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Теги: УлГПУ им. И. Н. Ульянова. Английский язык
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Text C: «TYPES OF SOFTWARE»
A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software — programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data.
Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a general-purpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.
Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and applications software.
System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the systems programs is booted or loaded into the computers memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded, the applications software can be brought in.
System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programs are called drivers and coordinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate a peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in advance about the driver program which, though, commonly goes along with your device. By installing the driver you «teach» your mainboard to «understand» the newly attached part.
Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one program to make software interface look more attractive to the user. These class of programs is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view.
Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software. Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computer's memories. During the past five years the developing electronic network communication has stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.
Vocabulary:
aid — помощьto attach — присоединятьcontrol — управлениеdeveloper — разработчикequipment [I'kwipmsnt] — оборудованиеgeneral-purpose — общего назначения
internal — внутренний
mainboard — материнская плата
memory capacity — вместимость памяти
peripheral — периферийныйregard — отношениеregardless — несмотря на, безотносительно,
security — безопасность
specific — конкретный, определенный
to boot — загружать
to check — проверять
to complete — совершать, завершать
to conduct — проводить
to develop — развивать, проявлять
to direct [dai'rekt] — управлять, руководить
to handle — управлять, обращаться с
to install — устанавливать, встраивать, инсталлировать
to provide with — обеспечивать чем-либо
to require [n'kwaia'] — требовать
to secure [si'kjus'] — обеспечивать безопасность
to transfer — переводить, переноситьWeb-browser — «браузер» (программа, позволяющая пользователю искать и считывать информацию с глобальной электронной сети Internet)
General understanding
1.What is software?
2.In what two basic groups software (programs) could be divided?
3.What is system software for?
4.What is an operating system — a system software or application software?
5.What is a «driver»?
6.What is application software?
7.What is application software used for?
8.What is the tendency in application software market in the recent years?
9.What is the application of the communication software?
Exercise 8.10. Which of the following is Software:1.Program
2.Mouse
3.CPU
4.Word processor
5.Modem
6.Web-browser
7.Operating system
8.Scanner
9.Printer
10.Display
Exercise 8.11. Which of the listed below statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text:
1) Computer programs only instruct hardware how to handle data storage.
2)System software controls internal computer activities.
3)System software is very dependable on the type of application software being used.
4)The information about memory capacity, the model of the processor and disk drives are unavailable for system software.
5)The driver is a special device usually used by car drivers for Floppy-disk driving.
6)It is very reasonable to ask for a driver when you buy a new piece of hardware.
7)Software developers tend to make their products very small and with poor interface to save computer resources.
8)Communication software is in great demand now because of the new advances in communication technologies.
9)Application software is merely a general-purpose instrument
10) Web-browsers is the class of software for electronic communication through the network.
Exercise 8.12. Find English equivalents in the text:
1)Программное обеспечение определяет порядок выполнения операций.
2)Прикладные программы выполняют поставленную вами конкретную задачу (удовлетворяют вашу потребность).
3)Этот класс программ — самый многочисленный и перспективный с точки зрения маркетинга.
4)Системные программы предназначены для конкретных устройств компьютерной системы.
5)Устанавливая драйвер, вы «учите» систему «понимать» вновь присоединенное устройство.
6)Когда компьютер впервые включается, одна из системных программ должна быть загружена в его память.
7)Развитие систем электронной коммуникации за последние пять лет стимулировало производство соответствующих программных продуктов возрастающим числом компаний-разработчиков.
Exercise 8.13. Give definitions to the following using the vocabulary:
1)Software
2)Driver
3)Application software
4)Operating system
5)Communication software
6)Computer
7)Peripheral device
8)Operating system
Questions for group discussion:
1)What do you think is more expensive — hardware or software?
2)Has anyone in your group ever purchased software? Why do you think piracy (audio, video, computer software) still exists?
1816 and was active in the founding of the Analytical, the Royal Astronomical, and the Statistical Societies.
FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Babbage, Charles (1792-1871), British mathematician and inventor, who designed and built mechanical computing machines on principles that anticipated the modern electronic
In the 1820s Babbage began developing his Difference Engine, a mechanical device that could perform simple mathematical calculations. Although Babbage started to build his machine, he was unable to complete it because of a lack of funding. In the 1830s Babbage began developing his Analytical Engine, which was designed to carry out more complicated calculations, but this device was never built, too. Babbage's book, «Есопоту of Machines and Manufactures» (1832), initiated the field of study known today as operational research.
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