- Название: visnyk-16-en.indd
- Автор: Trixter
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UKRAINIAN STUDIES. 16/2012
myth of common origin, a common historical memory), one
can say that these characteristics are inherent in all social
groups, which can be described by the term collective identity.
The term "identity" in this case can be defined as "a set of
specific features that separate a group of people from a range
of other groups and serve an individual basis for assigning
themselves to this group" [3, p. 81]. It is comparable with the
definition of collective identity of A. Melucci: "Melucci calls
the process of "design" of action system as collective identity.
Collective identity is an interactive and collaborative process
of definition, implemented by certain number of individuals
(or on more complex level – by groups) and associated with
orientations of their actions through the field of opportunities
and constraints in which such action occurs. Under "interactive
and shared" it is meant that "these elements are designed and
coordinated based on the repetitive process with relationships
that connect the actors together" . Thus, collective identity
can function only as a process, or, to paraphrase B. Anderson,
as "a daily plebiscite". Collective identity, in fact, is the result
of purposeful actions of individuals who are the members of
group signified by the term identity.
It is better to talk about "collective" identity rather than
"social" or "group" one. Any identity of an individual or a
community of individuals, by their nature, is already social.
The term group identity restricts the investigated community
quantitatively. "Collegiality" at the same time, focuses on the
mechanisms of relationship rather than on the quantitative
characteristics of the community.
Thus, the application of the concept of identity regarding
the individual in Ukrainian studies can perform a number
of useful tasks for science. First of all, it is – the study of
specifically Ukrainian psychology and Ukrainian mentality.
In this context the consideration of their inherent conflicts of
identity and crisis states (it is actual at the collective level,
up to the political nation). In addition, the use of the concept
of identity is especially important in studies of international
cooperation of the Ukrainian and non-Ukrainians (members
of other ethnic groups and minorities). In this case, as the
object of Ukrainian studies’ research no longer appears the
Ukrainian but non-indigenous (religious, cultural ...) identity.
However, studies of individual identity cannot wholly cover the
subject of research of Ukrainian Studies (Ukrainian heritage).
For Ukrainian Studies more interesting is the category of
collective identity. We can talk about it, focusing on the definition
of the object and subject of Ukrainian Studies. "The object of
Ukrainian Studies is the real world that was created and evolved
over thousands of years and today represents the essence of
life and consciousness of Ukrainian Nation" [9, p. 13]. "The
subject of Ukrainian Studies is the Ukrainian heritage as a
civilization phenomenon, patterns and characteristics of its
formation and development in time-spatial dimension both in
Ukraine and beyond" [9, p. 17]. Thus, the notion of identity,
particularly collective, can be used to describe various forms
of community created by Ukrainians. In the first place – a
Ukrainian ethnos and political nation. At the same time, to
limit the study with the only phenomenon of ethnic identity
seems to be impractical. Despite the fact that namely the
ethnic identity (as well as belonging to a citizenship and
political nation) defines the Ukrainian character as a system
of signs, its measurement is not limited by this. Other levels
of collective identity are largely subordinated to the Ukrainian
identity as a system of signs. This means that correlation of
Ukrainians with certain socio-professional group, religious
community, region of living is impossible without considering
the set of attributes that characterize them as Ukrainian.
And, at the same time, the isolation of specifically Ukrainian
features in the phenomena of religious, professional, regional
and other forms of collective identity of Ukrainians suggests
that there is a separate subject of researching the identity
within Ukrainian Studies.
Namely this, specifically Ukrainian part of collective and
individual identity is the key to maintain and stability of Ukrainian
peace itself. Therefore, the definition of specific elements of
the Ukrainian identity (not just ethnic, or at the level of the
political nation) has to be one of the main tasks of Ukrainian
Studies as a science. It also should not be underestimated
the importance of the study of individual elements of Ukrainian
identity using the tools of the other sciences (philosophy,
psychology, sociology, etc.). These studies will facilitate the
interdisciplinary connections between Ukrainian Studies and
1. Berger P., Lukman T. Sotsialnoie konstruirovaniie realnosti: Traktat
po sotsiologii znaniia [Text] / Berger P., Lukman T. Moscow: Medium 1995,
253 p. 2. Gatchinson D., Smit E. Shcho take etnichnist [Text] / Gatchinson D.,
Smit E. / Natsionalizm. Antologiia. 2. Vyd. // Uporiad. O. Protsenko, V. Lisovyi.
Kyiv: Smoloskyp, 2006, 684 p. 3. Mala entsyklopediia etnoderzhavoznavstva
[Text] / Vidp. red., ker. avt.kol., uporiad. Y.I. Rymarenko ; NAN Ukrainy, Instytut
derzhavy I prava imeni V.M. Koretskogo. Kyiv: Geneza; Kyiv: Dovira, 1996,
942 p. 4. Minenkov G. Kontsept identichnosti: perspektivy opredeleniia /
G. Milenkov [Electronic resource]. – Accept after: http://belintellectuals.eu/
publications/174/ 5. Pavlov V.Y. Kontsept identichnosti v doskursivnykh praktikach
XX v. / V.Y. Pavlov // Gileia. – № 1. – 2012, P. 93-99. Slovari na akademike
[Electronic resource]. – Accept after: http://dic.academic.ru. 7. Triufanova E.O.
Chelovek v labirinte identichnostei // E.O. Trufanova // Voprosy filosofii. – № 2,
2010. – P. 13-23. 8. Triufanova E.O. Identichnost i Ya / E.O. Triufanova /
Voprosy filosofii. – № 6, 2008. – P. 95-105. 9. Ukrainoznavstvo: navch.
posib. Dlia studentiv vyshchikh navch. zakladiv / za reed. M.I. Obushnogo. –
Kyiv: Vydavnycho-poligrafichnyi tsentr "Kiivskyi Universytet", 2008.- 672 p.
10. Khesle V. Krisis individualnoi i kollektivnoi identichnosti // V. Khesle /
Voprosy filosofii. – № 10. – 1994, P. 112-123.
S. Koncha, Ph.D. in Historical Sciences
BAVARIAN GEOGRAPHER ON SLAVIC TRIBES FROM UKRAINE
A refined scheme of geographic anchors and ethnic interpretation called "Description of cities and areas north of Danube" are proposed.
Focus of the investigation is fragments of the description associated with the territory of Ukraine.
Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem
plagam Danubii’, by the Bavarian Geographer or the Bavarian Anonymous [text: 13, p. 13-15; 14, p. 53-55; 3, p. 13-14],
is a unique and very important source of information on the
early medieval history of Central and Eastern Europe. This
text is only for this time gives consistent and fairly detailed list
of countries and tribes in the area between eastern borders
of the Frankish Empire and Khazar Khaganate in southeast
Europe. According to the most accepted view, the text was
created between 840s and 880s [28, p. 31-45; 14, p. 59-60;
3, p. 12], and then displays of the state of Slavic (mostly) the
© Koncha S., 2012
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B U L L E T I N Taras Shevchenko National Univercity of Kyiv
territories just before the creation of the Czech, Polish and
Kievan Rus’ States.
The document itself is rather scarce, it features the list of
ethnic names (only 58), the description of the extensiveness
and structure of some tribal areas, illustrates their demographic
density, highlights details of mutual arrangement. Text contains
regular reports about the number of "cities" (‘civitates’, ‘urbs’),
which can be seen in some cases as fortified settlements, in
others – small settlements and tribal districts or other units
[3, c. 15]. One of the fragments of the description tells about
Homeland of the Slavs: "... the area (regnum), from which
came all the Slavic nations, and which, according to them,
they have their origin". This area is bears the name ‘Zerivani’
and hasn’t been identified or localized yet.
According to the theories of a famous Moscow medievalist
A.V.Nazarenko, the text of the Bavarian Geographer (further
BG) was created at the beginning of 870th in the Abbey of
Reichenau located on the shore of Lake Constance (also
known in German as Bodensee) [14, p. 60-69]. In its conclusions the direct relation had, according to the researcher, Saint
Methodius – well-known Slavic educator, whose presence
in Reichenau was confirmed by documets [14, page 65-67].
Although the description can’t be called a guide, so to speak,
the directory for potential missionaries, if A.V.Nazarenko’s
hypothesis is correct, then his communication with activity
of Christian missions in the Central and Eastern Europe IX
century becomes obvious.
By recognition of all researchers, memorial contains a large
piece (or several pieces), in which it is a question about the
territory of modern Ukraine, which, in particular, indicate such
ethnic names: ‘Busani’ (Buzhans), ‘Unlizi’ (Ulychi), ‘Ruzzi’
("Rusy"or Rus’ people; tend to localize in the Middle Dnieper,
comparing with Ρώσια Constantine Porphyrogenitus [9, p. 44,
156]) and also ‘Ungare’ (Hungarians, at that time the inhabitants of Black Sea Region [7, p. 47-58, 9, with. 159-169]).
Nevertheless, these BG data, which devoted considerable
quantity of research papers, until recently [3, 20] almost didn’t
become object of attention from Ukrainian scientists.
There is no doubt, that if a convincing interpretation of BG
data, his information would serve to significantly contribute for
understanding about the processes of ethnic and geopolitical movement Ukrainian and adjacent territories at the early
Middle Ages. However, perceptions and scientific analysis
of this information encounters a number of difficulties due
primarily to the lack of geographical landmarks of names in
text, despite the fact that most of the above ethnonyms unique
or presented in an unrecognizable transcription.
For the conclusive verification is exposed only data of the
first fragment (first part) of description, where from the north
to the south has numbered "those lands adjacent to us",
namely, with East Frankish borders and the final fragment
where description goes from Vistula District to the Central Elbe
region. Many of the names mentioned in these fragments are
also known from other sources, mainly Western chronicles.
In particular, in the first part of the above: ‘Nortabtrezi’
("Northern obdrychi" – part of Obodritian tribal alliance
between lower Elbe and the Baltic coast), ‘Vuilci’ (Viltsy, also
known as Liutychi), ‘Surbi’ (Sorbs, near the current Leipzig,
Halle, Dessau), ‘Talaminzi’ (or Dalemintsi, along with Sorbs)
‘Becheimari’ (Bohemians or Czechs), ‘Merharii’ (Moravians)
‘Vulgarii’ (in this case the Turkish tribe Bulgars in the basin
of Tisa) [27, p. 13-21]. In the final part no doubt: ‘Vuislane’ on
the Upper Vistula, ‘Sleenzane’ – or Sileziany (after Thietmar
of Merseburg – "Silensi") on upper Oder basin (Silesia),
‘Lunsizi’ – Luzhychi known from later sources as "Lusici",
"Luizizi" etc. in Upper Lusatia, ‘Dadosesani’ – Dadoshychany
(?) after Thietmar known as "Diedesisi" (Diedeshychi) on the
set of data located in Lower Silesia, ‘Milzane’ – Milchany – well
known in the north of the Czech State, ‘Opolini’ – although
unknown from other sources, but almost unanimously localized
near Opole – Polish city in Silesia [27, p. 48-544; 3, p. 46-50;
13, p. 23-24].
If the first fragment listed ethnic groups along the eastern
borders of the Frank empire and north of the Middle Danube,
the latter may reflect the trade route that went along the
Carpathians and the Sudeten – from Krakow to the trading
centers at the Frankish border [24, p. 163].
As for the other parts of this text, for most names of this
time it isn’t revealed convincing compliances from other
sources and it isn’t offered the settled criteria for localization
[27, p. 23-47; 13, p. 22-45]. Respectively in the scientific
literature there are significant differences on the prospects
of use Bavarian Geographer in historical research.
Special value gets a question of the systematic presentation
of the names of tribes and regions. If the part of researchers
trying to put their sequence, depending on the configuration
of trade routes (or currents of large rivers), others actually
deny any ordering of the presentation. In favor of the first
position above mentioned fragments show, which are known
ethnonyms are in the correct geographical order. However,
all attempts to put into a logical framework rest of the names
(with, so to speak, the "inner" part of the text), failed. Instead,
where we meet famous names, there is obvious geographical inconsistency: title ‘Caziri’ = Khazars (?) appears next
to ‘Lendizi’, which sees most authors refer Polish tribes (cf.
Ancient Russian and Ukrainian ‘Lyadsky’ – polish), name
‘Ungare’ immediately preceding ‘Vuislane’, although the
Hungarian tribes in the middle of the ІХ c. had to live still far
from the Vistula.
Quite comprehensive historiographial review, are in
relatively recent works of A.V.Nazarenko and L.V.Voytovych
[13, p. 7-51, 3], eliminate the need to resort to review all proposed interpretations of the text. Here we limit our review of
the newer studies, and also some of those works that most
clearly embody just mentioned approaches.
Famous German historian Joachim Herrman is expressive
supporter for placing ethnonyms of BG on trade routes. In his
opinion, the bulk of ethnonyms from "inner" part of the text
associated with communications, connecting the Frankish
Empire and Baltic coast with Black Sea Region. It’s passing
particularly along the South’s Bug, Dniester and Seret rivers
[24, p. 162–164]. The said part of the description clearly
divided on several passages, which corresponding ways: a)
Magdeburg – Poznan – Kyiv, b) Danube – Vistula – Baltic, c)
Sarkel (Khazar city on the Don) – Kyiv – Byzantium (Northwestern Black Sea Region). Finally, the last piece, as already
mentioned, reflects the way from Krakow to the borderlands
of the Franks.
According to these reconstructions, to the territory of Ukraine
were posted: to basin of South’s Bug: ‘Busani’ (Buzhans),
‘Sittici’ (Zhytychi ?), ‘Sebbirozi’ (Sabirs ?, Severians ?),
‘Unlizi’ (Ulychi), ‘Ungare’ (Hungarians), to basin of the Lower
Danube, Seret, Dniester: ‘Attorozi’, ‘Eptaradici’, ‘Aturezani’,
‘Chozirozi’, ‘Lendizi’. Somewhere within Ukraine have resided
also ‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’, ‘Nerivani’ [24, p. 162].
The names ‘Forsderen’, ‘Liudi’, ‘Fresiti’ by J.Herrman
had interpreted not as a separate ethnonyms, but as social
characteristics of Rus’ (‘Ruzzi’). These words translated from
UKRAINIAN STUDIES. 16/2012
the ancient Low German as "ruling (senior) people, free".
The author places this "ruling people" in the Middle Dnieper,
assuming the appearance of this marker of Rus’ reflect the
integration of the tribes around Kyiv [24, p. 166–168]. As for
other titles, the author fails to their etymologization and doesn’t
try to compare them with later names.
The approach of German researcher divides A.A.Gorskij,
outlining, however, several other orders transferring ethnonyms
of internal part of description: 1) down the Danube (from the
middle part to the mouth), 2) arc from the Vistula to the east to
the Black Sea, 3) from the borders of the steppe on Southern
Bug to the Baltic (Prussia), 4) from Khazar possessions to the
west "turn at the end on the south to Hungarians" (according
author, latter were between the Danube and Dnieper at this
moment) [4, p. 279]. Although the author does not speak
directly about trade ways, it actually reflects the concept of
"traveler" list of ethnonyms.
Setting geographic consistency in placing the tribes and
their correlation with the data "Tale of Bygone Years" allows
for A.Gorskij to assume that ‘Sittici’ and ‘Stadici’ were part
of Carpathian Croats ("Horvats") tribe association, ‘Fresiti’,
‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’ – small tribes in the unions of Dregovichy or Drevlyans [4, p. 274-280]. Regarding the latter, the
author joins the widespread opinion in accordance with this
title German "Forsderen Liudi" (= "forest people"). Several
names: ‘Busani’, ‘Lendizi’, ‘Thafnezi’, ‘Prissani’, ‘Velunzani’
tied author to Volynia [4, p. 279-280], while ‘Lendizi’ associated with ‘Lendzaninoi’ of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and
‘Velunzani’ with ‘Velyniane’ of "Tale of Bygone Years" [cf. historiography issue: 13, p. 31-32, 36].
Ethnonims ‘Attorozi’, ‘Vuillerozi’, ‘Zabrozi’, ‘Chozirozi’
treated as non-Slavic, probably Turkic from Northwestern
Black Sea Region. Names ‘Znetalici’, ‘Aturezani’ defined as
"a community that is not identified".
As we can see, almost all the "problematic part" of BG
text A.Gorskij associated with Carpathian region, Volynia and
Linking sequence names with nature of origin of the document (such as a travel registry Ethnic Regions) is a strong side
of "communicative" approach. However, in those parts of the
text, where are the group of names that are unknown and not
explained convincingly (like, ‘Fresiti’, ‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’ or
‘Attorozi’, ‘Vuillerozi’, ‘Eptaradici’) seems obvious speculativeness of reconstructions, especially considering the fact that
most of the "trade ways" are only hypothetical.
Another approach, which involves consistency in the statement of objections titles of BG, but based on their thorough
etymologisation relying on toponymic landscape, embodied
in the work of Czech researchers B.Horak and D.Travnichek
[27, p. 13-55, cf. also 28]. The result of their studies is that
most names removed from the territories of Eastern Europe –
partly they announced doublet (repeated references) West
Slavic ethnonyms, which mentioned at the beginning and
end of the document, partly attached to names of rivers and
localities of Baltic coast, Oder and Elbe basin. Even the name
‘Caziri’, in "Khazar attribution" which convinced many authors,
proposed as match settlement Kethür near Brandenburg, and
‘Unlizi’, that usually tend to identify with the "Ulychi", identified
with Wanzlo at the mouth of the Oder [27, p. 43, 30]. Only
the names of Rus’ (‘Ruzzi’) and Hungarians (‘Ungare’) with
certainty attached to Eastern Europe must, because of ‘Ruzzi’
remain without a specific localization [27, p. 44-45, 47].
At Ukraine, except ‘Ungare’, which localized between the
Danube and the Dnieper, occur only ‘Busani’ on the Western
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Bug and mentioned alongside them ‘Zuireani’, which the
authors attributed to basin river Svir, left tributary of Upper
Dniester [27, p. 26]. However, for a number of names: ‘Zerivani’, ‘Prissani’, ‘Velunzani’, ‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’, ‘Attorozi’,
‘Chozirozi’, ‘Aturezani’ authors do not find acceptable solutions.
A more cautious and reasonable in the opinion is
A.V.Nazarenko that tries to comply balance between geographically and toponymically approaches [13, p. 14-51].
Leaving in rights comparison Busani – Buzhans, Unlizi – Ulichi,
the author takes also association ‘Zuireani’ with river Svir,
‘Seravici’ (after P.I.Shafaryk) – with river Zherev near Kyiv.
Along with these tribes, according order of records, near the
Carpathian localized ‘Sittici’ and ‘Stadici’. ‘Lendizi’, contrary
to the belief of Polish and Czech researchers, the author
considers it necessary not tied to Little Poland, but to Volhynia
[13, p. 31-33] (which also receives A.Gorskij).
Instead, as for ‘Velunzani’ and ‘Prissani’, A.V.Nazarenko
joins to number of Polish authors, transferring the first name
to the lower reaches of the Oder and linking it with the name
of the ancient city Velun’, known from Polish sources about
events XI – XII c. as ‘Welunecz’ [13, p. 36]. The name ‘Prissani’, which mentioned along, author interprets as "Breżani"
(from *breg-. = polish ‘brżeg’) and sees in them the inhabitants
of Polish Pomerania.
Strange name Eptaradici, followed A.Kralichek and other,
interpreted as Greek επτά ράδικές "seven roots", that recalls
the Byzantine historian Theophanes as "seven Slavic lineages"
(επτά γενεάς), which were conquered in 670 years on the
Lower Danube by Khan Asparuh [13, p. 30] (this explanation
also take J.Herrman, A.Gorskij, L.Voytovych). From the same
source comes the mention of Σεβέρεις – name of Slavic allies
of Turks-Bulgarians on the Balkans, which is compared with
‘Sebbirozi’ of BG [13, p. 26].
Title ‘Zerivani’ – above mentioned inhabitants of the country
"from which came all the nations of the Slavs" by A.V.Nazarenko
interpreted, followed to I.Kryp’yakevych and a number of
Polish authors [cf. 3, p. 21], as "Chervyany" [13, p. 34-35],
seeing them residents of city Cherven (on Western Bug) and
the surrounding region, which appears in the "Tale of Bygone
Years" (under 981 year) as "Cherven’skie grady". This view
is also supported by A.Gorskij and L.Voytovych.
Name ‘Caziri’ hardly be interpreted otherwise than as a
designation of the Khazars [13, p. 40]. Title ‘Ruzzi’, according
to the position of the vast majority of researchers interpreted
as marking of early state association of Rus’ on the Dnieper
[13, p. 41-42]. The author does not exclude that words
‘Ruzzi’, ‘Forsderen’, ‘Liudi’ can form a single complex (they
read without punctuation, though they put in the original), but
the exact value of the probable German glosses, contrary to
J.Herrman, recognized unclear [13, p. 43].
Names ‘Thafnezi’, ‘Attorozi’, ‘Vuillerozi’, ‘Zabrozi’,
‘Chozirozi’, ‘Aturezani’, ‘Fresiti’, which probably also belonged
to Eastern Europe, A.V.Nazarenko defines as mysterious and
possibly non-Slavic. Names ‘Znetalici’, ‘Nerivani’, ‘Lucolani’
have Slavic origin (in accordance from *snet- "stump", "deck",
*ner- widespread hydronym base, *lọka "bow", "curve"), but
even approximate localization of these peoples on the data
set is not looming.
Thus, after A.V.Nazarenko constructs, the east stands only
one group ethnonyms, forming more or less geographically
organized piece – from "Buzhanie" and hypothetical "Svyryanie" at the junction of Volhynia and Galicia to "Ulychi" on the
Southern Bug or lower Dnieper above threshold [13 , p. 24–28,
14, p. 68]. Further list defies specific interpretation and even
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B U L L E T I N Taras Shevchenko National Univercity of Kyiv
seems that from the beginning it was a random collection of
disparate titles borrowed from different sources – both oral,
like legend about ‘Zerivani’, and literary, which have obviously
include quite unexpected [cf. 14, p. 64] for the "barbaric" space
Greek expression επτά ράδικές.
To the idea of placing most of the names of BG on the
Baltic-Black Sea routes are come back the famous Lviv historian L.V.Voytovych. Considering these communications as
an offshoot of Amber Road and tying them with a number of
titles, author localizes most of them within the Volhynia-Galicia:
‘Zerivani’ = Chervyans (residents of "Chervenski grady"), ‘Zuireani’ – doublet previous titles, ‘Busani’ = Buzhans, ‘Thafnezi’
defined as "Tanyany" (inhabitants of river Tanva, the tributary
of San), ‘Prissani’ = "Pri-Sannya" ("near r. San"), ‘Velunzani’
= Volhynians, ‘Sittici’, ‘Stadici’, ‘Sebbirozi’, ‘Nerivani’. The
last four names are not certain identification, but the context
of mention indicates on Dniester Basin and adjacent territories. There also referred ‘Attorozi’, their author, followed by
P.I.Shafaryk, considers flawed transfer ethnonym "Tyvertsi"
(Tivertsy), doublet of the same name recorded mentioned just
below ‘Aturezani’. Along with Tyvertsi on the Dniester should
find and Ulychi’s (‘Unlizi’) [3, p. 18].
Sequence names coming from the Western Bug and Volhynia to land of Tyvertsi on the Dniester logically continues
the following names: ‘Eptaradici’ (= "seven gens") on the
Danube, ‘Vuillerozi’ – identified in ХІХ c. by A.Kralichek as
one of Turkic-Bulgarian tribes (cf. Vulgarii = Bulgars). Although
mentioned along ‘Zabrozi’ and ‘Znetalici’ not find a particular
interpretation, the author is inclined to believe their teams
Dacian-Romanian population of the same region [3, p. 19-20].
The following name ‘Chozirozi’ L.Voytovych interprets (again
joining to P.I.Shafaryk) as marking the Khazars [3, p. 20].
Sequence names: ‘Caziri’, ‘Ruzzi’, ‘Forsderen’, ‘Liudi’, ‘Fresiti’, ‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’, ‘Ungare’ interpreted by L.Voytovych
as a reflection of the way, coming from Khazaria to the Dnieper
River near Kyiv, and then turned south to the Black Sea coast
[3, p. 23, 25]. This ‘Forsderen Liudi’ traditionally interpreted as
"forest people" (= Drevlyans), but on ‘Fresiti’ author believes it
is possible to join J.Herrman and translate this term from Old
German as "free", suggesting that it was Polians of "Tale of
Bygone Years". ‘Seravici’ identified with Severians, ‘Lucolani’
explained as unknown Slavic tribe on the Dnieper.
As seen from the above review, most authors converge on
the fact that the sequence of names ‘Busani’, ‘Sittici’, ‘Stadici’,
‘Sebbirozi’, ‘Unlizi’ responsible of the way from Central Europe
(Elbe basin) to the Dnieper (after J.Herrman, A.V.Nazarenko)
or to the Lower Danube (after A.A.Gorskij, L.V.Voytovych).
Fragment between ‘Caziri’ and ‘Ungare’ somehow linked to the
way that came from boundaries of Khazaria westward to the
Dnieper, which just happened formation of Kievan Rus’ state.
The most mysterious and controversial of all recognized
fragment contained between more or less understood
areas – it starts with ‘Nerivani’ further includes names as follows: ‘Attorozi’, ‘Eptaradici’, ‘Vuillerozi’, ‘Zabrozi’, ‘Znetalici’,
Bait see ‘Eptaradici’ "seven gens" ("seven roots") and
existed along ‘Unlizi’ encourages researchers to pay mind
to the realm of the lower reaches of the Dniester and the
Danube, despite the fact that all the suggested treatment with
names remained inconclusive. But widespread identification
‘Eptaradici’ the said events in VII c. "Seven Slavic tribes" just
can not be considered conclusive. Firstly, the identification is
based on the recognition of the Greek origin of names, but other
signs of use Byzantine sources BG text no. Secondly, there is
no certainty that the mysterious seven tribes actually formed
stable association (union) with a common self-designation.
Thirdly, it is unclear why the description calls these long ago
conquered tribes rather than their conquerors.
However, suggested that ‘Vuillerozi’ and ‘Sebbirozi’ may
just be the branches Danube Bulgars, moreover, that the
last name is clearly responsible to Türkic ethnonym Sebir-/
Sabir-, title cognate tribe of Bulgars from the source VI–X
century [21, p. 48-57].
It is easy to see that other titles that contain the element
-ozi (or -rozi), without much exaggeration compared with Turkic
ethnonyms. ‘Chozirozi’ P.I.Shafaryk is defined as a variant
of ethnonym "Khazar", presented in BG also as ‘Caziri’. Title
‘Zabrozi’ with minimal correction (and rejection clearly typical final -oz) can recognize in her version of the same name
Sabir (Zabir-ozi). ‘Vuillerozi’, that they saw A.Kralichek variant name "Bulgars", rather like "Bilär" – name of cities of the
Volga Bulgaria. Bilär known sources of XII – XIII century, but
archaeologically recorded as city in 20–30 years of X century
[8, p. 45]. Settlement on its location could be in more ancient
times [8, p. 127].
The mentioned comparison suggests that in this fragment of
describing reflected terrains interior of the Khazar Khaganate
and the Volga region. In support of this might work another
name for -ozi – ‘Attorozi’, that it can compare with Bulgarian
ethnonym "Utygury" or "Uturhury", known from the works of
Procopius of Caesarea and Menander (VI cent.), Given the
nature of two-syllable names, where -(o)gur means "people",
"tribe" [cf. 2, p. 14-15; 5, p. 365], and, therefore, is filling ethnic
meaning have element utur- that it can match with the Attor-.
As we know, the descendants Turk-Bulgarians, some of
which were Uturgury, migrated in the VII – VIII c. partly on the
Lower Danube, partly on the Middle Volga, forming states of
the same name [16, p. 188]. The name "Uturgury" convincing
interpreted as utur + (o)gur "thirty lineages" ("thirty tribes")
[cf. 2, p. 15]. Numeral "thirty" is well known from the inscription XI – XIV c. of the Volga Bulgaria as "otur" [23, p. 18], in
the modern Chuvash language he displayed as "vătăr". So,
Attor(-ozi) could affect dialect form of the same word and in
this case the name of the whole can be interpreted as identical
to the old form "Uturgur-" "thirty lineages" (where *otur may
not have numerical value, but was the result of tradition).
Incomprehensible element -oz (-oz) can transmit meaning
"tribe", "people", "gens". Old Turkic texts prove that value for
root oγuz / oγus / oγuš, [5, p. 365]. Given the tendency to
disappear in Turkic γ (‘g’ or sonorous ‘h’) between loud and
subsequent assimilation: cf. ‘sohur’ → ‘suur’ → ‘sur’ "pull" [26,
p. 281], ‘Khagan’ → ‘Khaan’ → ‘Khan’, ‘bogatur’ → ‘baatur’ →
‘batyr’ [18, p. 81-85], ‘Bohorys’ (name from Danube Bulgaria)
→ ‘Boris’, it is likely that oγuz could appear in part dialects as
ūz (→ uz or oz). Implementation of this phenomenon is seen
in transmission name ‘Oguz’ (people in Caspian Sea region)
as Ούζοι ‘uzoi’ [9, p. 50, 154 and more], the probability that
the Byzantines name came brokered by the inhabitants of
There was some problem, however, is the phenomenon of
so-called "zetacism" / "rotacism" of Turkic languages. Reflex
-r- in Bulgar-Chuvash dialects (‘otur’ "thirty", ‘toχur’ "nine"
etc.) matches -z-/-s- (‘otuz’ "thirty", ‘toquz’ "nine") in most
other languages. Languages recorded ‘oγus’ "tribe" refers to
"zeta-dialect" while in "rota-dialect" the same word as reflected
‘oγur’, ‘uγur’ (we see this reflex in names "Onogury", "Utygury",
"Kutrygury" etc.). But the basics Sebbir-, Zab(i)r-, Attor- also
reflect rotacism-reflex, therefore, subject to withdrawal -oz /-uz
UKRAINIAN STUDIES. 16/2012
from oγuz, legality forms ‘Sebbiroz’, ‘Attoroz’ etc. becomes
Contradiction somewhat removed because medieval
inscriptions from the territories of the Volga Bulgaria and
reports Ibn Fadlan, who visited Bulgaria in 922, confirming
the close coexistence in that time Turkic Volga region (as,
in fact, now) "r-dialect" and "z-dialects" [23, p. 17-18]. Ibn
Fadlan even name one and the river gives it as Dzhavshyr,
how Dzhavshyz, reflecting aboriginal oscillations [23, p. 18].
So, we can assume that the informant traveler who wrote
register Turkic tribes Khazaria, later introduced to the text of BG
was media zeta-dialect, which used the term "tribe", "people"
(who we assume specifying application) in his usual form, but
the ethnonyms he passed authentically (with characteristic
r-reflex). Thus, a well-known name Sebbir-, Zab(i)r-, Chozir-,
*Biler- facing us in an unusual design with a unique -oz.
Circumstances of receive of our hypothetical "wandering
geographer" information about the inhabitants of Khazar possessions can be clarified by the hypothesis of A.V.Nazarenko
about tangent St. Methodius to conclude the BG text.
According to "The Life of Constantine (Cyril)" and "The
Life of Methodius", both brother to 861 visited Khazaria [22,
p. 148-164, 185], first reaching the coast of the Azov Sea,
later the Caspian gates on Caucasus [22, p. 150] (Samandar
?). Here they had to participate in a debate with adherents of
different religions, because they have spent in the country for
a long time to get various information (obviously, not only with
theological issues). In addition, they took with them to their
homeland twenty captives from Greece, which could also be
involved in the conclusion of "Khazar registry".
Approximately 10-12 years, if sharing chronology
A.V.Nazarenko, been gained during the trip of 861 year, the
list of nations Khazaria, was included in the general "description of the lands north of the Danube". Apparently the set list
imagined as continuation list of ethnic groups "Far East" of
Europe that they have, in terms of German monks were to be
Buzhans of Volhynia, ‘Sittici’ and ‘Stadici’ somewhere east of
the Carpathians and these extremes towards Elba – Dnieper
Ulychi. So, indeed it was after the last mention was placed
That record Turkic ethnonyms conducted by people for
whom was familiar (second mother?) Slavic language, helps to
explain why the obvious Turkic ethnonyms mixed with closer
unclear, but testifying Slavic suffixes: ‘Nerivani’, ‘Eptaradici’,
‘Znetalici’, ‘Aturezani’. All attempts to find matches this name
in Slavic onomastykon, were not successful. The key to
understanding the mysteries of these names may be the last
of them, her we after by many researchers, we considered a
second memory ‘Attorozi’. The closeness or identity of these
obviously non-Slavic forms with clearly indicates the artificiality
of Slavic suffixation in ‘Aturezani’. We can assume that at the
conclusion of the general construction, the Slavic suffixes were
added to the titles that seemed compiler spoiled or those that
deviate from the norm. So, in the original version could be
something like ‘Aturoz(i)’, ‘Neriv(a-)’, ‘Eptarad(i-)’ , ‘Znetal(i-)’.
Assumptions about Volga attribution series titles (‘Attorozi’,
‘Zabrozi’ = *Sabir-oz, ‘Vuillerozi’ = *Biler-oz) can recognize in
‘Neriva(ni)’ is known from the Old Russian chronicles FinnoUgric tribe Nereva (var.: Narova, Norova, Morova, Neroma),
pursuits which, judging from the data set, could include upper
Volga [12, p. 13], and the name could be used as synonymous
to Merya – Finno-Ugric tribes in the region of Rostov and
Yaroslavl [12, p. 19-20].
~ 19 ~
Thus, we have reason to believe that the fragment from
BG ‘Nerivani’ to ‘Chozirozi’ gives us a list of serial inhabitants
coast of Volga from headwaters to the mouth: 1) Finno-Ugric
population generally known as Nereva, 2) part of the Bulgars,
who was sitting probably, to west from big turn (bend) of
Volga, retaining the traditional designation "thirty families"
(ancient uturgur) = *Otor-oz, 3) a large part of Bulgars east
Volga meadows, which rallied around the center with the
name Bilyar – *Biler-oz, 4) adjacent them Sabir (around later
Suvari?) – *Sabir-oz, 5) own part of Bulgarians who lived
south of the Volga meadows – *Otur-oz (treated in describing
how Aturezani), 6) Khazars on the lower Volga and Caspian
Sea – *Χozær-oz. As you can see, not only form ethnonyms,
but the sequence listed in the text corresponds to the BGknown historical realities.
Without some explanation remain mentioned in "Khazar
registry" ‘Eptaradi(ci)’ and ‘Znetali(ci)’. You can only presuppose that these forms convey accurately perceived by
hearing the name "Burtases" (var.: Burudas) – people on the
Volga River, south Bulgaria and "Esehel" ("Eskel") – one of the
Bulgar tribes between the Volga and the Urals [7, p. 23-29].
Alluring look matching Eptaradici with ‘Ιαβδιερτίμ, ‘Ιαβδιηρτί –
called Pecheneg tribe [9, p. 156-158] that in the ninth century
roamed in Volga region [9, p. 155].
The assumption that a part of the list of BG was concluded
Europeans who visited the Khazar Khanate, hitting back
through "Meotida" (Crimea and Azov Sea coast) allows also
somewhat different estimate fragment: "Caziri, Ruzzi, Forsderen, Liudi, Fresiti, Seravici, Lucolani, Ungare".
As we have seen, researchers often "forced" to move the
compilers of this list is rather strange arc, from the Khazars on
Don (or in the Crimea) with a visit to Kyiv again scars at the
same Khazars near Azov Sea. You can, however, assume that
all names can be written on Azov Sea. ‘Seravici’, despite great
chronological distance, it is difficult to separate from ‘Suarices’
Ravennatis Anonymous projects [17, p. 193; cf. 13, p. 26] and
from a number of names listed on Pevtingerian map: ‘Saurica’
on the right bank of the Don, ‘Sorices’ near the mouth of the
Dnieper, ‘Seracoe’ somewhere in the region of Kuban [17, p.
309, 340-352]. Obviously there are dealing with the Iranian
(Sarmatian-Alan) topology ethnonimic background, primary
nature and significance of which still remain obscure (derived
from the "barrenness"?, "Source"?, "Pasture"?) [cf. 1, v. 3, p.
179-181]. ‘Lucolani’ can be interpreted as ‘Lug-Alani’, ‘LuχAlani’ "cut (severed) Alan’s" [cf. 1, 2, p. 53-54] (cf. Roxolani
= Roχs-Alani) – presumably refers to the part of the Alan’s
on Don and Donets rivers, which in VIII cent. separated from
the main Alan ethnic group on North Caucasus [16, p. 184].
Given message of Ibn Hordadbeh (880’s) about regularity
trips by Rus’ to the Caspian Sea region [15, p. 291], our travelers could also meet them in the Crimea or Don. This may
explain the memory ‘Ruzzi’ between Khazars, Ugrians, Alan.
This does not mean that the terrains apartments ("deployment") of Rus’ belonged here, because accordingly to context
of Arabian relations, Rus’ came to Crimea and Khazaria from
Dnieper [11, p. 101].
The widespread identification ‘Forsderen Liudi’ = Drevlyan’s
should be completely excluded, because translation meaning
Slavic ethnonym German is unprecedented, especially since we
are talking about are far from the German-speaking population
of the territories. Interpretation J.Herrman [24, p. 167-168] too
hard to accept if the drafters BG wanted to give a comment for
Rus, they would give him Latin, as is done in all other cases.
~ 20 ~
B U L L E T I N Taras Shevchenko National Univercity of Kyiv
Significantly, the usual indication on number of a "city" or
other adjustments between words ‘Ruzzi’, ‘Forsderen’, ‘Liudi’,
‘Fresiti’ absent. Obviously, we have no direct language compiler and glosses in the text, which are generally recognized
by the Low German [24, p. 167, p. 169, note 16]. But where
will the carrier of the German language in Crimea (Kiev?) IX
cent. and why information was recorded from him?
At the origin of the word glosses indicates ‘Fresiti’, which
formally corresponds Early Medieval self-designation of Vries:
Frēsa [6, p. 50], probably artificially popular Latin flexion -iti.
‘Liudi’ clearly meets ancient Friesian ‘Liude’ "people" [6, p.
28]. It Vries those times was quite close to the old Low German, so record ‘Ruzzi’ could probably beat just Friesian form
of the name "Rus’".
Fragment in general can be translated roughly as: "Rus
foremost (best?, chief?) people Vries (Friesians?)" or as "Rus
path (paths?) those people Vries" (? Ruzzi forth dera Liude
Fres-). Do we have here is a whole sentence, depending on
the location of punctuation (in the document are dots between
all these words).
One way or another, but it is known that the friezes were
active in the north-European trade in the VIII – IX c. [19, p.
93, 110], there is documentary evidence of their presence
among the inhabitants of Birka in Sweden [19, p. 64], so
they could be among the Scandinavian (especially Swedish)
merchants and mercenaries in Eastern Europe were usually
known as "Rus’".
Returning to the meaning of the text Bavarian geographer
as the source of the Slavic population of Ukraine, we can
confidently say that a large group of his ethnonyms that often,
but unconvincingly linked with Ukraine – from ‘Nerivani’ to
‘Chozirozi’ have to endure beyond its territory. Names ‘Caziri’,
‘Seravici’, ‘Lucolani’, ‘Ungare’ related groups non-Slavic
origin, partly concentrated in Azov Sea coast, the Donetsk
region, perhaps in the Crimea. Fragment "Ruzzi Forsderen
Liudi Fresiti" refers Nordic merchants, recorded probably
also in the Crimea or at the Don, but related with the Dnieper
We continue to join A.V.Nazarenko and a number of Polish
authors (S.Rospond, H.Lovmyansky etc.), tying Prissani and
Velunzani to the Baltic coast [13 sec. 40-41, 28, p. 16]. At
last, in particular, points to the fact that these names appear
alongside Bruzi in which identity to the Baltic Prussians no
doubt. Presumably, this fragment reflects a sea route along
the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
These observations allow to see the original scheme
"Description of cities and regions north Danube" as it looked
before it got lists of people from the Volga region and the
province of the Azov Sea.
Names of regions (nations) on this initial scheme were
ordered parallel (conditionally) horizontal or diagonal rows. List
of individual ethnic groups consistently went from west to east,
in the arrangement of rows there has gradual shift towards the
north. Passing a group of tribes on the Lower Elbe, the first
north of the Danube see a row: Sorbs (in Thuringia) – Bohemians (Czech) – Morava – Bulgar’s (on Tisa). From north to
his next adjacent row: Miloxi (= Milchany east of Central Elba
[3, p. 17]) – Thadesi (= Dadoshtsi, Dadoshechany in Lower
Silesia [13, p. 22, 48]) – Glopeani (possibly doublet Lupiglaa
on upper Oder) – Zuireani (?) – Busani (West Bug) – Sittici –
Stadici (in western Ukraine). After apparently embedded fragment Nerivani – Chozirozi following series would form name
Lendizi, Thafnezi, Zerivani, but all of these ethnonyms are
not located with certainty. But these three names Prissani,
Velunzani, Bruzi lie along the Baltic coast, essentially ending
the general scheme "areas north of the Danube".
As for ‘Lendizi’ it’s hardly followed to A.V.Nazarenko and
A.A.Gorskij for attribute them to Volhynia. Such localization due
to conviction of the identity of ‘Lendizi’ with Λενζενίνοι of Const.
Porphyrogenitus, but it can not be considered well-reasoned.
 On the other hand, the Hungarian ‘Lengiel’ (<*Lendien)
"Poles" allows the tribe to recognize the reality of the roots
‘lend-’ in title to the territory of Poland’s own [cf. 3, p. 20-21].
Enthonym ‘Lendizi’ obviously have to start another series
titles in BG Scheme, lying in the space between ‘Miloxi’ –
‘Thadesi’ (Milchany and Dadeshany) prior (to the south) and
some ‘Prissani’ – ‘Velunzani’ next (to the north). This space
may correspond to the region of the Polish tribe Poliany,
which we followed by many other researchers, can identify
the name ‘Lendizi’.
Title ‘Thafnezi’ caused perhaps the most fantastic interpretations. Venture to add them to another, assuming that we
are dealing here with transliteration (j) athfenzi = Jatvenzi /
Jacwęzi – told in early Polish pronunciation called Yatvingians,
ancient residents of borderlands between Poland and Belarus.
The popular explanation Zerivani = * Čьrvjane – residents’
of "Chervenskije grady" area can not be considered satisfactory. Firstly, from "Cherven" would have formed *Červenjane.
Secondly, binding to the District of Cherven on Western Bug
actually imposes ‘Zerivani’ on territory of ‘Busani’ (Buzhany
tribe). Thirdly, BG seemingly indicates the country of ‘Zerivani’
as significant in size [27, p. 4, 24, p. 164, 13, p. 14] (from there
were many people come out), but area of "Chervenskije grady"
must not be big. "Raisin" of argumentation – given Arab author
Al-Masoudi legend about Valinana people, as "the root of all
Slavs" [4, p. 277-278] – encounters a failure to prove identity
‘Valinana’ with Volyniany (people of Volhynia; and therefore
with the "Cherveniany"). In addition, al-Masoudi says not so
much about the origin of the Slavs from "Valinana" as about
domination this tribe over others.
If we set aside the idea of disappearance ethnonym ‘Zerivani’ or wholly legendary character name remains suggest
that we have here *Derevjanė – option of chronicles names
‘Derevliany’, somewhat spoiled due to transmission through
the "third hand" or, perhaps, reflecting case fricativation of ‘d’
("dzyekannia"), is phenomenon peculiar to the North Slavic
languages (cf. Blr. ‘dzieryeva’ "tree") and some Baltic dialects.
Path of name ‘Lendizi’ – ‘Thafnezi’ – ‘Zerivani’ (= Poliany
in Warta basin, Yatvingians on Narew, Drevliany in Prypiat
basin) organically fit in Bavarian Geographer Schem: north
from row formed Lusatian-Silesian tribes, Buzhans and Ulichi’s
and south from tribes of Pomerania and Prussia.
Title ‘Stadici’ can hypothetically compared with chronicles
tribe Tyvertsi who lived "on the Dniestr (downhill) to the sea,
reaching the Danube". In position between ‘Busani’ and ‘Unlizi’,
in favor of identification ‘Stadici’ with ‘Tyvertsy’ can be given
the following considerations.
Still not a clarification name ‘Tyvertsi’ can be compared
with Turkic forms tyvar, tavar "cattle", "property", "riches",
"goods" [25, vol II, p. 247; 5, p. 542]. Use of alien bases
in the self-designation is quite likely at the intersection of
ethnic territories (cf. ‘Cossacks’). Since cattle was a sign
of prosperity and the principal object of nomad trades, can
compare tyvar / tavar with Slavic *Stado "cluster (group) of
cattle", which apparently stands in the name ‘Stadici’. Latter
BG describes as ‘populusque infinitus’ – "unlimited people",
"countless people" (and Ulychi’s as ‘populus multus’), which
can remind chronicle characterization by Tyvertsi and Uly-
~ 21 ~
UKRAINIAN STUDIES. 16/2012
chy: "They were very much (people) sitting on river Bug and
along Dnieper (var.: on Dniester) hen the sea". Thus, the ratio
‘Tyvertsi’ = ‘Stadychi’ can be interpreted as Turkic – Slavic
tracing, serving to designate a large tribe in the southwestern
part of present Ukraine.
In summary, this we can conclude that the anonymous
author of the second half of IX c. gives a very similar picture to chronicle ("Tale of Bygone Years") placement Slavic
tribal unions of western part of Ukraine. He is noting names
that correspond to chronicles names: ‘Buzhany’, ‘Ulichy’,
‘Drevliany’, ‘Tyvertsi’. Among the famous East Slavic ethnic
groups Bavarian Geographer don’t knows Polian’s, Duleb’s,
Velynian’s, Chorvat’s, but instead mentions unknown by
chroniclers ‘Stadici’, which are identified with Tyvertsi and
‘Sittici’ (Zhytychi ?), identification of which is problematic. It
isn’t excluded, besides, is referring to the Ukrainian territories probable Slavic names ‘Zuireani’. Other names, which
are often regarded as Slavic ethnonyms from the territory of
Ukraine, do not belong here.
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T. Tregubenko, Researcher
UKRAINIAN CHURCH MUSIC CENTERS OF LEFT-BANK UKRAINE
AND SLOBODA UKRAINE IN XVII–XVIII CENTURIES
The article analyzes the peculiarities of formation and activities of the Ukrainian church music centers in XVII-XVIII centuries in the city
of Chernihiv, Kharkiv and Pereyaslav. It is marked that they were concentrated at the residences of local bishops and depended on their
Intellectual potential of Ukraine of early modern time was
focused on the cultural and educational centers that have
traditionally been under the leadership of the Church. This
time is marked by the special flourishing in the music field,
which was directly connected with good organized musical
training – in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy and colleges in
Chernihiv, Kharkiv and Pereyaslav.
The purpose of this publication is to establish the
peculiarities of the establishment and activities of the church
music centers of Left-bank Ukraine and Sloboda Ukraine in
XVII – XVIII centuries. Besides fragmentary references to
availability at the residences of local Right Reverend of church
choir and music classes at the Collegiums, a separate study
on this has not yet been made. It is therefore particularly
valuable to identify new archival data for a thorough study
of this issue.
For the development of that or this center in music industry
a personal interest of a bishop was quite important. Thus,
Archbishop of Chernihiv and Novgorod-Seversky Lazar
Baranovych (1657–1693), poet and writer, personally loved
music and even during his work in Kyiv created in Kiev Bratsk
Monastery a church choir and choir school. In his bishop center
in Chernihiv Lazar Baranovych also founded Chapel Choir, led
by S. Pekalytskyy, while keeping the church choir at his own
expense. Baranovych personally wrote the music, including
"Five notes" (1680). It is known that one of the handwritten
Irmologions, which is located today in Lviv History Museum,
contained Cherubic song written by Baranovych. There are
also information about spreading of chants and psalms created
by him [7, p. 59–50].
The successor of Lazar Baranovych, Chernihiv Archbishop
John Maksimovich also took care of the development of the
music center at the Chernihiv bishop’s house. New stage to
these processes was given with founding by him of Chernihiv
College in 1700, where students also studied musical literacy.
As O. Vasjuta writes, here "music was taught, and here were
choir and orchestra" [2, p. 163].
Similar to the system, which was in the Kyiv-Mohyla
Academy, significant attention was paid to music education
in Chernihiv collegium. Music was also included into the
© Tregubenko T., 2012