Реферат Panama Canal Treaties Essay Research Paper I

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Panama Canal Treaties Essay, Research Paper
I here by hand my report copy rights to Cheat House!, Phillip Mayhew
The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
The Hay-Pauncefote treaty was an agreement, in 1901, between Great Britain and the United States of America. This agreement provided construction and also regulation of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. The treaty was signed by John Hay, the United States Secretary of State and Lord Julian Pauncefote, the British ambassador to the United States. However, this treaty superseded, or took claim over, the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 as the defined statement of Anglo-American policy concerning an Atlantic-Pacific Canal.
After the Spanish-American War of 1898, America became very interested in South America. America was interested mainly in the south and central parts of South America. American public opinion began to demand abolishment of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850. This treaty created a wall for the United States and Great Britain, not allowing either of the two countries to act alone in regard of the canal. During the 1800’s French engineer named Ferdinand de Lesseps actually tried to dig an isthmian canal, but of course he was unsuccessful in his attempt. In the year 1900 the United States decided, or came to the conclusion, that such an enterprise should be entirely American. Many people in the United States also thought that an enterprise like this one should be ours, and belong completely to us. Great Britain was amenable, tolerable, just as long as the canal was still neutral. No one country had more of it than another. This canal would be a great asset to both countries. It would be good because it would allow both countries a shortcut between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, other wise the two countries would have to travel all the way around the tip of South America to get to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
There were many meetings between Hay and Pauncefote in making a draft treaty. This draft treaty resulted in giving the United States complete direction in the construction of the canal, establishing permanent neutrality of the zone and a ban of fortifications, and also inviting other countries to join in the guarantees of neutrality. The United States Senate refused to ratify the original draft. However, they did amend the original draft to allow the United States to take any measures of defense in the canal zone, this also eliminated the clause concerning other nations. Amending the draft then caused a conflict with Great Britain, because it was such a conflict they completely opposed it. So, as a result, negotiations continued. A new revised draft was presented to the Senate in 1901, and was surprisingly ratified shortly after its presentation to the Senate. By the terms of the new ratified treaty, the United States was given full and complete control of the construction and management of the canal through Panama. The United States was named sole guarantor, someone who gives or makes a guarantee, of the neutrality of the canal and was permitted to build fortifications, backups or support. The canal was open for any nation to travel under, but could only be done under equal terms of all the countries. But the United States had sort of a back door to the agreement. During times of war the canal could be closed by the United States. In 1911 Great Britain claimed that the United States had denied the last clause by passing the Panama Canal Act, exempting American coastal shipping from paying canal tolls. President Woodrow Wilson, agreed with Great Britain’s point of view and he persuaded Congress to repeal the act in 1914. So it looks as though the American coastal ships got away with not paying for the shipping tolls through the Panama Canal for at least three years and possibly a little or a lot longer.