabling blow, remembering
    not to jab with your sword but to strike up and down
    or from side to side.

    HOW TO
    Tighten your stomach muscles.
    A body blow to the gut (solar plexus) can damage
    organs and kill. This sort of punch is one of the best and
    easiest ways to knock someone out. (Harry Houdini
    died from an unexpected blow to the abdomen.)
    Do not suck in your stomach if you expect that a
    punch is imminent.

    Tighten your
    stomach muscles.
    Shift slightly so the
    blow hits your side.
    Absorb the impact
    with your obliques.

    If possible, shift slightly so that the blow hits your
    side, but do not flinch or move away from the punch.
    Try to absorb the blow with your obliques: this is the
    set of muscles on your side that wraps around your
    ribs. While a blow to this area may crack a rib, it is
    less likely to do damage to internal organs.

    Move toward the blow, not away from it.
    Getting punched while moving backward will result
    in the head taking the punch at full force. A punch to
    the face can cause head whipping, where the brain
    moves suddenly inside the skull, and may result in
    severe injury or death.
    Tighten your neck muscles and clench your jaw to
    avoid scraping of the upper and lower palettes.
    Tighten your neck and jaw.
    Clench your teeth.
    A punch can be absorbed most
    effectively by the forehead.

    Deflect the blow
    with your arm.

    The straight punch—one that comes straight
    at your face—should be countered by moving
    toward the blow.
    This will take force from the blow.
    A punch can be absorbed most effectively and
    with the least injury by the forehead.
    Avoid taking the punch in the nose, which is extremely
    Attempt to deflect the blow with an arm.
    Moving into the punch may result in your attacker
    missing the mark wide to either side.
    (optional) Hit back with an uppercut or

    Clench your jaw.
    A punch to the ear causes great pain and can break
    your jaw.
    Move in close to your attacker.
    Try to make the punch land harmlessly behind your
    (optional) Hit back with an uppercut.

    Clench your neck and jaw.
    An uppercut can cause much damage, whipping your
    head back, easily breaking your jaw or your nose.
    Use your arm to absorb some of the impact or
    deflect the blow to the side—anything to minimize
    the impact of a straight punch to the jaw.
    Do not step into this punch.
    If possible, move your head to the side.
    (optional) Hit back with a straight punch to the face
    or with an uppercut of your own.



    When attempting a high fall (over twenty feet) into
    water in an emergency situation, you will not
    know much about your surroundings, specifically the
    depth of the water. This makes jumping particularly
    If jumping from a bridge into a river or other
    body of water with boat traffic, try to land in the
    channel—the deepwater area where boats go under
    the bridge. This area is generally in the center, away
    from the shoreline.
    Stay away from any area with pylons that are supporting the bridge. Debris can collect in these areas
    and you can hit it when you enter the water.
    Swim to shore immediately after surfacing.

    How TO JUMP
    Jump feet first.
    Keep your body completely vertical.
    Squeeze your feet together.

    Jump feet first in a vertical position; squeeze your feet together;
    clench your backside and protect your crotch.

    After you enter the water, spread your arms and legs wide and
    move them back and forth, which will slow your plunge.
    Attempt to slow your descent.

    Enter the water feet first, and clench your buttocks
    If you do not, water may rush in and cause severe
    internal damage.
    Protect your crotch area by covering it with
    your hands.
    Immediately after you hit the water, spread
    your arms and legs wide and move them back and
    forth to generate resistance, which will slow your
    plunge to the bottom.
    Always assume the water is not deep enough to keep
    you from hitting bottom.

    Be Aware
    • Hitting the water as described above could save
    your life, although it may break your legs.
    • If your body is not straight, you can break your
    back upon entry. Keep yourself vertical until you
    hit the water.
    • Do not even think about going in headfirst unless
    you are absolutely sure that the water is at least
    twenty feet deep. If your legs hit the bottom, they
    will break. If your head hits, your skull will break.

    HOW TO
    How TO JUMP
    Jump straight down.
    If you leap off and away from the building at an angle,
    your trajectory will make you miss the Dumpster.
    Resist your natural tendency to push off.
    Tuck your head and bring your legs around.
    To do this during the fall, execute a three-quarter revolution—basically, a not-quite-full somersault. This
    is the only method that will allow a proper landing,
    with your back facing down.
    Aim for the center of the Dumpster or large box
    of debris.
    Land flat on your back so that when your body
    folds, your feet and hands meet.
    When your body hits any surface from a significant
    height, the body folds into a V. This means landing
    on your stomach can result in a broken back.

    l.Jump straight down.
    2. Tuck your head and bring
    your legs around, executing
    a three-quarter somersault.
    3. Aim for the center of
    the Dumpster and land
    flat on your back.

    Be Aware
    • If the building has fire escapes or other protrusions, your leap will have to be far enough out
    so you miss them on your way down. The landing
    target needs to be far enough from the building
    for you to hit it.
    • The Dumpster may be filled with bricks or
    other unfriendly materials. It is entirely possible
    to survive a high fall (five stories or more) into
    a Dumpster, provided it is filled with the right
    type of trash (cardboard boxes are best) and you
    land correctly.

    HOW TO
    Do not try to stand up straight (you probably will
    not be able to anyway).
    Stay bent slightly forward, leaning into the wind. If
    the train is moving faster than thirty miles per hour,
    it will be difficult to maintain your balance and resist
    the wind, so crawling on all fours may be the best
    method until you can get down.
    If the train is approaching a turn, lie flat; do not try
    to keep your footing.
    The car may have guide rails along the edge to direct
    water. If it does, grab them and hold on.
    If the train is approaching a tunnel entrance,
    lie flat, and quickly.
    There is actually quite a bit of clearance between the
    top of the train and the top of the tunnel—about
    three feet—but not nearly enough room to stand. Do
    not assume that you can walk or crawl to the end of
    the car to get down and inside before you reach the
    tunnel—you probably won't.

    Crouch low and move slowly
    forward, swaying with the
    side-to-side motion of the train.

    Look for a ladder
    between cars.

    Move your body with the rhythm of the train—from
    side to side and forward.
    Do not proceed in a straight line. Spread your feet
    apart about thirty-six inches and wobble from side to
    side as you move forward.
    Find the ladder at the end of the car (between two
    cars) and climb down.
    It is very unlikely that there will be a ladder on the
    side of the car—they usually appear only in the
    movies, to make the stunts more exciting.

    Be Aware
    The sizes and shapes of the cars on a freight train may
    vary widely. This can either make it easier or significantly more difficult to cross from one car to another.
    A twelve-foot-high boxcar may be next to a flatbed or
    a rounded chem car. If on this type of train, your best
    bet is to get down as quickly as possible, rather than
    to try a dangerous leap from car to car.

    Hurling yourself from a moving car should be a last
    resort, for example if your brakes are defective and your
    car is about to head off a cliff or into a train.
    Apply the emergency brake.
    This may not stop the car, but it might slow it down
    enough to make jumping safer.
    Open the car door.
    Make sure you jump at an angle that will take you
    out of the path of the car.
    Since your body will be moving at the same velocity as
    the car, you're going to continue to move in the direction the car is moving. If the car is going straight, try
    to jump at an angle that will take you away from it.
    Tuck in your head and your arms and legs.
    Aim for a soft landing site: grass, brush, wood chips,
    anything but pavement—or a tree.
    Stuntpeople wear pads and land in sandpits. You won't
    have this luxury, but anything that gives a bit when the
    body hits it will minimize injury.
    Roll when you hit the ground.

    After you have applied the emergency brake and the car has
    slowed, open the car door.
    Jump out at an angle away from the direction in which the car
    is traveling.

    HOW TO
    TO A CAR
    If you are planning to enter the car through one of its
    windows, remember that in many newer cars, only the
    front windows roll all the way down. You should
    attempt to be on the front passenger side.
    Wear a high-quality helmet and a leather jacket
    plus leather pants and boots.
    Make sure both vehicles are moving at the
    same speed.
    The slower the speed, the safer the move. Anything faster than sixty miles per hour is extremely
    Wait for a long straight section of road.
    Get the vehicles as close as possible to each other.
    You will be on the passenger side of the car, so you
    will be very close to the edge of the roadway. Be careful not to swerve.
    Stand crouched with both of your feet on either the
    running board or the seat.

    Grab the handle
    inside the car.

    Attempt to leap into the front passenger window.
    Make sure the window is rolled down all the way, and move
    at the same speed as the car. Get as close as possible.

    Hold the throttle until the last instant.
    Remember, as soon as you release the throttle the bike
    speed will decrease.
    If the car has a handle inside (above the door)
    grab it with your free hand.
    If not, simply time the leap so your torso lands in
    the car. If someone can grab you and pull you in, all
    the better.
    Have the driver swerve away from the bike as soon
    as you are inside.
    Once you have released the handlebars, the bike will
    go out of control and crash. It may also slip under the
    rear passenger-side wheel of the car.
    If you miss the window, tuck and roll away from
    the vehicles (see page 82 for jumping from a
    moving car).

    Be Aware
    The move is much easier if two people are on the
    motorcycle so that the non-jumper can continue
    In the movies and in stunt shows, these transfers
    are usually performed at slow speeds, and in fact often
    employ the use of a metal step installed on one side of
    the bike or car, which allows the rider to step off
    while keeping the bike balanced. You are not likely to
    have this option.



    HOW TO
    This procedure, technically called a cricothyroidotomy, should be undertaken only when a person with
    a throat obstruction is not able to breathe at all—no
    gasping sounds, no coughing—and only after you
    have attempted to perform the Heimlich maneuver
    three times without dislodging the obstruction. If
    possible, someone should call for paramedics while
    you proceed.

    • A first aid kit, if available
    • A razor blade or very sharp knife
    • A straw (two would be better) or a ballpoint
    pen with the inside (ink-filled tube) removed.
    If neither a straw nor a pen is available, use stiff >
    paper or cardboard rolled into a tube. Good
    first aid kits may contain "trache" tubes.
    There will not be time for sterilization of your tools,
    so do not bother; infection is the least of your worries
    at this point.

    Adam's apple

    Find the indentation
    bet-ween the Adam's apple
    and the cricoid cartilage.

    Make a half-inch
    horizontal incision about
    one half inch deep.

    Pinch the incision or
    insert your finger inside
    the slit to open it.

    Insert your tube
    into the incision, roughly
    one-half to one inch deep.

    Find the person's Adam's apple (thyroid cartilage).
    Move your finger about one inch down the neck
    until you feel another bulge.
    This is the cricoid cartilage. The indentation between
    the two is the cricothyroid membrane, where the incision will be made.
    Take the razor blade or knife and make a half-inch
    horizontal incision.
    The cut should be about half an inch deep. There
    should not be too much blood.
    Pinch the incision open or place your finger inside
    the slit to open it.
    Insert your tube in the incision, roughly one-half
    to one inch deep.
    Breathe into the tube with two quick breaths.
    Pause five seconds, then give one breath every five
    You will see the chest rise and the person should
    regain consciousness if you have performed the
    procedure correctly.
    The person should be able to breathe on their own,
    albeit with some difficulty, until help arrives.

    Defibrillation is the delivery of a powerful electrical
    shock to the heart. (The defibrillator is the device
    used in movies and TV shows: two handheld pads are
    placed on the victim's chest while an actor yells
    "Clear!") In the past, defibrillators were very heavy,
    expensive, needed regular maintenance, and were
    mostly found only in hospitals. Now there are more
    portable units available. A defibrillator should be used
    only for a Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA), an electrical
    problem that cannot be helped by CPR.

    Turn on the defibrillator by pressing the green button.
    Most machines will provide both visual and voice
    First, remove the person's shirt and jewelry, then
    apply the pads to the chest as shown in the diagram
    displayed on the machine's LED panel.
    One pad should be placed on the upper right side of
    the chest, one on the lower left.

    Apply one pad to the upper right of the patient's chest,
    the other pad to the lower left.

    Plug the pads into the connector.
    The defibrillator will analyze the patient and determine if he needs a shock. Do not touch the patient at
    this time.
    If the machine determines that a shock is
    needed, it will direct you—both audibly and with
    visual prompts—to press the orange button to
    deliver a shock.
    Do not touch the patient after pressing the button.
    The machine will automatically check to see whether
    or not the patient needs a second shock and if so will
    direct you to press the orange button again.

    Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse.

    If there is a pulse but the patient is not breathing,
    begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. If there is no
    pulse, repeat the defibrillation process.
    Be Aware
    A defibrillator should be used for a person experiencing sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), a condition where
    the heart's electrical signals become confused and the
    heart ceases to function. A person experiencing SCA
    will stop breathing, the pulse will slow or stop, and
    consciousness will be lost.

    HOW TO
    Letter and package bombs can be very dangerous and
    destructive. However, unlike a bomb that goes off
    suddenly and with no warning, they can be identified.
    Observe the following procedures and warning signs.

    If a carrier delivers an unexpected bulky letter or
    parcel, inspect it for lumps, bulges, or protrusions,
    without applying pressure.
    Check for unevenly balanced parcels.
    Handwritten addresses or labels from companies
    are unusual.
    Check to see if the company exists and if they sent a
    package or letter.
    Be suspicious of packages wrapped in string—
    modern packaging materials have eliminated the
    need for twine or string.
    Watch out for excess postage on small packages
    or letters—this indicates that the object was not
    weighed by the post office.
    It is no longer legal to mail stamped parcels weighing
    more than sixteen ounces at mailboxes in the United
    States—they must be taken to a post office.

    string or twine

    no return address


    protruding wires
    oil stains

    Watch out for leaks, stains (especially oily stains),
    protruding wires, or excessive tape.
    Watch out for articles with no return address or a
    nonsensical return address.


    Government agencies use well-defined search procedures for bombs and explosive devices. After a bomb
    threat, the following can be used as a guide for
    searching a room, using a two-person search team.
    Divide the area and select a search height.
    The first searching sweep should cover all items resting on the floor up to the height of furniture;
    subsequent sweeps should move up from there.
    Start back-to-back and work around the room,
    in opposite directions, moving toward each other.
    Search around the walls and proceed inward in
    concentric circles toward the center of the room.
    If you find a suspicious parcel or device, do not
    touch it—call the bomb squad.

    There are several types of devices and methods that
    can be used to identify bombs, including metal and
    vapor detectors, as well as X-ray machines. Several
    devices are portable and inexpensive enough for an
    individual to obtain.

    Particulate Explosives Detector
    • Detects modern plastic explosive constituents as
    well as TNT and nitroglycerin.
    • Detects RDX (used in C4, PE4, SX2, Semtex,
    Demex, and Detasheet); PETN (used in
    certain military explosives and Semtex); TNT
    (trinitrotoluene), and NG (nitroglycerin).
    • Uses IMS (ion mobility spectroscopy) to detect
    micron-size particles used in explosives. A sample
    size of one nanogram is sufficient for detection.
    • To use, swipe the suspect material with a
    sample wipe or a cotton glove. Analysis time is
    approximately three seconds. A visual display
    contains a red warning light and an LCD, giving
    a graphic display with a relative numerical scale
    of the target materials identified. An audible
    alarm can be triggered based on a user-defined
    • Requires AC or battery.
    • Approximately 15 x 12 x 5 inches.
    Portable X-Ray System
    • Uses a Polaroid radiographic film cassette and
    processor to create detailed radiographs of parcels
    and packages.
    • Requires AC or a rechargeable battery.
    • To use, simply point the lens at the suspect
    item and use the processor to view the image
    on the film.

    Spray Bomb Detector
    This portable aerosol spray is used in conjunction
    with laminated test paper to detect explosives—both
    plastic and traditional TNT—on parcels and on
    hands and fingerprints. The test kit includes test
    paper and two spray cans, E and X.
    First, rub the white paper over the desired surface
    (briefcase, suitcase, etc.) and then spray with the E
    canister. If TNT is detected, the paper turns violet. If
    no reaction occurs, spray the paper with the X canister. The immediate appearance of pink indicates
    plastic explosives.
    Expray can also be sprayed directly on paper and
    parcels. The procedure and results are identical.
    Bomb Range Detector
    This detector of radio-controlled explosives is mounted
    in a car.
    The unit automatically scans and transmits on
    every radio frequency in a one-kilometer radius.
    When a radio-controlled explosive is in the area, the
    device jams it to render it harmless.
    Be Aware
    All bomb experts stress that avoidance is the key concept when dealing with explosives. Your best chance
    of survival lies with the bomb squad, not with one of
    these devices.

    HOW TO
    Before you attempt to deliver a baby, use your best
    efforts to get to a hospital first. There really is no way
    to know exactly when the baby is ready to emerge, so
    even if you think you may not have time to get to the
    hospital, you probably do. Even the "water breaking"
    is not a sure sign that birth will happen immediately. The water is actually the amniotic fluid and the
    membrane that the baby floats in; birth can occur
    many hours after the mother's water breaks. However,
    if you leave too late or get stuck in crosstown traffic
    and you must deliver the baby on your own, here are
    the basic concepts.
    Time the uterine contractions.
    For first-time mothers, when contractions are about
    three to five minutes apart and last forty to ninety
    seconds—and increase in strength and frequency—for
    at least an hour, the labor is most likely real and not
    false (though it can be). Babies basically deliver themselves, and they will not come out of the womb until
    they are ready. Have clean, dry towels, a clean shirt,
    or something similar on hand.

    As the baby moves through
    the birth canal, guide it out
    by supporting the head.

    Support the body as it moves out.
    Go not slap its behind to make it cry;
    the baby will breathe on its own.

    After you have dried off the baby, tie the umbilical cord with a
    shoelace or apiece of string several inches from the body.
    Leave the cord alone until the baby gets to the hospital.

    As the baby moves out of the womb, its head—
    the biggest part of its body—will open the cervix so
    the rest of it can pass through.
    (If feet are coming out first, see next page.) As the
    baby moves through the birth canal and out of the
    mother's body, guide it out by supporting the head
    and then the body.
    When the baby is out of the mother, dry it off and
    keep it warm.
    Do not slap its behind to make it cry; the baby will
    breathe on its own. If necessary, clear any fluid out of
    the baby's mouth with your fingers.
    Tie off the umbilical cord.
    Take a piece of string—a shoelace works well—and
    tie off the cord several inches from the baby.
    It is not necessary to cut the umbilical cord, unless
    you are hours away from the hospital.
    In that event, you can safely cut the cord by tying it
    in another place a few inches closer to the mother and
    cutting it between the knots. Leave the cord alone
    until you get to a hospital. The piece of the cord
    attached to the baby will fall off by itself. The placenta will follow the baby in as few as three or as
    many as thirty minutes.

    The most common complication during pregnancy is
    a breech baby, or one that is positioned so the feet,
    and not the head, will come out of the uterus first.
    Since the head is the largest part of the baby, the danger is that, if the feet come out first, the cervix may
    not be dilated enough to get the head out afterward.
    Today, most breech babies are delivered through
    cesarean sections, a surgical procedure that you will
    not be able to perform. If you have absolutely no
    alternatives (no hospital or doctors or midwives are
    available) when the baby begins to emerge, you can
    try to deliver the baby feet first. A breech birth does
    not necessarily mean that the head won't be able to
    get through the cervix; there is simply a higher possibility that this will occur. Deliver the baby as you
    would in the manner prescribed above.

    Frostbite is a condition caused by the freezing of
    water molecules in skin cells and occurs in very cold
    temperatures. It is characterized by white, waxy skin
    that feels numb and hard. More severe cases result in
    a bluish black skin color, and the most severe cases
    result in gangrene, which may lead to amputation.
    Affected areas are generally fingertips and toes, and
    the nose, ears, and cheeks. Frostbite should be treated
    by a doctor. However, in an emergency, take the following steps.
    Remove wet clothing and dress the area with warm,
    dry clothing.
    Immerse frozen areas in warm water (100—105° F)
    or apply warm compresses for ten to thirty minutes.
    If warm water is not available, wrap gently in
    warm blankets.
    Avoid direct heat, including electric or gas fires,
    heating pads, and hot water bottles.
    Never thaw the area if it is at risk of refreezing;
    this can cause severe tissue damage.

    Do not rub frostbitten skin or rub snow on it.
    Take a pain reliever such as aspirin or ibuprofen
    during rewarming to lessen the pain.
    Rewarming will be accompanied by a severe burning
    sensation. There may be skin blistering and soft tissue swelling and the skin may turn red, blue, or purple
    in color. When skin is pink and no longer numb, the
    area is thawed.
    Apply sterile dressings to the affected areas.
    Place the dressing between fingers or toes if they have
    been affected. Try not to disturb any blisters, wrap
    rewarmed areas to prevent refreezing, and have the
    patient keep thawed areas as still as possible.
    Get medical treatment as soon as possible.
    After thawing the skin in warm water,
    sensation will return and it may be painful.
    Apply sterile dressings to the affected areas,
    placing it between toes or fingers,
    if they have been frostbitten.

    Severe frostbite may cause the
    skin to blister or swell. Wrap
    area to prevent refreezing, and
    seek medical treatment.

    Frostnip is the early warning sign of frostbite.
    Frostnip is characterized by numbness and a pale coloring of the affected areas. It can be safely treated
    at home.
    Remove wet clothing.
    Immerse or soak affected areas in warm water
    (100-105° F).
    Do not allow patient to control water
    temperature—numb areas cannot feel heat and
    can be burned.
    Continue treatment until skin is pink and
    sensation returns.

    • Keep extremities warm and covered in cold
    • Use layered clothing and a face mask.
    • Wear mittens instead of gloves, and keep the
    ears covered.
    • Take regular breaks from the cold whenever
    possible to warm extremities.

    Most leg injuries are only sprains, but the treatment
    for both sprains and fractures is the same.
    If skin is broken, do not touch or put anything on
    the wound.
    You must avoid infection. If the wound is bleeding
    severely, try to stop the flow of blood by applying
    steady pressure to the affected area with sterile bandages or clean clothes.
    Do not move the injured leg—you need to splint
    the wound to stabilize the injured area.
    Find two stiff objects of the same length—wood,
    plastic, or folded cardboard—for the splints.
    Put the splints above and below the injured area—
    under the leg (or on the side if moving the leg is
    too painful).
    Tie the splints with string, rope, or belts—whatever
    is available.
    Alternatively, use clothing torn into strips. Make sure
    the splint extends beyond the injured area.
    Do not tie the splints too tightly; this may cut
    off circulation.

    Do not move the injured leg.

    Find two stiff objects of the same length—
    wood, plastic, or folded cardboard.

    Place the splints above and below
    the injured area.

    Tie the splints with string, rope, or belts—
    whatever is available.

    Do not tie the splints too tightly—you should be able to slip
    one finger under the rope, belt, or fabric.

    You should be able to slip a finger under the rope or
    fabric. If the splinted area becomes pale or white,
    loosen the ties.
    Have the injured person lie flat on their back.
    This helps blood continue to circulate and may prevent shock.

    • Difficult or limited movement
    • Swelling
    • Bruising of the affected area
    • Severe pain
    • Numbness
    • Severe bleeding
    • A visible break of bone through the skin

    • Do not push at, probe, or attempt to clean an
    injury; this can cause infection.
    • Do not move the injured person unless
    absolutely necessary. Treat the fracture and then
    go get help.
    • If the person must be moved, be sure the injury
    is completely immobilized first.
    • Do not elevate a leg injury.
    • Do not attempt to move or reset a broken bone;
    this will cause severe pain and may complicate
    the injury.

    Do not immediately pull out any impaled objects.
    Bullets, arrows, knives, sticks, and the like cause penetrating injuries. When these objects lodge in the vital
    areas of the body (the trunk or near nerves or arteries) removing them may cause more severe bleeding
    that cannot be controlled. The object may be pressed
    against an artery or other vital internal structure and
    may actually be helping to reduce the bleeding.
    Control the bleeding by using a combination of
    direct pressure, limb elevation, pressure points, and
    tourniquets (in that order).
    DIRECT PRESSURE. You can control most bleeding by
    placing direct pressure on the wound. Attempt to
    apply pressure directly to bleeding surfaces. The scalp,
    for instance, bleeds profusely. Using your fingertips to
    press the edges of a scalp wound against the underlying bone is more effective than using the palm of your
    hand to apply pressure over a wider area. Use the tips
    of your fingers to control bleeding arterioles (small
    squirting vessels).

    Attempt to apply pressure
    directly to bleeding surfaces.
    Using fingertips rather than
    the palm is more effective for
    scalp wounds.
    Attempt to promote clotting.
    Press on bleeding arterioles
    (small squirting vessels).

    If injury is in a limb, use pressure to control bleeding, and
    elevate limb. Dress the wound to prevent spread of infection.

    LIMB ELEVATION. When a wound is in an extremity,
    elevation of the extremity above the heart, in addition
    to direct pressure, may reduce the bleeding further.
    Never make people who are in shock sit up simply to
    elevate a bleeding wound.
    PRESSURE POINTS. To reduce blood flow you usually
    have to compress an artery (where you can feel the
    pulse) near the wound against an underlying bone.
    Just pressing into the soft belly of a muscle does not
    reduce blood flow by this mechanism.

    TOURNIQUETS. A tourniquet is a wide band of cloth
    or a belt that is placed around an extremity and tightened (usually using a windlass) until the blood flow is
    cut off. The blood supply must be compressed against
    a long bone (the upper arm or upper leg) since vessels
    between the double bones in the lower arm and lower
    leg will continue to bleed despite a tourniquet. The
    amount of pressure necessary typically causes additional vascular and nerve trauma that is permanent. A
    tourniquet should only be used as a last resort—to
    save a life at the expense of sacrificing a limb.
    Immobilize the injured area.
    Using splints and dressings to immobilize an injured
    area helps protect from further injury and maintain
    clots that have begun to form. Even if an injury to a
    bone or joint is not suspected, immobilization will
    promote clotting and help healing begin.
    Dress the wound, and strive to prevent infection.
    Use sterile (or at least clean) dressings as much as
    possible. Penetrating injuries may allow anaerobic
    (air-hating) bacteria to get deep into the tissue. This
    is why penetrating wounds are typically irrigated with
    sterile or antibiotic solutions in surgery. While this is
    rarely practical outside of the hospital, it is important
    to remember that smaller penetrating wounds (nail
    holes in the foot and the like) should be encouraged
    to bleed for a short period to help "wash out" foreign
    material. Soaking an extremity in hydrogen peroxide
    may help kill anaerobic bacteria as well. Do not apply

    ointments or goo to penetrating wounds as these may
    actually promote infection.

    Emergency Tip
    Some data indicate that pure granular sugar poured
    into a penetrating wound can decrease bleeding, promote clotting, and discourage bacteria. You are not
    likely to see it used in your local emergency department, but it might be worth consideration if your
    circumstances are dire.
    Get medical attention as soon as possible.

    Be Aware
    It should be noted that tourniquets are rarely helpful—it is uncommon to have life-threatening
    bleeding in an extremity that cannot be controlled by
    the methods described above. The areas that cause
    fatal bleeding (like the femoral arteries or intraabdominal bleeding) do not lend themselves to the
    use of a tourniquet. Even most complete amputations
    do not bleed all that much, and are controlled by
    direct pressure. Arteries that are severed only part of
    the way through tend to bleed more profusely than
    those that are completely severed.



    These instructions cover small passenger planes and
    jets (not commercial airliners).
    If the plane has only one set of controls, push, pull,
    carry, or drag the pilot out of the pilot's seat.
    Take your place at the controls.
    Put on the radio headset (if there is one).
    Use the radio to call for help—there will be a control
    button on the yoke (the plane's steering wheel) or a
    CB-like microphone on the instrument panel.
    Depress the button to talk, release it to listen. Say
    "Mayday! Mayday!" and give your situation, destination, and plane call numbers, which should be printed
    on the top of the instrument panel.
    If you get no response, try again on the emergency
    channel—tune the radio to 121.5.
    All radios are different, but tuning is standard. The
    person on the other end should be able to talk you
    through the proper landing procedures. Follow their
    instructions carefully. If you cannot reach someone to
    talk you through the landing process, you will have to
    do it alone.

    Get your bearings and identify the instruments.
    Look around you. Is the plane level? Unless you have
    just taken off or are about to land, it should be flying
    relatively straight.
    YOKE. This is the steering wheel and should be in front
    of you. It turns the plane and controls its pitch. Pull
    back on the column to bring the nose up, push forward
    to point it down. Turn left to turn the plane left, turn
    right to turn it right. The yoke is very sensitive—move
    it only an inch or two in either direction to turn the
    plane in flight. While cruising, the nose of the plane
    should be about three inches below the horizon.
    ALTIMETER. This is the most important instrument,
    at least initially. It is a red dial in the middle of the
    instrument panel that indicates altitude: the small
    hand indicates feet above sea level in thousand-foot
    increments, the large hand in hundreds.
    HEADING. This is a compass and will be the only
    instrument with a small image of a plane in the
    center. The nose will point in the direction the plane
    is headed.
    AIRSPEED. This dial is on the top of the instrument
    panel and will be on the left. It is usually calibrated in
    knots, though it may also have miles per hour. A small
    plane travels at about 120 knots while cruising.
    Anything under 70 knots in the air is dangerously close
    to stall speed. (A knot is 1 1/4 miles per hour.)

    airspeed indicator

    landing gear

    THROTTLE. This controls airspeed (power) and also
    the nose attitude, or its relation to the horizon. It is a
    lever between the seats and is always black. Pull it
    toward you to slow the plane and cause it to descend,
    push it away to speed up the plane and cause it to
    ascend. The engine will get more or less quiet
    depending on the direction the throttle is moved.

    FUEL. The fuel gauges will be on the lower portion of
    the instrument panel. If the pilot has followed FAA
    regulations, the plane should have enough fuel for the
    amount of flying time to your intended destination
    plus at least an additional half hour in reserve. Some
    planes have a reserve fuel tank in addition to the primary one, but do not worry about changing tanks.
    FLAPS. Due to their complexity, wing flaps can make
    the plane harder to control. Use the throttle to control airspeed, not the flaps.
    Begin the descent.
    Pull back on the throttle to slow down. Reduce power
    by about one-quarter of cruising speed. As the plane
    slows, the nose will drop. For descent, the nose should
    be about four inches below the horizon.
    Deploy the landing gear.
    Determine if the plane has fixed or retractable landing gear. Fixed landing gear is always down so you
    need do nothing. If it is retractable, there will be
    another lever between the seats near the throttle, with
    a handle that is shaped like a tire. For a water landing, leave the landing gear up (retracted).
    Look for a suitable landing site.
    If you cannot find an airport, find a flat field on
    which to land. A mile-long field is ideal, but finding
    a field of this length will be difficult unless you are in
    the Midwest. The plane can land on a much shorter

    strip of earth, so do not bother to look for the "perfect" landing site—there is no such thing. Bumpy
    terrain will also do if your options are limited.
    Line up the landing strip so that when the
    altimeter reads one thousand feet the field is off
    the right-wing tip.
    In an ideal situation, you should take a single pass
    over the field to look for obstructions; with plenty of
    fuel, you may want to do so. Fly over the field, make
    a big rectangle, and approach a second time.
    When approaching the landing strip, reduce power
    by pulling back on the throttle.
    Do not let the nose drop more than six inches below
    the horizon.
    The plane should be one hundred feet off the
    ground when you are just above the landing strip,
    and the rear wheels should touch first.
    The plane will stall at fifty-five to sixty-five miles per
    hour, and you want the plane to be at just about stall
    speed when the wheels touch the ground.
    Pull all the way back on the throttle, and make sure
    the nose of the plane does not dip too steeply.
    Gently pull back on the yoke as the plane slowly
    touches the ground.
    Using the pedals on the floor, steer and brake the
    plane as needed.

    The yoke has very little effect on the ground. The
    upper pedals are the brakes, and the lower pedals control the direction of the nose wheel. Concentrate first
    on the lower pedals. Press the right pedal to move the
    plane right, press the left pedal to move it left. Upon
    landing, be aware of your speed. A modest reduction
    in speed will increase your chances of survival exponentially. By reducing your groundspeed from 120
    to 70 miles per hour, you increase your chance of survival threefold.

    Be Aware
    • A well-executed emergency landing in bad terrain
    can be less hazardous than an uncontrolled landing
    on an established field.
    • If the plane is headed toward trees, steer it between
    them so the wings absorb the impact if you hit.
    • When the plane comes to a stop, get out as soon
    as possible and get away—and take the pilot
    with you.

    If you are indoors, stay there!
    Get under a desk or table and hang on to it, or move
    into a doorway; the next best place is in a hallway or
    against an inside wall. Stay clear of windows, fireplaces, and heavy furniture or appliances. Get out of
    the kitchen, which is a dangerous place. Do not run
    downstairs or rush outside while the building is shaking or while there is danger of falling and hurting
    yourself or being hit by falling glass or debris.
    If you are outside, get into the open, away from
    buildings, power lines, chimneys, and anything else
    that might fall on you.
    If you are driving, stop, but carefully.
    Move your car as far out of traffic as possible. Do not
    stop on or under a bridge or overpass or under trees,
    light posts, power lines, or signs. Stay inside your car
    until the shaking stops. When you resume driving
    watch for breaks in the pavement, fallen rocks, and
    bumps in the road at bridge approaches.
    If you are in a mountainous area, watch out for
    falling rocks, landslides, trees, and other debris that
    could be loosened by quakes.

    Places to take shelter and to avoid
    NOT near windows
    NOT near fireplace

    NOT in kitchen

    After the quake stops, check for injuries and apply
    the necessary first aid or seek help.
    Do not attempt to move seriously injured persons
    unless they are in further danger of injury. Cover
    them with blankets and seek medical help for serious
    If you can, put on a pair of sturdy thick-soled shoes
    (in case you step on broken glass, debris, etc.).
    Check for hazards.
    • Put out fires in your home or neighborhood
    • Gas leaks: shut off main gas valve only if you
    suspect a leak because of broken pipes or odor.
    Do not use matches, lighters, camp stoves or
    barbecues, electrical equipment, or appliances
    until you are sure there are no gas leaks. They
    may create a spark that could ignite leaking gas
    and cause an explosion and fire. Do not turn on
    the gas again if you turned it off—let the gas
    company do it.
    • Damaged electrical wiring: shut off power at the
    control box if there is any danger to house wiring.
    • Downed or damaged utility lines: do not touch
    downed power lines or any objects in contact
    with them.
    • Spills: clean up any spilled medicines, drugs, or
    other harmful materials such as bleach, lye, or gas.

    • Downed or damaged chimneys: approach with
    caution and do not use a damaged chimney
    (it could start a fire or let poisonous gases into
    your house).
    • Fallen items: beware of items tumbling off shelves
    when you open closet and cupboard doors.
    Check food and water supplies.
    Do not eat or drink anything from open containers
    near shattered glass. If the power is off, plan meals
    to use up frozen foods or foods that will spoil quickly.
    Food in the freezer should be good for at least a couple
    of days. If the water is off you can drink from water
    heaters, melted ice cubes, or canned vegetables. Avoid
    drinking water from swimming pools and spas.
    Be prepared for aftershocks.
    Another quake, larger or smaller, may follow.

    Be Aware
    • Use your telephone only for a medical or fire
    emergency—you could tie up the lines needed for
    emergency response. If the phone doesn't work,
    send someone for help.
    • Do not expect firefighters, police, or paramedics to
    help you immediately. They may not be available.

    Being prepared for an earthquake is the best way to
    survive one. Make sure each member of the household knows what to do no matter where they are
    when a quake occurs:
    • Establish a meeting place where you can
    reunite afterward.
    • Find out about earthquake plans developed by
    your children's school or day care.
    • Transportation may be disrupted, so keep
    emergency supplies—food, liquids, and
    comfortable shoes, for example—at work.
    • Know where your gas, electric, and water main
    shu toffs are and how to turn them off if there is a
    leak or electrical short. Make sure older members
    of the family can shut off utilities.
    • Locate your nearest fire and police stations and
    emergency medical facility.
    • Talk to your neighbors—you can help one
    another during and after an earthquake.
    • Take Red Cross first aid and CPR training

    Stay aboard your boat as long as possible before you
    get into a life raft.

    In a maritime emergency, the rule of thumb is that
    you should step up into your raft, meaning you should
    be up to your waist in water before you get into the
    raft. Your best chance of survival is on a boat—even a
    disabled one—not on a life raft. But if the boat is
    sinking, know how to use a life raft. Any craft that
    sails in open water (a boat larger than fourteen feet)
    should have at least one life raft. Smaller boats may
    only have life jackets, so these vessels should stay
    within easy swimming distance of land.
    Get in the life raft, and take whatever supplies
    you can carry.
    Most importantly, if you have water in jugs, take it
    with you. Do not drink seawater. A person can last for
    several days without food at sea, but without clean
    water to drink, death is a virtual certainty within several days. If worse comes to worst, throw the jugs of
    water overboard so that you can get them later—they
    will float.
    Many canned foods, particularly vegetables, are
    packed in water, so take those with you if you can. Do
    not ration water; drink it as needed, but don't drink
    more than is necessary—a half-gallon a day should be
    sufficient if you limit your activity.

    Objects you can use to signal for help



    aluminum can


    aluminum foil

    If you are in a cold water/weather environment,
    get warm.
    You are more likely to die of exposure or hypothermia
    than of anything else.
    Put on dry clothes and stay out of the water.
    Prolonged exposure to saltwater can damage your skin
    and cause lesions, which are prone to infection.
    Stay covered. Modern life rafts have canopies,
    which protect passengers from sun, wind, and rain. If
    the canopy is missing or damaged, wear a hat, long
    sleeves, and pants to protect yourself from the sun.
    Find food, if you can.
    Life rafts include fishing hooks in their survival kits.
    If your raft is floating for several weeks, seaweed will
    form on its underside and fish will naturally congregate in the shade under you. You can catch them with
    the hook and eat the flesh raw. If no hook is available,
    you can fashion one using wire or even shards of aluminum from an empty can.
    Try to get to land, if you know where it is.
    Most rafts include small paddles, but life rafts are not
    very maneuverable, especially in any wind above three
    knots. Do not exhaust yourself—you will not be able
    to move any significant distance without great effort.
    If you see a plane or boat nearby, try to signal them.
    Use a VHF radio or a handheld flare kit to get their
    attention. A small mirror can also be used for signaling.

    Never go out on a boat unprepared. Most boats
    should have at least one type of emergency signaling
    device, which is called an Emergency Position Radio
    Beacon, or EPiRB. These devices send out global
    marine distress signals and come in two forms: 406
    MHz and 125 MHz. Both will send your boat identification and position, but the 406 goes to other
    ships, passing airplanes, and satellites, while the 125
    only goes to ships and planes. People without one
    of these devices can drift for months before they
    are found.
    Always carry a "go bag" that contains:
    • Warm, dry clothes and blankets
    • A hat
    • Food (canned goods, backpacking foods,
    dried fruit)
    • A handheld VHF radio
    • A small, handheld GPS (Global Positioning
    Satellite) tracking unit
    • Drinking water in portable jugs
    • A compass
    • A flashlight with extra batteries
    • Handheld flares
    • A handheld watermaker

    Do not panic, especially if people know where you
    are and when you are scheduled to return.
    If you have a vehicle, stay with it—do not wander!
    If you are on foot, try to backtrack by retracing
    your steps.
    Always move downstream or down country. Travel
    along ridges instead of in washes or valleys, where it
    is harder for you to see and for rescuers to see you.
    If you have completely lost your bearings, try to get
    to a high vista and look around.
    If you are not absolutely sure you can follow your
    tracks or prints, stay put.
    Build smoky fires during daylight hours (tires work
    well) but keep a bright fire burning at night.
    If fuel is limited, keep a small kindling-fire burning
    and have fuel ready to burn if you spot a person or
    If a car or plane is passing, or if you see other people
    off in the distance, try to signal them with one of
    the following methods:

    In a clearing, you can use newspaper or aluminum foil
    weighed down with rocks to make a large triangle;
    this is the international distress symbol.
    • A large I indicates to rescuers that someone is
    • An X means you are unable to proceed.
    • An F indicates you need food and water.
    • Three shots from a gun is another recognized
    distress signal.
    To avoid heat prostration, rest frequently.
    Deserts in the United States can reach temperatures
    upwards of 120 degrees during the day, and shade can
    be scarce. In the summer, sit at least twelve inches
    above the ground on a stool or a branch (ground temperatures can be thirty degrees hotter than the
    surrounding air temperature).
    When walking during daylight hours:
    • Walk slowly to conserve energy and rest at least
    ten minutes every hour.
    • Drink water; don't ration it.
    • Avoid talking and smoking.
    • Breathe through your nose, not your mouth.
    • Avoid alcohol, which dehydrates.
    • Avoid eating if there is not a sufficient amount of
    water readily available; digestion consumes water.
    • Stay in the shade and wear clothing, including
    a shirt, hat, and sunglasses. Clothing helps
    ration sweat by slowing evaporation and prolonging cooling.

    • Travel in the evening, at night, or early in the day.
    • In cold weather, wear layers of clothing, and make
    sure you and your clothes are dry.
    • Watch for signs of hypothermia, which
    include intense shivering, muscle tensing, fatigue,
    poor coordination, stumbling, and blueness of
    the lips and fingernails. If you see these signs,
    get dry clothing on immediately and light a fire
    if possible. If not, huddle close to companions
    for warmth.
    Try to find water. The best places to look are:
    • The base of rock cliffs.
    • In the gravel wash from mountain valleys,
    especially after a recent rain.
    • The outside edge of a sharp bend in a dry
    streambed. Look for wet sand, then dig down
    three to six feet to find seeping water.
    • Near green vegetation. Tree clusters and other
    shrubbery, such as cottonwood, sycamore, or
    willow trees, may indicate the presence of water.
    • Animal paths and flocks of birds. Following them
    may lead you to water.
    Find cactus fruit and flowers.
    Split open the base of cactus stalks and chew on the
    pith, but don't swallow it. Carry chunks of pith to
    alleviate thirst while walking. Other desert plants are
    inedible and will make you sick.

    The outside edge of
    dry streambeds
    Gravel wash from
    mountain valleys

    Green vegetation such as sycamore
    trees or other shrubbery

    Cactus fruit or flowers can
    be eaten. Split open the base
    and chew on the pith.

    When planning a trip to a desert area that is sparsely
    populated, always inform someone of your destination, the duration of the trip, and its intended route.
    Leaving without alerting anyone and getting lost
    means no one will be looking for you.
    If traveling by car, make sure your vehicle is in
    good condition, and make sure you have:
    • A sound battery
    • Good hoses (squeeze them: they should be firm,
    not soft and mushy)
    • A spare tire with the proper inflation
    • Spare fan belts
    • Tools
    • Reserve gasoline and oil

    • Water (five gallons for a vehicle)

    Keep an eye on the sky. Flash floods can occur in a
    wash any time thunderheads are in sight, even though
    it may not be raining where you are. If you get caught
    in a dust storm while driving, get off the road immediately. Turn off your driving lights and turn on your
    emergency flashers. Back into the wind to reduce
    windshield pitting by sand particles. Before driving
    through washes and sandy areas, test the footing. One
    minute on foot may save hours of hard work and prevent a punctured oil pan.

    If your vehicle breaks down, stay near it; your
    emergency supplies are there. Raise the hood and
    trunk lid to denote "help needed." A vehicle can be
    seen for miles, but a person is very difficult to find.
    • Leave a disabled vehicle only if you are positive of
    the route to help.
    • If stalled or lost, set signal fires. Set smoky fires in
    the daytime, bright ones for the night. Three fires
    in a triangle denotes "help needed."
    • If you find a road, stay on it.

    • Water (one gallon per person per day is adequate;
    two or more gallons is smarter and safer)
    • A map that shows the nearest populated areas
    • Waterproof matches
    • A cigarette lighter or flint and steel
    • A survival guide
    • Strong sunscreen, a hat, warm clothes,
    and blankets
    • A pocket knife
    • A metal signaling mirror
    • Iodine tablets
    • A small pencil and writing materials
    • A whistle (three blasts denotes "help needed")
    • A canteen cup
    • Aluminum foil
    • A compass
    • A first aid kit

    When hiking, periodically look back in the
    direction from where you have come. Taking a
    mental picture of what it will look like when
    you return helps in case you become lost.
    Stay on established trails if possible and mark
    the trail route with blazes on trees and brush, or
    by making ducques (pronounced "ducks"),
    which are piles of three rocks stacked on top
    of one another.

    HOW TO
    As soon as you realize that your chute is bad, signal
    to a jumping companion whose chute has not yet
    opened that you are having a malfunction.
    Wave your arms and point to your chute.
    When your companion (and new best friend)
    gets to you, hook arms.
    Once you are hooked together, the two of you will
    still be falling at terminal velocity, or about 130
    miles per hour.
    When your friend opens his chute, there will be no
    way either of you will be able hold on to one another
    normally, because the G-forces will triple or quadruple your body weight. To prepare for this problem,
    hook your arms into his chest strap, or through the
    two sides of the front of his harness, all the way up to
    your elbows, and grab hold of your own strap.
    Open the chute.
    The chute opening shock will be severe, probably
    enough to dislocate or break your arms.

    Hook arms with your companion. Then hook
    your arms into his chest strap, up to the elbows,
    and grab hold of your own.

    Steer the canopy.
    Your friend must now hold on to you with one arm
    while steering his canopy (the part of the chute that
    controls direction and speed).
    If your friend's canopy is slow and big, you may
    hit the grass or dirt slowly enough to break only a leg,
    and your chances of survival are high.
    If his canopy is a fast one, however, your friend
    will have to steer to avoid hitting the ground too fast.
    You must also avoid power lines and other obstructions at all costs.

    If there is a body of water nearby, head for that.
    Of course, once you hit the water, you will have to
    tread with just your legs and hope that your partner is
    able to pull you out before your chute takes in water.

    Check your chute before you jump. The good news is
    that today's parachutes are built to open, so even if
    you make big mistakes packing them, they tend to
    sort themselves out. The reserve chute, however, must
    be packed by a certified rigger and must be perfect as
    it is your last resort. Make sure that:
    • The parachute is folded in straight lines—that
    there are no twists.
    • The slider is positioned correctly to keep the
    parachute from opening too fast.

    Struggle to stay on top of the snow by using a
    freestyle swimming motion.
    If you are buried, your best chance of survival is if
    someone saw you get covered.
    The snow in an avalanche is like a wet snowball: it is
    not light and powdery, and once you are buried, it is
    very difficult to dig your way out.
    If you are only partially buried, you can dig your
    way out with your hands or by kicking at the snow.
    If you still have a ski pole, poke through the snow in
    several directions until you see or feel open air, then
    dig in that direction.
    If you are completely buried, chances are you will be
    too injured to help yourself.
    However, if you are able, dig a small hole around you
    and spit in it. The saliva should head downhill, giving
    you an idea of which direction is up. Dig up, and do
    it quickly.
    Be Aware
    • Never go hiking or skiing alone in avalanche
    • Carry an avalanche probe—a sturdy, sectional
    aluminum pole that fits together to create a probe

    Struggle to stay on top of the snow by using
    a freestyle swimming motion.

    six to eight feet in length. Some ski poles are
    threaded and can be screwed together to form
    avalanche probes.
    • Know where and when avalanches are likely
    to occur.
    • Avalanches occur in areas with new snow; on the
    leeward side of mountains (the side facing away
    from the wind); and in the afternoons of sunny
    days, when the morning sun may have loosened

    the snowpack. They occur most often on mountainsides with angles of thirty to forty-five
    degrees—these are often the most popular slopes
    for skiing.
    • Avalanches can be triggered by numerous factors,
    including recent snowfall, wind, and sunlight.
    As new snow accumulates with successive storms,
    the layers may be of different consistencies and
    not bond to one another, making the snow
    highly unstable.
    • Loud noises do not cause avalanches except if they
    cause significant vibrations in the ground or snow.
    • The activity with the highest avalanche risk is
    now snowmobiling. Snowmobiles—sometimes
    called mountain sleds—are powerful and light,
    and can get high into mountainous terrain,
    where avalanches occur.
    • Carry a beacon. The beacon broadcasts your
    position by setting up a magnetic field that can be
    picked up by the other beacons in your group.
    If skiing on a dangerous slope, go down one at a
    time, not as a group, in case a slide occurs.

    If you have witnessed others being buried by an avalanche, contact the ski patrol as soon as possible.
    Then search first by trees and benches—the places
    where people are most commonly buried. All
    searchers should have small, collapsible shovels to
    help them dig quickly if they find someone.

    Get as far away as possible.
    An untrained shooter isn't likely to be accurate at any
    distance greater than sixty feet.
    Run fast, but do not move in a straight line—weave
    back and forth to make it more difficult for the
    shooter to draw a bead on you.
    The average shooter will not have the training necessary to hit a moving target at any real distance.

    Run in a
    zigzag pattern
    to make yourself
    more difficult
    to hit. (B)
    Try to turn a corner if possible. (A)

    - - - - > (B)

    Do not bother to count shots.
    You will have no idea if the shooter has more ammunition. Counting is only for the movies.
    Turn a corner as quickly as you can, particularly
    if your pursuer has a rifle or assault weapon.
    Rifles have much greater accuracy and range, and the
    person may be more likely to either aim or spray bullets in your direction.

    Get down, and stay down.
    If the intended target is near you or if the shooter is
    firing at random, get as low as possible. Do not
    crouch down; get flat on your stomach and stay there.
    If you are outside and can get to a car, run to it and
    lie behind a tire on the opposite side of the car from
    the shooter.
    If no cars are present, lie in the gutter next to the
    curb. A car will stop or deflect a small-caliber bullet
    fired toward you. However, higher caliber bullets—
    such as those from an assault rifle or bullets that are
    designed to pierce armor—can easily penetrate a car
    and hit someone on the opposite side.
    If you are inside a building and the shooter is inside,
    get to another room and lie flat.


    If you cannot get to another room, move behind any
    heavy, thick objects (a solid desk, filing cabinets,
    tables, a couch) for protection.
    If you are face-to-face with the shooter, do anything
    you can to make yourself less of a target.
    Turn sideways, and stay low—stray bullets are likely
    to be at least a few feet above the ground. If the
    shooter is outside, stay inside and stay away from
    doors and windows.
    Stay down until the shooting stops or until authorities arrive and give the all clear.

    Attempt to keep large objects between you and the shooter.

    The number one cause of death when lost in the
    mountains is hypothermia—humans are basically
    tropical animals. Staying calm in the face of darkness,
    loneliness, and the unknown will greatly increase your
    chances of survival. Eighty percent of mountain survival is your reaction to fear, 10 percent is your
    survival gear, and the other 10 percent is knowing
    how to use it. Always tell someone else where you are
    going and when you will return.
    Do not panic.
    If you told someone where you were going, search and
    rescue teams will be looking for you. (In general,
    teams will search only during daylight hours for
    adults, but will search around the clock for children
    who are alone.)
    Find shelter, and stay warm and dry.
    Exerting yourself unnecessarily—like dragging heavy
    logs to build a shelter—will make you sweat and make
    you cold. Use the shelter around you before trying to
    construct one. If you are in a snow-covered area, you
    may be able to dig a cave in deep snow for shelter and
    protection from the wind. A snow trench may be a
    better idea—it requires less exertion. Simply use

    In snow-covered country, build a snow cave
    or a snow trench for shelter and warmth.
    Use dead leaves and branches
    for insulation.

    something to dig a trench, get in it, and cover it with
    branches or leaves. You should attempt to make your
    shelter in the middle of the mountain if possible. Stay
    out of the valleys—cold air falls, and the valley floor
    can be the coldest spot on the mountain.
    Signal rescuers for help.
    The best time to signal rescuers is during the day,
    with a signaling device or three fires in a triangle.
    Signal for help from the highest point possible—it
    will be easier for rescuers to see you, and any sound
    you make will travel farther. Build three smoky fires
    and put your blanket—gold side facing out, if it is a
    space blanket—on the ground.

    Do not wander far.
    It will make finding you more difficult, as search
    teams will be trying to retrace your path and may miss
    you if you have gone off in a different direction.
    Searchers often wind up finding a vehicle with no one
    in it because the driver has wandered off.
    If you get frostbite, do not rewarm the affected area
    until you're out of danger.
    You can walk on frostbitten feet, but once you warm
    the area and can feel the pain, you will not want to
    walk anywhere. Try to protect the frostbitten area and
    keep it dry until you are rescued.

    You must dress properly before entering a wilderness
    area. Layer your clothing in the following manner:
    FIRST (INNER) LAYER: long underwear, preferably
    polypropylene. This provides only slight insulation—
    its purpose is to draw moisture off your skin.
    SECOND (MIDDLE) LAYER: something to trap and
    create warm "dead air" space, such as a down parka.
    THIRD (OUTER) LAYER: a Gore-Tex or other brand
    of breathable jacket that allows moisture out but not
    in. Dry insulation is key to your survival. Once you
    are wet, it is very difficult to get dry.

    Make sure you have the following items in your survival kit, and that you know how to use them (reading
    the instructions for the first time in the dark wilderness is not recommended):
    A HEAT SOURCE. Bring several boxes of waterproof
    matches, as well as a lighter. Trioxane—a small,
    light, chemical heat source that the Army uses—is
    recommended. Trioxane packs can be picked up in
    outdoor and military surplus stores. Dryer lint is
    also highly flammable and very lightweight.
    SHELTER. Carry a small space blanket, which has
    a foil-like coating that insulates you. Get one that
    is silver on one side (for warmth) and orange-gold
    on the other, which can be used for signaling. The
    silver side is not a good color to signal with. It can :
    be mistaken for ice or mineral rock. The orangegold color does not occur in nature and will not be
    mistaken for anything else.
    A SIGNALING DEVICE. A small mirror works well, as
    do flares or a whistle, which carries much farther
    than a voice.
    FOOD. Pack carbohydrates: bagels, trail mix, granola
    bars, and so on. Proteins need heat to break down
    and require more water for digestion.

    • Knife
    • Kindling. Several pieces, varying in size from small
    to large.
    • Wood to keep the fire going. Select deadwood
    from the tree, not off the ground. Good wood
    should indent with pressure from a fingernail, but
    not break easily.
    • Bow. A curved stick about two feet long.
    • String. A shoelace, parachute cord, or leather thong.
    Primitive cordage can be made from yucca,
    milkweed, or another tough, stringy plant.
    • Socket. A horn, bone, piece of hard wood, rock, or
    seashell that fits in the palm of the hand and will be
    placed over a stick.
    • Lube. You can use earwax, skin oil, a ball of green
    grass, lip balm, or anything else oily.
    • Spindle. A dry, straight 3/4 to 1-inch-diameter stick
    approximately 12 to 18 inches long. Round one end
    and carve the other end to a point.
    • Fire board. Select and shape a second piece of wood
    into a board approximately 3/4 to 1 inch thick, 2 to 3
    inches wide, and 10 to 12 inches long. Carve a shallow dish in the center of the flat side approximately


    (bark or leaf)

    (enlargement of V-shaped notch)

    1/2 inch from the edge. Into the edge of this dish,
    cut a V-shaped notch.
    • Tray. A piece of bark or leaf inserted under the
    V-shaped notch to catch the ember. The tray
    should not be made of deadwood.
    • Nest. Dry bark, grass, leaves, cattail fuzz, or
    some other combustible material, formed into
    a bird nest shape.

    Tie the string tightly to the bow, one end to each
    end of the stick.
    Kneel on your right knee, with the ball of your left
    foot on the fire board, holding it firmly to the ground.
    Take the bow in your hands.
    Loop the string in the center of the bow.
    Insert the spindle in the loop of the bowstring
    so that the spindle is on the outside of the bow,
    pointed end up.
    The bowstring should now be tight—if not, loop the
    string around the spindle a few more times.
    Take the hand socket in your left hand, notch side
    down. Lubricate the notch.

    Tie a string tightly to the bow.

    Loop the string in the center and insert the spindle.

    Press down lightly on the socket. Draw bow back and forth,
    rotating spindle. Add pressure to the socket and speed your
    bowing motion until fire ember is produced.

    Place the rounded end of the spindle into the dish of
    the fire board and the pointed end of the spindle into
    the hand socket.
    Pressing down lightly on the socket, draw the bow
    back and forth, rotating the spindle slowly.
    Add pressure to the socket and speed to your bowing
    until you begin to produce smoke and ash.
    When there is a lot of smoke, you have created a fire ember.
    Immediately stop your bowing motion and tap
    the spindle on the fire board to knock the ember
    into the tray.
    Remove the tray and transfer the ember into your "nest."
    Hold the nest tightly and blow steadily onto the ember.
    Eventually, the nest will catch fire.
    Add kindling onto the nest. When the kindling
    catches, gradually add larger pieces of fuel.

    Be Aware
    You should not be dependent on any primitive fire
    method to maintain life in a wilderness survival emergency. Making fire in this manner can be quite difficult
    under actual harsh conditions (rain, snow, cold).
    You should practice this method at home before you
    attempt it in the wilderness to familiarize yourself with
    the quirks of the process.

    Lightning causes more casualties annually in the U.S.
    than any other storm-related phenomenon except
    floods. No place is completely safe from lightning.
    However, some places are more dangerous than others.
    Loud or frequent thunder indicates that lightning
    activity is approaching.
    If you can see lightning and/or hear thunder, you are at
    risk. High winds, rainfall, and cloud cover often act as
    precursors to actual cloud-to-ground strikes. Thunderstorms generally move west to east and occur late in the
    day or in early evening when humidity is highest.
    When you see lightning, count the number of seconds until thunder is heard and then divide by five.
    This will indicate how far the storm is from you in
    miles. (Sound travels at 1,100 feet per second.)
    If the time delay between seeing the flash (lightning)
    and hearing the boom (thunder) is fewer than thirty
    seconds, seek a safer location immediately.
    • Avoid high places, open fields, and ridges above
    the timberline. If in an open area, do not lie flat—
    kneel with your hands on the ground and your head
    low. If you are on a technical climb, sit on a rock

    If you are in an open area, do not lie flat. Kneel with your
    hands on the ground and your head low.
    DO NOT stand under a tree.

    or on nonmetallic equipment. Tie a rope around
    your ankle; this will anchor you if a strike occurs
    and you are knocked off balance.
    • Avoid isolated trees, unprotected gazebos, and rain
    or picnic shelters, as well as shallow depressions in
    the earth—current traveling through the ground
    may use you to bridge the depression.
    • Avoid baseball dugouts, communications towers,
    flagpoles, light poles, metal and wood bleachers,
    and metal fences. If you are camping, avoid your
    tent if it is in an open area or under a large tree.
    • Avoid golf carts and convertibles.
    • Avoid bodies of water: oceans, lakes, swimming
    pools, and rivers.
    Wait for the storm to pass.
    The lightning threat generally diminishes with time
    after the last sound of thunder, but may persist for
    more than 30 minutes. When thunderstorms are in
    the area but not overhead, the lightning threat can
    exist even when it is sunny, not raining, or when clear
    sky is visible.
    Be Aware
    • Large enclosed buildings tend to be much safer
    than smaller or open structures. The risk for
    lightning injury depends on whether the structure
    incorporates lightning protection, the construction
    materials used, and the size of the structure.
    • Fully enclosed metal vehicles such as cars, trucks,
    buses, vans, and fully enclosed farm vehicles with

    the windows rolled up provide good shelter from
    lightning. Avoid contact with metal or conducting
    surfaces outside or inside the vehicle.
    • When inside, avoid contact with conductive
    surfaces with exposure to the outside, including
    the shower, sink, plumbing fixtures, and metal
    door and window frames.
    • Avoid outlets, electrical cords, and wired electrical
    devices, including telephones, computers, and
    televisions (particularly cable TVs).

    Call 911 to report the strike and give directions to
    emergency personnel.
    With immediate medical treatment, victims can survive an encounter with lightning. If multiple people
    have been struck, treat the apparently "dead" first.
    People who are unconscious but still breathing will
    probably recover on their own.
    Move to a safer location to avoid getting struck
    It is unusual for victims who survive a lightning strike
    to have major fractures that would cause paralysis or
    major bleeding complications unless they have suffered a fall or been thrown a distance. Do not be
    afraid to move the victim rapidly if necessary; individuals struck by lightning do not carry a charge and
    it is safe to touch them to give medical treatment.

    In cold and wet environments, put a protective
    layer between the victim and the ground to decrease
    the chance of hypothermia, which can further
    complicate resuscitation.
    Check for burns, especially around jewelry and watches.
    If the victim is not breathing, start mouth-tomouth resuscitation.
    Give one breath every five seconds. If moving the victim, give a few quick breaths prior to moving.
    Determine if the victim has a pulse.
    Check the pulse at the carotid artery (side of the
    neck) or femoral artery (groin) for at least twenty to
    thirty seconds.
    If no pulse is detected, start cardiac compressions.
    If the pulse returns, continue ventilation with
    rescue breathing as needed for as long as practical
    in a wilderness situation.
    If a pulse does not return after twenty to thirty
    minutes of good effort, stop resuscitation efforts.
    In wilderness areas far from medical care, prolonged
    basic CPR is of little use—the victim is unlikely
    to recover if they do not respond within the first
    few minutes.

    Do not panic.
    Signal to your fellow divers that you are having a
    problem—point to your tank or regulator.
    If someone comes to your aid, share their regulator,
    passing it back and forth while swimming slowly to
    the surface.
    Take two breaths, then pass it back to the other diver.
    Ascend together, exhaling as you go. Then take
    another two breaths, alternating, until you reach the
    surface. Nearly all divers carry an extra regulator connected to their tank.
    If no one can help you, keep your regulator in your
    mouth; air may expand in the tank as you ascend,
    giving you additional breaths.
    Look straight up so that your airway is as straight
    as possible.
    Swim to the surface at a slow to moderate rate.
    Exhale continuously as you swim up. It is very important that you exhale the entire way up, but the rate at

    Keep your regulator
    in your mouth.

    Keep your airway
    as straight as
    possible by looking
    toward the surface.

    Swim at a slow to
    moderate rate, exhaling

    which you exhale is also important. Exhale slowly—
    do not exhaust all your air in the first few seconds of
    your ascent. As long as you are even slightly exhaling,
    your passageway will be open and air can vent from
    your lungs.
    WARNING: If you do not exhale continuously, you
    risk an aneurysm.

    Be Aware
    • Never dive alone.
    • Watch your pressure and depth gauges closely.
    • Make sure your fellow divers are within easy
    signaling/swimming distance.
    • Share a regulator in an emergency. It is much
    safer to use your partner's regulator than to try
    to make a quick swim to the surface. This is
    especially true the deeper you are, where you
    need to surface gradually.
    • Always use an alternate air source instead of
    swimming up unless you are fewer than thirty feet
    below the surface.


    Source: "Mountain" Mel Deweese, a Survival
    Evasion Resistance Escape Instructor, has trained
    military personnel and civilians to survive in all
    kinds of environments. He runs the Colorado
    Survival Skills Tipi Camp.

    How to Escape from Quicksand
    Source: Karl S. Kruszelnicki, Julius
    Sumner Miller Fellow at
    the School of Physics of
    the University of Sydney,
    Australia, the author
    of several books on
    physics and natural
    phenomena, including Flying
    Lasers, Robofish, and Cities of Slime and other
    brain-bending science moments.
    How to Break Down a Door
    Source: David M. Lowell, a certified Master
    Locksmith and Education/Proficiency Registration
    Program Manager of the Associated Locksmiths of
    America, an industry trade group.

    How to Break into a Car

    Source: Bill Hargrove, a licensed locksmith
    in Pennsylvania with 10 years of experience
    opening locks.
    How to Hot-wire a Car

    Sources: Sam Toler, a
    certified auto mechanic,
    demolition derby driver,
    and member of the
    Internet Demolition
    Derby Association;
    Cartalk, a weekly radio
    program on car repair
    broadcast on National
    Public Radio.
    How to Perform a Fast ISO-Degree
    Turn with Your Car

    Sources: Vinny Minchillo, Internet Demolition
    Derby Association; Tom and Peggy Simons.

    How to Ram a Car
    Sources: Sam Toler (see above); Tom and
    Peggy Simons.

    How to Escape from
    a Sinking Car
    Sources: The U.S.
    Army's Cold
    Regions Research
    and Engineering Lab,
    located in New Hampshire;
    "Danger! Thin Ice," a publication of the Minnesota
    Department of Natural Resources; Tim Smalley, a
    boating and safety specialist at the Minnesota DNR.
    How to Deal with a Downed Power Line
    Source: Larry Holt, a senior consultant at
    Eicon Elevator Controls and Consulting in
    Prospect, Connecticut.

    CHAPTER 2:
    How to Survive a Poisonous Snake Attack
    Sources: John Henkel, a writer for the U.S. Food
    and Drug Administration and a contributor to
    FDA Consumer magazine; Al Zulich, director of
    the Harford Reptile Breeding Center in Bel Air,
    Maryland; Mike Wilbanks, webmaster of the
    website Constrictors.com.

    How to Fend Off a Shark
    Sources: George H. Burgess, director of the
    International Shark Attack File at the Florida
    Museum of Natural History at the University
    of Florida; Craig Ferreira, board member, Cape
    Town's South African White Shark Research
    Institute, a nonprofit organization dedicated
    to research of the white shark and the preservation
    of its environment.
    How to Escape from a Bear
    Sources: "Safety Guide to Bears in the Wild,"
    a publication of the Wildlife Branch of Canada's
    Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks;
    Dr. Lynn Rogers, a wildlife research biologist
    at Minnesota's Wildlife Research Institute and
    a director of the North American Bear Center
    in Ely, Minnesota.
    How to Escape
    from a Mountain Lion
    Sources: The National Parks
    Service; the Texas Park and
    Wildlife Association; Chris
    Kallio, backpacking guide for
    About.com; Mary Taylor Gray,
    a writer for Colorado's Wildlife
    Company, a publication of the
    Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    How to Wrestle Free from an Alligator
    Sources: Lynn Kirkland, curator of the St.
    Augustine Alligator Farm; Tim Williams of
    Orlando's Gatorland, who
    has worked with alligators
    for nearly 30 years and now
    lectures and trains other
    alligator wrestlers.
    How to Escape from
    Killer Bees
    Source: The Texas
    Agricultural Extension
    How to Deal with a Charging Bull
    Source: Coleman Cooney, director of the
    Bullfight School.
    How to Win a Sword Fight
    Source: Dale Gibson, stuntman, teaches sword
    fighting skills to Hollywood actors and stunt
    people. He plays the knight in the Marine Corps
    commercials, and performed sword fighting
    stunts in The Mask of Zorro.
    How to Take a Punch
    Source: Cappy Kotz, a USA Boxing certified coach
    and instructor, and author of Boxing For Everyone.

    CHAPTER 3:
    How to Jump from a Bridge or
    Cliff into a River
    Source: Chris Caso, stuntman, member of the
    UCLA gymnastics team and the U.S. gymnastics
    team, has produced and performed high-fall
    stunts for numerous movies, including Batman
    and Robin, Batman Forever, The Lost World, and
    The Crow: City of Angels.
    How to Jump from a
    Building into a Dumpster
    Source: Chris Caso
    (see above).
    How to Maneuver on Top
    of a Moving Train and
    Get Inside
    Source: Kim Kahana,
    stuntman, stunt director, .
    and filmmaker. He has
    appeared in more than 300 films, including Lethal
    Weapon 3, Passenger 57, and Smokey & the Bandit.
    How to Jump from a Moving Car
    Sources: Dale Gibson (see above); Chris Caso,
    (see above).

    How to Leap from a Motorcycle to a Car
    Source: Jim Winburn, the director and stunt coordinator for two amusement park shows: "Batman" and
    the "Butch & Sundance Western Show."

    CHAPTER 4:
    How to Perform a Tracheotomy
    Source: Dr. Jeff Heit, M.D., director of internal
    medicine at a Philadelphia area hospital.
    How to Use a Defibrillator to
    Restore a Heartbeat
    Sources: Dr. Jeff Heit, M.D. (see above); Tom
    Costello, district manager of Hewlett-Packard;
    Heartstream; the American Heart Association.
    How to Identify a Bomb
    Source: Brady Geril, vice president of Product
    Management for the Counter Spy Shops, the retail
    division of CCS International Ltd. of London. He is
    an expert in both survival products and tactics, and
    served as a supervising officer and undercover agent
    in the New York Police Department's narcotics division for 10 years.

    How to Deliver a Baby in a Taxicab
    Source: Dr. Jim Nishimine,
    M.D., obstetrician and
    gynecologist at
    Alta Bates
    Hospital in
    California. He has
    been delivering
    babies for 30 years.
    How to Treat Frostbite
    Source: John Lindner, director of the
    Wilderness Survival School for the Denver
    division of the Colorado Mountain Club, runs
    the Snow Operations Training Center, an
    organization that teaches mountain survival
    skills to power companies and search and
    rescue teams.

    How to Treat a Leg Fracture
    Source: Dr. Randall Simms, M.D.
    How to Treat a Bullet or Knife Wound
    Source: Charles D. Bortle, BA, RRT, NREMT-P,
    Paramedic and GMS Educator.

    CHAPTER 5:
    How to Land a Plane
    Sources: Arthur Marx, a pilot for more than
    20 years, owns Flywright Aviation, a flight
    training and corporate flying service on Martha's
    Vineyard; Mick Wilson, author of How to Crash
    an Airplane (and Survive!) has a gold seal flight
    instructor certificate for both single- and
    multi-engine aircraft.
    How to Survive
    an Earthquake
    Sources: The U.S.
    Geological Survey; The
    National Earthquake
    Information Center.

    How to Survive Adrift at Sea
    Source: Greta Schanen, managing editor of Sailing
    Magazine, has extensive experience both racing and
    pleasure cruising in deep water.
    How to Survive When Lost in the Desert
    Sources: The Arizona State Association of
    4 Wheel Drive Clubs; The Desert Survival Guide,
    a publication of the City of Phoenix, Arizona.
    How to Survive If Your Parachute Fails to Open
    Source: Joe Jennings, skydiving cinematographer
    and skydiving coordination specialist. He has
    designed, coordinated, and filmed skydiving stunts
    for numerous television commercials, including
    Mountain Dew, Pepsi, MTV Sports, Coca Cola,
    and ESPN.

    How to Survive
    an Avalanche
    Source: Jim Frankenfield,
    director of the Cyberspace
    Snow and Avalanche
    Center, a nonprofit
    organization dedicated to
    avalanche safety education
    and information based
    in Corvallis, Oregon.
    Frankenfield has a degree
    in snow and avalanche
    physics and has led avalanche safety training for
    10 years in Colorado, Montana, Oregon, and Utah.
    How to Survive If You Are in
    the Line of Gunfire
    Source: Brady Geril (see above).
    How to Survive When Lost in the Mountains
    Source: John Lindner, Colorado Mountain Club,
    director of the
    Wilderness Survival
    School (see above).
    How to Make Fire
    Without Matches
    Source: Mel
    (see Foreword,
    page 9).

    How to Avoid Being Struck
    by Lightning
    Sources: John Lindner
    (see above); The
    Lightning Safety
    Group of the
    American Meteorological
    Society; the National Weather
    Service Forecast Office in Denver, Colorado.
    How to Get to the Surface
    If Your Scuba Tank Runs Out of Air
    Source: Graham Dickson, Professional
    Association of Diving Instructors (PADI)
    Master scuba instructor.

    JOSHUA PIVEN is a computer journalist and freelance writer, and is a former editor at Ziff-Davis
    Publishing. He has been chased by knife-wielding
    motorcycle bandits, stuck in subway tunnels, been
    robbed and mugged, has had to break down doors
    and pick locks, and his computer crashes regularly.
    This is his first book. He currently makes his
    home in Philadelphia.
    DAVID BORGENICHT is a writer and editor who
    has written several nonfiction books, including
    The Little Book of Stupid Questions (Hysteria,
    1999) and The Jewish Mother Goose (Running
    Press, 2000). He has ridden in heavily-armored
    vehicles in Pakistan, stowed away on Amtrak,
    been conned by a grifter, broken into several
    houses (each for good reason), and has "borrowed"
    mini-bottles from the drink cart on Delta. He
    lives in Philadelphia with his wife—his best-case
    Check out www.worstcasescenarios.com for
    additional survival tips, updates, and more.
    Because you just never know . ..