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  • Название: E-learning Theory and Practice
  • Автор: Haythornthwaite, Caroline, Andrews, Richard N. L.

Предпросмотр документа

Professor William H. Dutton, Director of the
Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford

In E-learning Theory and Practice the authors set out different perspectives
on e-learning. The book deals with the social implications of e-learning, its
transformative effects, and the social and technical interplay that supports and
directs e-learning.
The authors present new perspectives on the subject by:

E-learning Theory & Practice

This is a must-read for every student,
lecturer and professor. It establishes Internet
Studies as essential to an understanding of
how learners and educators can capture the value
of our networked world.

• Exploring the way teaching and learning are changing with the presence of
the Internet and participatory media

• Providing a theoretical grounding in new learning practices from education,
• Addressing e-learning in terms of existing learning theories, emerging online
learning theories, new literacies, social networks, social worlds, communities
and virtual communities, and online resources

• Emphasising the impact of everyday electronic practices on learning, literacy
and the classroom, locally and globally.

This book is for everyone involved in e-learning. Teachers and educators will gain
an understanding of new learning practices, and learners will gain a sense of
their new role as active participants in classroom and lifelong learning. Graduate
students and researchers will gain insight into the direction of research in this
new and exciting area of education and social practice.
Caroline Haythornthwaite is Director and Professor at the School of Library,
Archival and Information Studies at The University of British Columbia.
Richard Andrews is Professor in English and Dean of the Faculty of Children and
Learning at the Institute of Education, University of London.
Cover image © iStockPhoto | Design by Naomi C Robinson
ISBN: 978-1-84920-471-2

9 781849 204712

Haythornthwaite and An drews

communication and information science

E-learning
Theory & Practice

Caroline Haythornthwaite
and Richard Andrews

E-learning Theory and
Practice

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Education at SAGE
SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals,
books, and electronic media for academic, educational,
and professional markets.
Our education publishing includes:
u accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring
education professionals and practitioners looking to
further their careers through continuing professional
development
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u authoritative state of the art reference from the leading
authors in the field
Find out more at: www.sagepub.co.uk/education

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E-learning Theory and
Practice
Caroline Haythornthwaite
and Richard Andrews

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© Caroline Haythornthwaite and Richard Andrews 2011
First published 2011
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research
or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under
the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this
publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted
in any form, or by any means, only with the prior
permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case
of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the
terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing
Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside
those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
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SAGE Publications Inc.
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2010937863
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-84920-470-5
ISBN 978-1-84920-471-2 (pbk)

Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham, Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources

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Contents
About the Authors
Acknowledgements
Introduction  New Learning Practices
What’s New in Learning?
What is Driving New Conditions for Learning?
Chapter Contents
Looking Forward
Further Reading
Chapter 1   The New Media
Introduction
Features of Computer-mediated Communication
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 2   Theories of Learning
Introduction
Transformation, Framing and Emergence
Challenges for Assessment
Toward E-learning Theory
Texts
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 3   Theorizing Online Learning
Introduction
Existing Theoretical Positions
Does E-learning Require a New Theory of Learning?
Three Questions Answered

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viii
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vi   E-Learning Theory and Practice
Further Thoughts
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 4   New Literacies, New Discourses in E-learning
From New Literacies to New Discourses
Exploring Modes
From ‘Literacy’ to ‘Discourse’
The Implications of a ‘Discourse’ View of E-learning
A Reciprocal, Co-evolutionary Model of Literacy Development
  and Learning
Developing a New ‘Language’ for E-learning
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 5   Participatory Cultures
Introduction
Technologies of Participation
Brief History of IT Development
Participatory Media
Educational Spaces: 1.0 and 2.0
Changes in Authority and Contribution
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 6   Learning Communities
Introduction
Defining and Locating Community
Why Collaboration and Community?
The Concept of Community
Creating an E-learning Community
Promoting a Community
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 7   Sociotechnical Perspectives
Introduction
Reviewing Social Processes and Technology
Managing the Social and Technical Mix in E-learning
Balancing the Social and Technical
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 8   E-learning Ecologies
Introduction
The Ecology of the E-learning Environment

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60
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Contents  

Personal Ecologies
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 9   Ubiquitous Learning, Ubiquitous Learners
Introduction
Becoming a Ubiquitous E-learner
Who Is a Ubiquitous E-learner?
What Does a Ubiquitous Learner Learn?
The Ubiquitous Learner and the Economics of Attention
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 10   E-inclusion and Exclusion
Introduction
Digital Divide
Digital Spectrum
Conclusion
Further Reading
Chapter 11   Cross-cultural Issues
Introduction
Issues Arising from Cultural Diversity
E-learning Across the Globe
Potential Problems with Cross-Cultural Approaches to E-learning
Further Reading
Chapter 12   Researching E-learning
Introduction
Getting Started in E-learning Research
E-learning Research Dimensions
Research about and for E-learning
New Forms of Research Formats in the Digital Age
Becoming an E-Researcher
Future Research
From Research about E-learning to Research for E-learning
Conclusions
Further Reading
References
Index

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vii

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About the Authors
Caroline Haythornthwaite
Caroline Haythornthwaite is Director and Professor, School of Library, Archival
and Information Studies, The University of British Columbia. She joined UBC
in 2010 after 14 years at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where
she was Professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science.
She has an international reputation in research on information and knowledge
sharing through social networks and the impact of computer media and the
Internet on learning and social interaction.
Her research includes empirical and theoretical work on social networks and
media use, the development and nature of community online, distributed
knowledge processes, the nature and constraints of interdisciplinary collaboration, motivations for participation in crowds and communities, and the development of automated processes for analysis of online learning activity.
Richard Andrews
Richard Andrews is Professor in English and Dean of the Faculty of Children
and Learning at the Institute of Education, University of London, where he
teaches an online research methods course as well as supervising the work of
doctoral students in the field of e-learning. He is the editor of The Impact of ICT
on Literacy Education and on the editorial boards of the journals Learning, Media
and Technology and the China-based International Journal of Computer Assisted
Language Teaching.
Research interests include argumentation in schools and higher education;
writing development; English from a multimodal perspective; world Englishes;
and the discourses of e-learning. He has held professorships at the universities
of Middlesex, Hull and York, and taught at New York University in the
Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development. He has also
held research fellowships at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
and the University of Western Sydney.

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Acknowledgements
All scholarship is a result of multiple interactions, conversations and support
of others. As authors we wish to acknowledge the support of many people and
institutions in providing the opportunity to complete this book. We thank first
the Leverhulme Trust. This book was written during Caroline Haythornthwaite’s
tenure as Visiting Leverhulme Professor at the Institute of Education, University
of London in 2009/10. We are greatly indebted to the Trust for timely production of this work which was begun and completed over the year in conjunction
with a public lecture series associated with the Professorship. The support of
Vivien Hodgson (Lancaster University), Brian Loader (The University of York)
and Barry Wellman (University of Toronto) was instrumental and much appreciated in the process of applying for the grant. The ability to be resident in
London for the Visiting Professorship to work, combined with the support of
individuals at various institutions made it possible for Caroline to present
papers and interact with colleagues across the UK during the year. For their
support, she thanks Richard Noss, Bernie Hogan, Richard Andrews, David
Prytherch, Mike Thelwall, Robin Goodfellow, Vivien Hodgson, Mary Hamilton,
David Barton, Chris Bissell, Chris Jones, and Bill Dutton.
Other support and activities helped to inform the writing. These include an
Economic and Social Research Council grant for a seminar series entitled: ‘New
forms of doctorate: the influence of multimodality and e-learning on the
nature and format of doctoral theses in education and the social sciences’,
awarded to the Institute of Education which ran from 2008 to 2010, directed
by Richard Andrews in collaboration with Stephen Boyd Davis (Middlesex
University), Erik Borg (Coventry University) and Jude England (The British
Library). An earlier version of Chapter 3 was given as a paper by Richard at the
European Conference on Educational Research at The University of Vienna in
September 2009, and also appeared under the title ‘Does e-learning need a new
theory of learning?’ in the Journal for Educational Research Online. Thanks go to
the editors of that journal, Wilfried Bos and Cornelia Gräsel, for permission to
rework the paper as a chapter.

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x   E-Learning Theory and Practice
We are also grateful for the support of our institutions: for Caroline, the
Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign, and for both Caroline and Richard, the Institute of
Education, University of London. Of importance to Caroline’s work on e-learning
has been personal and research participation in the fully online Masters degree
option at Graduate School of Library and Information Science (GSLIS) known
as LEEP (Library Experimental Education Program). Thanks go to participants
in studies as well as to the many colleagues who have provided input over the
years. Particular thanks go to Associate Dean Linda Smith whose administrative, teaching and research efforts have been instrumental in making the LEEP
program the success it is, and to former GSLIS Dean Leigh Estabrook, as well as
to GSLIS colleagues who have contributed ideas about LEEP over the years
(most included as authors in Haythornthwaite and Kazmer [eds] [2004a]
Learning, Culture and Community in Online Education). Thanks also go to GSLIS
Dean John Unsworth for facilitating the leave to take up the Leverhulme
Visiting Professorship.
We are grateful to Geoff Whitty, Chris Husbands, Sue Rogers and Richard Noss
at the Institute of Education for hosting the Professorship, and to Celia Hoyles
for the share of her office for the duration. Colleagues whose involvement
helped shape the project include Gunther Kress, Diana Laurillard, Rebekah
Willett, Susie Andretta, Fred Garnett, Caroline Daly, Norbert Pachler and Kyoko
Oi, plus participants at the Leverhulme lectures and other presentations on
e-learning given by each of the authors. The professional help afforded by
Andrew Copeland, Kar-wing Man, Kevin Walker, Jess Stachyra, Sarah Smith,
Sarah Gelcich and Rachel Shaw made sure arrangements were seamless and
smooth-running.
We are particularly grateful to Marianne Lagrange at Sage for her belief in the
idea that we proposed, and for her commitment throughout the project; and
to Monira Begum for excellent administrative support.
The book would not be the same without the inclusion of our case study writers.
Thanks go to Chris Bissell, Pauline Cheong, Sun-young Choi, Juel Chouinard,
Myrrh Domingo, Christine Greenhow, Yoram Kalman, Michelle M. Kazmer,
Christie Koontz, Marcus Leaning, Paul Marty, Gale Parchoma, Rosanna de Rosa,
Lesley Scope, Lisa Tripp, and a contributor who wished to remain anonymous,
for the cases that appear here (and to Loretta Horton, Betsy Stefany and others
who contributed through informal conversations) for sharing their innovative
practices and experiences with us so generously.
The authors and publisher would like to thank the following for permission to
use the figures in the book: Cope and Kalantzis, Multiliteracies (2000). Reproduced
with permission of Taylor and Francis.

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Introduction: New Learning
Practices
What’s New in Learning?
How we learn, with whom, and by what means is changing. Rapid changes in
knowledge and technology are driving the need for new approaches to dissemination and integration of new information into workplaces and work
practices, and new learning paths for adults. Education is no less affected.
Universities, colleges, and secondary schools are rapidly adopting and integrating learning and course management systems into regular use. Distance
learning, once supported through television broadcast and one-to-one correspondence between learners and teachers, has been transformed by the online
spaces available for online or e-learning. Resources, in the form of published
texts or subject experts, are increasingly easily available through the web, from
anywhere, at any time, and to anyone. Moreover, learners, who have traditionally been readers and receivers of information, are taking on a new role as
information providers, contributing to ongoing dialogues in public forums,
adding local information into global contexts, and engaging with others online
for work, learning and play.
The net result is a radically changed landscape of who can and does learn from
whom, where, and under what conditions. These circumstances challenge current models of education. The bricks-and-mortar school or university no longer
bounds knowledge when learners attend classes from multiple sites within and
across countries. Set curricula and set technology plans with a multi-year
lifespan are seriously challenged by a knowledge and technology base that
changes every year. Authoritative texts are also challenged by such rapid change,
but also by the information posted daily to the web through news, o