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    2.

    TaK KaK

    C~x

    > 0, onpe,ll;eJI5IeTC5I
    (2.63)

    Ope,ll;BapHTeJIbHO no cp-JIe

    ml

    npH YCJIOBHH

    CBH

    '6K4n

    ROHTypOB M rrOJIOCOBbIX

    CBX

    +C

    6,4

    BhIX

    + 6,7

    13,1

    Oo~e

    TaK KaK B npHeMHHKe 6Y,ll;eT KaCKa,ll; ypq.
    3. no cp-JIe (2.61) onpe,ll;eJI5IeTC5I eMKOCTb cxeMbI:

    Ccx = CM+C L +
    4.

    TaK KaK

    C~x

    Orrpe,n;eJIeHMe "tJMCJIa pe30HaHCHbIX


    57 ncp

    =

    2

    > Cex

    =

    =

    15

    44,1 ncp,

    TO no cp-JIe

    (2.64)

    cooopameHHR

    Orrpe,l(eJIeHHe lJHCJIa H36HpaTeJIbHbIX KOHTypOB H
    + 16 + 13, 1 = 44, i nl/J.

    [JPH .3TOM ,lJ;JIH TpaKTa pa,lJ;HOlJaCTOTbI paClJeT

    onpe,ll;eJI5IeTCfl

    .u,o­

    [JPII rrpoeKTHpOBaHHH

    =

    C;x - CBX = 57

    n¢ <

    44,1

    =

    12,9 rup.

    YlJHTbIBaTb, lJTO .3KBHBaJIeHTHaH ,l(06POTHOCTb KOHTypOB QaH YXY,l(lliaeT­
    CH 3a ClJeT IIIYHTHpOBaHHH HH3KHM BXO,lJ;HbIM H BbIXO,lJ;HbIM corrpOTHB­

    TaK KaK CJJ;06 = 12,9
    30
    6JIOK
    npaBHJIbIIO.
    5. 3KBHBaJIeHTHa5I eMKOCTb KOIITypa BXO,ll;HOH u.enH H/ycHJIHTeJI5;I pa,ll;HOQaCT01'bl

    JIeHHHMH .3JIeKTpOHHororrpH60pa H He MO}KeT 6bITb C,lJ;eJIaHa JIYlJlIIe
    !qeM

    (2.65)]

    Ca

    (CMMH

    + C~x) -;- (C

    MaKc

    + C~x)

    (12

    TpaH3HCTOPHbIX rrpHeMHHKOB,a TaK}Ke ,lJ;Ha­

    rra30HOB yKB H CBlJ rrpHeMHHKOB Ha .3JIeKTpOHHbIX JIaMrraX He06xo,lJ;HMO

    KOH,ll;eHCaTOPO~~I6paH

    ncp,

    rrpOH3BO,lJ;HTCH Ha KaiK­

    ,lJ;OM H3 rrO,lJ;,lJ;Harra30HOB caMOCTOHTeJIbHO, a 3aTeM rrpHHHMaeTCH 06mee
    pelIIeHHe ,l(JIH Bcex rrO,lJ;,lJ;Harra30HOB.

    nOJIHHTeJIbHa5I eMKOCTb:

    CJI,06

    /

    1

    m2
    2

    § 2.4.

    ,ll;eHCTBHTeJIbHa5I eMKOCTbCXeMbI.

    BbIQHCJI5IeTC5I BHOCHMa5I eMKOCTb JIaMnbI

    + 57) -;- (495 +

    QaK

    = (69 -+ 552)ncp.
    f,lJ;e



    0,5

    0,8 -

    (2.66)

    'YQK'

    =

    KO.3
    (HJIH BbIXO,l(HbIM) conpOTHBJIeHHeM .3JIeKTpOHHoro rrpH60pa,

    QH -

    CTPYKTHBHaH ,lJ;06POTHOCTb KOHTypa.

    BLIOOP paCTHHYTLIX IIO,IJ;,IJ;HanaaOHOB
    TaK KaK ,l(JIH paOOTbI
    HOBOM ,./iHarra30He
    YMeHblIIeHHH

    rrJIOTHOCTH

    Y'IACTKH KOPOTKOBonHOBoro
    AHAnA30HA, B KOTOPblX
    PA&OTAfOT PAAHOBEIlIATEnbHblE
    CTAHLl.HH

    Met:(

    e"MaKc' M)

    fMaKc,Mzt:(

    (A MHH• M)

    ----.;.----;-------

    6 ,966 (50,37)
    6,676(44,94)
    9,00 (33,30)
    11,630 (25,05)
    16,07 (19,91)
    17,7 (16,26)
    21,6 (13,96)

    70

    .3THX CJIYlJaHX JIerlJe rrOJIYlJHTb IllHPOKYlO rrOJIOcy, lJeM Y3KYlO.
    4T06bI 06eCrre1.JHTb y3KYlO rrOJIOcy H BbICOKYlO H36HpaTeJIbHOCTb, He06XO,lJ;HMO OCJIa6HTb BJIHHHHe .3JI:eKTpOHHoro rrpH60pa Ha KOJIe6aTeJIbHbI:H

    Y3KHe

    YlJaCTKH t

    a raK>I{e

    KOHTYp. nJIH 3Toro rrpHx9,lJ;HTCH rrpH6eraTI;l K 3HalJHTeJIbHoMY oCJIa6JIe~

    Anfl

    HaCTpOHKH (o6JIerlJeHHH TOlJHOCTH YCT8H013KH
    lJaCTOTbI II HacTpOHKH) t B pa.nHoac

    T ABJII1UA 2.12

    fMBll'

    TOJIbKO

    6,360(47,16)
    8, 170 (36,72)
    9,916(30,26)
    12,200 (24.66)
    16,595(19,23)
    17,865 (16,80)
    21,675 (13 ,84)

    '

    B

    pa,l(HOBemaTeJIbHbIX cTaHUHH B KOPOTKOBOn·

    OTBe,l(eHbI

    KOH-

    HUlO CBH3H KOHTypa C .3JIeKTpOHHbIM rrpH60poM (ero BXO,lJ;OM H BbIXO­
    ,lJ;OM) , lJTO, B CBOlO'OlJepe,lJ;b, rrpHBO,lJ;HT K. YMeHblIIeHHlO YCHJIeHHH.

    1,
    KOPOfl'~--\'

    maTeJIbHbIX rrpHeMHHKax Ha
    KIIX BOJ1HaX IIIHPOKO npHMeHSlIO'1'C

    He06xo,lJ;HMaH rrOJIoca rrporrycKaHHH
    ,lJ;06POTHOCTb)

    paCTHHYTbl e ,H
    rrOJIypacTfIuYTbl,
    rrO,l(,l(Harra30HbI." PaCTHHYTbIt%: noJt.~
    D.Harra30H paCClJHTbIBaerCfl Ha new
    peKpbITHe O,l(HOrO YSKorO YtlaCTKH'

    B Ta6JI.

    npHBe}1.eHbl

    2.12.

    nJIH
    nOJIYtIeHHH
    pacTHHYToro
    ITO,l(,lJ;Harra30Ha B KOHTYP BKJIlOtIa·
    IOTCH ,lJ;OrrOJIHHTeJIbHble rrOCJIe,1l.0Ba·

    BeJIHlJHHbI

    I,

    HHeM

    CKOHTypOM. 3TO

    POCT BHOCHMOH

    06bHCHHeTCH TeM, lJTO CYBeJIHlJe­

    paCCTpOHKH

    COrrpOBO}K,l(aeTCH

    paCIIIHpe­

    xpaHHe:rCH rrpHMepHO rrOCTOHHHOH. 1136HpaTeJIbHOCTb H IIIHpOKOrrOJIOCHbIX
    b6ycJIOBJIeHO

    YCHJIHTeJIeH,

    lJaCTOTHoH

    B

    KOTOPbIX

    3aBHCHMOCTbiO

    pa3JIHlJHe

    napaMeTpOB

    MO}KeT

    6bITb

    .3JIeKTpOHHoro

    rrpn60pa.

    B

    TpaH3HCToPHbIX rrpI:i:eMHHKax BCJIe,lJ;CTBHe CHJIbHOrO IIIYHTHPO­
    KOHTypOB OTHOCHTeJIbHO MaJIbIMH BXO,lJ;HbIM II BbIXO,lJ;HbIM CO­

    TeJIbHble

    KaCKa­

    (HX .3KBHBaJIeHTHa51

    HHeM rrOJIOCbI rrponYCKaHHH H OTHOCHTeJIbHaH BeJIHlJHHa paCCTpOHKH co­

    onpe,l(eJIeHHe
    KOTOPbIX
    rrpOH3BO­
    J];HTCH rrpH rrOJIHOM .3JIeKTpHtIeCKOM
    H

    CBH3H

    CBH3H

    BaHHH

    IJ,errl1

    KOHTypOB

    06eCrreqeHa H3MeHeHHeM BeJIHlJHHbI CBH3M

    [JPH.3TOM OTHOCHTeJIbHaH paccTpoHKa KOHTypa BXO,nHOH H BbIXO,lJ;­
    HOH eMKOCTHMH .3JIeKTpOHHoro rrpH60pa rrpaKTHlJeCKH He 3aBHCHT OT

    TeJIbHaH H napaJI.iIeJIbHaH eMKocTH,

    paCIJeTe BXO,lJ;HOH
    ,l(OB ;vpq.

    6bITb

    .3d1eKTpOH!lOrO rrpH60pa C KOHTypOM.

    3aHHToro
    pa,l(HOBemaTCJlbHblMlI \
    CTaHIJ,HHIMH, a IIOJI,ypa'CTfIHY'I'blti lHl.,
    2-3 YlJaCTKa. 4aC'1'OTHble Y4acT",
    KH, Ha KOTOPbIX pa6oTaloT pa,l(Ho,',
    BemaTeJIbHble CTaHUHH t

    MoiKeT

    rrpOTHBJIeHHHMH

    ,TpaH3HCTopa

    CBoHcTBa

    rrpHeMHHKa

    OKa3aJIOCb
    Ha

    ce,l(HeMY KaHaJIY) cOcpe,lJ;OTOQHTb B OLI,HOM
    COCpe,lJ;OTOlJeHHOH CeJIeKIJ,HH

    (Q:>CC);

    IJ,eJIeC006pa3HbIM

    rrpOMe}KY'fOlJHOH

    lJaCTOTe

    H36Hpa­
    (no co­

    MHoroKoHTypHOM '
    He06xo,lJ;HMOe }Ke YCHJIeHHe rrOJIy­

    71

    LJaTb B anepHO,LI.HLJeCKHX KaCKa,LI.aX HnH KaCKa,LI.aX C
    rypaMH. TaKa5I CHCTeMa nOCTpOeHH5I
    BO

    BCeX

    OTeLJeCTBeHHbIX

    O,LI.HHO~HHMH

    KOH­

    Pacnpe,11;eJIeHlle 3a,11;aHHOii BeJIII1.ffiHbI 113611paTeJIbHOCTII

    6nOK-CXeMbI npHMeH5IeTCH nOLJrH

    TpaH3HCTOPHbIX

    npHeMHHKaX

    (<
    «AnMa3», «Cenbra», «I1Bonra» H T. ,LI..).
    O,LI.HaKO
    COBbIMH

    Moryr

    npHMeH5ITbCH H CHCTeMbI

    qm,HbTpaMH

    n5IeTC5I Ha3HaLJeHHeM

    B

    Ka1K,LI.OM

    KaCKa,LI.e.

    C KOHTypaMH HnH nOJ10-

    BbI60p THna

    pa,LI.HOnpHeMHOrO YCTpOHCTBa

    H

    JI [fC-!

    Onpe,LI.e­

    reXHHLJeCKHMH

    Tpe60BaHH5IMH, }5:0TOpble K HeMY npe,LI.'b,HBn5IlOTCH.
    B Y3KOnOnOCHbIX npHeMHHKaX
    pa,LI.HOBemaTenbHbIX, CBH3HbIX
    H T. ,LI..) npHMeH5IlOTC5I O,LI.HOKOHTypHbIe H )I.BYXKOHTypHble JI [J Cf, a raK­
    1Ke JI[JCf C

    epee.

    BbI60p THna JI[JCf B Y3KononOCHbIX npHeMHHKax onpe,LI.enHeTC5I Tpe­
    60BaHHHMH K IIlHpHHe nonOCbI nponYCKaHHH, H36HpaTenbHOCTH H CTa­
    6HnbHOCTH B He,LI.OpOrHX paAHOBemaTenbHbIX TpaH3HCTOPHbIX nepeHOCHbIX npH­
    eMHHKax npHMeHHlOT O,LI.HOKOHTypHble HaCTpoeHHbIe JI[JCf H JI[JCf C
    npOCTbIMH

    cJJee.

    'uBYXKOHTypHble

    JI[JCf H JI[JCf co Cn01KHbIMH

    cfJee

    HaXO,LI.5IT npHMeHeHHe B npHeMHHKax 60neeBbICOKHX KnaCCOB.
    B

    II1HpOKOnonOCHbIX

    npHeMHHKax

    (TeneBH3HOHHbIX,

    paAHOpeJIeH­

    HbIX)

    npHMeHHlOTCH O,LI.HOKOHTypHbIe H ,LI.BYXKOHTypHbIe HacrpoeHHbIe
    JI[JCf, a TaK1Ke JI[JCf C napaMH H TpOHKaMH paCCTpoeHHbIX Kac­
    Ka,LI.OB.
    BbI60p

    THna

    Tpe60BaHHHMH

    JI [JCf

    npHeMHHKOB

    onpe,LI.enHeTCH

    K nnrpHHe nOlIOCbI nponYCKaHHH H YCTOHLJHBOCTH
    CTOTOH H3rOToBneHHH, HaCTpOHKH H 3KcnnyaTaIl,HH.
    rIo cpaBHeHHlO C ,LI.pyrHMH HaCTpoeHHble JI[JCf

    O,LI.HOKoHrypHoro

    THna )I,alOT HaHMeHbII1ee YClweHHe Ha KaCKa,LI. npH 3a,LI.aHHOM 06meM
    YCHneHHH H nonoce nponYCKaHHH, H"O npOCTbl B npOH3BO)I.CTBe, Ha­
    crpOHKe, 3KcnJlyaTaIl,HH H HlVlelOT cTa6HnbHYlO BOH; npHMeHHlOTCH OHH npH nonoce [J ~ 3 Mel{.
    JI[JCf C paccTpoeHHbIMH KOHTypaMH HMelOT 60nbllIee YCHneHHe Ha
    KaCKa,LI. npH 60nbllIe}I llIHpHHe nonOCbI nponycKaHHH, HO 60nee cn01K­
    HbI B npOH3BO,LI.CTBe, HaCTpOJIKe H 3KcnJlyaTaIl,HH, HMelOT MeHbllIYlO CTa­
    6HJ1bHOCTb npHMeHHlOTcH, ecnH

    [J

    HHMaeTCH cne,LI.YlOmee ·pacnpe,LI.eneHHe no TpaKTaM npHeMHHKa 3a,LI.aH­
    HbIX BenHLJHH H36HpaTenbHoCTH:
    H36HpaTenbHocTb
    TpaKToM pa,LI.HOLJaCTOTbI;

    no

    3epKaJIbHoMY

    KaHany

    06eCneLJHBaeTCH

    H36upaTCJlbHOCTb no COCe,LI.HeMY KaHaJIY 06eCneLJHBaeTCH TpaK­
    TOM npOMe1KYTOLJHOH LJaCTOTbI.
    B ,LI.Hana30Hax )I,JIHHHbIX H cpeAHHX BOJIH pa)I,HOBemaTeJIbHbIX npH­
    eMHHKOB H36HpaTenbHOCTb no COCe,LI.HeMY KaHaJIY LJaCTHLJHO 06eCneLJH­
    BaeTCH H TpaKToM pa)I,HOLJaCTOTbI, O,LI.HaKO H3-3a HaJIHLJHH nO,LI.,LI.uana­
    30HOB KOPOTKHX H YJIbTpaKOpoTKHX BOJIH npH pacnpe,LI.eJIeHHH 3a,LI.aH­
    HOH H36HpaTenbHOCTH no COCe,LI.HeMY KaHany (OHa OAHHaKOBa )I,JIH Bcex
    nO,LI.,LI.Hana30HOB)

    3Toro He YLJHTbIBalOT.

    D03TOMY B ,LI.Hana30Hax ,LI.JIHH­

    HbIX H cpeAHHX BonH H36HpaTeJIbHOCTb nonYLJaeTCH HeCKOJIbKO BbIllIe
    LJeM B KOPOTKOBonHOBOM.
    B

    npO
    KpaTHbIM

    cynepreTep0,LI.HHHbIX

    npe06pa30BaHHeM LJaCTOTbI

    npHeMHHKax

    npOH3BO,LI.HTCH

    C

    ,LI.BY­

    CJIe,LI.YlOmee pac­

    npe,LI.eneHHe 3a,LI.aHHbIX BeJIHLJHH H36HpaTeJIbHOCTH:
    IIlHpOKononOCHbIX

    MbI pe30HaHCHOH KPHBOH npH B03,LI.eHCTBHH BHellIHHX
    TpoHKaMH

    B npHeMHHKax cynepreTep0,LI.HHHOrO THna; npO paAHoBemaTenbHbIx, C O,LI.HOKpaTHbIM npe06pa30BaHHeM "lIaCTOTbI npH­

    > 8 Mel{.

    Y [JCf c

    KpHBOH.

    3 Mel{

    < [J

    ~

    8 Mel{,

    paccTpoeHHbIMH na­
    C

    paccTpoeHHbIMII

    .

    YCHnHTenH C ABYMH CBH3aHHbIMH KOHTypaMII npHMeHHlOT BMeCTO
    JI[JCf C napaMH H TpoHKaMH paccTpoeHHbIx KaCKa,LI.OB. DpHMeHeHHe ux
    oc06eHHo I.Leneco06pa3Ho B Tex

    KOr,LI.a npHeMHHK ,LI.On}KeH 06-

    na,LI.aTb nOBbIllIeHHoH H30HpaTenbHocTblO H cTa6Hnbl-IOCTblO.

    H36HpaTenbHOCTb no nepBOMY 3epKaJIbHOMY KaHany 06eCneLJH­
    BaeTCH TpaKTOM pa,LI.HOLJaCTOTbI;
    -

    H36HpaTevTJbHOCTb

    no BTOPOMY 3epKaJIbHOMY

    KaHaJIY 06ecneLJI1-

    BaeTCH TpaKTOM nepBOH npOMe1KYTOLJHOH LJaCTOTbI;
    H36HpaTeJIbHOCTb no COCe,LI.HeMY KaHany 06eCneLJHBaeTCH TpaK­
    TOM BTOPOH npOMe1KYTO"lIHOH LJaCTOTbI.
    EcnH H36HpaTenbHOCTb no 2-MY 3epKaJIbHoMY KaHaJIY (Ha 3ep­
    KanbHoH "lIaCTOTe BToporo npe06pa30BaTeJI5I) He 3 a,LI.aH a, TO ee M01KHO
    npHH5ITb paBHOH H36HpaTeJIbHOCTH no I-MY 3epKaJIbHOMY KaHaJIY.
    KpoMe 06eCneLJeHHH H36HpaTenbHOCTH no 3epKaJIbHoMY
    paAHOLJaCTOTHbIH TpaKT npHeMHHKa AOn1KeH 06eCneLJHBaTb:

    KaHaJIY,

    H36HpaTenbHOCTb Ha npOMe1KYTOLJHOH LJaCTOTe, T. e. OCJIa6neHHe
    nOMex CTaHIl,HH, LJaCTOTbI KOTOPbIX COBna,LI.alOT C npOMe1KYTOLJHOH;
    OCvTJa6JIeHHe
    nOMex
    CTaHIl,HH,
    cnoc06HbIX
    BbI3BaTb
    nOHBlle­
    HHe B npeo6pa30BaTene nepeKpeCTHOH MO,LI.YJIHIl,HH H HHTep OHHbIX CBHCTOB;
    OCJIa6neHHe H3JIY"lIeHHH KOJ1eOaHHH reTepO,LI.HHa npHeMHHKa;
    -

    He06xo,LI.HMOe

    COOTHOllIeHHe

    CHrHaJI!llIYM

    Ha

    BXO,LI.e

    nepBoro

    3neKTpOHHoro npH60pa rrpHeMHHKa.

    nOKa3ana npaKTHKa, a TpaH3HcToPHbIX pa,LI.HOBemaTenbHblx
    Bcex KJIaCCOB (KpoMe BbIcllIero) TeXHHLJeCKHe Tpe60Ba­

    Docne orrpe)I,eneHHH "lIHCJIa H A06pOTHOCTH KOHTypOB TpaKTa pa­
    ,LI.HOLJaCTOTbI 06H3aTenbHO npOBep5IeTCH nOJIYLJeHHaH rrpH 3TOM H36H­

    HHH K H36HpaTenbHocTH H nonoce nponYCKaHHH TpaKTa paAHOLJaCTOTbI

    paTenbHOCTb Ha
    rrpOMe1KYTOLJHOH LJaCTOTe. ECJIH
    OHa
    nOJIYLJaeTCH
    MeHbllIe 3a,LI.aHHOH no TY, TO He06xo,LI.HMO B TpaKT pa,LI.HO"lIaCTOTbI BBe­

    KaK

    BblllonHHlOTCH npH npHMeHeHHH TonbKO O,LI.Horo ~oHTypa MarHHTHOH
    aHTeHHbI BO BXO,LI.H0I1 Il,enH (<
    CTH 3arrHpalOmHH HvTJH nponYCKalOmnH
    fa» H T.

    Me1KYTOLJHYlO LJaCTOTY

    72

    (§ 3.10,

    CTp.

    174).
    73

    C'I)

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    + +

    + _+ + +

    Pacnpe.zy;eJIeHHe sa.zy;aHHoH HepaBHoMep,HOCTH
    YCHJIeHHH B nOJIOce nponycRaHHH

    ~~
    )J,JIH 06eCnelJeHlUI

    ~

    8

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    £-<

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