• Название:

    Борьба с проблемой ребятам!


  • Размер: 2.08 Мб
  • Формат: PDF
  • или
  • Сообщить о нарушении / Abuse

Установите безопасный браузер



  • Название: Draft of 09 September 2010
  • Автор: WinXP

Предпросмотр документа

1

FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................................... 3
SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................ 4
‘SERVING THE PEOPLE OF CENTRAL ASIA’ .......................................................................................... 4
BACKGROUND AND APPROACH ........................................................................................................................ 4
EC IFAS: MISSION, VISION, STRATEGY.............................................................................................................. 5
1

INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 6
MAP OF ARAL SEA BASIN ................................................................................................................................ 6
MAPS OF ARAL SEA ....................................................................................................................................... 6
MAP OF WATER USE...................................................................................................................................... 6

2

IFAS AND ASBP: REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND PROGRAMS ....................................................... 6
2.1
HISTORY OF IFAS .............................................................................................................................. 6
2.2
HISTORY OF ASBP ............................................................................................................................. 7
ASBP 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 7
ASBP 2 ................................................................................................................................................... 7
2.3
LESSONS LEARNT FROM ASBPS............................................................................................................ 8

3

ARAL SEA BASIN PROGRAM-3 .................................................................................................... 8
3.1
DEVELOPMENT OF ASBP 3 ................................................................................................................. 8
3.2
CONTENT OF PROPOSED PROJECTS ....................................................................................................... 9
3.2.1 DIRECTION 1 Integrated Water Resources Management ........................................................ 9
3.2.2 DIRECTION 2 Environmental Protection ................................................................................. 10
3.2.3 DIRECTION 3 Socio-economic Development........................................................................... 10
3.2.4 DIRECTION 4 Improving the institutional and legal instruments ........................................... 10

4

IFAS AND EC IFAS ......................................................................................................................11
4.1
4.2

IFAS.............................................................................................................................................. 11
EC IFAS: MISSION, VISION, STRATEGY................................................................................................ 11

2

Foreword
The Aral Sea Basin Programme (ASBP) is the main long-term action program in the region in the field
of sustainable development, and especially in the management of water resources and
environmental protection. The Program includes national and regional projects aimed at sustainable
development with the main focus on using existing water resources more effectively and efficiently
in the Aral Sea basin.
The Aral Sea Basin Program-3 (ASBP-3) is a joint effort of the donor community, the governments of
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and the civil society. It is a vision for
the future, a blue print for development, peace and prosperity in the region.
The Executive Committee of IFAS (EC IFAS) has the primary responsibility of designing and setting up
ASBP and monitoring its implementation.
“Serving the People of Central Asia” is the motto of EC-IFAS.
It has been a privilege for me to work together with so many experts in the process of developing
this ambitious program. I would especially like to thank Volker Frobarth, Benjamin Mohr, Alexander
Nikolaenko and Vitaly Tkach (GTZ), Iulia Trombitcaia, Marton Krasznai and Bo Libert (UNECE),
Hanspeter Mag (SDC), Simon Croxton (World Bank), Nina Kavetskaya, Sergei Elkin and Michael
Trainer (USAID), Delphine Marie (EU), Vats Vilnitis, Andriy Demidenko, Michael Kalinin (Consultants
EU), Anatoly Krutov (Consultant) and Alfred DIebald (EC IFAS). Their support was instrumental for
finishing the program in time with such high quality.
I also thank the country representatives Marat Narbaev, Murat Bekniyazov, Manas Omorov,
Khayrullo Ibodzoda, Mavlon Kazakov, Kurbangeldy Ballyev, Normuhammad Sheraliyev and EC IFAS
staff, particularly Demessin Nurmaganbetov and Zhyldyz Zhurumbetova for their valuable inputs.
I am looking forward to the implementation of ASBP-3. It is in the interest of all people of Central
Asia to meet the challenges of dealing with a scarce water resource and I would like to express my
hope that this program will benefit all the people of the region.

Saghit Ibatullin
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea

3

SUMMARY
‘Serving the people of Central Asia’
Background and Approach
Since the early 1990s the issue of water in the Aral Sea Basin has been seen in the context of
regional security and stability. Water is valuable and it is scarce. There are enough water resources
in the Region but they are not used effectively and, as a result, the use of transboundary water
resources in Central Asia (CA) is a source of potential conflict.
The Heads of the Central Asia states recognise this and set up the International Fund for Saving the
Aral Sea (IFAS). The member states of IFAS are: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
and Uzbekistan.
The objectives of IFAS and its organizations are to work towards integration and cooperation in
order to use existing water resources more effectively and efficiently, to ensure sustainable
development and to adapt to climate change in the region. However, it is widely recognized that the
present structure of IFAS needs to be improved and the legal base to be adapted to fit the needs of
today.
Guided by the decision of the Heads of States of April 28, 2009, the Executive Committee of IFAS (EC
IFAS) drafted ASBP-3. The project preparation process involved extensive consultations among
national and international experts to develop program priorities and project proposals. EC IFAS was
in continual dialogue with the donor community (in particular with the World Bank, European Union,
USAIDS, GTZ, and SDC) in order to get their comments and ideas.
Thus, ASBP is a joint effort and an on-going process, which involves all national governments of the
Region, civil society and the international donor community.
ASBP-3 works in four directions:
Integrated Water Resources Management
Environmental protection
Socio-economic development
Improving institutional and legal instruments
The ASBP-3 program period is 2011 to 2015 and reflects the priorities of the member states. It aims
to familiarize all parties concerned with the challenges facing the Aral Sea Basin, including decision
makers, representatives of international financial institutions, international development agencies,
specialists, and the public at large. The ASBP-3 program includes future regional projects to be
mainly financed by international donors; on-going national projects supported by national
governments; and on-going regional and national projects funded by international donors.
The ultimate objective of ASBP-3 is to improve the living conditions of the people in the region.
In other words: It is to improve the socio-economic and environmental situation by applying the
principles of integrated water resources management to develop a mutually acceptable
mechanism for a multi-purpose use of water resources and to protect the environment in Central
Asia taking into account the interests of all the states in the region.
EC-IFAS is the umbrella organization which will develop these programs and projects, coordinate and
inform the donor community on priority interventions with regard to the four directions of ASBP-3,
and, when appropriate, implement projects.
4

In addition, EC-IFAS will monitor the implementation of ASBP-3.
EC IFAS: Mission, Vision, Strategy
The mission of EC IFAS is to coordinate cooperation at national and international levels in order to
use existing water resources more effectively, and to improve the environmental and socioeconomic
situation in the Aral Sea Basin. EC IFAS serves as a platform for a dialogue among the countries of
Central Asia, as well as the international community.
The overall mission of EC IFAS is to serve the people of the Aral Sea Basin. Its vision is “Improved
living conditions for the people of Central Asia”.
The overall strategy of EC IFAS is to work more effectively to fulfill this mission. However, in order to
successfully implement the ASBP-3 projects, the capacities of IFAS bodies and EC IFAS need to be
strengthened.

5

1

Introduction

Located in the heart of Central Asia, the Aral Sea Basin consists of the drainage area of the two
major rivers, Amu Darya and Syr Darya. The rivers descend from the slopes of the Tien Shan
Mountains and the Pamirs. They run through Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.
The Amu Darya is in the south of the basin and has a mean annual flow of about 70-80 km3/year.
The river is 2,540 km long, with a basin area of more than 300,000 km2. Most of the Amu Darya flow
(74%) is formed on the territory of Tajikistan, 13.9% in Afghanistan and 8.5% in Uzbekistan.
The Syr Darya runs in the north of the basin. Its annual flow is half of the Amu Darya. It is the longest
river in Central Asia and ranks second with regard to water flow. It is 2,790 km long, with a basin
area of almost 300,000 km2. Most of the Syr Darya flow (75.2%) is formed within Kyrgyzstan,
Uzbekistan contributing 15.2%, Kazakhstan 6.9%, and Tajikistan 2.7%. Both rivers flow into the Aral
Sea.
The delta of the Amu Darya River is located in the northwestern part of Uzbekistan, while the delta
of the Syr Darya River is in the mid-western part of Kazakhstan.
Map of Aral Sea Basin
Until 1960, the Aral Sea area was about 67,000 square km in size. This made the Aral Sea the world's
fourth largest inland water body. Now, the Aral Sea is not a single water body any more. Its
northern part is separated by a dam and is sustained by the Syr Darya River. The remaining part is a
residual water body with saline water. It comprises a shallow central part and a deeper narrow part
stretching along the meridian of the Ustyurt Plateau escarpment.
Maps of Aral Sea
For Central Asia, water is the key for development. Land has been irrigated for many centuries, with
the local people enjoying a centuries-old tradition of cultivating agricultural crops in the harsh dry
climate. The Soviet Union doubled the area under irrigation, from around 4 million hectares to 8
million hectares, with irrigated land becoming a major water consumer. Diversion of water for
irrigation purposes accounts for more than 90% of the total intake from all water sources.
Map of Water Use
According to SIC ICWC, in 1960 the total water diversion in the Aral Sea Basin was 60.6 cubic km,
while by 1994 it had grown to 116.3 cubic km. From 1960 to 2008, the basin population more than
doubled to an estimated figure of almost 60 million today. Increased population and increased
irrigated land, as well as deteriorating water infrastructures, have led to what is known worldwide as
‘the Aral Sea catastrophe’. This includes health problems, high rates of child mortality, desiccation of
the Aral Sea, biodiversity degradation, salt-dust transport from the dry bed of the Sea, and a loss of
pastures, fisheries and wetlands.
Under the current conditions the Aral Sea cannot be restored to its former level. However, there is
no doubt that greater efficiency in the use and management of water could significantly improve the
situation and the trend towards a complete dry-out of the Aral Sea could be reversed.
2

IFAS and ASBP: Regional Institutions and Programs

2.1

History of IFAS
6

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the Central Asia states established a new framework for
sharing and distributing water. On 12 September 1992, the Ministers of Water Resources of the
newly independent states issued a Statement in which they declared that joint management of
water resources would be carried out in accordance with the principles of equality and mutual
benefit.
An Interstate Coordination Water Commission (ICWC) was established following the Interstate
Agreement of 18 February 1992. The task of ICWC was to agree on water allocation and water
reservoir operations in the basins of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Rivers. Under this Agreement, the
decisions of ICWC must be unanimous. Responsibility for the implementation of the decisions lies
with Basin Water Organizations in Tashkent and Urgensch.
The support of donors in 1992-1994 made it possible to establish the interstate organizations:
International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS) with its headquarters in Almaty, and the Interstate
Commission for the Aral Sea (ICAS) with the Executive Committee under the chairmanship of the
Turkmenistan Minister of Water Management, with headquarters in Tashkent. The role of IFAS was,
primarily, to generate funds, while EC ICAS was in charge of the Aral Sea Basin Program (ASBP). A
third body, the Interstate Commission for Sustainable Development (ICSD) was established in 1993.
Based in Ashgabat, its major objective was to protect the environment in the region.
In February 1997, a meeting of the heads of the Central States made a fundamental decision to
restructure and merge IFAS and ICAS. Decisions were also made concerning the chairmanship of the
new Executive Committee, including rotations, location of the Executive Committee and the supply
of fees to the Fund. Since IFAS was established in 1997, the Executive Committee has been located in
Almaty (1993-1997), Tashkent (1997-1999), Ashgabat (1999-2002), and Dushanbe (2003-2009). Since
2009, it has been based in Almaty.
2.2

History of ASBP

ASBP 1
The first ASBP was initiated in 1993 and in January 1994, the Program was approved by the Heads of
Central Asian States.
In June 1994, Paris hosted a meeting of donors to discuss the draft, which was called a “Program of
Actions”. At this meeting, donors made commitments of more than USD$400 million to finance this
Program.
The main goals of the Program included:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

stabilizing the environment in the Aral Sea basin
restoring the disaster zone around the Sea
improving management of transboundary waters in the basin
developing the capacity of the regional organizations to plan and implement the Program

The Program was to provide assistance to the Basin countries to develop cooperation and establish
sustainable regional relations to overcome the crisis. The Program was also to develop proposals to
improve the living conditions of the people in Central Asia.
ASBP 2
ASBP-2 was developed in accordance with the Decision of the Heads of States in Dushanbe on
October 6, 2002. This Program set up projects covering a wide range of environmental,
socioeconomic, water management, and institutional problems for the period 2003-2010.
7

According to information provided to EC IFAS, from 2002 to 2007, the total contribution from the
IFAS country members to the implementation of activities was over 1 billion US Dollars. The Program
implementation was also financed by donors, including UNDP, World Bank, Asian Development
Bank, USAID, as well as the governments of Switzerland, Japan, Finland, Norway and others.
2.3

Lessons Learnt from ASBPs

The main lesson learnt was that the international donor community has to be involved in every stage
of the preparation of the ASBPs.
Until now the main focus of ASBPs has been on technical issues, with little attention being paid to
social, political and institutional issues. There has also been a lack of cooperation among all Central
Asian country ministries involved, and local authorities and civil society have not always been part of
the decision making process or project implementation. In addition, there were no successful public
awareness programs, which should have accompanied the Programs.
Nevertheless, the Programs have made a substantial contribution to establishing relations between
the countries of Central Asia and the international donor community. They have also strengthened
the capacity of the countries to devise strategies and set priorities for the development of the
economy, the social sector and the management of natural resources.
3

Aral Sea Basin Program-3

Since the early 1990’s, the issue of water in the Aral Sea Basin has been seen in the context of
regional security and stability. It is recognized that water is valuable and is scarce. There are enough
water resources in the Region but they are not used effectively. As a result the use of transboundary
water resources in Central Asia is a major source of potential conflict.
On April 28, 2009, the Heads of the Central Asia states made a joint statement, highlighting the
important role of IFAS in coordinating and addressing the fundamental aspects of cooperation
between the countries in Central Asia and between the donor community, including international
financial institutions.
The Heads of States also expressed their commitment to change the organizational structure and
contractual and legal framework of IFAS to help improve its performance and to increase its abil