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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБЩЕГО И ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
РОСТОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
СРЕДНЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОСТОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

РОСТОВСКИЙ-НА-ДОНУ КОЛЛЕДЖ СВЯЗИ И ИНФОРМАТИКИ

Е.А.УЖЕГОВА

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

«Программирование в компьютерных системах»

«Компьютерные сети»

«Прикладная информатика»

«Обеспечение информационной безопасности телекоммуникационных систем»

2018

Рекомендовано к изданию Экспертным советом РКСИ

Протокол № 1 от 12.09.2018

Рецензенты:

Рецензенты:

К.п.н., доцент кафедры научно-технического перевода и профессиональной коммуникации социально-гуманитарного факультета ДГТУ

Ласкина Е.Е.

Преподаватель высшей квалификационной категории РКСИ

Лебедева М. В.

Ужегова Е.А. Английский язык: учебное пособие. – 3-е изд. – Ростов-на-Дону: РКСИ, 2018. – 48 с.

Учебное пособие составлено в соответствии с Государственным образовательным стандартом среднего профессионального образования, Примерной программой по иностранному языку и Рабочей программой по английскому языку (специальностей 09.02.02, 09.02.03, 09.02.05, 10.02.04).

Цель пособия – помочь учащимся овладеть основами профессионального общения, развить навыки ознакомительного чтения, познакомить с видами компьютерных устройств, их функционированием.

Учебное пособие снабжено лексико-грамматическим и текстовым материалом, что способствует расширению знаний учащихся по предмету.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 курса обучения, изучающих программирование и основы информационной безопасности по специальностям: «Программирование в компьютерных системах», «Компьютерные сети», «Прикладная информатика», «Обеспечение информационной безопасности телекоммуникационных систем».

© Ростовский-на-Дону государственный

колледж связи и информатики, 2018

Пояснительная записка

В настоящее время персональный компьютер входит в деятельность разных специалистов, включая людей совсем далеких от вычислительной техники и автоматизированных систем. Возникает острая потребность в правильном обращении с этими средствами техники, которые управляются в основном с учетом знаний иностранного языка – английского.

Появление русифицированных версий программного обеспечения не снимает всей остроты проблемы, так как пользователь, сталкиваясь с ярко выраженной спецификой английского языка (его словоупотреблениями, грамматическими конструкциями) испытывает явную нехватку знаний в плане языкового выражения и понимания технической компьютерной речи.

Данное пособие по английскому языку предназначено для студентов технических специальностей и составлено в соответствии с программными требованиями по дисциплине.

Цель настоящего курса – подготовить студентов к изучению специальной лексики, чтению специальной литературы для извлечения полезной информации, сформировать грамматические навыки языка, а также выработать навык речевого высказывания.

Организация учебного материала представлена 5 разделами, каждый из которых имеет определенное тематическое наполнение (лексические единицы, разнообразные упражнения, текстовый материал, задания для аудирования и монологических высказываний). Весь материал подобран с учетом профессиональной подготовки студентов по специальности. Текстовый материал взят из оригинальной британской литературы и представлен по принципу актуальности изложения и сложности восприятия.

UnitI. TheComputer

1.1. Topic«Computer».

1.2 Vocabulary.

1.3. Grammar: Pluralofnouns. Possessivecaseofnouns. Article.

1.4.Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Rate – скорость

Keyboard – клавиатура

Tower – системный блок

Hardware – аппаратное обеспечение

Software – программное обеспечение

Touch – соприкасаться, дотрагиваться

Suchas – такой как, такие как

Peripheral – вспомогательный, дополнительный

Tocall – звать, называть

Toprocess – обрабатывать

Tomeasure – мерить, измерять

Tostore – сохранять, запоминать

Desktop – рабочий стол компьютера

Inside – внутри

Outside – снаружи

To take in – принимать

To perform – выполнять

Addition – сложение

Subtraction – вычитание

Multiplication – умножение

Division – деление

To express relations – выражатьотношения

To compare – сравнивать

A sequence of reasonable operations – последовательностьразумныхопераций

Exercise 2. Give the translation of the following words.

Floppy disk

Scanner

Mouse

Monitor

Printer

Memory

To run

Fast

Data

Size

Portable

Screen

Picture

Image

Press

To select

To display

Exercise 3. What do you think these abbreviations mean?

RAM, OS, CPU, PC.

Exercise 4. Find the synonyms of the given words.

speed, data, to perform, to get, to carry out, rate, to select, screen, to receive, picture, to show, to take in, image, information, to display, monitor, to put in, to choose.

Exercise 5. Read the text, translate it and answer the questions.

Computer

Computer is a machine that takes in information or data, performs a sequence of reasonable operations on the received information and puts out answers.

The parts of a computer you can touch, such as a monitor or a Central Processing Unit are hardware. All hardware except the CPU and the working memory are called peripherals. Computer programs are software. The operating system (OS) is software that controls the hardware. Most computers run the Microsoft Windows OS. MacOS and Linux are other operating systems.

The CPU controls how fast the computer processes data, or information. We measure its speed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). The higher the speed of the CPU, the faster the computer will run. You can type letters and play computer games with a 500 MHz CPU. Watching movies on the Internet needs a faster CPU and a modem.

We measure the Random Access Memory (RAM) of the computer in megabytes (MB). RAM controls the performance of the computer when it is working and moves data to and from the CPU. Programs with a lot of graphics need a large RAM to run well. The hard disk stores data and software programs. We measure the size of the hard disk in gigabytes (GB).

Computer technology changes fast, but a desktop PC (Personal Computer) usually has a tower, a separate monitor, a keyboard and a mouse. The CPU, modem, CD-ROM and floppy disk drives are usually inside the tower. A notebook is a portable computer with all these components inside one small unit. Notebooks have a screen, not a monitor, and are usually more expensive than desktops with similar specifications.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions to the text.

1. What is a computer?

2. What does computer do?

3. What is the CPU?

4. What operating systems do computers run?

5. How do we measure computer’s speed?

6. How do we measure computer’s memory?

7. What is the job of the hard disk?

8. Are the floppy disk drives inside the tower?

9. Do notebooks have a monitor?

10. Are desktop computers cheaper than notebooks?

Exercise 7. Find in the text all the nouns used in plural.

Exercise 8. Makeupthepluralofthefollowingnouns.

technology, disk, memory, software, screen, speed, tower, information, mouse.

Exercise 9. Write down the following word combinations in possessive case.

память компьютера, компьютерный экран, компьютерные устройства, особенности программ.

Exercise 10. Explain the usage of articles.

1.Computer programs are software.

2. Watching movies on the Internet needs a faster CPU and a modem.

3. Computer is a machine that takes in information or data, performs a sequence of reasonable operations on the received information and puts out _ answers.

Exercise 11. Make up the following sentences negative.

1. Notebooks have a screen, not a monitor.

2. The CPU controls how fast the computer processes data, or information.

3. We measure the Random Access Memory (RAM) of the computer in megabytes (MB).

Exercise 12. Make up the following sentences interrogative.

1. CD-ROM and floppy disk drives are usually inside the tower.

2. RAM controls the performance of the computer when it is working and moves data to and from the CPU.

3. Programs with a lot of graphics need a large RAM to run well.

4. We measure the size of the hard disk in gigabytes.

Exercise 13. Retell the text.

Exercise 14. Prepare the story about your PC.

2.1. Topic «Types of computers ».

2.2 Vocabulary.

2.3. Grammar: Degrees of comparison of adjectives.

2.4. Exercises.

Exercise 1. What kinds of computers do you know? What are they used for?

Exercise 2. Vocabulary to the text.

Mainframe – мейнфрейм

Notebook – ноутбук

Laptop – лэптоп

Handheld – переносной, карманный, портативный

Minicomputer – миникомпьютер

Palmtop – палмтоп

Subnotebook – субноутбук

Sound – звук

Multimedia – мультимедиа

Animation – анимация

Accordingto – согласно чему-либо

Variety – разнообразие

Purpose – цель

Pocket – карман

Power – сила, мощность

Powerful – сильный, мощный

Typewriter – пишущая машинка

Amountsofdata – количество данных

Tocompute – считать, вычислять

Property – свойство, особенность

Digit – цифра

Digital – цифровой

Numericalmeasurements – числовыеизмерения

Exercise 3. Read the text, translate it and answer the questions.

Types of computers

A computer is a device that takes in data, processes it according to a program, and then outputs the processed data in some form. There is an increasing variety of computers of different sizes and designed for different purposes. One of the most important considerations when buying a computer is deciding how it is going to be used.

The modern computers are of three types called analog, digital and hybrid. An analog computer computes by using physical analogs of numerical measurements. A digital computer computes by using the numbers (digits) and yeses and noes expressed usually in 1’s and 0’s. A hybrid computer is a machine which combines some of the properties of digital and analog.

Computers can be divided into three broad categories: mainframe computers, minicomputers, and microcomputers. Mainframes are large, powerful, expensive computers that are operated by a team of professionals and are designed to be used by many people at the same time. The most powerful mainframes are sometimes called supercomputers.

Minicomputers are really cut-down mainframes and are no longer very common.

The most common type of computer is the microcomputer. Microcomputers are sometimes called personal computers. There is an increasing variety of portable microcomputers that can be grouped according to their size. However, as computers get smaller, it becomes more difficult to use them with a keyboard.

Exercise 4. Answer the questions to the text.

1. What is one of the most important considerations when buying a computer?

2. What are the three main computer types?

3. What does each of them do?

4. What are mainframes?

5. The most common type of computer is laptop, isn’t it?

6. Why is it difficult sometimes to use computers?

Exercise 5. Make up the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives.

portable, common, small, expensive, good, little, perfect, busy, funny, fast, light, bad, cheap, famous, thin.

Exercise 6. Translate the adjectives into English.

самый удобный, легче, более дорогой, самый быстрый, широко распространенный, более сложный, самый большой.

Exercise 7. Find in the text all the adjectives in their degrees of comparison. Explain the rules of their formation.

Положительная степень

Сравнительная степень

Превосходная степень

Exercise 8. Choose the correct adjective and fill in its proper form.

1. light/heavy Laptops are ____________ than desktop computers, but __________ than notebooks.

2. large/small The mainframe is the __________ type of computer. A minicomputer is ____________ than a microcomputer.

3. common/good Personal computers are ___________ than mainframes but mainframes are __________ than personal computers at processing very large amounts of data.

4. powerful/expensive Minicomputers are _________ than mainframes but they are also ___________.

5. fast/cheap New computers are ________ and sometimes ________ than older machines.

6. powerful/expensive Laptops are often _________ than PCs but they are not as __________.

Exercise 9. Listening.

Listen to the conversation between a shop assistant and a customer. Choose the correct answers to these questions.

1. A customer wants a computer for:

writing

video

graphics

games

internet

2. A multimedia computer provides:

sound

graphics

animation

telephone

video

3. Which hardware items were named:

multimedia computer

multimedia notebook

subnotebook

laptop

handheld

printer

monitor

modem

4. What items did the shop assistant recommend?

Exercise 10. Find the information about: mainframes, minicomputers, PCs, laptops, notebooks, palmtops, subnotebooks and make a small report.

Exercise 11. Decide what sort of computer is best for these users:

1. The James family want a computer for entertainment, writing letters, the Internet, and for calculating tax.

2. John Wilmott is a salesperson and he spends a lot of time visiting customers. He wants a computer to carry with him so he can access data about his customers and record his sales.

3.1. Topic «Everyday uses of computers».

3.2 Vocabulary.

3.3. Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Use (n) – польза

Use (v) – использовать

User – пользователь

Useful – полезный

Total – сумма, итог

To require – требовать

To maintain – содержать

To produce – производить

To connect – соединять

Totype – печатать

Togenerate – вырабатывать, производить

To find (found, found) – находить, искать

Barcode – штрихкод

Capacity – объем, емкость

Device – устройство, прибор, механизм

To have an effect – влиятьначто-либо

Exercise 2. Make a list of places where you can find a computer.

Exercise 3. Read the text, translate it.

Everyday uses of computers

Most machines are designed to do one job. Computers are different: they are general purpose machines. By changing the program instructions, computers can be used to process information in very different ways. They are used in almost every type of work and are found almost everywhere.

Computers are part of our everyday lives. They have an effect almost on everything you do. When you buy something at a supermarket, a computer is used with laser and barcode technology to scan the price of each item and present a total. Bar-coding is required to generate barcode labels to maintain the inventory of the shop. Most television advertisement and many films use graphics produced by a computer. In hospitals, bedside terminals connected to the hospital’s main computer allow doctors to type in the orders for blood tests and to schedule operations. Banks use computers to look after their customers’ money. In libraries and bookshops, computers can help you to find the book you want as quickly as possible.

Exercise 3. Tick (▼) the computer uses mentioned in the text.

Hospital

Home

Engineering

Shopping

Television advertising

Art

Banking

Libraries

Film-making

Schools

Exercise 4. Divide the following nouns to countable and uncountable.

capacity, software, data, device, disk, drive, memory, monitor, mouse, speed.

Exercise 5. Fill in the necessary article.

1. The Walsh family have ___ computer at home. Their son uses __ computer to help with ___ homework and to play __ computer games. Their student daughter uses ___ computer for __ projects and for __ e-mail. All ___ family use it to get ___ information from ___ Internet.

2. __ University of ___ North needs __ computer to look after its ____ accounts, its ___ network, __ records of all students and staff, and to help with __ scientific research.

3. ___ External devices connect to ports at ___ back of ___ computer.

4. ___ Computer mouse is __ hand-operated device that lets you control more easily ___ location of ___ pointer on your ___ screen.

5. Most computer use ___ floppy disks. Floppies conform to ___ standard and you can use them to carry ___ data from one place to another. They are also very cheap, but they are slow and have ___ limited capacity.

Exercise 6. How do you use the computer? How many hours a day do you use it? What useful things can you do with its help?

Exercise 7. Listening.

Listen to the recording and identify which place is described in each extract:

factory

supermarket

travel agency

home

Грамматический комментарий

Множественное число существительных

Множественное число существительных в английском языке образуется путем добавления суффикса –s/es к основе существительного в единственном числе;

Например, dog – dogs, table – tables, book – books, dress – dresses.

Суффикс -es добавляется к слову, если:

1. слово заканчивается на шипящую согласную букву – s, ss, x, tch, sh, иногда гласную букву. Например, box – boxes, wish – wishes, tomato – tomatoes. (Исключения – photos, zeros, pianos)

2. слово заканчивается на f(fe) → v+es. Например, wife – wives, leaf – leaves.

3. слово заканчивается на y → i+es. Например, baby – babies, lorry – lorries.

(НО! boy – boys)

Слова, которыенеизменяютсвоейформывомножественномчисле – sheep, fish, swine, deer, information, knowledge, advice, hope, news, …(некоторые из них употребляются как с глаголом в ед.ч., так и с глаголом во мн.ч., некоторые употребляются только с глаголом в ед.ч, а некоторые только с глаголом во мн. ч.)

Исключения:

child – children

man – men

woman – women

mouse – mice

foot – feet

tooth – teeth

goose – geese

ox – oxen

Притяжательный падеж существительных

Притяжательный падеж существительных показывает на принадлежность одного существительного другому и выражается в английском языке при помощи апострофа (’) + s, либо просто апострофа (’).

квартира друга – friend’s flat

квартира друзей – friends’ flat

игрушки детей – children’s toys

Артикль

В английском языке существует три вида артиклей – неопределенный, определенный и нулевой. Артикль – это особая часть речи, присущая английскому языку, которая указывает на существительное.

Неопределенный артикль обозначается как a/an и употребляется перед исчисляемым существительным в ед.ч., впервые называя существительное в речи (в ходе разговора). Этот артикль представляет нам предмет как один из ряда ему подобных. Называя перед существительным какое – либо определение, артикль переносится перед определением. Выбор между a/an зависит от того, с какой буквы начинается следующее слово (а – с согласной: apen, abook, atable; an – с гласной: anapple, anoak, anorange)

Например, I have afamily. My friend has got a car. ( неопределенный артикль употребляется в данных случаях как знакомство с тем, что «у меня есть семья/ или то, что у моего друга есть машина»)

Определенный артикльвыражается как theи употребляется перед исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми нарицательными существительными как в ед.ч., так и во мн.ч., когда предмет уже известен слушающему из предыдущего опыта. Например,

Thefamilyislarge. Thecarisfast.

Определенный артикль употребляется также:

1. если предмет единственный либо в мире, либо в определенной ситуации. Например, Go to the blackboard. The earth goes round the sun. («доска» в аудитории обычно одна, «земля и солнце» единственные в мире понятия)

2. с названиями рек, морей, океанов. Например, theBlackSea

3. с порядковыми числительными. Например, the first day, the tenth pupil

4. с прилагательными в превосходной степени. Например, the highest building, the most interesting book.

и многие другие случаи.

Нулевой артикль – это отсутствие артикля перед существительным. Нулевой артикль употребляется:

1. перед притяжательными местоимениями: hiscar, ourparents

2. передуказательнымиместоимениями: this pen, that girl, these pens, those girls

3. перед количественными числительными: oneson, twosons

4. передотрицанием «NO»: I have no dress.

5. перед множественным числом существительных, употребляемым впервые: Peoplelikemusic.

6. передабстрактнымсуществительным: I like his kindness towards me.

7. перед названиями стран, городов, имен, предметов и мн.др.: Russia, Ann, History, Rostov.

Степени сравнения прилагательных

Прилагательное – часть речи, которая употребляется для обозначения признака предмета.

В английском языке прилагательные имеют три степени сравнения: положительную, сравнительную и превосходную. Положительная степень сравнения отвечает на вопрос «какой? какая? какие?», прилагательное употребляется в той форме, которая указывается в словаре.

Сравнительная степень сравнивает предметы, людей и явления. Превосходная степень описывает наивысшее состояние качества (самый).

Прилагательные в английском языке делятся на два вида: односложные и многосложные, каждый из которых по разному образует степени сравнения. (см. таблицу1 )

Таблица 1

Положительная степень

Сравнительная степень

Превосходная степень

cold

colder

the coldest

high

higher

the highest

big

bigger

the biggest

funny

funnier

the funniest

narrow

narrower

the narrowest

interesting

more interesting

the most interesting

Исключения:

good

better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

many/much

more

the most

little

less

the least

far

farther/further

the farthest/the furthest

old

older/elder

the oldest/the eldest

Test

I. Choose the right answer.

Can I borrow your telephone’s book/telephone book for a minute?

My aunt’s home/aunt home is full of beautiful furniture.

This is our teacher book/teacher’s book.

Please, drive slower/slowest.

That was the most beautifulest book/beautiful book I’ve ever read.

Ice hockey is a more dangerous/most dangerous sport than basketball or tennis.

Our child/children play computer games.

Big cities/city are always dirty.

My sister lives in a/the big flat.

-/a/the River Rhone runs into a/the/- Mediterranean Sea.

II. Complete the sentences with the words, using the correct article.

Bed, Breakfast, Sahara Desert, Denmark, Work, Nice smile, Teacher, Milk, Problem, USA, Car

If I go to ….. by … it takes half an hour.

My sister works in …. .

Here’s a photo of Max near the statue of liberty in ….. .

What do you usually eat for …. ?

She’s got …. …. .

Where’s …. ? Pupils are waiting for her.

Cats are supposed to drink …. .

I never go to … earlier than 11 p.m.

He’s got ….. . Can you help him?

We are going to visit ….. ….. .

III. Translate the sentences with all grammar rules.

Компьютер – это электронное устройство.

Данные обрабатываются компьютером.

Самый большой и самый мощный тип компьютера – мейнфрейм.

Компьютер профессора быстрее в работе.

Чья это мышь? Это компьютерная мышка моих братьев.

Unit II. Parts of the Computer.

1.1 Topic “Motherboard”

1.2 Vocabulary.

1.3 Grammar: Word order. Types of questions.

1.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Motherboard – материнскаяплата

Memory chips – чипыпамяти

Speaker – динамик, громкоговоритель

Expansioncards – картырасширения

Expansionslots – слотырасширения

Cachememory – кэш-память

ROM–постоянное запоминающее устройство

Brain – мозг

Toadd – добавлять

Memorystore – устройство памяти

Access – доступ

To switch on/off – включать/выключать

Button – кнопка, клавиша

Drop-down menu – ниспадающееменю

Thesame – одинаковый, тот же самый

Exercise 2. Match the motherboard components to their description.

SIMMS/ ROM/ CPU/ EXPANSION SLOTS/ CASH MEMORY

1. These are memory chips. The more you have, the more work you can do at a time. Empty memory slots mean you can add more memory.

2. This is the “brain” of the computer.

3. It’s part of the memory store. It has extremely fast access. It’s faster than normal RAM. It can speed up the computer.

4. These let you add features such as sound or a modem to your computer.

5. These kind of memory contains all the instructions your computer needs to activate itself when you switch on. Unlike RAM, its contents are retained when you switch off.

Exercise 3. Study these instructions for replacing the motherboard in a PC. Put them in the correct order.

1. Add the processor.

2. Fit the new motherboard.

3. Remove the old motherboard.

4. Put it back together.

5. Add the memory. Don’t touch the contacts.

Exercise 4. Put the words into the right order to make a true sentence.

is, megahertz, given, speed, in usually.

the, contains, box, window, dialog, a.

types, of, different, there, printers, are.

protect, virus, how, you, can, a, computer, from?

key, not, position, does, this, have, the, right.

are, laptops, of, a, about, size, the, typewriter, small.

He, not, install, can, programs, complicated.

do, where, see, you, viruses?

converts, word, audio, what, a, from, signals, electrical, signals, into?

inside, is, electronic, registers, units, information, of, in, hardware, the, computer, stored.

Exercise 5. Listening.

Listen to the conversation about buying the computer and complete the table below:

Component

Capacity/speed measured in

processor

RAM

Video memory

Cache memory

Hard disk

2.1 Topic “The CPU”

2.2 Vocabulary.

2.3 Grammar: Types of questions.

2.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Tocoordinate – направлять, координировать

Activity – деятельность

To perform = to carry out – выполнять

To execute = to accomplish –выполнять

To apply – применять

In its turn – всвоюочередь

To load – загружать

To interpret – переводить

Separate – отдельный

Exercise 2. Read the text, translate it.

CPU

The CPU or the central processing unit is the nerve center of any digital computer system because it coordinates and controls the activities of all the other units and performs all the arithmetic and logic processes that are applied to data. All program instructions to be executed must be held within the CPU, and all the data to be processed must be loaded first into this unit.

The CPU has two functions:

1. it obtains instructions from the memory and interprets them;

2. it performs actual operations.

The first function is carried out by the control unit. This unit in its turn must perform two functions:

it must interpret the instruction

tell the arithmetic and logic unit what to do next.

It is done through the use of electronic signals. According to these two functions we can separate the part of the control unit that interprets or decodes the instruction (instruction decoder) from the part that generates the control signals (control generator).

After the instruction was transmitted to the instruction decoder and interpreted there, the control generator senses this interpretation and then produces signals that tell arithmetic unit which operation to perform.

The second function of the CPU is accomplished by the arithmetic and logic unit which does the actual operations. This unit is capable for performing automatically addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, selecting, and other mathematical and logical operations.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions about the text.

1. What is CPU?

2. What does the CPU do?

3. What are the functions of the CPU?

4. Where are the instruction decoder and the control generator situated?

5. What unit performs mathematical and logical operations?

Exercise 4. Make up general questions to these sentences.

These are memory chips.

This kind of memory contains all the instructions.

You can transfer data with removable hard disks.

Some ports look the same, but they have labels to avoid confusion.

Analog computers compute by using physical analogs.

Exercise 5. Make up special questions to these sentences.

These let you add features such as sound or a modem to your computer.

Its contents are retained when you switch off.

The mouse contains a rubber coated ball that rests on the surface of your working area or a mousemat.

The output of a computer varies according to the capacity of the auxiliary equipment receiving the information.

Magnetic tape is cheap and has a large capacity.

Exercise 6. Make up questions to the subjects of these sentences.

Empty memory slots mean you can add more memory.

This is the “brain” of the computer.

The monitor connects to the video port.

Laptop is the largest portable computer.

Minicomputers are used like mainframes.

Exercise 7. Listening.

Answer the following questions about the CPU:

WhatdoesALUmean?

Whatisaregister?

What does the control unit do?

What sort of functions does the ALU perform?

Name the logic operation performed by the ALU.

Which part of the CPU controls printers?

What is the difference between registers and main memory?

What is the function of buses?

Which buses are bidirectional?

What kind of information is carried by the data bus?

What does unidirectional mean?

Complete the table

Bus

Uni/bidirectional

links

data

address

control

Грамматический комментарий.

Порядок слов в английском предложении.

Порядок слов в английском повествовательном предложении:

подлежащее+сказуемое+дополнение.

Таблица 2.

Подлежащее

Сказуемое

Дополнение

I

like

children

Computers

perform

programs

He

has moved

to London

They

are playing

football

Порядок слов в английском отрицательном предложении:

1) подлежащее + TOBE + NOT + дополнение.

2) подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол + NOT + сказуемое + дополнение.

He

is

not

a doctor

They

are

not

in London


I

do

not

play

chess

He

did

not

live

here

We

are

not

writing

a test

Типы вопросов в английском языке

В английском языке выделяют пять типов вопросов:

1. Общий вопрос (Generalquestion) – это вопрос ко всему предложению. Ответ на него Да или Нет. В английском языке структура общего вопроса имеет следующую форму:

вспомогательный глагол

подлежащее

смысловой глагол

глагол tobe

подлежащее

дополнение

Например,

Is he a student? – Yes, he is/No, he is not.

Do you live in Rostov? – Yes, I do/No, I don’t.

Will you come to my place tomorrow? – Yes, I will/No, I won’t.

2. Специальный вопрос (Specialquestion) – это вопрос к какому-либо члену предложения. Ответ на такой вопрос требует развернутой, конкретизированной информации.

Специальные вопросительные слова в английском языке:

Who – кто?

What – что?

When – когда?

Why – почему?

Where – где? куда?

How – как?

How many/ how much – сколько?

Which – который?

Whose – чей?

What color – какогоцвета?

Howlong – как долго?

и др.

Структура специального вопроса:

Специальное вопросительное слово

вспомогательный глагол

подлежащее

сказуемое

оставшиеся члены предложения,
к которым
не задавался вопрос

Специальное вопросительное слово

глагол tobe

подлежащее

дополнение

Например,

Howlonghaveyoubeenstudyinghere?

Whatdoyou usually do in the evenings?

When was he at home yesterday?

3. Вопрос к подлежащему – это особая форма специального вопроса, которая задается по особой структуре. Вопрос к подлежащему не имеет вспомогательного глагола, глагол после вопросительных слов WHO/WHAT употребляется всегда в форме 3-го лица ед. числа.

WHAT +is

WHAT + Vs

WHAT + V2(ed)

WHAT + V3(ed)

WHAT + will+V

WHO + is

WHO + Vs

WHO + V2(ed)

WHO + V3(ed)

WHO + will+V

Например,

Who lives in Rostov?

Who is your best friend?

What is his favorite season?

4. Альтернативный вопрос (Alternativequestion) – это вопрос, предполагающий альтернативу или выбор. Структура альтернативного вопроса имеет форму общего вопроса + слово «OR» (или), предполагающего альтернативу.

Например,

Do you live in Rostov or in Moscow?

Is he a student or a pupil?

5. Разделительный вопрос (Disjunctivequestion) – это тип вопроса, который предполагает либо сомнение, либо утверждение высказывания и соответствует переводу в русском языке при помощи добавления слов «ведь», «не так ли».

Структура вопроса:

Утвердительное повествовательное предложение

вспомогательный глагол того времени, в котором было предложение в отрицательной форме

местоимение, которым было выражено подлежащее предложения

Например,

Не is a student, isn’t he?

You live in Rostov, don’t you?

Your friends went to the cinema, didn’t they?

Отрицательное предложение

вспомогательный глагол того времени, в котором было предложение в утвердительной форме

местоимение, которым было выражено подлежащее предложения

Например,

You weren’t at college, were you?

My fiends won’t visit me this week, will they?

Test

Exercise 1. Decide if it is right or not.

doesn’t Jim like very much sport.

quietly the door I closed.

Tim all the time television watches.

Who did go to the cinema yesterday?

She has been to Canada.

not is he an economist.

Where like you to spend your holidays?

I can swim very well.

They are going to Paris.

They haven’t this book read.

Exercise 2. Make up questions to the sentences.

He is my best friend.(?)(who)(why)

My books are on the table.(?)(Where)

Yesterday we were at the cinema.(?)(where)(when)(who)

Tomorrow my sister will be a doctor.(?)(who)(what)(when)

The children are interested in football.(who)(?)(what)

Exercise 3. Make up comparison of adjectives.

good expensive thin hot brave small far fast light heavy

Unit III. Computer devices.

1.1 Topic “Input devices”.

1.2 Vocabulary.

1.3 Grammar: Present tenses compared.

1.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Joystick – джойстик

Trackerball – шаровойманипулятор

Barcode reader – считывательштрихкода

Equipment – оборудование

To accept – принимать

To draw – рисовать, тащить

To detect – обнаруживать

Light – свет

Exercise 2. Listening “Voice input” Label the steps of the voice input work.

Exercise 3. Match each device with its use.

1. joystick

2. lightpen

3. scanner

4. digital camera

5. mouse

6. keyboard

7. microphone

a) draw pictures on to a computer screen

b) copy documents

c) input sound

d) input text

e) select from a menu

f) move the cursor rapidly

g) produce photos without film

Exercise 4. Decide which input device is best for:

1. controlling fast-moving objects in a game

2. reading the price of things in a shop

3. making copies of a page of text and graphics

4. storing sounds on a computer

5. producing pictures of people and places for storing in a computer

6. controlling a computer using speech

7. typing text into a computer

Exercise 5. Read the text and identify each device: trackerball/ joystick/ lightpen/ scanner.

The part of the computer that takes in information is called the input unit. The input unit or device provides the means of communication between the computer and the people who are interested in its operation. The input device makes possible communication from the other data-handling equipment and a man to computer. It is a functional part of the computer that accepts the data to be operated on and programs for operating.

A ______ is another input device you can connect to a computer system. The _______ is able to move in eight directions. ________s are mostly used in computer games to control the way a picture on the screen moves. Sometimes two ______s are connected to a computer, so two people can play the game at the same time.

A ______ works in exactly the same way as a mouse, except that the ball is on top. The user rolls the ball around with her hand to operate it. If you use a ______, you don’t need extra space on your desk to move it around (like you do it with a mouse). ________s are often used on small portable computers and on some video game machines.

A _____ can be used to draw pictures directly on to a computer screen or read the pattern on a barcode. A ________ that can read barcodes detects the difference between the light reflected from a black barcode line and its lighter background.

Using a _____, you can input printed drawings, photographs, or text directly into a computer. A _______ works like a photocopier – a light is shone on the material and the _______ detects the reflected light. You can use a ______ with optical character recognition (OCR) software to input the scanned text into a word processing package.

Exercise 6. Match grammatical construction with its definition.

Infinitive

Present Simple

Present Progressive

Present Perfect

“to be” in Present

“have” in Present

“do” in Present

am/is/are

have/has

do/does

have/has+V3ed

to+V

am/is/are+Ving

V/Vs

Exercise 7. Write out from the text all the verbs in Present. Define what form of Present is it?

Exercise 8. Translate the sentences. Define their tense form.

1. Computer performs many useful functions.

2. Computer is performing operations.

3. Computer has performed operations.

4. Computer is an electronic machine that performs many functions.

5. Computer does a lot of operations for a human being.

Exercise 9. Make sentences in ex.8 negative and interrogative.

Exercise 10. Divide the following words into three tenses: Present Simple

Present Progressive

Present Perfect

now, today, this week, often, always, already, at the moment, just, yet, usually, recently, sometimes, since, regularly, for.

Exercise 11. Learn these words by heart and make up you own sentences with them.

2.1 Topic “Keyboard and Mouse”

2.2 Vocabulary.

2.3 Grammar: Present tenses compared.

2.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Insert – вставка

Escape – переход, отключение

Cursor/pointer – курсор, указатель

Location – местоположение

Rubber – ластик

Surface – поверхность

To select – выбирать

Mousemat – коврикдлямышки

To the right/to the left – направо/налево

Tomove- двигать, передвигать

Movement – движение

Circuit – цепь, схема, контур

Tosend – посылать

Up/down – вверх/вниз

Letter – письмо, буква

Edit – редактирование

Capitalletter – заглавные буквы

Arrow key – кнопки (стрелки)

Exercise 2. Match these key abbreviations with their full names.

1. Esc

2. Alt

3. Ctrl

4. Pgdn

5. Pgup

6. Ins

7. Del

a) Alternate

b) Page up

c) Delete

d) Insert

e) Escape

f) Page down

g) Control

Exercise 3. Look at the keyboard and answer the questions.

1. Which key is between G and I?

2. Which key is to the left of Y?

3. Which key lets you type in capital letters?

4. Where are the arrow keys?

5. Where is the multiplication sign?

Exercise 4. Choose the letter or key from the keyboard and describe where it is. Do not say which key you have chosen. Use “next to”, “above”, “below”, “between”, “on the right”, on the left , “on the top”, “at the bottom”.

Exercise 5. Translate.

A computer can have a variety of input devices. This allows users to control the computer in different ways, or to put different kinds of data into the computer. The most common input devices is the keyboard. Another very common input device is the mouse. This is used to control the computer when the operating system has a graphical user interface.

The computer mouse is a hand-operated device that lets you control more easily the location of the pointer on your screen. You can make selections and choices with the mouse button. The mouse contains a rubber coated ball that rests on the surface of your working area or a mousemat. When the mouse is moved over the surface, the ball rolls. The ball’s movements up and down, left and right, turn the two axels inside the mouse. As they turn, detectors register the changing position. A small integrated circuit inside the mouse sends signals to the operating system, which instructs it to move the pointer on your screen.

The computer keyboard is an electronic device with keys arranged like earlier typewriter keyboards, but with extra keys. Because the output of the keys is controlled by the computer program, their function can vary. For example, the print screen key sometimes copies the screen to memory and sometimes copies it to a printer, depending on the program used. The arrangements of the keys varies but most desktop computers have an extended keyboard with keys divided into sections including the main keyboard, the function keys, the editing keys, and the numeric keys.

Exercise 6. Ask questions to the text.

Exercise 7. Listening.

Listen to the description of the keyboard and label each part of it.

Exercise 8. Translate the sentences. Define their tense form.

1. The system unit usually contains a small speaker, the power supply and some storage devices.

2. Programmists are comparing the computer results.

3. I have just written some information on the disk.

4. The quality of the display depends on the number of dots which make up an image.

5. You may take his computer, he has already finished working with it.

6. What are you doing? – I’m browsing the NET.

7. Don’t touch the computer. It is downloading.

8. Microcomputers are small enough to sit on a desk.

9. Computers have effect on everything we do.

10. Each webpage has a unique web address.

Exercise 9. Fill in the right form of the verb.

1. His father (watch) T.V. in the moment.

2. I (not drink) coffee in the evening.

3. My granny (not sleep) now. She (work) in the garden.

4. Your sister (study) at college? – No, she (study) at school.

5.Tom always (eat) breakfast.

6.The rain (stop) but a cold wind still (blow).

7. There (be) something wrong with my watch.

8. You ever (read) books by Jack London?

9. What you (look for)?

10. I (not see) you for a long time.

3.1 Topic “Output devices”

3.2 Vocabulary.

3.3 Grammar: Future tenses compared.

3.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Dot-matrixprinter – точечно-матричное печатающее устройство

Colorlaserprinter – цветной лазерный принтер

Colorinkjetprinter – цветной струйный принтер

Monolaserprinter – черно-белый лазерный принтер

Safetystandards – стандарты безопасности

Dyesublimationprinter – принтер с термической возгонкой красителя

Resolution – разрешение

Power-savingfeatures – энергосберегающиечерты

Quality – качество

Dependon – зависеть от чего-либо

Harmfulsignals – вредные сигналы

Dot – точка

Toreduce – сокращать, уменьшать

Toallow – позволять, разрешать

Common – общий

Aperture grill pitch – апертурнаярешётка

Refreshrate – скорость обновления

Relatively – относительно

Cheap – дешевый

Expensive – дорогой

Noisy – шумный

High – высокий

Quiet – тихий

auxiliary- вспомогательныйдополнительный

Exercise 2. Read the text and translate it.

The part of a computer that puts out information is called the output unit. The computer can easily put out the information in the form acceptable to people. The output of a computer varies according to the capacity of the auxiliary equipment receiving the information.

Monitors

Price

The price mainly depends on the screen size. Common monitor sizes are 15-inch, 17-inch, 19-inch, and 21-inch. The price also depends on aperture grill pitch, resolution, and the number of controls.

Screen size

The size of the screen is the diagonal distance from one corner to another. The actual area for images is smaller than this.

Aperture grill pitch

This controls the space between the dots which make up the image. The less space between the dots, the better the display. Most monitors offer 0.25mm dot pitch but some go as high as 0.31mm or as low as 0.22mm.

Maximum resolution

The quality of the display depends on the number of dots which make up the image. The more dots, the better the display.

Refresh rate

The monitor refreshes the image on the screen all the time. The faster this happens, the less the screen flickers. You should have a refresh rate of at least 72 Hz.

Safety standards

These are international standards to control harmful signals.

Power-saving features

The power the monitor uses automatically reduces when it is not in use.

On-screen menu

Digital controls on the screen allow you to adjust the image.

Printers

There are many different types of printers. These include inkjet, mono laser and dye sublimation printers. Basically, you get, what you pay for. The more you pay, the better the printer.

Inkjet printers are the cheapest, but their print quality isn’t as good as the other two types of printer. They are expensive to run compared to mono laser printers, but are able to print in color. Inkjets are the noisiest of the three types of printer.

Mono laser printers are more expensive than inkjet printers, but give you a better quality of black and white output. They cannot print in color, but are the fastest type of printer and cost the least to run.

Dye sublimation printers are the most expensive type of printer, but their print quality is extremely high. They are quiet in operation, but are relatively slow and very expensive to run.

Exercise 3. Make 10 questions to the text, answer them in pairs.

Exercise 4. Listening “Printers”

Write down the information about printers.

TYPE

PRINT QUALITY

SPEED

RUNNING

COTS

NOISE

LEVEL

PRICE

COLOR

Inkjet

lowest

Slower than laser

Mono laser

high

quiet

Dye sublimation

slow

yes

Exercise 5. Match the following.

Future simple

Future progressive

Future perfect

Will have+V3ed

Will+V

Will be+Ving

Exercise 6. Define each word to each tense group.

next week, by 5 o’clock, in a year, tomorrow at 7 p.m., when you come home, tomorrow.

Exercise 7. Make up sentences with these words.

Exercise 8. Fill in the right grammatical form.

1. He (leave) for Moscow tomorrow.

2. You (go) with me tomorrow?

3. I (do) my homework at 6 o’ clock tomorrow.

4. What you (watch) at 8 p.m. tomorrow?

5. When you (see) your friend next time?

6. Don’t come to my place tomorrow. I (write) a composition the whole evening tomorrow.

7. As soon as I come they (return) home.

8. How many pages you (read) by five o’clock tomorrow?

9. I (do) all my hometask by the time father comes, and we (go) for a walk together.

10. They (play) tennis from 3 to 5 tomorrow.

4.1 Topic “Storage devices”

4.2 Vocabulary.

4.3 Grammar: Future tenses compared.

4.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Backup – резервная, возвратная копия

Storage – запоминающее устройство

Intermediate results – промежуточныерезультаты

Course of computation – ходвычисления

Access time – времядоступа

Capacity – объем, емкость

Quantity – количество

Memory cell – ячейкапамяти

External memory- внешняяпамять

Tape – лента

Drum – барабан

Toconformto – согласовываться, подходить

A limited capacity – ограниченныйобъем

To amount – насчитывать

Removable- съемный

Piece of data – частьданных

Tobesuitablefor- подходить под что-либо

Totransfer – переносить, передавать

Exercise 2. Read the text and translate it.

The part of the digital computer which stores information is called storage or memory. The computer’s memory stores: the numbers to be operated on; intermediate results that are generated in the course of computation and final results.

There are two important factors about the memory unit:

1. an access time

2. and a capacity.

The time required to transmit one computer word out of the memory to where it will be used is called the memory access time. It usually amounts to a few millionths of a second or less in modern fast computers. The speed of modern computers is the speed of access to their memories. The capacity of a computer is the quantity of data that its memory unit can hold.

There are many ways of memorizing the information in memory cells of a digital computer. External memory or storage units may use magnetic drums, magnetic tapes, magnetic disks and floppy disks. The magnetic drum and the magnetic disk are called a Direct Access or Random Access Storage Device.

The magnetic disk is very similar to a magnetic drum but it is based upon the use of a flat disk with a series of concentric circles of magnetizable material, one read/write head for each track.

Information inside the computer is stored in registers, electronic units of hardware. Each register holds one machine word consisting usually of 32 bits or 4 bytes. Registers hold information temporarily during processing.

Most computers use floppy disks. Floppies conform to a standard and you can use them to carry data from one place to another. They are also very cheap, but they are slow and have a limited capacity.

Almost all desktop computers have hard disks. They are fast and can store much greater than floppies, but they are fixed inside the computer and you cannot use them to transfer data.

You can move data from place to place using removable hard disks. They are almost as fast as fixed hard disks and also have high capacities, but they are relatively expensive. They do not all conform to a standard and they are not very common.

CD-ROM disks are very common and conform to a standard. They are removable and can hold about 640 MB. They are also cheap to make. However, they are usually read-only. You can’t change the information on them. They are also slow compared to hard disks.

Magneto-optical disks are like CD-ROMs, but you can write data on to them. They are removable, have large capacities, and last for a long time, but they are expensive and do not all conform to one standard. For this reason they are not very common.

Magnetic tape is a cheap medium. You can use it to store very large amounts of data, but it doesn’t allow random access. Every time you read or write a piece of data, you start at the beginning of the tape. Tape drives are slow. Therefore, they are only suitable for doing backups.

Exercise 3. Complete the table.

medium

advantage

disadvantage

Floppy disk

Fixed hard disk

Removable hard disk

CD-ROM disk

Magneto-optical disk

Exercise 4. Read the text in Future Tense.

Exercise 5. Listening.

Listen to the information about hard disk drive and say what parts of it have been mentioned.

Exercise 6. Retell the text.

5.1 Topic “Reliability”

5.2 Grammar: The main English prepositions.

5.3 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Translate the text in a written form.

The first automatic computers of the 1940’s were not reliable. The equipment of which they were made had not been accurate and reliable. The programmer for the problem usually had to program the check by doing the same operation in another way. For example, in multiplication A times B he used the equipment differently from B times A, and so both operations might be programmed, and then the computer was given an instruction to compare the results. If a difference in results was more than a tolerance, the machine was stopped, and the operator in charge of the computer and the mathematician in charge of the program consulted on how to get rid of the error.

Those days had gone long ago. Now computers can operate with extraordinary reliability, with as many as a billion or ten billion operations between errors. Automatic checking of different kinds is built into the machine.

Exercise 2.

Put IN, AT, ON.

1. Can you wake me … 6.30?

2. I usually go skiing … February.

3. Can we meet … lunchtime … Tuesday?

4. I saw her … 1998.

5. I’m never hungry early … the morning.

Put IN, BY, FOR.

6. They waited … a minute or two and then went away.

7. I lived in Poland …. six years.

8. Can you come to me … a day?

9. I must find some money … he end of September.

10. My grandpa will be 60 … two months.

Put IN, AT, ON

11. Their house is down … the bottom of the hill.

12. “Where’s Kate?” “… the kitchen”.

13.The cat likes to sleep … the roof of the car.

14. Don’t leave your keys … your car when you get out.

15. We had really a bad meal …. the restaurant last night.

Put UP, DOWN, OFF, PAST

16. Can you take your coat … . It’s rather hot in here.

17. He can’t go …. the stairs. He’s ill.

18. Yesterday he fell … his bike and hurt himself greatly.

19. Go … the museum to get to Lisa’s home.

20. I like this fresh air, but we are to go …. the mountain.

Грамматический комментарий.

Настоящие времена в сравнении.

Настоящее простое время. (PresentSimpleTense)

1. употребляется:

для выражения действия обычного, постоянного, свойственному лицу (предмету), выраженному подлежащим.

He speaks French well.

для выражения действия, которое происходит в момент речи (вместо длительных времен), с глаголами, которые не употребляются в длительных временах (слышать, видеть, хотеть, понимать и др.)

Don’t talk so loudly, I hear you well.

2. Образование настоящего простого времени.

совпадает с формой инфинитива (без частицы to) во всех лицах, кроме 3-го лица ед.ч., принимающего окончание –s

My son plays the piano.

Iplaythepiano.

вопросительная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола todo в настоящем времени (do со всем лицами, кроме 3-го лица ед.ч., с которым употребляется does) и формы инфинитива смыслового глагола (без частицы to). Вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Doesheplaythepiano?

Do I play the piano?

отрицательная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола todo в настоящем времени (do со всем лицами, кроме 3-го лица ед.ч., с которым употребляется does), частицы notи формы инфинитива смыслового глагола (без частицы to).

He does not play

I do not play

Настоящее длительное время (PresentContinuousTense)

1. употребляется:

для выражения длительного действия в момент речи

для выражения длительного действия, совершающегося в настоящий период времени, не обязательно в момент речи.

He is reading a book.

2. Образование настоящего длительного времени:

вспомогательный глагол tobe (am,is,are) и формы причастия настоящего времени смыслового глагола (Ving).

в вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Is he reading a book?

в отрицательной форме частица notупотребляется между вспомогательным и смысловым глаголами.

He is not reading a book.

Настоящее совершенное время (PresentPerfectTense)

1. употребляется

для выражения действия, совершившегося к настоящему моменту, результат которого имеется налицо в настоящем времени.

I have opened the window.

2. Образование настоящего совершенного времени:

вспомогательный глагол tohave в форме настоящего времени (have, has) и формы причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола.

He has worked.

They have gone to Brazil.

в вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Has he worked?

Have they gone to Brazil?

в отрицательной форме частица not употребляется между вспомогательным и смысловым глаголами.

He has not worked.

They have not gone to Brazil.

Будущие времена в сравнении.

Будущее простое время. (FutureSimpleTense)

1. употребляется:

для выражения действия, которое будет совершаться или совершится в будущем.

Но!

НЕ УПОТРЕБЛЯЕТСЯ В ПРИДАТОЧНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯХ УСЛОВИЯ И ВРЕМЕНИ!

He will give me the book tomorrow.

If he gives me a book, I will read it with pleasure.

2. Образование будущего простого времени.

вспомогательный глагол will и форма инфинитива смыслового глагола (без частицы to)

в вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Will he give me the book?

в отрицательной форме частица notупотребляется между вспомогательным и смысловым глаголами.

He will not give me the book.

Будущее длительное время. (FutureContinuousTense)

1. употребляется:

для выражения действия, которое будет совершаться или совершится в определенный момент времени в будущем.

2. Образование будущего длительного времени.

вспомогательный глагол tobe в форме будущего времени (willbe) и формы причастия настоящего времени смыслового глагола (Ving).

At 2 p.m. she will be sleeping tomorrow.

в вопросительном предложении первый вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Will she be sleeping at 2 p.m. tomorrow?

в отрицательной форме частица notупотребляется после первого вспомогательного глагола.

She will not be sleeping at 2 p.m. tomorrow.

Будущее совершенное время. (FuturePerfectTense)

1. употребляется

для выражения действия, которое совершится к определенному моменту в будущем, результат которого будет налицо в будущем времени.

I willhave opened the window.

вспомогательный глагол tohave в форме будущего времени (willhave) и формы причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола.

He will have worked.

They will have gone to Brazil.

в вопросительном предложении первый вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Will he have worked?

Will they have gone to Brazil?

в отрицательной форме частица notупотребляется после первого вспомогательного глагола.

He will not have worked.

They will not have gone to Brazil.

Основные английские предлоги:

Предлоги времени

At

в, на

At 5 o’clock, at lunchtime, at the weekend, at night

In

в, через

In 1999, in the morning, in March, in winter, in a day, in two years.

On

в, на

On Monday, on Christmas day

From …to/till/untill

С…до

From 5 to7 p.m.

by

к, до

By Friday, by the end of the week, by 11 a.m.

For (важен период времени)

В (течении), на (протяжении)

For six years, for a long time

During (важно, когда произошло что-то)

в/во (время)

During the journey, during the war

Предлоги места

In

В, на

In the kitchen, in the fridge, in a street

At

В, на

At the top, at the station, at work

On

На

On the table, on the wall

Above

Над

Above the clouds

Behind

Позади

Behind the church

Between

Между

Between two boxes

Near

Рядом, около

Near Canada

Opposite

Напротив

Opposite the house

Under

Под

Under the table

By

У, рядом, около

By the lake, sit by me

In front of

напротив

In front of the window

Предлоги движения

Across

Через

Across the river

Along

Вдоль

Along the road

Down

Вниз

Down the mountain

Up

Вверх

Up the stairs

Off

С

Off the bike

Over

Над, через

Over the fence

Out of

Из

Out of the shop

Past

Мимо

Past the café

Round

За, вокруг

Round the corner

Through

Через

Through the gate

Under

под

Under the bridge

Test

I. Choose the right variant.

1. across the road/the church

2. along the corner/the road

3. down the church/the stairs

4. over the corner/the wall

5. into the bank/the bridge

6. round the corner/the road

7. past the floor/the bank

8. offthe police station/the table

9. through the door/the railway line

10. sit by/above the window

11. in/through a book

12. past/at a cup

13. in/on September

14. for/during exam

15. for/during a few minutes

16. for/by 5 o’clock

17. at/on Christmas day

18. at/in night

19. in/on April

20. at/on April 17th

II. Put in the right verb form.

1. Jill (speak) five languages.

2. My brother (smoke) 5 cigarettes a day.

3. He (not like) dancing.

4. I (hate) big cities.

5. What you (think) of a new film?

6. It’s late. I think I (take) a taxi.

7. Diana (come) to the party tomorrow?

8. He (be) fourteen next year.

9. … the secretary (come/yet)?

10. He is the most handsome man I (ever/know).

11. They (not/see) me for ages.

12. Kate (do) all her work by 3 o’clock tomorrow.

13. He (sleep) when you come back tonight.

14. My sister (know) the results of the exam on economy in three days.

15. – Let’s meet at the station at 6 p.m.

– O.K. I (wait) for you there.

Unit IV. Word Processing

1.1 Topic “The desktop of the computer”.

1.2 Vocabulary.

1.3 Grammar: Past tenses compared.

1.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Desktop – рабочий стол компьютера

Drives – приводы

Icon – иконка, изображение

Toappear – появляться

Tobootup– загружать(первоначальная загрузка)

To turn on – включать

To turn off – выключать

Toinclude – включать (составляющее чего-либо)

Click – щелчок

Folder – папка

To contain – содержать

To remove = to delete = to erase – удалять

Recyclebin – корзина (длямусора)

Tolet – позволять, разрешать

Tochange – менять, изменять

By mistake – поошибке

Exercise 2. What do you see first when you turn on a computer? How do you open a program?

Exercise 3. Read the text and translate it. Match the headings with the paragraphs.

a) the control panel

b) the drivers

c) the desktop

d) using icons

The desktop is the screen that appears after you boot up, or turn on, your computer. It shows a number of icons on a background picture or color. When you buy a new computer and boot up for the first time, the desktop will only show a small number of icons. In the Windows operating system, these usually include My Computer and the Recycle Bin.

Double-clicking on an icon with the mouse opens a computer program, a folder or a file. Folders usually contain other files. You can move icons around the desktop add new ones or remove them by deleting them. Deleted files go to the Recycle Bin. People usually put the programs they use most often on the desktop to find them quickly.

When you double-click on My Computer another screen appears. This screen shows the A: drive icon, for floppy disks; the C: drive icon, which usually contains all of the main programs and folders on your computer; the D: drive icon, which is usually the CD-ROM drive, and the Control Panel folder.

When you double-click on Control Panel, another screen appears that shows many other icons, such as the Display icon and the Date/Time icon. Double-clicking on Display opens a box that lets you personalize your desktop by changing the screen saver (the moving image that appears when no one is using the computer) or the background picture.

Exercise 4. Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).

1. The desktop appears before you boot up.

2. Files are usually inside folders.

3. People usually put their favorite programs on the desktop.

4. Use the C: drive to open floppy disks.

5. You cannot change the background picture of the desktop.

6. The Control Panel folder contains the Date/Time icon.

Exercise 5. Find the word in the text that mean:

1. comes into view so you can see it (paragraph 1)

2. the picture or color on your screen (1)

3. clicking the mouse two times quickly (2)

4. something that holds documents or files (2)

5. most important (3) ______

6. make something the way you want it (4)

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences with the words below:

Display/screen saver/folders/Recycle Bin/ files/ deleted/desktop.

1. The … icon lets you change the way your desktop looks.

2. If you remove a file by mistake, you can find it in the …. .

3. The … appears when you don’t use the mouse or keyboard.

4. I didn’t use the program very much so I … it from my desktop.

5. I have a great program on my … that I use for playing music.

6. Windows Explorer lets you move … from one folder to another.

7. …. contain documents or files.

Exercise 7. Choose 5 icons on your desktop. Say what you use these programs for.

Exercise 8. Define the grammatical construction with its definition.

Did +V

Past Continuous Tense

V2(ed)

Past Perfect Tense

Was/were+ Ving

Past Simple Tense

Had + V3(ed)

Past Simple Tense (-, ?)

Exercise 9. Define the words according to their tense form. Make up your own sentences.

yesterday, yesterday when he came, last week, the whole day yesterday, by 2 p.m., 5 days ago, from 6 to 8 yesterday, last year, in 1861.

Exercise 10. Translate the sentences. Explain the tense usage.

1. Tom returned from the cinema at 5 p.m.

2. Tom had returned from the cinema by 5 p.m.

3. When I saw him, he was returning from the cinema.

4. With whom did you discuss this question yesterday?

5. What were you doing here yesterday at such an hour?

6. When father returned home, we had already completed our homework.

7. He thought that he had lost all his money.

8. By nine o’clock yesterday granny had washed all the dishes and at nine o’clock she was watching TV.

9. All my friends were glad to here that I had passed the exam successfully.

10. There were two men in the room. One of them was writing something.

2.1 Topic “Word Processor”.

2.2 Vocabulary.

2.3 Grammar: Past tenses compared.

2.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Font – шрифт

Underlined – подчеркивание

Highlighted – выделениецветом

Spelling – правописание

Check – проверка

Edit – редактирование

View – просмотр

Close – закрыть

Cut – вырезать

Fullscreen – на весь экран

Paste– вставить (вставка)

Save– сохранить (сохранение)

Undo – отменить (отмена)

Keep – сохранить

Clipboard – буфер обмена

Menubar – панель меню

Toolbar – панель инструментов

Settings – настройки

Error = mistake – ошибка

To cancel – отменять

Manual – ручной

Choice – выбор

Typewriter – печатнаямашинка

Easy – легко

To improve – улучшать

Skills – умения

To be proud of – гордитьсячем-либо

However – однако

Exact copy – точнаякопия

Texteditor – текстовый редактор

Features – черты, характеристики

Application form – формаприложения

Exercise 2. Discuss these questions.

1. How often do you type letters or documents?

2. Which word-processing program do you use?

3. Which commands do you know?

4. How many different fonts does -this question have?

5. Find the words in 1-3 that are in bold, in italics, underlined and highlighted.

Exercise 3. Read the text and answer the questions.

Close – This command closes the open file.

Copy – This editing command copies any highlighted text or images and keeps it in memory. We say anything copied is on the clipboard.

Cut – This editing command deletes any highlighted.

Font – formats, or changes, the type style and size of the characters.

Full Screen – This view command makes the open document cover all of the screen. This also hides the menu bar and the toolbar so that you cannot see them. The menu bar shows commands and toots in words; the toolbar shows them with icons.

Language – This tool opens a thesaurus to help you find synonyms and antonyms {similar and opposite words).

Open -Opens a file from one of the computer's drives.

Paragraph – Formats the paragraph settings to change the way the paragraph looks.

Paste – This editing command puts anything that is on the clipboard onto the screen.

Picture – Inserts a picture or image into your document.

Print layout – Views the open document as it will look Layout when it is printed.

Save – Saves the open file or document.

Save as – Saves the file to another location, with another name or in a different format.

Spelling and Grammar – This tool checks the document or any highlighted text for spelling and grammar errors.

Symbol – You can insert many special characters with this command.

Undo – This editing tool cancels the last command. It does not work with every command.

1. Which tool checks your spelling?

2. Which edit command removes text or images?

3. Which format command changes the letter size?

4. Which file command opens a file or document?

5. Which insert command lets you put in an image?

6. Which view command shows the document as a printed page?

Exercise 4. Match the parts of the sentence.

1. Typing letters with a word processor

2 Many companies need people

3 I can learn a lot of new words

4 People usually type business letters

5 Check your spelling and grammar

6 If you cut a sentence out by mistake,

a) in the Times New Roman font.

b) by using the thesaurus.

c) before you print out your document.

d) who can use a word processor.

e) try clicking the undo button.

f) is easier and quicker than writing by hand

Exercise 5. Complete the sentence with the words below.

Character, clipboard, fonts, format, locations, menu bar, toolbar, settings

1. When you copy text, it stays on the ____ until you want to paste it.

2 Change the paragraph _____ if you want bigger spaces between the lines.

3 Each word on the ______ contains a list of commands and tools.

4 Most of the icons on the _______ are also in words in the menu bar.

5 You can save a file in many different ______ in your computer.

6 MS Word has about a hundred different ______ for you to choose from.

7 A word processor lets you ______ a paragraph as well as the font.

8 If the ______ you want is not on the keyboard, look in the Symbol command.

Exercise 6. Writing. Type a paragraph of any English text that is new to you using a word-processing program. Do the following:

format the verbs in bold

put nouns in italics

underline any adjectives

use the thesaurus to check any words you do not know

change the font and the font size for each sentence

use the spell check to check your work.

Exercise 7. Answer the questions.

1 Do you like writing by hand? Why?/Why not?

2 Have you ever used a typewriter or word processor? Which word processor?

3 What are the differences between handwriting, typing and word processing?

Exercise 8. Read the text. Underline advantages and disadvantages of word processing.

People use word processors for writing all kinds of documents, such as letters, school papers and reports. Word processors have many advantages over handwriting and manual typewriters. Word processing is faster and easier than writing by hand and you can store documents on your computer, which you cannot usually do on a typewriter. This makes it easier to review and rewrite your documents. You have more formatting choices with a word processor and the spelling, grammar and language tools are useful, too. You can also print copies of your documents, which look neater than handwritten ones. Many language students use word processors to improve their writing skills and because they help them feel proud of their work.

Word processors do have disadvantages, however. First, it is not easy to read long documents on a computer screen. Second, sometimes the printer does not print an exact copy of what you see on the screen. Not all word processors can read each other's files, which is another disadvantage. Finally, word processors do not always work well with e-mail. If you paste a word-processed letter into an e-mail it may lose a tot of its formatting. Many people use a text editor for the Internet, which is similar to a word processor but has fewer formatting features and cannot use graphics. Text editors, such as Notepad, use a simple coding system edited ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), as does e-mail.

Exercise 9. True or Not?

1 You can store letters on a manual typewriter.T/F

2 You can change your documents easily on a word processor.T/F

3 Printed documents look better than handwriting.T/F

4 Improving your writing is more difficult with a word processor.T/F

5 Word processors work well with e-mail. T/F

Exercise 10. Find the words from the text to the given definitions.

1 by hand, not electronic ______

2 the way a program organizes data ______

3 a program used for simple text files ______

4 the code that e-mail uses ______

5 things that a program has, or can do ______

6 a program used for text and graphics ________

Exercise 11. Which of these documents would you write by hand and which on a word processor? Say why.

a formal letter • an informal letter

an invitation to a party • a birthday card

a shopping list • an application form

a note to your teacher/friend/father

a school report • a 'for sale' notice

Exercise 12. Write a short paragraph about some of the advantages of writing with pen and paper. Use the following ideas to help you. Add any other ideas you may have.

pen and paper – cheap

you can write anywhere (don't need electricity)

don't need to learn to type

handwritten letters – friendlier & more personal

Exercise 13. Put the verb in brackets in the right Past Tense Form.

1. I saw a light in your window as I (pass) by.

2. While my son (wait) for my call, somebody knocked at my door.

3. I (wake up) early and (get) out of bed.

4. That morning she (dress), (phone) somebody and (go) out.

5. Ann was afraid she (forget) her key at home.

6. I wasn’t hungry because I (just/have) breakfast.

7. When we (come) to the station, the train (leave) already.

8. Suddenly he (remember) that he (not/ring) her up.

9. The whole evening yesterday he (read) a book.

10. When I (go) to school before yesterday, I (meet) Mike and Pete.

Exercise 14. Retell the text in the Past Tense.

3.1 Topic “Storing data, files”.

3.2 Vocabulary.

3.3 Grammar: few/a few, little/a little.

3.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Tocrash – рушить, ломать

Tomean – значить, означать

Nextto – рядом

Essay – доклад, отчет

Untitled – без названия

Default – по умолчанию

Existingfiles – существующие файлы

Describe – описывать

Exercise 2. What information can you store on a computer? Where can you store your documents or files?

Exercise 3. Read the text and write the number of the paragraph that tells you about:

computer directories

organizing personal files

where you can store data

Computers store letters, reports, pictures, music and video as data. You can store data on floppy disks but they are too small to hold most pictures or videos. You can store these on a CD-ROM but you need a CD-re-writer to copy the data. People often use portable removable disks, which can store up to one gigabyte of data and do not need any expensive hardware. Most computer owners store their data on the hard disk but because computers can crash, they often use other disks to make back-up copies.

Computers store program files on the hard disk, which is usually the C: drive in the Windows OS (operating system) or the Macintosh Hard Disk in Apple computers. Computers store program files in folders and organize these folders in a directory (see below). The plus sign (+) means that the folder contains other folders or files. Clicking the plus sign next to the icon opens the other folders and files in it. Clicking the minus (-) sign closes the folder.

It is .important to organize your flies. Windows has a folder called My Documents to help you do this. It contains other folders called My Music, My eBooks, My Videos and My Pictures. Saving files on your hard disk without any order makes them difficult to find.

Exercise 4.Match the questions (1-5) with the answers (a-e).

1 Why can't a floppy disk store videos?

2 What are removable disks?

3 Where do computers store program files?

4 Why do you need to organize your files?

5 What happens if you click the plus sign?

a) Portable data storage disks.

b) Other folders or files appear.

c) So that you can find them easily.

d) On the hard disk.

e) Because it can't hold a lot of data.

Exercise 5. Work in pairs. Look at the files below. How would you organize them so that you can find them easily? Add more files to the list.

music files • history essays • games

pictures of my friends • videos

photos of my family • my science reports

letters to my friends • letters to my family

my English language lessons

desktop pictures • screen savers

Exercise 6. How is it possible to lose files on a computer?

Exercise 7. Read the text quickly and match the headings (a-e) with the paragraphs (1-5).

a Saving existing files c Saving new files
b Naming files d Defaults

Programs that let you create files or save data have a Save command, usually in the £tte menu. When you save a new file, the Save As dialog box appears (see below). You can let the computer decide the location, the file name and the format, or you can choose these settings yourself. There are many different file formats and they all have advantages and disadvantages. You can save a word-processing document as a web page, for example, or you can save digital photographs in a JPEG format, a TIFF format or many others.

The Save as command is the default command for any new document so the Save As-dialog box appears even if you click gave. If you do not give a new document a file name in a word-processing program, the file name will usually default to the first line in the document The default file name in graphics programs is usually “untitled”.

If you work on an existing file and want to save changes click Save,-not-.Save-As. You can use Save As to save an existing file in a different location, for example, in another drive or folder (using Save In) with a new name (using File name) or in a different format (using Save as type).

Having different folders helps you organize your files, but naming all the different files in one folder is not always easy. You should give files names that describe exactly what they contain so that you can find them easily.

Exercise 8. Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).

1 If you do not choose a location, a name, or a format when you save a new file, the computer will do it for you.

2 If you click Save on a new file, the Save As dialog box appears.

3 You can save files in one format only.

4 You can save existing files in more than one place on your computer.

5 The Save command only saves existing documents.

6 Most word-processing documents use 'Untitled' as the default name.

7 The Save As command cannot save existing documents.

8 Thinking of names for your files is easy.

Exercise 9. Choose the proper word: Default/ existing/ digital/ untitled/ Save in/ Save as type.

1. You can make back-up copies of _____ files on a floppy disk by using “Save as”.

2. I need a _____ camera because I want to save my pictures on my computer.

3. Graphics programs save files without names as _____ by default.

4. Clicking _____ will let you go to the A: drive, C: drive or D: drive.

5. Programs have _____ settings for all kinds of functions.

6. Click _____ in the “Save As” dialog box to change the file format.

Exercise 10. Put few/a few/little/a little

games, sound, animation, mainframes, memory chips, power supply, keys, digital cameras, light, water, helmets, air, money, time, computers, men, mice, photos, information, data.

Exercise 11. Translate.

несколько стульев, мало денег, мало мальчиков, мало воды, немного удачи, несколько человек, мало сыра, немного соли, мало травы, мало работы, мало песен, мало столов, несколько дней, немного салата, мало информации, несколько знаков.

4.1 Topic “Creating a Folder”.

4.2 Vocabulary.

4.3 Grammar: some/any/no.

4.4 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Vocabulary to the text.

Drop-down menu – ниспадающееменю

Restore – восстановить

Create – создавать

Either…or – или ... или

Exercise 2. Read the text quickly.

1. To make a new folder in the Windows OS, go to the Desktop, find the My Computer icon with the pointer and double-click it using the left mouse button. The My Computer window appears, showing the different drives. Maximize the screen if necessary.

2. Double-click the C: drive icon. The C: drive window appears showing the folders in your C:drive, either in a row or in a list.

3. Move the pointer to the menu bar. Click on File and a drop-down menu appears. You can only click the words New or Close.

4. Move the pointer to the word New. Another menu appears with Folder at the top of the list.

5. Click on Folder. This creates a new folder that appears at the end of the list of folders on the C: drive. The words New Folder are highlighted. The cursor also flashes on and off to show you where to type.

6. Click on New Folder and type the name you want in the box. This can be up to 250 characters long, but you cannot use the characters '\ /:*?"<> in your folder name.

7. Click anywhere on the window to see your new folder name. If you do not click on the window, you will save your new folder as New Folder, not with the name you want.

8. Close the window.

9 Your new folder is now listed in the C: drive in alphabetical order.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the words (pointer, cursor, C: drive icon, folder, close, drop-down menu, minimize, maximize, restore). Not all the words will fit.

1 Double-click the ______ to view a list of folders and files.

2 You will find the Undo command in the Edit ______ menu.

3 The ______ shows you where to type on the screen.

4 The mouse controls both the ______ and the cursor.

5 If you click ______, the window will cover all of the computer screen.

6 Clicking ______ changes the size and location of the window.

Exercise 4. Write down the instructions you need to operate one of the following:

a mobile phone • a tape recorder • a camera a video recorder • a CD/cassette player

Exercise 5. Put some/any/no.

1. I have … questions.

2. Computer has … application programs.

3. There are … buses today, so I can’t go shopping.

4. Do you have … music folders on your PC?

5. There is … ink in my pen.

6. My brother doesn’t like … typing work.

7. I don’t know what to do: my computer has …. virus-checking program.

8. Here are … applications of virtual reality under development.

9. They can give me … money. They ran out of it.

10. If there is …. mouse port, a serial mouse can be used.

Грамматический комментарий

Прошедшие времена в сравнении

Прошедшее простое время (PastSimpleTense)

1. употребляется:

для выражения обычного, постоянного действия в прошлом, свойственному лицу (предмету), выраженному подлежащим.

HespokeFrenchwell.

для выражения действия, которое происходило в момент речи (вместо длительных времен), с глаголами, которые не употребляются в длительных временах (слышать, видеть, хотеть, понимать и др.)

I heard him very well because he was speaking too loud.

2. Образование прошедшего простого времени.

путем добавления во всех лицах окончания–ed (у правильных глаголов)к форме инфинитива, либо путем изменения формы глагола на вторую.

My son played the piano.

I left Moscow last year..

вопросительная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола todo в прошедшем времени (did) и формы инфинитива смыслового глагола (без частицы to). Вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Didheplaythepiano?

Did I leave Moscow last year?

отрицательная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола todo в прошедшем времени(did), частицы notи формы инфинитива смыслового глагола (без частицы to).

He did not play

I did not leave Moscow.

Прошедшее длительное время (PastContinuousTense)

1. употребляется:

для выражения длительного действия в момент речи в прошлом

для выражения длительного действия, совершающегося в определенный период времени в прошлом.

He was reading a book.

2. Образование прошедшего длительного времени:

вспомогательный глагол tobe (was/were) и формы причастия настоящего времени смыслового глагола (Ving).

в вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Was he reading a book?

в отрицательной форме частица notупотребляется между вспомогательным и смысловым глаголами.

He was not reading a book.

Прошедшее совершенное время (PastPerfectTense)

1. употребляется

для выражения действия, совершившегося к определенному моменту в прошлом, результат которого имеется налицо в прошлом времени.

I had opened the window.

2. Образование прошедшего совершенного времени:

вспомогательный глагол tohaveв форме прошедшего времени (had) и формы причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола.

He had worked.

They had gone to Brazil.

в вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Had he worked?

Hadthey gone to Brazil?

в отрицательной форме частица notупотребляется между вспомогательным и смысловым глаголами.

He had not worked.

They had not gone to Brazil.

Местоимения some/any/no/few/a few/little/a little

Some употребляется в утвердительных предложениях, а any в отрицательных предложениях, общих вопросах и условных предложениях.

Someиanyупотребляются со значением «несколько», «какие-то», «какие-нибудь».

He asked me some questions.

Have you got any interesting books?

No употребляется перед существительными и имеет то же значение, not … a, not … any. При наличии NO глагол употребляется в утвердительной форме, поскольку в английском языке может быть только одно отрицание.

I have no credit card.

Little и few употребляются со значением «мало». Little употребляется с неисчисляемыми существительными, а few с исчисляемыми.

I have very little time.

Hehasfewfriends.

Alittle иAFewупотребляются со значением «немного», «несколько», «небольшое количество».

I have a little time.

He has a few friends.

Test

I. Put in little/a little/few/a few

1. The hall was almost empty: there were very … people in it.

2. I have … money, so we can go to the cinema.

3. I am sorry I have seen … plays by this author.

4. He spends … time preparing to the exams.

5. I have …. books. I can borrow them to you.

II. Put in some/any/no

1. Please, don’t offer her … chips.

2. Is there … snow in the street in the morning?

3. There was … soap in the box: it smells tasty.

4. Who has … pens?

5. Can I have … milk in my tea?

III. TranslateintoEnglish.

1. Вчера я написал письмо другу.

2. Вчера я писал письмо другу.

3. Когда ты пришел, я написал письмо другу.

4. Моя сестра любит читать. Она вчера читала весь день.

5. Когда я вышел в сад, солнце ярко светило и пели птицы.

6. Когда я пришел домой, мама уже приготовила кушать.

7. Что вы смотрели вчера, когда я вас звал?

8. Что вы посмотрели, прежде чем я вам звонил?

9. Мои друзья купили дом.

10. Вчера я нашел книгу, которую потерял год назад.

Unit V. Internet.

1.1 Topic “Internet”.

1.2 Grammar: All tenses compared.

1.3 Exercises.

Exercise 1. Have you ever surfed the Internet? Which websites did you visit?

Exercise 2. Read the article. Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).

The Internet first started in the USA.T/F

The Internet and the WWW are different. T/F

Berners-Lee invented the Internet.T/F

One file on the WWW can have two or more addresses.T/F

There are 40 million Internet users today. T/F

THE INTERNET originated in the early 1970s when the United States wanted to make sure that people could communicate after a nuclear war. This needed a free and Independent communication network without a centre and it led to a network of computers that could send each other e-mail through cyberspace.

Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web (WWW) when he discovered a way to jump to different flies on his computer using the random or unplanned, links between them. He then wrote a simple coding system, called HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), to create links to files on any computer connected to the network. This was possible because each file had an individual address, or URL (Uniform Resource Locator). He then used a set of transfer rules, called HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), to link Web files together across the Internet. Berners – Lee also invented the world's first browser. This lets you locate and view Web pages and also navigate from one link to another.

The WWW became available to everyone in 1991 and the number of Internet users grew from 600,000 to 40 million in five years. Today, that number is much larger and there are now many browsers that provide Web pages, information and other services. You can also do research, download music files, play interactive games, shop, talk in chat rooms and send and receive e-mail on the WWW.

Exercise 3. Find the correct word or abbreviation in the text.

an address for Web pages ______

a coding system that creates links _____

this finds and shows Web pages ____

rules for transferring files ______

a group of computers joined together ___

Exercise 4. Match the groups of verbs below with their general meaning: move • make, start • join • look at • find

1 browse, surf, view ______

2 download, navigate, transfer.

3 connect, link ______

4 discover, locate ______

5 originate, create, invent __

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences (1-7) with the words from the text.

1 Some people spend too much time playing _________ games on the Internet.

2 You can sometimes have a computer _____ that is not connected to the Internet.

3 It is easy to ______ around a screen with a mouse.

4 Berners-Lee discovered how to _____ links between computers in new ways.

5 Some people surf the Internet at _____just to see what they can find.

6 People use the Internet to ______ information from one place to another.

7. When you surf the Internet, you are traveling in ___________ .

Exercise 6. Work in groups. Say which of the following ideas about the Internet are good or bad.

independent • world wide • cheap to use • expensive to buy computers • the information may not be true or correct • spend too much time playing games • talking in chat rooms • make new friends • visit many interesting websites • wait for a long time to download Web pages

Exercise 7. Where is the best place to find information on these topics?

European history

the price of mobile phones

your favorite pop star

Exercise 8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of finding information from these sources?

books • magazines • newspapers • libraries • encyclopedias • friends or family • teachers CD-ROMs • television • radio • the Internet

Exercise 9. Read the text quickly and choose the correct answer.

1 Google is a keyword / search engine.

2 This WORD is in upper / lower case.

3 AND / WHEN is a logical operator.

Finding information on the World Wide Web needs an Internet search engine such as Google, AltaVista or Excite. Search engines have a text box where you type in a keyword or words. A search engine is a software program that reads the keywords in the text box and searches the Internet for Web pages, websites and other Internet flies that use them. These documents are shown on the computer screen in a results listing.

When carrying out searches, you should usually be specific and brief in your choice of words. If the keyword is too general or includes too many different meanings, the results listing may not be useful. Different search engines categorize information in different ways, which changes the way they store and retrieve it.

Using upper case letters (capital letters) in a keyword search will only retrieve documents that use upper case. Typing in lower case (no capitals)is usually better because search engines will retrieve documents that use both upper case and lower case letters.

You can narrow a search using logical operators such as AND, OR and NOT. AND retrieves all the words typed in the text box, OR retrieves either of the words and NOT excludes words. Spelling is important when typing in keywords, but a search engine will not usually read punctuation, prepositions and articles.

Exercise 10. Tick (▼) the good things to do to find information on the Internet.

1 Choose keywords that are different to the item you want.

2 Give the best keyword to describe what you want.

3 Use as many general keywords as possible.

4 Try to use a keyword that can have only one meaning.

5 Type your keywords in lower case only.

6 Use logical operators to narrow your search.

7 Use full stops and commas.

8 Do not use words like at, in, on, a/an and the.

Exercise 11. Find the words and phrases in the text that mean:

1 clear and exact (paragraph 2)______

2 put into similar groups (2)______

3 to bring back (2)______

4 make smaller (4)______

5 mathematical words (4)______

6 does not use (4) _________

Exercise 12. Talk about the keywords you should use to find information on the following topics.

information on cheap hotels in the UK

what the weather will be like tomorrow

an essay on the history of the European Economic Union

mobile phones that connect to the Internet

a nice present for your mother's birthday.

2.1 Topic “E-Mail”.

2.2 Grammar: All tenses compared.

2.3 Exercises.

Exercise1.Which of these things do you do with e-mail and which do you do with letters? Compare your answers with another student.

write a subject • send copies • write an address

• add attachments • sign in • sign your name

• go to your inbox • use a post box

• click on a name

Exercise2. E-mails, like letters, should have a start and an end. Which phrases usually start a message and which end one? Write S (start) or E (end) next to the phrase.

1 Yours sincerely, ______

2 Love and kisses to all..

3 Dear Sir or Madam, _

4 Thanks for your e-mail. ____

5 Give my regards to your family..

6 Good to hear from you. ____

Which are formal (F)? Which are informal (I)? Write F or I.

Exercise3. Write these messages in the correct order. Which are formal and which are informal?

1e-mail 21st your August. I to refer dated

2your I e-mail thanks, yesterday, got

3you. can't I see wait to

4seeing look to you. forward I

5me a Give if you need ring me.

6require call if assistance. Please you

Exercise 4. Work in pairs, A and B. Each of you has a box of commands and fields and a diagram of a typical e-mail Compose window with some of the commands and fields missing. You also have information about the commands and fields in your diagram.

• Look at your tables and diagrams before you start the activity.

• Take it in turns to ask and answer questions about your missing commands and fields.

Exercise 5. Match the questions (1-5) with the answers (a-e).

1 I want to send Katrina a copy of my e-mail to Petr, but I don't want Petr to know I sent her a copy. What do I do?

2 Can I invite all of my friends to my party by e-mail?

3 I got a message telling me the Subject Field is empty. Do I have to type anything?

4 Peter saw me type in my password. Now I'm worried he can read my e-mail. What can I do?

5 I'd like to send a photograph of my birthday party to grandpa. What do I do?

a Sure. You can send multiple copies by typing all

the e-mail addresses in the Cc: field.

b Click on the Add/Edit Attachments command

and attach the file to the e-mail.

c No. That field is optional in your e-mail

program. You don't have to complete it.

d Use Bcc:. This field means that the recipient

doesn't know who has received a copy.

e Click on the Options command and change it

from there.

Exercise 6. Match the words and phrases (1-9) from the texts with the definitions (a-i).

1 recipient a a copy of your e-mail

2 field b an unfinished document, e.g.
an e-mail to send later

3 multiple c a secret word

4 password d the topic or heading of an e-mail

5 draft e something you can choose to
do or not do

6 optional f the person who receives the e-mail message

7 carbon copy g with nothing inside

8 subject h a text box where you type
words or data

9 empty i more than one

Exercise 7. Go to your e-mail program and send an e-mail about your English lessons to some of your friends using Cc:. Think of a title or heading for your e-mail and type it in the subject field. Send a Bcc: to your teacher.

Exercise8.Work in pairs. Write down three or four e-mail addresses that you know. What do the different parts of the address mean?

Exercise 9. Read the text quickly. Which paragraph (1-4) gives you the answers to the questions (a-d)?

a) What do the two types of mail server do?

b) What are the parts of an e-mail address?

c) How many types of e-mail client are there?

d) What happens when you send an e-mail?

1 An Internet e-mail address has a user name, the at symbol (@), and a domain name. The user name is the name you choose. The domain has two parts separated by a dot (.). The first part is the network that receives the e-mail and the second is the top-level domain (TLD), which shows the type of organization, such as commercial (.com) or educational (.edu). Sometimes the TLD is a country code, such as .cz (Czech Republic).

2 To use e-mail a client computer needs an e-mail program to connect to a network server. The program can be stand-alone, e.g. Outlook Express, or Web-based, e.g. Yahoo. Stand-alone programs let you compose e-mail offline, but with Web-based programs you must be online.

3 E-mail uses two kinds of mail servers: an SMTP server, which deals with outgoing e-mail and a POP3 server, which deals with incoming e-mail. SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol; POP stands for Post Office Protocol.

4 If you send an e-mail to a friend in the same domain as you, your SMTP server simply sends it to the POPS server in your domain, which adds it to your friend's inbox. If your friend has a different domain name, your SMTP server finds your friend's SMTP server using a Domain Name Service (DNS). When your friend's SMTP server receives the e-mail, it sends your e-mail to its POPS server, which adds it to your friend's inbox.

Exercise 10. Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).

1 You cannot choose your own user name.T/F

2 The domain name shows the network.T/F

3 .edu and .com are TLDs.T/F

4 A DNS sends an e-mail to a POPS server.T/F

Exercise 11. Match the highlighted words in the text with the definitions.

1 means____

2 a computer on a network ______

3 takes care of in some way ______

4 a computer that runs a network ______

Exercise 12. Find the words in the text with the opposite meanings to these words.

1 offline ______4 receive _____

2 Web-based ______ 5 different ____

3 incoming ______

Exercise 13. Work in pairs. Look at the following European country codes. Discuss which countries they could stand for.

.at • .be • .bg • .de • .dk • .es • .fr • .gr • .hu .it • .lu • .nl • .pt • .ro • .si • .uk

Литература

Dinos Demetriades Information Technology, Oxford University Press, 2003

Eric H. Glendinning, John McEwan Basic English for Computing, Oxford University Press, 2002.

Michael Swan, Catherine Walter The Good Grammar Book, Oxford University Press, 2001.

Keith Boeckner, P. Charles Brown. Oxford English for Computing. – Oxford , 1997 University Press.

5. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. – Cambridge University Press, 1994.

6. Голицынский Ю. Грамматика. Сборник упражнений. Санкт-Петербург: «КАРО», 2004. – С. 537

Учебное издание

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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

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