- Название: visnyk-16-en.indd
- Автор: Trixter
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UKRAINIAN STUDIES. 16/2012
myth of common origin, a common historical memory), one
can say that these characteristics are inherent in all social
groups, which can be described by the term collective identity.
The term "identity" in this case can be defined as "a set of
specific features that separate a group of people from a range
of other groups and serve an individual basis for assigning
themselves to this group" [3, p. 81]. It is comparable with the
definition of collective identity of A. Melucci: "Melucci calls
the process of "design" of action system as collective identity.
Collective identity is an interactive and collaborative process
of definition, implemented by certain number of individuals
(or on more complex level – by groups) and associated with
orientations of their actions through the field of opportunities
and constraints in which such action occurs. Under "interactive
and shared" it is meant that "these elements are designed and
coordinated based on the repetitive process with relationships
that connect the actors together" . Thus, collective identity
can function only as a process, or, to paraphrase B. Anderson,
as "a daily plebiscite". Collective identity, in fact, is the result
of purposeful actions of individuals who are the members of
group signified by the term identity.
It is better to talk about "collective" identity rather than
"social" or "group" one. Any identity of an individual or a
community of individuals, by their nature, is already social.
The term group identity restricts the investigated community
quantitatively. "Collegiality" at the same time, focuses on the
mechanisms of relationship rather than on the quantitative
characteristics of the community.
Thus, the application of the concept of identity regarding
the individual in Ukrainian studies can perform a number
of useful tasks for science. First of all, it is – the study of
specifically Ukrainian psychology and Ukrainian mentality.
In this context the consideration of their inherent conflicts of
identity and crisis states (it is actual at the collective level,
up to the political nation). In addition, the use of the concept
of identity is especially important in studies of international
cooperation of the Ukrainian and non-Ukrainians (members
of other ethnic groups and minorities). In this case, as the
object of Ukrainian studies’ research no longer appears the
Ukrainian but non-indigenous (religious, cultural ...) identity.
However, studies of individual identity cannot wholly cover the
subject of research of Ukrainian Studies (Ukrainian heritage).
For Ukrainian Studies more interesting is the category of
collective identity. We can talk about it, focusing on the definition
of the object and subject of Ukrainian Studies. "The object of
Ukrainian Studies is the real world that was created and evolved
over thousands of years and today represents the essence of
life and consciousness of Ukrainian Nation" [9, p. 13]. "The
subject of Ukrainian Studies is the Ukrainian heritage as a
civilization phenomenon, patterns and characteristics of its
formation and development in time-spatial dimension both in
Ukraine and beyond" [9, p. 17]. Thus, the notion of identity,
particularly collective, can be used to describe various forms
of community created by Ukrainians. In the first place – a
Ukrainian ethnos and political nation. At the same time, to
limit the study with the only phenomenon of ethnic identity
seems to be impractical. Despite the fact that namely the
ethnic identity (as well as belonging to a citizenship and
political nation) defines the Ukrainian character as a system
of signs, its measurement is not limited by this. Other levels
of collective identity are largely subordinated to the Ukrainian
identity as a system of signs. This means that correlation of
Ukrainians with certain socio-professional group, religious
community, region of living is impossible without considering
the set of attributes that characterize them as Ukrainian.
And, at the same time, the isolation of specifically Ukrainian
features in the phenomena of religious, professional, regional
and other forms of collective identity of Ukrainians suggests
that there is a separate subject of researching the identity
within Ukrainian Studies.
Namely this, specifically Ukrainian part of collective and
individual identity is the key to maintain and stability of Ukrainian
peace itself. Therefore, the definition of specific elements of
the Ukrainian identity (not just ethnic, or at the level of the
political nation) has to be one of the main tasks of Ukrainian
Studies as a science. It also should not be underestimated
the importance of the study of individual elements of Ukrainian
identity using the tools of the other sciences (philosophy,
psychology, sociology, etc.). These studies will facilitate the
interdisciplinary connections between Ukrainian Studies and
1. Berger P., Lukman T. Sotsialnoie konstruirovaniie realnosti: Traktat
po sotsiologii znaniia [Text] / Berger P., Lukman T. Moscow: Medium 1995,
253 p. 2. Gatchinson D., Smit E. Shcho take etnichnist [Text] / Gatchinson D.,
Smit E. / Natsionalizm. Antologiia. 2. Vyd. // Uporiad. O. Protsenko, V. Lisovyi.
Kyiv: Smoloskyp, 2006, 684 p. 3. Mala entsyklopediia etnoderzhavoznavstva
[Text] / Vidp. red., ker. avt.kol., uporiad. Y.I. Rymarenko ; NAN Ukrainy, Instytut
derzhavy I prava imeni V.M. Koretskogo. Kyiv: Geneza; Kyiv: Dovira, 1996,
942 p. 4. Minenkov G. Kontsept identichnosti: perspektivy opredeleniia /
G. Milenkov [Electronic resource]. – Accept after: http://belintellectuals.eu/
publications/174/ 5. Pavlov V.Y. Kontsept identichnosti v doskursivnykh praktikach
XX v. / V.Y. Pavlov // Gileia. – № 1. – 2012, P. 93-99. Slovari na akademike
[Electronic resource]. – Accept after: http://dic.academic.ru. 7. Triufanova E.O.
Chelovek v labirinte identichnostei // E.O. Trufanova // Voprosy filosofii. – № 2,
2010. – P. 13-23. 8. Triufanova E.O. Identichnost i Ya / E.O. Triufanova /
Voprosy filosofii. – № 6, 2008. – P. 95-105. 9. Ukrainoznavstvo: navch.
posib. Dlia studentiv vyshchikh navch. zakladiv / za reed. M.I. Obushnogo. –
Kyiv: Vydavnycho-poligrafichnyi tsentr "Kiivskyi Universytet", 2008.- 672 p.
10. Khesle V. Krisis individualnoi i kollektivnoi identichnosti // V. Khesle /
Voprosy filosofii. – № 10. – 1994, P. 112-123.
S. Koncha, Ph.D. in Historical Sciences
BAVARIAN GEOGRAPHER ON SLAVIC TRIBES FROM UKRAINE
A refined scheme of geographic anchors and ethnic interpretation called "Description of cities and areas north of Danube" are proposed.
Focus of the investigation is fragments of the description associated with the territory of Ukraine.
Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem
plagam Danubii’, by the Bavarian Geographer or the Bavarian Anonymous [text: 13, p. 13-15; 14, p. 53-55; 3, p. 13-14],
is a unique and very important source of information on the
early medieval history of Central and Eastern Europe. This
text is only for this time gives consistent and fairly detailed list
of countries and tribes in the area between eastern borders
of the Frankish Empire and Khazar Khaganate in southeast
Europe. According to the most accepted view, the text was
created between 840s and 880s [28, p. 31-45; 14, p. 59-60;
3, p. 12], and then displays of the state of Slavic (mostly) the
© Koncha S., 2012
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B U L L E T I N Taras Shevchenko National Univercity of Kyiv
territories just before the creation of the Czech, Polish and
Kievan Rus’ States.
The document itself is rather scarce, it features the list of
ethnic names (only 58), the description of the extensiveness
and structure of some tribal areas, illustrates their demographic
density, highlights details of mutual arrangement. Text contains
regular reports about the number of "cities" (‘civitates’, ‘urbs’),
which can be seen in some cases as fortified settlements, in
others – small settlements and tribal districts or other units
[3, c. 15]. One of the fragments of the description tells about
Homeland of the Slavs: "... the area (regnum), from which
came all the Slavic nations, and which, according to them,
they have their origin". This area is bears the name ‘Zerivani’
and hasn’t been identified or localized yet.
According to the theories of a famous Moscow medievalist
A.V.Nazarenko, the text of the Bavarian Geographer (further
BG) was created at the beginning of 870th in the Abbey of
Reichenau located on the shore of Lake Constance (also
known in German as Bodensee) [14, p. 60-69]. In its conclusions the direct relation had, according to the researcher, Saint
Methodius – well-known Slavic educator, whose presence
in Reichenau was confirmed by documets [14, page 65-67].
Although the description can’t be called a guide, so to speak,
the directory for potential missionaries, if A.V.Nazarenko’s
hypothesis is correct, then his communication with activity
of Christian missions in the Central and Eastern Europe IX
century becomes obvious.
By recognition of all researchers, memorial contains a large
piece (or several pieces), in which it is a question about the
territory of modern Ukraine, which, in particular, indicate such
ethnic names: ‘Busani’ (Buzhans), ‘Unlizi’ (Ulychi), ‘Ruzzi’
("Rusy"or Rus’ people; tend to localize in the Middle Dnieper,
comparing with Ρώσια Constantine Porphyrogenitus [9, p. 44,
156]) and also ‘Ungare’ (Hungarians, at that time the inhabitants of Black Sea Region [7, p. 47-58, 9, with. 159-169]).
Nevertheless, these BG data, which devoted considerable
quantity of research papers, until recently [3, 20] almost didn’t
become object of attention from Ukrainian scientists.
There is no doubt, that if a convincing interpretation of BG
data, his information would serve to significantly contribute for
understanding about the processes of ethnic and geopolitical movement Ukrainian and adjacent territories at the early
Middle Ages. However, perceptions and scientific analysis
of this information encounters a number of difficulties due
primarily to the lack of geographical landmarks of names in
text, despite the fact that most of the above ethnonyms unique
or presented in an unrecognizable transcription.
For the conclusive verification is exposed only data of the
first fragment (first part) of description, where from the north
to the south has numbered "those lands adjacent to us",
namely, with East Frankish borders and the final fragment
where description goes from Vistula District to the Central Elbe
region. Many of the names mentioned in these fragments are
also known from other sources, mainly Western chronicles.
In particular, in the first part of the above: ‘Nortabtrezi’
("Northern obdrychi" – part of Obodritian tribal alliance
between lower Elbe and the Baltic coast), ‘Vuilci’ (Viltsy, also
known as Liutychi), ‘Surbi’ (Sorbs, near the current Leipzig,
Halle, Dessau), ‘Talaminzi’ (or Dalemintsi, along with Sorbs)
‘Becheimari’ (Bohemians or Czechs), ‘Merharii’ (Moravians)
‘Vulgarii’ (in this case the Turkish tribe Bulgars in the basin
of Tisa) [27, p. 13-21]. In the final part no doubt: ‘Vuislane’ on
the Upper Vistula, ‘Sleenzane’ – or Sileziany (after Thietmar
of Merseburg – "Silensi") on upper Oder basin (Silesia),
‘Lunsizi’ – Luzhychi known from later sources as "Lusici",
"Luizizi" etc. in Upper Lusatia, ‘Dadosesani’ – Dadoshychany
(?) after Thietmar known as "Diedesisi" (Diedeshychi) on the
set of data located in Lower Silesia, ‘Milzane’ – Milchany – well
known in the north of the Czech State, ‘Opolini’ – although
unknown from other sources, but almost unanimously localized
near Opole – Polish city in Silesia [27, p. 48-544; 3, p. 46-50;
13, p. 23-24].
If the first fragment listed ethnic groups along the eastern
borders of the Frank empire and north of the Middle Danube,
the latter may reflect the trade route that went along the
Carpathians and the Sudeten – from Krakow to the trading
centers at the Frankish border [24, p. 163].
As for the other parts of this text, for most names of this
time it isn’t revealed convincing compliances from other
sources and it isn’t offered the settled criteria for localization
[27, p. 23-47; 13, p. 22-45]. Respectively in the scientific
literature there are significant differences on the prospects
of use Bavarian Geographer in historical research.
Special value gets a question of the systematic presentation
of the names of tribes and regions. If the part of researchers
trying to put their sequence, depending on the configuration
of trade routes (or currents of large rivers), others actually
deny any ordering of the presentation. In favor of the first
position above mentioned fragments show, which are known
ethnonyms are in the correct geographical order. However,
all attempts to put into a logical framework rest of the names
(with, so to speak, the "inner" part of the text), failed. Instead,
where we meet famous names, there is obvious geographical inconsistency: title ‘Caziri’ = Khazars (?) appears next
to ‘Lendizi’, which sees most authors refer Polish tribes (cf.
Ancient Russian and Ukrainian ‘Lyadsky’ – polish), name
‘Ungare’ immediately preceding ‘Vuislane’, although the
Hungarian tribes in the middle of the ІХ c. had to live still far
from the Vistula.
Quite comprehensive historiographial review, are in
relatively recent works of A.V.Nazarenko and L.V.Voytovych
[13, p. 7-51, 3], eliminate the need to resort to review all proposed interpretations of the text. Here we limit our review of
the newer studies, and also some of those works that most
clearly embody just mentioned approaches.
Famous German historian Joachim Herrman is expressive
supporter for placing ethnonyms of BG on trade routes. In his
opinion, the bulk of ethnonyms from "inner" part of the text
associated with communications, connecting the Frankish
Empire and Baltic coast with Black Sea Region. It’s passing
particularly along the South’s Bug, Dniester and Seret rivers
[24, p. 162–164]. The said part of the description clearly
divided on several passages, which corresponding ways: a)
Magdeburg – Poznan – Kyiv, b) Danube – Vistula – Baltic, c)
Sarkel (Khazar city on the Don) – Kyiv – Byzantium (Northwestern Black Sea Region). Finally, the last piece, as already
mentioned, reflects the way from Krakow to the borderlands
of the Franks.
According to these reconstructions, to the territory of Ukraine
were posted: to basin of South’s Bug: ‘Busani’ (Buzhans),
‘Sittici’ (Zhytychi ?), ‘Sebbirozi’ (Sabirs ?, Severians ?),
‘Unlizi’ (Ulychi), ‘Ungare’ (Hungarians), to basin of the Lower
Danube, Seret, Dniester: ‘Attorozi’, ‘Eptaradici’, ‘Aturezani’,
‘Chozirozi’, ‘Lendizi’. Somewhere within Ukraine have resided
also ‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’, ‘Nerivani’ [24, p. 162].
The names ‘Forsderen’, ‘Liudi’, ‘Fresiti’ by J.Herrman
had interpreted not as a separate ethnonyms, but as social
characteristics of Rus’ (‘Ruzzi’). These words translated from
UKRAINIAN STUDIES. 16/2012
the ancient Low German as "ruling (senior) people, free".
The author places this "ruling people" in the Middle Dnieper,
assuming the appearance of this marker of Rus’ reflect the
integration of the tribes around Kyiv [24, p. 166–168]. As for
other titles, the author fails to their etymologization and doesn’t
try to compare them with later names.
The approach of German researcher divides A.A.Gorskij,
outlining, however, several other orders transferring ethnonyms
of internal part of description: 1) down the Danube (from the
middle part to the mouth), 2) arc from the Vistula to the east to
the Black Sea, 3) from the borders of the steppe on Southern
Bug to the Baltic (Prussia), 4) from Khazar possessions to the
west "turn at the end on the south to Hungarians" (according
author, latter were between the Danube and Dnieper at this
moment) [4, p. 279]. Although the author does not speak
directly about trade ways, it actually reflects the concept of
"traveler" list of ethnonyms.
Setting geographic consistency in placing the tribes and
their correlation with the data "Tale of Bygone Years" allows
for A.Gorskij to assume that ‘Sittici’ and ‘Stadici’ were part
of Carpathian Croats ("Horvats") tribe association, ‘Fresiti’,
‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’ – small tribes in the unions of Dregovichy or Drevlyans [4, p. 274-280]. Regarding the latter, the
author joins the widespread opinion in accordance with this
title German "Forsderen Liudi" (= "forest people"). Several
names: ‘Busani’, ‘Lendizi’, ‘Thafnezi’, ‘Prissani’, ‘Velunzani’
tied author to Volynia [4, p. 279-280], while ‘Lendizi’ associated with ‘Lendzaninoi’ of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and
‘Velunzani’ with ‘Velyniane’ of "Tale of Bygone Years" [cf. historiography issue: 13, p. 31-32, 36].
Ethnonims ‘Attorozi’, ‘Vuillerozi’, ‘Zabrozi’, ‘Chozirozi’
treated as non-Slavic, probably Turkic from Northwestern
Black Sea Region. Names ‘Znetalici’, ‘Aturezani’ defined as
"a community that is not identified".
As we can see, almost all the "problematic part" of BG
text A.Gorskij associated with Carpathian region, Volynia and
Linking sequence names with nature of origin of the document (such as a travel registry Ethnic Regions) is a strong side
of "communicative" approach. However, in those parts of the
text, where are the group of names that are unknown and not
explained convincingly (like, ‘Fresiti’, ‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’ or
‘Attorozi’, ‘Vuillerozi’, ‘Eptaradici’) seems obvious speculativeness of reconstructions, especially considering the fact that
most of the "trade ways" are only hypothetical.
Another approach, which involves consistency in the statement of objections titles of BG, but based on their thorough
etymologisation relying on toponymic landscape, embodied
in the work of Czech researchers B.Horak and D.Travnichek
[27, p. 13-55, cf. also 28]. The result of their studies is that
most names removed from the territories of Eastern Europe –
partly they announced doublet (repeated references) West
Slavic ethnonyms, which mentioned at the beginning and
end of the document, partly attached to names of rivers and
localities of Baltic coast, Oder and Elbe basin. Even the name
‘Caziri’, in "Khazar attribution